INTRODUCTION  CULTURAL CONTEXT [I] [Unit Proposition] [Re-Map] 2000 Emergent Urbanism Critical References Influences and issues Historical and Theoretical position CRITICAL POSITION [Re-processed Landscape] sys(n)-excess.config.urbanism: Shopping, Success and Strategy. References Reflective Statement CULTURAL CONTEXT [II] [Personal Proposition] Environment, place and scales Critical judgments Contemporary context Reflective Statement DESIGN AND COMMUNICATION [Outline of Work] WPA 2.0 Competition Shopping for Utopia ExpoExpo Multi-Agent Paragen Pavilion The Descent of Man DISSERTATION [Abstract] Abstract Reflective Statement TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT [Part A & B] Issues Possibilities Conclusion Reflective Statement MANAGEMENT PRACTICE AND LAW Professional Development Module Professional Development Lecture Series Reflective Statement CONCLUSIONS [Critical self-reflection] BIBLIOGRAPHY  Design Studio Projects [term 1] Design Studio Projects [term 2] Dissertation [research] Website Resources DVD 
This report introduces the processes of design which have evolved throughout the design studio projects. The engagement of such processes has led to the production of a series of design proposals. The documentation will consider the development and argumentation of the theoretical position, used to develop a critical stance in response to the practice of designing. Furthermore, this document will outline methodologies and techniques employed during the design process â€“ whilst maintaining a critical and reflective position upon the discussion of the design studio projects. This thesis will establish a theoretical basis of design in response to the studio unit agenda, this position has informed the approaches and directions of design intent throughout the process of design. Through the application of research techniques and testing of differing design tools â€“ an exploration of various theoretical approaches of design has been established. This report will outline the methodologies and techniques which have been explored, and will examine their influence upon the design developments and outcomes. The studio agenda has informed the critical position of the design studio projects. Both studio units, [ReMap] 2000 and Emergent Urbanism, have worked closely during the course of this year, the agenda of the two units have thus influenced various aspects of the research scope, design development and employed methodologies. Throughout the course of the year the core cultures of these studio agendas has been applied to two main studio design projects, which have been supplemented with smaller design studio projects â€“ in most cases these smaller projects have helped to construct narratives in response to the dual studio agenda. It is important to mention the differing scope of these larger two projects, the first concentrated on masterplaning at the city scale [1:10000, 1:1000], the second focused on fabrication at the human scale [1:10, 1:4, 1:1]. Our investigations have thus explored manufacturing processes and digital production in full scale prototypes, as well as large scale strategic policy mechanisms within a complex urban environment.
The following statements are the studio units agenda, driven by the studio unit tutors. As will be evident later in the report, the dual-agendas have influenced each of the design projects, the co-evolution of both agendas has established a hybridised personal proposition forming the student’s own studio agenda within the studio design project.
of computation, parametric modelling and physical prototyping. We will embrace hacking as a design methodology and exploit various scripting languages for the conception and production of socially and environmentally sustainable models of future urbanism.” [Nick Dunn, Richard Brook, Danny Richards]
[Re-Map] 2000 “We are principally concerned with the ownership of space, its perception, demarcation and [mis]use in the contemporary city. We have entered a post‐digital age in which how we design has become as significant as what we design. We embrace new mapping methodologies to make the complex accessible and the latent visible. Urban and cartographic space may be historically bound, but emergent networks are formed from information space, physical space or social space; often a hybrid of these types, whether organising patterns of data, navigating the city or representing hierarchical relationships within and between socio‐political structures. The question of what constitutes territorial, community, networked and residual space is paramount to our research. This depends on a reading of near‐futures underpinned by an understanding of global economics and the reality of a limitless information space and datascape. The devices of appropriation, enclosure, severance, fragmentation, and cultural identification of space are examined as, simultaneously, forces and reactions in physical space and within the datascape. It is with these enquiries that we construct an ideological position. We re_make the city.” [Nick Dunn, Richard Brook] Emergent Urbanism “We are concerned with contemporary models of urban living, the impact of policy and planning, the implications and merits of ‘density’ and the potential for ecological models where the built and natural environments are no longer distinct. We will explore the increased usage of computation and parametric design tools within urban design seeking an integrated design process in which biological processes such as morphogenesis (differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism) and selforganisation can be translated into the generation of urban spaces through a synthesis
Critical References Baraka 1992, movie, Mpi Home Video, USA. Illustrates the systems and connections between people on a global scale. Bullivant, L., (2006) Power broking: Contemporary issues of insttituional power, State, and architectural practice in Britain. From Volume Magazine No. 5 Jan 2006. Archis Foundation Braham, W., & Hale, J., (2006) Rethinking Technology; A Reader in Architectural Theory. Routledge; 1 edition. Curtis, A., (2004) The Trap. BBC Documentary Crinson, M., [ed.] (2005) Urban Memory: History and amnesia in the modern city, Oxon: Routledge. Kelly, K., (1995) Out of Control; The New Biology of Machines. Originally published Addison Wesley 1994. London:Fourth Estate. Available from: http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/contents.php
Influences and issues Birkenhead was selected as a site, the initial project was a student competition [see WPA 2.0], the theme of the brief was primarily involved in the re-utilisation of existing infrastructure within cities. To achieve an understanding of the history and current theory of urbanism and landscape – the studio unit was introduced to a series of critical texts which illustrated contemporary notions of the city aligned to the studio agenda. As a result we developed an understanding of properties of the urban, conditions of the city, cultures within the periphery, implementation of policy agendas, notions of nostalgia and origins of heritage – which established a basis from which to fully realise the potential opportunities of the city, conduct research, articulate our own design theory and evaluate the design studio projects. Historical and Theoretical position Both studio propositions have provided a series of historical and theoretical positions which have supported the design development, the scope of which has been implemented on various scales of inquiry. The [Re-Map] 2000 studio agenda has been the core driver of the development undertaken from the outset of the year, underpinning the scope of the research direction – the agenda has fostered an understanding of the representation of various site sensitive data sets and information. Research was geared to the analysis of a site through means of data visualisations and utilisation of statistical data sets. Our scope of inquiry was focused on the historic notions of the city, together with the postmodern condition of globalisation – to explore the interrelations of these forces upon the urban (through the use of mapping methodologies). This led to a critical appreciation of global systems of networking and connectivity which through policy driven initiative can dictate the properties of the city and landscape. Running in parallel the Emergent Urbanism agenda has enriched and supported a study of theoretical positions within the realms of the digital. This agenda has strengthen its resolve during the course of the year, impacting and directing the design development during the second term of the design studio project. And has introduced contemporary design theory from multidisciplinary fields of scientific inquiry.
CULTURAL CONTEXT [I] [Unit Proposition]
The following is a research paper which was written in an attempt to understand the historic influences of the thematic of shopping on architecture and urbanism. Leading into the established components of the modern condition of such places and reviewing a series of superset policy mechanisms employed to drive the re-processing of urban landscape. sys(n)-excess.config.urbanism: Shopping, Success and Strategy. Introduction “Few activities unite us as human beings in the way shopping does.”i The shopping mall, as an urban constituent, has mutated and evolved to achieve autonomy from the city. This modification can be attributed in part to one of shoppings (the activity) most rudimentary sensitivities, the relationship to markets dynamics, and shoppings (the programme) ability to define limitless potential of excess and consumerism. In particular the events of rampant universalistic globalization and free marketplace have supplanted mechanisms of commerce and trade, leading to the redefinition of public realm and fundamentally re-organisation and re-interpretation of urbanity. With the recent advent of a re-urbanised society, migrating from suburbia, the values of the well established shopping environment within the periphery, determine the organisation of shopping at the urban core. The programmatic scale has increased, shopping has been embraced as a composing condition to inform strategic frameworks at the city scale of development, the city/state’s strategies have abandoned traditional forms of urban policy in favour of market orientated, choice-based social ecologies (or ‘adaptive systems’). “Through an evolving series of processes, shopping has come to constitute urbanity.”ii The lineage of shopping is evidence to the evolution of an autonomous urban constituent, McMorrough exploration of shopping and the city, describes the associations which have developed and evolved between public space, shopping and the city. The Greek agora, first linked public life and the marketplace, establishing a relationship between shopping and public space. Later the arcade in Paris, was used as an architectural device of connectivity
(de passage) through the urban fabric, an evolved notion of the road with shops located either side. The arcade amalgamated the experience of the urban with spaces of consumption. With the evolution of the department store and then the mall, the architectural device was further developed, however now it functioned as a means to experience the mall, the connections to the urban fabric were discarded. “The modern shopping mall crystallised the desire of consumption into a potent and succinct form”iii. The consumptive success of shopping is perhaps rooted in the contradiction of shopping, as McMorrough elaborates, shopping (the programme) and shopping (the place) are seemingly in conflict, the limitless qualitative value of excess which the programme of shopping defines, and the definition or limiting of the place of shopping to define clearly ‘shopping’ places. Thus shopping has the ability to provide and sustain urban qualities of density of activity and spectacle within the urban fabriciv, the city needs the theme of shopping to attract its’ constituents and sustain their repeated influx. “Shopping needed the city to survive [and so] the urban has been reduced to the theme of shopping”v Consumption in Suburbia “dominated by big boxes, category killers and power centres, fulfilling the insatiable desire to conflate an ever-evolving consumer culture with public space.”vi As defined by Arthur Nelson, Exurbanism is “an amalgam of rural and suburban settlement patterns at the periphery of urban cores.”vii The values which are embedded within consumer culture, a review of shopping’s relationship with suburbia, leads us to analyse the contemporary condition of the agglomeration of consumer culture within the scope of exurbanism. Of importance here is the organisation of this environment, exurbia is composed of ‘flatspace’ or ‘non-place’, and autonomous components ie. “big box, parking lot, landscape lining”viii. Such components are sheds lacking architectural detail, displaying monotonous signage, the content of which is identical to any retail park around the country, companies focus on the “consistency of their brands”ix regardless of location, the programmes of shopping here are controlled environments of familiarity and homogeneity. Public space in exurbia is composed of “fleeting encounters”x, “utilitarian dialogues”xi and “perfunctory exchanges at point-of-
CRITICAL POSITION [Re-processed Landscape]
However the model of the shopping mall, as a successful organisation of retail stores, sub-public “Large scale retailers and other advanced service space and convenient car parks, was only the device corporations have managed to re-territorialize the by which he proposed to re-define the contemporary country into economic densities and land yet to be city. His vision was for the shopping mall to become branded.”xiii the unit of planning, “the template for urbanity”xviii. Although this notion of re-defining the total logics of The landscape of the exurban condition is the realised city planning with such a model never materialised, spatial environment of the experiential consumer the notion that shopping as a programme could driven interaction with autonomous components compose the organisation of various programmatic (containing public space), haphazardly dispersed elements within these units and be simply multiplied throughout the flatspace of the periphery, realised to achieve the Metropolis, speaks to the potential of only through the infrastructural networks of the shopping to provide and sustain the city. automobile. “The rise of individual interests invites a qualitative observation: namely, that privatisation The chronic condition of excess within society, is due leads to the fragmentation of social goals, creating in to the consumptive cultures cultivated as a result its place a context of competing individual interests of pervasive capitalism, capitalism embedded and which may or may not generate good outcomes. congenital in society. The embrace of consumption Individual interests can be seen in the physical and and consumerism (as a doctrine of excess) came social form of the city through the proliferation of about with the pervasive privatisation of the public consumer oriented patterns of urbanization.”xiv sectors , the sale of public assets during the Thatcher The ‘ebb and flow’ of the city’s constituents, has government in tandem with the promotion of the naturalized the urban core to the “suburban values of paradigm of free marketplace and strengthened predictability and control”xv. Logistical implications trade association with continental Europe, produced required new infrastructural networks to realise a climate of competitive globalization based on such values, consumerism embraced the notions neo-liberal capitalist ideologies, which has resulted of efficiency and mechanised processes, thereby in the end of the Welfare State. This dispersal of creating a industrial-consumerism. state controlled sectors to private corporate bodies has allowed for a reduction of state responsibility, “Retail has historically been dependent on mobility, moreover control of the state via investment was transportation and access for its success.”xvi diminished and new legislative and regulatory policies had to be introduced to control privatised The Shopping Mall ventures. This trend has continued, new-Labour introduced Private Finance Initiatives in 2003 as Victor Gruen was instrumental to the design of “risk-free political structures”xix, mechanisms for the shopping mall, he understood the power of directing private investment into public sectors. The consumerism as an attractor, and composer of public re-appropriation of shopping (the place) into the space. He promoted the organisational relationship city (or even the densification of the suburban to between the car park and the retail units, he generate urban cores), coupled with the integration understood the mobility of the automobile was of (global) productive networks, have seen new instrumental to the success of malls, he speaks of strategic policy and political mandates to negotiate maximizing comfort and convenience for the shopper. these complex systems. Victor Gruen’s principles of shopping mall design, are as follows.”xvii safeguard surrounding areas against blight expose retail facilities to maximum foot traffic separate various mechanized traffic types from each other and from foot traffic create a maximum of comfort and convenience for shoppers and merchants achieve orderliness, unity and beauty
“Central government’s approach to architecture in the UK is one that is mirrored by so many other governments in the Western world. It is one of the states’ devolving responsibilities for the procurement of architecture to the vicissitudes of the market.”xx Coopetition = f (Cooperation, Competition)xxi Coopetition is the economic planning concept promoted by the Ministry of Trade and Industry
“Though long understood by economists, “coopetition” was first coined by Charles F. Sabel in 1982 to describe the integral relationship between cooperation and competition in dynamic economic systems. In the everchanging, unpredictable sphere of global business, coopertition is a strategy for at once shaping a market of multiple complementary goods and optimizing individual profits among vendors. It is capable of greater expansion, profit, and influence than either cooperation or competition alone.”xxiii
alliances which have been formed to overcome finite resources, drawing on cooperative interactions between three states (allowing singapore to tap into the Asean a larger resource base). Finally the web, defines the states position with global economics, to establish associations within global productive networks, strengthening Singapore’s presents as a essential facilitator to the work-flow of these productive networks.
Singapore, has embraced the ecology of the marketplace through all aspects of political and social logics. The plan is the development of the regional and centralised cores to evolve into a coordinated shopping environment. Two decades of shopping as the theme of Signapore’s urban renewal policies, have seen shopping as the programme expand to global scales of influence, it is perhaps here again evidence of the limitless excess to which the programme of shopping can surpass conventional urban policies. The strategic goal of “Singapore’s economic and social progress to that of a developed country”xxiv are.
Figure 1 xxvii
The embrace of economic terminology is witness to the changing methodology used by the city/ state to implement city development policy based on globalization and free market ecology. The abstractions of ecological scales enables the Singaporean government to cross-departmentalise and umbrella various forms of service and product based industry sectors, into basic strategic maps. The application of economic strategies also functions to attract private sector investment, the three strategic The strategic application of coopetition has been maps used by Singapore, could be categorised as what implemented through three primary strategic maps, Sherman describes as complex adaptive systems. which are the cluster map, the growth triangle and “These tactics, two of the most prevalent of which the webxxv. Each of these maps plots the strategic are overlapping functional diversity, and operational relationships of Signapore at various scales of study. redundancy, are directed towards increasing the The cluster map, defines the organisation of industries variety of possible alternative reorganisation patterns within their geographical and spatial context of and pathways. Each has the effect of spreading the urbanity, this links “various economic sectors, into risk-not unlike a diversified stock portfolio-thereby a single network of capital exchange”xxvi. The lessening the susceptibility of an entire design/plan growth triangle, defines the countries cooperative to failure”xxviii. Enhancing Human Resources Promoting National Teamwork Becoming Internationally Oriented Creating a Conducive Climate for Innovation Developing Manufacturing and Service Clusters Spearheading Economic Redevelopment Maintaining International Competitiveness Reducing Vulnerability
in Singapore, the strategic purpose is providing a framework to development, to sustain the functioning economy and overcome size and limited resources of the country, for the purpose of economic growth. “The government runs the nation as a full-time business, officials are seen as capitalists responsible for business formation.”xxii
The established links constructed as a result of our electronic infrastructure, have enabled globalization and money markets to further penetrate into our environments, such associations have produced a collective trend of material valuation and riskmanagement. David Turnbull discusses how this trend has led to the “GMCity” an evolved species parented by the ‘edge city’, these ‘genetically modified’ cities embody the characteristics of our global condition, a ‘hyper-’ connected information hub, which is continuously self critical and perpetually redesigned. Such evolution, establishes an ‘atopia’ the construct of which are rooted in technological and ecological mechanisms. “To achieve the planned eradication of urban dysfunction, and to maximise attractiveness in the global economy, successful areas are cloned. Techniques of recombination are used to remove imperfections. Decontextualisation, experimental transfer from one organism to another, and systematically repeated localised adjustment – the techniques of genetic research – emerge in urbanism as the instruments of change.”xxix Turnbull further discusses the autonomous mobility achieved by commercial bodies, the interconnected e-landscapes allows for companies to establish their physical location, on qualitative criteria. Strategic Operation (Initial Proposition) The Wirral Peninsular, as the study of re-processed landscape, is to be the subject of the applications of a policy of systematic re-composition. The existing landscape, in the context of infrastructural systems to enable consumerism, has the traits of generic suburban conditions. However the proximity and symbiotic relationship with Liverpool, presents a source of bigger consumer base from which to expand, in order supplant existing retail areas from Liverpool to the Wirral Peninsular. The proposition would implement shopping malls as units for adaptive system attractors, the theme of shopping as the field of condition and of the organisation which defines the programmatic distribution across urbanity. The generated scenario would create a utopia, the urban forms and patterns of which would be reactionary to consumerism, managed through density of retail area and vibrancy of products, these towers of shopping density become
urban artefacts which are physical valuations to the commercial success of the utopia. “these strategies are designed to appeal to broader and more diverse stakeholder groups in order to quell controversy and establish a more fiscally and culturally sound approach to re-use and reappropriation”xxx The success and competence is achieved by implementing the thematic of shopping as the matrix to direct urbanity, and the embrace of techniques of genetic research to enable the effective cloning and recombination of successful urban patterns. The mall as standard model for planning urban densities, which is programmatically (not form) driven, which is adaptive to demographic, dynamic market fluctuation and density of products, public realms and retail space. A composite decision making tool, generating a series of strategic maps , to inform stakeholders of near-future scenarios and potential areas of development. “Generic qualities are heightened to become emblematic. Similarity and consistency are produced by deploying erasure and replacement strategies to reconfigure both city and the individual psyche.”xxxi
Genetically Modified Strategic Policy
i Koolhaas, R. et al. (2002) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 130 ii McMorrough, J. (2002) City of Shopping. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 194 iii McMorrough, J. (2002) City of Shopping. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 195 iv Hepworth, P. (2008) The Shopping Organism, The Effect Shopping and Globalization has had on the city, 2008, Manchester Unpublished. v Koolhaas, R. et al. (2002) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 153 vi Sheppard, L. and White, M. (2005) ‘Flatscape: Exurbanism and Infrastructural Landscape’. In: Benites, C. and Lyster, C. (eds) ‘Regarding Public Space’. 306090 09, (1), p.127 vii Ibid. viii Ibid. ix Crinson, M. (2005) Urban Memory: History and amnesia in the modern city. Oxon, Routledge. p. 49-96 x Sheppard, L. and White, M. (2005) ‘Flatscape: Exurbanism and Infrastructural Landscape’. In: Benites, C. and Lyster, C. (eds) ‘Regarding Public Space’. 306090 09, (1), p.127 xi Ibid. xii Ibid. xiii Ibid. xiii Duval, A. and Monson, K. (2005) ‘Autonomous Urbanism’. 306090 08, (1), p.14 xv McMorrough, J. (2002) City of Shopping. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 193- 201 xvi Sheppard, L. and White, M. (2005) ‘Flatscape: Exurbanism and Infrastructural Landscape’. In: Benites, C. and Lyster, C. (eds) ‘Regarding Public Space’. 306090 09, (1), p.129 xvii Leong, S. (2001) Gruen Urbanism. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 381- 387 xviii Ibid. xix Bullivant, L. (Unknown)’Power broking: Contemporary issues of institutional power, State, and architectural practice in Britain’. In: Unknown (eds) From the State as Client to the Client State. p.15-24 xx Ibid. xxi Vinh, T. (2001) Coopetition. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 205- 227 xxii Ibid. xxiii Ibid. xxiv Ministry of Trade and Industry (1991) ‘The Strategic Economic Plan: Towards a Developed Nation’.[online]. Singapore, Singapore National Printers. Available from: http://app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/ NWS_plan.pdf [Accessed 7th December 2009]. xxv Vinh, T. (2001) Coopetition. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 206 xxvi Ibid. xxvii Vinh, T. (2001) Coopetition. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 204 xxviii Sherman, R. (2005) ‘If, Then: Shaping Change as a Strategic Basis for Design’. In: Duval, A. and Monson, K. ‘Autonomous Urbanism’. 306090 08, (1), p.105 xxix Turnbull, D. (2002) ‘GMCity: The Genetically Modified City (2001)’. In: Leach, N. ‘Designing for a Digital World’. London, Wiley & Sons. p.75 xxx Reed, C. (2005) ‘Performance Practices’. In: Benites, C. and Lyster, C. ‘Regarding Public Space’. 306090 09, (1), p.82-91 xxxi Turnbull, D. (2002) ‘GMCity: The Genetically Modified City (2001)’. In: Leach, N. ‘Designing for a Digital World’. London, Wiley & Sons. p.76
Influences and issues Within the current conditions of the urban the activity of shopping is a core driver to policy and design. Historical and Theoretical position Notion of trade, exchange and goods have existed since early civilisation. These properties have instructed the decision making behind urban planning and design since their inception. Our modern expansion and economic globalisation have acted to enhance the magnitude of these properties upon the urban. Environment, place and scales The inquiry established here by the application of shopping as a driver of the urban, should be seen as a exploration of the generic conditions of cities, thus the direction of research had been based on the geographic location of Birkenhead – however the outcome of the design studio project (although site specific in terms of data) should in general be seen as a response to a more global condition. Critical judgments Particular readings such as; The Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Flatscape and GMCity have been the primary influential text which have directed the personal proposition in response to the contemporary conditions of the urban. The aim to design a strategic policy mechanism to inform the overall masterplaning of a city has resulted in the adaptation of existing policy, utilised in other geographical locations but based on global & local scale dynamics. The intent has been to introduce the successful aspects of these strategies into a policy mechanism which would re-processes the urbanism and landscape. Contemporary context The methods of representation and processing have been dependant on abstract devices in order to simulate the actions of many dynamic forces, acting upon the urban which are inherent in the infrastructure of global markets and economic markets.
The personal proposition as a response to the studio unit agendas has evolved throughout the course of the year. Through the guidance of the studio unit, selfdirected learning and exploration into aspects of the student’s individual interests, a personal proposition has been established which sets out a theoretical stance of the current conditions of architecture and urbanism. Furthermore we can breakdown the topics addressed during the year into three distinct characterisations.
forces and its impact upon architecture and urbanism – proved to be a good framework on which to base the design research. And provided a theoretical basis to inform the behavioural aspects of the project proposal. Contemporary context
In the first instance the methods of working with data are becoming more crucial to architectural design, as the complexity of design problems increases, also the global infrastructural environment in which a virtual world exists we must increasingly find new Following on from the initial proposition presented methodologies in order to analyse and represent in the research paper on the critical position, further the influences and issues inherent in culture and research and design development (including the society – allowing us speculate on how these research dissertation) have transformed the personal influence architecture and urbanism. The formation proposition. Within the context of the theory of design of an architectural synthesis in the case of this design and the practice of design development, the personal studio project utilises the methodology of mapping proposition has established a new dialogue between; and representation as analytical devices to reach the approaches and methodologies employed within conclusions and research conditions of the current a design, and an awareness of the networks of forces conditions of our cities. which shape architecture and urbanism. The theoretical stance of the Emergent Urbanism Environment, place and scales agenda has introduced concepts of architecture which stem from artificial intelligence and Birkenhead, which is located along the west bank cybernetics. Rooted perhaps back to the networked of the River Mersey. It is a town which has strong associated forces talked about by Christopher historic links to the ship building industry and can Alexander, in his book Synthesis of Form. Academics compared with most other post-war seaports around such as Paul Coates, John Frazer, Kostas Terzidis, the shores of England, such as Glasgow, Portsmouth Marcos Novak and Nicholas Pisca are all concerned and Barrow-in-Furness. This results in a symbiotic with the influence of the computer within the relationship between the two urban areas, which conceptualisation of architecture. The following are has directly influenced the cultural, economic and a series of quotes which illustrate the condition of industrial characteristics of these two places. the architect and the practice of design: The scope of the proposals look to impact upon the existing landscape of the site, re-forming the arrangement and organisation of the urban formations – to conform to a series of utopian visions of the city. Such proposals are site specific, as well as a response to generic conditions of global environments. Critical judgments The process of design was informed by analysis and research both into the site and the city (as a global entity). Research into the networks and connectivity upon which global markets have emerged, directed the position towards the behavioural drivers behind the cultural and social requirements for these systems. The act of shopping, its supporting mechanisms, its
“We are inclined to think that this final transformation should be process-driven, and that one should code not the form but rather precise instructions for the formative process.” John Frazer, An Evolutionary Architecture. “The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognise that we ought to control our thoughts” Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man.
“Being immersed in patterns we navigate between surface layers and the codes hidden behind them” Cecil Balmond, Element.
These are provocative statements, at their core however they illustrate how we can define our environment in terms of code and the practice of coding.
CULTURAL CONTEXT [II] [Personal Proposition]
DESIGN AND COMMUNICATION [Outline of Work] We had the opportunity to research new design techniques, explore generative design and develop Brief appraisal and construction an evolutionary approach to a design proposal. To gain an understanding of how to deal with the The following are a series of abstracts from the design complexity of design problems and explore the studio briefs and a summary reflection of the impact notion of emergence within a design. upon the design studio project. 11 WPA 2.0 Competition Field Operations efficiency of thethat factory line achiev “use this as a platform to generate research in the “WPA 2.0 is an open competition seeks innovative, relation to your chosen context and develop thematic implementable proposals to place infrastructure at Strip inquiry. [...] In the competition team groups you are the heart of rebuilding our cities during this next era fed b to communicate succinctly all the information you of metropolitan recovery.” - WPA 2.0 Brief a absorbed [...] Central to the development of your ficie understanding of the data is how you translate it in a The WPA 2.0 Competition, with Birkenhead as the meaningful way.” - Re-Map Brief site, formed an framework through which the studio unit could capture data, input research data and being We were required to demonstrate the use of data, to appreciate the application of data sets for the use it’s procurement (within a group exercise) and to gain of analysis – in a drive to come to a conclusion or an understanding the conversion of such data into a synthesis which responded to the cultural and social architectural dialogue. conditions of the site. Datascapes & Landprocessing “in order to develop your understanding of contextual data it is critical that you explore various methods of mapping and representation as instruments of analysis and synthesis, leading to master-planning and design strategies across a range of scales. [...] what is the best way of representing and mapping these resources? [...] How can we re_process the physical landscape through the mapping of programme(s) across, within and beyond it? [...] 2000 word essay describing your critical position as informed by the readings distributed, your own understanding of your context as a thematic driver for re_processing Design methodology landscape.” - Re-Map Brief sketches, plans, photomontages, diagrams, policy We needed to develop a mechanism by which the diagrams, resource flow diagrams. analysis of data was possible, to realise successful methods of representation and conclude findings to inform a design synthesis.
Evolutionary Environments “The development of a design process may often be intuitive rather than predetermined, incorporating exploration, speculation and re_vision. [...] This project therefore is an ideal vehicle for you to engage with generative design processes and explore the interface between evolution and materials. [...] Complexity may emerge from seemingly simple organizations and as such you should consider the use of algorithms to form patterns, structures and evaluate their emergent properties.” - Re-Map Brief
Techniques of development, production and collaboration group-directed design development, realisation, teamwork directed research, group presentation, strategic policy development. Construction context construction based on existing infrastructure, economic market dynamics.
Continuing from the WPA Competiton. Research and analysis into collected data sets was conducted, the generation of a synthesis was informed by the representation methods used to demonstrate the forces and associations evident in the data of the site. The analysis of the Wirral Peninsula, allowed for the formation of architectural proposition, which demonstrated how shopping, together with the required associated infrastructure, could be used as a device to reprocesses the landscape and present a utopian vision of a system which functions completely on trade and economic markets.
Interrelations of a synthesis of meta-spacial data scape generation, data information handeling and mapping of programmatic distribution. The design development has utilised the conclusions of the data scape â€“ the representation of data and information upon the physical condition of Birkenhead, has allows for an understanding to be constructed which informs the direction of specific design intentions and decisions. The success and competence is achieved by implementing the thematic of shopping as theDATA matrix SCAPE to direct urbanity, and the embrace of techniques of genetic research to enable the effective cloning and
Design methodology recombination of successful urban patterns. In date scape, data input, data mining, data flow reflection the application of a thematic driver has diagrams, associative diagrams, plans, 3D diagrams. provided an interesting design proposal which responds to the local and global properties of the Techniques of development, production and site. collaboration statistical data analysis from the national statistic database, archival research into policy strategies which involved shopping as primary theme/device, analysis of historic impact of shopping upon urban planning and design, field research / data of existing = infrastructure and assets in regards to retail, conversion of statistical data sets into analytical representations - allowing for statistical data to be associated to geographical locations. Existing Urban Fabric
Analysis / Indicators
Population Access Map Retail Assets Map Services Access Map Financial Access Map
+ + + +
Stakeholders Policy Makers
Component Tool For Urban Strategic Planning and Determination of Retail Growth
Wirral Buisness Plan
Retail Area per Person
mp co an
Percentage of growth required to facilitate demand for europe in 2050
Retail Property Assets Infrastructure Assets
2. 3. 4. 5.
m p an co
rn ove m
safeguard surrounding areas against blight. expose retail facilities to maximum foot traffic. separate various mechanized traffic types from each other and from foot traffic. create a maximum of comfort and convenience for shoppers and merchants. achieve orderliness, unity and beauty.
Strategic Policy illustrated.
y inve e stm nt
Risk Management Sustained Growth â€˜To Big To Failâ€™
ic teg ai
criteria: Physical Variables Goods Diversity InfrastructuralConnectivity
Volumetric data required to facilitate consumption of total european demand
Construction context economic context, historic & cultural context of shopping to inform design proposal.
t cen ive
European Retail Demand
Volumetric data required to facilitate consumption of total national demand
Shopping for Utopia
Multi-Agent Paragen Pavilion
A field trip to the Expo site in Hanover was the catalyst for this project. We applied to methodology learned during the previous project, and worked to develop a thematic device which would recompose the landscape of the Expo 2000 site, in 2010. Our site focused on the famous MVRDV pavilion, which was a decaying relic on the site. We conducted a design approach which utilised the existing infrastructure of the existing pavilions, in particular the iconic MVRDV pavilion, and reorganised the site, using the original agendas of the Expo event and celebrating these by re-hosting an Expo of Expos.
To address the evolutionary environment brief, a workshop was conducted by the Emergent Urbanism unit which looked at the application of scripting and generative design. For this project, the process of design is aligned with the notion of research and exploration. Moreover the outcome is a design which is research led, and the research which is design led. The project demonstrates a series of experimentations of â€˜scriptedâ€™ simulations within MAYA, using the applications embedded scripting platform MEL Script. This project allowed for further research into the topics of the research dissertation.
Design methodology field research surveying existing site conditions, archival research into previous Expo events, comparative analysis of Expo 2000 to present day conditions, review into original aspirations of the Expo agenda and the cultural relevance upon each hosting country.
Design methodology archival research into scripting, online research into existing scripting techniques, testing of existing scripts, workshop, forums research, websites, research, dissertation, library of scripts, online knowledge base of links and resources.
Techniques of development, production and collaboration group-directed research and design development intro historic Expo agenda, comparative analysis of existing Expo sites globally. Construction context existing infrastructure, existing cultural identity.
Techniques of development, production and collaboration initial small behavioural test to establish working scripts, incorporation of existing scripts, philospothical basis for script. Construction context maya, scripting, processing.
The Descent of Man
Continuing on the evolutionary environment brief, Having established a strong conceptual design, the the shortlisting five design proposals resulted in team developed, tested and proposed a practical design team growing from one to five and the design design solution, which met the design brief, with beginning to evolve. Main feedback highlighted little compromise of the original design concept. The concern for the context and scale of the design, presentation of the proposed design was supported these observations are amongst the first to be by a presentational video, which integrated 14 addressed alongside the development of structural, contextual, experiential and technical information. material and production considerations. This The design development and use of digital fabrication PRESENTATION project proved an important opportunity to explore technologies has enabled a working methodology CADCAM fabrication techniques and conduct design to be developed thus enabling us to generate a PRESENTATION development for the realisation of a fully built â€˜fast-trackâ€™ process of fabrication, in which the project, which had been tested and costed. management The Team_ Holding the 1:1 prototypeof time and resources were needed.
Design methodology material research, contact with consultants and suppliers, fabrication tests, sketches, drawings, digital simulations, presentation software, film editing, site survey, 3D modling for options generation, design consultancy discussions, digital material and context renders, photomontages. Techniques of development, production and collaboration testing fabrication processes, archival research of existing joinery and construction details, consultancy with craftsman, prototyping proposed joinery details, cadcam prototyping of 1:1 scale models - to test process and identify further work required to provide a full package design proposal, lazer cutting, cadcam software opporation. film presentation to provide a full idea of experiencial aspects of the design proposal. Construction context addressing building regulations, cost considerations, fabrication time schedule, construction coordination and time scheduling, storage and logistics, health and safety considerations, means of access, fireprevention.
The presentation showed the use of the proposed pavilion within its context, the design team has approached each stage of the pavilions development with a great deal of sensitivity to the original concept, the design brief and the designs experiential qualities. Furthermore the issues addressed within the design development process have allowed us to generate a competent design solution, which responds to critical cost constraints, health-and-safety considerations, building regulations, structural properties, manufacturing processes, time management and MANUFACTURE schedules for construction delivery. 90
TRANSPORT TO MUSEUM 10
Fabrication processes illustrated. Process Diagram
Personal research and methods
The logics of scripting. Generative methodologies in digital design and algorithmic approaches in architectural design.
The research dissertation has impacted upon the theoretical and methodological approaches taken during the design studio projects, informing a platform of understanding of historical and cultural theories within architectural design and their wider implications within a global context. On a practical level, the dissertation has provided an opportunity to construct a skill base, in terms of digital design methodologies such as; scripting and digital fabrication. Additional to such skill sets has been a drive to understand the origins and running implications of the digital within current design practice.
Abstract “The dissertation documents the use of ‘generative’ design methodologies within the architectural design process and thus explores the impact of new emerging techniques upon the basis of contemporary digital design. Generally, such techniques are rooted in the processes of natural systems, simulated through the rule-driven and logic-based platforms of ‘algorithmic’ and ‘computational’ design approaches. [...] The purpose of this thesis is to survey current methods and theory, suggesting and proposing an alternative design methodology, which is aligned with the pedagogy of teaching design theory through programming [McCullough, 2006], exploring the premise regarding the role of the computer in design, and the primacy of scripting. The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between limitations and restraints imposed by digital design tools, designers ideas and ways of thinking. A mode of thinking which is described as “reasoning” [Lawson, 2006] this being characterised as “reflective thought” and “problem-solving”. The dissertation will present, through a collection of short essays, the impact of digital design tools on the development of ‘generative’ design methodologies, review a series of such methodologies and digital tools, and proceed to discuss the implications of these methods, speculating on how the processes of design, and the role of the Architect is adapting to these new categorisations.”
The theme of inquiry has led to an increase appreciation for the opportunities and possibilities implied by the platforms of digital design, promoted by the architectural elite. However the hydra-headed methodologies and algorithms employed within the field, suggest that there is no defined approach which can thus far be said to be a superset to direct the design development. The non-linear processes, particularly undirected processes, propagated by John Frazer and Paul Coates in the early 1970s are concerned with spatial phenomena that emerge qualities not evident in their description, thus the ethos of design methodologies promote the paradigmatic shift in science from the anatomical and problem-solving paradigm of ‘reductionism’ to the process based, associative and chaos driven paradigm of ‘complexity’. This shift has seen the re-definition of the architect, as what Coates refers to as system designer. “A person who can define spatial organisation and form as systems of feedback and morphogenesis cast in the form of instructions to a Turing machine”i. In relation to design studio projects, the process of design is aligned with the notion of research and exploration. Moreover the outcome is a design which is research led, and the research which is design led. The Multi-Agent Paragen Pavilion and The Descent of Man projects both demonstrates a series of experimentations of ‘scripted’ simulations within MAYA, using the applications embedded scripting platform MEL Script.
The following is an extract from the issues, opportunities and conclusions of the CCCP module research essay. Our response to technological and environmental considerations of this module were addressed through incorporating the studio agendas. The scope of our research looked at the affect of global entities and networks upon our urban environments, we speculated on the policy drivers which would foster a potential ‘tipping point’ for sustainable agendas within the context of a global economy. Issues The primary issue arises with the juxtaposition of the knowledge to put sustainable strategies in place, but the still uneconomical means that don’t appeal to capitalist sensibilities. The global population is therefore stuck with the slow change of supply and demand. The flood of change will only occur after the ‘Tipping Point’ has been achieved, and sustainable practices achieve economic viability. The path society is travelling, points to a future where change will only occur once resources have been sufficiently depleted that forced intervention is required to instigate immediate change. “Architects aligne themselves with the uncontrollable”i Possibilities A central governing body is the best tool for changing our destructive natures. Without resorting to absolute control, executive powers can allow tax breaks and provide research grants towards sustainable practices, whilst simultaneously increasing the cost of maintaining unsustainable approaches. This allows our world to continue to operate the way it wants but uses fiscal incentive to encourage change. An industry demonstrating that it is enacting cyclical metabolisms would be able to increase profits under a new economic system, whereas any industry that does not change would have to contend with higher taxes. This then enables the evolution of industry to happen more rapidly as they each adapt to a new economic climate as quickly as possible in order to remain competitive and survive. The intervention would allow society to rapidly reach the ‘Tipping Point’ and retain any remaining resources, before it is no longer an option.
Partial deregulation of the masses can allow a huge surge of change and honours the principles of freedom of speech and the freedom of information. These principles will form the pillars for a new method of control; the media can act as a very effective tool to keep exploitation of the system in check. As people take advantage, the media can expose them to the ‘moral compass’ of the masses; this keeps industry in check, as bad publicity is not in their interest. Conclusion The design process needs to become a systematic way of thinking, where we seek to understand the connections and interactions of all the problem variables, putting us in a position to ask the right questions and identify the real problems, in order to determine the best solutions. “the functional relationship (economy of agglomeration or economy of scale), social organisation (network or institution) and spatial configuration, while clasification of those layers is based on the interaction between them”ii How cities emerge, their states of flux, urban affects on organisation and behaviour of society and the balance between long and short term solutions; can begin to provide an appreciation for the role architecture plays in our whole system of living and development. Not all problems require built solutions. New systems of thinking or infrastructural improvement may be the most suitable and beneficial intervention that could unlock the true potential of place. We view the problems of non-sustainable places, buildings, and practice, as a failure of society in not fully understanding the networks and systems that they operate within, belong to, and contribute to. The most suitable solution to approach global sustainability lies in the appreciation and the interaction of the various factors that make up our urban fabric; economy, scale, context and time. It can be acknowledged that an eco-centric response may be suitable in one situation whereas a technocentric solution may be suitable for another. They are not mutually exclusive approaches but at opposed ends of a sliding scale that cannot be separated. Urban design needs to allow a system which takes into account lifetime; how things change and design for
TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT [Part A & B]
factory line achieved through aggressive, dispa DESIGN REPORT
it. Rather than prescribing an answer frozen in time, Reflective Statement architects must allow for change and adaptability without extra design input. Consideration must be The topics and conclusions of the technology module Strips across swell industr taken at macro, meso and micro scaleprescribed in order to have impactedthe uponWirrel the design studiowith projects – achieve a holistic solution. Sustainability is not only establishing an awareness of environmental and fed by ruthless infrastructure systems and thousands an ecological or technological plan; it is a cultural sustainable design considerations. The incorporation sources arethealso organised and business plan. Change canand only necessary occur when of food the studio agenda upon technology module int society becomes aware that social and economic has allowed us to form an understanding of these 17 ficiency of living. Items and places of cultural worth, reform will enable environmental and technological considerations at global scales which directly relate sustainability. The populace must align their interests to the scales which we were exploringand in theintensify studio concentrate t and capital provided in order to achieve an ultimately projects. By employing a policy model which is sustainable global condition. All disciplines and ideas primarily organised to function on the principles of a must be utilised and incorporated into a system, a ‘bottom-up’ strategy – we believe to have illustrated conclusion building, or a way of life in order to achieve something a design manifesto (drawn from the Emergent that can be considered as highly evolved. Urbanism agenda) which introduces mechanisms often related to in digital design such multi-agent behaviours and swarm systems. Such a manifesto considers the global impact of building construction, energy and resource depletion and life-style choices – and contextualises them with the global networks and systems which themselves are in part generated to support these activities. The WPA 2.0 project proposal embraced the cradle-to-cradle philosophy, by functioning on a system of order & efficiency which drove the development or decline of the utopia – we established a mechanism by which firstly absolute efficiency formed the infrastructure for all aspects of the city. This condition results in a culture of closed loop systems, no latency for consumer excess and 4D Systems of Sustainability / Holistic Problem an implementation of rigid codes for the decisionSolving / Implement Social and Economic Policy to enable Environmental & Technological Sustainability making within an economically driven mechanism. 4D Systems of Sustainability / Holistic Problem Solving / Implement Social and Economic Policy to enable Environmental & Technological Sustainability
Strategic diagram showing resource distribution.
Bibliography [please see CCCP Bibliography at the back of this report]
References i Sherman, R, (2005) 306090: Autonomous Urbanism. Architectural Journal. p.104 ii Sheng, Q. (2006) De-/signing the Urban. 010 Publishers. p.364
Further considerations of waste reduction in construction and re-use of materials were topics addressed during the design development for the Manchester Museum Pavilion [see The Descent of Man]. These became criteria applied during the creation of manufacturing drawings – which looked to reduce material wast, addressed the cost effectiveness and possible reuses after construction. The design studio project have seen an understanding of sustainable issues and technologies develop, which is focused at various scale of intensity.
Manchester City Council.
Professional Development Module
Building on the experience gained during the practical placement year, and drawing on the knowledge of various practicing professionals - the professional development module is designed to provide students with knowledge of regulatory requirements, codes of practice, management and buisness.
Integrated working Project Manager, Prof Charles Egbu 02-03-2010
Health & Safety, Tony Bott, of the RIBA 09-03-2010
Professional Development Lecture Series
Building legislation, Building Control, Wayne Timperley of MCC
Time Management Stuart Powell
Procurement, J Hickey. Planning, Warren Marshall, Richard Llewellyn,of Manchester City Council.
Fees and Bidding Victor Basil The Industry and Profession. J Hickey 26-01-2010
Value Management,Michael Pye. Upcoming lectures
Background to English Law, J.Hickey Business Enterprise Prof Len Collinson
Contract documentation , J Hickey Specification, NBS 09-02-2010
Forms of contract, J Hickey Procurement,Stuart Grant 16-02-2010
Practical small works contract admin, pricing and final accounts, J Hickey. Contractors, Mark Platt of Laing Oâ€™Rourke 23-02-2010
Integrated working Project Manager, Prof Charles Egbu 02-03-2010
Health & Safety, Tony Bott, of the RIBA 09-03-2010
Building legislation, Building Control, Wayne Timperley of MCC 16-03-2010
Procurement, J Hickey. Planning, Warren Marshall, Richard Llewellyn,of
Cost Planning, John Gardiner of Capita. Land Law, Easements, Party Walls, Rights of Light, Paul Chynoweth
MANAGEMENT PRACTICE AND LAW
Critical reflection from Management module The module has provided critical information on various aspects of Professional Practice and Management. It has been particularly interesting to discover the varied mechanisms employed in the calculations of architectural fees in relation to the net/gross costs of the total building. Forms of contract and procurement are another essential part of the module, furthermore the codes of practice and standards which Architects must negotiate – are all important aspects of the module.
set budget, on time and with compliance to certain building codes. Although our proposal was not chosen for the final design, the design team will continue to work on the winning proposal – which should provide further opportunities to deal with the complex requirements of the client, presenting issues of how to managing a large construction team and the delivery of a quality design solution.
Learning Needs The course content has been extremely interesting and has highlighted the importance the topics covered within the professional practice of Manchester Pavilion architecture. Therefore the further study and reading The Descent of Man, was a competition project into elements such as procurement and forms of which provided us with the opportunity to construct contract is required to ensure a good knowledge base a built project during the second term. This project of these topics. Moreover moving from part 2 into allowed us to apply information from the Professional part 3 it will be advantageous to explore all aspects Development Module to the design studio project, associated with these mechanisms. as well as providing experience and details in terms of client meetings, cost constraints and standard codes of practice – which were all important criteria utilised in the project’s design development. In particular, contact with Museum staff and other professionals (acting as the client) provided us with an opportunity to negotiage ‘the client, architect’ dynamics which are present in all building projects. This project has allowed us to develop the skill sets required to develop a design proposal which has undergone cost constraints, logistical and construction considerations and time management. Furthermore the documentation output for the design proposal included; costings, construction schedules, fabrication and building sequences and fire-prevention strategies. During the course of the design development, we consulted with various professionals and companies to ensure the competence of our design proposal. The material and structural aspects of the pavilion were discussed with craftsman, suppliers and possible sponsors – drawing on their expertise we incorporated their comments into our design considerations. Furthermore we reviewed building regulation part B to address any issues of requirements for fire prevention. In terms of management, we looked at the fabrication and construction processes and how these could be schedule to allow the simultaneous construction of various components of the pavilion whilst on site building commenced. In summary we looked at how our design could be delivered to a
solid basis from which to design from for next years, building project. In order to meet the ARB criteria, I During the course of this year the design studio will look to establish the required design development projects, associated research and research which complies with all the requirements of the dissertation have all informed the personal position criteria. In doing so I hope to address all the elements and directions of my work, as well as influenced the so far covered in course of this academic year, processes of design methodology, the theoretical expanding upon these and exploring in much more and the cultural issues addressed within architecture. detail aspects and issues of architectural design. Some aspects of the fundamental approaches of the The technologies and professional practice modules architectural intent, interest and inquiry have been will play an increasingly important role in the design particularly reshaped by the agendas of both Re-Map considerations next year, I hope to fully integrate and 2000 and Emergent Urbanism; the references and address the agendas of both of these modules. readings have introduced me to novel design theory and demonstrated emerging design methodologies In summary, I have found this year extremely of contemporary design. In particular, the directions simulating and academically challenging both in of the Emergent Urbanism unit have strongly inspired terms of studio design development and in terms of my work towards the end of this academic year. research and reading for the research dissertation. Moreover the experience has been enjoyable and I A great benefit of this year has been the believe firmly that as a unit we are all in an excellent opportunities to explore new emerging techniques position to conduct a design inquiry into a building and methodologies; be they in the form of generative project next year. On reflection, I hope to improve design, CADCAM fabrication technologies or digital upon the skills gained and propositions which have forms of data representations â€“ the work conducted been established. I have found the meaning of my this year has provided a varied skill set of methods for approach to architectural experience an explicit working with data, and the application of such skills change both in terms of the academic grounding I to generate and inform an architectural proposition. I now posses and in the holistic view of architecture would hope to develop further the core interests and within a cultural and social context. research which I have been exposed to during the fifth year of student, bringing these skills into next year with a clearer direction and personal proposition of architecture and urbanism. The research into generative design and scripting for my research dissertation and during the Emergent Urbanism workshop has fostered an interest in the techniques, methodologies and theoretical explorations of work which have been conducted in this area; both historical and current. I feel the open-ended potential of these agendas and their philosophical view of the contemporary conditions of architectural design within the context of the computer sciences, research sciences, virtual spaces, evolutionary strategies and algorithmic application â€“ all contribute to a complex and highly interesting field of inquiry. I certainly would wish to further explore this agenda in the design studio projects for the next year of study. The scope of inquiry in terms of the design studio projects has seen the unit explore masterplaning and physical 1:1 prototyping. Therefore the scales of inquiry have been to both extremes of the architectural spectrum â€“ which I believes gives me a
CONCLUSIONS [Critical self-reflection]
Design Studio Projects [term 1] The following is the bibliography used throughout the first term of study. Involving the projects; Urban Mill, CCCP and Shopping for Utopia. Work AC. (2009) 49 Cities. New York, Storefront for Art and Architecture, p.14-15. Duval, A. and Monson, K. (2005) ‘Autonomous Urbanism’. 306090 08, (1), p.14-19. McMorrough, J. (2002) City of Shopping. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 193- 201. Vinh, T. (2001) Coopetition. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 205- 227 Schrijver, L. (2009) Architectural visions of networked futures: Envisioning the physical space of cybercommunities in the 1960s. Unpublished. TU Delft. Leong, S. (2001) Gruen Urbanism. In: Koolhaas, R. et al. (eds) Project on the City 2, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Koln, Taschen Press. p. 381- 387 Ministry of Trade and Industry (1991) ‘Executive Summary’.[online]. Singapore, Singapore National Printers. Available from: http://app.mti. gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/ [Accessed 7th December 2009]. Ministry of Trade and Industry (1991) ‘The Strategic Economic Plan: Towards a Developed Nation’.[online]. Singapore, Singapore National Printers. Available from: http://app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/ NWS_plan.pdf [Accessed 7th December 2009]. Mortenbock, P. & Mooshammer, H. (2006) Trading Indeterminacy – Informal Markets in Europe. Field Journal, vol1. Ministry of Trade and Industry (1991) ‘Executive Summary #2’.[online]. Singapore, Singapore National Printers. Available from: http://app.mti. gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/ [Accessed 7th December 2009].
Wolfram, S. (2006) ‘How Do Simple Programs Behave?’. In: Silver, M (eds) Programming Cultures, Architectural Design. London, Wiley & Sons. Castells, M. (unknown) Space of Flows, Space of Places. Reed, C. (2005) ‘Performance Practices’. In: Benites, C. and Lyster, C. ‘Regarding Public Space’. 306090 09, (1), p.82-91 Turnbull, D. (2001) ‘GMCity: The Genetically Modified City (2001)’. In: Leach, N. (eds) Designing for a Digital World. London, Wiley & Sons. Bullivant, L. (unknown)’Power broking: Contemporary issues of institutional power, State, and architectural practice in Britain’. In: unknown (eds) From the State as Client to the Client State. p.15-24 Sherman, R. (2005) ‘If, Then: Shaping Change as a Strategic Basis for Design’. In: Duval, A. and Monson, K. ‘Autonomous Urbanism’. 306090 08, (1), p.103-115
CCCP Bibliography Braungart, M., & McDonogh, W., (2008) Cradle To Cradle; Remaking the Way We Make Things. Vintage UK Random House Bullivant, L., (2006) Power broking: Contemporary issues of insttituional power, State, and architectural practice in Britain. From Volume Magazine No. 5 Jan 2006. Archis Foundation Braham, W., & Hale, J., (2006) Rethinking Technology; A Reader in Architectural Theory. Routledge; 1 edition. Curtis, A., (2004) The Trap. BBC Documentary Kelly, K., (1995) Out of Control; The New Biology of Machines. Originally published Addison Wesley 1994. London:Fourth Estate. Available from: http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/contents.php Frazer, J., (1995) An evolutionary architecture. London, Architectural Association. Girardet, H., (2006) Schumacher Briefings: Creating Sustainable Cities. Green Books First accessed 08/10/2009. Available from: http:www.mi2.hr/#ognjen/ tekst/delanda2001.html. Manuel De Landa: Deleuze an d the Use of the Genetic Algorithm in Architecture
Braham, W. (2004) ‘Biotechniques: Remarks on the Intensity of Conditioning’. In: Kolarevic, B. (eds)Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York and London, Spon Press.
Reed, C., (2005) Performance Practices. Extract from 30 60 90 09; Regarding Public Space
Kolarevic, B. (2004) ‘ Digital Morphogenesis’. In: Kolarevic, B. (eds) Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York and London, Spon Press.
Sherman, R., (2005) If, Then: Shaping Change as a Strategic basis for Design. Extract from 30 60 90 08; Autonomous Urbanism Princeton Architectural Press.
Kelly, K. (1995) ‘Artificial Evolution’. In: Kelly, K (eds) Out Of Control.
Von B., Friedrich, W., Steffen P., (2007) Tit for Tat and Urban Rules from Space, Time, Play; Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism The Next Level. Birkhauser Verlag AG
Johnson, S. (2002) Emergence, The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software. London, Scribner. Chu, S.K. (unknown) Genetic Space. [online]. Available from: http:// synworld.t0.or.at/level2/soft_structures/allgemein/frame_genetic. htm [Accessed 22 October 2009]. Amos, M. (2006) Genesis Machines. Atlantic Books. Wolfram, S. (2006) ‘How Do Simple Programs Behave?’. In: Silver, M (eds) Programming Cultures, Architectural Design. London, Wiley & Sons.
The following is the bibliography used throughout The following is the bibliography used throughout the second term of study. Involving the projects; the course of the research dissertation. ExpoExpo, Multi-Agent Paragen Pavilion and The Arida, S., (2004) Contextualizing Generative Design. MArch Thesis, Descent of Man. Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Frazer, J., (1995) An evolutionary architecture. London, Architectural Association. Pisca, N., (2008) YSYT Maya MEL Basics for Designers. Los Angeles, 0001d Publishing. Terzidis, K., (2006) Algorithmic Architecture. Oxford, England, Elsevier Ltd. Coates, P., Routledge.
[see Website Resource for more references]
Ault, M., (2009) An exploration of the evolution of the architectural design paradigm and the implications for the conceptualisation of built architectural form. Barch Thesis, Manchester School of Architecture, University of Manchester & Manchester Metropolitan University. Balmond, C., (2007) Element. London, Prestel Publishing Ltd. Chouchoulas, O., (2003) Shape Evolution. An Algorithmic Method for Conceptual Architectural Design Combining Shape Grammars and Genetic Algorithms. PhD Thesis, Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, United Kingdom. Coates, P., Routledge.
Delanda, M., (2002) Deleuze and the use of Genetic Algorithms. In Leach, N. (ed.) Designing for a Digital World. London, Wiley & Sons. Delanda, M., (2004) Deleuze and the use of Genetic Algorithm in Architecture. Art and Technology Lecture Series, Columbia University, New York. Available from <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50-d_ J0hKz0> [Accessed 02 Feb 2010]. Derix, C. (2008) Genetically modified spaces. In Littlefield, D. (ed.) Space Craft: Developments In Architectural Computing. London, RIBA Publishing. Dritsas, S. (????) The MiranScript Intuitive Calculations. In Session 14: Digital Design Methods. ECAADe 23, Dritsas, S., (2008) Emergent Technologies Lecture Notes [website] available at <http://dritsas.net/doku.php?id=emtech08:lecture_ notes> [Accessed 28 Feb 2010]. Estévez, A. T., (2005) Genetic Architectures II. Barcelona, Sites Books / ESARQ (UIC). Frazer, J.H., (1994) The Genetic language of Design. In Braddock, S. and O’Mahoney, M. (eds.) Textiles and New Technology: 2010. Artemis, pp 77-9. Frazer, J., (1995) An evolutionary architecture. London, Architectural Association. Gramazio, F. And Kohler, M., (2008) Digital Materiality in Architecture. Baden, Switzerland, Lars Müller Publishers. Hansmeyer, M., (2006) Algorithms in Architecture. [website] available at <www.mhportfolio.com> [Accessed 12 Jan 2010]. Hensel, M. and Menges, A., (2007) Nested Capacities, Gradient Thresholds & Modulated Environments: Towards Differentiated and Multi-Performative Architectures. In Lally, S. and Young, J. (eds.) Softspace From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. Oxon, England, Routledge. Hight, C., (2007) Putting out the Fire with Gasoline: Parables of Entropy and Homeostasis from the Second Machine Age to the Information Age. In Lally, S. and Young, J. (eds.) Softspace From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. Oxon, England, Routledge.
Design Studio Projects [term 2]
Kelly, K., (1994) Out of Control : The New Biology of Machines. London, England, Fourth Estate. Kilian, A., (2006) Design Exploration through Bidirectional Modeling of Constraints. PhD Thesis, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kohn, M., (2008) Drawing out the model. In Littlefield, D. (ed.) Space Craft: Developments In Architectural Computing. London, RIBA Publishing. Kontovourkis, O., (2009) Computer-Generated Circulation Diagrams. PhD Thesis, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, United Kingdom. Lally, W. S., (2007) Potential Energies. In Lally, S. and Young, J. (eds.) Softspace From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. Oxon, England, Routledge. Lawson, B., (2006) How Designers Think, The Design Process Demystified. Fourth ed. Oxford, England, Elsevier Ltd. Loukissas, Y. and Sass, L., (2004) Rulebuilding: a generative approach to modeling architecture using 3D printers. In ACADIA: Surface and Form Generation. ACADIA 04, 176 â€“ 185. Maciel, A., (2008) Artificial Intelligence and the conceptualisation of architecture. In Littlefield, D. (ed.) Space Craft: Developments In Architectural Computing. London, RIBA Publishing. McCullough, M., (2006) 20 years of scripted space. In : Programming Cultures. Architectural Design Vol 76 No 4. West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons. P12-15. Mitchell, J. W., (1977) Computer-Aided Architectural Design. New York, USA, Petrocelli/Charter. Ousterhout, J., (1998) Scripting: Higher Level Programming for the 21st Century. In : Computer Vol 31 No 3. Unknown???, IEEE Computer Society. P23-30. Pisca, N., (2008) YSYT Maya MEL Basics for Designers. Los Angeles, 0001d Publishing. Protevi, J., (1999) Some Remarks on the Philosophical Significance of Complexity Theory. [website] available at <http://www.protevi.com/ john/DG/PDF/Remarks_on_Complexity_Theory.pdf> [Accessed 04 November 2009]. Whilliams, J.K.C. And Kontovourkis, O., (2008) Practical emergence. In Littlefield, D. (ed.) Space Craft: Developments In Architectural Computing. London, RIBA Publishing. Reas, C. and Fry, B., (2007) Processing: A Programming Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists. Cambridge, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Terzidis, K., (2006) Algorithmic Architecture. Oxford, England, Elsevier Ltd. Thacker, E., (2004) Biomedia. Cambridge, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Weinstock, M., (2010) The Architecture of Emergence, The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilisation. West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons
Spiller, N., (2002) Cyber_Reader, Critical writings for the digital era. London, Phaidon Press Limited.
Dissertation [interviews] The following are a series of interviews conducted during the research dissertation. Andrasek, A., (2010) Discussion on scripting and generative design. [Interview] (Personal communication, 17 April 2010). Frazer, J., (2010) Discussion on scripting and generative design. [Interview] (Personal communication, 16 April 2010). Novak, M., (2010) Discussion on scripting and generative design. [Interview] (Personal communication, 28 March 2010). Pisca, N., (2010) Discussion on scripting and generative design. [Interview] (Personal communication, 06 February 2010).
Kalay, E.Y., (2004) Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design. Cambridge, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.
Time and Space Workshop http://www.timeandplaceworkshop.com/ Erik Verboon http://www.erikverboon.com/ Ron Roseman http://www.ronrosenman.com/home.php/ Complexification http://www.complexification.net/
Website Resources 
Genr8 http://projects.csail.mit.edu/emergentDesign/genr8/index. html#moreSurfaces Nicholas Pisca GenScripting? http://www.nickpisca.com/GenScriptingSpr2008 Nicholas Pisca BLAST http://www.nickpisca.com/BLAST/ Nicholas Pisca Generative Omnibus http://www.nickpisca.com/go Nicholas Pisca UCSB http://www.nickpisca.com/ucsb http://pythonwiki.tiddlyspot.com/ http://mayamel.tiddlyspot.com/ Creative Crash http://www.creativecrash.com/maya/downloads/scriptsplugins/c/ TU Delft http://toi.bk.tudelft.nl/index.php?module=meldb Proxy Wiki http://www.proxyarch.com/wiki/ Yukie Hirashima http://ssssociety.blogspot.com/search/label/MEL Edvard Toth http://edvardtoth.com/extras/mel-scripts/ PolyExtrude? Mel Tutorials http://www.polyextrude.com/tutorials/MelScripting/ Rob the Bloke http://nccastaff.bournemouth.ac.uk/jmacey/RobTheBloke/ www/ Using MEL http://caad.arch.ethz.ch/info/maya/manual/UserGuide/MEL/ MELTOC.fm.html
The links provided are a comprehensive collection of webpages, wikis and blog; all of which relate maya- MEL- codeto ‘algorithmic’, ‘generative’ and ‘parametric’ Toolbox (GRASSHOPPER) http://www.digitaltoolbox.info/ architecture. In particular, processes and systems of Digital Cellular Aggregation http://researchnodes.org/doku.php?id=cellularaggregati on:melscripts ‘novel’ design solutions. morpho- onto- more- genetics Ming3D Genetic Evolution http://genetic.ming3d.com/fullscreen.htm Evolutionary Component Surface System http://www.architectural-geom.com/ ecss/ ArchiKluge? http://www.armyofclerks.net/ArchiKluge/index.htm Nicholas Pisca http://www.nickpisca.com/ Alisa Andrasek http://www.biothing.org/wiki/doku.php
generative- forums- linksTuong Van Ho’s Links http://www.mat.ucsb.edu/~g.legrady/rsc/algo_arch.html Generator X http://www.generatorx.no/ Tropolism http://www.tropolism.com/ SuckerPunch? http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/
case studies- interviewsTechnology at Work at Gehry Partners http://www.aecbytes.com/feature/2004/Gehry_Study.html
fab- hardware- scanners- cncZ + F UK http://www.zf-uk.com/ Supermanoeuvre http://www.supermanoeuvre.com/ Associated Fabrication http://www.associatedfabrication.com/ ModeLab? http://modelab.nu/
practice- design office- firm- researchKyle Steinfeld http://projects.ksteinfe.net/ Far From Equilibrium http://farfromequilibrium.blogspot.com/ Francis Bitonti http://www.fadarch.com/ Sheetd http://www.sheetd.com/ Marc Fornes http://www.theverymany.net/ Daniel Shiffman http://www.shiffman.net/ Axel Kilian http://designexplorer.net/ Alvatron Studio http://alvatronstudio.com/ Michael S Ashley http://www.mash-arkt.com/ Peter Macapia http://www.petermacapia.com/blog/ Labdora http://www.labdora.com/ Skylar Tibbits http://sjet.wordpress.com/ Alexander Pincus http://pinc.us/ Bureau V http://www.bureauv.com/ Kokkugia http://www.kokkugia.com/ Research Nodes http://www.researchnodes.org/ Ming Tang http://ming3d.com/ Nullthing http://www.nullthing.com/ Algorithmic Design http://blog.algorithmicdesign.net/ White Weekend Kites http://www.whiteweekendkites.com/ Robert Hodgin http://roberthodgin.com/ Flight 404 http://www.flight404.com/blog/ Archpoint http://www.archpoint.dk/ Amanda Levete Architects http://www.amandalevetearchitects.com/ Atelier Manferdini http://www.ateliermanferdini.com/ Faulders Studio http://faulders-studio.com/index.html Contemporary Architecture Practice http://www.c-a-p.net/ Common Wealth http://www.commonwealth.nu/ Mike Suriano http://aesthetechtonik.com/ 4.pli http://4-pli.com/ LDVC http://www.ldvc.net/ SoftLab? http://www.softlabnyc.com/ Minima Forms http://www.minimaforms.com/ NArchitects http://www.narchitects.com/ Theoremas http://theoremas-gabe00fab.blogspot.com/ Tronic Studio http://tronicstudio.com/ Aranda \ Lasch http://www.arandalasch.com/
DIGITAL COPY  Please find the enclosed DVD in the inner sleeve for digital copies of all the of content of the design studio projects. There are also additional materials included on the disk.