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THE DESCENT OF MAN


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


04

CONTEXT

CONTEXT

The Manchester Museum is one of the UK’s great regional museums and its largest university museum. It occupies a linked series of historically listed buildings on the main university campus on Oxford Road. It is unusual among university museums as it combines natural sciences and humanities collections, collected over a period of three centuries. The collection includes over four million objects, only a tiny percentage of which are on display. All of the collections have been formally designated by the government as being of national and international importance. They include two million insects, 750,000 dried plants, thousands of mounted birds, hundreds of mounted mammals, half a million shells, hundreds of thousands of molluscs and many thousands of bird’s eggs, skeletons and bones, as well as archaeological, anthropological and Egyptological material. These come from all over the globe and include many rare, unique and historically important specimens. The museum is currently focussing on the theme of environmental sustainability, and as such, the museum would like to develop a temporary structure in the entrance courtyard which will engage people with issues related to this theme over the summer of 2010.


CONTEXT

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06

CONTEXT

Brief

The courtyard in front of the museum’s main entrance is empty and unanimated for the majority of the year, and given that it is a large and accessible space in front of a museum which attracts nearly 300,000 visitors a year, represents an unexploited opportunity to engage the public and to signal the presence of the museum itself. The brief stipulated a requirement for the development of a temporary free-standing structure in the courtyard for the summer of 2010, a structure that will stimulate, intrigue and inspire. The proposed pavilion should: > Engage people with the museum’s theme of ‘Working Towards A Sustainable World’ and/or with the themes of the current Darwin Festival > Generate national and international interest through its innovative approach and design > Allow the museum to undertake some outdoor programming over the summer months > Be bold, unusual, exciting and intelligent, and ultimately something that highlights Manchester [as well as the Manchester Museum and School of Architecture] as a place where interesting things happen > Accommodate people in safety, with no need for additional supervision by museum staff > Be temporary, self-supporting, and environmentally robust The primary objectives of the proposed pavilion are to integrate the public with the themes of evolution and nature, as well as to examine the relationship between humanity and the natural world. The structure will also explore an intriguing reversal of the typical object/ viewer relationship between museum visitors and the exhibits – within the new pavilion, visitors will be actively engaged in physical and sensory activity whilst within the object itself. As a further aim, the intervention will signal the modernising trajectories of the museum, in their attempts to de-institutionalise somewhat and become more socially accessible and contemporary – in effect symbolising the evolution of the museum.


CONTEXT

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08

CONTEXT

Audience

The Manchester Museum currently attracts around 270,000 visitors each year. They comprise a diverse, non-specialist audience. In the summer, the great majority of visitors come in family groups consisting of younger people and adults. Some of these come to see particular things while the majority come for a day out in the summer holidays to view the entire museum or to participate in public events. The audience is demographically diverse and the museum is committed to engaging people of a wide range of abilities, backgrounds and interests with its displays and programmes.


CONTEXT

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10

CONTEXT

Location The Manchester Museum is located along Oxford Road, within the main University of Manchester campus at the tail end of the so-called ‘culture corridor’ of Manchester. Oxford Road is a major arterial route into the heart of the city and as such the museum is ideally located to attract visitors and commuters alike, as well as the huge student population. However, it has to compete with the huge array of attractions within the city centre itself, of which all are easily accessible via free public transport services. The museum exists in a curious state of ‘loneliness within a crowd’; a crowd of cultural destinations, of which it seems to have been physically isolated, in terms of accessibility and location.

Culture Corridor_Oxford Road, Manchester

Central Library

Mancunian Way

Manchester Museum Entrance_Oxford Road, Manchester

Manchester Museum


CONTEXT

Site Location_Manchester Museum

Site

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12

CONTEXT

Site

The location for the proposed pavilion is the courtyard at the front entrance of the museum. It is a cold, dark and hard space, and is almost completely inanimate and devoid of activity. The brief calls for an intervention that will animate this space, accommodate outdoor programmes and act as a beacon for attracting new visitors to the museum. Ultimately, the temporary pavilion will transform the courtyard from a thoroughfare to a destination. The structure must be sustainable, in terms of economy, ecology and society, and also be a highly functional pavilion for varied activities.


CONTEXT

Site_Entrance Courtyard, Manchester Museum

13


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


16

CONCEPT

CONCEPT

The Darwin festival, running at the Manchester Museum August 2009 to August 2010, is the source of inspiration behind the concept. The festival describes the importance of Darwin’s work and attempts to illustrate how controversial his theory of evolution was. The concept responds to this celebration of the natural world by drawing attention to the damage man is doing to the environment. Man’s discovery of new species is contrasted against the extinction of species due to man’s intervention. By looking at three data sets over time, cumulative human population, cumulative carbon dioxide air content level and the cumulative number of species extinctions, mans influence can be seen. Looking back only as far as 1850 reveals a stable graph where all three show little increase. From 1880 onwards however, all three data sets increase exponentially illustrating the correlation between rising human population, rising carbon dioxide levels within the atmosphere and the increasing occurrence of species extinction.


CONCEPT

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18

CONCEPT


CONCEPT

The data used in this concept determines the shape of the finished structure. Here, concept sketches illustrate a range of different physical resultant forms created through differing treatments of the data. This form speculation informs what data should be used, how that data should be processed and how it should affect the structure. Desired ultimate results such as enclosure and atmosphere are contrasted against an abstract and data driven process and concept. Alongside this exercise, automated procedures are evaluated to discern the most effective method of form emergence.

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20

CONCEPT

Concept_Data Graph

12000 10000

40

8000

30

6000

20

4000

10

2000

EXTINCTIONÊNoÕ [thousand]

CARBONÊEMISSIONS [millionÊtons/Êyear]

6.0

50

2.0

60

8.0

2.5

10.0

3.0

1.5

CARBONÊEMISSIONS [millionÊtons/Êyear]

2000

1970

1940

1910

1880

ValuesÊtakenÊeveryÊ3ÊYEARSÊ forÊcomponentÊdimensions.

EXTINCTIONÊNoÕ [thousand]

HUMANÊPOPULATIONÊ [billion]

HUMANÊPOPULATIONÊ [billion]

0.0 COEFFICIENTS

1850

54 53 52 51 50 4948 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 3938 37 3635 34 3332 -ÊPARTÊÊNUMBERÊ- 2322 21 2019 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

2.0

0.5

4.0

1.0


CONCEPT

Concept_Spreadsheet of Values From Graph

30 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

POPULATION COEFFICIENT

2.70 2.50 2.30 2.20 2.05 2.00 1.85 1.70 1.60 1.50 1.40 1.35 1.30 1.25 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.05 1.05 1.00 1.00 0.95

Co2ÊLEVEL COEFFICIENT

2.20 2.15 2.10 2.05 2.00 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.75 1.70 1.65 1.65 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.35 1.35

SEGMENT NUMBER

EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT

180 175 170 160 155 150 150 140 125 125 125 115 105 95 85 75 65 60 50 45 40 35 35 35 30

POPULATION COEFFICIENT

Co2ÊLEVEL COEFFICIENT

SEGMENT NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1.35 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

0.95 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80

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22

CONCEPT

Concept_Script $number = $co2 = float $pop = $extinction =

1 180 2.2 2.7

; ; ; ;

$inRot = (360/24); $InMove = rand(-.1,-.12); float $pCubeScX = 0.0035; float $pCubeScY = 0.05; float $boardThick = 0.01; //Make floor float $segThick = ($pCubeScY + $boardThick); float $sideLength = ((sin(deg_to_rad(360/24))) * $extinction * 2); int $sideNo = ($sideLength / 0.035); polyCube; scale $boardThick $segThick 0.03; for ($t =1; $t < $sideNo; $t++) { duplicate; move -r 0 0 0.035; } select -all; move -r ((0.9622 * $extinction) + ($extinction * 0.001)) ($pCubeScY/2) (-0.035 * $sideNo/2 + (0.035/2)); polyUnite -ch 1; rename floor_1; duplicate; rotate -r 0 (360/12) 0; duplicate; rotate -r 0 (360/12) 0; duplicate; rotate -r 0 (360/12) 0; select -all; rotate -r 0 ($inRot -255) 0; move ($InMove+$extinction/3) 0 0; select -cl ; select -r floor_1 ; doDelete; //make outer rib polyCylinder;

rotate 0 (rand(0,360)) 0; setAttr “polyCylinder1.radius” $pop; setAttr “polyCylinder1.subdivisionsAxis” 12; setAttr “polyCylinder1.height” $boardThick; //make inner rib to boolean polyCylinder; rotate 0 $inRot 0; setAttr “polyCylinder2.radius” $extinction; setAttr “polyCylinder2.subdivisionsAxis” 12; move ($InMove+$extinction/3) 0 0; duplicate; polyBoolOp -op 2 -ch 1 -useThresholds 1 -preserveColor 0 pCylinder1 pCylinder2; //random holes to boolean 1 $i = 0; while($i < $co2) { $i++; polyCube; scale -r (rand(.01,.06)) 1 (rand(.01,.06)); move -a (rand(-2,2)) 0 (rand(-2,2)); } clearCache -all; //combine cutting objects and boolean select -allDagObjects; select -tgl floor_4 ; select -tgl floor_3 ; select -tgl floor_2 ; select -tgl polySurface1 ; select -tgl pCylinder3 ; polyUnite -ch 1; polyBoolOp -op 2 -ch 1 -useThresholds 1 -preserveColor 0 polySurface1 polySurface2;

//random holes to boolean 2 $j = 0; while($j < $co2)


CONCEPT

{ }

$j++; polyCube; scale -r (rand(.01,.06)) 1 (rand(.01,.06)); move -a (rand(-2,2)) 0 (rand(-2,2));

//combine cutting objects and boolean select -allDagObjects; select -tgl floor_4 ; select -tgl floor_3 ; select -tgl floor_2 ; select -tgl pCylinder3 ; select -tgl polySurface3 ; polyUnite -ch 1; polyBoolOp -op 2 -ch 1 -useThresholds 1 -preserveColor 0 polySurface3 polySurface4; //make structure for($i = 12; $i > 0; $i--) { polyCube; scale $pCubeScX $pCubeScY ((($pop)*2)*rand(0.8,1.02)); rotate -r 0 (15*$i) 0; move -r 0 (($pCubeScY/2)+($boardThick/2)) 0; }; select -allDagObjects; select -tgl floor_4 ; select -tgl floor_3 ; select -tgl floor_2 ; select -tgl pCylinder3 ; select -tgl polySurface5 ; polyUnite -ch 1; rotate -r 0 (rand(25,35)) 0; polyBoolOp -op 2 -ch 1 -useThresholds 1 -preserveColor 0 polySurface6 pCylinder3; //move into position select -all; polyUnite -ch 1; rename segment1; rotate 0 0 90; move -a (10 - $number*($pCubeScY+$boardThick)) $pop 0;

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CONCEPT

24

y

(p)

(e)

(r)

(f) (0,0)

(p) =Ê Ê (r) =Ê Ê

POPULATIONÊÊ Ê COEFFICIENT RANDOMÊROTATIONÊÊ rand(0,360deg)

(0,0)

(e) =Ê Ê (f) =Ê Ê

EXTINCTIONÊÊ COEFFICIENT (e) /3Ê+ rand(-0.1,-0.12)

Ê

(co2) =Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê

x

CO2ÊÊ Ê Ê COEFFICIENT createÊcubeÊ(co2)ÊÊ times; randÊscale; randÊdistributeÊÊ Ê between[-x,x],[-y,y];

CutÊobjectsÊandÊmoveÊtoÊ position

Values can be taken from these graphs to influence the shape of the pavilion. By taking cross-sectional information at equal time intervals and inputting it into a script written to build form, a structure emerges that is a direct product of the graph. To build the concept image 70 sets of values were taken from the graphs every 3 years to build a model covering the last 200 years. Notably this period of time covers the industrialisation of the west.


CONCEPT

Concept_Generative Design 01

02

03

04

05

06

25


26

CONCEPT


CONCEPT

Manipulating the script information changes the way the data affects the structure. Here, different shapes are investigated through small alterations to the script content. The point at which the structure breaks open to the sky is tested here by exercising control over position and radius of the internal opening .

27


28

CONCEPT

Concept_Use

z z

z

z

Concept_Possible Courtyard Locations

Access from Oxford Road Entrance to museum


CONCEPT

29


30

CONCEPT

After shortlisting the design team grows from one to five and the design begins to evolve. Main feedback following shortlisting include the object being both contextless and scaleless and that there is a potentially visually enclosed interior that is not in the interest of child protection. These observations are amongst the first to be addressed alongside the development of structural, material and production considerations.


CONCEPT

Concept_Shortlisted Competition Entry

31


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


34

EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION

The following section presents the evolution of the pavilion in a linear fashion, although the process of design has been one of non-linearity and simultaneous development of all components within the pavilion design. Therefore we can align the theory of evolution with the activity of design. The process of design here is one of experimentation and research. We looked at the potential of innovative digital design and its relationship to prototyping, manufacturing and fabrication techniques. Our development incorporated the exploration of laser cutting, CNC-milling and other platforms of design output. Working directly with these and other advanced design technologies while furthering our knowledge, skills and understanding of practical constraints within the framework of a traditional design problem. This section of the book is compartmentalised into specific building components. During the design development such components were tested using a variety of traditional media, virtual simulations and digitally fabricated outputs. This experimentation allowed us to develop a design methodology, through which we could fast-track future design of components. The processes and techniques researched throughout the course of the project have enabled us not only to develop our understanding of advanced digital fabrication technologies, but establish an insight into the relationships between the virtual-digital and the digital-physical.


EVOLUTION

35


36

EVOLUTION


EVOLUTION

37


38

EVOLUTION

Structure Density Investigation

38 Ribs

19 Ribs

10 Ribs


EVOLUTION

39


40

EVOLUTION

Timber Joint Research


EVOLUTION

41


42

EVOLUTION

Structural Rib Joint Options


EVOLUTION

CNC Model_ 1:4 Joint Tests

43


44

EVOLUTION

Cross-Bracing Joint Options


EVOLUTION

45


46

EVOLUTION


EVOLUTION

Cross-Bracing Render

47


48

EVOLUTION

Cross-Bracing Development


EVOLUTION

49


50

EVOLUTION


EVOLUTION

51


52

EVOLUTION

Floor Development Sketches


EVOLUTION

53


54

EVOLUTION

Consultant Meeting Team presents initial proposal and development of the design. Attending tutors: Nick Dunn, Richard Brook, Danny Richards. Guest Critic: Harbinder Birdi.


EVOLUTION

Issue Covered: >General Design Considerations >Floor & Experiential Relationship >Lighting Options >Materiality & Fire Treatment

55


56

EVOLUTION

Floor Structure Development


EVOLUTION

Ribs Development_ 1:4 Model

57


58

EVOLUTION

Joint Detail_ 1:1 Prototype


EVOLUTION

Floor Panel_ 1:1 Prototype

59


60

EVOLUTION

Renders_ Lighting Options


EVOLUTION

Renders_ Lighting Options

61


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


64

STRUCTURE

Structure

The pavilion is composed of a self-supportive structure containing wooden ribs joined together by a spiral arrangement of cross-bracing components. The floor is a separate structure to the pavilion and is a series of intermittent structural elements which support the floor ramp and stairs which run the extent of the pavilion. With the aspiration for the pavilion to be fully dismantleable we proposed that all structural joints of the pavilion must be dry joints and therefore not involve the gluing of components. The rib joint is required to provide structural support capable of withstanding lateral forces of occupants within the pavilion, whilst the cross-bracing is responsible for the structure between the pavilions ribs. The floor must be capable of withstanding the loads for potential occupants within the pavilion.


STRUCTURE

Rib Joint Detail

Bracing Joint Detail

Floor Joint Detail

65


66

STRUCTURE

Rib Joint Detail

The typology of joint for the main timber section has been tested rigorously. In the end, a dove-tail was selected for its inherent rigidity and strength. The joint is then reinforced with plywood plates either side, which are bolt fixed to the timber sections.


STRUCTURE

67

RibÊJointÊDetailÊ M6Ê40mmÊBoltÊ

6mmÊMarineÊ PlywoodÊBracingÊ Plate

M6ÊMudguardÊWasher M6ÊT-nut


68

STRUCTURE

Bracing Joint Detail

The spiral cross-bracing plays a major part in the overall design. The intention is to maintain material continuity throughout the structure, using the same materials for all the junctions and joints as we do for the ribs themselves. The ribs are at 200 millimetre centres and the cross-bracing will reinforce the structure, with wooden pins for enhanced rigidity. No gluing is required whatsoever, allowing for a quick assembly. Furthermore, this approach allows for the pavilion to be fully dismantled for easy storage or future relocation subsequent to its time at the museum.


STRUCTURE

69

BracingÊJointÊDetail

24mmÊxÊ90mmÊxÊ290Êmm BracingÊComponent 25mmÊxÊ60mmÊxÊ24mm ÊTap_InÊPeg


70

STRUCTURE

Floor Joint Detail

The floor structure is self-supportive and is independent of the rib structure. The two cambered surfaces create an 800mm wide ramp which runs the extent of the pavilion. The ramp is supported by intermittent box ‘troughs’, which slot in between the ribs of the pavilion. The structural ‘troughs’ include four interior adjustable boxes, which allow for adjustability in order to compensate for any site level discrepancy. The floor surfaces contain etched grooves as well as cut-through holes contingent with the carbon dioxide concept seen in the pavilion structure.


STRUCTURE

71

FloorÊJointÊDetail

24mmÊPlywood InnerÊFootingÊBox

M6ÊT-nut M6Ê60mmÊBolt

24mmÊPlywood FloorÊSupportÊBox


72

STRUCTURE


STRUCTURE

DESCENT OF MAN

Assembly Instructions

73


74

STRUCTURE

?

1A

1A

1B


44x 1100x

22x

44x 22x 25mm Marine Plywood Rib Component

25mm Plywood bracing

Floor Structure Plywood Component

1100x

25mm Plywood engraved flooring panel

Floor Structure Plywood Component

Floor Structure Box Component

Floor Structure Box Component

1100x

16x 6mm Marine Plywood bracing plate

25mm Tap_In Plywood Peg

M6 mudguard washer

M6 T_nut

M6 40mm bolt

STRUCTURE

480x

CONTACTS 145x

75

244x

240x


76

1

STRUCTURE

2


3

STRUCTURE

77


78

4

STRUCTURE

5 x 37


6

7

STRUCTURE

79


80

8

9

STRUCTURE


10

11

STRUCTURE

81


82

STRUCTURE

12

x5


STRUCTURE

83


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


86

MANUFACTURE


MANUFACTURE

MANUFACTURE

87


88

MANUFACTURE

Almost every component of pavilion will be manufactured using CNC (Computer Numerical Control) technology. This highly accurate CAD/CAM machinery will cut each piece within 0.001mm of the specified production drawings. With all the facilities available on site at MSA, this will be a particularly efficient means of manufacture and will involve very little manual labour. The output from the CNC will require some basic finishing work. This consists of removing all the bridges (which are required to keep the material stable on the CNC bed during the fabrication process), and sanding down any remaining points.


MANUFACTURE

89

CAD/CAM nesting output


90

MANUFACTURE

1

2

5

3

6

4

1A

7

8

9

13

14

TRANSPORT TO MUSEUM 10

11

15

16

Process Diagram

12


MANUFACTURE

Manual Labour Requirement

91


92

MANUFACTURE

CAD Production Drawings


MANUFACTURE

93


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


96

SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATION


SPECIFICATION

Component

97

Supplier

Code Dimension Quantity Price [£]

Cost [£]

Marine Grade Plywood ‐ 24mm

Illingworth & Ingham

M1

2440 x 1220 x 24

110

49.25

5417.50

Marine Grade Plywood ‐ 12mm

Illingworth & Ingham

M2

2440 x 1220 x 12

5

27.30

136.50

Marine Grade Plywood ‐ 6mm

Illingworth & Ingham

M3

2440 x 1220 x 6

10

14.85

Material

Sub‐total

148.50 5702.50

Fixings Zinc Plated Steel Bolt

Illingworth & Ingham

F1

M6 x 40mm

900

0.06

54.00

Zinc Plated Steel Bolt

Illingworth & Ingham

F2

M6 x 60mm

200

0.13

26.00

Zinc Plated Steel Tee Nut

Illingworth & Ingham

F3

M6 x 19mm

1100

0.07

77.00

Zinc Plated Steel Mudguard Washer

Illingworth & Ingham

F4

M6 x 25mm

900

0.04

31.50

Zinc Plated Steel Standard Washer

Illingworth & Ingham

F5

M6 x 15mm

200

0.04 Sub‐total

8.00 196.50

Process Digital Fabrication ‐ CNC

MSA

DF

N/A

125 hours

12.00 / hour

1500.00

Sub‐total

1500.00

Total

7399.00

Surface Treatment Fire Varnish

Thermaguard

FV

N/A

10 x 30m2

89.00

Fire Varnish Overcoat

Thermaguard

FVO

N/A

5 x 5 litres

59.00 Sub‐total

890.00 295.00 1185.00

Lighting Option 1 ‐ Armley Floodlight LH755B Black 150W 

B&Q

L1

140 x 140 x 160mm

Option 2 ‐ LED Strip [DC 12 V] 

Maplin

L2

10 x 10 x 50 mm

52

4.48

232.96

100

1.59

159.00


98

SPECIFICATION

Materials The entire pavilion will be constructed using marine grade plywood, due to its aesthetic, high strength and weather-proof characteristics. Plywood is produced by glueing together thin laminar sheets of wood, with each layer set at 900 angle to the preceeding layer. This gives plywood a huge increase in strength and internal flexibility over normal timber. Where marine grade plywood differs from regular plywood is that hard wood is used in its manufacture, and the individual laminar sheets are treated with a chemical moisture barrier prior to glueing. The plywood is supplied in sheet form, with each sheet measuring 2.44m x 1.22m, of which three different thicknesses will be required. The primary structure and the floor sections will be constructed using 24mm thick sheets, with the bracing plates using 12mm, and the bracing pegs using 6mm thick sheets. Overall, 375m2 of marine grade plywood will be required to construct the pavilion. By utilising a single material the pavilion simultaneously maintains high structural integrity as well as material continuity.

6mm

12mm

24mm


SPECIFICATION

Marine Grade Plywood [24mm] x 330m2 [12mm] x 15m2 [06mm] x 30m2 ÂŁ5702.50

2440mm

1220mm

[110 sheets] [5 sheets] [10 sheets]

99


100

SPECIFICATION

Manufacture To ensure the highest possible level of accuracy in the cutting of all the plywood components, a CNC [Computer Numerical Control] machine will be employed. This machine has the capacity to cut out components from a full sheet of plywood [2.44m x 1.22m], at a rate of approximately one sheet per hour, depending upon the complexity of the parts to be machined. Each component, when cut out, will be highly accurate and require minimal finishing work. Also, the ability of the machine’s software to nest all of the components within each sheet in the most space-efficient manner will reduce wastage considerably, thereby reducing cost, in terms of both the number of plywood sheets required and the overall machining time.

CNC Machine £12.00 / hour 1 sheet / hour 125 sheets = 125 hours £1500.00


SPECIFICATION

101


102

SPECIFICATION

Fixings Zinc-Plated Steel M6 Bolt [40mm] x 900 [65mm] x 200 £80.00

ZINC PLATED STEEL M6 TEE-NUTS [19mm] x 1100 £77.00

ZINC PLATED STEEL M6 WASHERS [mudguards] x 900 [standard] x 200 £39.50


SPECIFICATION

103

To permit simplistic assembly on site and any potential future disassembly, the structure will utilise basic, standardised construction fixings. The fixings consist of M6-size bolts, tee-nuts and washers, all of which are manufactured using zinc-plated steel, primarily for strength, economy and for their weather-proof characteristics. The use of simple fixings will also reduce the risk of assembly problems on site, as well as removing the requirement for skilled assembly workers and specialist tools. All that will be required to assemble each pavilion component, in terms of tools, will be a hammer and a wrench.


104

SPECIFICATION

Optional Extras The option to fire-proof the pavilion would increase the safety and ultimate longevity of the pavilion. The structure would require a single coat of a fire proof varnish, and a single coat of a fire varnish overcoat. This would provide the pavilion with an adequete Class 0 fire rating, and a hard-wearing clear finish to the plywood. To permit 24-hour operation, the pavilion would require a lighting installation, of which two different alternatives are shown to the right. The first incorporates small floodlight units, which, when located beneath the floor panels, would create dynamic lighting patterns within the interior of the pavilion. The second lighting option utilises an LED strip, running the full length of the gap between the floor panels, again generating dynamic interior lighting.

Surface Treatment [Fire Varnish] 10 x 30m2 [Fire Varnish Overcoat] 5 x 5 litres ÂŁ1185.00


SPECIFICATION

Lighting Option 1 [Armley floodlight] x 52 £232.96

Lighting Option 2 [LED strip] x 5m £159.00

105


CONTEXT CONCEPT EVOLUTION STRUCTURE MANUFACTURE SPECIFICATION PRESENTATION


108

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

The proposed design was presented to the competition panel at Manchester Museum on the 20-03-2010. The panel was composed of members of teaching staff from the Manchester School of Architecture, staff from the Machester Museum, and visiting consultants for the engineering firm AtelierOne. Having established a strong conceptual design, the team developed, tested and proposed a practical design solution, which met the design brief, with little compromise of the original design concept. The presentation of the proposed design was supported by a presentational video, which integrated contextual, experiential and technical information (which can be found on the attached DVD - in the back sleeve). The images that follow show the use of the proposed pavilion within its context, the design team has approached each stage of the pavilions development with a great deal of sensitivity to the original concept, the design brief and the designs experiential qualities. Furthermore the issues addressed within the design development process have allowed us to generate a competent design solution, which responds to critical cost constraints, health-and-safety considerations, building regulations, structural properties, manufacturing processes, time management and schedules for construction delivery.


PRESENTATION

Presentation_Proposed Design Presentation Board

THE DESCENT OF MAN

“At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the savage races throughout the world.” - Charles Darwin Joe Haire Patrick Drewello Dicky Lewis Graeme Mill Craig Welsh

A structure exploring the effect man has on the natural world. Three graphs; rising human population, rising carbon dioxide air content and the rise in the number of extinctions are contrasted to produce shape and dimension for the structure.

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PRESENTATION Presentation_ Script from the Presentation Introduction This is the view seen from entering the courtyard by the Oxford ad entrance archway. The pavilion has been orientated on an axis in order to produce a spectacular view for the user arriving from oxford road as well as the user inside the museum. The pavilion provides a physical intervention to the museum courtyard space and promotes public engagement. The creation of this public space will enable multiple activities to occur. A lighting option has been for in order to sustain the public space for 24-hour usage. The wooden ribs of the structure are spaced 200mm centre to centre allowing for cross-visibility through the pavilion. The wooden cross-bracing structure has been arranged in a spiral pattern, representative of DNA structure. Structure The typology of joint for the main timber section has been tested rigorously. In the end, a dove-tail was selected for its inherent rigidity and strength. The joint is then reinforced with plywood plates either side, which are bolt fixed to the timber sections. The spiral cross-bracing plays a major part in the overall design. The intention is to maintain material continuity throughout the structure, using the same materials for all the junctions and joints as we do for the ribs themselves. The ribs are at 200 millimetre centres and the cross-bracing will reinforce the structure, with wooden pins for enhanced rigidity. No glueing is required whatsoever, allowing for a quick assembly. Furthermore, this approach allows for the pavilion to be fully dismantled for easy storage or future relocation subsequent to its time at the museum. The floor structure is self-supportive and is independent of the rib structure. The two cambered surfaces create a 800mm wide ramp which runs the extent of the pavilion. The ramp is supported by intermittent box ‘troughs’, which slot in between the ribs of the pavilion. The structural ‘troughs’ include four interior adjustable boxes, which allow for adjustability in order to compensate for any site level discrepancy. The floor surfaces contain etched grooves as well as cut-through holes contingent with the carbon dioxide concept seen in the pavilion structure. ...


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Material and Joinery The entire pavilion will be manufactured from marine grade plywood, as this material satisfies structural, aesthetic and environmental requirements. All plywood parts will be manufactured using a CNC machine to ensure speed and accuracy. In keeping with the logic of straightforward construction and on-site assembly, all fixings will be simple, standardised, zinc-plated steel nuts, bolts and washers. To permit 24-hour operation two different lighting options have been considered, as well as a fire proof finish as optional extras. The overall cost, minus optional extras, will be ÂŁ7399.00. Almost every component of pavilion will be manufactured using CNC (Computer Numerical Control) technology. This highly accurate CAD/CAM machinery will cut each piece within 0.001mm of the specified production drawings. With all the facilities available on site at MSA, this will be a particularly efficient means of manufacture and will require very little manual labour. The output of the CNC process results in the need for minimal finishing work to the frame, this is in the form of; chiselling of any bridges required keep the material stable on the CNC bed during the fabrication process, and sanding any fine detailed cuts. The components produced from the CNC can be transported and stored on site. Assembly can occur on site with the slotting together of the components the bracing includes securing the joints by screwing in the bolts and tapping in the cross-bracing pegs. The dry assembly process of this pavilion enables it to be fully dismantleable and therefore able to be utilised in other locations later on. The spiral of the cross-bracing components mimics the helical gesture of the structure of DNA, allowing for an analogy with nature to be formed. This arrangement provides a balance between transparency and a sense enclosure. The nature of the manufacture and construction of the pavilion lends itself extremely well to childproofing. All harsh and sharp edges can be simply, easily and quickly removed, either via chamfering components within the CAD model, or sanding finished plywood sections. ...


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Our Vision for the Museum The pavilion’s position allows for it to be experienced from both inside and outside the museum. It’s orientation on site helps interrupt the rigid rectilinear forms of the courtyard, drawing people towards the pavilion. The issue of security also played a part in determining its orientation, ensuring that the security staff have a clear view though and around the structure from inside the building. Furthermore, it is fully exposed to the elements which will help deter the homeless from occupying it as a place to sleep at night. We believe that the pavilion has experiential and formal parallels with the whale skeleton exhibited within the museum, both of which can be viewed as objects in space. The vast majority of the museum’s criteria have been addressed in the design of the pavilion:

Through our concept, it reflects environmental sustainability It is self-reliant and maintainable The pavilion provokes curiosity and gets people excited It draws people in It exploits natural light It provides space for relaxation and reflection Provides potential expansion for the cafe Creates an evolutionary environment And it draws upon generative design techniques, embracing new modes of aesthetic experience

Best of all, the production drawing have been done, so production could begin right away. Thank you.


PRESENTATION

The Team_ Holding the 1:1 prototype

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The_Descent_of_Man  

Combining the Manchester School of Architecture and the Manchester Museum, a competition was established which called for the design of an ‘...

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