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One Giant Leap

Preface

ONE GIANT LEAP The Apollo Program

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One Giant Leap

Preface

0. “Earthrise” – William Anders: Apollo 8 - 1968

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Preface

ONE GIANT LEAP

The Apollo Program: 1961 – 1975 And how it changed the World

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Owain Bates


One Giant Leap

Preface

Preface In August 2012, Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on The Moon, passed away. He had been part of the crew of Apollo 11, the first manned vessel to land on The Moon, now a whole lifetime ago. That landing was the result of decades of work and research by thousands of people, all with one common vision: to free ourselves from the bounds of our planet.

1. The first human steps on The Moon

NASA wants to return to the Moon someday soon. Not to collect samples, but to see if we could survive there for long periods. And after that, they want to use it as a stepping-stone to Mars, and beyond. Without the Apollo Program, these plans would simply be dreams, but thanks to what we learned in the 1960s, they could become reality. In this book, I am going to explore how the Apollo Program was devised, how it was carried out, and how it changed the world. I will see what problems faced NASA and how they overcame them to reach their ultimate goal. Strap in and prepare for launch!

Owain Bates

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Contents

Contents PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................. 4 CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 11 AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA.................................................................................................... 13 Early Aeronautics ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Hot Air Travel ................................................................................................................................................... 14 The First Planes ................................................................................................................................................ 15 Controlled and Powered Flight ........................................................................................................................ 17 The World at War .......................................................................................................................................... 18 The First World War ......................................................................................................................................... 18 Between the Wars ............................................................................................................................................ 19 The Second World War .................................................................................................................................... 21

THE CREATION OF NASA ............................................................................................................. 22 NACA ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 The Cold War ................................................................................................................................................. 24 The Space Race .............................................................................................................................................. 25 Space Race Milestones ..................................................................................................................................... 25 The Establishment of NASA ........................................................................................................................... 27

EARLY NASA PROGRAMS ............................................................................................................ 28 X-Plane Program ............................................................................................................................................ 29 Notable Early X-Planes ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Project Mercury ............................................................................................................................................. 30 Project Gemini ............................................................................................................................................... 31

THE MOON ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Formation ......................................................................................................................................................... 34

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Physical Features .............................................................................................................................................. 35 Geography.................................................................................................................................................... 35 Internal Structure and Composition ............................................................................................................ 36 Atmosphere ................................................................................................................................................. 36 Gravitational Field ........................................................................................................................................ 36

ROCKETS........................................................................................................................................... 37 What is a rocket? ........................................................................................................................................... 38 Solid-Fuel Rockets ............................................................................................................................................ 38 Liquid-Fuel Rockets .......................................................................................................................................... 39 The History of the Rocket .............................................................................................................................. 41 Early Rocketry................................................................................................................................................... 41 Early Manned Rocketry .................................................................................................................................... 42 Modern Rocketry ............................................................................................................................................. 43

APOLLO HARDWARE .................................................................................................................... 44 Apollo Rockets ............................................................................................................................................... 45 Little Joe II ........................................................................................................................................................ 46 Saturn I ............................................................................................................................................................. 47 Saturn IB ........................................................................................................................................................... 48 Saturn V ............................................................................................................................................................ 49 Apollo Spacecraft .......................................................................................................................................... 51 Launch Escape System ..................................................................................................................................... 51 CSM .................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Lunar Module ................................................................................................................................................... 53 Terrestrial Equipment .................................................................................................................................... 54 Crawler-Transporter ......................................................................................................................................... 54 Mobile Launcher Platform................................................................................................................................ 55 Mobile Quarantine Facility ............................................................................................................................... 55 Lunar Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 56 ALSEP ................................................................................................................................................................ 56 Lunar Flag Assembly ......................................................................................................................................... 57 Apollo TV Camera ............................................................................................................................................. 57 Modular Equipment Transporter ..................................................................................................................... 58 Lunar Roving Vehicle ........................................................................................................................................ 58 Apollo A7L ........................................................................................................................................................ 59 Fallen Astronaut ............................................................................................................................................... 60

APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION ................................................................................................. 61 Saturn I Missions ........................................................................................................................................... 62 SA-1 .................................................................................................................................................................. 62 SA-2 .................................................................................................................................................................. 63

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SA-3 .................................................................................................................................................................. 64 SA-4 .................................................................................................................................................................. 65 SA-5 .................................................................................................................................................................. 66 A-101 ................................................................................................................................................................ 67 A-102 ................................................................................................................................................................ 68 A-103 ................................................................................................................................................................ 69 The Pegasus Satellite Program ..................................................................................................................... 69 A-104 ................................................................................................................................................................ 70 A-105 ................................................................................................................................................................ 71 Launchpad LES Abort Tests ............................................................................................................................ 72 Pad Abort Test 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 72 Pad Abort Test 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 73 Little Joe II LES Abort Tests ............................................................................................................................ 74 QTV ................................................................................................................................................................... 74 A-001 ................................................................................................................................................................ 75 A-002 ................................................................................................................................................................ 76 A-003 ................................................................................................................................................................ 77 A-004 ................................................................................................................................................................ 78 Unmanned Missions ...................................................................................................................................... 79 AS-201 .............................................................................................................................................................. 79 AS-203 .............................................................................................................................................................. 80 AS-202 .............................................................................................................................................................. 81 Apollo 1 ............................................................................................................................................................ 82 Crew ............................................................................................................................................................. 82 Mission Background ..................................................................................................................................... 83 Accident ....................................................................................................................................................... 83 Investigations ............................................................................................................................................... 85 Apollo 4 ............................................................................................................................................................ 86 Apollo 5 ............................................................................................................................................................ 87 Apollo 6 ............................................................................................................................................................ 88 Manned Missions .......................................................................................................................................... 89 Apollo 7 ............................................................................................................................................................ 89 Crew ............................................................................................................................................................. 89 Mission Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 90 Flight ............................................................................................................................................................ 90 Issues in Space ............................................................................................................................................. 91 After the Flight ............................................................................................................................................. 93 Apollo 8 ............................................................................................................................................................ 95 Crew ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 Before the Flight .......................................................................................................................................... 96 The Outbound Trip ....................................................................................................................................... 96 Lunar Orbit ................................................................................................................................................... 97 Apollo 9 ............................................................................................................................................................ 99 Crew ............................................................................................................................................................. 99 Mission Overview....................................................................................................................................... 100 Apollo 10 ........................................................................................................................................................ 101

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Crew ........................................................................................................................................................... 101 Mission Overview....................................................................................................................................... 102 Apollo 11 ........................................................................................................................................................ 104 Launch and TLI ........................................................................................................................................... 105 Lunar Descent and Landing ........................................................................................................................ 105 Lunar Surface Operations .......................................................................................................................... 109 “In Event of Moon Disaster” ...................................................................................................................... 112 Return to Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 113 Apollo 12 ........................................................................................................................................................ 115 Launch, TLI and Lunar Landing ................................................................................................................... 116 Lunar Surface Operations .......................................................................................................................... 117 Return ........................................................................................................................................................ 118 Apollo 13 ........................................................................................................................................................ 119 Launch and TLI ........................................................................................................................................... 120 Oxygen tank explosion ............................................................................................................................... 120 Crew survival and return journey .............................................................................................................. 121 Re-entry and splashdown .......................................................................................................................... 122 Apollo 14 ........................................................................................................................................................ 124 Launch, TLI and Descent ............................................................................................................................ 125 Lunar Surface Operations .......................................................................................................................... 126 Return to Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 127 Apollo 15 ........................................................................................................................................................ 128 Pre-Mission Training .................................................................................................................................. 129 Launch, TLI and Descent ............................................................................................................................ 129 Lunar Surface Operations .......................................................................................................................... 130 Return to Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 131 Apollo 16 ........................................................................................................................................................ 132 Launch, TLI and Descent ............................................................................................................................ 133 Lunar Operations ....................................................................................................................................... 133 Return to Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 135 Apollo 17 ........................................................................................................................................................ 136 Launch, TLI and Descent ................................................................................................................................. 137 Lunar Surface Operations .......................................................................................................................... 137 Return to Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 140

APOLLO IN HINDSIGHT............................................................................................................. 141 Legacy of Apollo .......................................................................................................................................... 142 Later Missions ................................................................................................................................................ 142 Skylab ......................................................................................................................................................... 142 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project .......................................................................................................................... 143 Apollo Spin-off Technologies: ............................................................................................................................. 143 Medical Technology ................................................................................................................................... 143 Safety Equipment ....................................................................................................................................... 143 Industrial Technology ................................................................................................................................. 143 Cultural Legacy……………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….144 Conspiracy Theories ....................................................................................................................................... 146

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................ 147

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................... 150 Websites ......................................................................................................................................................... 150 Media ............................................................................................................................................................. 152 Books .............................................................................................................................................................. 152

GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................................................... 154 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................. 158 TABLE OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................................... 159

INDEX .............................................................................................................................................. 163

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10 2b. The patch of the Apollo Program


One Giant Leap

Introduction

Introduction “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for Mankind” Neil Armstrong – 21st July 1969

The Apollo Program was one of the most inspirational human achievements in history. During its fifteen years, humanity’s first cautious steps on another celestial body were made, and, in doing so, history was made too. The program was first conceived during Dwight Eisenhower’s presidency. It was to be a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury, which put the first American in space, Alan Shepard. Following his assassination, Apollo was 3. Apollo 12 launches from the Kennedy Space Center later dedicated to President John F. Kennedy's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" which he wanted to achieve before 1970. Apollo was the third Human Spaceflight Program, preceded by Project Mercury (mentioned above) which ran from

4. Buzz Aldrin near a solar wind experiment

In total, six manned crafts have landed on The Moon’s surface, and twelve men have walked there. All of these astronauts were participants in the Apollo program, which was, and still is, the most successful lunar exploration

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Introduction

project in the history of our species. In today’s money, the program cost around $170 billion. Around 450,000 people were directly involved with the program, with countless other millions building rockets, computer systems and equipment. Every person in America paid extra tax to fund the launches. The result? The most amazing journeys ever made by humans. 382kg of moon rock was brought back to Earth, providing us with valuable information about the composition of our only moon. The six space flights returned 2200 separate rock samples from six different exploration sites on the Moon. On top of this, the astronauts took hundreds of photographs and many pieces of video footage. The quotation at the head of this introduction is so very apt: for indeed it was a single step that brought humankind into the future. Many sacrifices were made during the Apollo Program. Most notable of these were the deaths of three astronauts, Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee. They were the Apollo 1 crew whom were tragically killed when their capsule was destroyed in a fire during a launchpad test. There were also several failed missions and therefore millions of dollars lost. But what we have gained surely outweighs the losses. All children know about Armstrong’s moonwalk. Most people have heard of Alan Shephard’s famous round of 5. Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee, the Apollo 1 crew who died in a launchpad fire and became the first astronauts to die in service.

golf on the Apollo 14 mission. And the famous film “Apollo 13” was hugely popular among everyone, winning 13 awards.

Whether in the field of geology, aeronautics or popular culture, it is indisputable that the Apollo Program has changed humanity forever.

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

Early Aeronautics Hot Air Travel

Early Aeronautics Hot Air Travel On 19 October 1783, the Montgolfier brothers launched the first manned flight, a tethered balloon with humans on board, at the Folie Titon in Paris. The aviators were the scientist JeanFrançois Pilâtre de Rozier, the manufacture manager JeanBaptiste Réveillon, and Giroud de Villette. They were the world’s first 6. An artist's impression of the first Montgolfier flight in Paris. aeronauts. On the 23rd of November in the same year, they launched the first free, untethered flight of a balloon, with humans onboard. King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis François d'Arlandes, successfully asked for the honour. They drifted 8 km (5.0 mi) in a balloon powered by a wood fire. On 1 December, Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert launched their manned hydrogen balloon from the Jardin des Tuileries in Paris, amid a crowd of 400,000. This was an early ancestor of the zeppelin. They ascended to a height of about 500m and landed at sunset in Nesles-la-Vallée after a flight of 2 hours that covered 36km. After 7. Henri Giffard's airship

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

Early Aeronautics The First Planes

Robert alighted, Charles decided to ascend alone. This time he ascended rapidly to an altitude of about 3,000 metres, where he suffered extreme pain in his ears, and never flew again. Ballooning became a fashion in Europe in the late 1700’s, providing the first detailed understanding of the atmosphere. Work on developing a steerable balloon (now dubbed an “airship”) continued slowly through the 19th century. The first powered, controlled and sustained flight is believed to have taken place in 1852 when Henri Giffard flew 24km in France, with a steam engine driven craft. Another major advance was made in 1884, when the first fully controllable flight was made in a French Army electric airship. It was named “La France”, and was flown Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs. The 52m long airship covered 8 km in 23 minutes with the help of an 8½ horsepower electric motor.

8. "La France": the first fully controllable airship

The First Planes The first published paper on aviation was "Sketch of a Machine for Flying in the Air" by Emanuel Swedenborg published in 1716. His “plane” was made of a light frame covered with strong canvas and provided with two large wings moving up and down, arranged so that the upstroke met with no resistance while the downstroke provided lifting power. Swedenborg knew that the machine would not fly, but suggested it as a start and was confident that the problem would be solved.

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

Early Aeronautics

During the last years of the 18th century, Sir George Cayley experimented with planes that used both internal and external combustion engines, sometimes fuelled by gunpowder. Later Cayley turned his research to building a full-scale version, first flying it unmanned in 1849. In 1853, his coachman made a short unpowered gliding flight. In 1848, John Stringfellow made a successful indoor test flight of a steam-powered model, in Chard, Somerset, England. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made a big 9. Sir George Cayley’s design for a "governable parachute"

jump forward by making the first flight higher than his point of departure, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. He reportedly achieved a height of 100 metres, over a distance of 200 metres. In 1874, FĂŠlix du Temple built the "Monoplane", which was a large plane made of aluminium with a wingspan of 13 metres. Several trials were made with the plane, and it achieved lift off under its own power after a ski-jump run, glided for a short time and returned safely to the ground, making it the 10. Felix du Temple's "Monoplane" first successful powered flight in history, however short and quick. This flight was still not controlled: this was the next thing to be developed.

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

Early Aeronautics Controlled and Powered Flight

Controlled and Powered Flight Some of the greatest advances in human flight occurred at the beginning of the 20th century. Balloons, known as “blimps” had already been used for controlled powered flights, but they were all unmanned, and therefore lighter than air. The first flight that was heavier than air was reputed to have been made by a man known as Gustave Weißkopf Gustave Weißkopf was a German who emigrated to the U.S. On August 14th, 1901, two and a half years before the Wright Brothers' flight, he claimed to have carried out a controlled, powered flight in his “Number 21” monoplane at Fairfield, Connecticut. Many people do not accept his flight as the first 11. The Wright Brothers' First Flight controlled and powered flight, instead giving the honour to the Wright Brothers.

The Wrights made the first sustained, controlled, powered heavier-than-air manned flight at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, four miles (8 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903. The first flight by Orville Wright, of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the same day, Wilbur Wright flew 852 feet (260 m) in 59 seconds.

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

The World at War

The World at War The First World War In 1914, the First World War began. This was the first major military event that involved planes. They were extensively used for reconnaissance, helping generals to spot enemy artillery and map enemy trenches. Later, they were used as bombers. Typically, however, 1914 aircraft could carry only very small loads – 12. The Sopwith Camel, the most successful Allied fighter plane in the First World War the bombs themselves, and their stowage, were still very basic, and effective bomb sights were still to be developed. Nonetheless, the beginnings of strategic and tactical bombing date from the beginnings of the war. One problem that faced commanders was the lack of weaponry on planes. This was solved by a Frenchman called Roland Garros in late 1914. He needed to make sure that the machinegun did not hit the propeller: he did this using 13. A Fokker plane, similar to the one used by The Red Baron a cam attached to the propeller shaft. Adolphe Pegoud became the first “ace” (killing at least five enemies) and the first pilot to be shot down in action. The German aviator, Lieutenant Kurt Wintgens was first to shoot down an enemy plane from his own plane, on the 1st July 1915. Manfred von Richthofen, famously known as “The Red Baron” (and subject of many books and films) managed to shoot down 80 planes in air-to-air combat before he was killed in 1918.

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The World at War Between the Wars

Between the Wars The years between World War I and World War II saw great advancements in aircraft technology. Airplanes evolved from lowpowered biplanes made from wood and fabric to sleek, high-powered monoplanes made of aluminium. The age of the great, rigid, hydrogen and helium airships came and went. After the First World War, pilots who had been fighting were eager to show off their new talents. Some American pilots became known as “barnstormers”. They would tour the 14. Amelia Earhart, a famous barnstormer country, doing performances and taking passengers for rides. Eventually the barnstormers grouped into more organized displays, sometimes known as a “flying circus”. Air shows sprang up around the country, with air races, acrobatic stunts, and feats of air superiority. Amelia Earhart was perhaps the most famous air show pilots. She was also the first female pilot to successfully cross both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. High prizes were offered at these shows, which encouraged plane manufacturers to build faster and stronger planes.

Other prizes, for distance and speed records, also drove development forwards. The first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic was made by the Portuguese naval aviators Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral in 1922, from Lisbon, Portugal, to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Five years later Charles Lindbergh took the Orteig Prize of $25,000 for the first solo non-stop crossing of the Atlantic. By 1929, airship technology had advanced to the point that the first 15. The Hindenburg Disaster

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The World at War Between the Wars

round-the-world flight was completed by the Graf Zeppelin in September and in October, the same aircraft inaugurated the first commercial transatlantic service. However , this period ended following the destruction by fire of the zeppelin Hindenburg just before landing in New Jersey on May 6th, 1937, killing 35 of the 97 people aboard.

16. The gigantic Dornier DO X seaplane.

Meanwhile in Germany, which was restricted by the Treaty of Versailles (instated after WW1) in its development of powered aircraft, instead developed gliding as a sport, which now has over 400,000 participants across the world. 1929 saw the first flight of, by far, the largest plane ever built until then: the Dornier DO X with a wingspan of 48 m, sometimes referred to as a “flying boat”. On its 70th test flight on October 21st, there were 169 people on board, a record that was not broken for 20 years. Less than a decade after the development of the first rotorcraft was created, in the Soviet Union, Boris N. Yuriev and Alexei M. Cheremukhin, two engineers , constructed and flew the 17. The TsAGI 1-EA single rotor helicopter TsAGI 1-EA single rotor helicopter, which used an open tubing framework, a four blade main rotor. In the 1930s development of the jet engine began in Germany and in Britain – both countries would go on to develop jet aircraft by the end of World War II.

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AERONAUTICS BEFORE NASA

The World at War The Second World War

The Second World War World War II saw a drastic increase in aircraft development. All countries involved in the war constructed aeroplanes, and new types of aircraft went into production such as the long distance bomber. New technologies like radar allowed more coordinated and controlled deployment of air defence. The main differences between the aircraft of the interwar period and the aircraft of WW2 18. The Me 163, the first and only rocket-powered combat plane. were a massive increase in speed and range. Helicopters also underwent massive development in the Second World War, but these are less relevant to the age of space exploration. The first functional jet plane was the “Heinkel He 178”, flown in August 1939 for the first time along with the first (and to date the only) operational rocketpowered combat aircraft the “Me 163” was a major development that led towards space exploration. However, jet fighters had only limited impact due to their late introduction and hunger for fuel.

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THE CREATION OF NASA

THE CREATION OF NASA

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THE CREATION OF NASA

NACA

NACA The NACA (The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) was a U.S. Government agency found in March 1915 to undertake and promote aeronautical research and the predecessor of NASA. It was pronounced as individual letters, not an acronym. The agency was dissolved on October 1st, 1958 and its staff and assets were transferred to NASA. NACA made several notable achievements: they claimed credit for having the first aircraft to break the sound barrier (although the aircraft, the Bell X-1, 19. The NACA's logo was controlled by the Air Force). They also claim credit for the first aircraft (the Bell X-15) that eventually flew to the "edge of space". NACA aerofoils are still used on modern aircraft, and their research with air tunnels was invaluable during The Second World War. The main difference between the NACA and NASA is that the NACA was strictly federal and military based, whereas NASA was more public and designed for peaceful operations.

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THE CREATION OF NASA

The Cold War

The Cold War The Cold War was the tense relationship between the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (USSR) (and its allies) between the end of World War II and the collapse of the Soviet Union. This war was unlike other wars in that the two sides never clashed directly in battle. There was considerable fear that the relationship would end in nuclear war, but fortunately, this did not happen.

20. A map of European Cold War Alliances

America’s allies consisted mainly of NATO members, and Russia’s allies were mainly Asian and Eastern European. This intense showdown between the US and the USSR lead to “The Space Race”, which was a race to put a man in orbit, and then to put a man on the Moon. This is explored on the next page. After the United States tried to invade Cuba and, the Soviet Union attempted to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles. These missiles in Cuba would have allowed the Soviet Union to effectively target almost the entire United States. In response, the United States sent a large number of ships to blockade Cuba thus preventing the Soviet Union from delivering these weapons. This was the highest period of tension during the Cold War and it was the closest the world came to a nuclear war, with possible global conflict to follow.

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THE CREATION OF NASA

The Space Race

The Space Race The Space Race was the competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining “firsts” in space exploration. The Space Race had its origins in the missile-based arms race that occurred just after the end of the World War II, when both the Soviet Union and the United States captured advanced German rocket technology and personnel. It ultimately led to the race to the Moon and thus the Apollo Program. 21. Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space

Space Race Milestones Below is a list of all the major achievements of the Space Race. U.S. Victories are marked in blue and Soviet victories are marked in red. The Nazis achieved the first milestone.  On October the 23th 1942, the German V2 was the first rocket to reach the boundary of space.  On the 20th of February 1947, the first animals were launched into space. Fruit flies were used to study the effects of space travel on animals.

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The Space Race Space Race Milestones

 Albert II, a rhesus monkey, was the first mammal in space. Albert went into space on 14th June 1949 in a specially adapted American V2 rocket that flew to a height of 83 miles.  On the 4th of October 1957, Russia launched the first satellite into space: Sputnik 1. Sputnik means "Satellite" in Russian.  On the 3rd of November 1957, the Russian “space dog” Laika became the first animal to orbit the earth (as opposed to reaching space) in Sputnik 2.  On September the 14th 1959, Russian Space-probe Luna 2 crash-landed into the moon, becoming the first craft to reach it.  On 12th April 1961, Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space. Gagarin's spacecraft, Vostok 1, completed one orbit of the earth, and landed about two hours after launch.  The first woman in space was Russian cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on the 16th of June 1963.  On the 3rd of February 1966, the Russian Luna 9 spacecraft was the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, and to transmit photos back to Earth.  On the 20th July 1969, Neil Armstrong, and then Buzz Aldrin took "one small step" and became the first men on the moon. The first words said on the moon were "the Eagle has landed". As we can see, the majority of the Space Race victories were taken by the Russians. The U.S. had an early and successful start, launching the first large mammal into space over a decade before the Russians put their first cosmonaut into orbit. Also, the U.S. achieved perhaps the greatest milestone: getting a man to land safely on the Moon and returning them to Earth. The Soviets took all the other achievements, including all the ones relating to Earth-orbit. While the Soviets successfully completed more goals, the Americans undoubtedly did a better job of capturing our imaginations in 1969. Perhaps the reason that the U.S.S.R. was not given as much credit as it deserved during the Space Race was the secrecy that surrounded Soviet operations during the Cold War.

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THE CREATION OF NASA

The Establishment of NASA Space Race Milestones

The Establishment of NASA After the Russians launched the world's first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October the 4th, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own space exploration efforts. The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the "Sputnik crisis"), urged immediate and swift action. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency 23. NASA's logo mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.

On July 29, 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October the 1st, 1958, NASA absorbed the 46-yearold NACA intact: its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of $100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory). An official NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. 22. President Dwight Eisenhower

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EARLY NASA PROGRAMS

EARLY NASA PROGRAMS

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EARLY NASA PROGRAMS

X-Plane Program Notable Early X-Planes

X-Plane Program The X-plane program is a series of experimental planes, helicopters and rockets used to test new technologies and concepts. Testing was started by the NACA in 1946, and has continued to the present day under NASA and the US Air 24. The X-15, the fastest manned aircraft in history Force. As of now, there have been 55 X-plane designs.

Some X-planes were well publicized, while others were developed in secrecy. The first, the Bell X-1, became well known after it became the first aircraft to break the sound barrier in level flight (see page 23). Most X-planes did not go into major production, with one exception being the Lockheed Martin X-35, which has entered production as the F-35 fighter jet.

Notable Early X-Planes  X-1 – The first plane to break Mach 1  X-2 – The first plane to break Mach 2  X-5 – First plane to fly with variable geometry (moveable) wings  X-15 – Fastest manned, powered aircraft in history (7,274km/h); First space plane (pilot Joe Walker became first man to enter space twice)

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EARLY NASA PROGRAMS

Project Mercury

Project Mercury Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the US. It ran from 1959 to 1963 with the goal of putting a human in orbit around the Earth, and doing it before the Soviet Union. It involved seven astronauts, although only six flew. On May 5th 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American in space, one month after Yuri Gagarin’s first flight. John Glenn became the first American to reach orbit on February 20th 1962. From a slow start with many mistakes, the Mercury Project became popular worldwide and the 25. The "Mercury Seven". Back row: Shepard, Grissom, Cooper; front manned flights were followed by row: Schirra, Slayton, Glenn, Carpenter millions on radio and TV not only in United States, but also around the world. As well as the six manned missions, Mercury had a total of 20 unmanned launches as a part of the development of the project. This also involved test animals, most famously the chimpanzees Ham and Enos. Mercury laid the groundwork for Project Gemini and in turn the Apollo Program, which was announced a few weeks after the first manned flight. The program cost around $1.73 billion in current prices and involved 2 million people.

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Project Gemini

Project Gemini Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of NASA. It was conducted between Projects Mercury and Apollo, and had sixteen astronauts fly ten manned flights occurring in 1965 and 1966. All the Gemini Spacecraft were launch on Titan II GLVs.

26. The Gemini Spacecraft

Its objective was to develop space travel techniques in support of Apollo, which had the goal of landing men on the Moon. Gemini achieved missions long enough for a trip to the Moon and back, perfected extra-vehicular activity and orbital manoeuvres. Rendezvous in orbit is not a straightforward manoeuvre. If a spacecraft increases its speed to catch up with another, it would go to a higher and slower orbit and the distance would increase. The right procedure is actually to slow down and go to a lower orbit first and later to increase speed and go to the same orbit as the other c raft. These manoeuvres required a lot of practice. 27. The launch of Gemini VIII

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Project Gemini

Highlights of the Gemini program included:  Edward H. White became the first American to make an EVA, on June 3rd 1965, during Gemini 4.  Gemini 5 demonstrated the 8-day endurance necessary for an Apollo lunar mission with the first use of fuel cells to generate its electrical power.

28. Ed White performing the first U.S. spacewalk

 Gemini 6A and 7 accomplished the first space rendezvous in December 1965, and Gemini 7 set a 14-day endurance record.  Gemini 8 achieved the first space docking with an unmanned Agena Target Vehicle.  Gemini 11 set a manned Earth orbital altitude record of 1,369.0 km in September 1966. This record still stands.  Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin on Gemini 12 became the first space traveller to prove that useful work could be done outside a spacecraft without lifethreatening exhaustion. The program cost $7.3 billion in today’s money.

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THE MOON

THE MOON

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THE MOON Formation

The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth and the fifth largest and second densest moon in the Solar System. It is the most luminous object in the sky after the Sun. Unusually, the Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, which means we always see only one side. It is the only celestial body other than Earth on which humans have set foot. Future manned missions to the Moon have been planned, including government as well as privately funded efforts. The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty, free to all nations to explore for peaceful purposes.

Formation The Moon was formed around 4.53 billion years ago, although some people suggest that around 4.4 billion is more accurate. The most commonly accepted explanation for its formation is that the Earth and Moon formed because of a giant impact, where a Mars-sized “planet” (named Theia, after the Greek goddess who was mother of Selene, the 29. An artist's impression of the collision of Earth and Theia Moon goddess) collided with the newly formed Earth, shooting material into orbit, which accumulated to form the Moon. This would make sense, as the Earth was constantly being bombarded during the formation of the Solar System. Using computer simulations, we would think that most of the Moon came from Theia, not from Earth, but rocks collected during the Apollo Program suggest otherwise, as the rocks found on the Moon are so similar to the ones found on the Earth (one exception might be the three rocks found on Apollo 11 (See page 104). Perhaps Earth rock collected towards the Moon’s crust and Theian rock towards the core, or maybe both Earth and Theia had similar compositions.

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THE MOON Physical Features

The energy released during this collision would have caused both the Earth and the Moon to contain massive magma oceans.

Physical Features Geography The lunar surface is divided into two distinct areas: the darker maria (seas) and the lighter terrae (highlands). The maria are composed of solidified basalt lava. The terrae are possibly the remnants of “islands” in the magma ocean created during the Moon’s formation (see page 34). There are also hundreds of thousands of craters on the lunar surface, the largest being the 2,240km South Pole-Aitken Basin, which is one of the biggest impact sites ever discovered.

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THE MOON Physical Features

31. The Moon's interior structure

Internal Structure and Composition The Moon has a solid and iron-rich inner core with a radius of 240km and a fluid outer core primarily made of liquid iron with a radius of roughly 300km. Around the core is a molten boundary layer with a radius of about 500km, surrounded by a large solid mantle. The crust is an average of 50km thick.

Atmosphere The Moon has an atmosphere so small that it is nearly a vacuum, with a total mass of less than 10 tons. Its sources include the release of trapped particles and the release of atoms from the bombardment of lunar soil by 32. Lunar surface composition solar wind ions. Elements include sodium; potassium; helium-4; argon-40; radon-222; polonium-210. The absence of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and magnesium is not understood. Water vapour has been detected, but there is very little. 33. John Young jumping on the Moon

Gravitational Field The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon is 1.6249 m/s2, about 16.6% that on Earth's surface. Because weight is directly dependent upon gravitational acceleration, things on the Moon will weigh only 16.6% of what they weigh on the Earth. The major characteristic of the Moon's gravitational field is the presence of mascons (mass concentrations), which are large gravity anomalies around some impact basins. It has been speculated that these are something to do with volcanic activity, although this is unlikely. These anomalies greatly influence the orbit of lunar satellites, and caused several difficulties during tests for the Apollo Program.

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ROCKETS

ROCKETS

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ROCKETS

What is a rocket? Solid-Fuel Rockets

What is a rocket? “A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction.” – Wiktionary Definition

A rocket differs from other types of aircraft, as detailed above. While propellers and jet engines push planes 34. A diagram showing how a rocket can move in a vacuum forward by the movement of air, rockets can move forwards simply using Newton’s Third Law of motion: “To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions.” In other words, as the rocket engine pushes propellant in one direction, the engine itself is forced in the opposite direction, carrying the rocket forward. This allows it to function in the vacuum of space, where no air is present. In fact, rockets are considerably more efficient when travelling in vacuums, as air causes drag, slowing the rocket. The same effect can be achieved if one were to sit on a supermarket trolley and throw tennis balls, although it would be nearly undetectable. There are two different types of rockets, solid-fuel and liquid-fuel.

Solid-Fuel Rockets These rockets contain a large stock of solid propellant, which is a mixture of fuel and an oxidiser. There are various different types of solid propellant. One common option is a compound containing 72% nitrate, 24% carbon and 4% sulphur. This compound is very much like gunpowder, but due to the different proportions of the materials, it burns rapidly rather than exploding. When

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ROCKETS

What is a rocket? Liquid-Fuel Rockets

loaded into the rocket, the fuel is shaped as a cylinder with a tube drilled down the middle. After ignition, the fuel burns along the walls of this tube, gradually being consuming until there is none left. There are several advantages to using a solid-fuel rocket: They are very simple, the fuel is relatively inexpensive and (assuming the fuel and the tank were produced properly) they are very safe, as the fuel will simply burn until it is gone, and then stop. They are no moving parts. The disadvantages of using a solid-fuel rocket make them impractical for movement in space. They are most useful for initially leaving the atmosphere. This is because the thrust cannot be controlled at all: Once lit, it will burn only at one steady rate, which is defined by the fuel composition. Also, the engine cannot be stopped without destroying the remaining fuel, making it a single use booster.

35. A comparison between liquid-fuel and solid-fuel rockets

Liquid-Fuel Rockets Liquid Fuel rocket propulsion systems are much more complex than Solid fuel systems. The first Liquid propellant rocket system was tested in 1926 by Robert Goddard. In the most basic sense, a liquid fuel rocket works by pumping a fuel (such as gasoline) and an oxidizer (such as Liquid Oxygen) into a combustion chamber. There, the fuel is ignited, creating a high-pressure and high-velocity stream of gases. These gases are then directed through a nozzle and out of the craft, like in a solid-fuel rocket. In order to overcome the high pressures created in the combustion chamber when the fuel is ignited, the pumps have to be very powerful. Both the fuel

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ROCKETS

What is a rocket? Liquid-Fuel Rockets

and the oxidiser are stored in a compressed liquid form, hence the name of the rocket. In order to counteract the large 36. The engine of a liquid-fuel rocket amounts of heat produced in the combustion chamber, the cool gases are often circulated around the combustion chamber before being pumped in. A real Liquid propulsion system can get very complicated and extremely expensive compared to a solid fuel rocket. There are various types of fuel commonly used in Liquid Propulsion systems. For example, liquid hydrogen was used in the space shuttle main engines, gasoline was the basic fuel in Goddard’s early rockets and kerosene was used in the many of the Saturn V boosters in the Apollo Program.

Liquid propulsion rockets have many advantages over solid propulsion systems: one can control the amount of thrust by regulating the flow of the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion chamber and one can stop and restart the engines by simply stopping the flow of fuel and restarting it. However, as I mentioned above, Liquid systems are very complicated and expensive. In addition, they are not as safe, because an incorrect mixture of propellant and oxidiser could cause an explosion. Liquid fuel rockets are not normally used where a solid fuel booster would suffice, such as in the initial stages of a rocket.

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ROCKETS

The History of the Rocket Early Rocketry

The History of the Rocket Early Rocketry 37. A depiction of an early Chinese rocket

In the ninth century, Chinese Taoist alchemists invented gunpowder while searching for the “Elixir of life”. This invention led to bombs, cannons – and rockets. One of the earliest devices recorded that used rocket propulsion was the “groundrat”, a type of firework, recorded in 1264 as having frightened the EmpressMother Kung Sheng at a feast held in her honour One of the earliest texts to mention the use of rockets was the Huolongjing, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid-14th century. This text also mentioned the use of the first known multistage rocket, the 'firedragon issuing from the water', used mostly by the Chinese navy. This multistage rocket was the distant ancestor of the space rockets used today. Rocket technology first became known to Europeans following their use by the Mongols when they conquered parts of Eastern Europe. The Mongolians had acquired the Chinese technology by conquest of the northern part of China and

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ROCKETS

The History of the Rocket Early Manned Rocketry

also by the subsequent employment of Chinese rocketry experts as mercenaries for the Mongol military. Also, the spread of rockets into Europe was influenced by the Ottomans at the siege of Constantinople in 1453. Roger Bacon made one of the earliest mentions of gunpowder in Europe in 1267, in his work “Epistola de secretis operibus artiis et naturae”. His studies of gunpowder greatly improved the range of rockets. Bacon has been credited by some authors as the inventor of gunpowder (although the first to use it were Chinese), because around 1261 he developed the correct formula for gunpowder (75% saltpetre (potassium nitrate), 15% carbon and 10% sulphur). Jean Froissart had the idea of launching rockets through tubes, so that they could make flights that are more accurate. Froissart's idea is a forerunner of the modern bazooka. 38. A portrait of Roger Bacon

Early Manned Rocketry There are several legends of manned rocket flight that come from Ancient China. No evidence has ever been found to prove any of these are true. In Ottoman Turkey in 1633, according to one account, Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched in a seven-winged rocket using 64kg of gunpowder from and made a successful landing – winning him a position in the Ottoman army. The flight was estimated to have lasted about 200 seconds and the maximum height reached around 300 meters. This flight was not controlled in any way.

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ROCKETS

The History of the Rocket Modern Rocketry

Modern Rocketry In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fuelled rocket in Auburn, Massachusetts. During the 1920s, a number of rocket research organizations appeared in the United States, Austria, Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Germany, and Russia. Eventually, this lead to the development of rockets used in World War Two. After this, the attention of the World turned not only to more advanced weaponry (which I will not delve into), but also to the exploration of space. 39. Robert Goddard with his rocket

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APOLLO HARDWARE

APOLLO HARDWARE

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets

Apollo Rockets Four different boosters were used in the Apollo Program:  Little Joe II – This flew purely on unmanned sub-orbital test missions.  Saturn I – This flew unmanned sub-orbital and orbital test missions.  Saturn IB – This flew preparatory unmanned missions, and Apollo 7, the first successful manned flight in the Apollo Program.  Saturn V – This flew several unmanned tests and then all other manned Apollo missions                    

40. A comparison of the four Apollo rockets

The height, mass, length and diameter of all boosters does not include the payload. The speed and thrust are the maximum ever achieved by that rocket during the Apollo Program. In the “Apollo Launches” parameter, italics indicate a failure or partial failure during the mission and underlined text indicates a cancellation or a planned mission which never took place due to issues on the ground

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets Little Joe II

Little Joe II Little Joe II was used for five unmanned tests of the launch escape system (LES) and to test the command module parachutes for the Apollo spacecraft from 1963–66. They were launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The booster's predecessor, Little Joe, was used to test the LES for the Mercury spacecraft (see page 30).

Manufacturer: Apollo Launches (5): Length: Mass: Diameter: Total Burn Time: Max Speed: Max Thrust: Stages:

Algol/Recruit QTV, A-001 , A-002, A-003, A-004 26.2m 25,900kg 3.9m ~50s ~800m/s 1,766,000N 2 (+ Booster) Booster Stage:

First Stage:

Second Stage:

Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel:

46

41. Little Joe II

5xRecruit 167,000N 1.53s Solid 2xAlgol 465,000N each 40s Solid 2xAlgol 465,000N each 40s Solid


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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets Saturn I

Saturn I The Saturn I was the United States' first rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit. Most of the rocket's power came from a cluster of Rocketdyne H-1 engines. One of its major successes was the flight verification of the Apollo Command and Service Module aerodynamics in the launch phase. It served only for a brief period and only with NASA; ten of these were flown before it was replaced by the derivative Saturn IB, which featured a more powerful upper stage and improved instrumentation. 42. Saturn I

Manufacturer: Apollo Launches (10): Length: Mass: Diameter: Total Burn Time: Max Speed: Max Thrust: Stages:

Chrysler, Douglas, Convair SA1, SA2, SA3, SA4, SA5, A-101, A-102, A-103, A-104, A-105 43.2m 510,000kg 6.52m 632s (1062s with 3rd stage) unmeasured 53,600,000N 3 First Stage:

Second Stage:

Third Stage: (Never Flown)

Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel:

47

8xRocketdyne H-1 6,700,000N each ~150s Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen 2xAlgol 400,000N each 482s Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen 2xAlgol 133,000N each 430s Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen


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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets Saturn IB

Saturn IB The Saturn IB (also known as the Uprated Saturn I) it replaced the S-IV second stage of the Saturn I with the much more powerful S-IVB. The third stage was evidently not present in the Saturn IB. The Saturn IB launched two unmanned CSM suborbital flights, one unmanned LM orbital flight, and the first manned CSM orbital mission, Apollo 7. It was planned to launch Apollo 2, but this was cancelled after the launch pad disaster (see page 82). It also launched one orbital mission, AS-203, without a payload to observe the behaviour of the liquid hydrogen fuel in weightlessness.

43. Saturn IB

The Saturn IB also took part in several Skylab missions (See page 142). Manufacturer: Apollo Launches (5)+(1): Length: Mass: Diameter: Total Burn Time: Max Speed: Max Thrust: Stages:

Chrysler, Douglas AS-201, AS-203, AS-202, Apollo 1, Apollo 6, Apollo 7 55m 589,770kg 6.61m 630s unmeasured 56,800,000N 2 First Stage:

Second Stage:

Third Stage: (Not used)

Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel:

48

8xRocketdyne H-1 7,100,000N each ~150s Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen 1xRocketdyne J-2 890,000N each 480s Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen


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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets Saturn V

Saturn V 13 Saturn Vs were launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload. It remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds the record for heaviest payload launched and heaviest payload capacity (120,000kg). The largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. To date, the Saturn V is the only launch vehicle to transport human beings beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 24 astronauts were launched to the Moon, (three of them more than once) from 1968 to 1972 Manufacturer: Apollo Launches (12): Length: Mass: Diameter: Total Burn Time: Max Speed: Max Thrust: Stages:

44. Saturn V

Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Apollo 4, Apollo 6, Apollo 8, Apollo 9, Apollo 10, Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 18 - 20 110.6m 2,800,000kg 10.1m 630s 7,793m/s 34,020,000N 3 First Stage:

Second Stage:

Third Stage:

Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel: Engines: Thrust: Burn Time: Fuel:

49

5xRocketdyne F-1 6,804,000 each 150s Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen 5xRocketdyne J-2 890,000N each 421s Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen 1xRocketdyne J-2 1,000,000N 165+335s (2 burns) Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen


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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Rockets Saturn V

45. A diagram of the Saturn V rocket

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Spacecraft Launch Escape System

Apollo Spacecraft

46. A diagram of the Apollo spacecraft

Launch Escape System The Launch Escape System (LES) was simply a way to quickly remove the astronauts and the Command Module from the rest of the rocket in the event of an emergency, either on the launchpad or during launch and the early stages of flight. It would then be released along with the second stage of the main rocket. It was never used in the Apollo Program. The Russian Soyuz T10-1 is the only mission in which a LES successfully saved a crew’s life during launch. They landed 4km from the

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47. The LES tower


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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Spacecraft CSM

launch site following the explosion of the main stages of the rocket.

CSM Along with the Lunar Module, the Command/Service Module (CSM) was the main spacecraft used once the rocket reached space. It was built by North American Aviation. After the Apollo program, the CSM was used as a shuttle for the Skylab program, and later in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The CSM consisted of two segments: the Command Module, which was designed to hold a crew of three and equipment for re-entry; and a Service Module that provided propulsion, electricity and storage for various 48. The Apollo CSM consumables required during a mission. The Service Module rockets used dimethylhydrazine, monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine with nitrogen tetroxide as the oxidiser. The Service Module was released and allowed to burn up in the atmosphere before the Command Module re-entered to bring the crew back to Earth.

The tip of the Command Module housed parachutes, which allowed for a safe splashdown. It was also coated in heat resistant tiles, which prevented it from burning up on re-entry, unlike the service module.

49. The CSM above the Moon

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Apollo Spacecraft Lunar Module

Lunar Module The Apollo Lunar Module (LM), also known as the Lunar Excursion Module was built by Grumman, and designed to carry two of the three Apollo astronauts to the lunar surface. It has successfully landed there six times. The LM was the most reliable and successful component of the Apollo Program: It never failed on a single mission, and it helped save the lives of all three Apollo 13 astronauts following the CSM malfunction (see page 119). 50. A detailed diagram of the LM The LM, consisting of an ascent stage and descent stage, and was abandoned after the two-man crew had successfully re-entered the CSM following their moon landing, as it was structurally incapable of flight through Earth’s atmosphere.

It was fitted with both an ascent propulsion system and a descent propulsion system, which allowed it not only to take off from the Moon, but also gave the crew time to hover and select a landing site.

51. The Apollo 11 LM descending

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Terrestrial Equipment Crawler-Transporter

Terrestrial Equipment In addition to the headquarters buildings, offices and construction facilities, NASA also used three pieces of more specialized equipment.

Crawler-Transporter The crawler-transporters are a pair of tracked vehicles used to transport spacecraft from NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) along the Crawler-way to Launch Complex 39. They were built at a cost of $14 million to transport the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets (and their mobile launcher platforms) during the Apollo Program. They are the largest self-powered land vehicles ever created. The crawler-transporter has a mass of 2,721,000 kilograms and has eight tracks, having 57 900kg shoes on each. 52. The crawler-transporter on the crawlerway The vehicle measures 40 by 35 metres .The height from ground level to the platform is adjustable from 6.1 to 7.9 m (with each side independently moveable) and it uses laser guidance systems to keep the rocket upright as it

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Terrestrial Equipment Mobile Launcher Platform

traverses the incline leading up to the launchpad. They have a maximum speed of merely 1.6km/h.

Mobile Launcher Platform The Mobile Launcher Platform was one of three two-story structures, which supported the rocket during assembly at the Vehicle Assembly Building, while being transported to Launch Pads, and during launch. Each MLP originally had a single exhaust vent for the Saturn V's engines. The MLPs also featured a 120 m Launch Umbilical Tower (LUT) with nine arms that permitted servicing of the vehicle on the launch pad, and swung away from it at launch. 53. The Mobile Launcher Platform

Mobile Quarantine Facility The Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) was a converted trailer used by NASA to quarantine astronauts returning from lunar missions. Its purpose was to prevent the spread of any contagions from the moon. The presence of these contagions was considered unlikely, and following Apollo 14’s confirmation that no life existed on the Moon, MQFs 54. The Apollo 11 MQF in a museum

were no longer used.

The MQF contained living and sleeping facilities as well as communications which the astronauts used to converse with their families. The Apollo 11 crew also used this to speak with President Nixon who personally welcomed them back to Earth aboard the recovery ship after splashdown.

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Lunar Equipment ALSEP

Lunar Equipment ALSEP The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package was a set of scientific instruments placed at the landing site of each mission to land on the Moon from Apollo 12 onwards (Apollo 11 carried a much more primitive version, known as the EASEP – Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package). The experiments that would comprise ALSEP were decided in February 1966:  Passive Lunar Seismic Experiment  Lunar Tri-axis Magnetometer     

Medium-Energy Solar Wind Suprathermal Ion Detection Lunar Heat Flow Management Low-Energy Solar Wind Active Lunar Seismic Experiment

55. The Apollo 16 ALSEP setup

All of these complex experiments were carried out using the vast array of equipment in the ALSEP. The whole thing was arranged around a Central Station (which communicated with Earth and linked power to all components) and the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (which supplied power from a Plutonium Core).

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Lunar Equipment Lunar Flag Assembly

Lunar Flag Assembly The Lunar Flag Assembly (LFA) was a 3-by5-foot flag of the United States and flagpole planted on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. The LFA was specially designed with a horizontal pole to support the flag on the airless Moon to make it appear to flutter as it would in the wind on Earth. The LFA presented a range of technical challenges regarding storage and environmental resistance, but all were overcome. As of 2012, the Apollo 12, 16 and 17 LFAs are still standing. The Apollo 11 flag was blown over during lift-off. The colours will 56. Alan Shepard planting the U.S. Flag have turned white due to sunlight and radiation exposure.

Apollo TV Camera The Apollo TV Cameras varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each successive model. Two companies made these various camera systems: RCA and Westinghouse. Originally, these cameras, running at 10 frames-per-second, produced only black and white pictures. A colour camera (which ran at 30 fps) flew on the Apollo 10 mission in May 1969, and every subsequent launch. By far the most famous of all Apollo cameras was the Hasselblad EDC. Theses 70mm cameras took almost all of the photographic images brought back from the lunar surface. They took a lot of practise to use correctly,

57. An Apollo Television camera

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Lunar Equipment Modular Equipment Transporter

as they were worn on the chest.

Modular Equipment Transporter The Modular Equipment Transporter was a two-wheel cart used for transporting equipment and rock samples on the surface of the Moon during Apollo 14. Designed after Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean had difficulties lugging their equipment over a large distance to and 58. The MET during testing on Earth from the Lunar Module, the MET also functioned as a portable workbench. It was carried on Apollo 13 and Apollo 14, but was only used on Apollo 14 because Apollo 13 never landed on the Moon. During one of the traverses, both astronauts had to carry the MET together, because it was too difficult to pull it through the rough lunar terrain. After Apollo 14, the Lunar Rover was used as a replacement. The MET weighed 8.2 kg and could carry 63kg.

Lunar Roving Vehicle The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV, more commonly known as the Lunar Rover or Moon Buggy) was a battery-powered vehicle used on Apollo 15, 16 and 17 during 1971 and 1972. It was transported to the Moon on the LM and was left behind on the lunar surface to cut down on weight on the return journey. It could carry up to two astronauts along with their equipment and any lunar samples.

59. The Apollo 15 LRV

The longest Lunar Rover journey made lasted 4 hours and 26 minutes and travelled a total distance of 22.3 miles. At the time of writing, the only vehicle

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Lunar Equipment Apollo A7L

that has travelled further on the lunar surface is the Lunokhod 2, a Russian Rover that landed in 1972 and has since stopped operations.

Apollo A7L The A7L Apollo & Skylab spacesuit was the primary spacesuit worn during the Apollo Program. The "A7L" was the seventh Apollo spacesuit designed and built by ILC Dover. The basic design of the A7L suit was a one piece, fivelayer suit with joints made of rubber. Metal rings at the neck and forearms allowed for the connection of the pressure gloves and the famous Apollo "fishbowl helmet" (adopted by NASA as it allowed an unrestricted view, as well as eliminating the need for a visor seal). A cover layer, which was designed to be fireproof 60. Buzz Aldrin wearing the A7L after the deadly Apollo 1 fire, was attached to the pressure garment assembly and was removable for repairs and inspection.

They had many specialised features. On the Apollo 15-17 missions, energy bars and drinking water were built in to the suit to allow longer journeys from the Lunar Module. Also, there were many pockets on the torso and limbs for carrying certain pieces of equipment. The suit provided life support for six 61. A diagram of the A7L

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APOLLO HARDWARE

Lunar Equipment Fallen Astronaut

hours, with an additional 30-minute backup life support system. The air tank contains a mixture of oxygen and lithium hydroxide, which reacted with exhaled carbon dioxide and removed it from the air.

Fallen Astronaut Fallen Astronaut is an 8.5 cm aluminium sculpture of a figurine (designed to look like an astronaut in a spacesuit), which remembers astronauts and cosmonauts who have died in the advancement of space exploration. It was placed next to a plaque at Hadley Rille on the Moon, by the crew of Apollo 15 on August 1, 1971. It was designed by Belgian artist Paul Van Hoeydonck. 62. "Fallen Astronaut" and memorial plaque

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APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION

APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION

N.B. These are not ordered completely chronologically: They are first sorted by type and then by launch date.

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APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION

Saturn I Missions SA-1

Saturn I Missions SA-1 SA-1 was the first launch of a Saturn I rocket and the opening mission in the Apollo Program. It was launched in October 1961 and lasted just 15 minutes. The mission was designed to test only the first stage of the rocket. Dummy stages were used for the second and third stages to reduce weight.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Serial Number Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

SA-1 Saturn I S-101 N/A Unmanned October 27th 1961, 15:06UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 N/A October 27th 1961, 15:21UTC 15 minutes 331.5km 136.2km

Engineers had given the rocket a 75% chance of lifting off and only a 30% chance of completing the flight. The flight itself was nearly perfect. The rocket reached a height of 136.2 km and crashed down into the Atlantic Ocean. The only real problem was the rocket cut off 1.6 seconds ahead of schedule. This was traced to a fuel imbalance.

63. SA-1

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APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION

Saturn I Missions SA-2

SA-2 Saturn-Apollo 2 launched at 14:00 on April 25th, 1962, from Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral. The only delay was for 30 minutes due to a vessel, which entered the flight safety zone 60 miles (96 km) down range.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

SA-2 Saturn I S-102 N/A Unmanned April 25th 1962, 14:00UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 N/A April 25th 1962, 14:03UTC 2 minutes, 40 seconds 80km 105.3km

The objectives of SA-2 were much the same as those of SA-1. It was designed to test the Saturn I rocket. NASA declared all objectives as successful. A second objective of both this mission and SA-3 was Project Highwater, which involved the release of water at high altitudes, which allowed scientists to investigate the nature of Earth's ionosphere. The H-1 engines shut down at an altitude of 56km after firing for 1 minute 55 seconds. 45 seconds later, officials sent a terminate command to the rocket, setting off several charges which caused the vehicle to destruct. 64. SA-2

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APOLLO: MISSION BY MISSION

Saturn I Missions SA-3

SA-3 Like the two missions before it, SA-3 was designed to continue tests on the first stage of the Saturn I rocket. It also continued Project Highwater, which was a project allowing scientists to investigate the Earth’s ionosphere.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

SA-3 Saturn I S-103 N/A Unmanned November 16th 1962, 17:45UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 N/A November 16th 1962, 17.49UTC 4 minutes 52 seconds 211.41km 167.22km

Saturn-Apollo 3 launched at 17:45 on November 16th, 1962, from Launch Complex 34. There was a 45-minute delay at launch due to power failures on the ground. This mission was the first time the Saturn I rocket was launched with a full load of propellant, carrying approximately 750,000 pounds (340,000 kg) of fuel All objectives were declared successful; however, there were some telemetry issues. 65. SA-3

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Saturn I Missions SA-4

SA-4 SA-4 was the last flight to test only the first stage of the Saturn I rocket. As with the first three launches, this would be a suborbital flight and would test the structure of the rocket.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

SA-4 Saturn I S-104 N/A Unmanned March 28th 1963, 20:11 Cape Canaveral LC-34 N/A March 28th 1963, 20:26 15 minutes 400km 129km

The main addition to this flight was that, in order to test the rocket's ability to deal with an engine failure, one of the engines would be programmed to shut down about 100 seconds after launch. If all went well the rocket would reroute the fuel for this engine to the other engines and have the rocket burn longer to compensate for the loss of acceleration. The test succeeded, and this was used on the Apollo 6 and Apollo 13 flights. 66. SA-4

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Saturn I Missions SA-5

SA-5 The major changes that occurred on SA-5 were that for the first time the Saturn I would fly with two stages the S-I first stage and the SIV second stage. The second stage featured six engines burning liquid hydrogen. It also positioned the guide and control computer in the location it would sit in for the manned missions.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

SA-5 Saturn I S-105 N/A Unmanned January 29th 1964, 16:25UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 N/A April 30th, 1966 791 days 519,463,719km 741km

The mission was considered a success, as it met its objectives. This spacecraft became the largest craft to achieve earth orbit at the time. It maintained orbit for over 2 years and made around 12,000 orbits.

67. SA-5

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Saturn I Missions A-101

A-101 A-101 was the sixth flight of the Apollo Program. It carried a boilerplate (dummy) Apollo spacecraft into low Earth orbit. The spacecraft made 4 orbits before communication was lost, and then made 50 more before the spacecraft and its upper stage re-entered the atmosphere.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Decay Date

Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-101 (SA-6) Saturn I S-106 N/A Unmanned May 28th 1964, 17:07UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B June 1st, 1964 (Mission ended 23:00 on May 28th due to communication loss) 5 hours, 53 minutes ~2,229,500km 199km

The flight experienced only one problem: one of the eight first-stage Saturn I engines shut down early. This was not a major issue, however, because the guidance computer rerouted the fuel to the other seven engines to compensate. The first five launches of the Saturn I had carried standard nosecones, which allowed engineers to focus on development of the rocket. The Apollo CSM would provide different aerodynamics. Therefore A-101 carried BP-13, a boilerplate spacecraft that weighed 7,700 kg and duplicated the size and shape of the CSM, and a dummy Launch Escape System (LES) tower.

68. A-101

The boilerplate spacecraft carried 116 sensors, which monitored strain, pressure and acceleration.

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Saturn I Missions A-102

A-102 A-102 carried the boilerplate Apollo spacecraft BP-15 into low Earth orbit. A-102 was designed to repeat the flight of A-101. It would once again carry a boilerplate Apollo CSM.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-102 (SA-7) Saturn I S-107 N/A Unmanned September 18th 1964, 16:22UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B September 22nd 1964 7 hours, 30 minutes ~2,457,000km 206km

However, the major change on A-102 was that for the first time a Saturn rocket would carry a programmable guidance computer. Previous launches had used an onboard "black box" that was preprogramed. On A-102, it would be possible to reprogram the computer during flight so that any strange behaviour could be corrected.

69. A-102

The mission was deemed a success.

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Saturn I Missions A-103

A-103 A-103 was another boilerplate CSM mission. It was, however, the first operational mission of the Saturn I, and no longer a test flight. One of the primary objectives of this mission was to put the Pegasus 1 satellite in orbit.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-103 Saturn I AS-109 / SA-9 N/A Unmanned February 16th 1965, 14:37UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B July 10th 1985 (Decommissioned August 29th 1968) 3 years, 6 months, 13 days 3,114,579,139km 736km

The launch was normal, and the spacecraft was inserted into orbit approximately 10.5 minutes after launch. The launch escape system was jettisoned during launch and the command module was jettisoned when orbit was achieved. The mission delivered the Pegasus I satellite, and was a success.

The Pegasus Satellite Program The Pegasus satellite program was a series of three satellites launched in 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts on spacecraft. They were launched on A-103, A-104 and A-105. It got its name 70. A-103 from the large wing-like arrays that it hosted. All three Pegasus missions provided more than data on micrometeoroid penetration: Scientists also were able to gather data regarding orbital characteristics of satellites, lifetimes of electronic components and thermal control in space.

71. The Pegasus I satellite

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Saturn I Missions A-104

A-104 A-104 carried the fourth boilerplate test of the Apollo spacecraft, along with the Pegasus 2 satellite (See page 69). The primary mission objective was to demonstrate the launch vehicle guidance mode. The launch trajectory was very similar to that of mission A103, with a final orbital apogee difference of just 3km.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Crew Launch Date Launch Site Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-104 Saturn I AS-108 / SA-8 N/A Unmanned May 25th 1965, 7:35UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B June 8th 1989 5275 days 3,282,050,195km 739km

Several minor malfunctions occurred in the S-I stage propulsion system; however, all mission objectives were achieved. Pegasus 2 was safely released into orbit. Notably, this was the first night-time launch in the Apollo Program.

72. A-104

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Saturn I Missions A-105

A-105 A-105 was the final boilerplate test of an Apollo spacecraft, launched by the final flight of the Saturn I rocket. It also carried the Pegasus 3 satellite (See page 69).

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Decay Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-105 Saturn I AS-110 / SA-10 Unmanned July 30th 1965, 13:00UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B August 4th 1969 1466 days 912,064,090km 536km

The primary flight objective was to continue demonstration of the launch vehicle's interactive guidance mode. A planned thirty-minute hold before launch ensured that the Apollo launch coincided with the opening of the Pegasus launch window, meaning the rocket lifted off at exactly 13:00:00UTC.

73. A-105

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Launchpad LES Abort Tests Pad Abort Test 1

Launchpad LES Abort Tests Pad Abort Test 1 Pad Abort Test 1 was a mission to investigate the effects on the Apollo spacecraft during an abort from the pad. It took place between SA-4 and 5. The flight featured a production model LES

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

Pad Abort Test 1 LES Rocket only N/A Unmanned November 7th 1963, 16:00UTC White Sands LC-36 November 7th 1963, 16:02UTC 2 minutes 45 seconds 2.51km 2.82km

and a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft, the first mission to feature one. The spacecraft carried no instruments for measuring structural loads, as the capsule's boilerplate structure did not represent that of a real spacecraft. The LES separated after fifteen seconds with the spacecraft now on a ballistic trajectory. The parachute system worked perfectly with the drogue chute stabilizing the spacecraft, followed by the three main parachutes that slowed the descent to 26 kilometres per hour. 74. The LES firing in Pad Abort Test 1

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Launchpad LES Abort Tests Pad Abort Test 2

Pad Abort Test 2 Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

Pad Abort Test 2 LES Rocket only N/A Unmanned June 29th 1965, 13:00UTC White Sands LC-36 June 29th 1965, 13:02UTC 1 minute 52 seconds 2.32km 2.82km

Apollo Pad Abort Test 2 was another mission that flight-tested the capability of the launch escape system (LES) to provide a safe recovery of the Apollo crew in an emergency. This flight was the second test of the launch escape system with the abort initiated from the launch pad.

Although one of the parachute cables was kinked, the Earth landing system functioned properly. The test was fully successful and all planned objectives were fulfilled.

75. Pad Abort Test 2

76. The LES from the Little Joe II QTV (See overleaf)

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Little Joe II LES Abort Tests QTV

Little Joe II LES Abort Tests QTV QTV (Qualification Test Vehicle) of the Apollo Little Joe II rocket was the first test flight in 1963. The Little Joe II Qualification Test Vehicle was launched on its first flight from

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

Little Joe II QTV Little Joe II N/A Unmanned August 28th 1963, 16:00UTC White Sands LC-36 August 28th 1963, 16:05UTC ~5 minutes ~14km 7.32km

White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The mission objectives were to prove that Little Joe II was a suitable rocket for Apollo tests. It met all the mission objectives.

77. The Little Joe II QTV

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Little Joe II LES Abort Tests A-001

A-001 Mission A-001 was the Designation second in the series of Launch Vehicle tests conducted to LV Designation Crew demonstrate that the Launch Date launch escape system Launch Site could safely remove Landing Date the command module Duration under emergency Distance Travelled abort conditions. This Apogee mission occurred after Pad Abort Test 1 (See Page 72).

A-001 Little Joe II N/A Unmanned May 13th 1964 13:00UTC White Sands LC-36 May 13th 1964 13:06UTC 5 minutes 50 seconds 6.82km 9.08km

The launch vehicle was the second in the series of Little Joe II vehicles, which had been developed to test the LES. The spacecraft consisted of a launch escape system and a boilerplate command and service module (BP-12). The launch was delayed 24 hours due to weather conditions. Launch was successful, but there were two issues. Firstly, the CSM sustained damage following re-contact with the rocket, and secondly the third landing parachute failed to open. Other than this, the mission was a success. 78. A-001

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Little Joe II LES Abort Tests A-002

A-002 Mission A-002 was Designation A-002 another abort test to Launch Vehicle Little Joe II demonstrate that the LV Designation N/A launch system would Crew Unmanned perform satisfactorily Launch Date December 8th 1964, 15:00UTC Launch Site White Sands LC-36 under selected critical Landing Date December 8th 1964, 15:07UTC abort conditions. The Duration 7 minutes 23 seconds main objective of this Distance Travelled 9.99km mission was to test the Apogee 15.35km abort capability of the LES during the maximum dynamic pressure region of the launch trajectory As before, the Apollo spacecraft was simulated by a boilerplate command and service module. The earth landing system was modified from the previous configuration by the installation of two parachutes instead of a single parachute.

79. A-002

However, an incorrect sum was used in the data system, resulting in the manoeuvre being initiated 2.4 seconds early. Although the planned test point was not achieved, this actually caused a higher dynamic pressure than intended.

The abort conditions obtained were more than adequate in verifying the abort effectiveness at the maximum dynamic pressure.

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Little Joe II LES Abort Tests A-003

A-003 Apollo mission A-003 was the fourth mission to demonstrate the abort capability of the Apollo launch escape system. This flight was designed to test the LES from a very high altitude.

Designation A-003 Launch Vehicle Little Joe II LV Designation N/A Crew Unmanned Launch Date May 19th 1965, 13:01UTC Launch Site White Sands LC-36 Landing Date May 19th 1965, 13:06UTC Duration 5 minutes 3 seconds Distance Travelled 5.55km Apogee 6.04km Several minor changes were made to the boilerplate spacecraft to make it more similar to the one that would actually be used during the Apollo Program. Within 2.5 seconds after liftoff, a launch malfunction caused the vehicle to go out of control, rolling at a rate of 260 degrees per second. The LES deployed and survived the severe environment, and safely pulled the boilerplate spacecraft away from the rocket as it exploded. Because of the early launch vehicle breakup, the desired altitude of 37 km was not reached. However, the spacecraft did demonstrate a successful low-altitude abort. The mission was a failure, but it was still extremely useful. 80. The breakup of A-003

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Little Joe II LES Abort Tests A-004

A-004 Mission A-004 was designed to demonstrate that the launch escape vehicle would satisfactorily orient and stabilize itself after being subjected to a high rate of tumbling.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Distance Travelled Apogee

A-004 Little Joe II N/A Unmanned January 20th 1966, 15:17UTC White Sands LC-36 January 20th 1966, 15:24UTC 6 minutes 50 seconds 34.63km 23.83km

The vehicle was launched after several postponements due to technical difficulties and adverse weather conditions. The pitch-up manoeuvre was commanded from the ground when telemetry showed that the desired altitude and velocity conditions had been reached. All systems performed satisfactorily, and the mission was a success.

81. A-004

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Unmanned Missions AS-201

Unmanned Missions AS-201 AS-201 was the first unmanned test flight of an entire Apollo Command/Service Module and the Saturn IB launch vehicle.

Designation AS-201 Launch Vehicle Saturn IB LV Designation SA-201 Crew Unmanned Launch Date February 26th 1966, 16:12UTC Launch Site Cape Canaveral LC-34 Landing Date February 26th 1966, 16:49UTC The key objectives were Duration 37 minutes 19 seconds to verify the Saturn IB’s Distance Travelled 8477km 492.1km electrical and propulsion Apogee systems, to test structural compatibility between the CSM and the rocket, to demonstrate the life support in the CSM (and to test heat shields) and to test mission control and recovery. Following the first launch attempt, the onboard computer aborted the launch with 4 seconds left due to a drop in fuel pressure. A day later, the launch was successfully completed. There were several failures regarding the landing: The steering control and telemetry malfunctioned. This was easily fixed, however.

82. AS-201

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Unmanned Missions AS-203

AS-203 AS-203 carried no Apollo Designation AS-203 Command/Service Launch Vehicle Saturn IB Module spacecraft, as its LV Designation SA-203 purpose was to test the Crew Unmanned S-IVB’s restart capability Launch Date July 5th 1966, 14:53UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B that would later be used Launch Site July 5th 1966 ~21:00UTC in the Apollo program to Decay Date Landing Date N/A boost astronauts from Duration ~6 Hours their Earth orbit to the Apogee 190km Moon. Another purpose of the flight was to investigate the effects of weightlessness on the liquid hydrogen fuel in the second-stage tank. It successfully achieved its objectives, but the rocket was accidentally destroyed after four orbits. In 1966, it was decided that AS203 would be launched before AS-202, as the CSM that was to be flown on AS-202 was delayed. The explosion cause was unknown, but it was probably a leak in the fuel tank ignited by a spark. The rocket was seen in several pieces following a loss in communication. Despite the destruction of the stage, the mission was classified as a success

83. AS-203

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Unmanned Missions AS-202

AS-202 AS-202 was the first flight that included the spacecraft Guidance and Navigation system and fuel cells. The flight’s success enabled NASA to judge the Block I Apollo Spacecraft as fit to carry humans.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Apogee

AS-202 Saturn IB SA-202 Unmanned August 25th 1966, 17:15UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 August 25th 1966, 18:48UTC 1 hour, 33 minutes 1,142.9km The flight was also designed to test out the heat shield by subjecting it to 260 megajoules per square meter. Over the course of the re-entry, it reportedly generated enough energy to power Los Angeles for a minute. The whole flight was fully successful.

84. AS-202

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 1

Apollo 1 Apollo 1 was the first manned mission of the Apollo Program. The planned LEO test of the Apollo CSM was never made, because a cabin fire during a rehearsal at Cape Canaveral LC-34 killed all three crewmembers and destroyed the CM. The name Apollo 1, coined by the crew, was officially retired by NASA in memoriam. The unused Saturn IB launch vehicle was later used on Apollo 5.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 1 (AS-204)

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew

Saturn IB SA-204 (unused) Virgil "Gus" Grissom - Cmdr. Edward H. White - Senior Pilot Roger Chaffee -Pilot February 21st 1967 Cape Canaveral LC-37B January 27th 1967, 23:31UTC ~2 weeks

Planned Launch Launch Site Destroyed Planned Duration

Crew Primary Crew: Command Pilot Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom Senior Pilot

Edward H. White II

Pilot

Roger B. Chaffee

Backup Crew: 85. The crew of Apollo 1

Command Pilot James A. McDivitt Senior Pilot

David R. Scott

Pilot

Russell L. "Rusty" Schweickart

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 1

Mission Background AS-204 was to be the first manned test flight of the Apollo CSM to LEO, launched on a Saturn IB rocket. The mission was designed to test launch operations, ground tracking and control facilities and the performance of the rocket and spacecraft. It should have lasted up to two weeks, depending on the performance of the spacecraft. On March 21st 1966, NASA stated that Grissom, White and Chaffee had been selected to fly the first manned mission of the Apollo Program. At the time, NASA was studying the possibility of flying the first Apollo mission as a joint space rendezvous with the final Project Gemini mission, Gemini 12 in November 1966 (See page 31).

Accident The launch simulation on January 27th 1967 was known as a "plugs-out". It was designed to test whether the spacecraft would be able to run on its own power when disconnected from other sources. The test was very important if the launch window was to be met. The 86. The Apollo 1 burnt-out capsule interior test was considered nonhazardous because there was no fuel present and no cryogenics were engaged.

There were several immediately noticeable problems during the test. One of these problems was with the communications loop connecting the crew, the Operations Building and the LC-34 Control Room. The problems led Grissom to remark: "How are we going to get to the Moon if we can't talk between three buildings?" These problems led to several long pauses. The crewmembers were using one of these said pauses to run through their checklists, when a voltage transient was recorded at 23:30:54UTC. Ten seconds

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 1

later at 23:31:04UTC, Chaffee exclaimed "Hey!", and scuffling was heard through his microphone. White then exclaimed, "I've got a fire in the cockpit!� Flames were seen licking camera lenses as White attempted to open the hatch. The final voice transmission is believed to have come from Chaffee at 23:31:12UTC. A voice cried, "Fire in the cockpit! There's a bad fire!" The sound of the craft’s hull rupturing was heard immediately afterwards, followed by "I'm burning up!" and a scream. The transmission then ended abruptly at 6:31:21, only 17 seconds after the first report of fire. The cabin had ruptured due to rapidly expanding gases from the blaze.

87. The remains of Grissom's pressure suit

Flames and gases then rushed outside the CM through open access panels to two levels of the pad service structure. Intense heat, dense smoke, and ineffective gas masks designed for toxic fumes rather than heavy smoke hampered the ground crew's attempts to rescue the men. There were fears that the fire might ignite the solid fuel rockets in the LES above the Command Module, which would have killed all nearby ground personnel. It took five minutes to open the three hatch layers, by which time it was much too late. As the smoke cleared, ground workers found the bodies but were not able to remove them. The fire had partly welded together Grissom and White's space suits and the hoses connecting them to the life support system. Grissom had removed his restraints and was lying on the floor of the

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spacecraft. White's restraints were burned through, and he was found lying sideways just below the hatch. It took over 90 minutes to free their bodies due to the melted strands of nylon. It was determined that White had tried to open the hatch, but was not able to do so against the internal pressure. Chaffee was found strapped into his right-hand seat, as procedure called for him to maintain communication until the hatch was open. All three astronauts were awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor posthumously. Ed White had been the first American to perform a spacewalk (EVA) in the earlier Gemini Program.

Investigations There were many investigations and reviews carried out by the U.S. Senate and by NASA, but the ignition source could not be conclusively identified. Even so, the astronauts' deaths were attributed to a wide range of lethal design and construction flaws in the early Apollo Command Module. Manned Apollo flights were suspended for 20 months while these problems were corrected.

89. NASA directors testify before a Senate hearing

This included the removal of many flammable materials, and the installation of explosive bolts and a different air mixture was suggested. NASA declined both suggestions, citing excess weight and accidental opening respectively. Outwards opening hatches were also suggested, although NASA argued that this could lead to accidents in space.

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 4

Apollo 4 Apollo 4 was the first test flight for the Saturn V, the most advanced rocket in the Saturn line. Apollo 4 flew without a crew, and was called an "all-up test", meaning all rocket stages and spacecraft would be fully functional.

Designation Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Duration Apogee

Apollo 4 (AS-501) Saturn V AS-501 Unmanned November 9th1967, 12:00UTC Kennedy LC-39A November 9th 1967, 20:37UTC 8 hours, 37 minutes 18,092km

The launch, on November 9, 1967, was the first from the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The mission lasted almost nine hours, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean, achieving all mission goals. NASA deemed the mission a complete success, simply because it proved the Saturn V worked. Many pictures were taken by the spacecraft, including the one below.

90. The launch of Apollo 4

91. The Earth, as seen by Apollo 4

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 5

Apollo 5 Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 5

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Crew Launch Date Launch Site Deactivated Duration Orbits Completed Apogee

Saturn IB SA-204 Unmanned January 22nd 1968, 22:48UTC Cape Canaveral LC-37B January 23rd 1968, 9:58 UTC 11 hours, 10 minutes 7 222km

The Apollo 5 mission tested the Lunar Module in a space environment, in particular its descent and ascent engine systems. The mission also performed a "fire in the hole" test (as depicted in the mission's insignia) in which the ascent stage engine would be fired while still attached to the descent stage. This

was intended to simulate a landing abort during descent to the lunar surface. The Saturn IB worked perfectly. After two orbits, the first planned 39 second descent engine burn was started, but aborted by the onboard guidance computer after only 4 seconds. The decision was taken to run the test manually instead. Despite the programming errors, the mission was deemed a success.

92. The launch of Apollo 5

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Unmanned Missions Apollo 6

Apollo 6 Apollo 6 was originally intended to send a CSM plus a Lunar Module Test craft towards the Moon. However, the Moon would not be in position for a translunar flight, so instead the Service Module engines would fire, to simulate a return at the velocity of a translunar flight.

Designation Apollo 6 Launch Vehicle Saturn V LV Designation AS-502 Crew Unmanned Launch Date April 4th 1968, 12:00UTC Launch Site Kennedy LC-39A Landing Date April 4th 1968, 21:57UTC Duration 9 hours, 57 minutes Orbits Completed 3 Apogee 22,204km Two minutes into the flight, the rocket experienced severe pogo oscillations (see Glossary) for about 30 seconds. Several components fell from the rocket. Due to the errors at launch, the CSM and rocket were inserted into an orbit 17km below where intended. Just before the Translunar Injection (TLI), the rocket failed to restart. It was decided to use the Service Module engine to raise the spacecraft into a high orbit, in order to complete some of the mission objectives by simulating re-entry at the speed of a lunar return. The craft was unable to reach the required speed of 11,000m/s, but managed 10,000m/s. This was not an issue, as Apollo 4 had already shown re-entry capabilities. 93. The launch of Apollo 6

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Manned Missions Apollo 7

Manned Missions Apollo 7 “Dedication and commitment to yourself, your family, your country and your life’s goals… will ensure that you… be the one who determines the path you will travel…” R. Walter Cunningham

Apollo 7 was the first mission in the United States' Apollo program to carry a crew into space. It was also the first American space flight to carry astronauts into LEO. It carried out the mission that Apollo 1 was originally designed to do.

Crew Primary Crew:

Designation Insignia

Apollo 7

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Orbits Completed Apogee

Saturn IB AS-205 “Apollo 7” October 11th 1968, 15:02UTC Cape Canaveral LC-34 16,519kg October 22nd 1968, 11:11UTC North Atlantic Ocean 10 days, 20 hours, 9 minutes 163 300km

Commander

Walter M. Schirra

CSM Pilot

Don F. Eisele

LM Pilot

R. Walter Cunningham

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Backup Crew: Commander

Thomas P. Stafford

CSM Pilot

John W. Young

LM Pilot

Eugene A. Cernan

Mission Objectives Apollo 7 was effectively a test flight. After the January 1967 Apollo 1 fire, the CSM had been overhauled and redesigned, and the crew would test the new systems. This was an "openmission", meaning it would be extended as it passed each test, and remain in orbit up to 11 days. No Lunar Module was attached.

Flight The launch was fully successful. Once orbit was reached, the crew practiced a simulated LM 95. The launch of Apollo 7 rendezvous and docking. One of the adapter panels on the S-IVB failed to open to its 45 degree position. Had this been an actual lunar mission, the astronauts would have found severe difficulty in removing the LM. Because of this, an option was added to completely jettison panels on future flights. The CSM hardware worked well, and the SPS on the Service Module made eight firings. Interestingly, as the Saturn IB had performed very smoothly during launch, the astronauts were completely unprepared for the sudden violent jolt they received when they activated 96. The S-IVB with partially closed panel on right

the SPS.

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To combat the effects of space on muscle cramps, an exercise device known as an “Exer-Genie” was provided. Another event was the first live television broadcast from an American spacecraft

Issues in Space Although the astronauts’ cabin was larger than that of the Gemini program, a mission of nearly two 97. A still from the first live TV broadcast weeks tested them severely. Right from the launch, when mission control chose a particularly risky abort plan, there was tension between the crew and the ground staff. Once in orbit, the large cabin caused some motion sickness, which had not been an issue in the earlier, smaller spacecraft. The crew was also unhappy with their food selections, particularly their high-energy sweets. They found 30 minutes to use a toilet unreasonable (and very smelly). Undoubtedly, the worst problem occurred when Schirra developed a severe cold. As a result, he became irritable and uncooperative regarding requests from Mission Control and all three astronauts began talking aggressively to the CAPCOM. One example (quoted from NASA) is when the crew was asked to turn a TV camera on. CAPCOM is Jack Swigert (who later flew on Apollo 13) and CAPCOM 1 is Derek Kent “Deke” Slayton (who later 98. The cramped CM interior

flew in the Apollo-Soyuz program):

SCHIRRA: You've added two burns to this flight schedule, and you've

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added a urine water dump; and we have a new vehicle up here, and I can tell you at this point TV will be delayed without any further discussion until after the rendezvous. CAPCOM: Roger. Copy. SCHIRRA: Roger. CAPCOM 1: Apollo 7, this is CAPCOM number 1. SCHIRRA: Roger. CAPCOM 1: All we've agreed to do on this is flip it SCHIRRA: ... with two commanders, Apollo 7 CAPCOM 1: All we have agreed to on this particular pass is to flip the switch on. No other activity is associated with TV; I think we are still obligated to do that. SCHIRRA: We do not have the equipment out; we have not had an opportunity to follow setting; we have not eaten at this point. At this point, I have a cold. I refuse to foul up our time lines this way.

Another issue was that Schirra wanted to conduct re-entry and landing with their helmets off, which had never been done before. This was because he thought that there was a risk that their eardrums might burst due to sinus pressure from their illness, and he wanted them to be able to pinch their noses to equalize the increasing pressure as their altitude decreased. This would have been impossible wearing them, as the new Apollo helmets did not have a moveable visor, unlike previous helmets. However, on repeated occasions during the mission, Schirra was told that the helmets should be worn for safety reasons. In the final conversation on the topic, the CAPCOMs made it very clear to Schirra that he would be expected to explain why he had disobeyed instructions:

99. Part of the original transmission logs, showing the conflict between crew and mission control

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CAPCOM 1: Okay. I think you ought to clearly understand there is absolutely no experience at all with landing without the helmet on. SCHIRRA: And there no experience with the helmet either on that one. CAPCOM: That one we've got a lot of experience with, yes. SCHIRRA: If we had an open visor, I might go along with that. CAPCOM: Okay. I guess you better be prepared to discuss in some detail when we land why we haven't got them on. I think you're too late now to do much about it. SCHIRRA: That's affirmative. I don't think anybody down there has worn the helmets as much as we have. CAPCOM: Yes. SCHIRRA: We tried them on this morning. CAPCOM: Understand that. The only thing we're concerned about is the landing. We couldn't care less about the re-entry. But it's your neck, and I hope you don't break it. SCHIRRA: Thank you, babe. CAPCOM: Over and out.

Terse conversations such as this led to Eisele and Cunningham being rejected for future missions; Schirra had already announced his retirement from NASA.

After the Flight Despite the difficulties between the crew and Mission Control, the mission successfully met all objectives, clearing Apollo 8 for its moon mission two months later. Apollo 7 was Project Apollo's only human spaceflight mission to launch from Cape Kennedy Air Force Station's Launch Complex 34, as all following missions were launched from LC- 39 at the Kennedy 100. R. Walter Cunningham Space Center. LC-34 was declared redundant and decommissioned in 1969. As of 2014, Cunningham is the only surviving member of the crew. Eisele died in 1987 and Schirra in 2007. They were all

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awarded NASA’s Distinguished Service Medal in October 2008. Former Flight Director Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., who was in conflict with the crew during the mission, said to Cunningham: "We gave you a hard time once but you certainly survived that and have done extremely well since... I am frankly, very proud to call you a friend."

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Apollo 8 “We came all this way to explore the moon, and the most important thing is that we discovered the earth.” William Anders

Apollo 8 was the second manned mission in the Apollo program. It became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Moon and orbit it. The crew became the first to see the whole planet, and then the first to see the far side of the Moon. This was also the first manned launch from the John F. Kennedy Space Center.

Crew Primary Crew:

Designation Insignia

Apollo 8

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Orbits Completed Apogee

Saturn V AS-503 “Apollo 8” December 21st 1968, 12:51UTC Kennedy LC-39A 28,870kg December 27th 1968, 15:51UTC Mid Pacific Ocean 6 days, 3 hours, 42 seconds 10 112.4km

Commander

Frank F. Borman, II

CSM Pilot

James A. Lovell, Jr.

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

William A. Anders

Commander

Neil A. Armstrong

CSM Pilot

Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin

LM Pilot

Fred W. Haise, Jr.

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Before the Flight Apollo 8 was originally planned as a second Lunar Module/Command Module test. In August 1968, the mission was changed to a more challenging Command Module-only lunar-orbital flight, because the Lunar Module (LM) was not yet ready to make its first flight. This meant that the crew had three months less training than originally intended. On September 9, the crew entered the simulators to begin their preparation for the flight. By the time the mission flew, the crew had spent seven hours training for every actual hour of flight

102. Apollo 8 on the launchpad

The Outbound Trip The launch experienced only a couple of minor problems: The engines of the first stage, S-IC, burned for 2.45 seconds longer than planned, and towards the end of the second stage burn, the rocket experienced pogo oscillations. Apollo 8 was launched into an initial orbit with an apogee of 185.18km. This was followed by a Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) burn of the S-IVB third stage for 318 seconds, accelerating the spacecraft from an orbital velocity of 7,793 m/s to the injection velocity of 10,822 m/s,] which set a record for the highest speed, that 103. The launch of Apollo 8

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humans had ever travelled. The third stage of the rocket, S-IVB, assisted in driving the craft into Earth orbit but remained attached to later perform the TLI burn that would put the spacecraft on a trajectory to the Moon. After the S-IVB had performed its required tasks, it was jettisoned. As the crew rotated the spacecraft, they had their first views of the 104. The Earth seen from Apollo 8 Earth as they moved away from it. This marked the first time humans could view the whole Earth at once. Borman became worried that the S-IVB was staying too close to the Command/Service Module and asked Mission Control if they could perform a separating manoeuvre. Discussions led to the missions dropping an hour behind schedule. 11 hours into the flight, the crew had been awake for over 16 hours. Borman was given clearance to sleep, however he found it difficult. About an hour after starting his sleep shift, Borman requested clearance to take a sleeping pill. The pill had little effect, and possibly caused an allergic reaction, demonstrating to NASA the difficulties of cleaning up in space! This illness was later attributed to Space Adaption Syndrome, which affects a lot of astronauts. The larger cabin space did not help.

Lunar Orbit The SPS ignited 69 hours after launch and burned for 4 minutes and 13 seconds, placing the Apollo 8 spacecraft in orbit 105. The jettisoned SIV-B around the Moon. The crew described the burn as being the longest four minutes of their lives, because if the burn had not lasted exactly the correct amount of time, the spacecraft could have ended up in a highly elliptical lunar orbit or even flung off into space. If it lasted too long they could have struck the Moon.

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After reporting on the status of the spacecraft, Lovell gave the first description of the Moon’s surface: “The Moon is essentially grey, no colour; looks like plaster of Paris or sort of a greyish beach sand. We can see quite a bit of detail. The Sea of Fertility doesn't stand out as well here as it does back on Earth. There's not as much contrast between that and the surrounding craters. 106. The lunar surface, seen from Apollo 8 The craters are all rounded off. There's quite a few of them, some of them are newer. Many of them look like—especially the round ones—look like hit by meteorites or projectiles of some sort. Langrenus is quite a huge crater; it's got a central cone to it. The walls of the crater are terraced, about six or seven different terraces on the way down.” One of the crew's major tasks was to check future landing sites, especially one in Mare Tranquillitatis that would be where Armstrong and Aldrin would land in Apollo 11. A film camera had been set up in one of the spacecraft windows to record a frame every second of the Moon below. Bill Anders spent much of the next 20 hours taking as many photographs as possible of targets of interest. Perhaps most famously he took a picture of the Earth appearing over the Moon’s horizon, known as “Earthrise” (which appears inside the cover of this book. As they rounded the Moon on Christmas Eve, each man on board read a section from Book of Genesis. Borman finished the broadcast by wishing a Merry Christmas to everyone on Earth. It became the most watched TV broadcast of all time. After this, the crew performed a Trans-Earth Injection. The TEI was the most critical burn of the flight, as any failure of the SPS would strand the crew in lunar orbit, with no chance of escape. The burn occurred perfectly. The crew then spent 2 days returning to Earth, before successfully landing in the Pacific Ocean.

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Apollo 9 “As you pass from sunlight into darkness and back again… for the first time in your life you feel the precious unity of the Earth and all the living things it supports.” Russell 'Rusty' Schweikart

Apollo 9 was the third manned mission Apollo Program and the first flight of the CSM with the LM. The crew spent ten days in low Earth orbit. They performed the first manned flight of a LM, the first docking and extraction of a LM, two spacewalks (EVA

Crew Primary Crew:

Designation Insignia

Apollo 9

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Apogee

Saturn V AS-504 CSM: “Gumdrop” LM: “Spider” March 3rd 1969, 16:00UTC Kennedy LC-39A 26,801kg March 13th 1969, 17:00UTC North Atlantic Ocean 10 days, 1 hours, 54 seconds 192.4km

Commander

James A. McDivitt

CSM Pilot

David R. Scott

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Russell L. Schweickart

Commander

Charles Conrad Jr.

CSM Pilot

Richard F. Gordon Jr.

LM Pilot

Clifton C. Williams

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Mission Overview Apollo 9 was the first space test of the complete Apollo spacecraft, including the Lunar Module. It was also the first space docking of two vehicles with a crew transfer. This showed that the Apollo spacecraft were up to this critical task, on which the lives of lunar landing crews would depend. 108. Russell Schweickart during the EVA Notably, this was the first Apollo flight in which the crew was allowed to name their own spacecraft. The gangly LM was named Spider, and the CSM was labelled Gumdrop because of the Command Module's shape, and also the blue wrapping in which the craft arrived at Kennedy Space Center. These names were required as radio call signs when the vehicles flew independently.

During the mission, Schweickart and Scott performed an EVA—Schweickart tested the new Apollo spacesuit, the first to have its own life support system rather than being attached to the spacecraft, while Scott filmed him from the Command Module hatch. McDivitt and Schweickart later test-flew the LM, and practiced separation and docking manoeuvers in Earth orbit. This was fully successful. The splashdown point was 290km east of the Bahamas, in the Atlantic Ocean. 109. The LM during practice manoeuvers

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Apollo 10 “Another hundred years may pass before we understand the true significance of Apollo. Lunar exploration was… a key to unlocking dreams as yet undreamed...” Eugene Cernan, “The Last Man on the Moon”, 2000

This was the fourth Apollo mission. Its purpose was to be a dress rehearsal for the Apollo 11 moon landing, testing all the relevant apparatus without actually landing. The LM came to within 15.6 km of the lunar surface. Apollo 10 set the world record for the highest speed attained by a manned vehicle at 39,897 km/h during the return from the Moon.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 10

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Saturn V AS-505 C: “Charlie Brown” L: “Snoopy” May 18th 1969, 16:49UTC Kennedy LC-39B 42,775kg May 26th 1969, 16:52UTC Mid Pacific Ocean 8 days, 3 minutes, 23 seconds 4

Crew Commander

Thomas P. Stafford

CSM Pilot

John W. Young

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Eugene A. Cernan

Commander

L. Gordon Cooper Jr.

CSM Pilot

Donn F. Eisele 110. The crew of Apollo 9

LM Pilot

Clifton C. Williams

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Mission Overview Apollo 10 brought Stafford and Cernan's Lunar Module Snoopy to 15.6 km from the lunar surface. This was where the powered descent would begin on the actual landing. Practicing this approach orbit would refine knowledge of the lunar gravity. Except for that final stretch, the mission went exactly as a landing would have gone, both in the spacecraft and on the ground, providing valuable training to mission control crews. Shortly after leaving low Earth orbit, the Command/Service Module separated from the S-IVB stage, turned around, and docked its nose to the top of the Lunar Module still nestled in the S-IVB. The CSM/LM stack then separated from the S-IVB for the trip to the Moon. 111. The launch of Apollo 9

Apollo 10 also carried a colour TV camera, and made the first live, colour broadcasts from space. When they had reached the Moon, Young remained in the Command Module (CM) while Stafford and Cernan flew separately in the LM. The LM crew checked out their craft's radar and ascent engine, rode 112. Earthrise from Apollo 9

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113. The Apollo 10 LM descending

out a momentary gyration in the lunar lander's motion (due to a faulty switch setting), and surveyed the Apollo 11 landing site in the Sea of Tranquillity. The ascent engine was loaded with less fuel than normal, to account for the fact that the LM had not descended fully. When testing the Abort Guidance System, the Lunar Module began to roll violently due to the crew accidentally duplicating commands into the flight computer. Cernan explained in an interview that he saw the lunar horizon rotate “eight or so times in fifteen seconds� through the window, before Thomas Stafford shut the whole computer down and switched to manual control. It was later calculated that if the roll had been stopped just a few seconds later, orbital inertia would have been lost and the LM would have crashed into the lunar surface. The live network broadcasts caught Cernan and Stafford swearing, much to the outrage of several TV viewers! NASA downplayed the incident, but the astronauts were five seconds away from being killed. The return journey was the fastest ever travelled by human beings, at 39,897 km/h. The CM landed in the South Pacific Ocean, near Samoa.

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Apollo 11 “Houston, Apollo 11 . . . I've got the world in my window.” Michael Collins

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin), making it perhaps the most famous space mission in history. Apollo 11 ended the Space Race (See page 25) and fulfilled assassinated president John F. Kennedy’s promise that the US would land a man on the moon “before this decade is out”.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 11

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign

Saturn V AS-506 CSM: “Columbia” LM: “Eagle” Moon: “Tranquillity Base” July 16th 1969, 13:32UTC Kennedy LC-39A 43,898kg July 24th 1969, 16:50UTC North Pacific Ocean 8 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes 30

Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Primary Crew: Commander

Neil A. Armstrong

CSM Pilot

Michael Collins

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Edwin "Buzz" E. Aldrin, Jr.

Commander

James A. Lovell, Jr.

CSM Pilot

William A. Anders

LM Pilot

Fred W. Haise, Jr.

114. The Apollo 11 crew

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Launch and TLI Several million people watched the launch across the world. Saturn V AS-506 launched Apollo 11 from Launch Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. It entered orbit twelve minutes later. During the second orbit, the S-IVB pushed the spacecraft onto its trajectory toward the Moon with the TLI burn. Half an hour later, the CSM pair separated from the Saturn V and docked with the Lunar Module, which was stored behind the SM. After the Lunar Module was extracted, the combined spacecraft headed for the Moon. Once the crew had reached the Moon, they made thirty orbits around it, and they were able to see their landing site in the Sea of Tranquillity (Mare Tranquillitatis. It had been chosen because of how flat it was. On July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module Eagle separated from the Command Module Columbia. Collins, alone aboard Columbia, inspected Eagle as it pirouetted before him to ensure the craft was not damaged

Lunar Descent and Landing As the descent began, the crew noted that they were passing landmarks four seconds early. This meant that they actually landed several miles west of their intended landing site. Five minutes into the descent burn, the LM navigation and guidance computer returned "1202" and "1201" program alarms. The program alarms indicated "executive overflows", meaning the guidance computer could not complete all 115. The Apollo 11 LM descending tasks in time and needed to postpone some of them. Computer engineer Jack Garman said to Mission Control that it was safe to continue the descent, and the crew was told this. The cause of these errors was later identified as a mistakenly placed rendezvous radar switch, which bombarded the computer with incorrect signals. This meant that it was being forced to work at 115% of its processing capacity.

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th

116. The launch of Apollo 11, July 16 1969

Apollo 11

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The guidance computers used during the Apollo Program only had 2KB of RAM (1 threemillionth of the RAM of my computer) and a 36KB hard drive (1 thirty-millionth of the ROM of my computer). They landed with around 25 seconds of fuel left, less than for 117. The Apollo Guidance Computer

other missions. Charles Duke, CAPCOM during the landing phase, acknowledged the landing by saying "We copy you down, Eagle." Armstrong replied: "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." This change of call sign was actually unrehearsed, and Duke tripped up on the name as he replied: "Roger, TwanTranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot." Two and a half hours after landing, before preparations began for the EVA, Aldrin broadcast that: "This is the LM pilot. I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours and to give thanks in his or her own way." He then took communion privately. At this time, NASA was still under legal attack after broadcasting a reading from the Book of Genesis on Apollo 8 from Madalyn Murray O'Hair, the founder of American Atheists. NASA’s actions were seen as state endorsement of religion, which violates their constitution. As such, Aldrin chose to refrain from directly mentioning taking communion on the Moon. Aldrin’s church holds possession of the chalice used.

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Lunar Surface Operations The astronauts had a limited 60o view through their windows, but they were still able to plan the locations of the EASEP and the Flag Assembly. At 02:39UTC on Monday July 21st 1969, Armstrong opened the hatch, and at 02:51UTC began his descent to the lunar surface. He wore the A7L 118. A map of Tranquility Base, showing craters and photographs spacesuit and his PLSS (Portable Life Support System). While climbing down the nine-rung ladder, Armstrong opened the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) folded against Eagle's side and activated the TV camera, and at exactly 02:56:15UTC he set his left foot on the surface of the Moon. This was the first time in several billion years of existence that any creature from Earth set foot on another celestial body. Despite some technical and weather difficulties, ethereal black and white images of the first lunar EVA were received and broadcast to at least 600 million people on Earth, approximately 119. Neil Armstrong descending the LM's ladder one-sixth of the human race.

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Although copies of this video in broadcast format were saved, the original recordings were accidentally destroyed. The Lunar dust was described as "very finegrained" and "almost like a powder," by Armstrong as he first saw it. Then he stepped off the Eagle's footpad and said perhaps one of the most famous lines in history: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind". Aldrin then joined him, describing the view as "Magnificent desolation." Armstrong actually said: "That's one small step for a man", but the “a� was not clear in any recordings, perhaps due to static. 120. Buzz Aldrin on the Moon

About seven minutes after stepping onto the Moon's surface, Armstrong collected a small soil sample, which he tucked into a pocket on his right thigh. This was to guarantee there would be at least one sample of lunar soil returned in the event of the EVA being aborted in an emergency. Armstrong said that moving in the lunar gravity, one-sixth of Earth's, was "even perhaps easier than the simulations ... It's absolutely no trouble to walk around.� They tested various methods for moving around, including twofooted kangaroo hops. The PLSS backpack caused the astronauts to tip backwards, but neither astronaut had any major problems maintaining balance. Walking/jumping with large strides became the preferred method of movement. The astronauts reported that they needed to plan their movements six or seven steps ahead because of the

121. Neil Armstrong saluting the flag

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Moon’s weak gravity and the slippery soil. The astronauts planted a specially designed U.S. Flag on the lunar surface (see page 57), in front of the TV camera. Later in the mission, US President Richard Nixon spoke to them in a conversation, which he called "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House.� Nixon originally had a much long speech prepared to read during the phone call, but Frank Borman, who was at the White House as a NASA liaison convinced Nixon to keep his words brief, to respect the lunar landing as President Kennedy's legacy rather than his own. They deployed the EASEP, (see page 56), and then Armstrong walked 60 m from the LM to snap photos at the rim of Little West Crater while Aldrin collected two core tubes. The astronauts then collected rock samples using scoops and tongs on extension handles. Many of the surface activities took longer than expected.

122. The Apollo 11 EASEP being deployed

Three new minerals were discovered when the rock samples were brought back: armalcolite (named after the three astronauts), tranquillityite, and pyroxferroite. All three of these minerals have since been found on Earth (but tranquillityite only very recently in 2011). The astronauts brought back 22kg of samples.

123. An armalcolite sample, first discovered on the Moon

As mementos, they also left an American flag, an Apollo 1 mission patch, and a plaque bearing two drawings of Earth, an inscription, and signatures of the astronauts and the President. The inscription read:

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“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon, July 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all mankind.”

They left behind a memorial bag containing a gold replica of an olive branch as a traditional symbol of peace and a silicon message disk. The disk carried goodwill statements by Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon and messages from 73 different world leaders. The disc carried a listing of various US 124. The plaque left on the Moon politicians involved in the mission. Aldrin said that the items also included Soviet medals commemorating Soviet Cosmonauts Vladimir Komarov and Yuri Gagarin.

Neil Armstrong also carried a piece of wood from the Wright brothers' airplane's left propeller (see page 17) and a piece of fabric from its wing, along with a pin badge which had been intended to be worn on Apollo 1. Following the fire, the astronauts’ widows gave it to Armstrong.

“In Event of Moon Disaster” A poignant speech called “In Event of Moon Disaster” was written by journalist William Safire for President Nixon to read on television if the Apollo 125. Part of the original text of the speech 11 astronauts were stranded on the Moon. According to the plans, Mission Control would "close down communications" with the LM, and a clergyman would have commended the astronauts’ souls to "the deepest of the deep”,

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similar to burial at sea. The president would also telephone the astronauts’ widows. This is an extract from that speech: “Fate has ordained that the men who went to the moon to explore in peace will stay on the moon to rest in peace. These brave men, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, know that there is no hope for their recovery. But they also know that there is hope for mankind in their sacrifice. These two men are laying down their lives in mankind's most noble goal: the search for truth and understanding. They will be mourned by their families and friends; they will be mourned by the nation; they will be mourned by the people of the world; they will be mourned by a Mother Earth that dared send two of her sons into the unknown. In their exploration, they stirred the people of the world to feel as one; in their sacrifice, they bind more tightly the brotherhood of man. In ancient days, men looked at the stars and saw their heroes in the constellations. In modern times, we do much the same, but our heroes are epic men of flesh and blood. Others will follow, and surely find their way home. Man's search will not be denied. But these men were the first, and they will remain the foremost in our hearts. For every human being who looks up at the moon in the nights to come will know that there is some corner of another world that is forever mankind.” Both astronauts later stated that, faced with this scenario, they would not have stopped trying to fix the LM. Contrary to popular belief, they did not carry cyanide pills, so the alternative would have been slow suffocation. Collins would have been forced to return on his own. Fortunately, not a single astronaut has ever been lost in space, and the speech was never needed.

Return to Earth Once they had transferred to the LM’s life support system, the astronauts lightened the LM for return to lunar orbit by throwing out their PLSSs and boots, along with a camera and other equipment. They then repressurized the LM, and went to sleep.

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Aldrin accidentally broke a circuit breaker that would arm the ascent engine while he was moving about. There was concern this would prevent firing the engine, stranding them on the Moon. Fortunately, they were able to reactivate it with a felt-tip pen. Had this not worked, the LM circuitry could instead have been reconfigured to allow for take-off. At 17:54UTC, the crew lifted off in Eagle's ascent stage to re-join Michael Collins aboard the Columbia. During the launch, Aldrin s aw the exhaust from the ascent module's engine knock over the American flag they had planted. Future Apollo missions planted the flag at least 30m away from the LM to prevent this happening again. 127. The CM being recovered

After rendezvous with Columbia, Eagle's ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit. NASA worked out that the orbit would have decayed in several months, and that it had impacted on the lunar surface. On July 24, the astronauts returned home aboard the Command Module Columbia just before dawn. They were immediately placed in BIGs (Biological Isolation Garments) and transported to the aircraft carrier the USS Hornet, where they were placed into the MQF (See page 55). This was to prevent the spread of any pathogens from the Moon. Quarantine was discontinued following Apollo 14 when it was proven that there was no life on the Moon.

128. The astronauts under quarantine

President Richard Nixon was aboard the USS Hornet to welcome the astronauts back to Earth. After Nixon departed, the Hornet was brought alongside the CM and the ship’s crane lifted it aboard. The Hornet sailed for Pearl Harbor. From here, the CM and MQF were flown to the Johnson Space Center. On August 10th, 1969, the astronauts exited quarantine. They soon went on a tour of the US.

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Apollo 12 “This is the Moon; that is the Earth. I'm really here!” Alan Bean

Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the Apollo Program. It followed Apollo 11 in landing on the Moon, four months after Armstrong and Aldrin’s first steps on the lunar surface. The crew undertook around 31 hours of lunar surface activity in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms). They visited the wreckage of the Surveyor 3 probe.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 12

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign

Saturn V AS-507 CSM: “Yankee Clipper” LM: “Intrepid” November 14th 1969, 16:22UTC Kennedy LC-39A 44,073kg November 24th 1969, 20:58UTC South Pacific Ocean 10 days, 4 hours, 36 minutes 45

Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Primary Crew: Commander

Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr.

CSM Pilot

Richard F. Gordon Jr.

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Alan L. Bean

Commander

David R. Scott

CSM Pilot

Alfred M. Worden

LM Pilot

James B. Irwin

129. The Apollo 12 crew

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Launch, TLI and Lunar Landing Apollo 12 launched on schedule from Kennedy Space Center, during a rain shower. 36.5 seconds after lift-off, lightning struck the vehicle and was conducted down to the earth through the Saturn V’s ionized exhaust plume. This caused protective circuits on the SM’s fuel cell to detect and overload, bringing them offline along with much of the CSM instrumentation. A second strike at 52 seconds after launch disabled the attitude indicator. This also led to multiple power failures, lighting up the majority of warning lights on the control panel. Mission Control lost telemetry from the rocket. The vehicle still continued to fly correctly, however.

130. The Apollo 12 launch

EECOM John Aaron remembered this telemetry failure pattern from an earlier test, when a “power supply malfunctioned in the CSM Signal Conditioning Equipment (SCE)”. The SCE converts signal instrumentation signals to standard voltages for the spacecraft instrument displays and telemetry transmitters. Aaron said, "Try SCE to aux." This would switch the SCE to a backup power supply. The switch was obscure and neither FLIGHT Gerald Griffin, nor CAPCOM Gerald Carr, nor Commander Conrad immediately recognized it. Alan Bean, however, remembered the SCE switch from a training incident a year earlier, and he put the fuel cells back online. The launch continued successfully. Once in earth parking orbit, the crew carefully checked out their spacecraft before re-igniting the S-IVB third stage for trans-lunar injection. The lightning strikes had caused no serious permanent damage. Initially, it was feared that the lightning strike could have caused the Command Module's (CM) parachute mechanism to prematurely fire, disabling the explosive bolts that open the parachute compartment to deploy them. This would have killed the crew upon re-entry. Since there was no way to test the parachutes without landing, ground controllers decided not to tell the

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astronauts about the possibility. Fortunately, the parachutes deployed as normal at the end of the mission. The CSM/LM stack separated from the S-IVB and continued on to the Moon. The Apollo 12 mission landed in an area of the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) that had previously been visited by several unmanned missions (Luna 5, Surveyor 3, and Ranger 7). Because of this, some named the area Mare Cognitum (Literally “the known sea”). 131. The Surveyor 3 probe The landing site would be listed as Statio Cognitum on lunar maps. Unlike Apollo 11, where Neil Armstrong had to use the manual control to direct his lander (quite inaccurately), Apollo 12 succeeded in landing within walking distance of the Surveyor 3 probe, which had landed on the Moon 17 months earlier. This is the only occasion in which humans have recovered a probe sent to land on another world.

Lunar Surface Operations Conrad’s first words as he stepped onto the Moon were, "Whoopie! Man, that may have been a small one for Neil, but that's a long one for me”. He was considerably shorter than Armstrong was, and had made a $500 bet with reporter Oriana Fallaci that he would say these words. He never received the money!

132. The Apollo 12 LM

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A colour TV camera was carried to the Moon, to improve upon the quality of Apollo 11’s black and white footage. Unfortunately, when Bean carried the camera to where it should have been set up, he accidentally directed it at the Sun, destroying part of it and ending TV coverage. Conrad and Bean removed pieces of the Surveyor 3 probe to be taken back to Earth for analysis. It is also claimed that bacteria known as Streptococcus mitis were found to have inadvertently contaminated the spacecraft's camera prior to launch and survived dormant in the near-vacuum of space for 2 years. However, this finding has since been disputed, as there were many other opportunities for contamination. Conrad and Bean also collected 34.35kg of rocks and set up the ALSEP station (See page 56). The astronauts also took many photographs, although Bean accidentally left several rolls of exposed film on the lunar surface.

Return The crew stayed in orbit for a day, taking photographs, before heading back to Earth. On the way back, they witnessed a solar eclipse, as the Earth was blocking the Sun. They landed around 500km east of American Samoa. During splashdown, a 16mm film camera dislodged from storage and struck Bean in the forehead, rendering him briefly unconscious. He suffered a mild concussion and needed six stitches. They were recovered by the USS Hornet. 133. The solar eclipse seen by Apollo 12

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Apollo 13 “Okay, Houston, we've had a problem here….” Jack Swigert

“It looks to me… that we are venting something. We are venting something into the — into the space…” Jim Lovell

Apollo 13 was one of the most famous Apollo missions. It launched normally, but an oxygen tank exploded two days into the mission, crippling the SM and forcing the crew to travel in the LM, making a Moon landing impossible. Despite serious difficulties, the crew returned safely four days later, in one of the most famous recovery missions in history. Primary Crew:

Designation Insignia

Apollo 13

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Saturn V AS-508 CSM: “Odyssey” LM: “Aquarius” April 11th 1970, 19:13UTC Kennedy LC-39A 43,982kg April 17th 1970, 18:07UTC South Pacific Ocean 5 days, 22 hours, 54 minutes 1

Commander

James A. Lovell Jr.

CSM Pilot

John L. Swigert

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Fred w. Haise Jr.

Commander

John W. Young

CSM Pilot

T. Kenneth Mattingly (ex-1st CSMP)

LM Pilot

James B. Irwin

134. The Apollo 13 crew

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Launch and TLI The mission was launched at 19:13UTC on April 11th. The central second stage engine shut down about 2 minutes early. The outer four engines and the third-stage engine burned longer to compensate for the loss in thrust, and the vehicle still achieved its 190km orbit, followed by a TLI an hour later that went successfully. The cause of the engine shutdown was severe pogo oscillations (68 g) happening 16 times per second over three inches or frame. The computer turned off the engine for safety. The crew removed the LM from the S-IVB and continued towards the Moon.

135. The launch of Apollo 13

Oxygen tank explosion Approximately 320,000km into the flight, Mission Control asked Swigert to turn on the hydrogen and oxygen tank stirring fans, which were designed to keep the tanks tidy. Ninety-three seconds later, a very loud noise was heard, accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power. The crew initially thought that a piece of debris or rock might have struck the Lunar Module. In actual fact, the number 2 oxygen tank had exploded. This was caused by damaged electrical insulation. The resulting pressure inside the compartment damaged the bolts attaching the outer aluminium covering. Over the next 130 minutes, the oxygen leaked into space, entirely depleting the SM's supply.

136. The damage on the SM (seen after jettison)

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The fuel cells require oxygen to generate power, so they shut down and left the Command Module on limited-duration battery power. The crew was forced to shut down the CM completely and use the LM as a "lifeboat.”

Crew survival and return journey The damage to the Service Module made safe return from a lunar landing impossible, so FLIGHT Gene Kranz ordered an abort of the mission. There were three possible abort options: 1. Turn the ship around immediately, and head back to Earth. This would require a 1,853 m/s change in 137. The rescue options for Apollo 13 velocity, and was considered dangerous and impractical. This would also require the LM to be jettisoned, which the crew was relying on for oxygen. 2. Burn the SM’s SPS fuel to depletion, and jettison it, using the LM’s fuel to complete the burn. This would take a longer route, but would keep the LM. It was decided, however, that the SM provided protection to the CM’s heat shield (which would be needed for re-entry) and it was not jettisoned. 3. Continue a flight around the Moon, using its gravity as a slingshot and lining the ship up for a return to Earth. Although this would take longer, it was the safest option of the three. Kranz chose option 3. Apollo 13 lined itself up to orbit the Moon again, as it had gone off course during the accident. Considerable ingenuity under extreme pressure was required from the crew, flight controllers, and 138. Mission Control staff trying to make a replacement air filter

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support personnel for the safe return. The developing drama was shown on television, but because electrical power was limited, no more live TV broadcasts were made. The Lunar Module consumables were intended to sustain two people for a day and a half, not three people for four days. Oxygen was the least critical consumable because the LM carried enough to re-pressurize the LM after each surface EVA. Unlike the CSM, which was powered by fuel cells (generating electricity and water), the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries, so electrical power and water (used for equipment cooling as well as drinking) were critical consumables. The LM was powered down to the lowest levels possible. In particular, the LM's Abort Guidance System was used instead of the primary guidance system, as it used less power and water. Availability of lithium hydroxide for removing carbon dioxide presented a serious problem. The LM's internal stock of LiOH canisters was not sufficient to 139. The replacement air scrubber being fitted support the crew until return, and the remainder was stored in the descent stage, out of reach. The CM had an adequate supply of canisters, but these were incompatible with the LM. Engineers on the ground improvised a way to join the cube-shaped CM canisters to the LM's cylindrical canister-sockets by drawing air through them with a hose.

Re-entry and splashdown As Apollo 13 neared Earth, the crew first jettisoned the Service Module so pictures could be taken for later analysis. It was then that the crew were surprised to see for the first time that the outer panel had been blown off.

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According to the analysts, these pictures also showed the antenna damage and possibly an upward tilt to the fuel cell shelf above the oxygen tank compartment. Finally, the crew jettisoned the Lunar and continued in the CM. The re-entry on a lunar mission normally was accompanied by about four minutes of typical communications blackout caused by ionization of the air around the Command Module. The blackout in Apollo 13's re-entry lasted six minutes, which caused serious concern. The possibility of heat-shield damage from the O2 tank rupture was distressing for ground crews.

140. Apollo 13 splashdown

However, Odyssey regained radio contact and splashed down safely just southwest of American Samoa and close to the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima. The crew was in good condition except for Haise, who was suffering from a serious urinary tract infection because of insufficient water intake. As a joke following the successful splashdown, Grumman pilot Sam Greenberg (whose company built the LM) issued a jovial invoice for $400,540.05 to North American Rockwell (who built the CSM), for "towing" the crippled ship most of the way to the Moon and back. He charged 141. The Apollo 13 crew being recovered $1.00 per mile, plus $4.00 for the first mile. An extra $536.05 was included for battery charging, oxygen, and an "additional guest in room" (the CSM pilot).

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Manned Missions Apollo 14

Apollo 14 “When I first looked back at the Earth, standing on the Moon, I cried.” Alan Shepard

Apollo 14 was the third mission to land on the Moon. Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation; this had originally been the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. During the two lunar EVAs, 42kg of samples were collected. Shepard famously hit two golf balls on the lunar surface, which travelled for miles, as there was little gravity and no air resistance.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 14

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign

Saturn V AS-509 CSM “Kitty Hawk” LM “Antares” Moon “Fra Mauro Base” January 31st 1971, 21:03UTC Kennedy LC-39A 44,504kg February 9th 1971, 21:05UTC South Pacific Ocean 9 days, 2 minutes 34

Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Primary Crew: Commander

Alan B. Shepard Jr.

CSM Pilot

Stuart A. Roosa

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Edgar D. Mitchell

Commander

Eugene A. Cernan

CSM Pilot

Ronald E. Evans Jr.

LM Pilot

Joe H. Engle

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Launch, TLI and Descent Apollo 14 launched during heavy cloud cover, but NASA had long range cameras, which allowed them to see what happened. Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and the US Vice President Spiro T. Agnew both visited Mission Control afterwards. There were major issues in docking the CSM with the LM. The crew spent 1 hour and 42 minutes attempting the manoeuvre, before they finally succeeded. 143. The Apollo 14 launch The LM then had two major problems. Firstly, the LM computer continually sent ABORT signals. This would have aborted any attempt at a lunar landing had it not been fixed. Mission Control determined that this was caused by a piece of solder floating around. They decided to reprogram the computer to ignore the command, which involved dictating over 80 keystrokes to Mitchell. He succeeded just in the nick of time for the descent.

A second problem occurred during the powered descent, when the LM radar altimeter failed to lock automatically onto the Moon's surface, depriving the navigation computer of vital information on the vehicle altitude and groundspeed. Eventually the radar re-acquired a signal at 5,500m, again just in time. Shepard then manually landed the LM, the closest a landing in the Apollo Program. Even if the radar hadn’t turned back on, Shepard would still have attempted to land manually, although NASA later said that this would have an extremely low success chance.

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Lunar Surface Operations Shepard and Mitchell named their landing site Fra Mauro Base. Shepard's first words, after stepping onto the lunar surface were, "And it's been a long way, but we're here." Unlike the previous two landing, Shepard had taken several steps before speaking.

Shepard's A7L was the first to have red stripes on the arms and legs and on the top of the lunar helmet. This avoided the confusion between the Commander and the LM Pilot that there had been on Apollo 11 and Apollo 12. This feature is still in use today on the ISS, and was used in every subsequent NASA mission. 144. Alan Shepard with the flag

Shepard and Mitchell took two moonwalks on the Moon, planting the ALSEP (with new seismic experiments) and using the Modular Equipment Transporter (See page 58) to transport samples. Altogether, they collected 45kg of rock. Shepard famously took a golf club and two balls to the moon. He had to make one-armed swings. He said that the second ball went "miles and miles and miles" although later estimated the distance to be between 180m and 370m). On the second EVA, they tried to reach the rim of the 300 m wide Cone Crater. The two astronauts had great difficulty finding it, as Mitchell had a good mental map

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145. The tracks left by the MET


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of the area in his head, but Shepard thought that they were much further north. The Commander’s decision was final, and they ended up turning around just 20m short of the rim. This was the longest distance on foot ever made on the lunar surface (although the Lunar Rover (See page 58) in later missions allowed them to travel further by vehicle.)

146. Shepard with his makeshift golf club

Return to Earth The Command Module Kitty Hawk splashed down in the South Pacific Ocean, approximately 1,410 km south of American Samoa. After recovery by the ship USS New Orleans, the crew were the last mission to be quarantined. Roosa, who worked in forestry in his youth, took several hundred tree seeds on the flight. These were germinated after the return to Earth, and widely distributed around the world as commemorative Moon trees.

147. The Apollo 14 splashdown

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Manned Missions Apollo 15

Apollo 15 “There's a fundamental truth to our nature, Man must explore… and this is exploration at its greatest.” Dave Scott

Apollo 15 was the fourth mission to land on the Moon. It was the first of the “long stay” missions on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than on previous missions. The mission was the first use of the famous Lunar Rover (See page 58). At the time, NASA called it the most successful manned flight ever achieved.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 15

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Saturn V AS-510 CSM “Endeavour” LM “Falcon” July 26th 1971, 13:34UTC Kennedy LC-39A 46,989kg August 7th 1971, 20:45UTC North Pacific Ocean 12 days, 7 hours, 11 minutes 74

Primary Crew: Commander

David R. Scott

CSM Pilot

Alfred M. Worden

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

James B. Irwin

Commander

Richard F. Gordon Jr.

CSM Pilot

Vance D. Brand

LM Pilot

Harrison Schmitt

148. The Apollo 15 crew

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Pre-Mission Training Originally, Apollo 15 would have been similar in format to Apollo 14. But on September 2, 1970, NASA announced that, due to budget cuts, Apollo 15 was now a longer stay on the Moon. This was because Apollos 18-20 had been cancelled. The crew were given training in geology by Caltech geologist Leon Silver, as it would become much more important on the mission.

149. Scott and Irwin in training

At first Silver would take the astronauts to various geological sites in Arizona and New Mexico but later on crews began to wear mock-ups of the backpacks they would carry, and communicate using walkie-talkies to a CAPCOM in a tent. CSM Pilot Alfred Worden did different training, as he would not actually land on the Moon. He flew over areas in an airplane, simulating the speed at which terrain would pass below him while in orbit. The Site Selection Committees, backed by Scott, decided that the mission would land at Hadley Rille, near which were a group of low, possibly volcanic, domes.

Launch, TLI and Descent Apollo 15 launched from the Kennedy Space Center, at Cape Canaveral. During the launch, the S-IC did not completely shut off following staging for four seconds, creating the possibility of the spent stage banging into the 150. The launch of Apollo 15

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S-II engines, damaging them and forcing an abort. Despite this, the third stage and spacecraft reached its planned Earth parking orbit. A couple of hours into the mission, the third stage performed the TLI burn that sent the spacecraft out of towards the Moon. When un-docking from the CSM was attempted; it did not occur, because of a fault in the hatch mechanism. The CSM Pilot, Alfred Worden, fixed the hatch and the LM then properly separated from the CSM.

151. Irwin saluting the flag

Scott and Irwin then began the descent. Several minutes after descent was initiated, the LM was six kilometres east of the landing target. Scott altered the flight path of the LM so that they touched down within a few hundred meters of the planned landing site. Other than a “Stand-Up� EVA through the top hatch to take photographs by Scott, the crew did not leave the capsule until the next day.

Lunar Surface Operations While the astronauts slept, a steady oxygen leak was detected. Controllers could not determine the exact cause of the leak without awaking the crew. Scott and Irwin eventually were awakened an hour early, and the source of the leak was found to be an open valve on the urine transfer device. 152. The LRV

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Four hours later, Scott and Irwin became the seventh and eighth humans, to walk on the Moon. The unloaded the LRV and drove to Elbow Crater on a 6.5 hour EVA, along the edge of Hadley Rille. They set up the ALSEP before returning to the LM. The target of the second EVA, the next day, was 153. Scott demonstrating Galileo's theory with a hammer and a feather

the edge of Mount Hadley Delta. The astronauts collected many samples, with one known as the "Genesis Rock" being over 4 billion years old. The erected the US flag, finished putting the ALSEP together and returned to the LM. This EVA lasted 7 hours and 12 minutes. On the third EVA, the crew northwest of the landing site to another part of Hadley Rille, where they collected more samples. After returning to the LM's location, Scott performed an experiment using a feather and hammer to demonstrate Galileo's theory that all objects in the same gravity fall at the same rate, regardless of mass. He dropped the hammer and feather at the same time and because of the negligible lunar atmosphere, there was no drag on the feather, which hit the ground at the same time as the hammer. The Rover’s final function was to film the ascent from a short distance away. Before leaving Shepard place the Fallen Astronaut statue. See page In total, the two astronauts spent 18.5 hours outside collected approximately 77kg of samples

Return to Earth A day after leaving the Moon, Worden performed a spacewalk in deep space, the first of its kind, to retrieve some exposed film. At a similar time, Apollo 15 became the longest Apollo Mission of the Program so far.

154. Apollo 15 splashdown with only two chutes

Although one of the three parachutes on the CM failed to deploy properly during re-entry, only two were required for a safe landing. The USS Okinawa recovered the crew.

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Manned Missions Apollo 16

Apollo 16 “I'm proud to be an American, I'll tell you. What a program and what a place and what an experience.” Charlie Duke

Apollo 16 was the penultimate mission to land on the Moon and the first to land outside a lunar mare. The crew spent 71 hours on the lunar surface, and used the LRV (See page 58) for the second time. They collected 95.8kg of samples, most of which were older than on other missions due to the landing site that was chosen.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 16

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Saturn V AS-511 CSM “Casper” LM “Orion” April 16th 1972, 17:54UTC Kennedy LC-39A April 27th 1972, 19:45UTC South Pacific Ocean 11 days, 1 hours, 51 minutes 64

Primary Crew: Commander

John W. Young

CSM Pilot

Thomas K. Mattingly II

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Charlie M. Duke Jr.

Commander

Fred W. Haise Jr.

CSM Pilot

Stuart A. Roosa

LM Pilot

Edgar D. Mitchell

155. The Apollo 16 crew

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Launch, TLI and Descent The launch of Apollo 16 was delayed one month from March 17 to April 16, due to a list of minor technical issues. The launch and TLI went exactly as in previous missions, along with the CSM/LM docking. The crew then noticed the exterior surface of the Lunar Module was giving off particles from where there appeared to be a tear. The problem was not identified and did not seem serious. The LM undocked and prepared to land. It was noticed, however, that there was a malfunction in the SM engines.. According to mission rules, Orion would have then re-docked with Casper, in case Mission Control decided to abort the landing and use the Lunar Module's engines for the return trip to Earth. After several hours of analysis, though, mission controllers determined 156. The launch of Apollo 16 that the malfunction could be worked around and Young and Duke could proceed with the landing. They began their descent from 20.1km (the highest ever) and the LM landed within 500m of the planned site.

Lunar Operations The morning after landing, Young climbed out onto the front of the LM. He descended the ladder and, upon setting foot on the lunar surface, became the ninth human to walk on the Moon. Upon stepping onto the surface, Young expressed his sentiments about being there: "There you are: Mysterious and Unknown Descartes. Highland plains. Apollo 16 is gonna change your image�. Duke soon descended the ladder and joined Young on the surface, becoming the tenth and youngest human to walk on the Moon, at age 157. The LRV

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36. After setting foot on the lunar surface, Duke expressed his excitement, commenting: "Fantastic! Oh, that first foot on the lunar surface is super, Tony!” They unloaded the LRV and set up the ALSEP. They spent four hours collecting samples nearby before driving to Plum Crater, where they picked up the biggest sample of the whole program: “Big Muley”. They then stopped at Buster Crater, did a small film demonstration of the LRV, and returned to the LM. 158. Shadow Rock On the next EVA, the day after, they drove to the Cinco Craters, 3.8 km from the LM, at the top of Stone Mountain. At 152m above the valley floor, the pair were at the highest elevation above the LM of any Apollo mission. They looked at the view, and then visited several other sites to find samples and look for evidence of volcanic activity, before returning to the LM

During the third and final lunar excursion, they were to explore North Ray Crater, the largest of any of the craters any Apollo expedition had visited. After exiting Orion, the pair drove the lunar rover 4.4 km to North Ray Crater. After their arrival, the duo took photographs of the 1 km wide and 230 m deep crater. They visited a large boulder, taller than a four-story building, which became known as 'House Rock'. Samples from this rock disproved all theories of volcanic 159. The LM ascent stage firing

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activity. They also arrived at a 3 m high boulder, which they called 'Shadow Rock'. Here, they sampled permanently shadowed soil. They set a lunar speed record of 17.1km/h on their return to the LM. The rover was then parked to film the lift-off.

Return to Earth After taking off, Young and Duke reached lunar orbit and successfully rendezvoused and re-docked with Mattingly in the Command/Service Module. They then jettisoned the LM and the SPS performed a burn, which sent them back towards Earth. At a distance of about 310,000 km from Earth, Mattingly performed spacewalk, during which he retrieved several film cassettes from the CSM's SIM bay. A small biological experiment (known as MEED) was also set up in the CSM. 160. Mattingly performs a spacewalk

They reached Earth, and splashed down near Christmas Island. The spacecraft and its crew were retrieved by the USS Ticonderoga.

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Manned Missions Apollo 17

Apollo 17 “I'd like to dedicate the first step of Apollo 17 to all those who made it possible.” Gene Cernan

Apollo 17 was the final mission of the Apollo Program, and was the sixth and final landing of humans on the Moon. The decision to land in the Taurus-Littrow valley was made to let the crew sample very old lunar highland material. Apollo 17 broke several records, including the longest manned Apollo flight; the longest total EVA duration; the largest sample haul, and the longest lunar orbit time.

Designation Insignia

Apollo 17

Launch Vehicle LV Designation Callsign Launch Date Launch Site Launch Mass Landing Date Landing Site Duration Lunar Orbits

Saturn V AS-512 CSM“America” LM“Challenger” December 7th 1972, 05:33UTC Kennedy LC-39A 46,980kg December 19th 1972, 19:24UTC South Pacific Ocean 12 days, 13 hours, 52 minutes 75

Primary Crew: Commander

Eugene A. Cernan

CSM Pilot

Ronald E. Evans

LM Pilot Backup Crew:

Harrison H. Schmitt

Commander

John Young

CSM Pilot

Stuart A. Roosa

LM Pilot

Charles Duke

161. The Apollo 17 crew

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Manned Missions Launch, TLI and Descent

Launch, TLI and Descent Apollo 17 launched from launch pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. It was the last manned Saturn V launch and the only night launch. It was delayed by nearly three hours due to a countdown malfunction. A normal orbit was achieved after the launch, which was watched by half a million people nearby. Because the sky was dark, people over 800km away saw the rocket as it flew away from Earth. The CSM/LM docking, TLI and flight to the Moon went normally.

162. The jettisoned S-IVB

Cernan and Schmitt later began their descent to the Taurus-Littrow valley on the lunar surface. Several minutes after the descent phase was initiated, Cernan successfully began to guide the LM to a suitable landing site.

Lunar Surface Operations The first moonwalk of the mission began approximately four hours after landing. The first task of EVA was to offload the LRV (See page 58) and other equipment from the Lunar Module. Cernan accidentally broke the fender on the Rover, which caused them to be covered with dust while driving. The crew then deployed the ALSEP and then departed on the first geologic traverse of the mission, during which they gathered 14kg of samples. 163. Schmitt near a large boulder

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164. The launch of Apollo 13, December 7th 1972: The final launch of the Apollo Program

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On the second EVA, the pair sampled several different types of geologic deposits found in the valley, including orange-coloured soil. They collected 34kg of samples, and deployed three explosive packages, which would later test seismometers. The third moonwalk, the last of the Apollo program, began at 20:26UTC on December 13th. During this excursion, the crew collected 66kg of lunar samples. Before ending the moonwalk, the crew collected a rock and dedicated it to several different nations that were represented in Mission Control Center in Houston at the time. Gene Cernan said, before leaving the Moon for the final time:

165. Eugene Cernan near the flag and LRV

“...I'm on the surface; and, as I take man's last step from the surface, back home for some time to come - but we believe not too long into the future - I'd like to just say what I believe history will record. That America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17."

Return to Earth Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt successfully lifted off from the lunar surface on December 14th. They then docked with the CSM, transferred samples over, and let the LM crash into the Moon so its effects could be recorded by seismometers. Ron Evans made a spacewalk on the way back, to collect some film from the CSM’s instrument bay. On the 19th of December, the SM was jettisoned and the CM landed in the Pacific, where it was recovered by the USS Ticonderoga. 166. The Apollo 17 splashdown

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Legacy of Apollo Later Missions

Legacy of Apollo “In my own view, the important achievement of Apollo was a demonstration that humanity is not forever chained to this planet, and our visions go rather further than that, and our opportunities are unlimited.” Neil Armstrong

Apollo has been described as the “greatest technological achievement in human history”. Apollo helped advance many areas of technology. For example, the flight computer design used in both the lunar and command modules was the driving force behind early research into integrated circuits. Every computer we use today relies on these circuits: without the Apollo Program, we would be decades behind where we are now.

Later Missions

167. The Apollo flight computer

Skylab

168. Skylab

Skylab was the United States' first space station. it orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop and a solar observatory. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a mass of 77,000kg. Three manned missions to the station using the Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB, each delivered a threeastronaut crew. On the last two manned missions, an additional Apollo/Saturn IB stood by ready to rescue the crew if needed.

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Legacy of Apollo Later Missions

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (carried out in July 1975) was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, and the last flight of an Apollo spacecraft. It was designed as a peace gesture between the two nations, and it signalled the end of the Space Race (See page 25).

169. An artist's impression of the Apollo-Soyuz docking

The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments (including an engineered eclipse of the Sun by the Apollo craft to allow Soyuz to view the solar corona). ASTP was the last manned US space mission until the first Space Shuttle flight in April 1981. It was also Deke Slayton's only space flight. He was one of the original Mercury Astronauts (See page 30), but he had been grounded for over a decade due to medical reasons.

Apollo Spin-off Technologies: Medical Technology  Scratch Resistant lenses  Infrared ear thermometers  Space blankets

Safety Equipment  Fire-resistant coatings  Firefighting equipment

Industrial Technology  Cordless tools  Freeze-drying  Powdered lubricants

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Cultural Legacy Later Missions

Cultural Legacy Numerous films, books and TV shows have been based on the events of the Apollo Program. Most people have seen the film “Apollo 13”, and maybe up to a fifth of the world watched television footage of the Apollo 11 landing. But as well as this kind of culture, another was also changed by Apollo: our perception of our existence.

170. The cover of the film Apollo 13

Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on the profound effects that seeing Earth from space has had on them: after the Apollo Program, the view of Earth as a fragile, small planet became much more apparent. The most famous, taken by the Apollo 17 astronauts, is called The Blue Marble, pictured on the next page. While

this photo is majestically beautiful, I think an even better example of humanity’s fragility is the one pictured to the right, taken by Michael Collins on Apollo 11. In the frame of this picture was every human who had ever lived or died up to that point, bar one. Indeed, if we took that photo again today, the same thing could still be said; Apollo was the only time that humans have left Earth orbit.

171. Michael Collins' photo, containing every human bar himself

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Cultural Legacy Later Missions

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APOLLO IN HINDSIGHT Conspiracy Theories

Conspiracy Theories According to various polls, between 6% and 20% of Americans doubt that the Apollo Program actually landed men on the Moon. They are, quite frankly, wrong. It is obvious that their opinions are not based on evidence, or are based on erroneous evidence. If there were a conspiracy, it would have involved over 400,000 people: it would have been impossible to keep the secret. The extraordinary effort that would have been required would have been harder than the landings themselves! For this reason, I am mentioning a few of the conspiracy theories for reference and entertainment, rather than because they hold any weight. There are many theories regarding photographs, many involving visual oddities and the lack of certain features (such as stars in the sky). These have all been demonstrated to be a result of incorrect photo scanning, and the ignorance of the theorists: The (obvious) reason why there are no stars in the photographs is that they were taken during lunar daytime. One amusing conspiracy theory was made by an Australian named Una Ronald, who said that she saw a Coke bottle roll across her TV, showing the Apollo 11 EVA. Not a single other viewer saw this, and her account was riddled with contradictions and inaccuracies. There are numerous others, some talking of radiation, or sound, or wind. However, not a single conspiracy theory has survived rebuttal and scrutiny from people who actually know what they are talking about!

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Conclusion

Conclusion “The Lunar landing of the astronauts is more than a step in history; it is a step in evolution.” NY Times, July 1969

The Apollo Program came and went in just four years. For millennia, humanity had marvelled and looked up at the stars. But now, we look down from them, back onto the Earth. We still marvel, but in a different way; we marvel at our own achievements and our boundless imaginations. In total, over 500 people have left the constraints of our planet and flown into space. Twelve of those people walked on the Moon during the Apollo Program. Without the visions of many people, this would never have happened. Of course, exploration like this does not come without risk. Thirty people have died in-flight and in training, and although they aren’t with us today, they helped advance space exploration just as much as their colleagues who outlived them. As mentioned in the first few words of this book, Neil Armstrong, who was the commander of Apollo 11 and the first man to walk on the Moon, died in 2012. The journey to the Moon is undoubtedly the most epic ever made by a human being. Ever since language was invented, we have marvelled at brave journeys and expeditions into unexplored places. From Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, written around 800BCE, in which Odysseus ventured for ten years across the Hellenic World, to Christopher Columbus’ journeys to America in the late 15th century and Magellan’s global circumnavigation in the early 16th century. These journeys lasted for many years, and the crews underwent extreme hardship, with many not surviving. The Apollo Program’s astronauts were not faced with such extreme tribulations, yet the sheer distances they covered and the uniqueness of their expedition makes it the most amazing by far.

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Conclusion

After Apollo 17, the Program was cancelled. Three more mission had been planned, but budget cuts meant that space exploration was the first to go. Perhaps Apollo had already completed its goals. The views of many people in the US were that the Program had nothing left to do, and was simply a waste of money. Millions were dedicating their time to making the project a success, at a cost of around £100 billion in today’s money. Perhaps those critics were right: Apollo’s primary goal was to send men to the moon and return them, along with samples. This was completed. But could other things have been achieved? I am not too sure. Maybe we could have conducted even more experiments. Maybe we could have attempted a much longer mission, assessing the effects of living on the Moon for a week or more. But probably, Apollo’s time had ended. With the limited technology of the 1970s, there was not much else to be done, let alone safely. NASA, other space agencies and private corporations have now turned their attention to other places. Mars and passing asteroids are now the favourites for manned missions. NASA is confident that it will have landed a man on the Moon by 2035, but some private companies are suggesting a landing before 2020. There is a wide range in plausibility for these various plans! NASA also wants to send a manned mission to an asteroid, although this is much further in the future. The imperative need for humans to spread out across the Cosmos has really been hammered home because of the Apollo Program: our tiny, insignificant, yet infinitely beautiful planet cannot sustain us forever. Indeed, within the next few hundred years, our hydrocarbon fuel reserves will dry up. While solar energy could sustain us temporarily, our only viable option is to expand our frontiers into space. While this will not happen in our lifetimes, I am sure that within the next few thousand years, humans will be spread far across the galaxy. The Apollo Program has changed the future just as much as it has changed the present. We will take not only knowledge from it, but also inspiration, for many centuries to come.

“When old dreams die, new ones come to take their place. God pity a one-dream man.” Robert Goddard

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites

BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites www.airandspace.si.edu/explore-and-learn/topics/apollo/ www.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080413015131AAdzNgK www.apolloarchive.com/ www.apollohq.com/ www.astronomytoday.com/exploration/apollo.html www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/solarsystem/space_missions/apollo_program www.computerweekly.com/feature/Apollo-11-The-computers-that-put-man-on-the-moon www.csgnetwork.com/satorbdatacalc.html www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_1 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_12 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_14 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_15 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_16 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_4 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_5 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_6 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_9 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aviation_in_World_War_I www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnstorming www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_controller www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_aviation www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rockets www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Space_Center www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Launch_escape_system www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Joe_II

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Advisory_Committee_for_Aeronautics www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_(rocket_family) www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_I www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V www.georgesrockets.com/GRP/Scale/DATA/LJoeMain.htm www.google.co.uk/moon/# www.history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/kippsphotos/apollo.html www.honeysucklecreek.net/msfn_missions/Apollo_7_mission/hl_apollo7.html www.honeysucklecreek.net/msfn_missions/Apollo_8_mission/hl_apollo8.html www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/alsj-TEC.html www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4009/contents.htm#Volume%20II www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/AS07_TEC.PDF www.myspacemuseum.com/apollocams.htm www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/a11_audio_db.html www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/nato_countries.htm www.nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo.html www.nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo.html www.reddit.com/r/Apollo www.reddit.com/r/space www.space.com/12771-nasa-apollo-missions-photo-countdown.html www.space.com/18422-apollo-saturn-v-moon-rocket-nasa-infographic.html www.spacechronology.com/1940s.html www.spacekids.co.uk/spacehistory/ www.spacequotations.com/apollo.html www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/09/moondoggle-the-forgotten-opposition-to-theapollo-program/262254/ www.vimeo.com/4366695 www.youtube.com/watch?v=3HrLdLgdhpI www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqeJzItldSQ www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsObsxU08ys Among many others

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Media

Media Apollo 13 Directed by Ron Howard, Starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton. Screenplay by William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert. Based on the book “Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13” by Jim Lovell and J. Kluger

The Log of Apollo 7 Written and Produced by George Van Valkenburg

Apollo 11 Landing Footage (Houston/Eagle) Reproduced by NASA

Apollo 11 Saturn V Launch (HD) Camera E-8 Narrated by Mark Gray

Apollo Launch Abort System Test Footage courtesy of NASA, Narrated by oisiaa

Books Apollo 7 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

Apollo 11 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books

Apollo 13 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

Prominent Greeks of Antiquity Written by George Papadogeorgos

First on the Moon: A Voyage with Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. Written by the crew of Apollo 11

Footprints on the Moon Written by John Barbour

Apollo 12 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

Apollo 9 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

Apollo 10 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcript Prepared by Test Division, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Scans courtesy Glen Swanson

A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts Written by Andrew L. Chaiken

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GLOSSARY Books

GLOSSARY Abort

Cancel a mission, and return quickly and safely to Earth

Aerofoil

A curved structure used as the basic form of the wings, fins, and tails of most aircraft.

Aeronautics

The study of flight and aviation

Apogee

The point at which a spacecraft is furthest from the Earth.

Atmosphere

The envelope of gases surrounding a celestial body

Biplane

A plane whose wings are made of two parallel pieces

Boilerplate

A fake spacecraft with similar dimensions

Capsule Communicator

The man, usually an astronaut, at Mission Control who was tasked with communicating with the astronauts. All radio traffic usually went through him.

Celestial Body

Any discernable, natural object in space.

Command Module

The part of the Apollo Spacecraft in which the astronauts took off, lived and re-entered in.

Command/Service The Apollo spacecraft, which carried astronauts to the Moon. Module Conspiracy Theory A belief that there is a major cover-up or lie being endorsed by the government or other influential organisation. Controlled Flight

A flight whose destination can be decided

Crust

The outer layer of a solid celestial body

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GLOSSARY Books

Cryogenic

Using very low temperatures

Earthrise

The view seen on the Moon as the Earth rises over the lunar horizon.

Electrical, Environmental and Consumables Manager

The Mission Control manager responsible for oxygen, food, water, electrical systems, heating and other components relating to the astronauts’ welfare.

Extra-Vehicular Activity

Activities outside the spacecraft, such as moonwalks or spacewalks

Fuel Cell

A cell producing an electric current direct from a chemical reaction.

Geology

The study of rocks and minerals

Gliding

A type of unpowered but controlled flight

Integrated Circuit

An electronic circuit formed on a small piece of semiconducting material, which performs the same function as a larger circuit made from discrete components.

Ionosphere

An area of the Earth’s atmosphere above 80km

Life Support

Equipment used to maintain one’s vital functions

Low Earth Orbit

Orbit of the Earth at a relatively low apogee

Lunar

Relating to the Moon

Lunar Module

The part of the Apollo Spacecraft that landed the astronauts on the lunar surface.

Mach Manned

The speed of sound (Mach 2 = Mach 1 x 2 etc.) Describes a craft that holds astronauts.

maria

Lower areas on the lunar surface

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GLOSSARY Books

Mars

A nearby planet that is the target of future space missions.

Mascon

An area of high mass concentration that causes gravity increases.

Monoplane

A plane with only one wing on each side

Moon

The Earth’s only natural satellite, and the target of the Apollo Program.

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

NASA’s predecessor, and a pioneering organisation in flight and spaceflight

National Aeronautics and Space Agency

The organisation which ran the Apollo Program

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

A group of politically allied countries in Europe and North America

Orbit

The regularly repeated elliptical course of a celestial object or spacecraft around a celestial body.

Oxidiser

A substance that causes another substance to burn in oxygen

Periselene

The point at which a craft is furthest from the Moon

Pitch Up

To oscillate about a lateral axis perpendicular to the Longitudinal axis and horizontal to the earth.

Planet

A celestial body, which orbits a star or binary system.

Pogo Oscillation

Pogo oscillation is a dangerous type movement in rockets. It results in variations of thrust from the engines, causing variations of acceleration on the rocket's structure, giving variations in fuel pressure and flow rate. It can damage the rocket considerably.

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GLOSSARY Books

Powered Flight

A flight powered by some sort of onboard engine

Random Access Memory

The memory used by a computer to perform calculations

Read-Only Memory

The memory a computer uses for storage of information

Roll

Rotating laterally around the direction of travel

Sample

A piece/bag of rock/dust

Seismic

Relating to the vibrations of a celestial body’s crust

Selene

The Greek Moon goddess

Service Module

The part of the Apollo Spacecraft responsible for providing oxygen, water and electricity and holding food.

Service Propulsion The rocket on the Service Module System S-IVB

The third stage of the Saturn V rocket

Solar System

A system of a star(or two), planets, moon and other objects such as asteroids and comets

Soviet Union

The name for Russia from 1922 to 1991

Soyuz

The Soviet manned spacecraft program

Suborbital

At an altitude below Earth orbit

Synchronous Rotation

A phenomenon in which a moon or planet rotates one degree for every degree it orbits its parent body

Telemetry

The automatic transmission of data.

terrae

Higher areas on the lunar surface

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GLOSSARY Abbreviations

Theia

The proto-planet with collided with Earth to form the Moon

Trans-Earth Injection

An engine blast designed to point a spacecraft towards Earth

Vacuum

An area completely devoid of matter

Wingspan

The distance from the tip of one wing to the other

Zeppelin

A large, hydrogen filled balloon with a gondola for carrying passengers.

Abbreviations SPS CSM LM/LEM SM CM CAPCOM EECOM LES TLI TEI NASA MLP MQF MET NATO USSR RAM ROM PLSS EVA NACA USAF

Service Propulsion System Command/Service Module Lunar (Excursion) Module Service Module Command Module Capsule Communicator Electrical, Environmental and Consumables Manager Launch Escape System Trans-lunar Injection Trans-Earth Injection The National Aeronautics and Space Agency Mobile Launcher Platform Mobile Quarantine Facility Modular Equipment Transporter North Atlantic Treaty Organisation United Soviet Socialist Republic (Soviet Union) Random Access Memory Read-Only Memory Portable Life-Support System Extra-Vehicular Activity The National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics The United States Air Force

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GLOSSARY

TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

TABLE OF FIGURES 0. “Earthrise” – taken by William Anders on Apollo 8 – 1968……………………..………………………………………..….2 1. The first human steps on The Moon ...........................................................................................................4 2b. The patch of the Apollo Program............................................................................................................10 3. Apollo 12 launches from the Kennedy Space Center................................................................................11 4. Buzz Aldrin near a solar wind experiment ................................................................................................11 5. Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee, the Apollo 1 crew who died in a launchpad fire and became the first astronauts to die in service. ..............................................................................................12 6. An artist's impression of the first Montgolfier flight in Paris. ...................................................................14 7. Henri Giffard's airship ...............................................................................................................................14 8. "La France": the first fully controllable airship .........................................................................................15 9. Sir George Cayley’s design for a "governable parachute" ........................................................................16 10. Felix du Temple's "Monoplane" ..............................................................................................................16 11. The Wright Brothers' First Flight .............................................................................................................17 12. The Sopwith Camel, the most successful Allied fighter plane in the First World War ...........................18 13. A Fokker plane, similar to the one used by The Red Baron ....................................................................18 14. Amelia Earhart, a famous barnstormer ..................................................................................................19 15. The Hindenburg Disaster ........................................................................................................................19 16. The gigantic Dornier DO X seaplane. ......................................................................................................20 17. The TsAGI 1-EA single rotor helicopter ...................................................................................................20 18. The Me 163, the first and only rocket-powered combat plane. .............................................................21 19. The NACA's logo ......................................................................................................................................23 20. A map of European Cold War Alliances ..................................................................................................24 21. Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space ........................................................................................................25 22. President Dwight Eisenhower .................................................................................................................27 23. NASA's logo .............................................................................................................................................27 24. The X-15, the fastest manned aircraft in history ....................................................................................29 25. The "Mercury Seven". Back row: Shepard, Grissom, Cooper; front row: Schirra, Slayton, Glenn, Carpenter ......................................................................................................................................................30 26. The Gemini Spacecraft ............................................................................................................................31 27. The launch of Gemini VIII ........................................................................................................................31 28. Ed White performing the first U.S. spacewalk ........................................................................................32 29. An artist's impression of the collision of Earth and Theia ......................................................................34 30. A Soviet map of the Moon's near side ....................................................................................................35 31. The Moon's interior structure.................................................................................................................36 32. Lunar surface composition......................................................................................................................36 33. John Young jumping on the Moon ..........................................................................................................36 34. A diagram showing how a rocket can move in a vacuum .......................................................................38 35. A comparison between liquid-fuel and solid-fuel rockets ......................................................................39 36. The engine of a liquid-fuel rocket ...........................................................................................................40 37. A depiction of an early Chinese rocket ...................................................................................................41

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

38. A portrait of Roger Bacon .......................................................................................................................42 39. Robert Goddard with his rocket .............................................................................................................43 40. A comparison of the four Apollo rockets ................................................................................................45 41. Little Joe II ...............................................................................................................................................46 42. Saturn I ....................................................................................................................................................47 43. Saturn IB..................................................................................................................................................48 44. Saturn V...................................................................................................................................................49 45. A diagram of the Saturn V rocket ...........................................................................................................50 46. A diagram of the Apollo spacecraft ........................................................................................................51 47. The LES tower .........................................................................................................................................51 48. The Apollo CSM .......................................................................................................................................52 49. The CSM above the Moon ......................................................................................................................52 50. A detailed diagram of the LM .................................................................................................................53 51. The Apollo 11 LM descending .................................................................................................................53 52. The crawler-transporter on the crawlerway...........................................................................................54 53. The Mobile Launcher Platform ...............................................................................................................55 54. The Apollo 11 MQF in a museum............................................................................................................55 55. The Apollo 16 ALSEP setup .....................................................................................................................56 56. Alan Shepard planting the U.S. Flag ........................................................................................................57 57. An Apollo Television camera...................................................................................................................57 58. The MET during testing on Earth ............................................................................................................58 59. The Apollo 15 LRV ...................................................................................................................................58 60. Buzz Aldrin wearing the A7L ...................................................................................................................59 61. A diagram of the A7L ..............................................................................................................................59 62. "Fallen Astronaut" and memorial plaque ...............................................................................................60 63. SA-1 .........................................................................................................................................................62 64. SA-2 .........................................................................................................................................................63 65. SA-3 .........................................................................................................................................................64 66. SA-4 .........................................................................................................................................................65 67. SA-5 .........................................................................................................................................................66 68. A-101 .......................................................................................................................................................67 69. A-102 .......................................................................................................................................................68 70. A-103 .......................................................................................................................................................69 71. The Pegasus I satellite .............................................................................................................................69 72. A-104 .......................................................................................................................................................70 73. A-105 .......................................................................................................................................................71 74. The LES firing in Pad Abort Test 1 ...........................................................................................................72 75. Pad Abort Test 2......................................................................................................................................73 76. The LES from the Little Joe II QTV (See overleaf) ....................................................................................73 77. The Little Joe II QTV ................................................................................................................................74 78. A-001 .......................................................................................................................................................75 79. A-002 .......................................................................................................................................................76 80. The breakup of A-003 .............................................................................................................................77 81. A-004 .......................................................................................................................................................78 82. AS-201 .....................................................................................................................................................79 83. AS-203 .....................................................................................................................................................80 84. AS-202 .....................................................................................................................................................81

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GLOSSARY

TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

85. The crew of Apollo 1 ...............................................................................................................................82 86. The Apollo 1 burnt-out capsule interior .................................................................................................83 87. The remains of Grissom's pressure suit ..................................................................................................84 88. The burnt capsule ...................................................................................................................................84 89. NASA directors testify before a Senate hearing .....................................................................................85 90. The launch of Apollo 4 ............................................................................................................................86 91. The Earth, as seen by Apollo 4 ................................................................................................................86 92. The launch of Apollo 5 ............................................................................................................................87 93. The launch of Apollo 6 ............................................................................................................................88 94. The crew of Apollo 7 ...............................................................................................................................89 95. The launch of Apollo 7 ............................................................................................................................90 96. The S-IVB with partially closed panel on right ........................................................................................90 97. A still from the first live TV broadcast.....................................................................................................91 98. The cramped CM interior ........................................................................................................................91 99. Part of the original transmission logs, showing the conflict between crew and mission control ..........92 100. R. Walter Cunningham ..........................................................................................................................93 101. The crew of Apollo 8 .............................................................................................................................95 102. Apollo 8 on the launchpad ....................................................................................................................96 103. The launch of Apollo 8 ..........................................................................................................................96 104. The Earth seen from Apollo 8 ...............................................................................................................97 105. The jettisoned SIV-B ..............................................................................................................................97 106. The lunar surface, seen from Apollo 8 ..................................................................................................98 107. The Apollo 9 crew .................................................................................................................................99 108. Russell Schweickart during the EVA ....................................................................................................100 109. The LM during practice manoeuvers ..................................................................................................100 110. The crew of Apollo 9 ...........................................................................................................................101 111. The launch of Apollo 9 ........................................................................................................................102 112. Earthrise from Apollo 9 .......................................................................................................................102 113. The Apollo 10 LM descending .............................................................................................................103 114. The Apollo 11 crew .............................................................................................................................104 115. The Apollo 11 LM descending .............................................................................................................105 116. The launch of Apollo 11, July 16th 1969 ..............................................................................................106 117. The Apollo Guidance Computer ..........................................................................................................108 118. A map of Tranquility Base, showing craters and photographs ...........................................................109 119. Neil Armstrong descending the LM's ladder.......................................................................................109 120. Buzz Aldrin on the Moon ....................................................................................................................110 121. Neil Armstrong saluting the flag .........................................................................................................110 122. The Apollo 11 EASEP being deployed .................................................................................................111 123. An armalcolite sample, first discovered on the Moon........................................................................111 124. The plaque left on the Moon ..............................................................................................................112 125. Part of the original text of the speech ................................................................................................112 126. The lunar flag being blown over during ascent ..................................................................................113 127. The CM being recovered .....................................................................................................................114 128. The astronauts under quarantine .......................................................................................................114 129. The Apollo 12 crew .............................................................................................................................115 130. The Apollo 12 launch ..........................................................................................................................116 131. The Surveyor 3 probe..........................................................................................................................117

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

132. The Apollo 12 LM ................................................................................................................................117 133. The solar eclipse seen by Apollo 12 ....................................................................................................118 134. The Apollo 13 crew .............................................................................................................................119 135. The launch of Apollo 13 ......................................................................................................................120 136. The damage on the SM (seen after jettison) ......................................................................................120 137. The rescue options for Apollo 13 ........................................................................................................121 138. Mission Control staff trying to make a replacement air filter ............................................................121 139. The replacement air scrubber being fitted .........................................................................................122 140. Apollo 13 splashdown .........................................................................................................................123 141. The Apollo 13 crew being recovered ..................................................................................................123 142. The Apollo 14 crew .............................................................................................................................124 143. The Apollo 14 launch ..........................................................................................................................125 144. Alan Shepard with the flag..................................................................................................................126 145. The tracks left by the MET ..................................................................................................................126 146. Shepard with his makeshift golf club ..................................................................................................127 147. The Apollo 14 splashdown ..................................................................................................................127 148. The Apollo 15 crew .............................................................................................................................128 149. Scott and Irwin in training...................................................................................................................129 150. The launch of Apollo 15 ......................................................................................................................129 151. Irwin saluting the flag .........................................................................................................................130 152. The LRV ...............................................................................................................................................130 153. Scott demonstrating Galileo's theory with a hammer and a feather .................................................131 154. Apollo 15 splashdown with only two chutes ......................................................................................131 155. The Apollo 16 crew .............................................................................................................................132 156. The launch of Apollo 16 ......................................................................................................................133 157. The LRV ...............................................................................................................................................133 158. Shadow Rock .......................................................................................................................................134 159. The LM ascent stage firing ..................................................................................................................134 160. Mattingly performs a spacewalk.........................................................................................................135 161. The Apollo 17 crew .............................................................................................................................136 162. The jettisoned S-IVB ............................................................................................................................137 163. Schmitt near a large boulder ..............................................................................................................137 164. The launch of Apollo 13, December 7th 1972: The final launch of the Apollo Program ....................138 165. Eugene Cernan near the flag and LRV.................................................................................................140 166. The Apollo 17 splashdown ..................................................................................................................140 167. The Apollo flight computer .................................................................................................................142 168. Skylab ..................................................................................................................................................142 169. An artist's impression of the Apollo-Soyuz docking............................................................................143 170. The cover of the film Apollo 13 ...........................................................................................................144 171. Michael Collins' photo, containing every human bar himself ............................................................144 172. The Blue Marble, taken by the Apollo 17 crew ...................................................................................145

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INDEX

TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

INDEX ascent propulsion system · 53 asteroids · 148 astronaut · 60, 110, 113, 142 Atlantic · 19, 62, 89, 99, 100

A A7L · 6, 59, 109, 126, 157 ABORT · 125 Abort Guidance System · 103, 122 aborted · 79, 87, 110, 124, 125 aeronautics · 12 Air Force · 23, 29, 93 aircraft · 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 29, 38, 114, 156 airship · 15, 19, 156 Albert II · 26 Aldrin · 26, 32, 95, 98, 104, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 153, 156, 157, 158 ALSEP · 6, 56, 118, 126, 131, 134, 137, 157 aluminium · 16, 19, 60, 120 America · 12, 24, 136, 140, 147 Anders · 95, 98, 104, 156 apogee · 70, 96 Apollo · 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 25, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157, 158, 159 Apollo 1 · 12, 59, 82, 89, 90 Apollo 10 · 49, 57, 101 Apollo 11 · 4, 34, 49, 55, 56, 57, 98, 101, 103, 104, 105, 112, 115, 117, 118, 126, 144, 147, 152, 153 Apollo 12 · 49, 56, 58, 117, 126 Apollo 13 · 12, 49, 53, 58, 65, 144 Apollo 14 · 49, 58, 129 Apollo 15 · 49, 129 Apollo 16 · 49 Apollo 17 · 49, 144 Apollo 4 · 86 Apollo 5 · 7 Apollo 6 · 48, 49 Apollo 7 · 48, 93, 152 Apollo 8 · 49 Apollo 9 · 49 armalcolite · 111, 158 Armstrong · 4, 11, 12, 26, 95, 98, 104, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 117, 142, 147, 153, 158

B Bacon · 42, 152, 156 balloon · 14, 15 barnstormer · 156 Bean · 58, 115, 116, 118 Blue Marble · 144, 159 bomber · 21 booster · 39, 40, 46 Borman · 95, 97, 98, 111 Brand · 128 Brazil · 19 Britain · 20, 43 broadcast · 91, 98, 108, 109, 158

C Cabral · 19 Camera · 6, 57, 152 CAPCOM · 91, 92, 93, 108, 116, 129, 155 Cape Canaveral · 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 79, 80, 81, 82, 87, 89, 129 carbon · 36, 38, 42, 60, 122 Casper · 132, 133 Cayley · 16, 156 Çelebi · 42 Cernan · 90, 101, 102, 103, 124, 136, 137, 140, 159 Chaffee · 12, 82, 83, 84, 85, 156 Cheremukhin · 20 chimpanzees · 30 Cold War · 5, 24, 25, 26, 156 Collins · 104, 105, 113, 114, 144, 153, 159 Columbia · 104, 105, 114 Columbus · 147, 150 combat · 18, 21, 91, 156 combustion · 16, 39, 40 Command Module · 51, 52, 84, 85, 96, 100, 102, 105, 114, 116, 121, 123, 127, 154, 155 Command/Service Module · 52, 79, 80, 97, 102, 135, 154 commercial · 20

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

communion · 108 composition · 12, 39, 156 computer · 12, 34, 66, 67, 68, 79, 87, 103, 105, 108, 120, 125, 142, 159 Congress · 27 Conrad · 58, 99, 115, 116, 117, 118 conspiracy · 4, 146 Conspiracy · 9, 146 controlled · 15, 16, 17, 21, 23, 39, 42 Cooper · 101, 156 countdown · 137, 151 Coutinho · 19 crater · 98, 134 Crawler-Transporter · 6, 54 crust · 34, 36 CSM · 6, 48, 52, 53, 67, 68, 69, 75, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88, 89, 90, 95, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 115, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 140, 142, 154, 157 Cuba · 24 culture · 12, 144 cyanide · 113

Engle · 124 equipment · 12, 52, 54, 56, 58, 59, 92, 113, 122, 137, 143 EVA · 32, 85, 99, 100, 108, 109, 110, 122, 126, 130, 131, 134, 136, 137, 140, 146, 158 Evans · 124, 136, 140 exhaust · 38, 55, 114, 116 experiment · 131, 135, 156 exploded · 77, 119, 120

F F-35 · 29 Fallaci · 117 far side · 95 fire · 12, 14, 20, 41, 59, 82, 84, 87, 88, 90, 112, 116, 156 First World War · 5, 18, 19, 156 flag · 57, 111, 114, 131, 158, 159 flight · 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 29, 30, 42, 45, 47, 48, 51, 53, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 115, 120, 121, 127, 128, 130, 136, 137, 142, 143, 147, 156, 159 Folie Titon · 14 footage · 12, 118, 144 Fra Mauro · 124, 126 Froissart · 42 Fruit flies · 25 fuel · 21, 32, 38, 39, 40, 48, 62, 64, 65, 67, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 103, 108, 116, 121, 122, 123, 148, 154, 156 fuel cell · 116, 123

D d'Arlandes · 14 de Villette · 14 descent · 53, 72, 87, 102, 105, 109, 122, 125, 130, 133, 137 descent propulsion system · 53 Distinguished Service Medal · 94 docking · 32, 90, 99, 100, 125, 130, 133, 137, 159 Dornier DO X · 20, 156 du Temple · 16, 156 Duke · 108, 132, 133, 135, 136 dust · 110, 137

G Gagarin · 26, 30, 112, 156 Galileo · 131, 159 Garros · 18 geology · 12, 129 Germany · 20, 43 Giffard · 15, 156 Glenn · 30, 156 glider · 16 Goddard · 39, 40, 43, 148, 157 golf · 12, 124, 126, 159 Gordon · 99, 101, 115, 128 Graf · 20 gravity · 36, 102, 110, 121, 124, 131 Grissom · 12, 82, 83, 84, 156, 158 Grumman · 53, 123 gunpowder · 16, 38, 41, 42

E Eagle · 26, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 114, 152 Earhart · 19, 156 Earth · 8, 11, 12, 26, 30, 32, 34, 36, 47, 49, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 63, 64, 67, 68, 73, 80, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 121, 122, 124, 127, 130, 131, 133, 135, 137, 140, 142, 144, 147, 154, 156, 157, 158 Earthrise · 98, 156, 158 EASEP · 56, 109, 111, 158 EECOM · 116, 155 Eisele · 89, 93, 101 Eisenhower · 11, 27, 112, 156 electrical · 32, 79, 120, 122 England · 16

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations 117, 119, 121, 124, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 144, 147, 148 Langley · 27 launch · 4, 26, 31, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 55, 57, 62, 64, 65, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 82, 83, 86, 88, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 105, 114, 116, 118, 129, 133, 137, 156, 158, 159 Launch Escape System · 6, 51, 67, 155 launchpad · 12, 51, 55, 156, 158 Le Bris · 16 Leon Silver · 129 LES · 7, 46, 51, 67, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 84, 155, 157 life support · 59, 79, 84, 100, 113 lightning · 116 Lindbergh · 19 Little Joe II · 45, 46, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 LM · 48, 53, 58, 89, 90, 95, 96, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 140, 155, 157, 158, 159 Lockheed Martin · 29 Lovell · 95, 98, 104, 119, 152 LRV · 58, 131, 132, 134, 137, 157, 159 Luna · 26, 117 lunar · 11, 32, 35, 36, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 87, 88, 90, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 140, 142, 146, 151, 158 Lunar Flag Assembly · 6, 57 Lunar Module · 6, 52, 53, 58, 59, 87, 88, 90, 96, 100, 102, 103, 105, 120, 122, 133, 137, 154 Lunokhod · 59

H Hadley · 60, 129, 131 Hadley Rille · 60, 129, 131 Haise · 95, 104, 119, 123, 132 Hasselblad · 57 hatch · 84, 85, 100, 109, 130 helicopter · 20, 156 helmet · 59, 93, 126 Hoeydonck · 60 Homer · 147 Hot Air · 5, 14 Houston · 104, 108, 119, 140, 152 Human Spaceflight · 11 hydrogen · 14, 19, 36, 40, 48, 66, 80, 120

I ignition · 39, 85 impact · 21, 34, 35, 36 injection · 96, 116 insignia · 87 integrated circuits · 142 iron · 36 Irwin · 115, 119, 128, 130, 131, 159

J Jardin des Tuileries · 14 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier · 14 jet · 20, 21, 29, 38 jettison · 90, 121, 159

M Mach 1 · 29 Magellan · 147, 150 manned · 4, 11, 14, 17, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 42, 45, 48, 66, 82, 83, 95, 99, 101, 115, 128, 136, 137, 142, 143, 148, 156 manoeuvre · 31, 76, 78, 97 mare · 132 Mare Cognitum · 117 Mare Tranquillitatis · 98, 105 Mars · 4, 34, 148 Mattingly · 119, 132, 135, 159 McDivitt · 82, 99, 100 Me 163 · 21, 156 micrometeorite · 69 military · 18, 23, 27, 42 mission control · 79, 91, 102, 158 Mitchell · 124, 125, 126, 132 Mobile Launcher Platform · 6, 55, 157 Mobile Quarantine Facility · 6, 55

K Kennedy · 11, 49, 86, 88, 93, 95, 99, 100, 101, 104, 105, 111, 112, 115, 116, 119, 124, 128, 129, 132, 136, 137, 150, 156 killed · 12, 18, 82, 84, 103, 116 King Louis XVI · 14 Kraft · 94 Krebs · 15

L La France · 15, 156 Laika · 26 L'Albatros artificiel · 16 landing · 4, 11, 20, 26, 31, 42, 53, 56, 73, 75, 76, 79, 87, 92, 93, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 108, 111, 115,

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

Modular Equipment Transporter · 6, 58, 126 monkey · 26 Monoplane · 16, 156 Montgolfier · 14, 156 Moon · 4, 11, 151 motion sickness · 91

Project Gemini · 5, 30, 31, 83 Project Highwater · 63, 64 Project Mercury · 5, 11, 30 propellant · 38, 39, 40, 64 pyroxferroite · 111

R

N

radar · 21, 102, 105, 125 radiation · 57, 146 record · 20, 32, 49, 96, 98, 101, 135, 140 recovery · 55, 73, 79, 113, 119, 123, 127 Red Baron · 18, 156 re-entry · 52, 81, 88, 92, 93, 116, 121, 123, 131 Renard · 15 rendezvous · 32, 83, 90, 92, 105, 114 Réveillon · 14 Rio de Janeiro · 19 Robert · 14, 39, 43, 148, 157 rock · 12, 34, 58, 111, 120, 126, 134, 140 rocket · 6, 21, 25, 26, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 52, 54, 55, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 71, 74, 75, 77, 79, 80, 83, 86, 88, 96, 97, 116, 137, 142, 151, 154, 156, 157 Roosa · 124, 127, 132, 136

NACA · 5, 23, 27, 29, 156 NASA · 4, 5, 13, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 31, 47, 54, 55, 59, 63, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 91, 93, 94, 97, 103, 108, 111, 114, 125, 126, 128, 129, 148, 151, 152, 156, 158 Newton · 38 nitrate · 38, 42 North Ray Crater · 134 nuclear · 24 Number 21 · 17

O Ocean of Storms · 115, 117 Oceanus Procellarum · 115, 117 Odysseus · 147 Operations · 8, 83, 109, 117, 126, 130, 133, 137 orbit · 24, 26, 30, 31, 34, 36, 47, 49, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 80, 88, 90, 91, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 121, 129, 130, 135, 136, 137, 144 Orion · 132, 133, 134 Orteig Prize · 19 oxygen · 36, 60, 119, 120, 121, 123, 130

S saltpetre · 42 sample · 110, 134, 136, 158 samples · 4, 12, 58, 111, 124, 126, 131, 132, 134, 137, 140, 148 satellite · 26, 27, 34, 69, 70, 71, 157 Saturn I · 6, 45, 47, 48, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 157 Saturn IB · 6, 45, 47, 48, 54, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 89, 90, 142, 157 Saturn V · 6, 40, 45, 49, 54, 55, 86, 88, 95, 99, 101, 104, 105, 115, 116, 119, 124, 128, 132, 136, 137, 142, 152, 157 SCE · 116 Schmitt · 128, 136, 137, 140, 159 Schweickart · 82, 99, 100, 158 Scott · 82, 99, 100, 115, 128, 129, 130, 131, 159 Sea of Tranquillity · 103, 105 Service Module · 47, 52, 88, 90, 121, 122, 154, 155 Shepard · 11, 30, 124, 125, 126, 127, 131, 156, 157, 159 S-IC · 96, 129 sites · 12, 35, 98, 129, 134 S-IVB · 48, 80, 90, 96, 97, 102, 105, 116, 117, 120, 154, 158, 159 Skylab · 8, 48, 52, 59, 142, 159 Slayton · 91, 143, 156

P parachute · 72, 73, 75, 76, 116, 156 Paris · 14, 98, 156 Pegasus · 7, 69, 70, 71, 157 Pegoud · 18 photograph · 17 plane · 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 29, 156 planet · 4, 34, 95, 112, 142, 144, 147, 148 PLSS · 109, 110 pogo oscillations · 88, 96, 120 Portugal · 19 potassium · 36, 42 powered · 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 29, 54, 58, 102, 122, 125, 156 President · 11, 27, 55, 111, 112, 114, 125, 156 pressure · 39, 59, 67, 76, 79, 85, 92, 120, 121, 154, 158 Program · 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 25, 29, 30, 34, 36, 40, 45, 51, 53, 54, 59, 62, 67, 69, 70, 77, 82, 83, 85, 99, 108, 115, 125, 131, 136, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 152, 153, 159

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TABLE OF FIGURES Abbreviations

SM · 105, 116, 119, 120, 121, 133, 140, 155, 159 smoke · 84 soil · 36, 110, 111, 135, 140 solar energy · 148 solid-fuel · 39, 156 Solid-Fuel · 6, 38 South Pole-Aitken Basin · 35 Soviet · 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 112, 143, 156 Soyuz · 8, 51, 52, 91, 143, 159 Space Adaption Syndrome · 97 Space Race · 5, 24, 25, 26, 104, 143 space shuttle · 40 spacecraft · 11, 26, 31, 32, 38, 46, 52, 54, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 102, 105, 116, 118, 130, 135, 143, 154, 157 spacesuit · 59, 60, 100, 109 splashdown · 8, 52, 55, 100, 118, 122, 123, 159 SPS · 90, 97, 98, 121, 135, 154 Sputnik · 26, 27 Stafford · 90, 101, 102, 103 stars · 113, 146, 147 Statio Cognitum · 117 steam · 15, 16 stirring · 120 Stringfellow · 16 sulphur · 38, 42 Sun · 34, 118, 143 Surveyor 3 · 115, 117, 118, 158 Swedenborg · 15 Swigert · 91, 119, 120

Una Ronald · 146 unmanned · 16, 17, 30, 32, 45, 46, 48, 79, 87, 117, 142 untethered · 14 USS Hornet · 114, 118 USS New Orleans · 127 USS Ticonderoga · 135, 140

V vacuum · 36, 38, 118, 156 Vehicle Assembly Building · 54, 55 velocity · 39, 78, 88, 96, 121 video · 12, 110 von Braun · 49 von Richthofen · 18

W Walker · 29 water · 41, 59, 63, 92, 122, 123 Weißkopf · 17 White · 12, 32, 46, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 111, 156 Williams · 99, 101 wind · 36, 57, 146, 156 wings · 15, 29 Wintgens · 18 Worden · 115, 128, 129, 130, 131 World War I · 19 World War II · 19, 20, 21, 24, 25 Wright Brothers · 17, 156

T X

Technology · 8, 9, 143 TEI · 98, 155 telemetry · 64, 78, 79, 116 Tereshkova · 26 test. · 12, 83, 96 The Odyssey · 147 Theia · 34, 156 TLI · 8, 88, 96, 97, 105, 116, 120, 125, 129, 130, 133, 137, 155 Tranquility · 108, 158 tranquillityite · 111 TsAGI 1-EA · 20, 156 TV · 6, 30, 57, 91, 92, 98, 102, 103, 109, 111, 118, 122, 144, 146, 158

X-1 · 23, 29 X-2 · 29 X-35 · 29 X-5 · 29 X-plane · 29

Y Young · 90, 101, 102, 119, 132, 133, 135, 136, 156 Yuriev · 20

Z U zeppelin · 14, 20 U.S. · 17, 23, 25, 26, 27, 85, 111, 143, 156, 157

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One Giant Leap

One Giant Leap Owain Bates

168

One Giant Leap - The Apollo Program  

The Apollo Program, and how it changed the world, by Owain Bates.

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