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Completion Report

Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain Micro-Hydro Power Schemes (1.MRD.16-3) in Sulawesi and Sumatra (1 March 2010 - 7 November 2012)

Dr. Edi Purwanto 2013


Contact Information Name Position Addresss Phone/Fax Mobile Email Website

: Dr. Edi Purwanto : Director of Operation Wallacea Trust (OWT) : Taman Cimanggu Jln. Akasia Block P III No. 14, Bogor : + 62 251-8111145 : + 62 (0) 81 296 55 233 : purwanto.owt@gmail.com : www.owt.or.id


PROGRAM NASIONAL PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT (PNPM Mandiri) Green PNPM Pilot Programme

Jakarta 16 December 2012 Completion Report on ‘Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain Micro-Hydro Power Schemes ((1.MRD.16-3) in Sulawesi and Sumatra (1 March 2010 - 7 November 2012)’. Dear Tim and Trine, I have read through the above report and can confirm, that the report meet all requirements for this kind of termination report. It gives the background for the project, it describes the working methodology of OWT and it gives a very detailed and exact account of the achievements of the project, which fully match the activities in quantity and quality as described in the project document for the project. Finally it holds a series of photos documenting the different type of activities undertaken by the project. The quality as well as the quantity of the activities are very high and well above, what one could expect from this kind of project. I have visited a number of the project sites and this confirmed for me, that OWT is doing excellent work. From my side I can only recommend the embassy to approve the report. Kind regards,

Soren Moestrup Danida Adviser, ESP2.3 Green PNPM, PNPM Support Office, Jl. Diponegoro 72, Jakarta 10310. Ph.: 021 314 8175


Table of Contents Page

Contact Information................................................................................... v

Letter of Acceptance................................................................................................... vii Table of Content.......................................................................................................... ix List of Tables............................................................................................................... xiii List of Figure............................................................................................................... xiv List of Boxes................................................................................................................ xiv List of Appendices....................................................................................................... xiv List of Abbreviation and Acronym.............................................................................. xv List of Indonesia and Scientific Name Tree Species.................................................... xvi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................. xvii

Chapter I.............................................................................................................. 1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 1 1. Background ............................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Organization of the report........................................................................ 4

Chapter II ............................................................................................................ 7 General Conditions of the Project Areas .................................................................... 7 2.1. Mamasa District, West Sulawesi...................................................................... 7 2.1.1. Environment and Livelihoods.............................................................. 9 2.1.2. Local Government Capacity................................................................. 12 2.1.3. Socio-economic Condition................................................................... 13 2.1.3.1. Accessibility ........................................................................... 13 2.1.3.2. Flow of goods ........................................................................ 13 2.1.3.3. Economic empowerment development................................. 2.1.3.4. Social capital .......................................................................... 14 2.2. Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi.................................................................. 14 2.2.1. Environment and Livelihoods.............................................................. 14 2.2.2. Local government capacity................................................................. 17 2.2.3. Socio-economic Condition................................................................... 17 2.2.3.1. Accessibility ........................................................................... 17 2.2.3.2. Flow of Goods......................................................................... 18 2.2.3.3. Social capital................................................................... 18 2.3.

Agam District, West Sumatera........................................................................... 21

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2.3.1. Identified environmental problems....................................................... 22 2.3.2. Uncontrolled smallholder Gambir plantation development in the upland area........................................................................................... 23 2.3.3. Uncontrolled smallholder oil palm plantation development in the upland area........................................................................................... 23 2.3.4. Downstream Hydrological Effects......................................................... 24 2.3.5. Main causes of the problems................................................................. 24 2.3.5.1. Lack of awareness on NRM and Financial Investment ............. 24 2.3.5.2. Village Level: Poor NRM governance and capacity in development planning............................................................ 24 2.3.5.3. (Sub) District Level: Poor NRM governance and capacity in development planning ............................................................ 25

5.1. Technical Assistances........................................................................................ 59 5.1.1. The Role of OWT Field Office as Center of Technical Assistances and Consultation We have set up 2 field offices:........................................... 59 5.1.2. Budget Development (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation ................... 60 5.1.3. Species Selection.................................................................................. 64 5.1.4. Mother Trees Selection.......................................................................... 67 5.1.5. Seeds Collection.................................................................................... 68 5.1.6. Nurseries Establishment....................................................................... 69 5.1.7. MHP Catchment Area Mapping............................................................. 70 5.1.8. Rehabilitation of Catchment Area.......................................................... 76

Chapter III........................................................................................................... 29 Socialization and Coordination ....................................................................................

29

3.1. 3.2. 3.3.

29 30 34

Socialization and Coordination in National/Province Level................................ Socialization and Coordination in District Level................................................. Socialization and Coordination in Village Level..................................................

Chapter IV........................................................................................................... 39 Training Design and Delivery .....................................................................................

39

4.1. 4.2.

Developing of Training Materials....................................................................... 39 Training Design................................................................................................. 40 4.2.1. Emphasis on Vegetative Catchment Rehabilitation................................ 40 4.2.2. Training Design .................................................................................... 41

4.3.

Training Delivery............................................................................................... 45 4.3.1. Training of National Level..................................................................... 48 4.3.2. Training of District Level........................................................................ 50 4.3.3. Training of Sub-District Level................................................................ 51 4.3.4. Training Village Level............................................................................ 51 4.3.5. Supplemental Trainings ....................................................................... 53

Chapter V ............................................................................................................ 59 Technical Assistance and Facilitation ...........................................................................

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5.2. Facilitation........................................................................................................ 78 5.2.1. Empowering Farmer Groups................................................................. 79 5.2.2. OWT Interventions: Towards the ‘Green-Nagari’................................... 79 5.2.3. Facilitation on the Review of Green-RPJM Nagari Salareh Aia................ 80 5.2.4. Facilitation on the formulation of Village Regulation ............................ 80 5.2.5. Facilitation on Comparative Study ........................................................ 82 5.2.6. Participated on PNPM-Rural Exhibition in Batusangkar......................... 82 5.2.7. Workshop on Catchment Management Rehabilitation .......................... 83

Chapter VI........................................................................................................... 85 Awareness Rising.........................................................................................................

85

6.1.

Awareness Materials ........................................................................................ 85 6.1.1. Awareness Film..................................................................................... 85 6.1.2. Tutorial films ........................................................................................ 86 6.1.3. Leaflet/brochure ................................................................................... 87 6.1.4. Manual.................................................................................................. 87

6.1.5. “Majalah Lestari Desaku” (My Sustainable Village Magazine)................ 88

6.1.6. Standing Banner ................................................................................... 88 6.1.7. Stickers................................................................................................. 88 6.1.8. T-Shirt................................................................................................... 89 6.1.9. Posters.................................................................................................. 89 6.1.10. Miniature.............................................................................................. 89

6.2.

Activity Based Awareness..................................................................................

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6.2.1. Planting indigenous species ................................................................. 6.2.2. Youth camping......................................................................................

89 90

Chapter VII......................................................................................................... 93 Challenges Faced, Mitigations and Lessons Learned ...................................................

93

Chapter VIII........................................................................................................ 99 Conclusions and Recommendations............................................................................. 99 8.1. Conclusion......................................................................................................... 99 8.2. Recommendation.............................................................................................. 100

References......................................................................................................... 101 Appendices........................................................................................................ 103 Appendix 1 : Documentation of the activities............................................................... 103 A. Socialization and Coordination................................................................................ 103 B. Training Delivery...................................................................................................... 104 C. Facilitations and Technical Assistances.................................................................... 106 D. Awareness Rising.................................................................................................... 108 Appendix 2 : Step on Protection and Rehabilitation of Catchment Area....................... 111

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List of Tables

Page

Table 2.1. List of CM demoplot villages location.....................................................

7

Table 2.2. Land-cover and livelihoods changes in Mamasa District........................

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Table 2.3. The land-cover and livelihoods changes in Luwu Utara District............

16

Table 2.4. The different conditions between Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts....

19

Table 2.5. General characteristics of the beneficiary villages in Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts......................................................................................

20

Table 2.6. Biophysical conditions of selected project sites......................................

22

Table 3.1. Recapitulation socialization and coordination in Agam district..............

36

Table 4.1. The agenda of training on rehabilitation of water catchment area .....

42

Table 4.2. Detail topic and sub-topics of the presentation and discussion during theory session...........................................................................................

43

Table 4.3. Detail topic and sub-topics of practical exercise.....................................

44

Tabel 4.4. List of Training Delivery in Sulawesi and Sumatera During Implementation of the Project.................................................................

45

Table 5.1. Example of budget development for nursery, planting and maintenance for 12,000 seedlings for total area of 8 ha at Salutambun Barat, Bumal, Mamasa District (all in IDR)....................

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Table 5.2. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Mamasa, West Sulawesi....................................................................................................

62

Table 5.3. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Luwu Utara, South Sulawesi..........................................................................................

62

Table 5.4. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Agam, West Sumatera.........................................................................................

63

Table 5.5. List of tree species developed in the village nursery.............................

64

Table 5.6. Description of tree species developed in the village nursery.................

65

Table 5.7. List of Seed Collection, Quantity, Storage Technique, and Treatments....

69

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List of Figures Figure 2.1. Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 5.1. Figure 5.2. Figure 5.3. Figure 5.4. Figure 5.5. Figure 5.6.

List of Abbreviation and Acronym

Location of main Project site, Mamasa and Luwu Utara District................. 8 The situation of Mamasa Town................................................................... 8 Transportation modes in Luwu Utara District ............................................. 18 Map of Micro-Catchment Area, Pongkah Stream, Orobua Selatan Village... 71 Some catchment area boundaries in Nagari Salareh Aia............................. 72 The altitude of some catchment areas in Nagari Salareh Aia....................... 73 The soil type of some catchment areas in Nagari Salareh Aia...................... 74 Land unit map in Nagari Salareh Aia........................................................... 75 Steps on facilitation of Village Regulation Formulation.............................. 81

List of Boxes Box 2.1. Pinus merkusii a Sumatran native species which dominates the survey area............................................................................................................ Box 2.2. Tree Planting Campaigns in Mamasa District.............................................. Box 4.1. Tallulalisan................................................................................................. Box 4.2. Home biogas: Green-PNPM SMART-PRACTICE ......................................... Box 4.3. Bokashi and Rice Husk............................................................................... Box 5.1. Rule and Sanction:......................................................................................

10 32 52 54 55 68

List of Appendices Appendix 1 : Appendix 2 :

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Documentation of the activities............................................................... 103 A. Socialization and Coordination........................................................... 103 B. Training Delivery................................................................................. 104 C. Facilitations and Technical Assistances............................................... 106 D. Awareness Rising................................................................................ 108 Step on Protection and Rehabilitation of Catchment Area....................... 111

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Astal

Asisten Tenaga Ahli, Green facilitator coordinator at district level

BLM

Bantuan Langsung Masyarakat, Green-PNPM Block-Grant

BPD

Badan Perwakilan Desa, Village representative council

BPMD

Badan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat dan Pemerintahan Desa, Rural Community Development Office at central/province/district level

CM

Catchment Model

CTA

Catchment Technical Assistance

DTA

Daerah Tangkapan Air, catchment area

FGD

Focus Group Discussion

FKL

Green-PNPM facilitator at kecamatan level (consultant)

KBR

Kebun Bibit Rakyat, nursery based community

Korprov

Consultant coordinator at province level

KPMD

Kader Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa, village development cadre

KVCs

Key village champions

MHP

Micro Hydro Power

NRM

Natural resources management

Perdes

Peraturan Desa, village regulation

PJOK/ Kab

Government official in charge in operating the Green-PNPM at kecamatan (sub-district) level/Kabupaten (District) level

PLTMH

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Mikro Hidro, Micro-Hydro Power

PSF

PNPM Support Facility

PTO

Petunjuk Teknik Operasional, guideline for technical implementation

RAB

Rencana Anggaran Biaya, budget allocation breakdown

TPK

Team work in charge on executing project at village level

UPK

Unit Pelaksana Kegiatan, implementing unit, PNPM Organization at Kecamatan level which is in charge in administering PNPM funding

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List of Indonesia and Scientific Name Tree Species Local Name

Scientific Name

Alpukat Cemara gunung (buangin) Durian Eboni Gaharu Jabon Jati Jati putih/gmelina Kayu afrika Mahoni Merbau/kayu besi Mahoni Uganda Manggis Nangka Sengon Sengon buto Sirsak Suren Tumaku Trembesi Uru Pulai

Persea americana Casuarina junghuniana Durio zibethinus Diospyos celebica Aquilaria sp Anthocephallus cadamba Tectona grandis Gmelina arborea Maesopsis eminii Swietenia macrophylla Intsia bijuga Khaya anthoteca Garcinia mangostana Arthocarpus heterophyllus Paraserianthes falcataria Enterolobium cyclocarpum Anona muricata Toona sureni Macadamia sp Samanea saman Elmerrillia sp Alstonia scholaris

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Dr. Edi Purwanto

1.

Background: Since November 2007 to December 2012, Operation Wallacea Trust (OWT) has been supporting the implementation of the environmental pilot-project commonly known as ‘Green PNPM’ or ‘PNPM-Green’ - of the Government of Indonesia’s (GOI) National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat-PNPM-Rural). Since March 2010-October 2012, OWT has had agreement with the Danish Embassy to support catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the upper catchments of Microhydro Power (MHP) construction sites funded by PNPM-Green in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, and Agam Districts; ‘Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain MHP schemes’ (1.MRD.16-3). Measures such as communityenforced catchment area management and protection are essential for sustaining water flow to ensure the operation of MHP schemes. Improved natural resources management (NRM) practices were also provided other benefits and services to the participating communities including reducing soil erosion and increasing rainfall retention etc.

2.

Project Start-up: Since April 2010, with fund support of the Danish Embassy (Danida), OWT has delivered trainings, awareness and technical assistance and facilitated the development of village nursery and catchment areas planting campaigns. Project duration in Sulawesi was one year (March 2010 - February 2011). Full intervention (training, awareness, technical assistance and facilitation) were provided on 6 village models, 5 villages in Mamasa (Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Mambuliling, Salomo Kanan and Salutambun Barat) and 1 village in Luwu Utara (Tulak Talu). Training on catchment area management was also delivered to all Green-PNPM facilitators in Sulawesi and (Green) PNPM actors at (sub) district and village level in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts. In February 2011, we defined MHP catchment area in Nagari Salareh Aia (Sikabau Catchment Area) in Agam District as catchment model meaning that the area receive full facilitation, training, awareness, intensive facilitation and technical assistances; two catchment model as catchment technical assistance which receive training, technical assistance and limited facilitation; i.e. Nagari Pagadih (Pagadih Gadang Catchment Area) and Nagari Malalak Selatan (Malalak Catchment Area).

3.

Project Location: Catchment area rehabilitation facilitation and technical assistance to sustain MHP scheme were focused in 13 villages of 3 districts and 3 provinces i.e. : (1) Mamasa District (Orobua Selatan, Salumokanan, Salutambun Barat, Mambuliling, Tawalian Timur), (2) Luwu Utara District (Tulak Tallu), (3) Agam District (Salareh Aia, Pagadih, Malalak Selatan, Maur Mudik, Gumarang, Bamban, Sipinang).

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4.

Training Design and Delivery: During implementing of the project, OWT has completed training in all targeted sites which covers four levels, i.e. : (1) National level (six times of training deliveries in Sulawesi and Sumatera region), (2) Province level (two times in West Sumatera and Bengkulu), (3) District level (eight times in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara, and Agam), (4) Sub-district level (three times in Agam District), and, (5) Village level (fifteen times in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, and Agam District). About 1067 persons have been trained during implementation of the program (820 male and 247 female). The trainings were delivered to : goverment officials, PJO Kab and PJOK, green facilitators (FKL, Astal, SPL), PNPM rural facilitators (FT), MHP assistants, Key Village Goverments, Key Village Champions, UPK, TPK, PL, KPMD, scouts member, and farmer groups. Kind of training were delivered i.e. : (1) Training on Rehabilitation of Catchment Area, (2) Training on Seedlings Propagation and Nursery Establishment, (3) Training on Making of Biogas Installation, (4) Training on Making of Organic Fertilizer, and (5) Training on GPS Operationing. All the training deliveries were followed by intensive field technical assistances by OWT to ensure implementation of the project activities.

5.

Technical Assitances and Facilitations : During the implementation of the project, we provided intensive facilitation and technical assistance to village models. Those were conducted by working together and live-in on the village models: Most villages define a special day during the week for voluntary/unpaid work (kerja bakti) dedicated to for their village, fellow villagers and church. We made use the village ‘kerja bakti’ day‘ as entry point to provide intensive facilitation, technical assistance and awareness rising. Thanks to village models which define the village ‘kerja bakti’ day differently, this enable us to arrange facilitation schedule from one to another village model during the week. Kind of technical assistances were given i.e. : (1) The role of field OWT office as center of technical assitances and consultation on Catchment management, (2) Budget Development (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation, (3) Species Selection, (4) Mother Trees Selection, (5) Seeds Collection, (6) Nurseries Establishment, (7) Catchment Area Mapping, (8) Rehabilitation of Catchment Area. While kind of facilitations were given i.e. : (1) Empowering Farmer Groups, (2) OWT Interventions: Towards the ‘Green-Nagari’, (3) Review of Green-RPJM Nagari Salareh Aia, (4) Formulation of Village Regulation, (5) Comparative Study of Agam District Goverment officials and PNPM Green actors, (6) PNPM-Rural Exhibition in Batusangkar, (7) Workshop on Catchment Management Rehabilitation.

7.

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Awareness Rising: The aim of awareness-raising activities is to make community: (1) aware on OWT roles in PNPM-Green; (2) understand the principle in catchment area management and the importance to manage NRM based on catchment area boundary; (3) aware on the role of vegetative rehabilitation on catchment area restoration; (4) aware on relevant activities to support the success of vegetative rehabilitation. We conducted awareness rising through three main approaches; (a) publishing and presenting films followed with discussion; (b) Distributing awareness materials, such as leaflet, banner, stickers and T-shirts; (c) organizing activities, such as Uru seed hunting and youth camping. This chapter discusses activities Dr. Edi Purwanto

related to awareness rising on catchment area management and conservation. Awareness materials published and distributed during implementation the project i.e. : (1) Awareness films (Giant Sponge of Indonesia, Ecological degradation in Mamasa, Mamasa planting campaigns, Agam planting campaigns, Micro-hydro power for peoplei), (2) Tutorial films (Seedlings propagation, Biogas installation, Vegetative Propagation Techniques, Edible Mushroom Cultivation Technique, (3) Brochures (generative propagation, Shoot Cuttings, Planting Technique, Agarwood propagation and inoculation techniques, The making of charcoal briquettes, Bokashi Production, Biogas Installation, (4) Manuals (Principles of Vegetative and Civil Technique Conservation Measures, Participatory mapping on catchment areas boundary and problems, Generative propagation of tree seedlings, Vegetative propagation of tree seedlings, Techniques on tree planting, maintenance and its survival evaluation, Agroforestry Development, Mangrove Rehabilitation, Green Income Generating Activities Model: Edible Mushroom Cultivation. (5) Lestari Desaku Magazine (three editions : Oyster Mushroom Cultivation, Transforming waste into grace: Strategy to empower microorganism troop, Today Planting, Tomorrow Harvesting: Empowering fruit trees.), (6) Standing Banner, (7) Stickers, (8) T-shirts. 8.

Major Milestones: During project implementation, the project activities have been well implemented both in Sulawesi and Sumatra, especially in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, and Agam District. The targeted activities have been successfully completed. The project has received great responses and enthusiasm from local community and PNPM-Green actors and facilitator at district and province level. As for the case in Mamasa District, the project has successfully enhanced ‘green spirit’ to the MHP program in West Sumatera.

Until October 2012, the major milestones of the project are: (1) Increased awareness and enhanced capacity building of local community and PNPM-Green facilitators and actors on catchment areas management in Agam District, (2) Enhanced the capacity of PNPM-Green facilitators and key stakeholders on catchment area management in Sumatra and Sulawesi; (3) Establishment of village nurseries and protection of mother trees in Mamasa and Agam District; (4) Supported the implementation of Indonesian Tree Planting Day in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, and Agam District; (5) Supported PNPM-Rural exhibition in West Sumatra Province; (6) Promoted the concept and implementation of Green-Nagari in Agam District; (7) Rehabilitated critical lands within and outside MHP catchment areas; (8) Facilitated the review of RPJM-Nagari in Salareh Aia; (9) Facilitated the formulation of Village regulations on NRM in Nagari Salareh Aia and Pagadih; (10) Facilitated the comparative study of key PNPM-Green actors and stakeholders of Agam District in Bogor, West-Java.

The presence of OWT in Sulawesi and (West) Sumatera has provided significant contribution for the PNPM-Green implementation in Sulawesi and Sumatra, especially through catchment area rehabilitation component. This has been proven by the great enthusiasm of PNPM-Green facilitators to OWT technical assistance.

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9.

Recommendation: In response to the great supports of government and enthusiasm of local community on catchment rehabilitation campaigns, and to make remarkable project achievements, especially to build Green-PNPM’s best practices models, intensive facilitations and technical assistances should be maintained.

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≈ Chapter I Introduction 1. Background Since November 2007 to December 2012, Operation Wallacea Trust (OWT) has been supporting the implementation of the environmental pilot-project - commonly known as ‘Green PNPM’ or ‘PNPM-Green’ - of the Government of Indonesia’s (GOI) National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat-PNPM-Rural). The Green-PNPM is a pilot program within PNPM - Rural aimed to develop and integrate sustainable natural resources management (NRM) strategy into the PNPM-Rural. The development objective of Green PNPM is that rural communities in target locations benefit from improved NRM and use of renewable energy (RE) technology. Operationally, Green PNPM follows the same community-driven development (CDD) approach as PNPM-Rural - block grants are disbursed from the national budget at the sub-district level to finance local development activities that have been selected by communities through a gender-inclusive, competitive, participatory process. Green PNPM differs from PNPM-Rural in that it is currently only active in selected locations within 10 target provinces, and the block grants disbursed are specifically earmarked to support community investments in ‘green sub-projects’ - environmentally supportive activities focused on NRM, conservation, and RE.  Additionally, Green PNPM finances supplemental technical assistance for its beneficiaries, delivered through GOI-contracted consultants/facilitators and through Civil Society Organization (CSO). The pilot has initially been developed in Sulawesi (2008) and supported by Canada, and since 2009, the pilots are expanded to Sumatera, supported by an additional three donors, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Australia. In Sulawesi, the pilots have been operated in four provinces, i.e. North, South, South East and West, while in Sumatera the pilots are being developed in Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, and Bengkulu Provinces. Within the initial eight provinces, a total of 26 kabupaten (districts) and 78 kecamatan (sub-districts) receive block grants and technical assistance to implement ‘green’ projects. OWT is a Civil Society Organization (CSO) appointed by the World-Bank to support the implementation of the Green-PNPM project in SE-Sulawesi Province (2007 - to date). Since March 2010, OWT has been contracted by the Danish Embassy to support catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the upper catchments of Micro-hydro power (MHP) contruction sites funded by Green-PNPM in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts; ‘Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain MHP schemes’ (1.MRD.16-3). Measures such as community-enforced catchment area management and protection are Dr. Edi Purwanto

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essential for the sustained water flow to ensure the operation of MHP schemes. Improved natural resources management (NRM) practices will also provide other benefits and services to the participating communities including reduced soil erosion and increased rainfall retention. In reality, catchment management and protection have not yet been implemented on the ground, for the following reasons: (a) Communities are not aware of the importance of proper catchment management and they are therefore reluctant to invest their limited time and resources in soil and water conservation; (b) Laws/regulations are in place but the government lacks the capacity and resources to socialize and enforce these on the ground; and (c) the absence of collaborative NRM management between upstream and downstream communities. The implications of this are: (i) soil and water conservation only rely on upstream community efforts; (ii) lack of rewards and economic incentives from government, private sector and downstream community (water user groups) to upstream community to conduct proper soil and water conservation measures; (iii) the long absence of incentives and technical support have made upstream communities living in poverty, unable to practice proper soil and water conservation measures and the catchment areas are in many cases suffering from open access management regimes. The above problems have been identified by the PNPM support Facility (PSF18). There is, however, still a lack of technical assistance and resources to tackle the problems. The underlined reasons are: (a) The existing (Green) PNPM facilitators have insufficient experience and lack the capacity to deal specifically with catchment management issues, since most of their time and  resources are dedicated to facilitate the PNPM cycle and assist block-grant disbursement administration; (b) Catchment management falls outside the tasks of GTZ Technical Support Unit (TSU19) for MHP, since their job focuses on technical aspects of MHP project preparation and implementation, including site assessment, construction, plant commissioning and training of operator teams. Since April 2010, with fund support of the Danish Embassy (Danida), OWT has delivered trainings, awareness and technical assistance and facilitated the development of village nursery and catchment areas planting campaigns. Project duration in Sulawesi was one year (March 2010 - February 2011). Full intervention (training, awareness, technical assistance and facilitation) were provided on 6 village models, 5 villages in Mamasa (Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Mambuliling, Salomo Kanan and Salutambun Barat) and 1 village in Luwu Utara (Tulak Talu). Training on catchment area management was delivered to all Green-PNPM facilitators in Sulawesi and (Green) PNPM actors at (sub) district and village level in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts. 18. The PSF is administered by the World Bank under the guidance of the PNPM Joint Management Committee, the role is to liaise with donors and GOI executing agency (PMD), provide guidance to the monitoring and evaluation of program activities.

The project has received great responses and enthusiasm from local government in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts and enhanced a green spirit to the MHP program in Sulawesi. The project also successfully made vegetative cachment rehabilitation meaningful to the local community. This was done by nurturing the spirit of biodiversity conservation through the selection and protection of Village Mother Trees of indigenous tree species, the development of Village Tree Nurseries and Village Seed Sources. The intensive campaigns in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts during 2010/2011 have awakened the spirit of government and local community to restore their degraded areas. The support by OWT and the donor has made local community motivated to rehabilitate their resources, ‘why do we not care about our own resources when outsiders care so much about them’, a common statement by local communities in response to project facilitation. As a matter of fact, the project, apart from introducing new activities (tree seedling propagations, catchment areas planting etc.), is also the first technical assistance provided by an NGO funded by a foreign donor in this area. No wonder that the project receives enthusiastic participation. Since March 2011, we started working in Agam District, West Sumatera Province. Intensive facilitation has been conducted in the following area: (a) Nagari Salareh Aia20, Palembayan Sub-District; (b) Nagari Pagadih, Palupuh Sub-District and (c) Nagari Malalak Selatan, Malalak Sub District. Subsequently to the previous activity during the first year in Mamasa and Luwu Utara District of West Sulawesi Province, activities in Agam District (West Sumatera Province) also include the following activities: training, awareness raising, technical assistance and facilitation. These activities have received a very good response from the community, PNPM-Green consultants, the nagari administration, as well as the sub-district and district  government. However, the activities in West Sulawesi Province only focusing on PLTMH, while in West Sumatera Province the PLTMH activity is included as one of the activities in PNPMGreen. Therefore, on the field level, OWT has also taken part in conducting trainings and technical assistance for several NRM activities (i.e. developing nursery, planting, and bokashi-making) and RE (i.e. building installation for making biogas) that is included in PNPM-Green programs in Agam District during 2010-2012.       

19. The objective of Micro - Hydro Power (MHP) Technical Support Unit (TSU) is to ensure MHP schemes financed with Green PNPM block grants fulfil a number of minimum requirements crucial for their sustainable preparation, implementation and subsequent operation & management. The TSU provides capacity building and on the job training on province, district, sub-district and village level to secure that PNPM staff together with local officers of PMD and where appropriate government agencies can independently facilitate MHP schemes by supervising the implementation and supporting the set-up of MHP-related village management and operation systems.

20. Nagari is a customary defined administrative area boundary inherited by Minangkabau (the dominant ethnic group in West-Sumatra Province) geo-political structure (Langgam). ‘Nagari’ is equal to ‘desa’ (village), but the administrative area is normally larger than desa, the area size and population of one nagari may be equal to 2-5 villages (big village), the Area of Nagari Salareh Aia (16,000 ha). The New Order era had nationalized indigenous and diverse village governance systems which were already in existence before 1945, among others, the nagari system in Minangkabau was changed into ‘desa’ (Law No. 5/1979).  In the decentralization era, after promulgation of Law No. 22/1999 on local governance, West Sumatra Province enacted Law No 9/2000 which reverts from ‘desa’ into indigenous ‘nagari’ governance system. One Nagari is composed of several Jorong (sub-village).

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The report outlines the overall project implementation in Sulawesi (Mamasa District, West Sulawesi and Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi) from March 2010 to March 2011, activities of the second year in Sumatra (Agam District, West Sumatra) from April 2011 - March 2012, and activities of the no-cost extention project in Agam District, West Sumatera from April 2012 - October 2012.

1.2. Organization of the report The report is composed of two parts, main report and annexes. The main report is composed of 9 chapters. Introduction (Chapter I), General Conditions of the Project Areas (Chapter II), Socialization and Coordination (Chapter III), Training Design and Delivery (Chapter IV), Technical Assistance and Facilitation (Chapter V), Awareness Rising (Chapter VI), Challenges Faced, Mitigation and Lessons Learned (Chapter VII), Conclusions and Recommendation (Chapter VIII). 

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≈ Chapter II General Conditions of the Project Areas Catchment area rehabilitation facilitation and technical assistance to sustain MHP scheme were focused in 13 villages of 3 districts and 3 provinces that presented in table below : Table 2.1. List of CM demoplot villages location No

Village

Sub-district

District

Province

1

Orobua Selatan**

Sesenapadang

Mamasa

West Sulawesi

2

Salumokanan**

Rantebulahan Timur

Mamasa

West Sulawesi

3

Salutambun Barat**

Buntu Malangka

Mamasa

West Sulawesi

4

Mambuliling*

Mamasa

Mamasa

West Sulawesi

5

Tawalian Timur**

Tawalian

Mamasa

West Sulawesi

6

Tulak Tallu**

Sabbang

Luwu Utara

South Sulawesi

7

Salareh Aia**

Palembayan

Agam

West Sumatera

8

Maur Mudik, Salareh Aia*

Palembayan

Agam

West Sumatera

9

Gumarang, III Koto Silungkang*

Palembayan

Agam

West Sumatera

10

Bamban*

Palembayan

Agam

West Sumatera

11

Sipinang*

Palembayan

Agam

West Sumatera

12

Pagadih**

Palupuh

Agam

West Sumatera

13

Malalak Selatan*

Malalak

Agam

West Sumatera

Note : ** = Village Model, * = Village Technical Assisstance

2.1. Mamasa District, West Sulawesi Mamasa District was established in 2002. Previously, it was part of Polewali-Mamasa (Polmas) District. The district shares boundary with Mamuju District in the northern part, Polewali Mandar in the southern part, Tana Toraja District in the eastern part and Pinrang District in the western part. The area of the district is 3,006 km, total population, based on 2009 census is 178.025 persons. The population density is 59 persons per km. Dr. Edi Purwanto

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The establishment of a new district and the appointment of Mamasa ‘town’ (14.607 inhabitants) located at the uppermost of the West-Sulawesi upland as the capital of the newly established District have gradually opened up this isolated area, which only about two decades ago was only accessible on horseback. The distance to the province capital of West Sulawesi Province (Mamuju) is 286 km, while the distance with the capital of South Sulawesi Province is 340 km. Until 2005, Mamasa District is composed of 10 subdistricts, after partition, since 2006, consist of 15 sub - districts21.

2.1.1. Environment and Livelihoods Biophysically, the district is located at the upstream areas (mountains ecosystem), mostly having altitudes above 800 m with hilly and mountainous terrain. The soil is dominated by Inceptisol and Ultisol. Annual rainfall ranges from 2,500 - 3,000 mm. Temperature is cool (10 - 15 C), especially during the evening and early morning. Water resources are abundant but with brown color, high suspended load, due to unstable substrate (bedrock). The natural vegetation is dominated by lower montane forest, Uru (Elmerrillia sp) is one of the indigenous species, but most of these have been logged and now the terrain is mostly covered with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii), see Box 2.1. The major staple food22 of Mamasa community is rice. The main livelihoods of the local community are agriculture, irrigated rice, rainfed farming (coffee) and raise cattle (water buffalo). As a consequence of the high population pressure upon limited land resources, most farmers have occupational multiplicity or have several different occupations at the same time. They may also alter their main sources of income from season to season, as opportunities arise.

Figure 2.1. Location of main Project site, Mamasa and Luwu Utara District.

Regent Office

Phone Cellular Tower

Electricity State Owned Enterprise (PLN)

Market

Figure 2.2. The situation of Mamasa Town

21 Name of sub-districts in Mamasa: (1). Mamasa, (2) Tabang, (3) Aralle, (4) Mambi, (5) Tabulahan, (6) Pana, (7) Nosu, (8) Sesena Padang, (9) Messawa, (10) Sumarorong, (11) Tanduk Kalua, (12) Tawalian, (13) Rantebulahan Timur, (14) Bambang, (15) Balla.

22 It is a food hat is eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of the diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrient needs.

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Box 2.1. Pinus merkusii a Sumatran native species which dominates the survey area

Most of the hilly and mountainous terrains in the project areas are covered with Pine trees. The question arise ‘Is it naturally grown or manmade?’ ‘It is indigenous or exotic/introduced species? Pines trees in the project areas were planted during the ‘Regreening Program’. As such, the Pine trees in Sulawesi are introduced, but due to the nature of the species, Pine trees become ‘invasive’ and as we can see now, the tree has dramatically changed the landscape of the Sulawesi upland over the last four decades. Pinus merkusii (Pinaceae) is of Aceh, Kerinci and Tapanuli origin (Sumatera). This is the only species of Pine trees which is of Indonesian origin. There are at least three reasons why Pine trees invade and grow well on logged over forest in this area: (a) The seeds are easily dispersed by wind; the seed is small, light and have wings. The dispersal of seeds of Pine trees are not done by birds, but by wind. Pine trees are hardly visited by birds. (b) The roots of pine trees have an intimate association with mycorrhizae (such as Scleroderma dictyosporum and Rhizpogon sp), fungal hyphae at the pine roots which transfer nutrients from fallen leaves and other organic material in the soil into the plant. Mycorrhizae also make nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) become available to pine as dissolved in water. (c) The pine tree produces allelopathy, a chemical suppression which prevents the growth of other species under its canopy to avoid nutrient and light competition. As we can see the diversity of undergrowth species beneath Pines stands is poor compared to stands of indigenous trees. Pine forests are generally found above 200 m altitude, and trees grow best between 800 - 1,500 m. Final felling occurs at the age of 30 - 40 years with a timber production of up to 250 m3/ha. With the lack of high quality timber supply, local people have used pine wood for in-door construction. Due to the high density and total surface areas of the Pine’s needle leaves, the trees are known to have high evapotranspiration rates (water consumption). In areas having low rainfall depth, the trees often cause water yield reduction.

During the last five years, Mamasa ‘town’ has rapidly developed into a real town. However, such development as has occurred has already been excessively paid for by its natural resources degradation. The natural resources in the area are very fragile. Apart from its hilly terrain, its substrate is dominated by unconsolidated sandy rocks which are easily eroded by landscape disturbance and torrential water flows. The rapid and un-environmentally friendly road and house construction has caused severe degradation. Landslides in the newly opened areas are widespread and indeed even impact the accessibility of Mamasa Town during the rainy season. Since the 1950s, the natural forest in the region has been degraded, especially when the local community started converting natural forest into grazing ground and shifting cultivation (coffee). Up till now, such practices are still widespread. During the 1970s, a government regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii). The Pine trees thrive well in the area, but the wooded areas are now also in a degraded state, due to overexploitation. The blanket rehabilitation with Pines has led to dramatic ecosystem degradation. The Pine plantations offer poor ecological protection compared to the original indigenous trees or to broadleaved tree species in general. The Pine forests provide poor erosion control as the Pine tree roots are superficial, while the thick and slowly decomposing litter layer has reduced the soil pH leading to rapid nutrient leaching. The invasive nature of Pines has made the Mamasa landscape inhospitable for the growth of all other vegetation systems and species except Pine. Given that most of the gentler sloping areas have already been occupied with irrigated agriculture (rice field), as a consequence of the high population pressure and in search of additional income sources, many farmers have begun cultivating the steeper slopes, clearing the natural vegetation in the process. Steep slope agricultural practices require high investments, especially for terrace building and maintenance, while the soil productivity is quickly reduced, due to high erosion rates. Table 2.2. Land-cover and livelihoods changes in Mamasa District Time

Land cover

Livelihoods Rice field cultivation Coffee plantation

Pine trees produce resin, which is being tapped and gathered in a similar way to rubber latex. Its distillation produces rosin and turpentine. Rosin is used in vanish, paint, ink and paper industries, while turpentine is used in various pharmaceutical and perfumery industries. Pine trees from Aceh are known to have the highest resin production compared to Pine trees of Kerinci and Tapanuli origins, however the latter has straighter stems compared to Aceh native Pine.

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Dr. Edi Purwanto

Until 1940

• •

Intact tropical rain forest Small-scale shifting cultivation for coffee plantation

Rainfed agriculture Small-scale timber collection Small-scale livestock Small-scale rattan collection

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Time

Land cover

Livelihoods Rice field cultivation

1950 - 1970

• Conversion of natural forest into grazing ground. • Larger scale shifting cultivation for coffee plantation • Enlargement of critical land

Coffee plantation (bigger number) Rainfed agriculture Small-scale timber collection Small scale livestock (bigger number) Small-scale rattan collection

‘unprepared’ to manage such big funding, and have instead become victims of development. It is apparent that the current development takes place in a hurried, haphazard, and random manner, without obvious spatial planning, without sufficient coordination between different authorities and the local people, and without consideration for the land use capacity of the region. Also, it appears that major infrastructure projects, including the opening of access roads, feeder roads and bridges, and the opening up of new agricultural lands, are being implemented without the necessary environmental safeguards. The success of decentralization depends upon the availability of proper institutions and qualified human resources in implementing all aspects of decentralization, as well as other supporting factors, such as infrastructure, technology, information access, personnel, and institutional capacity.

1975 - 1980

Government regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees.

Idem

1980 - 1990

The Pine trees thrived well in the area

Idem

1990 - 2002

• Pine forests logged for house construction. • Conversion of Pine forest into coffee plantation

Idem

2.1.3. Socio-economic Condition

Rice field cultivation

2.1.3.1. Accessibility

Rainfed agriculture

2002 - to date

• Mamasa separated from Polmas District • Rapid development of Mamasa Town • Destruction of Mamasa terrain, land cover and riparian areas

Coffee plantation Small-scale timber collection Medium-scale livestock Small-scale rattan collection

Since 2007, the road from Makassar to Pare-Pare Town has been improved, concreted and widened, allowing separated two ways traffic. In fact, the construction takes long time. Terrestrial transportation from Makassar to Polewali is quite smooth and normally takes about five hours. The ‘adventure’ is started from Polewali to Mamasa. The narrow size road is continuously climbing upslope with many sharp curves along the mountainous terrain. The road condition is fragile and highly susceptible to landslide and rock-fall. The quality of the asphalt road is terrible from Sumarorong to Mamasa Town.

Traders Workers 2005 - to date

Establishment of micro-hydro power

Idem

2005 - to date

Environmental destruction (land slide as results of improper and unplanned infrastructure development)

Idem

The distance from Makassar to Mamasa Town is 340 km; this can be reached by public transportation (minibus, station wagon) about 10 hours. The road from Makassar to Polewali has been established since colonial time; the trace follows the flat terrain along the coast-line of South and West Sulawesi Provinces.

The ecosystem degradation described above has created a vicious cycle of land degradation and the associated downstream impacts. The high sediment loads of the rivers resulting from land degradation in Mamasa is threatening the economic life of downstream investment such as the Bakaru Hydro-Power Reservoir in Pinrang, the biggest hydropower scheme and the main source of electricity to West and South Sulawesi Provinces.

The Mamasa District has still uncomfortable to reach from Makassar and even from the Mamuju (the capital city of West Sulawesi Province). The Airport is planned to build in Sumarorong23 and will serve Makassar-Mamasa and Mamasa-Mamuju. Sumarorong is about 40 km from Mamasa Town. Now there has been Lion flight from Makassar to Mamuju, however, terrestrial transportation from Mamuju to Mamasa is harder than from Makassar.

2.1.3.2. Flow of goods

2.1.2. Local Government Capacity Until 2002, Mamasa was a sub-district under Polmas District. After becoming a district, the total development budget and block grants from centre government increased about 200 times compared to when Mamasa was a sub-district. The District authorities are 12

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Most of goods, from basic to secondary needs are served from surrounding towns such as Polewali, Enrekang, Pare-Pare and Makassar. During market days, two days a week, the road transportation are dominated by trucks which bring goods from outside to Mamasa. It is remarkable that flow of goods come from outside to Mamasa rather than vice-versa. 23

The fund source is from Centre government (APBN), it is about 104 billion rupiah

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2.1.3.3. Economic empowerment development The original district revenue (PAD) of Mamasa District is about 14 billion rupiah a year; this has been completely spent for local government wages (including district parliament), while development funding is originated from the centre government and heavily spend for infrastructure development (building roads and buildings). This left a little portion for economic empowerment of local community. So far, the only community development program at grass-root level is the Rural PNPM program.

2.1.3.4. Social capital The community is dominated by the Toraja ethnic group, it is mostly Christian and has strong social capital. This is reflected from the following phenomena: (a) High spirits on voluntary works: every village defines one day a week to conduct voluntary work for their village (such as improving road, reinforce the fragile slope, develop tree nursery etc.); (b) Tallualisan (three pillars): The strong cooperative works among the Priest, Village Head and Elders to build the village, solve social problems and safeguard environmental degradation); (c) Strong social intact: high obedience to their culture and religion.

2.2. Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi Luwu Utara District was established in 1999, as result of partition of the Luwu District. The District shares boundary with Centre Sulawesi Province on the north, Luwu Timur District on the east, Luwu District on the south and Mamuju District on the west. The area of the district is 7.502,58 km, total population, based on 2003 census is 250.111 persons (50,022 households). The population density is 42 persons per km. The district is located on the northern most of South Sulawesi Province. The capital of the district is Masamba (32,286 inhabitants), 136 km from Makassar. The district is composed of 11 sub-districts24.

2,500 - 3,000 mm. Average temperature is 28 C. Although, the area is located in the downstream areas (with large river channel and the distance to the sea on average are about 20 km), the terrain surrounding river is not flat, but hilly to mountainous. Water resources are abundance; there are many spring waters and small streams (creek) originated from the areas and become a good source for micro-hydro power. It is different with Mamasa District; the substrate (bedrock) of the area is stable, the soil is compacted, landslide is minor, the stream water looks fresh and not in brown color as in Mamasa. Natural vegetation is dominated by secondary forest. Massive deforestation has been occurred since 1970s, most of the natural forest has been logged by forest concession. It is different with Mamasa District, Pine species was not introduced in the areas which makes the natural environment is better. The fertile soil and the high rainfall are so favorable for natural regeneration of secondary forest. The major staple food of Luwu Utara community is Sago. Apart from Sago, they also eat rice. The main livelihoods are cocoa plantation, fruit trees (durian) and rice cultivation. In 1990 , community enjoyed the windfall profits from cacao. The favorable environmental condition (fertile soil25) and good sanitation led the cacao plantation develop very well. On average 200 of dry cocoa beans transported to Makassar, this raised until 600 tons during great harvesting season. Farmers were able to build good houses and had cars. The cocoa reach its maximum price during economic crisis of 1999 and 2000, which contributed to the district revenue until 4 billion rupiah a year. In 2002, the golden period of cocoa plantation had passed, after the outbreak of cacao pod borer.

Luwu District is easily access from Makassar and other surrounding district, however, there are three sub-districts which are located far away from Masamba, i.e. Seiko, Rampi and Limbong. The most remote sub-districts areas are Seiko and Rampi (200 km) which are used to be reached by airplane from Masamba (20 minutes). Due to the road conditions (muddy and fragile), both sub-districts can only be accessed by Ojek (motor-bike taxi), which normally takes 2 days.

2.2.1. Environment and Livelihoods Biophysically, the district is located in the downstream areas, mostly having altitudes above 200 meter. The soil is dominated by Andosol. Annual rainfall ranges from 24 Name of sub-districts in Luwu Utara District: (1) Masamba; (2) Baebunta, (3) Sabbang, (4) Bone-Bone, (5) Malangke, (6) Malangke Barat, (7) Suka Maju, (8) Mappedeceng, (9) Limbong, (10) Rampi, (11) Seko.

25

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Most of the cacao developed from the forest land which have high organic material content

15


2.2.2. Local government capacity

Table 2.3. The land-cover and livelihoods changes in Luwu Utara District Time

Land cover

Livelihoods Small-scale timber collection Collection of tree fruits

Until 1970s

Intact tropical rain forest

Small-scale rattan collection Making palm-sugar Sago extraction Small-scale timber collection Workers in timber concession

1970 - 1985

Several timber forest concession companies conducted selective logging of the forest.

Collection of tree fruits Small-scale rattan collection Making palm-sugar Sago extraction Cacao plantation

1985 - 1990

• Local community clear secondary forest for cacao plantation • New settlers from Sengkang, Pangkep, BoneBone opened secondary forest for cacao plantation

Small-scale timber collection Collection of tree fruits Making palm sugar Sago extraction Cacao plantation

1985 - 1995

• Expansion of cocoa plantation by local and new settlers • Reduction of Palm sugar tree and sago trees

Small-scale timber collection Collection of tree fruits

The government district has strong governance capacity. This is strongly indicated from the following indicators: (a) the recent regent succession went smoothly. The district successfully conducted 2010 election in democratic manner with minimum excess; (b) the establishment of one stop government service: all district agencies office are centered at one area; (c) The district officials are highly responsive on community development initiatives; (d) The Masamba is a clean and tidy town, all public services (public phone, transportation etc.) work well, indicate that the government is functioning well. The good governance may be caused by the following reasons: (a) The district is surrounded and highly accessible from the growth center area of South Sulawesi, i.e. Palopo, ParePare and Pinrang; (b) It is located across road to Centre and Southeast Sulawesi; (c) The district is blessed with good natural resources, a terms of water, soil and stable substrate; (d) The district has been developing since colonial time; (e) The economic development in the rural area was well-established due to the strong contribution of cacao. The Luwu Utara District put big concern on economic empowerment for local community. The Regent issued Decree No. 153/2010 on the Synergetic Team. The Team is led by the Head of Rural Community Empowerment Agency (PMD), while the members are: (a) Head of Health Agency; (b) Head of Agriculture Agency; (c) Head of Cooperative and Trade Agency; (d) Head of Workers and Transmigration; (e) Head of Family Planning and Women Empowerment; (f) Head of Workers Training. The tasks of the team are: (a) Inventory community based small-scale industries; (b) Provide technical assistance; (c) Provide tools, equipment and grant; (d) Facilitate marketing, packaging and certification; (e) Evaluate the development of community based business; (f) Facilitate the potential development of natural resource management.

Making palm sugar (minor) Sago extraction (minor)

1990 - 2002

The golden decade of cacao production

Idem

2002 - to date

The outbreak of cacao pod borer (PBK)

Idem

2005 - to date

• Many settlers left their cocoa plantation and return to the original area • Local community returned to its original livelihoods (making palm sugar and sago extraction), see Box 2.5. • Local community conduct circular migration to find jobs in Makassar

Idem

2004 - 2007

Nationwide program to eradicate the PBK disease through Farmers Field School. The program fail to eradicate the PBK disease

Idem

2008 - 2011

Nationwide program to eradicate the PBK disease through Gernas, Gerakan Sambung Samping Nasional, National Campaign to eradicate the PBK disease through side shoot grafting.

Idem

2011

As results of Gernas, the cacao production has started to improved.

Idem

16

2.2.3. Socio-economic Condition 2.2.3.1. Accessibility The capital of Luwu Utara District (Masamba) can be accessed through air and terrestrial modes. Air transportation: Masamba has airport, names ‘Andi Jema’ which has been established since colonial time. The Airport has runway of 900 meters. Cassa 212 (PT. Sabang Merauke Air Carter/SMAC) was used to flight twice a week (Wednesday and Friday) to Masamba and then from Masamba to Seko and return to Masamba. The capacity is 20 seats and flight hour from Makassar to Masamba is 1.5 hours. Since early 2011, there has been no flight to Masamba, due to the airplane, which used to serve, had accident in Sumatra.

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Bus transportation: There are three luxury buses serving for Makassar-Masamba routes, Alam Indah, Bintang Prima and Gunung Rejeki. The bus has 35 seats, reclining seat, air-condition and toilet. All the luxury buses operate in the evening and takes 9 hours. Masamba is also possible to reach by boat from Kolaka (SE Sulawesi Province), it takes about 10 hours (Kolaka-Palopo). Palopo is the capital of Luwu District; it is about 30 km from Masamba.

Table 2.4. The different conditions between Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts No

Evening Bus (Makassar-Masamba)

Goods transport

Airport

Poor

A.2. Mode of transportation from Makassar to District Capital

Air Plane Luxury Bus

Mini-bus

A.3. Transportation from District Capital to potential village models

Paved roads

Poor roads

A.4. Internet access at District Capital

Good

Fair

A.4. Telecommunication (phone cell) at District Capital

Good (Telkomsel & Indosat)

Good (Telkomsel & Indosat)

B.1.Terrain condition (topography)

Flat to undulating

Hilly and Mountainous

B.2. Geology

Mid Tertiary Volcanic

Tertiary acid Intrusive

Ultisol and Alluvial soil

Unconsolidated sandy rock

B.3. Soil Type and Properties B.

2.2.3.3. Social capital The community is dominated by Bugis Luwu ethnic group and is mostly Moslem. Luwu Utara District has a good social capital, although it is not as strong as Mamasa District. This is reflected from the following phenomena: (a) spirits on collaborative work still exist: Many activities at village level are conducted through voluntary work, such as: improving access road, improve mosque, school etc.); working together to erect the wooden house; (b) Strong social intact: high obedience to their culture and religion.

Fertile and low erodibility

Fertile, high erodibility

B.4.Land-slide

Rare

Frequent

B.5. Forest condition

Secondary forest with indigenous species

Degraded Pines forest (non-indigenous species)

B.6. Level of natural degradation

Low

High

B.7. Flood frequency

Low

High

B.8. Natural hazard

Low

High

Economic infrastructure

C.

The profile of selected village models: i.e. Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Mambuliling, Salumokanan and Salutambun Barat (Mamasa) and Tulak Talu (Luwu Utara) can be inspected in Annex.

C.1. Access to district level market access

Good

Good

C.2. Access to inter-district level market

Good

Poor

C.3. Access to province market

Good

Poor

C.2. Bank Service

Good

Fair (only BRI)

C.3. Inter-villages roads and transportation

Good

Poor

Public services

D.

18

Very good

Bio-physical conditions

2.2.3.2. Flow of Goods Inter-district goods transportation from and to Masamba is easily found. Local public transportation use Angkot and Ojek26. The district has various goods transportation (1-20 tons), such as: pick up, truck with four, six and 10 wheels which can support the fluent flow of goods from and into the district.

Mamasa

A.1. Transportation from Makassar to District Capital

Local public trasportation (Angkot)

Figure 2.3. Transportation modes in Luwu Utara District

26

Luwu Utara Accessibility

A.

Main characteristics

D.1. Roads and transportation to potential village models

Good

Poor

D.2. Education

Good

Fair

D.3. Government administration

Good

Fair

D.4. Energy (electricity)

Poor

Poor

Motor-bike taxi Dr. Edi Purwanto

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No

Main characteristics

Luwu Utara

General Characteristics

Mamasa

Luwu Utara Livelihoods

Government Supports to the proposed project E.

D.1. Support from the Regent

Very Good

Very good

D.2. Support from Community Empowerment Agency1

Good

Good

D.4. Support from relevant agencies

Good

Good

D.

Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) F.1. Number of MHP F. F.2. Agencies to facilitate the MHP construction

Mamasa

ca. 40

ca. 130

District agency

District agency

PNPM-Rural

PNPM-Rural

MHPP/PNPM-Rural

MHPP/PNPM-Rural

PNPM-Green

PNPM-Green

D.1. Main livelihoods

- Cacao plantation -Rice farming3 -Animal husbandry (chicken)

-Rice farming4 - Coffee farming5 -Animal husbandry (pig, buffalo, chicken)

D.2. Staple food

Sago, Rice

Rice

D.3. Circular migration

High

Fair

Capacity of local community E.

E.1. Education of KVC

Secondary school

Secondary school

E.2. Access to information

Fair

Poor

E.3. Entrepreneurship/innovation

Fair

Poor

Economic infrastructure at village level

Table 2.5. General characteristics of the beneficiary villages in Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts General Characteristics

Luwu Utara

Mamasa G.

A.1. Historical Conflict

None

None

A.2. Mutual Help

High

Very high

A.3.Social integrity

Fair

Very high

A.4. Roles of faith on social integrity

Fair

Very high

A.5.Homogenity

Heterogenic

Homogeny

A.6. Cultural Identity

Fair

Strong

Religion and Tribes B.

B.1. Religion

Moslem

Christian

Bugis

Toraja

2

B.2. Main Tribes

Toraja Village Governance

C.

Good

Good

F.2. Inter-villages roads and transportation

Good

Poor

F.3. Access to district capital for potential village models

Good

Good

C.1. Capacity of key village government

Good

Fair

C.2. Village administration

Fair

Fair

C.3. Existence of Village regulation

None

None

C.4. Performance of PNPM program

Good

Good

C.5. Roles of community Organization

High

High

G.1. Average capacity

10 – 15 kg watt

10 – 15 kg watt

G.2. Numbers of MHP on each village

1–3

1–3

2.3. Agam District, West Sumatera Agam District lies between 0°01'34'' - 0°28'43'' South and 99°46'39'' - 100°32'50'' East, extends from mountainous upland into coastal areas. The altitude ranges from 0 - 2,891 m above sea level. It is a typical volcanic landscape in the tropics; many areas in the District have beautiful scenery and comfortable weather conditions. Temperature ranges from cool to warm in the lowland areas. The District is located in the western part of the Bukit Barisan Mountain range. The geology is volcanic in origin, dominated by Andosols, a typical fertile soil developed on recent volcanic deposits. Water resources are abundant with low turbidity (suspended-load) due to the stable substrate. Lake Maninjau, one of the largest lakes in West-Sumatera, is located in the District. Annual rainfall ranges from 2,500 - 3,000 mm. The natural vegetation is rain forest (now degraded in most places) and dominated by suren (Toona sureni). The dominant population is the Minangkabau ethnic group and is mostly Moslem. The main source of income of local community is from irrigated rice farming; farmers also plant coffee, cocoa, rubber, Cassia vera (Cinnamomum burmanii/ kayu manis27), and gambir (Ucaria gambir Roxb.) in the rain-fed land. Oil-palm plantations have started to dominate land-use in the lowland area. 27

20

F.1. Local market access

Micro-hydro Power (MHP)

Social Capital

A.

F.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Cinnamomum burmanii is native to Southeast Asia. This species has aromatic oils in its leaves and bark.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

21


Biophysical conditions of selected project sites in Agam District were presented in table below : Table 2.6. Biophysical conditions of selected project sites No

Aspects

Sub-District Palembayan

Palupuh

Malalak

1

Rain fall (mm/year)

2000-2500

2500-3000

2500-3000

2

Altitude (asl)

148-380

900-1100

700-900

3

Topography

flat-hilly

hilly

Surging-hilly

4

Dominant Vegetation

Suren (Toona sureni), manggis (Garcinia mangostana), pinang (Areca catechu), durian (Durio zibethinus), avocado (Persea Americana)

Kayu manis(Cinnamomum sp), suren (Toona sureni)

Kayu manis(Cinnamomum sp), suren (Toona sureni)

5

Soil depth

deep

deep

medium

6

Sub Watershed (DAS)

Masang Kiri

Masang Kanan

Batang Naras

Gambir is a light demanding shrub plant of the Rubiaceae family which grows well between altitudes from 300 - 800 m asl. The extracted leaves and branches produce tanin, catechin and pyrocatechol. Gambir is used as a raw material for products ranging from medicine, food, cosmetics, and textiles to leather processing industries. This is a product specific to West Sumatera Province that around 80% of the world demand is met by the province with destination countries being: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, France, and Switzerland. The development of gambir plantations in Agam District is very destructive to the environment. Most of the smallholder gambir plantations are established through slash and burn of the remaining natural forest in the hilly terrain. Gambir is high water and nutrient demanding while there have been lacking of soil and water conservation measures or actions to maintain and restore soil fertility. After 3 - 5 years, the plantation becomes unproductive and new forest is cut to open more plantation areas. Such bad practices are common in several areas and dramatically degrading landscape aesthetics as well as the ‘sponge effects’ of mountain forest. The rate of deforestation is strongly correlated with the market price.

2.3.3. Uncontrolled smallholder oil palm plantation development in the upland area

2.3.1. Identified environmental problems In the last decades, rapid land cover changes (deforestation) have occurred in Sumatera, leading to frequent environmental disasters and human-wildlife conflicts. For West Sumatera, natural forest and other traditional land-use (agroforestry) conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and gambir (Ucaria gambir Roxb.) have been significant, compared to conversion to other land-uses (such as industrial forest estate, rubber and Cassia vera/ kayu manis plantations) which are common in the neighboring provinces (Jambi, Riau, Bengkulu Provinces). Both species are tolerant in a wide range of soil types, as long as it is well watered. Conversion of tropical forest to oil palm occurs in the lowland areas, while gambir is mostly planted in the upland areas. Both have contributed to rapid deforestation, biodiversity-loss, forest fires, carbon emissions, water yield reduction and loss of landscape aesthetics.

22

2.3.2. Uncontrolled smallholder Gambir plantation development in the upland area

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Since 2005, Indonesia has been the world’s largest and most rapidly growing source of palm oil. Its wet tropical climate provides ideal growing conditions for the palm. Land is abundant and labor is cheap. Most oil palm production in Indonesia comes from Sumatera, but it is expanding rapidly in Kalimantan and spreading further east to Papua. So far, it is still debatable whether oil palm provides a valuable route to sustainable development or a costly road to environmental degradation. Oil palm development involves many tradeoffs. Oil palm is often a major driver of economic growth and a source of alternative fuel, but it also threatens traditional livelihoods and the rich biological diversity; it destroys the landscape beauty and increases global carbon emissions. The boom of oil palm in West Sumatera has attracted upland community to plant oil palm, without caring to the suitability rate of the land for oil palm. As results, many sloping areas in the upland area have been converted into smallholder oil palm plantation at the expense of forest and agroforestry land use.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

23


2.3.4. Downstream Hydrological Effects The downstream effects of gambir and upland oil palm plantations have been obvious, flooding in the lowland areas is common, inundated rice field and fish ponds, while during the dry season, many of the rice field and fish ponds dry-up due to lack of water supply. The dramatic hydrological changes are compounded by the steep river gradients and the relatively short distances between upstream and downstream areas in West Sumatera.

2.3.5. Main causes of the problems 2.3.5.1. Lack of awareness on NRM and Financial Investment Most farmers are not aware that oil palm development needs high input and maintenance cost, while not all types of land are suitable for the plantation. Farmers are also weak on farm investment analysis leading to sub-optimal decisions on land management. The most common excuse to cut forest for oil palm is because their ‘neighbours’ do so, because big plantation companies in the lowland areas gains huge benefits from oil palm, unfortunately, local community have poor awareness on the difference soil and landscape characteristics, the difference management intensity and financial conditions between large scale company and smallholder farmers. The absence of soil and water conservation measures on rainfed (sloping land) agriculture has led to high farming investment. Farmers needlessly waste precious domestic and natural resources, such as cutting and burning pristine forest and abandon their unproductive farms. Shifting cultivation still occurs in Agam District (for gambir plantation), due to the absence of simple soil and water conservation measures, such as building simple terraces or soil pits for controlling soil loss. Farmers are not aware on the rich organic material source from rice fields to replenish their rainfed land fertility.

2.3.5.2. Village Level: Poor NRM governance and capacity in development planning The rampant environmental degradation at village level, such as uncontrolled deforestation, building housing areas or cultivating annual crops on extreme slope terrain, strongly indicates the poor NRM governance at village level. Based on Government Regulation No. 72/2006 on Village Administration and Law No 32/2009 on local Governance, the ‘village’ as the smallest unit of autonomous administration has right to decide their own provision. The village has the right to define: (a) Village Regulations; (b) village development budget and (c) collaboration with third parties (business companies, other villages etc.). In many cases, the village is lacking independence due to weak NRM governance. As a result, village natural resources (NR) have suffered from the exploitation by outsiders. 24

Dr. Edi Purwanto

The hierarchy of bottom-up development planning, from Musrenbang Kecamatan (Development planning consultative meeting at sub-district level) to Musrenbang Kabupaten (Development planning consultative meeting at district level) often fail to incorporate development ideas (proposals) from bottom (village) level, while the village development planning document is often unclear and not well-prepared. As a result, district development planning is often developed on the basis of District Agency’s (SKPD28) set up rather than being the compilation of village development planning assembled through Musrenbang Kecamatan and Kabupaten. Consequently, village developments often failed to address the real needs of local community or improving local community livelihoods and environment. Since 2010, PNPM-Green has been promoting the formulation of RPJM-Desa (Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah), Medium-term (5 years) village development planning. Since 2011 all development support at village level should refer to such documents. At this moment, the quality of those documents are still poor: (a) Not well-prepared; (b) the development ideas are dominantly suggested from village elite’s initiatives; (c) Much emphasis on infrastructure development; and (d) village development planning is based on administrative, rather than catchment boundary unit.

2.3.5.3. (Sub) District Level: Poor NRM governance and capacity in development planning The success of decentralization depends upon the availability of proper institutions and qualified human resources in implementing all aspects of decentralization, as well as other supporting factors, such as infrastructure, technology, information access, personnel, and institutional capacity. Many newly proliferated districts, after decentralization in 200129, have insufficient human resources capacity. They often lack a simple map as a basis for NRM planning. As a result, the NRM of different sectors often overlap. There are still problems in the implementation of forestry decentralization, which have led to uncontrolled forest logging after decentralization. A few months after the issuance of Act No. 22/1999, Forestry Act No. 41/1999 was passed. The implementation of these two acts has created problems for the parties responsible for managing the forest and forest resources. Problems are particularly severe between the central government (Ministry of Forestry) and local (district) government agencies because of differing interpretations of the term decentralization. This has led to misinterpretations when identifying responsible actors in forest management at district level. Therefore, distribution of authority and roles has become an area of conflict among the parties concerned. In addition, problems have emerged due to lacking of transparency and accountability in managing and maintaining forest resources as a life-support system, rather than as a source of timber only. Misperception regarding the implementation of decentralization in forestry sector at district level in many areas was mainly caused by the local government administrators’ 28

SKPD: Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah, technical agencies at district level.

29

Based on the issuance of Act No. 22 of 1999 (local governance), which come into effect on 1 January 2001.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

25


short-term orientation: five years. As a result, the forest is perceived as a source of timber that generates local revenues. Timber-cutting licenses are issued locally without sufficient regard for sustainability principles, leading to rapid deforestation.

26

Dr. Edi Purwanto


≈ Chapter III Socialization and Coordination We conducted project socialization and coordination with various parties and stakeholders prior to project implementation at field level. These activities were conducted from the provincial, district, to village level through formal meetings and informal visits. The objectives were to introduce OWT roles on MHP catchment management capacity building and synergize activities with relevant agencies (Forestry and environmental agencies at district level). The benefits of the activities were: (a) We receive supports from government and private sectors; (b) Government and local communities being aware on OWT roles in PNPM-Green.

3.1. Socialization and Coordination in National/Province Level Socialization and coordination at national level is conducted during Green-PNPM Coordination meeting. First Program socialization was conducted during Green-PNPM Coordination Meeting held on 28 February 2010 at PSF Office. It was the first occasion when we introduced the concept of the program, as by the time, we have not yet started implementing the program at field level. The first socialization and coordination for the province level of Sulawesi was held at Mercure Hotel-Makassar, South Sulawesi on 12 March 2010 during the Green-PNPM Coordination meeting, when we are about to conduct catchment selection process, which was conducted during the third and forth week of March 2010. in Mamasa District. On 27 May 2010, we presented initial project implementation progress during Green-PNPM coordination meeting held at PMD-Office/Jakarta. The second socialization and coordination for the province level of Sumatera was conducted in conjunction with Danida-Renewable Energy Workshop held at the Hill Hotel, Bukittinggi on January 20, 2011. Follow-up coordination meeting was held on July 25, 2011 at Basco Hotel, Padang. The participants were composed of key government official at province and district level, Astal from West Sumatera Province and WCS staffs. The topic discussions presented by Dr. Edi Purwanto included: (a) Watershed Management; (b) The need to conserve recharge area (daerah resapan) in West Sumatera; (c) Catchment rehabilitation strategy; (d) Progress and results of OWT facilitation in Agam District. The presentation received valuable response from participants, while most participants expected OWT technical assistance in all PNPM-Green target districts (not limited in Agam District).

Dr. Edi Purwanto

29


representative. The Regent has provided great supports to our proposal entitled ‘Mamasa Menanam’ (Mamasa Plants, see Attachment). The Regent had a strong NGO (LSM) background; he was the head of ‘LSM Pelayanan Masyarakat’ and very knowledgeable on planting campaign strategies. We received strong and warm supports from Mamasa community, from the Top Manager down to the Village Head and villagers. We emphasized to government and local community that we come not to bring money but technical assistances to support ‘Mamasa Menanam’, such as (a) Protection of rare Mother Trees of potential local trees species such as ‘Uru’ (Elmerrillia sp); (b) Facilitate the development of Village Seed Sources (Kebun Benih Desa) and Village Nursery (Persemaian Desa); (c) Facilitate collaborative planting involving all relevant stakeholders in the MHP’s catchment areas models. The wrap-up session conducted at the end of the meeting concluded 12 commitments and actions plan, one of them was to have a followup coordination meeting involving key Green-PNPM actors.

The process of socialization and coordination was continued at district level, and then directly followed by serial trainings at district and villages level.

3.2. Socialization and Coordination in District Level In-formal socialization and coordination meetings were conducted with key dstrict government officials and Green-PNPM actors during catchment selection in Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara, Mamasa, and Agam; however the first formal coordination meeting was conducted in Rante Pao, Toraja Utara District-South Sulawesi Province (21 April 2010), followed with Mamasa District-West Sulawesi Province (26 April 2010), Masamba, Luwu Utara District-South Sulawesi Province (27 May 2010), and Agam District-West Sumatera Province (25 May 2011). Socialization and Coordination meetings in Rante Pao and Masamba were conducted during District Green-PNPM socialization meeting for 2010, while for the Socialization and Coordination meeting in Mamasa and Agam were organized by OWT and PMD. A.

Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Toraja Utara (21 April 2010):

We made use the 2010’s Green-PNPM Socialization meeting at district level, as a medium to socialize the program to key stakeholders at district level. The meeting held at Hiltra Hotel, it was fully organized and funded by Green-PNPM. The meeting was officially opened by the Head of PMD and facilitated by Province Environmental Specialist ((Jazman Naharuddin). It was attended by 45 participants, i.e. OWT (Edi Purwanto), Faskab, Head of Forestry District, Head of Environmental District, Sub-districts Heads (Camat) and village (Lembang) Heads. In this meeting, OWT presented the concept of Catchment Management and planned of training and facilitations which will be implemented in catchment model village. Focus would be given to facilitate project beneficiary on the development of Tree Nursery (Kebun Bibit) and Seed Orchards (Kebun Benih). The expected benefits would be: (a) Local community would have skills to develop a qualified tree nursery as a source of planting materials; (b) Local community would be able to select mother trees as high quality seed sources; (c) Local community would be familiar with the characters and treatments of various tree seedlings (orthodox or recalcitrant); (d) Local community could use the developed tree nursery and seed orchards as a new source of income and as away to conserve the genetic source of indigenous tree species.

B.

Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Mamasa (26 April 2010):

It is held at the Pola Room, Regent Office of Mamasa District, West Sulawesi Province. The meeting was fully organized and funded by OWT and directly led by the Regent (Drs. Obednego Depparinding), attended by 31 participants, i.e. Head of District Parliament, Secretary District, Head of PMD and relevant agencies, such as Forestry, Agriculture, Plantation, Extension, 6 Sub-District Heads (Camat), PNPM (L) MP facilitators at province level (Jazman Naharuddin), MHP facilitator (Early Yuniarti), PNPM facilitator at (sub) district and Technical Support Unit (TSU)

30

Dr. Edi Purwanto

C.

Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Luwu Utara (27 May 2010):

Similar with the socialization in Toraja Utara, we made use the District Socialization meeting, as a way to socialize the program to key stakeholders at district level. The meeting held at Meli Hotel, it was fully organized and funded by GreenPNPM. The meeting was officially opened by the Head of PMD and facilitated by Province Environmental Specialist (Jazman Naharuddin). It was attended by 53 participants, i.e. Regent Assistant of Governance Affair, Province Environmental Specialist, OWT (Ali Widodo), Faskab, head of Sub-districts and village Heads. The material presented during this meeting is similar with materials presented on Toraja Utara meeting (B.3). In this meeting, we received great supports from the Head of Forestry Agency who presented the importance of land rehabilitation through vegetative approaches, such as planting tree at catchment areas. He asked to key stakeholders to provide mutual supports on the implementation of Catchment Management Program.

D.

Green-PNPM Coordination Meeting in Mamasa (31 May 2010):

The main objective of the meeting is to identify problems and possible solutions of MHP’s 2009 implementation and develop strategy to start implementing catchment rehabilitation. The meeting was organized by OWT and involved all Green-PNPM actors at district level. It was held at OWT office in Mamasa and attended by all UPK and TPK (23 participants, 21 male, 2 female). The meeting was facilitated by MHP facilitator (Early Yuniarti) and OWT facilitator (Ali Widodo). The meeting was among other concluded the following commitments: (a) Monthly coordination meeting would be regularly conducted every the end of the month at OWT office; (b) TPK and UPK would present the status of project implementation, problems/ constraints encountered and possible solutions; (c) Every TPK committed to allocate at least 5% of MHP funding for catchment rehabilitation; (d) OWT would provide training and technical assistances, especially provide 2,000 poly-bags, and high quality seeds of non-indigenous tree species; (e) OWT will facilitate the

Dr. Edi Purwanto

31


formulation of budget allocation taken out of the MHP block-grant, to support all activities from tree nursery development, nursery maintenance, tree planting and maintenances of the planted trees. E.

Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Agam (25 May 2011):

At the district level, socialization and coordination were carried out through various events; (a) Meeting with Head of BPMD (Rural Community Empowerment Agency), Head of Forestry Department at district level, and Head of Environment Agency on 23 March 2011; (b) Meeting with the Regent of Agam District on May 13, 2011. The Regent strongly supports planting campaign in Agam District while Forestry Agency provided 10,000 seedlings to Nagari Salareh Aia. On May 25, 2011, we facilitated socialization and coordination workshop at district level. The workshop was attended by key government official at (sub) district level, target nagari, province facilitator (SPL), district facilitator (Astal) and PT Agro Masang Perkasa (AMP). Socialization at sub-district level was conducted through several informal meetings with District PJO and Head of Sub-district.

Box 2.2. Tree Planting Campaigns in Mamasa District On 26 April 2010, during socialization and coordination meeting held in the Regent Office of Mamasa District, Director OWT (Dr. Edi Purwanto) presented a paper entitles ’Mamasa Menanam’ (Mamasa’s planting campaign). The paper underlined reasons why Mamasa District needs to launch trees planting campaign program. The summary of the paper is as follows: First: Mamasa District is an ’ecological buffer’ to surrounding districts Mamasa District is located in the upper catchment of several rivers basin (Asupa, Mamasa, Mabili, Kampisan) flowing to South Sulawesi Province, such as Enrekang, Pinrang, Polewali Districts and surrounding areas. For catchment management point of views, Mamasa District has great influencing roles to control sustainable water supply and flood hazards. As such, Mamasa District has a strategic eco-hydrological functions as ’ecological buffer’ to surrounding districts in the downstream areas. Second: Mamasa District is a ’great water tower’ to surrounding districts The altitude of Mamasa District ranges from 600 - 1,500 meter, the areas is home of ’Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest’ (TMCF). In contrast with lowland forest having high rate of evapotranspiration (1,400 mm/year) due to the high interception and evaporation of wet forest canopies, TMCF has low evapotranspiration rate (300 - 400 mm/year). Apart from that, TMCF, due to the exposure position, they can function as ’cloud-stripping18’ and ’condensation nucleus’, resulted from ’horsontal interception’ which enable to transfer cloud (moisture) into water drip, providing continuous recharge to ground water storage during wet and dry seasons. From various research, it is known that the ’net precipitation’, falling water reaching forest floor in the TMCF is 20% higher than rainfall (outside TMCF) during wet season, and even more than 100% bigger during dry season (Bruijnzeel, 199019). It is different with Non-Cloud forest with mostly function to regulate water (sponge effects), while TMCF has double functions, to regulate and enhance catchment water yield. As such, Mamasa District has strategic eco-hydrological functions as ’ecological buffer’ and also ’great water tower’ of surrounding districts in the downstream areas.

Third: Mamasa landscape is dominated by hilly terrain Mamasa landscape has high potential of erosion hazard, either surface (sheet and rill erosion) and morphoerosion (gully erosion and mass-wasting/land-slide etc.), since the landscape is dominated by steep to very steep slopes. In this conditions, the present of forest and to a certain extent tree crops (in the agro-forestry form) play important roles to control soil loss, by reducing soil erodibility and the impact of high rain erosivity. Forest improve hydro-physical properties of soil, it provides the best possible of soil and water retention for almost any types of soil, it also able to control shallow landslide (less than 3 m depth). Forest produces litters which raise organic matter content and thereby enhance soil infiltration rate. The litters and undergrowth, apart from reducing overland-flow, they raise biological flora and founal activitivities in the soil, while the high dynamic tree root turnover during long period improves the hydrological characteristics of forest soil, creation of macroporosity (Van Noorwijk, 200020) which enhances soil infiltration, percolation and water holding capacity. Forest ecollogically provides the best possible land use option for catchment management. In the well-establsihed forest, there is no intensive soil tillage which can raise soil erodibility. There is no irrigation channels, limitted foot tracks or roads which can function as drainage channels during heavy rain. The irregular biomas can function as filters (naural barriers) for water and sediment flow which control the development of surface and morpho-erosion. Undisturbed forest also has high resistent to forest fire. Forth: Mamasa’s forest has been highly degraded The natural forest has been mostly degraded; the degradation stared during 1960 when villagers converted natural forest to grazing ground for livestock (carabao, water buffalo). During 1970, a regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii junghuniana). The Pine tree thrives well in the area, but it is now also in the degraded state, due to over exploitation for house construction. Mamasan people has realized this, but many of them has lack of spirits to turn the situation. It is the time for Mamasan people to revitalize the spirits of tree planting to recover its green natural beauty. Fifth: High dependency of Mamasan Culture to timbers Mamasa people is dominated by Toraja tribe who has high timber demand for their life, either to build traditional houses (Tongkonan) and other ceremonial costumary needs. Main contruction of Mamasa house is made from Uru (Elmerella sp.), as local mainstay trees species which has been getting rare. Other timbers construction species which starts to be rare in the area are Buangin (Cassuarina junghuniana), Damar (Agathis damara) and Mekadamia (Macadamia integrifolia). Tree planting campaign is urgent to secure long terms timber demand to sustain the value of Toraja culture. Micro-hydro power (MHP) is the most ideal entry points for Mamasa Planting Campaign MHP program, especially in poor electrificacy areas such as Mamasa District, has demonstrated a holistic and comprehensive community development model. The power generated through MHP reduces the use of fossil fuel (kerosene) and pressure to forest as the source of fuel-wood energy. Improving better access to information and opportunity to engage higher education level etc. Providing electricity to productive end-uses such as micro-and small-enterprises in agri-business, as well as to social service institutions such as schools and health clinics. Enhance local capacity to uphold sustainable MHP operation and maintenance. Last but not least, MHP program is the most ideal entry point to stimulate the awareness and spirits on catchment management through tree planting campaigns. Mamasa should be able to turn golden opportunity as an ideal entry points for catchment management and natural environmental restoration program. The alternatives are now open the choices are ours.

18. Clouds originate where ascending air reaches its dew point and where there are the necessary dusts or other particles, including forest (trees) biomass, for water vapor to condense upon. Forest biomass because of its very high surface area can act as a condensation nucleus which stimulates the development of clouds and water replenishment in the recharge areas. 19.

Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forest and Effects of Conversion; a State of Knowledge Reviews UNESCO, Paris.

32

Dr. Edi Purwanto

20.

Forest Watershed Functions, Lecture Note, World Agroforestry Center/ICRAF, Bogor

Dr. Edi Purwanto

33


3.3. Socialization and Coordination in Village Level To get sucess implemention of the project activities in the field, it is needed to conduct socialization and coordination in village level with village goverments, farmer groups member, local communities, key village champions, village cadres, etc. The first socialization and coordination at village level were conducted before training delivery, facilitations, and technical assitances. The objectives of socialization and coordination in village level are: (1) Identification of potentials and problems on village NRM, (2) Introducing of the CM project, (3) Getting support and understanding of key village goverments and champions on implementing of the CM project, (4) Formulating the problems - solving steps through implementing of CM project. a.

Socialization and Coordination in Buntu Malangka (Bumal) Village (19April 2010):

It is located at the house of Bumal Village Head. The village is not selected as CM model or CTM, but the KVCs were keen to meet OWT facilitators to discuss the development of tree nursery. The meeting was attended by 24 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). In this meeting, OWT explained step-by-step of nursery development and maintenance, discuss the OWT training and facilitations schedule and visiting some proposed sites for nursery development.

b.

Socialization and Coordination in Salumokanan Village (21April 2010):

It is located at Salumokanan Village Hall; the time was associated with the bidding announcement of the MHP construction. The meeting was attended by 22 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary, KPMD, TSU, UPK Rantebulahan Timur Sub-District and KVCs). In this meeting, OWT discussed schedule of training for nursery development and together with KPMD evaluated the suitability of several proposed sites for nursery development.

c.

Socialization and Coordination in Salutambun Barat (20 April and 5 June 2010):

The socialization was conducted in two times. The first socialization held on TPK Secretariat. The meeting was attended by 14 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary, KPMD, TSU, UPK Aralle Sub-District, agriculture extension workers/PPL and KVCs). In this meeting, OWT facilitated the formulation of RAB for catchment rehabilitation actions, discuss schedule of training for nursery development and together with Village Head evaluated the suitability of several proposed sites for nursery development. The second socialization (5 June 2010) held at Pak Malkias House (BPD), it was attended by 16 persons (Village Head, Sub-Village Head, BPD, PPL, TPK and KVCs). The purpose of the meeting is to define lists of tree species suitable to grow in this area. We explored KVCs experience in planting trees, what species and in what situations are successful or failure. By learning from KVCs experience, we can explain the underlined reasons related to success and failures.

34

Dr. Edi Purwanto

d.

Socialization and Coordination in Tawalian Timur (23 April and 23 June 2010):

Tawalian Timur Village is one of limited number of villages in Mamasa District which still have lot of Uru (Elmerella sp.), most of them are resulted from human planting and not merely natural growing. At the beginning, our visit to Tawalian Timur (16 April 2010) was to search over the mother trees as seeds sources for nursery developed in the MHP targeted areas, as we heard that the village is home of Uru trees. After we found the strong social capital in the village, while many KVCs, including the Village Head, were keen to have our facilitations for catchment rehabilitation, then we decided to select the village as a village under technical assistances (CTA). As stated in the Inception Report Page 6, the village did not receive 2009 BLM funding, but it received MHP Grant from regular PNPM on 2006 (15 kW), MHP Grant from District Government Budget on 2007 (20 kW), and receive BLM Green PNPM on 2010 (30 kW). On 23 April 2010, we conducted in-formal coordination and socialization meetings with 20 KVCs and continued with site visits of several outstanding Uru trees potentially selected as mother tress. On 23 June 2010, we organized formal socialization; this was attended by 55 KVCs, whom mostly composed of Gapoktan (Farmers Groups) members and attended by Sub-District Head and agriculture extension workers. We discussed the technical detail of OWT technical assistances, contribution of local community in the process of establishment of village nursery and planning to protect at least 20 Uru trees as mother trees and the decision should be formalized through Perdes.

e.

Socialization and Coordination in Orobua Selatan (12 May 2010):

It is located at Village Hall of Orobua Selatan Village. The meeting was attended by 18 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). The meeting formulated the fixed RAB for catchment rehabilitation actions and schedule of training for nursery development and facilitations.

f.

Socialization and Coordination in Mambuliling Village (20 June 2010):

The socialization held on Mambuliling Church. The meeting was attended by 18 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). The meeting formulated the fixed RAB for catchment rehabilitation actions and schedule of training for nursery development and facilitations.

g.

Socialization and Coordination in Tulak Talu Village (20 July 2010):

The socialization held on Tumandi Hamlet, located near the MHP site. The meeting was attended by 26 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, TSU, TPK, and KVCs). We discussed serial technical assistances and facilitations conducted by OWT in the village. In this meeting, KVCs expressed their high enthusiasm to our proposed facilitation; however, they also expected us to provide training on Honey Bee Culture and Processing of Arenga Pinata (Aren).

Dr. Edi Purwanto

35


h.

Socialization and Coordination in Rindingallo Village (31 July 2010):

The socialization was conducted during training on Catchment Rehabilitation held in Hiltra Hotel, Rante Pao, Toraja Utara. We discussed with UPK, TPK, MHP facilitator and TSU on serial facilitations we will conducted in Rindingallo Village. We all were in agreement that the training will be conducted on August 4, 2010 at Rindingalo Village Hall.

i.

Socialization and Coordination in Village of Salareh Aia, Pagadih, and Malalak Selatan (24 January - 30 June, 2011): We conducted several socialization and coordination with village goverment, local communities, and farmer groups that presented in table below :

Table 3.1. Racapitulation socialization and coordination in Agam district No

Location

Activities

Implementation Time Frame

Number of Participants Male

1

Nagari Salareh Aia

Female

• Socialization with Wali Nagari, TPK and Key Village Champions (KVC)

24 January 2011

8

1

• Socialization with MHP beneficiaries at Jorong Kayu Pasak Selatan

24 March 2011

16

14

• Socialization with Youth Group in Kayu Pasak Timur

13 May 2011

14

7

• Socialization with Farmer fish breeder ‘Cahaya Tanjung’

15 May 2011

12

10

• Socialization with ‘Sejahtera Bersama’ Farmer Group at, Jorong Kayu Pasak Timur

22 May 2011

16

4

6 May 2011

13

2

30 June 2011

9

16

6 August 2012

12

14

9 August 2012

10

16

25 August 2012

8

14

28 August 2012

12

15

• Socialization with nagari officials • Socialization with ‘Alam Lestari’ Farmer Group at Jorong Koto Alam • Socialization in Sipinang Village with Wali Nagari, TPK, FKL, local communities • Socialization in Bamban Village with Wali Nagari, TPK, FKL, local communities • Socialization in Gumarang Village with Wali Nagari, TPK, FKL, local communities • Socialization in Maur Mudik, Salareh Aia Village with Wali Nagari, TPK, FKL, local communities

2

Nagari Pagadih

• Socialization with TPK and KVC • Socialization with nagari officials

22 January 2011 20 May 2011

9 22

4

3

Nagari Malalak Selatan

• Socialization with TPK and KVC • Socialization with Nagari Government, TPK and communities

23 January 2011 31 March 2011

8 12

1

36

Dr. Edi Purwanto


≈ Chapter IV Training Design and Delivery This chapter discusses training materials, design and delivery of the main and supplemental trainings in Sulawesi and Sumatera.

4.1. Developing of Training Materials a.

Published and distributed ‘Lestari Desaku’ magazine:

On the beginning of June, we published and distributed the first edition of ‘Lestari Desaku’ (My Sustainable Village). The magazine is aimed as an environmental awareness raising material for key village governments (KVG)/champions (KVC) at sub-district and village level on natural resource management (enhance productive use of local resource); village governance and promotion of PNPMGreen smart practices. A particular green income generating activity is selected as a focus on each edition of the magazine which will be published on quarterly basis. The focus of the first edition is Oyster Mushroom Cultivation (Budidaya Jamur Tiram) (35 pages). as a potential green business in rural area. The focus, apart from discussing technical detail on the key ‘secret’ success of mushroom cultivation, it also make the readers aware on the key success to start operating the business.  The magazine is attached with a DVD film which provides visual detail and soft-file of written manual on the step-by-step process of the cultivation. The list of contact agencies and persons are also provided. The dream behind the making of the magazine is to make rural people aware on their on-site abundant resources which should be able to improve their livelihoods. We are also continued to publish and distribute the second and third edition of Lestari Desaku magazine. The focus of the second edition: Menuai Berkah Dari Limbah: Kiat Memberdayakan Pasukan Mikroba; Transforming waste into grace: Strategy to empower microorganism troop. While the focus of the third edition is: Kini menanam and esok memanen; Kiat Memberdayakan Tanaman Buah; Today Planting, Tomorrow Harvesting: Empowering fruit trees. The second edition was published on September, while the third edition is on October 2012. Both are printed for 3000 copies and distributed to key PNPM-Green stakeholders. We need to strengthen village governance to make them independence (mandiri); they should be able to build their life without too much expecting outsiders. The magazine can also be visited on www.owt.or.id.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

39


b.

Published 8 Series Manual on Protection and Rehabilitation of Catchment Area:

During the last three years, we developed 8 manuals on catchment area protection and management and had been tried out on several trainings. We used to copy those manuals for participants and made regular revisions based on feed-back received during the trainings, During this quarter, we made final revision of 8 manuals: (a) Volume 1: Concept on Protection and Rehabilitation of Catchment Area ; (b) Volume 2: Participatory mapping on catchment areas boundary and problems; (c) Volume 3: Generative propagation of tree seedlings; (d) Volume 4: Vegetative propagation of tree seedlings; (e) Volume 5: Techniques on tree planting, maintenance and its survival evaluation; (f) Volume 6: Agroforestry Development; (g) Volume 7: Mangrove Rehabilitation; (h) Volume 8: Green Income Generating Activities Model: Edible Mushroom Cultivation. Each manual is printed for 1000 copies. The eight manuals will be distributed to PNPM-Green facilitators, key village champions, schools and district offices, i.e. Forestry, Agriculture, Environmental and BPMD offices.

c.

Supporting DANIDA Training Materials on NRM:

Since December 2011, we have worked together with Mr. Frans Harum (Danida Consultant) and Mr. Soren Moestrup (Danida Advisor/PSF) to develop NRM manual and booklets for Green facilitators (GF). We prepared three chapters: (a) Catchment Management Planning; (b) Agroforestry and (c) Income generating activity. We also provided full technical assistance the making of booklet illustration; (a) catchment management planning; (b) income generating activities; (c) establishment of Village Nursery; (d) Agroforestry and (e) tree planting. The materials have been be used for GF and Setrawan training held in June and July 2012 in Sulawesi and Sumatra.

There are two main approaches to catchment rehabilitation, vegetative and civil technique approaches. Emphasis should be given on vegetative approach through planting campaigns rather than civil technique. The reasons for this is that civil technique approaches, such as land terracing, gully plug, gully control, slope establishment etc. require big investment, and high construction and maintenance costs. Such efforts are technically feasible to abrupt surface and morpho-erosion (gully erosion, mass wasting etc.), however the high construction and maintenance cost are unaffordable for the local community. Those measures are suitable for big watershed management project with millions dollars of investment. In fact, there is much criticisms of the efficiency and effectiveness of such measures and investments. There are many findings that civil technique approaches, such as land terracing on rainfed agriculture, if not properly done will lead to increasing rather than reducing soil loss. As stated in Box 3.1, there are at least five reasons for vegetative rehabilitation: (a) Project areas located at the upper catchment areas having strategic roles to downstream protection; (b) The roles of forest in water recharge is critical as most forests in the areas functions as cloud stripping; (c) The landscape is dominated by hilly and mountainous terrain which needs maximum protection of forest cover; (d) Most of the forests have been degraded; (e) Local communities have a high dependency on timber.

4.2.2. Training Design Based on the above consideration, our major training intervention is related to vegetative catchment rehabilitation. Title: Catchment Rehabilitation with special emphasis on generative propagation. Objective: After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware of the urgency of mother trees selection and protection; (c) have a clear idea on the step-by-step phase required to develop a tree nursery; (d) have a clear idea about tree planting design and techniques; (e) have skills on generative and vegetative propagation.

4.2. Training Design 4.2.1. Emphasis on Vegetative Catchment Rehabilitation Among 7 village models (Orobua Selatan, Salumokanan, Salutambun Barat, Tawalian Timur, Tulak Tallu, Salareh Aia, and Pagadih) and 6 villages of technical assistances (Mambuliling, Rindingallo, Malalak Selatan, Maur Mudik, Gumarang, Bamban, and Sipinang), only Tulak Talu and Mambuliling villages which have good vegetation cover. The landscape is still dominated by disturbed natural forest and traditional agroforestry (mixed-garden). The natural forest of the remaining catchments has long been converted into coffee and cocoa farming while agroforestry as a traditional land-use system and local wisdom to optimize land utilization, landscape (soil and water) and genetic conservation have mostly been neglected. Understanding the situation, vegetative catchment rehabilitation measures is urgently required to sustain the MHP scheme.

Participants: TPK, KVG30, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators. Number of participants: 30-40 persons. Duration: one day (8-10 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. See Table 4.1. The training will be followed by intensive facilitation. Training Aids: To make training delivery effective, a set of training aids should be available at the training site. To this effect, about one week before training implementation, we asked trainees (TPK) to prepare training aids dealing with the subjects: (a) sand; (b)

30

40

Dr. Edi Purwanto

KVG: Key village governments, KVC: Key village champions

Dr. Edi Purwanto

41


topsoil; (c) rice husk; (d) animal dung/manure (cows, buffalo); (e) bran flour; (f) hot water; (g) wildling /natural seedlings; (h) farm utensil (hoe, bucket etc.). We provided: (a) Seeds; (b) EM-4; (c) Poly-bags; (d) knife cutter; (e) root growth hormone and LCD projector.

Table 4.2. Detail topic and sub-topics of the presentation and discussion during theory session No

Topics

Objective: Trainees aware the urgent needs for catchment rehabilitation campaigns

Theory (2 hours): See Table 4.2 Practical Exercise (6 hours): See Table 4.3 Table 4.1. The agenda of training on rehabilitation of water catchment area

08.00 - 08.15 08.15 - 08.45

1.

Catchment management

Agenda

Time

Sub-topics

Trainees registration Opening Session: Training Objectives and Agenda

1.1

Definition of catchment areas

1.2

Method to delineate catchment boundary

1.3

The roles of catchment boundary on NRM

1.4

The difference between catchment and administrative boundary

1.5

Land cover changes in the MHP catchment

1.6

Roles of Forest to regulate and produce water

1.7

The need of vegetative rehabilitation campaign

1.8

Roles of seedling propagation to support rehabilitation campaign

Objective: Trainees understand the need to select high quality seeds 08.45 - 09.00

Tea break

09.00 - 11.00

Theory: Presentation and Discussion

2.

11.00 - 12.15

Mother trees

2.1

Mother trees as seeds sources

2.2

Basic concept to select mother trees

2.3

Group of tree species: Fast Growing Species, High Quality Timber Species and Multi Purpose Tree Species

Practical Exercise I: Seeds extraction, dormancy scarification, germination media

12.15 - 13.00

Lunch Break

13.00 - 15.40

Practical Exercise II: Seed germination, making Bokhasi and rice husk charcoal, making growth media, wilding collection.

15.40 - 16.00

Coffee Break

16.00 - 17.00

Practical Exercise III: Develop cuttings, grafting and planting

3.

Seeds Characteristics and treatments

Objective: Trainees understand the different treatments between recalcitrant and orthodox seeds 3.1

Recalcitrant, example (Nangka, Gaharu, Kayu Afrika etc.)

3.2

Orthodox, example (Sengon, Trembesi etc.)

Objective: Trainees understand step-by-step of generative propagation

17.00 - 17.30

4.

Generative propagation

Discussion and closing session

4.1

Seeds collection, extraction and selection

4.2

Dormancy scarification

4.3

Germination and growth media

4.4

Nursery establishment and maintenance

4.5

Slide presentation on Good and Bad9

Objective: Trainees understand example of vegetative propagation 5.

Vegetative propagation

5.1

Cutting system/stek-pucuk

5.2

Grafting

Objective: Trainee understand basic principles to select species 6.

42

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Species Selection

Dr. Edi Purwanto

6.1

Criteria for species selection

6.2

Group of species: High Quality Timber Species, Fast Growing Species, and Multi-purpose Tree Species

43


No

7.

8.

Topics

Planting techniques maintenances

4.3. Training Delivery

Sub-topics

and

Objective: Trainees understand planting procedure and maintenances of the newly planted trees 7.1

Making planting strip, space, pattern

7.2

Maintenance of the planted trees

Objective: Trainees have ideas on the economic and ecological benefits of agroforestry system

Agroforestry

8.1

Slide presentation of best practices agroforestry in Indonesia

Topics

Tabel 4.4. List of Training Delivery in Sulawesi and Sumatera During Implementation of the Project No

Table 4.3. Detail topic and sub-topics of practical exercise No.

During implementing of the project, OWT has completed training in all targeted sites which covers four levels, i.e. : (1) National level (Sulawesi region and Sumatera region), (2) Province level (West Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sumatera), (3) District level (Mamasa, Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara, and Agam) and, (4) Sub-district level (Palembayan and Malalak in Agam District), and (5) Village level (7 villages model and 6 villages for technical assistance). Summary of the training delivery is presented in table below:

Seed extraction

1.1

Dry-extraction: Sengon, Suren, Eucalyptus, Gaharu etc.

1.2

Wet-extraction: Jati Putih, Kayu Afrika, Uru etc.

Dormancy scarification

1

2.1

Soaking in hot and cold water: Sengon, Trembesi, Sengon Buto

2.2

Opening with pincers: Sirsak

2.3

Sangrai (heating in earthen pot without oil and water): Jati

2.4

Kikir (filing): Merbau

3.

Germination Media

Mixing sand and rice husk (ratio; 1:1)

3.2

Mixing sand and compost of rice husk (ratio; 1:1)

3.3

Mixing sand and rice husk charcoal (ratio; 1:1)

4.

Seed germination

Objective: Trainees are able to germinate seeds of various species (Mahoni, Sengon, Trembesi, Suren, Sengon Buto, Merbau, Jati etc.) and aware the need to maintain/keep moisture content of germination media

5.

Bokhasi

Objective: Trainees are able to make rice husk compost as growth media. See Box 3.1 and 3.2.

6.

Growth media

Objective: Trainees are able to prepare growth media using topsoil, rice husk charcoal; manure (ratio; 3:1:1)

7.

Wilding Collection

Objective: Trainees are able to collect natural seedlings and transfer them into polybag.

8.

Cutting system/stekpucuk

Objective: Trainees have an idea on how to develop cuttings

9.

Grafting

Objective: Trainees have an idea on how to make grafting.

10.

Planting

Objective: Trainees are able to plant tree seedlings properly, starting with making planting holes, hold seedlings, release polybag and put them at the planting holes.

44

Participants

Number of Participant Male

Famale

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation�

Heritage hotel, Makale, Toraja

Sulawesi Green facilitators (Environmental specialist, Astal, FKL)

28.07. 2010

37

10

2

Refresher Training for PNPM-Green facilitators

Hotel SoechiMedan

8.10. 2011

FKL, Astal, and SPL

77

3

Training for Government officials

Hotel SoechiMedan

9.10. 2011

PJOK of District and Sub-district

35

10

4

Refresher Training for PNPM-Green facilitators

Hotel MalinoSouth Sulawesi

20.10. 2011

FKL, Astal, and SPL

35

12

5

Training for Government officials

Hotel SinggasanaSouth Sulawesi

23.10. 2011

PJOK of District and Sub-district

30

10

6

Training for MHP Assistant

Hotel Novotel -Bandung

31.01. 2012

SPL PLTMH, MHP Assistants

30

5

Objective: Trainees are able to prepare germination media on the plastic tray and wood tray. 3.1

Date National Level

Objective: Trainees are able to speed-up seeds germination process for orthodox seeds. 2.

Location

Sub-topics Objective: Trainees are able to separate seeds out of the fruit

1.

Title of Training

Province Level

1

Training on NRM for green facilitators and setrawan in West Sumatera, funded by DANIDA

Bukittinggi, West Sumatera

02.07.2012

FKL, Setrawan

20

7

2

Training on NRM for green facilitators and setrawan in Bengkulu, funded by DANIDA

Bengkulu

16.09.2012

FKL, Setrawan, PJOK,

18

4

Dr. Edi Purwanto

45


No

Title of Training

Location

Date

Participants

Number of Participant Male

Famale

No

District Level 3

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

OWT office, Mamasa Town

2

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Hotel Hiltra, Toraja Utara

31.07.2010

Astal, TPK and UPK of all Green-PNPM villages

20

4

3

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

BPMD office meeting hall, Luwu Utara, Masamba Town

09.08.2010

Astal, TPK, UPK, KPMD, local NGO

16

4

4

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Meeting hall, Orobua Selatan Village

23.02.2011

KVG, KVC, extension workers and farmer groups representatives

32

1

5

Environmental conservation

OWT office, Mamasa Town

Boy-scout

22

1

6

Training of Trainers about catchment management

7

Training on NRM for moslem and customary leaders in Agam District

8

Presentation of implementation of catchment management activities in workshop PMD of Agam District

1. 06.2010

Astal, TPK and UPK in Mamasa District

20

2

1

2

Training on making of biogas

46

Training of techniques for setting up nursery in nagari

Location

Palembayan

Date

Participants

Number of Participant Male

Famale

14

18

30

3

02.07.2010

PJOK, TPK, KVG and KVC of Tawalian and Mambuliling Villages

14

-

30

-

03.11. 2011

TPK and community leaders from PNPM-Green and MHP program

Village Level

Bukit tinggi

Bukit tinggi

Parai Hotel, Agam

27 – 28 February 2011

All PL and TPK of PNPM-Green in Palembayan Subdistrict, Malalak Sub-district, and Pagadih Sub-district

17

14.08.2012

Kementrian Agama, PJO Kab, PJOK, FKL, Astal, Korkab, Korcam, participants

42

06.12.2012

Head and staff of PMD of Agam District, head of sub-districts, the Wali Nagari, PNPMGreen facilitators, PL, and TPK from entire Agam Distric

16.11.2011

18

1

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Meeting hall, Orobua Selatan Village, Mamasa district

2

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Village head’s house, Tawalian Timur Village, Mamasa district

3

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Meeting hall, Salumokanan Village, Mamasa district

03.07.2010

PJOK, UPK, TPK, KVG, KVC, FT, farmer group, boyscout, NGO

4

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

KVC house, Salutambun Barat Village, Mamasa district

05.07.2010

UPK, TPK, KVG, KVC, FT, farmer group

29

4

5

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Meeting hall, Tulak Talu Village, Luwu Utara

24.07.2010

TPK, UPK, KVG,KVC farmer groups, Village representatives from Sasa and Malinbu Village

35

5

6

Making bokashi

Bokashi house, Tulak Talu Village, Luwu Utara

15.01. 2011

TPK, KVG, KVC, farmer groups

38

6

7

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

Meeting hall, Rindingallo Village, Toraja Utara

04.08.2010

Astal, PJO, KVG, KVC, farmer groups

19

12

8

Catchment area mapping using GPS

Nagari Salareh Aia, Agam district

18.04. 2011

Nagari Officials, Farmer Group members

22

25-26 Juni 2011

Nagari Officials, Farmer Group members, PNPMGreen facilitators from Pasaman District

22

25

28.06.2011

Nagari Officials, Farmer Group members

18

15

14

1

4

Sub-District Level Training on Catchment Protection and Rehabilitation

Title of Training

Malalak

Malalak

21.07. 2011

TPK and community leaders from PNPM-Green and MHP program

02.08. 2011

TPK and community leaders from PNPM-Green and MHP program

12

6

9

Catchment Rehabilitation Technique

Nagari Salareh Aia, Agam district

10

Catchment Rehabilitation Technique

Pagadih, Agam district

27.05. 2010

5

7

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Dr. Edi Purwanto

PJOK, TPK, KVG, KVC

47


No

Title of Training

Location

11

Planting and Tree Maintenance

Nagari Salareh Aia, Agam district

27-11-2011

12

Planting and Tree Maintenance

Nagari Baringin, Agam district

13

Catchment Rehabilitation Technique

14

15

Date

Participants

Number of Participant Male

Famale

Farmer Group of Kuto Alam SubVillage

3

27

03-12-2011

Farmer group of Nagari Baringin, Nagari official

13

11

Nursery of Malalak Selatan, Agam district

06-12-2011

Nagari Officials, Farmer Group members

15

Training on Catchment Management

Gumarang 1, Palembayan sub district, Agam district

19-09-2012

Local comminity, FKL, Korcam, OWT specialist

10

Training on the use of biogas-slurry for making of liquid organic fertilizer

Salimpaung, Malalak sub district, Agam district

20-09-2012

10

level (at district and sub-district level). Training for consultant level was conducted in a ‘Refresher Training’, while training for PJOK was conducted through ‘Training on Technical Assistance for Government Personnel’. In both trainings, OWT took part as resource person on Catchment Management topic.

1. Refresher Training for Consultants On the year of 2011, we provided training on catchment area management and rehabilitation on Sumatera PNPM-Green refresher training held on 8 October 2011 in Soechi Hotel, Medan. The second refresher training for Sulawesi PNPM-Green was conducted on 20 October 2011 in Malino Hotel, South Sulawesi. The topics of training materials discussed during the training were: Dr. Edi Purwanto:

Local comminity, FKL, Korcam, OWT specialist

21

11

Total

820

247

• • • • •

Definition of Watershed and Catchment Area Recharge Area and its implication on catchment area rehabilitation Forest watershed functions Vegetative rehabilitation Film “One catchment one management”

Ujang S. Irawan, M.Si. :

4.3.1. Training of National Level Since the end of 2008, starting with the pre-service training for Green Facilitators (GFs), OWT has been continuously involved on the regular refresher courses of GFs in Green-PNPM Sulawesi and Sumatera. The course was organized by PMD in collaboration with the National Management Consultant (NMC). At this occasion, we presented a lecture on ‘Catchment Rehabilitation with special emphasis on vegetative rehabilitation’. The underlined reasons why we presented this topic are: (a) GFs have various educational backgrounds, but mostly are non-forester, while 60% of the Green-PNPM block-grant (2008-2010) in Sulawesi was used for tree planting; (b) We witnessed that the quality of tree planting on the ground level are not promising, mostly due to project oriented culture of project implementers; (c) So far, GFs have never received training on tree seedlings propagation. Generally speaking, GF trainings are mostly designed to give heavy emphasis on GreenPNPM regulations/policy socialization and facilitation techniques, rather than technical aspects. This may be one of the underlined reasons why most GFs are only effectively functioned as project administrator (for Green Block-Grant disbursement) rather than doing the job as a community facilitator. Catchment management training of with participants from 4 provinces Aceh) and Sulawesi region from 4 Sulawesi, and Central Sulawesi) for 48

national level was conducted for Sumatera region (West Sumatera, Bengkulu, North Sumatera, and provinces (West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, North consultant level (FKL, Astal, and SPL) and PJOK Dr. Edi Purwanto

• • • • • • • • • • •

Plant growth factor Tree species selection for rehabilitation Seed collection and handling Nursery development Seedlings propagation technique Planting technique Plant maintenance technique Agarwood cultivation Rehabilitation for mangrove and coastal areas Good and Bad Practices on seedlings propagation and planting Film “Rehabilitation in Mamasa”

The participants were very enthusiastic to follow our lecture as our topic was directly related to their day-to-day work. We answered and suggested solutions to common technical problems encountered by Green facilitators. The proportion in deliberation of training materials were different between the Sumatera region and Sulawesi region. As for their first occasion, facilitators in Sumatera region were given lecture on CM by OWT in 2 : 1 ratio between theoretical and discussion session, while for facilitators in Sulawesi region have received 1 : 2 ratio between theoretical and discussion session after given the same material through previous refresher training in North Toraja in August 2010. Such setting provided more opportunity allowed for discussion with the participants. Dr. Edi Purwanto

49


2. Training for Government Officials Training or technical assistance for government officials was participated by PJOK of PNPM-Green from subdistrict and district level both for Sumatera and Sulawesi region. The training for Sumatera region was held on November 9, 2011 in Hotel Soechi Medan, while training for Sulawesi region was held on November 23, 2011 in Hotel Singgasana, Makassar. Several training materials discussed during the training were the following: (1) Film “One Catchment One Management”, (2) Film “Land Rehabilitation in Mamasa”, (3) Concept of Catchment Area Management, (4) Vegetative Rehabilitation, (5) Strategy on Seedlings Propagation and Catchment Rehabilitation, (6) OWT Experiences on Catchment Rehabilitation in West Sulawesi and West Sumatera. Personnel of PJOK were very enthusiastic during lecture presentation by OWT. We received many questions and requests from the participants to acquire copies of presentation materials as well as the films. During the discussion session, one of PJOK personnel from Mamasa District, Mr. Philipus, specifically requested OWT to continue deploying technical assistance in forest and land rehabilitation activities in Mamasa District.

3. Training for MHP Assistants of Sumatera and Sulawesi Region On 31st January 2012, OWT took part in delivering presentation materials on ‘Strategies and Sequences of Catchment Area Rehabilitation’ for Training of MHPAssistant in Sumatera and Sulawesi region that took place in Novotel Hotel, Bandung - West Java. The main objective of those presentations was to enhance ability of MHPassistants in the implementation of activities for rehabilitation of catchment area within their facilitation sites. The presentation materials to address the main objective were including (1) Concept of Catchment Management, (2) Mapping and Planning for CA Rehabilitation, (3) Budget Planning for CA Rehabilitation, (4) Strategy on Species Selection, (5) Seedlings Propagation, (6) Planting and Maintenance Technique, (7) Film “One Catchment One Management” and “Land Rehabilitation in Mamasa.

4.3.2. Training of District Level

The objectives of the training at district level are: (a) to deliver technical knowledge and skills on catchment rehabilitation to key green PNPM actors at sub-district and at village level. By doing this, all key Green-PNPM actors, especially those receiving block-grant have access and opportunities to our training program; (b) to provide facilitation and technical assistances to TPK on RAB development. The method of this training is : Theory: 60%, Practical exercise; 40% which includes: (a) Seeds morphology; (b) Dormancy scarification; (c) Making germination and growth media and (d) Seed germination. Using LCD projectors, we presented lot of photo documentation of nursery development, best practices on agroforestry, good and bad practices on catchment area management.

4.3.3. Training of Sub-District Level OWT provided trainings on rehabilitation of CA at the sub-district level in Palembayan and Malalak District. Trainings at sub-district level were attended TPK and community leaders from PNPM-Green and MHPprogram recipient villages in 2010 and 2011. Training in Malalak Sub-district was held at the Sub-district Office on 21st July 2011 about seed propagation and cultivation techniques and on 2nd August 2011 on biogas making. In Palembayan Sub-district, the training was held on November 3, 2011 that specifically discussed about techniques for setting up nursery in nagari.

4.3.4. Training Village Level

The training of district level emphasized on enhancing ability of participants, (TPK, UPK, and PL of PNPM-Green), especially the PL to become trainers or resource persons for activities related to CM in the future. It is expected that they will be able to provide explanation and practices in implementing CM activities particularly linked to rehabilitation of CA. Most participants of this training have attended previous training conducted by OWT in each of model sites, therefore this training is set to focus more on deepening the comprehension of PL on each topic and increase their ability in conducting training and technical assistance to targeted benefiaciaries and stakeholders in similar activities for the next year period.

50

At district level OWT also presented results of implementation of CM activities in a workshop organized by PMD of Agam District in Parai Hotel on 6th December 2012. The event was attended by the Head and staff of PMD of Agam District, head of sub-districts, the Wali Nagari, PNPM-Green facilitators, PL, and TPK from entire Agam District. In addition to delivering result of CM implementation, OWT also deliver presentation about facilitation of PNPM-Green activities on biogas making. On this event, wali nagari(s) from other villages not included as location model, requested OWT to facilitate rehabilitation in their nagari regions. Correspondingly, the Head of the PMD requested that OWT technical assistance shall continue in order to complete a program run and provide real benefits.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

The main target of our training and facilitation are community at field level, as they are the spear-head of catchment rehabilitation campaigns. The proportion of practical exercise is 80%. The underlined reasons, apart from they need to master the skills, the materials for practical exercise (topsoil, rice husk, animal dungs) are readily available. Feedback from local farmers was the most exciting part of the training session; we experienced lot of funny and interesting moments during practical exercises. We have delivered the following trainings at village level: (a) Biogas Installation, (b) Mapping catchment area using GPS, (c) Seedlings Propagation and Nursery Establishment, (d) Catchment Area Rehabilitation Technique. The training was attended by : KPMD, PL, TPK, KVCs. KVGs, farmer group, local NGO, FT, UPK, and Youth Scout members (in Salumokanan Village) who concern on environmental conservation. Dr. Edi Purwanto

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Trainees were grateful to the training, since: (a) The delivered skills and information is highly relevant with the community needs; (b) This was a new training topic for local community. Community were grateful to this training: (a) The spirits of the training is in line with Tallulalisan (in Salumokanan Village) (Box 4.1); (b) Villagers are grateful to welcome outsiders bringing the spirits of environmental conservation; (c) This is a new training topic for them; (d) The introduced non-indigenous tree species are potentially useful for economy and ecology.

4.3.5. Supplemental Trainings Apart from catchment rehabilitation, we also provided supplemental trainings which aimed to support catchment rehabilitation implementation: (1) Making of Biogas installation, (2) Making of Bokashi, (3) Mapping with Geo Positioning System (GPS).

1. Making of Biogas Installation Box 4.1. Tallulalisan It is the spirits of environmental conservation involving the roles and leadership of Priest (Church), Village Government and Village Elders (Tallulalisan/three pillars). The spirits of conserving nature has emerged since 1950s; however, degradation occurred during 1960s when many people converted natural forest to grazing ground for livestock (carabao, water buffalo). During 1970s, a regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees, but the village has lost of its natural forest. Since 2005, the spirits of environmental conservation has been reappeared and headed up by the Priest. Commitment to protect forest has been implemented consistently: each cutting of one tree has to replace with planting of 25 tree seedlings. A natural resource rehabilitation campaigns is led by the Priest which involves children and youth. In 2007, they organized the first youth camping ground, in which one of the main activity was to conduct tree planting campaigns in the upper catchment areas.

One of the important steps on land rehabilitation campaign is mother trees selection and seeds collection from mother trees that produces good quality of genetic material. Identification of mother trees are conducted by observing the phenotype (physical performance) of the trees such as height of branch free bole, shape of tree bole etc., and also the distance among mother trees (at least 100 m apart) to avoid collecting seeds from inbred individuals. Trees that are standing close together may often be related and depending on the reproduction system, the seeds may result in inbreeding depression. Training in the village was put special emphasis on mother trees selection and seed collection. The distribution of the Uru trees (Elmerillia sp) in the villages are fabulous. The objective of the training: (a) to give awareness on the strategic protection of mother trees as seed sources and campaign to plant indigenous tree species; (b) to deliver knowledge and skills on criteria and indicators of mother tree selection; (c) as first step to develop Village seeds source, especially for Uru. The training held at Tawalian Timur Village, Mamasa District on 2 July 2010, attended by 14 persons, i.e. extension worker, sub-village Heads, farmer group members and KVC of Mambuliling Village. In this training, we delivered the same training as other villages, except that we do not introduce compost making and rice husk charcoal. In return, we introduced the selection procedure of Uru as mother trees. In this training, we also introduced the use of simple tool to measure tree heights, as one of important parameters to evaluate phenotype performances of the Uru tree.

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Dr. Edi Purwanto

This training was only delivered on one village model (Orobua Selatan in Mamasa District and Salareh Aia in Agam District); it was supported with direct construction of permanent biogas, in which all the training participant involved on the construction process. The relevant of biogas installation: (a) the pressing need of renewable energy, considering the high dependence on fuel wood and kerosene; (b) the abundance of livestock dung, especially pig. The training has brought positive impact to villagers; they have started developing biogas by their own resources. After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware on potential use of animal dung as households energy; (c) have skill on designing, construction and maintenance of biogas installation. The training was attended by TPK, agriculture extension workers, KVG, KVC, Green facilitators with duration of three days (30 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations.

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Box 4.2. Home biogas: Green-PNPM SMART-PRACTICE Cheap home biogas Installation: Biogas is the flammable gas produced from fermented organic materials by anaerobic bacteria. The gas can be used as the source of home energy for cooking and fuel source of generator. The main requirement for home biogas installation is the cattle have already been caged for efficient collection of fresh dung. Home biogas installation (using plastic Poly-ethyl Propylene digester) with the dung source of two cows, this equal to 6 pigs or 500 chickens and can produce 2 m3 gases. 1 m3 of biogas is equal to 0.46 kg LPG or 0.6 liter kerosene or 3.5 kg fuel-wood. The amount of gas is sufficient to supply the biogas demand of one household. To start-up the production of biogas, about 5,000 liter of cattle dung solution (cattle dung mixed with water with ratio of 1 to 2) is stored in the digester. It takes about 8-15 days to produce biogas after the first input; the daily input is about 50 liter solution of cattle dung or 1 % of the digester volume. The waste of the fermented organic materials can be used as organic fertilizer. The average installation cost is Rp. 1,750,000; this will last about 7 years, so the daily installation cost is Rp. 650. Suppose the labor cost for fresh dung collection is Rp. 1,000/day, this brings the total cost of Rp. 1,650/day. The produced gas is able to cook for at least two hours per day; this is equal with the use of kerosene of 1.2 liter or equal to Rp. 8,000. In comparison to kerosene, the use of biogas gives benefit of Rp. 6,350. No transport required to bring kerosene home and free of scarce resources. In addition, the waste of biogas can be used as organic fertilizer. The use of biogas will stop trees cutting and forest for fuel-woods source. Biogas installation is considered as SMARTPRACTICE, apart from providing ecological benefits, improve clean environment (using organic waste); the biogas installation is also accessible (no transport cost) and gives significant economic benefit compared to kerosene, fuel wood and LPG. OWT Efforts to make the technology suitable for Green-PNPM: The application of Biogas as Green-PNPM smart practices have so far experienced several major problems: (a) The vulnerability of plastic (Poly-ethyl Propylene) digester to leakage; (b) The biogas technology was only suitable to be used for one household. This is unmatched with the communal principle of the Green-PNPM program; (c) The biogas is only suitable for those who raise cattle, while most of poor villagers in rural areas have no cattle. Efforts have been made to tackle the problems: (a) Instead of using plastic digester, we use fiber water tank which can last (endure) for 20 years; (b) By using fiber water tank with capacity of 200 litters, the produced biogas can supply the domestic fuel demand of at least three households; (c) As a substitute of animal dung, we use the waste of tempe and tofu processing waste. Such improvements have made biogas technology well-matched with Green-PNPM sub-projects. This is again a smart practice we have initiated in this program. Level Benefit Household • • • • •

clean and convenient cooking fuel time and labor saving in cooking and fuel collection reduction in pollution levels in kitchen, affecting family health and that of women in particular monetary saving in case of purchased fuels cost-free organic fertilizer

Community • •

After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware the urgency use of manure and husk rice as plant growth media; (c) have skill on compost and rice husk charcoal making for growth media and maintaining soil fertility. The training was attended by TPK, KVG, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators with duration of one day (10 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations. The rationale of the training: (a) little farmers apply organic fertilizer; (b) abundance source of dung and rice husk; (c) low productivity of rainfed and irrigated agriculture; (d) effective way to increase production using available resource. To make local community aware on bokashi, we facilitated them to grow tomato and egg-plant on big poly-bag in two different conditions, with and without bokashi application. After two months, they can see the difference growth; With Bokashi application, the growth of egg-plant and tomato are two times faster than without Bokashi. These facts have driven communities’ spirits to develop and apply bokashi in their daily farming. Box 4.3. Bokashi and Rice Husk Relying on natural decomposition, it takes two months to compost rice husk. Using EM-4/ Effective Microorganism-4, it is a decomposition starter, which is composed of phosphate solvent bacteria, fermented bacteria of Lactobacillus and fermented fungi of Actinomycetes, the decomposition process can be shorten into a week. The resulted compost is known as Bokhasi (Bahan Organik Kaya Akan Sumber Hayati, Organic matter rich of bio-resources). Any organic materials can be processed into Bokashi (rice straw, organic waste, animal dungs) fermented with EM-4. Bokhasi is useful to improve soil fertility, to prevent the growth of pathogen microbes and improve the crop on the efficient use of organic matter. Bokhasi can be prepared between 4 to 7 days, the production cost is very cheap, the price 1 bottle EM-4 is Rp. 18,000 and this can produce 1 ton Bokhasi. We practiced the making Bokhasi using animal dungs, rice husks and bran flour. The suggested proportion: (a) Animal dungs (15 kg); (b) rice husk (30 kg); (c) bran flour (0.5 kg); (d) sugar solution (10 ml); (e) EM-4 (10 ml); (f) water 10 liter. All materials are mixed up, then covered and resting for 1 week. The landuse in the project areas is dominated by semi-irrigated rice fields (sawah). Villagers of 3 out of 6 village models still grow indigenous rice species with 6 months duration in each planting season (Mambuliling, Orobua Selatan and Tawalian Timur), while the remaining villages grow high yielding varieties with 3-4 months harvest. Because of rice being the main agricultural crop, especially in the flat to gentle sloped terrain, the area has an abundance of paddy (unhusked rice) waste, such as rice husk/bran (sekam padi) and bran flour (dedak). Milling paddy produces 50-64% rice, rice husk (20-30%), and bran flour (8-12%). If 1 ha sawah produces 4 tons, the rice husk production is 800-1,200 kg. From this figures, one can imagine the annual rice husk production in this areas. Unfortunately, so far the local community has not made use of the abundant rice husks as a new source of income generation. Javanese farmers process rice husk for charcoal and use it for manure. Rice husk is good for compost making and for rice-husk charcoal; all of which can be used as materials to develop growth medium seedlings.

reduces pressure on already scarce sources of biomass fuels like wood and crop residue better health and sanitation through removal of cattle dung from open space

2. Bokashi Making Trainings on the making of Bokashi were delivered to all village models; it was a supplemental topic on Catchment Rehabilitation Training. We stimulated farmers to use their abundance rice husk as source of bokashi and rice husk charcoal as growth media

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(see Box 4.4.). We facilitated the establishment of ‘Bokashi’ house, located in the nursery village, as a place to make bokashi and introduced the use of simple equipment to make rice husk charcoal.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

The benefits of using rice husk compost (Bokashi) as growth medium are: (a) Improve soil structure; (b) Enhance soil water holding capacity; (c) Enhance soil microorganism activity; (d) Enrich soil organic matter. The suggested mix in the growth medium materials: (a) top-soil (75%); (b) Bokhasi (25%) and (c) Rice husk charcoal (25%). The benefits of using rice husk charcoal in a growth medium are: (a) Increase pH; (b) Improve porosity (soil growth media texture and structure); (c) Seedlings are easily taken out of the poly-bag (avoid root disturbances/damages). The rice husks charcoal is also good for alternative energy, by making the rice husk charcoal briquette.


3. Mapping with Geo Positioning System (GPS) Training on GPS mapping delivered to all village models; it was a supplemental topic provided during the facilitation process on defining and mapping of planting (rehabilitation) areas. The training was normally followed by 15 KVC (mostly youth) and took for two days. The training consisted of several steps: (a) Introduction: Mapping, GPS principle, how to operate GPS for mapping; (b) Mapping exercise using GPS; (c) Mapping catchment and planting (rehabilitation) areas using GPS; (d) transfer the GPS marking in the computer using Map Source program. The outputs of the training: (a) KVC are able to use GPS; (b) KVC enabled to map catchment area and the position of planting site in the catchment areas; (c) KVC gained insight on mapping activities, and its important roles on participatory catchment rehabilitation plans. The training was attended by TPK, KVG, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators with duration of two days (20 hours), 70 % practical exercises, 30% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations.

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≈ Chapter V Technical Assistance and Facilitation During the implementation of the project, we provided intensive facilitation and technical assistance to village models. Those were conducted by working together and live-in on the village models: Most villages define a special day during the week for voluntary/ unpaid work (kerja bakti) dedicated to for their village, fellow villagers and church. We made use the village ‘kerja bakti’ day‘ as entry point to provide intensive facilitation, technical assistance and awareness rising. Thanks to village models which define the village ‘kerja bakti’ day differently, this enable us to arrange facilitation schedule from one to another village model during the week.

5.1. Technical Assistances Technical assistance is in-formal training which can be given any time, either during formal training or during facilitations and either in the field or in the OWT office.

5.1.1. The Role of OWT Field Office as Center of Technical Assistances and Consultation We have set up 2 field offices: (1) Wisma Tongkonan in Mamasa District and (2) Nagari Salareh Aia in Agam District. Many stakeholders have visited the office for discussions and consultations. The office, apart from serving as center of field management is also utilized as accommodation for OWT staffs. The office is equipped with: (a) training room with capacity for 30 persons; (c) computers and LCD projector; (b) training modules and (c) stock of various orthodox species. The following activities were conducted in the office during implementing the project: (a) Visiting of fieldwork of Danida-Renewable Energy Training Workshop (April 2011); (b) TPK and UPK training for areas receiving MHP block-grant in Palembayan Sub-District; (c) Regular monthly coordination meetings with PNPM-Green actors; (d) Catchment Area Management consultation for SPL and Astal (PNPM-Green facilitators at district level) from all PNPM-Green target districts (8 July 2011); (e) showcases of environmental theme films (f) Meeting of Forestry and Farmers Group (g) Visitor call (District Forestry Agency, Central PMD, PNPM administrators at nagari and sub district, comparative study on biogas for people from Nagari Malalak, comparative study on nagari-based nursery for FKL and UPK of Pasaman District).

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5.1.2. Budget Development (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation

Table 5.1. Example of budget development for nursery, planting and maintenance for 12,000 seedlings for total area of 8 ha at Salutambun Barat, Bumal, Mamasa District (all in IDR)

According to the Green-PNPM operational manuals (PTO), all MHP schemes must include catchment management and conservation measures. However, the funds set aside for the measures are limited (5-10 % of MHP block grant), while most of (Green) PNPM actors and facilitators have a lack of skills, knowledge and experience on appropriate catchment management and conservation practices. Well-established community based institutions and synergized efforts among government and local community institutions are absent and land cover degradation in the upper catchment areas remains unchecked. If the situation continues, the economic, social and ecological benefits of an MHP scheme within Green-PNPM will be short-lived and the scheme will fail to meet its development objectives. To remedy this, intensive and well planned facilitation activities are proposed aiming at developing cohesive and comprehensive multi-stakeholder water catchment area management and conservation programs, which will aim to maximize protection and increase ecological benefits to the local community. To this effect, environmental awareness and training will be provided as an integral part of the facilitation process to establish collaborative NRM actions to manage and conserve catchment areas. The allocation of fund is based on these principles (a) transparency; (b) addressing and accommodating the needs of a greater beneficiary targets; (c) targeted activities and achievements are compatible with the available resource; (d) Emphasis is given to the quality and not the quantity, while the rehabilitation area was not large, but providing the best practices and areas to learn from; (e) The available resources (budget) shall be spent in an efficient, effective, productive and sustainable way. The most ideal situation, OWT should have an access to control the proportion of budget (out of the BLM) set aside for catchment rehabilitation. Given it was beyond our domain or the budget allocation for catchment rehabilitation had been defined before our effective involvement in the project, then efforts were taken to facilitate the efficient use of available resources. The facilitation was conducted with Head of Village/Wali Nagari, TPK, Consultative Board, KVC and representatives of local community. Facilitation on budget planning for catchment rehabilitation was conducted in all of villages model. The facilitation began with discussing step-by-step activities, and then followed with collecting ideas on the readily available local resource which can be easily provided by local community. The budget allocation should consider as much as possible to allow contribution of local resources and enable to sponsor some steps of catchment rehabilitation actions. The budget description was defined based on price standard used in Gerhan31. The example of cost breakdown for catchment rehabilitation, (including nursery estabilshment, tree planting and is presented in Table below:

No

Budget Component

Amount

Cost per unit

Unit

Total Cost

Fund Sources

A. Nursery Development 1

Bamboo

2

Seedlings growing bed (bedeng sapih) 1x 5 m2

3

Roofs of germination bed

SS

4

Seed beds (bedeng tabur)

SS

5

Potting media (soil, compost)

SS

6

Nursery equipment

SS

7

Polybag and non-indigenous seeds

10,000

polybag

20

200,000

CMP

8

Filling soil to polybags

12,000

polybag

50

600,000

BG

9

Transplanting seedlings

12,000

seedling

25

300,000

BG

10

Nursery maintenance

6

month

100,000

600,000

BG

11

Pesticides (fungicide, insecticide, herbicide) and root growth hormone and other nursery materials

1

Package

536,200

BG

24

bed

20,000

Sub-total

SS 480,000

2,716,200

BG

17 %

B. Planting 1

Bamboo stakes (ajir)

12,000

2

Compost

3

Land clearing and planting strips (6 mds/ha x 35,000 = 210,000)

4

Planting strip and space (3 mds/ha x 35,000= 105,000)

5

stake

8

ha

8

ha

Installing stakes (2 mds/ha x 35.000= 70,000)

8

ha

6

Planting holes and weeding surrounding the hole (11 mds/ha x 35,000 =385,000)

8

7

Transport seedlings to planting holes (2 mds/ ha x 35,000=70,000)

8 9

50

600,000

BG SS

1,680,000

BG

840,000

BG

70,000

560,000

BG

ha

385,000

3,080,000

BG

8

ha

70,000

560,000

BG

Transporting compost to planting holes (3 mds/ha x 35,000=105,000)

8

ha

105,000

840,000

BG

Planting of seedlings (6 mds/ha x 35.000 = 210,000)

8

ha

210,000

1,680,000

BG

9,840,000

62%

210,000 105,000

Sub-total  C. Maintenance of the current year 1

Fertilizing (2 mds/ha x 35.000=70,000)

8

ha

70,000

560,000

BG

31 Gerakan National Rehabilitasi Hutan dan Lahan/National Campaign for forest and land rehabilitation is a nation-wide catchment rehabilitation campaign run by national government from 2004-2008.

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61


No

Budget Component

Amount

2

Replanting (2 mds/ha x 35.000=70,000)

3

Weeding/tillage (8 mds/ha x35.000= 280,000)

8

ha

8

ha

Cost per unit

Unit

Total Cost

70,000 280,000

Sub-total Gramd total (A+B+C)

Fund Sources

3

10,000

6.5

2,240,000

2

Pagadih

500,000,000

15,000,000

3

10,000

6.5

3,360,000

21%

3

Malalak selatan

500,000,000

15,000,000

3

10,000

6

4

Bamban

721,589,000

63,250,000

8,8

16,850

3,5

5

Gumarang

976,562,000

59,000,000

6

4,000

4

6

Sipinang

858,584,000

76,000,000

8,8

8,500

5

7

Maur Mudik

588,737,000

56,000,000

9,5

10,000

3

1,500,000,000

45,000,000

3

69,350

34,5

100%

Number of seedlings

Plantation Target(ha)

348,188,000

6,190,000

1.8

5.000

3

2

Mambuliling

370,831,000

14,959,500

4.0

11.000

7,5

3

Tawalian Timur*)

-

6,320,000

-

5.000

2

4

Salumokanan

432,959,000

14,812,000

3.4

11.000

7,5

5

Salutambun Barat

532,686,000

15,916,200

3.0

12.000

8

6

Buntumalangka

765,218,000

7,167,000

0.9

5.000

3,5

7

Masoso

424,672,000

18,280,000

4.3

13.000

9

8

Tabang

777,937,000

11,126,000

1.4

8.000

5,5

3,652,491,000

94,770,700

3,0

66,000

43

Remarks: It is fully funded by Catchment Management Project

Table 5.3. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Luwu Utara, South Sulawesi

1

Village

Allocation for CM (IDR)

Tulak Talu

399,362,000

6,326,000

2

Seko

950,083,000

3

Komba

873,198,000

4

Rampi

5 6

Number of seedlings

%

Plantation Target (ha)

1.6

5.000

2

14,630,000

1.5

10.000

4

22,530,000

2.6

12.000

5

629,921,000

30,925,000

4.9

15.000

10

Sasa

615,496,000

41,013,000

6.7

20.000

15

Bantimurung

531,940,000

28,811,000

5.4

12.000

9

4,000,000.000

44,235,000

74,000

45

Total

62

BLM (IDR)

3,6

Plantation Target (ha)

15,000,000

Orubua Selatan

No

Number of seedlings

500,000,000

1

Total

%

Salareh Aia

Table 5.2. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Mamasa, West Sulawesi %

Allocation for CM (IDR)

1

According to the budget portion that available for catchment area rehabilitation using the Gerhan price standard, we ficilitated to make cost breakdown the budget and formulated the total area target for rehabilitation in each village model. Recapitulation of plantation target based on budget allocation for catchment area rehabilitation on each village model is presented in table below:

Allocation for CM (IDR)

BLM (IDR)

BG

15,916,200

BLM (IDR)

Village

BG

Supporting (swadaya).

Village

No

560,000

Remarks: mds = man-days (IDR 35,000/day), CMP = Catchment Management Program, BG=Block-grant, SS = Self-

No

Table 5.4. Budget Plan (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation in Agam, West Sumatera

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Total

The developed tree seedlings in every nursery were set at 100% above the planting materials needs of the planting area target. The remaining seedlings will partly be used for replanting during the maintenance period and will partly be distributed to local communities who have interests to plant in their own garden without planting and maintenance cost assistances. The planting areas, dependent on the existing land cover, will have different planting spaces, The needs of seedlings per ha, including for replanting (20%), are the following: (a) Full rehabilitation (clear land): planting space is 3x3 m2, 1,100 seedlings per ha; (b) Agroforestry/multiple-cropping system: planting space is 4x4 m2, 625 seedlings per ha; (c) Enrichment planting: planting space is 5x5 m2, 400 seedlings per ha. Understanding the existing land cover, the planting area target will be mostly conducted on clear land or full rehabilitation. This is the most proper rehabilitation method for Green-PNPM, as this will make easy to evaluate the truth success and failure of the planting campaign. The species we have been developed for full rehabilitation are: Mahoni, Sengon, Nangka, Suren, Uru, Kayu Afrika, and Gmelina. Understanding the limited resource, the activity should not be considered as catchment rehabilitation in the real sense, but rather efforts to build behavior changes and capacity building to project beneficiary. The achievements, however, will only be reached if the 4 interventions approaches, i.e. training, facilitation, technical assistance and awareness campaign are conducted in proper manner. When those 4 interventions successfully conducted, the project will provide strong precondition to local community: (a) to conduct tree planting campaign using their own resources; (b) they can use their improved skills and capacity to develop tree planting materials as source of income; (c) this efforts would function as an excellent demonstration plots or pioneer initiatives, which can be later enriched by other relevant projects such as KBR (Kebun Bibit Rakyat, community based nursery, funded by the Ministry of Forestry).

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5.1.3. Species Selection We facilitated activities for species selection involving local communities and nagari officials. Species selection was based on three aspects, namely: (a) environmental aspect (site suitability and soil and water conservation function), the species function as soil and water protection. The evapotranspiration rate should be modest, while the roots system can enhance infiltration and prevent shallow land-slide; (b) social aspect (familiarity/wellknown and easy-growing); (c) economic aspect (marketability), local community has spirits to plant the trees for short and long term economic benefits. Based on growth rate and utilization, the selected species are sorted into three groups, i.e.: (a) High Quality Timber Species (HQTS) : This category includes group of species produce timbers with economic value. These species have moderate to long life period and its timbers can be used for furniture, construction and veneer such as mahoni, suren, madang, kayu afrika (Maesopsis eminii), uru (Elmerillia sp); (b) Fast Growing Species (FGS): Fast growing species is a group of woody species with less economic value. These species usually have short life period and are mostly developed as raw materials for pulp, paper industries and indoor-construction, among others are: sengon (Albizia falcataria), gmelina (Gmelina arborea), jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba), and (c) Multi Purposes Tree Species (MPTS) : Multipurpose tree species is a group of woody species which have many functions such as for hydrologic purposes, gardening, fire wood, fodders, fruits, honey, and oils, such as fruit tree species : jack fruit (Arthocarpus heterophyllus), durian (Durio zibethinus), avocado (Persea Americana), and sirsak (Anona muricata). The facilitation process for tree species selection: (a) We asked trainees to list tree species they have already familiar either indigenous or non-indigenous species; (b) Level of preference of the listed tree species expressing in descending order; (c) We facilitated the selection of tree species on the basis on availability of the seeds (wilding) and community preference; (d) Apart from local species, we also introduced non-indigenous tree species, in which ecologically suitable to grow in the areas, while we have sufficient seeds stock; (e) We explain the origin and the use of the trees; (f) Level of preference of new species expressing in descending order; (g) Final list of tree species committed to be developed.

Growing Group

Vernacular Name

Species

Family

Slow Growing

Mahoni Merbau/Kayu Besi Trembesi

Swietenia macrophylla Intsia bijuga Samanea saman

Meliaceae Fabaceae Mimosoideae

Very Slow Growing

Tumaku

Macadamia sp

Proteaceae

Table 5.6. Description of tree species developed in the village nursery No 1

Ecology

Uses

Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielson

It is native to Sumatra, Java, Bali and Flores, the Moluccas, New Guinea, the Solomon Island, and Australia. Its origin probably is from the eastern Malaysian area as the largest diversity of the species is found here.

Found in a wide variety of habitats generally ranging from sea-level to 1,600 m altitude but sometimes up to 3,300 m altitude.

It is suitable for general utility purposes such as light construction, especially rafters, paneling, interior trim, furniture, and cabinet work.

2

It is found from Tanzania and Madagascar through southern India and Burma, towards Malesia (include Indonesia), northern Australia and Polynesia.

Prefer annual rainfall of more than 2,000 mm and found up to 1,000 m altitude

Merbau is a very good general-purpose timber. It is suitable for a wide range of purposes because of its favourable physical and mechanical properties; combined with a high natural durability and an attractive appearance The uses of this species include furniture making, paneling, stairs, handrails, musical instrument, and water-work construction such as bridges, wharves, sluices, and sheet piles.

The area of distribution extends from central Mexico through Central America and the West Indies, including southern Florida, toward Bolivia, Peru and Brazil. At present, mahogany is widely cultivated throughout the tropics including Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

The optimum annual rainfall is 1,400-2,500(-3,500) mm with a dry period of 0-4 months. Mahogany grows from sea-level to 1,500 m altitude, in areas with a mean annual temperature of 20-28ยบC

Mahoni is one of the most valuable furniture timbers in the world due to the decorative and attractive timber with good technical characteristics.

It is distributed from Pakistan and India, Srilanka and southern China through the Malesian Archipelago towards northern and western Australia, Fiji, New Zealand and New Caledonia.

It can grow up to 1,300 m altitude but is then usually stunted

The wood is used mainly for light construction and for pulping. Several parts of the plant are used medicinally. Leaves are good for cattle fodder

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze Merbau

3

Swietenia macrophylla King Mahoni

Growing Group

Vernacular Name

Species

Family

Fast Growing

Sengon Sengon Buto Jati Putih Sirsak Uru

Paraserianthes falcataria Enterolobium cyclocarpum Gmelina arborea Anona muricata Elmerrillia sp

Leguminosae Fabaceae Verbenaceae Annonaceae Magnoliaceae

Suren Kayu Afrika Nangka Gaharu Cemara Gunung (Buangin)

Toona sureni Maesopsis eminii Pterocarpus heterophyllus Aquilaria crassna Casuarina junghuniana

Meliaceae Meliaceae Fabaceae Thymelaeaceae Casuarinaceae

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Origin

Sengon

Table 5.5. List of tree species developed in the village nursery

Middle Growing

Species

Dr. Edi Purwanto

4

Gmelina arborea Roxb Jati Putih

Dr. Edi Purwanto

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No 5

Species

Origin

Ecology

Uses

No

Species

Origin

Ecology

Uses

Tectona grandis Linn.

Tectona grandis occupies two areas of native range: the western portion includes most of peninsular India and the eastern portion includes parts of Burma, Laos, and Thailand. It has naturalized in at least the Philippines, Java and Puerto Rico.

Tectona grandis tolerates a wide range of climate, but grows best in a warm, moist, tropical climate (1,250 to 3,000 mm rainfall) with a marked dry season of 3 to 6 months.

Wood is used for ship building, railways, piles in harbour, bridge-building, construction work, furniture and cabinet work.

12

Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy

Spread in Sulawesi dan Moluccas (Morotai, Ambon)

Growing well in Tropical rain forest in lowland area until mountain range at 1000 m asl

In Toraja it used for furniture, decorative paneling and rice barn.

Alpokat

Naturally growth in Mexico, Central America, and Guam. Planting in South and Central America

Avocado trees do best in full sun, but can be grown in shade--just do not expect ideal fruit production.

It can be eaten fresh, out of hand, but the avocado is usually used in conjunction with other foods

Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill

Native of northern tropical South America.

Grow best in the lowland from the sea level to 300 m, with the rainfall of 6003000 mm

Green leaves of S. saman are a high quality feed for sheep, goats and cattle and are used as a supplement during the dry season. Because of its prolific flowering, S. saman is also profitable for honey production. The wood, which is not durable, produces a high quality timber for carving, furniture and paneling.

Jati

6

7

Maesopsis eminii Engler Kayu Afrika

M. eminii are found naturally between 6oS and 8oN in tropical Africa along the Gulf of Guinea from Liberia to Angola and through Zaire, southern Sudan and Uganda to Kenya and Tanzania.

Durio zibethinus Murr

The durian is native to Malaysia and Indonesia

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb.

Initial yield may be 10 - 40 fruits for the first year of fruiting to about 100 fruits for the sixth year. Yield of up to 200 fruits is common after the 10th year of fruiting

Natural distributed in America tropic, especially in North, Middle and south Mexico.

Growing well in 0 - 1,000 m altitude with an evenly distributed rainfall of between 600 - 4800 mm/ year.

It is suitable for general utility purposes such as light construction, especially rafters, paneling, interior trim, furniture, and cabinet work.

It was introduced by the Spaniards from tropical America and is now pan tropic in distribution.

Growing well in 1,000 m altitude.

It is an excellent source of vitamins B and C. Prinsan-Geerlings reports that the flesh of the fruit contains saccharose 2.53%, dextrose 5.05% and laevulose 0.04 %.

Common in southeast Asia and found occasionally in Pacific island Home gardens.

The tree grows well in equatorial to subtropical maritime climates at elevations of 1–1600 m (3.3–5250 ft) and average rainfall of 1000–2400 mm (40–95 in)

Fruit, timber, fodder, latex. 70–100 kg/tree/yr (150–220 lb/ tree/yr) is typical, although much larger yields have been reported

Bhutan, China, Native: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Thailand

Altitude: 1 200-2 700 m, Mean annual temperature: 20-30ºC, Mean annual rainfall: 1120-4 000 mm

It is used for high-class cabinet wood, furniture, interior finishing, decorative paneling, crafts, musical instruments, cigar boxes and veneers

Sengon Buto 9

Anona muricata Linn. Sirsak

10

Pterocarpus heterophyllus Nangka

11

Toona sureni Suren

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In Africa M. eminii is commonly retained in home gardens for shade, fuel and timber, while the leaves are used as fodder. In Africa and India it is often planted as a shade tree in coffee, tea and cardamom plantations, in Zaire also to shade cocoa trees. The durian thrives well in humid climate where temperatures range from 25°C - 30°C. However, durian is not tolerant for prolonged dry-spell and grow best with an evenly distributed rainfall of between 150 and 200 cm per year

Durian

8

Bolster, furniture, pillar, log, house building, bridge, roof frame, door cushion, window and tool wood.

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Uru 13

14

Persea americana P. Mill

Trembesi

5.1.4. Mother Trees Selection One of the important activities on forest and land rehabilitation is preparing seedlings that propagated from selected mother trees. Mother trees is a tree with good performance that showing on the high of branch-free stem, stem straightness, high to permanent branch, bark surface, stem cylindrically, and no defect. The purpose of mother trees selection and protection are: (a) to define the selected and protected trees as seeds sources for seedlings propagation, (b) awareness rising on the protected trees as seed sources. Uru trees still exist in several villages in Mamasa, such as Tawalian Timur and Salutambun Barat Villages. The selection of Uru mother tress was conducted on July 12, 2010 at Tawalian Timur and on October 16, 2010 in Salutambun Barat, while selection of Kapun (Dryobalanops sp) mother tress at Orobua Selatan Village was done on October 12, 2010. In Agam District, there are some well-known fruit species in the project area, i.e. durian (Durio zibethinus), manggis (Garcinia mangostana), suren (Toona sureni), and madang (Litsea angulata). We facilitated local community in Nagari Salareh Aia to select and protect mother trees: (a) as seed supplier for tree nursery; (b) raising community awareness on protected mother trees; (c) preventing mother trees from being cut; (d) conservation of endangered species; In addition, we also provided description of selected mother trees to raise community awareness on the need to protect the trees, such as: local name and botanical name, seed morphology, seed characteristics, seedling propagation techniques, light intensity, benefits, conservation status and silviculture techniques. Several tree species that were selected as mother trees in the village including; madang (1 tree), durian (10 trees), gaharu/Aquilaria malaccensis (3 trees), and mangosteen (10 trees).

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For conservation measures, we socialized information about the nature of the protected mother trees to local community, such as: (a) local and scientific names,; (b) seeds morphology; (c) seed characteristics (recalcitrant or orthodox); (d) color of mature fruit and mature seed; (e) planting and maintenance of the trees (silviculture techniques). We also documented the morphology of the trees such as standing tree, stem bark, root type, fruit, leaves and seeds. To sustain activities which have been initiated and conserve protected mother trees against illegal logging, we facilitated Tawalian Timur to establish Village Regulation (Peraturan Desa), the Perdes has been successfully legalized by the District Government on March 17, 2011. This is in fact the first dealing on natural resource management in Mamasa District. The Perdes contains principle rule and punishment for the violator. See Box 5.1.

Box 5.1. Rule and Sanction: Example of NRM Village Regulation from Tawalian Timur Village Rule 1 : Every family is compulsory to develop vegetable and pharmacies herbal surrounding house. Sanction 1 : Those who do not apply this will not receive Village Women Group assistance. Rule 2 : Prohibition of cutting tress and encroach state forest land. Sanction 2 : Violator responsible of rice-field damage due to flooding and land-slide Rule 3 : Prohibition to cut protected mother trees Sanction 3 : Violator will receive customary law punishment Rule 4 : Prohibition to herd cattle on the tree planting/catchment rehabilitation areas. Sanction 4 : Violator will receive customary law punishment

Table 5.7. List of Seed Collection, Quantity, Storage Technique, and Treatments No

Species

Quantity

Storage

Germination Treatments

Location

Institution

1

Swietenia macrophylla

40 kg

Gunny sack, semi ortodox

No treatements, direct sowing

Carita (Banten Province) and Cianjur (West Java Province)

FORDA and Perhutani KPH Cianjur

2

Gmelina arborea

3 kg

Plastic bag, semi ortodox

Soaked in cold water 24 ours

Dramaga-Bogor

FORDA

3

Paraserianthes falcataria

5 kg

Plastic bag, ortodox

Soaked in hot wter 3 minute and cold water 12 ours

Kediri (East Java)

Perhutani KPH Kediri

4

Maesopsis eminii

5 kg

Plastic bag, recalsitrant

No treatements, direct sowing

Cisarua-Bogor

PTPN VIII

5

Arthocarpus heterophyllus*

40 kg

Gunny sack, recalsitrant

No treatements, direct sowing

Bogor

Bogor market

6

Toona sureni

5 kg

Plastic bag, semi ortodox

No treatements, direct sowing

Cisarua-Bogor

PTPN VIII

7

Anona muricata

10 kg

Plastic bag, ortodox

To be broken by forcep

Bogor

Bogor market

8

Anthocephalus cadamba

0.2 kg

Plastic bag, ortodox

No treatements, direct sowing

Rumpin Bogor

Rumpin Seed Source and Nursery Center

5.1.6. Nurseries Establishment 5.1.5. Seeds Collection Seed collection was set based on local and exotic species. Seeds of durian (Durio zibethinus), petai (Parkia speciosa), suren (Toona sureni), uru (Elmerillia sp), mangosten (Garcinia mangostana) and avocado (Persea americana) were collected from local trees found throughout the villages, while mahoni (Swietenia mahagony), jati putih (Gmelina arborea), sengon (Albizia falcataria), Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba) and kayu Afrika (Maesopsis eminii) were collected from tree stand in Java. Seed collecting was completed by OWT staff (Ujang S. Irawan and Andijarso), local tree climber (Pak Kamed), MoF staff (Pak Atep), KOICA Staff (Kusnadi), and BIOTROP staff (Hoerudin). Seed of mahoni, sengon, and suren were collected by climbing the tree while other seeds were collected from fallen seeds under tree crown. List of locations for seed collection from Seed Source in Java is presented below:

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Dr. Edi Purwanto

The establishment of village nursery is the most important step for catchment rehabilitation. Its establishment is useful to: (a) minimize seedlings damage and stress due to transportation; (b) shorten the distance between the sources of planting materials and proposed planting areas; (c) demonstrate good nursery example for future development; (d) nurture the spirits of independence (mandiri) of local community. This chapter discusses the facilitation on village nursery establishment. The cost for nursery establishment was derived from: (a) Block-grant, i.e. germination bed, seedlings bed, filling growth media to poly-bag, nursery maintenance etc.); (b) Catchment management, such as procurement of non-indigenous seeds. Poly-bags, shading net, announcement boards, EM-4, and (c) Self-Supporting (swadaya), this consists of local resources, such as bamboo, top-soil, compost, manure, rice husk etc. The spirits of activity is well-reflected in the RAB (budget breakdown), in which the seedlings are developed by local community and not allowed to be purchased from outside. Catchment rehabilitation which is conducted by purchasing seedlings is not in line with the spirits of green empowerment. There have been many bad practices for such arrangement (moral hazards) in the Green-PNPM. Dr. Edi Purwanto

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71 Technical assistance on nursery development was conducted in: Nagari Salareh Aia (30,000 seedlings in sub-village of Kayu Pasak Timur and 10,000 seedlings in sub-village of Kayu Pasak Selatan); Nagari Pagadih (10,000 seedlings in sub-village Pagadih Mudiak and 30,000 seedlings in sub-village Jorong Banio Baririk); Nagari Malalak Selatan (15,000 seedlings); Nagari Malalak Utara (30,000 seedlings); Orobua Selatan (5,000 seedlings); Salumokanan (11,000 seedlings); Salutambun Barat (12,000 seedlings); Tawalian Timur (5,000 seedlings), Mambuliling (11,000 seedlings), Tulak Tallu (5,000 seedlings).

5.1.7. MHP Catchment Area Mapping

Dr. Edi Purwanto

We facilitated catchment area mapping in Orobua Selatan (Mamasa District) and Nagari Salareh Aia (Agam District) involving key village staffs. This activity was aimed at: (a) training of village key staff on catchment area mapping; (b) delineating MHP catchment boundary; (c) mapping land cover condition; (d) mapping potential rehabilitation sites. This activity was conducted during April and May 2010 and 2011. We delineated one catchment areas in Orobua Selatan, Mamasa District (1,573 ha) and three catchment area in Salareh Aia, Agam District, i.e. (a) Batang Papo (2018 ha); (b) Batang Sikabau (5275 ha); and (c) Batang Sitalang (2665 ha). The mappings in Salareh Aia area have produced four types of map in Nagari Salareh Aia, i.e.: (1) Map of Catchment boundaries, (2) Map of Altitude, (3) Map of Soil Type, and (4) Map of Land Unit. Samples of map types are presented in Figures below :

Figure 5.1. Map of Micro-Catchment Area, Pongkah Stream, Orobua Selatan Village

Technical assistance included: (a) selection of nursery sites; (b) installing of shading net; (c) establishment of germination beds; (d) preparation of growth media into polybags; (e) nursery maintenance; (f) Bokashi-making shed; (g) rice husk charcoal making; (h) pest and disease controls, etc.

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Dr. Edi Purwanto Dr. Edi Purwanto

Figure 5.2. Some catchment area boundaries in Nagari Salareh Aia Figure 5.3. The altitude of some catchment areas in Nagari Salareh Aia

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Figure 5.4. The soil type of some catchment areas in Nagari Salareh Aia

Figure 5.5. Land unit map in Nagari Salareh Aia

75 74


5.1.8. Rehabilitation of Catchment Area Lack of community participation and project oriented culture have recognized as the main constraints of many regreening program. Understanding this, the current facilitation program put emphasis on community empowerment while eliminating the money issues which often deteriorate the spirits of mutual work and togetherness. We started with training which then directly followed with working together (nursery establishment) and supported with intensive technical assistances. Training without direct actions is just knowledge alleviation, while actions without technical assistances are often misleading. We developed intimate relationships with local community to build a sense of responsibility and ownership. Strengthen local institution for catchment management: Green-PNPM uses TPK (project implementing unit) to organize and administer project implementation (MHP construction) at village level. The problem, TPK is an ad-hoc (project) organization. Based on discussion with KVG and KVC, we came to a conclusion that catchment management is best to be attached on Gapoktan (Union of Farmer Groups). A village Gapoktan is composed of several sub-village farmer groups. The organization is active and being a community based development agent, especially to facilitate agriculture development. We facilitated Gapoktan to: (a) formulate roles and responsibilities on catchment management activities; (b) improve agriculture practices as key to conserve catchment areas; (c) apply simple and cheap soil and water conservation, especially on sloping land; (d) make tree nursery, vegetative and generative propagation as potential future income generation. Gapoktan took the lead on nursery maintenance and catchment rehabilitation in all village models,

1. Village Planting Campaigns Participatory catchment and targeted rehabilitation area mapping This facilitation is started with GPS training for KCV, then followed with village meeting to define the rehabilitation sites, after the sites had been committed and agreed then we facilitated participatory mapping (involving KVG and KVC) to map both catchment and targeted rehabilitation areas at village level. Planting campaigns implementation The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) made planting stakes (ajir); (b) conducted land clearing; (c) defined planting direction and space; (d) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes. Those activities were led by Gapoktan and involved local community through voluntary works. Planting areas is bare land (critical land), owned by local community, whom they agreed to be planted. About 20% of planting material was distributed to local community and planted in their garden. We introduced and facilitated smart practices tree planting campaigns to local community: (a) Uniform planting space: to maintain uniform environmental factors (light, humidity, nutrient adsorption etc.), thereby uniform growth and multiple cropping opportunities; (b) Follow contour line: Land clearing and planting in sloping areas should follow contour 76

Dr. Edi Purwanto

lines to prevent surface and morpho-erosion; (c) Multiple cropping: Planting space is defined 5x5 m2, to enable use space below tree canopies for less light demanding crops (i.e. coffee and cacao); (d) Avoid monoculture planting, each contour line is planted with specific tree species or planted tree species in alternating manner; (e) Village seeds source: Planting areas designated as village seed sources.

2. District Planting Campaigns District Planting Campaign at Tulak Talu Village, Luwu Utara District District planting campaign occurred at Tumandi Hamlet, Tulak Talu Village, Sabang District, Luwu Utara, the rehabilitation site is 2 ha; slope steepness ranges from 10 - 20 degree, located near the nursery areas and MHP. The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) land clearing; (b) defined planting direction and space; (c) developed ditch terrace; (d) made planting stakes (ajir); (e) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes; (f) distributed planting materials on planting holes. The land clearing and terracing were conducted through voluntary work involving local community, agricultural extension workers and farmer group of Tulak Talu Village. The ceremony of planting campaigns held on February 26, 2011 and participated not less than 250 people, consisted of: (a) the Regent and all key officials of Luwu Utara District (50 persons); (b) sub-districts heads and village heads in Mamasa District (15 persons); (d) PNPM facilitators (12 persons); (e) Farmer groups representatives (20 persons); (g) NGO representatives (2 persons); (h) Parliament members; (i) Tulak Talu villagers (about 150 persons). The ceremony was opened with the speech of the Head of PMD explained about GreenPNPM and, followed by OWT Director who explained the background, objectives of the project, role of Danish Embassy and all facilitation activities conducted by OWT during several months. The Regent expressed his appreciation on OWT work and expected OWT and Danida will provide further facilitation and technical assistance to Luwu Utara. The planted trees species were Sengon, Uru, Mahoni. All planting materials developed by trees nursery of Tulak Talu Village. District Planting Campaign in Tawalian Timur, Mamasa District: District planting campaign occurred at Tawalian Timur Village, the land size is 4 ha, slope steepness ranges from 25 - 30 degree, located near the village road and owned by the village. The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) land clearing; (b) defined planting direction and space; (c) developed bench terrace; (d) made planting stakes (ajir); (e) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes; (f) distributed planting materials on planting holes. The land clearing and bench-terracing were conducted through voluntary work involving local community, agricultural extension workers and farmer group representatives, while the preparation of planting holes were conducted by Boy-Scout ‘Saka Wana-Bakti’ from Salomo Kanan Village.

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The ceremony of planting campaigns held on March 2, 2011 and participated not less than 300 people, consisted of: (a) the Regent and all key officials of Mamasa District (30 persons); (b) Boy-scout “Saka Wana Bhakti’ (35 persons); (c) sub-districts heads and village heads in Mamasa District (42 persons); (d) PNPM facilitators from SE Sulawesi Province, Mamasa District and Tawalian Sub-district (8 persons); (e) Parliament members; (f) Representatives of Secondary school students (55 persons); (g) Farmer groups representatives (25 persons); (h) NGO representatives (10 persons); (i) Mamasa TV and Journalists (2 persons); (j) Tawalian Timur villagers (about 100 persons). The ceremony was opened with the speech of OWT Director. He explained the background, objectives of the project, role of Danish Embassy and all facilitation activities conducted by OWT from April 2010 to February 2011. He impressed on the distinct community participation and enthusiasm to the project. The Regent expressed his great supports and gratitude to the project, and expected OWT and Danida will provide more facilitation and technical assistance to Mamasa. The opening ceremony was entertained with the bamboo music of Tawalian Timur Secondary School, traditional dance of Tawalian Timur Village and vocal group of Boy-scout. The planted trees species were Sengon, Duren, Uru, Mahoni, and Nangka (jackfruit). All planting materials developed by trees nursery of Tawalian Timur Village. The event was well organized and very impressive and inspiring. District Planting Campaign in Salareh Aia, Agam District: Planting campaign at district level was carried out along with the “Agam Planting Campaigns” activities on 29 November 2011 in Jorong Ngungun, Nagari Salareh Aia led by Regent of Agam (Mr. Indra Catri). Implementation of Agam Planting campaigns were held in collaboration with the Agam District Forestry Agency for the sake of celebration of Indonesian Tree Planting Day (HMPI). The event was attended by relevant agencies within Agam District, Head of Sub-districts, Wali Nagari, Farmer Groups from Nagari Salareh Aia and Pagadih, key village champions, pupils, and villages/nagari administrators.  The roles of OWT on Agam Planting campaigns were: (1) Facilitated preparation activities for Agam Planting campaigns, (2) Provided technical guidance for the community to prepare planting area, (3) Together with Agam District Forestry Agency provided seedlings for planting, (4) Mobilization of farmer groups in the planting campaigns (Nagari Salareh Aia: Jorong Ngungun, Kayu Pasak Timur, Koto Alam, Kayu Pasak Selatan; Nagari Pagadih), (5) Organized the ceremonial planting campaigns with Agam District Forestry Agency, (6)  Exhibition on awareness materials produced by OWT, (7) Disseminated seedlings to exhibition visitors.

Catchment area conservation must be sustained, while village implementing unit of PNPM-Green (TPK) is an ad-hoc organization which only operating during the project. Therefore, establishment of village organization that is responsible for catchment area management and conservation. This can be conducted by either empowering the existing farmer group organization or developing new organization. The former is the case for Jorong Kayu Pasak Selatan (Nagari Salareh Aia) and Nagari Pagadih, while the latter was conducted through facilitation for the establishment of new organization, i.e. established Forest Farmers group or Kelompok Tani Hutan (KTH) in Jorong Pasak Timur, Nagari Salareh Aia such as ‘KTH Hijaulah Nagariku’ on 26 July 2011. The roles of organizations including managing the establishment and maintenance of village nursery, conduct tree planting and maintenance of the planted seedlings.

5.2.2. OWT Interventions: Towards the ‘Green-Nagari’ Recognizing consequence of the situation and in order to mitigate the negative impacts on the ecosystems, and considering the listed observation points below: A rapid and uncontrolled environmental degradation that currently on-going in West Sumatera has been continuously disregarded while only very few people being aware of the potentially harmful consequences; a. The willingness of Agam District government to reverse this environmental degradation and restore the areas to their former ecological state is hampered by lack of knowledge and skills regarding good sustainable development practices. b. While having a strong social capital of their local communities in Nagari Salareh Aia (Palembayan Sub-District); Nagari Pagadih (Palupuh Sub-District) and Nagari Malalak Selatan (Malalak Sub-District), it also demanded technical assistance and intensive facilitation in order to address and reverse the ongoing environmental degradation; c. The presence of oil palm plantation company (PT AMP) in Nagari Salareh Aia, Agam District that is prepared to collaborate with OWT in improving natural resource management as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). We have focused our remedial facilitation actions on improving capacity of village government and champions to develop or promote ‘Green-Nagari’, which are, among others, composed of the following activities: a. Awareness raising campaigns on ‘Green Nagari’ in Nagari Salareh Aia, Nagari Pagadih and Nagari Malalak.

5.2. Facilitation Facilitation is an activity to assist, support, and supervise the implementation of demonstration plots (demplots) and catchment rehabilitation implementation. 78

5.2.1. Empowering Farmer Groups

Dr. Edi Purwanto

b. Training on tree seedling propagation, organic fertilizer, organic pesticide and biogas installation in Nagari Salareh Aia, Nagari Pagadih and Nagari Malalak. c.

Facilitation on the establishment of Nagari and MHP nurseries in Nagari Salareh Aia, Nagari Pagadih and Nagari Malalak.

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d.

Facilitation and providing technical assistance on biogas installation, 14 units in Palembayan Sub-District (PNPM-Green 2010) and 7 units in Malalak Sub-districts (PNPM-Green 2011).

e.

Facilitation on participatory mapping of MHP catchment areas in Nagari Salareh Aia and Nagari Pagadih

f.

Facilitation on development of Green-RPJM Nagari model (Roads towards Green Nagari) in Nagari Salareh Aia.

Mining regulation, (6) Waste Management, including household waste, market, and home industries, (7) Protection of vulnerable areas: sloping land, riparian areas, peatlands and irrigated rice field; (8) Promotion of relevant local wisdom such as agroforestry systems (Parak System), no fishing zone area, customary forest, promoting planting culture such as: compulsory of tree planting for couples before wedding, students entering to or graduating from a school, administration of land titles and other licenses issued by the village/nagari.

g. Facilitation on development of Green-CSR of PT AMP (Oil Palm Plantation Company) for Nagari Salareh Aia h. Facilitation on development of Nagari Pagadih Regulation on Forest Protection and Critical Land Rehabilitation. i.

Training on vegetative rehabilitation for Green Facilitators (SPL, Astal and FKL) of the entire PNPM-Green Pilot Districts in West Sumatera Province.

j.

Mainstreaming of PNPM-Green smart practices in West Sumatera Province

k.

Facilitation for Key Nagari Champions, Head of Sub-district (Camat), Wali Nagari and SKPD to attend environmental studies in SEAMEO Biotrop Bogor and Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park.

5.2.3. Facilitation on the Review of Green-RPJM Nagari Salareh Aia The aim of development planning stated in RPJM of Salareh Aia has been insufficiently addressed the environmental issues. This is evident from the sub-project proposals that mainly aimed at building physical facilities and infrastructures. Efforts were made to incorporate environmental issues on the existing RPJM nagari to become Green-RPJM. Some environmental issues have been incorporated on the existing RPJM-Nagari Salareh Aia, such as: (1) Protection of nagari forest and its water sources, (2) Rehabilitation of critical land, (3) Protection and conservation of biodiversity, (4) Management of catchment area, (5) Development of Eco-tourism, (6) Environmental education. Whereas for inter-nagari program are: (1) Restore environmental conditions on the basis on catchment area management (Masang Sianok Catchment Area, which covers Palupuh, Ampek Nagari and Palembayan Sub-districts), (2) Enhance the roles of PT AMP Plantation and PT PPR to support community development in Salareh Aia.

5.2.4. Facilitation on the formulation of Village Regulation OWT has facilitated the formulation of the Nagari Regulation in Nagari Salareh Aia and Pagadih. Especially for Nagari Salareh Aia, the Nagari Regulations have ruled the following l matters: (1) Community forest management, including the administration of forest products and forest function, (2) Water Resources conservation, including springs and streams, (3) Biodiversity conservation, including the utilization of endangered species, (4) 80

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Figure 5.6. Steps on facilitation of Village Regulation Formulation

Dr. Edi Purwanto

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5.2.5. Facilitation on Comparative Study

• Explanation on bokashi and briquette making to visitors

We facilitated the visit of the Key Agam District PNPM-Green actors and stakeholders to conduct comparative study in Bogor from 21 to 22 December 2011. It was attended by 28 participants consisting of: Head of the PMD Agam District. Head of Agam District Forestry Agency, Head of Palembayan Sub-district, Head of Malalak Sub-district, Head of Palupuh Sub-district, PJOKab of Agam Districts, Wali Nagari from the three sub-districts and UPK.  The knowledge and skill gained during the visit were:

• Detailed explanation on inoculation technique  of gaharu (agarwood)  to  visitors • Donating of seedlings to the exhibitors at the end of the exhibition. This activity was the most attractive activity that many guests were very enthusiastic to receive their seedling (1500 seedlings) that they would use for planting on their land. • These seedlings were acquired from the nursery in Nagari Salareh Aia (500 seedlings) and provided by Agam District Forestry Agency (1000 seedlings).

5.2.7. Workshop on Catchment Management Rehabilitation

1. Visit to SEAMEO-BIOTROP Bogor: Cultivation of Sorghum and its distillation process to produce ethanol, the use of the Magic Stove (Dr. Supriyanto), cultivation of Tiram mushroom (Ir. Kasno, MSc.), tissue culture (Mr. Samsul) and Agarwood (Ir. Jonner, M.Si.). 2. Visit to the Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park: Experience and lessons learned of the Gunung Gede National Park Management to harmonize various interests and to foster spirits of ownership of the National Park as Biosphere Reserve. Visit to the office of Operation Wallacea Trust: Success story of OWT facilitation on PNPM-Green and MHP Catchment Area Management, the making of yoghurt.

5.2.6. Participated on PNPM-Rural Exhibition in Batusangkar OWT participated in the environmental exhibition of PNPM-MP Camp Jamboree that was held on  17-20  November 2011  at the Pagaruyung Palace in Batusangkar, Tanah  Datar District. On this  exhibition event, OWT represented PNPM-Green program to exhibit the results of catchment management and NRM activities. Exhibition materials and displays including banners, brochures, seedlings (soursop, jackfruit, suren, gaharu, and mahogany), bokashi, bio-charcoal, VCO, seeds samples of several tree species, and honey bee.  The OWT booth was the only exhibition representing PNPM-Green of West Sumatera Province. We received many interested visitors including Governor of West Sumatera, Regent of Tanah Datar, Vice Regent of Sijunjung, Head of PMD West Sumatera Province, Head of PMD Tanah Datar District, PJOK of PNPM-LMP at provincial, district and subdistrict level, and facilitators for PNPM-MP and LMP. 

The workshop was organized during the visit of Danida Advisor (Mr. Per Rasmussen). During his three days visit in Mamasa, he visited the village nurseries and Bokashi houses of Orobua Selatan Village, Tawalian Timur Village (30 November 2010), Salomo Kanan Village (1 December 2010). Due to weather and road problem (high rain intensity and poor road), he could not visit Salutambun Barat Village. Local community was very enthusiastic and impressed with his visits. The objectives of the workshop were to socialize the progress of the project and call for government and local NGOs supports on catchment rehabilitation campaigns in Mamasa. The workshop held on 2 December 2010 at the Regent Office Auditorium and attended by 36 participants, among other Danida Advisor, Regent Secretary, Parliament members, PMD, PNPM facilitators, Technical Support Unit, Heads of several NRM district agencies, sub-district and village heads and local NGOs. The workshop raised the following issues: (a) Ecosystem degradation and Urgency of catchment area rehabilitation in Mamasa, presented by OWT Director and Danida Advisor; (b) Progress on catchment rehabilitation measures in Mamasa, presented by Catchment Management Coordinator (Ujang Susep Irawan); (c) Promoted several products initiated by OWT which have been widely practiced by local community, such as rice husk compost, bokashi and simple equipment to make rice husk charcoal. The workshop received lot of appreciation from participants. The main workshop conclusions and follow-up: (a) Catchment area management should become a basis for NRM decision making process in Mamasa; (b) Conservation of indigenous species is important issue for catchment area rehabilitation; (c) Government and local NGOs will maintain and replicate the works which have already been initiated by the project (d) Government expected Danida funding for another year.

Several activities were carried out during the exhibition including: • General explanation on PNPM-Green to the Governor of West Sumatera • Detailed explanation on CA management for the Vice Regent of Sijunjung District and PJO of PNPM Green in West Sumatera Province 82

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≈ Chapter VI Awareness Rising The aim of awareness-raising activities is to make community: (1) aware on OWT roles in PNPM-Green; (2) understand the principle in catchment area management and the importance to manage NRM based on catchment area boundary; (3) aware on the role of vegetative rehabilitation on catchment area restoration; (4) aware on relevant activities to support the success of vegetative rehabilitation. We conducted awareness rising through three main approaches; (a) publishing and presenting films followed with discussion; (b) Distributing awareness materials, such as leaflet, banner, stickers and T-shirts; (c) organizing activities, such as Uru seed hunting and youth camping. This chapter discusses activities related to awareness rising on catchment area management and conservation.

6.1. Awareness Materials 6.1.1. Awareness Film 1. Giant Sponge of Indonesia The film is targeted for general public at national level. The film presents: (a) catchment areas; (b) roles of tropical forest as giant sponge to absorb water during rainy season and to release it during dry season; (c) smart practices on community based catchment areas management activities; (d) upstream-downstream relationships and (e) watershed management spatial planning. The resource person is Dr. Edi Purwanto, while the presenter is Nugie (musician, national celebrity). The film has been published in Metro TV for several times. We presented the film during workshop, coordination meeting, training and awareness activities. 2. Ecological degradation in Mamasa The film was developed during the visit of Danida Advisor to this project. The film is targeted for Mamasa community and decision makers. The film presents: (a) ecological degradation in Mamasa; (b) underlined causes of resource degradation; (c) actions required to restore the present situation. The resource persons are Mr. Per Rasmussen and Dr. Edi

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Purwanto. The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during several awareness campaigns at village models. The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa during Mamasa Planting campaign. 3. Mamasa planting campaigns It is mixed of awareness and documentary film. The film is targeted for Mamasa community and decision makers. The film presents: (a) five reasons why Mamasa need to conduct planting campaigns; (b) documentation of planting campaign at district level. The film has been published in Mamasa TV. 4. Agam planting campaigns As well as Film of “Mamasa Planting Campaign”, this film also is mixed of awareness and documentary film and is targeted for Agam community and decision makers. The film presents: (a) The reasons why Agam need to conduct planting campaigns; (b) documentation of planting campaign at district level with Bupati of Agam, (c) documentation of planting in villages level. 5. Micro-hydro power for people The film was developed during productive use survey32. The film is targeted for general public at national level. The film presents: (a) general condition of MHP in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts; (b) roles of MHP to provide electrical energy for productive use; (c) Potential productive uses; (d) People expectations on MHP based productive use. The film is developed in cooperation with GTZ MHP Project. The film has been completed but not yet been distributed.

2. Biogas installation The tutorial film is targeted for local community. The film presents: (a) principal of biogas; (b) required materials and equipment for biogas installation; (c) install biogas with plastic digester; (d) install biogas with fiber-glass digester. The resource person is Drs. Winardi (OWT). The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during biogas training. The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa and Agam during District Planting campaign and Workshop. 3. Vegetative Propagation Techniques The tutorial film is targeted for local community. The film presents: (a) principal of biogas; (b) required materials and equipment for biogas installation; (c) install biogas with plastic digester; (d) install biogas with fiber-glass digester. The resource person is Ujang Susep Irawan (OWT). The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa and Agam during District Planting campaign and Workshop. 4. Edible Mushroom Cultivation Technique The tutorial film is targeted for local community. The film presents: (a) Introduction of tiram putih (King Oyster) mushroom; (b) processing on mushroom inoculum production (F0, F1, F2); (c) Processing on tiram putih incubation; (d) Tiram putih harvesting and marketing. The resource person is Ujang Susep Irawan (OWT), Sunardi Ikay (SEAMEOBIOTROP), and Haji Wahyu (Local Farmer).. The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa and Agam during District Planting campaign and Workshop.

6.1.3. Leaflet/brochure 6.1.2. Tutorial films 1. Seedlings propagation The tutorial film is targeted for community in Mamasa and Luwu Utara, but it is also relevant for seedling propagation training beyond the areas. The film presents: (a) selection of mother tree; (b) introduction of forest tree seeds; (c) seed treatment; (d) seeds sowing; (e) seedlings transplanting; (f) preparation of media for seedlings growth; (g) nursery maintenance; (h) seedlings propagation by grafting and shoot cutting technique. The resource person is Ujang Susep Irawan, S.Hut, MSi. The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during awareness and training, The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa and Agam during District Planting campaign and Workshop.

32. Productive use is taken to mean application of power from an MHP that adds value to an existing economic process or allows new processes to materialize such as micro and small-enterprises in agri-business, as well as to social service institutions such as schools and health clinics.

We develop 8 leaflets/brochures: (a) generative propagation; (b) Shoot Cuttings; (c) Planting Technique; (d) Agarwood propagation and inoculation techniques; (e) The making of charcoal briquettes; (f) Bokashi Production; (g) Biogas Installation. Each title was printed for 2,000 copies.

6.1.4. Manual We developed and published 8 manuals on Catchment Area Management Protection and Rehabilitation: (a) Volume 1: Principles of Vegetative and Civil Technique Conservation Measures; (b) Volume 2: Participatory mapping on catchment areas boundary and problems; (c) Volume 3: Generative propagation of tree seedlings; (d) Volume 4: Vegetative propagation of tree seedlings; (e) Volume 5: Techniques on tree planting, maintenance and its survival evaluation; (f) Volume 6: Agroforestry Development; (g) Volume 7: Mangrove Rehabilitation; (h) Volume 8: Green Income Generating Activities Model: Edible Mushroom Cultivation. Each manual is printed for 1000 copies. The eight manuals were distributed to PNPM-Green facilitators, key village champions, schools and district offices, i.e. Forestry, Agriculture, Environmental and BPMD offices. Dr. Edi Purwanto

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6.1.5. “Majalah Lestari Desaku” (My Sustainable Village Magazine)

6.1.8. T-Shirt

On the beginning of June 2012, we published and distributed the first edition of ‘Lestari Desaku’ (My Sustainable Village; 35 pages), The magazine is aimed as an environmental awareness raising material for key village governments (KVG)/champions (KVC) at subdistrict and village level on natural resource management (enhance productive use of local resource); village governance and promotion of PNPM-Green smart practices. A particular green income generating activity is selected as a focus on each edition of the magazine which will be published on quarterly basis. The focus of the first edition is Oyster Mushroom Cultivation (budidaya jamur tiram) as a potential green business in rural area. The focus, apart from discussing technical detail on the key ‘secret’ success of mushroom cultivation, it also make the readers aware on the key success to start operating the business.

T-shirt has proven as an effective incentive to generate voluntary work’s spirits of local community for catchment area rehabilitation campaign. We made 1000 T-shirt and distributed to local community and project stakeholders in Mamasa, Lueu Utara, and Agam District.

We also published the second and third edition of Lesatri Desaku magazine. The focus of the second edition: Menuai Berkah Dari Limbah: Kiat Memberdayakan Pasukan Mikroba; Transforming waste into grace: Strategy to empower microorganism troop. While the focus of the third edition is: Kini menanam and esok memanen; Kiat Memberdayakan Tanaman Buah; Today Planting, Tomorrow Harvesting: Empowering fruit trees. The second edition was published on September 2012, while the third edition is on October 2012. The magazine is attached with a DVD film which provides visual detail and soft-file of written manual on the step-by-step process of the cultivation. The list of contact agencies and persons are also provided. The dream behind the making of the magazine is to make rural people aware on their on-site abundant resources which should be able to improve their livelihoods. We need to strengthen village governance to make them independence (mandiri); they should be able to build their life without too much expecting outsiders. The magazine can also be visited on www.owt.or.id.

6.1.6. Standing Banner We made 8 standing banners and installed in OWT office and village models’ office: (a) Training on catchment area rehabilitation; (b) flow chart of community based catchment area rehabilitation; (c) flow chart of generative propagation; (d) Flow Chart of tree planting campaigns; (e) Save forest to avoid drought; (f) Save forests to conserve water resource; (g) small seedlings, big benefits; (h) Save the future of children by planting trees.

6.1.7. Stickers We made stickers with various sizes and shapes to introduce OWT mission to local community. OWT: Bersama Masyarakat Melestarikan Alam (Empowering Community for Conservation).

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6.1.9. Posters Posters: (i) ‘Save and Protect Watershed Area: for the sustainability of life supporting system from ridge to reef; (ii) Making money out of the waste (Dari Limbah Menjadi Rupiah). (iii) Biogas: Making energy, Improving harvest and Combating waste (Bebas limbah, energi dan panen melimpah). Each poster was printed for 1500 copies. Each poster (50 posters for each district) have been framed using woods or aluminum and installed on strategic sites, such as UPK office, district agency offices, village halls, restaurants, schools etc.

6.1.10. Miniature We also produced miniature on Catchment Protection and Rehabilitation towards sustainable of rural energy. This miniature explain an integration strategy on catchment area management to manage the local natural resources.

6.2. Activity Based Awareness 6.2.1. Planting indigenous species Uru (Elmerella sp.) is the most important indigenous species in Mamasa and badly need to conserve. Local community normally plant Uru by moving the wildling to planting areas. Seed sowing is rarely practiced since the mature fruits are normally eaten by birds. This is the reason why Uru seedlings rarely grow below the tress. To compete with fruit eating birds ones have to collect mature seeds from the tree by climbing. We inspired boy-scout ‘Saka Wana Bhakti’ (Forestry boy-scout of Salomo Kanan Village) to collect mature seeds out of Uru tree (Berburu Benih Uru/Uru seeds hunting) in Salomo Kanan Village. This ideas was followed up by the scout, in January 2011, they voluntary collected mature seeds and planted in the village nursery. We proposed ‘Uru seeds hunting’ as routine agenda of Boy-scout, combine with marking mother tree and awareness rising of Uru conservation to local community.

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6.2.2. Youth camping Every year, ‘Saka Wana Bhakti’ boy-scout combine annual trees planting (business) with youth camping (pleasure). We enriched the activity with GPS training and environmental awareness. The camping held for two days (15-16 February 2011) and involved 72 youth. We trained GPS during the first day, delivered environmental awareness during reflection night and facilitate planting campaign on the second day. This activity had inspired other villages, such as Tawalian Timur and Orobua Selatan, to organize planting with youth campaign. Youth campaign is considered as the most effective approach to involve youth (teenager) on natural recourse management. In Agam District, we also provided lectures and practical application regarding catchment area management during the PNPM-Green camping activities held in Nagari Salareh Aia from 7- 9 July 2011. The camping participants include all PNPM-Rural and PNPM-Green cadres, facilitators and key village champions of Palembayan Sub-district. The camping was continued with plantation activity around the camping area. Especially in Salumokanan, implementation of catchment rehabilitation was done through youth camping by scouts members and KVCs and KVGs.

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≈ Chapter VII Challenges Faced, Mitigations and Lessons Learned 1. The high demand of timbers and high rate of deforestation (Lesson Learned No 1/2010)

Challenge faced: The needs of local community on timbers are very high either for house construction and fuel woods, while the only sources of timbers now are from state forest land (mostly Pine forest), this led to the high rate of deforestation. We have no ideas how much the rate of deforestation, but all the forest (as we can see by eyes) have been degraded.

Mitigations: Understanding the high demand of either fuel-wood or construction timbers, we introduced fast growing species, such as Sengon, Jati Putih, and Sengon Buto, while also developing local species for traditional house construction (Uru). Understanding the abundance of fresh animals dungs (cows, buffalo and pig), we delivered training and demonstration pilot on biogas in February 2011.

2. The absence of seeds of endemic trees (Lesson Learned No 2/2010)

Challenge faced: The fruiting seasons, and level of maturity of several indigenous trees (Uru, Buangin and Tumaku) were unknown and did not match with the time when we facilitated nursery establishment.

Mitigations: We facilitated the collection of natural seedlings over the forest floor (wilding), treat the wildings carefully and then transplanted into the poly-bags. For Uru, the fruit maturity can be detected from the activity of fruit eating birds surrounding the trees, when the birds starts approaching the fruits, this means the fruits have been mature and ready to harvest. We often compete with birds and that is why we need to climb the trees to harvest the fruits.

3. Lack of knowledge and skills on generative propagation (Lesson Learned No 3/2010)

Challenge faced: Local community is used to plant trees from natural seedlings, but have limited skills and experience on mass generative propagation in the form of village nursery. Some of them, especially for Orobua Selatan Villagers, were afraid to make a mistake, and tend to wait our technical assistances.

Mitigations: We make regular visits, at least once a week, to understand the progress and provide quick technical solutions.

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4.

Risk for animal disturbances (Lesson Learned No 4/2010)

9.

Construction of Bokashi house (Lesson Learned No. 9/2011)

Challenge faced: The high animal population in the area has made the established nursery are susceptible to animal raids.

Challenge faced: Bokashi making should be conducted in water tight areas, i.e. under the roof and no water pounding.

Mitigations: We have already asked local community to fence the nursery.

Mitigations: We facilitated the establishment of Bokashi house prior training implementation.

5.

Community forget to fog germination tray (Lesson Learned No 5/2010)

Challenge faced: In several villages, people often forget to fog germination tray, thereby seeds failed to germinate due to lack of moisture content.

Mitigations: To minimize evapotranspiration, we suggested covering the tray with transparent plastic. Once the seeds have been germinating then the cover are opened to make the germinated seeds freely grow and enable to access solar radiation.

6.

Low temperature and slow seed germination (Lesson Learned No. 6/2011)

Challenge faced: Seed germination in upland cold regions (in Mamasa) take longer than it used to be in lowland, although break dormancy or other scarification techniques have been applied.

Mitigations: The air temperature of germination media can be increased by putting fresh rice husks at the bottom layer of germination media, overlay with rice husk compost and covered the media with transparent plastic. 7. Conducted facilitation during village voluntary working day (Lesson Learned No. 7/2011). Challenge faced: At the beginning, we had problems to facilitate voluntary work to establish nursery and other catchment rehabilitation activities. Mitigations: The problem solved after we made use the village voluntary (‘kerja bakti’) working day to facilitate nursery establishment, maintenance and catchment rehabilitation campaigns. 8.

The absence of village nursery for practical exercise during training session (Lesson Learned No. 8/2011)

Challenge faced: Seed propagation training is ideally conducted on established nursery site, so all the theory can be directly practiced in the real life.

Mitigations: On the absence of established nursery, we facilitated local community to develop simple nursery before training implementation. The simple nursery became embryo of the village nursery.

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10.

Strategy to improve communication gab with local community (Lesson Learned No. 10/2011)

Challenge faced: Big communication gab between facilitator and local community.

Mitigations: Live-in in the village, apart from saving energy, also improve communication gab and improve understandings on local capacity and problems.

11.

Community based Uru (Elmerella sp.) seeds collection (Lesson Learned No. 11/2011)

Challenge faced: Uru seeds are not available, since the mature fruits are eaten by birds.

Mitigation: We trained the indicators of mature fruits so local community can collect mature fruits out of the tree before the fruits eaten up by birds.

12.

Gapoktan (Farmer Groups Union) as catchment rehabilitation agent at village level (Lesson Learned No. 12/2011)

Challenge faced: Rather than ‘reinventing the wheels’, the existing village organization should be able to facilitate catchment rehabilitation campaigns.

Mitigation: Farmer Groups Union was selected by local community to facilitate catchment rehabilitation campaigns.

13.

The great roles of tutorial films to ease training delivery (Lesson Learned No. 13/2011)

Challenge faced: Lack of farmers experience and poor training aids have made training delivery ineffective.

Mitigation: We developed several films to support training delivery.

14.

Illegal logging in the protection area (Lesson Learned No. 14/2011)

Challenge faced: Logging is still occurred in the protection forest and steep sloping areas

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Mitigation: Planting campaigns of logged over area and bare land in steep slope area, promoting other source of fuel energy, such as biogas installation, awareness campaigns through farmer groups and forest farmers groups, facilitate the establishment of village regulation on environmental protection.

15.

Land cover change to oil palm plantation (Lesson Learned No. 15/2012)

Challenge faced: Rapid land cover changes from natural forest into small-scale oil palm plantation

Mitigation: Awareness rising on benefit and cost analysis of small-scale oil palm plantation, introduction of rubber plantation as alternative for oil palm, formulation of village regulation on village protection areas.

16.

Gambir plantation in the upland area (Lesson Learned No. 16/2012)

Challenge faced: Uncontrolled smallholder Gambir plantation development in the upland area

Mitigation: Awareness rising on benefit and cost gambir smallholder plantation, introduction of rubber plantation as alternative for gambir, formulation of Village Regulation on Village Protection Areas.

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≈ Chapter VIII Conclusions and Recommendations 8.1. Conclusion During the the first year of project implementation in Mamasa and Luwu Utara District, the second and third year in Agam District, the project has run very well and successfully implemented. All activities have been successfully completed, while training and technical assistance were successfully delivered within and beyond the original project areas. The project has received great responses and enthusiasm from local community and PNPMGreen actors and facilitator at district and province level. As for the case in Mamasa District, the project has successfully enhanced ‘green spirit’ to the MHP program in West Sumatera. The project also successfully made vegetative cachment rehabilitation meaningful to the local community. This was done by nurturing the spirit of biodiversity conservation through the selection and protection of Village Mother Trees of indigenous tree species, the development of Village Tree Nurseries and Village Seed Sources. The intensive campaigns in Mamasa during 2010/2011 and in Agam during 2011/2012 have awakened the spirit of government and local community to restore their degraded areas. The support by OWT and the donor has made local community motivated to rehabilitate their resources, ‘why do we not care about our own resources when outsiders care so much about them’, a common statement by local communities in response to project facilitation. As a matter of fact, the project, apart from introducing new activities (tree seedling propagations, catchment areas planting etc.), is also the first technical assistance provided by an NGO funded by a foreign donor in this area. No wonder that the project receives enthusiastic participation. Until October 2012, the major milestones of the project are: (1) Increased awareness and enhanced capacity building of local community and PNPM-Green facilitators and actors on catchment areas management in District Level, (2) Enhanced the capacity of PNPM-Green facilitators and key stakeholders on catchment area management in Sumatra and Sulawesi; (3) Establishment of village nurseries and protection of mother trees in Mamasa and Agam District; (4) Supported the implementation of Indonesian Tree Planting Day in Mamasa, Luwu Utara, and Agam District; (5) Supported PNPM-Rural exhibition in West Sumatra Province; (6) Promoted the concept and implementation of Green-Nagari in Agam District; (7) Rehabilitated critical lands within and outside MHP catchment areas; (8) Facilitated the review of RPJM-Nagari in Salareh Aia; (9) Facilitated 98

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≈ References

the formulation of Village regulations on NRM in Tawalian Timur (Mamasa) and Nagari Salareh Aia and Pagadih (Agam); (10) Facilitated the comparative study of key PNPMGreen actors and stakeholders of Agam District in Bogor, West-Java.

8.2 Recommendation

Alrasjid, Harun, Dkk. 1992. Teknik Penanaman dan Pemungutan Hasil Gmelina arborea. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan. Bogor.

In response to the great supports of government and enthusiasm of local community on catchment rehabilitation campaigns, and to make remarkable project achievements, especially to build Green-PNPM’s best practices models, intensive facilitations and technical assistances should be maintained.

Bruijnzeel, L.A., 1990. Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forest and Effects of Conversion; a State of Knowledge Reviews UNESCO, Paris. Heyne 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia: Jilid II. Badan Litbang Kehutanan Jakarta. Kijkar, Somyos and B. Boontawee. 1995. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs: a lesser known species. Reviev Paper No. 3. ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre Project. Purwanto, E. and Ruijter, J., 2004. Basic Relationships between Forests and Watershed Functions. In the: Hydrological Impacts of Forest, Agroforestry and Upland Cropping as a Basis for Rewarding Environmental Service Providers in Indonesia. World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF). Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Sosialisasi dan Koordinasi PNPM-LMP Kab. Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Luwu Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Toraja Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Orubua Selatan, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Tawalian Timur, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Salutambun Barat, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Salumokanan, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Tulak Talu, Kabupaten Luwu Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pembangunan Persemaian Desa. Operation Walacea Trust.

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≈ Appendices

Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Semi-Annual Report (March-Augus 2010). Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain MicroHydro Power Schemes : Activities in Sulawesi. Operation Wallacea Trust. Prosea. 1994. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (1). Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Bogor, Indonesia. Prosea. 1994. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber Trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Bogor, Indonesia.

Appendix 1 : Documentation of the activities A. Socialization and Coordination

Van Noorwijk, M., 2001. Forest Watershed Functions, Lecture Note, World Agroforestry Center/ICRAF, Bogor Zobel, Bruce and John T. Talbert. 1984. Applied Tree Improvement. New York: Wiley Press, 1

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Socialization in West Sumatera Province

Meeting with Bupati of Agam District

Socialization in West Sumatera Province

Socialization in Mamasa District

Socialization in Agam District

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Meeting with Bupati of Agam District

Socialization in Luwu Utara District

Socialization in Salareh Aia Village

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B. Training Delivery

Training village level on seedlings propagation and nursery establishment in Salareh Aia, Agam District

Training village level on seedlings propagation and nursery establishment in Salutambun Barat Village, Mamasa District

Training on GPS operation in Mamasa

Training on making of organic fertilizer “bokashi� in Tulak Tallu, Luwu Utara District

Training district level on seedlings propagation and nursery establishment in Luwu Utara District

Refresher Training of Sulawesi region for PNPM Green facilitators in Toraja, South Sulaweesi

Training on seedlings propagation and organic fertilizer in Maros District

Training on catchment rehabilitation for PNPM Green facilitator of Southeast Sulawesi, in Buton District

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Training on GPS operation in Agam

Training on biogas installation in Agam

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C. Facilitations and Technical Assistances

Facilitation on Budget Planning for Cathment Rehabilitation at Salareh Aia Village, Agam District

Facilitation on Establishment of Forest Farmer Group “Hijaulah Nagariku� in Salareh Aia Village, Agam District

Technical assistance on village nursery establishment in Orobua Selatan, Mamasa District

Facilitation on Mother Tree selection at Salareh Aia Village, Agam District

Facilitation on seed collection in Salutambun Barat Village, Mamasa District

Technical assistantce on catchment area mapping in Salutambun Barat, Mamasa Disytrict

Facilitated on comparative study of the Key Agam District PNPM-Green actors and stakeholders to Bogor

Facilitated and participated on PNPM-Rural Exhibition in Batusangkar, West Sumatera

106

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Village nursery in Salareh Aia Village, Agam District was been facilitated by OWT

Technical assistance on making of biogas installation in Salareh Aia Village, Agam District

107


D. Awareness Rising

Brochures and CD of environmental awareness Magazine of environmental awareness “ Lestari Desaku “

Poster of the Use of Biogas as Renewable Energy

Miniature on Catchment Protection and Rehabilitation towards sustainable rural

Youth Camping for implementation of rehabilitation of catchment area at Salumokanan Village, Mamasa District

Technical assistance on preparation of planting at Salareh Aia, Agam District

Environmental camping with village cadres, PL, and facilitators of PNPM Green and Rural at Salareh Aia Village, Agam District

Planting Campaign Participants of scout members

Manual series of Watershed Protection and Rehabilitation Poster of Watershed Area Protection and Saving

108

Manual series of Watershed Protection and Rehabilitation

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Planting activity by students and village community Planting in contour line in Orobua Selatan Village, at Pagadih, Agam District Mamasa District

Dr. Edi Purwanto

109


111 Planting Campaign lead by Bupati in Luwu Utara District

Dr. Edi Purwanto

Planting Campaign lead by Bupati in Mamasa District

Planting Campaign lead by Bupati in Agam District

110

Appendix 2 : Step on Protection and Rehabilitation of Catchment Area

Land preparation for Mamasa Planting Campaign Bupati and key government in Mamasa during planting Campaign

Dr. Edi Purwanto


OWT_Completion Report_Capacity Building Catchment Area Management in Sulawesi & Sumatra  
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