The Schubert Project

Page 1

The Oxford Lieder Festival 2014 The Schubert Project

www.oxfordlieder.co.uk

The Oxford Lieder Festival 10 October – 1 November 2014


CONTENTS Bringing Schubert’s Vienna to Oxford

3

Concert Schedule

4

Chapter I – The Young Schubert Susan Youens

7

Chapter II – Schubert’s Literary Taste Richard Stokes

13

Chapter III – The Poetic Muse: Goethe, Schubert and the Art of Song Lorraine Byrne Bodley

19

Chapter IV – Onstage, Offstage: Schiller, Schubert and the Theatre Lisa Feurzeig

25

Chapter V – The Schubert Circle John M. Gingerich

31

Chapter VI – Schubert and the Development of the Song Cycle Richard Wigmore

37

Chapter VII – Schubert’s Piano and Chamber Music Susan Wollenberg

43

Chapter VIII – 1828 Brian Newbould

49

Chapter IX – Schubert’s Illness: A Point of Interpretation Gavin Plumley

55

Chapter X – Schubert’s Legacy Natasha Loges

61

Artists’ Biographies

65

Partners

90

Trusts and Foundations

91

The Schubert Circle

92

The Friends of Oxford Lieder

93

Works Performed

95

Credits

106

The Schubert Project    1


CONTENTS Bringing Schubert’s Vienna to Oxford

3

Concert Schedule

4

Chapter I – The Young Schubert Susan Youens

7

Chapter II – Schubert’s Literary Taste Richard Stokes

13

Chapter III – The Poetic Muse: Goethe, Schubert and the Art of Song Lorraine Byrne Bodley

19

Chapter IV – Onstage, Offstage: Schiller, Schubert and the Theatre Lisa Feurzeig

25

Chapter V – The Schubert Circle John M. Gingerich

31

Chapter VI – Schubert and the Development of the Song Cycle Richard Wigmore

37

Chapter VII – Schubert’s Piano and Chamber Music Susan Wollenberg

43

Chapter VIII – 1828 Brian Newbould

49

Chapter IX – Schubert’s Illness: A Point of Interpretation Gavin Plumley

55

Chapter X – Schubert’s Legacy Natasha Loges

61

Artists’ Biographies

65

Partners

90

Trusts and Foundations

91

The Schubert Circle

92

The Friends of Oxford Lieder

93

Works Performed

95

Credits

106

The Schubert Project    1


BRINGING SCHUBERT’S VIENNA TO OXFORD At the Second Annual Dinner of the Anglo-Austrian Society, held in London on 24 April 1925, Sir Henry Hadow, the author of ‘The Viennese Period’, Vol. V of The Oxford History of Music, said that to all who loved music Vienna was in very truth a sacred city. If they considered the three greatest artistic periods in the world’s history, he would place first Periclean Athens; second, Elizabethan England; and, without any doubt whatever, he would place third Vienna in the latter half of the 18th and the first quarter of the 19th century. The Times, 25 April 1925 Oxford, like Vienna, is a ‘sacred city’ and its University has often been associated with at least two of the three greatest artistic periods in the world’s history. The lodestars of Periclean Athens have been the foundation for many of the subjects taught at Oxford over the centuries. Elizabethan England likewise provided a number of deities, not least Shakespeare, whose First Folio of 1623 is held in the Bodleian. And now the Oxford Lieder Festival places late 18th-century and early 19th-century Vienna centre stage, with one of its primary musical saints, Franz Schubert, and the UK’s first performance of his complete songs. Schubert idolized the three periods singled out in Henry Hadow’s speech. Ancient Greece was for him and a number of his contemporaries a benchmark for their own endeavours. From the Elizabethan they championed Shakespeare in new translations (providing texts for some of Schubert’s most popular songs). And, of course, the young composer revered his Viennese predecessors, not least Gluck, Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, the man whose funeral Schubert attended in March 1827, just 18 months before his own death. These and many other themes feature in the following series of essays by today’s leading authorities on Schubert and Vienna, providing programme notes for the Festival and giving a contextual guide to Schubert’s life and work and the ‘sacred city’ in which he lived. Susan Youens sets the scene with an account of Schubert’s early years, as a precocious teenager, composing at an extraordinary rate. The breadth of Schubert’s literary taste is told by Richard Stokes, before Lorraine Byrne Bodley and Lisa Feurzeig focus on the composer’s close associations with the work of Goethe and Schiller. John M. Gingerich turns to more local matters with Schubert’s group of friends, many of whom were also poets.

A late 18th-century map of Vienna and its environs

Richard Wigmore charts the rise of the song cycle – from early groupings of songs through Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise to the appearance of Schwanengesang after the composer’s death. The Festival also includes a number of performances of Schubert’s piano and chamber music, the subject of Susan Wollenberg’s article. Brian Newbould explores the extraordinary burst of creativity during the last year of the composer’s life, before Gavin Plumley looks at Schubert’s illness and death as a potential tool for interpretation. Finally, Natasha Loges surveys the legacy of this short-lived but seemingly indefatigable composer. We hope that you enjoy this guide and that, like the concerts it accompanies, you learn more about one of the greatest composers, cities and artistic periods in the world’s history.

2    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    3


BRINGING SCHUBERT’S VIENNA TO OXFORD At the Second Annual Dinner of the Anglo-Austrian Society, held in London on 24 April 1925, Sir Henry Hadow, the author of ‘The Viennese Period’, Vol. V of The Oxford History of Music, said that to all who loved music Vienna was in very truth a sacred city. If they considered the three greatest artistic periods in the world’s history, he would place first Periclean Athens; second, Elizabethan England; and, without any doubt whatever, he would place third Vienna in the latter half of the 18th and the first quarter of the 19th century. The Times, 25 April 1925 Oxford, like Vienna, is a ‘sacred city’ and its University has often been associated with at least two of the three greatest artistic periods in the world’s history. The lodestars of Periclean Athens have been the foundation for many of the subjects taught at Oxford over the centuries. Elizabethan England likewise provided a number of deities, not least Shakespeare, whose First Folio of 1623 is held in the Bodleian. And now the Oxford Lieder Festival places late 18th-century and early 19th-century Vienna centre stage, with one of its primary musical saints, Franz Schubert, and the UK’s first performance of his complete songs. Schubert idolized the three periods singled out in Henry Hadow’s speech. Ancient Greece was for him and a number of his contemporaries a benchmark for their own endeavours. From the Elizabethan they championed Shakespeare in new translations (providing texts for some of Schubert’s most popular songs). And, of course, the young composer revered his Viennese predecessors, not least Gluck, Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, the man whose funeral Schubert attended in March 1827, just 18 months before his own death. These and many other themes feature in the following series of essays by today’s leading authorities on Schubert and Vienna, providing programme notes for the Festival and giving a contextual guide to Schubert’s life and work and the ‘sacred city’ in which he lived. Susan Youens sets the scene with an account of Schubert’s early years, as a precocious teenager, composing at an extraordinary rate. The breadth of Schubert’s literary taste is told by Richard Stokes, before Lorraine Byrne Bodley and Lisa Feurzeig focus on the composer’s close associations with the work of Goethe and Schiller. John M. Gingerich turns to more local matters with Schubert’s group of friends, many of whom were also poets.

A late 18th-century map of Vienna and its environs

Richard Wigmore charts the rise of the song cycle – from early groupings of songs through Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise to the appearance of Schwanengesang after the composer’s death. The Festival also includes a number of performances of Schubert’s piano and chamber music, the subject of Susan Wollenberg’s article. Brian Newbould explores the extraordinary burst of creativity during the last year of the composer’s life, before Gavin Plumley looks at Schubert’s illness and death as a potential tool for interpretation. Finally, Natasha Loges surveys the legacy of this short-lived but seemingly indefatigable composer. We hope that you enjoy this guide and that, like the concerts it accompanies, you learn more about one of the greatest composers, cities and artistic periods in the world’s history.

2    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    3


Concert Schedule

S29 – Tuesday 21

S40 – Friday 24

S51 – Tuesday 28

S58 – Thursday 30

Settings of Rellstab and Claudius 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and VIII

Piano Sonata in G major D894 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

‘Einsamkeit’ and other settings of Mayrhofer 5.30pm – HMR Chapters V and IX

Songs of Evening and Twilight 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

S30 – Tuesday 21

S41 – Friday 24

S52 – Tuesday 28

S59 – Friday 31

Royal College of Music Recital 5.30pm – HMR

Laments, Overtures, Arias and settings of Seidl 7.30pm – HMR Chapters IV and VI

The ‘Arpeggione’ Sonata and settings of Müller and Mayrhofer 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

Schubert’s Legacy: New Aspects 1.10pm – HMR Chapter X

S31 – Tuesday 21 Settings of Goethe, Schilller, Rotzlitz and others 7.30pm – HMR Chapters II, III and IV

Each of the following chapters provides programme notes and a contextual view of Schubert’s life and times, relating to the following concerts at the Sheldonian Theatre, Holywell Music Room (HMR), Jacqueline du Pré Music Building (JdP), New College Ante-Chapel (NC), Ashmolean Museum, Dennis Arnold Hall and St John the Evangelist Church (SJE). S1 – FriDAY 10

S8 – Monday 13

S15 – Thursday 16

S22 – Saturday 18

Opening Concert 7.30pm – Sheldonian Chapters I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X

Schubert’s Impromptus D935 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

The Therese Grob Songbook 1.10pm – HMR Chapter I

A Schubertiade 7pm – JdP Chapters I and V

S2 – Saturday 11

S9 – Monday 13

S16 – Thursday 16

Schubert’s Life and Times I with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters I and II

Settings of Seidl, Rellstab and others 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Winterreise 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and IX

S3 – Saturday 11

S10 – Tuesday 14

Settings from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

Settings of Matthisson and Salis-Seewis 1.10pm – HMR Chapter II

S4 – Saturday 11

S11 – Tuesday 14

Schubert’s Women Poets 10pm – NC Chapters II and V

Royal Academy of Music Recital 5.30pm – HMR

S5 – Sunday 12

S12 – Tuesday 14

Study Day: Early Ballads and Sacred Music 2pm – HMR Chapters I and II

Settings of Goethe and Schiller 7.30pm – HMR Chapters III and IV

S6 – Sunday 12

S13 – Wednesday 15

An Evening at the Ashmolean 7.30pm – Ashmolean Chapters I and II

Settings of Schober and Mayrhofer 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and V

S7 – Monday 13

S14 – Wednesday 15

Settings of Friedrich and August von Schlegel 1.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Songs of the British Isles 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

4    The Oxford Lieder Festival

S17 – Friday 17 The ‘Kosegarten Liederspiel’ 1.10pm – HMR Chapter VI

S18 – Friday 17 Beethoven Septet op. 20 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

S19 – Friday 17 Octet in F major D803 and settings of Schulze 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and VII

S20 – Saturday 18 Schubert’s Life and Times II with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters I and V

S21 – Saturday 18 The ‘Abendröte’ Cycle and Der Liedler 5pm – HMR Chapter VI

S23 – Sunday 19 Study day on Die schöne Müllerin led by Susan Youens 11am – JdP Chapters VI and IX

S24 – Sunday 19 Settings of Körner and Schiller 5pm – HMR Chapters II and IV

S25 – Sunday 19 Die schöne Müllerin 7.30pm – SJE Chapters VI and IX

S26 – Monday 20 Settings of Hölty and Schilller 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and IV

S27 – Monday 20 Piano Trio in E flat major D929 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

S28 – Monday 20 The Trout and other Water Music 7.30pm – HMR Chapters I and VII

S42 – Friday 24 Songs of the Night and the Stars 9.45pm – NC Chapter II

S32 – Wednesday 22

S43 – Saturday 25

Schubert’s Life and Times III with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters II and III

Schubert’s Life and Times IV with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters II and V

S33 – Wednesday 22

S44 – Saturday 25

Piano Trio in B flat major D898 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

Piano Duets 5pm – HMR Chapter VII

S34 – Wednesday 22 Settings of Goethe 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

S35 – Thursday 23 Grand Duo in C major D812 and settings of Jacobi 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and VII

S36 – Thursday 23

S45 – Saturday 25 Winterreise 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and IX

S46 – Sunday 26 Study Day: Schubert and Nature 11am – JdP Chapter II

S47 – Sunday 26

Settings of Rückert and Leitner 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Der Göttinger Hainbund: Settings of Hölty, Uz, Klopstock and Stolberg 5pm and 7pm – HMR Chapter II

S37 – Thursday 23

S48 – Monday 27

Piano Sonata in B flat major D960 10pm – HMR Chapters VII and VIII

Settings of Schiller 1.10pm – HMR Chapter IV

S38 – Friday 24 Study Day: Schubert as Dramatist 9.30am – Dennis Arnold Chapters II, III and IV

S39 – Friday 24 Schubert at the Opera (National Opera Studio Recital) 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II, III and IV

S53 – Wednesday 29 Settings of Goethe and Matthisson 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and III

S54 – Wednesday 29 String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

S55 – Wednesday 29 ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ and other songs 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

S56 – Thursday 30 Schubert’s Circle 1.10pm – HMR Chapter V

S57 – Thursday 30

S60 – Friday 31 A Schubert Surprise 5pm – HMR

S61 – Friday 31 Aurora Orchestra 7.30pm – SJE Chapter X

S62 – Saturday 1 Schubert’s Life and Times V with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters VIII and IX

S63 – Saturday 1 Settings of Schiller, Goethe and others 5pm – JdP Chapters III and IV

S64 – Saturday 1 Closing Concert 7.30pm – SJE Chapters I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X

String Quintet in C major D956 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII, VIII and IX

S49 – Monday 27 Settings of Ossian 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

S50 – Tuesday 28 Schubert and Beethoven 1.10pm – HMR Chapter VI

The Schubert Project    5


Concert Schedule

S29 – Tuesday 21

S40 – Friday 24

S51 – Tuesday 28

S58 – Thursday 30

Settings of Rellstab and Claudius 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and VIII

Piano Sonata in G major D894 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

‘Einsamkeit’ and other settings of Mayrhofer 5.30pm – HMR Chapters V and IX

Songs of Evening and Twilight 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

S30 – Tuesday 21

S41 – Friday 24

S52 – Tuesday 28

S59 – Friday 31

Royal College of Music Recital 5.30pm – HMR

Laments, Overtures, Arias and settings of Seidl 7.30pm – HMR Chapters IV and VI

The ‘Arpeggione’ Sonata and settings of Müller and Mayrhofer 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

Schubert’s Legacy: New Aspects 1.10pm – HMR Chapter X

S31 – Tuesday 21 Settings of Goethe, Schilller, Rotzlitz and others 7.30pm – HMR Chapters II, III and IV

Each of the following chapters provides programme notes and a contextual view of Schubert’s life and times, relating to the following concerts at the Sheldonian Theatre, Holywell Music Room (HMR), Jacqueline du Pré Music Building (JdP), New College Ante-Chapel (NC), Ashmolean Museum, Dennis Arnold Hall and St John the Evangelist Church (SJE). S1 – FriDAY 10

S8 – Monday 13

S15 – Thursday 16

S22 – Saturday 18

Opening Concert 7.30pm – Sheldonian Chapters I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X

Schubert’s Impromptus D935 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

The Therese Grob Songbook 1.10pm – HMR Chapter I

A Schubertiade 7pm – JdP Chapters I and V

S2 – Saturday 11

S9 – Monday 13

S16 – Thursday 16

Schubert’s Life and Times I with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters I and II

Settings of Seidl, Rellstab and others 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Winterreise 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and IX

S3 – Saturday 11

S10 – Tuesday 14

Settings from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

Settings of Matthisson and Salis-Seewis 1.10pm – HMR Chapter II

S4 – Saturday 11

S11 – Tuesday 14

Schubert’s Women Poets 10pm – NC Chapters II and V

Royal Academy of Music Recital 5.30pm – HMR

S5 – Sunday 12

S12 – Tuesday 14

Study Day: Early Ballads and Sacred Music 2pm – HMR Chapters I and II

Settings of Goethe and Schiller 7.30pm – HMR Chapters III and IV

S6 – Sunday 12

S13 – Wednesday 15

An Evening at the Ashmolean 7.30pm – Ashmolean Chapters I and II

Settings of Schober and Mayrhofer 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and V

S7 – Monday 13

S14 – Wednesday 15

Settings of Friedrich and August von Schlegel 1.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Songs of the British Isles 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

4    The Oxford Lieder Festival

S17 – Friday 17 The ‘Kosegarten Liederspiel’ 1.10pm – HMR Chapter VI

S18 – Friday 17 Beethoven Septet op. 20 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

S19 – Friday 17 Octet in F major D803 and settings of Schulze 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and VII

S20 – Saturday 18 Schubert’s Life and Times II with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters I and V

S21 – Saturday 18 The ‘Abendröte’ Cycle and Der Liedler 5pm – HMR Chapter VI

S23 – Sunday 19 Study day on Die schöne Müllerin led by Susan Youens 11am – JdP Chapters VI and IX

S24 – Sunday 19 Settings of Körner and Schiller 5pm – HMR Chapters II and IV

S25 – Sunday 19 Die schöne Müllerin 7.30pm – SJE Chapters VI and IX

S26 – Monday 20 Settings of Hölty and Schilller 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and IV

S27 – Monday 20 Piano Trio in E flat major D929 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

S28 – Monday 20 The Trout and other Water Music 7.30pm – HMR Chapters I and VII

S42 – Friday 24 Songs of the Night and the Stars 9.45pm – NC Chapter II

S32 – Wednesday 22

S43 – Saturday 25

Schubert’s Life and Times III with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters II and III

Schubert’s Life and Times IV with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters II and V

S33 – Wednesday 22

S44 – Saturday 25

Piano Trio in B flat major D898 5.30pm – HMR Chapter VII

Piano Duets 5pm – HMR Chapter VII

S34 – Wednesday 22 Settings of Goethe 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

S35 – Thursday 23 Grand Duo in C major D812 and settings of Jacobi 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and VII

S36 – Thursday 23

S45 – Saturday 25 Winterreise 7.30pm – HMR Chapters VI and IX

S46 – Sunday 26 Study Day: Schubert and Nature 11am – JdP Chapter II

S47 – Sunday 26

Settings of Rückert and Leitner 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

Der Göttinger Hainbund: Settings of Hölty, Uz, Klopstock and Stolberg 5pm and 7pm – HMR Chapter II

S37 – Thursday 23

S48 – Monday 27

Piano Sonata in B flat major D960 10pm – HMR Chapters VII and VIII

Settings of Schiller 1.10pm – HMR Chapter IV

S38 – Friday 24 Study Day: Schubert as Dramatist 9.30am – Dennis Arnold Chapters II, III and IV

S39 – Friday 24 Schubert at the Opera (National Opera Studio Recital) 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II, III and IV

S53 – Wednesday 29 Settings of Goethe and Matthisson 1.10pm – HMR Chapters II and III

S54 – Wednesday 29 String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII and IX

S55 – Wednesday 29 ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ and other songs 7.30pm – HMR Chapter III

S56 – Thursday 30 Schubert’s Circle 1.10pm – HMR Chapter V

S57 – Thursday 30

S60 – Friday 31 A Schubert Surprise 5pm – HMR

S61 – Friday 31 Aurora Orchestra 7.30pm – SJE Chapter X

S62 – Saturday 1 Schubert’s Life and Times V with Graham Johnson 11am – JdP Chapters VIII and IX

S63 – Saturday 1 Settings of Schiller, Goethe and others 5pm – JdP Chapters III and IV

S64 – Saturday 1 Closing Concert 7.30pm – SJE Chapters I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X

String Quintet in C major D956 5.30pm – HMR Chapters VII, VIII and IX

S49 – Monday 27 Settings of Ossian 7.30pm – HMR Chapter II

S50 – Tuesday 28 Schubert and Beethoven 1.10pm – HMR Chapter VI

The Schubert Project    5


Franz Schubert - The Complete Songs

Graham Johnson This three-volume boxed set is the definitive work on Franz Schubert’s vocal music with piano. A richly illustrated encyclopaedia, these substantial volumes contain more than 700 song commentaries with parallel text and translations (by Richard Wigmore), detailed annotations on the songs’ poetic sources and biographies of 120 poets, as well as general articles on accompaniment, tonality, transcriptions, singers and more. Compiled by Graham Johnson – celebrated accompanist, author, and the first pianist ever to record all of Schubert’s songs and part-songs – this sumptuous work is a must for performers, scholars and all lovers of Schubert lieder.

CHAPTER I

The young Schubert Susan Youens

Graham Johnson is Senior Professor of Accompaniment at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London, and plays for recitals around the world. An interview with Graham Johnson is available from YaleBooks on YouTube.

3-Volume Set with Slipcase 3000 pp. 600 b/w illustrations Hardback EXCLUSIVE BLACKWELL’S PRICE: £150 Published by Yale University Press: www.yalebooks.co.uk

Blackwell’s Music will have a wide selection of Oxford Lieder Festival artist’s recordings available in store. Visit us for all your printed music, music books, musical recordings and instruments.

As always with Schubert, one wishes there were more: information, pictures, documents, reminiscences and especially music, despite the treasure trove that this workaholic composer left us. No cameras or smartphones or video recorders to tell us of the infant, child or teenage Schubert; what we have are the accounts of family and friends, the documentation of familial provenance and records of his education in Vienna, that most fortunate of places to be born and grow up, surrounded by music in the early decades of the 19th century. The masterpieces of Gluck, who spent the last eight years of his life in Vienna before dying in 1787, and Mozart, who died in December 1791, form the immediate backdrop to Schubert’s childhood. Beethoven arrived in Vienna in 1792, just after Mozart’s death, and Haydn, who taught the young Beethoven, lived until 1809, when Schubert was about to enter his teenage years. Salieri, if hardly the equal of such contemporaries, was still an excellent composer and maestro di cappella at the Habsburg Court. One of his duties was to teach the most talented members of the Court Chapel Choir – we know it now as the Vienna Boys’ Choir – including ‘Francesco Schubert’, as the Italian-born composer called him. Gluck had been Salieri’s teacher and friend, so it is hardly surprising to find the imprint of Gluckian ‘beautiful simplicity’ in the melodies of the early Schubert, along with various other influences assimilated by youthful genius in the formation of his own voice. Franz Peter Schubert was the 12th child born to Franz Theodor Florian Schubert (1763–1830, outliving his son), who ran a primary school for working-class children in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, and Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz (1756–1812), then 40 years old. They lived in a small apartment in a building known as Zum rote Krebsen (The Red Crayfish), now 54 Nussdorfer Strasse in Vienna’s ninth district and the site of a small Schubert museum. Given the horrendous infant mortality rates of the period, seven of the 11 children who preceded Schubert died, with an additional child dying at the end of 1798. Neither parent was native Austrian: Franz Theodor came from Moravia, north of Brno, while Elisabeth was born some 30 miles away.

The Schubert Project    7


Franz Schubert - The Complete Songs

Graham Johnson This three-volume boxed set is the definitive work on Franz Schubert’s vocal music with piano. A richly illustrated encyclopaedia, these substantial volumes contain more than 700 song commentaries with parallel text and translations (by Richard Wigmore), detailed annotations on the songs’ poetic sources and biographies of 120 poets, as well as general articles on accompaniment, tonality, transcriptions, singers and more. Compiled by Graham Johnson – celebrated accompanist, author, and the first pianist ever to record all of Schubert’s songs and part-songs – this sumptuous work is a must for performers, scholars and all lovers of Schubert lieder.

CHAPTER I

The young Schubert Susan Youens

Graham Johnson is Senior Professor of Accompaniment at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London, and plays for recitals around the world. An interview with Graham Johnson is available from YaleBooks on YouTube.

3-Volume Set with Slipcase 3000 pp. 600 b/w illustrations Hardback EXCLUSIVE BLACKWELL’S PRICE: £150 Published by Yale University Press: www.yalebooks.co.uk

Blackwell’s Music will have a wide selection of Oxford Lieder Festival artist’s recordings available in store. Visit us for all your printed music, music books, musical recordings and instruments.

As always with Schubert, one wishes there were more: information, pictures, documents, reminiscences and especially music, despite the treasure trove that this workaholic composer left us. No cameras or smartphones or video recorders to tell us of the infant, child or teenage Schubert; what we have are the accounts of family and friends, the documentation of familial provenance and records of his education in Vienna, that most fortunate of places to be born and grow up, surrounded by music in the early decades of the 19th century. The masterpieces of Gluck, who spent the last eight years of his life in Vienna before dying in 1787, and Mozart, who died in December 1791, form the immediate backdrop to Schubert’s childhood. Beethoven arrived in Vienna in 1792, just after Mozart’s death, and Haydn, who taught the young Beethoven, lived until 1809, when Schubert was about to enter his teenage years. Salieri, if hardly the equal of such contemporaries, was still an excellent composer and maestro di cappella at the Habsburg Court. One of his duties was to teach the most talented members of the Court Chapel Choir – we know it now as the Vienna Boys’ Choir – including ‘Francesco Schubert’, as the Italian-born composer called him. Gluck had been Salieri’s teacher and friend, so it is hardly surprising to find the imprint of Gluckian ‘beautiful simplicity’ in the melodies of the early Schubert, along with various other influences assimilated by youthful genius in the formation of his own voice. Franz Peter Schubert was the 12th child born to Franz Theodor Florian Schubert (1763–1830, outliving his son), who ran a primary school for working-class children in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, and Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz (1756–1812), then 40 years old. They lived in a small apartment in a building known as Zum rote Krebsen (The Red Crayfish), now 54 Nussdorfer Strasse in Vienna’s ninth district and the site of a small Schubert museum. Given the horrendous infant mortality rates of the period, seven of the 11 children who preceded Schubert died, with an additional child dying at the end of 1798. Neither parent was native Austrian: Franz Theodor came from Moravia, north of Brno, while Elisabeth was born some 30 miles away.

The Schubert Project    7


The school at Zum schwarzen Rössel (The Black Horse, now 3 Säulengasse) a short distance away from the family home was hardly a bastion of the highest intellect, but Franz Theodor took pains to prepare his gifted son Franz for the Latin examination necessary for entrance to the Akademisches Gymnasium in 1808. Before that, Schubert’s older brother Ignaz – almost 12 years old when the composer was born – taught him his first piano lessons, until Schubert declared that he was better continuing on his own; his father taught him the violin when he was eight, then took him to Michael Holzer, choirmaster of the nearby Lichtental Parish Church, for lessons. ‘Whenever I tried to tell him something I thought would be new to him, he always knew it Noch nicht vertraut already. I was often left gaping at him in silence’, Holzer later mit ihrer ganzen said. But three months shy of his 12th birthday, Franz Peter Macht, Sang ich zuerst entered the Akademisches Gymnasium and was housed in nur kleine Lieder; Und the Stadtkonvikt, run by Piarist monks, where the choristers Echo hallte laut und were schooled. There he encountered not only the teaching fröhlich wieder. of the Czech court organist and violinist Wenzel Ruzicka and then Salieri, but also the friendship of fellow students, Lebenstraum such as the older Josef von Spaun and Anton Holzapfel. In the momentous year of 1812, when his beloved mother died suddenly, aged 55, Schubert began his studies with Salieri and his voice broke: ‘Schubert, Franz, crowed for the last time, 26 July 1812’, he wrote in the margins of Peter Winter’s Mass No. 1 in C major. Under Salieri’s tutelage, Schubert renewed attempts to write his opera Der Spiegelritter (never finished) and completed a string quartet, an overture, a one-movement piano trio, a Kyrie and Salve Regina and various songs. He had already begun composing songs, as we know from the two settings, both incomplete, of ‘Lebenstraum’, to a text by the ‘Sappho of Vienna’ Gabriele von Baumberg, from 1809, we assume, and 1810. His extant songs from 1811 are mostly lengthy ballads with challenging accompaniments, a form of preshrunk domestic opera, including ‘Hagars Klage’ and settings of Schiller’s ‘Eine Leichenphantasie’ and ‘Des Mädchens Klage’, with numerous tempo changes and intermingled recitative passages. His two settings – Schubert was ever prone to revisions and re-composition – of Schiller’s mammoth ‘Der Taucher’ in 1813 and 1814 are leading examples of the genre. One of the foremost influences on these ambitious, youthful works was the ballad-art of Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, while other influences on his early songs include the works of Conradin Kreutzer – Schubert would later defend Kreutzer’s songs to his friends – the Czech composer Joseph Anton Steffan, the Berliners Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Karl Friedrich Zelter, a close friend of Goethe’s, and others, including, of course, the songs of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. A voracious reader of literary texts and student of all the music around him in cosmopolitan Vienna, the young Schubert would probably have agreed with Goethe when the great poet wrote ‘Den Originalen’ in 1812: Ein Quidam sagt: “Ich bin von keiner Schule; Kein Meister lebt, mit dem ich buhle; Auch bin ich weit davon entfernt, Dass ich von Toten was gelernt.” Das heisst, wenn ich ihn recht verstand: “Ich bin ein Narr auf eigne Hand.” [Somebody says: “Of no school I am part, Never to living master lost my heart; Nor any more can I be said To have learned anything from the dead.” That statement – subject to appeal – Means: “I’m a self-made imbecile.”]

8    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Inside Goethe’s birthplace in Frankfurt (© Gavin Plumley)

Schubert’s birthplace in Vienna, now 54 Nussdorfer Strasse

The Schubert Project    9


The school at Zum schwarzen Rössel (The Black Horse, now 3 Säulengasse) a short distance away from the family home was hardly a bastion of the highest intellect, but Franz Theodor took pains to prepare his gifted son Franz for the Latin examination necessary for entrance to the Akademisches Gymnasium in 1808. Before that, Schubert’s older brother Ignaz – almost 12 years old when the composer was born – taught him his first piano lessons, until Schubert declared that he was better continuing on his own; his father taught him the violin when he was eight, then took him to Michael Holzer, choirmaster of the nearby Lichtental Parish Church, for lessons. ‘Whenever I tried to tell him something I thought would be new to him, he always knew it Noch nicht vertraut already. I was often left gaping at him in silence’, Holzer later mit ihrer ganzen said. But three months shy of his 12th birthday, Franz Peter Macht, Sang ich zuerst entered the Akademisches Gymnasium and was housed in nur kleine Lieder; Und the Stadtkonvikt, run by Piarist monks, where the choristers Echo hallte laut und were schooled. There he encountered not only the teaching fröhlich wieder. of the Czech court organist and violinist Wenzel Ruzicka and then Salieri, but also the friendship of fellow students, Lebenstraum such as the older Josef von Spaun and Anton Holzapfel. In the momentous year of 1812, when his beloved mother died suddenly, aged 55, Schubert began his studies with Salieri and his voice broke: ‘Schubert, Franz, crowed for the last time, 26 July 1812’, he wrote in the margins of Peter Winter’s Mass No. 1 in C major. Under Salieri’s tutelage, Schubert renewed attempts to write his opera Der Spiegelritter (never finished) and completed a string quartet, an overture, a one-movement piano trio, a Kyrie and Salve Regina and various songs. He had already begun composing songs, as we know from the two settings, both incomplete, of ‘Lebenstraum’, to a text by the ‘Sappho of Vienna’ Gabriele von Baumberg, from 1809, we assume, and 1810. His extant songs from 1811 are mostly lengthy ballads with challenging accompaniments, a form of preshrunk domestic opera, including ‘Hagars Klage’ and settings of Schiller’s ‘Eine Leichenphantasie’ and ‘Des Mädchens Klage’, with numerous tempo changes and intermingled recitative passages. His two settings – Schubert was ever prone to revisions and re-composition – of Schiller’s mammoth ‘Der Taucher’ in 1813 and 1814 are leading examples of the genre. One of the foremost influences on these ambitious, youthful works was the ballad-art of Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, while other influences on his early songs include the works of Conradin Kreutzer – Schubert would later defend Kreutzer’s songs to his friends – the Czech composer Joseph Anton Steffan, the Berliners Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Karl Friedrich Zelter, a close friend of Goethe’s, and others, including, of course, the songs of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. A voracious reader of literary texts and student of all the music around him in cosmopolitan Vienna, the young Schubert would probably have agreed with Goethe when the great poet wrote ‘Den Originalen’ in 1812: Ein Quidam sagt: “Ich bin von keiner Schule; Kein Meister lebt, mit dem ich buhle; Auch bin ich weit davon entfernt, Dass ich von Toten was gelernt.” Das heisst, wenn ich ihn recht verstand: “Ich bin ein Narr auf eigne Hand.” [Somebody says: “Of no school I am part, Never to living master lost my heart; Nor any more can I be said To have learned anything from the dead.” That statement – subject to appeal – Means: “I’m a self-made imbecile.”]

8    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Inside Goethe’s birthplace in Frankfurt (© Gavin Plumley)

Schubert’s birthplace in Vienna, now 54 Nussdorfer Strasse

The Schubert Project    9


When one finds, for example, recognizable trace elements of Gluck and of Mozartian opera in Schubert’s tiny setting (nine measures, three strophes) of Baumberg’s ‘Der Morgenkuss’, it is simply youthful genius borrowing from the very best as he worked his way to complete mastery. An elevated conception of love in this lyric poem leads to musical elevation, with its Pamina-like persona soaring to high G and A flat over and over in a richly decorated, operatic-style melody.

conductor influential in Viennese musical life), Caroline Pichler (one of Vienna’s foremost literary hostesses at whose home Schubert’s music was often performed) and others. Spaun also introduced Schubert, in either 1812 or January 1813, to the poet Theodor Körner, who dined with the composer and Spaun. Johann Senn, one of four people Schubert invoked as ‘best and dearest friends’ in a letter from 1818, became the principal target of a police raid in March 1820, this in a Vienna where suspicion, censorship and spying were rife; Schubert too was present, but was let off with a caution, while Senn was sent into exile and never saw the composer again.

One cannot write of young men without invoking youthful love: a rite of passage for us all. Therese Grob, a soprano who sang in the Lichtental Parish Church, where Schubert’s pious father and the rest of the family worshipped, was reportedly Schubert’s first love. 26 years after Schubert’s death, Anselm von Hüttenbrenner – although his reminiscences must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt – recalled the composer saying:

Another of the four ‘best and dearest’ in Schubert’s early circle was Franz von Schober, talented and well-read, of liberal political views, with artistic leanings (but a dilettante in whatever art he essayed), attractive, generous and on the best of terms with the composer for the whole of Schubert’s life. Kenner would later violently condemn Schober for lax morals, but Spaun (who knew Schober and Schubert, or ‘Schobert’, better than Kenner) had kinder words about the influence on the composer of someone as well educated as Schober. And finally, another early friend included in the ‘best and dearest’, a man that Brahms would later call ‘the most serious’ of Schubert’s friends, was Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, ten years Schubert’s senior. Originally intended for the priesthood, he left St Florian’s Monastery in Linz and came to Vienna in 1810 to study law; he renewed his former acquaintance with Spaun and, through Spaun, met Schubert in 1814. A lover of Greek and Latin literature, hypochondriac and depressive, he and Schubert shared lodgings from November 1818 until the end of 1820; a Mayrhofer setting, ‘Erlafsee’, was Schubert’s first song in print (in a periodical entitled the Mahlerisches Taschenbuch für Freunde interessanter Gegenden Natur- und Kunst-Merkwürdigkeiten der Österreichischen Monarchie of 1818).

I loved someone very dearly and she loved me too. […] She was not exactly pretty and her face was pockmarked, but she had a heart, a heart of gold. For three years, she hoped I would marry her, but I could not find a position which would have provided for us both The Marriage Consent Law under the Metternich regime forbade men of Schubert’s class from marrying unless they could prove their ability to support a family. Schubert could not do so and, in 1820, Therese married a baker. For her 18th birthday, in 1816, Schubert copied out 17 songs, now known as the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’ (currently in private ownership). The collection includes such gems as ‘Gott im Frühlinge’, ‘An die Natur’, ‘Litanei auf das Fest Aller Seelen’, ‘Am Grabe Anselmos’ and more, many with slight variants from the later printed versions. ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, we learn, was first sung for him by Therese; that it is a song of a young girl’s first discovery of passion hardly seems coincidental. By the time of the Grob song collection, Schubert was working in his father’s schoolhouse as an assistant teacher, a position that lasted from November 1814 to September 1816. During this time and beyond, one of the foremost influences in his life was the Bildungskreis, a group of friends who met to pursue self-improvement and education; they even founded a yearbook in 1817 entitled Beyträge zur Bildung für Jünglinge (Contributions to the Education of Young Men). Discussions of aesthetics, of works of art, of perceptions of nature, of history, were all designed to aid their maturation into noble-hearted citizens who would be beneficial to society, with mutual friendship and artistic encouragement at the heart of the circle’s dynamics. This sort of intense, earnest male friendship was commonplace at the time in the German-speaking world. The group included Josef von Spaun and Josef Kenner (friends from the Stadtkonvikt days), Anton Ottenwalt, the poet Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, Franz von Bruchmann, Johann Senn and, later, Leopold Kupelwieser and Franz von Schober. Josef von Spaun was one of Schubert’s truest, most devoted friends, whose connections helped to further Schubert’s career. Spaun’s cousin was the literary critic, playwright and poet Matthäus von Collin, who held a soiree at his home around 1820 for a selected group of music-lovers to hear Schubert and the great singer Johann Michael Vogl perform. On this occasion, Schubert met Count Moritz Dietrichstein (whose illegitimate son Sigismond Thalberg became a celebrated pianist), Baron Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (an Orientalist who helped inspire Goethe’s assimilation of Persian poetry), Ignaz von Mosel (a composer and

10    The Oxford Lieder Festival

At the end of 1814 comes evidence of a newfound enthusiasm for Lieder: between then and 1817 Schubert composed more than 320 songs. The outpouring includes such tiny gems as the strophic ‘Der Mondabend’, the beautifully lyrical Hölty song ‘An den Mond’ and the giant ‘Adelwold und Emma’. Goethe was considered dangerous for young people by many, but Schubert created 51 of his 74 Goethe songs during this period, with the first incarnations of the Harper’s songs and Mignon’s songs, the plangent miniature ‘Erster Verlust’ and the epoch-making ‘Erlkönig’ – perhaps the most astonishing publication debut (op. 1 in April 1821) in music history – all seeing the light of day during this time of immense creativity. The landscape of German song was forever transformed by this composer in his teenage years and early twenties.

The kitchen hearth at 54 Nussdorfer Strasse, where Schubert was born on 31 January 1797

Susan Youens is the author of many respected books on German Lieder, including Retracing a Winter’s Journey: Schubert’s Winterreise (Cornell University Press, 1991), Schubert’s poets and the making of Lieder (Cambridge University Press, 1996); Schubert, Müller and Die schöne Müllerin (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and Heinrich Heine and the Lied (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

The Schubert Project    11


When one finds, for example, recognizable trace elements of Gluck and of Mozartian opera in Schubert’s tiny setting (nine measures, three strophes) of Baumberg’s ‘Der Morgenkuss’, it is simply youthful genius borrowing from the very best as he worked his way to complete mastery. An elevated conception of love in this lyric poem leads to musical elevation, with its Pamina-like persona soaring to high G and A flat over and over in a richly decorated, operatic-style melody.

conductor influential in Viennese musical life), Caroline Pichler (one of Vienna’s foremost literary hostesses at whose home Schubert’s music was often performed) and others. Spaun also introduced Schubert, in either 1812 or January 1813, to the poet Theodor Körner, who dined with the composer and Spaun. Johann Senn, one of four people Schubert invoked as ‘best and dearest friends’ in a letter from 1818, became the principal target of a police raid in March 1820, this in a Vienna where suspicion, censorship and spying were rife; Schubert too was present, but was let off with a caution, while Senn was sent into exile and never saw the composer again.

One cannot write of young men without invoking youthful love: a rite of passage for us all. Therese Grob, a soprano who sang in the Lichtental Parish Church, where Schubert’s pious father and the rest of the family worshipped, was reportedly Schubert’s first love. 26 years after Schubert’s death, Anselm von Hüttenbrenner – although his reminiscences must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt – recalled the composer saying:

Another of the four ‘best and dearest’ in Schubert’s early circle was Franz von Schober, talented and well-read, of liberal political views, with artistic leanings (but a dilettante in whatever art he essayed), attractive, generous and on the best of terms with the composer for the whole of Schubert’s life. Kenner would later violently condemn Schober for lax morals, but Spaun (who knew Schober and Schubert, or ‘Schobert’, better than Kenner) had kinder words about the influence on the composer of someone as well educated as Schober. And finally, another early friend included in the ‘best and dearest’, a man that Brahms would later call ‘the most serious’ of Schubert’s friends, was Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, ten years Schubert’s senior. Originally intended for the priesthood, he left St Florian’s Monastery in Linz and came to Vienna in 1810 to study law; he renewed his former acquaintance with Spaun and, through Spaun, met Schubert in 1814. A lover of Greek and Latin literature, hypochondriac and depressive, he and Schubert shared lodgings from November 1818 until the end of 1820; a Mayrhofer setting, ‘Erlafsee’, was Schubert’s first song in print (in a periodical entitled the Mahlerisches Taschenbuch für Freunde interessanter Gegenden Natur- und Kunst-Merkwürdigkeiten der Österreichischen Monarchie of 1818).

I loved someone very dearly and she loved me too. […] She was not exactly pretty and her face was pockmarked, but she had a heart, a heart of gold. For three years, she hoped I would marry her, but I could not find a position which would have provided for us both The Marriage Consent Law under the Metternich regime forbade men of Schubert’s class from marrying unless they could prove their ability to support a family. Schubert could not do so and, in 1820, Therese married a baker. For her 18th birthday, in 1816, Schubert copied out 17 songs, now known as the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’ (currently in private ownership). The collection includes such gems as ‘Gott im Frühlinge’, ‘An die Natur’, ‘Litanei auf das Fest Aller Seelen’, ‘Am Grabe Anselmos’ and more, many with slight variants from the later printed versions. ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, we learn, was first sung for him by Therese; that it is a song of a young girl’s first discovery of passion hardly seems coincidental. By the time of the Grob song collection, Schubert was working in his father’s schoolhouse as an assistant teacher, a position that lasted from November 1814 to September 1816. During this time and beyond, one of the foremost influences in his life was the Bildungskreis, a group of friends who met to pursue self-improvement and education; they even founded a yearbook in 1817 entitled Beyträge zur Bildung für Jünglinge (Contributions to the Education of Young Men). Discussions of aesthetics, of works of art, of perceptions of nature, of history, were all designed to aid their maturation into noble-hearted citizens who would be beneficial to society, with mutual friendship and artistic encouragement at the heart of the circle’s dynamics. This sort of intense, earnest male friendship was commonplace at the time in the German-speaking world. The group included Josef von Spaun and Josef Kenner (friends from the Stadtkonvikt days), Anton Ottenwalt, the poet Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, Franz von Bruchmann, Johann Senn and, later, Leopold Kupelwieser and Franz von Schober. Josef von Spaun was one of Schubert’s truest, most devoted friends, whose connections helped to further Schubert’s career. Spaun’s cousin was the literary critic, playwright and poet Matthäus von Collin, who held a soiree at his home around 1820 for a selected group of music-lovers to hear Schubert and the great singer Johann Michael Vogl perform. On this occasion, Schubert met Count Moritz Dietrichstein (whose illegitimate son Sigismond Thalberg became a celebrated pianist), Baron Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (an Orientalist who helped inspire Goethe’s assimilation of Persian poetry), Ignaz von Mosel (a composer and

10    The Oxford Lieder Festival

At the end of 1814 comes evidence of a newfound enthusiasm for Lieder: between then and 1817 Schubert composed more than 320 songs. The outpouring includes such tiny gems as the strophic ‘Der Mondabend’, the beautifully lyrical Hölty song ‘An den Mond’ and the giant ‘Adelwold und Emma’. Goethe was considered dangerous for young people by many, but Schubert created 51 of his 74 Goethe songs during this period, with the first incarnations of the Harper’s songs and Mignon’s songs, the plangent miniature ‘Erster Verlust’ and the epoch-making ‘Erlkönig’ – perhaps the most astonishing publication debut (op. 1 in April 1821) in music history – all seeing the light of day during this time of immense creativity. The landscape of German song was forever transformed by this composer in his teenage years and early twenties.

The kitchen hearth at 54 Nussdorfer Strasse, where Schubert was born on 31 January 1797

Susan Youens is the author of many respected books on German Lieder, including Retracing a Winter’s Journey: Schubert’s Winterreise (Cornell University Press, 1991), Schubert’s poets and the making of Lieder (Cambridge University Press, 1996); Schubert, Müller and Die schöne Müllerin (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and Heinrich Heine and the Lied (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

The Schubert Project    11


CHAPTER II

SCHUBERT’S LITERARY TASTE Richard Stokes

Schubert was as literary as any of the great Lieder composers. Of his 600 or so songs, over half are settings of poets of pedigree whose names feature in histories of literature: Matthias Claudius (13 songs), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (74), Franz Grillparzer (1), Heinrich Heine (6), Johann Gottfried Herder (2), Ludwig Hölty (23), Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (13), Theodor Körner (14), Wilhelm Müller (45), Friedrich von Hardenberg, known as Novalis (6), August von Platen (2), Friedrich Rückert (6), Friedrich von Schiller (44), Friedrich von Schlegel (16), Ludwig Tieck (1), Christoph August Tiedge (1) and Ludwig Uhland (1). There are, in addition, settings of Anacreon (1), the Bible (2), Goldoni (1), Metastasio (12), Petrarch (3), Alexander Pope (1), Walter Scott (8) and Shakespeare (3). Schubert’s settings of texts by English-language poets – Colley Cibber, Alexander Pope, Abraham Cowley, Walter Scott, Shakespeare and Ossian – reflect not just his broad cultural outlook but also, in the case of the Scott songs (which he planned to publish with both German and English words), an attempt to interest the foreign market in his Lieder. A crucial figure in this enterprise was Jacob Nicolaus Craigher de Jachelutta, the poet of ‘Die junge Nonne’ and ‘Totengräbers Heimwehe’. Italian by birth, he also translated Cibber’s ‘The Blind Boy’ into German; it was probably the success of this song that led to a meeting with Schubert in October 1825, the result of which was an agreement that Craigher would supply the composer with German translations of English, French, Spanish and Italian poems, in the metres of the originals, which Schubert would then set and publish with the German and original texts, clearly with an eye on the markets further afield. Nothing came of this pipe dream and Schubert’s scheme to produce bilingual editions of the Walter Scott Lieder also met with difficulties, due chiefly to the different metrical character of the translations. The English versions were never published in London. ‘Verklärung’, Herder’s translation of Alexander Pope’s ‘The dying Christian to his soul’, dates from 1813 and is Schubert’s first experiment with English verse.

The Schubert Project    13


CHAPTER II

SCHUBERT’S LITERARY TASTE Richard Stokes

Schubert was as literary as any of the great Lieder composers. Of his 600 or so songs, over half are settings of poets of pedigree whose names feature in histories of literature: Matthias Claudius (13 songs), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (74), Franz Grillparzer (1), Heinrich Heine (6), Johann Gottfried Herder (2), Ludwig Hölty (23), Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (13), Theodor Körner (14), Wilhelm Müller (45), Friedrich von Hardenberg, known as Novalis (6), August von Platen (2), Friedrich Rückert (6), Friedrich von Schiller (44), Friedrich von Schlegel (16), Ludwig Tieck (1), Christoph August Tiedge (1) and Ludwig Uhland (1). There are, in addition, settings of Anacreon (1), the Bible (2), Goldoni (1), Metastasio (12), Petrarch (3), Alexander Pope (1), Walter Scott (8) and Shakespeare (3). Schubert’s settings of texts by English-language poets – Colley Cibber, Alexander Pope, Abraham Cowley, Walter Scott, Shakespeare and Ossian – reflect not just his broad cultural outlook but also, in the case of the Scott songs (which he planned to publish with both German and English words), an attempt to interest the foreign market in his Lieder. A crucial figure in this enterprise was Jacob Nicolaus Craigher de Jachelutta, the poet of ‘Die junge Nonne’ and ‘Totengräbers Heimwehe’. Italian by birth, he also translated Cibber’s ‘The Blind Boy’ into German; it was probably the success of this song that led to a meeting with Schubert in October 1825, the result of which was an agreement that Craigher would supply the composer with German translations of English, French, Spanish and Italian poems, in the metres of the originals, which Schubert would then set and publish with the German and original texts, clearly with an eye on the markets further afield. Nothing came of this pipe dream and Schubert’s scheme to produce bilingual editions of the Walter Scott Lieder also met with difficulties, due chiefly to the different metrical character of the translations. The English versions were never published in London. ‘Verklärung’, Herder’s translation of Alexander Pope’s ‘The dying Christian to his soul’, dates from 1813 and is Schubert’s first experiment with English verse.

The Schubert Project    13


Schubert’s three Shakespeare settings, ‘Trinklied’ (‘Come, thou monarch of the vine’ from Antony and Cleopatra), ‘Ständchen’ (‘Hark, hark! The lark at heaven’s gate sings’ from Cymbeline) and ‘An Sylvia’ (from The Two Gentlemen of Verona) were all composed in July 1826 in Währing, then a small village outside Vienna where Schubert’s mother had been buried. Ossian, who inspired ten Schubert songs, was an important figure in Irish mythology, a Gaelic warrior and bard, whose works appealed also to many of Schubert’s 19th-century contemporaries such as Herder, Schiller, Goethe and Mayrhofer, all of whom had a voracious appetite for the historical Romanticism that was sweeping across Europe. In reality, the entire Ossian literature was a fabrication by James Macpherson, a young Highland schoolmaster, who created a literary sensation when in 1760 he published Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands of Scotland and translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language. Numerous translations of Ossian appeared in Germany between 1760 and 1770 and Schubert usually used the versions by Edmund von Harold. Any account of Schubert’s literary taste must include something on Goethe and Schiller (though both merit and are granted chapters of their own here). Schubert’s interest in Schiller predates his first Goethe song by three years; although Goethe was to become his favourite poet, Schubert continued Darum Silvia, tön, o Sang, to be fascinated by Germany’s most celebrated Der holden Silvia Ehren; playwright and set him no fewer than 44 times. Three Jeden Reiz besiegt sie lang, of these songs form part of plays: ‘Des Mädchens Klage’ and ‘Thekla: eine Geisterstimme’ from Den Erde kann gewähren: Wallenstein; Amalia from Die Räuber. Among the Kränze ihr und Saitenklang! early songs are a number of unwieldy and arguably An Sylvia unsuccessful ballads – inspired by Zumsteeg and a wish to master operatic form in miniature – that have given Schubert’s Schiller settings an unjustifiably bad name. It is not, however, the gargantuan ballads that have lasted in the repertoire, but Schiller’s more intellectual verse for which he found his own musical language. Songs such as ‘Hoffnung’, ‘Sehnsucht’, ‘Thekla’, ‘Das Geheimnis’, ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’ show us another side of Schubert’s genius; the fact that he set many of them twice or even three times testifies to the care he lavished on them. ‘Der Jüngling am Bache’ is the first setting of a true lyric by Schubert, who till then had been almost exclusively concerned with Gothic ballads. The song is dated 24 September 1812. The majority of Schubert’s Goethe songs are settings of lyrical poems but there are also two fine examples of what Germans call Gedankenlyrik, philosophical poems, such as ‘Gesang der Geister über den Wassern’ and the wonderful ‘Grenzen der Menschheit’. Ballads loom large (‘Der Fischer’, ‘Der Gott und die Bajadere’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Der Rattenfänger’ and ‘Der Schatzgräber’); Schubert also took texts from the plays: Egmont (‘Die Liebe’) and Faust (‘Der König in Thule’, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, ‘Gretchens Bitte’, ‘Szene aus Faust’). And Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, that extraordinary Bildungsroman, yielded no fewer than eight masterpieces, sung by Mignon and the Harper. Schubert immersed himself in Goethe, setting poems from all periods of the poet’s life: unrhymed Sturm und Drang effusions such as ‘Ganymed’ and ‘Prometheus’; the calmer Weimar masterpieces that include ‘Jägers Abendlied’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Der du von dem Himmel bist’ and ‘Über allen Gipfeln ist Ruh’; and late poems from the West-östlicher Divan: ‘Versunken’, ‘Geheimes’, ‘Suleika I’ and ‘Suleika II’.

Franz Schubert: oil on canvas by Wilhelm August Rieder (1875)

14    The Oxford Lieder Festival

In a celebrated letter of 12 May 1939 to Josef Gregor, the librettist of Friedenstag, Daphne and Die Liebe der Danae, Richard Strauss expressed the view that ‘a perfect Goethe poem does not need any music, because precisely in the case of Goethe, music weakens and flattens out every word’. It is a view that had been echoed by Brahms who, according to George Henschel in Personal Recollections of Johannes

The Schubert Project    15


Schubert’s three Shakespeare settings, ‘Trinklied’ (‘Come, thou monarch of the vine’ from Antony and Cleopatra), ‘Ständchen’ (‘Hark, hark! The lark at heaven’s gate sings’ from Cymbeline) and ‘An Sylvia’ (from The Two Gentlemen of Verona) were all composed in July 1826 in Währing, then a small village outside Vienna where Schubert’s mother had been buried. Ossian, who inspired ten Schubert songs, was an important figure in Irish mythology, a Gaelic warrior and bard, whose works appealed also to many of Schubert’s 19th-century contemporaries such as Herder, Schiller, Goethe and Mayrhofer, all of whom had a voracious appetite for the historical Romanticism that was sweeping across Europe. In reality, the entire Ossian literature was a fabrication by James Macpherson, a young Highland schoolmaster, who created a literary sensation when in 1760 he published Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands of Scotland and translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language. Numerous translations of Ossian appeared in Germany between 1760 and 1770 and Schubert usually used the versions by Edmund von Harold. Any account of Schubert’s literary taste must include something on Goethe and Schiller (though both merit and are granted chapters of their own here). Schubert’s interest in Schiller predates his first Goethe song by three years; although Goethe was to become his favourite poet, Schubert continued Darum Silvia, tön, o Sang, to be fascinated by Germany’s most celebrated Der holden Silvia Ehren; playwright and set him no fewer than 44 times. Three Jeden Reiz besiegt sie lang, of these songs form part of plays: ‘Des Mädchens Klage’ and ‘Thekla: eine Geisterstimme’ from Den Erde kann gewähren: Wallenstein; Amalia from Die Räuber. Among the Kränze ihr und Saitenklang! early songs are a number of unwieldy and arguably An Sylvia unsuccessful ballads – inspired by Zumsteeg and a wish to master operatic form in miniature – that have given Schubert’s Schiller settings an unjustifiably bad name. It is not, however, the gargantuan ballads that have lasted in the repertoire, but Schiller’s more intellectual verse for which he found his own musical language. Songs such as ‘Hoffnung’, ‘Sehnsucht’, ‘Thekla’, ‘Das Geheimnis’, ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’ show us another side of Schubert’s genius; the fact that he set many of them twice or even three times testifies to the care he lavished on them. ‘Der Jüngling am Bache’ is the first setting of a true lyric by Schubert, who till then had been almost exclusively concerned with Gothic ballads. The song is dated 24 September 1812. The majority of Schubert’s Goethe songs are settings of lyrical poems but there are also two fine examples of what Germans call Gedankenlyrik, philosophical poems, such as ‘Gesang der Geister über den Wassern’ and the wonderful ‘Grenzen der Menschheit’. Ballads loom large (‘Der Fischer’, ‘Der Gott und die Bajadere’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Der Rattenfänger’ and ‘Der Schatzgräber’); Schubert also took texts from the plays: Egmont (‘Die Liebe’) and Faust (‘Der König in Thule’, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, ‘Gretchens Bitte’, ‘Szene aus Faust’). And Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, that extraordinary Bildungsroman, yielded no fewer than eight masterpieces, sung by Mignon and the Harper. Schubert immersed himself in Goethe, setting poems from all periods of the poet’s life: unrhymed Sturm und Drang effusions such as ‘Ganymed’ and ‘Prometheus’; the calmer Weimar masterpieces that include ‘Jägers Abendlied’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Der du von dem Himmel bist’ and ‘Über allen Gipfeln ist Ruh’; and late poems from the West-östlicher Divan: ‘Versunken’, ‘Geheimes’, ‘Suleika I’ and ‘Suleika II’.

Franz Schubert: oil on canvas by Wilhelm August Rieder (1875)

14    The Oxford Lieder Festival

In a celebrated letter of 12 May 1939 to Josef Gregor, the librettist of Friedenstag, Daphne and Die Liebe der Danae, Richard Strauss expressed the view that ‘a perfect Goethe poem does not need any music, because precisely in the case of Goethe, music weakens and flattens out every word’. It is a view that had been echoed by Brahms who, according to George Henschel in Personal Recollections of Johannes

The Schubert Project    15


Brahms (1907), felt that a poem should not be perfect, like many of Goethe’s, but should provide the composer with the possibility of creating a song that is greater than the original. This was never Schubert’s view and yet he was equally at home setting minor verse. He had a huge capacity for friendship, which led him to set some 100 poems by his own friends or figures intimately associated with the Schubert circle: Friedrich Anton Franz Bertrand (2), Eduard von Bauernfeld (1), Franz von Bruchmann (5), Heinrich Hüttenbrenner (1), Josef Kenner (3), Johann Baptist Mayrhofer (47), Anton Ottenwalt (1), Johann Anton Friedrich Reil (1), Franz von Schober (12), Franz Xaver von Schlechta (7), Johann Gabriel Seidl (11), Johann Senn (2), Josef von Spaun (1) and Albert Stadler (2). In the heady artistic ambience of Biedermeier Vienna, where so many of Schubert’s friends were poets, painters or composers, it was entirely natural that he should treat his poet friends as seriously as they treated him – indeed the success of the Schubertiaden depended on such mutual respect. That Schubert composed some 100 songs to the minor verse of his friends and acquaintances does not imply a lack of literary awareness, but rather a gift for friendship and a rare readiness to be moved by a poem that spoke to his condition. Schubert’s choice of texts was often dictated by specific events in his life. As W.H. Auden wrote in the introduction to The Poet’s Tongue (1938), ‘we do not want to read “great” poetry all the time, and a good anthology should contain poems for every mood’. ‘Auf den Sieg der Deutschen’, to an anonymous text, was clearly composed to celebrate the victory of the Allies at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, when the song was written; ‘Die Befreier Europas in Paris’ (Mikan) was triggered by the allied armies’ entry into Paris on 15 April 1814 – Schubert’s song was composed in May of the same year. ‘Abschied’ (D578) was written and composed by Schubert as a touching farewell to Franz von Schober in August 1817. Schubert’s uneasy relationship with his father is reflected in such songs as ‘Der Vatermörder’ (Pfeffel) and ‘Drang in die Ferne’ (Leitner). The diagnosis of Schubert’s syphilis in 1823 occasioned a number of songs on the theme of death, transience and the blighting of innocence, such as Schober’s ‘Viola’ and two songs to poems by Friedrich Leopold, Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg: ‘Auf dem O DU ENTRISS’NE MIR Wasser zu singen’ and the equally wonderful and still too little-known ‘Die Mutter Erde’. It is surely no coincidence that UND MEINEM KUSSE! ‘Der Blumenbrief’ (Schreiber) was written in August 1818, SEI MIR GEGRÜSST! when Schubert was teaching the 13-year-old Karoline von SEI MIR GEKÜSST! Esterházy at Zseliz or that ‘Edone’ (Klopstock) took pride of ERREICHBAR NUR MEINEM place in the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’, thus indicating his SEHNSUCHTSGRUSSE! love for her. ‘Herrn Josef Spaun, Assessor in Linz’ (Matthäus SEI MIR GEGRÜSST! von Collin) was specifically written and composed as a prank, in an effort to persuade their beloved friend to re-establish SEI MIR GEKÜSST! contact with them. Another pièce d’occasion was the ethereal Sei mir gegrüsst ‘Schwestergruss’ (Bruchmann), the autograph of which tells us that it was composed in November 1822 after the death of the poet’s sister’. It should also be remembered that ‘Sei mir gegrüsst’ was dedicated to the dead girl’s mother, Justine von Bruchmann, indicating that this lovely song is not so much a declaration of love as a threnody for the departed daughter. Countless other examples in Schubert’s Lieder show that the composer often selected so-called minor poems for their relevance to his own situation. Like Beethoven, he frequently chose his texts for their autobiographical significance. Death, in particular, obsessed him. An extraordinary number of his songs deal with death, not because it was a fashionable Romantic trope, but because much of his life was lived in its shadow. Schubert died young and death was always with him. Seven of his brothers and sisters perished before he was born, and two more – Josef and Aloisia Magdalena – while he was still an infant. When Schubert was 15, he lost his mother; two years later his half-brother Theodor followed her to the

16    The Oxford Lieder Festival

grave. In the light of this knowledge, songs such as ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ (Claudius), ‘Der Jüngling und der Tod’ (Spaun), ‘Grablied’ (Kenner), ‘Grablied für die Mutter’, ‘Bei dem Grabe meines Vaters’, ‘Am Grabe Anselmos (Claudius), ‘Litanei auf das Fest aller Seelen’ (Jacobi) and ‘Totenkranz für ein Kind’ (Matthisson) take on a deeper resonance. Unlike Haydn, whose seeming lack of interest in literature meant that he relied on the advice of his literary mentor, Hofrat von Greiner, Schubert, like Beethoven, had a passion for poetry. So much so that while other young men of his age were discovering women, he, aged 18, was indulging his love of poetry, writing as many as five songs on 19 August 1815, eight on 19 October 1815 and nine on 15 October of the same year. In an expressive speech from the final act of Goethe’s Torquato Tasso, the great poet defends himself against the Duke’s charge that, as a poet, he is too sensitive to cope with life: Wenn ich nicht sinnen oder dichten soll, So ist das Leben mir kein Leben mehr. Verbiete du dem Seidenwurm zu spinnen, Wenn er sich schon dem Tode näher spinnt: Das köstliche Geweb’ entwickelt er Aus seinem Innersten und lässt nicht ab, Bis er in seinen Sarg sich eingeschlossen. [When I can neither write nor meditate, Life is no longer life for me. You try in vain to stop the silkworm spinning, Even though it spins himself to death: It will evolve its precious weft From deep within, and will not cease Till it has cased itself in its own coffin.] Schubert did not ‘spin himself to death’, but he composed Lieder indefatigably and – excluding a few lean periods in 1818 (a mere 16 songs), 1821 (15) and 1824 (7) – incessantly throughout the short period of his creative life. Never indiscriminately. He was occasionally guilty of false accentuation – so was Wolf – and often repeated phrases – as did Wolf – but it was never at random. Indeed it could be argued that the frenzied repetition, for example, of ‘Fragen sich einander ängstlich leise, Ob noch nicht Vollendung sei’ (Anxiously, softly, they ask one another if the end is yet nigh) heightens the despair of the damned in Schiller’s ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. Schubert chose his poems with great care and had a profound understanding of them. And though on occasion he composed to demand – Pratobevera’s ‘Abschied von der Erde’ and Grillparzer’s ‘Ständchen’ spring to mind – the ‘precious weft’ of his songs always came from ‘deep within’.

Richard Stokes is Professor of Lieder at the Royal Academy and has published many books on song, including A French Song Companion (OUP), The Spanish Song Companion (Scarecrow Press) and The Book of Lieder (Faber). He was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2012.

The Schubert Project    17


Brahms (1907), felt that a poem should not be perfect, like many of Goethe’s, but should provide the composer with the possibility of creating a song that is greater than the original. This was never Schubert’s view and yet he was equally at home setting minor verse. He had a huge capacity for friendship, which led him to set some 100 poems by his own friends or figures intimately associated with the Schubert circle: Friedrich Anton Franz Bertrand (2), Eduard von Bauernfeld (1), Franz von Bruchmann (5), Heinrich Hüttenbrenner (1), Josef Kenner (3), Johann Baptist Mayrhofer (47), Anton Ottenwalt (1), Johann Anton Friedrich Reil (1), Franz von Schober (12), Franz Xaver von Schlechta (7), Johann Gabriel Seidl (11), Johann Senn (2), Josef von Spaun (1) and Albert Stadler (2). In the heady artistic ambience of Biedermeier Vienna, where so many of Schubert’s friends were poets, painters or composers, it was entirely natural that he should treat his poet friends as seriously as they treated him – indeed the success of the Schubertiaden depended on such mutual respect. That Schubert composed some 100 songs to the minor verse of his friends and acquaintances does not imply a lack of literary awareness, but rather a gift for friendship and a rare readiness to be moved by a poem that spoke to his condition. Schubert’s choice of texts was often dictated by specific events in his life. As W.H. Auden wrote in the introduction to The Poet’s Tongue (1938), ‘we do not want to read “great” poetry all the time, and a good anthology should contain poems for every mood’. ‘Auf den Sieg der Deutschen’, to an anonymous text, was clearly composed to celebrate the victory of the Allies at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, when the song was written; ‘Die Befreier Europas in Paris’ (Mikan) was triggered by the allied armies’ entry into Paris on 15 April 1814 – Schubert’s song was composed in May of the same year. ‘Abschied’ (D578) was written and composed by Schubert as a touching farewell to Franz von Schober in August 1817. Schubert’s uneasy relationship with his father is reflected in such songs as ‘Der Vatermörder’ (Pfeffel) and ‘Drang in die Ferne’ (Leitner). The diagnosis of Schubert’s syphilis in 1823 occasioned a number of songs on the theme of death, transience and the blighting of innocence, such as Schober’s ‘Viola’ and two songs to poems by Friedrich Leopold, Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg: ‘Auf dem O DU ENTRISS’NE MIR Wasser zu singen’ and the equally wonderful and still too little-known ‘Die Mutter Erde’. It is surely no coincidence that UND MEINEM KUSSE! ‘Der Blumenbrief’ (Schreiber) was written in August 1818, SEI MIR GEGRÜSST! when Schubert was teaching the 13-year-old Karoline von SEI MIR GEKÜSST! Esterházy at Zseliz or that ‘Edone’ (Klopstock) took pride of ERREICHBAR NUR MEINEM place in the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’, thus indicating his SEHNSUCHTSGRUSSE! love for her. ‘Herrn Josef Spaun, Assessor in Linz’ (Matthäus SEI MIR GEGRÜSST! von Collin) was specifically written and composed as a prank, in an effort to persuade their beloved friend to re-establish SEI MIR GEKÜSST! contact with them. Another pièce d’occasion was the ethereal Sei mir gegrüsst ‘Schwestergruss’ (Bruchmann), the autograph of which tells us that it was composed in November 1822 after the death of the poet’s sister’. It should also be remembered that ‘Sei mir gegrüsst’ was dedicated to the dead girl’s mother, Justine von Bruchmann, indicating that this lovely song is not so much a declaration of love as a threnody for the departed daughter. Countless other examples in Schubert’s Lieder show that the composer often selected so-called minor poems for their relevance to his own situation. Like Beethoven, he frequently chose his texts for their autobiographical significance. Death, in particular, obsessed him. An extraordinary number of his songs deal with death, not because it was a fashionable Romantic trope, but because much of his life was lived in its shadow. Schubert died young and death was always with him. Seven of his brothers and sisters perished before he was born, and two more – Josef and Aloisia Magdalena – while he was still an infant. When Schubert was 15, he lost his mother; two years later his half-brother Theodor followed her to the

16    The Oxford Lieder Festival

grave. In the light of this knowledge, songs such as ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ (Claudius), ‘Der Jüngling und der Tod’ (Spaun), ‘Grablied’ (Kenner), ‘Grablied für die Mutter’, ‘Bei dem Grabe meines Vaters’, ‘Am Grabe Anselmos (Claudius), ‘Litanei auf das Fest aller Seelen’ (Jacobi) and ‘Totenkranz für ein Kind’ (Matthisson) take on a deeper resonance. Unlike Haydn, whose seeming lack of interest in literature meant that he relied on the advice of his literary mentor, Hofrat von Greiner, Schubert, like Beethoven, had a passion for poetry. So much so that while other young men of his age were discovering women, he, aged 18, was indulging his love of poetry, writing as many as five songs on 19 August 1815, eight on 19 October 1815 and nine on 15 October of the same year. In an expressive speech from the final act of Goethe’s Torquato Tasso, the great poet defends himself against the Duke’s charge that, as a poet, he is too sensitive to cope with life: Wenn ich nicht sinnen oder dichten soll, So ist das Leben mir kein Leben mehr. Verbiete du dem Seidenwurm zu spinnen, Wenn er sich schon dem Tode näher spinnt: Das köstliche Geweb’ entwickelt er Aus seinem Innersten und lässt nicht ab, Bis er in seinen Sarg sich eingeschlossen. [When I can neither write nor meditate, Life is no longer life for me. You try in vain to stop the silkworm spinning, Even though it spins himself to death: It will evolve its precious weft From deep within, and will not cease Till it has cased itself in its own coffin.] Schubert did not ‘spin himself to death’, but he composed Lieder indefatigably and – excluding a few lean periods in 1818 (a mere 16 songs), 1821 (15) and 1824 (7) – incessantly throughout the short period of his creative life. Never indiscriminately. He was occasionally guilty of false accentuation – so was Wolf – and often repeated phrases – as did Wolf – but it was never at random. Indeed it could be argued that the frenzied repetition, for example, of ‘Fragen sich einander ängstlich leise, Ob noch nicht Vollendung sei’ (Anxiously, softly, they ask one another if the end is yet nigh) heightens the despair of the damned in Schiller’s ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. Schubert chose his poems with great care and had a profound understanding of them. And though on occasion he composed to demand – Pratobevera’s ‘Abschied von der Erde’ and Grillparzer’s ‘Ständchen’ spring to mind – the ‘precious weft’ of his songs always came from ‘deep within’.

Richard Stokes is Professor of Lieder at the Royal Academy and has published many books on song, including A French Song Companion (OUP), The Spanish Song Companion (Scarecrow Press) and The Book of Lieder (Faber). He was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2012.

The Schubert Project    17


CHAPTER III

THE POETIC MUSE: GOETHE, SCHUBERT AND THE ART OF SONG Lorraine Byrne Bodley

Anyone who ventures into the vast regions of the 19th-century Lied meets a powerful presence almost immediately. Time and again the text is by Goethe, whose lyric imagination left an indomitable imprint on European music history. Even a cursory glance at Friedlaender’s Das deutsche Lied bears testimony to multiple settings of Goethe’s poems and the range and variety of this abundant repertoire is immediately striking. Ernst Challier’s Grosser Lieder-Katalog gives further evidence of the musicality of Goethe’s language and its location of meaning at the cradle of the Lied. Schubert’s first masterpiece, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, was a setting of a dramatic scene from Goethe’s Faust. The earliest songs of Reichardt, Spohr, Loewe, Brahms and Wagner were to texts by Goethe, which raises the question as to the reasons for the poet’s influence. Yes, Goethe was a supreme lyric poet. The binding force of form and meaning, or rhythm and sense, that characterizes Goethe’s lyric poetry offered composers a wealth of material with which to cut their compositional cloth. Yes, Goethe was an object of admiration, even veneration, throughout the 19th century and the sheer quantity and variety of music his poetry has inspired signals the huge fascination exerted by his writing and his personality. Yet the steadfastness of his occupancy of the Lied goes beyond these explanations. Deeper currents must explain why Goethe’s poetry goes hand in glove in our musical heritage. Goethe in der Campagna: oil on canvas by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein (1787)

18    The Oxford Lieder Festival

From the time he burst onto the literary scene with the publication of Die Leiden des jungen Werthers in 1774 until long after his death in 1832, Goethe was a catalyst for many composers who wanted to challenge what song could be. Musicologists searching for a tuning fork to conjure up a starting note in the history of Lieder usually commence with ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’. If Schubert was not the first composer to set Goethe’s poems to music – that distinction belongs to Bernhard Theodor Breitkopf (1747–1820) alone – then he was the first composer to elevate the Lied to a major musical genre by writing with an artistry that demonstrated what an exacting and many-layered medium song could be. A number of the poems selected by him were also chosen by fellow composers: the exuberance and

The Schubert Project    19


CHAPTER III

THE POETIC MUSE: GOETHE, SCHUBERT AND THE ART OF SONG Lorraine Byrne Bodley

Anyone who ventures into the vast regions of the 19th-century Lied meets a powerful presence almost immediately. Time and again the text is by Goethe, whose lyric imagination left an indomitable imprint on European music history. Even a cursory glance at Friedlaender’s Das deutsche Lied bears testimony to multiple settings of Goethe’s poems and the range and variety of this abundant repertoire is immediately striking. Ernst Challier’s Grosser Lieder-Katalog gives further evidence of the musicality of Goethe’s language and its location of meaning at the cradle of the Lied. Schubert’s first masterpiece, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, was a setting of a dramatic scene from Goethe’s Faust. The earliest songs of Reichardt, Spohr, Loewe, Brahms and Wagner were to texts by Goethe, which raises the question as to the reasons for the poet’s influence. Yes, Goethe was a supreme lyric poet. The binding force of form and meaning, or rhythm and sense, that characterizes Goethe’s lyric poetry offered composers a wealth of material with which to cut their compositional cloth. Yes, Goethe was an object of admiration, even veneration, throughout the 19th century and the sheer quantity and variety of music his poetry has inspired signals the huge fascination exerted by his writing and his personality. Yet the steadfastness of his occupancy of the Lied goes beyond these explanations. Deeper currents must explain why Goethe’s poetry goes hand in glove in our musical heritage. Goethe in der Campagna: oil on canvas by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein (1787)

18    The Oxford Lieder Festival

From the time he burst onto the literary scene with the publication of Die Leiden des jungen Werthers in 1774 until long after his death in 1832, Goethe was a catalyst for many composers who wanted to challenge what song could be. Musicologists searching for a tuning fork to conjure up a starting note in the history of Lieder usually commence with ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’. If Schubert was not the first composer to set Goethe’s poems to music – that distinction belongs to Bernhard Theodor Breitkopf (1747–1820) alone – then he was the first composer to elevate the Lied to a major musical genre by writing with an artistry that demonstrated what an exacting and many-layered medium song could be. A number of the poems selected by him were also chosen by fellow composers: the exuberance and

The Schubert Project    19


energy of Goethe’s youthful lyric poetry (‘Mailied’, ‘Willkommen und Abschied’); the poems to Lili Schönemann (‘Auf dem See’); the 1797 ballads (‘Heidenröslein’, ‘Der Fischer’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Der Sänger’); poems from the early Weimar period (‘Jägers Abendlied’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Wandrers Nachtlieder’); Mignon and the Harper’s songs from Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre; and the Suleika poems of the West-östlicher Divan all prompted myriad musical responses. Composers used their predecessors as starting points for their innovative ideas and this continuity of communal Goethean texts inspired a unique grafting of poetic and musical traditions. In an age of rapid artistic and intellectual change, Goethe provided continuity, an uncontroversial point of departure.

Nine years later Schubert himself sent the poet three more songs, this time his op. 19 Lieder: ‘An Schwager Kronos’, ‘An Mignon’ and ‘Ganymed’. In their portrayal of a ‘neglected Schubert’, scholars have overlooked the significance of Goethe’s acknowledgement of this second dedication in his diary as early as 1825. Johann Hummel, Weimar’s most eminent musician at the time, and Mendelssohn, friend and musical advisor to Goethe, did not discover Schubert until 1827. Whether Goethe’s failure to respond to Schubert in a personal letter of thanks was linked to his reticence in encouraging the younger members of the Romantic generation or coloured by the sad reality that Goethe and Schubert never met, one will never know. What is clear, however, from Metternich’s new censorship laws, which were adopted in the entire Deutscher Bund after the Congress of Vienna, is that Schubert could not have published his op. 19 Lieder in Vienna with the dedication to Goethe on the title page without the poet’s written permission. At some point, perhaps the same day as Goethe acknowledged receipt of these songs in his diary, a written missive must have been sent to Vienna to allow these songs to be published with a dedication to the poet. The presumed loss of this letter coupled with the legend of Schubert’s neglect and Goethe’s ‘Olympian aloofness [and] blindness to new writers of talent’ have fuelled assumptions surrounding Goethe’s ‘neglect’ of ‘poor Schubert’.

Given the breadth and significance of his contribution to musical life and letters, it is time to revisit the Janus-faced portrayal of Goethe as an old baron living the life of a philistine, a traditionalist divorced from the musical life of his time. Many reasons can be identified for this portrayal of the poet: Goethe’s association with the Berlin school of composers; the designation of Goethe’s music theatre as ‘Nebenwerke’, works of secondary importance in the poet’s creative canon; the philological neglect of the poet’s correspondence with Zelter; and the writing-outof-history of Mendelssohn, whereby one of the most remarkable relationships Goethe enjoyed with a composer was also submerged. But the reason most commonly and continually cited in scholarly and popular disquisitions is the poet’s ‘failure’ to acknowledge Schubert’s achievement in setting his poems. The first attempt to interest Goethe in Schubert’s work was made by the composer’s most faithful friend, Josef von Spaun, who, on 17 April 1816, sent the poet a bound manuscript of the finest of Schubert’s Goethe settings (now in the German State Library in Berlin). While awaiting word from Weimar, Schubert began preparing a second collection. When the first manuscript was returned unacknowledged (most likely by F.J. Kräuter, Goethe’s secretary), the second book of songs was retained. Yet Goethe’s failure to respond to Schubert should not be taken as concrete evidence of a lack of musical discernment or an example of his musical conservatism. There are, in fact, many reasons for his silence. Firstly, despite his training on piano and cello, Goethe’s lifelong collaboration with musicians reveals his dependency on others to bring a score alive. Goethe’s ‘rejection’ of Schubert’s first book of songs was claimed to have been influenced by Zelter, to whom Goethe supposedly sent the songs for advice. Such arguments are clearly unfounded: in the 891 letters exchanged between these artists there is no mention of Der du von dem Schubert’s Lieder; on the contrary, the letters prove the dispatch was never sent to Zelter, nor was he in Weimar during Himmel bist, Alles Leid the period in which Schubert’s first songbook arrived. und Schmerzen stillst,

Den, der doppelt

A second factor that is important to keep in mind is the sheer elend ist, Doppelt mit bulk of music dedicated to Goethe. In his later years it was not Entzückung füllst, unusual for several hundred songs to arrive within a week: Ach, ich bin des when one takes into account the extent and variety of Goethe’s activities and the fact that music was only one of these ventures, Treibens müde! the context of Goethe ‘missing’ the significance of Schubert Wandrers Nachtlied I becomes clearer. If one examines the political and personal background against which Schubert’s Liederbuch arrived, the reasons for Goethe’s silence become even clearer. The political aftermath of the Wars of Liberation, the Congress of Vienna and in particular the new constitution filled Goethe with unease; in his diary he confesses his despair. The darkness of his perception reflects events in his personal life: at the time Goethe received Schubert’s first Liederbuch, his wife, Christiane, was critically ill and suffered a painful death on 6 June 1816. In his diary Goethe records the ‘emptiness and a deathly silence in and around me’. What could a consignment of songs have meant at that time?

20    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Goethe’s birthplace in Frankfurt

Whereas Goethe’s response to Schubert reveals his taciturnity in accepting the new Lied, he did acknowledge Schubert’s achievement at a later date. In conversation with J.G. von Quandt in 1826, Goethe appreciated how Schubert had ‘expressed the sound of horses superbly’ in ‘Erlkönig’ and of Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient’s performance, the poet confessed, ‘I heard this composition once before, when it did not appeal to me. But performed like this, the whole song shapes itself into a visible whole.’ Goethe’s recognition of the significance of Schubert’s ‘Erlkönig’ is indicative of a change of perception. Whereas his criticism of the through-composed Lied is evident in the Tag-und Jahreshefte of February 1801 and in his correspondence with Wilhelm von Humboldt in March 1803, Goethe gradually granted the composer more freedom of interpretation. As early as 1811 he acknowledges to Moritz von Dietrichstein how ‘the composer appropriates the Lied, enlivens it in his own way’. The real turning point came around 1820, perhaps following extended conversations about the modern Lied with Christian Lobe and in letters to Tomaschek and Carl von Schlözer he endorses how the composer ‘absorbs himself in [the poem], breathes life into it and develops it in his own way’. That he had reached this conclusion before encountering Schubert’s settings is evident in his conversation in 1820 with Max Löwenthal, the composer’s school friend, at which point he knew nothing of Schubert’s compositions and had forgotten the dedication of 1816. That Schubert developed Goethe’s poetry ‘in his own way’ is evident from his very first Goethe settings and what is new in these songs is Schubert’s unexpected handling of the unknown. When he wrote ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ on 19 October 1814, Schubert could count on listeners holding certain expectations and because they recognized the spinning songs as a topos, the song’s extraordinary features could not have escaped them. Similarly in ‘Erlkönig’, he employed the traditional use of recitative in order to gain a singular result: at the end of the song, the narrator’s voice fails, as if moved by a tragic death of the child, a strategy that draws in and actively involves the listener in a moment of dramatic climax. In both songs the keyboard part is not merely sound painting; it symbolizes the poetic self. Gretchen stops spinning when lost in reverie about Faust; the hammered triplets convey the mounting terror of the child. This is again evident in the settings from Goethe’s novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. In ‘Wer nie sein Brot’, the piano, as if

The Schubert Project    21


energy of Goethe’s youthful lyric poetry (‘Mailied’, ‘Willkommen und Abschied’); the poems to Lili Schönemann (‘Auf dem See’); the 1797 ballads (‘Heidenröslein’, ‘Der Fischer’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Der Sänger’); poems from the early Weimar period (‘Jägers Abendlied’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Wandrers Nachtlieder’); Mignon and the Harper’s songs from Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre; and the Suleika poems of the West-östlicher Divan all prompted myriad musical responses. Composers used their predecessors as starting points for their innovative ideas and this continuity of communal Goethean texts inspired a unique grafting of poetic and musical traditions. In an age of rapid artistic and intellectual change, Goethe provided continuity, an uncontroversial point of departure.

Nine years later Schubert himself sent the poet three more songs, this time his op. 19 Lieder: ‘An Schwager Kronos’, ‘An Mignon’ and ‘Ganymed’. In their portrayal of a ‘neglected Schubert’, scholars have overlooked the significance of Goethe’s acknowledgement of this second dedication in his diary as early as 1825. Johann Hummel, Weimar’s most eminent musician at the time, and Mendelssohn, friend and musical advisor to Goethe, did not discover Schubert until 1827. Whether Goethe’s failure to respond to Schubert in a personal letter of thanks was linked to his reticence in encouraging the younger members of the Romantic generation or coloured by the sad reality that Goethe and Schubert never met, one will never know. What is clear, however, from Metternich’s new censorship laws, which were adopted in the entire Deutscher Bund after the Congress of Vienna, is that Schubert could not have published his op. 19 Lieder in Vienna with the dedication to Goethe on the title page without the poet’s written permission. At some point, perhaps the same day as Goethe acknowledged receipt of these songs in his diary, a written missive must have been sent to Vienna to allow these songs to be published with a dedication to the poet. The presumed loss of this letter coupled with the legend of Schubert’s neglect and Goethe’s ‘Olympian aloofness [and] blindness to new writers of talent’ have fuelled assumptions surrounding Goethe’s ‘neglect’ of ‘poor Schubert’.

Given the breadth and significance of his contribution to musical life and letters, it is time to revisit the Janus-faced portrayal of Goethe as an old baron living the life of a philistine, a traditionalist divorced from the musical life of his time. Many reasons can be identified for this portrayal of the poet: Goethe’s association with the Berlin school of composers; the designation of Goethe’s music theatre as ‘Nebenwerke’, works of secondary importance in the poet’s creative canon; the philological neglect of the poet’s correspondence with Zelter; and the writing-outof-history of Mendelssohn, whereby one of the most remarkable relationships Goethe enjoyed with a composer was also submerged. But the reason most commonly and continually cited in scholarly and popular disquisitions is the poet’s ‘failure’ to acknowledge Schubert’s achievement in setting his poems. The first attempt to interest Goethe in Schubert’s work was made by the composer’s most faithful friend, Josef von Spaun, who, on 17 April 1816, sent the poet a bound manuscript of the finest of Schubert’s Goethe settings (now in the German State Library in Berlin). While awaiting word from Weimar, Schubert began preparing a second collection. When the first manuscript was returned unacknowledged (most likely by F.J. Kräuter, Goethe’s secretary), the second book of songs was retained. Yet Goethe’s failure to respond to Schubert should not be taken as concrete evidence of a lack of musical discernment or an example of his musical conservatism. There are, in fact, many reasons for his silence. Firstly, despite his training on piano and cello, Goethe’s lifelong collaboration with musicians reveals his dependency on others to bring a score alive. Goethe’s ‘rejection’ of Schubert’s first book of songs was claimed to have been influenced by Zelter, to whom Goethe supposedly sent the songs for advice. Such arguments are clearly unfounded: in the 891 letters exchanged between these artists there is no mention of Der du von dem Schubert’s Lieder; on the contrary, the letters prove the dispatch was never sent to Zelter, nor was he in Weimar during Himmel bist, Alles Leid the period in which Schubert’s first songbook arrived. und Schmerzen stillst,

Den, der doppelt

A second factor that is important to keep in mind is the sheer elend ist, Doppelt mit bulk of music dedicated to Goethe. In his later years it was not Entzückung füllst, unusual for several hundred songs to arrive within a week: Ach, ich bin des when one takes into account the extent and variety of Goethe’s activities and the fact that music was only one of these ventures, Treibens müde! the context of Goethe ‘missing’ the significance of Schubert Wandrers Nachtlied I becomes clearer. If one examines the political and personal background against which Schubert’s Liederbuch arrived, the reasons for Goethe’s silence become even clearer. The political aftermath of the Wars of Liberation, the Congress of Vienna and in particular the new constitution filled Goethe with unease; in his diary he confesses his despair. The darkness of his perception reflects events in his personal life: at the time Goethe received Schubert’s first Liederbuch, his wife, Christiane, was critically ill and suffered a painful death on 6 June 1816. In his diary Goethe records the ‘emptiness and a deathly silence in and around me’. What could a consignment of songs have meant at that time?

20    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Goethe’s birthplace in Frankfurt

Whereas Goethe’s response to Schubert reveals his taciturnity in accepting the new Lied, he did acknowledge Schubert’s achievement at a later date. In conversation with J.G. von Quandt in 1826, Goethe appreciated how Schubert had ‘expressed the sound of horses superbly’ in ‘Erlkönig’ and of Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient’s performance, the poet confessed, ‘I heard this composition once before, when it did not appeal to me. But performed like this, the whole song shapes itself into a visible whole.’ Goethe’s recognition of the significance of Schubert’s ‘Erlkönig’ is indicative of a change of perception. Whereas his criticism of the through-composed Lied is evident in the Tag-und Jahreshefte of February 1801 and in his correspondence with Wilhelm von Humboldt in March 1803, Goethe gradually granted the composer more freedom of interpretation. As early as 1811 he acknowledges to Moritz von Dietrichstein how ‘the composer appropriates the Lied, enlivens it in his own way’. The real turning point came around 1820, perhaps following extended conversations about the modern Lied with Christian Lobe and in letters to Tomaschek and Carl von Schlözer he endorses how the composer ‘absorbs himself in [the poem], breathes life into it and develops it in his own way’. That he had reached this conclusion before encountering Schubert’s settings is evident in his conversation in 1820 with Max Löwenthal, the composer’s school friend, at which point he knew nothing of Schubert’s compositions and had forgotten the dedication of 1816. That Schubert developed Goethe’s poetry ‘in his own way’ is evident from his very first Goethe settings and what is new in these songs is Schubert’s unexpected handling of the unknown. When he wrote ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ on 19 October 1814, Schubert could count on listeners holding certain expectations and because they recognized the spinning songs as a topos, the song’s extraordinary features could not have escaped them. Similarly in ‘Erlkönig’, he employed the traditional use of recitative in order to gain a singular result: at the end of the song, the narrator’s voice fails, as if moved by a tragic death of the child, a strategy that draws in and actively involves the listener in a moment of dramatic climax. In both songs the keyboard part is not merely sound painting; it symbolizes the poetic self. Gretchen stops spinning when lost in reverie about Faust; the hammered triplets convey the mounting terror of the child. This is again evident in the settings from Goethe’s novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. In ‘Wer nie sein Brot’, the piano, as if

The Schubert Project    21


struck dumb, abandons the singer to face the terrors of his own soul and in ‘An die Türen’ the voice and piano map out separate worlds, indicating how the Harper has reached a point where contact with others is impossible. This walking song with its regular beat, expresses not only a physical motion but indicates a path through life in the sense of a personal destiny. Several of Mignon’s songs also put one in mind of the Pavane or Totentanz, which in Schubert’s hands gently points towards an inexorable fate. The effect produced is quite different from Schubert’s use of familiar rhythms in an unusual context to produce an effect of alienation, where in ‘Erlkönig’ at the words ‘du liebes Kind’, komme geh’ mit mir’ (you dear child, come, go with me), a ghostly waltz in far too fast a tempo makes the enticement of the Erlkönig seem especially sinister. From Schubert’s very first Goethe setting, these songs not only affirm an immediate understanding of the poet, but of the literary and social context in which the poems were written. If the sharp vicissitudes of fortune that destroyed women were hardly the sole raison d’être for ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, it nevertheless runs like a thread through Schubert’s setting. No song worth its salt is unconcerned with the world it answers for and sometimes answers to. That answering function is what makes a song like ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ in the deepest way responsible – capable of offering a response, but a response in its own terms. As the earliest reviews show, everything is different after this song and people comprehend song differently. This is what makes ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ ungainsayable and indispensible, making it a happening in and of itself. And this is one of many reasons why Schubert’s Goethe settings provide a perfect test case for the ways in which the Lieder tradition reflects human history throughout the long 19th century.

Lorraine Byrne Bodley holds a PhD in Music and in German from University College Dublin (1999) and a DMUS in Musicology, a higher doctorate on published work (NUI, 2012). She is Senior Lecturer in Musicology at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Visiting Professor at the University of Tübingen. She has recently been commissioned to write a new biography of Schubert for Yale University Press. Her other publications include Rethinking Schubert (Oxford, forthcoming 2015), Schubert’s Late Music in History and Theory (Cambridge, forthcoming 2015), Goethe and Zelter: Musical Dialogues (Asghate, 2009) and Schubert’s Goethe Settings (Ashgate, 2003).

22    The Oxford Lieder Festival

A vertically-set piano, known as a pyramid piano,Goethe’s in the music Inside room in birthplaceGoethe’s in Frankfurt birthplace in Frankfurt (© Gavin Plumley)

The Schubert Project    23


struck dumb, abandons the singer to face the terrors of his own soul and in ‘An die Türen’ the voice and piano map out separate worlds, indicating how the Harper has reached a point where contact with others is impossible. This walking song with its regular beat, expresses not only a physical motion but indicates a path through life in the sense of a personal destiny. Several of Mignon’s songs also put one in mind of the Pavane or Totentanz, which in Schubert’s hands gently points towards an inexorable fate. The effect produced is quite different from Schubert’s use of familiar rhythms in an unusual context to produce an effect of alienation, where in ‘Erlkönig’ at the words ‘du liebes Kind’, komme geh’ mit mir’ (you dear child, come, go with me), a ghostly waltz in far too fast a tempo makes the enticement of the Erlkönig seem especially sinister. From Schubert’s very first Goethe setting, these songs not only affirm an immediate understanding of the poet, but of the literary and social context in which the poems were written. If the sharp vicissitudes of fortune that destroyed women were hardly the sole raison d’être for ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, it nevertheless runs like a thread through Schubert’s setting. No song worth its salt is unconcerned with the world it answers for and sometimes answers to. That answering function is what makes a song like ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ in the deepest way responsible – capable of offering a response, but a response in its own terms. As the earliest reviews show, everything is different after this song and people comprehend song differently. This is what makes ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ ungainsayable and indispensible, making it a happening in and of itself. And this is one of many reasons why Schubert’s Goethe settings provide a perfect test case for the ways in which the Lieder tradition reflects human history throughout the long 19th century.

Lorraine Byrne Bodley holds a PhD in Music and in German from University College Dublin (1999) and a DMUS in Musicology, a higher doctorate on published work (NUI, 2012). She is Senior Lecturer in Musicology at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Visiting Professor at the University of Tübingen. She has recently been commissioned to write a new biography of Schubert for Yale University Press. Her other publications include Rethinking Schubert (Oxford, forthcoming 2015), Schubert’s Late Music in History and Theory (Cambridge, forthcoming 2015), Goethe and Zelter: Musical Dialogues (Asghate, 2009) and Schubert’s Goethe Settings (Ashgate, 2003).

22    The Oxford Lieder Festival

A vertically-set piano, known as a pyramid piano,Goethe’s in the music Inside room in birthplaceGoethe’s in Frankfurt birthplace in Frankfurt (© Gavin Plumley)

The Schubert Project    23


HUGO WOLF

CHAPTER IV

ONSTAGE, OFFSTAGE:

Spanisches Liederbuch (Weltliche Lieder)

2015 RELEASE

2015 RELEASE

Lenau & Spanisches Liederbuch (Geistliche Lieder)

Michelangelo Lieder & early songs

Keller, Fallersleben, Ibsen & other poets

5060192780420

Italienisches Liederbuch

Eichendorff Lieder

2015 RELEASE

5060192780215

Heine, Reinick, Shakespeare & Byron

Goethe Lieder part 1

Goether Lieder part 2

The first complete recording of the songs of Hugo Wolf, including over twenty previously unrecorded songs SOPRANOS Louise Alder Mary Bevan Sophie Bevan Sarah-Jane Brandon Katherine Broderick Sophie Daneman Geraldine McGreevy Birgid Steinberger Lydia Teuscher Fflur Wyn

MEZZO-SOPRANOS Anna Grevelius Rowan Hellier Anna Huntley Katarina Karnéus

Lisa Feurzeig

5060192780161

5060192780116

Mörike Lieder part 2

5060192780284

Mörike Lieder part 1

5060192780345

5060192780086

5060192780093

“The quality of sound in these latest discs in Stone’s Wolf series is wonderfully vivid and full of presence ... Another splendidly wide-ranging selection of songs” Gramophone

SCHILLER, SCHUBERT AND THE THEATRE

TENORS James Gilchrist Thomas Hobbs Benjamin Hulett Daniel Norman Nicky Spence Adrian Thompson

BARITONES/BASSES William Berger John Chest Neal Davies William Dazeley Quirijn de Lang Marcus Farnsworth Robert Holl Jonathan Lemalu Stephan Loges Mark Stone David Stout Roderick Williams

“The ever-impressive Oxford Lieder Festival” BBC Music Magazine

PIANIST Sholto Kynoch

Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) was a multifaceted writer: playwright, poet, historian and essayist rolled into one. Though he was eventually closely linked to Goethe through friendship and collaboration, Schiller’s life began in far less favourable circumstances than Goethe’s. The son of a government employee in Württemberg, Schiller’s career path was dictated by Duke Karl Eugen. Separated from his family at 13 and raised in a rigid boarding-school environment, he was trained first in law and then in medicine. The Duke opposed his literary ambitions and Schiller fled the dukedom to pursue his own goals. Unsurprisingly, his first play, Die Räuber (1781), depicts youth rebelling against the strictures of absolute authority. His early identity as a spokesman for revolt and selfdetermination meshed oddly with his later role as a titan of Weimar Classicism. From 1811 to 1824 Schubert composed 44 songs based on 32 of Schiller’s poems, placing the poet fourth among his chosen list of writers. He frequently composed more than one song on a single poem, setting ten of Schiller’s poems twice and two three times each. Schubert selected an eclectic assortment from Schiller’s work, including ballads, love poems and philosophical lyrics. Schiller’s plays provided only two of his texts. The composer avoided Schiller’s more academic poetry, preferring the simpler folk-derived style that was attracting Weimar intellectuals such as Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder even when the subject matter was conceptual rather than narrative, as in poems such as ‘Hoffnung’ and ‘Sehnsucht’. Schubert’s most memorable Schiller settings are linked with a central idea in Schiller’s critical writing that was also a preoccupation of late 18th-century German culture: constant striving for a fulfilment that is ultimately unattainable. The word ‘Sehnsucht’ expresses this perfectly, since it literally means addiction to yearning. This pervasive sense of life’s necessary incompleteness had many sources; it can be linked to Kantian moral philosophy, Pietist theology and Goethe’s play Faust, the first version of which was published in 1790.

Available on CD and digital download

www.stonerecords.co.uk

The Schubert Project    25


HUGO WOLF

CHAPTER IV

ONSTAGE, OFFSTAGE:

Spanisches Liederbuch (Weltliche Lieder)

2015 RELEASE

2015 RELEASE

Lenau & Spanisches Liederbuch (Geistliche Lieder)

Michelangelo Lieder & early songs

Keller, Fallersleben, Ibsen & other poets

5060192780420

Italienisches Liederbuch

Eichendorff Lieder

2015 RELEASE

5060192780215

Heine, Reinick, Shakespeare & Byron

Goethe Lieder part 1

Goether Lieder part 2

The first complete recording of the songs of Hugo Wolf, including over twenty previously unrecorded songs SOPRANOS Louise Alder Mary Bevan Sophie Bevan Sarah-Jane Brandon Katherine Broderick Sophie Daneman Geraldine McGreevy Birgid Steinberger Lydia Teuscher Fflur Wyn

MEZZO-SOPRANOS Anna Grevelius Rowan Hellier Anna Huntley Katarina Karnéus

Lisa Feurzeig

5060192780161

5060192780116

Mörike Lieder part 2

5060192780284

Mörike Lieder part 1

5060192780345

5060192780086

5060192780093

“The quality of sound in these latest discs in Stone’s Wolf series is wonderfully vivid and full of presence ... Another splendidly wide-ranging selection of songs” Gramophone

SCHILLER, SCHUBERT AND THE THEATRE

TENORS James Gilchrist Thomas Hobbs Benjamin Hulett Daniel Norman Nicky Spence Adrian Thompson

BARITONES/BASSES William Berger John Chest Neal Davies William Dazeley Quirijn de Lang Marcus Farnsworth Robert Holl Jonathan Lemalu Stephan Loges Mark Stone David Stout Roderick Williams

“The ever-impressive Oxford Lieder Festival” BBC Music Magazine

PIANIST Sholto Kynoch

Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) was a multifaceted writer: playwright, poet, historian and essayist rolled into one. Though he was eventually closely linked to Goethe through friendship and collaboration, Schiller’s life began in far less favourable circumstances than Goethe’s. The son of a government employee in Württemberg, Schiller’s career path was dictated by Duke Karl Eugen. Separated from his family at 13 and raised in a rigid boarding-school environment, he was trained first in law and then in medicine. The Duke opposed his literary ambitions and Schiller fled the dukedom to pursue his own goals. Unsurprisingly, his first play, Die Räuber (1781), depicts youth rebelling against the strictures of absolute authority. His early identity as a spokesman for revolt and selfdetermination meshed oddly with his later role as a titan of Weimar Classicism. From 1811 to 1824 Schubert composed 44 songs based on 32 of Schiller’s poems, placing the poet fourth among his chosen list of writers. He frequently composed more than one song on a single poem, setting ten of Schiller’s poems twice and two three times each. Schubert selected an eclectic assortment from Schiller’s work, including ballads, love poems and philosophical lyrics. Schiller’s plays provided only two of his texts. The composer avoided Schiller’s more academic poetry, preferring the simpler folk-derived style that was attracting Weimar intellectuals such as Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder even when the subject matter was conceptual rather than narrative, as in poems such as ‘Hoffnung’ and ‘Sehnsucht’. Schubert’s most memorable Schiller settings are linked with a central idea in Schiller’s critical writing that was also a preoccupation of late 18th-century German culture: constant striving for a fulfilment that is ultimately unattainable. The word ‘Sehnsucht’ expresses this perfectly, since it literally means addiction to yearning. This pervasive sense of life’s necessary incompleteness had many sources; it can be linked to Kantian moral philosophy, Pietist theology and Goethe’s play Faust, the first version of which was published in 1790.

Available on CD and digital download

www.stonerecords.co.uk

The Schubert Project    25


Schiller’s essay ‘Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung’ (1795–6) contrasts the life and art of ancient Greece with that of modern Europe. He saw the Greek outlook, which he called naive, as characterized by a natural and unselfconscious relationship between humanity and the external world. Schiller argued that such innocence is no longer possible in modern life: we are inevitably aware of ourselves as separate from the world. As a result, modern people are limited to a sentimental or selfconscious relationship with the universe, yet when we encounter the older form of culture, we are forcibly struck by the insufficiency of our own experience and thus inevitably feel a sense of yearning for that wholeness that is lost forever.

served as models, Schubert’s ballads employ episodic musical construction to follow the elaborate tales they tell. Important features of the ballads are frequent key changes, a declamatory vocal style that often dips into recitative and energetic accompaniments that illustrate textual images and bring out dramatic situations. These ballads, presenting ideals of bravery and faithfulness in friendship and love, are recited by narrators, not characters in the stories they tell, so despite their intensity, they maintain a type of emotional reserve that differs from that of opera.

Nature makes a human being one with himself, art separates and divides him; by means of the ideal he returns to the unity. Yet because the ideal is an infinite one that he never reaches, the cultured human being in his way can never become complete as the natural human being can be in his way. Schiller’s analysis of modern life helped to explain the pervasive sense of unease and dissatisfaction felt by many in his time, even though he ultimately concluded that the modern selfconscious experience is preferable to the older natural one. This set of ideas lies behind his 1788 poem ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’, in which he mourns the lost joyfulness that he attributed to the ancients. In 1819 Schubert set the 12th stanza of this long poem, whose opening lines read ‘Schöne Welt, wo bist du? – Kehre wieder, Holdes Blüthenalter der Natur!’ (Beautiful world, where art thou? – Return, Precious blossom-age of Nature!). ‘Blossom-age’ powerfully expresses Schiller’s perception of the ancient world as the childhood of modernity, whose contemplation arouses a sense of nostalgia and loss. Schubert captured this mood by opening with a motif of rocking widely spaced chords that are incomplete triads, containing a third but no fifth. They hint at the key of A minor and the vocal line affirms that key as it asks the opening question. A quick modal shift to A major ensues as the singer begs that happier world to return. Schubert reused this haunting beginning to the song in his ‘Rosamunde’ String Quartet in A minor D804 of 1824. Schubert’s affinity with Schiller’s yearning element is found in many other songs, including ‘Sehnsucht’, ‘Der Jüngling am Bache’, ‘Der Pilgrim’ and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. Even some Schiller texts that seem to depict fulfilment represent it as attainable only through death or withdrawal from DU MUSST GLAUBEN, normal society. The idea of fulfilment in death can be found in the eerie 1817 setting of ‘Thekla’, whose title character DU MUSST WAGEN, announces that she has been united with her lover and her DENN DIE GÖTTER father in the afterlife. The idea of withdrawal from society LEIH’N KEIN PFAND, is expressed in ‘Das Geheimnis’, set twice by Schubert. Two NUR EIN WUNDER lovers retreat under beech trees into a space protected from KANN DICH TRAGEN the bustling world outside and declare that only in such a IN DAS SCHÖNE sanctuary can their love be safe. Schubert’s 1823 setting is particularly expressive. The piano introduction of pianissimo WUNDERLAND. chords separated by rests suggests the entrance of the Sehnsucht couple on tiptoe and the vocal line then conveys the quiet intensity of their tryst through poignantly chromatic chords, dissonant melodic leaps such as tritones and sevenths and rhythmic figures that combine lingering long notes with breathlessly quick passages. In the second stanza, which speaks of the ‘confused rumblings’ the lovers hear from without, Schubert designed an accompaniment of low-register tremolos in both hands that conveys the ominousness of the economically driven world they are trying to escape. Schubert engaged with Schiller’s dramatic side by setting three notable ballads: ‘Der Taucher’ in 1813, ‘Die Bürgschaft’ in 1815 and ‘Ritter Toggenburg’ in 1816. Like those of his older contemporary Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, whose works

26    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Kärntnertortheater: watercolour by Karl Wenzel Zajicek

Growing up in Vienna, with its vibrant theatrical life, Schubert, like Schiller, was drawn to the theatre. The composer worked on more than 20 dramatic projects, of which three large-scale works received performances during his lifetime. The Singspiel Die Zwillingsbrüder was performed six times in 1820 at the Kärntnertor, one of the court theatres. Die Zauberharfe, a melodrama, in which text is spoken over musical accompaniment, belonged to the category of Zauberspiel or magic play, a beloved genre in Vienna’s theatres for decades – Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte being another example – and received eight performances in 1820 at the Theater an der Wien. Finally, Schubert wrote extensive incidental music for Rosamunde by Helmina von Chézy. Although the play was a critical disaster and closed after two 1823 performances at the Theater an der Wien, Schubert’s music survived and is frequently performed in concert, as well as being recalled in the second movement of the eponymous A minor String Quartet mentioned above. Three operas that were unperformed during Schubert’s life have attracted more attention since. Two are set in Spain, a fashionable locale for historical drama: Alfonso und Estrella (1821–2) on a text by Franz von Schober; and Fierrabras (1823) on a text by Josef Kupelwieser. The third, left unfinished but with extensive sketches of most of the music, is Der Graf von Gleichen (1827–8), with a libretto by Eduard von Bauernfeld. It retells a medieval legend about a crusader, rescued from slavery by a Saracen maiden, who receives permission from the Pope to marry her alongside his European wife. Work continued on this opera, despite its subject matter being banned by Austrian censors, and in recent years, three different completed versions have been staged. The librettists for many of Schubert’s dramatic projects were his good friends, reflecting the importance of the arts in Schubert’s intimate circle. It has been suggested that the lack of theatrical instincts on the part of these writers played an important role in preventing Schubert from making a splash as an opera composer. But it is also evident that Schubert did not think naturally on the large scale needed for opera. The Lied, particularly in his hands, is a detail-oriented genre. While Schubert was an adventurous songwriter, expanding the scope of German song by writing everything from tiny vignettes to expansive scenas, he never abandoned this awareness of each moment. Opera, like the huge history paintings of the early 19th century, requires grand gestures focusing on the central figures, while the Lied resembles a delicate watercolour in which every brush stroke matters. Schubert’s stage works rarely build naturally to sweeping climaxes, though he made considerable progress in Fierrabras. Nevertheless, they offer many expressive musical moments, such as the women’s chorus that opens Fierrabras and the exquisitely florid quintet in Act II of Der Graf von Gleichen.

The Schubert Project    27


Schiller’s essay ‘Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung’ (1795–6) contrasts the life and art of ancient Greece with that of modern Europe. He saw the Greek outlook, which he called naive, as characterized by a natural and unselfconscious relationship between humanity and the external world. Schiller argued that such innocence is no longer possible in modern life: we are inevitably aware of ourselves as separate from the world. As a result, modern people are limited to a sentimental or selfconscious relationship with the universe, yet when we encounter the older form of culture, we are forcibly struck by the insufficiency of our own experience and thus inevitably feel a sense of yearning for that wholeness that is lost forever.

served as models, Schubert’s ballads employ episodic musical construction to follow the elaborate tales they tell. Important features of the ballads are frequent key changes, a declamatory vocal style that often dips into recitative and energetic accompaniments that illustrate textual images and bring out dramatic situations. These ballads, presenting ideals of bravery and faithfulness in friendship and love, are recited by narrators, not characters in the stories they tell, so despite their intensity, they maintain a type of emotional reserve that differs from that of opera.

Nature makes a human being one with himself, art separates and divides him; by means of the ideal he returns to the unity. Yet because the ideal is an infinite one that he never reaches, the cultured human being in his way can never become complete as the natural human being can be in his way. Schiller’s analysis of modern life helped to explain the pervasive sense of unease and dissatisfaction felt by many in his time, even though he ultimately concluded that the modern selfconscious experience is preferable to the older natural one. This set of ideas lies behind his 1788 poem ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’, in which he mourns the lost joyfulness that he attributed to the ancients. In 1819 Schubert set the 12th stanza of this long poem, whose opening lines read ‘Schöne Welt, wo bist du? – Kehre wieder, Holdes Blüthenalter der Natur!’ (Beautiful world, where art thou? – Return, Precious blossom-age of Nature!). ‘Blossom-age’ powerfully expresses Schiller’s perception of the ancient world as the childhood of modernity, whose contemplation arouses a sense of nostalgia and loss. Schubert captured this mood by opening with a motif of rocking widely spaced chords that are incomplete triads, containing a third but no fifth. They hint at the key of A minor and the vocal line affirms that key as it asks the opening question. A quick modal shift to A major ensues as the singer begs that happier world to return. Schubert reused this haunting beginning to the song in his ‘Rosamunde’ String Quartet in A minor D804 of 1824. Schubert’s affinity with Schiller’s yearning element is found in many other songs, including ‘Sehnsucht’, ‘Der Jüngling am Bache’, ‘Der Pilgrim’ and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. Even some Schiller texts that seem to depict fulfilment represent it as attainable only through death or withdrawal from DU MUSST GLAUBEN, normal society. The idea of fulfilment in death can be found in the eerie 1817 setting of ‘Thekla’, whose title character DU MUSST WAGEN, announces that she has been united with her lover and her DENN DIE GÖTTER father in the afterlife. The idea of withdrawal from society LEIH’N KEIN PFAND, is expressed in ‘Das Geheimnis’, set twice by Schubert. Two NUR EIN WUNDER lovers retreat under beech trees into a space protected from KANN DICH TRAGEN the bustling world outside and declare that only in such a IN DAS SCHÖNE sanctuary can their love be safe. Schubert’s 1823 setting is particularly expressive. The piano introduction of pianissimo WUNDERLAND. chords separated by rests suggests the entrance of the Sehnsucht couple on tiptoe and the vocal line then conveys the quiet intensity of their tryst through poignantly chromatic chords, dissonant melodic leaps such as tritones and sevenths and rhythmic figures that combine lingering long notes with breathlessly quick passages. In the second stanza, which speaks of the ‘confused rumblings’ the lovers hear from without, Schubert designed an accompaniment of low-register tremolos in both hands that conveys the ominousness of the economically driven world they are trying to escape. Schubert engaged with Schiller’s dramatic side by setting three notable ballads: ‘Der Taucher’ in 1813, ‘Die Bürgschaft’ in 1815 and ‘Ritter Toggenburg’ in 1816. Like those of his older contemporary Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, whose works

26    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Kärntnertortheater: watercolour by Karl Wenzel Zajicek

Growing up in Vienna, with its vibrant theatrical life, Schubert, like Schiller, was drawn to the theatre. The composer worked on more than 20 dramatic projects, of which three large-scale works received performances during his lifetime. The Singspiel Die Zwillingsbrüder was performed six times in 1820 at the Kärntnertor, one of the court theatres. Die Zauberharfe, a melodrama, in which text is spoken over musical accompaniment, belonged to the category of Zauberspiel or magic play, a beloved genre in Vienna’s theatres for decades – Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte being another example – and received eight performances in 1820 at the Theater an der Wien. Finally, Schubert wrote extensive incidental music for Rosamunde by Helmina von Chézy. Although the play was a critical disaster and closed after two 1823 performances at the Theater an der Wien, Schubert’s music survived and is frequently performed in concert, as well as being recalled in the second movement of the eponymous A minor String Quartet mentioned above. Three operas that were unperformed during Schubert’s life have attracted more attention since. Two are set in Spain, a fashionable locale for historical drama: Alfonso und Estrella (1821–2) on a text by Franz von Schober; and Fierrabras (1823) on a text by Josef Kupelwieser. The third, left unfinished but with extensive sketches of most of the music, is Der Graf von Gleichen (1827–8), with a libretto by Eduard von Bauernfeld. It retells a medieval legend about a crusader, rescued from slavery by a Saracen maiden, who receives permission from the Pope to marry her alongside his European wife. Work continued on this opera, despite its subject matter being banned by Austrian censors, and in recent years, three different completed versions have been staged. The librettists for many of Schubert’s dramatic projects were his good friends, reflecting the importance of the arts in Schubert’s intimate circle. It has been suggested that the lack of theatrical instincts on the part of these writers played an important role in preventing Schubert from making a splash as an opera composer. But it is also evident that Schubert did not think naturally on the large scale needed for opera. The Lied, particularly in his hands, is a detail-oriented genre. While Schubert was an adventurous songwriter, expanding the scope of German song by writing everything from tiny vignettes to expansive scenas, he never abandoned this awareness of each moment. Opera, like the huge history paintings of the early 19th century, requires grand gestures focusing on the central figures, while the Lied resembles a delicate watercolour in which every brush stroke matters. Schubert’s stage works rarely build naturally to sweeping climaxes, though he made considerable progress in Fierrabras. Nevertheless, they offer many expressive musical moments, such as the women’s chorus that opens Fierrabras and the exquisitely florid quintet in Act II of Der Graf von Gleichen.

The Schubert Project    27


Some of Schubert’s theatrical friends took part in the energetic tradition of the suburban theatres, whose plays frequently commented indirectly on political and social issues. This Volkstheater tradition included much music designed for accomplished singer-actors and it is tempting to wonder whether Schubert would have begun composing for these theatres had he lived longer. Other friends were linked to the high-art style practiced at the Kärntnertor and Burgtheater, where Bauernfeld’s plays were eventually performed. One such acquaintance, probably the most significant Austrian playwright in that tradition during the period, was Franz Grillparzer (1791–1872), a melancholy individual whose selfdoubt permeated his works with intense gloom. Schubert set three of Grillparzer’s works to music, all in different genres: the solo song ‘Bertas Lied in der Nacht’, on a poem intended for the heroine of Grillparzer’s first play, Die Ahnfrau (1817); the cantata ‘Mirjams Siegesgesang’, depicting Moses’s sister Miriam celebrating the crossing of the Red Sea; and the partsong ‘Zögernd, leise’, written as a serenade to celebrate a young lady’s birthday. In his last years, Schubert elevated the genre of the partsong to a new level of complexity and expression. Through touches of chromaticism, overlapping rhythms and counterpoint, Schubert brings out layers of meaning in Grillparzer’s poem describing a ritual of friendship. On the opening words, ‘Zögernd leise’ (hesitating quietly), we hear the alto soloist, echoed by the ensemble after a moment’s pause – but by the time the text announces ‘sind wir hier’ (we are here) the decorous pause is gone, replaced by eager overlapping of the ensemble with the solo voice. For the middle section, setting a passage about Diogenes’s search for an honest man, Schubert writes imitative counterpoint to represent that diligent seeking. He also uses various harmonic devices that are adventurous in a partsong, including a brief modulation to a distant key and enharmonic respellings of notes. The evocative uses of harmony intensify the delight of the birthday surprise. This work, a lovely tribute to friendship, shows Schubert’s mastery of vocal chamber music; like his Schiller songs, it brings us back to the awareness that for all his attraction to drama, Schubert particularly excelled at portraying the nuances of human life offstage.

Lisa Feurzeig, Professor of Music at Grand Valley State University in Michigan, is the author of Schubert’s Lieder and the Philosophy of Early German Romanticism (Ashgate, 2014). She has also worked extensively on the Viennese Volkstheater of the 18th and 19th centuries.

28    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Friedrich Schiller: lithograph

The Schubert Project    29


Some of Schubert’s theatrical friends took part in the energetic tradition of the suburban theatres, whose plays frequently commented indirectly on political and social issues. This Volkstheater tradition included much music designed for accomplished singer-actors and it is tempting to wonder whether Schubert would have begun composing for these theatres had he lived longer. Other friends were linked to the high-art style practiced at the Kärntnertor and Burgtheater, where Bauernfeld’s plays were eventually performed. One such acquaintance, probably the most significant Austrian playwright in that tradition during the period, was Franz Grillparzer (1791–1872), a melancholy individual whose selfdoubt permeated his works with intense gloom. Schubert set three of Grillparzer’s works to music, all in different genres: the solo song ‘Bertas Lied in der Nacht’, on a poem intended for the heroine of Grillparzer’s first play, Die Ahnfrau (1817); the cantata ‘Mirjams Siegesgesang’, depicting Moses’s sister Miriam celebrating the crossing of the Red Sea; and the partsong ‘Zögernd, leise’, written as a serenade to celebrate a young lady’s birthday. In his last years, Schubert elevated the genre of the partsong to a new level of complexity and expression. Through touches of chromaticism, overlapping rhythms and counterpoint, Schubert brings out layers of meaning in Grillparzer’s poem describing a ritual of friendship. On the opening words, ‘Zögernd leise’ (hesitating quietly), we hear the alto soloist, echoed by the ensemble after a moment’s pause – but by the time the text announces ‘sind wir hier’ (we are here) the decorous pause is gone, replaced by eager overlapping of the ensemble with the solo voice. For the middle section, setting a passage about Diogenes’s search for an honest man, Schubert writes imitative counterpoint to represent that diligent seeking. He also uses various harmonic devices that are adventurous in a partsong, including a brief modulation to a distant key and enharmonic respellings of notes. The evocative uses of harmony intensify the delight of the birthday surprise. This work, a lovely tribute to friendship, shows Schubert’s mastery of vocal chamber music; like his Schiller songs, it brings us back to the awareness that for all his attraction to drama, Schubert particularly excelled at portraying the nuances of human life offstage.

Lisa Feurzeig, Professor of Music at Grand Valley State University in Michigan, is the author of Schubert’s Lieder and the Philosophy of Early German Romanticism (Ashgate, 2014). She has also worked extensively on the Viennese Volkstheater of the 18th and 19th centuries.

28    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Friedrich Schiller: lithograph

The Schubert Project    29


June 20 - 28 August 22 - 30

SCHUBERTIADE

SCHWARZENBERG HOHENEMS 2015

May 1 - 10, 29 - 31 / July 16 - 19 September 11 - 13 / October 1 - 6

Angelika Kauffmann Hall, Schwarzenberg

CHAPTER V

THE SCHUBERT CIRCLE John M. Gingerich

Markus Sittikus Hall, Hohenems

The Schubertiade Anniversary Project: Franz Schubert‘s Complete Lieder For almost 40 years, the Schubertiade has been one of the most successful and distinguished classical music festivals in the world. Focussing on top-class lieder recitals and chamber music concerts with today’s most renowned artists in Schwarzenberg and Hohenems (Austria), the Schubertiade presents a distinctly shaped programme revolving around the great Viennese composer and his contemporaries. In 2015 we celebrate the 40th Schubertiade season and in 2016 fourty years will have passed since the first Schubertiade was staged in Hohenems in May 1976. On the occasion of this anniversary, Franz Schubert‘s complete lieder will be performed in Hohenems and Schwarzenberg in the course of two seasons. Lieder recitals Benjamin Appl Juliane Banse Piotr Beczala Daniel Behle Ian Bostridge Michelle Breedt Benjamin Bruns Sarah Connolly Diana Damrau Annette Dasch Mojca Erdmann Matthias Goerne Werner Güra Robert Holl Christiane Karg Angelika Kirchschlager Julia Kleiter Elisabeth Kulman Christopher Maltman Martin Mitterrutzner Mark Padmore Mauro Peter Luca Pisaroni Christoph Prégardien Julian Prégardien Brenda Rae Sophie Rennert Christine Schäfer

Maximilian Schmitt Daniel Schmutzhard Andreas Scholl Andrè Schuen Sylvia Schwartz Thomas Tatzl Carolina Ullrich Violeta Urmana Michael Volle Markus Werba Chamber concerts Apollon Musagète Quartett Artemis Quartett Belcea Quartet Cuarteto Casals Emerson String Quartet Hagen Quartett Jerusalem Quartet Minetti Quartett Modigliani Quartett Pavel Haas Quartett Quatuor Ebène Schumann Quartett Nicholas Angelich Avi Avital Frank Braley Khatia Buniatishvili Gautier Capuçon

Renaud Capuçon Gérard Caussé Bertrand Chamayou Krzysztof Chorzelski Valentin Erben Martin Fröst Sol Gabetta Marie-Elisabeth Hecker Martin Helmchen Dejan Lazic Paul Meyer Sabine Meyer Daniel Müller-Schott Emmanuel Pahud Miklos Perényi Aaron Pilsan Alois Posch Fazil Say András Schiff Kian Soltani Christian Tetzlaff Radovan Vlatkovic Hanna Weinmeister Piano recitals David Fray Elisabeth Leonskaja Igor Levit Paul Lewis

András Schiff Herbert Schuch Martin Stadtfeld Yaara Tal & Andreas Groethuysen Lars Vogt Ingolf Wunder Christian Zacharias Orchestral concerts Cappella Andrea Barca (Conductor: András Schiff) recreationBAROCK (Conductor: Michael Hofstetter) Valer Sabadus Terry Wey Master class Peter Schreier Information / Tickets Schubertiade GmbH Schweizer Straße 1 A-6845 Hohenems Tel. +43/(0)5576/72091 Fax +43/(0)5576/75450 info@schubertiade.at

www.schubertiade.at

The Schubert Circle. The very words summon an irresistibly appealing image of Schubert surrounded by his youthful and talented friends, engaged in their defining activity, the Schubertiade, an evening devoted entirely to his music. No other composer’s name is linked so closely to a nimbus of friends. The romance of the Schubert Circle is most famously captured by one of those figures, Moritz von Schwind, in his sepia drawing of ‘Schubert-Abend bei Josef von Spaun’ (page 33), which shows Schubert at the piano, accompanying the singer Johann Michael Vogl, surrounded by some 40-odd listeners. But Schwind’s drawing, which he worked on soon after the sensational discovery of the ‘Unfinished’ Symphony in 1865, unwittingly illustrates problems that persist in the historiography of the Schubert Circle. While the drawing ostensibly commemorates an event that took place in 1826 or 1827, it also depicts several listeners who could not possibly have been there; Schwind evidently wished to combine in his drawing an event and an atmosphere he remembered with an honour roll of Schubertians. Over the years the Schubert Circle has been invoked time and again without defining its membership or delimiting chronological boundaries; those classmates from school with whom Schubert stayed in touch, everyone with whom he was on a familiar ‘Du’ basis, all the people he met at various salons and semi-formal gatherings, anyone with whom he attended taverns or with whom he socialized informally – all have become a part of the ‘Schubert Circle’. If it is to be more than a roll call, we need to differentiate circles that revolved around Schubert from circles in which he was on the periphery, and intense friendships from casual acquaintances. Schubert’s closest friend was Franz von Schober and for several years in the early 1820s a circle formed around the two of them. The pair’s mutual loyalty and admiration constituted the unassailable bedrock of their circle, which contained only three other close friends. Schubert provided in many ways the living embodiment of the circle’s ideals, which stressed the importance of art to society, while Schober was its mouthpiece, even as his example fell short.

The Schubert Project    31


June 20 - 28 August 22 - 30

SCHUBERTIADE

SCHWARZENBERG HOHENEMS 2015

May 1 - 10, 29 - 31 / July 16 - 19 September 11 - 13 / October 1 - 6

Angelika Kauffmann Hall, Schwarzenberg

CHAPTER V

THE SCHUBERT CIRCLE John M. Gingerich

Markus Sittikus Hall, Hohenems

The Schubertiade Anniversary Project: Franz Schubert‘s Complete Lieder For almost 40 years, the Schubertiade has been one of the most successful and distinguished classical music festivals in the world. Focussing on top-class lieder recitals and chamber music concerts with today’s most renowned artists in Schwarzenberg and Hohenems (Austria), the Schubertiade presents a distinctly shaped programme revolving around the great Viennese composer and his contemporaries. In 2015 we celebrate the 40th Schubertiade season and in 2016 fourty years will have passed since the first Schubertiade was staged in Hohenems in May 1976. On the occasion of this anniversary, Franz Schubert‘s complete lieder will be performed in Hohenems and Schwarzenberg in the course of two seasons. Lieder recitals Benjamin Appl Juliane Banse Piotr Beczala Daniel Behle Ian Bostridge Michelle Breedt Benjamin Bruns Sarah Connolly Diana Damrau Annette Dasch Mojca Erdmann Matthias Goerne Werner Güra Robert Holl Christiane Karg Angelika Kirchschlager Julia Kleiter Elisabeth Kulman Christopher Maltman Martin Mitterrutzner Mark Padmore Mauro Peter Luca Pisaroni Christoph Prégardien Julian Prégardien Brenda Rae Sophie Rennert Christine Schäfer

Maximilian Schmitt Daniel Schmutzhard Andreas Scholl Andrè Schuen Sylvia Schwartz Thomas Tatzl Carolina Ullrich Violeta Urmana Michael Volle Markus Werba Chamber concerts Apollon Musagète Quartett Artemis Quartett Belcea Quartet Cuarteto Casals Emerson String Quartet Hagen Quartett Jerusalem Quartet Minetti Quartett Modigliani Quartett Pavel Haas Quartett Quatuor Ebène Schumann Quartett Nicholas Angelich Avi Avital Frank Braley Khatia Buniatishvili Gautier Capuçon

Renaud Capuçon Gérard Caussé Bertrand Chamayou Krzysztof Chorzelski Valentin Erben Martin Fröst Sol Gabetta Marie-Elisabeth Hecker Martin Helmchen Dejan Lazic Paul Meyer Sabine Meyer Daniel Müller-Schott Emmanuel Pahud Miklos Perényi Aaron Pilsan Alois Posch Fazil Say András Schiff Kian Soltani Christian Tetzlaff Radovan Vlatkovic Hanna Weinmeister Piano recitals David Fray Elisabeth Leonskaja Igor Levit Paul Lewis

András Schiff Herbert Schuch Martin Stadtfeld Yaara Tal & Andreas Groethuysen Lars Vogt Ingolf Wunder Christian Zacharias Orchestral concerts Cappella Andrea Barca (Conductor: András Schiff) recreationBAROCK (Conductor: Michael Hofstetter) Valer Sabadus Terry Wey Master class Peter Schreier Information / Tickets Schubertiade GmbH Schweizer Straße 1 A-6845 Hohenems Tel. +43/(0)5576/72091 Fax +43/(0)5576/75450 info@schubertiade.at

www.schubertiade.at

The Schubert Circle. The very words summon an irresistibly appealing image of Schubert surrounded by his youthful and talented friends, engaged in their defining activity, the Schubertiade, an evening devoted entirely to his music. No other composer’s name is linked so closely to a nimbus of friends. The romance of the Schubert Circle is most famously captured by one of those figures, Moritz von Schwind, in his sepia drawing of ‘Schubert-Abend bei Josef von Spaun’ (page 33), which shows Schubert at the piano, accompanying the singer Johann Michael Vogl, surrounded by some 40-odd listeners. But Schwind’s drawing, which he worked on soon after the sensational discovery of the ‘Unfinished’ Symphony in 1865, unwittingly illustrates problems that persist in the historiography of the Schubert Circle. While the drawing ostensibly commemorates an event that took place in 1826 or 1827, it also depicts several listeners who could not possibly have been there; Schwind evidently wished to combine in his drawing an event and an atmosphere he remembered with an honour roll of Schubertians. Over the years the Schubert Circle has been invoked time and again without defining its membership or delimiting chronological boundaries; those classmates from school with whom Schubert stayed in touch, everyone with whom he was on a familiar ‘Du’ basis, all the people he met at various salons and semi-formal gatherings, anyone with whom he attended taverns or with whom he socialized informally – all have become a part of the ‘Schubert Circle’. If it is to be more than a roll call, we need to differentiate circles that revolved around Schubert from circles in which he was on the periphery, and intense friendships from casual acquaintances. Schubert’s closest friend was Franz von Schober and for several years in the early 1820s a circle formed around the two of them. The pair’s mutual loyalty and admiration constituted the unassailable bedrock of their circle, which contained only three other close friends. Schubert provided in many ways the living embodiment of the circle’s ideals, which stressed the importance of art to society, while Schober was its mouthpiece, even as his example fell short.

The Schubert Project    31


Schober could do almost everything, but lacked the discipline to master anything. His guiding text had also been a key text of early Romanticism, Friedrich von Schlegel’s semi-autobiographical novel Lucinde (1799), which combined a critique of the emerging consumer economy with a celebration of the very traits that many outside the circle found most objectionable in Schober: idleness and a sensuality and lust that acknowledged no conventional bounds. Within the circle, Schober and his girlfriend Justine von Bruchmann were closely identified with the chief characters of the novel, Julius and Lucinde. Schober dabbled in poetry, published a book of sonnets on Old Testament themes and also tried his hand as an actor and a businessman, leading, for a short time, the Lithographic Institute in Vienna, which published Schubert’s opp. 96 and 106. Schubert set 16 of Schober’s poems, including the well-known ‘An die Musik’, Oft hat ein Seufzer, a hymn to the redemptive power of music. Schober also deiner Harf wrote the libretto for Schubert’s opera Alfonso und Estrella, a entflossen, Ein süsser, project on which they collaborated during the years in which heiliger Akkord von their circle was most active, from 1821 to 1823.

dir Den Himmel bessrer Zeiten mir erschlossen.

The other important members were the painters Leopold Kupelwieser and Schwind and the would-be philosopher An die Musik Franz von Bruchmann, who also wrote poems, five of which Schubert set between 1822 and 1823. Schubert first knew Kupelwieser through the Unsinnsgesellschaft (or Nonsense Society) of 1817–9, in which newsletters, drawings, songs, partsongs, poems, skits and dressing up in drag were all put to the service of poking good-natured fun at each other. Bruchmann and Schubert had both been part of a circle around the poet Johann Senn, which met during 1819 and early 1820 and came to an abrupt and traumatic end after the police raided one of its gatherings on the suspicion that it was a nationalist student fraternity in the German mould. Schubert narrowly avoided arrest, while Senn was sentenced in March 1821 to exile in the Tyrol, after which Schubert never saw him again. Schwind got to know both Schubert and Schober through his teachers, Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld, who attended some of the circle’s early gatherings, and Kupelwieser, who was teaching Schwind how to paint with oils.

The Schubert-Schober circle invented both the name and the practice of the Schubertiade, the first of which they held in early 1821. During a Schubertiade the friends typically sang songs and partsongs (usually four voices, two tenors and two basses) and played four-hand piano music. Schubert presided at the piano and, as the evening progressed, chamber music would give way to some light refreshment and dancing, for which Schubert improvised. At the peak of their organized activities, during the winter of 1822–3, the Schubert-Schober circle met at Schober or Bruchmann’s residence once a week for a Schubertiade and three more times for reading parties, at which they discussed poetry and novels and read through dramas together. They also frequently met less formally in the afternoon at coffeehouses and in the evening in a designated pub. In the summers they gathered at Atzenbrugg, a country estate made available for several weeks each year through Schober’s family connections.

Schubert-Abend bei Josef von Spaun: sepia drawing by Moritz von Schwind (1865) Top row (from left to right): Karl Pinterics (c1780–1831), Josef Witteczek (1787–1859), Franz Lachner (1803–90), three unknown figures in the window, Karl von Schönstein (1796–1876), Benedikt Randhartinger (1802–93), Josef von Gahy (1793–1864), Johann Steiger von Amstein (1803–69), Ferdinand Mayerhofer von Grünbühel (1798–1869), Anton von Doblhoff (1800–72), portrait of Karoline von Esterházy (1811–51), Ludwig Kraissl (1793–1871), Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1788–1853), Moritz von Schwind (1804–71), August Wilhelm Rieder (1796–1880), Leopold Kupelwieser (1796–1862), Anton Dietrich (1799–1872), Franz Romeo Seligman (1808–92), Ernst von Feuchtersleben (1806–49), Franz Grillparzer (1791–1872), Franz von Bruchmann (1798–1867), Johann Senn (1795–1857) and Johann Baptist Mayrhofer (1787–1836). Bottom row (from left to right): Ignaz Lachner (1807–95), unknown woman, Franziska Pinterics (1780–1867), Johann Michael Vogl (1768–1840), Franz Schubert (1797–1828), Josef von Spaun (1788–1865), Franz von Hartmann (1808–95), Anton von Spaun (1790–1849), unknown woman, Kunigunde Vogl (1795–c1869), Josef Kenner (1794–1868), Marie Ottenwalt (1795–1847), Anna Hönig (1803–88), Therese Hönig (1806–67), Franz von Schober (1796–1882), Justina von Bruchmann (1774–1840), Eduard von Bauernfeld (1802–90) and Ignaz Franz Castelli (1780–1862).

In addition to the tremendous amount of time committed to the regular meetings of the Schubert-Schober circle, there were other get-togethers that were more intensely personal. The atmosphere is captured in a letter Schubert later wrote to Schober of 21 September 1824: If only we were together, you, Swind [Moritz von Schwind], Kuppel [Leopold Kupelwieser], and I, every mishap would seem but a trivial matter; but here we are, separated, each in a different corner, and that is truly my misfortune. I might exclaim with Goethe: “Who will bring back just one hour of that happy time!” That time when we sat together confidingly,

32    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    33


Schober could do almost everything, but lacked the discipline to master anything. His guiding text had also been a key text of early Romanticism, Friedrich von Schlegel’s semi-autobiographical novel Lucinde (1799), which combined a critique of the emerging consumer economy with a celebration of the very traits that many outside the circle found most objectionable in Schober: idleness and a sensuality and lust that acknowledged no conventional bounds. Within the circle, Schober and his girlfriend Justine von Bruchmann were closely identified with the chief characters of the novel, Julius and Lucinde. Schober dabbled in poetry, published a book of sonnets on Old Testament themes and also tried his hand as an actor and a businessman, leading, for a short time, the Lithographic Institute in Vienna, which published Schubert’s opp. 96 and 106. Schubert set 16 of Schober’s poems, including the well-known ‘An die Musik’, Oft hat ein Seufzer, a hymn to the redemptive power of music. Schober also deiner Harf wrote the libretto for Schubert’s opera Alfonso und Estrella, a entflossen, Ein süsser, project on which they collaborated during the years in which heiliger Akkord von their circle was most active, from 1821 to 1823.

dir Den Himmel bessrer Zeiten mir erschlossen.

The other important members were the painters Leopold Kupelwieser and Schwind and the would-be philosopher An die Musik Franz von Bruchmann, who also wrote poems, five of which Schubert set between 1822 and 1823. Schubert first knew Kupelwieser through the Unsinnsgesellschaft (or Nonsense Society) of 1817–9, in which newsletters, drawings, songs, partsongs, poems, skits and dressing up in drag were all put to the service of poking good-natured fun at each other. Bruchmann and Schubert had both been part of a circle around the poet Johann Senn, which met during 1819 and early 1820 and came to an abrupt and traumatic end after the police raided one of its gatherings on the suspicion that it was a nationalist student fraternity in the German mould. Schubert narrowly avoided arrest, while Senn was sentenced in March 1821 to exile in the Tyrol, after which Schubert never saw him again. Schwind got to know both Schubert and Schober through his teachers, Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld, who attended some of the circle’s early gatherings, and Kupelwieser, who was teaching Schwind how to paint with oils.

The Schubert-Schober circle invented both the name and the practice of the Schubertiade, the first of which they held in early 1821. During a Schubertiade the friends typically sang songs and partsongs (usually four voices, two tenors and two basses) and played four-hand piano music. Schubert presided at the piano and, as the evening progressed, chamber music would give way to some light refreshment and dancing, for which Schubert improvised. At the peak of their organized activities, during the winter of 1822–3, the Schubert-Schober circle met at Schober or Bruchmann’s residence once a week for a Schubertiade and three more times for reading parties, at which they discussed poetry and novels and read through dramas together. They also frequently met less formally in the afternoon at coffeehouses and in the evening in a designated pub. In the summers they gathered at Atzenbrugg, a country estate made available for several weeks each year through Schober’s family connections.

Schubert-Abend bei Josef von Spaun: sepia drawing by Moritz von Schwind (1865) Top row (from left to right): Karl Pinterics (c1780–1831), Josef Witteczek (1787–1859), Franz Lachner (1803–90), three unknown figures in the window, Karl von Schönstein (1796–1876), Benedikt Randhartinger (1802–93), Josef von Gahy (1793–1864), Johann Steiger von Amstein (1803–69), Ferdinand Mayerhofer von Grünbühel (1798–1869), Anton von Doblhoff (1800–72), portrait of Karoline von Esterházy (1811–51), Ludwig Kraissl (1793–1871), Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1788–1853), Moritz von Schwind (1804–71), August Wilhelm Rieder (1796–1880), Leopold Kupelwieser (1796–1862), Anton Dietrich (1799–1872), Franz Romeo Seligman (1808–92), Ernst von Feuchtersleben (1806–49), Franz Grillparzer (1791–1872), Franz von Bruchmann (1798–1867), Johann Senn (1795–1857) and Johann Baptist Mayrhofer (1787–1836). Bottom row (from left to right): Ignaz Lachner (1807–95), unknown woman, Franziska Pinterics (1780–1867), Johann Michael Vogl (1768–1840), Franz Schubert (1797–1828), Josef von Spaun (1788–1865), Franz von Hartmann (1808–95), Anton von Spaun (1790–1849), unknown woman, Kunigunde Vogl (1795–c1869), Josef Kenner (1794–1868), Marie Ottenwalt (1795–1847), Anna Hönig (1803–88), Therese Hönig (1806–67), Franz von Schober (1796–1882), Justina von Bruchmann (1774–1840), Eduard von Bauernfeld (1802–90) and Ignaz Franz Castelli (1780–1862).

In addition to the tremendous amount of time committed to the regular meetings of the Schubert-Schober circle, there were other get-togethers that were more intensely personal. The atmosphere is captured in a letter Schubert later wrote to Schober of 21 September 1824: If only we were together, you, Swind [Moritz von Schwind], Kuppel [Leopold Kupelwieser], and I, every mishap would seem but a trivial matter; but here we are, separated, each in a different corner, and that is truly my misfortune. I might exclaim with Goethe: “Who will bring back just one hour of that happy time!” That time when we sat together confidingly,

32    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    33


and each exposed his artistic children to the others with motherly shyness, expecting, not without some trepidation, the judgment that love and truth were to pronounce; that time when each inspired the other and thus a united striving for the highest beauty animated us all. For Schubert the years of the Schubert-Schober circle bridged his transition from obscurity to first fame. The fateful winter of 1822–3 was particularly poignant, since amidst the most intense flurry of the circle’s activities he also irrevocably lost his health when he became infected with syphilis. During autumn 1823 the circle began to dissolve when Schober travelled to Silesia and Kupelwieser journeyed to Rome, where he spent time with the colony of German artists known as the Nazarenes, while Schubert himself was sick all year and in quarantine for long periods of time. The next summer Bruchmann made a permanent break with his friends when he decided to put a stop to Schober’s courtship of his sister Justine, which they had kept secret from their disapproving parents. Schober, Schubert and Schwind never forgave Bruchmann’s betrayal. Schubert’s only compensation for the temporary loss of the circle and the permanent loss of Bruchmann was a new friendship with Eduard von Bauernfeld. Bauernfeld had known Schwind for a long time, but became fast friends with Schubert only in early 1825. He had ambitions as a writer of theatrical comedies, at which he did eventually succeed, but in the meantime he was supporting himself by translating Shakespeare. His chief collaboration with Schubert was as the librettist for the opera Der Graf von Gleichen, which Schubert worked on intermittently during his last years even though the censor had forbidden it because it glorified a bigamous marriage. In addition to Bauernfeld, Schubert had other close friends who were not prominent participants in the Schubert-Schober circle. The most important musician among those friends was the singer Vogl, while the most important poet was Johann Baptist Mayrhofer. Vogl was the only professional musician with whom Schubert spent a great deal of time, especially during the summer months of 1819, 1823 and 1825, when he treated Schubert to extended stays in and around his native Steyr in Upper Austria. He was a full generation older than Schubert and Schober and already had a long and successful career behind him as the first baritone in Vienna’s most important opera house; his participation in Schubert’s life was always on a different plane from the informal and convivial, as well as the intensely serious and probing group activities with the others. Schubert’s songs provided him with a second life as a singer, especially after his retirement from the opera house in 1822, and though he presented them only rarely on the public stage, he frequently sang at Schubertiaden. While many of Schubert’s friends wrote poems, Mayrhofer was by far the best poet. Schubert was inspired to set nearly 50 of his poems, second only to the number he set by Goethe. Mayrhofer, like Bruchmann and Schubert, belonged to the circle around the poet Johann Senn and for several years before Senn’s arrest Schubert and Mayrhofer also lived together. After 1820, however, Mayrhofer rarely participated in group activities, probably as a result of his increasingly pessimistic intellectual outlook, coupled with his melancholy, hypochondriac and generally misanthropic disposition, which was not aided by the dissonance between his work in the imperial censorship office and his own belief in intellectual freedom. Schubert’s death was a further blow and, after an attempted suicide in 1831, he took his own life in 1836. Schubert’s oldest friend, Josef von Spaun, returned to Vienna in the spring of 1826 after a five-year absence filling posts in the civil service in Linz and Galicia (now part of Ukraine). Spaun had been encouraging Schubert’s musical talents

34    The Oxford Lieder Festival

ever since Schubert’s first days at boarding school in 1808, where Spaun was a sort of older minder, running the student orchestra and playing the violin while he pursued his law studies. In those early years Spaun kept Schubert supplied with music paper, gave him his first experiences of opera and introduced him to an extensive circle of potentially useful social contacts, including Schober and Vogl. Starting in early 1825 several of Spaun’s friends, Josef Witteczek and Karl Ritter von Enderes, began hosting Schubertiaden and, upon his return, Spaun did so as well – it is such an evening Schwind later commemorated. Like Spaun, these men were approximately ten years older than Schubert and Schober and were art-loving civil service bureaucrats. They and the colleagues they invited, along with wives and other family members, now set the tone on these occasions. The musical evenings were no longer just another activity of the Schubert-Schober circle, but became a salon for an older group of bureaucrats and their wives, albeit a salon for which Schubert and Vogl provided the entertainment. Schubert also participated in salons that did not revolve around his closest friends or his own music. During 1821 and 1822 he frequently attended Vienna’s most celebrated literary salon, hosted by Caroline Pichler, a poet, novelist and dramatist. Pichler’s salon attracted Vienna’s most prominent literary and intellectual figures including Franz Grillparzer, Friedrich and August Wilhelm O unbewölktes von Schlegel and Heinrich and Matthäus von Collin, as well Leben! So rein und as distinguished foreign visitors such as Clemens Brentano, tief und klar! Ludwig Tieck, Madame de Staël and Carl Maria von Weber. Schubert occasionally attended parties hosted by Katharina Uralte Träume von Lacsny (née Buchwieser), who had been a singer at schweben Auf the Hofoper, was twice married and was rumoured to have Blumen wunderbar. had many lovers, including several counts simultaneously during the Congress of Vienna. Schubert (and Schwind) Der Sieg took pleasure in her company and he met the composers Ferdinand Hiller and Johann Nepomuk Hummel at her house and probably the singer Luigi Lablache as well. But the salon with the greatest consequences for Schubert’s career was hosted by Ignaz Sonnleithner and organized and run by his son Leopold. ‘Erlkönig’ received its first semi-public performance in their salon, after which Leopold and several other music lovers paid to have it published as Schubert’s first official opus, while Ignaz’s brother Joseph arranged for its first performance in a major public space, a performance that created a furore and made Schubert famous overnight. The Schubert-Schober circle and Schubert’s other closest friends numbered no composers among them and no professional performers except for Vogl. Schubert did socialize with several men who took themselves seriously as composers – Franz Lachner, Benedikt Randhartinger and Anselm Hüttenbrenner to name but a few – and he was friendly with the violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh, who was Schubert’s chief link with Beethoven. But to none of these did he ‘expose his artistic children with motherly shyness’ and none of them mattered to him as did Spaun, Mayrhofer, Schober, Kupelwieser, Bruchmann, Schwind and Bauernfeld.

John M. Gingerich has written widely about music in Vienna at the beginning of the 19th century. His most recent work is Schubert’s Beethoven Project, published this year by Cambridge University Press and ‘“Those of us who found our life in art”: The Second-Generation Romanticism of the Schubert-Schober Circle, 1820–1825’ in Franz Schubert and His World, published by Princeton University Press in conjunction with the Bard Festival 2014. He is currently working on a book about Ignaz Schuppanzigh. Before embarking on his musicological studies he spent several years playing in the cello section of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra.

The Schubert Project    35


and each exposed his artistic children to the others with motherly shyness, expecting, not without some trepidation, the judgment that love and truth were to pronounce; that time when each inspired the other and thus a united striving for the highest beauty animated us all. For Schubert the years of the Schubert-Schober circle bridged his transition from obscurity to first fame. The fateful winter of 1822–3 was particularly poignant, since amidst the most intense flurry of the circle’s activities he also irrevocably lost his health when he became infected with syphilis. During autumn 1823 the circle began to dissolve when Schober travelled to Silesia and Kupelwieser journeyed to Rome, where he spent time with the colony of German artists known as the Nazarenes, while Schubert himself was sick all year and in quarantine for long periods of time. The next summer Bruchmann made a permanent break with his friends when he decided to put a stop to Schober’s courtship of his sister Justine, which they had kept secret from their disapproving parents. Schober, Schubert and Schwind never forgave Bruchmann’s betrayal. Schubert’s only compensation for the temporary loss of the circle and the permanent loss of Bruchmann was a new friendship with Eduard von Bauernfeld. Bauernfeld had known Schwind for a long time, but became fast friends with Schubert only in early 1825. He had ambitions as a writer of theatrical comedies, at which he did eventually succeed, but in the meantime he was supporting himself by translating Shakespeare. His chief collaboration with Schubert was as the librettist for the opera Der Graf von Gleichen, which Schubert worked on intermittently during his last years even though the censor had forbidden it because it glorified a bigamous marriage. In addition to Bauernfeld, Schubert had other close friends who were not prominent participants in the Schubert-Schober circle. The most important musician among those friends was the singer Vogl, while the most important poet was Johann Baptist Mayrhofer. Vogl was the only professional musician with whom Schubert spent a great deal of time, especially during the summer months of 1819, 1823 and 1825, when he treated Schubert to extended stays in and around his native Steyr in Upper Austria. He was a full generation older than Schubert and Schober and already had a long and successful career behind him as the first baritone in Vienna’s most important opera house; his participation in Schubert’s life was always on a different plane from the informal and convivial, as well as the intensely serious and probing group activities with the others. Schubert’s songs provided him with a second life as a singer, especially after his retirement from the opera house in 1822, and though he presented them only rarely on the public stage, he frequently sang at Schubertiaden. While many of Schubert’s friends wrote poems, Mayrhofer was by far the best poet. Schubert was inspired to set nearly 50 of his poems, second only to the number he set by Goethe. Mayrhofer, like Bruchmann and Schubert, belonged to the circle around the poet Johann Senn and for several years before Senn’s arrest Schubert and Mayrhofer also lived together. After 1820, however, Mayrhofer rarely participated in group activities, probably as a result of his increasingly pessimistic intellectual outlook, coupled with his melancholy, hypochondriac and generally misanthropic disposition, which was not aided by the dissonance between his work in the imperial censorship office and his own belief in intellectual freedom. Schubert’s death was a further blow and, after an attempted suicide in 1831, he took his own life in 1836. Schubert’s oldest friend, Josef von Spaun, returned to Vienna in the spring of 1826 after a five-year absence filling posts in the civil service in Linz and Galicia (now part of Ukraine). Spaun had been encouraging Schubert’s musical talents

34    The Oxford Lieder Festival

ever since Schubert’s first days at boarding school in 1808, where Spaun was a sort of older minder, running the student orchestra and playing the violin while he pursued his law studies. In those early years Spaun kept Schubert supplied with music paper, gave him his first experiences of opera and introduced him to an extensive circle of potentially useful social contacts, including Schober and Vogl. Starting in early 1825 several of Spaun’s friends, Josef Witteczek and Karl Ritter von Enderes, began hosting Schubertiaden and, upon his return, Spaun did so as well – it is such an evening Schwind later commemorated. Like Spaun, these men were approximately ten years older than Schubert and Schober and were art-loving civil service bureaucrats. They and the colleagues they invited, along with wives and other family members, now set the tone on these occasions. The musical evenings were no longer just another activity of the Schubert-Schober circle, but became a salon for an older group of bureaucrats and their wives, albeit a salon for which Schubert and Vogl provided the entertainment. Schubert also participated in salons that did not revolve around his closest friends or his own music. During 1821 and 1822 he frequently attended Vienna’s most celebrated literary salon, hosted by Caroline Pichler, a poet, novelist and dramatist. Pichler’s salon attracted Vienna’s most prominent literary and intellectual figures including Franz Grillparzer, Friedrich and August Wilhelm O unbewölktes von Schlegel and Heinrich and Matthäus von Collin, as well Leben! So rein und as distinguished foreign visitors such as Clemens Brentano, tief und klar! Ludwig Tieck, Madame de Staël and Carl Maria von Weber. Schubert occasionally attended parties hosted by Katharina Uralte Träume von Lacsny (née Buchwieser), who had been a singer at schweben Auf the Hofoper, was twice married and was rumoured to have Blumen wunderbar. had many lovers, including several counts simultaneously during the Congress of Vienna. Schubert (and Schwind) Der Sieg took pleasure in her company and he met the composers Ferdinand Hiller and Johann Nepomuk Hummel at her house and probably the singer Luigi Lablache as well. But the salon with the greatest consequences for Schubert’s career was hosted by Ignaz Sonnleithner and organized and run by his son Leopold. ‘Erlkönig’ received its first semi-public performance in their salon, after which Leopold and several other music lovers paid to have it published as Schubert’s first official opus, while Ignaz’s brother Joseph arranged for its first performance in a major public space, a performance that created a furore and made Schubert famous overnight. The Schubert-Schober circle and Schubert’s other closest friends numbered no composers among them and no professional performers except for Vogl. Schubert did socialize with several men who took themselves seriously as composers – Franz Lachner, Benedikt Randhartinger and Anselm Hüttenbrenner to name but a few – and he was friendly with the violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh, who was Schubert’s chief link with Beethoven. But to none of these did he ‘expose his artistic children with motherly shyness’ and none of them mattered to him as did Spaun, Mayrhofer, Schober, Kupelwieser, Bruchmann, Schwind and Bauernfeld.

John M. Gingerich has written widely about music in Vienna at the beginning of the 19th century. His most recent work is Schubert’s Beethoven Project, published this year by Cambridge University Press and ‘“Those of us who found our life in art”: The Second-Generation Romanticism of the Schubert-Schober Circle, 1820–1825’ in Franz Schubert and His World, published by Princeton University Press in conjunction with the Bard Festival 2014. He is currently working on a book about Ignaz Schuppanzigh. Before embarking on his musicological studies he spent several years playing in the cello section of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra.

The Schubert Project    35


CHAPTER VI

SCHUBERT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SONG CYCLE Richard Wigmore

The years 1815 and 1816 alone should scotch the lazy myth of Schubert the feckless, happy-go-lucky bohemian. Towards the end of 1814 the 17-year-old composer had become a reluctant teacher at his father’s school. He played the viola in the family string quartet and in the orchestra that met at the houses of the Viennese merchants Franz Frischling and Otto Hatwig. Twice a week he took lessons with the venerable Salieri, who urged him to abandon ‘the barbaric German language’ and devote himself to bel canto. And somehow Schubert found time to compose a phenomenal quantity of music, including four symphonies, three masses, chamber works, piano sonatas, partsongs, four one-act operas and more than 250 solo songs, many among the world’s best-loved. Over 140 songs date from 1815 alone, an annus mirabilis of the Lied, comparable to Schumann’s effusion of 1840. In October 1814 Schubert’s first Goethe song, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, had opened the floodgates. Goethe’s verses, with their spontaneous directness and eagerness to seize and glorify the moment, inspired 27 Schubert songs in 1815, more than any other poet. Next, with 20 songs – seven tossed off in a single day, 19 October – came the unassuming figure of Ludwig Theobul Kosegarten, who like a much greater writer, Eduard Mörike, was both poet and pastor – his talent for each role was arguably in inverse proportion to Mörike’s. Drawing on plausible, if inconclusive, evidence, the Norwegian musicologist Morten Solvik has posited that the Kosegarten songs were arranged by Schubert into a narrative cycle or Liederspiel (literally, a song-play), a genre first popularized by the Berlin composer Johann Friedrich Reichardt. Musical charades were a widespread entertainment in Schubert’s circle and Solvik has suggested that the ‘Kosegarten Liederspiel’ was semi-staged at the home of one or other of Schubert’s friends. Wilhelm Müller: lithograph

36    The Oxford Lieder Festival

A virtual mirror image of the later Die schöne Müllerin narrative, the story centres on Wilhelm, part-dreamer, part-rustic Don Juan whose serial infidelities

The Schubert Project    37


CHAPTER VI

SCHUBERT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SONG CYCLE Richard Wigmore

The years 1815 and 1816 alone should scotch the lazy myth of Schubert the feckless, happy-go-lucky bohemian. Towards the end of 1814 the 17-year-old composer had become a reluctant teacher at his father’s school. He played the viola in the family string quartet and in the orchestra that met at the houses of the Viennese merchants Franz Frischling and Otto Hatwig. Twice a week he took lessons with the venerable Salieri, who urged him to abandon ‘the barbaric German language’ and devote himself to bel canto. And somehow Schubert found time to compose a phenomenal quantity of music, including four symphonies, three masses, chamber works, piano sonatas, partsongs, four one-act operas and more than 250 solo songs, many among the world’s best-loved. Over 140 songs date from 1815 alone, an annus mirabilis of the Lied, comparable to Schumann’s effusion of 1840. In October 1814 Schubert’s first Goethe song, ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, had opened the floodgates. Goethe’s verses, with their spontaneous directness and eagerness to seize and glorify the moment, inspired 27 Schubert songs in 1815, more than any other poet. Next, with 20 songs – seven tossed off in a single day, 19 October – came the unassuming figure of Ludwig Theobul Kosegarten, who like a much greater writer, Eduard Mörike, was both poet and pastor – his talent for each role was arguably in inverse proportion to Mörike’s. Drawing on plausible, if inconclusive, evidence, the Norwegian musicologist Morten Solvik has posited that the Kosegarten songs were arranged by Schubert into a narrative cycle or Liederspiel (literally, a song-play), a genre first popularized by the Berlin composer Johann Friedrich Reichardt. Musical charades were a widespread entertainment in Schubert’s circle and Solvik has suggested that the ‘Kosegarten Liederspiel’ was semi-staged at the home of one or other of Schubert’s friends. Wilhelm Müller: lithograph

36    The Oxford Lieder Festival

A virtual mirror image of the later Die schöne Müllerin narrative, the story centres on Wilhelm, part-dreamer, part-rustic Don Juan whose serial infidelities

The Schubert Project    37


drive his lovelorn ladies Ida and Luisa to desperation and worse – Solvik sees ‘Schwanengesang’ as the prelude to Ida’s suicide. By the end of the ‘cycle’ Wilhelm is hankering after yet another girl, Rosa. All the songs are strophic in form, most of them hymn-like and faintly archaic in tone. Several, though, go beyond naive charm, including the unquiet ‘Das Sehnen’ and the rapt night-pieces ‘Die Mondnacht’, ‘Nachtgesang’ and ‘Der Abend’. In 1816, the year after Schubert’s Kosegarten songs, Beethoven, in the midst of an unprecedentedly fallow creative period, produced his most far-reaching contribution to the Lied, the song cycle An die ferne Geliebte. Jünglings Sehnsucht – The doctor-cum-litterateur Alois Jeitteles’s verses are the stuff of romantic cliché. But they evidently struck a chord with Einsamkeit, Wird dem Beethoven, for whom the dream of love was always more Greisen nun zu teil, alluring than its reality. The upshot was the world’s first great Und ein Leben rauh Lieder cycle, a continuous sequence of six songs connected und steil Führte doch by piano interludes and rounded off by a reminiscence of zur Seligkeit. the opening song. The very ending, though, is inconclusive, Einsamkeit implying a continuation. Graham Johnson has suggested that Beethoven’s success in this new genre needled Schubert into composing his own sequence of six interlinked songs, ‘Einsamkeit’, to a poem by his friend and intellectual mentor Johann Baptist Mayrhofer – the two men shared lodgings from 1818 to 1820 – that may have been written to order. Originally destined for the priesthood, Mayrhofer spent three years as a novice in the Abbey of St Florian; the opening of ‘Einsamkeit’ is evidently a self-portrait of a young man longing to escape his cloistered cell. Thereafter, Schubert’s song sequence unfolds as a narrative of self-discovery, a Bildungsroman in verse, with the piano, as in An die ferne Geliebte, mediating between songs. Each is introduced by a motto, culminating in the final ‘Gib mir die Weihe der Einsamkeit’ (Give me the consecration of solitude). Schubert’s rarely heard music is both picturesque and touching, with the piano, as so often in his Lieder, evoking other sound worlds: deep brass at the hieratic opening, distant horn calls in the nostalgic second song. Most moving of all is the final section, a pastoral idyll complete with drowsy musette drones, cuckoo calls, the drumming of a woodpecker and a distant waterfall. With the partial exception of ‘Viola’ – an allegory of crushed innocence, unified by a recurring motto theme and unobtrusive thematic links between sections – ‘Einsamkeit’ remained a Schubertian one-off. It was left to Robert Schumann, in Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und -leben, to draw creative capital from the continuity and ‘open’ circular form of An die ferne Geliebte. Schumann was haunted by Beethoven’s ‘distant beloved’ cycle, not only in his songs but also in such instrumental works as the C major Fantasie op. 17, an avowed homage to Beethoven, and the Second Symphony. The final movement of the Fantasie also quotes Schubert’s ‘Die Gebüsche’ (1819), whose theme is the hidden, mystical sounds in nature awaiting discovery by the initiated. The poet here is Friedrich von Schlegel, who before he became a reactionary Catholic bigot and supporter of Metternich’s repressive regime (to the dismay and derision of Goethe and Heine) had been, with his elder brother August, one of the pioneers of German Romanticism. Schlegel’s ‘Die Gebüsche’ comes from a cycle of 21 poems entitled Abendröte, ten of which Schubert set in 1819 and 1820 (he added a setting of the title poem, ‘Abendröte’, in 1823). It is doubtful whether the Schlegel songs were intended as a cycle, but they form a thematically cohesive group. In the spirit of Romantic pantheism, the poet creates characters from the natural world (mountains, birds, stars, a river, a rose, a butterfly), who with the human figures (a young boy, a young girl, a wayfarer) join in ‘ein einzig Chor, Manches Lied aus einem Munde’ (a single choir, singing many a song with a single voice) to celebrate the oneness of creation.

38    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schlegel songs, too little known, are among Schubert’s most melodically appealing, often with an Italianate grace and allure. In tone they range from the hypnotic nocturne of ‘Abendröte’ to the diaphanous miniatures ‘Die Rose’ and ‘Der Schmetterling’, where the butterfly is presented as a blithe, innocent seducer, more Cherubino than Don Giovanni. The protagonist of one of the Schlegel songs, ‘Der Wanderer’ – not be confused with the more famous song of the same title (D493) – is that archetypal German Romantic figure, the rootless outsider and, by analogy, the creative artist. This is the world of Winterreise as well as many other individual Schubertian ‘wandering’ songs and the enigmatic characters of the young dancer Mignon and the blind old Harper in Goethe’s picaresque Bildungsroman, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. The Harper is tormented by a secret guilt: his incestuous love for his half-demented sister Sperata, of whom Mignon is the fruit – though neither father nor daughter knows it. Mignon remains a slightly unreal figure, yearning for her native Italy, haunted by her past – she had been kidnapped and beaten by a travelling circus troupe – and mysteriously aware that she is destined to die young. Like Beethoven, Schumann, Wolf and countless lesser composers, Schubert was irresistibly drawn to the poems sung by Mignon and the Harper in the novel. He set Mignon’s ‘Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt’ no fewer than six times, once as a poignant duet for her and the Harper, as Goethe prescribes in his novel. He also made two settings each of ‘Heiss mich nicht reden’, where Mignon hints at her tragic past, and ‘So lasst mich scheinen’, which in the novel is sung ‘with unbelievable charm’ by Mignon, dressed as an angel, at a children’s party. The waif knows that she is already near to death, reflected in the mingled pathos and gravity of Schubert’s songs. The earlier song (D727) is fragile and childlike, while the later, 1826 song, with its hypnotic pavane rhythm (D877/3), is more richly textured and passionate in expression. While Schubert’s Mignon songs of 1826 – ‘Heiss mich nicht reden’, ‘So lasst mich scheinen’ and the most famous solo version of ‘Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt’ (D877/4) – certainly gain when sung as a group, the Harper Songs were actually published as a miniature cycle, linked by shared motifs and a similar measured, mournful tread. Schubert set three of the Harper’s lyrics in the novel, in the sequence ‘Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt’, ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ and ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’, in 1816, then composed a fresh version of ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ in 1822. Strummed chords and triplet arpeggios evoke the accompanying harp in ‘Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt’ and ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’, with its heartrending, accusatory climax at ‘Ihr führt ins Leben uns hinein’ (You bring us into life). In contrast, the textures of ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’ – bare, self-communing music, beyond suffering and madness – suggest an archaic organ prelude such as the old man might have heard in his youth. Early in 1825 Schubert discovered the poetry of the troubled, increasingly unstable Saxon writer Ernst Schulze. Over the next year or so he composed ten settings of verses from Schulze’s Poetisches Tagebuch, a journal charting the poet’s doomed infatuation with Adelheid Tychsen – Schulze had earlier been in love with Adelheid’s sister Cäcilie, transferring his affections after her premature death. Obsessive longing, now reckless and feverish (‘Im Walde’, ‘Über Wildemann’, ‘Auf der Bruck’), now reflective (‘Der liebliche Stern’ and the favourite ‘Im Frühling’), is the keynote of these powerful songs. Although there is no evidence that Schubert expected them to be performed together, Graham Johnson (on his Hyperion recording with Peter Schreier) convincingly fashioned them into a quasi-cycle ‘Auf den wilden Wegen’ (on the wild paths). In Johnson’s ordering, the sequence begins with the febrile night-ride of ‘Auf der Bruck’ (a line from which gives the ‘cycle’ its title) and ends with the half-rueful, half-reconciled ‘An mein Herz’.

The Schubert Project    39


drive his lovelorn ladies Ida and Luisa to desperation and worse – Solvik sees ‘Schwanengesang’ as the prelude to Ida’s suicide. By the end of the ‘cycle’ Wilhelm is hankering after yet another girl, Rosa. All the songs are strophic in form, most of them hymn-like and faintly archaic in tone. Several, though, go beyond naive charm, including the unquiet ‘Das Sehnen’ and the rapt night-pieces ‘Die Mondnacht’, ‘Nachtgesang’ and ‘Der Abend’. In 1816, the year after Schubert’s Kosegarten songs, Beethoven, in the midst of an unprecedentedly fallow creative period, produced his most far-reaching contribution to the Lied, the song cycle An die ferne Geliebte. Jünglings Sehnsucht – The doctor-cum-litterateur Alois Jeitteles’s verses are the stuff of romantic cliché. But they evidently struck a chord with Einsamkeit, Wird dem Beethoven, for whom the dream of love was always more Greisen nun zu teil, alluring than its reality. The upshot was the world’s first great Und ein Leben rauh Lieder cycle, a continuous sequence of six songs connected und steil Führte doch by piano interludes and rounded off by a reminiscence of zur Seligkeit. the opening song. The very ending, though, is inconclusive, Einsamkeit implying a continuation. Graham Johnson has suggested that Beethoven’s success in this new genre needled Schubert into composing his own sequence of six interlinked songs, ‘Einsamkeit’, to a poem by his friend and intellectual mentor Johann Baptist Mayrhofer – the two men shared lodgings from 1818 to 1820 – that may have been written to order. Originally destined for the priesthood, Mayrhofer spent three years as a novice in the Abbey of St Florian; the opening of ‘Einsamkeit’ is evidently a self-portrait of a young man longing to escape his cloistered cell. Thereafter, Schubert’s song sequence unfolds as a narrative of self-discovery, a Bildungsroman in verse, with the piano, as in An die ferne Geliebte, mediating between songs. Each is introduced by a motto, culminating in the final ‘Gib mir die Weihe der Einsamkeit’ (Give me the consecration of solitude). Schubert’s rarely heard music is both picturesque and touching, with the piano, as so often in his Lieder, evoking other sound worlds: deep brass at the hieratic opening, distant horn calls in the nostalgic second song. Most moving of all is the final section, a pastoral idyll complete with drowsy musette drones, cuckoo calls, the drumming of a woodpecker and a distant waterfall. With the partial exception of ‘Viola’ – an allegory of crushed innocence, unified by a recurring motto theme and unobtrusive thematic links between sections – ‘Einsamkeit’ remained a Schubertian one-off. It was left to Robert Schumann, in Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und -leben, to draw creative capital from the continuity and ‘open’ circular form of An die ferne Geliebte. Schumann was haunted by Beethoven’s ‘distant beloved’ cycle, not only in his songs but also in such instrumental works as the C major Fantasie op. 17, an avowed homage to Beethoven, and the Second Symphony. The final movement of the Fantasie also quotes Schubert’s ‘Die Gebüsche’ (1819), whose theme is the hidden, mystical sounds in nature awaiting discovery by the initiated. The poet here is Friedrich von Schlegel, who before he became a reactionary Catholic bigot and supporter of Metternich’s repressive regime (to the dismay and derision of Goethe and Heine) had been, with his elder brother August, one of the pioneers of German Romanticism. Schlegel’s ‘Die Gebüsche’ comes from a cycle of 21 poems entitled Abendröte, ten of which Schubert set in 1819 and 1820 (he added a setting of the title poem, ‘Abendröte’, in 1823). It is doubtful whether the Schlegel songs were intended as a cycle, but they form a thematically cohesive group. In the spirit of Romantic pantheism, the poet creates characters from the natural world (mountains, birds, stars, a river, a rose, a butterfly), who with the human figures (a young boy, a young girl, a wayfarer) join in ‘ein einzig Chor, Manches Lied aus einem Munde’ (a single choir, singing many a song with a single voice) to celebrate the oneness of creation.

38    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schlegel songs, too little known, are among Schubert’s most melodically appealing, often with an Italianate grace and allure. In tone they range from the hypnotic nocturne of ‘Abendröte’ to the diaphanous miniatures ‘Die Rose’ and ‘Der Schmetterling’, where the butterfly is presented as a blithe, innocent seducer, more Cherubino than Don Giovanni. The protagonist of one of the Schlegel songs, ‘Der Wanderer’ – not be confused with the more famous song of the same title (D493) – is that archetypal German Romantic figure, the rootless outsider and, by analogy, the creative artist. This is the world of Winterreise as well as many other individual Schubertian ‘wandering’ songs and the enigmatic characters of the young dancer Mignon and the blind old Harper in Goethe’s picaresque Bildungsroman, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. The Harper is tormented by a secret guilt: his incestuous love for his half-demented sister Sperata, of whom Mignon is the fruit – though neither father nor daughter knows it. Mignon remains a slightly unreal figure, yearning for her native Italy, haunted by her past – she had been kidnapped and beaten by a travelling circus troupe – and mysteriously aware that she is destined to die young. Like Beethoven, Schumann, Wolf and countless lesser composers, Schubert was irresistibly drawn to the poems sung by Mignon and the Harper in the novel. He set Mignon’s ‘Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt’ no fewer than six times, once as a poignant duet for her and the Harper, as Goethe prescribes in his novel. He also made two settings each of ‘Heiss mich nicht reden’, where Mignon hints at her tragic past, and ‘So lasst mich scheinen’, which in the novel is sung ‘with unbelievable charm’ by Mignon, dressed as an angel, at a children’s party. The waif knows that she is already near to death, reflected in the mingled pathos and gravity of Schubert’s songs. The earlier song (D727) is fragile and childlike, while the later, 1826 song, with its hypnotic pavane rhythm (D877/3), is more richly textured and passionate in expression. While Schubert’s Mignon songs of 1826 – ‘Heiss mich nicht reden’, ‘So lasst mich scheinen’ and the most famous solo version of ‘Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt’ (D877/4) – certainly gain when sung as a group, the Harper Songs were actually published as a miniature cycle, linked by shared motifs and a similar measured, mournful tread. Schubert set three of the Harper’s lyrics in the novel, in the sequence ‘Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt’, ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ and ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’, in 1816, then composed a fresh version of ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ in 1822. Strummed chords and triplet arpeggios evoke the accompanying harp in ‘Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt’ and ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’, with its heartrending, accusatory climax at ‘Ihr führt ins Leben uns hinein’ (You bring us into life). In contrast, the textures of ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’ – bare, self-communing music, beyond suffering and madness – suggest an archaic organ prelude such as the old man might have heard in his youth. Early in 1825 Schubert discovered the poetry of the troubled, increasingly unstable Saxon writer Ernst Schulze. Over the next year or so he composed ten settings of verses from Schulze’s Poetisches Tagebuch, a journal charting the poet’s doomed infatuation with Adelheid Tychsen – Schulze had earlier been in love with Adelheid’s sister Cäcilie, transferring his affections after her premature death. Obsessive longing, now reckless and feverish (‘Im Walde’, ‘Über Wildemann’, ‘Auf der Bruck’), now reflective (‘Der liebliche Stern’ and the favourite ‘Im Frühling’), is the keynote of these powerful songs. Although there is no evidence that Schubert expected them to be performed together, Graham Johnson (on his Hyperion recording with Peter Schreier) convincingly fashioned them into a quasi-cycle ‘Auf den wilden Wegen’ (on the wild paths). In Johnson’s ordering, the sequence begins with the febrile night-ride of ‘Auf der Bruck’ (a line from which gives the ‘cycle’ its title) and ends with the half-rueful, half-reconciled ‘An mein Herz’.

The Schubert Project    39


Like the putative Kosegarten ‘cycle’, the first of Schubert’s true song cycles, Die schöne Müllerin, grew from the tradition of the Liederspiel. Literary soirees, in which the participants were assigned their roles and often wrote their own verses, were fashionable in aristocratic and bourgeois salons. For such an entertainment at the home of the Berlin councillor Friedrich August von Stägemann in 1816, the poet Wilhlem Müller and his companions chose Rose, die Müllerin in which Müller, true to his own name, played the journeyman miller and Stägemann’s daughter, Hedwig, the miller maid of the title – who in the original Liederspiel likewise drowned herself in the brook after being overcome with remorse at the miller’s death. Over the next few years Müller supplemented and revised the poems he had contributed to the entertainment, many of which would have been sung to pre-existing tunes. When in 1822 the composer Bernhard Josef Klein published a group of Müller songs, the poet wrote in reply that ‘my songs lead but half a life, a paper existence of black and white, until music breathes life into them’. And though Müller never knew Schubert or his songs, it was above all the young Viennese composer who in 1823 fulfilled the poet’s hopes that someone would ‘hear the tunes within the words’ and give them back to the world. Yet Schubert’s music adds shades of meaning unsuspected by Müller. Throughout the skeletal narrative, distilled in a series of lyric moments, the poet questions and undermines the whole notion of Romantic passion. A Prologue and an Epilogue (omitted by Schubert) establish an ironic distancing between the worldly poet and the pitiable rustic protagonist, who, Ophelia-like, finally seeks a watery grave. Schubert, though, had little feeling for irony. For him Die schöne Müllerin becomes a tragic myth, with both a universal and an intensely personal resonance. As we learn in the 13th song, ‘Pause’, the young miller is also a poet and a musician; Schubert’s cycle is at once a compassionate portrait of a vulnerable artistic nature unable to come to terms with the callousness and masculine competitiveness of the real world and a lament for the composer’s own lost innocence following the illness – almost certainly syphilitic – he contracted early in 1823. If Die schöne Müllerin is the cycle of innocence destroyed, its successor of 1827, Winterreise, is the cycle of tragic experience. According to Josef von Spaun, Schubert was in melancholy spirits in the early months of 1827. Asked what the matter was, he replied that ‘you will soon hear and understand’. On 4 March he duly invited a group of friends to the house of the rich dilettante Franz von Schober, where he would sing ‘a cycle of spine-chilling songs. I am anxious to know what you will say about them. They have affected me more than any of my other songs.’ Schubert, depressed and distracted, failed to turn up at Schober’s that evening. But the promised event took place that spring or summer, when he sang the first 12 Winterreise songs ‘in a voice wrought with emotion’. His friends were baffled at their unrelieved gloom. Schober apparently spoke for many when he said he liked only ‘Der Lindenbaum’, the most obviously tuneful number in the cycle. Schubert, conscious he had achieved something quite extraordinary, reportedly replied: ‘I like these songs better than any others and you will come to like them as well.’ What was new about Winterreise, and what evidently disturbed his friends, was the music’s desolate sparseness – Benjamin Britten once remarked that ‘there seems to be nothing on the page’ – and its obsessive exploration of a mind veering between delusion, ironic self-awareness and nihilistic anguish. Unlike in Schubert’s first Müller cycle, the plot is largely internalized. From the eighth song, ‘Rückblick’, the wanderer’s lost love recedes further into the background as his plight assumes an increasingly universal, philosophical dimension. The folk-like tunefulness and water music of Die schöne Müllerin, limpid, turbulent or benedictory, now yields to musical emblems of trudging and stumbling, bareness and exhaustion, derangement and frozen trancelike stillness. The protagonist is no longer an innocent youth but one whose life has been blasted by experience, a man severed from normal human bonds and fated, like Goethe’s Harper, Byron’s Manfred and

40    The Oxford Lieder Festival

the lone, brooding figures in the darker landscapes of Caspar David Friedrich, to remain at the margins of existence. In the final ‘Der Leiermann’ Schubert’s wanderer makes contact with another human being, the ancient hurdy-gurdy man, a forlorn, tottering figure forever condemned to grind out repeated snatches of wheezing melody. Is the hurdy-gurdy man a symbol of death, a terrifying vision of the wanderer’s own future existence or, as Schubert’s friend Eduard von Bauernfeld wrote, a portent of what the composer himself might become as his syphilitic illness took its toll? Schubert’s last ‘song cycle’ is, of course, nothing of the sort. During his final spring and summer of 1828 he composed seven songs to poems by Ludwig Rellstab, then added six settings of Heinrich Heine to create what Josef Ihr grünen von Spaun dubbed a ‘garland’ of 13 songs to be dedicated Totenkränze Könnt to his friends. Only after Schubert’s death did the Viennese wohl die Zeichen publisher Tobias Haslinger issue the songs under the commercially canny title Schwanengesang, throwing in the sein, Die müde Seidl setting ‘Die Taubenpost’ – Schubert’s very last solo song Wandrer laden In’s – to avoid the unlucky 13.

kühle Wirtshaus ein.

Whereas the Heine songs possess a certain unity, the seven Rellstab settings have no connecting thread beyond the archetypal Romantic theme of the distant or unattainable beloved. In mood and style they range wide: from the water music of ‘Liebesbotschaft’, with its magical, gliding modulations, via ‘Ständchen’, last and most bewitching of Schubert’s guitar-accompanied serenades, to the somber ballad ‘Kriegers Ahnung’ – a portent here of Mahler’s doomed soldiers and drummer boys. Das Wirtshaus

While the Rellstab settings invest familiar Schubertian song types with new resonances, the Heine songs are unprecedented in their claustrophobic intensity and power of suggestion with minimal means. Textures are often as sparse as in some of the Winterreise songs. Attracted by the pithiness and emotional directness of this quintessential poet of Romantic disenchantment, Schubert chose six poems from a sequence in Heine’s Reisebilder entitled ‘Die Heimkehr’. And if, like other composers, Schumann included, he can miss a note of deflating scorn in Heine’s verses, he encapsulates and heightens all their disillusion and Weltschmerz. After the terrifying, visionary ‘Der Doppelgänger’, with its free, declamatory lines over an ominous ground bass – with shades of the Dies irae – the return to the familiar, sociable Schubert in ‘Die Taubenpost’ can provoke culture shock. But that is hardly the composer’s fault. With its mingled Gemütlichkeit and wistfulness, this enchanting song is a counterpart to the last of the Rellstab settings, ‘Abschied’. Seidl’s verses propose an optimistic outcome. The elegiac undertow of Schubert’s music suggests otherwise. In ‘Die Taubenpost’ the quintessential singer of Romantic Sehnsucht bows out with grace, whimsy and gentle humour.

Richard Wigmore is a writer, broadcaster and lecturer with a particular interest in the Viennese Classical period and in Lieder. His books include Schubert: the Complete Song Texts and the Faber Pocket Guide to Haydn, published to acclaim in the composer’s anniversary year of 2009.

The Schubert Project    41


Like the putative Kosegarten ‘cycle’, the first of Schubert’s true song cycles, Die schöne Müllerin, grew from the tradition of the Liederspiel. Literary soirees, in which the participants were assigned their roles and often wrote their own verses, were fashionable in aristocratic and bourgeois salons. For such an entertainment at the home of the Berlin councillor Friedrich August von Stägemann in 1816, the poet Wilhlem Müller and his companions chose Rose, die Müllerin in which Müller, true to his own name, played the journeyman miller and Stägemann’s daughter, Hedwig, the miller maid of the title – who in the original Liederspiel likewise drowned herself in the brook after being overcome with remorse at the miller’s death. Over the next few years Müller supplemented and revised the poems he had contributed to the entertainment, many of which would have been sung to pre-existing tunes. When in 1822 the composer Bernhard Josef Klein published a group of Müller songs, the poet wrote in reply that ‘my songs lead but half a life, a paper existence of black and white, until music breathes life into them’. And though Müller never knew Schubert or his songs, it was above all the young Viennese composer who in 1823 fulfilled the poet’s hopes that someone would ‘hear the tunes within the words’ and give them back to the world. Yet Schubert’s music adds shades of meaning unsuspected by Müller. Throughout the skeletal narrative, distilled in a series of lyric moments, the poet questions and undermines the whole notion of Romantic passion. A Prologue and an Epilogue (omitted by Schubert) establish an ironic distancing between the worldly poet and the pitiable rustic protagonist, who, Ophelia-like, finally seeks a watery grave. Schubert, though, had little feeling for irony. For him Die schöne Müllerin becomes a tragic myth, with both a universal and an intensely personal resonance. As we learn in the 13th song, ‘Pause’, the young miller is also a poet and a musician; Schubert’s cycle is at once a compassionate portrait of a vulnerable artistic nature unable to come to terms with the callousness and masculine competitiveness of the real world and a lament for the composer’s own lost innocence following the illness – almost certainly syphilitic – he contracted early in 1823. If Die schöne Müllerin is the cycle of innocence destroyed, its successor of 1827, Winterreise, is the cycle of tragic experience. According to Josef von Spaun, Schubert was in melancholy spirits in the early months of 1827. Asked what the matter was, he replied that ‘you will soon hear and understand’. On 4 March he duly invited a group of friends to the house of the rich dilettante Franz von Schober, where he would sing ‘a cycle of spine-chilling songs. I am anxious to know what you will say about them. They have affected me more than any of my other songs.’ Schubert, depressed and distracted, failed to turn up at Schober’s that evening. But the promised event took place that spring or summer, when he sang the first 12 Winterreise songs ‘in a voice wrought with emotion’. His friends were baffled at their unrelieved gloom. Schober apparently spoke for many when he said he liked only ‘Der Lindenbaum’, the most obviously tuneful number in the cycle. Schubert, conscious he had achieved something quite extraordinary, reportedly replied: ‘I like these songs better than any others and you will come to like them as well.’ What was new about Winterreise, and what evidently disturbed his friends, was the music’s desolate sparseness – Benjamin Britten once remarked that ‘there seems to be nothing on the page’ – and its obsessive exploration of a mind veering between delusion, ironic self-awareness and nihilistic anguish. Unlike in Schubert’s first Müller cycle, the plot is largely internalized. From the eighth song, ‘Rückblick’, the wanderer’s lost love recedes further into the background as his plight assumes an increasingly universal, philosophical dimension. The folk-like tunefulness and water music of Die schöne Müllerin, limpid, turbulent or benedictory, now yields to musical emblems of trudging and stumbling, bareness and exhaustion, derangement and frozen trancelike stillness. The protagonist is no longer an innocent youth but one whose life has been blasted by experience, a man severed from normal human bonds and fated, like Goethe’s Harper, Byron’s Manfred and

40    The Oxford Lieder Festival

the lone, brooding figures in the darker landscapes of Caspar David Friedrich, to remain at the margins of existence. In the final ‘Der Leiermann’ Schubert’s wanderer makes contact with another human being, the ancient hurdy-gurdy man, a forlorn, tottering figure forever condemned to grind out repeated snatches of wheezing melody. Is the hurdy-gurdy man a symbol of death, a terrifying vision of the wanderer’s own future existence or, as Schubert’s friend Eduard von Bauernfeld wrote, a portent of what the composer himself might become as his syphilitic illness took its toll? Schubert’s last ‘song cycle’ is, of course, nothing of the sort. During his final spring and summer of 1828 he composed seven songs to poems by Ludwig Rellstab, then added six settings of Heinrich Heine to create what Josef Ihr grünen von Spaun dubbed a ‘garland’ of 13 songs to be dedicated Totenkränze Könnt to his friends. Only after Schubert’s death did the Viennese wohl die Zeichen publisher Tobias Haslinger issue the songs under the commercially canny title Schwanengesang, throwing in the sein, Die müde Seidl setting ‘Die Taubenpost’ – Schubert’s very last solo song Wandrer laden In’s – to avoid the unlucky 13.

kühle Wirtshaus ein.

Whereas the Heine songs possess a certain unity, the seven Rellstab settings have no connecting thread beyond the archetypal Romantic theme of the distant or unattainable beloved. In mood and style they range wide: from the water music of ‘Liebesbotschaft’, with its magical, gliding modulations, via ‘Ständchen’, last and most bewitching of Schubert’s guitar-accompanied serenades, to the somber ballad ‘Kriegers Ahnung’ – a portent here of Mahler’s doomed soldiers and drummer boys. Das Wirtshaus

While the Rellstab settings invest familiar Schubertian song types with new resonances, the Heine songs are unprecedented in their claustrophobic intensity and power of suggestion with minimal means. Textures are often as sparse as in some of the Winterreise songs. Attracted by the pithiness and emotional directness of this quintessential poet of Romantic disenchantment, Schubert chose six poems from a sequence in Heine’s Reisebilder entitled ‘Die Heimkehr’. And if, like other composers, Schumann included, he can miss a note of deflating scorn in Heine’s verses, he encapsulates and heightens all their disillusion and Weltschmerz. After the terrifying, visionary ‘Der Doppelgänger’, with its free, declamatory lines over an ominous ground bass – with shades of the Dies irae – the return to the familiar, sociable Schubert in ‘Die Taubenpost’ can provoke culture shock. But that is hardly the composer’s fault. With its mingled Gemütlichkeit and wistfulness, this enchanting song is a counterpart to the last of the Rellstab settings, ‘Abschied’. Seidl’s verses propose an optimistic outcome. The elegiac undertow of Schubert’s music suggests otherwise. In ‘Die Taubenpost’ the quintessential singer of Romantic Sehnsucht bows out with grace, whimsy and gentle humour.

Richard Wigmore is a writer, broadcaster and lecturer with a particular interest in the Viennese Classical period and in Lieder. His books include Schubert: the Complete Song Texts and the Faber Pocket Guide to Haydn, published to acclaim in the composer’s anniversary year of 2009.

The Schubert Project    41


CHAPTER VII

SCHUBERT’S PIANO AND CHAMBER MUSIC Experience breathtaking performances at East Anglia’s award-winning new venue.

Saturday 17 January 7.30pm

Saturday 14 February 7.30pm

Ian Bostridge tenor Graham Johnson piano

Iestyn Davies countertenor Thomas Dunford lute

A recital of works by Brahms including Nine Lieder Op.32 and four Heine settings

A programme of English songs and music by Dowland, Johnson, Danyel and Campion

Ian Bostridge sings Brahms

Iestyn Davies in Recital

Susan Wollenberg

Book now: 0845 548 7650 • www.saffronhall.com • Audley End Road, Saffron Walden The works surveyed here all belong to Schubert’s last decade. While it might seem paradoxical to refer to a ‘late’ style in the case of a composer whose life was cut off so prematurely, the piano and chamber music Schubert produced in the 1820s certainly seems to enter a new phase, with its origins traceable to the extraordinary Quartettsatz in C minor D703 of 1820. Another catalyst was the Wandererfantasie D760 of November 1822, which as well as containing a newly ferocious streak of violence seems to usher in the Romantic piano fantasy and the virtuoso style associated with the genre. Elizabeth McKay has linked the Wandererfantasie persuasively with Schubert’s reaction to the onset of serious illness in 1822. However the late works need not be read exclusively as stemming from intimations of impending death. Schubert himself indicated his ambitious intentions for the future and his growing selfassurance when he declared in a letter to the painter Leopold Kupelwieser in March 1824: ‘I have tried my hand at several instrumental works, for I wrote two quartets for violins, viola and violoncello and an octet, and I want to write another quartet, in fact I intend to pave my way towards a grand symphony in that manner.’

Experience breathtaking performances at East Anglia’s award-winning new venue.

Saturday 17 January 7.30pm

Saturday 14 February 7.30pm

Ian Bostridge tenor Graham Johnson piano

Iestyn Davies countertenor Thomas Dunford lute

A recital of works by Brahms including Nine Lieder Op.32 and four Heine settings

A programme of English songs and music by Dowland, Johnson, Danyel and Campion

Ian Bostridge sings Brahms

Iestyn Davies in Recital

Book now: 0845 548 7650 • www.saffronhall.com • Audley End Road, Saffron Walden

Schubert’s ambitions were focused during his last decade on achieving publication and public performances for his music. In his negotiations with publishers at this time he was emboldened to offer the larger-scale, more demanding instrumental works. Writing to the Leipzig publisher Heinrich Albert Probst in August 1826, Schubert specified songs with piano accompaniment, string quartets, piano sonatas and four-hand pieces as well as mentioning the Octet (D803). Publishers typically wanted compositions that were ‘agreeable’ and ‘easily comprehensible’, as Probst put it in his response, welcoming Schubert’s approach with the caution that ‘the distinctive, often ingenious, but at times also rather unusual nature of your mind’s creations is not yet sufficiently and generally understood by our public’. When Schubert offered his new Piano Trio in E flat major D929 in April 1828,

The Schubert Project    43


CHAPTER VII

SCHUBERT’S PIANO AND CHAMBER MUSIC Experience breathtaking performances at East Anglia’s award-winning new venue.

Saturday 17 January 7.30pm

Saturday 14 February 7.30pm

Ian Bostridge tenor Graham Johnson piano

Iestyn Davies countertenor Thomas Dunford lute

A recital of works by Brahms including Nine Lieder Op.32 and four Heine settings

A programme of English songs and music by Dowland, Johnson, Danyel and Campion

Ian Bostridge sings Brahms

Iestyn Davies in Recital

Susan Wollenberg

Book now: 0845 548 7650 • www.saffronhall.com • Audley End Road, Saffron Walden The works surveyed here all belong to Schubert’s last decade. While it might seem paradoxical to refer to a ‘late’ style in the case of a composer whose life was cut off so prematurely, the piano and chamber music Schubert produced in the 1820s certainly seems to enter a new phase, with its origins traceable to the extraordinary Quartettsatz in C minor D703 of 1820. Another catalyst was the Wandererfantasie D760 of November 1822, which as well as containing a newly ferocious streak of violence seems to usher in the Romantic piano fantasy and the virtuoso style associated with the genre. Elizabeth McKay has linked the Wandererfantasie persuasively with Schubert’s reaction to the onset of serious illness in 1822. However the late works need not be read exclusively as stemming from intimations of impending death. Schubert himself indicated his ambitious intentions for the future and his growing selfassurance when he declared in a letter to the painter Leopold Kupelwieser in March 1824: ‘I have tried my hand at several instrumental works, for I wrote two quartets for violins, viola and violoncello and an octet, and I want to write another quartet, in fact I intend to pave my way towards a grand symphony in that manner.’

Experience breathtaking performances at East Anglia’s award-winning new venue.

Saturday 17 January 7.30pm

Saturday 14 February 7.30pm

Ian Bostridge tenor Graham Johnson piano

Iestyn Davies countertenor Thomas Dunford lute

A recital of works by Brahms including Nine Lieder Op.32 and four Heine settings

A programme of English songs and music by Dowland, Johnson, Danyel and Campion

Ian Bostridge sings Brahms

Iestyn Davies in Recital

Book now: 0845 548 7650 • www.saffronhall.com • Audley End Road, Saffron Walden

Schubert’s ambitions were focused during his last decade on achieving publication and public performances for his music. In his negotiations with publishers at this time he was emboldened to offer the larger-scale, more demanding instrumental works. Writing to the Leipzig publisher Heinrich Albert Probst in August 1826, Schubert specified songs with piano accompaniment, string quartets, piano sonatas and four-hand pieces as well as mentioning the Octet (D803). Publishers typically wanted compositions that were ‘agreeable’ and ‘easily comprehensible’, as Probst put it in his response, welcoming Schubert’s approach with the caution that ‘the distinctive, often ingenious, but at times also rather unusual nature of your mind’s creations is not yet sufficiently and generally understood by our public’. When Schubert offered his new Piano Trio in E flat major D929 in April 1828,

The Schubert Project    43


Probst replied: ‘I accept the Trio […] but I still hope that you will send me very soon some selected trifles for the voice or for four hands, a trio being rarely capable of bringing in any money.’ In the event only the first of the three late quartets was published in Schubert’s lifetime, the A minor ‘Rosamunde’ Quartet D804, which appeared as op. 29 No. 1 in 1824. The String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 had to wait until 1831 to appear in print, while the G major Quartet D887 was not published until 1851, as op. 161. It was probably the first movement of this latter work that featured in the programme of Schubert’s concert of his own music in Vienna on 26 March 1828, together with a selection of his songs and the E flat major Piano Trio, thus showcasing some of his longest and most profoundly conceived instrumental compositions. Schubert reported to Probst in April, ‘not only was the concert, at which all the pieces were of my composition, crammed full, but also I received extraordinary accolades’, adding that the Trio, in particular, found general approbation, ‘so much so, indeed, that I have been invited to give a repeat performance’. The juxtaposition of instrumental and vocal music seen in this concert, typical of early 19th-century concert programming, and inherited from the 18th-century model, accentuated the connections between the two spheres. The expansive vision evident in Schubert’s late instrumental music – encapsulated in Robert Schumann’s famous epithet, ‘heavenly length’ – was produced by a potent combination of bold formal experiments imbued with Schubert’s personal style fingerprints and his willingness to allow his instrumental writing to be suffused with song. As Elizabeth McKay has noted, a preponderance of works derived directly from his songs is found in Schubert’s instrumental music of this period, with 1824 a particularly productive year in this regard. Notable among these works, besides the Wandererfantasie, are the two minor-key quartets (the A minor and the D minor), the Introduction and Variations on ‘Trockne Blumen’ (from Die schöne Müllerin) for flute and piano D802 from the same period and the earlier ‘Trout’ Quintet D667 from 1819. The inclusion of variations on excerpts from the songs within the multi-movement piano and chamber works has a pervasive influence on the surrounding movements. In the ‘Tod und das Mädchen’ Quartet this evokes the two sides of death as represented in Matthias Claudius’s poem: grim reaper – the tarantella Finale being seen as a dance of death – versus comforter, with the variations movement as well as the Trio to the Quartet’s Scherzo VORÜBER, ACH, expanding on the major-key ending of the song and developing what Marjorie Hirsch described as its lullaby VORÜBER! GEH, WILDER character. In the ‘Trout’ Quintet, Schubert playfully plants KNOCHENMANN! glimpses of ‘Die Forelle’ before its eventual appearance in ICH BIN NOCH JUNG, the variations movement, where even then the characteristic GEH, LIEBER! UND rippling accompaniment of the song is teasingly withheld RÜHRE MICH NICHT AN. until the last. And the music of the Wandererfantasie Der Tod und das Mädchen dwells intensely, in its outer movements (and the linking passages between the movements), on harmonic elements and melodic and rhythmic motifs extracted from the original song. In all these examples, the song material guarantees an overall unity to the work, as indeed is also the case in the ‘Rosamunde’ Quartet, where the song source is not used for a set of variations, but instead the motivic material and harmonic language associated with Schubert’s setting of Schiller’s ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’, a Lied poignantly conveying nostalgia for a lost past, are freely evoked, particularly in the first movement and the Minuet and Trio of the instrumental work. Linked with examples such as these, and indeed running throughout the instrumental music of Schubert’s last decade, is the expressive use of major-

44    The Oxford Lieder Festival

minor key contrasts, carrying with it the poetic associations so familiar from his Lieder (where it typically responds to such fundamental dualities as happiness and sadness, past and present, dream and reality, hope and despair). This technique, rooted in centuries-old traditions, is treated by Schubert experimentally in his project to explore its possibilities beyond conventional practice. The Impromptu in A flat major (D 899/4), while not explicitly based on a song, has a close connection with ‘Auf dem Wasser zu singen’, set in the same key; both the Lied and the Impromptu strikingly begin and remain for long stretches in the tonic minor, before emerging, transformed, into the light of the major. The Impromptu in E flat major (D899/2), by contrast, is remarkable for its brusque ending in the tonic minor, provoked by a passage of fierce argument that is far removed from the relaxed opening mood of the piece. Schubert’s handling of tonality – that is, his key-schemes and the modulatory processes linked with them – is altogether strongly marked in the late works by his personal view of key-relationships, moving away from the inherited Classical tradition to occupy more exotic territory. For example, in technical terms, his penchant for alternative and unorthodox forms of ‘Neapolitan’ harmony, transforming the conventional (major) cadential chord into its minor and sometimes also its enharmonic equivalent may colour the key-scheme of an individual movement, as in the slow movement of the String Quintet in C major D956, or indeed the key-scheme governing the movements of an entire work, as in the Wandererfantasie and the Fantasia in F minor for piano duet D940 of 1828. The piano duet, generally regarded as belonging to the more sociable, less serious level of invention, becomes for Schubert the locus of some of his most experimental, imaginative and expressive instrumental writing. It also offered opportunities to develop his intense interest in variation techniques, given the enhanced range of texture and sonority inherent in the genre. The march-like theme of the Variations in A flat major D813 (1824) is a reminder of the popularity of this particular topos at the time, evidenced in Schubert across a wide spectrum, ranging from the sombre slow movement of the E flat major Piano Trio, which Christopher Gibbs identified as a memorial to Beethoven, with its suggestions of the funeral march from the ‘Eroica’ Symphony, and its quotation of a motif from a Swedish song, originally heard at the repeated word ‘farväl’ (farewell) – the subsequent return of the slow movement’s opening theme in the Finale is immensely affecting – to the jaunty march type with its comedic associations, seen in the A flat major Variations and the Finale of the Piano Sonata in D major D850. The format of the Variations allows Schubert to display his powers of transformation, presenting the theme in an entrancing variety of characters and pianistic effects. Schubert’s instrumental music proves highly amenable to ‘topical’ investigation in general. Robert Hatten labelled the Piano Sonata in G major D894 fittingly as Schubert’s ‘Pastoral’ Sonata. While its overall mood is one of extreme serenity, with the work’s opening bars conjuring that stillness that Schubert did so well, the pastoral scene here is not without its storms. Particularly striking is the transformation of the opening theme at the beginning of the first movement’s development section, in a violent minor-key outburst leading to passages of sustained harshness. Schubert revised the contrasting episodes within the Sonata’s slow movement, seemingly because his first thoughts were too tame for the disruptive effect he sought. The most startling examples of these contrasts of mood, contained in the slow movements of the String Quintet, the G major Quartet and the Piano Sonata in A major D 959 (1828), suggest a realization of the kinds of contrast created in the songs – for instance in the abrupt awakening from the dream of Spring to the shrieking of the ravens from the roof in ‘Frühlingstraum’ from Winterreise – writ large in these wordless instrumental versions.

The Schubert Project    45


Probst replied: ‘I accept the Trio […] but I still hope that you will send me very soon some selected trifles for the voice or for four hands, a trio being rarely capable of bringing in any money.’ In the event only the first of the three late quartets was published in Schubert’s lifetime, the A minor ‘Rosamunde’ Quartet D804, which appeared as op. 29 No. 1 in 1824. The String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 had to wait until 1831 to appear in print, while the G major Quartet D887 was not published until 1851, as op. 161. It was probably the first movement of this latter work that featured in the programme of Schubert’s concert of his own music in Vienna on 26 March 1828, together with a selection of his songs and the E flat major Piano Trio, thus showcasing some of his longest and most profoundly conceived instrumental compositions. Schubert reported to Probst in April, ‘not only was the concert, at which all the pieces were of my composition, crammed full, but also I received extraordinary accolades’, adding that the Trio, in particular, found general approbation, ‘so much so, indeed, that I have been invited to give a repeat performance’. The juxtaposition of instrumental and vocal music seen in this concert, typical of early 19th-century concert programming, and inherited from the 18th-century model, accentuated the connections between the two spheres. The expansive vision evident in Schubert’s late instrumental music – encapsulated in Robert Schumann’s famous epithet, ‘heavenly length’ – was produced by a potent combination of bold formal experiments imbued with Schubert’s personal style fingerprints and his willingness to allow his instrumental writing to be suffused with song. As Elizabeth McKay has noted, a preponderance of works derived directly from his songs is found in Schubert’s instrumental music of this period, with 1824 a particularly productive year in this regard. Notable among these works, besides the Wandererfantasie, are the two minor-key quartets (the A minor and the D minor), the Introduction and Variations on ‘Trockne Blumen’ (from Die schöne Müllerin) for flute and piano D802 from the same period and the earlier ‘Trout’ Quintet D667 from 1819. The inclusion of variations on excerpts from the songs within the multi-movement piano and chamber works has a pervasive influence on the surrounding movements. In the ‘Tod und das Mädchen’ Quartet this evokes the two sides of death as represented in Matthias Claudius’s poem: grim reaper – the tarantella Finale being seen as a dance of death – versus comforter, with the variations movement as well as the Trio to the Quartet’s Scherzo VORÜBER, ACH, expanding on the major-key ending of the song and developing what Marjorie Hirsch described as its lullaby VORÜBER! GEH, WILDER character. In the ‘Trout’ Quintet, Schubert playfully plants KNOCHENMANN! glimpses of ‘Die Forelle’ before its eventual appearance in ICH BIN NOCH JUNG, the variations movement, where even then the characteristic GEH, LIEBER! UND rippling accompaniment of the song is teasingly withheld RÜHRE MICH NICHT AN. until the last. And the music of the Wandererfantasie Der Tod und das Mädchen dwells intensely, in its outer movements (and the linking passages between the movements), on harmonic elements and melodic and rhythmic motifs extracted from the original song. In all these examples, the song material guarantees an overall unity to the work, as indeed is also the case in the ‘Rosamunde’ Quartet, where the song source is not used for a set of variations, but instead the motivic material and harmonic language associated with Schubert’s setting of Schiller’s ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’, a Lied poignantly conveying nostalgia for a lost past, are freely evoked, particularly in the first movement and the Minuet and Trio of the instrumental work. Linked with examples such as these, and indeed running throughout the instrumental music of Schubert’s last decade, is the expressive use of major-

44    The Oxford Lieder Festival

minor key contrasts, carrying with it the poetic associations so familiar from his Lieder (where it typically responds to such fundamental dualities as happiness and sadness, past and present, dream and reality, hope and despair). This technique, rooted in centuries-old traditions, is treated by Schubert experimentally in his project to explore its possibilities beyond conventional practice. The Impromptu in A flat major (D 899/4), while not explicitly based on a song, has a close connection with ‘Auf dem Wasser zu singen’, set in the same key; both the Lied and the Impromptu strikingly begin and remain for long stretches in the tonic minor, before emerging, transformed, into the light of the major. The Impromptu in E flat major (D899/2), by contrast, is remarkable for its brusque ending in the tonic minor, provoked by a passage of fierce argument that is far removed from the relaxed opening mood of the piece. Schubert’s handling of tonality – that is, his key-schemes and the modulatory processes linked with them – is altogether strongly marked in the late works by his personal view of key-relationships, moving away from the inherited Classical tradition to occupy more exotic territory. For example, in technical terms, his penchant for alternative and unorthodox forms of ‘Neapolitan’ harmony, transforming the conventional (major) cadential chord into its minor and sometimes also its enharmonic equivalent may colour the key-scheme of an individual movement, as in the slow movement of the String Quintet in C major D956, or indeed the key-scheme governing the movements of an entire work, as in the Wandererfantasie and the Fantasia in F minor for piano duet D940 of 1828. The piano duet, generally regarded as belonging to the more sociable, less serious level of invention, becomes for Schubert the locus of some of his most experimental, imaginative and expressive instrumental writing. It also offered opportunities to develop his intense interest in variation techniques, given the enhanced range of texture and sonority inherent in the genre. The march-like theme of the Variations in A flat major D813 (1824) is a reminder of the popularity of this particular topos at the time, evidenced in Schubert across a wide spectrum, ranging from the sombre slow movement of the E flat major Piano Trio, which Christopher Gibbs identified as a memorial to Beethoven, with its suggestions of the funeral march from the ‘Eroica’ Symphony, and its quotation of a motif from a Swedish song, originally heard at the repeated word ‘farväl’ (farewell) – the subsequent return of the slow movement’s opening theme in the Finale is immensely affecting – to the jaunty march type with its comedic associations, seen in the A flat major Variations and the Finale of the Piano Sonata in D major D850. The format of the Variations allows Schubert to display his powers of transformation, presenting the theme in an entrancing variety of characters and pianistic effects. Schubert’s instrumental music proves highly amenable to ‘topical’ investigation in general. Robert Hatten labelled the Piano Sonata in G major D894 fittingly as Schubert’s ‘Pastoral’ Sonata. While its overall mood is one of extreme serenity, with the work’s opening bars conjuring that stillness that Schubert did so well, the pastoral scene here is not without its storms. Particularly striking is the transformation of the opening theme at the beginning of the first movement’s development section, in a violent minor-key outburst leading to passages of sustained harshness. Schubert revised the contrasting episodes within the Sonata’s slow movement, seemingly because his first thoughts were too tame for the disruptive effect he sought. The most startling examples of these contrasts of mood, contained in the slow movements of the String Quintet, the G major Quartet and the Piano Sonata in A major D 959 (1828), suggest a realization of the kinds of contrast created in the songs – for instance in the abrupt awakening from the dream of Spring to the shrieking of the ravens from the roof in ‘Frühlingstraum’ from Winterreise – writ large in these wordless instrumental versions.

The Schubert Project    45


Besides the song connections working at various levels of the music, the achieving of unity across the large-scale instrumental works is owed to a number of factors explored by Schubert as part of his compositional project. Among these is the kind of motivic unification seen in the Octet in F major D803 (1824). In modelling his work on Beethoven’s Septet op. 20, Schubert not only reproduced Beethoven’s arrangement of movements – an Adagio introduction, a lively Allegro followed by an Adagio with, in both works, an expressive clarinet solo, a fourth movement cast as theme and variations, then a Scherzo (Beethoven) or Minuet (Schubert) and Trio, both ending with their Finale prefaced by a slow introduction in the tonic minor – he also paid tribute to Beethoven’s characteristic technique of motivic connection among movements, signalling this from the start, as Beethoven did in his Septet, with the adoption of a motif from the opening Adagio in the Allegro that follows. Schubert’s scoring in his Octet produces exquisite effects. This is true of all his instrumental music of this period, whether in sociable chamber music such as the Octet or the ‘Trout’ Quintet, with the expanded range of sound-colours these offered, or in the exploration of the recently invented Arpeggione (a bowed guitar) – the instrument did not catch on and Schubert’s ‘Arpeggione’ Sonata in A minor D821 (1824) is now most often heard in the arrangement for viola or cello and piano – or in the more rarefied atmosphere of the late string chamber music, or indeed in his piano writing, seen at its peak in the last three sonatas, D958, D959 and D960, of 1828, together with the G major Sonata that preceded them. All of those four late sonatas preserve the ‘symphonic’ four-movement format favoured by Schubert, including Minuet or Scherzo and Trio, together with slow movement, encased within the two outer movements. Symphonic, too, is the endweighted tendency seen for example in the A major Sonata D959, with its Finale mirroring majestically in its closing bars the work’s opening gestures, or the B flat major Sonata D960 where the Finale’s dramatically conceived coda ties up threads running through the whole work. (Schubert was a master of endings as well as beginnings, as the String Quintet demonstrates with its enigmatic final statement.) The powerful writing for piano duet in the Grand Duo D812 (1824), conceived on a symphonic scale, provoked Robert Schumann’s view that this work was in fact an arrangement of a symphony, until he saw the original title: ‘Sonata for four hands’. Yet Schumann also wrote of Schubert’s solo piano sonatas in terms of their idiomatic character: Particularly as a composer for piano, he has something more to offer than others, in certain ways, more even than Beethoven (however marvellously the latter, in his deafness, heard with his imagination). This superiority consists in his ability to write more idiomatically for piano, i.e. everything sounds as if drawn from the very depths of the instrument. Whether in the light of their dazzling demonstration of compositional technique or in the intensely poetic qualities of their expressive effect, the piano and chamber works of Schubert’s last decade may be fairly judged to have achieved the aim that he himself expressed to the publisher Schott in February 1828 as his ‘strivings after the highest in art’.

Schubert am Klavier II: oil on canvas by Gustav Klimt (1899, destroyed 1945)

Susan Wollenberg is Professor of Music at the University of Oxford. Her research interests include 18th and early 19th-century music, keyboard music from 1500 to 1830, performance practice, the social history of English music and the study of women composers. Her book Women and the Nineteenth-Century Lied, edited with Aisling Kenny, will be published next year by Ashgate.

46    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    47


Besides the song connections working at various levels of the music, the achieving of unity across the large-scale instrumental works is owed to a number of factors explored by Schubert as part of his compositional project. Among these is the kind of motivic unification seen in the Octet in F major D803 (1824). In modelling his work on Beethoven’s Septet op. 20, Schubert not only reproduced Beethoven’s arrangement of movements – an Adagio introduction, a lively Allegro followed by an Adagio with, in both works, an expressive clarinet solo, a fourth movement cast as theme and variations, then a Scherzo (Beethoven) or Minuet (Schubert) and Trio, both ending with their Finale prefaced by a slow introduction in the tonic minor – he also paid tribute to Beethoven’s characteristic technique of motivic connection among movements, signalling this from the start, as Beethoven did in his Septet, with the adoption of a motif from the opening Adagio in the Allegro that follows. Schubert’s scoring in his Octet produces exquisite effects. This is true of all his instrumental music of this period, whether in sociable chamber music such as the Octet or the ‘Trout’ Quintet, with the expanded range of sound-colours these offered, or in the exploration of the recently invented Arpeggione (a bowed guitar) – the instrument did not catch on and Schubert’s ‘Arpeggione’ Sonata in A minor D821 (1824) is now most often heard in the arrangement for viola or cello and piano – or in the more rarefied atmosphere of the late string chamber music, or indeed in his piano writing, seen at its peak in the last three sonatas, D958, D959 and D960, of 1828, together with the G major Sonata that preceded them. All of those four late sonatas preserve the ‘symphonic’ four-movement format favoured by Schubert, including Minuet or Scherzo and Trio, together with slow movement, encased within the two outer movements. Symphonic, too, is the endweighted tendency seen for example in the A major Sonata D959, with its Finale mirroring majestically in its closing bars the work’s opening gestures, or the B flat major Sonata D960 where the Finale’s dramatically conceived coda ties up threads running through the whole work. (Schubert was a master of endings as well as beginnings, as the String Quintet demonstrates with its enigmatic final statement.) The powerful writing for piano duet in the Grand Duo D812 (1824), conceived on a symphonic scale, provoked Robert Schumann’s view that this work was in fact an arrangement of a symphony, until he saw the original title: ‘Sonata for four hands’. Yet Schumann also wrote of Schubert’s solo piano sonatas in terms of their idiomatic character: Particularly as a composer for piano, he has something more to offer than others, in certain ways, more even than Beethoven (however marvellously the latter, in his deafness, heard with his imagination). This superiority consists in his ability to write more idiomatically for piano, i.e. everything sounds as if drawn from the very depths of the instrument. Whether in the light of their dazzling demonstration of compositional technique or in the intensely poetic qualities of their expressive effect, the piano and chamber works of Schubert’s last decade may be fairly judged to have achieved the aim that he himself expressed to the publisher Schott in February 1828 as his ‘strivings after the highest in art’.

Schubert am Klavier II: oil on canvas by Gustav Klimt (1899, destroyed 1945)

Susan Wollenberg is Professor of Music at the University of Oxford. Her research interests include 18th and early 19th-century music, keyboard music from 1500 to 1830, performance practice, the social history of English music and the study of women composers. Her book Women and the Nineteenth-Century Lied, edited with Aisling Kenny, will be published next year by Ashgate.

46    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    47


CHAPTER VIII

1828

Brian Newbould

The chronicles of Schubert’s life in his last year, such as they are, tell us less than usual about his activities. Two single events early in the year claim our attention: Josef von Spaun, a loyal friend of Schubert’s since their student days at the Stadtkonvikt, married in March and thereafter spent more time with his new wife than with Schubert and the circle; later the same month there was Schubert’s benefit concert at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, for which the composer himself planned the programme and which was an artistic success and modestly lucrative, although there was again talk among friends of him being short of money a few months later. In these ten-and-a-half months before his demise, two notable musicians impinged on him and his work, one by his absence and one by his presence. Beethoven had gone. Schubert’s next piano sonata (the C minor D958) is the first of several works which echo Beethoven – here his 32 Variations on an original theme in C minor – as though in tribute. At Beethoven’s funeral, in Schubert’s presence, Grillparzer had asked, of Beethoven, ‘who shall stand beside him?’. It may not have entered the poet and playwright’s mind that the answer might one day be Schubert, but perhaps that day came with the benefit concert, which had as its centrepiece the magnificent Piano Trio in E flat major D929, which had received its premiere just the previous Boxing Day. The new presence in Vienna was Niccolò Paganini. His first appearance, three days after the big Schubert event, led to an extended season of further concerts, at least two of which were attended by Schubert, who was mightily impressed and whose growing interest in instrumental virtuosity – in the two piano trios of 1827, but above all the Rondeau brillant for violin and piano D895 of 1826 – might well have been given impetus enough to write a first true concerto had he been given some extra months to live. It is significant, too, that Schubert’s meetings with his friends seemed to decline in frequency, but he spent more time with the leading instrumental performers of his day, some of whom had been associated with Beethoven too.

The Schubert Project    49


CHAPTER VIII

1828

Brian Newbould

The chronicles of Schubert’s life in his last year, such as they are, tell us less than usual about his activities. Two single events early in the year claim our attention: Josef von Spaun, a loyal friend of Schubert’s since their student days at the Stadtkonvikt, married in March and thereafter spent more time with his new wife than with Schubert and the circle; later the same month there was Schubert’s benefit concert at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, for which the composer himself planned the programme and which was an artistic success and modestly lucrative, although there was again talk among friends of him being short of money a few months later. In these ten-and-a-half months before his demise, two notable musicians impinged on him and his work, one by his absence and one by his presence. Beethoven had gone. Schubert’s next piano sonata (the C minor D958) is the first of several works which echo Beethoven – here his 32 Variations on an original theme in C minor – as though in tribute. At Beethoven’s funeral, in Schubert’s presence, Grillparzer had asked, of Beethoven, ‘who shall stand beside him?’. It may not have entered the poet and playwright’s mind that the answer might one day be Schubert, but perhaps that day came with the benefit concert, which had as its centrepiece the magnificent Piano Trio in E flat major D929, which had received its premiere just the previous Boxing Day. The new presence in Vienna was Niccolò Paganini. His first appearance, three days after the big Schubert event, led to an extended season of further concerts, at least two of which were attended by Schubert, who was mightily impressed and whose growing interest in instrumental virtuosity – in the two piano trios of 1827, but above all the Rondeau brillant for violin and piano D895 of 1826 – might well have been given impetus enough to write a first true concerto had he been given some extra months to live. It is significant, too, that Schubert’s meetings with his friends seemed to decline in frequency, but he spent more time with the leading instrumental performers of his day, some of whom had been associated with Beethoven too.

The Schubert Project    49


Beethoven Allegro – little harangues, you might say, backed by huge self-belief. Schubert, the gentler, more ruminative soul, with a dash of hedonism, absorbed more from Mozart in his early years, then took from Beethoven without losing his own charismatic creative identity. We used to think of Schubert as the instinctive composer par excellence, the halfway station through which heaven-sent tunes passed on the way to our lucky ears. We now know that his spirit of intellectual inquiry and thirst for technical experiment were at least the equal of both Mozart and Beethoven. Even in works long known to us it is easy not to notice some of the carefully evolved underlying strategies and so to assume they are not there.

These contacts may have been a spur to the production of such fine late chamber works as the great String Quintet in C major D956, now firmly rooted in the repertoire but at that time a novelty and Schubert’s first and only exploration of the form. In its vast expressive range, from extrovert ebullience to totally absorbing spiritual contemplation, it brilliantly exploits the scope of the boldly chosen twocello quintet medium (there had been a tentative teenage one-movement essay in Mozart’s two-viola quintet genre). Which other hitherto neglected media might he have shown immediate mastery of had his voice not been cruelly silenced in November? Meanwhile familiar forms continued to draw and excite him. Indeed, if 1815 was Schubert’s annus mirabilis, 1828 was another of the same, for different reasons. For it has to be said that no fewer than a dozen major works from these ten months are today regarded as indispensable masterpieces for the keen and informed listener, including the last three piano sonatas, D958, 959 and 960, and the Drei Klavierstücke D946, the Mass in E flat major, three differing types of piece for piano duet and another new venture, Der Hirt auf dem Felsen. The last named, on a hybrid text and composed for a famous Berlin soprano, despite the poetic persona being male, brings the clarinet into interplay with the soprano, forging an elegant web that mixes the lyrical line, a streak of vocal virtuosity and the mountain yodel. There must be many for whom the last Piano Sonata of all, the B flat major, distils the essence of Schubert, with its finely-etched melodies, its hushed musings in remote key areas, its daring jumps from one key to another. And if the third movement of Beethoven’s Third or Fifth Symphony can be said to define the ‘Beethoven Scherzo’, so perhaps the equivalent movement of this Sonata defines the ‘Schubert Scherzo’ – more lightly dancelike and frankly tuneful than the Beethoven genre. By now Schubert’s instrumental mastery had caught up with his pre-eminence in Lieder. But his lifelong delving into the possibilities of song continues, with his espousing of the beautiful lyric poetry of the German Jew, Heinrich Heine, an almost exact contemporary of Schubert’s. Heine’s poems tended to embroider a theme of alienation, with which Schubert probably felt some subjective affinity. But their terse compression must also have appealed to Schubert, who bequeathed in his six Heine settings music with an atmosphere prophetic of dawning Romanticism yet finely drawn with Wie blitzen die near-Mozartian economy. Songs such as ‘Ihr Bild’, ‘Am Sterne so hell durch Meer’ and ‘Der Doppelgänger’ remain peaks of the Lieder die Nacht! Bin oft repertoire. These six Heine songs were published by Tobias schon darüber vom Haslinger after Schubert’s death, along with fine settings of Schlummer erwacht. the Berliner poet Rellstab, under the title Schwanengesang, though Schubert probably did not intend a cycle, such as Die Sterne Haslinger’s title implies. Another gem from this last year is the Leitner setting, ‘Die Sterne’, which fixes its gaze so intently on the stars and their multifaceted beneficence to man that it recklessly presents the same rhythm in every bar (except the last), with miraculously compelling outcome. Schubert’s pre-eminence in song and early maturity in that field, which was a relatively minor concern of Beethoven’s, should not distract us from the fact that he tried from his earliest days to develop a distinctive voice as a symphonic composer in the widest sense – if we allow the term to embrace chamber and keyboard music and even dances – and that he succeeded so well that the late instrumental music will yield its riches only to a limited extent if one chooses to assess it by the Beethovenian yardstick. It is true that we may pick up echoes of the older composer in the late works, but no slavish imitations, only acts of homage. The two composers had different guiding stars. The militant idealist we hear in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is surely embryonically present in many an early

50    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The courtyard at 6 Kettenbrückengasse, viewed from Schubert’s brother’s apartment

Schubert’s devotion to the piano duet has nothing to do with Beethoven and much to do with Mozart, who wrote extensively for the medium. Schubert began composing for four hands at the age of 13 and still had three such works to offer in his final year. If we picture him seated beside Karoline von Esterházy, his pupil intermittently during her teens (from 12 to 18 in fact), we begin to understand his decision in the early months of 1828 to dedicate a new work to her. The Fantasia in F minor D940 is a truly unique masterpiece; its dedication to Karoline seems to reflect more than a goodwill gesture to a pupil. Bauernfeld and Schönstein both claim that her tutor harboured deep feelings for her. If, then, his last love was nurtured at the keyboard, his first love had warmed in his middle to late teens in the context of his local parish church, where Therese Grob was a soprano in the choir, again if we accept the testimony of various of his friends. Therese had received no dedication, but solo roles in the first two mass settings. Another four-hand product of 1828 was a particularly impressive Allegro in A minor D947. There are well-known instances of Schubert taking material from one of his own songs and recycling it within a new instrumental piece, where he could lead it in new directions that would not have been compatible with the song text – thus ‘Die Forelle’ was reworked as a movement in the ‘Trout’ Quintet. The A minor duet movement suggests there was two-way traffic in this regard. The taut, fiery rhythms of the first theme only at length subside. Suddenly, with the A minor key still prevailing and no hint of an imminent change of key, Schubert jumps to the remotest major key, where a soft chorale floats in. Such sublimely abrupt contrasts no doubt help to explain why the publisher Diabelli, in 1840, added the subtitle ‘Lebensstürme’ (Life’s Storms). This ‘chorale’ stayed at the back of Schubert’s mind until May, when it resurfaced as the ‘Christe eleison’ of the final Mass in E flat major, in a sense justifying that designation ‘chorale’. Schubert’s first works had been instrumental, as was his last effort. Bauernfeld seems to have been the only friend to know that the composer was working on a Symphony in his last weeks, a sketch presenting two surprises to those who think they know their Schubert. First, the slow movement begins with a lightly disguised paraphrase of the germinal idea of the bleak last song of Winterreise, hinting at its hurdy-gurdy tune but echoing in particular its bare texture, repetitive rhythm and drone-like harmony. Schubert extends this as though to offer a degree of solace necessarily lacking in the original, so that one could regard the movement as a warmer, yet not exactly sunlit, but hauntingly beautiful orchestral epilogue to the remembered cycle. The second surprise is the unprecedented (in Schubert) contrapuntal complexity of the Finale. It is significant that this Symphony was sketched on paper which already bore some counterpoint exercises, almost certainly related to the composer’s

The Schubert Project    51


Beethoven Allegro – little harangues, you might say, backed by huge self-belief. Schubert, the gentler, more ruminative soul, with a dash of hedonism, absorbed more from Mozart in his early years, then took from Beethoven without losing his own charismatic creative identity. We used to think of Schubert as the instinctive composer par excellence, the halfway station through which heaven-sent tunes passed on the way to our lucky ears. We now know that his spirit of intellectual inquiry and thirst for technical experiment were at least the equal of both Mozart and Beethoven. Even in works long known to us it is easy not to notice some of the carefully evolved underlying strategies and so to assume they are not there.

These contacts may have been a spur to the production of such fine late chamber works as the great String Quintet in C major D956, now firmly rooted in the repertoire but at that time a novelty and Schubert’s first and only exploration of the form. In its vast expressive range, from extrovert ebullience to totally absorbing spiritual contemplation, it brilliantly exploits the scope of the boldly chosen twocello quintet medium (there had been a tentative teenage one-movement essay in Mozart’s two-viola quintet genre). Which other hitherto neglected media might he have shown immediate mastery of had his voice not been cruelly silenced in November? Meanwhile familiar forms continued to draw and excite him. Indeed, if 1815 was Schubert’s annus mirabilis, 1828 was another of the same, for different reasons. For it has to be said that no fewer than a dozen major works from these ten months are today regarded as indispensable masterpieces for the keen and informed listener, including the last three piano sonatas, D958, 959 and 960, and the Drei Klavierstücke D946, the Mass in E flat major, three differing types of piece for piano duet and another new venture, Der Hirt auf dem Felsen. The last named, on a hybrid text and composed for a famous Berlin soprano, despite the poetic persona being male, brings the clarinet into interplay with the soprano, forging an elegant web that mixes the lyrical line, a streak of vocal virtuosity and the mountain yodel. There must be many for whom the last Piano Sonata of all, the B flat major, distils the essence of Schubert, with its finely-etched melodies, its hushed musings in remote key areas, its daring jumps from one key to another. And if the third movement of Beethoven’s Third or Fifth Symphony can be said to define the ‘Beethoven Scherzo’, so perhaps the equivalent movement of this Sonata defines the ‘Schubert Scherzo’ – more lightly dancelike and frankly tuneful than the Beethoven genre. By now Schubert’s instrumental mastery had caught up with his pre-eminence in Lieder. But his lifelong delving into the possibilities of song continues, with his espousing of the beautiful lyric poetry of the German Jew, Heinrich Heine, an almost exact contemporary of Schubert’s. Heine’s poems tended to embroider a theme of alienation, with which Schubert probably felt some subjective affinity. But their terse compression must also have appealed to Schubert, who bequeathed in his six Heine settings music with an atmosphere prophetic of dawning Romanticism yet finely drawn with Wie blitzen die near-Mozartian economy. Songs such as ‘Ihr Bild’, ‘Am Sterne so hell durch Meer’ and ‘Der Doppelgänger’ remain peaks of the Lieder die Nacht! Bin oft repertoire. These six Heine songs were published by Tobias schon darüber vom Haslinger after Schubert’s death, along with fine settings of Schlummer erwacht. the Berliner poet Rellstab, under the title Schwanengesang, though Schubert probably did not intend a cycle, such as Die Sterne Haslinger’s title implies. Another gem from this last year is the Leitner setting, ‘Die Sterne’, which fixes its gaze so intently on the stars and their multifaceted beneficence to man that it recklessly presents the same rhythm in every bar (except the last), with miraculously compelling outcome. Schubert’s pre-eminence in song and early maturity in that field, which was a relatively minor concern of Beethoven’s, should not distract us from the fact that he tried from his earliest days to develop a distinctive voice as a symphonic composer in the widest sense – if we allow the term to embrace chamber and keyboard music and even dances – and that he succeeded so well that the late instrumental music will yield its riches only to a limited extent if one chooses to assess it by the Beethovenian yardstick. It is true that we may pick up echoes of the older composer in the late works, but no slavish imitations, only acts of homage. The two composers had different guiding stars. The militant idealist we hear in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is surely embryonically present in many an early

50    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The courtyard at 6 Kettenbrückengasse, viewed from Schubert’s brother’s apartment

Schubert’s devotion to the piano duet has nothing to do with Beethoven and much to do with Mozart, who wrote extensively for the medium. Schubert began composing for four hands at the age of 13 and still had three such works to offer in his final year. If we picture him seated beside Karoline von Esterházy, his pupil intermittently during her teens (from 12 to 18 in fact), we begin to understand his decision in the early months of 1828 to dedicate a new work to her. The Fantasia in F minor D940 is a truly unique masterpiece; its dedication to Karoline seems to reflect more than a goodwill gesture to a pupil. Bauernfeld and Schönstein both claim that her tutor harboured deep feelings for her. If, then, his last love was nurtured at the keyboard, his first love had warmed in his middle to late teens in the context of his local parish church, where Therese Grob was a soprano in the choir, again if we accept the testimony of various of his friends. Therese had received no dedication, but solo roles in the first two mass settings. Another four-hand product of 1828 was a particularly impressive Allegro in A minor D947. There are well-known instances of Schubert taking material from one of his own songs and recycling it within a new instrumental piece, where he could lead it in new directions that would not have been compatible with the song text – thus ‘Die Forelle’ was reworked as a movement in the ‘Trout’ Quintet. The A minor duet movement suggests there was two-way traffic in this regard. The taut, fiery rhythms of the first theme only at length subside. Suddenly, with the A minor key still prevailing and no hint of an imminent change of key, Schubert jumps to the remotest major key, where a soft chorale floats in. Such sublimely abrupt contrasts no doubt help to explain why the publisher Diabelli, in 1840, added the subtitle ‘Lebensstürme’ (Life’s Storms). This ‘chorale’ stayed at the back of Schubert’s mind until May, when it resurfaced as the ‘Christe eleison’ of the final Mass in E flat major, in a sense justifying that designation ‘chorale’. Schubert’s first works had been instrumental, as was his last effort. Bauernfeld seems to have been the only friend to know that the composer was working on a Symphony in his last weeks, a sketch presenting two surprises to those who think they know their Schubert. First, the slow movement begins with a lightly disguised paraphrase of the germinal idea of the bleak last song of Winterreise, hinting at its hurdy-gurdy tune but echoing in particular its bare texture, repetitive rhythm and drone-like harmony. Schubert extends this as though to offer a degree of solace necessarily lacking in the original, so that one could regard the movement as a warmer, yet not exactly sunlit, but hauntingly beautiful orchestral epilogue to the remembered cycle. The second surprise is the unprecedented (in Schubert) contrapuntal complexity of the Finale. It is significant that this Symphony was sketched on paper which already bore some counterpoint exercises, almost certainly related to the composer’s

The Schubert Project    51


Schubert’s original grave in the Währinger Ortsfriedhof, with Grillparzer’s epitaph

decision to take counterpoint lessons from Simon Sechter, later to be Bruckner’s teacher. Schubert took the first lesson two weeks before he died. We should not be too surprised, though, that Schubert was embarking on a more thorough exploration of the riches of contrapuntal device, for modern scholarship has made discoveries that challenge the old assumptions – easily made on the old evidence – of Schubert the instinctive creator not give to intellectual manipulation. That symphonic sketch (D936a) shows Schubert poised to peer boldly into a musical future. In that sense Grillparzer’s words on his tombstone (pictured opposite), ‘the art of music here entombed a rich possession but far fairer hopes’, was right to acknowledge the ‘yet to come’. But ‘far fairer hopes’? His composed works not as good as those yet to come? We have to weigh all references to Schubert by his contemporaries in 1828 in light of what we know of his actual achievement and they did not. We know much more of his treasured oeuvre today than even his best friends ever heard or saw. The friends, throughout his mature years, were more familiar with his songs, along with some dances, partsongs and some of the piano works apart from the sonatas. It is unlikely that any of them heard more than a few of the mature chamber works or the sonatas. No symphonic music from the last ten years of his 18 years of composing life would have reached their ears or those of the Viennese public at large. So the ‘rich possession’ lauded by Grillparzer in his inscription was far from the ‘rich possession’ that is now ours. The glimpses into the future afforded by what Schubert penned in his final year continue to fascinate, leaving us wishing that some of what they promised could have been realized. But the true bounty of 1828, and of the few years before, amounts to much more than could reasonably be expected of even such a compulsive workaholic seeking a voice and a vision of his own so close on the heels of the giants of the First Viennese School.

Brian Newbould is a musicologist known particularly for his writings on Schubert, including Schubert: the Music and the Man (1997), and his realizations of the composer’s unfinished works, which are widely performed and recorded. The analytical basis of much of his work, extending traditional methods, has led to important discoveries in works by Schubert and Ravel, as well as Brahms and Elgar.

52    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    53


Schubert’s original grave in the Währinger Ortsfriedhof, with Grillparzer’s epitaph

decision to take counterpoint lessons from Simon Sechter, later to be Bruckner’s teacher. Schubert took the first lesson two weeks before he died. We should not be too surprised, though, that Schubert was embarking on a more thorough exploration of the riches of contrapuntal device, for modern scholarship has made discoveries that challenge the old assumptions – easily made on the old evidence – of Schubert the instinctive creator not give to intellectual manipulation. That symphonic sketch (D936a) shows Schubert poised to peer boldly into a musical future. In that sense Grillparzer’s words on his tombstone (pictured opposite), ‘the art of music here entombed a rich possession but far fairer hopes’, was right to acknowledge the ‘yet to come’. But ‘far fairer hopes’? His composed works not as good as those yet to come? We have to weigh all references to Schubert by his contemporaries in 1828 in light of what we know of his actual achievement and they did not. We know much more of his treasured oeuvre today than even his best friends ever heard or saw. The friends, throughout his mature years, were more familiar with his songs, along with some dances, partsongs and some of the piano works apart from the sonatas. It is unlikely that any of them heard more than a few of the mature chamber works or the sonatas. No symphonic music from the last ten years of his 18 years of composing life would have reached their ears or those of the Viennese public at large. So the ‘rich possession’ lauded by Grillparzer in his inscription was far from the ‘rich possession’ that is now ours. The glimpses into the future afforded by what Schubert penned in his final year continue to fascinate, leaving us wishing that some of what they promised could have been realized. But the true bounty of 1828, and of the few years before, amounts to much more than could reasonably be expected of even such a compulsive workaholic seeking a voice and a vision of his own so close on the heels of the giants of the First Viennese School.

Brian Newbould is a musicologist known particularly for his writings on Schubert, including Schubert: the Music and the Man (1997), and his realizations of the composer’s unfinished works, which are widely performed and recorded. The analytical basis of much of his work, extending traditional methods, has led to important discoveries in works by Schubert and Ravel, as well as Brahms and Elgar.

52    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    53


CHAPTER IX

SCHUBERT’S ILLNESS: A POINT OF INTERPRETATION Gavin Plumley

Schubert must have looked a very sorry sight on his deathbed. Holed up in his brother’s apartment in the Viennese suburb of Wieden, Schubert gasped his last on 19 November 1828. He was 31. The rooms were damp, the Austrian winter was setting in and some of Schubert’s closest friends, including the much criticized (and much admired) Franz von Schober, had not visited for a while. Schubert was the very picture of Romantic decadence, the like of which only Henry Wallis’s 1856 painting, The Death of Chatterton, could perhaps better. When Schubert assumed that echt Romantic role, forever welding himself in our collective imagination to the melancholy and often-desolate music he wrote, he had been suffering for nearly six years. Details of his illness – undoubtedly syphilis – first emerged in 1823, the ‘result’, as the journalist Ludwig August Frankl wrote after speaking to Schober in the late 1860s, ‘of excessively indulgent sensual living’. In February 1823 Schubert obliquely confessed that ‘the circumstances of my health forbid me to leave the house’, though it had perhaps also been the reason he had moved out of Schober’s home in late 1822, returning to live with his parents. Symptoms, including fever, fatigue and unsightly rashes, persisted throughout 1823, reaching a manifest low point in May, when Schubert was likely admitted to the General Hospital in Vienna. There he would have undergone hazardous mercury treatment, the effects of which might well have spurred his despairing poem, entitled ‘Mein Gebet’, written on 8 May.

Kleeblattgasse, off Tuchlauben (where Schubert lived from February 1827 to August 1828)

News of Schubert’s illness began to spread. While at the home of the poet Matthäus von Collin in late July, Leopold Kupelwieser heard that Schubert was ill and promptly wrote to Schober. Although well enough to travel – the composer journeyed to Linz around that time and was in Steyr, just south of the city, by the middle of August – Schubert was already beginning to doubt ‘whether I shall ever quite recover’. By November, however, Anton von Doblhoff was suggesting that he ‘seems at last to progress properly towards recovery’, an opinion endorsed a few days later by Johanna Lutz (Kupelwieser’s fiancée). And yet, though his friends were optimistic, such reports were premature.

The Schubert Project    55


CHAPTER IX

SCHUBERT’S ILLNESS: A POINT OF INTERPRETATION Gavin Plumley

Schubert must have looked a very sorry sight on his deathbed. Holed up in his brother’s apartment in the Viennese suburb of Wieden, Schubert gasped his last on 19 November 1828. He was 31. The rooms were damp, the Austrian winter was setting in and some of Schubert’s closest friends, including the much criticized (and much admired) Franz von Schober, had not visited for a while. Schubert was the very picture of Romantic decadence, the like of which only Henry Wallis’s 1856 painting, The Death of Chatterton, could perhaps better. When Schubert assumed that echt Romantic role, forever welding himself in our collective imagination to the melancholy and often-desolate music he wrote, he had been suffering for nearly six years. Details of his illness – undoubtedly syphilis – first emerged in 1823, the ‘result’, as the journalist Ludwig August Frankl wrote after speaking to Schober in the late 1860s, ‘of excessively indulgent sensual living’. In February 1823 Schubert obliquely confessed that ‘the circumstances of my health forbid me to leave the house’, though it had perhaps also been the reason he had moved out of Schober’s home in late 1822, returning to live with his parents. Symptoms, including fever, fatigue and unsightly rashes, persisted throughout 1823, reaching a manifest low point in May, when Schubert was likely admitted to the General Hospital in Vienna. There he would have undergone hazardous mercury treatment, the effects of which might well have spurred his despairing poem, entitled ‘Mein Gebet’, written on 8 May.

Kleeblattgasse, off Tuchlauben (where Schubert lived from February 1827 to August 1828)

News of Schubert’s illness began to spread. While at the home of the poet Matthäus von Collin in late July, Leopold Kupelwieser heard that Schubert was ill and promptly wrote to Schober. Although well enough to travel – the composer journeyed to Linz around that time and was in Steyr, just south of the city, by the middle of August – Schubert was already beginning to doubt ‘whether I shall ever quite recover’. By November, however, Anton von Doblhoff was suggesting that he ‘seems at last to progress properly towards recovery’, an opinion endorsed a few days later by Johanna Lutz (Kupelwieser’s fiancée). And yet, though his friends were optimistic, such reports were premature.

The Schubert Project    55


This often quoted missive is significant in shaping our understanding and appreciation of Schubert, for it not only reveals the man’s soul, as he saw it, in its ‘poured out’ form, but also introduces the potent Romantic idea of subjectivity within music. The quotation in the letter is taken from ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, with Schubert assuming the role of Goethe’s Faust’s hapless Gretchen, whose characteristic spinning wheel motif likewise murmurs beneath the first subject of the contemporaneous A minor String Quartet (which likewise recalls the nostalgic ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’). Little wonder that, four days before writing to Kupelwieser, Schubert had committed to his diary that ‘what I produce is due to my understanding of music and to my sorrows’. And even more profound links can be drawn between Schubert’s state, as described, and the song cycle he had completed a few months before, Die schöne Müllerin. Both this and the later Wilhelm Müller cycle, Winterreise, make it all too easy to picture a man ‘whose most brilliant hopes have perished, to whom the felicity of love and friendship have nothing to offer but pain, at best, whose enthusiasm (at least of the stimulating kind) for all things beautiful threatens to vanish’.

Over the next few years, Schubert was to relapse several times and may well have been hospitalized again in 1825 and 1827. Often his health prevented him from leaving Vienna and famously – or rather infamously, judging by the academic furore over the composer’s supposed homosexuality or bisexuality in the late 1980s – Schubert’s poor health prompted Eduard von Bauernfeld to note in August 1826: ‘Schubert ailing (he needs “young peacocks”, like Benvenuto Cellini).’ By the summer of 1828, Schubert had to be confined to Vienna and then, in a bid to keep him out of the harmful bustle of the Innere Stadt, moved to his brother’s home in Wieden. It was a disastrous suggestion on the part of the doctor, given the stuffy, damp suburban house in which Ferdinand lived, only serving to exacerbate Schubert’s symptoms. But throughout these last five (or six) years Schubert’s energy for composition remained undimmed. Having completed the incidental music for Rosamunde, Fürstin von Zypern, as well as Act III and the Overture of his opera Fierrabras during early autumn 1823, he then finished the ground-breaking song cycle Die schöne Müllerin in November. Schubert began 1824 in similarly indefatigable style: he penned the Introduction and variations on ‘Trockne Blumen’ (from Die schöne Müllerin) for flute and piano D802 in January; was working on the Octet D803 and the ‘Rosamunde’ String Quartet in A minor D804 during February; before moving on to the D minor Quartet ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 and a handful of settings of his former housemate, Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, that March. If the haunting imagery of the D minor Quartet or the persistent melancholy of its A minor predecessor were not evidence enough of the emotional consequences of his illness, then Schubert’s choice of texts by Mayrhofer, from whom he had become estranged, surely indicates something of his mood at the time. Both Mayrhofer’s ‘Abendstern’ and ‘Auflösung’ – the latter set in particularly grand terms by Schubert – thwart the (homo-)erotic optimism of ‘Der Sieg’, also set that month. Further evidence of Schubert’s hapless state can be found in the letter he wrote to Kupelwieser (who was in Rome) on the last day of March. For a long time I have felt the urge to write to you, but I never knew where to turn. Now, however, [Johann Carl] Smirsch offers me an opportunity, and at last I can once again wholly pour out my soul to someone. For you are so good and honest, you will be sure to forgive many things which others might take in very part from me. – In a word, I feel myself to be the most unhappy and wretched creature in the world, and who in sheer despair over this ever makes things worse and worse, instead of better; imagine a man, I say, whose most brilliant hopes have perished, to whom the felicity of love and friendship have nothing to offer but pain, at best, whose enthusiasm (at least of the stimulating kind) for all things beautiful threatens to vanish, and I ask you, is he not a miserable, unhappy being? – “My peace is gone, my heart is sore, I shall find it never and nevermore”, I may well sing every day now, for each night, on retiring to bed, I hope I may not wake again, and each morning only recalls yesterday’s grief. Thus, joyless and friendless, I should pass my days, did not [Moritz von] Schwind visit me now and again and turn on me a ray of those sweet days of the past.

56    The Oxford Lieder Festival

And yet Schubert was also able to rise above his condition and maintain ‘Classical’ objective distance from his work. So despite the existential chill of Winterreise, the seemingly death-addled tones of the Adagio from the late String Quintet D956 or the existential Heine songs in Schwanengesang, Schubert can still muster the pacific-cum-peppy Piano Sonata in G major D894, numerous waltzes throughout 1826 and 1827, party-piece partsongs for his circle, written well into 1828, and ‘Die Taubenpost’ and the bucolic Der Hirt auf dem Felsen in the very last weeks of his life. But even here, as Susan Youens has noted elsewhere, we can hear Schubert’s pain ‘resound in his music, beneath even the sunniest and most serene surfaces’.

The Narrenturm in Vienna’s Old General Hospital

Some will note a resolve and lust for life in a number of the late songs, the G major String Quartet D887 of June 1826 and the final triptych of piano sonatas, while others find in Schubert’s doggedly ‘happy’ music the kind of false high experienced by someone suffering from bipolar disorder or even schizophrenia. Bauernfeld wrote that ‘Schubert had, so to speak, a double nature, the Viennese gaiety being interwoven and ennobled by a trait of melancholy’, while Josef Kenner said ‘anyone who knew Schubert knows how he was made of two natures’. Listen to the manic energy of the finales to the G major Quartet, the Piano Sonata in B flat major D960 or the String Quintet, with its unnerving final cadence, and you may well doubt the music’s outward vigour. After all, each is branded with Schubert’s characteristic shift from major to minor, as if every chord he wrote held in Doppelgänger! its heart some incurable canker.

Du du bleicher Geselle! Was äffst du nach mein Liebesleid, Das mich gequält auf dieser Stelle, So manche Nacht, in alter Zeit?

Schubert constantly invites these readings. He not only announces the approach in his letter to Kupelwieser – placing himself at the centre of one of his most famous songs – but also confesses, in the private forum of his journal, that his music is the product of sorrow. While some criticize such interpretative elisions, even the most hard-hearted cannot listen to the slow movement of the String Quintet or the frightening confrontation between Id and Ego in Der Doppelgänger ‘Der Doppelgänger’ (from Schwanengesang) and ignore the manifest presence of Schubert within his music. To overlook this meeting of subject and object is not to take the composer at his word. Our perception of Schubert – arguably unwell and lovelorn – within his music is part of what post-Freudian psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan termed the ‘big Other’. This ‘Other’ is the silent, overarching and omniscient presence of an artwork or in what Lacan’s Lieder-loving compatriot Roland Barthes described as the art form’s symbolic space, ‘the interior of the head’ (as opposed to the ‘external conflicts’ of opera). Barthes suggests that the ‘only reactive force’ in Lieder ‘is the irremediable

The Schubert Project    57


This often quoted missive is significant in shaping our understanding and appreciation of Schubert, for it not only reveals the man’s soul, as he saw it, in its ‘poured out’ form, but also introduces the potent Romantic idea of subjectivity within music. The quotation in the letter is taken from ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, with Schubert assuming the role of Goethe’s Faust’s hapless Gretchen, whose characteristic spinning wheel motif likewise murmurs beneath the first subject of the contemporaneous A minor String Quartet (which likewise recalls the nostalgic ‘Die Götter Griechenlands’). Little wonder that, four days before writing to Kupelwieser, Schubert had committed to his diary that ‘what I produce is due to my understanding of music and to my sorrows’. And even more profound links can be drawn between Schubert’s state, as described, and the song cycle he had completed a few months before, Die schöne Müllerin. Both this and the later Wilhelm Müller cycle, Winterreise, make it all too easy to picture a man ‘whose most brilliant hopes have perished, to whom the felicity of love and friendship have nothing to offer but pain, at best, whose enthusiasm (at least of the stimulating kind) for all things beautiful threatens to vanish’.

Over the next few years, Schubert was to relapse several times and may well have been hospitalized again in 1825 and 1827. Often his health prevented him from leaving Vienna and famously – or rather infamously, judging by the academic furore over the composer’s supposed homosexuality or bisexuality in the late 1980s – Schubert’s poor health prompted Eduard von Bauernfeld to note in August 1826: ‘Schubert ailing (he needs “young peacocks”, like Benvenuto Cellini).’ By the summer of 1828, Schubert had to be confined to Vienna and then, in a bid to keep him out of the harmful bustle of the Innere Stadt, moved to his brother’s home in Wieden. It was a disastrous suggestion on the part of the doctor, given the stuffy, damp suburban house in which Ferdinand lived, only serving to exacerbate Schubert’s symptoms. But throughout these last five (or six) years Schubert’s energy for composition remained undimmed. Having completed the incidental music for Rosamunde, Fürstin von Zypern, as well as Act III and the Overture of his opera Fierrabras during early autumn 1823, he then finished the ground-breaking song cycle Die schöne Müllerin in November. Schubert began 1824 in similarly indefatigable style: he penned the Introduction and variations on ‘Trockne Blumen’ (from Die schöne Müllerin) for flute and piano D802 in January; was working on the Octet D803 and the ‘Rosamunde’ String Quartet in A minor D804 during February; before moving on to the D minor Quartet ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ D810 and a handful of settings of his former housemate, Johann Baptist Mayrhofer, that March. If the haunting imagery of the D minor Quartet or the persistent melancholy of its A minor predecessor were not evidence enough of the emotional consequences of his illness, then Schubert’s choice of texts by Mayrhofer, from whom he had become estranged, surely indicates something of his mood at the time. Both Mayrhofer’s ‘Abendstern’ and ‘Auflösung’ – the latter set in particularly grand terms by Schubert – thwart the (homo-)erotic optimism of ‘Der Sieg’, also set that month. Further evidence of Schubert’s hapless state can be found in the letter he wrote to Kupelwieser (who was in Rome) on the last day of March. For a long time I have felt the urge to write to you, but I never knew where to turn. Now, however, [Johann Carl] Smirsch offers me an opportunity, and at last I can once again wholly pour out my soul to someone. For you are so good and honest, you will be sure to forgive many things which others might take in very part from me. – In a word, I feel myself to be the most unhappy and wretched creature in the world, and who in sheer despair over this ever makes things worse and worse, instead of better; imagine a man, I say, whose most brilliant hopes have perished, to whom the felicity of love and friendship have nothing to offer but pain, at best, whose enthusiasm (at least of the stimulating kind) for all things beautiful threatens to vanish, and I ask you, is he not a miserable, unhappy being? – “My peace is gone, my heart is sore, I shall find it never and nevermore”, I may well sing every day now, for each night, on retiring to bed, I hope I may not wake again, and each morning only recalls yesterday’s grief. Thus, joyless and friendless, I should pass my days, did not [Moritz von] Schwind visit me now and again and turn on me a ray of those sweet days of the past.

56    The Oxford Lieder Festival

And yet Schubert was also able to rise above his condition and maintain ‘Classical’ objective distance from his work. So despite the existential chill of Winterreise, the seemingly death-addled tones of the Adagio from the late String Quintet D956 or the existential Heine songs in Schwanengesang, Schubert can still muster the pacific-cum-peppy Piano Sonata in G major D894, numerous waltzes throughout 1826 and 1827, party-piece partsongs for his circle, written well into 1828, and ‘Die Taubenpost’ and the bucolic Der Hirt auf dem Felsen in the very last weeks of his life. But even here, as Susan Youens has noted elsewhere, we can hear Schubert’s pain ‘resound in his music, beneath even the sunniest and most serene surfaces’.

The Narrenturm in Vienna’s Old General Hospital

Some will note a resolve and lust for life in a number of the late songs, the G major String Quartet D887 of June 1826 and the final triptych of piano sonatas, while others find in Schubert’s doggedly ‘happy’ music the kind of false high experienced by someone suffering from bipolar disorder or even schizophrenia. Bauernfeld wrote that ‘Schubert had, so to speak, a double nature, the Viennese gaiety being interwoven and ennobled by a trait of melancholy’, while Josef Kenner said ‘anyone who knew Schubert knows how he was made of two natures’. Listen to the manic energy of the finales to the G major Quartet, the Piano Sonata in B flat major D960 or the String Quintet, with its unnerving final cadence, and you may well doubt the music’s outward vigour. After all, each is branded with Schubert’s characteristic shift from major to minor, as if every chord he wrote held in Doppelgänger! its heart some incurable canker.

Du du bleicher Geselle! Was äffst du nach mein Liebesleid, Das mich gequält auf dieser Stelle, So manche Nacht, in alter Zeit?

Schubert constantly invites these readings. He not only announces the approach in his letter to Kupelwieser – placing himself at the centre of one of his most famous songs – but also confesses, in the private forum of his journal, that his music is the product of sorrow. While some criticize such interpretative elisions, even the most hard-hearted cannot listen to the slow movement of the String Quintet or the frightening confrontation between Id and Ego in Der Doppelgänger ‘Der Doppelgänger’ (from Schwanengesang) and ignore the manifest presence of Schubert within his music. To overlook this meeting of subject and object is not to take the composer at his word. Our perception of Schubert – arguably unwell and lovelorn – within his music is part of what post-Freudian psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan termed the ‘big Other’. This ‘Other’ is the silent, overarching and omniscient presence of an artwork or in what Lacan’s Lieder-loving compatriot Roland Barthes described as the art form’s symbolic space, ‘the interior of the head’ (as opposed to the ‘external conflicts’ of opera). Barthes suggests that the ‘only reactive force’ in Lieder ‘is the irremediable

The Schubert Project    57


absence of the beloved’. Referring to his own experience of Romantic song, Barthes wrote: ‘I struggle with an image, which is both the image of the desired, lost other, and my own image, desiring and abandoned’ (echoing the duality of ‘Der Doppelgänger’). In our Festival-wide appraisal of Schubert, we might think of that ‘irremediable absence’ as the composer himself, placed alongside our ‘own image’. Mayrhofer, Schubert’s suicidal roommate and, perhaps, one time lover, wrote after his friend’s death in 1828 that ‘for me Franz Schubert was and remains a genius who faithfully accompanies me through life with appropriate melodies, agitated or quiet, changeable and enigmatic, gloomy or bright as it is’. (Sadly, for Mayrhofer, ‘the irremediable absence of the beloved’ was to prove too much and, after a failed suicide attempt in 1831, he threw himself out of his office window in 1836.) Schubert’s openness to these philosophical and emotional readings of his music is indicative of the marked shift in the cultural landscape at the beginning of the 19th century. The Classical Period, privileging the sublime and the objective, fundamental tenets of the Enlightenment, had given way to the Romantic, in which irrationality, emotionality and, ultimately, philosophical nihilism took hold. Schubert’s invitation to his audience, as at those early Schubertiaden, is truly to feel his music, its ‘irremediable absence’ and our ‘own image’ within it, as he simultaneously pours out his soul through ‘appropriate melodies, agitated or quiet, changeable and enigmatic, gloomy or bright’. To deny that this is at least part of our attraction to Schubert would be to wrestle with an objectivity that the composer himself was unable to preserve, as evinced by his excision of Wilhelm Müller’s distancing Prologue and Epilogue in Die schöne Müllerin or, as Richard Stokes has written in this volume, by ‘the extraordinary number of his songs [that] deal with death, not because it was a fashionable Romantic trope, but because much of his life was lived in its shadow’. Schubert’s illness, the melancholy state of his mind and the poetic choices that it triggered, the enduring doubts over his sexuality and the decadent picture of the composer on his deathbed are all part of our collective ‘performance’ of his music, whether we’re a singer, an instrumentalist or an audience member. For in Schubert’s final moments, as the Central European winter tightened its grip on the great city of Vienna and the tiny damp room in Wieden in which he was confined, he cleared a path for an interpretation of his output in which subject and object, music and audience, are one.

Gavin Plumley is a writer, broadcaster and musicologist specializing in the culture of Central Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. He has appeared on BBC Radio 3, written for The Guardian and The Independent on Sunday and contributed articles to festivals, orchestras, opera houses and concert halls around the world, including the Salzburg Festival, for whom he commissions and edits the English-language programme notes.

58    The Oxford Lieder Festival

6 Kettenbrückengasse, where Schubert died on 19 November 1828

The Schubert Project    59


absence of the beloved’. Referring to his own experience of Romantic song, Barthes wrote: ‘I struggle with an image, which is both the image of the desired, lost other, and my own image, desiring and abandoned’ (echoing the duality of ‘Der Doppelgänger’). In our Festival-wide appraisal of Schubert, we might think of that ‘irremediable absence’ as the composer himself, placed alongside our ‘own image’. Mayrhofer, Schubert’s suicidal roommate and, perhaps, one time lover, wrote after his friend’s death in 1828 that ‘for me Franz Schubert was and remains a genius who faithfully accompanies me through life with appropriate melodies, agitated or quiet, changeable and enigmatic, gloomy or bright as it is’. (Sadly, for Mayrhofer, ‘the irremediable absence of the beloved’ was to prove too much and, after a failed suicide attempt in 1831, he threw himself out of his office window in 1836.) Schubert’s openness to these philosophical and emotional readings of his music is indicative of the marked shift in the cultural landscape at the beginning of the 19th century. The Classical Period, privileging the sublime and the objective, fundamental tenets of the Enlightenment, had given way to the Romantic, in which irrationality, emotionality and, ultimately, philosophical nihilism took hold. Schubert’s invitation to his audience, as at those early Schubertiaden, is truly to feel his music, its ‘irremediable absence’ and our ‘own image’ within it, as he simultaneously pours out his soul through ‘appropriate melodies, agitated or quiet, changeable and enigmatic, gloomy or bright’. To deny that this is at least part of our attraction to Schubert would be to wrestle with an objectivity that the composer himself was unable to preserve, as evinced by his excision of Wilhelm Müller’s distancing Prologue and Epilogue in Die schöne Müllerin or, as Richard Stokes has written in this volume, by ‘the extraordinary number of his songs [that] deal with death, not because it was a fashionable Romantic trope, but because much of his life was lived in its shadow’. Schubert’s illness, the melancholy state of his mind and the poetic choices that it triggered, the enduring doubts over his sexuality and the decadent picture of the composer on his deathbed are all part of our collective ‘performance’ of his music, whether we’re a singer, an instrumentalist or an audience member. For in Schubert’s final moments, as the Central European winter tightened its grip on the great city of Vienna and the tiny damp room in Wieden in which he was confined, he cleared a path for an interpretation of his output in which subject and object, music and audience, are one.

Gavin Plumley is a writer, broadcaster and musicologist specializing in the culture of Central Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. He has appeared on BBC Radio 3, written for The Guardian and The Independent on Sunday and contributed articles to festivals, orchestras, opera houses and concert halls around the world, including the Salzburg Festival, for whom he commissions and edits the English-language programme notes.

58    The Oxford Lieder Festival

6 Kettenbrückengasse, where Schubert died on 19 November 1828

The Schubert Project    59


CHAPTER X

SCHUBERT’S LEGACY Natasha Loges

When Schubert died on 19 November 1828, the idea of a ‘legacy’ would have been absurd. He was certainly a successful composer of popular music: approximately 100 works had been published, an impressive achievement for his scant 32 years, and his music had been performed in major Austrian cities and in Berlin. Nevertheless, he had not achieved equal rank with the masters. The publisher Schott rejected some of his piano works because they were ‘too difficult’ for the ‘trifles’ they expected from him. When he approached the influential Leipzig-based publishers Breitkopf & Härtel they did not even respond. One difficulty was the fact that concert culture was still in flux in Schubert’s generation and singers only sang songs in public as part of miscellaneous concerts, if they sang them at all. This meant that the two thirds of Schubert’s output, devoted to song, had no prestigious public forum, unlike operas and symphonies. The same applied to his copious solo and duet piano repertoire, which was mostly performed privately in homes. Little of his chamber, symphonic or operatic work was known in his lifetime and this situation changed only gradually after his death. The first traces of Schubert’s legacy became evident in three members of the next generation: Schumann, Mendelssohn and Liszt, who honoured Schubert through their words, performances and arrangements respectively. Thanks to Schubert’s brother Ferdinand, Schumann – who had as an 18-year-old apparently sobbed all night when he heard of Schubert’s death – got to hear the ‘Great’ C major Symphony D944 in Leipzig in 1839. In an article for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, he famously praised its ‘heavenly length’. The conductor on that occasion was Mendelssohn, who was a sufficiently superb musician to be unperturbed by the demanding score. He went on to promote the work in Paris and London, albeit with limited success, before his early death. Schubert’s grave in the Zentralfriedhof, where his remains were moved in 1888

60    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Liszt chose a different but equally characteristic type of homage to Schubert through his numerous piano transcriptions of Schubert’s songs, fiendishly difficult works which gained clarity and direction through Schubert’s natural lyricism and

The Schubert Project    61


CHAPTER X

SCHUBERT’S LEGACY Natasha Loges

When Schubert died on 19 November 1828, the idea of a ‘legacy’ would have been absurd. He was certainly a successful composer of popular music: approximately 100 works had been published, an impressive achievement for his scant 32 years, and his music had been performed in major Austrian cities and in Berlin. Nevertheless, he had not achieved equal rank with the masters. The publisher Schott rejected some of his piano works because they were ‘too difficult’ for the ‘trifles’ they expected from him. When he approached the influential Leipzig-based publishers Breitkopf & Härtel they did not even respond. One difficulty was the fact that concert culture was still in flux in Schubert’s generation and singers only sang songs in public as part of miscellaneous concerts, if they sang them at all. This meant that the two thirds of Schubert’s output, devoted to song, had no prestigious public forum, unlike operas and symphonies. The same applied to his copious solo and duet piano repertoire, which was mostly performed privately in homes. Little of his chamber, symphonic or operatic work was known in his lifetime and this situation changed only gradually after his death. The first traces of Schubert’s legacy became evident in three members of the next generation: Schumann, Mendelssohn and Liszt, who honoured Schubert through their words, performances and arrangements respectively. Thanks to Schubert’s brother Ferdinand, Schumann – who had as an 18-year-old apparently sobbed all night when he heard of Schubert’s death – got to hear the ‘Great’ C major Symphony D944 in Leipzig in 1839. In an article for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, he famously praised its ‘heavenly length’. The conductor on that occasion was Mendelssohn, who was a sufficiently superb musician to be unperturbed by the demanding score. He went on to promote the work in Paris and London, albeit with limited success, before his early death. Schubert’s grave in the Zentralfriedhof, where his remains were moved in 1888

60    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Liszt chose a different but equally characteristic type of homage to Schubert through his numerous piano transcriptions of Schubert’s songs, fiendishly difficult works which gained clarity and direction through Schubert’s natural lyricism and

The Schubert Project    61


upright pianos in hundreds of middle-class households by anyone who could hold a melody. His posthumously published set of arrangements included more popular songs, namely ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’, ‘Prometheus’ and the three Harper songs from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (‘Wer sich die Einsamkeit ergibt’, ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ and ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’).

formal discipline. Traces of Schubert’s outwardly artless approach to melody, expressive use of harmony and infinitely creative piano accompaniments can be found in all three men’s songs, as well as in those of every successive master of song composition including Brahms, Wolf, Mahler, Pfitzner, Strauss and lesserknown figures such as Robert Franz and Adolf Jensen. Of all these men, Brahms’s immersion in Schubert’s music was the widestranging, embracing performing, editing and his own composition. From the late 1850s onwards, Brahms (and other pianists) had accompanied the baritone Julius Stockhausen in pioneering complete performances of Schubert’s major song cycles. Not all listeners were impressed with this practice and some critics dismissed it as a tiresome ‘experiment’ best not repeated too often. But Brahms, like Stockhausen, was smitten by the music, coming to regard Schubert as Beethoven’s true heir – a continual preoccupation over the course of the century. He contributed both expertise and money towards the Complete Schubert Edition (1885–97), published by the self-same Breitkopf & Härtel who had passed over Schubert in his lifetime. A great songwriter himself, Brahms admired Schubert enormously because, ‘with [Schubert], the best comes out so naturally that it seems inevitable’. He found in Schubert’s songs models for his own melodies, accompaniment textures and forms. As a final act of homage, he used the melody and accompaniment of Schubert’s ‘Der Leiermann’ from Winterreise as the basis for the last canon he wrote (op. 113 No. 12) in 1888, a haunting, austere little work in which one great man’s shadow is overlaid with another’s. As a favour to Stockhausen, Brahms also created a more unusual act of homage; in 1862 he orchestrated ‘An Schwager Kronos’, ‘Memnon’, ‘Geheimes’, ‘Greisengesang’, ‘Ellens Zweiter Gesang’ and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. He did this for no other composer, nor indeed for any of his own songs, and kept the arrangements unpublished in his lifetime. Liszt and Berlioz had orchestrated Schubert before him, although it is unlikely he knew of the former’s five arrangements or the latter’s 1860 version of ‘Erlkönig’. It is also difficult to discern a unifying feature between these six songs, which range from the teasing (‘Geheimes’) to the tumultuous (‘An Schwager Kronos’). But in all cases Brahms used an exquisitely luminous orchestration, at roughly the same size as Schubert would have expected for one of his symphonies, which would be edited by Brahms for publication 20 years later. The Monteverdi Choir has recorded a few of the arrangements with male voice choir rather than a baritone soloist, creating great effects from the variety between lower and higher voices and Horch, friedlich an effective match for the instrumental forces.

Critics’ opinions of Reger’s achievement were mixed; Adolf Göttmann complained that the ‘heavy orchestral apparatus’ Reger had suspended from lyrics such as ‘An die Musik’, ‘An den Mond’ and ‘Du bist die Ruh’ was excessive. In the hands of a sensitive conductor, however, Reger’s treatment emerges as lush and rounded, rich in doublings between voice and orchestra and countermelody. It is particularly gorgeous in his handling of ‘Du bist die Ruh’ and ‘Nacht und Träume’, which achieve a Straussian scale.

Schubert’s glasses

Specific songs aside, the distinctive lines and textures of Schubert’s music are interwoven throughout the works of the generations which followed him. When we hear Brahms’s Waltzes op. 39 or his perennially popular Hungarian Dances, it is easy to imagine Schubert’s spirit inspiring this distinctive combination of popular appeal and great artistry. It was the same for Mahler, although his admiration for Schubert was more restrained. He said to his friend Natalie BauerLechner in 1900 that ‘with 800 [Schubert] songs, there may be 80 completely beautiful ones’, although he then added that this was ‘nevertheless enough’. More subtly, Schubert built up an image of his nation upon which Mahler drew in turn. This is audible in the numerous folksongs and dances (particularly Ländler) which echo in his works, often fragmented and distorted. The darker end of Schubert’s emotional range also appealed to Mahler, whose wanderer in the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen is surely the younger brother of the abandoned lover in Die schöne Müllerin or Winterreise.

Brahms’s admirer Reger was a far more prolific transcriber, vom Turm! Es lockt seeking relief in this activity from original composition. In mich das süsse Getön 1909 he conducted Felix Mottl’s orchestration of Schubert’s ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ Quartet, Berlioz’s aforementioned Allmächtig zu ewigen Höh’n. Alleluia! orchestration of ‘Erlkönig’ and Liszt’s version of ‘Die junge Die junge Nonne Nonne’. Reger went on to orchestrate songs by Brahms, Wolf, Grieg and Schumann, as well as 12 of his own and 15 Schubert songs spread over two sets. Clearly Reger found the work of transcription congenial since he declared the intention to orchestrate a few songs by both Schubert and Brahms each year; the two men were linked in his mind.

Yet another aspect of Schubert’s legacy is his influence on song accompanists. When he played for the singer Johann Michael Vogl, the composer remarked to his brother Ferdinand that they performed ‘as though we were one’ and that this was ‘something quite new and unheard-of’. Generations of accompanists, including Benjamin Britten, took this approach in their own playing. Britten gravitated towards Schubert’s song cycles, appreciating the subtle connections that bind individual pieces together and make them greater than the sum of their parts. Yet the most interesting aspect of Britten’s accompanying of Schubert’s songs is its orchestral quality; his handling of the opening triplets of Schubert’s ‘Der Lindenbaum’ (on his recording of Winterreise with Peter Pears) seems to break free of the constraints of hammers on strings altogether. The existence of Britten’s cycles for voice accompanied by chamber ensembles is an instance of his taking this one step further.

Unlike Brahms, Reger had a clear agenda behind his choice of song: familiarity. He declared to his publisher Simrock that he preferred songs ‘which are always sung’ and asked them to let him know which were most popular in concert. Thus his listeners would hear afresh songs that they knew intimately. In his first set of orchestrations of 1914, Reger selected startlingly intimate songs: ‘Memnon’, ‘An die Musik’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Du bist die Ruh’, ‘Im Abendrot’, ‘Litanei’, ‘Nacht und Träume’ and ‘Greisengesang’, most of which would have often been crooned at

Perhaps a more complex aspect of Schubert’s legacy is his contribution to the appreciation of German poetry, both to his countrymen and further afield. Schubert’s choice of poetry was bewilderingly catholic, embracing more than 150 poets, many of whom are long forgotten; yet his friend, the playwright Eduard von Bauernfeld, maintained that ‘in literature’ Schubert ‘was anything but unversed’. Schubert himself believed in the quality of the poems he set, saying to his friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, ‘with a bad poem one can’t make any headway; one

ertönet das Glöcklein

62    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    63


upright pianos in hundreds of middle-class households by anyone who could hold a melody. His posthumously published set of arrangements included more popular songs, namely ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’, ‘Erlkönig’, ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’, ‘Prometheus’ and the three Harper songs from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (‘Wer sich die Einsamkeit ergibt’, ‘Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass’ and ‘An die Türen will ich schleichen’).

formal discipline. Traces of Schubert’s outwardly artless approach to melody, expressive use of harmony and infinitely creative piano accompaniments can be found in all three men’s songs, as well as in those of every successive master of song composition including Brahms, Wolf, Mahler, Pfitzner, Strauss and lesserknown figures such as Robert Franz and Adolf Jensen. Of all these men, Brahms’s immersion in Schubert’s music was the widestranging, embracing performing, editing and his own composition. From the late 1850s onwards, Brahms (and other pianists) had accompanied the baritone Julius Stockhausen in pioneering complete performances of Schubert’s major song cycles. Not all listeners were impressed with this practice and some critics dismissed it as a tiresome ‘experiment’ best not repeated too often. But Brahms, like Stockhausen, was smitten by the music, coming to regard Schubert as Beethoven’s true heir – a continual preoccupation over the course of the century. He contributed both expertise and money towards the Complete Schubert Edition (1885–97), published by the self-same Breitkopf & Härtel who had passed over Schubert in his lifetime. A great songwriter himself, Brahms admired Schubert enormously because, ‘with [Schubert], the best comes out so naturally that it seems inevitable’. He found in Schubert’s songs models for his own melodies, accompaniment textures and forms. As a final act of homage, he used the melody and accompaniment of Schubert’s ‘Der Leiermann’ from Winterreise as the basis for the last canon he wrote (op. 113 No. 12) in 1888, a haunting, austere little work in which one great man’s shadow is overlaid with another’s. As a favour to Stockhausen, Brahms also created a more unusual act of homage; in 1862 he orchestrated ‘An Schwager Kronos’, ‘Memnon’, ‘Geheimes’, ‘Greisengesang’, ‘Ellens Zweiter Gesang’ and ‘Gruppe aus dem Tartarus’. He did this for no other composer, nor indeed for any of his own songs, and kept the arrangements unpublished in his lifetime. Liszt and Berlioz had orchestrated Schubert before him, although it is unlikely he knew of the former’s five arrangements or the latter’s 1860 version of ‘Erlkönig’. It is also difficult to discern a unifying feature between these six songs, which range from the teasing (‘Geheimes’) to the tumultuous (‘An Schwager Kronos’). But in all cases Brahms used an exquisitely luminous orchestration, at roughly the same size as Schubert would have expected for one of his symphonies, which would be edited by Brahms for publication 20 years later. The Monteverdi Choir has recorded a few of the arrangements with male voice choir rather than a baritone soloist, creating great effects from the variety between lower and higher voices and Horch, friedlich an effective match for the instrumental forces.

Critics’ opinions of Reger’s achievement were mixed; Adolf Göttmann complained that the ‘heavy orchestral apparatus’ Reger had suspended from lyrics such as ‘An die Musik’, ‘An den Mond’ and ‘Du bist die Ruh’ was excessive. In the hands of a sensitive conductor, however, Reger’s treatment emerges as lush and rounded, rich in doublings between voice and orchestra and countermelody. It is particularly gorgeous in his handling of ‘Du bist die Ruh’ and ‘Nacht und Träume’, which achieve a Straussian scale.

Schubert’s glasses

Specific songs aside, the distinctive lines and textures of Schubert’s music are interwoven throughout the works of the generations which followed him. When we hear Brahms’s Waltzes op. 39 or his perennially popular Hungarian Dances, it is easy to imagine Schubert’s spirit inspiring this distinctive combination of popular appeal and great artistry. It was the same for Mahler, although his admiration for Schubert was more restrained. He said to his friend Natalie BauerLechner in 1900 that ‘with 800 [Schubert] songs, there may be 80 completely beautiful ones’, although he then added that this was ‘nevertheless enough’. More subtly, Schubert built up an image of his nation upon which Mahler drew in turn. This is audible in the numerous folksongs and dances (particularly Ländler) which echo in his works, often fragmented and distorted. The darker end of Schubert’s emotional range also appealed to Mahler, whose wanderer in the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen is surely the younger brother of the abandoned lover in Die schöne Müllerin or Winterreise.

Brahms’s admirer Reger was a far more prolific transcriber, vom Turm! Es lockt seeking relief in this activity from original composition. In mich das süsse Getön 1909 he conducted Felix Mottl’s orchestration of Schubert’s ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ Quartet, Berlioz’s aforementioned Allmächtig zu ewigen Höh’n. Alleluia! orchestration of ‘Erlkönig’ and Liszt’s version of ‘Die junge Die junge Nonne Nonne’. Reger went on to orchestrate songs by Brahms, Wolf, Grieg and Schumann, as well as 12 of his own and 15 Schubert songs spread over two sets. Clearly Reger found the work of transcription congenial since he declared the intention to orchestrate a few songs by both Schubert and Brahms each year; the two men were linked in his mind.

Yet another aspect of Schubert’s legacy is his influence on song accompanists. When he played for the singer Johann Michael Vogl, the composer remarked to his brother Ferdinand that they performed ‘as though we were one’ and that this was ‘something quite new and unheard-of’. Generations of accompanists, including Benjamin Britten, took this approach in their own playing. Britten gravitated towards Schubert’s song cycles, appreciating the subtle connections that bind individual pieces together and make them greater than the sum of their parts. Yet the most interesting aspect of Britten’s accompanying of Schubert’s songs is its orchestral quality; his handling of the opening triplets of Schubert’s ‘Der Lindenbaum’ (on his recording of Winterreise with Peter Pears) seems to break free of the constraints of hammers on strings altogether. The existence of Britten’s cycles for voice accompanied by chamber ensembles is an instance of his taking this one step further.

Unlike Brahms, Reger had a clear agenda behind his choice of song: familiarity. He declared to his publisher Simrock that he preferred songs ‘which are always sung’ and asked them to let him know which were most popular in concert. Thus his listeners would hear afresh songs that they knew intimately. In his first set of orchestrations of 1914, Reger selected startlingly intimate songs: ‘Memnon’, ‘An die Musik’, ‘An den Mond’, ‘Du bist die Ruh’, ‘Im Abendrot’, ‘Litanei’, ‘Nacht und Träume’ and ‘Greisengesang’, most of which would have often been crooned at

Perhaps a more complex aspect of Schubert’s legacy is his contribution to the appreciation of German poetry, both to his countrymen and further afield. Schubert’s choice of poetry was bewilderingly catholic, embracing more than 150 poets, many of whom are long forgotten; yet his friend, the playwright Eduard von Bauernfeld, maintained that ‘in literature’ Schubert ‘was anything but unversed’. Schubert himself believed in the quality of the poems he set, saying to his friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, ‘with a bad poem one can’t make any headway; one

ertönet das Glöcklein

62    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    63


torments oneself over it and nothing comes of it but boring rubbish’. The verses Schubert set range from the borderline trite to large-scale philosophical poetry by the two lions of his day: Schiller and Goethe. It was these writers whose lyrics and ballads sparked the teenage Schubert’s imagination in the first place. The legend that the songs Schubert sent Goethe in 1816 were returned unopened because he could not appreciate them has recently been called into question. One factor that is often overlooked – though not in Chapter III: ‘The Poetic Muse: Goethe, Schubert and the Art of Song’ – is the death of Goethe’s wife Christiane on 6 June that year, surely a valid excuse for overlooking post from an unknown Viennese boy. Goethe would hardly have believed the impact that boy would have on future generations’ understanding of his poetry. Few people now have read Goethe’s 1782 Singspiel Die Fischerin, the main character of which sings the ballad ‘Erlkönig’ while she goes about her work. Goethe’s vast Wilhelm Meister novels continue to frighten off many a reader. Perhaps a few more readers know of the ballad ‘Der König in Thule’ from Faust, but it is Schubert’s haunting setting that resounds in their ears. Ultimately, Schubert’s musical fingerprints can be spotted in too many places and guises to name. It can be heard in every modally-inflected, verse-refrain pop song on the radio, as well as in the music of composers as diverse as Scott Joplin, George Crumb, György Ligeti, Luciano Berio and Andrew Lloyd Webber. Nearly two centuries on, musicians return to his works with mingled affection and amazement. The sheer extent of Schubert’s legacy gives the lie to Franz Grillparzer’s famous epitaph on the composer’s grave: ‘The art of music has entombed here a rich treasure but even fairer hopes.’ Those hopes continue to be realized to this day.

Artists’ Biographies Thomas Adès

Renowned as both a composer and a performer, Thomas Adès works regularly with the world’s leading orchestras, opera companies and festivals. He enjoys close associations with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Boston, London, BBC, City of Birmingham, Melbourne and Sydney symphony orchestras and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. He has conducted The Rake’s Progress at the Royal Opera House and Zurich Opera and made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera, New York conducting his opera The Tempest, which he will conduct later this season at Vienna State Opera. He will also conduct his Totentanz with the Boston and Chicago symphony orchestras and the Los Angeles and New York philharmonic orchestras. His recent piano engagements include solo recitals at Carnegie Hall and the Barbican and concerto appearances with the New York Philharmonic. His DVD recording of The Tempest from the Metropolitan Opera was awarded the Diapason d’Or de l’année (2013), Best Opera Recording (2014 Grammy Awards) and Music DVD Recording of the Year (2014 Echo Klassik Awards).

John Mark Ainsley has appeared with the world’s greatest orchestras and conductors, including the London, Chicago, Boston and San Francisco symphony orchestras and the London, Berlin, Vienna and New York philharmonic orchestras, with Davis, Haitink, Mackerras, Dutoit, Masur, Norrington, Rattle and Abbado. His discography covers Baroque and Classical repertoire, German Lied, English song and American musical theatre. His Britten recordings include the three tenor cycles, Serenade for tenor, horn and strings, Les illuminations and Nocturne. 2010 saw his first performance as Captain Vere in the UK in Michael Grandage’s production of Billy Budd for Glyndebourne. He sang Skuratov in Janácˇek’s From the House of the Dead directed by Chereau and conducted by Boulez at festivals in Amsterdam, Vienna and Aix-en-Provence and subsequently in his house debut at La Scala, Milan with Salonen. His operatic engagements also include From the House of the Dead at Berlin State Opera under Rattle and Orfeo at the Theater an der Wien under Bolton. He is a Visiting Professor at the Royal Academy. Susie Allan

studied at Worcester College, Oxford, as a Hadow Instrumental Scholar, and Accompaniment at the Guildhall School. She won the Accompaniment Prize, Gerald Moore Award and a Geoffrey Parsons Memorial Award. She has accompanied many masterclasses at the Britten-Pears School and elsewhere and has been a Professor of Accompaniment at the Royal College and Royal Welsh College. Susie has performed all over Britain and Europe and made recordings and broadcasts for the BBC and Channel 4, with a variety of well-established singers, many of whom appear at Oxford Lieder, in particular Roderick Williams, with whom she has a long association. Together they have appeared at home and abroad, last year performing Schubert at Schloss Atzenbrugg, home of the original Schubertiade. Next spring she will be giving recitals in the USA with Roderick Williams. She lives in south Shropshire with her three children.

Thomas Allen is an established star of all the great opera houses. He has been particularly acclaimed for his performances as Billy Budd, Pelléas, Eugene Onegin, Ulisse and Beckmesser, as well as the great Mozart roles of Count Almaviva, Don Alfonso, Papageno and, of course, Don Giovanni. He is a regular guest at the Royal Opera House, Metropolitan Opera, New York, Bavarian State Opera and at the Salzburg and Glyndeborune festivals. As a director his projects have included Il barbiere di Siviglia, Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni and Die Zauberflöte for Scottish Opera, Don Pasquale for Lyric Opera Chicago and Così fan tutte for Boston Lyric Opera. An acclaimed recitalist, he is equally renowned on the concert platform and has appeared with the world’s great orchestras and conductors. He was made Chancellor of Durham University in 2012. He was made a CBE in the 1989 New Year’s Honours and knighted in the 1999 Queen’s Birthday Honours. Among his proudest achievements is having a Channel Tunnel locomotive named after him.

NATASHA LOGES studied at the Guildhall School, King’s College, London and the Royal Academy. She currently works at the Royal College. Her publications have appeared in Music and Letters, Nineteenth-Century Music Review and the book Music and Literature in German Romanticism. Her co-edited book Brahms in the Home and the Concert Hall will be published by Cambridge University Press later this year and she is currently completing a monograph, Brahms and his Poets. Natasha performs regularly as a song accompanist and gives talks for BBC Radio 3, Music Talks and the Oxford Lieder Festival.

64    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Marcelo Amaral Winner of the Pianist Prize at the 2008 International Robert Schumann Song Competition, Brazilian pianist Marcelo Amaral has quickly gained considerable reputation as one the most sought-after accompanists of his generation. He performs with internationally established singers such as Juliane Banse, Janina Baechle, Olaf Bär, Daniel Behle, Jean-François Borras, John Chest, Melanie Diener, Jochen Kupfer, Sophie Marilley, Birgid Steinberger, Christoph Pohl and Roman Trekel, as well as many rising stars, in concerts throughout Europe, North and South America. His collaborations have been broadcast on Bavarian Radio, Deutschland Radio Kultur, WDR/Arte and Radio France. In 2013 he made his debut at Wigmore Hall and at the Schubertiade in Schwarzenberg. Marcelo’s projects this season include a return to the Schubertiade, as well as the Musée d’Orsay, International Hugo Wolf Academy and the Convergences Series at Paris Opéra.

The Schubert Project    65


torments oneself over it and nothing comes of it but boring rubbish’. The verses Schubert set range from the borderline trite to large-scale philosophical poetry by the two lions of his day: Schiller and Goethe. It was these writers whose lyrics and ballads sparked the teenage Schubert’s imagination in the first place. The legend that the songs Schubert sent Goethe in 1816 were returned unopened because he could not appreciate them has recently been called into question. One factor that is often overlooked – though not in Chapter III: ‘The Poetic Muse: Goethe, Schubert and the Art of Song’ – is the death of Goethe’s wife Christiane on 6 June that year, surely a valid excuse for overlooking post from an unknown Viennese boy. Goethe would hardly have believed the impact that boy would have on future generations’ understanding of his poetry. Few people now have read Goethe’s 1782 Singspiel Die Fischerin, the main character of which sings the ballad ‘Erlkönig’ while she goes about her work. Goethe’s vast Wilhelm Meister novels continue to frighten off many a reader. Perhaps a few more readers know of the ballad ‘Der König in Thule’ from Faust, but it is Schubert’s haunting setting that resounds in their ears. Ultimately, Schubert’s musical fingerprints can be spotted in too many places and guises to name. It can be heard in every modally-inflected, verse-refrain pop song on the radio, as well as in the music of composers as diverse as Scott Joplin, George Crumb, György Ligeti, Luciano Berio and Andrew Lloyd Webber. Nearly two centuries on, musicians return to his works with mingled affection and amazement. The sheer extent of Schubert’s legacy gives the lie to Franz Grillparzer’s famous epitaph on the composer’s grave: ‘The art of music has entombed here a rich treasure but even fairer hopes.’ Those hopes continue to be realized to this day.

Artists’ Biographies Thomas Adès

Renowned as both a composer and a performer, Thomas Adès works regularly with the world’s leading orchestras, opera companies and festivals. He enjoys close associations with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Boston, London, BBC, City of Birmingham, Melbourne and Sydney symphony orchestras and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. He has conducted The Rake’s Progress at the Royal Opera House and Zurich Opera and made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera, New York conducting his opera The Tempest, which he will conduct later this season at Vienna State Opera. He will also conduct his Totentanz with the Boston and Chicago symphony orchestras and the Los Angeles and New York philharmonic orchestras. His recent piano engagements include solo recitals at Carnegie Hall and the Barbican and concerto appearances with the New York Philharmonic. His DVD recording of The Tempest from the Metropolitan Opera was awarded the Diapason d’Or de l’année (2013), Best Opera Recording (2014 Grammy Awards) and Music DVD Recording of the Year (2014 Echo Klassik Awards).

John Mark Ainsley has appeared with the world’s greatest orchestras and conductors, including the London, Chicago, Boston and San Francisco symphony orchestras and the London, Berlin, Vienna and New York philharmonic orchestras, with Davis, Haitink, Mackerras, Dutoit, Masur, Norrington, Rattle and Abbado. His discography covers Baroque and Classical repertoire, German Lied, English song and American musical theatre. His Britten recordings include the three tenor cycles, Serenade for tenor, horn and strings, Les illuminations and Nocturne. 2010 saw his first performance as Captain Vere in the UK in Michael Grandage’s production of Billy Budd for Glyndebourne. He sang Skuratov in Janácˇek’s From the House of the Dead directed by Chereau and conducted by Boulez at festivals in Amsterdam, Vienna and Aix-en-Provence and subsequently in his house debut at La Scala, Milan with Salonen. His operatic engagements also include From the House of the Dead at Berlin State Opera under Rattle and Orfeo at the Theater an der Wien under Bolton. He is a Visiting Professor at the Royal Academy. Susie Allan

studied at Worcester College, Oxford, as a Hadow Instrumental Scholar, and Accompaniment at the Guildhall School. She won the Accompaniment Prize, Gerald Moore Award and a Geoffrey Parsons Memorial Award. She has accompanied many masterclasses at the Britten-Pears School and elsewhere and has been a Professor of Accompaniment at the Royal College and Royal Welsh College. Susie has performed all over Britain and Europe and made recordings and broadcasts for the BBC and Channel 4, with a variety of well-established singers, many of whom appear at Oxford Lieder, in particular Roderick Williams, with whom she has a long association. Together they have appeared at home and abroad, last year performing Schubert at Schloss Atzenbrugg, home of the original Schubertiade. Next spring she will be giving recitals in the USA with Roderick Williams. She lives in south Shropshire with her three children.

Thomas Allen is an established star of all the great opera houses. He has been particularly acclaimed for his performances as Billy Budd, Pelléas, Eugene Onegin, Ulisse and Beckmesser, as well as the great Mozart roles of Count Almaviva, Don Alfonso, Papageno and, of course, Don Giovanni. He is a regular guest at the Royal Opera House, Metropolitan Opera, New York, Bavarian State Opera and at the Salzburg and Glyndeborune festivals. As a director his projects have included Il barbiere di Siviglia, Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni and Die Zauberflöte for Scottish Opera, Don Pasquale for Lyric Opera Chicago and Così fan tutte for Boston Lyric Opera. An acclaimed recitalist, he is equally renowned on the concert platform and has appeared with the world’s great orchestras and conductors. He was made Chancellor of Durham University in 2012. He was made a CBE in the 1989 New Year’s Honours and knighted in the 1999 Queen’s Birthday Honours. Among his proudest achievements is having a Channel Tunnel locomotive named after him.

NATASHA LOGES studied at the Guildhall School, King’s College, London and the Royal Academy. She currently works at the Royal College. Her publications have appeared in Music and Letters, Nineteenth-Century Music Review and the book Music and Literature in German Romanticism. Her co-edited book Brahms in the Home and the Concert Hall will be published by Cambridge University Press later this year and she is currently completing a monograph, Brahms and his Poets. Natasha performs regularly as a song accompanist and gives talks for BBC Radio 3, Music Talks and the Oxford Lieder Festival.

64    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Marcelo Amaral Winner of the Pianist Prize at the 2008 International Robert Schumann Song Competition, Brazilian pianist Marcelo Amaral has quickly gained considerable reputation as one the most sought-after accompanists of his generation. He performs with internationally established singers such as Juliane Banse, Janina Baechle, Olaf Bär, Daniel Behle, Jean-François Borras, John Chest, Melanie Diener, Jochen Kupfer, Sophie Marilley, Birgid Steinberger, Christoph Pohl and Roman Trekel, as well as many rising stars, in concerts throughout Europe, North and South America. His collaborations have been broadcast on Bavarian Radio, Deutschland Radio Kultur, WDR/Arte and Radio France. In 2013 he made his debut at Wigmore Hall and at the Schubertiade in Schwarzenberg. Marcelo’s projects this season include a return to the Schubertiade, as well as the Musée d’Orsay, International Hugo Wolf Academy and the Convergences Series at Paris Opéra.

The Schubert Project    65


Benjamin Appl A graduate of the Guildhall School, Benjamin Appl studies with Rudolph Piernay and was the last private pupil of Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. He is a member of Yehudi Menuhin Foundation Live Music Now and a recipient of many awards. Benjamin has appeared at the Berlin State Opera, Banff Festival, Theater an der Rott and Bregenz Festival, in concert with the Gabrieli Consort under McCreesh, with Bavarian Radio under Schirmer and at the Ravinia and Rheingau festivals. He works regularly with Graham Johnson at Wigmore Hall and the Schubertiade Festival and has recorded Mendelssohn Lieder with Malcolm Martineau. This season Benjamin returns to the Schubertiade, Wigmore Hall and deSingel in Antwerp. He will sing Bernhard Gander’s Am Rande der Milchstrasse at the Konzerthaus in Vienna and his first Guglielmo (Così fan tutte) for Limoges Opera. Benjamin is delighted to join the BBC New Generation Artists scheme until the end of 2016 and will be an Echo Rising Stars Artist in 2015/16.

Robin Bowman was Head of Academic Studies and then Head of Vocal Studies at the Guildhall School from 1985 to 2008. He worked as assistant to Pierre Bernac (the singer for whom Poulenc wrote more than half of his songs) throughout the 1970s, was French consultant for the National Opera Studio from 1978 to 2008 and from 1970 to 1994 was on the staff of the Académie Maurice Ravel. From 1997 to 2007 he taught at the Académie Internationale d’Eté de Nice. Collaborative piano playing, particularly with singers, features prominently in his professional life, including many broadcasts and recordings, and he has developed a unique style of vocal coaching. He has taken part in over 15,000 auditions and performance examinations including about 100 as part of the 2013 Kathleen Ferrier Competition. In retirement he works for the Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre in Birmingham and as a visiting tutor at the Birmingham Conservatoire. He teaches on the Abingdon and Oxenfoord summer schools and leads specialist French repertoire courses for the Jackdaws Educational Trust.

Eugene Asti studied at the Mannes College of Music, New York and subsequently at the Guildhall School, where he currently teaches. One of the leading accompanists of his generation, Eugene has performed with many great artists including Felicity Lott, Margaret Price, Willard White, Thomas Allen, Sarah Connolly, Angelika Kirchschlager and Bryn Terfel in venues such as Wigmore Hall, the Musikverein in Vienna, Mariinsky Theatre, Carnegie Hall and the Alice Tully Hall in New York. He also works regularly with today’s leading recitalists including Sophie Daneman, Susan Gritton, Sophie Karthäuser, Stephan Loges and James Rutherford. In 2009 he became an official Steinway Artist. In 2009 Eugene devised a recital series at Kings Place in honour of the anniversary of Felix Mendelssohn. He has also completed an edition of the composer’s songs for Bärenreiter. His many recordings include songs by Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara Schumann, Mozart and Poulenc.

Katie Bray

Aurora Orchestra Since its creation in 2005, Aurora Orchestra has rapidly established itself as the most significant new British chamber orchestra in a generation and one of Europe’s leading chamber orchestras, combining electrifying live performance with a uniquely creative approach to programming and presentation. Under the artistic direction of Principal Conductor Nicholas Collon, Aurora has developed flourishing London series at LSO St Luke’s and Kings Place and also appears regularly at other major venues such as the Southbank Centre, Wigmore Hall, Barbican and the Royal Albert Hall. The Orchestra enjoys an increasingly busy touring calendar both in the UK and internationally and has worked with a roster of worldclass artists across multiple art forms. Guided by the conviction that orchestral music should be accessible, alive and relevant to the broadest possible audience, Aurora’s activities extend to myriad settings beyond the concert hall, with a varied programme of work in schools, hospitals, museums and other community settings. Aurora is the youngest ever recipient of the Royal Philharmonic Society’s Ensemble Award.

Deirdre Brenner

James Baillieu is a prizewinner at the Wigmore Hall and Das Lied International song competitions. He was selected for representation by YCAT in 2010 and in 2012 received a Borletti-Buitoni Trust Fellowship. An accomplished chamber musician, soloist and accompanist, James has given recitals throughout Europe and further afield. He collaborates with singers and instrumentalists including Lawrence Power, Jack Liebeck, Adam Walker, the Elias, Signum and Heath quartets, Mark Padmore, Thomas Allen, Kiri Te Kanawa, Annette Dasch, Pumeza Matshikiza, Ben Johnson, Allan Clayton, Ailish Tynan, Ian Bostridge and John Mark Ainsley. Venues include Wigmore Hall, Royal Festival Hall, Konzerthaus in Berlin, Musikverein in Vienna, Bridgewater Hall, National Concert Hall Dublin and the Bergen, Spitalfields, Aldeburgh, Cheltenham, Bath, City of London, St Magnus, Verbier and Aix-en-Provence festivals. James studied at the University of Cape Town and the Royal Academy. He was appointed a Professor of Piano Accompaniment in 2011 and awarded an ARAM in 2012.

Katherine Broderick studied at the Guildhall School and the National Opera Studio and spent a year at the University of Music and Theatre in Leipzig. Plans this season and beyond include returning to Opéra national de Lorraine in Nancy to sing Mrs Coyle (Owen Wingrave), Britten’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, Mahler’s Second Symphony in Kuala Lumpur with the Malaysian Philharmonic, Zemlinsky’s Waldgespräch with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra and John Storgårds and a recital with the Myrthen Ensemble for the Bath Mozartfest. Katherine has also sung with the BBC Symphony, BBC Philharmonic, Bournemouth Symphony and Hallé orchestras, Singapore and Queensland symphony orchestras and the National Orchestra of Spain working with conductors such as Mark Elder, Donald Runnicles, Gianandrea Noseda, Jirˇí Beˇlohlávek, Marin Alsop and Simone Young. Past opera appearances include participating in The Ring at the Royal Opera House, Opera North and Leipzig Opera as well as singing Donna Anna (Don Giovanni) and Berta (Il barbiere di Siviglia) for ENO and First Lady (Die Zauberflöte) for Glyndebourne on Tour.

Mary Bevan is one of Britain’s leading emerging artists, receiving much acclaim from critics and audiences alike. Bevan trained at the Royal Academy and is currently a Harewood Artist at ENO. Opera engagements during the 2013/14 season included Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) at the Royal Opera House, Despina (Così fan tutte), Papagena (Die Zauberflöte) and Second Niece (Peter Grimes) at ENO and Servilla (La clemenza di Tito) with Classical Opera. On the concert platform Bevan recently performed Maxwell Davies’s Suite from Act II of Caroline Mathilde with the BBC National Orchestra of Wales at the BBC Proms, Mendelssohn’s Second Symphony with the CBSO and Stravinsky’s Pulcinella with the Prague Philharmonia. This season Bevan sings Susanna (Le nozze di Figaro) at ENO and L’Orfeo with the ROH at the Roundhouse and with ENO at Bristol Old Vic. In concert she will perform Mozart’s Requiem with the English Chamber Orchestra and Faure’s Requiem with the Philharmonia.

Iain Burnside is an acclaimed vocal accompanist. Artists with whom he has collaborated include Margaret Price, Susan Chilcott, Galina Gorchakova, Ailish Tynan, Susan Bickley, Ann Murray, John Mark Ainsley, Roderick Williams and Bryn Terfel. His recordings straddle an eclectic repertoire ranging from Beethoven to Judith Weir, with a special place reserved for the highways and byways of English song. Delphian has just released Burnside’s complete Rachmaninoff songs with seven outstanding Russian artists. He also enjoys a close association with Rosenblatt Recitals, both on stage and in the studio, in collaboration with Opus Arte. He is a Sony Award-winning broadcaster and a master programmer, curating various festivals and recital series. In association with the Guildhall School, Burnside has written a number of highly individual theatre pieces, performed at the Barbican, Milton Court and the Cheltenham Festival. In demand as teacher and animateur, Burnside also works at the Royal Opera House and the National Opera Studio. He is International Visiting Artist at the Royal Irish Academy of Music in Dublin.

Ian Bostridge has appeared at the Salzburg, Edinburgh, Munich, Vienna, Schwarzenberg and Aldeburgh festivals and had residencies at the Konzerthaus in Vienna, Carnegie Hall, Concertgebouw, Luxembourg Philharmonie, Barbican and Wigmore Hall. In opera he has performed Tamino, Jupiter (Semele) and Aschenbach (Death in Venice) at ENO, Quint (The Turn of the Screw), Don Ottavio (Don Giovanni) and Caliban (The Tempest) at the Royal Opera House, Don Ottavio in Vienna and Tom Rakewell (The Rake’s Progress) in Munich. His many recordings have won all the major international record prizes and been nominated for 13 Grammys. He was awarded a CBE in the 2004 New Year’s Honours. He will be Humanitas Professor of Classical Music at the University of Oxford in 2014/15. His book Schubert’s Winter Journey: Anatomy of an Obsession will be published by Faber and Faber in the UK and Knopf in the USA at the beginning of 2015.

Lorraine Byrne Bodley holds a PhD in Music and in German from University

66    The Oxford Lieder Festival

British mezzo-soprano Katie Bray is fast establishing a colourful international career, most recently engaged as Lazuli in New Sussex Opera’s production of L’Étoile and as cover Cherubino in McVicar’s production of Le nozze di Figaro at the Royal Opera House with John Eliot Gardiner. In 2014 she made her debut at Garsington as Emma in Offenbach’s Vert Vert, directed by Martin Duncan and conducted by David Parry. Highlights of 2014 include a recording of Zemlinsky’s Sechs Gesänge nach Gedichten von Maurice Maeterlinck with Trevor Pinnock and Das Lied von der Erde in the Loch Shiel Spring Festival. Future plans include a trip to Poland in 2015 performing with the Wrocław Baroque Orchestra in their Bach cantata project and an appearance at the Last Night of the Summer Proms 2014 at Symphony Hall in Birmingham.

Pianist Deirdre Brenner has performed in major concert halls throughout the USA, UK and Europe, including the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna, Stadthalle in Bayreuth, Teatro Real, Madrid, National Concert Hall Dublin, St Martin in the Fields, St James Piccadilly, Beurs van Berlage in Amsterdam and the Hollywell Music Room. She has performed at festivals such as the Seoul Spring Festival of Chamber Music, Oxford Lieder Festival, Aix-en-Provence Festival, Rhodes Chamber Music Festival and Portogruaro International Music Festival, with artists including Wolfgang Holzmair, Birgid Steinberger, Markus Werba, Layla Claire, Klemens Sander, Mara Mastalir and the Manning Trio. Originally from Massachusetts, Deirdre earned a bachelors degree from Dartmouth College and a masters from the Royal Academy and the Vienna Conservatory. She studied with Carolyn Hague, John O’Conor, Julius Drake, Colin Stone, Sally Pinkas and Loretta Slovak and is co-founder of the Boyne Music Festival in Drogheda and Mosaïque, an innovative concert series in Vienna.

College Dublin (1999) and a DMUS in Musicology, a higher doctorate on published work (NUI, 2012). She is Senior Lecturer in Musicology at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Visiting Professor at the University of Tübingen. She has recently been commissioned to write a new biography of Schubert for Yale University Press. Her other publications include Rethinking Schubert (Oxford, forthcoming 2015), Schubert’s Late Music in History and Theory (Cambridge, forthcoming 2015), Goethe and Zelter: Musical Dialogues (Asghate, 2009) and Schubert’s Goethe Settings (Ashgate, 2003).

The Schubert Project    67


Benjamin Appl A graduate of the Guildhall School, Benjamin Appl studies with Rudolph Piernay and was the last private pupil of Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. He is a member of Yehudi Menuhin Foundation Live Music Now and a recipient of many awards. Benjamin has appeared at the Berlin State Opera, Banff Festival, Theater an der Rott and Bregenz Festival, in concert with the Gabrieli Consort under McCreesh, with Bavarian Radio under Schirmer and at the Ravinia and Rheingau festivals. He works regularly with Graham Johnson at Wigmore Hall and the Schubertiade Festival and has recorded Mendelssohn Lieder with Malcolm Martineau. This season Benjamin returns to the Schubertiade, Wigmore Hall and deSingel in Antwerp. He will sing Bernhard Gander’s Am Rande der Milchstrasse at the Konzerthaus in Vienna and his first Guglielmo (Così fan tutte) for Limoges Opera. Benjamin is delighted to join the BBC New Generation Artists scheme until the end of 2016 and will be an Echo Rising Stars Artist in 2015/16.

Robin Bowman was Head of Academic Studies and then Head of Vocal Studies at the Guildhall School from 1985 to 2008. He worked as assistant to Pierre Bernac (the singer for whom Poulenc wrote more than half of his songs) throughout the 1970s, was French consultant for the National Opera Studio from 1978 to 2008 and from 1970 to 1994 was on the staff of the Académie Maurice Ravel. From 1997 to 2007 he taught at the Académie Internationale d’Eté de Nice. Collaborative piano playing, particularly with singers, features prominently in his professional life, including many broadcasts and recordings, and he has developed a unique style of vocal coaching. He has taken part in over 15,000 auditions and performance examinations including about 100 as part of the 2013 Kathleen Ferrier Competition. In retirement he works for the Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre in Birmingham and as a visiting tutor at the Birmingham Conservatoire. He teaches on the Abingdon and Oxenfoord summer schools and leads specialist French repertoire courses for the Jackdaws Educational Trust.

Eugene Asti studied at the Mannes College of Music, New York and subsequently at the Guildhall School, where he currently teaches. One of the leading accompanists of his generation, Eugene has performed with many great artists including Felicity Lott, Margaret Price, Willard White, Thomas Allen, Sarah Connolly, Angelika Kirchschlager and Bryn Terfel in venues such as Wigmore Hall, the Musikverein in Vienna, Mariinsky Theatre, Carnegie Hall and the Alice Tully Hall in New York. He also works regularly with today’s leading recitalists including Sophie Daneman, Susan Gritton, Sophie Karthäuser, Stephan Loges and James Rutherford. In 2009 he became an official Steinway Artist. In 2009 Eugene devised a recital series at Kings Place in honour of the anniversary of Felix Mendelssohn. He has also completed an edition of the composer’s songs for Bärenreiter. His many recordings include songs by Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara Schumann, Mozart and Poulenc.

Katie Bray

Aurora Orchestra Since its creation in 2005, Aurora Orchestra has rapidly established itself as the most significant new British chamber orchestra in a generation and one of Europe’s leading chamber orchestras, combining electrifying live performance with a uniquely creative approach to programming and presentation. Under the artistic direction of Principal Conductor Nicholas Collon, Aurora has developed flourishing London series at LSO St Luke’s and Kings Place and also appears regularly at other major venues such as the Southbank Centre, Wigmore Hall, Barbican and the Royal Albert Hall. The Orchestra enjoys an increasingly busy touring calendar both in the UK and internationally and has worked with a roster of worldclass artists across multiple art forms. Guided by the conviction that orchestral music should be accessible, alive and relevant to the broadest possible audience, Aurora’s activities extend to myriad settings beyond the concert hall, with a varied programme of work in schools, hospitals, museums and other community settings. Aurora is the youngest ever recipient of the Royal Philharmonic Society’s Ensemble Award.

Deirdre Brenner

James Baillieu is a prizewinner at the Wigmore Hall and Das Lied International song competitions. He was selected for representation by YCAT in 2010 and in 2012 received a Borletti-Buitoni Trust Fellowship. An accomplished chamber musician, soloist and accompanist, James has given recitals throughout Europe and further afield. He collaborates with singers and instrumentalists including Lawrence Power, Jack Liebeck, Adam Walker, the Elias, Signum and Heath quartets, Mark Padmore, Thomas Allen, Kiri Te Kanawa, Annette Dasch, Pumeza Matshikiza, Ben Johnson, Allan Clayton, Ailish Tynan, Ian Bostridge and John Mark Ainsley. Venues include Wigmore Hall, Royal Festival Hall, Konzerthaus in Berlin, Musikverein in Vienna, Bridgewater Hall, National Concert Hall Dublin and the Bergen, Spitalfields, Aldeburgh, Cheltenham, Bath, City of London, St Magnus, Verbier and Aix-en-Provence festivals. James studied at the University of Cape Town and the Royal Academy. He was appointed a Professor of Piano Accompaniment in 2011 and awarded an ARAM in 2012.

Katherine Broderick studied at the Guildhall School and the National Opera Studio and spent a year at the University of Music and Theatre in Leipzig. Plans this season and beyond include returning to Opéra national de Lorraine in Nancy to sing Mrs Coyle (Owen Wingrave), Britten’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, Mahler’s Second Symphony in Kuala Lumpur with the Malaysian Philharmonic, Zemlinsky’s Waldgespräch with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra and John Storgårds and a recital with the Myrthen Ensemble for the Bath Mozartfest. Katherine has also sung with the BBC Symphony, BBC Philharmonic, Bournemouth Symphony and Hallé orchestras, Singapore and Queensland symphony orchestras and the National Orchestra of Spain working with conductors such as Mark Elder, Donald Runnicles, Gianandrea Noseda, Jirˇí Beˇlohlávek, Marin Alsop and Simone Young. Past opera appearances include participating in The Ring at the Royal Opera House, Opera North and Leipzig Opera as well as singing Donna Anna (Don Giovanni) and Berta (Il barbiere di Siviglia) for ENO and First Lady (Die Zauberflöte) for Glyndebourne on Tour.

Mary Bevan is one of Britain’s leading emerging artists, receiving much acclaim from critics and audiences alike. Bevan trained at the Royal Academy and is currently a Harewood Artist at ENO. Opera engagements during the 2013/14 season included Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) at the Royal Opera House, Despina (Così fan tutte), Papagena (Die Zauberflöte) and Second Niece (Peter Grimes) at ENO and Servilla (La clemenza di Tito) with Classical Opera. On the concert platform Bevan recently performed Maxwell Davies’s Suite from Act II of Caroline Mathilde with the BBC National Orchestra of Wales at the BBC Proms, Mendelssohn’s Second Symphony with the CBSO and Stravinsky’s Pulcinella with the Prague Philharmonia. This season Bevan sings Susanna (Le nozze di Figaro) at ENO and L’Orfeo with the ROH at the Roundhouse and with ENO at Bristol Old Vic. In concert she will perform Mozart’s Requiem with the English Chamber Orchestra and Faure’s Requiem with the Philharmonia.

Iain Burnside is an acclaimed vocal accompanist. Artists with whom he has collaborated include Margaret Price, Susan Chilcott, Galina Gorchakova, Ailish Tynan, Susan Bickley, Ann Murray, John Mark Ainsley, Roderick Williams and Bryn Terfel. His recordings straddle an eclectic repertoire ranging from Beethoven to Judith Weir, with a special place reserved for the highways and byways of English song. Delphian has just released Burnside’s complete Rachmaninoff songs with seven outstanding Russian artists. He also enjoys a close association with Rosenblatt Recitals, both on stage and in the studio, in collaboration with Opus Arte. He is a Sony Award-winning broadcaster and a master programmer, curating various festivals and recital series. In association with the Guildhall School, Burnside has written a number of highly individual theatre pieces, performed at the Barbican, Milton Court and the Cheltenham Festival. In demand as teacher and animateur, Burnside also works at the Royal Opera House and the National Opera Studio. He is International Visiting Artist at the Royal Irish Academy of Music in Dublin.

Ian Bostridge has appeared at the Salzburg, Edinburgh, Munich, Vienna, Schwarzenberg and Aldeburgh festivals and had residencies at the Konzerthaus in Vienna, Carnegie Hall, Concertgebouw, Luxembourg Philharmonie, Barbican and Wigmore Hall. In opera he has performed Tamino, Jupiter (Semele) and Aschenbach (Death in Venice) at ENO, Quint (The Turn of the Screw), Don Ottavio (Don Giovanni) and Caliban (The Tempest) at the Royal Opera House, Don Ottavio in Vienna and Tom Rakewell (The Rake’s Progress) in Munich. His many recordings have won all the major international record prizes and been nominated for 13 Grammys. He was awarded a CBE in the 2004 New Year’s Honours. He will be Humanitas Professor of Classical Music at the University of Oxford in 2014/15. His book Schubert’s Winter Journey: Anatomy of an Obsession will be published by Faber and Faber in the UK and Knopf in the USA at the beginning of 2015.

Lorraine Byrne Bodley holds a PhD in Music and in German from University

66    The Oxford Lieder Festival

British mezzo-soprano Katie Bray is fast establishing a colourful international career, most recently engaged as Lazuli in New Sussex Opera’s production of L’Étoile and as cover Cherubino in McVicar’s production of Le nozze di Figaro at the Royal Opera House with John Eliot Gardiner. In 2014 she made her debut at Garsington as Emma in Offenbach’s Vert Vert, directed by Martin Duncan and conducted by David Parry. Highlights of 2014 include a recording of Zemlinsky’s Sechs Gesänge nach Gedichten von Maurice Maeterlinck with Trevor Pinnock and Das Lied von der Erde in the Loch Shiel Spring Festival. Future plans include a trip to Poland in 2015 performing with the Wrocław Baroque Orchestra in their Bach cantata project and an appearance at the Last Night of the Summer Proms 2014 at Symphony Hall in Birmingham.

Pianist Deirdre Brenner has performed in major concert halls throughout the USA, UK and Europe, including the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna, Stadthalle in Bayreuth, Teatro Real, Madrid, National Concert Hall Dublin, St Martin in the Fields, St James Piccadilly, Beurs van Berlage in Amsterdam and the Hollywell Music Room. She has performed at festivals such as the Seoul Spring Festival of Chamber Music, Oxford Lieder Festival, Aix-en-Provence Festival, Rhodes Chamber Music Festival and Portogruaro International Music Festival, with artists including Wolfgang Holzmair, Birgid Steinberger, Markus Werba, Layla Claire, Klemens Sander, Mara Mastalir and the Manning Trio. Originally from Massachusetts, Deirdre earned a bachelors degree from Dartmouth College and a masters from the Royal Academy and the Vienna Conservatory. She studied with Carolyn Hague, John O’Conor, Julius Drake, Colin Stone, Sally Pinkas and Loretta Slovak and is co-founder of the Boyne Music Festival in Drogheda and Mosaïque, an innovative concert series in Vienna.

College Dublin (1999) and a DMUS in Musicology, a higher doctorate on published work (NUI, 2012). She is Senior Lecturer in Musicology at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Visiting Professor at the University of Tübingen. She has recently been commissioned to write a new biography of Schubert for Yale University Press. Her other publications include Rethinking Schubert (Oxford, forthcoming 2015), Schubert’s Late Music in History and Theory (Cambridge, forthcoming 2015), Goethe and Zelter: Musical Dialogues (Asghate, 2009) and Schubert’s Goethe Settings (Ashgate, 2003).

The Schubert Project    67


Anna Cardona won the accompanist’s prize at the Guildhall Gold Medal in 2013, the MBF

Elena Copons Spanish soprano Elena Copons graduated with honours from the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. In 2007 she won second prize at the Hugo Wolf Wettbewerb Lied Competition in Stuttgart. As a song interpreter she has performed at the Musikverein, Radiokulturhaus, Arnold Schoenberg Center and the Bösendorfersaal in Vienna, as well as at the Liederhalle in Stuttgart, Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele, Palau de la Música Catalana and Foyer del Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona. She has appeared regularly at the Liceu since 2008. She has also performed at the Theater an der Wien and the Teatro Real, Madrid and with the Camerata Salzburg, I Solisti Veneti, Wiener Kammerorchester, Wiener Concert-Verein, Orchestra of the Vienna Volksoper, RSO Wien, Munich Symphony Orchestra and all of the important Spanish orchestras, performing at prestigious European concert halls and festivals with conductors such as Marriner, Scimone, Ortner, Weigle, Bicket, Denève, Pons, Hager and Palumbo.

Malin Christensson

Swedish soprano Malin Christensson studied at the Royal College. In opera she has appeared at the Salzburg, Aix-en-Provence, Vienna, Glyndebourne and Helsinki festivals, at the Royal Opera House, Houston Grand Opera, Los Angeles Opera, Opéra de Montpellier, Théâtre du Châtelet, Festspielhaus Baden-Baden and in Drottningholm. Recent highlights on the concert platform include Bach’s Matthew Passion with the Philadelphia Orchestra and Nézet-Séguin, the Christmas Oratorio with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra and Pinnock, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the Swedish Radio Orchestra and Blomstedt, Carmina Burana with the LSO and Harding, Adele in Die Fledermaus with Philharmonia and John Wilson and Mozart’s Mass in C minor with the CBSO and Nelsons. She has given recitals at Wigmore Hall, the Tonhalle in Zurich, Laeiszhalle in Hamburg and at the Innsbruck, Oxford Lieder, Cheltenham and Bath Mozart festivals, accompanied by Roger Vignoles, Malcom Martineau and Simon Lepper.

Sophie Daneman studied at the Guildhall School. An accomplished recitalist, she has appeared at many of the world’s major concert venues including Wigmore Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, Concertgebouw, the Musikverein in Vienna and Carnegie Hall. Equally at home on the operatic stage and concert platform, Sophie has toured extensively with William Christie and Les Arts Florissants, as well as performing with Neville Marriner, Phillipe Herreweghe, Ivor Bolton and John Eliot Gardiner. Her operatic repertoire includes Rodelinda, Cleopatra (Giulio Cesare), Dalila (Samson), Servilia (La clemenza di Tito) and Mélisande. In 2013 Sophie made her debut as a stage director with Les Art Florissant’s Le Jardin des voix programme and recently directed a double bill of one act Rameau operas at the Théâtre de Caen and on tour. Forthcoming engagements include staging the 2015 tour for Le Jardin des voix.

Allan Clayton

has quickly established himself as one of the most exciting and soughtafter singers of his generation. A highlight of the 2012/13 season was George Benjamin’s award-winning opera Written on Skin which had its premiere at the 2012 Aix-en-Provence Festival. He has also performed at the Komische Oper Berlin, ENO and Glyndebourne. In 2015 he makes his debut at WNO and the Teatro Real, Madrid. Allan’s concert appearances include Britten’s War Requiem with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Semyon Bychkov, Bruckner’s Te Deum with the Gürzenich Orchestra and Markus Stenz and Messiah for the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. Allan has given Lieder recitals around the world. He joins forces with Paul Lewis in 2015 to perform Die schöne Müllerin at the Howard Assembly Rooms in Leeds and at Wigmore Hall. Allan studied at St John’s, Cambridge and at the Royal Academy, where he is an Associate.

Charles Daniels studied at Cambridge and the Royal College. His numerous recordings include Messiah (Gabrieli Consort on Deutsche Grammophon), The Beggar’s Opera (Hyperion), Schütz’s Weihnachtshistorie (DG), Bach’s Easter Oratorio (Taverner Consort on EMI) and over 20 discs of Purcell’s music. Career highlights include Luigi Nono’s Canti di vita e d’amore (Edinburgh Festival), Handel’s Esther (sung in Hebrew) in New York, Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine with the Gabrieli Consort in Venice under Paul McCreesh, Handel’s Belshazzar at the Théâtre de Champs-Elysées in Paris and Messiah at the Musikverein in Vienna with Harnoncourt. Engagements during 2014/15 include Bach with Musica Amphion, Purcell with The King’s Consort on tour in Spain, Messiah with Bach Collegium Japan, Bach cantatas with Netherlands Bach, concerts with Les Voix Humaines in Canada, Bach’s John Passion with Tafelmusik in Toronto and Actus Tragicus, a programme of Bach cantatas, on tour with Netherlands Bach.

Nicholas Collon is known as a commanding and inspirational interpreter in an exceptionally wide range of music. His skills as a communicator and innovator have been recognized by critics and audiences alike. He is Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of Aurora Orchestra, an ensemble that he co-founded in 2005. With Aurora, Nicholas leads the New Moves Series, a unique cross-arts residency, at LSO St Luke’s, which has included critically acclaimed collaborations with dance, film, theatre and literature. Alongside his work with Aurora, he is in demand as a guest conductor and in recent seasons has worked with the Philharmonia, CBSO, London Symphony Orchestra, BBC Symphony and Philharmonic orchestras, RPO, Spanish National Orchestra, Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse, Orchestre national de Lyon, Bamberg Symphony, ENO, WNO and Glyndebourne. Future projects include debuts with the DSO Berlin, Zurich Tonhalle, Gürzenich Orchestra, Residentie Orchestra, Hallé, Danish National Symphony Orchestra, Les Siècles and the Brussels Philharmonic.

Neal Davies studied at King’s College, London and the Royal Academy and won the Cardiff Singer of the World Lieder Prize in 1991. He has appeared with the Oslo Philharmonic, BBC Symphony, Cleveland, Philharmonia, London Symphony and Vienna Philharmonic orchestras, with Elder, McCreesh, Bolton, Jansons, Boulez, Dohnányi, Harnoncourt, Brüggen and Harding. He has been a regular guest at the Edinburgh Festival and the BBC Proms and has recorded for the major labels. He has sung for the Royal Opera House, ENO, Scottish Opera, Berlin State Opera and Lyric Opera of Chicago and has been a regular guest at WNO. He sang in the Aix-en-Provence Festival’s production of David et Jonathas with Les Art Florissants and Christie, which is available on DVD. Forthcoming engagements include the Barbican Centre’s production of Curlew River in New York, Xerxes with ENO and a return to the Royal Opera Opera for Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny.

Sarah Connolly

Awarded a CBE in the 2010 New Year’s Honours and the Royal Philharmonic Society’s 2012 Singer Award, Sarah Connolly’s engagements this season include La Mort de Cléopâtre (CBSO and BBC Symphony Orchestra), The Dream of Gerontius (Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg), Rossini’s Stabat Mater (Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra) and Mahler’s Second Symphony at Carnegie Hall (Philadelphia Orchestra). She will also give recitals in London, New York, Amsterdam, Stuttgart and Schwarzenberg and return to the Royal Opera House for Brangäne (Tristan und Isolde). Notable appearances in opera include Fricka (Das Rheingold and Die Walküre) at the Royal Opera House, the Composer (Ariadne auf Naxos) at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, Purcell’s Dido at La Scala, Milan, the title role in Giulio Cesare and Brangäne at Glyndebourne, Sesto (La clemenza di Tito) and the title role in Ariodante at Aix-en-Provence and Carpentier’s Medea and Octavian (Der Rosenkavalier) at ENO. She has appeared at the Aldeburgh, Edinburgh, Lucerne, Salzburg, Tanglewood and Three Choirs festivals and at the BBC Proms where, in 2009, she was a memorable guest soloist at the Last Night.

William Dazeley studied at Jesus College, Cambridge and the Guildhall School. William is one of the leading baritones of his generation and has appeared at most of the world’s opera houses. He has appeared in concert alongside renowned orchestras including the CBSO and Berlin Philharmonic and conductors such as John Eliot Gardiner and Leonard Slatkin. He performed in the world premiere of Birtwistle’s Three Settings of Alfred Brendel conducted by Dohnányi at the BBC Proms, Carmina Burana with Sydney Symphony Orchestra and L’Enfance du Christ with Bavarian Radio in Munich. As a recitalist William works regularly with Malcolm Martineau and Iain Burnside. Recent engagements include Eisenstein in Die Fledermaus at the Bolshoi, the title role in a new production of Don Giovanni (Opera North), Adès’s Totentanz in Warsaw, a concert of Strauss’s orchestral songs with the BBC Philharmonic at Bridgewater Hall, the Ferryman in Curlew River (Opéra de Lyon) and The Fall of the House Usher (WNO), in which he sang the role of L’Ami.

Imogen Cooper

Anna Dennis

accompanist’s prize at the Kathleen Ferrier Competition and the duo prize at the Concours de mélodie de Toulouse. Together with baritone Victor Sicard she was selected as a young artist for the Oxford Lieder Festival and won the first prize of the 23rd International Competition Paper de Música. She also won the Worshipful Company of Musicians’ Recital Prize at Wigmore Hall with Sarah Power. She was born in Barcelona and studied at the Conservatory in the city. She moved to London to study the piano with Peter Bithell and piano accompaniment with Eugene Asti and Pamela Lidiard at the Guildhall School. She has recently appeared at venues such as the Barbican, Wigmore Hall, St Martin in the Fields, St James Piccadilly, LSO St Luke’s, Helmsley Arts Centre in York, Auditori Nacional de Catalunya, Palau de la Música, Petit Palais de Paris and Radio France.

During the 2014/15 season Imogen Cooper will perform Ravel with the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra at the Concertgebouw and play and direct Beethoven with the Philadelphia Orchestra and Mozart with the Seattle Symphony. Towards the end of the season Imogen will travel to the Far East to play solo recitals in Hong Kong, Seoul and Singapore. Last season Imogen performed with the London Symphony Orchestra and also made her debut with the Cleveland Orchestra. Other recent engagements include the New York Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Budapest Festival and NHK Symphony orchestras and at the BBC Proms. Her recital appearances have included New York, Tokyo, Paris, Vienna, London and an extensive tour of Australia. Imogen Cooper’s discography includes Mozart piano concertos, a cycle of solo works by Schubert and, most recently, a recording of Brahms and Schumann. She received a CBE in the New Year’s Honours in 2007.

68    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Soprano Anna Dennis’s notable concert performances include Britten’s War Requiem at the Philharmonie in Berlin, the Russian premiere of Ades’s Life Story at the Rachmaninoff Hall in Moscow, Bach’s Christmas Oratorio at the Hitomi Hall, Tokyo and Sydney Opera House and the British premiere of Rameau’s recently reconstructed Anacreon with the OAE. BBC Proms appearances include performances with the CBSO, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Britten Sinfonia and the OAE. Operatic experiences include Ilia (Idomeneo) directed by Graham Vick for Birmingham Opera Company, Paride (Paride ed Elena) in Nuremberg, Emira (Siroe) at the Göttingen Festival, roles in Death in Venice at La Scala, Milan, Katherine (Damon Albarn’s Dr Dee) at ENO, Moll (Will Tuckett’s Pleasure’s Progress) at the ROH Linbury, Francesca (Edward Rushton’s The Shops) at the Bregenz Festival, Kyoto (Yannis Kyriakides’s An Ocean of Rain) at Aldeburgh, Flora (Jonathan Dove’s The Enchanted Pig) at the Young Vic and the title roles in Elena Langer’s Ariadne and The Girl of Sand at the Almeida.

The Schubert Project    69


Anna Cardona won the accompanist’s prize at the Guildhall Gold Medal in 2013, the MBF

Elena Copons Spanish soprano Elena Copons graduated with honours from the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. In 2007 she won second prize at the Hugo Wolf Wettbewerb Lied Competition in Stuttgart. As a song interpreter she has performed at the Musikverein, Radiokulturhaus, Arnold Schoenberg Center and the Bösendorfersaal in Vienna, as well as at the Liederhalle in Stuttgart, Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele, Palau de la Música Catalana and Foyer del Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona. She has appeared regularly at the Liceu since 2008. She has also performed at the Theater an der Wien and the Teatro Real, Madrid and with the Camerata Salzburg, I Solisti Veneti, Wiener Kammerorchester, Wiener Concert-Verein, Orchestra of the Vienna Volksoper, RSO Wien, Munich Symphony Orchestra and all of the important Spanish orchestras, performing at prestigious European concert halls and festivals with conductors such as Marriner, Scimone, Ortner, Weigle, Bicket, Denève, Pons, Hager and Palumbo.

Malin Christensson

Swedish soprano Malin Christensson studied at the Royal College. In opera she has appeared at the Salzburg, Aix-en-Provence, Vienna, Glyndebourne and Helsinki festivals, at the Royal Opera House, Houston Grand Opera, Los Angeles Opera, Opéra de Montpellier, Théâtre du Châtelet, Festspielhaus Baden-Baden and in Drottningholm. Recent highlights on the concert platform include Bach’s Matthew Passion with the Philadelphia Orchestra and Nézet-Séguin, the Christmas Oratorio with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra and Pinnock, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the Swedish Radio Orchestra and Blomstedt, Carmina Burana with the LSO and Harding, Adele in Die Fledermaus with Philharmonia and John Wilson and Mozart’s Mass in C minor with the CBSO and Nelsons. She has given recitals at Wigmore Hall, the Tonhalle in Zurich, Laeiszhalle in Hamburg and at the Innsbruck, Oxford Lieder, Cheltenham and Bath Mozart festivals, accompanied by Roger Vignoles, Malcom Martineau and Simon Lepper.

Sophie Daneman studied at the Guildhall School. An accomplished recitalist, she has appeared at many of the world’s major concert venues including Wigmore Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, Concertgebouw, the Musikverein in Vienna and Carnegie Hall. Equally at home on the operatic stage and concert platform, Sophie has toured extensively with William Christie and Les Arts Florissants, as well as performing with Neville Marriner, Phillipe Herreweghe, Ivor Bolton and John Eliot Gardiner. Her operatic repertoire includes Rodelinda, Cleopatra (Giulio Cesare), Dalila (Samson), Servilia (La clemenza di Tito) and Mélisande. In 2013 Sophie made her debut as a stage director with Les Art Florissant’s Le Jardin des voix programme and recently directed a double bill of one act Rameau operas at the Théâtre de Caen and on tour. Forthcoming engagements include staging the 2015 tour for Le Jardin des voix.

Allan Clayton

has quickly established himself as one of the most exciting and soughtafter singers of his generation. A highlight of the 2012/13 season was George Benjamin’s award-winning opera Written on Skin which had its premiere at the 2012 Aix-en-Provence Festival. He has also performed at the Komische Oper Berlin, ENO and Glyndebourne. In 2015 he makes his debut at WNO and the Teatro Real, Madrid. Allan’s concert appearances include Britten’s War Requiem with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Semyon Bychkov, Bruckner’s Te Deum with the Gürzenich Orchestra and Markus Stenz and Messiah for the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. Allan has given Lieder recitals around the world. He joins forces with Paul Lewis in 2015 to perform Die schöne Müllerin at the Howard Assembly Rooms in Leeds and at Wigmore Hall. Allan studied at St John’s, Cambridge and at the Royal Academy, where he is an Associate.

Charles Daniels studied at Cambridge and the Royal College. His numerous recordings include Messiah (Gabrieli Consort on Deutsche Grammophon), The Beggar’s Opera (Hyperion), Schütz’s Weihnachtshistorie (DG), Bach’s Easter Oratorio (Taverner Consort on EMI) and over 20 discs of Purcell’s music. Career highlights include Luigi Nono’s Canti di vita e d’amore (Edinburgh Festival), Handel’s Esther (sung in Hebrew) in New York, Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine with the Gabrieli Consort in Venice under Paul McCreesh, Handel’s Belshazzar at the Théâtre de Champs-Elysées in Paris and Messiah at the Musikverein in Vienna with Harnoncourt. Engagements during 2014/15 include Bach with Musica Amphion, Purcell with The King’s Consort on tour in Spain, Messiah with Bach Collegium Japan, Bach cantatas with Netherlands Bach, concerts with Les Voix Humaines in Canada, Bach’s John Passion with Tafelmusik in Toronto and Actus Tragicus, a programme of Bach cantatas, on tour with Netherlands Bach.

Nicholas Collon is known as a commanding and inspirational interpreter in an exceptionally wide range of music. His skills as a communicator and innovator have been recognized by critics and audiences alike. He is Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of Aurora Orchestra, an ensemble that he co-founded in 2005. With Aurora, Nicholas leads the New Moves Series, a unique cross-arts residency, at LSO St Luke’s, which has included critically acclaimed collaborations with dance, film, theatre and literature. Alongside his work with Aurora, he is in demand as a guest conductor and in recent seasons has worked with the Philharmonia, CBSO, London Symphony Orchestra, BBC Symphony and Philharmonic orchestras, RPO, Spanish National Orchestra, Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse, Orchestre national de Lyon, Bamberg Symphony, ENO, WNO and Glyndebourne. Future projects include debuts with the DSO Berlin, Zurich Tonhalle, Gürzenich Orchestra, Residentie Orchestra, Hallé, Danish National Symphony Orchestra, Les Siècles and the Brussels Philharmonic.

Neal Davies studied at King’s College, London and the Royal Academy and won the Cardiff Singer of the World Lieder Prize in 1991. He has appeared with the Oslo Philharmonic, BBC Symphony, Cleveland, Philharmonia, London Symphony and Vienna Philharmonic orchestras, with Elder, McCreesh, Bolton, Jansons, Boulez, Dohnányi, Harnoncourt, Brüggen and Harding. He has been a regular guest at the Edinburgh Festival and the BBC Proms and has recorded for the major labels. He has sung for the Royal Opera House, ENO, Scottish Opera, Berlin State Opera and Lyric Opera of Chicago and has been a regular guest at WNO. He sang in the Aix-en-Provence Festival’s production of David et Jonathas with Les Art Florissants and Christie, which is available on DVD. Forthcoming engagements include the Barbican Centre’s production of Curlew River in New York, Xerxes with ENO and a return to the Royal Opera Opera for Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny.

Sarah Connolly

Awarded a CBE in the 2010 New Year’s Honours and the Royal Philharmonic Society’s 2012 Singer Award, Sarah Connolly’s engagements this season include La Mort de Cléopâtre (CBSO and BBC Symphony Orchestra), The Dream of Gerontius (Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg), Rossini’s Stabat Mater (Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra) and Mahler’s Second Symphony at Carnegie Hall (Philadelphia Orchestra). She will also give recitals in London, New York, Amsterdam, Stuttgart and Schwarzenberg and return to the Royal Opera House for Brangäne (Tristan und Isolde). Notable appearances in opera include Fricka (Das Rheingold and Die Walküre) at the Royal Opera House, the Composer (Ariadne auf Naxos) at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, Purcell’s Dido at La Scala, Milan, the title role in Giulio Cesare and Brangäne at Glyndebourne, Sesto (La clemenza di Tito) and the title role in Ariodante at Aix-en-Provence and Carpentier’s Medea and Octavian (Der Rosenkavalier) at ENO. She has appeared at the Aldeburgh, Edinburgh, Lucerne, Salzburg, Tanglewood and Three Choirs festivals and at the BBC Proms where, in 2009, she was a memorable guest soloist at the Last Night.

William Dazeley studied at Jesus College, Cambridge and the Guildhall School. William is one of the leading baritones of his generation and has appeared at most of the world’s opera houses. He has appeared in concert alongside renowned orchestras including the CBSO and Berlin Philharmonic and conductors such as John Eliot Gardiner and Leonard Slatkin. He performed in the world premiere of Birtwistle’s Three Settings of Alfred Brendel conducted by Dohnányi at the BBC Proms, Carmina Burana with Sydney Symphony Orchestra and L’Enfance du Christ with Bavarian Radio in Munich. As a recitalist William works regularly with Malcolm Martineau and Iain Burnside. Recent engagements include Eisenstein in Die Fledermaus at the Bolshoi, the title role in a new production of Don Giovanni (Opera North), Adès’s Totentanz in Warsaw, a concert of Strauss’s orchestral songs with the BBC Philharmonic at Bridgewater Hall, the Ferryman in Curlew River (Opéra de Lyon) and The Fall of the House Usher (WNO), in which he sang the role of L’Ami.

Imogen Cooper

Anna Dennis

accompanist’s prize at the Kathleen Ferrier Competition and the duo prize at the Concours de mélodie de Toulouse. Together with baritone Victor Sicard she was selected as a young artist for the Oxford Lieder Festival and won the first prize of the 23rd International Competition Paper de Música. She also won the Worshipful Company of Musicians’ Recital Prize at Wigmore Hall with Sarah Power. She was born in Barcelona and studied at the Conservatory in the city. She moved to London to study the piano with Peter Bithell and piano accompaniment with Eugene Asti and Pamela Lidiard at the Guildhall School. She has recently appeared at venues such as the Barbican, Wigmore Hall, St Martin in the Fields, St James Piccadilly, LSO St Luke’s, Helmsley Arts Centre in York, Auditori Nacional de Catalunya, Palau de la Música, Petit Palais de Paris and Radio France.

During the 2014/15 season Imogen Cooper will perform Ravel with the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra at the Concertgebouw and play and direct Beethoven with the Philadelphia Orchestra and Mozart with the Seattle Symphony. Towards the end of the season Imogen will travel to the Far East to play solo recitals in Hong Kong, Seoul and Singapore. Last season Imogen performed with the London Symphony Orchestra and also made her debut with the Cleveland Orchestra. Other recent engagements include the New York Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Budapest Festival and NHK Symphony orchestras and at the BBC Proms. Her recital appearances have included New York, Tokyo, Paris, Vienna, London and an extensive tour of Australia. Imogen Cooper’s discography includes Mozart piano concertos, a cycle of solo works by Schubert and, most recently, a recording of Brahms and Schumann. She received a CBE in the New Year’s Honours in 2007.

68    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Soprano Anna Dennis’s notable concert performances include Britten’s War Requiem at the Philharmonie in Berlin, the Russian premiere of Ades’s Life Story at the Rachmaninoff Hall in Moscow, Bach’s Christmas Oratorio at the Hitomi Hall, Tokyo and Sydney Opera House and the British premiere of Rameau’s recently reconstructed Anacreon with the OAE. BBC Proms appearances include performances with the CBSO, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Britten Sinfonia and the OAE. Operatic experiences include Ilia (Idomeneo) directed by Graham Vick for Birmingham Opera Company, Paride (Paride ed Elena) in Nuremberg, Emira (Siroe) at the Göttingen Festival, roles in Death in Venice at La Scala, Milan, Katherine (Damon Albarn’s Dr Dee) at ENO, Moll (Will Tuckett’s Pleasure’s Progress) at the ROH Linbury, Francesca (Edward Rushton’s The Shops) at the Bregenz Festival, Kyoto (Yannis Kyriakides’s An Ocean of Rain) at Aldeburgh, Flora (Jonathan Dove’s The Enchanted Pig) at the Young Vic and the title roles in Elena Langer’s Ariadne and The Girl of Sand at the Almeida.

The Schubert Project    69


Ahmed Dickinson Cardenas Born in Havana, Ahmed Dickinson Cardenas graduated from the Superior Institute of Art (ISA Havana) in Guitar. During his years in Cuba he took part in masterclasses with Leo Brouwer and John Williams among others. Dickinson has performed at the Royal Albert Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, St Martin in the Fields, Purcell Room, Wigmore Hall, Royal Opera House and the Philharmonic Hall in Belarus. He received the Best Instrumental Soloist and Best Instrumental Album prizes at the Cubadisco Awards 2009 for his debut recording Ahmed Dickinson Plays Ñico Rojas. The same album was nominated for Best Artist and Best Newcomer in Songlines World Music Magazine and Best Album and Best Single at the Latin American Music Awards UK. Recent collaborations include concerts and masterclasses with guitarist and composer Eduardo Martín, recitals for the International Guitar Foundation and performances at the Royal Opera House with Carlos Acosta.

Ensemble 45

Andrew Dickinson

hails from Liverpool and graduated from the Royal Academy in 2011. He recently won the Maureen Lehane Competition at Wigmore Hall, Hampshire Young Singer of the Year and the UK Dvorˇák Society Award. Recent roles include Gerhard in H.K Gruber’s Gloria – A Pigtail at the Bregenz Festival, Ernesto (Don Pasquale) for Opera Project, George (Matthew Herbert’s The Crackle) at the Royal Opera House, Male Chorus (The Rape of Lucretia) at Glyndebourne, Lensky (Eugene Onegin) for Bury Court Opera, Albert Herring at the Royal Academy, Raoul de St Brioche (Die lustige Witwe) for Scottish Opera and Ferrando (Così fan tutte) for Clonter Opera. Andrew has sung Messiah in the Stephansdom in Vienna and the Lizst Academy in Budapest. Other highlights include Bach’s B minor Mass in Italy, Elgar’s The Apostles in Glasgow, Elijah in Jordan, War Requiem at Dunblane Cathedral and Bach’s Matthew Passion at Canterbury Cathedral.

The Erlkings

The Doric String Quartet

has emerged as one of the leading British string quartets of the new generation, receiving enthusiastic responses from audiences and critics across the globe. In 2008 the Quartet won first prize in the Osaka International Chamber Music Competition and second prize at the Premio Paolo Borciani International String Quartet Competition. Highlights of the 2014/15 season include performances of John Adams’s Absolute Jest with the Vienna Symphony Orchestra under John Adams, as well as with the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic and BBC Scottish Symphony orchestras under Markus Stenz. Elsewhere the Quartet gives recital tours in the Far East, North America and Australia in addition to recitals in Rotterdam, Stuttgart and at Wigmore Hall. Since 2010 the Quartet has recorded exclusively for Chandos and its recent release of Schumann’s string quartets was CD of the month in both Gramophone and BBC Music Magazine and was shortlisted for a 2012 Gramophone Award. Future releases include works by Haydn, Janácˇek and Brett Dean.

Marcus Farnsworth was awarded first prize in the 2009 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition and the Song Prize at the 2011 Kathleen Ferrier Competition. In recital Marcus appears regularly with James Baillieu, Simon Lepper, Iain Burnside, Graham Johnson, Malcolm Martineau and Julius Drake and future recitals include The Songmaker’s Almanac at Wigmore Hall, a recital with Clara Mouritz in Oxford and appearances with The Myrthen Ensemble, including at the Bath Mozartfest. Opera plans include singing Kelvin in Fujikura’s Solaris in Paris, Lille and Lausanne. In concert he appears regularly with the Academy of Ancient Music and the Gabrieli Consort and future plans include concerts with the Britten Sinfonia, Fauré’s Requiem with the BBC Philharmonic Orchestra, Nielsen’s Third Symphony with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Beethoven’s Missa solemnis at the 2015 Three Choirs Festival. Recordings include Wolf Lieder with Sholto Kynoch on Stone Records and Finzi’s By Footpath and Stile for Resonus Records.

Julius Drake

Pianist Julius Drake lives in London and specializes in chamber music, working with many of the world’s leading artists, both in recital and on disc. Julius Drake’s many recordings include several recitals for the Wigmore Live label, with Lorraine Hunt Liebersen, Matthew Polenzani, Christopher Maltman, Joyce DiDonato and Alice Coote, as well as award winning recordings with Ian Bostridge for EMI, Christianne Stotijn for Onyx and a widely acclaimed series with Gerald Finley for Hyperion, for which they won the 2007, 2009 and 2011 Gramophone Awards. Julius Drake is now embarked on a major project to record the complete songs of Franz Liszt for Hyperion; the second disc in the series, with Angelika Kirchschlager, won the BBC Music Magazine Award in 2012. Highlights during the coming season include tours of the USA with Matthew Polenzani, Japan and Korea with Anne Sophie von Otter and Camilla Tilling and a four-part Schumann Series at the Concertgebouw.

Alessandro Fisher

Michael Dussek is a Fellow of the Royal Academy, where he is also Head of Piano Accompaniment. He specializes in chamber music and song accompaniment, performing in the world’s major concert halls with internationally acclaimed artists such as Bernarda Fink, Stephan Loges, Christopher Maltman, Ian Partridge, Joan Rodgers and Vassily Savenko. He has also collaborated with the Bridge, Chilingirian, Coull and Dante string quartets. As a member of three chamber ensembles, the Dussek Piano Trio, Endymion and Primavera, Michael performs regularly at Britain’s major concert venues. With Endymion he gave the opening concerts at Kings Place and has appeared recently in Wigmore Hall’s Coffee Concerts and Chamber Music Series. Michael’s discography includes 23 CDs in Dutton Epoch’s highly acclaimed series dedicated to 20th-century British composers. His recording of Rubbra’s violin sonatas with Krysia Osostowicz was nominated for a Gramophone Award. He has also recorded four CDs with Ryu Goto for Deutsche Grammophon.

Matthew Fletcher Award winning pianist Matthew Fletcher is increasingly in demand as a recitalist, particularly of song repertoire. He has performed at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, Purcell Room, National Concert Hall Dublin, St Martin in the Fields, St John’s Smith Square, Elgar Room at the Royal Albert Hall, Sage Gateshead and the Linbury Studio at the Royal Opera House. He has appeared at Oxford Lieder Festival, Winchester Festival and the Norfolk and Norwich Festival. Matthew also works as a répétiteur and coach. He has been on the music staff at Glyndebourne since 2012, most recently working on Der Rosenkavalier and La finta giardiniera. He has worked for Raymond Gubbay and as a vocal coach at the Royal Academy. Matthew is also a founder member of Shadwell Opera, for whom he recently conducted Philip Glass’s In the Penal Colony. Matthew studied at the Royal Academy with Michael Dussek and Pascal Nemirovsky. He has won numerous awards, including the Help Musicians UK prize for accompaniment at the Kathleen Ferrier Awards.

Joshua Ellicott

Bengt Forsberg A pianist and accompanist of international repute, Bengt Forsberg studied in Gothenburg, Stockholm, London and Copenhagen. His performances of solo and chamber music are highly acclaimed, as are his recitals with singers such as Anne Sofie von Otter, Mats Lidström and Isa Katherina Gericke. He is also an enthusiastic explorer and champion of lesser known music and composers such as Medtner, Ireland, Alkan, Novak, Robert Fuchs and others. Recent projects have included performances of the complete Schubert sonatas, a composer to whom he always returns. He currently runs a chamber music society series in Stockholm, alongside many international engagements.

Lyric tenor Joshua Ellicott was born in Manchester and read music at York University before continuing his vocal studies at the Guildhall School. Recent engagements include Bach’s John Passion at the BBC Proms with the Zurich Chamber Orchestra under Roger Norrington, The Fairy Queen at the Styriarte Festival Graz under Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Weill’s Die sieben Todsünden and Third Squire (Parsifal) with the Hallé under Mark Elder, a tour of Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine under Emmanuelle Haïm, Andres (Wozzeck) with the Philharmonia under Esa-Pekka Salonen and Bach’s Matthew Passion and Handel’s Saul with the Boston Handel and Haydn Society under Harry Christophers. Future plans include a return to Boston with Christophers for Bach’s Christmas Oratorio, concerts with the Norwegian Wind Ensemble, Messiah with the King’s Consort and Handel’s Solomon with the Wrocław Baroque Orchestra under McCreesh.

70    The Oxford Lieder Festival

was formed in 2008 and has been giving concerts in Oxford ever since. The group’s quirky name comes from the opus number of the first work it performed, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem. The group has performed a wide variety of other music, including Britten’s A Boy was Born and AMDG, Bach’s B minor Mass, Jackson’s Requiem, Lobo’s Lamentations and Strauss’s Der Abend, and appeared as part of the inaugural Oxford Early Music Festival, as well as the Passiontide Festival at Merton. The group is directed by Will Dawes, an Oxford resident and Conductor of Bath Choral Society, the Orlando Chamber Choir, Chorus master for Ludus Baroque and Director of Music at the Church of St Mary Magdalen, Oxford. He is a graduate of the Royal Academy where he studied choral conducting and singing, a former lay clerk of Christ Church, Oxford and a member of the internationally acclaimed vocal ensemble Stile Antico.

are the world’s leading Schubert-based folk rock band. Comprised of three classically trained multi-instrumentalists, the Erlkings perform new arrangements of Schubert’s finest songs in fresh and original English translations. Equally comfortable in an elegant concert house or a smoky beer hall, the Erlkings are the only group to get audiences dancing to Goethe and Schiller. The Erlkings made their musical debut at Vienna’s famous Porgy and Bess jazz club with great success. Since then they have been in much demand for their original and exciting performances.

graduated from the Guildhall School Postgraduate Vocal Studies course. He read modern and medieval languages at Cambridge, where he was choral scholar in Clare College Chapel Choir. Alessandro has performed as a tenor soloist in Beethoven’s Mass in C, Handel’s Messiah, Nisi Dominus and Dixit Dominus, Britten’s Winter Words and as the Evangelist in Bach’s John Passion at Milton Court. He appeared with Graham Johnson on BBC Radio 3’s Schubert Festival in 2012 and was joint winner of the Paul Hamburger Lieder Prize at the Guildhall School and the Oxford Lieder Young Artists Programme 2013. He has performed across the UK, including concerts at the Oxford Lieder Festival and the London English Song Festival. Alessandro’s opera performances include Don Pelagio (La canterina), Nanki-Poo (The Mikado), Testo (Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda), Don Ottavio and Acis (Acis and Galatea) for Opera Lyrica. In 2014 he made his debut at Garsington as Bellecour in Offenbach’s Vert Vert.

The Schubert Project    71


Ahmed Dickinson Cardenas Born in Havana, Ahmed Dickinson Cardenas graduated from the Superior Institute of Art (ISA Havana) in Guitar. During his years in Cuba he took part in masterclasses with Leo Brouwer and John Williams among others. Dickinson has performed at the Royal Albert Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, St Martin in the Fields, Purcell Room, Wigmore Hall, Royal Opera House and the Philharmonic Hall in Belarus. He received the Best Instrumental Soloist and Best Instrumental Album prizes at the Cubadisco Awards 2009 for his debut recording Ahmed Dickinson Plays Ñico Rojas. The same album was nominated for Best Artist and Best Newcomer in Songlines World Music Magazine and Best Album and Best Single at the Latin American Music Awards UK. Recent collaborations include concerts and masterclasses with guitarist and composer Eduardo Martín, recitals for the International Guitar Foundation and performances at the Royal Opera House with Carlos Acosta.

Ensemble 45

Andrew Dickinson

hails from Liverpool and graduated from the Royal Academy in 2011. He recently won the Maureen Lehane Competition at Wigmore Hall, Hampshire Young Singer of the Year and the UK Dvorˇák Society Award. Recent roles include Gerhard in H.K Gruber’s Gloria – A Pigtail at the Bregenz Festival, Ernesto (Don Pasquale) for Opera Project, George (Matthew Herbert’s The Crackle) at the Royal Opera House, Male Chorus (The Rape of Lucretia) at Glyndebourne, Lensky (Eugene Onegin) for Bury Court Opera, Albert Herring at the Royal Academy, Raoul de St Brioche (Die lustige Witwe) for Scottish Opera and Ferrando (Così fan tutte) for Clonter Opera. Andrew has sung Messiah in the Stephansdom in Vienna and the Lizst Academy in Budapest. Other highlights include Bach’s B minor Mass in Italy, Elgar’s The Apostles in Glasgow, Elijah in Jordan, War Requiem at Dunblane Cathedral and Bach’s Matthew Passion at Canterbury Cathedral.

The Erlkings

The Doric String Quartet

has emerged as one of the leading British string quartets of the new generation, receiving enthusiastic responses from audiences and critics across the globe. In 2008 the Quartet won first prize in the Osaka International Chamber Music Competition and second prize at the Premio Paolo Borciani International String Quartet Competition. Highlights of the 2014/15 season include performances of John Adams’s Absolute Jest with the Vienna Symphony Orchestra under John Adams, as well as with the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic and BBC Scottish Symphony orchestras under Markus Stenz. Elsewhere the Quartet gives recital tours in the Far East, North America and Australia in addition to recitals in Rotterdam, Stuttgart and at Wigmore Hall. Since 2010 the Quartet has recorded exclusively for Chandos and its recent release of Schumann’s string quartets was CD of the month in both Gramophone and BBC Music Magazine and was shortlisted for a 2012 Gramophone Award. Future releases include works by Haydn, Janácˇek and Brett Dean.

Marcus Farnsworth was awarded first prize in the 2009 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition and the Song Prize at the 2011 Kathleen Ferrier Competition. In recital Marcus appears regularly with James Baillieu, Simon Lepper, Iain Burnside, Graham Johnson, Malcolm Martineau and Julius Drake and future recitals include The Songmaker’s Almanac at Wigmore Hall, a recital with Clara Mouritz in Oxford and appearances with The Myrthen Ensemble, including at the Bath Mozartfest. Opera plans include singing Kelvin in Fujikura’s Solaris in Paris, Lille and Lausanne. In concert he appears regularly with the Academy of Ancient Music and the Gabrieli Consort and future plans include concerts with the Britten Sinfonia, Fauré’s Requiem with the BBC Philharmonic Orchestra, Nielsen’s Third Symphony with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Beethoven’s Missa solemnis at the 2015 Three Choirs Festival. Recordings include Wolf Lieder with Sholto Kynoch on Stone Records and Finzi’s By Footpath and Stile for Resonus Records.

Julius Drake

Pianist Julius Drake lives in London and specializes in chamber music, working with many of the world’s leading artists, both in recital and on disc. Julius Drake’s many recordings include several recitals for the Wigmore Live label, with Lorraine Hunt Liebersen, Matthew Polenzani, Christopher Maltman, Joyce DiDonato and Alice Coote, as well as award winning recordings with Ian Bostridge for EMI, Christianne Stotijn for Onyx and a widely acclaimed series with Gerald Finley for Hyperion, for which they won the 2007, 2009 and 2011 Gramophone Awards. Julius Drake is now embarked on a major project to record the complete songs of Franz Liszt for Hyperion; the second disc in the series, with Angelika Kirchschlager, won the BBC Music Magazine Award in 2012. Highlights during the coming season include tours of the USA with Matthew Polenzani, Japan and Korea with Anne Sophie von Otter and Camilla Tilling and a four-part Schumann Series at the Concertgebouw.

Alessandro Fisher

Michael Dussek is a Fellow of the Royal Academy, where he is also Head of Piano Accompaniment. He specializes in chamber music and song accompaniment, performing in the world’s major concert halls with internationally acclaimed artists such as Bernarda Fink, Stephan Loges, Christopher Maltman, Ian Partridge, Joan Rodgers and Vassily Savenko. He has also collaborated with the Bridge, Chilingirian, Coull and Dante string quartets. As a member of three chamber ensembles, the Dussek Piano Trio, Endymion and Primavera, Michael performs regularly at Britain’s major concert venues. With Endymion he gave the opening concerts at Kings Place and has appeared recently in Wigmore Hall’s Coffee Concerts and Chamber Music Series. Michael’s discography includes 23 CDs in Dutton Epoch’s highly acclaimed series dedicated to 20th-century British composers. His recording of Rubbra’s violin sonatas with Krysia Osostowicz was nominated for a Gramophone Award. He has also recorded four CDs with Ryu Goto for Deutsche Grammophon.

Matthew Fletcher Award winning pianist Matthew Fletcher is increasingly in demand as a recitalist, particularly of song repertoire. He has performed at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, Purcell Room, National Concert Hall Dublin, St Martin in the Fields, St John’s Smith Square, Elgar Room at the Royal Albert Hall, Sage Gateshead and the Linbury Studio at the Royal Opera House. He has appeared at Oxford Lieder Festival, Winchester Festival and the Norfolk and Norwich Festival. Matthew also works as a répétiteur and coach. He has been on the music staff at Glyndebourne since 2012, most recently working on Der Rosenkavalier and La finta giardiniera. He has worked for Raymond Gubbay and as a vocal coach at the Royal Academy. Matthew is also a founder member of Shadwell Opera, for whom he recently conducted Philip Glass’s In the Penal Colony. Matthew studied at the Royal Academy with Michael Dussek and Pascal Nemirovsky. He has won numerous awards, including the Help Musicians UK prize for accompaniment at the Kathleen Ferrier Awards.

Joshua Ellicott

Bengt Forsberg A pianist and accompanist of international repute, Bengt Forsberg studied in Gothenburg, Stockholm, London and Copenhagen. His performances of solo and chamber music are highly acclaimed, as are his recitals with singers such as Anne Sofie von Otter, Mats Lidström and Isa Katherina Gericke. He is also an enthusiastic explorer and champion of lesser known music and composers such as Medtner, Ireland, Alkan, Novak, Robert Fuchs and others. Recent projects have included performances of the complete Schubert sonatas, a composer to whom he always returns. He currently runs a chamber music society series in Stockholm, alongside many international engagements.

Lyric tenor Joshua Ellicott was born in Manchester and read music at York University before continuing his vocal studies at the Guildhall School. Recent engagements include Bach’s John Passion at the BBC Proms with the Zurich Chamber Orchestra under Roger Norrington, The Fairy Queen at the Styriarte Festival Graz under Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Weill’s Die sieben Todsünden and Third Squire (Parsifal) with the Hallé under Mark Elder, a tour of Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine under Emmanuelle Haïm, Andres (Wozzeck) with the Philharmonia under Esa-Pekka Salonen and Bach’s Matthew Passion and Handel’s Saul with the Boston Handel and Haydn Society under Harry Christophers. Future plans include a return to Boston with Christophers for Bach’s Christmas Oratorio, concerts with the Norwegian Wind Ensemble, Messiah with the King’s Consort and Handel’s Solomon with the Wrocław Baroque Orchestra under McCreesh.

70    The Oxford Lieder Festival

was formed in 2008 and has been giving concerts in Oxford ever since. The group’s quirky name comes from the opus number of the first work it performed, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem. The group has performed a wide variety of other music, including Britten’s A Boy was Born and AMDG, Bach’s B minor Mass, Jackson’s Requiem, Lobo’s Lamentations and Strauss’s Der Abend, and appeared as part of the inaugural Oxford Early Music Festival, as well as the Passiontide Festival at Merton. The group is directed by Will Dawes, an Oxford resident and Conductor of Bath Choral Society, the Orlando Chamber Choir, Chorus master for Ludus Baroque and Director of Music at the Church of St Mary Magdalen, Oxford. He is a graduate of the Royal Academy where he studied choral conducting and singing, a former lay clerk of Christ Church, Oxford and a member of the internationally acclaimed vocal ensemble Stile Antico.

are the world’s leading Schubert-based folk rock band. Comprised of three classically trained multi-instrumentalists, the Erlkings perform new arrangements of Schubert’s finest songs in fresh and original English translations. Equally comfortable in an elegant concert house or a smoky beer hall, the Erlkings are the only group to get audiences dancing to Goethe and Schiller. The Erlkings made their musical debut at Vienna’s famous Porgy and Bess jazz club with great success. Since then they have been in much demand for their original and exciting performances.

graduated from the Guildhall School Postgraduate Vocal Studies course. He read modern and medieval languages at Cambridge, where he was choral scholar in Clare College Chapel Choir. Alessandro has performed as a tenor soloist in Beethoven’s Mass in C, Handel’s Messiah, Nisi Dominus and Dixit Dominus, Britten’s Winter Words and as the Evangelist in Bach’s John Passion at Milton Court. He appeared with Graham Johnson on BBC Radio 3’s Schubert Festival in 2012 and was joint winner of the Paul Hamburger Lieder Prize at the Guildhall School and the Oxford Lieder Young Artists Programme 2013. He has performed across the UK, including concerts at the Oxford Lieder Festival and the London English Song Festival. Alessandro’s opera performances include Don Pelagio (La canterina), Nanki-Poo (The Mikado), Testo (Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda), Don Ottavio and Acis (Acis and Galatea) for Opera Lyrica. In 2014 he made his debut at Garsington as Bellecour in Offenbach’s Vert Vert.

The Schubert Project    71


Maria Forsström

lives in Gothenburg. Her repertoire spans from the Baroque to Luciano Berio, including oratorio, opera and concert repertoire such as Brahms’s Alto Rhapsody, Britten’s Phaedra, Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius and Bach’s Matthew Passion. Maria first graduated as an organist and choir conductor at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm and then pursued early music studies in London before completing her studies in orchestral conducting in St Petersburg. Her love of singing took over and she now sings frequently with the conductor Teodor Currentzis. Other orchestras with whom she has appeared include the Mahler Chamber Orchestra, La Chambre Philharmonique, Südwestdeutsches Philharmonie, Finnish National Opera, Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and the Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, where she made her debut under Edward Gardner. February 2014 saw the release of Le nozze di Figaro on Sony Classical, on which Maria sings Marcellina. In March Maria returned to Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra for Das Lied von der Erde under Rory Macdonald. Future recordings for Sony include Mahler’s Rückert Lieder.

Christina Raphaëlle Haldane Canadian-British soprano Christina Raphaëlle Haldane enjoys an active career in the UK, Europe, Asia and North America. She has sung principal roles for Finnish National Opera, the Royal Opera House, Scottish Opera and Musica Viva Hong Kong, as well as for Iford Arts, Longborough, Swansea City and Buxton festivals. Her roles include Cleopatra (Giulio Cesare), Marie (La Fille du regiment), Adina (L’elisir d’amore), Clorinda (La Cenerentola), Lucinda (Mendelssohn’s Die Hochzeit des Camacho), both the Vixen and the Fox (The Cunning Little Vixen), Rapunzel (Into the Woods) and Pamina (Die Zauberflöte). An accomplished concert performer, she has performed with many renowned orchestras, including the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic and Capella Cracoviensis.

Isa Katharina Gericke Born in Berlin, Isa Katharina Gericke studied in Oslo and Berlin. In 2001 she won the national first prize of the Queen Sonja International Music Competition in Oslo. In 2003 she made her debut as Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) at Norwegian Opera. Isa has a special interest in Lieder and is an acclaimed recital singer and in 2008 made her UK debut at Wigmore Hall. She has sung with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, Oslo Philharmonic and the Akademie für alte Musik Berlin under Andrew Davis, Frans Brüggen and Philippe Herreweghe. Isa’s recordings include Solveig in Grieg’s Peer Gynt for Naxos, Waldabendlust, the result of her research in the field of German Lied in Norway, and Til Eva, a tribute to the Norwegian soprano Eva Nansen. During the coming season Isa will release two recordings of Nordic Lieder with the pianist Bengt Forsberg. Together with Swedish conductor Olof Boman, Isa is artistic director of the Gloger Festival in Kongsberg, Norway.

Lucy Hall has just completed her training at the National Opera Studio. She previously trained at the Guildhall School and was awarded the Dove Memorial Prize for being the highest marked graduate of 2010 and the Wyburd Trust Prize for Lieder. She then completed the Guildhall Opera Course studying with Yvonne Kenny. She was the winner of the Oxford Lieder Young Artists Platform in 2012 with pianist Gavin Roberts. Recent performance highlights include Flora (The Turn of the Screw) with the LSO at the Barbican, Glanert’s orchestration of Schubert’s ‘Einsamkeit’ with the BBC Philharmonic at Bridgewater Hall (broadcast on BBC Radio 3) and the Good Friday Messiah with the RPO at the Royal Albert Hall. Operatic roles include Susanna (Le nozze di Figaro) for GSMD Opera and Sandrina (La finta giardiniera) at the Grand Théâtre du Luxembourg and Opéra de Toulon. Plans include a concert with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, Euridice (Orfeo ed Euridice) for Scottish Opera and Marzelline (Fidelio) with the BBC Philharmonic.

James Gilchrist

began his working life as a doctor, turning to a full time career in music in 1996. He enjoys a busy international career as a concert, recital and recording artist and has worked with many major conductors and orchestras. As a recitalist James enjoys successful relationships with accompanists Anna Tilbrook, Julius Drake and harpist Alison Nicholls. His many critically acclaimed recordings include Die schöne Mullerin, Schwanengesang and Winterreise (Orchid), Intimations of Immortality (Naxos), the title role in Albert Herring and Vaughan Williams’s The Poisoned Kiss (Chandos), On Wenlock Edge, Leighton’s Earth, Sweet Earth and Britten’s Winter Words (Linn). Recent concert highlights include Boyce’s Solomon with the OAE in Halle Cathedral and at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, Haydn’s Die Schöpfung at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, Handel’s L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato with the Mark Morris Dance Group at the Teatro Real, Madrid and Bach’s John Passion at the BBC Proms with the Zurich Chamber Orchestra and with the Academy of Ancient Music at the Rheingau Festival.

Stephen Harris Stephen Harris is Druce Curator of the Oxford University Herbaria, Britain’s oldest collection of dried plants. Stephen is a lecturer at Christ Church and University Research Lecturer, contributing to courses in plant conservation biology, plant biodiversity and field biology. Stephen’s research is concerned with our interactions with plants; how we modify plant evolution. Stephen has considerable fieldwork experience, particularly in Brazil. He has also long-standing interests in the history of botany and collections, and plant identification. Besides his academic publications, Stephen has co-authored one genetics textbook and written three popular books on botanical history and plant illustration: The Magnificent Flora Graeca (2007), Commentary on Thornton’s Temple of Flora (2008) and Planting Paradise. Plants in cultivation (1501–1900) (2011). Stephen’s most recent popular science publication, Grasses (2014), reveals the science and cultural history of this overlooked group of plants.

Christopher Glynn read music at New College, Oxford before studying piano with John Streets in France and Malcolm Martineau at the Royal Academy. He is a Professor at the Royal College and an Associate of the Royal Academy. His many awards include the accompaniment prize in the 2001 Kathleen Ferrier Competition and the 2003 Gerald Moore Award. He has accompanied singers including Thomas Allen, Matthew Best, Claire Booth, Allan Clayton, Ronan Collett, Lucy Crowe, Bernarda Fink, Anthony Rolfe Johnson, Jonas Kaufmann, Andrew Kennedy, Yvonne Kenny, Dame Felicity Lott, Christopher Maltman, Simona Mihai, Joan Rodgers, Kate Royal, Carolyn Sampson, Toby Spence, Bryn Terfel, Ailish Tynan, Roderick Williams and Catherine Wyn Rogers. He has also performed with Julian Bliss, Natalie Clein, Nicholas Daniel, Daniel Hope, Jennifer Pike, the Elias, Fitzwilliam and Alberni quartets, the Gabrieli Consort and London Winds and with Consortium and The Sixteen. Christopher has performed in all the main UK concert halls and in major concert venues and festivals throughout the world. Since 2010 he has been Artistic Director of the Ryedale Music Festival.

Martin Hässler won second prize at Thomas Quasthoff’s Das Lied International Song Competition 2011, first prize at Bundeswettbewerb Gesang Berlin (Junior) 2010 and the Best Singer’s Award at Gerald Moore Competition in 2009. He is currently continuing his vocal studies as a full scholarship awardee on the opera course at the Guildhall School with Janice Chapman. Martin started his vocal training at the University of Music and Theatre in Leipzig. Supported by an Erasmus scholarship, he moved to London in 2009 to continue his studies at the Guildhall School with Rudolf Piernay. As a recitalist Martin has sang at the Philharmonie in Berlin, Deutsche Oper Berlin with Philip Moll, Ruhr Piano Festival with Graham Johnson, Oxford Lieder Festival, LSO St Luke’s, Musikverein in Vienna, Fondation Singer-Polignac in Paris and at Wigmore Hall (Guildhall School Wigmore Recital Prize). Opera appearances at the Guildhall School in 2014/15 include Dvorˇák’s The Cunning Peasant and Donizetti’s I pazzi per progetto.

Susan Gritton is one of the foremost lyric sopranos of her generation. Notable operatic appearances include Liù, Micäela and Marˇenka (Royal Opera House), Ellen Orford (La Scala, Milan, Opera Australia and Tokyo), the Governess and Female Chorus (Aldeburgh), Konstanze (Bavarian State Opera and Berlin State Opera), Fiordiligi, Vittelia, Rodelinda and Blanche de la Force (Bavarian State Opera), Elettra (Netherlands Opera), Donna Anna (Opéra de Montreal and the Bolshoi), Theodora (Glyndebourne) and the Countess, Fiordiligi and the Vixen (ENO). Her work in concert includes Ravel’s Shéhérazade (RLPO and Mackerras), Ein deutsches Requiem (Berlin Philharmonic and Rattle), Berg’s Bruchstücke aus Wozzeck (Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Harding), Honegger’s Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Accademia di Santa Cecilia and Pappano), Elgar’s The Kingdom (LSO and Elder), Schumann’s Das Paradies und die Peri (Vienna Philharmonic and Rattle) and Britten’s Les Illuminations, including the world premiere of three additional Rimbaud settings (BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Brabbins).

Tim Hawken studied viola at Royal Northern, where he was also awarded a piano accompaniment scholarship. After graduating in 2008 he remained at the RNCM as an Assistant Staff Pianist in the vocal department, a role he combined with work as a deputy lay clerk in Manchester Cathedral Choir. He also appeared occasionally with the Orchestra of Opera North on viola and violin. Tim then spent three years in Oxford as a tenor lay clerk in Christ Church Cathedral Choir, before moving to London in 2013 to train as a répétiteur at the National Opera Studio. He now works as a freelance répétiteur, choral singer and string player.

Katie Grosset

Ciara Hendrick

Scottish mezzo-soprano Katie Grosset recently finished training at the National Opera Studio in London and she currently sings under the tutelage of Catherine Wyn-Rogers. Prior to her time at the Studio, Katie attended the University of Glasgow (BMus Hons), Guildhall School (MMus with Distinction) and the Operastudio Vlaanderen in Belgium (PG Dip with Distinction). She was an Emerging Artist with Scottish Opera for their 50th-anniversary season, performing roles such as Flora and Annina (La traviata) and Edith (The Pirates of Penzance). Recent engagements include performances of Pop Up Commissions at the Tête à Tête Opera Festival, Prokofiev’s Alexander Nevsky in the Usher Hall in Edinburgh and Haydn ‘Nelson’ Mass at Guildford Cathedral. Katie appeared as Nurse Wallace in Iain Burnside’s A Soldier and a Maker in Summer 2014. She looks forward to working with Scottish Opera and English Touring Opera this season.

72    The Oxford Lieder Festival

studied at the Guildhall School, Strasbourg Opera Studio and with ENO Opera Works. Recent engagements include Tweedledum (Will Todd’s Alice in Wonderland) at Opera Holland Park, the title role in Handel’s Susanna with the Early Opera Company and Christian Curnyn, Hänsel (Hänsel und Gretel) at Iford Opera, Dorinda (Il pastor fido) with La Nuova Musica, Frasquinella (La Périchole) at Garsington, Margarida (Julian Philips’s The Yellow Sofa) with the Jerwood Young Artists at Glyndebourne and performing and recording the role of Juno (Daniel Purcell’s The Judgement of Paris) with Spiritato, released earlier this year. In demand as a recitalist, her highlights last year included a recital with Sholto Kynoch at the National Gallery, Frauenliebe und -leben with Libby Burgess at the Oxford Lieder Festival and working with Malcolm Martineau at the Crear Masterclasses. Current and future plans include Berlioz’s Les Nuits d’été and making her Opera North debut as Fortuna and Valetto in L’incoronazione di Poppea.

The Schubert Project    73


Maria Forsström

lives in Gothenburg. Her repertoire spans from the Baroque to Luciano Berio, including oratorio, opera and concert repertoire such as Brahms’s Alto Rhapsody, Britten’s Phaedra, Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius and Bach’s Matthew Passion. Maria first graduated as an organist and choir conductor at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm and then pursued early music studies in London before completing her studies in orchestral conducting in St Petersburg. Her love of singing took over and she now sings frequently with the conductor Teodor Currentzis. Other orchestras with whom she has appeared include the Mahler Chamber Orchestra, La Chambre Philharmonique, Südwestdeutsches Philharmonie, Finnish National Opera, Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and the Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, where she made her debut under Edward Gardner. February 2014 saw the release of Le nozze di Figaro on Sony Classical, on which Maria sings Marcellina. In March Maria returned to Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra for Das Lied von der Erde under Rory Macdonald. Future recordings for Sony include Mahler’s Rückert Lieder.

Christina Raphaëlle Haldane Canadian-British soprano Christina Raphaëlle Haldane enjoys an active career in the UK, Europe, Asia and North America. She has sung principal roles for Finnish National Opera, the Royal Opera House, Scottish Opera and Musica Viva Hong Kong, as well as for Iford Arts, Longborough, Swansea City and Buxton festivals. Her roles include Cleopatra (Giulio Cesare), Marie (La Fille du regiment), Adina (L’elisir d’amore), Clorinda (La Cenerentola), Lucinda (Mendelssohn’s Die Hochzeit des Camacho), both the Vixen and the Fox (The Cunning Little Vixen), Rapunzel (Into the Woods) and Pamina (Die Zauberflöte). An accomplished concert performer, she has performed with many renowned orchestras, including the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic and Capella Cracoviensis.

Isa Katharina Gericke Born in Berlin, Isa Katharina Gericke studied in Oslo and Berlin. In 2001 she won the national first prize of the Queen Sonja International Music Competition in Oslo. In 2003 she made her debut as Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) at Norwegian Opera. Isa has a special interest in Lieder and is an acclaimed recital singer and in 2008 made her UK debut at Wigmore Hall. She has sung with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, Oslo Philharmonic and the Akademie für alte Musik Berlin under Andrew Davis, Frans Brüggen and Philippe Herreweghe. Isa’s recordings include Solveig in Grieg’s Peer Gynt for Naxos, Waldabendlust, the result of her research in the field of German Lied in Norway, and Til Eva, a tribute to the Norwegian soprano Eva Nansen. During the coming season Isa will release two recordings of Nordic Lieder with the pianist Bengt Forsberg. Together with Swedish conductor Olof Boman, Isa is artistic director of the Gloger Festival in Kongsberg, Norway.

Lucy Hall has just completed her training at the National Opera Studio. She previously trained at the Guildhall School and was awarded the Dove Memorial Prize for being the highest marked graduate of 2010 and the Wyburd Trust Prize for Lieder. She then completed the Guildhall Opera Course studying with Yvonne Kenny. She was the winner of the Oxford Lieder Young Artists Platform in 2012 with pianist Gavin Roberts. Recent performance highlights include Flora (The Turn of the Screw) with the LSO at the Barbican, Glanert’s orchestration of Schubert’s ‘Einsamkeit’ with the BBC Philharmonic at Bridgewater Hall (broadcast on BBC Radio 3) and the Good Friday Messiah with the RPO at the Royal Albert Hall. Operatic roles include Susanna (Le nozze di Figaro) for GSMD Opera and Sandrina (La finta giardiniera) at the Grand Théâtre du Luxembourg and Opéra de Toulon. Plans include a concert with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, Euridice (Orfeo ed Euridice) for Scottish Opera and Marzelline (Fidelio) with the BBC Philharmonic.

James Gilchrist

began his working life as a doctor, turning to a full time career in music in 1996. He enjoys a busy international career as a concert, recital and recording artist and has worked with many major conductors and orchestras. As a recitalist James enjoys successful relationships with accompanists Anna Tilbrook, Julius Drake and harpist Alison Nicholls. His many critically acclaimed recordings include Die schöne Mullerin, Schwanengesang and Winterreise (Orchid), Intimations of Immortality (Naxos), the title role in Albert Herring and Vaughan Williams’s The Poisoned Kiss (Chandos), On Wenlock Edge, Leighton’s Earth, Sweet Earth and Britten’s Winter Words (Linn). Recent concert highlights include Boyce’s Solomon with the OAE in Halle Cathedral and at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, Haydn’s Die Schöpfung at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, Handel’s L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato with the Mark Morris Dance Group at the Teatro Real, Madrid and Bach’s John Passion at the BBC Proms with the Zurich Chamber Orchestra and with the Academy of Ancient Music at the Rheingau Festival.

Stephen Harris Stephen Harris is Druce Curator of the Oxford University Herbaria, Britain’s oldest collection of dried plants. Stephen is a lecturer at Christ Church and University Research Lecturer, contributing to courses in plant conservation biology, plant biodiversity and field biology. Stephen’s research is concerned with our interactions with plants; how we modify plant evolution. Stephen has considerable fieldwork experience, particularly in Brazil. He has also long-standing interests in the history of botany and collections, and plant identification. Besides his academic publications, Stephen has co-authored one genetics textbook and written three popular books on botanical history and plant illustration: The Magnificent Flora Graeca (2007), Commentary on Thornton’s Temple of Flora (2008) and Planting Paradise. Plants in cultivation (1501–1900) (2011). Stephen’s most recent popular science publication, Grasses (2014), reveals the science and cultural history of this overlooked group of plants.

Christopher Glynn read music at New College, Oxford before studying piano with John Streets in France and Malcolm Martineau at the Royal Academy. He is a Professor at the Royal College and an Associate of the Royal Academy. His many awards include the accompaniment prize in the 2001 Kathleen Ferrier Competition and the 2003 Gerald Moore Award. He has accompanied singers including Thomas Allen, Matthew Best, Claire Booth, Allan Clayton, Ronan Collett, Lucy Crowe, Bernarda Fink, Anthony Rolfe Johnson, Jonas Kaufmann, Andrew Kennedy, Yvonne Kenny, Dame Felicity Lott, Christopher Maltman, Simona Mihai, Joan Rodgers, Kate Royal, Carolyn Sampson, Toby Spence, Bryn Terfel, Ailish Tynan, Roderick Williams and Catherine Wyn Rogers. He has also performed with Julian Bliss, Natalie Clein, Nicholas Daniel, Daniel Hope, Jennifer Pike, the Elias, Fitzwilliam and Alberni quartets, the Gabrieli Consort and London Winds and with Consortium and The Sixteen. Christopher has performed in all the main UK concert halls and in major concert venues and festivals throughout the world. Since 2010 he has been Artistic Director of the Ryedale Music Festival.

Martin Hässler won second prize at Thomas Quasthoff’s Das Lied International Song Competition 2011, first prize at Bundeswettbewerb Gesang Berlin (Junior) 2010 and the Best Singer’s Award at Gerald Moore Competition in 2009. He is currently continuing his vocal studies as a full scholarship awardee on the opera course at the Guildhall School with Janice Chapman. Martin started his vocal training at the University of Music and Theatre in Leipzig. Supported by an Erasmus scholarship, he moved to London in 2009 to continue his studies at the Guildhall School with Rudolf Piernay. As a recitalist Martin has sang at the Philharmonie in Berlin, Deutsche Oper Berlin with Philip Moll, Ruhr Piano Festival with Graham Johnson, Oxford Lieder Festival, LSO St Luke’s, Musikverein in Vienna, Fondation Singer-Polignac in Paris and at Wigmore Hall (Guildhall School Wigmore Recital Prize). Opera appearances at the Guildhall School in 2014/15 include Dvorˇák’s The Cunning Peasant and Donizetti’s I pazzi per progetto.

Susan Gritton is one of the foremost lyric sopranos of her generation. Notable operatic appearances include Liù, Micäela and Marˇenka (Royal Opera House), Ellen Orford (La Scala, Milan, Opera Australia and Tokyo), the Governess and Female Chorus (Aldeburgh), Konstanze (Bavarian State Opera and Berlin State Opera), Fiordiligi, Vittelia, Rodelinda and Blanche de la Force (Bavarian State Opera), Elettra (Netherlands Opera), Donna Anna (Opéra de Montreal and the Bolshoi), Theodora (Glyndebourne) and the Countess, Fiordiligi and the Vixen (ENO). Her work in concert includes Ravel’s Shéhérazade (RLPO and Mackerras), Ein deutsches Requiem (Berlin Philharmonic and Rattle), Berg’s Bruchstücke aus Wozzeck (Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Harding), Honegger’s Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher (Accademia di Santa Cecilia and Pappano), Elgar’s The Kingdom (LSO and Elder), Schumann’s Das Paradies und die Peri (Vienna Philharmonic and Rattle) and Britten’s Les Illuminations, including the world premiere of three additional Rimbaud settings (BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Brabbins).

Tim Hawken studied viola at Royal Northern, where he was also awarded a piano accompaniment scholarship. After graduating in 2008 he remained at the RNCM as an Assistant Staff Pianist in the vocal department, a role he combined with work as a deputy lay clerk in Manchester Cathedral Choir. He also appeared occasionally with the Orchestra of Opera North on viola and violin. Tim then spent three years in Oxford as a tenor lay clerk in Christ Church Cathedral Choir, before moving to London in 2013 to train as a répétiteur at the National Opera Studio. He now works as a freelance répétiteur, choral singer and string player.

Katie Grosset

Ciara Hendrick

Scottish mezzo-soprano Katie Grosset recently finished training at the National Opera Studio in London and she currently sings under the tutelage of Catherine Wyn-Rogers. Prior to her time at the Studio, Katie attended the University of Glasgow (BMus Hons), Guildhall School (MMus with Distinction) and the Operastudio Vlaanderen in Belgium (PG Dip with Distinction). She was an Emerging Artist with Scottish Opera for their 50th-anniversary season, performing roles such as Flora and Annina (La traviata) and Edith (The Pirates of Penzance). Recent engagements include performances of Pop Up Commissions at the Tête à Tête Opera Festival, Prokofiev’s Alexander Nevsky in the Usher Hall in Edinburgh and Haydn ‘Nelson’ Mass at Guildford Cathedral. Katie appeared as Nurse Wallace in Iain Burnside’s A Soldier and a Maker in Summer 2014. She looks forward to working with Scottish Opera and English Touring Opera this season.

72    The Oxford Lieder Festival

studied at the Guildhall School, Strasbourg Opera Studio and with ENO Opera Works. Recent engagements include Tweedledum (Will Todd’s Alice in Wonderland) at Opera Holland Park, the title role in Handel’s Susanna with the Early Opera Company and Christian Curnyn, Hänsel (Hänsel und Gretel) at Iford Opera, Dorinda (Il pastor fido) with La Nuova Musica, Frasquinella (La Périchole) at Garsington, Margarida (Julian Philips’s The Yellow Sofa) with the Jerwood Young Artists at Glyndebourne and performing and recording the role of Juno (Daniel Purcell’s The Judgement of Paris) with Spiritato, released earlier this year. In demand as a recitalist, her highlights last year included a recital with Sholto Kynoch at the National Gallery, Frauenliebe und -leben with Libby Burgess at the Oxford Lieder Festival and working with Malcolm Martineau at the Crear Masterclasses. Current and future plans include Berlioz’s Les Nuits d’été and making her Opera North debut as Fortuna and Valetto in L’incoronazione di Poppea.

The Schubert Project    73


Dietrich Henschel

German baritone Dietrich Henschel’s repertoire extends from the beginning of Baroque opera to today’s avant garde. A regular at the major European opera houses, his recent engagements include the title roles in Enescu’s Oedipe (La Monnaie) and Manfred Trojahn’s Orest (Netherlands Opera). In addition to opera, a wide range of acclaimed recordings with great accompanists, orchestras and conductors testifies to Dietrich Henschel’s success as a Lied interpreter and an oratorio soloist. Henschel has recently been exploring the intersection between art music, theatre and visual media with a staging of Schubert’s Schwanengesang and two films by Clara Pons: Irrsal-Forbidden Prayers, based on Wolf’s Mörike Lieder, and Mahler’s Wunderhorn Lieder. Both films serve to accompany live orchestral performances. A forthcoming tour of the Mahler project includes a performance with BBC Symphony Orchestra at the Barbican in April 2015.

Crawford Howie

Henry Herford

Born in Edinburgh, Henry Herford read Classics and English at Cambridge before training at the Royal Northern College of Music, where he won the Gold Medal for Singing. His operatic career began at Glyndebourne with the Forester (The Cunning Little Vixen) under Rattle and he has since performed some 80 roles with opera companies throughout Britain and Europe, notably the Count (Le nozze di Figaro), Guglielmo (Così fan tutte), Don Giovanni, Germont (La traviata), Silvio (Pagliacci), Falke (Die Fledermaus) and Smirnov (The Bear). In oratorio he has sung with Rattle, Menuhin, Davis, Gardiner, Willcocks, Hickox and Tilson Thomas and has twice appeared as soloist at the Last Night of the Proms. As a recitalist he has won international awards in Britain, Holland and the USA, worked with the Nash Ensemble, the Songmakers’ Almanac and Ensemble Modern, and given many first performances. His recordings range from Baroque to 20th-century opera and song, including an award-winning two CD set of the songs of Charles Ives. He teaches at the RNCM and the Birmingham Conservatoire.

Benjamin Hulett graduated from New College, Oxford. He was a principal singer with the Hamburg State Opera, where his many roles included Tamino and Ferrando, returning as a guest for Tamino and Narraboth. He appeared with Bavarian State Opera as Oronte, at the Theater an der Wien (Kalitzke’s Die Besessenen), Salzburg Festival (Elektra), Baden-Baden Festival (Salome), Berlin State Opera (Henze’s Phaedra), Teatro dell’Opera di Roma (Madwoman and Gonzalve) and the Royal Opera House (Edmondo). He sang Tamino in concert with the Berlin Philharmonic under Rattle and Arbace with Europa Galante and Biondi. He has sung at the Edinburgh Festival with Norrington and Herreweghe, Concertgebouw with Jurowski, Northern Sinfonia with Zehetmair, Salzburg Mozartwoche and the Konzerthaus in Vienna with Bolton and the Montreal Symphony Orchestra under Nagano. He will make his debuts at Glyndebourne (Saul) and with WNO as Tamino and will return to the Royal Opera House.

Johnny Herford

was the winner of the Song Prize at the 2013 Kathleen Ferrier Awards and of the Jean Meikle Duo Prize at the 2013 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition. He studied at the Royal Academy, is a Samling Scholar, an alumnus of the Britten-Pears School and studied this summer with Thomas Quasthoff at the Verbier Festival. This season Johnny will create the role of Josef K in the world premiere of The Trial at the Royal Opera House, in a co-production with Music Theatre Wales, which he will reprise as his German debut at Magdeburg Opera. In recital Johnny has appeared at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, Oxford Lieder Festival and on BBC Radio 3. Last season he recorded Mendelssohn Lieder with Malcolm Martineau, performed Die schöne Müllerin at the Machynlleth Festival with William Vann and was invited to appear at the London English Song Festival in a programme celebrating the 60th birthday of Judith Weir. Future appearances include recitals with Simon Lepper and James Baillieu.

Anna Huntley

Matti Hirvonen Swedish pianist Matti Hirvonen has been a collaborative pianist since he was a student and is today regarded as one of the leading accompanists in Scandinavia, equally comfortable in all forms of chamber music. Hirvonen’s career began at the invitation of the famous soprano Elisabeth Söderström. Matti has since performed with such renowned singers as Nina Stemme, Hillevi Martinpelto, Miah Persson, Anna Larsson, Katarina Karnéus, Ida Falk Winland, Håkan Hagegård, Wolfgang Holzmair, Bo Skovhus and Peter Mattei. A frequent guest at festivals throughout Europe, including Edinburgh, Aix-en Provence and Oxford Lieder, Hirvonen has also performed at the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna, Philharmonie in Cologne, Palais des Beaux Arts in Brussels, Concertgebouw, Philharmonie in Luxemburg, Frankfurt Opera, Laieszhalle in Hamburg and Carnegie Hall. He is a professor of accompaniment at the Norwegian Academy of Music in Oslo and has held similar positions at the Royal College and in Stockholm. He regularly gives Lieder masterclasses for both pianists and singers.

Daniel Johannsen Born in 1978, Austrian tenor Daniel Johannsen is one of the most sought-after Evangelists and Bach interpreters of his generation. Prizewinner at the Bach, Schumann, Mozart, Hilde Zadek and Wigmore Hall Competitions, he studied voice with Margit Klaushofer and Robert Holl in Vienna and participated in masterclasses with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Nicolai Gedda and Christa Ludwig. Since his debut in 1998, Johannsen’s appearances have taken him to major musical centres in Europe, North America, Japan and the Middle East. He appears at leading festivals such as Styriarte in Graz, the Salzburg Festival, La Folle Journée and the Prague Spring, performing under such distinguished conductors as Neville Marriner and Bertrand de Billy. He is engaged by theatres such as the Munich State Theatre on Gärtnerplatz, Leipzig Opera and the Volksoper in Vienna. Song recitals are a central focus of his work and he collaborates with pianists including David Lutz, Burkhard Kehring and Helmut Deutsch.

Robert Holl

was born in Rotterdam and educated in the Netherlands. He later studied with Hans Hotter in Munich where Holl won first prize at the ARD Competition in 1972. He has lived in Austria for many years, where he has been awarded the title of Kammersänger. Since 1998 he has a professor at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. Robert Holl is also the composer of a number of songs. After a period of absence from the stage, he returned during the late 1980s and has appeared at the Vienna State Opera, Berlin State Opera, Zurich Opera and, since 1996, at Bayreuth. As a Lieder and concert singer his main focus has been on German language and Russian composers. His partners at the piano include Oleg Maisenberg, Daniel Barenboim and András Schiff and he has collaborated with conductors such as Abbado, Barenboim, Boulez, Chailly, Harnoncourt, Jansons and Thielemann. Numerous radio and CD recordings document the versatility of his repertoire.

Ben Johnson

Wolfgang Holzmair

Graham Johnson studied at the Royal Academy and with Geoffrey Parsons. He formed the Songmakers’ Almanac in 1976. He has worked with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Peter Pears, Thomas Allen, Victoria de los Angeles, Ian Bostridge, Brigitte Fassbaender, Matthias Goerne, Thomas Hampson, Felicity Lott, Simon Keenlyside, Angelika Kirchschlager, Philip Langridge, Christopher Maltman, Edith Mathis, Ann Murray, Lucia Popp, Christoph Prégardien, Margaret Price, Thomas Quastoff, Dorothea Röschmann, Alice Coote, Christine Schäfer and Peter Schreier. His extensive discography includes the entire Schubert and Schumann Lieder for Hyperion. He is Chairman of the Wigmore Hall Song Competition and Senior Professor at the Guildhall School. He was made an OBE in the 1994 Queen’s Birthday Honours list, Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et Lettres by the French Government in 2002 and an Honorary Member of the Royal Philharmonic Society in 2010. In 2013 he was awarded the Wigmore Hall Medal and received honorary doctorates from Durham University and the New England Conservatory of Music. He was awarded the Hugo Wolf Medal in 2014.

is particularly noted for his intelligent and committed performances of Lieder and has performed in recital throughout the world with some of the leading pianists of our time. Equally in demand on the concert platform, he has sung with major orchestras under eminent conductors including Boulez, Chailly, Dohnányi, Frühbeck de Burgos, Haitink, Harnoncourt, Norrington, Hickox, López-Cobos and Ozawa. He is also active in opera, recently appearing as Faninal (Der Rosenkavalier) in Seattle and Hong Kong, Don Alfonso in Lyon and Toronto, the Music Master (Ariadne auf Naxos) in Madrid, Wolfram (Tannhäuser) in Erfurt and the title role in Daniel Schnyder’s Casanova at the Mehuhin Festival in Gstaad. He has made numerous recordings, most recently Wolf Lieder with Imogen Cooper, live from Wigmore Hall, and Mahler Lieder with Russell Ryan on Nightingale. Since 1998 he has taught Lied and oratorio at the Mozarteum in Salzburg and given masterclasses in Europe and North America.

74    The Oxford Lieder Festival

was born in Scotland in 1942. He studied music at the Royal Scottish, University of Edinburgh and the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. From 1966 to 2006 he held a lecturing post at the University of Manchester. He is still active as a musicologist, lecturer, editor and performer and his main interests lie in 19th-century Austrian music, particularly the music of Schubert and Bruckner, and in 19th and early 20th-century sacred music. His doctoral thesis was concerned with Bruckner’s sacred music and he has written books and articles on Bruckner and Schubert and presented papers at national and international conferences from the mid-1970s onwards. As Chairman of SIUK, editor of The Schubertian and associate editor of The Bruckner Journal, he contributes reviews and articles on a regular basis and has co-organized and participated in international Schubert and Bruckner conferences in the UK since 1996. At the 2013 Bruckner conference in Oxford he was presented with the Bruckner Society of America’s Kilenyi Medal of Honour.

Born in Stockton-on-Tees, Anna Huntley studied at the Royal Academy and the Royal College International Opera School. In 2011 she won third prize at the Das Lied Competition in Berlin and won the Wigmore Hall Independent Opera Vocal Fellowship at the Wigmore Hall Kohn Foundation International Song Competition. During the last year Anna has covered the roles of Dorabella (Così fan tutte) at ENO and Suzuki (Madama Butterfly) for WNO. She has given recitals at Wigmore Hall, Leeds Lieder Festival and the Sage, Gateshead with Graham Johnson and James Baillieu and performed Mozart’s Requiem at Symphony Hall in Birmingham. This season Anna returns to Wigmore Hall, gives recitals at Perth Concert Hall (broadcast on BBC Radio 3) and the Oxford Lieder Festival and performs Handel’s Messiah with the CBSO. Anna is currently mentored by Angelika Kirchschlager as part of the Royal Philharmonic Society YCAT Philip Langridge Mentoring Scheme and was selected by YCAT in 2012.

represented England in BBC Cardiff Singer of the World 2013 and won the Audience Prize. His opera engagements include Tamino (Die Zauberflöte), Alfredo (La traviata) and Nemorino (L’elisir d’amore) for ENO and Don Ottavio for Glyndebourne and ENO. Recent concert highlights include a Mozart programme with the CBSO, Mendelssohn’s Lobegesang with the Gulbenkian Orchestra and Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings with the Residentie Orkest and the English Chamber Orchestra at the BBC Proms. He works regularly with Graham Johnson and James Baillieu, performing at Wigmore Hall, Aldeburgh, the City of London Festival, Rosenblatt Recitals and Kings Place. Highlights of the 2014/15 season include Oronte Alcina with the English Concert, Alfredo at ENO, the Evangelist in the John Passion with the Choir of King’s College, Cambridge and in the Matthew Passion with The Bach Choir and Belmonte (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) at Berlin State Opera.

The Schubert Project    75


Dietrich Henschel

German baritone Dietrich Henschel’s repertoire extends from the beginning of Baroque opera to today’s avant garde. A regular at the major European opera houses, his recent engagements include the title roles in Enescu’s Oedipe (La Monnaie) and Manfred Trojahn’s Orest (Netherlands Opera). In addition to opera, a wide range of acclaimed recordings with great accompanists, orchestras and conductors testifies to Dietrich Henschel’s success as a Lied interpreter and an oratorio soloist. Henschel has recently been exploring the intersection between art music, theatre and visual media with a staging of Schubert’s Schwanengesang and two films by Clara Pons: Irrsal-Forbidden Prayers, based on Wolf’s Mörike Lieder, and Mahler’s Wunderhorn Lieder. Both films serve to accompany live orchestral performances. A forthcoming tour of the Mahler project includes a performance with BBC Symphony Orchestra at the Barbican in April 2015.

Crawford Howie

Henry Herford

Born in Edinburgh, Henry Herford read Classics and English at Cambridge before training at the Royal Northern College of Music, where he won the Gold Medal for Singing. His operatic career began at Glyndebourne with the Forester (The Cunning Little Vixen) under Rattle and he has since performed some 80 roles with opera companies throughout Britain and Europe, notably the Count (Le nozze di Figaro), Guglielmo (Così fan tutte), Don Giovanni, Germont (La traviata), Silvio (Pagliacci), Falke (Die Fledermaus) and Smirnov (The Bear). In oratorio he has sung with Rattle, Menuhin, Davis, Gardiner, Willcocks, Hickox and Tilson Thomas and has twice appeared as soloist at the Last Night of the Proms. As a recitalist he has won international awards in Britain, Holland and the USA, worked with the Nash Ensemble, the Songmakers’ Almanac and Ensemble Modern, and given many first performances. His recordings range from Baroque to 20th-century opera and song, including an award-winning two CD set of the songs of Charles Ives. He teaches at the RNCM and the Birmingham Conservatoire.

Benjamin Hulett graduated from New College, Oxford. He was a principal singer with the Hamburg State Opera, where his many roles included Tamino and Ferrando, returning as a guest for Tamino and Narraboth. He appeared with Bavarian State Opera as Oronte, at the Theater an der Wien (Kalitzke’s Die Besessenen), Salzburg Festival (Elektra), Baden-Baden Festival (Salome), Berlin State Opera (Henze’s Phaedra), Teatro dell’Opera di Roma (Madwoman and Gonzalve) and the Royal Opera House (Edmondo). He sang Tamino in concert with the Berlin Philharmonic under Rattle and Arbace with Europa Galante and Biondi. He has sung at the Edinburgh Festival with Norrington and Herreweghe, Concertgebouw with Jurowski, Northern Sinfonia with Zehetmair, Salzburg Mozartwoche and the Konzerthaus in Vienna with Bolton and the Montreal Symphony Orchestra under Nagano. He will make his debuts at Glyndebourne (Saul) and with WNO as Tamino and will return to the Royal Opera House.

Johnny Herford

was the winner of the Song Prize at the 2013 Kathleen Ferrier Awards and of the Jean Meikle Duo Prize at the 2013 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition. He studied at the Royal Academy, is a Samling Scholar, an alumnus of the Britten-Pears School and studied this summer with Thomas Quasthoff at the Verbier Festival. This season Johnny will create the role of Josef K in the world premiere of The Trial at the Royal Opera House, in a co-production with Music Theatre Wales, which he will reprise as his German debut at Magdeburg Opera. In recital Johnny has appeared at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, Oxford Lieder Festival and on BBC Radio 3. Last season he recorded Mendelssohn Lieder with Malcolm Martineau, performed Die schöne Müllerin at the Machynlleth Festival with William Vann and was invited to appear at the London English Song Festival in a programme celebrating the 60th birthday of Judith Weir. Future appearances include recitals with Simon Lepper and James Baillieu.

Anna Huntley

Matti Hirvonen Swedish pianist Matti Hirvonen has been a collaborative pianist since he was a student and is today regarded as one of the leading accompanists in Scandinavia, equally comfortable in all forms of chamber music. Hirvonen’s career began at the invitation of the famous soprano Elisabeth Söderström. Matti has since performed with such renowned singers as Nina Stemme, Hillevi Martinpelto, Miah Persson, Anna Larsson, Katarina Karnéus, Ida Falk Winland, Håkan Hagegård, Wolfgang Holzmair, Bo Skovhus and Peter Mattei. A frequent guest at festivals throughout Europe, including Edinburgh, Aix-en Provence and Oxford Lieder, Hirvonen has also performed at the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna, Philharmonie in Cologne, Palais des Beaux Arts in Brussels, Concertgebouw, Philharmonie in Luxemburg, Frankfurt Opera, Laieszhalle in Hamburg and Carnegie Hall. He is a professor of accompaniment at the Norwegian Academy of Music in Oslo and has held similar positions at the Royal College and in Stockholm. He regularly gives Lieder masterclasses for both pianists and singers.

Daniel Johannsen Born in 1978, Austrian tenor Daniel Johannsen is one of the most sought-after Evangelists and Bach interpreters of his generation. Prizewinner at the Bach, Schumann, Mozart, Hilde Zadek and Wigmore Hall Competitions, he studied voice with Margit Klaushofer and Robert Holl in Vienna and participated in masterclasses with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Nicolai Gedda and Christa Ludwig. Since his debut in 1998, Johannsen’s appearances have taken him to major musical centres in Europe, North America, Japan and the Middle East. He appears at leading festivals such as Styriarte in Graz, the Salzburg Festival, La Folle Journée and the Prague Spring, performing under such distinguished conductors as Neville Marriner and Bertrand de Billy. He is engaged by theatres such as the Munich State Theatre on Gärtnerplatz, Leipzig Opera and the Volksoper in Vienna. Song recitals are a central focus of his work and he collaborates with pianists including David Lutz, Burkhard Kehring and Helmut Deutsch.

Robert Holl

was born in Rotterdam and educated in the Netherlands. He later studied with Hans Hotter in Munich where Holl won first prize at the ARD Competition in 1972. He has lived in Austria for many years, where he has been awarded the title of Kammersänger. Since 1998 he has a professor at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. Robert Holl is also the composer of a number of songs. After a period of absence from the stage, he returned during the late 1980s and has appeared at the Vienna State Opera, Berlin State Opera, Zurich Opera and, since 1996, at Bayreuth. As a Lieder and concert singer his main focus has been on German language and Russian composers. His partners at the piano include Oleg Maisenberg, Daniel Barenboim and András Schiff and he has collaborated with conductors such as Abbado, Barenboim, Boulez, Chailly, Harnoncourt, Jansons and Thielemann. Numerous radio and CD recordings document the versatility of his repertoire.

Ben Johnson

Wolfgang Holzmair

Graham Johnson studied at the Royal Academy and with Geoffrey Parsons. He formed the Songmakers’ Almanac in 1976. He has worked with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Peter Pears, Thomas Allen, Victoria de los Angeles, Ian Bostridge, Brigitte Fassbaender, Matthias Goerne, Thomas Hampson, Felicity Lott, Simon Keenlyside, Angelika Kirchschlager, Philip Langridge, Christopher Maltman, Edith Mathis, Ann Murray, Lucia Popp, Christoph Prégardien, Margaret Price, Thomas Quastoff, Dorothea Röschmann, Alice Coote, Christine Schäfer and Peter Schreier. His extensive discography includes the entire Schubert and Schumann Lieder for Hyperion. He is Chairman of the Wigmore Hall Song Competition and Senior Professor at the Guildhall School. He was made an OBE in the 1994 Queen’s Birthday Honours list, Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et Lettres by the French Government in 2002 and an Honorary Member of the Royal Philharmonic Society in 2010. In 2013 he was awarded the Wigmore Hall Medal and received honorary doctorates from Durham University and the New England Conservatory of Music. He was awarded the Hugo Wolf Medal in 2014.

is particularly noted for his intelligent and committed performances of Lieder and has performed in recital throughout the world with some of the leading pianists of our time. Equally in demand on the concert platform, he has sung with major orchestras under eminent conductors including Boulez, Chailly, Dohnányi, Frühbeck de Burgos, Haitink, Harnoncourt, Norrington, Hickox, López-Cobos and Ozawa. He is also active in opera, recently appearing as Faninal (Der Rosenkavalier) in Seattle and Hong Kong, Don Alfonso in Lyon and Toronto, the Music Master (Ariadne auf Naxos) in Madrid, Wolfram (Tannhäuser) in Erfurt and the title role in Daniel Schnyder’s Casanova at the Mehuhin Festival in Gstaad. He has made numerous recordings, most recently Wolf Lieder with Imogen Cooper, live from Wigmore Hall, and Mahler Lieder with Russell Ryan on Nightingale. Since 1998 he has taught Lied and oratorio at the Mozarteum in Salzburg and given masterclasses in Europe and North America.

74    The Oxford Lieder Festival

was born in Scotland in 1942. He studied music at the Royal Scottish, University of Edinburgh and the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. From 1966 to 2006 he held a lecturing post at the University of Manchester. He is still active as a musicologist, lecturer, editor and performer and his main interests lie in 19th-century Austrian music, particularly the music of Schubert and Bruckner, and in 19th and early 20th-century sacred music. His doctoral thesis was concerned with Bruckner’s sacred music and he has written books and articles on Bruckner and Schubert and presented papers at national and international conferences from the mid-1970s onwards. As Chairman of SIUK, editor of The Schubertian and associate editor of The Bruckner Journal, he contributes reviews and articles on a regular basis and has co-organized and participated in international Schubert and Bruckner conferences in the UK since 1996. At the 2013 Bruckner conference in Oxford he was presented with the Bruckner Society of America’s Kilenyi Medal of Honour.

Born in Stockton-on-Tees, Anna Huntley studied at the Royal Academy and the Royal College International Opera School. In 2011 she won third prize at the Das Lied Competition in Berlin and won the Wigmore Hall Independent Opera Vocal Fellowship at the Wigmore Hall Kohn Foundation International Song Competition. During the last year Anna has covered the roles of Dorabella (Così fan tutte) at ENO and Suzuki (Madama Butterfly) for WNO. She has given recitals at Wigmore Hall, Leeds Lieder Festival and the Sage, Gateshead with Graham Johnson and James Baillieu and performed Mozart’s Requiem at Symphony Hall in Birmingham. This season Anna returns to Wigmore Hall, gives recitals at Perth Concert Hall (broadcast on BBC Radio 3) and the Oxford Lieder Festival and performs Handel’s Messiah with the CBSO. Anna is currently mentored by Angelika Kirchschlager as part of the Royal Philharmonic Society YCAT Philip Langridge Mentoring Scheme and was selected by YCAT in 2012.

represented England in BBC Cardiff Singer of the World 2013 and won the Audience Prize. His opera engagements include Tamino (Die Zauberflöte), Alfredo (La traviata) and Nemorino (L’elisir d’amore) for ENO and Don Ottavio for Glyndebourne and ENO. Recent concert highlights include a Mozart programme with the CBSO, Mendelssohn’s Lobegesang with the Gulbenkian Orchestra and Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings with the Residentie Orkest and the English Chamber Orchestra at the BBC Proms. He works regularly with Graham Johnson and James Baillieu, performing at Wigmore Hall, Aldeburgh, the City of London Festival, Rosenblatt Recitals and Kings Place. Highlights of the 2014/15 season include Oronte Alcina with the English Concert, Alfredo at ENO, the Evangelist in the John Passion with the Choir of King’s College, Cambridge and in the Matthew Passion with The Bach Choir and Belmonte (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) at Berlin State Opera.

The Schubert Project    75


Sophie Junker

Belgian soprano Sophie Junker studied in Namur and at the Guildhall School. Sophie won the 2010 London Handel Competition and the 2012 International Cesti Competition. She performed Couperin’s Leçons de ténèbres in Spain with The King’s Consort, Bach’s Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd with the Bach Collegium Japan and Masaaki Suzuki (recorded for BIS). She also sang in the Matthew Passion in Vienna and Pamplona, Handel’s Esther with Laurence Cummings at the Göttingen Festival, Amour (Orphée et Eurydice) at Nantes Opera and in Moscow, Constance (Dialogues des Carmélites) in Nantes and Angers, Belinda (Dido and Aeneas) at the Innsbruck Festival and Die Zauberflöte at Aix-en-Provence. Recent and future plans include her debut at Wigmore Hall in Rameau’s La descente d’orphée aux enfers, a concert in Versailles with Jordi Savall, Caio in Vivaldi’s Ottone in villa in Copenhagen, staged cantatas by Handel and Scarlatti in Innsbruck, Drusilla and Virtue (L’incoronazione di Poppea) at the Barbican with Richard Egarr and the Academy of Ancient Music and Wanda (La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein) in Liège.

Sholto Kynoch is a sought-after pianist who specializes in chamber music and song accompaniment. In addition to a busy performance schedule and a fast-growing discography, he is the Founder and Artistic Director of the Oxford Lieder Festival. He has given numerous recitals at Wigmore Hall and in recent years has appeared at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, Victoria Concert Hall in Singapore, Opéra de Lille, St John’s Smith Square, Bridgewater Hall, Kings Place, Purcell Room and many other venues and festivals around the UK and in Colombia, Sweden, Romania and Austria. He recently curated a music programme for the National Gallery’s Facing the Modern exhibition and undertakes a similar project for the British Museum in early 2015. He has recorded, live at the Oxford Lieder Festival, the complete songs of Hugo Wolf, as well as a disc of Schubert Lieder. Other recording projects include the complete songs of John Ireland and Havergal Brian with Mark Stone and Beethoven piano trios as a member of the Phoenix Piano Trio.

Christiane Karg Bavarian soprano Christiane Karg studied at the Mozarteum in Salzburg and at the Conservatory in Verona. She was a member of the International Opera Studio at Hamburg State Opera before joining the ensemble of Frankfurt Opera in 2008 where her roles include Susanna, Musetta, Pamina, Servilia, Zdenka (Arabella), Adele (Die Fledermaus), the title role in La Calisto and Mélisande. In 2006 she made an auspicious debut at the Salzburg Festival and has returned to sing Amor (Orfeo ed Euridice) with Riccardo Muti and Zerlina with Yannick Nézet-Séguin. In 2013 she made her debut at Glyndebourne (Hippolyte et Aricie), returning this summer to sing Sandrina (La finta giardiniera). In concert she has worked with conductors such as Harnoncourt, Harding, Nézet-Séguin, Jansons and Thielemann. Christiane Karg’s recital apperances include the Schubertiade in Schwarzenberg, Mozarteum in Salzburg, Musikverein in Vienna, Edinburgh Festival and Wigmore Hall.

Bartholomew LaFollette Cellist Bartholomew LaFollette’s highlights of performing with orchestra include Dvorˇák’s Cello Concerto with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Walton and Elgar’s cello concertos in the Barbican Hall and appearing as a soloist with the City of London Sinfonia. He has also performed Brahms’s Double Concerto with Daniel Stabrawa and the Poznan Philharmonic in Poland and Elgar’s Cello Concerto at the Sibelius International Music Festival in Helsinki. He was the first recipient of the Irish Chamber Orchestra’s honourable Ardan Award, which led to appearances throughout the British Isles. Bartholomew engages in a rich variety of musical collaborations and has recently performed with figures such as Anthony Marwood, Christian Tetzlaff and Andras Keller. He frequently appears with the award-winning Doric String Quartet with whom he recorded Korngold’s String Sextet for Chandos. In 2011, at the age of 26, Bartholomew LaFollette was appointed Professor of Cello at the Yehudi Menuhin School. He is grateful for the private loan of a Benjamin Banks Jr. cello, made in 1785.

Sophie Karthäuser Belgian soprano Sophie Karthäuser studied with Noelle Barker at the Guildhall School. She is now in great demand in the foremost international venues, especially as a Mozart singer. She sang her first Pamina under René Jacobs and her first Susanna under William Christie. Among the other Mozart roles in her repertoire are Tamiri (Il re pastore), Sandrina and Serpetta (La finta giardiniera), Ilia and Zerlina. She has especially close relationships with La Monnaie and the Theater an der Wien singing Baroque and Classical roles. Sophe Karthäuser has also appeared with all the leading period instrument ensembles and with numerous symphony orchestras under Chailly, Christie, Gardiner, Hengelbrock, Jacobs, Langrée, Minkowski, Nagano, Rousset and Zacharias. Since winning the Audience Prize at the Wigmore Hall Song Competition she has developed an acclaimed career as a recitalist. Her extensive discography includes successful releases of aria and song recitals and complete operas. Harmonia Mundi recently released her new album of Poulenc songs.

Dorottya Lang

Paul Kildea A former Young Artist at Opera Australia, Paul Kildea has conducted throughout Australia and Europe, including guest appearances with the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Ensemble 2e2m in Paris, Nash Ensemble, West Australian Symphony Orchestra, Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Hamburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Opera Australia, Victorian Opera, Australian Youth Orchestra, BBC Symphony Orchestra and the Britten-Pears Orchestra. During a four-year appointment as Head of Music at the Aldeburgh Festival he conducted and programmed a broad repertoire. In addition to Aldeburgh he has held artistic posts with the Perth Festival and Wigmore Hall, where he was Artistic Director. He is currently Artistic Director of Four Winds Festival on the South Coast of New South Wales. Kildea holds an honours degree in piano performance and a masters in musicology from the University of Melbourne, where he is now an Honorary Principal Fellow, and a doctorate from Oxford University. His books include Selling Britten and Britten on Music. In January 2013 Penguin published his major new biography, Benjamin Britten: A Life in the Twentieth Century, to considerable critical acclaim.

Espen Langvik

Somi Kim is a New Zealand pianist born in South Korea. She graduated in piano from the University of Auckland in 2013. Somi’s chamber group Estrella were winners of the sixth Pettman Royal Over-Seas League Arts International Scholarship in 2012 and gave a 15-concert tour of the UK in 2013. Estrella released their first commercial CD, Tui, last year with Atoll Records. Somi’s recent and future appearances include the Royal OverSeas League, Edinburgh Fringe, St James Piccadily, St Martin in the Fields, Purcell Room and the Oxford Lieder Festival. She has played in public masterclasses with Stephen Hough, Simon Trpcˇeski, Helmut Deutsch and Maxim Vengerov. Somi is now studying piano accompaniment at the Royal Academy with Michael Dussek and Ian Brown, with support from the San Martino Scholarship and the Leverhulme Trust Postgraduate Scholarship.

Mhairi Lawson While still a student at the Guildhall School, Mhairi Lawson appeared on BBC Radio 3 with the fortepianist Olga Tverskaya, which led to her first CD recording of Haydn’s English and Scottish songs. As a soloist Mhairi has sung with ENO, the Gabrieli Consort, Academy of Ancient Music and the Scottish Chamber Orchestra. Her recordings include Haydn’s Die Schöpfung with the Choir of New College, Oxford, Venice by Night with La Serenissima and Monteverdi madrigals with Les Arts Florissants. Mhairi has performed Vivaldi with La Serenissima on tour in Europe and works by Purcell, Handel and Hasse with Christian Curnyn’s Early Opera Company in venues such as Wigmore Hall. Mhairi sang in Purcell’s King Arthur with the Mark Morris Dance Group at New York City Opera and at ENO and with the Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra in Berkeley. Recent highlights include Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem in Dublin, Górecki’s Third Symphony with the Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Bach’s Matthew Passion with the Royal Northern Sinfonia, Handel’s Solomon with the Gulbenkian Orchestra and two discs of Schubert Lieder.

Angelika Kirchschlager was born in Salzburg and studied at the Mozarteum and at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. She enjoys an international career, dividing her time between recitals and opera in Europe, North America and the Far East. She is acclaimed as one of the foremost interpreters of Strauss and Mozart and for the title roles in operas such as Pelléas et Mélisande and Sophie’s Choice. During the 2014/15 season she will give recitals in London, Dublin, Berlin, Paris and Vienna. She will tour Kurt Weill’s Die sieben Todsünden with the Swedish Chamber Orchestra and perform HK Gruber’s Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald and Milhaud’s La Mère coupable at the Theater an der Wien. She has an extensive discography on the Sony Masterworks label and has won many awards including a Grammy. In 2007 she was made a Kammersängerin of the Vienna State Opera and in 2009 an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Academy.

Jonathan Lemalu

76    The Oxford Lieder Festival

After beginning her professional career at the Volksoper in Vienna in 2012, where she remained for two seasons, Hungarian mezzo-soprano Dorottya Lang joins the ensemble of National Theatre in Mannheim for the 2014/15 season and will appear in a new production of Berlioz’s La Damnation de Faust as Marguerite and as Flora, Lola, Hänsel, Mercedes, Cherubino and Orlovsky, among other roles. In April 2014 she made her role and house debut as Octavian in a new production of Der Rosenkavalier directed by Dmtri Bertman and conducted by Leif Segerstam with Malmö Opera. Earlier in the season she appeared as Nancy for the first time in a new production of Albert Herring directed by Brigitte Fassbaender at the Volksoper and also made her recital debut at the Konzerthaus in Vienna with pianist Matthias Lademann. Dorottya was the winner of the Emmerich Smola Competition in Landau in January 2013 produced by SWR TV. She was also a prizewinner at the Wigmore Hall Lieder Competition in 2011.

Norwegian baritone Espen Langvik made his debut in 2007 at the Norwegian National Opera and since 2009 he has been a permanent soloist in the ensemble. Espen Langvik has established himself as one of Norway’s foremost opera singers in a variety of roles such as Papageno, Malatesta (Don Pasquale), Sid (La fanciulla del West), Harlequin (Ariadne auf Naxos), Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Tarquinius (The Rape of Lucretia), Silvio (Pagliacci), Don Giovanni and Count Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro). He is also a passionate Lieder and concert singer and has sung in Carmina Burana, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem, Fauré’s Requiem, Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, Wolf’s Italienisches Liederbuch and Handel’s Messiah. Espen studied at Rogaland Music Conservatory, National Academy of Operatic Art in Oslo and Mannes College of Music, New York.

A New Zealand-born Samoan, Jonathan Lemalu’s operatic roles include Papageno, Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Leporello and Masetto (Don Giovanni), Rocco (Fidelio), Bottom (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), Colline (La bohème), Porgy, Basilio (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Neptune (Idomeneo), Saul, Zaroastro (Orlando) and Duke Bluebeard. He has received great critical acclaim for his creation of the role of Queequeg in Jake Heggie’s Moby Dick in Dallas, San Diego, Adelaide and San Francisco. He has also appeared at the Royal Opera House, Opéra de Lyon, Lyric Opera Chicago, Metropolitan Opera, New York, Baden-Baden, Bavarian State Opera and Hamburg State Opera and at the Glyndebourne, Salzburg, Styriarte, Edinburgh and Gergiev festivals. He has appeared in concert and recital with the Berlin, New York, Rotterdam and Los Angeles philharmonics and the New Zealand, London, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Toronto, Paris and Tokyo symphony orchestras with conductors such as Davis, Dutoit, Gergiev, Harding, Harnoncourt, Mackerras, Mehta, Norrington, Pappano and Rattle. His future operatic engagements include a return to ENO and Les Pêcheurs de perles for Seattle Opera.

The Schubert Project    77


Sophie Junker

Belgian soprano Sophie Junker studied in Namur and at the Guildhall School. Sophie won the 2010 London Handel Competition and the 2012 International Cesti Competition. She performed Couperin’s Leçons de ténèbres in Spain with The King’s Consort, Bach’s Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd with the Bach Collegium Japan and Masaaki Suzuki (recorded for BIS). She also sang in the Matthew Passion in Vienna and Pamplona, Handel’s Esther with Laurence Cummings at the Göttingen Festival, Amour (Orphée et Eurydice) at Nantes Opera and in Moscow, Constance (Dialogues des Carmélites) in Nantes and Angers, Belinda (Dido and Aeneas) at the Innsbruck Festival and Die Zauberflöte at Aix-en-Provence. Recent and future plans include her debut at Wigmore Hall in Rameau’s La descente d’orphée aux enfers, a concert in Versailles with Jordi Savall, Caio in Vivaldi’s Ottone in villa in Copenhagen, staged cantatas by Handel and Scarlatti in Innsbruck, Drusilla and Virtue (L’incoronazione di Poppea) at the Barbican with Richard Egarr and the Academy of Ancient Music and Wanda (La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein) in Liège.

Sholto Kynoch is a sought-after pianist who specializes in chamber music and song accompaniment. In addition to a busy performance schedule and a fast-growing discography, he is the Founder and Artistic Director of the Oxford Lieder Festival. He has given numerous recitals at Wigmore Hall and in recent years has appeared at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, Victoria Concert Hall in Singapore, Opéra de Lille, St John’s Smith Square, Bridgewater Hall, Kings Place, Purcell Room and many other venues and festivals around the UK and in Colombia, Sweden, Romania and Austria. He recently curated a music programme for the National Gallery’s Facing the Modern exhibition and undertakes a similar project for the British Museum in early 2015. He has recorded, live at the Oxford Lieder Festival, the complete songs of Hugo Wolf, as well as a disc of Schubert Lieder. Other recording projects include the complete songs of John Ireland and Havergal Brian with Mark Stone and Beethoven piano trios as a member of the Phoenix Piano Trio.

Christiane Karg Bavarian soprano Christiane Karg studied at the Mozarteum in Salzburg and at the Conservatory in Verona. She was a member of the International Opera Studio at Hamburg State Opera before joining the ensemble of Frankfurt Opera in 2008 where her roles include Susanna, Musetta, Pamina, Servilia, Zdenka (Arabella), Adele (Die Fledermaus), the title role in La Calisto and Mélisande. In 2006 she made an auspicious debut at the Salzburg Festival and has returned to sing Amor (Orfeo ed Euridice) with Riccardo Muti and Zerlina with Yannick Nézet-Séguin. In 2013 she made her debut at Glyndebourne (Hippolyte et Aricie), returning this summer to sing Sandrina (La finta giardiniera). In concert she has worked with conductors such as Harnoncourt, Harding, Nézet-Séguin, Jansons and Thielemann. Christiane Karg’s recital apperances include the Schubertiade in Schwarzenberg, Mozarteum in Salzburg, Musikverein in Vienna, Edinburgh Festival and Wigmore Hall.

Bartholomew LaFollette Cellist Bartholomew LaFollette’s highlights of performing with orchestra include Dvorˇák’s Cello Concerto with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Walton and Elgar’s cello concertos in the Barbican Hall and appearing as a soloist with the City of London Sinfonia. He has also performed Brahms’s Double Concerto with Daniel Stabrawa and the Poznan Philharmonic in Poland and Elgar’s Cello Concerto at the Sibelius International Music Festival in Helsinki. He was the first recipient of the Irish Chamber Orchestra’s honourable Ardan Award, which led to appearances throughout the British Isles. Bartholomew engages in a rich variety of musical collaborations and has recently performed with figures such as Anthony Marwood, Christian Tetzlaff and Andras Keller. He frequently appears with the award-winning Doric String Quartet with whom he recorded Korngold’s String Sextet for Chandos. In 2011, at the age of 26, Bartholomew LaFollette was appointed Professor of Cello at the Yehudi Menuhin School. He is grateful for the private loan of a Benjamin Banks Jr. cello, made in 1785.

Sophie Karthäuser Belgian soprano Sophie Karthäuser studied with Noelle Barker at the Guildhall School. She is now in great demand in the foremost international venues, especially as a Mozart singer. She sang her first Pamina under René Jacobs and her first Susanna under William Christie. Among the other Mozart roles in her repertoire are Tamiri (Il re pastore), Sandrina and Serpetta (La finta giardiniera), Ilia and Zerlina. She has especially close relationships with La Monnaie and the Theater an der Wien singing Baroque and Classical roles. Sophe Karthäuser has also appeared with all the leading period instrument ensembles and with numerous symphony orchestras under Chailly, Christie, Gardiner, Hengelbrock, Jacobs, Langrée, Minkowski, Nagano, Rousset and Zacharias. Since winning the Audience Prize at the Wigmore Hall Song Competition she has developed an acclaimed career as a recitalist. Her extensive discography includes successful releases of aria and song recitals and complete operas. Harmonia Mundi recently released her new album of Poulenc songs.

Dorottya Lang

Paul Kildea A former Young Artist at Opera Australia, Paul Kildea has conducted throughout Australia and Europe, including guest appearances with the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Ensemble 2e2m in Paris, Nash Ensemble, West Australian Symphony Orchestra, Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Hamburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Opera Australia, Victorian Opera, Australian Youth Orchestra, BBC Symphony Orchestra and the Britten-Pears Orchestra. During a four-year appointment as Head of Music at the Aldeburgh Festival he conducted and programmed a broad repertoire. In addition to Aldeburgh he has held artistic posts with the Perth Festival and Wigmore Hall, where he was Artistic Director. He is currently Artistic Director of Four Winds Festival on the South Coast of New South Wales. Kildea holds an honours degree in piano performance and a masters in musicology from the University of Melbourne, where he is now an Honorary Principal Fellow, and a doctorate from Oxford University. His books include Selling Britten and Britten on Music. In January 2013 Penguin published his major new biography, Benjamin Britten: A Life in the Twentieth Century, to considerable critical acclaim.

Espen Langvik

Somi Kim is a New Zealand pianist born in South Korea. She graduated in piano from the University of Auckland in 2013. Somi’s chamber group Estrella were winners of the sixth Pettman Royal Over-Seas League Arts International Scholarship in 2012 and gave a 15-concert tour of the UK in 2013. Estrella released their first commercial CD, Tui, last year with Atoll Records. Somi’s recent and future appearances include the Royal OverSeas League, Edinburgh Fringe, St James Piccadily, St Martin in the Fields, Purcell Room and the Oxford Lieder Festival. She has played in public masterclasses with Stephen Hough, Simon Trpcˇeski, Helmut Deutsch and Maxim Vengerov. Somi is now studying piano accompaniment at the Royal Academy with Michael Dussek and Ian Brown, with support from the San Martino Scholarship and the Leverhulme Trust Postgraduate Scholarship.

Mhairi Lawson While still a student at the Guildhall School, Mhairi Lawson appeared on BBC Radio 3 with the fortepianist Olga Tverskaya, which led to her first CD recording of Haydn’s English and Scottish songs. As a soloist Mhairi has sung with ENO, the Gabrieli Consort, Academy of Ancient Music and the Scottish Chamber Orchestra. Her recordings include Haydn’s Die Schöpfung with the Choir of New College, Oxford, Venice by Night with La Serenissima and Monteverdi madrigals with Les Arts Florissants. Mhairi has performed Vivaldi with La Serenissima on tour in Europe and works by Purcell, Handel and Hasse with Christian Curnyn’s Early Opera Company in venues such as Wigmore Hall. Mhairi sang in Purcell’s King Arthur with the Mark Morris Dance Group at New York City Opera and at ENO and with the Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra in Berkeley. Recent highlights include Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem in Dublin, Górecki’s Third Symphony with the Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Bach’s Matthew Passion with the Royal Northern Sinfonia, Handel’s Solomon with the Gulbenkian Orchestra and two discs of Schubert Lieder.

Angelika Kirchschlager was born in Salzburg and studied at the Mozarteum and at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. She enjoys an international career, dividing her time between recitals and opera in Europe, North America and the Far East. She is acclaimed as one of the foremost interpreters of Strauss and Mozart and for the title roles in operas such as Pelléas et Mélisande and Sophie’s Choice. During the 2014/15 season she will give recitals in London, Dublin, Berlin, Paris and Vienna. She will tour Kurt Weill’s Die sieben Todsünden with the Swedish Chamber Orchestra and perform HK Gruber’s Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald and Milhaud’s La Mère coupable at the Theater an der Wien. She has an extensive discography on the Sony Masterworks label and has won many awards including a Grammy. In 2007 she was made a Kammersängerin of the Vienna State Opera and in 2009 an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Academy.

Jonathan Lemalu

76    The Oxford Lieder Festival

After beginning her professional career at the Volksoper in Vienna in 2012, where she remained for two seasons, Hungarian mezzo-soprano Dorottya Lang joins the ensemble of National Theatre in Mannheim for the 2014/15 season and will appear in a new production of Berlioz’s La Damnation de Faust as Marguerite and as Flora, Lola, Hänsel, Mercedes, Cherubino and Orlovsky, among other roles. In April 2014 she made her role and house debut as Octavian in a new production of Der Rosenkavalier directed by Dmtri Bertman and conducted by Leif Segerstam with Malmö Opera. Earlier in the season she appeared as Nancy for the first time in a new production of Albert Herring directed by Brigitte Fassbaender at the Volksoper and also made her recital debut at the Konzerthaus in Vienna with pianist Matthias Lademann. Dorottya was the winner of the Emmerich Smola Competition in Landau in January 2013 produced by SWR TV. She was also a prizewinner at the Wigmore Hall Lieder Competition in 2011.

Norwegian baritone Espen Langvik made his debut in 2007 at the Norwegian National Opera and since 2009 he has been a permanent soloist in the ensemble. Espen Langvik has established himself as one of Norway’s foremost opera singers in a variety of roles such as Papageno, Malatesta (Don Pasquale), Sid (La fanciulla del West), Harlequin (Ariadne auf Naxos), Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Tarquinius (The Rape of Lucretia), Silvio (Pagliacci), Don Giovanni and Count Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro). He is also a passionate Lieder and concert singer and has sung in Carmina Burana, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem, Fauré’s Requiem, Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, Wolf’s Italienisches Liederbuch and Handel’s Messiah. Espen studied at Rogaland Music Conservatory, National Academy of Operatic Art in Oslo and Mannes College of Music, New York.

A New Zealand-born Samoan, Jonathan Lemalu’s operatic roles include Papageno, Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Leporello and Masetto (Don Giovanni), Rocco (Fidelio), Bottom (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), Colline (La bohème), Porgy, Basilio (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Neptune (Idomeneo), Saul, Zaroastro (Orlando) and Duke Bluebeard. He has received great critical acclaim for his creation of the role of Queequeg in Jake Heggie’s Moby Dick in Dallas, San Diego, Adelaide and San Francisco. He has also appeared at the Royal Opera House, Opéra de Lyon, Lyric Opera Chicago, Metropolitan Opera, New York, Baden-Baden, Bavarian State Opera and Hamburg State Opera and at the Glyndebourne, Salzburg, Styriarte, Edinburgh and Gergiev festivals. He has appeared in concert and recital with the Berlin, New York, Rotterdam and Los Angeles philharmonics and the New Zealand, London, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Toronto, Paris and Tokyo symphony orchestras with conductors such as Davis, Dutoit, Gergiev, Harding, Harnoncourt, Mackerras, Mehta, Norrington, Pappano and Rattle. His future operatic engagements include a return to ENO and Les Pêcheurs de perles for Seattle Opera.

The Schubert Project    77


Simon Lepper

read music at King’s College, Cambridge. He is a professor of piano accompaniment at the Royal College, where he also co-ordinates the piano accompaniment course. He is an official accompanist for BBC Cardiff Singer of the World. Recent and future highlights include an invitation from Wigmore Hall to present the songs of Joseph Marx during the 2013/14 season, a recital at Carnegie Hall with Karen Cargill, a recital tour with Stéphane Degout, including apperances at the Ravinia and Edinburgh festivals and recitals with Angelika Kirchschlager at La Monnaie and Wigmore Hall, where his future appearances include recitals with Christopher Maltman, Elizabeth Watts, Stephan Loges, Sophie Bevan, Christopher Purves and Lawrence Zazzo. He will also perform Winterreise with Mark Padmore at the Schubertiade in Hohenhems. His recordings include Warlock Songs with Andrew Kennedy (Landor), two volumes of Debussy Songs with Gillian Keith (Deux-Elles), the complete Orr Songs with Mark Stone (Stone Records) and a disc of Gustav and Alma Mahler songs with Karen Cargill (Linn).

Soraya Mafi recently graduated from the Royal College International Opera School. Soraya is the 2014 recipient of the Maggie Teyte Award and Miriam Licette Scholarship administered by Help Musicians UK. Recent roles include First Niece (Peter Grimes) at Grange Park, the title role in Arianna in Creta for the London Handel Festival, The Fire and The Nightingale (L’Enfant et les sortilèges) at the Royal College, Constance (Dialogues des Carmélites) at Grange Park Opera and creating the role of Cheryl in Iain Burnside’s Journeying Boys. Soraya has given recitals in the Crush Room at the Royal Opera House, at the Royal Festival Hall and recently made her debut at the Royal Albert Hall singing the soprano solo in Fauré’s Requiem. Future engagements include debuts at the Châtelet and ENO, a recital at the Oriental Club and further engagements with ENO in 2015/16. Soraya is a recipient of an Independent Opera Award and the Sybil Tutton Award. Soraya is grateful for support from the Van Der Beughels, Douglas and Hilda Simmons, the Josephine Baker Trust, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, Selfridges&Co. and the constant guidance of her teachers, Sandra Dugdale and Janis Kelly.

Mats Lidström

As an international soloist and chamber musician, Mats Lidström has gained a reputation for performances of great insight and virtuosity. He has been a member of the cello faculty of the Royal Academy since 1993. His compositions and transcriptions have been recorded by EMI, Decca and Hyperion. Works include Rigoletto Fantasy for cello and orchestra, Suite Tintin for cello and piano and the melodrama The Stamp King for cello and piano with narration.

Christopher Maltman

Natasha Loges

studied at the Guildhall School, King’s College, London and the Royal Academy. She currently works at the Royal College. Her publications have appeared in Music and Letters, Nineteenth-Century Music Review and the book Music and Literature in German Romanticism. Her co-edited book Brahms in the Home and the Concert Hall will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2014 and she is currently completing a monograph entitled Brahms and his Poets. She performs regularly as a song accompanist and gives talks for BBC Radio 3, Music Talks and the Oxford Lieder Festival.

Stephanie Marshall

Winner of the 2001 Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Scholarship, Stephanie Marshall was a member of the Young Artist Programme at ENO, where she later became a company principal. Stephanie made her debut at the Royal Opera House last season as Gwendolen in Gerald Barry’s The Importance of Being Earnest. Her engagements in North America include the title role in The Handmaid’s Tale for the Canadian Opera Company, Proserpina (L’Orfeo) for the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston and Erika (Vanessa) and Nancy (Albert Herring) for Pacific Opera Victoria. Her numerous appearances at ENO include Cherubino (Le nozze di Figaro), Mercédès (Carmen) and Wellgunde in Phyllida Lloyd’s production of Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Stephan Loges

Born in Dresden, Stephan Loges was the winner of the 1999 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition, since when recital highlights have included appearances at Wigmore Hall, Carnegie Hall, Concertgebouw, La Monnaie and the Vocal Arts Series in Washington. Future recitals include returning to Wigmore Hall with Simon Lepper, with whom Stephan will also give recitals in Canterbury, Harrogate and at the Opéra de Lille. Concert plans this season and beyond include Britten’s War Requiem with the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and Bach’s Christmas Oratorio in Stuttgart. Past concerts appearances, with repertoire ranging from Bach to Britten, include the Melbourne Symphony, London Symphony, Swedish Radio Symphony, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Russian National, Zurich Tonhalle, Salzburg Mozarteum and Scottish Chamber orchestras, as well as the Gabrieli Consort and the Academy of Ancient Music. He has also appeared at La Monnaie, Berlin State Opera, Opera North, Opéra national du Rhin and the Edinburgh Festival.

Malcolm Martineau

Felicity Lott was born and educated in Cheltenham, read French at Royal Holloway and singing at the Royal Academy. Her performances of Strauss and Mozart roles in particular have led to critical and popular acclaim worldwide, performing at the Royal Opera House, Vienna State Opera, Glyndebourne, Bavarian State Opera, Paris Opéra, Opéra-Comique, Le Châtelet, Metropolitan Opera, New York, San Francisco Opera and Lyric Opera Chicago. She has sung with the world’s leading orchestras working with conductors such as Solti, Mehta, Haitink, Welser-Möst, Masur, Armin Jordan, Philippe Jordan, Previn, Davis and Rattle. She is a Dame Commander of the British Empire and a Bavarian Kammersängerin. She has also been awarded Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and Chevalier de l’Ordre National de la Légion d’Honneur and in 2010 she received the Wigmore Hall Medal marking her significant contribution to the Hall.

Gary Matthewman

Angharrad Lyddon is from Wrexham and is studying at the Royal Academy. Recent appearances include Bach cantatas with John Eliot Gardiner, the Christmas Oratorio in Kristiansand in Norway and concerts at Wigmore Hall. Angharad was a Jerwood Young Artist at Glyndebourne in 2013 where she created the role of Panthea in Luke Styles’s Wakening Shadow. She has also sung Lucretia (The Rape of Lucretia), Polinesso (Ariodante), Madame de la Haltière (Cendrillon) and Filippyevna (Eugene Onegin) for RAO, Third Lady (Die Zauberflöte) for Jackdaws, Carmen, Orfeo (Orfeo ed Euridice), Lucretia and Older Woman (Flight) for Academy Vocal Faculty Scenes and Lady Mary in Sir Nigel of Tilford for Laurence Cummings and the Tilford Bach Society. Angharad covered Polinesso and the alto soloist in Trauernacht at the Aix-en-Provence Festival and Olga (Eugene Onegin) for Opra Cymru. Angharad studies with Janice Chapman and Audrey Hyland and is grateful for the support of the Josephine Baker Trust and the Sickle Foundation.

Jonathan McGovern A graduate of King’s College, London and the Royal Academy, Jonathan McGovern has since distinguished himself as a young artist of great promise. His recent engagements have included Junior in Bernstein’s A Quiet Place with Ensemble Modern under Kent Nagano at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, a role he will reprise this season in Dortmund and Dresden. Further appearances have included Beethoven’s Choral Fantasy at the 2013 Verbier Festival under Charles Dutoit, the title role in Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria under Christian Curnyn and Telemann’s Orpheus under Ian Page at the London Handel Festival. Further highlights this season include the Podium der Jungen Series with the North German Radio Philharmonic and Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen with the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra under Daniel Cohen.

78    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Winner of the Lieder Prize at the 1997 Cardiff Singer of the World Competition, Christopher Maltman studied singing at the Royal Academy. Operatic appearances include Don Giovanni and Gawain at the Salzburg Festival, Don Giovanni in Berlin, Munich and Cologne, Lescaut, Papageno, Guglielmo, Marcello, Ramiro and the Forester at the Royal Opera House, Count Almaviva at Paris Opéra, Siskov at Vienna State Opera, Posa at Netherlands Opera and Papageno, Silvio and Eisentein at Metropolitan Opera, New York. An acclaimed Billy Budd, he has sung the role at WNO, the Teatro Regio, Turin, Seattle, Frankfurt and Munich. He is a renowned recitalist and concert performer and has appeared with major orchestras across Europe and the USA. His discography includes the three Schubert song cycles for Wigmore Live, Schumann’s Dichterliebe and Liederkreis op. 24 and songs by Brahms, Warlock, Holst, Somervell, Debussy, Poulenc and Fauré.

was born in Edinburgh. He regularly appears at the world’s major concert venues and festivals with artists such as Thomas Allen, Susan Graham, Simon Keenlyside, Magdalena Kožená, Felicity Lott, Thomas Quasthoff, Michael Schade and Bryn Terfel. He has presented many of his own series at Wigmore Hall, dedicated to Britten, French song, German song (broadcast by the BBC) and Songlives, and Wolf’s complete Lieder at the Edinburgh Festival. He accompanied masterclasses at the Britten-Pears School in Aldeburgh for Joan Sutherland, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Suzanne Danco and Ileana Cotrubas. His many recordings include Schubert, Schumann and English song recitals with Bryn Terfel, recitals with Simon Keenlyside, Angela Gheorghiu, Barbara Bonney, Susan Graham, Magdalena Kožená and Christiane Karg, the complete Beethoven folk songs, the complete Britten folk songs, the complete Poulenc songs and Winterreise with Florian Boesch. He was given an honorary doctorate at the Royal Scottish Academy in 2004 and appointed International Fellow of Accompaniment in 2009. is one of the UK’s leading song pianists. A regular artist at Wigmore Hall, his other recent and forthcoming appearances include Carnegie Hall, the Musikverein in Vienna, Paris, Prague, Lucerne, Madrid, Lisbon, Washington, Toronto, São Paulo, Hong Kong, Melbourne and Sydney. His UK festival performances include Aldeburgh, Buxton, Leeds Lieder, Oxford Lieder and Glyndebourne. Recent and future recital partners include Kiri Te Kanawa, Thomas Allen, Sumi Jo, Nuccia Focile, Simon Keenlyside, Mark Padmore, Ailyn Perèz, Dimitri Platanias, Kate Lindsey, Markus Werba, Elizabeth Watts, Andrei Bondarenko, Adam Plachetka, Kate Royal and Roderick Williams. Gary has made numerous live broadcasts and recordings for BBC Radio 3 and his recent recording of Winterreise with Matthew Rose received widespread critical acclaim, featuring as the Gramophone Recording of the Month and BBC Radio 3’s Disc of the Week. He is Professor of Vocal Repertoire at the Royal College and song coach for the Jette Parker Young Artists at the Royal Opera House.

The Schubert Project    79


Simon Lepper

read music at King’s College, Cambridge. He is a professor of piano accompaniment at the Royal College, where he also co-ordinates the piano accompaniment course. He is an official accompanist for BBC Cardiff Singer of the World. Recent and future highlights include an invitation from Wigmore Hall to present the songs of Joseph Marx during the 2013/14 season, a recital at Carnegie Hall with Karen Cargill, a recital tour with Stéphane Degout, including apperances at the Ravinia and Edinburgh festivals and recitals with Angelika Kirchschlager at La Monnaie and Wigmore Hall, where his future appearances include recitals with Christopher Maltman, Elizabeth Watts, Stephan Loges, Sophie Bevan, Christopher Purves and Lawrence Zazzo. He will also perform Winterreise with Mark Padmore at the Schubertiade in Hohenhems. His recordings include Warlock Songs with Andrew Kennedy (Landor), two volumes of Debussy Songs with Gillian Keith (Deux-Elles), the complete Orr Songs with Mark Stone (Stone Records) and a disc of Gustav and Alma Mahler songs with Karen Cargill (Linn).

Soraya Mafi recently graduated from the Royal College International Opera School. Soraya is the 2014 recipient of the Maggie Teyte Award and Miriam Licette Scholarship administered by Help Musicians UK. Recent roles include First Niece (Peter Grimes) at Grange Park, the title role in Arianna in Creta for the London Handel Festival, The Fire and The Nightingale (L’Enfant et les sortilèges) at the Royal College, Constance (Dialogues des Carmélites) at Grange Park Opera and creating the role of Cheryl in Iain Burnside’s Journeying Boys. Soraya has given recitals in the Crush Room at the Royal Opera House, at the Royal Festival Hall and recently made her debut at the Royal Albert Hall singing the soprano solo in Fauré’s Requiem. Future engagements include debuts at the Châtelet and ENO, a recital at the Oriental Club and further engagements with ENO in 2015/16. Soraya is a recipient of an Independent Opera Award and the Sybil Tutton Award. Soraya is grateful for support from the Van Der Beughels, Douglas and Hilda Simmons, the Josephine Baker Trust, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, Selfridges&Co. and the constant guidance of her teachers, Sandra Dugdale and Janis Kelly.

Mats Lidström

As an international soloist and chamber musician, Mats Lidström has gained a reputation for performances of great insight and virtuosity. He has been a member of the cello faculty of the Royal Academy since 1993. His compositions and transcriptions have been recorded by EMI, Decca and Hyperion. Works include Rigoletto Fantasy for cello and orchestra, Suite Tintin for cello and piano and the melodrama The Stamp King for cello and piano with narration.

Christopher Maltman

Natasha Loges

studied at the Guildhall School, King’s College, London and the Royal Academy. She currently works at the Royal College. Her publications have appeared in Music and Letters, Nineteenth-Century Music Review and the book Music and Literature in German Romanticism. Her co-edited book Brahms in the Home and the Concert Hall will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2014 and she is currently completing a monograph entitled Brahms and his Poets. She performs regularly as a song accompanist and gives talks for BBC Radio 3, Music Talks and the Oxford Lieder Festival.

Stephanie Marshall

Winner of the 2001 Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Scholarship, Stephanie Marshall was a member of the Young Artist Programme at ENO, where she later became a company principal. Stephanie made her debut at the Royal Opera House last season as Gwendolen in Gerald Barry’s The Importance of Being Earnest. Her engagements in North America include the title role in The Handmaid’s Tale for the Canadian Opera Company, Proserpina (L’Orfeo) for the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston and Erika (Vanessa) and Nancy (Albert Herring) for Pacific Opera Victoria. Her numerous appearances at ENO include Cherubino (Le nozze di Figaro), Mercédès (Carmen) and Wellgunde in Phyllida Lloyd’s production of Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Stephan Loges

Born in Dresden, Stephan Loges was the winner of the 1999 Wigmore Hall International Song Competition, since when recital highlights have included appearances at Wigmore Hall, Carnegie Hall, Concertgebouw, La Monnaie and the Vocal Arts Series in Washington. Future recitals include returning to Wigmore Hall with Simon Lepper, with whom Stephan will also give recitals in Canterbury, Harrogate and at the Opéra de Lille. Concert plans this season and beyond include Britten’s War Requiem with the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and Bach’s Christmas Oratorio in Stuttgart. Past concerts appearances, with repertoire ranging from Bach to Britten, include the Melbourne Symphony, London Symphony, Swedish Radio Symphony, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Russian National, Zurich Tonhalle, Salzburg Mozarteum and Scottish Chamber orchestras, as well as the Gabrieli Consort and the Academy of Ancient Music. He has also appeared at La Monnaie, Berlin State Opera, Opera North, Opéra national du Rhin and the Edinburgh Festival.

Malcolm Martineau

Felicity Lott was born and educated in Cheltenham, read French at Royal Holloway and singing at the Royal Academy. Her performances of Strauss and Mozart roles in particular have led to critical and popular acclaim worldwide, performing at the Royal Opera House, Vienna State Opera, Glyndebourne, Bavarian State Opera, Paris Opéra, Opéra-Comique, Le Châtelet, Metropolitan Opera, New York, San Francisco Opera and Lyric Opera Chicago. She has sung with the world’s leading orchestras working with conductors such as Solti, Mehta, Haitink, Welser-Möst, Masur, Armin Jordan, Philippe Jordan, Previn, Davis and Rattle. She is a Dame Commander of the British Empire and a Bavarian Kammersängerin. She has also been awarded Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and Chevalier de l’Ordre National de la Légion d’Honneur and in 2010 she received the Wigmore Hall Medal marking her significant contribution to the Hall.

Gary Matthewman

Angharrad Lyddon is from Wrexham and is studying at the Royal Academy. Recent appearances include Bach cantatas with John Eliot Gardiner, the Christmas Oratorio in Kristiansand in Norway and concerts at Wigmore Hall. Angharad was a Jerwood Young Artist at Glyndebourne in 2013 where she created the role of Panthea in Luke Styles’s Wakening Shadow. She has also sung Lucretia (The Rape of Lucretia), Polinesso (Ariodante), Madame de la Haltière (Cendrillon) and Filippyevna (Eugene Onegin) for RAO, Third Lady (Die Zauberflöte) for Jackdaws, Carmen, Orfeo (Orfeo ed Euridice), Lucretia and Older Woman (Flight) for Academy Vocal Faculty Scenes and Lady Mary in Sir Nigel of Tilford for Laurence Cummings and the Tilford Bach Society. Angharad covered Polinesso and the alto soloist in Trauernacht at the Aix-en-Provence Festival and Olga (Eugene Onegin) for Opra Cymru. Angharad studies with Janice Chapman and Audrey Hyland and is grateful for the support of the Josephine Baker Trust and the Sickle Foundation.

Jonathan McGovern A graduate of King’s College, London and the Royal Academy, Jonathan McGovern has since distinguished himself as a young artist of great promise. His recent engagements have included Junior in Bernstein’s A Quiet Place with Ensemble Modern under Kent Nagano at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, a role he will reprise this season in Dortmund and Dresden. Further appearances have included Beethoven’s Choral Fantasy at the 2013 Verbier Festival under Charles Dutoit, the title role in Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria under Christian Curnyn and Telemann’s Orpheus under Ian Page at the London Handel Festival. Further highlights this season include the Podium der Jungen Series with the North German Radio Philharmonic and Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen with the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra under Daniel Cohen.

78    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Winner of the Lieder Prize at the 1997 Cardiff Singer of the World Competition, Christopher Maltman studied singing at the Royal Academy. Operatic appearances include Don Giovanni and Gawain at the Salzburg Festival, Don Giovanni in Berlin, Munich and Cologne, Lescaut, Papageno, Guglielmo, Marcello, Ramiro and the Forester at the Royal Opera House, Count Almaviva at Paris Opéra, Siskov at Vienna State Opera, Posa at Netherlands Opera and Papageno, Silvio and Eisentein at Metropolitan Opera, New York. An acclaimed Billy Budd, he has sung the role at WNO, the Teatro Regio, Turin, Seattle, Frankfurt and Munich. He is a renowned recitalist and concert performer and has appeared with major orchestras across Europe and the USA. His discography includes the three Schubert song cycles for Wigmore Live, Schumann’s Dichterliebe and Liederkreis op. 24 and songs by Brahms, Warlock, Holst, Somervell, Debussy, Poulenc and Fauré.

was born in Edinburgh. He regularly appears at the world’s major concert venues and festivals with artists such as Thomas Allen, Susan Graham, Simon Keenlyside, Magdalena Kožená, Felicity Lott, Thomas Quasthoff, Michael Schade and Bryn Terfel. He has presented many of his own series at Wigmore Hall, dedicated to Britten, French song, German song (broadcast by the BBC) and Songlives, and Wolf’s complete Lieder at the Edinburgh Festival. He accompanied masterclasses at the Britten-Pears School in Aldeburgh for Joan Sutherland, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Suzanne Danco and Ileana Cotrubas. His many recordings include Schubert, Schumann and English song recitals with Bryn Terfel, recitals with Simon Keenlyside, Angela Gheorghiu, Barbara Bonney, Susan Graham, Magdalena Kožená and Christiane Karg, the complete Beethoven folk songs, the complete Britten folk songs, the complete Poulenc songs and Winterreise with Florian Boesch. He was given an honorary doctorate at the Royal Scottish Academy in 2004 and appointed International Fellow of Accompaniment in 2009. is one of the UK’s leading song pianists. A regular artist at Wigmore Hall, his other recent and forthcoming appearances include Carnegie Hall, the Musikverein in Vienna, Paris, Prague, Lucerne, Madrid, Lisbon, Washington, Toronto, São Paulo, Hong Kong, Melbourne and Sydney. His UK festival performances include Aldeburgh, Buxton, Leeds Lieder, Oxford Lieder and Glyndebourne. Recent and future recital partners include Kiri Te Kanawa, Thomas Allen, Sumi Jo, Nuccia Focile, Simon Keenlyside, Mark Padmore, Ailyn Perèz, Dimitri Platanias, Kate Lindsey, Markus Werba, Elizabeth Watts, Andrei Bondarenko, Adam Plachetka, Kate Royal and Roderick Williams. Gary has made numerous live broadcasts and recordings for BBC Radio 3 and his recent recording of Winterreise with Matthew Rose received widespread critical acclaim, featuring as the Gramophone Recording of the Month and BBC Radio 3’s Disc of the Week. He is Professor of Vocal Repertoire at the Royal College and song coach for the Jette Parker Young Artists at the Royal Opera House.

The Schubert Project    79


Geraldine McGreevy

trained at the Royal Academy and the National Opera Studio. She established a close relationship with WNO, where she sang Donna Anna (Don Giovanni), Vitellia (Idomeneo) and the Countess (Le nozze di Figaro), as well as Maria Stuarda and Miss Jessel (The Turn of the Screw). Other roles include the Marschallin (Der Rosenkavalier), Alcina and Marie (Wozzeck) at the Komische Oper Berlin, Gerhilde (Die Walküre) at the Royal Opera House, the Countess for Glyndebourne on Tour, Juno (La Calisto) in Munich, Ellen Orford (Peter Grimes) for Frankfurt Opera, Ghita (Der Zwerg) at La Monnaie, Alice Ford (Falstaff) in Aix and Freia (Das Rheingold) at the BBC Proms with Simon Rattle. Geraldine has recorded for Hyperion and broadcast regularly on the BBC. She won the 1996 Kathleen Ferrier Award and has performed frequently at Wigmore Hall since her debut in 1997. She first appeared at deSingel in Antwerp in 2006 and she often gives recitals with Graham Johnson across Europe and North America.

Henry Neill

Joseph Middleton Pianist Joseph Middleton specializes in the art of song accompaniment and chamber music and has been highly acclaimed within this field. He performs and records with many of the world’s finest singers in music centres across Europe and North America. Recent and future highlights include recitals at Alice Tully Hall in New York with Sarah Connolly, the Konzerthaus in Vienna and in San Francisco with Christopher Maltman, a UK tour of Winterreise with Thomas Allen, a recording project for BIS with Carolyn Sampson and recitals with her in Freiburg and the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, recitals throughout the UK and in Austria and Luxembourg with Christiane Karg, Wigmore Hall appearances with Katarina Karnéus (recorded by BBC Radio 3), Christiane Karg, Kitty Whately, Clara Mouriz, Lucy Crowe and The Myrthen Ensemble and his own Duparc BBC Lunchtime series in Scotland with John Mark Ainsley, Lisa Milne, Renata Pokupic and Anna Stephany.

Benedict Nelson British baritone Benedict Nelson is one of the most exciting singers of his generation. As a Harewood Artist at ENO Nelson’s roles included the title role in Billy Budd, Belcore (L’elisir d’amore), Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Valentin (Faust), Demetrius (A Midsummer Night’s Dream) and the Evangelist, Watchful and First Shepherd (The Pilgrim’s Progress). His engagements during 2013/14 included Ned Keene (Peter Grimes) for Opéra de Lyon and Opera North, the closing recital of the Leeds Lieder Festival with Graham Johnson, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem with the Hallé and Weill’s Das Berliner Requiem with L’Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France. Nelson’s recital highlights include Britten’s Songs and Proverbs of William Blake in Snape with Malcolm Martineau (recorded in 2010 and released by Onyx) and his debut recital at the Wigmore Hall in 2013, also with Martineau. During the 2014/15 season Nelson makes his role debut as the Count (Le nozze di Figaro) at ENO.

Iain Milne

was born in Inverurie in Aberdeenshire. He is studying at the International Opera Studio in Zurich, having graduated from the Royal Academy in 2012, where he was awarded the Sir Thomas Armstrong Prize and the Gabrowsky Connell Prize for outstanding performance. He also studied at the National Opera Studio in London. Iain’s roles include Tamino and the title role in La clemenza di Tito for Hampstead Garden Opera, Ernesto in Haydn’s La vera costanza conducted by Trevor Pinnock and Sandy and First Officer in Peter Maxwell-Davies’s The Lighthouse conducted by Lionel Friend, both at the RAM. Other recent highlights include Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius at the Fairfield Halls, Croydon, Messiah in Hamburg and Haydn’s Die Schöpfung in Aberdeen. Iain was a lay clerk in Aberdeen, Norwich, Wells and at Christ Church, Oxford. Iain is very proud to be studying with fellow Aberdeenshire tenor Neil Mackie and is currently supported by the Royal Society of Musicians and Miss Sheila Robertson.

Timothy Nelson

André Morsch

German baritone André Morsch completed his studies at the Amsterdam Conservatory with Margreet Honig with distinction. In 2007 he was the winner of the prestigious Internationaler Wettbewerb für Liedkunst in Stuttgart. André Morsch appears at opera houses such as Leipzig, Lyon, Paris, Zurich and the Netherlands Opera. He performs regularly with orchestras such as the Dutch radio orchestras, Les Arts Florissants, Le Poème Harmonique and with conductors such as Frans Brüggen, Jaap van Zweden, Carlo Rizzi, William Christie and Edo de Waart. In 2008 he made his debut at the Opéra-Comique as Cadmus in Lully’s Cadmus et Hermione. The DVD of the production was awarded numerous prizes including the Diapason d’Or. During the 2014/15 season he will perform Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia) and Harlequin (Ariadne auf Naxos) at Stuttgart Opera.

Brian Newbould

Nicholas Mulroy

Born in Liverpool, Nicholas Mulroy studied modern languages at Cambridge and voice at the Royal Academy. Recent engagements include Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie at Paris Opéra, Bach’s Christmas Oratorio with the ACO in Sydney and Melbourne, Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine at this year’s Salzburg Festival, concerts with the Auckland, Wrocław, Brussels and BBC Philharmonic orchestras, Schubert songs and Britten’s complete canticles at Wigmore Hall, Tavener’s Requiem with BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Purcell with the Gabrieli Consort and a tour of Bach’s John Passion with the Britten Sinfonia. He has sung Janácˇek’s The Diary of One Who Disappeared for the Philharmonia and for Glyndebourne. Recordings include a Gramophone Award-winning Messiah, as well as Evangelist in the Matthew Passion and John Passion and a recently released disc of Bach’s Easter Oratorio and Actus Tragicus with John Eliot Gardiner on SDG.

Daniel Norman was a choral scholar at New College, Oxford and went on to study in the USA and Canada and at the Royal Academy. His concert repertoire ranges from Handel’s Messiah and Mozart’s Requiem to Delius’s Mass of Life, Tippett’s A Child of Our Time, Stravinsky’s Les Noces and Maxwell Davies’s Taverner, at venues including the Concertgebouw, Royal Albert Hall and Royal Festival Hall. His recordings include Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the Minnesota Orchestra and Vänskä and Britten’s Winter Words. Recent engagements include Red Whiskers (Billy Budd) for Glyndebourne in New York, The Commission and Café Kafka (an Opera North/Aldeburgh/ROH collaboration directed by Annabel Arden) and Kodály’s Psalmus Hungaricus with Oslo Domkor and Yan Tan Tethera with Britten Sinfonia. Daniel is currently performing Liberto and Soldier (L’incoronazione di Poppea) and Gastone (La traviata) with Opera North and will sing Gheraldo (Gianni Schicchi) and the Offstage Voice (La vida breve) with the company in 2015.

Robert Murray

Maciek O’Shea studied history at UCL and voice at the Guildhall School, winning the English Song Competition. Recent work has included Second Armed Man (Die Zauberflöte), Jen Jenson (Paul Bunyan) and Mr Plumpster (Borka) with English Touring Opera. Other engagements include Don Giovanni for Opera Up Close, Mr Fox (Fantastic Mr Fox), Crebillon and Rabonier (La rondine) and Mars (Orphée aux enfers) for Holland Park, Fiorello (Il barbiere di Siviglia) for Hand Made Opera, Roger (Ciboulette) for University College Opera, Zaretsky (Eugene Onegin), Farmer Bean (Fantastic Mr Fox), Dr Spinelloccio (Gianni Schicchi), Theseus (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), Gamekeeper (Rusalka) and Zuniga (La tragédie de Carmen) for ETO. Maciek has performed at Oxford Lieder, Leeds Lieder and the Machynlleth Festival.

studied at the Royal College and the National Opera Studio. He was a Jette Parker Young Artist at the Royal Opera House. Roles include Tamino, Reischmann (Henze’s Elegy For Young Lovers), Idamante (Idomeneo), Benvolio (Roméo et Juliette), Male Chorus (The Rape of Lucretia), Ferrando, Tom Rakewell, Don Ottavio, the title role in Jephtha and Essex (Gloriana). He has appeared at the Royal Opera House, ENO, Opera North, Garsington, WNO, Norwegian Opera, Hamburg State Opera and the Salzburg Festival. In concert he has performed with John Eliot Gardiner, Charles Mackerras and Emanuelle Haïm. In recital he has appeared at the Brighton and Aldeburgh festivals and Wigmore Hall. Recent recordings include excerpts from Britten’s Gloriana with Edward Gardner on Chandos and Berlioz’s Grande Messe des morts and Mendelssohn’s Elijah with the Gabrieli Consort and Players. Future engagements include a tour of Messiah with the Academy of Ancient Music and a return to ENO.

80    The Oxford Lieder Festival

is currently studying on the Royal Academy opera course with Mark Wildman and Ingrid Surgenor. He has performed in recitals across the UK, including at Colston Hall, Bristol, St John’s Smith Square and the Ashmolean. He is part of the Song Circle at the Royal Academy, performing recitals of Wolf, Bridge, Vaughan Williams and Schumann among others. His masterclasses include Olaf Bär at Wigmore Hall, Helmut Deutsch and John Shirley-Quirk. On stage he has sung Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Noah (Noye’s Fludde), the Speaker (Die Zauberflöte) and, most recently, Friquet in Garsington’s production of Offenbach’s Vert Vert. He was recently awarded the Sir Thomas Armstrong Prize for performances of English Song and he is generously supported by the Josephine Baker Trust.

Born in London, Timothy Nelson gained a degree in physiology from Cardiff University. He currently studies with Peter Savidge at the Royal College International Opera School where he is an HR Taylor Trust Scholar supported by a Douglas and Hilda Simmonds Award. His studies are also generously supported by the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, the Josephine Baker Trust and the William Gibbs Educational Trust. Operatic experience includes the title role in Le nozze di Figaro and Ramiro (L’Heure espagnole) at the RCM International Opera School, Berardo in Handel’s Riccardo Primo and Argenio (Imeneo) for the London Handel Festival, Krušina (The Bartered Bride) for British Youth Opera and the title role in Sweeney Todd for Welsh National Youth Opera. In 2013 Timothy understudied the role of Novice’s Friend in Billy Budd at Glyndebourne. He will be performing the role of Papageno in the forthcoming RCM production of Die Zauberflöte.

is the author of two books on Schubert as well as completions of several works left unfinished by the composer. His realizations of three fragmentary Schubert symphonies have been performed and broadcast around the world, conducted by Neville Marriner, Charles Mackerras and Simon Rattle among others, and recorded several times. His fourth symphonic completion, the Symphony in D major D708a, was commissioned by the BBC and first performed by the BBC Philharmonic in 2012. Commissioners of other completions, including non-symphonic works, have included Philips/Phonogram, the Maggini Quartet, the Leopold String Trio and Chamber Musicians of Cambridge. He has lectured on Schubert in many universities in the UK and USA and in Brazil, Chile, Canada, Finland, New Zealand and many other European countries and has broadcast on BBC1, BBC2, BBC Radio 3 and Radio 4, as well as stations abroad. Since his retirement as Professor of Music at the University of Hull he has begun work on a third book about Schubert.

The Schubert Project    81


Geraldine McGreevy

trained at the Royal Academy and the National Opera Studio. She established a close relationship with WNO, where she sang Donna Anna (Don Giovanni), Vitellia (Idomeneo) and the Countess (Le nozze di Figaro), as well as Maria Stuarda and Miss Jessel (The Turn of the Screw). Other roles include the Marschallin (Der Rosenkavalier), Alcina and Marie (Wozzeck) at the Komische Oper Berlin, Gerhilde (Die Walküre) at the Royal Opera House, the Countess for Glyndebourne on Tour, Juno (La Calisto) in Munich, Ellen Orford (Peter Grimes) for Frankfurt Opera, Ghita (Der Zwerg) at La Monnaie, Alice Ford (Falstaff) in Aix and Freia (Das Rheingold) at the BBC Proms with Simon Rattle. Geraldine has recorded for Hyperion and broadcast regularly on the BBC. She won the 1996 Kathleen Ferrier Award and has performed frequently at Wigmore Hall since her debut in 1997. She first appeared at deSingel in Antwerp in 2006 and she often gives recitals with Graham Johnson across Europe and North America.

Henry Neill

Joseph Middleton Pianist Joseph Middleton specializes in the art of song accompaniment and chamber music and has been highly acclaimed within this field. He performs and records with many of the world’s finest singers in music centres across Europe and North America. Recent and future highlights include recitals at Alice Tully Hall in New York with Sarah Connolly, the Konzerthaus in Vienna and in San Francisco with Christopher Maltman, a UK tour of Winterreise with Thomas Allen, a recording project for BIS with Carolyn Sampson and recitals with her in Freiburg and the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, recitals throughout the UK and in Austria and Luxembourg with Christiane Karg, Wigmore Hall appearances with Katarina Karnéus (recorded by BBC Radio 3), Christiane Karg, Kitty Whately, Clara Mouriz, Lucy Crowe and The Myrthen Ensemble and his own Duparc BBC Lunchtime series in Scotland with John Mark Ainsley, Lisa Milne, Renata Pokupic and Anna Stephany.

Benedict Nelson British baritone Benedict Nelson is one of the most exciting singers of his generation. As a Harewood Artist at ENO Nelson’s roles included the title role in Billy Budd, Belcore (L’elisir d’amore), Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Valentin (Faust), Demetrius (A Midsummer Night’s Dream) and the Evangelist, Watchful and First Shepherd (The Pilgrim’s Progress). His engagements during 2013/14 included Ned Keene (Peter Grimes) for Opéra de Lyon and Opera North, the closing recital of the Leeds Lieder Festival with Graham Johnson, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem with the Hallé and Weill’s Das Berliner Requiem with L’Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France. Nelson’s recital highlights include Britten’s Songs and Proverbs of William Blake in Snape with Malcolm Martineau (recorded in 2010 and released by Onyx) and his debut recital at the Wigmore Hall in 2013, also with Martineau. During the 2014/15 season Nelson makes his role debut as the Count (Le nozze di Figaro) at ENO.

Iain Milne

was born in Inverurie in Aberdeenshire. He is studying at the International Opera Studio in Zurich, having graduated from the Royal Academy in 2012, where he was awarded the Sir Thomas Armstrong Prize and the Gabrowsky Connell Prize for outstanding performance. He also studied at the National Opera Studio in London. Iain’s roles include Tamino and the title role in La clemenza di Tito for Hampstead Garden Opera, Ernesto in Haydn’s La vera costanza conducted by Trevor Pinnock and Sandy and First Officer in Peter Maxwell-Davies’s The Lighthouse conducted by Lionel Friend, both at the RAM. Other recent highlights include Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius at the Fairfield Halls, Croydon, Messiah in Hamburg and Haydn’s Die Schöpfung in Aberdeen. Iain was a lay clerk in Aberdeen, Norwich, Wells and at Christ Church, Oxford. Iain is very proud to be studying with fellow Aberdeenshire tenor Neil Mackie and is currently supported by the Royal Society of Musicians and Miss Sheila Robertson.

Timothy Nelson

André Morsch

German baritone André Morsch completed his studies at the Amsterdam Conservatory with Margreet Honig with distinction. In 2007 he was the winner of the prestigious Internationaler Wettbewerb für Liedkunst in Stuttgart. André Morsch appears at opera houses such as Leipzig, Lyon, Paris, Zurich and the Netherlands Opera. He performs regularly with orchestras such as the Dutch radio orchestras, Les Arts Florissants, Le Poème Harmonique and with conductors such as Frans Brüggen, Jaap van Zweden, Carlo Rizzi, William Christie and Edo de Waart. In 2008 he made his debut at the Opéra-Comique as Cadmus in Lully’s Cadmus et Hermione. The DVD of the production was awarded numerous prizes including the Diapason d’Or. During the 2014/15 season he will perform Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia) and Harlequin (Ariadne auf Naxos) at Stuttgart Opera.

Brian Newbould

Nicholas Mulroy

Born in Liverpool, Nicholas Mulroy studied modern languages at Cambridge and voice at the Royal Academy. Recent engagements include Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie at Paris Opéra, Bach’s Christmas Oratorio with the ACO in Sydney and Melbourne, Monteverdi’s Vespro della Beata Vergine at this year’s Salzburg Festival, concerts with the Auckland, Wrocław, Brussels and BBC Philharmonic orchestras, Schubert songs and Britten’s complete canticles at Wigmore Hall, Tavener’s Requiem with BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Purcell with the Gabrieli Consort and a tour of Bach’s John Passion with the Britten Sinfonia. He has sung Janácˇek’s The Diary of One Who Disappeared for the Philharmonia and for Glyndebourne. Recordings include a Gramophone Award-winning Messiah, as well as Evangelist in the Matthew Passion and John Passion and a recently released disc of Bach’s Easter Oratorio and Actus Tragicus with John Eliot Gardiner on SDG.

Daniel Norman was a choral scholar at New College, Oxford and went on to study in the USA and Canada and at the Royal Academy. His concert repertoire ranges from Handel’s Messiah and Mozart’s Requiem to Delius’s Mass of Life, Tippett’s A Child of Our Time, Stravinsky’s Les Noces and Maxwell Davies’s Taverner, at venues including the Concertgebouw, Royal Albert Hall and Royal Festival Hall. His recordings include Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the Minnesota Orchestra and Vänskä and Britten’s Winter Words. Recent engagements include Red Whiskers (Billy Budd) for Glyndebourne in New York, The Commission and Café Kafka (an Opera North/Aldeburgh/ROH collaboration directed by Annabel Arden) and Kodály’s Psalmus Hungaricus with Oslo Domkor and Yan Tan Tethera with Britten Sinfonia. Daniel is currently performing Liberto and Soldier (L’incoronazione di Poppea) and Gastone (La traviata) with Opera North and will sing Gheraldo (Gianni Schicchi) and the Offstage Voice (La vida breve) with the company in 2015.

Robert Murray

Maciek O’Shea studied history at UCL and voice at the Guildhall School, winning the English Song Competition. Recent work has included Second Armed Man (Die Zauberflöte), Jen Jenson (Paul Bunyan) and Mr Plumpster (Borka) with English Touring Opera. Other engagements include Don Giovanni for Opera Up Close, Mr Fox (Fantastic Mr Fox), Crebillon and Rabonier (La rondine) and Mars (Orphée aux enfers) for Holland Park, Fiorello (Il barbiere di Siviglia) for Hand Made Opera, Roger (Ciboulette) for University College Opera, Zaretsky (Eugene Onegin), Farmer Bean (Fantastic Mr Fox), Dr Spinelloccio (Gianni Schicchi), Theseus (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), Gamekeeper (Rusalka) and Zuniga (La tragédie de Carmen) for ETO. Maciek has performed at Oxford Lieder, Leeds Lieder and the Machynlleth Festival.

studied at the Royal College and the National Opera Studio. He was a Jette Parker Young Artist at the Royal Opera House. Roles include Tamino, Reischmann (Henze’s Elegy For Young Lovers), Idamante (Idomeneo), Benvolio (Roméo et Juliette), Male Chorus (The Rape of Lucretia), Ferrando, Tom Rakewell, Don Ottavio, the title role in Jephtha and Essex (Gloriana). He has appeared at the Royal Opera House, ENO, Opera North, Garsington, WNO, Norwegian Opera, Hamburg State Opera and the Salzburg Festival. In concert he has performed with John Eliot Gardiner, Charles Mackerras and Emanuelle Haïm. In recital he has appeared at the Brighton and Aldeburgh festivals and Wigmore Hall. Recent recordings include excerpts from Britten’s Gloriana with Edward Gardner on Chandos and Berlioz’s Grande Messe des morts and Mendelssohn’s Elijah with the Gabrieli Consort and Players. Future engagements include a tour of Messiah with the Academy of Ancient Music and a return to ENO.

80    The Oxford Lieder Festival

is currently studying on the Royal Academy opera course with Mark Wildman and Ingrid Surgenor. He has performed in recitals across the UK, including at Colston Hall, Bristol, St John’s Smith Square and the Ashmolean. He is part of the Song Circle at the Royal Academy, performing recitals of Wolf, Bridge, Vaughan Williams and Schumann among others. His masterclasses include Olaf Bär at Wigmore Hall, Helmut Deutsch and John Shirley-Quirk. On stage he has sung Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Noah (Noye’s Fludde), the Speaker (Die Zauberflöte) and, most recently, Friquet in Garsington’s production of Offenbach’s Vert Vert. He was recently awarded the Sir Thomas Armstrong Prize for performances of English Song and he is generously supported by the Josephine Baker Trust.

Born in London, Timothy Nelson gained a degree in physiology from Cardiff University. He currently studies with Peter Savidge at the Royal College International Opera School where he is an HR Taylor Trust Scholar supported by a Douglas and Hilda Simmonds Award. His studies are also generously supported by the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, the Josephine Baker Trust and the William Gibbs Educational Trust. Operatic experience includes the title role in Le nozze di Figaro and Ramiro (L’Heure espagnole) at the RCM International Opera School, Berardo in Handel’s Riccardo Primo and Argenio (Imeneo) for the London Handel Festival, Krušina (The Bartered Bride) for British Youth Opera and the title role in Sweeney Todd for Welsh National Youth Opera. In 2013 Timothy understudied the role of Novice’s Friend in Billy Budd at Glyndebourne. He will be performing the role of Papageno in the forthcoming RCM production of Die Zauberflöte.

is the author of two books on Schubert as well as completions of several works left unfinished by the composer. His realizations of three fragmentary Schubert symphonies have been performed and broadcast around the world, conducted by Neville Marriner, Charles Mackerras and Simon Rattle among others, and recorded several times. His fourth symphonic completion, the Symphony in D major D708a, was commissioned by the BBC and first performed by the BBC Philharmonic in 2012. Commissioners of other completions, including non-symphonic works, have included Philips/Phonogram, the Maggini Quartet, the Leopold String Trio and Chamber Musicians of Cambridge. He has lectured on Schubert in many universities in the UK and USA and in Brazil, Chile, Canada, Finland, New Zealand and many other European countries and has broadcast on BBC1, BBC2, BBC Radio 3 and Radio 4, as well as stations abroad. Since his retirement as Professor of Music at the University of Hull he has begun work on a third book about Schubert.

The Schubert Project    81


The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment Just under three decades ago, a group of London musicians took a good look at that curious institution we call the orchestra and decided to start again from scratch. They began by throwing out the rulebook. Put a single conductor in charge? No way. Specialize in repertoire of a particular era? Too restricting. Perfect a work and then move on? Too lazy. The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment was born. Since then, the OAE has shocked, changed and mesmerized the music world. Residencies at the Southbank Centre and Glyndebourne haven’t numbed its experimentalist bent. Record deals haven’t ironed out its quirks. Period-specific instruments have become just one element of its quest for authenticity. Today the OAE is cherished more than ever. It still pushes for change and still stands for excellence, diversity and exploration. And over two decades on, there’s still no orchestra in the world quite like it.

Rowan Pierce Northeast-born soprano Rowan Pierce is a Royal College Scholar supported by a Douglas and Hilda Simmonds Award. Rowan first began studying voice with Betty Middleton. She has been coached by Eiddwen Harrhy, Christopher Glynn, John Blakely and John Fraser and performed in masterclasses with artists such as Patricia MacMahon, Caroline Dowdle, Mark Padmore, John Tomlinson and Emma Kirkby. Earlier this year Rowan was a soloist in the London Handel Festival, Brandenburg Choral Festival and the Ryedale Festival and has performed under the direction of conductors such as Laurence Cummings, Ashley Solomon and Robert Hollingworth. Recent highlights include touring in Italy as a soloist with members of the RCM Baroque Orchestra and a performance with the Royal Northern Sinfonia as a soloist in Messiah at the Sage, Gateshead. Rowan was a Britten-Pears Young Artist 2014 and played the role of Drusilla in their production of L’incoronzione di Poppea under the direction of Richard Egarr. Rowan is supported by the Josephine Baker Trust.

David Owen Norris

is one of the most innovative and brilliant pianists of our generation, being an authority and leading performer on early pianos, rare piano concertos (especially those by 20thcentury English composers), as well as being the pianist of choice for many world-class singers. His work as a concert pianist has taken him round the world for 40 years. David Owen Norris was Organ Scholar at Keble College, Oxford, leaving with a first in music and a composition scholarship to study at the Royal Academy, where he won the Dove Prize, and privately in Paris. He was a répétiteur at the Royal Opera House, harpist at the RSC, Artistic Director of the Petworth Festival and the Cardiff International Festival, Gresham Professor of Music and Chairman of the Steans Institute for Singers at the Ravinia Festival in Chicago. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy and the Royal College of Organists and an Honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford.

Gavin Plumley

Mark Padmore

was born in London, grew up in Canterbury and studied at King’s College, Cambridge. He has established an international career in opera, concert and recital and his performances in Bach’s Passions have gained particular notice throughout the world. As well as regular appearances at many of the world’s leading opera houses, he appears with the Munich Radio, Berlin, Vienna, New York, London Philharmonic, London Symphony and the Royal Concertgebouw orchestras and has conceived projects exploring both Bach’s John Passion and Matthew Passion with the OAE. His work in the recording studio has attracted considerable acclaim, most notably Schubert’s Winterreise with Paul Lewis, which won the Gramophone Vocal Solo Award in 2010, and Schumann’s Dichterliebe with Kristian Bezuidenhout, which won the Vocal Solo Category of the 2011 EdisonKlassiek Awards. His recording of Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings and Nocturne and Finzi’s Dies Natalis with the Britten Sinfonia won the Echo Klassik 2013 Vocal Solo Recording Award. Mark is Artistic Director of the St Endellion Summer Music Festival in Cornwall.

Christoph Pohl is member of the Semperoper Dresden, where he regularly appears in major baritone roles such as Wolfram (Tannhäuser), Marcello (La bohème), Dandini (La Cenerentola), Papageno, Count Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro), Figaro (Il barbiere di Sivillia), Guglielmo (Così fan tutte), the Count (Capriccio), Posa (Don Carlos), Danilo (Die lustige Witwe), Germont (La traviata) and Valentin (Faust). Christoph Pohl has appeared as a guest all over Germany, including at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, Munich and Stuttgart. Most recently he had great success with audiences and critics as Švanda in the new production of Weinberger’s Švanda dudák, the Herald (Lohengrin) and Lescaut in a new production of Manon Lescaut, both under Christian Thielemann, the Count (Capriccio) in Lyon and Wolfram under Donald Runnciles at the BBC Proms. He will make his debut in Vienna at the Theater an der Wien in October 2014 and at the Royal Opera House in 2015. His recital and concert career have led him to Europe, Japan and the USA. He released his first CD in October 2011 featuring songs by Mahler, Liszt, Pizetti and Rihm.

Raphaela Papadakis Winner of the Clonter Opera and Audience Prizes and the Maureen Lehane Vocal Awards 2013, London-born soprano Raphaela Papadakis recently made her professional operatic debut at Garsington as Bathilde in Offenbach’s Vert Vert. She is currently in her final year of study at the Guildhall School under the tutelage of Janice Chapman, where she is supported by an Independent Opera Voice Fellowship, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust and JM Finn & Co.. Before beginning her studies at the Guildhall School, Raphaela graduated from Clare College, Cambridge with a first class degree in English. A committed recitalist and a Samling Scholar, Raphaela made her song recital debut at Carnegie Hall earlier this year following a residency at the Banff Centre, Canada. Future plans include further performances in the role of Kikuyo in Nicola LeFanu’s latest opera Tokaido Road, as well as covering Euridice in Monterverdi’s L’Orfeo for The Royal Opera.

Christoph Prégardien is one of the most distinguished lyric tenors of our time. He has worked with conductors such as Barenboim, Chailly, Harnoncourt, Herreweghe, Luisi and Nagano. His extensive repertoire includes oratorios and passions from the Baroque, Classical and Romantic periods and works from the 17th and 20th centuries. Especially revered as a Lieder singer, he can be heard this season at Wigmore Hall, the Philharmonie in Berlin, Opéra national du Rhin, Paris Opéra and Cité de la Musique as well as at the Kioi and Toppan halls in Tokyo. He studied singing under Martin Gründler, Karlheinz Jarius and Hartmut Höll. His discography nearly numbers 150 recordings, which have been awarded numerous international prizes. Christoph Prégardien was nominated for a Grammy in 2014 in the best classical vocal solo category for his latest recording of Winterreise with the pianist Michael Gees. He recently took on the challenge of conducting Bach’s ­John Passion.

Ian Partridge

has an international reputation as a concert singer and recitalist. His wide repertoire encompassed the music of Monteverdi, Bach and Handel, Elizabethan lute songs, German, French and English songs and first performances of new works. Ian Partridge’s list of recordings includes Die schöne Müllerin (first choice on BBC Radio 3’s Building a Library), Schumann’s Dichterliebe and Liederkreis op. 39, Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings, Vaughan Williams’s On Wenlock Edge and Warlock’s The Curlew. Ian Partridge sang the Evangelist in Bach’s John Passion and was the tenor soloist in the complete set of Handel’s Chandos Anthems recorded with The Sixteen, conducted by Harry Christophers. Ian Partridge has also enjoyed taking masterclasses on Lieder, English Song and early music. Ian retired from public performance in 2008 but remains a professor at the Royal Academy. He was awarded the CBE in 1992 for services to music.

John Reid is a graduate of Clare College, Cambridge, an Associate of the Royal Academy and a principal of Aurora Orchestra. He has built close ties over recent seasons with Kings Place in London, both as curator of a Britten centenary series and in collaboration with The Sixteen, as part of a Brahms and Schumann retrospective, and with the Sage, Gateshead, where he has performed as a Samling Scholar and as a regular guest of the Royal Northern Sinfonia Chamber Series. He has appeared regularly at the Oxford Lieder Festival over the last ten years, made his Southbank Centre debut with Anna Dennis as part of the 2004 Park Lane Group series and his recital partnership with Nicholas Mulroy is of comparable long standing. A past winner of the Gerald Moore and Kathleen Ferrier awards, John now teaches chamber music at Goldsmiths College and at the RAM.

Jan Petryka Born into a Varsovian family of musicians, Jan Petryka studied cello in Graz and singing in Vienna with Rotraud Hansmann and Marjana Lipovšek. Ongoing collaborations with renowned ensembles such as the Arnold Schoenberg Chor, RSO Vienna, Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg under Ivor Bolton, Bruckner Orchestra Linz under Dennis Russel Davies and Les Musiciens du Louvre under Marc Minkowski have strengthened his position as a concert singer in Europe. In opera Jan Petryka sings roles in Baroque and Classical works such as Tamino (Die Zauberflöte) at Opéra de Lyon. In Lieder he has worked with Robert Holl, Pierre-Laurent Aimard, Roger Vignoles, David Lutz and Helmut Deutsch. Jan Petryka recently sang the lead role in Handel’s Belshazzar with Marcus Creed at the 2014 Lucerne Festival.

Re:Sound

82    The Oxford Lieder Festival

studied at Keble College, Oxford. His work on Central European culture is increasingly well-known and his articles, essays and notes have appeared in newspapers, magazines and programmes around the world. He appears regularly on BBC Radio 3 and on air in the USA and he has lectured at the Royal Opera House, Southbank Centre, Oxford Lieder Festival, Bamberg Biennale, WNO, CBSO, London Symphony Orchestra, ENO, Garsington and Glyndebourne. Gavin has also been invited to give talks at a number of major art galleries and museums, including the National Gallery (as part of the events around Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900), the Neue Galerie in New York, V&A, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool and the Freud Museum. He is the commissioning editor of English-language programme notes for the Salzburg Festival and has commissioned and edited the souvenir programme for Oxford Lieder Festival’s Schubert Project.

is a collective of multidisciplinary artists run by Jonathan Ainscough, Rebecca Lea and Katherine Wilde. Recent productions include Battles Within and Without, which features staged performances of madrigals by Claudio Monteverdi, and Judith Weir’s 20th-century choral masterpiece Missa del Cid, Stravinsky’s Les Noces, an actor-musician production of Sondheim’s Into the Woods, At the Last Lousy Moments of Love, a staged performance of William Bolcom’s cabaret songs as part of the Proms Plus Lates series, Flatpack: An opera in IKEA and The Mask behind the Face, new music theatre featuring cabaret song. The collective was recently awarded an Emerging Excellence Award by Help Musicians UK.

The Schubert Project    83


The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment Just under three decades ago, a group of London musicians took a good look at that curious institution we call the orchestra and decided to start again from scratch. They began by throwing out the rulebook. Put a single conductor in charge? No way. Specialize in repertoire of a particular era? Too restricting. Perfect a work and then move on? Too lazy. The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment was born. Since then, the OAE has shocked, changed and mesmerized the music world. Residencies at the Southbank Centre and Glyndebourne haven’t numbed its experimentalist bent. Record deals haven’t ironed out its quirks. Period-specific instruments have become just one element of its quest for authenticity. Today the OAE is cherished more than ever. It still pushes for change and still stands for excellence, diversity and exploration. And over two decades on, there’s still no orchestra in the world quite like it.

Rowan Pierce Northeast-born soprano Rowan Pierce is a Royal College Scholar supported by a Douglas and Hilda Simmonds Award. Rowan first began studying voice with Betty Middleton. She has been coached by Eiddwen Harrhy, Christopher Glynn, John Blakely and John Fraser and performed in masterclasses with artists such as Patricia MacMahon, Caroline Dowdle, Mark Padmore, John Tomlinson and Emma Kirkby. Earlier this year Rowan was a soloist in the London Handel Festival, Brandenburg Choral Festival and the Ryedale Festival and has performed under the direction of conductors such as Laurence Cummings, Ashley Solomon and Robert Hollingworth. Recent highlights include touring in Italy as a soloist with members of the RCM Baroque Orchestra and a performance with the Royal Northern Sinfonia as a soloist in Messiah at the Sage, Gateshead. Rowan was a Britten-Pears Young Artist 2014 and played the role of Drusilla in their production of L’incoronzione di Poppea under the direction of Richard Egarr. Rowan is supported by the Josephine Baker Trust.

David Owen Norris

is one of the most innovative and brilliant pianists of our generation, being an authority and leading performer on early pianos, rare piano concertos (especially those by 20thcentury English composers), as well as being the pianist of choice for many world-class singers. His work as a concert pianist has taken him round the world for 40 years. David Owen Norris was Organ Scholar at Keble College, Oxford, leaving with a first in music and a composition scholarship to study at the Royal Academy, where he won the Dove Prize, and privately in Paris. He was a répétiteur at the Royal Opera House, harpist at the RSC, Artistic Director of the Petworth Festival and the Cardiff International Festival, Gresham Professor of Music and Chairman of the Steans Institute for Singers at the Ravinia Festival in Chicago. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy and the Royal College of Organists and an Honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford.

Gavin Plumley

Mark Padmore

was born in London, grew up in Canterbury and studied at King’s College, Cambridge. He has established an international career in opera, concert and recital and his performances in Bach’s Passions have gained particular notice throughout the world. As well as regular appearances at many of the world’s leading opera houses, he appears with the Munich Radio, Berlin, Vienna, New York, London Philharmonic, London Symphony and the Royal Concertgebouw orchestras and has conceived projects exploring both Bach’s John Passion and Matthew Passion with the OAE. His work in the recording studio has attracted considerable acclaim, most notably Schubert’s Winterreise with Paul Lewis, which won the Gramophone Vocal Solo Award in 2010, and Schumann’s Dichterliebe with Kristian Bezuidenhout, which won the Vocal Solo Category of the 2011 EdisonKlassiek Awards. His recording of Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings and Nocturne and Finzi’s Dies Natalis with the Britten Sinfonia won the Echo Klassik 2013 Vocal Solo Recording Award. Mark is Artistic Director of the St Endellion Summer Music Festival in Cornwall.

Christoph Pohl is member of the Semperoper Dresden, where he regularly appears in major baritone roles such as Wolfram (Tannhäuser), Marcello (La bohème), Dandini (La Cenerentola), Papageno, Count Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro), Figaro (Il barbiere di Sivillia), Guglielmo (Così fan tutte), the Count (Capriccio), Posa (Don Carlos), Danilo (Die lustige Witwe), Germont (La traviata) and Valentin (Faust). Christoph Pohl has appeared as a guest all over Germany, including at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, Munich and Stuttgart. Most recently he had great success with audiences and critics as Švanda in the new production of Weinberger’s Švanda dudák, the Herald (Lohengrin) and Lescaut in a new production of Manon Lescaut, both under Christian Thielemann, the Count (Capriccio) in Lyon and Wolfram under Donald Runnciles at the BBC Proms. He will make his debut in Vienna at the Theater an der Wien in October 2014 and at the Royal Opera House in 2015. His recital and concert career have led him to Europe, Japan and the USA. He released his first CD in October 2011 featuring songs by Mahler, Liszt, Pizetti and Rihm.

Raphaela Papadakis Winner of the Clonter Opera and Audience Prizes and the Maureen Lehane Vocal Awards 2013, London-born soprano Raphaela Papadakis recently made her professional operatic debut at Garsington as Bathilde in Offenbach’s Vert Vert. She is currently in her final year of study at the Guildhall School under the tutelage of Janice Chapman, where she is supported by an Independent Opera Voice Fellowship, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust and JM Finn & Co.. Before beginning her studies at the Guildhall School, Raphaela graduated from Clare College, Cambridge with a first class degree in English. A committed recitalist and a Samling Scholar, Raphaela made her song recital debut at Carnegie Hall earlier this year following a residency at the Banff Centre, Canada. Future plans include further performances in the role of Kikuyo in Nicola LeFanu’s latest opera Tokaido Road, as well as covering Euridice in Monterverdi’s L’Orfeo for The Royal Opera.

Christoph Prégardien is one of the most distinguished lyric tenors of our time. He has worked with conductors such as Barenboim, Chailly, Harnoncourt, Herreweghe, Luisi and Nagano. His extensive repertoire includes oratorios and passions from the Baroque, Classical and Romantic periods and works from the 17th and 20th centuries. Especially revered as a Lieder singer, he can be heard this season at Wigmore Hall, the Philharmonie in Berlin, Opéra national du Rhin, Paris Opéra and Cité de la Musique as well as at the Kioi and Toppan halls in Tokyo. He studied singing under Martin Gründler, Karlheinz Jarius and Hartmut Höll. His discography nearly numbers 150 recordings, which have been awarded numerous international prizes. Christoph Prégardien was nominated for a Grammy in 2014 in the best classical vocal solo category for his latest recording of Winterreise with the pianist Michael Gees. He recently took on the challenge of conducting Bach’s ­John Passion.

Ian Partridge

has an international reputation as a concert singer and recitalist. His wide repertoire encompassed the music of Monteverdi, Bach and Handel, Elizabethan lute songs, German, French and English songs and first performances of new works. Ian Partridge’s list of recordings includes Die schöne Müllerin (first choice on BBC Radio 3’s Building a Library), Schumann’s Dichterliebe and Liederkreis op. 39, Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings, Vaughan Williams’s On Wenlock Edge and Warlock’s The Curlew. Ian Partridge sang the Evangelist in Bach’s John Passion and was the tenor soloist in the complete set of Handel’s Chandos Anthems recorded with The Sixteen, conducted by Harry Christophers. Ian Partridge has also enjoyed taking masterclasses on Lieder, English Song and early music. Ian retired from public performance in 2008 but remains a professor at the Royal Academy. He was awarded the CBE in 1992 for services to music.

John Reid is a graduate of Clare College, Cambridge, an Associate of the Royal Academy and a principal of Aurora Orchestra. He has built close ties over recent seasons with Kings Place in London, both as curator of a Britten centenary series and in collaboration with The Sixteen, as part of a Brahms and Schumann retrospective, and with the Sage, Gateshead, where he has performed as a Samling Scholar and as a regular guest of the Royal Northern Sinfonia Chamber Series. He has appeared regularly at the Oxford Lieder Festival over the last ten years, made his Southbank Centre debut with Anna Dennis as part of the 2004 Park Lane Group series and his recital partnership with Nicholas Mulroy is of comparable long standing. A past winner of the Gerald Moore and Kathleen Ferrier awards, John now teaches chamber music at Goldsmiths College and at the RAM.

Jan Petryka Born into a Varsovian family of musicians, Jan Petryka studied cello in Graz and singing in Vienna with Rotraud Hansmann and Marjana Lipovšek. Ongoing collaborations with renowned ensembles such as the Arnold Schoenberg Chor, RSO Vienna, Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg under Ivor Bolton, Bruckner Orchestra Linz under Dennis Russel Davies and Les Musiciens du Louvre under Marc Minkowski have strengthened his position as a concert singer in Europe. In opera Jan Petryka sings roles in Baroque and Classical works such as Tamino (Die Zauberflöte) at Opéra de Lyon. In Lieder he has worked with Robert Holl, Pierre-Laurent Aimard, Roger Vignoles, David Lutz and Helmut Deutsch. Jan Petryka recently sang the lead role in Handel’s Belshazzar with Marcus Creed at the 2014 Lucerne Festival.

Re:Sound

82    The Oxford Lieder Festival

studied at Keble College, Oxford. His work on Central European culture is increasingly well-known and his articles, essays and notes have appeared in newspapers, magazines and programmes around the world. He appears regularly on BBC Radio 3 and on air in the USA and he has lectured at the Royal Opera House, Southbank Centre, Oxford Lieder Festival, Bamberg Biennale, WNO, CBSO, London Symphony Orchestra, ENO, Garsington and Glyndebourne. Gavin has also been invited to give talks at a number of major art galleries and museums, including the National Gallery (as part of the events around Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900), the Neue Galerie in New York, V&A, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool and the Freud Museum. He is the commissioning editor of English-language programme notes for the Salzburg Festival and has commissioned and edited the souvenir programme for Oxford Lieder Festival’s Schubert Project.

is a collective of multidisciplinary artists run by Jonathan Ainscough, Rebecca Lea and Katherine Wilde. Recent productions include Battles Within and Without, which features staged performances of madrigals by Claudio Monteverdi, and Judith Weir’s 20th-century choral masterpiece Missa del Cid, Stravinsky’s Les Noces, an actor-musician production of Sondheim’s Into the Woods, At the Last Lousy Moments of Love, a staged performance of William Bolcom’s cabaret songs as part of the Proms Plus Lates series, Flatpack: An opera in IKEA and The Mask behind the Face, new music theatre featuring cabaret song. The collective was recently awarded an Emerging Excellence Award by Help Musicians UK.

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Anna Lucia Richter

often performs with renowned orchestras such as the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne, Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra, MDR Symphony Orchestra, Düsseldorf Symphony Orchestra and the WDR Radio Orchestra under Markus Stenz, Paavo and Kristjan Järvi, Marin Alsop, Helmut Froschauer and Christoph Altstaedt. Beside her wide concert repertoire she recently performed the Sandman and Dew Fairy (Hänsel und Gretel), Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) and Zerlina (Don Giovanni) at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf and Duisburg. Anna Lucia Richter is passionate about Lieder. She regularly sings recitals, including at the Kissinger Summer Festival and at the Heidelberg Spring Festival. She is accompanied by Moritz Eggert, Michael Gees, Hartmut Höll and Igor Levit. She won second prize in the junior category at the 2008 National Song Contest in Berlin, the Luitpold Prize at the Kissinger Summer Festival 2011 and the Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Prize in 2011. In 2012 she won the International Robert Schumann Contest in Zwickau.

Spanish soprano Sylvia Schwartz is quickly becoming one of the most exciting lyric singers of her generation. Sylvia has appeared at many of the world’s finest opera houses and festivals including La Scala, Milan, the Berlin, Vienna and Bavarian state operas, Bolshoi and Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and the Edinburgh, Baden Baden, Salzburg and Verbier festivals. Sylvia is also much in demand in concert working with pianists such as Wolfram Rieger, Charles Spencer and Malcolm Martineau and conductors such as Abbado, Barenboim, Jordan, Jacobs, Luisi, Harnoncourt, Davis, Dudamel, Minkowski, Bolton and Hogwood. Sylvia first solo disc of Spanish Songs with Malcolm Martineau was released in February 2013 on Hyperion Records. Her future engagements include Gretel at the Teatro Real, Madrid, Zemlinsky’s Lyrische Symphonie with the Luxemburg Philharmonic, Arvo Pärt’s Como cierva sedienta with the Spanish National Orchestra, Hildegard in Emma and Eginhard at Berlin State Opera and Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem at the Cité de la Musique in Paris.

Christoph Richter is one of the leading cellists and chamber musicians in Europe who performs regularly with artists such as András Schiff, Isabelle Faust and Heinz Holliger. His strong interest in contemporary music has led him to work with composers such as Penderecki, Kurtág, Henze, Lachenmann, Holliger, Reimann and Widmann. Richter performed the complete works for cello of Brahms and Webern (2008), Beethoven (2009) and Bach (2013) in London. He is regularly invited to international festivals including Gstaad, Kuhmo, Risør, Ernen, Vicenza, Salzburg and Ittingen. Among his recordings are works by Schumann and Holliger for ECM, concertos by Klengel for CPO, Mozart’s Divertimento in E flat major K563 for Naxos and the Brahms Sextet op. 36 for Harmonia Mundi, which received the Diapason d’Or. Christoph Richter is professor of cello at the Folkwang University in Essen and teaches at the Royal Academy, the European Chamber Music Academy and ChamberStudio in London.

The Schubert Ensemble Celebrating 30 years at the forefront of British chamber music, The Schubert Ensemble is firmly established as Britain’s leading exponent of music for piano and strings. Familiar to audiences across the world, the Ensemble has been hailed for its dedication and commitment to both traditional and contemporary repertoire. It has over 80 commissions to its name, has recorded over 30 critically acclaimed CDs and is familiar to British audiences through regular broadcasts on BBC Radio 3. In 2015 the Ensemble will return to Holland, Italy, China, Bermuda and the USA, record piano quartets by Saint-Saëns and Chausson for Chandos and perform two Schumann and Fauré concerts at Wigmore Hall.

Alison Rose

studied at the Royal Northern College of Music and then on the masters programme at the Royal Academy, graduating with First Class Honours and the prestigious DipRAM. She is currently studying on the opera course at the Guildhall School with Gary Coward. Prizes include the Elena Gerhardt Lieder Prize (RAM) and second prize in the 2012 Oxford Lieder Young Artist Platform. Current and future plans include Der Hirt auf dem Felsen at the inaugural Southwell Music Festival and the role of Be ˇtuška in Dvorˇák’s The Cunning Peasant (Guildhall School Opera). Alison is also delighted to be joining The Countess of Munster Musical Trust Recital Scheme from September 2014. Alison’s studies have been generously supported by a Sybil Tutton Award administered by Help Musicians UK, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, the Grocers’ Company, the Headley Trust, the Gordon Foundation Bursary and a Help Musicians UK Licette Award.

James Sherlock

Kate Royal

won the 2004 Kathleen Ferrier Award, the 2004 John Christie Award and the 2007 Royal Philharmonic Society Young Artist Award. Opera roles include Pamina (Die Zauberflöte) for Glyndebourne and the Royal Opera House, Countess (Le nozze di Figaro) and Governess (The Turn of the Screw) for Glyndebourne on Tour, Helena (A Midsummer Night’s Dream) for Teatro Real, Madrid and Glyndebourne, Poppea for ENO, Miranda (Ades’s The Tempest) for the ROH, Handel’s L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato for Paris Opéra, Micaëla (Carmen) for Glyndebourne, the Countess for Aix-en-Provence, Euridice for the Metropolitan Opera, New York and the Marschallin for Glyndebourne. Concert engagements include the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Rattle, Scottish Chamber Orchestra under Ticciati, Rotterdam Philharmonic under NézetSéguin, Cleveland Orchestra under Welser-Möst and the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra under Harding. She has recorded three solo discs for EMI Classics: with the Academy of St Martin in the Fields and Edward Gardner; Midsummer Night; and a recital disc, A Lesson in Love, with Malcolm Martineau.

Victor Sicard

Klemens Sander studied at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. While still a student, Klemens made his debut at the Volksoper, where he is now a resident soloist. Other engagements include the Salzburg Festival, Theater an der Wien, Grand Théâtre Luxembourg, Leipzig Opera, Staatstheater Karlsruhe, Opera festival Klosterneuburg, Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa and Neue Oper Wien as well as to the National Opera Vilnius. Klemens made his Wigmore Hall debut in 2005 with Charles Spencer after being awarded the Richard Tauber Prize. Since then he has performed at the Salzburg Easter Festival, Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, Lockenhaus Chamber Music Festival, Mozarteum in Salzburg and at the Konzerthaus and Musikverein in Vienna. His CDs include recordings of Mahler, Beethoven, Fauré, Handel, Verdi and Bach. In 2013 he released a recording of Schwanengesang with pianist Justus Zeyen, followed in 2014 by a DVD of Mozart arias and duets. Future appearances include Papageno at the Volksoper, the title role in Manfred Trojahn’s Orest for Neue Oper Wien and Falke (Die Fledermaus) in Tokyo.

Nicky Spence

Maximilian Schmitt studied in Berlin and from 2005 to 2006 was a member of the Youth Ensemble at Bavarian State Opera. He made his debut at the Landestheater in Salzburg as Tamino, before becoming an ensemble member at the National Theatre in Mannheim. He has performed with Scottish Chamber Orchestra, West German Radio Symphony Orchestra, Netherlands Opera, Bregenz Festival, Grand Théâtre de Genève and Toulouse in numerous Mozart roles, including the title role in La clemenza di Tito, as well as David (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Lensky (Eugene Onegin), Telemacho (Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria), the Steersman (Die fliegende Holländer) and Leukippos (Daphne). He has worked with conductors such as Abbado, Harding, Herreweghe, Jacobs, Luisi, Norrington and Welser-Möst. He has appeared in recital throughout Europe and has recorded and sung Die schöne Müllerin with Gerold Huber. His other recordings include Die Schöpfung with Jacobs and the Matthew Passion with the Gewandhaus Orchestra and Chailly. Future engagements include the Schubertiade in Vilabertran, Heidelberg and Wigmore Hall.

Andrew Staples is considered one of the most versatile tenors of his generation. He sings regularly with Simon Rattle, Daniel Harding and Yannick Nézet-Séguin and with the Berlin Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Philadelphia Orchestra, Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and the London Symphony Orchestra. He is a regular guest at the Royal Opera House where he has sung Tamino, Narraboth (Salome) and Artabenes (Artaxerxes), as well as appearing in Salzburg, Hamburg, Brussels and Prague. His work as a director includes productions of Così fan tutte and La bohème in London and for the Menton Festival and Die Zauberflöte for the Lucerne Festival and Drottningholm with the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Daniel Harding. His recent venture, Opera for Change, has taken Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte on tour to Africa, bringing international musicians and performers together with local artists and communities.

84    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Sylvia Schwartz

performs widely as a pianist and conductor, making appearances in 2014 at Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall and at the Barbican, alongside appearances at the BBC Proms, City of London Edinburgh, Leeds International and Oxford Lieder festivals. James studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, the Guildhall School, Georg Solti Accademia and the Franz Schubert Institut with Joan Havill, Ronan O’Hora, Graham Johnson and Pamela Lidiard. He has collaborated with artists such as Angelika Kirschlager, Sarah Connolly and Benjamin Appl and performed as a soloist with the London Symphony and English Chamber orchestras. He has been a first prizewinner at the Royal Over-Seas League Music Competition, BBC Performing Arts Trust and the Award for Young Concert Artists and his recordings have won awards from Gramophone, BBC Music Magazine and International Piano Magazine. He has conducted I Fagiolini, Tenebrae, the English Chamber Orchestra, Southbank Sinfonia, Monteverdi String Band, British Youth Opera and the Forest Philharmonic. He is currently a Fellow in conducting and piano at the Guildhall School. French baritone Victor Sicard studied musicology at Tours University before training on the Opera Course of the Guildhall School and at the National Opera Studio. Already in demand on the concert platform, Victor has sung Carmina Burana, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem, Fauré’s Requiem, Mozart’s Requiem, Rossini’s Petite Messe solennelle, Haydn’s Theresienmesse and ‘Nelson’ Mass, Schubert’s Mass in A flat major, Lallement’s La Missa Gallica, Vivaldi’s Dixit Dominus, Walton’s Belshazzar’s Feast and Bach’s John Passion, Matthew Passion and Magnificat. He also performed cantatas by Montéclair and Campra at the Opéra-Comique with William Christie and Les Arts Florissants. Recent engagements include Mozart’s Requiem at the Royal Albert Hall for Raymond Gubbay, the Académie Européenne de musique du Festival d’Aix-en-Provence and his debut at the Festival de Beaune singing Elviro Serse with Riccardo Minasi. Future plans include a recital with pianist Anna Cardona in France and Spain, concerts in France, the Matthew Passion at Saffron Hall, Petite Messe solennelle and a Louis XIV project with Les Arts Florissants and William Christie. Having studied at the Guildhall School and National Opera Studio, Nicky Spence was a Harewood Artist at ENO. Following successes with ENO, WNO, Scottish Opera and Opera North, Nicky has performed at La Monnaie, Frankfurt Opera, Netherlands Opera and the Metropolitan Opera, New York. Highlights this season include David (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg) at ENO, Rodolphe (Guillaume Tell) and Mambre (Mosé in Egitto) at WNO, performances with the Tromsø Orchestra, recitals at St John’s Smith Square and the Purcell Room and Benvenuto Cellini in Amsterdam under Mark Elder. Recent concert performances include his New York recital debut with Malcolm Martineau, War Requiem at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, Tristan and Isolde with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Donald Runnicles, Finzi’s Dies Natalis with BBC Concert Orchestra and David Hill and recitals at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place and the Concertgebouw. Nicky’s debut solo recital As You Like It: Shakespeare Songs brought him critical acclaim. Future recordings include Wolf Lieder with Sholto Kynoch (Stone Records), a French recital disc with Malcolm Martineau (Chandos) and Jonathan Dove cycles (Naxos).

The Schubert Project    85


Anna Lucia Richter

often performs with renowned orchestras such as the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne, Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra, MDR Symphony Orchestra, Düsseldorf Symphony Orchestra and the WDR Radio Orchestra under Markus Stenz, Paavo and Kristjan Järvi, Marin Alsop, Helmut Froschauer and Christoph Altstaedt. Beside her wide concert repertoire she recently performed the Sandman and Dew Fairy (Hänsel und Gretel), Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) and Zerlina (Don Giovanni) at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf and Duisburg. Anna Lucia Richter is passionate about Lieder. She regularly sings recitals, including at the Kissinger Summer Festival and at the Heidelberg Spring Festival. She is accompanied by Moritz Eggert, Michael Gees, Hartmut Höll and Igor Levit. She won second prize in the junior category at the 2008 National Song Contest in Berlin, the Luitpold Prize at the Kissinger Summer Festival 2011 and the Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Prize in 2011. In 2012 she won the International Robert Schumann Contest in Zwickau.

Spanish soprano Sylvia Schwartz is quickly becoming one of the most exciting lyric singers of her generation. Sylvia has appeared at many of the world’s finest opera houses and festivals including La Scala, Milan, the Berlin, Vienna and Bavarian state operas, Bolshoi and Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and the Edinburgh, Baden Baden, Salzburg and Verbier festivals. Sylvia is also much in demand in concert working with pianists such as Wolfram Rieger, Charles Spencer and Malcolm Martineau and conductors such as Abbado, Barenboim, Jordan, Jacobs, Luisi, Harnoncourt, Davis, Dudamel, Minkowski, Bolton and Hogwood. Sylvia first solo disc of Spanish Songs with Malcolm Martineau was released in February 2013 on Hyperion Records. Her future engagements include Gretel at the Teatro Real, Madrid, Zemlinsky’s Lyrische Symphonie with the Luxemburg Philharmonic, Arvo Pärt’s Como cierva sedienta with the Spanish National Orchestra, Hildegard in Emma and Eginhard at Berlin State Opera and Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem at the Cité de la Musique in Paris.

Christoph Richter is one of the leading cellists and chamber musicians in Europe who performs regularly with artists such as András Schiff, Isabelle Faust and Heinz Holliger. His strong interest in contemporary music has led him to work with composers such as Penderecki, Kurtág, Henze, Lachenmann, Holliger, Reimann and Widmann. Richter performed the complete works for cello of Brahms and Webern (2008), Beethoven (2009) and Bach (2013) in London. He is regularly invited to international festivals including Gstaad, Kuhmo, Risør, Ernen, Vicenza, Salzburg and Ittingen. Among his recordings are works by Schumann and Holliger for ECM, concertos by Klengel for CPO, Mozart’s Divertimento in E flat major K563 for Naxos and the Brahms Sextet op. 36 for Harmonia Mundi, which received the Diapason d’Or. Christoph Richter is professor of cello at the Folkwang University in Essen and teaches at the Royal Academy, the European Chamber Music Academy and ChamberStudio in London.

The Schubert Ensemble Celebrating 30 years at the forefront of British chamber music, The Schubert Ensemble is firmly established as Britain’s leading exponent of music for piano and strings. Familiar to audiences across the world, the Ensemble has been hailed for its dedication and commitment to both traditional and contemporary repertoire. It has over 80 commissions to its name, has recorded over 30 critically acclaimed CDs and is familiar to British audiences through regular broadcasts on BBC Radio 3. In 2015 the Ensemble will return to Holland, Italy, China, Bermuda and the USA, record piano quartets by Saint-Saëns and Chausson for Chandos and perform two Schumann and Fauré concerts at Wigmore Hall.

Alison Rose

studied at the Royal Northern College of Music and then on the masters programme at the Royal Academy, graduating with First Class Honours and the prestigious DipRAM. She is currently studying on the opera course at the Guildhall School with Gary Coward. Prizes include the Elena Gerhardt Lieder Prize (RAM) and second prize in the 2012 Oxford Lieder Young Artist Platform. Current and future plans include Der Hirt auf dem Felsen at the inaugural Southwell Music Festival and the role of Be ˇtuška in Dvorˇák’s The Cunning Peasant (Guildhall School Opera). Alison is also delighted to be joining The Countess of Munster Musical Trust Recital Scheme from September 2014. Alison’s studies have been generously supported by a Sybil Tutton Award administered by Help Musicians UK, the Countess of Munster Musical Trust, the Grocers’ Company, the Headley Trust, the Gordon Foundation Bursary and a Help Musicians UK Licette Award.

James Sherlock

Kate Royal

won the 2004 Kathleen Ferrier Award, the 2004 John Christie Award and the 2007 Royal Philharmonic Society Young Artist Award. Opera roles include Pamina (Die Zauberflöte) for Glyndebourne and the Royal Opera House, Countess (Le nozze di Figaro) and Governess (The Turn of the Screw) for Glyndebourne on Tour, Helena (A Midsummer Night’s Dream) for Teatro Real, Madrid and Glyndebourne, Poppea for ENO, Miranda (Ades’s The Tempest) for the ROH, Handel’s L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato for Paris Opéra, Micaëla (Carmen) for Glyndebourne, the Countess for Aix-en-Provence, Euridice for the Metropolitan Opera, New York and the Marschallin for Glyndebourne. Concert engagements include the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Rattle, Scottish Chamber Orchestra under Ticciati, Rotterdam Philharmonic under NézetSéguin, Cleveland Orchestra under Welser-Möst and the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra under Harding. She has recorded three solo discs for EMI Classics: with the Academy of St Martin in the Fields and Edward Gardner; Midsummer Night; and a recital disc, A Lesson in Love, with Malcolm Martineau.

Victor Sicard

Klemens Sander studied at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. While still a student, Klemens made his debut at the Volksoper, where he is now a resident soloist. Other engagements include the Salzburg Festival, Theater an der Wien, Grand Théâtre Luxembourg, Leipzig Opera, Staatstheater Karlsruhe, Opera festival Klosterneuburg, Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa and Neue Oper Wien as well as to the National Opera Vilnius. Klemens made his Wigmore Hall debut in 2005 with Charles Spencer after being awarded the Richard Tauber Prize. Since then he has performed at the Salzburg Easter Festival, Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, Lockenhaus Chamber Music Festival, Mozarteum in Salzburg and at the Konzerthaus and Musikverein in Vienna. His CDs include recordings of Mahler, Beethoven, Fauré, Handel, Verdi and Bach. In 2013 he released a recording of Schwanengesang with pianist Justus Zeyen, followed in 2014 by a DVD of Mozart arias and duets. Future appearances include Papageno at the Volksoper, the title role in Manfred Trojahn’s Orest for Neue Oper Wien and Falke (Die Fledermaus) in Tokyo.

Nicky Spence

Maximilian Schmitt studied in Berlin and from 2005 to 2006 was a member of the Youth Ensemble at Bavarian State Opera. He made his debut at the Landestheater in Salzburg as Tamino, before becoming an ensemble member at the National Theatre in Mannheim. He has performed with Scottish Chamber Orchestra, West German Radio Symphony Orchestra, Netherlands Opera, Bregenz Festival, Grand Théâtre de Genève and Toulouse in numerous Mozart roles, including the title role in La clemenza di Tito, as well as David (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Lensky (Eugene Onegin), Telemacho (Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria), the Steersman (Die fliegende Holländer) and Leukippos (Daphne). He has worked with conductors such as Abbado, Harding, Herreweghe, Jacobs, Luisi, Norrington and Welser-Möst. He has appeared in recital throughout Europe and has recorded and sung Die schöne Müllerin with Gerold Huber. His other recordings include Die Schöpfung with Jacobs and the Matthew Passion with the Gewandhaus Orchestra and Chailly. Future engagements include the Schubertiade in Vilabertran, Heidelberg and Wigmore Hall.

Andrew Staples is considered one of the most versatile tenors of his generation. He sings regularly with Simon Rattle, Daniel Harding and Yannick Nézet-Séguin and with the Berlin Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Philadelphia Orchestra, Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and the London Symphony Orchestra. He is a regular guest at the Royal Opera House where he has sung Tamino, Narraboth (Salome) and Artabenes (Artaxerxes), as well as appearing in Salzburg, Hamburg, Brussels and Prague. His work as a director includes productions of Così fan tutte and La bohème in London and for the Menton Festival and Die Zauberflöte for the Lucerne Festival and Drottningholm with the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Daniel Harding. His recent venture, Opera for Change, has taken Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte on tour to Africa, bringing international musicians and performers together with local artists and communities.

84    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Sylvia Schwartz

performs widely as a pianist and conductor, making appearances in 2014 at Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall and at the Barbican, alongside appearances at the BBC Proms, City of London Edinburgh, Leeds International and Oxford Lieder festivals. James studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, the Guildhall School, Georg Solti Accademia and the Franz Schubert Institut with Joan Havill, Ronan O’Hora, Graham Johnson and Pamela Lidiard. He has collaborated with artists such as Angelika Kirschlager, Sarah Connolly and Benjamin Appl and performed as a soloist with the London Symphony and English Chamber orchestras. He has been a first prizewinner at the Royal Over-Seas League Music Competition, BBC Performing Arts Trust and the Award for Young Concert Artists and his recordings have won awards from Gramophone, BBC Music Magazine and International Piano Magazine. He has conducted I Fagiolini, Tenebrae, the English Chamber Orchestra, Southbank Sinfonia, Monteverdi String Band, British Youth Opera and the Forest Philharmonic. He is currently a Fellow in conducting and piano at the Guildhall School. French baritone Victor Sicard studied musicology at Tours University before training on the Opera Course of the Guildhall School and at the National Opera Studio. Already in demand on the concert platform, Victor has sung Carmina Burana, Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem, Fauré’s Requiem, Mozart’s Requiem, Rossini’s Petite Messe solennelle, Haydn’s Theresienmesse and ‘Nelson’ Mass, Schubert’s Mass in A flat major, Lallement’s La Missa Gallica, Vivaldi’s Dixit Dominus, Walton’s Belshazzar’s Feast and Bach’s John Passion, Matthew Passion and Magnificat. He also performed cantatas by Montéclair and Campra at the Opéra-Comique with William Christie and Les Arts Florissants. Recent engagements include Mozart’s Requiem at the Royal Albert Hall for Raymond Gubbay, the Académie Européenne de musique du Festival d’Aix-en-Provence and his debut at the Festival de Beaune singing Elviro Serse with Riccardo Minasi. Future plans include a recital with pianist Anna Cardona in France and Spain, concerts in France, the Matthew Passion at Saffron Hall, Petite Messe solennelle and a Louis XIV project with Les Arts Florissants and William Christie. Having studied at the Guildhall School and National Opera Studio, Nicky Spence was a Harewood Artist at ENO. Following successes with ENO, WNO, Scottish Opera and Opera North, Nicky has performed at La Monnaie, Frankfurt Opera, Netherlands Opera and the Metropolitan Opera, New York. Highlights this season include David (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg) at ENO, Rodolphe (Guillaume Tell) and Mambre (Mosé in Egitto) at WNO, performances with the Tromsø Orchestra, recitals at St John’s Smith Square and the Purcell Room and Benvenuto Cellini in Amsterdam under Mark Elder. Recent concert performances include his New York recital debut with Malcolm Martineau, War Requiem at the Konzerthaus in Berlin, Tristan and Isolde with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Donald Runnicles, Finzi’s Dies Natalis with BBC Concert Orchestra and David Hill and recitals at Wigmore Hall, Kings Place and the Concertgebouw. Nicky’s debut solo recital As You Like It: Shakespeare Songs brought him critical acclaim. Future recordings include Wolf Lieder with Sholto Kynoch (Stone Records), a French recital disc with Malcolm Martineau (Chandos) and Jonathan Dove cycles (Naxos).

The Schubert Project    85


Birgid Steinberger

Born in Burghausen in Bavaria, Birgid Steinberger studied in Salzburg, Hanover and Basel. After engagements at Basel Opera she became a member of the ensemble of the Vienna State Opera and Volksoper, where she performs in opera and operetta in roles such as Mozart’s Pamina, Susanna, Despina, Zerlina and Servilia, as Ännchen (Der Freischütz), Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) and Adele (Die Fledermaus), Valencienne (Die lustige Witwe), Christel (Der Vogelhändler), Adina (L’elisir d’amore) and Titania (A Midsummer Night’s Dream). She has performed at the Bregenz Festival, Schubertiade in Feldkirch and the Seefestspiele Mörbisch, as well as a number of appearances at the Berlin State Opera, Deutsche Oper Berlin and the Bavarian State Opera in Munich. Birgid Steinberger has earned international reputation as a song interpreter and has performed in Vienna and Paris, at Wigmore Hall and in St Petersburg, Stuttgart, Cologne, Helsingborg and Lisbon. Birgid Steinberger is professor of song and oratorio at the Vienna Conservatory and professor at the University of Music and Performing Arts. She was named Kammersängerin in 2009.

Mark van de Wiel is principal clarinettist with the Philharmonia Orchestra (since 2000) and is also principal with the London Sinfonietta (since 2002), London Chamber Orchestra (since 1997) and Endymion. He works closely with leading composers and conductors and has given many world and UK premieres as a soloist, including works by Carter, Maxwell Davies and Birtwistle. As a soloist and chamber musician Mark has collaborated with artists such as Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yefim Bronfman, Pascal Rogé, JeanLouis Steuerman and the Brodsky and Dante quartets. Mark van de Wiel was born in Northampton and studied at Oxford and the Royal College. He is much in demand as a teacher and has recently given masterclasses in Brazil, Poland and the UK. Mark has been awarded an Honorary Associateship by the Royal Academy, where he is a professor, and an Honorary Doctorate by Northampton University.

Richard Stokes is Professor of Lieder at the Royal Academy. For the operatic stage he has translated Wozzeck and La Voix humaine (Opera North) and Parsifal, Lulu, L’Amour de loin and Jakob Lenz (ENO). His books include The Spanish Song Companion with Jacqueline Cockburn and J.S. Bach – The Complete Cantatas (Scarecrow Press), A French Song Companion with Graham Johnson (OUP) and The Book of Lieder (Faber). He collaborated on Alfred Brendel’s Collected Poems: Playing the Human Game (Phaidon). His translations of Kafka’s Metamorphosis and The Trial have been published by Hesperus Press and Alma Books published his translation (with Hannah Stokes) of Kafka’s Letter to his Father. His translation of Jules Renard’s Histoires naturelles was published by One World Books. Richard Stokes was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2012.

William Vann

Mark Stone studied at the Guildhall School. In 1998 he was awarded the Decca Prize at the Kathleen Ferrier Awards. He recently sang the title role in Don Giovanni at Berlin State Opera and New Zealand Oper and the Count (Le nozze di Figaro) at Tampere Opera. Future roles include the Count at Hamburg Opera and Storch (Intermezzo) at Garsington. In the 2013/14 season he appeared in concert with the LPO under Jurowski, RPO under Greenwood, Basel Chamber Orchestra under Goodwin, Sao Paulo State Symphony under Antunes, Orchestre Dijon Bourgogne under Madaras, Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra and CBSO under Storgårds, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra under Manze and the Rotterdam Philharmonic under Gaffigan. A keen recitalist, he has sung at Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall, St John’s Smith Square, the Oxford Lieder Festival and at the Canterbury and Buxton festivals.

Roger Vignoles

Anna Tilbrook

has collaborated with many leading singers and instrumentalists including James Gilchrist, Ian Bostridge, Lucy Crowe, Mark Padmore, Barbara Hannigan, Willard White, Nicholas Daniel, Natalie Clein and the Fitzwilliam, Sacconi, Elias and Coull quartets. Since her debut at the Wigmore Hall in 1999 she has become a regular artist at all the leading concert halls and festivals. She has also accompanied José Carreras, Angela Georghiu and Bryn Terfel in televised concerts. Recent performances include her Carnegie Hall debut with Lucy Crowe, Wigmore Hall, St John’s Smith Square, Aldeburgh, Buxton, Cheltenham, Oxford Lieder and Three Choirs festivals, Alte Oper Frankfurt, Anima Mundi in Pisa, Wrocław Cantans and the Perth Schubertiad. She and James Gilchrist have recorded Die schöne Mullerin (Editor’s Choice in Gramophone), Schwanengesang, along with Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte, and Winterreise. They recently recorded a disc of Schumann song cycles, due for release in 2015. Anna studied at the University of York and the Royal Academy, where she was made an Associate in 2009.

Mark Viner is recognized as one of the most exciting British concert pianists of his generation and is becoming increasingly well known for his bold championing of unfamiliar pianistic terrain. He studied at the Purcell School of Music and the Royal College where his principal teachers included Tessa Nicholson and Niel Immelman. Having won first prize at the C.V. Alkan – P. J. G. Zimmerman International Piano Competition in Athens in 2012, his international engagements have flourished, he has been broadcast on German Radio and been invited to the Oxford Lieder Festival, Cheltenham Music Festival, ProPiano Hamburg and Husum Rarities of Piano Music in Germany. Last year he was invited to play for the Prince of Wales’s visit to hometown of Oxford. Due to his close association with unjustly neglected areas of the piano literature, he was recently elected Chairman of the Alkan Society.

Ian Tindale read music at Selwyn College, Cambridge and graduated in 2011 with a double first. He subsequently completed the Master of Performance course in piano accompaniment at the Royal College with distinction, having studied with John Blakely, Simon Lepper and Roger Vignoles. Ian was a Junior Fellow in Accompaniment at the RCM for 2013/14. Ian won several accompaniment prizes at the RCM and in addition he was awarded the MBF Accompanists’ Prize (Maggie Teyte Competition) and the Association of English Singers and Speakers Accompanists’ Prize in 2013. In September 2012 Ian was named joint winner of the Gerald Moore Award. He has recently performed at venues across London, including Wigmore Hall, the National Gallery and Cadogan Hall. As a répétiteur Ian has worked with Cambridge Handel Opera, British Youth Opera, English National Ballet and, most recently, Ryedale Festival Opera.

Håkan Vramsmo

Laura Tunbridge has just joined the University of Oxford as Associate Professor in Music and Tutorial Fellow at St Catherine’s College. She previously taught at the universities of Manchester and Reading, having gained her PhD from Princeton in 2002. Laura’s publications include Schumann’s Late Style (2007), the co-edited collection Rethinking Schumann (2011) and The Song Cycle (2011), an introduction to the genre from Beethoven to the present day. She is currently completing a book about Lieder singers in London and New York between the Wars. Associated articles, about Frieda Hempel’s recreation of concerts by Jenny Lind and about the politics of singing Lieder in translation, have appeared in the Journal of the American Musicological Society and in Representations (both summer 2013). Laura regularly presents pre-concert talks and study days, including recently for the Hallé, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, BBC Proms and Oxford Lieder Festival.

Sarah Walker began her musical life as a violinist and cellist at the Royal College and subsequently began studying with the celebrated Hungarian voice teacher Vera Rozsa, with whom she built up an extraordinarily wide repertoire from Bach to Berio and beyond. As well as a legion of operatic roles, she has an encyclopaedic recital and recording repertoire, performing in concert halls and opera houses around the world, taking part in such landmark events as Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony under Bernstein to mark the fall of the Berlin Wall, Pavarotti’s 60th birthday performances at the Metropolitan Opera, New York and the Last Night of the Proms with her two unforgettable Union Flag-draped appearances as Britannia. Sarah’s greatest love has always been song and the overwhelming success of her Wigmore Hall debut established her as a recitalist of supreme excellence whose wide repertoire and artistry is reflected in numerous recordings. She was appointed CBE in 1991.

86    The Oxford Lieder Festival

returns to the Oxford Lieder Festival, having attended the mastercourse in 2007 and subsequently performed in 2012. He has recently been made an Associate of the Royal Academy in recognition of his services to the music profession and has been awarded many prestigious prizes for his piano accompaniment, including the 2013 Wigmore Song Competition Jean Meikle Prize for a Duo (with Johnny Herford), the Hodgson Fellowship at the RAM, the Gerald Moore Award and the Royal Over-Seas League Accompanists’ Award. He has performed in all the major recital halls in the UK and in Nigeria, Germany, Sweden and Ireland. Singers he has accompanied in recital include Thomas Allen, Ann Murray, James Gilchrist and Njabulo Madlala, with whom he released his first recording last year on the Champs Hill label. He is also the Founder and Artistic Director of the London English Song Festival and Director of Music at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea.

Pianist Roger Vignoles has collaborated with such leading singers as Elisabeth Söderström, Kiri Te Kanawa, Thomas Allen, Barbara Bonney, Kathleen Battle, Christine Brewer, Brigitte Fassbaender, Bernarda Fink, Susan Graham, Thomas Hampson, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, Felicity Lott, Mark Padmore, John Mark Ainsley, Roderick Williams, Joan Rodgers, Sarah Walker, Measha Brueggergosman and Kate Royal. Vignoles has received much acclaim for his survey of Strauss’s complete songs for Hyperion. Other recent and forthcoming recordings include discs of Schubert and Loewe songs with Florian Boesch and Tomášek songs with Renata Pokupic´ for Hyperion, Wolf’s Italienisches Liederbuch with Joan Rodgers and Roderick Williams for Champs Hill and Britten: Before Life and After with Mark Padmore on Harmonia Mundi (which received the Diapason d’Or and Prix Caecilia awards in 2009). Forthcoming highlights include recitals with Marita Sølberg, Joan Rodgers, Renata Pokupic, Christopher Maltman, Marie-Nicole Lemieux, John Mark Ainsley, Mark Padmore, Florian Boesch, Roderick Williams and Dmitry Sitkovetsk.

A graduate of the Guildhall School, Håkan Vramsmo has appeared at major venues and festivals including the opening night of the BBC Proms, Wigmore Hall, Bridgewater Hall, Concertgebouw, Stuttgart Liederhalle, Sibeliusacademin, Aldeburgh, Bath and Cheltenham with pianists such as Iain Burnside, Julius Drake, Graham Johnson, Roger Vignoles, Llyˆr Williams and Andrew West. He has recorded songs by Finzi, Barber and Schubert for the BBC, Private Joe by Panufnik for Polish Radio, the B minor Mass on Signum Records and Elisabeth Maconchy’s opera The Departure for Chandos Records. His operatic roles include Tarquinius in the Hungarian premiere of The Rape of Lucretia, Don Giovanni with ETO, Eugene Onegin with Kentish Opera and he created Axel in Meredith’s Tarantula in Petrol Blue, Carl in ColeridgeTaylor’s Thelma and Pascoe in Huw Watkins’s In the Locked Room. Håkan teaches singing at City Lit and is invited to masterclasses at the Brussels Conservatory.

The Schubert Project    87


Birgid Steinberger

Born in Burghausen in Bavaria, Birgid Steinberger studied in Salzburg, Hanover and Basel. After engagements at Basel Opera she became a member of the ensemble of the Vienna State Opera and Volksoper, where she performs in opera and operetta in roles such as Mozart’s Pamina, Susanna, Despina, Zerlina and Servilia, as Ännchen (Der Freischütz), Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) and Adele (Die Fledermaus), Valencienne (Die lustige Witwe), Christel (Der Vogelhändler), Adina (L’elisir d’amore) and Titania (A Midsummer Night’s Dream). She has performed at the Bregenz Festival, Schubertiade in Feldkirch and the Seefestspiele Mörbisch, as well as a number of appearances at the Berlin State Opera, Deutsche Oper Berlin and the Bavarian State Opera in Munich. Birgid Steinberger has earned international reputation as a song interpreter and has performed in Vienna and Paris, at Wigmore Hall and in St Petersburg, Stuttgart, Cologne, Helsingborg and Lisbon. Birgid Steinberger is professor of song and oratorio at the Vienna Conservatory and professor at the University of Music and Performing Arts. She was named Kammersängerin in 2009.

Mark van de Wiel is principal clarinettist with the Philharmonia Orchestra (since 2000) and is also principal with the London Sinfonietta (since 2002), London Chamber Orchestra (since 1997) and Endymion. He works closely with leading composers and conductors and has given many world and UK premieres as a soloist, including works by Carter, Maxwell Davies and Birtwistle. As a soloist and chamber musician Mark has collaborated with artists such as Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yefim Bronfman, Pascal Rogé, JeanLouis Steuerman and the Brodsky and Dante quartets. Mark van de Wiel was born in Northampton and studied at Oxford and the Royal College. He is much in demand as a teacher and has recently given masterclasses in Brazil, Poland and the UK. Mark has been awarded an Honorary Associateship by the Royal Academy, where he is a professor, and an Honorary Doctorate by Northampton University.

Richard Stokes is Professor of Lieder at the Royal Academy. For the operatic stage he has translated Wozzeck and La Voix humaine (Opera North) and Parsifal, Lulu, L’Amour de loin and Jakob Lenz (ENO). His books include The Spanish Song Companion with Jacqueline Cockburn and J.S. Bach – The Complete Cantatas (Scarecrow Press), A French Song Companion with Graham Johnson (OUP) and The Book of Lieder (Faber). He collaborated on Alfred Brendel’s Collected Poems: Playing the Human Game (Phaidon). His translations of Kafka’s Metamorphosis and The Trial have been published by Hesperus Press and Alma Books published his translation (with Hannah Stokes) of Kafka’s Letter to his Father. His translation of Jules Renard’s Histoires naturelles was published by One World Books. Richard Stokes was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2012.

William Vann

Mark Stone studied at the Guildhall School. In 1998 he was awarded the Decca Prize at the Kathleen Ferrier Awards. He recently sang the title role in Don Giovanni at Berlin State Opera and New Zealand Oper and the Count (Le nozze di Figaro) at Tampere Opera. Future roles include the Count at Hamburg Opera and Storch (Intermezzo) at Garsington. In the 2013/14 season he appeared in concert with the LPO under Jurowski, RPO under Greenwood, Basel Chamber Orchestra under Goodwin, Sao Paulo State Symphony under Antunes, Orchestre Dijon Bourgogne under Madaras, Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra and CBSO under Storgårds, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra under Manze and the Rotterdam Philharmonic under Gaffigan. A keen recitalist, he has sung at Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall, St John’s Smith Square, the Oxford Lieder Festival and at the Canterbury and Buxton festivals.

Roger Vignoles

Anna Tilbrook

has collaborated with many leading singers and instrumentalists including James Gilchrist, Ian Bostridge, Lucy Crowe, Mark Padmore, Barbara Hannigan, Willard White, Nicholas Daniel, Natalie Clein and the Fitzwilliam, Sacconi, Elias and Coull quartets. Since her debut at the Wigmore Hall in 1999 she has become a regular artist at all the leading concert halls and festivals. She has also accompanied José Carreras, Angela Georghiu and Bryn Terfel in televised concerts. Recent performances include her Carnegie Hall debut with Lucy Crowe, Wigmore Hall, St John’s Smith Square, Aldeburgh, Buxton, Cheltenham, Oxford Lieder and Three Choirs festivals, Alte Oper Frankfurt, Anima Mundi in Pisa, Wrocław Cantans and the Perth Schubertiad. She and James Gilchrist have recorded Die schöne Mullerin (Editor’s Choice in Gramophone), Schwanengesang, along with Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte, and Winterreise. They recently recorded a disc of Schumann song cycles, due for release in 2015. Anna studied at the University of York and the Royal Academy, where she was made an Associate in 2009.

Mark Viner is recognized as one of the most exciting British concert pianists of his generation and is becoming increasingly well known for his bold championing of unfamiliar pianistic terrain. He studied at the Purcell School of Music and the Royal College where his principal teachers included Tessa Nicholson and Niel Immelman. Having won first prize at the C.V. Alkan – P. J. G. Zimmerman International Piano Competition in Athens in 2012, his international engagements have flourished, he has been broadcast on German Radio and been invited to the Oxford Lieder Festival, Cheltenham Music Festival, ProPiano Hamburg and Husum Rarities of Piano Music in Germany. Last year he was invited to play for the Prince of Wales’s visit to hometown of Oxford. Due to his close association with unjustly neglected areas of the piano literature, he was recently elected Chairman of the Alkan Society.

Ian Tindale read music at Selwyn College, Cambridge and graduated in 2011 with a double first. He subsequently completed the Master of Performance course in piano accompaniment at the Royal College with distinction, having studied with John Blakely, Simon Lepper and Roger Vignoles. Ian was a Junior Fellow in Accompaniment at the RCM for 2013/14. Ian won several accompaniment prizes at the RCM and in addition he was awarded the MBF Accompanists’ Prize (Maggie Teyte Competition) and the Association of English Singers and Speakers Accompanists’ Prize in 2013. In September 2012 Ian was named joint winner of the Gerald Moore Award. He has recently performed at venues across London, including Wigmore Hall, the National Gallery and Cadogan Hall. As a répétiteur Ian has worked with Cambridge Handel Opera, British Youth Opera, English National Ballet and, most recently, Ryedale Festival Opera.

Håkan Vramsmo

Laura Tunbridge has just joined the University of Oxford as Associate Professor in Music and Tutorial Fellow at St Catherine’s College. She previously taught at the universities of Manchester and Reading, having gained her PhD from Princeton in 2002. Laura’s publications include Schumann’s Late Style (2007), the co-edited collection Rethinking Schumann (2011) and The Song Cycle (2011), an introduction to the genre from Beethoven to the present day. She is currently completing a book about Lieder singers in London and New York between the Wars. Associated articles, about Frieda Hempel’s recreation of concerts by Jenny Lind and about the politics of singing Lieder in translation, have appeared in the Journal of the American Musicological Society and in Representations (both summer 2013). Laura regularly presents pre-concert talks and study days, including recently for the Hallé, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, BBC Proms and Oxford Lieder Festival.

Sarah Walker began her musical life as a violinist and cellist at the Royal College and subsequently began studying with the celebrated Hungarian voice teacher Vera Rozsa, with whom she built up an extraordinarily wide repertoire from Bach to Berio and beyond. As well as a legion of operatic roles, she has an encyclopaedic recital and recording repertoire, performing in concert halls and opera houses around the world, taking part in such landmark events as Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony under Bernstein to mark the fall of the Berlin Wall, Pavarotti’s 60th birthday performances at the Metropolitan Opera, New York and the Last Night of the Proms with her two unforgettable Union Flag-draped appearances as Britannia. Sarah’s greatest love has always been song and the overwhelming success of her Wigmore Hall debut established her as a recitalist of supreme excellence whose wide repertoire and artistry is reflected in numerous recordings. She was appointed CBE in 1991.

86    The Oxford Lieder Festival

returns to the Oxford Lieder Festival, having attended the mastercourse in 2007 and subsequently performed in 2012. He has recently been made an Associate of the Royal Academy in recognition of his services to the music profession and has been awarded many prestigious prizes for his piano accompaniment, including the 2013 Wigmore Song Competition Jean Meikle Prize for a Duo (with Johnny Herford), the Hodgson Fellowship at the RAM, the Gerald Moore Award and the Royal Over-Seas League Accompanists’ Award. He has performed in all the major recital halls in the UK and in Nigeria, Germany, Sweden and Ireland. Singers he has accompanied in recital include Thomas Allen, Ann Murray, James Gilchrist and Njabulo Madlala, with whom he released his first recording last year on the Champs Hill label. He is also the Founder and Artistic Director of the London English Song Festival and Director of Music at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea.

Pianist Roger Vignoles has collaborated with such leading singers as Elisabeth Söderström, Kiri Te Kanawa, Thomas Allen, Barbara Bonney, Kathleen Battle, Christine Brewer, Brigitte Fassbaender, Bernarda Fink, Susan Graham, Thomas Hampson, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, Felicity Lott, Mark Padmore, John Mark Ainsley, Roderick Williams, Joan Rodgers, Sarah Walker, Measha Brueggergosman and Kate Royal. Vignoles has received much acclaim for his survey of Strauss’s complete songs for Hyperion. Other recent and forthcoming recordings include discs of Schubert and Loewe songs with Florian Boesch and Tomášek songs with Renata Pokupic´ for Hyperion, Wolf’s Italienisches Liederbuch with Joan Rodgers and Roderick Williams for Champs Hill and Britten: Before Life and After with Mark Padmore on Harmonia Mundi (which received the Diapason d’Or and Prix Caecilia awards in 2009). Forthcoming highlights include recitals with Marita Sølberg, Joan Rodgers, Renata Pokupic, Christopher Maltman, Marie-Nicole Lemieux, John Mark Ainsley, Mark Padmore, Florian Boesch, Roderick Williams and Dmitry Sitkovetsk.

A graduate of the Guildhall School, Håkan Vramsmo has appeared at major venues and festivals including the opening night of the BBC Proms, Wigmore Hall, Bridgewater Hall, Concertgebouw, Stuttgart Liederhalle, Sibeliusacademin, Aldeburgh, Bath and Cheltenham with pianists such as Iain Burnside, Julius Drake, Graham Johnson, Roger Vignoles, Llyˆr Williams and Andrew West. He has recorded songs by Finzi, Barber and Schubert for the BBC, Private Joe by Panufnik for Polish Radio, the B minor Mass on Signum Records and Elisabeth Maconchy’s opera The Departure for Chandos Records. His operatic roles include Tarquinius in the Hungarian premiere of The Rape of Lucretia, Don Giovanni with ETO, Eugene Onegin with Kentish Opera and he created Axel in Meredith’s Tarantula in Petrol Blue, Carl in ColeridgeTaylor’s Thelma and Pascoe in Huw Watkins’s In the Locked Room. Håkan teaches singing at City Lit and is invited to masterclasses at the Brussels Conservatory.

The Schubert Project    87


Manuel Walser Swiss baritone Manuel Walser has been studying singing since October 2008 with Thomas Quasthoff at the Hanns Eisler Academy of Music in Berlin. He won both the first prize and the audience prize at the 2013 International Das Lied Song Competition in Berlin and also won two jury prizes at the Stella Maris International Song Competition and an award from the Armin Weltner Foundation. Manuel Walser gives regular Lieder recitals with Anano Gokieli and Alexander Fleischer at festivals such as the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the Schubertiade in Hohenems. In 2012 Manuel Walser performed Bach’s Ich habe genug at the Verbier Festival and in September 2013 he sang Schubert songs with the Camerata Salzburg. In autumn 2014 he will make debut at the Lucerne Festival. During the 2013/14 season he held a scholarship with Vienna State Opera, singing Fiorello (Il barbiere di Siviglia) and Marullo (Rigoletto). He was a member of the Young Singers Project at the 2014 Salzburg Festival where he sang Brutamonte in Fierrabras.

Belinda Williams London-born mezzo-soprano Belinda Williams gave her debut Wigmore Hall recital in 2010 as a Tillett Trust Young Artist. In 2012, shortly after graduating with distinction from the Royal Academy Opera Course, where she studied with Ryland Davies, Belinda made her European debut as Dorabella at Kassel State Theatre. Her success in Così fan tutte led to a place as house soloist and a Best Newcomer Award, with subsequent and future roles including Orlofsky, Maddalena, Annina, Hänsel, Cherubino, Angelina, Olga and Rosina. As a recitalist Belinda has performed at the Purcell Room, Bergamo Festival, St Martin in the Fields, Stadthalle in Bayreuth, Queen Elizabeth Hall, Holywell Music Room, Wigmore Hall, Cheltenham Festival, Estonian National Concert Hall, Buxton Festival and Handel House. Belinda works regularly with David Owen Norris, with whom she has explored the songs of Quilter, Sullivan and Elgar.

John Warren was Head of Austrian and German Studies at what is now Oxford Brookes University. Having written a dissertation on Schubert’s friend, Eduard von Bauernfeld, he specialized in Austrian culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, giving talks on BBC Radio 3 and illustrated lectures on the landscape painting of the Austrian Biedermeier on the South Bank and at the Ryedale Festival and to the National Youth Orchestra. He has organized many academic conferences on Austrian topics as well as published articles and conference papers. He has given several pre-concert talks about the authors set by Schubert for the Oxford Lieder Festival and is looking forward to contributing to this year’s Festival.

Roderick Williams

Richard Watkins

was Principal Horn of the Philharmonia Orchestra for 12 years. He is currently a member of the Nash Ensemble and a founder member of London Winds. He has appeared at many of the world’s most prestigious venues and worked with conductors such as Giulini, Sawallisch, Salonen, Slatkin, Sinopoli, Rozhdestvensky, Petrenko, Davis and Elder. He has an extensive discography and his forthcoming releases include a disc for NMC of works written for Watkins, a Wigmore Live Disc of the Britten canticles with Mark Padmore, Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings with Allan Clayton and Aldeburgh Strings and Edward Gregson’s Horn Concerto with the BBC Philharmonic for Chandos. Richard regularly performs with singers such as John Mark Ainsley, Ian Bostridge and Mark Padmore and with pianists including Barry Douglas, Julius Drake, Paul Lewis, Roger Vignoles and Ian Brown. He holds the Dennis Brain Chair of Horn Playing at the Royal Academy, where he is also a Fellow.

Fflur Wyn

Katherine Watson graduated in 2008 from Trinity College, Cambridge where she was a choral scholar. As a prolific concert artist Katherine has worked with a number of eminent conductors including Stephen Layton, Nicholas Kraemer, Stephen Cleobury, Jonathan Cohen, Paul Agnew, Emmanuelle Haïm, Harry Bickett, Roger Norrington, Laurence Cummings and Philip Pickett. Recent engagements include Apollo e Dafne with Arcangelo at Zanker Hall, New York, Messiah in Seville, with the Hallé at Bridgewater Hall under Howarth, with Polyphony under Layton at St John’s Smith Square and Versailles with The Sixteen and Harry Christophers, Scarlatti’s Christmas Cantata with Norrington and a programme of Monteverdi and a tour of Rameau arias in Asia, both with Haïm. Forthcoming engagements include a tour of the Christmas Oratorio with Rousset and of Rameau’s Grands Motets with Niquet and Christie. Plans for 2015 include Dardanus for Opéra de Bordeaux and the title role in Handel’s Theodora at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées with Les Arts Florissants and Christie.

Susan Youens

Andrew West

In recent years Andrew West has accompanied world premiere performances of cycles by Alexander Goehr (with Roderick Williams) and Thomas Larcher and Harrison Birtwistle (both with Mark Padmore). The Birtwistle cycle, Songs from the Same Earth, was commissioned by the Aldeburgh Festival and repeated this year at the Concertgebouw and Wigmore Hall. Andrew West is Artistic Director of the Nuremberg Chamber Music Festival. The 13th Festival took place last month and featured the music of Hans Werner Henze, including his Six Songs from the Arabian with Mark Padmore, which the pair will perform for Oxford Lieder in February 2015. Other highlights this year include a performance of Brahms’s First Piano Concerto under Ryan Wigglesworth at the Endellion Festival in Cornwall and a recording of Die schöne Müllerin with Robert Murray for Stone Records.

Justus Zeyen

Mark Wilde was born in Scotland and was a chorister at Dundee Cathedral. He went on to study at the University of East Anglia and the Royal College. In 2000 Mark made his Glyndebourne debut as Ferrando (Così fan Tutte) and appeared as Second Soldier in Stephen Pimlott’s highly acclaimed production of L’incoronazione di Poppea at ENO. Since then he has appeared regularly in opera across Europe and the UK. As an enthusiastic recitalist Mark has worked with Carlo Rizzi, Malcolm Martineau and Andrew West. Recent engagements include the title role in Albert Herring for English Touring Opera, Messiah with Oxford Philomusica, the John Passion in Winchester Cathedral, Pedrillo (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) for Garsington, Britten’s Spring Symphony for the Ural Philharmonic Orchestra in Ekaterinburg, a Britten, Vaughan Williams and Maurice Ohana recital (Musica Sacra Maastricht), Inkslinger (Paul Bunyan) for English Touring Opera and Binet (Vert Vert) for Garsington.

Cecilia Zilliacus

88    The Oxford Lieder Festival

enjoys relationships with all the major UK opera houses and is particularly associated with the baritone roles in Mozart’s operas. He has also sung world premieres of operas by David Sawer, Sally Beamish, Michael van der Aa, Robert Saxton and Alexander Knaifel. Roderick Williams has appeared with all the BBC orchestras and many other orchestras and ensembles internationally. His festival appearances include the BBC Proms, Edinburgh, Cheltenham, Aldeburgh and Melbourne. Recent and future engagements include Don Alfonso (Così fan tutte) for ENO, Van der Aa’s After Life at Melbourne State Theatre and Sunken Garden at Opéra de Lyon, the title role in Billy Budd for Nationale Reisopera, Ned Keene (Peter Grimes) with the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome and Last Night of the 2014 BBC Proms. He is an accomplished recital artist and has been heard at venues and festivals such as Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, LSO St Luke’s and the Musikverein in Vienna. He will be Artistic Director of Leeds Lieder+ in April 2016.

Having already gained wide acclaim for her performances on the operatic stage as well as the concert platform, Welsh soprano Fflur Wyn is quickly establishing herself as one of the country’s foremost young singers. Recently elected Associate of the Royal Academy, she is a recipient of the Kathleen Ferrier Bursary and the Bryn Terfel Scholarship. Her operatic performances include Iphis (Jephtha), Jemmy (Guillaume Tell) and Blonde (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) for WNO, Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) and Daughter (Au Monde) for La Monnaie, the title role in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Pamina for Opera Holland Park, Sophie (Werther), Marzelline (Fidelio), Blue Fairy (Pinocchio), Servilia (La clemenza di Tito) and Woodbird (Siegfried) for Opera North and the Governess (The Turn of the Screw) in Mexico. Her most recent recitals include performances at Kings Place, St John’s Smith Square, Wilton’s Music Hall, Howard Assembly Room and the Oxford Lieder Festival. Future engagements include performances at the Opéra- Comique.

received her PhD from Harvard University and is the J.W. Van Gorkom Professor of Music at the University of Notre Dame. She is the author of eight books, including Retracing a Winter’s Journey: Schubert’s Winterreise (Cornell UP), Schubert’s poets and the making of Lieder (Cambridge UP), Hugo Wolf and his Mörike Songs (Cambridge UP), Heinrich Heine and the Lied (Cambridge UP) and Schubert, Müller, and Die schöne Müllerin (Cambridge UP), as well as over 50 scholarly articles. She is a recipient of fellowships from the Humboldt Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, Guggenheim Foundation and the National Humanities Center and has taught at the Steans Institute for Young Artists/Ravinia Festival and the Aldeburgh Festival.

Born in Kiel, Justus Zeyen started piano lessons with Cord Garben before studying in Hannover with Karl Engel and Bernhardt Ebert. Justus Zeyen is a well sought-after pianist, giving concerts in Europe, the USA and Japan. He has worked with many famous artists including Juliane Banse, Dorothea Röschmann, Measha Brueggergosman, Diana Damrau, Annette Dasch, Florian Boesch, Siegfried Lorenz and Michael Schade. Justus Zeyen enjoyed a very close collaboration with Thomas Quasthoff, performing in the leading concert halls of Europe and North America. Their recordings for Deutsche Grammophon have received many coveted awards. This season Justus Zeyen can be heard in recital with Measha Brüggergosman, Florian Boesch, Michael Schade, Maximilian Schmitt and Thomas Quasthoff (as narrator) at the Konzerthaus in Dortmund, Wigmore Hall, the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna and the Herkulessaal in Munich, as well as in Florence and Cologne. Justus Zeyen also teaches at the music academy in Hannover.

is one of Sweden’s most accomplished violinists, working across the Nordic countries and Europe. Her versatile repertoire of solo and chamber music works has led her to collaborate with numerous composers and orchestras. Her interest in newly written pieces and contemporary music has generated several compositions written specifically for her. As a soloist Cecilia Zilliacus has performed with most Swedish symphony orchestras as well as many Nordic and European orchestras, such as the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra. She has played at many of the world’s leading concert houses, including the Philharmonie in Cologne, Konzerthaus in Vienna, Carnegie Hall and the Concertgebouw. Cecilia Zilliacus regularly performs with musicians and composers such as Bengt Forsberg, Martin Fröst, Håvard Gimse, Philippe Graffin, Svante Henryson, Martti Rousi, Paavali Jumppanen, Christian Poltèra, Roland Pöntinen, Sven-David Sandström and Torleif Thedéen.

The Schubert Project    89


Manuel Walser Swiss baritone Manuel Walser has been studying singing since October 2008 with Thomas Quasthoff at the Hanns Eisler Academy of Music in Berlin. He won both the first prize and the audience prize at the 2013 International Das Lied Song Competition in Berlin and also won two jury prizes at the Stella Maris International Song Competition and an award from the Armin Weltner Foundation. Manuel Walser gives regular Lieder recitals with Anano Gokieli and Alexander Fleischer at festivals such as the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the Schubertiade in Hohenems. In 2012 Manuel Walser performed Bach’s Ich habe genug at the Verbier Festival and in September 2013 he sang Schubert songs with the Camerata Salzburg. In autumn 2014 he will make debut at the Lucerne Festival. During the 2013/14 season he held a scholarship with Vienna State Opera, singing Fiorello (Il barbiere di Siviglia) and Marullo (Rigoletto). He was a member of the Young Singers Project at the 2014 Salzburg Festival where he sang Brutamonte in Fierrabras.

Belinda Williams London-born mezzo-soprano Belinda Williams gave her debut Wigmore Hall recital in 2010 as a Tillett Trust Young Artist. In 2012, shortly after graduating with distinction from the Royal Academy Opera Course, where she studied with Ryland Davies, Belinda made her European debut as Dorabella at Kassel State Theatre. Her success in Così fan tutte led to a place as house soloist and a Best Newcomer Award, with subsequent and future roles including Orlofsky, Maddalena, Annina, Hänsel, Cherubino, Angelina, Olga and Rosina. As a recitalist Belinda has performed at the Purcell Room, Bergamo Festival, St Martin in the Fields, Stadthalle in Bayreuth, Queen Elizabeth Hall, Holywell Music Room, Wigmore Hall, Cheltenham Festival, Estonian National Concert Hall, Buxton Festival and Handel House. Belinda works regularly with David Owen Norris, with whom she has explored the songs of Quilter, Sullivan and Elgar.

John Warren was Head of Austrian and German Studies at what is now Oxford Brookes University. Having written a dissertation on Schubert’s friend, Eduard von Bauernfeld, he specialized in Austrian culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, giving talks on BBC Radio 3 and illustrated lectures on the landscape painting of the Austrian Biedermeier on the South Bank and at the Ryedale Festival and to the National Youth Orchestra. He has organized many academic conferences on Austrian topics as well as published articles and conference papers. He has given several pre-concert talks about the authors set by Schubert for the Oxford Lieder Festival and is looking forward to contributing to this year’s Festival.

Roderick Williams

Richard Watkins

was Principal Horn of the Philharmonia Orchestra for 12 years. He is currently a member of the Nash Ensemble and a founder member of London Winds. He has appeared at many of the world’s most prestigious venues and worked with conductors such as Giulini, Sawallisch, Salonen, Slatkin, Sinopoli, Rozhdestvensky, Petrenko, Davis and Elder. He has an extensive discography and his forthcoming releases include a disc for NMC of works written for Watkins, a Wigmore Live Disc of the Britten canticles with Mark Padmore, Britten’s Serenade for tenor, horn and strings with Allan Clayton and Aldeburgh Strings and Edward Gregson’s Horn Concerto with the BBC Philharmonic for Chandos. Richard regularly performs with singers such as John Mark Ainsley, Ian Bostridge and Mark Padmore and with pianists including Barry Douglas, Julius Drake, Paul Lewis, Roger Vignoles and Ian Brown. He holds the Dennis Brain Chair of Horn Playing at the Royal Academy, where he is also a Fellow.

Fflur Wyn

Katherine Watson graduated in 2008 from Trinity College, Cambridge where she was a choral scholar. As a prolific concert artist Katherine has worked with a number of eminent conductors including Stephen Layton, Nicholas Kraemer, Stephen Cleobury, Jonathan Cohen, Paul Agnew, Emmanuelle Haïm, Harry Bickett, Roger Norrington, Laurence Cummings and Philip Pickett. Recent engagements include Apollo e Dafne with Arcangelo at Zanker Hall, New York, Messiah in Seville, with the Hallé at Bridgewater Hall under Howarth, with Polyphony under Layton at St John’s Smith Square and Versailles with The Sixteen and Harry Christophers, Scarlatti’s Christmas Cantata with Norrington and a programme of Monteverdi and a tour of Rameau arias in Asia, both with Haïm. Forthcoming engagements include a tour of the Christmas Oratorio with Rousset and of Rameau’s Grands Motets with Niquet and Christie. Plans for 2015 include Dardanus for Opéra de Bordeaux and the title role in Handel’s Theodora at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées with Les Arts Florissants and Christie.

Susan Youens

Andrew West

In recent years Andrew West has accompanied world premiere performances of cycles by Alexander Goehr (with Roderick Williams) and Thomas Larcher and Harrison Birtwistle (both with Mark Padmore). The Birtwistle cycle, Songs from the Same Earth, was commissioned by the Aldeburgh Festival and repeated this year at the Concertgebouw and Wigmore Hall. Andrew West is Artistic Director of the Nuremberg Chamber Music Festival. The 13th Festival took place last month and featured the music of Hans Werner Henze, including his Six Songs from the Arabian with Mark Padmore, which the pair will perform for Oxford Lieder in February 2015. Other highlights this year include a performance of Brahms’s First Piano Concerto under Ryan Wigglesworth at the Endellion Festival in Cornwall and a recording of Die schöne Müllerin with Robert Murray for Stone Records.

Justus Zeyen

Mark Wilde was born in Scotland and was a chorister at Dundee Cathedral. He went on to study at the University of East Anglia and the Royal College. In 2000 Mark made his Glyndebourne debut as Ferrando (Così fan Tutte) and appeared as Second Soldier in Stephen Pimlott’s highly acclaimed production of L’incoronazione di Poppea at ENO. Since then he has appeared regularly in opera across Europe and the UK. As an enthusiastic recitalist Mark has worked with Carlo Rizzi, Malcolm Martineau and Andrew West. Recent engagements include the title role in Albert Herring for English Touring Opera, Messiah with Oxford Philomusica, the John Passion in Winchester Cathedral, Pedrillo (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) for Garsington, Britten’s Spring Symphony for the Ural Philharmonic Orchestra in Ekaterinburg, a Britten, Vaughan Williams and Maurice Ohana recital (Musica Sacra Maastricht), Inkslinger (Paul Bunyan) for English Touring Opera and Binet (Vert Vert) for Garsington.

Cecilia Zilliacus

88    The Oxford Lieder Festival

enjoys relationships with all the major UK opera houses and is particularly associated with the baritone roles in Mozart’s operas. He has also sung world premieres of operas by David Sawer, Sally Beamish, Michael van der Aa, Robert Saxton and Alexander Knaifel. Roderick Williams has appeared with all the BBC orchestras and many other orchestras and ensembles internationally. His festival appearances include the BBC Proms, Edinburgh, Cheltenham, Aldeburgh and Melbourne. Recent and future engagements include Don Alfonso (Così fan tutte) for ENO, Van der Aa’s After Life at Melbourne State Theatre and Sunken Garden at Opéra de Lyon, the title role in Billy Budd for Nationale Reisopera, Ned Keene (Peter Grimes) with the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome and Last Night of the 2014 BBC Proms. He is an accomplished recital artist and has been heard at venues and festivals such as Wigmore Hall, Kings Place, LSO St Luke’s and the Musikverein in Vienna. He will be Artistic Director of Leeds Lieder+ in April 2016.

Having already gained wide acclaim for her performances on the operatic stage as well as the concert platform, Welsh soprano Fflur Wyn is quickly establishing herself as one of the country’s foremost young singers. Recently elected Associate of the Royal Academy, she is a recipient of the Kathleen Ferrier Bursary and the Bryn Terfel Scholarship. Her operatic performances include Iphis (Jephtha), Jemmy (Guillaume Tell) and Blonde (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) for WNO, Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro) and Daughter (Au Monde) for La Monnaie, the title role in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Pamina for Opera Holland Park, Sophie (Werther), Marzelline (Fidelio), Blue Fairy (Pinocchio), Servilia (La clemenza di Tito) and Woodbird (Siegfried) for Opera North and the Governess (The Turn of the Screw) in Mexico. Her most recent recitals include performances at Kings Place, St John’s Smith Square, Wilton’s Music Hall, Howard Assembly Room and the Oxford Lieder Festival. Future engagements include performances at the Opéra- Comique.

received her PhD from Harvard University and is the J.W. Van Gorkom Professor of Music at the University of Notre Dame. She is the author of eight books, including Retracing a Winter’s Journey: Schubert’s Winterreise (Cornell UP), Schubert’s poets and the making of Lieder (Cambridge UP), Hugo Wolf and his Mörike Songs (Cambridge UP), Heinrich Heine and the Lied (Cambridge UP) and Schubert, Müller, and Die schöne Müllerin (Cambridge UP), as well as over 50 scholarly articles. She is a recipient of fellowships from the Humboldt Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, Guggenheim Foundation and the National Humanities Center and has taught at the Steans Institute for Young Artists/Ravinia Festival and the Aldeburgh Festival.

Born in Kiel, Justus Zeyen started piano lessons with Cord Garben before studying in Hannover with Karl Engel and Bernhardt Ebert. Justus Zeyen is a well sought-after pianist, giving concerts in Europe, the USA and Japan. He has worked with many famous artists including Juliane Banse, Dorothea Röschmann, Measha Brueggergosman, Diana Damrau, Annette Dasch, Florian Boesch, Siegfried Lorenz and Michael Schade. Justus Zeyen enjoyed a very close collaboration with Thomas Quasthoff, performing in the leading concert halls of Europe and North America. Their recordings for Deutsche Grammophon have received many coveted awards. This season Justus Zeyen can be heard in recital with Measha Brüggergosman, Florian Boesch, Michael Schade, Maximilian Schmitt and Thomas Quasthoff (as narrator) at the Konzerthaus in Dortmund, Wigmore Hall, the Musikverein and Konzerthaus in Vienna and the Herkulessaal in Munich, as well as in Florence and Cologne. Justus Zeyen also teaches at the music academy in Hannover.

is one of Sweden’s most accomplished violinists, working across the Nordic countries and Europe. Her versatile repertoire of solo and chamber music works has led her to collaborate with numerous composers and orchestras. Her interest in newly written pieces and contemporary music has generated several compositions written specifically for her. As a soloist Cecilia Zilliacus has performed with most Swedish symphony orchestras as well as many Nordic and European orchestras, such as the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra. She has played at many of the world’s leading concert houses, including the Philharmonie in Cologne, Konzerthaus in Vienna, Carnegie Hall and the Concertgebouw. Cecilia Zilliacus regularly performs with musicians and composers such as Bengt Forsberg, Martin Fröst, Håvard Gimse, Philippe Graffin, Svante Henryson, Martti Rousi, Paavali Jumppanen, Christian Poltèra, Roland Pöntinen, Sven-David Sandström and Torleif Thedéen.

The Schubert Project    89


Partners

TRUSTS and Foundations

The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology

The Anamax Charitable Foundation  Generously supporting Settings of Schober and Mayrhofer

The Austrian Cultural Forum The Austrian Embassy The Bodleian Library The University of Oxford Botanic Garden Green Templeton College, University of Oxford

Josephine Baker Trust  Generously supporting Royal Academy of Music Recital and Royal College of Music Recital

The Guildhall School of Music and Drama

The Batchworth Trust

Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford

The Bishopsdown Trust  Generously supporting masterclasses given by Sophie Daneman and Angelika Kirchschlager

Kings Place Music Foundation Merry Widows Wines Music at Oxford National Opera Studio The Music Faculty, University of Oxford Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment

The Fidelio Charitable Trust  Generously supporting An Evening at the Ashmolean Part III and Re:Sound events

Oxford University Department for Continuing Education

Doris Field Charitable Trust  Generously supporting the Schools Project

Phonecast Ltd.

The J. Paul Getty Jr. Trust

Re:Sound

The Hamilton Trust

The Phoenix Picturehouse

Jesus College, Oxford   and The Kohn Foundation  Generously supporting The Trout and other Water Music and Songs of Evening and Twilight

Oxfordshire County Music Service

The Royal Academy of Music The Royal College of Music The Royal Northern College of Music The Schubert Institute UK The University Church of St Mary the Virgin The Vaults and Garden Café SJE Arts St Hilda’s College, University of Oxford TalkAbout Guides University of Notre Dame The Warden and Scholars of New College, University of Oxford Best Western Linton Lodge Hotel The Old Bank Hotel Oxuniprint

Musik i Syd, Sweden  Generously supporting Settings of Rückert and Leitner and Settings of Schiller The Helena Oldacre Trust  Generously supporting Songs of the British Isles Austin and Hope Pilkington   Charitable Trust  Generously supporting Family Concerts The Radcliffe Trust  Generously supporting Songs of the Night and the Stars and the masterclass given by Wolfgang Holzmair Schubert Institute UK  Generously supporting Early Ballads and Sacred Music and Song, Sonata, Symphony: Schubert makes connections The Martin Smith Foundation  Generously supporting Laments, Overtures, Arias and settings of Seidl The Bernard Sunley   Charitable Foundation

Nicholas John Trust  Generously supporting Schubert at the Opera and Schubert and Nature: A Study Day

The Tolkien Trust

The Leche Trust  Generously supporting masterclasses given by Ian Partridge, Malcolm Martineau, Julius Drake, Christopher Maltman, Sarah Walker, Felicity Lott, James Gilchrist, Roderick Williams, Roger Vignoles, Bengt Forsberg, Matti Hirvonen, Robert Holl and Graham Johnson

Sir Siegmund Warburg’s   Voluntary Settlement

Trufflehunter Generously supporting An Evening at the Ashmolean Part I

The Patsy Wood Trust  Generously supporting the Schools Project

The Loveday Charitable Trust  Generously supporting Settings of Rellstab and Claudius and The Schubert Project: Closing Concert

The Randolph Hotel

90    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    91


Partners

TRUSTS and Foundations

The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology

The Anamax Charitable Foundation  Generously supporting Settings of Schober and Mayrhofer

The Austrian Cultural Forum The Austrian Embassy The Bodleian Library The University of Oxford Botanic Garden Green Templeton College, University of Oxford

Josephine Baker Trust  Generously supporting Royal Academy of Music Recital and Royal College of Music Recital

The Guildhall School of Music and Drama

The Batchworth Trust

Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford

The Bishopsdown Trust  Generously supporting masterclasses given by Sophie Daneman and Angelika Kirchschlager

Kings Place Music Foundation Merry Widows Wines Music at Oxford National Opera Studio The Music Faculty, University of Oxford Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment

The Fidelio Charitable Trust  Generously supporting An Evening at the Ashmolean Part III and Re:Sound events

Oxford University Department for Continuing Education

Doris Field Charitable Trust  Generously supporting the Schools Project

Phonecast Ltd.

The J. Paul Getty Jr. Trust

Re:Sound

The Hamilton Trust

The Phoenix Picturehouse

Jesus College, Oxford   and The Kohn Foundation  Generously supporting The Trout and other Water Music and Songs of Evening and Twilight

Oxfordshire County Music Service

The Royal Academy of Music The Royal College of Music The Royal Northern College of Music The Schubert Institute UK The University Church of St Mary the Virgin The Vaults and Garden Café SJE Arts St Hilda’s College, University of Oxford TalkAbout Guides University of Notre Dame The Warden and Scholars of New College, University of Oxford Best Western Linton Lodge Hotel The Old Bank Hotel Oxuniprint

Musik i Syd, Sweden  Generously supporting Settings of Rückert and Leitner and Settings of Schiller The Helena Oldacre Trust  Generously supporting Songs of the British Isles Austin and Hope Pilkington   Charitable Trust  Generously supporting Family Concerts The Radcliffe Trust  Generously supporting Songs of the Night and the Stars and the masterclass given by Wolfgang Holzmair Schubert Institute UK  Generously supporting Early Ballads and Sacred Music and Song, Sonata, Symphony: Schubert makes connections The Martin Smith Foundation  Generously supporting Laments, Overtures, Arias and settings of Seidl The Bernard Sunley   Charitable Foundation

Nicholas John Trust  Generously supporting Schubert at the Opera and Schubert and Nature: A Study Day

The Tolkien Trust

The Leche Trust  Generously supporting masterclasses given by Ian Partridge, Malcolm Martineau, Julius Drake, Christopher Maltman, Sarah Walker, Felicity Lott, James Gilchrist, Roderick Williams, Roger Vignoles, Bengt Forsberg, Matti Hirvonen, Robert Holl and Graham Johnson

Sir Siegmund Warburg’s   Voluntary Settlement

Trufflehunter Generously supporting An Evening at the Ashmolean Part I

The Patsy Wood Trust  Generously supporting the Schools Project

The Loveday Charitable Trust  Generously supporting Settings of Rellstab and Claudius and The Schubert Project: Closing Concert

The Randolph Hotel

90    The Oxford Lieder Festival

The Schubert Project    91


THE SCHUBERT CIRCLE Generously sponsoring The Schubert Project: Opening and Closing Concerts Patron: Sarah Connolly CBE President: Dr John Drysdale James and Judith Allcock John and Hilary Bach  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Matthisson

Paul and Carol Gibbs  Generously sponsoring Winterreise (16 October) David Gladstone  Generously co-sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times V

Julia Bagguley  David and Marie-Jane Barnett  Peter and Julia Barton  William Birch-Reynardson CBE

Jane and Peter Goddard  Sir Roy and Lady Catherine Goode  Robert and Louise Gullifer  Julian Hall and Ingrid Lunt  Nigel and Griselda Hamway

Bob and Elizabeth Boas  Generously sponsoring Austrian Folk Songs

Nick and Elaine Harbinson  Generously sponsoring The Therese Grob Songbook

Sir John and Lady Julia Boyd  HE Ambassador Dr Emil   and Elisabeth Brix  Sir Alan and Lady Budd  John and Maoko Caird  Quentin and Ann Campbell  Richard Campbell  José Catalan Robert and Melanie   Champion de Crespigny  Generously sponsoring Piano Trio in B flat major D898 Penny Clark Andrew and Celia Curran  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Schubert’s Circle Stephen and Moira Darlington John De’Ath and Sonia Brough  Generously co-sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times V Geoffrey and Caroline de Jager  Adrian and Sarah Dixon John Dring OBE Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Women Poets John and Gay Drysdale  Generously sponsoring Settings of Seidl, Rellstab and others John and Pia Eekelaar  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times II Claire and Birnie Evans  Richard and Josephine Fitzalan Howard  Donatella Flick, Princess Missikoff  Hilary Forsyth  Colin and Charlotte Franklin  Lady Getty

92    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Lesley Harding  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times IV Jim and Sue Hastings  Paula Hay-Plumb Charles and Rachel Henderson  Generously co-sponsoring Beethoven Septet op. 20 David and Fiona Howden  Geoffrey and Patricia Hubbard  Susanna Blackshaw and Michael Humphries Robert and Caroline Jackson  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe, Schiller, Rochlitz and others

Sir Amyas and Lady Morse  Peter Mothersole Dr and Mrs Christopher Mott  Generously sponsoring Settings from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister Bob and Kicki Moxon Browne  Generously sponsoring Piano Sonata in G major D894 Amanda Nicholson  James R. Nicholson  Humphrey and Frances Norrington  Chisholm and Gay Ogg  Anne Ozorio  Roger Pilgrim and Nadine Majaro  Caroline and Sarah Priday  Paul Quarrie and Susan Glynn  Sir Adam and Lady Ridley  Frances Ruck Keene  Sir Konrad and Lady Schiemann Peter Schofield  Generously sponsoring Piano Duets Charles Shaw  Tess Silkstone  Sir Martin and Lady Smith  Bella Sunley MBE  Bernard and Sarah Taylor Tom and Sonya Ulrich  Generously sponsoring Schubert and Beethoven

The Friends of Oxford Lieder Patron: Ian Partridge CBE

J Bowey-Cockburn

Nicholas Lawrence

John and Pat Brett

Rose Leigh

Sweethearts

Alistair Buchanan

John Levetus

Charles Alexander

John Buckley

Elizabeth Longrigg

Tom and Gill Cox

Julia Burden

Brian Mace

Peter Glazebrook

Elizabeth Burgess

Tony Marshall

Geraldine Terry and Andrew Baxter

David Burn

Tim and Sarah Martin

Matthew Butler

Barbara Mitchell

Wanderers

Gillian Butler

Jane Moore

Prof. and Mrs Alan Bowman

Richenda Buxton and Michael Barley

Roger Neil

Terry Cudbird

John and Jan Campbell

Peter and Catherine Oppenheimer

Frank and Delphine Defty

Paul Cannon

Ian and Ann Partridge

Anne-Marie and Nick Edgell

John Cardy

David Peddy and Judy Booth

Jeremy and Alison Evans

Nicholas Chambers

Susanna Pressel

Howard and Ann Hunt

Simon Cleobury

Pat Pretty

Nicola Keane

Chris Clifford and Janita Good

Will and Anne Price

Donald Lane

Alan B. Cook

Josephine Rado

Max Lehmann

Christine Cox

Jonathan Rée

Janet Lincé

Josephine Cross

Athene Reiss

Pat Markus

Roy and Jane Darke

Tony and Janet Reynolds

Judy Marsden

David Davies

Stephen and Felicity Rice

Carole Murray

Martin Davies

Ben Ridler

Anthony Murray

Susanne Dell

Jos Shouten

Peter and Tracey Norris

Drs. A and J Du Vivier

Brian Shine

Lord and Lady Jay

Katharine Verney and   Michael Berman CBE

David Pendrill

Pam and Ivor Ellis

Tim Simpkins

Robert and Philippa John  Generously sponsoring Settings of Hölty and Schiller

Sarah Verney Caird  Generously sponsoring Settings of Körner and Schiller

Tony Phelan

Caroline Elmslie

Alan Smith

Richard and Sue Price

Max Elvidge

Diana Smith

Andrew Reekie

Jude Feeney

Mary Smith

Neil King QC  Edward Knighton  David and Sarah Kovitz  Robert and Sarah Kynoch

Christopher and Anne Watson  Generously sponsoring Settings of Schiller, Goethe and others

Sir Michael and Lady Scholar

Jacqui Ferguson

Tom Snijders

James Tothill

David and Anne Francis

David Southwick

Jennifer Turner

Jane Garnett

Mr and Mrs J. Stubbings

Gerry Wakelin

Jack and Alma Gill

Sally Tallents

John White and Carolyn Walton

John Green

Gordon Thomson

Jeffrey and Ann Hackney

Alison Thorman

Songsters

Anna Hanslip

Simon and Rachel Thorn

Paul Allatt and Peter Smith

Julia Harvey

Gabrielle Townsend

Jan Archer

Barry and Trish Hedges

Brian and Rhianon Trowell

Caroline Banszky

Mary-Louise Hume

Tim and Nicki Unwin

John Beale

Martin Ingram

John Wall

Robert Belshaw

Deirdre Jalie

Richard Ward

Anne Belton

Peter and Juliet Johnson

Colin and Suzy Webster

Paul Bennett

Keith Jones

Ron Wilkinson

Norma Blamires

Jo Kingston-Shrub

Adrian Williams

Mr and Mrs S Bliss

Jean Knell

Chris and Caroline Yapp

Susan Boam

Nadine Kynoch

Ian and Caroline Laing  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Schiller Mark and Liza Loveday John and Julia Melvin  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times I Elizabeth McKay Brian Midgley Generously sponsoring String Quartet in D minor ‘Death and the Maiden’ D810 Helen Millard Stephen and Matina Mitchell  Generously sponsoring Octet in F major D803 and settings of Schulze

Roy Westbrook  David and Katy Weston Dr Carmen Wheatley  Generously co-sponsoring Beethoven Septet op. 20, on behalf of Survive Cancer Patricia Williams  Elisabeth Wingfield Simon Yates  Generously sponsoring Settings of Friedrich and August von Schlegel Lord and Lady Younger And generous anonymous donors

The Schubert Project    93


THE SCHUBERT CIRCLE Generously sponsoring The Schubert Project: Opening and Closing Concerts Patron: Sarah Connolly CBE President: Dr John Drysdale James and Judith Allcock John and Hilary Bach  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Matthisson

Paul and Carol Gibbs  Generously sponsoring Winterreise (16 October) David Gladstone  Generously co-sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times V

Julia Bagguley  David and Marie-Jane Barnett  Peter and Julia Barton  William Birch-Reynardson CBE

Jane and Peter Goddard  Sir Roy and Lady Catherine Goode  Robert and Louise Gullifer  Julian Hall and Ingrid Lunt  Nigel and Griselda Hamway

Bob and Elizabeth Boas  Generously sponsoring Austrian Folk Songs

Nick and Elaine Harbinson  Generously sponsoring The Therese Grob Songbook

Sir John and Lady Julia Boyd  HE Ambassador Dr Emil   and Elisabeth Brix  Sir Alan and Lady Budd  John and Maoko Caird  Quentin and Ann Campbell  Richard Campbell  José Catalan Robert and Melanie   Champion de Crespigny  Generously sponsoring Piano Trio in B flat major D898 Penny Clark Andrew and Celia Curran  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Schubert’s Circle Stephen and Moira Darlington John De’Ath and Sonia Brough  Generously co-sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times V Geoffrey and Caroline de Jager  Adrian and Sarah Dixon John Dring OBE Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Women Poets John and Gay Drysdale  Generously sponsoring Settings of Seidl, Rellstab and others John and Pia Eekelaar  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times II Claire and Birnie Evans  Richard and Josephine Fitzalan Howard  Donatella Flick, Princess Missikoff  Hilary Forsyth  Colin and Charlotte Franklin  Lady Getty

92    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Lesley Harding  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times IV Jim and Sue Hastings  Paula Hay-Plumb Charles and Rachel Henderson  Generously co-sponsoring Beethoven Septet op. 20 David and Fiona Howden  Geoffrey and Patricia Hubbard  Susanna Blackshaw and Michael Humphries Robert and Caroline Jackson  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe, Schiller, Rochlitz and others

Sir Amyas and Lady Morse  Peter Mothersole Dr and Mrs Christopher Mott  Generously sponsoring Settings from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister Bob and Kicki Moxon Browne  Generously sponsoring Piano Sonata in G major D894 Amanda Nicholson  James R. Nicholson  Humphrey and Frances Norrington  Chisholm and Gay Ogg  Anne Ozorio  Roger Pilgrim and Nadine Majaro  Caroline and Sarah Priday  Paul Quarrie and Susan Glynn  Sir Adam and Lady Ridley  Frances Ruck Keene  Sir Konrad and Lady Schiemann Peter Schofield  Generously sponsoring Piano Duets Charles Shaw  Tess Silkstone  Sir Martin and Lady Smith  Bella Sunley MBE  Bernard and Sarah Taylor Tom and Sonya Ulrich  Generously sponsoring Schubert and Beethoven

The Friends of Oxford Lieder Patron: Ian Partridge CBE

J Bowey-Cockburn

Nicholas Lawrence

John and Pat Brett

Rose Leigh

Sweethearts

Alistair Buchanan

John Levetus

Charles Alexander

John Buckley

Elizabeth Longrigg

Tom and Gill Cox

Julia Burden

Brian Mace

Peter Glazebrook

Elizabeth Burgess

Tony Marshall

Geraldine Terry and Andrew Baxter

David Burn

Tim and Sarah Martin

Matthew Butler

Barbara Mitchell

Wanderers

Gillian Butler

Jane Moore

Prof. and Mrs Alan Bowman

Richenda Buxton and Michael Barley

Roger Neil

Terry Cudbird

John and Jan Campbell

Peter and Catherine Oppenheimer

Frank and Delphine Defty

Paul Cannon

Ian and Ann Partridge

Anne-Marie and Nick Edgell

John Cardy

David Peddy and Judy Booth

Jeremy and Alison Evans

Nicholas Chambers

Susanna Pressel

Howard and Ann Hunt

Simon Cleobury

Pat Pretty

Nicola Keane

Chris Clifford and Janita Good

Will and Anne Price

Donald Lane

Alan B. Cook

Josephine Rado

Max Lehmann

Christine Cox

Jonathan Rée

Janet Lincé

Josephine Cross

Athene Reiss

Pat Markus

Roy and Jane Darke

Tony and Janet Reynolds

Judy Marsden

David Davies

Stephen and Felicity Rice

Carole Murray

Martin Davies

Ben Ridler

Anthony Murray

Susanne Dell

Jos Shouten

Peter and Tracey Norris

Drs. A and J Du Vivier

Brian Shine

Lord and Lady Jay

Katharine Verney and   Michael Berman CBE

David Pendrill

Pam and Ivor Ellis

Tim Simpkins

Robert and Philippa John  Generously sponsoring Settings of Hölty and Schiller

Sarah Verney Caird  Generously sponsoring Settings of Körner and Schiller

Tony Phelan

Caroline Elmslie

Alan Smith

Richard and Sue Price

Max Elvidge

Diana Smith

Andrew Reekie

Jude Feeney

Mary Smith

Neil King QC  Edward Knighton  David and Sarah Kovitz  Robert and Sarah Kynoch

Christopher and Anne Watson  Generously sponsoring Settings of Schiller, Goethe and others

Sir Michael and Lady Scholar

Jacqui Ferguson

Tom Snijders

James Tothill

David and Anne Francis

David Southwick

Jennifer Turner

Jane Garnett

Mr and Mrs J. Stubbings

Gerry Wakelin

Jack and Alma Gill

Sally Tallents

John White and Carolyn Walton

John Green

Gordon Thomson

Jeffrey and Ann Hackney

Alison Thorman

Songsters

Anna Hanslip

Simon and Rachel Thorn

Paul Allatt and Peter Smith

Julia Harvey

Gabrielle Townsend

Jan Archer

Barry and Trish Hedges

Brian and Rhianon Trowell

Caroline Banszky

Mary-Louise Hume

Tim and Nicki Unwin

John Beale

Martin Ingram

John Wall

Robert Belshaw

Deirdre Jalie

Richard Ward

Anne Belton

Peter and Juliet Johnson

Colin and Suzy Webster

Paul Bennett

Keith Jones

Ron Wilkinson

Norma Blamires

Jo Kingston-Shrub

Adrian Williams

Mr and Mrs S Bliss

Jean Knell

Chris and Caroline Yapp

Susan Boam

Nadine Kynoch

Ian and Caroline Laing  Generously sponsoring Settings of Goethe and Schiller Mark and Liza Loveday John and Julia Melvin  Generously sponsoring Schubert’s Life and Times I Elizabeth McKay Brian Midgley Generously sponsoring String Quartet in D minor ‘Death and the Maiden’ D810 Helen Millard Stephen and Matina Mitchell  Generously sponsoring Octet in F major D803 and settings of Schulze

Roy Westbrook  David and Katy Weston Dr Carmen Wheatley  Generously co-sponsoring Beethoven Septet op. 20, on behalf of Survive Cancer Patricia Williams  Elisabeth Wingfield Simon Yates  Generously sponsoring Settings of Friedrich and August von Schlegel Lord and Lady Younger And generous anonymous donors

The Schubert Project    93


Works Performed Songs by Schubert D650 D276 D382 D499 D495 D856 D690 D235 D237 D265 D806 D475 D829 D406 D578 D95 D211 D904 D241 D153 D477 D361 D344 D878 D160 D766 D504 D124 D746 D539 D195 D122 D166 D462 D283 D587 D193 D259 D296 D468 D614 D447 D518 D197 D765 D189 D654 D303 D394 D905

Title

Poet

Date

Concert

Abendbilder Abendlied Abendlied Abendlied Abendlied der Fürstin Abendlied für die Entfernte Abendröte Abends unter der Linde (first setting) Abends unter der Linde (second setting) Abendständschen: An Lina Abendstern Abschied Abschied von der Erde Abschied von der Harfe Abschied von einem Freunde Adelaide Adelwold und Emma Alinde Alles um Liebe Als ich sie erröten sah Alte Liebe rostet nie Am Bach im Frühling Am ersten Maimorgen Am Fenster Am Flusse Am Flusse Am Grabe Anselmos Am See Am See Am Strome Amalia Ammenlied Amphiaraos An Chloen An den Frühling An den Frühling An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond in einer Herbstnacht An den Schlaf An den Tod An die Apfelbäume, wo ich Julien erblickte An die Entfernte An die Freude An die Freunde An die Geliebte An die Harmonie An die Laute

Silber Stolberg-Stolberg Anon. Claudius Mayrhofer Schlegel (A) Schlegel (F) Kosegarten Kosegarten Baumberg Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Pratobevera Salis-Seewis Schubert Matthisson Bertrand Rochlitz Kosegarten Ehrlich Mayrhofer Schober Claudius Seidl Goethe Goethe Claudius Mayrhofer Bruchmann Mayrhofer Schiller Lubi Körner Jacobi Schiller Schiller Hölty Goethe Goethe Hölty Schreiber Anon. (attrib. Uz) Schubart Hölty Goethe Schiller Mayrhofer Stoll Salis-Seewis Rochlitz

1819? 1815 1816 1816 1816 1825 1823 1815 1815 1815 1824 1816 1826 1816 1817 1814 1815 1827 1815 1815 1816 1816 c1816 1826 1815 1822 1816 1814 1822 or 1823 1817 1815 1814 1815 1816 1815 1817 1815 1815 c1816 1816 1818 1816 1816 or 1817 1815 1822 1815 1819 1815 1816 1827

S31, S58 S47 S22 S20, S58 S13 S7, S43 S21 S17 S17 S4 S1 S13, S51, S55 S22 S10 S41 S50 S5 S31 S17 S22 S13 S55, S58 S15, S29 S41, S62 S53 S34, S53 S15, S29 S28 S56, S63 S28, S51 S48 S22 S24 S35 S34 S12, S20 S21 S3 S3, S12, S34 S9, S47 S32, S42 S47 S22 S26 S3 S26 S32 S2 S10 S31

The Schubert Project    95


Works Performed Songs by Schubert D650 D276 D382 D499 D495 D856 D690 D235 D237 D265 D806 D475 D829 D406 D578 D95 D211 D904 D241 D153 D477 D361 D344 D878 D160 D766 D504 D124 D746 D539 D195 D122 D166 D462 D283 D587 D193 D259 D296 D468 D614 D447 D518 D197 D765 D189 D654 D303 D394 D905

Title

Poet

Date

Concert

Abendbilder Abendlied Abendlied Abendlied Abendlied der Fürstin Abendlied für die Entfernte Abendröte Abends unter der Linde (first setting) Abends unter der Linde (second setting) Abendständschen: An Lina Abendstern Abschied Abschied von der Erde Abschied von der Harfe Abschied von einem Freunde Adelaide Adelwold und Emma Alinde Alles um Liebe Als ich sie erröten sah Alte Liebe rostet nie Am Bach im Frühling Am ersten Maimorgen Am Fenster Am Flusse Am Flusse Am Grabe Anselmos Am See Am See Am Strome Amalia Ammenlied Amphiaraos An Chloen An den Frühling An den Frühling An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond An den Mond in einer Herbstnacht An den Schlaf An den Tod An die Apfelbäume, wo ich Julien erblickte An die Entfernte An die Freude An die Freunde An die Geliebte An die Harmonie An die Laute

Silber Stolberg-Stolberg Anon. Claudius Mayrhofer Schlegel (A) Schlegel (F) Kosegarten Kosegarten Baumberg Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Pratobevera Salis-Seewis Schubert Matthisson Bertrand Rochlitz Kosegarten Ehrlich Mayrhofer Schober Claudius Seidl Goethe Goethe Claudius Mayrhofer Bruchmann Mayrhofer Schiller Lubi Körner Jacobi Schiller Schiller Hölty Goethe Goethe Hölty Schreiber Anon. (attrib. Uz) Schubart Hölty Goethe Schiller Mayrhofer Stoll Salis-Seewis Rochlitz

1819? 1815 1816 1816 1816 1825 1823 1815 1815 1815 1824 1816 1826 1816 1817 1814 1815 1827 1815 1815 1816 1816 c1816 1826 1815 1822 1816 1814 1822 or 1823 1817 1815 1814 1815 1816 1815 1817 1815 1815 c1816 1816 1818 1816 1816 or 1817 1815 1822 1815 1819 1815 1816 1827

S31, S58 S47 S22 S20, S58 S13 S7, S43 S21 S17 S17 S4 S1 S13, S51, S55 S22 S10 S41 S50 S5 S31 S17 S22 S13 S55, S58 S15, S29 S41, S62 S53 S34, S53 S15, S29 S28 S56, S63 S28, S51 S48 S22 S24 S35 S34 S12, S20 S21 S3 S3, S12, S34 S9, S47 S32, S42 S47 S22 S26 S3 S26 S32 S2 S10 S31

The Schubert Project    95


D737 D547 D196 D497 D372 D270 D272 D457 D530 D113 D115 D860 D342 D161 D315 D316 D369 D288 D891 D99 D542 D585 D543 D943 D774 D201 D399 D853 D553 D611 D151 D807 D297 D458 D753 D754 D134 D496 D669 D407

An die Leier An die Musik An die Nachtigall An die Nachtigall An die Natur An die Sonne An die Sonne An die untergehende Sonne An eine Quelle An Emma An Laura, als sie Klopstocks Auferstehungslied sang An mein Herz An mein Klavier An Mignon (first version) An Rosa I An Rosa II An Schwager Kronos An Sie An Silvia ‘Gesang an Silvia’ Andenken Antigone und Oedip Atys Auf dem See Auf dem Strom Auf dem Wasser zu singen Auf den Tod einer Nachtigall Auf den Tod einer Nachtigall Auf der Bruck ‘Auf der Brücke’ Auf der Donau Auf der Riesenkoppe Auf einen Kirchhof Auflösung Augenlied Aus ‘Diego Manzanares’: Ilmerine Aus ‘Heliopolis’ I Aus ‘Heliopolis’ II Ballade Bei dem Grabe meines Vater Beim Winde Beitrag zur fünfzigjährigen Jubelfeier des Herrn   von Salieri, ersten k.k. Hofkapellmeister in Wien

Bruchmann Schober Hölty Claudius Stolberg-Stolberg Baumberg Tiedge Kosegarten Claudius Schiller Matthisson Schulze Schubart Goethe Kosegarten Kosegarten Goethe Klopstock Shakespeare Matthisson Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Goethe Rellstab Stolberg-Stolberg Hölty Hölty Schulze Mayrhofer Körner Schlechta Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Schlechta Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Kenner Claudius Mayrhofer Schubert

1822 or 1823 1817 1815 1816 1816 1815 1815 1816–7 1817 1814 1814 1825 c1816 1815 1815 1815 1816 1815 1826 1814 1817 1817 1817 1828 1823 1815 1816 1825 1817 1818 1815 1824 1817? 1816 1822 1822 c1815 1816 1819 1816

S56 S1, S20, S55 S21 S29 S15, S46 S4 S22 S17, S58 S29 S34 S50 S19 S31 S3 S17 S17 S34 S47 S14, S55 S15, S50 S6, S20 S6, S20 S9, S28 S9 S1, S9, S43, S47 S26 S26 S19 S1, S51 S32 S56 S52 S13, S51 S20 S43 S43 S56 S29 S51 S20

D653 D631 D626 D431 D263 D282 D411 D627 D155 D990c D219 D250 D793 D309 D851 D456 D917 D532 D652 D117 D252

Bertas Lied in der Nacht Blanka Blondel zu Marien Blumenlied Cora an die Sonne Cronnan Daphne am Bach Das Abendrot Das Bild Das Echo Das Finden Das Geheimnis Das Geheimnis Das gestörte Glück Das Heimweh Das Heimweh Das Lied im Grünen Das Lied vom Reifen Das Mädchen Das Mädchen aus der Fremde Das Mädchen aus der Fremde

Grillparzer Schlegel (F) Anon. Hölty Baumberg Macpherson (Ossian) Stolberg-Stolberg Schreiber Anon. Castelli Kosegarten Schiller Schiller Körner Pyrker Winkler Reil Claudius Schlegel (F) Schiller Schiller

1819 1818 1818 1816 1815 1815 1816 1818 1815 1828? 1815 1815 1823 1815 1825 1816 1827 1817 1819 1814 1815

S32 S21, S32 S22 S47 S4 S49 S9, S47 S32 S22 S22 S17 S34 S12 S24 S22 S22 S46, S52 S29 S21, S31 S26 S26

96    The Oxford Lieder Festival

D281 D623 D280 D231 D174 D926 D871 D775 D291 D108 D221 D524 D588 D833 D731 D622 D800 D350 D699 D225 D402 D515 D693 D116 D560 D254 D449 D405 D490 D965 D30 D192 D638 D300 D702 D545 D594 D692 D579 D367 D932 D432 D432b D207 D861 D209 D141 D264 D764 D794 D255 D149 D482 D517 D256 D536 D694 D633 D805 D565 D111 D375

Das Mädchen von Inistore Das Marienbild Das Rosenband Das Sehnen Das war ich Das Weinen Das Zügenglöcklein Dass sie hier gewesen! Dem Unendlichen (first version) Der Abend Der Abend Der Alpenjäger Der Alpenjäger Der blinde Knabe Der Blumen Schmerz Der Blumenbrief Der Einsame Der Entfernten Der entsühnte Orest Der Fischer Der Flüchtling Der Flug der Zeit Der Fluss Der Geistertanz Der Goldschmiedsgesell Der Gott und die Bajadere Der gute Hirt Der Herbstabend Der Hirt Der Hirt auf dem Felsen Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling an der Quelle Der Jüngling auf dem Hügel Der Jüngling und der Tod Der Kampf Der Knabe Der Knabe in der Wiege ‘Wiegenlied’ Der König in Thule Der Kreuzzug Der Leidende ‘Klage’ Der Leidende ‘Klage’ Der Liebende Der liebliche Stern Der Liedler Der Mondabend Der Morgenkuss Der Musensohn Der Pilgrim Der Rattenfänger Der Sänger Der Sänger am Felsen Der Schäfer und der Reiter Der Schatzgräber Der Schiffer Der Schiffer Der Schmetterling Der Sieg Der Strom Der Taucher Der Tod Oscars

Macpherson (Ossian) Schreiber Klopstock Kosegarten Körner Leitner Seidl Rückert Klopstock Matthisson Kosegarten Mayrhofer Schiller Cibber Majláth Schreiber Lappe Salis-Seewis Mayrhofer Goethe Schiller Széchényi Schlegel Matthisson Goethe Goethe Uz Salis-Seewis Mayrhofer Müller Schiller Schiller Schiller Salis-Seewis Hüttenbrenner Spaun Schiller Schlegel (F) Ottenwalt Goethe Leitner Anon. (Hölty?) Anon. (Hölty?) Hölty Schulze Kenner Kumpf (Ermin) Baumberg Goethe Schiller Goethe Goethe Pichler Karl Goethe Mayrhofer Schlegel (F) Schlegel (F) Mayrhofer Anon. Schiller Macpherson (Ossian)

1815 1818 1815 1815 1815 1827–8 1826 1823? 1815 1814 1815 1817 1817 1825 1821 1818 1825 1816? 1820 1815 1816 1817 1820 1814 1817 1815 1816 1816 1816 1828 1812 1815 1819 c1818 1820 1817 1817 1820 1817 1816 1827 1816 1816 1815 1825 1815 1815 1815 1822 1823 1815 1815 1816 1817 1815 1817 1820 c1819 1824 1817 1813–4 1816

S49 S31 S47 S17 S24 S36 S41 S36 S47 S53 S17 S13 S26 S14 S32 S46 S42 S10 S6 S12, S63 S48 S31 S21 S2, S42 S53 S34 S47 S10, S15 S13 S52, S64 S2 S28 S28, S63 S10 S56 S58 S12 S21 S22 S34, S59 S36 S15 S15, S47 S26 S9, S19 S21 S31 S4 S34, S63 S26, S55 S34 S3 S4 S22 S34 S1, S28 S7 S21 S51 S20, S63 S63 S20, S49

The Schubert Project    97


D737 D547 D196 D497 D372 D270 D272 D457 D530 D113 D115 D860 D342 D161 D315 D316 D369 D288 D891 D99 D542 D585 D543 D943 D774 D201 D399 D853 D553 D611 D151 D807 D297 D458 D753 D754 D134 D496 D669 D407

An die Leier An die Musik An die Nachtigall An die Nachtigall An die Natur An die Sonne An die Sonne An die untergehende Sonne An eine Quelle An Emma An Laura, als sie Klopstocks Auferstehungslied sang An mein Herz An mein Klavier An Mignon (first version) An Rosa I An Rosa II An Schwager Kronos An Sie An Silvia ‘Gesang an Silvia’ Andenken Antigone und Oedip Atys Auf dem See Auf dem Strom Auf dem Wasser zu singen Auf den Tod einer Nachtigall Auf den Tod einer Nachtigall Auf der Bruck ‘Auf der Brücke’ Auf der Donau Auf der Riesenkoppe Auf einen Kirchhof Auflösung Augenlied Aus ‘Diego Manzanares’: Ilmerine Aus ‘Heliopolis’ I Aus ‘Heliopolis’ II Ballade Bei dem Grabe meines Vater Beim Winde Beitrag zur fünfzigjährigen Jubelfeier des Herrn   von Salieri, ersten k.k. Hofkapellmeister in Wien

Bruchmann Schober Hölty Claudius Stolberg-Stolberg Baumberg Tiedge Kosegarten Claudius Schiller Matthisson Schulze Schubart Goethe Kosegarten Kosegarten Goethe Klopstock Shakespeare Matthisson Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Goethe Rellstab Stolberg-Stolberg Hölty Hölty Schulze Mayrhofer Körner Schlechta Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Schlechta Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Kenner Claudius Mayrhofer Schubert

1822 or 1823 1817 1815 1816 1816 1815 1815 1816–7 1817 1814 1814 1825 c1816 1815 1815 1815 1816 1815 1826 1814 1817 1817 1817 1828 1823 1815 1816 1825 1817 1818 1815 1824 1817? 1816 1822 1822 c1815 1816 1819 1816

S56 S1, S20, S55 S21 S29 S15, S46 S4 S22 S17, S58 S29 S34 S50 S19 S31 S3 S17 S17 S34 S47 S14, S55 S15, S50 S6, S20 S6, S20 S9, S28 S9 S1, S9, S43, S47 S26 S26 S19 S1, S51 S32 S56 S52 S13, S51 S20 S43 S43 S56 S29 S51 S20

D653 D631 D626 D431 D263 D282 D411 D627 D155 D990c D219 D250 D793 D309 D851 D456 D917 D532 D652 D117 D252

Bertas Lied in der Nacht Blanka Blondel zu Marien Blumenlied Cora an die Sonne Cronnan Daphne am Bach Das Abendrot Das Bild Das Echo Das Finden Das Geheimnis Das Geheimnis Das gestörte Glück Das Heimweh Das Heimweh Das Lied im Grünen Das Lied vom Reifen Das Mädchen Das Mädchen aus der Fremde Das Mädchen aus der Fremde

Grillparzer Schlegel (F) Anon. Hölty Baumberg Macpherson (Ossian) Stolberg-Stolberg Schreiber Anon. Castelli Kosegarten Schiller Schiller Körner Pyrker Winkler Reil Claudius Schlegel (F) Schiller Schiller

1819 1818 1818 1816 1815 1815 1816 1818 1815 1828? 1815 1815 1823 1815 1825 1816 1827 1817 1819 1814 1815

S32 S21, S32 S22 S47 S4 S49 S9, S47 S32 S22 S22 S17 S34 S12 S24 S22 S22 S46, S52 S29 S21, S31 S26 S26

96    The Oxford Lieder Festival

D281 D623 D280 D231 D174 D926 D871 D775 D291 D108 D221 D524 D588 D833 D731 D622 D800 D350 D699 D225 D402 D515 D693 D116 D560 D254 D449 D405 D490 D965 D30 D192 D638 D300 D702 D545 D594 D692 D579 D367 D932 D432 D432b D207 D861 D209 D141 D264 D764 D794 D255 D149 D482 D517 D256 D536 D694 D633 D805 D565 D111 D375

Das Mädchen von Inistore Das Marienbild Das Rosenband Das Sehnen Das war ich Das Weinen Das Zügenglöcklein Dass sie hier gewesen! Dem Unendlichen (first version) Der Abend Der Abend Der Alpenjäger Der Alpenjäger Der blinde Knabe Der Blumen Schmerz Der Blumenbrief Der Einsame Der Entfernten Der entsühnte Orest Der Fischer Der Flüchtling Der Flug der Zeit Der Fluss Der Geistertanz Der Goldschmiedsgesell Der Gott und die Bajadere Der gute Hirt Der Herbstabend Der Hirt Der Hirt auf dem Felsen Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling am Bache Der Jüngling an der Quelle Der Jüngling auf dem Hügel Der Jüngling und der Tod Der Kampf Der Knabe Der Knabe in der Wiege ‘Wiegenlied’ Der König in Thule Der Kreuzzug Der Leidende ‘Klage’ Der Leidende ‘Klage’ Der Liebende Der liebliche Stern Der Liedler Der Mondabend Der Morgenkuss Der Musensohn Der Pilgrim Der Rattenfänger Der Sänger Der Sänger am Felsen Der Schäfer und der Reiter Der Schatzgräber Der Schiffer Der Schiffer Der Schmetterling Der Sieg Der Strom Der Taucher Der Tod Oscars

Macpherson (Ossian) Schreiber Klopstock Kosegarten Körner Leitner Seidl Rückert Klopstock Matthisson Kosegarten Mayrhofer Schiller Cibber Majláth Schreiber Lappe Salis-Seewis Mayrhofer Goethe Schiller Széchényi Schlegel Matthisson Goethe Goethe Uz Salis-Seewis Mayrhofer Müller Schiller Schiller Schiller Salis-Seewis Hüttenbrenner Spaun Schiller Schlegel (F) Ottenwalt Goethe Leitner Anon. (Hölty?) Anon. (Hölty?) Hölty Schulze Kenner Kumpf (Ermin) Baumberg Goethe Schiller Goethe Goethe Pichler Karl Goethe Mayrhofer Schlegel (F) Schlegel (F) Mayrhofer Anon. Schiller Macpherson (Ossian)

1815 1818 1815 1815 1815 1827–8 1826 1823? 1815 1814 1815 1817 1817 1825 1821 1818 1825 1816? 1820 1815 1816 1817 1820 1814 1817 1815 1816 1816 1816 1828 1812 1815 1819 c1818 1820 1817 1817 1820 1817 1816 1827 1816 1816 1815 1825 1815 1815 1815 1822 1823 1815 1815 1816 1817 1815 1817 1820 c1819 1824 1817 1813–4 1816

S49 S31 S47 S17 S24 S36 S41 S36 S47 S53 S17 S13 S26 S14 S32 S46 S42 S10 S6 S12, S63 S48 S31 S21 S2, S42 S53 S34 S47 S10, S15 S13 S52, S64 S2 S28 S28, S63 S10 S56 S58 S12 S21 S22 S34, S59 S36 S15 S15, S47 S26 S9, S19 S21 S31 S4 S34, S63 S26, S55 S34 S3 S4 S22 S34 S1, S28 S7 S21 S51 S20, S63 S63 S20, S49

The Schubert Project    97


D531 D213 D713 D906 D10 D742 D931 D489/493 D649 D870 D271 D938 D320 D785 D707 D771 D933 D6 D191 D389 D832 D510 D514 D852 D104 D634 D102 D874 D519 D246 D393 D563 D390 D579b D229 D182 D159 D550 D262 D430 D290 D646 D712 D444 D677 D404 D828 D400 D214 D522 D210 D751 D673 D446 D308 D194 D238 D358 D534 D208 D466 D745

Der Tod und das Mädchen Der Traum Der Unglückliche Der Vater mit dem Kind Der Vatermörder Der Wachtelschlag Der Wallensteiner Lanzknecht beim Trunk Der Wanderer Der Wanderer Der Wanderer an den Mond Der Weiberfreund Der Winterabend Der Zufriedene Der zürnende Barde Der zürnenden Diana Der Zwerg Des Fischers Liebesglück Des Mädchens Klage Des Mädchens Klage Des Mädchens Klage Des Sängers Habe Didone abbandonata Die abgeblühte Linde Die Allmacht Die Befreier Europas in Paris Die Berge Die Betende Die Blume und der Quell (arr. Hoorickx) Die Blumensprache Die Bürgschaft Die Einsiedelei Die Einsiedelei Die Entzückung an Laura Die Erde Die Erscheinung ‘Erinnerung’ Die erste Liebe Die Erwartung Die Forelle Die Fröhlichkeit Die frühe Liebe Die frühen Gräber Die Gebüsche Die gefangenen Sänger Die Gestirne Die Götter Griechenlands Die Herbstnacht Die junge Nonne Die Knabenzeit Die Laube Die Liebe Die Liebe ‘Clärchens Lied’ Die Liebe hat gelogen Die Liebende schreibt Die Liebesgötter Die Macht der Liebe Die Mainacht Die Mondnacht Die Nacht Die Nacht Die Nonne Die Perle Die Rose

98    The Oxford Lieder Festival Programme

Claudius Hölty Pichler Bauernfeld Pfeffel Sauter Leitner Lübeck Schlegel (F) Seidl Cowley Leitner Reissig Bruchmann Mayrhofer Collin Leitner Schiller Schiller Schiller Schlechta Metastasio Széchényi Pyrker Mikan Schlegel Matthisson Schulze Platner Schiller Salis-Seewis Salis-Seewis Schiller Matthisson Kosegarten Fellinger Schiller Schubart Prandstetter Hölty Klopstock Schlegel (F) Schlegel (A) Klopstock Schiller Salis-Seewis Jachelutta Hölty Hölty Leon Goethe Platen Goethe Uz Kalchberg Hölty Kosegarten Uz Macpherson (Ossian) Hölty Jacobi Schlegel (F)

1817 1815 1821 1827 1811 1822 1827 1816 1819 1826 1815 1828 1815 1823 1820 1822 or 1823 1827 1811 or 1812 1815 1816 1825 1816 1817? 1825 1814 c1819 1814 1826 1817 1815 1816 1817 1816 1817 1815 1815 1816 c1817 1815 1816 1815 1819 1821 1816 1819 1816 1825 1816 1815 1817 1815 1822 1819 1816 1815 1815 1815 1816 1817 1815 1816 1822

S1, S55, S58 S26 S4, S32 S62 S1 S46 S36 S22 S1, S21, S63 S1, S41, S55, S58 S22 S36, S62 S22 S43 S6 S55, S63, S64 S36 S48 S41 S41 S56 S39 S46 S22 S2 S21 S50 S62 S20 S12 S10 S10 S20 S10 S17 S22 S48 S28, S63 S22 S47 S47 S21 S7 S42 S12 S10 S22 S47 S26 S22 S39 S31 S34 S47 S2 S21 S2, S17 S47 S20, S42 S2 S35 S21

D50 D795

D289 D247 D186 D176 D313 D684 D939 D670 D307 D965a D230 D409 D391 D691 D801 D93/1 D93/2 D93/3 D770 D902

D776 D756 D445 D923 D620 D584 D413 D101 D98 D586 D328 D434 D226 D526 D351 D562 D881

Die Schatten Die schöne Müllerin i. Das Wandern ii. Wohin iii. Halt! iv. Danksagung an den Bach v. Am Feierabend vi. Der Neugierige vii. Ungeduld viii. Morgengruss ix. Des Müllers Blumen x. Tränenregen xi. Mein! xii. Pause xiii. Mit dem grünen Lautenbande xiv. Der Jäger xv. Eifersucht und Stolz xvi. Die liebe Farbe xvii. Die böse Farbe xviii. Trockne Blumen xix. Der Müller und der Bach xx. Des Baches Wiegenlied Die Sommernacht Die Spinnerin Die Sterbende Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sternennächte Die Sternenwelten Die Taubenpost Die Täuschung Die verfehlte Stunde Die vier Weltalter Die Vögel Dithyrambe Don Gayseros I Don Gayseros II Don Gayseros III Drang in die Ferne Drei Gesänge i. L’incanto degli occhi ii. Il traditor deluso iii. Il modo di prender moglie Du bist die Ruh Du liebst mich nicht Edone Eine altschottische Ballade Einsamkeit Elysium Entzückung Erinnerung ‘Totenopfer’ Erinnerungen Erlafsee Erlkönig Erntelied Erster Verlust Fahrt zum Hades Fischerlied Fischerlied Fischerweise

Matthisson

1813

S50

Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Klopstock Goethe Matthisson Fellinger Kosegarten Schlegel (F) Leitner Mayrhofer Fellinger Seidl Kosegarten Schlegel (A) Schiller Schlegel (F) Schiller Fouqué Fouqué Fouqué Leitner

1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1815 1815 1815 1815 1815 1820 1828 1819 1815 1828 1815 1816 1816 1820 1826 c1814 c1814 c1814 1823

S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S2 S53 S53 S42 S17 S21, S42 S42, S62, S63 S32, S42 S2, S42 S62, S64 S17 S7 S26 S21 S12 S39 S39 S39 S36, S43

Metastasio Metastasio Anon. (Metastasio) Rückert Platen Klopstock Anon. Mayrhofer Schiller Matthisson Matthisson Matthisson Mayrhofer Goethe Hölty Goethe Mayrhofer Salis-Seewis Salis-Seewis Schlechta

1827 1827 1827 1823 1822 1816 1827 1818 1817 1816 1814 1814 1817 1815 1816 1815 1817 1816? 1817 1826

S1 S1 S1 S36 S31, S46 S15, S47 S14, S62 S51 S12, S31 S10 S53 S53 S9, S28, S55 S59 S47 S3, S17 S6 S10 S10, S20 S55, S56

The Schubert Project    99


D531 D213 D713 D906 D10 D742 D931 D489/493 D649 D870 D271 D938 D320 D785 D707 D771 D933 D6 D191 D389 D832 D510 D514 D852 D104 D634 D102 D874 D519 D246 D393 D563 D390 D579b D229 D182 D159 D550 D262 D430 D290 D646 D712 D444 D677 D404 D828 D400 D214 D522 D210 D751 D673 D446 D308 D194 D238 D358 D534 D208 D466 D745

Der Tod und das Mädchen Der Traum Der Unglückliche Der Vater mit dem Kind Der Vatermörder Der Wachtelschlag Der Wallensteiner Lanzknecht beim Trunk Der Wanderer Der Wanderer Der Wanderer an den Mond Der Weiberfreund Der Winterabend Der Zufriedene Der zürnende Barde Der zürnenden Diana Der Zwerg Des Fischers Liebesglück Des Mädchens Klage Des Mädchens Klage Des Mädchens Klage Des Sängers Habe Didone abbandonata Die abgeblühte Linde Die Allmacht Die Befreier Europas in Paris Die Berge Die Betende Die Blume und der Quell (arr. Hoorickx) Die Blumensprache Die Bürgschaft Die Einsiedelei Die Einsiedelei Die Entzückung an Laura Die Erde Die Erscheinung ‘Erinnerung’ Die erste Liebe Die Erwartung Die Forelle Die Fröhlichkeit Die frühe Liebe Die frühen Gräber Die Gebüsche Die gefangenen Sänger Die Gestirne Die Götter Griechenlands Die Herbstnacht Die junge Nonne Die Knabenzeit Die Laube Die Liebe Die Liebe ‘Clärchens Lied’ Die Liebe hat gelogen Die Liebende schreibt Die Liebesgötter Die Macht der Liebe Die Mainacht Die Mondnacht Die Nacht Die Nacht Die Nonne Die Perle Die Rose

98    The Oxford Lieder Festival Programme

Claudius Hölty Pichler Bauernfeld Pfeffel Sauter Leitner Lübeck Schlegel (F) Seidl Cowley Leitner Reissig Bruchmann Mayrhofer Collin Leitner Schiller Schiller Schiller Schlechta Metastasio Széchényi Pyrker Mikan Schlegel Matthisson Schulze Platner Schiller Salis-Seewis Salis-Seewis Schiller Matthisson Kosegarten Fellinger Schiller Schubart Prandstetter Hölty Klopstock Schlegel (F) Schlegel (A) Klopstock Schiller Salis-Seewis Jachelutta Hölty Hölty Leon Goethe Platen Goethe Uz Kalchberg Hölty Kosegarten Uz Macpherson (Ossian) Hölty Jacobi Schlegel (F)

1817 1815 1821 1827 1811 1822 1827 1816 1819 1826 1815 1828 1815 1823 1820 1822 or 1823 1827 1811 or 1812 1815 1816 1825 1816 1817? 1825 1814 c1819 1814 1826 1817 1815 1816 1817 1816 1817 1815 1815 1816 c1817 1815 1816 1815 1819 1821 1816 1819 1816 1825 1816 1815 1817 1815 1822 1819 1816 1815 1815 1815 1816 1817 1815 1816 1822

S1, S55, S58 S26 S4, S32 S62 S1 S46 S36 S22 S1, S21, S63 S1, S41, S55, S58 S22 S36, S62 S22 S43 S6 S55, S63, S64 S36 S48 S41 S41 S56 S39 S46 S22 S2 S21 S50 S62 S20 S12 S10 S10 S20 S10 S17 S22 S48 S28, S63 S22 S47 S47 S21 S7 S42 S12 S10 S22 S47 S26 S22 S39 S31 S34 S47 S2 S21 S2, S17 S47 S20, S42 S2 S35 S21

D50 D795

D289 D247 D186 D176 D313 D684 D939 D670 D307 D965a D230 D409 D391 D691 D801 D93/1 D93/2 D93/3 D770 D902

D776 D756 D445 D923 D620 D584 D413 D101 D98 D586 D328 D434 D226 D526 D351 D562 D881

Die Schatten Die schöne Müllerin i. Das Wandern ii. Wohin iii. Halt! iv. Danksagung an den Bach v. Am Feierabend vi. Der Neugierige vii. Ungeduld viii. Morgengruss ix. Des Müllers Blumen x. Tränenregen xi. Mein! xii. Pause xiii. Mit dem grünen Lautenbande xiv. Der Jäger xv. Eifersucht und Stolz xvi. Die liebe Farbe xvii. Die böse Farbe xviii. Trockne Blumen xix. Der Müller und der Bach xx. Des Baches Wiegenlied Die Sommernacht Die Spinnerin Die Sterbende Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sterne Die Sternennächte Die Sternenwelten Die Taubenpost Die Täuschung Die verfehlte Stunde Die vier Weltalter Die Vögel Dithyrambe Don Gayseros I Don Gayseros II Don Gayseros III Drang in die Ferne Drei Gesänge i. L’incanto degli occhi ii. Il traditor deluso iii. Il modo di prender moglie Du bist die Ruh Du liebst mich nicht Edone Eine altschottische Ballade Einsamkeit Elysium Entzückung Erinnerung ‘Totenopfer’ Erinnerungen Erlafsee Erlkönig Erntelied Erster Verlust Fahrt zum Hades Fischerlied Fischerlied Fischerweise

Matthisson

1813

S50

Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Klopstock Goethe Matthisson Fellinger Kosegarten Schlegel (F) Leitner Mayrhofer Fellinger Seidl Kosegarten Schlegel (A) Schiller Schlegel (F) Schiller Fouqué Fouqué Fouqué Leitner

1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1823 1815 1815 1815 1815 1815 1820 1828 1819 1815 1828 1815 1816 1816 1820 1826 c1814 c1814 c1814 1823

S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S25 S2 S53 S53 S42 S17 S21, S42 S42, S62, S63 S32, S42 S2, S42 S62, S64 S17 S7 S26 S21 S12 S39 S39 S39 S36, S43

Metastasio Metastasio Anon. (Metastasio) Rückert Platen Klopstock Anon. Mayrhofer Schiller Matthisson Matthisson Matthisson Mayrhofer Goethe Hölty Goethe Mayrhofer Salis-Seewis Salis-Seewis Schlechta

1827 1827 1827 1823 1822 1816 1827 1818 1817 1816 1814 1814 1817 1815 1816 1815 1817 1816? 1817 1826

S1 S1 S1 S36 S31, S46 S15, S47 S14, S62 S51 S12, S31 S10 S53 S53 S9, S28, S55 S59 S47 S3, S17 S6 S10 S10, S20 S55, S56

The Schubert Project    99


D450b D700 D455 D520 D686 D398 D919 D854 D285 D544 D171 D719 D491 D233 D414 D100 D142 D142 D143 D831 D877

D478

D808 D448 D190/5 D218 D454 D616 D778 D716 D118 D583 D5 D552 D325 D257 D922 D312 D945 D502 D322 D651 D239/3 D890 D463 D251 D295 D637 D240 D659 D660 D661 D662

Fragment aus dem Aeschylus Freiwilliges Versinken Freude der Kinderjahre Frohsinn Frühlingsglaube Frühlingslied Frühlingslied Fülle der Liebe Furcht der Geliebten ‘An Cidli’ Ganymed Gebet während der Schlacht Geheimes Geheimnis ‘An Franz Schubert’ Geist der Liebe Geist der Liebe Geisternähe Geistes-Gruss (third version) Geistes-Gruss (sixth version) Genügsamkeit Gesang der Norna Gesänge aus ‘Wilhelm Meister’ i. Mignon und der Harfner ii. Lied der Mignon iii. Lied der Mignon iv. Lied der Mignon Gesänge des Harfners i. Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (a) ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (b) ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (c) iii. An die Türen will ich schleichen Gondelfahrer Gott im Frühlinge Gott, höre meine Stimme Grablied Grablied auf einen Soldaten Grablied für die Mutter Greisengesang Grenzen der Menschheit Gretchen am Spinnrade Gruppe aus dem Tartarus Hagars Klage Hänflings Liebeswerbung Harfenspieler Heidenröslein Heimliches Lieben Hektors Abschied Herbst Herbstlied Hermann und Thusnelda Himmelsfunken Hin und wieder fliegen die Pfeile Hippolits Lied Hochzeitslied Hoffnung Hoffnung Hoffnung Huldigung Hymne I Hymne II Hymne III Hymne IV

100    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Köpken Castelli Uhland Hölty Pollak Schlegel (F) Klopstock Goethe Körner Goethe Mayrhofer Kosegarten Matthisson Matthisson Goethe Goethe Schober Scott

1816 1820 1816 1817 1820 1816 1827 1825 1815 1817 1815 1821 1816 1815 1816 1814 1815 or 1816 1815 or 1816 1815 1825

S6 S32 S22 S22 S1, S55 S47 S62 S7, S31 S47 S1, S3, S12, S46, S59 S24 S12, S55 S1, S52 S17 S10 S53 S34 S34 S13 S14, S43

Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe

1826 1826 1826 1826

S3, S62 S3 S3, S62 S3

Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe Mayrhofer Uz Körner Kenner Schubart Anon. Rückert Goethe Goethe Schiller Schücking Kind Goethe Goethe Klenke Schiller Rellstab Salis-Seewis Klopstock Silbert Goethe Gerstenbergk Jacobi Schiller Goethe Schiller Kosegarten Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis)

1816 1816 1816 1822 1816 1824 1816 1815 1815 1816 1818 1823? 1821 1814 1817 1811 1817 1815 1815 1827 1815 1828 1816 1815 1819 1815 1826 1816 1815 c1816 c1819 1815 1819 1819 1819 1819

S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S43 S15, S20 S22 S56 S31 S22 S36 S32 S3, S55 S12 S5 S46 S3 S17, S53, S59 S4, S62 S48 S9, S62 S10 S47 S32 S39 S62 S35 S26 S34 S26, S31 S17 S58 S58 S58 S58

D227 D317 D736 D799 D880 D882 D738 D876 D834 D708 D464 D573 D215 D368 D909 D419 D371 D415 D436 D323 D496a D23 D217 D528 D302 D777 D301 D388 D508 D395 D883 D937 D7 D509 D298 D222 D239/6 D698 D179 D206 D558 D788 D284 D483 D403a/b D373 D107 D830 D109 D474 D360 D473 D273 D343 D711 D150 D319 D503 D658 D215a D216 D305

Idens Nachtgesang Idens Schwanenlied Ihr Grab Im Abendrot Im Freien Im Frühling Im Haine Im Jänner 1817 ‘Tiefes Leid’ Im Walde Im Walde ‘Waldesnacht’ In der Mitternacht Iphigenia Jägers Abendlied Jägers Abendlied Jägers Liebeslied Julius an Theone Klage Klage Klage an den Mond Klage der Ceres Klage um Ali Bey Klaglied Kolmas Klage La pastorella al prato Labetrank der Liebe Lachen und Weinen Lambertine Laura am Klavier Lebenslied Lebensmelodien Lebensmut Lebensmut Leichenfantasie Leiden der Trennung Liane Lieb Minna Liebe schwärmt auf allen Wegen Liebeslauschen ‘Des Fräuleins Liebeslauschen’ Liebesrausch Liebeständelei Liebhaber in allen Gestalten Lied ‘Die Mutter Erde’ Lied ‘Es ist so angenehm, so süss’ Lied ‘Ferne von der grossen Stadt’ Lied ‘Ins stille Land’ Lied ‘Mutter geht durch ihre Kammern’ Lied aus der Ferne Lied der Anne Lyle Lied der Liebe Lied des Orpheus, als er in die Hölle ging Lied eines Schiffers an die Dioskuren Liedesend Lilla an die Morgenröte Litanei auf das Fest Aller Seelen Lob der Tränen Lodas Gespenst Luisens Antwort Mailied Marie Meeres Stille Meeres Stille Mein Gruss an den Mai

Kosegarten Kosegarten Engelhardt Lappe Seidl Schulze Bruchmann Schulze Schulze Schlegel (F) Jacobi Mayrhofer Goethe Goethe Schober Matthisson Anon. Matthisson Hölty Schiller Claudius Rochlitz Macpherson (Ossian) Goldoni Stoll Rückert Stoll Schiller Matthisson Schlegel (A) Schulze Rellstab Schiller Collin Mayrhofer Stadler Goethe Schlechta Körner Körner Goethe Stolberg-Stolberg Schiller Pichler Salis-Seewis Karl Matthisson Macdonald Matthisson Jacobi Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Anon. Jacobi Schlegel (A) Macpherson (Ossian) Kosegarten Hölty Hardenberg (Novalis) Goethe Goethe Kumpf (Ermin)

1815 1815 1822? 1825 1826 1826 1822 or 1823 1826 1825 1820 1816 1817 1815 1816? 1827 1816 1816 1816 1816 1815 1816 1812 1815 1817 1815 1823? 1815 1816 1816 1816 1826 1828 1811 1816 1815 1815 1815 1820 1815 1815 1817 1823 1815 1816 1816 1816 1814 1825 1814 1816 1816 1816 1815 1816 1818 1816 1815 1816 1819 1815 1815 1815

S17 S17 S22 S9, S58 S41, S58, S62 S19, S52 S56 S1, S19 S19 S7 S35, S42 S6 S53 S53 S13 S10 S41 S10 S15, S47 S48 S29 S2 S49 S20 S2 S36, S55 S31 S34 S10 S7 S19 S9 S2 S20 S2 S31 S31, S39 S56 S24 S24 S3 S43, S46, S47 S34, S41 S56 S10, S15, S20 S22 S2, S15 S14, S43 S50 S35 S6, S42 S20 S22 S15, S35 S7 S49 S17 S15 S22 S28 S28, S63 S2

The Schubert Project    101


D450b D700 D455 D520 D686 D398 D919 D854 D285 D544 D171 D719 D491 D233 D414 D100 D142 D142 D143 D831 D877

D478

D808 D448 D190/5 D218 D454 D616 D778 D716 D118 D583 D5 D552 D325 D257 D922 D312 D945 D502 D322 D651 D239/3 D890 D463 D251 D295 D637 D240 D659 D660 D661 D662

Fragment aus dem Aeschylus Freiwilliges Versinken Freude der Kinderjahre Frohsinn Frühlingsglaube Frühlingslied Frühlingslied Fülle der Liebe Furcht der Geliebten ‘An Cidli’ Ganymed Gebet während der Schlacht Geheimes Geheimnis ‘An Franz Schubert’ Geist der Liebe Geist der Liebe Geisternähe Geistes-Gruss (third version) Geistes-Gruss (sixth version) Genügsamkeit Gesang der Norna Gesänge aus ‘Wilhelm Meister’ i. Mignon und der Harfner ii. Lied der Mignon iii. Lied der Mignon iv. Lied der Mignon Gesänge des Harfners i. Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (a) ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (b) ii. Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass (c) iii. An die Türen will ich schleichen Gondelfahrer Gott im Frühlinge Gott, höre meine Stimme Grablied Grablied auf einen Soldaten Grablied für die Mutter Greisengesang Grenzen der Menschheit Gretchen am Spinnrade Gruppe aus dem Tartarus Hagars Klage Hänflings Liebeswerbung Harfenspieler Heidenröslein Heimliches Lieben Hektors Abschied Herbst Herbstlied Hermann und Thusnelda Himmelsfunken Hin und wieder fliegen die Pfeile Hippolits Lied Hochzeitslied Hoffnung Hoffnung Hoffnung Huldigung Hymne I Hymne II Hymne III Hymne IV

100    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Köpken Castelli Uhland Hölty Pollak Schlegel (F) Klopstock Goethe Körner Goethe Mayrhofer Kosegarten Matthisson Matthisson Goethe Goethe Schober Scott

1816 1820 1816 1817 1820 1816 1827 1825 1815 1817 1815 1821 1816 1815 1816 1814 1815 or 1816 1815 or 1816 1815 1825

S6 S32 S22 S22 S1, S55 S47 S62 S7, S31 S47 S1, S3, S12, S46, S59 S24 S12, S55 S1, S52 S17 S10 S53 S34 S34 S13 S14, S43

Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe

1826 1826 1826 1826

S3, S62 S3 S3, S62 S3

Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe Goethe Mayrhofer Uz Körner Kenner Schubart Anon. Rückert Goethe Goethe Schiller Schücking Kind Goethe Goethe Klenke Schiller Rellstab Salis-Seewis Klopstock Silbert Goethe Gerstenbergk Jacobi Schiller Goethe Schiller Kosegarten Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis) Hardenberg (Novalis)

1816 1816 1816 1822 1816 1824 1816 1815 1815 1816 1818 1823? 1821 1814 1817 1811 1817 1815 1815 1827 1815 1828 1816 1815 1819 1815 1826 1816 1815 c1816 c1819 1815 1819 1819 1819 1819

S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S43 S15, S20 S22 S56 S31 S22 S36 S32 S3, S55 S12 S5 S46 S3 S17, S53, S59 S4, S62 S48 S9, S62 S10 S47 S32 S39 S62 S35 S26 S34 S26, S31 S17 S58 S58 S58 S58

D227 D317 D736 D799 D880 D882 D738 D876 D834 D708 D464 D573 D215 D368 D909 D419 D371 D415 D436 D323 D496a D23 D217 D528 D302 D777 D301 D388 D508 D395 D883 D937 D7 D509 D298 D222 D239/6 D698 D179 D206 D558 D788 D284 D483 D403a/b D373 D107 D830 D109 D474 D360 D473 D273 D343 D711 D150 D319 D503 D658 D215a D216 D305

Idens Nachtgesang Idens Schwanenlied Ihr Grab Im Abendrot Im Freien Im Frühling Im Haine Im Jänner 1817 ‘Tiefes Leid’ Im Walde Im Walde ‘Waldesnacht’ In der Mitternacht Iphigenia Jägers Abendlied Jägers Abendlied Jägers Liebeslied Julius an Theone Klage Klage Klage an den Mond Klage der Ceres Klage um Ali Bey Klaglied Kolmas Klage La pastorella al prato Labetrank der Liebe Lachen und Weinen Lambertine Laura am Klavier Lebenslied Lebensmelodien Lebensmut Lebensmut Leichenfantasie Leiden der Trennung Liane Lieb Minna Liebe schwärmt auf allen Wegen Liebeslauschen ‘Des Fräuleins Liebeslauschen’ Liebesrausch Liebeständelei Liebhaber in allen Gestalten Lied ‘Die Mutter Erde’ Lied ‘Es ist so angenehm, so süss’ Lied ‘Ferne von der grossen Stadt’ Lied ‘Ins stille Land’ Lied ‘Mutter geht durch ihre Kammern’ Lied aus der Ferne Lied der Anne Lyle Lied der Liebe Lied des Orpheus, als er in die Hölle ging Lied eines Schiffers an die Dioskuren Liedesend Lilla an die Morgenröte Litanei auf das Fest Aller Seelen Lob der Tränen Lodas Gespenst Luisens Antwort Mailied Marie Meeres Stille Meeres Stille Mein Gruss an den Mai

Kosegarten Kosegarten Engelhardt Lappe Seidl Schulze Bruchmann Schulze Schulze Schlegel (F) Jacobi Mayrhofer Goethe Goethe Schober Matthisson Anon. Matthisson Hölty Schiller Claudius Rochlitz Macpherson (Ossian) Goldoni Stoll Rückert Stoll Schiller Matthisson Schlegel (A) Schulze Rellstab Schiller Collin Mayrhofer Stadler Goethe Schlechta Körner Körner Goethe Stolberg-Stolberg Schiller Pichler Salis-Seewis Karl Matthisson Macdonald Matthisson Jacobi Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Anon. Jacobi Schlegel (A) Macpherson (Ossian) Kosegarten Hölty Hardenberg (Novalis) Goethe Goethe Kumpf (Ermin)

1815 1815 1822? 1825 1826 1826 1822 or 1823 1826 1825 1820 1816 1817 1815 1816? 1827 1816 1816 1816 1816 1815 1816 1812 1815 1817 1815 1823? 1815 1816 1816 1816 1826 1828 1811 1816 1815 1815 1815 1820 1815 1815 1817 1823 1815 1816 1816 1816 1814 1825 1814 1816 1816 1816 1815 1816 1818 1816 1815 1816 1819 1815 1815 1815

S17 S17 S22 S9, S58 S41, S58, S62 S19, S52 S56 S1, S19 S19 S7 S35, S42 S6 S53 S53 S13 S10 S41 S10 S15, S47 S48 S29 S2 S49 S20 S2 S36, S55 S31 S34 S10 S7 S19 S9 S2 S20 S2 S31 S31, S39 S56 S24 S24 S3 S43, S46, S47 S34, S41 S56 S10, S15, S20 S22 S2, S15 S14, S43 S50 S35 S6, S42 S20 S22 S15, S35 S7 S49 S17 S15 S22 S28 S28, S63 S2

The Schubert Project    101


D541 D726 D727 D321 D429 D152 D42/2 D266 D381 D685 D561 D827 D119 D314 D687 D672 D752 D162 D695 D188 D548 D278 D551 D76 D392 D500 D540 D789 D674 D138 D397 D114 D797 D907 D476 D163 D165 D121 D121 D761 D910 D527 D744 D957

D318 D559 D762 D52 D123

Memnon Mignon I Mignon II Mignons Gesang Minnelied Minona Misero pargoletto Morgenlied Morgenlied Morgenlied Nach einem Gewitter Nacht und Träume Nachtgesang Nachtgesang Nachthymne Nachtstück Nachtviolen Nähe des Geliebten Namenstagslied Naturgenuss Orest auf Tauris Ossians Lied nach dem Falle Nathos Pax vobiscum Pensa, che questo istante Pflügerlied Phidile Philoktet Pilgerweise Prometheus Rastlose Liebe Ritter Toggenburg Romanze Romanze ‘Der Vollmond strahlt’ Romanze des Richard Löwenherz Rückweg Sängers Morgenlied Sängers Morgenlied Schäfers Klagelied (first version) Schäfers Klagelied (second version) Schatzgräbers Begehr Schiffers Scheidelied Schlaflied ‘Schlummerlied’ Schwanengesang Schwanengesang i. Liebesbotschaft ii. Kriegers Ahnung iii. Frühlingssehnsucht iv. Ständchen v. Aufenthalt vi. In der Ferne vii. Abschied viii. Der Atlas ix. Ihr Bild x. Das Fischermädchen xi. Die Stadt xii. Am Meer xiii. Der Doppelgänger Schwangesang Schweizerlied Schwestergruss Sehnsucht Sehnsucht

102    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Mayrhofer Goethe Goethe Goethe Hölty Bertrand Metastasio Stolberg-Stolberg Anon. Werner Mayrhofer Collin Goethe Kosegarten Hardenberg (Novalis) Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Goethe Stadler Matthisson Mayrhofer Macpherson (Ossian) Schober Metastasio Salis-Seewis Claudius Mayrhofer Schober Goethe Goethe Schiller Matthisson Chézy Scott Mayrhofer Körner Körner Goethe Goethe Schober Schober Mayrhofer Senn

1817 1821 1821 1815 1816 1815 1813 1815 1816 1820 1817 1822 or 1823 1814 1815 1820 1819 1822 1815 1820 1815 1817 1815 1817 1813 1816 1816 1817 1823 1819 1815 1816 1814 1823 1827 1816 1815 1815 1814 1819? 1822 1827 1817 1822

S6 S32 S32 S3 S47 S5 S39 S47 S22 S32 S52 S1, S42, S64 S53 S17 S32, S58 S9, S49 S46 S31, S34 S32 S53 S6 S49 S13 S2, S39 S10, S15, S20 S29 S6 S13 S12 S12, S53, S55, S59 S24 S53 S4, S39, S55 S62 S13, S51 S24 S24 S22 S22 S13 S13 S52 S43

Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Heine Heine Heine Heine Heine Heine Kosegarten Goethe Bruchmann Schiller Goethe

1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1815 1817 1822 1813 1814

S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S64 S64 S64 S64 S64 S64 S17 S20 S43 S26 S34

D310a D359 D481 D516 D636 D879 D180 D741 D743 D433 D286b D198 D293 D837 D838 D835 D836 D846 D839 D843 D619 D306 D507 D78 D628 D629 D630 D410 D889 D187 D412 D418 D720 D717 D126 D533 D73 D595 D274 D234 D758 D44 D842 D869 D275 D465 D888 D523 D671 D97 D546 D120 D884 D862 D554 D287 D177 D792 D59 D715

Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht der Liebe Sei mir gegrüsst! Selige Welt Seligkeit Selma und Selmar Seufzer Shilrik und Vinvela Sieben Gesänge aus Walter Scotts ‘Fräulein vom See’ i. Ellens Gesang I ii. Ellens Gesang II iii. Bootgesang iv. Coronach ‘Er ist uns geschieden’ v. Normans Gesang vi. Ellens Gesang III vii. Lied des gefangenen Jägers Sing-übungen (arr. Roblou) Skolie Skolie Son fra l’onde Sonett I Sonett II Sonett III Sprache der Liebe Ständchen ‘Horch, horch! die Lerch’ Stimme der Liebe Stimme der Liebe Stimme der Liebe Suleika I Suleika II Szene aus Faust Täglich zu singen Thekla ‘Eine Geisterstimme’ Thekla ‘Eine Geisterstimme’ Tischlerlied Tischlied Todesmusik Totengräberlied Totengräbers Heimweh Totengräberweise Totenkranz für ein Kind Trauer der Liebe Trinklied Trost Trost Trost ‘An Elisa’ Trost im Liede Trost in Tränen Über Wildemann Um Mitternacht Uraniens Flucht Vaterlandslied Vergebliche Liebe Vergissmeinnicht Verklärung Versunken

Goethe Goethe Goethe Mayrhofer Schiller Seidl Körner Rückert Senn Hölty Klopstock Hölty Macpherson (Ossian)

1815 1816 1816 1817? 1821 1826 1815 1821–2 1822 1816 1815 1815 1815

S3 S3 S3 S52 S26 S41, S62 S2 S36 S43, S58 S47, S55 S47 S26 S49

Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott

1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1818 1815 1816 1813 1818 1818 1818 1816 1826 1815 1816 1816 1821 1821 1814 1817 1813 1817 1815 1815 1822 1813 1825 1826 1815 1816 1826 1817 1819 1814 1817 1814 1826 1825 1817 1815 1815 1823 1813 1821

S14, S43 S14, S43 S14 S14 S14, S43, S58 S14, S43 S14, S43 S32 S2 S10 S39 S7 S7 S32 S7, S20 S14, S62, S63 S10 S20 S10 S4, S34 S4 S2, S12, S49 S29 S2 S24, S31 S22 S22 S43 S26 S58 S56, S62 S53 S15, S35 S14 S22 S13, S42 S50 S20 S34 S19 S19 S6 S47 S22 S46 S14 S12, S55

Deinhardstein Matthisson Metastasio Petrarch Petrarch Petrarch Schlegel (A) Shakespeare Matthisson Stolberg-Stolberg Matthisson Willemer Willemer Goethe Claudius Schiller Schiller Anon. Goethe Schober Hölty Jachelutta Schlechta Matthisson Jacobi Shakespeare Anon. Mayrhofer Matthisson Schober Goethe Schulze Schulze Mayrhofer Klopstock Bernard Schober Pope Goethe

The Schubert Project    103


D541 D726 D727 D321 D429 D152 D42/2 D266 D381 D685 D561 D827 D119 D314 D687 D672 D752 D162 D695 D188 D548 D278 D551 D76 D392 D500 D540 D789 D674 D138 D397 D114 D797 D907 D476 D163 D165 D121 D121 D761 D910 D527 D744 D957

D318 D559 D762 D52 D123

Memnon Mignon I Mignon II Mignons Gesang Minnelied Minona Misero pargoletto Morgenlied Morgenlied Morgenlied Nach einem Gewitter Nacht und Träume Nachtgesang Nachtgesang Nachthymne Nachtstück Nachtviolen Nähe des Geliebten Namenstagslied Naturgenuss Orest auf Tauris Ossians Lied nach dem Falle Nathos Pax vobiscum Pensa, che questo istante Pflügerlied Phidile Philoktet Pilgerweise Prometheus Rastlose Liebe Ritter Toggenburg Romanze Romanze ‘Der Vollmond strahlt’ Romanze des Richard Löwenherz Rückweg Sängers Morgenlied Sängers Morgenlied Schäfers Klagelied (first version) Schäfers Klagelied (second version) Schatzgräbers Begehr Schiffers Scheidelied Schlaflied ‘Schlummerlied’ Schwanengesang Schwanengesang i. Liebesbotschaft ii. Kriegers Ahnung iii. Frühlingssehnsucht iv. Ständchen v. Aufenthalt vi. In der Ferne vii. Abschied viii. Der Atlas ix. Ihr Bild x. Das Fischermädchen xi. Die Stadt xii. Am Meer xiii. Der Doppelgänger Schwangesang Schweizerlied Schwestergruss Sehnsucht Sehnsucht

102    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Mayrhofer Goethe Goethe Goethe Hölty Bertrand Metastasio Stolberg-Stolberg Anon. Werner Mayrhofer Collin Goethe Kosegarten Hardenberg (Novalis) Mayrhofer Mayrhofer Goethe Stadler Matthisson Mayrhofer Macpherson (Ossian) Schober Metastasio Salis-Seewis Claudius Mayrhofer Schober Goethe Goethe Schiller Matthisson Chézy Scott Mayrhofer Körner Körner Goethe Goethe Schober Schober Mayrhofer Senn

1817 1821 1821 1815 1816 1815 1813 1815 1816 1820 1817 1822 or 1823 1814 1815 1820 1819 1822 1815 1820 1815 1817 1815 1817 1813 1816 1816 1817 1823 1819 1815 1816 1814 1823 1827 1816 1815 1815 1814 1819? 1822 1827 1817 1822

S6 S32 S32 S3 S47 S5 S39 S47 S22 S32 S52 S1, S42, S64 S53 S17 S32, S58 S9, S49 S46 S31, S34 S32 S53 S6 S49 S13 S2, S39 S10, S15, S20 S29 S6 S13 S12 S12, S53, S55, S59 S24 S53 S4, S39, S55 S62 S13, S51 S24 S24 S22 S22 S13 S13 S52 S43

Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Rellstab Heine Heine Heine Heine Heine Heine Kosegarten Goethe Bruchmann Schiller Goethe

1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1828 1815 1817 1822 1813 1814

S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S29 S64 S64 S64 S64 S64 S64 S17 S20 S43 S26 S34

D310a D359 D481 D516 D636 D879 D180 D741 D743 D433 D286b D198 D293 D837 D838 D835 D836 D846 D839 D843 D619 D306 D507 D78 D628 D629 D630 D410 D889 D187 D412 D418 D720 D717 D126 D533 D73 D595 D274 D234 D758 D44 D842 D869 D275 D465 D888 D523 D671 D97 D546 D120 D884 D862 D554 D287 D177 D792 D59 D715

Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht Sehnsucht der Liebe Sei mir gegrüsst! Selige Welt Seligkeit Selma und Selmar Seufzer Shilrik und Vinvela Sieben Gesänge aus Walter Scotts ‘Fräulein vom See’ i. Ellens Gesang I ii. Ellens Gesang II iii. Bootgesang iv. Coronach ‘Er ist uns geschieden’ v. Normans Gesang vi. Ellens Gesang III vii. Lied des gefangenen Jägers Sing-übungen (arr. Roblou) Skolie Skolie Son fra l’onde Sonett I Sonett II Sonett III Sprache der Liebe Ständchen ‘Horch, horch! die Lerch’ Stimme der Liebe Stimme der Liebe Stimme der Liebe Suleika I Suleika II Szene aus Faust Täglich zu singen Thekla ‘Eine Geisterstimme’ Thekla ‘Eine Geisterstimme’ Tischlerlied Tischlied Todesmusik Totengräberlied Totengräbers Heimweh Totengräberweise Totenkranz für ein Kind Trauer der Liebe Trinklied Trost Trost Trost ‘An Elisa’ Trost im Liede Trost in Tränen Über Wildemann Um Mitternacht Uraniens Flucht Vaterlandslied Vergebliche Liebe Vergissmeinnicht Verklärung Versunken

Goethe Goethe Goethe Mayrhofer Schiller Seidl Körner Rückert Senn Hölty Klopstock Hölty Macpherson (Ossian)

1815 1816 1816 1817? 1821 1826 1815 1821–2 1822 1816 1815 1815 1815

S3 S3 S3 S52 S26 S41, S62 S2 S36 S43, S58 S47, S55 S47 S26 S49

Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott

1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1825 1818 1815 1816 1813 1818 1818 1818 1816 1826 1815 1816 1816 1821 1821 1814 1817 1813 1817 1815 1815 1822 1813 1825 1826 1815 1816 1826 1817 1819 1814 1817 1814 1826 1825 1817 1815 1815 1823 1813 1821

S14, S43 S14, S43 S14 S14 S14, S43, S58 S14, S43 S14, S43 S32 S2 S10 S39 S7 S7 S32 S7, S20 S14, S62, S63 S10 S20 S10 S4, S34 S4 S2, S12, S49 S29 S2 S24, S31 S22 S22 S43 S26 S58 S56, S62 S53 S15, S35 S14 S22 S13, S42 S50 S20 S34 S19 S19 S6 S47 S22 S46 S14 S12, S55

Deinhardstein Matthisson Metastasio Petrarch Petrarch Petrarch Schlegel (A) Shakespeare Matthisson Stolberg-Stolberg Matthisson Willemer Willemer Goethe Claudius Schiller Schiller Anon. Goethe Schober Hölty Jachelutta Schlechta Matthisson Jacobi Shakespeare Anon. Mayrhofer Matthisson Schober Goethe Schulze Schulze Mayrhofer Klopstock Bernard Schober Pope Goethe

The Schubert Project    103


D688

D866

D786 D579a D632 D228 D927 D224 D768 D772 D261 D639 D865 D525 D855 D304 D498 D867 D767 D401 D911

D260 D362 D501 D857

Vier Canzonen i. Non t’accostar all’urna ii. Guarda, che bianca luna iii. Da quel sembiante appresi iv. Mio ben ricordati Vier Refrainlieder i. Die Unterscheidung ii. Bei dir allein! iii. Die Männer sind méchant iv. Irdisches Glück Viola Vollendung Vom mitleiden Mariä Von Ida Vor meiner Wiege Wandrers Nachtlied I Wandrers Nachtlied II Wehmut Wer kauft Liebesgötter? Widerschein Widerspruch Wie Ulfru fisch Wiedersehn Wiegenlied Wiegenlied Wiegenlied Willkommen und Abschied Winterlied Winterreise i. Gute Nacht ii. Die Wetterfahne iii. Gefrorne Tränen iv. Erstarrung v. Der Lindenbaum vi. Wasserflut vii. Auf dem Flusse viii. Rückblick ix. Irrlicht x. Rast xi. Frühlingstraum xii. Einsamkeit xiii. Die Post xiv. Der greise Kopf xv. Die Krähe xvi. Letzte Hoffnung xvii. Im Dorfe xviii. Der stürmische Morgen xix. Täuschung xx. Der Wegweiser xxi. Das Wirtshaus xxii. Mut! xxiii. Die Nebensonnen xxiv. Der Leiermann Wonne der Wehmut Zufriedenheit ‘Lied’ Zufriedenheit ‘Lied’ Zwei Szenen aus dem Schauspiel ‘Lacrimas’ i. Lied der Delphine ii. Lied des Florio

104    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Partsongs by Schubert Vittorelli Vittorelli Metastasio Metastasio

1820 1820 1820 1820

S39 S39 S39 S39

Seidl Seidl Seidl Seidl Schober Matthisson Schlegel (F) Kosegarten Leitner Goethe Goethe Collin Goethe Schlechta Seidl Mayrhofer Schlegel (A) Körner Anon. Seidl Goethe Hölty

1828 1828 1828 1828 1823 1817 1818 1815 1827–8 1815 1824 1822 or 1823 1815 c1819 1826 1817 1825 1815 1816 1826? 1822 1816

S41, S62 S41, S55 S41 S41 S46, S52 S10 S21, S32 S17 S36 S34, S53 S12, S34, S53 S64 S53 S56 S62 S28 S7 S2 S22 S41 S3, S12, S59 S47

Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Goethe Claudius Claudius

1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1815 1815 or 1816 1816

S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S34 S20, S29 S15, S29

Schütz Schütz

1825 1825

S39, S43 S39, S43, S55

D147 D440 D236 D569 D826 D609 D930 D724 D749 D740 D815 D714 D809 D666 D140 D352 D913 D892 D920 D75 D169 D642

Bardengesang Chor der Engel Das Abendrot Das Grab Der Tanz ‘Es redet und träumet die Jugend so viel’ Die Geselligkeit ‘Lebenslust’ Der Hochzeitsbraten Die Nachtigall Epistel ‘An Herrn Josef von Spaun, Assessor in Linz’ Frühlingsgesang Gebet Gesang der Geister über den Wassern Gondelfahrer Kantate zum Geburtstag des Sängers Michael Vogl Klage um Ali Bey Licht und Liebe Nachtgesang im Walde Nachthelle Ständchen ‘Zögernd leise’ Trinklied ‘Freunde, sammelt euch im Kreise’ Trinklied vor der Schlacht ‘Schlacht, du brichst an!’ Viel tausend Sterne prangen

Macpherson (Ossian) Goethe Kosegarten Salis-Seewis Schnitzer? Unger Schober Unger Collin Schober Fouqué Goethe Mayrhofer Stadler Claudius Collin Seidl Seidl Grillparzer Schäffer Körner Eberhard

1816 1816 1815 1817 1828 1818 1827 1821 1822 1822 1824 1820–1 1824 1819 1815 1816? 1827 1826 1827 1813 1815 1812

S49 S49 S17 S1 S14, S62 S14, S32 S24 S1 S43 S1 S43 S61 S1 S56 S2 S21 S9 S9 S1, S64 S14 S14 S14

1824 1820 1828 1827 1824 1824 1819? 1828 1826 1827–8? 1827 1828 1824 1828 1816 1824 1827

S52 S64 S44 S36 S35 S19 S28 S37 S40 S33 S27 S44 S54 S57 S61 S44 S8

1794–5 1816 c1792 1808 1801–2 1799 1958

S50 S50 S50 S50 S50 S18 S61

Other music by Schubert D821 D706 D940 D934 D812 D803 D667 D960 D894 D898 D929 D951 D810 D956 D485 D813 D935

‘Arpeggione’ Sonata in A minor Der 23. Psalm Fantasia in F minor Fantasie in C major for violin and piano Grand Duo in C major Octet in F major Piano Quintet in A major ‘Die Forelle’ Piano Sonata in B flat major Piano Sonata in G major Piano Trio in B flat major Piano Trio in E flat major Rondo in A major String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ String Quintet in C major Symphony No. 5 in B flat major Variations on an original theme in A flat major Vier Impromptus

Music by other composers Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Britten

Adelaide An die ferne Geliebte An Laura Andenken Opferlied Septet in E flat major op. 20 Nocturne

Matthisson Jeitteles Matthisson Matthisson Matthisson Various

The Schubert Project    105


D688

D866

D786 D579a D632 D228 D927 D224 D768 D772 D261 D639 D865 D525 D855 D304 D498 D867 D767 D401 D911

D260 D362 D501 D857

Vier Canzonen i. Non t’accostar all’urna ii. Guarda, che bianca luna iii. Da quel sembiante appresi iv. Mio ben ricordati Vier Refrainlieder i. Die Unterscheidung ii. Bei dir allein! iii. Die Männer sind méchant iv. Irdisches Glück Viola Vollendung Vom mitleiden Mariä Von Ida Vor meiner Wiege Wandrers Nachtlied I Wandrers Nachtlied II Wehmut Wer kauft Liebesgötter? Widerschein Widerspruch Wie Ulfru fisch Wiedersehn Wiegenlied Wiegenlied Wiegenlied Willkommen und Abschied Winterlied Winterreise i. Gute Nacht ii. Die Wetterfahne iii. Gefrorne Tränen iv. Erstarrung v. Der Lindenbaum vi. Wasserflut vii. Auf dem Flusse viii. Rückblick ix. Irrlicht x. Rast xi. Frühlingstraum xii. Einsamkeit xiii. Die Post xiv. Der greise Kopf xv. Die Krähe xvi. Letzte Hoffnung xvii. Im Dorfe xviii. Der stürmische Morgen xix. Täuschung xx. Der Wegweiser xxi. Das Wirtshaus xxii. Mut! xxiii. Die Nebensonnen xxiv. Der Leiermann Wonne der Wehmut Zufriedenheit ‘Lied’ Zufriedenheit ‘Lied’ Zwei Szenen aus dem Schauspiel ‘Lacrimas’ i. Lied der Delphine ii. Lied des Florio

104    The Oxford Lieder Festival

Partsongs by Schubert Vittorelli Vittorelli Metastasio Metastasio

1820 1820 1820 1820

S39 S39 S39 S39

Seidl Seidl Seidl Seidl Schober Matthisson Schlegel (F) Kosegarten Leitner Goethe Goethe Collin Goethe Schlechta Seidl Mayrhofer Schlegel (A) Körner Anon. Seidl Goethe Hölty

1828 1828 1828 1828 1823 1817 1818 1815 1827–8 1815 1824 1822 or 1823 1815 c1819 1826 1817 1825 1815 1816 1826? 1822 1816

S41, S62 S41, S55 S41 S41 S46, S52 S10 S21, S32 S17 S36 S34, S53 S12, S34, S53 S64 S53 S56 S62 S28 S7 S2 S22 S41 S3, S12, S59 S47

Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Müller Goethe Claudius Claudius

1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1827 1815 1815 or 1816 1816

S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S16, S45 S34 S20, S29 S15, S29

Schütz Schütz

1825 1825

S39, S43 S39, S43, S55

D147 D440 D236 D569 D826 D609 D930 D724 D749 D740 D815 D714 D809 D666 D140 D352 D913 D892 D920 D75 D169 D642

Bardengesang Chor der Engel Das Abendrot Das Grab Der Tanz ‘Es redet und träumet die Jugend so viel’ Die Geselligkeit ‘Lebenslust’ Der Hochzeitsbraten Die Nachtigall Epistel ‘An Herrn Josef von Spaun, Assessor in Linz’ Frühlingsgesang Gebet Gesang der Geister über den Wassern Gondelfahrer Kantate zum Geburtstag des Sängers Michael Vogl Klage um Ali Bey Licht und Liebe Nachtgesang im Walde Nachthelle Ständchen ‘Zögernd leise’ Trinklied ‘Freunde, sammelt euch im Kreise’ Trinklied vor der Schlacht ‘Schlacht, du brichst an!’ Viel tausend Sterne prangen

Macpherson (Ossian) Goethe Kosegarten Salis-Seewis Schnitzer? Unger Schober Unger Collin Schober Fouqué Goethe Mayrhofer Stadler Claudius Collin Seidl Seidl Grillparzer Schäffer Körner Eberhard

1816 1816 1815 1817 1828 1818 1827 1821 1822 1822 1824 1820–1 1824 1819 1815 1816? 1827 1826 1827 1813 1815 1812

S49 S49 S17 S1 S14, S62 S14, S32 S24 S1 S43 S1 S43 S61 S1 S56 S2 S21 S9 S9 S1, S64 S14 S14 S14

1824 1820 1828 1827 1824 1824 1819? 1828 1826 1827–8? 1827 1828 1824 1828 1816 1824 1827

S52 S64 S44 S36 S35 S19 S28 S37 S40 S33 S27 S44 S54 S57 S61 S44 S8

1794–5 1816 c1792 1808 1801–2 1799 1958

S50 S50 S50 S50 S50 S18 S61

Other music by Schubert D821 D706 D940 D934 D812 D803 D667 D960 D894 D898 D929 D951 D810 D956 D485 D813 D935

‘Arpeggione’ Sonata in A minor Der 23. Psalm Fantasia in F minor Fantasie in C major for violin and piano Grand Duo in C major Octet in F major Piano Quintet in A major ‘Die Forelle’ Piano Sonata in B flat major Piano Sonata in G major Piano Trio in B flat major Piano Trio in E flat major Rondo in A major String Quartet in D minor ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ String Quintet in C major Symphony No. 5 in B flat major Variations on an original theme in A flat major Vier Impromptus

Music by other composers Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Beethoven Britten

Adelaide An die ferne Geliebte An Laura Andenken Opferlied Septet in E flat major op. 20 Nocturne

Matthisson Jeitteles Matthisson Matthisson Matthisson Various

The Schubert Project    105


Around Oxford

RESTAURANTS AND CAFÉS ALL BAR ONE 124 High Street, Oxford OX1 4DF 01865 791696 www.allbarone.co.uk Open everyday 10am–10pm Food served all day, with great lunch and evening offers.

FISHERS RESTAURANT 36–37 St Clements Street, Oxford OX4 1AB 01865 243003 www.fishers-restaurant.com Open Monday to Friday 6–10.30pm Saturday 12–2.30pm and 6–10.30pm Sunday 12–2.30pm Fresh fish and seafood.

BRASSERIE BLANC

IFFLEY BLUE RESTAURANT

71–72 Walton Street, Jericho, Oxford OX2 6AG 01865 510999

Church Way, Iffley Village OX4 4DZ 01865 332112

www.brasserieblanc.com

Open Monday to Sunday 12–10pm

Open Monday to Friday 12–2:45pm and 5:30–10pm Saturday 12–10:30pm Sunday 12–9pm Our desire is to create and serve food that can be enjoyed by everyone.

CAFÉ ROUGE OXFORD 11 Little Clarendon Street, Oxford OX1 2HP 01865 310194

www.iffleyblue.co.uk

Food and drink in great company.

THE OXFORD KITCHEN 215 Banbury Road, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7HQ 01865 511149

Open everyday 6–11pm Sunday to Thursday 12–2pm

Open Monday to Saturday 9am–5.30pm

Contemporary Indian cuisine.

Independent booksellers established for 40 years.

TURL STREET KITCHEN 16–17 Turl Street, Oxford OX1 3DH 01865 264171

34 High Street, Oxford OX1 4AN 01865 248347

www.turlstreetkitchen.co.uk

Open Tuesday to Friday 9am–5pm Saturday 10am–6pm

Open everyday 8am–late Hot drinks, full bar and food available all day

THE VAULTS AND GARDEN CAFÉ University Church, High Street, Oxford OX1 4BJ 01865 279112

SHOPS AND GALLERIES Prama House, Summertown, OX2 7HT and 93 High Street, Thame OX9 3HJ

Delicious French food served all day.

www.spiceloungeoxford.co.uk

36 High Street, Oxford OX1 4AN 01865 246596 Open Monday to Friday 9am–5pm, Saturday 10am–6pm and Sunday 11am–5pm

Delicious and healthy seasonal food.

THE BOOK HOUSE

193 Banbury Road, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7AR 01865 510071

THE OXFORD GALLERY

Open everyday 8am–6pm

Exquisite modern British cuisine.

Open Monday to Saturday 9am–11pm Sunday 9.30am–10.30pm

Oxford’s premier jeweller and silversmith.

www.theoxfordgallery.com

Open Everyday 8am–10pm

THE SPICE LOUNGE

www.reginalddavis.com

www.thevaultsandgarden.com

www.theoxfordkitchen.co.uk

www.caferouge.co.uk

REGINALD DAVIS

www.thebookhouse summertown.co.uk www.thebookhouse thame.co.uk

High-end luxury gifts for the sophisticated shopper.

SARAH WISEMAN GALLERY 40–41 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL 01865 515123 www.wisegal.com Open Monday 10am–4pm Tuesday to Saturday 10am–5.30pm Oxford’s largest contemporary gallery space.


The Oxford Lieder Festival 2014 The Schubert Project

www.oxfordlieder.co.uk

The Oxford Lieder Festival 10 October – 1 November 2014