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A DrivingTourof the Bonnechere River Watershed

BONNECHEREVALTE Y EC OT OU R 0ttawaValley Tourist Association 9 International Drive, Pembroke, 0ntarioKBA6W5 800757-6580t 613732-4364F'.613-135-2492

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Data in Publishing Cataloguing Canadian M. (Mark) Stabb, Valley tourof theBonnechere Valleyecotour: a driving Bonnechere (2001 Edition) watershed : Excursion en title:Circuit 6cotouristique under Published alsoin French versant dela Bonnechdre. voitured traversle bassin references. Includes bibliographical tsBN0-9684067-3-4 (Ont.) - Guidebooks. Angela. l. Schruder, River Valley 1.Bonnechere ValleyTouristAssociation lll.Ottawa 1971ll.Svoboda, Carla, lv.lltle. 1S98 FC3095.8675A3 1S98 F1059.86572

917.13',81044 C98-931823-0

Landslide to REN 5

Renfrew andthe Pinnacle


Dutch ElmDi


B I 10 11

Natures Pioneer Hedgerows a Bridge overa

Northern Birdsof Farm

Highway Treeline WhereCattleare 14 Douglas andthe 15 Micro-Hydro IO Bonnechere Caves IL

Tourist Association. @Copyright July31, 1998,0ttawaValley storedin a retrieval Nopartof thisbookmaybeproduced, All rightsreserved. withoutwritten orotherwise, mechanical, electronic, system 0r byanymeans, permission Association. Valley Tourist of theOttawa inthis material contained ofcopyright Carehasbeentakent0 traceownership them thatwillenable anyinformation willgladly receive Thepublishers book. editions. orcreditlinein subsequent t0 rectifyanyreference


1 7 MinkCreek ,IB

INCANADA PRINTED Brochure aussiofferteenfraneais.

MinkLakeMoraine 1 9 Calling all Cottagers

CarlaSvoboda TextMarkStabb, Angela Schruder, Henthorn Editing: BettyBiesenthal, Joanne Design: BettyBiesenthal MarkKulas lllustrations: Part,MarieCheesman, Provincial BettyBiesenthal, Bonnechere Photography: MarkStabb Printers, Renfrew, 0N byCustom Printed andboundin Canada

20 21 22 23 24 25 26

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Eganville andtheFifthChute Cedar 0il TheShawWoods Crooked Raoids Beaver Patrols andScreen Savers WilburLakeanditsWetland

7.8 2.7 14.7

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23 24 25 25 27



21 JackPine LakeWalleYe 28 Golden LakeFirstNation 29 Golden

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IAKEto Wl[NO:RoadInterpretation GOTDEN 2.8 inYourBackYard 30 DeerYards 1.8 31 WhitePine 1.3 Maples 32 Shady 1.6 Trail 33 Pakkotinna 2.7 to GoSwimming 34 ltching 1.6 Bridge 35 TheBonnechere 2.5 36 Timber

0.4 3.4 0.1 1.7 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.5

Lake Round Park Provincial Bonnechere River TheBonnechere Park Algonquin Booster Walleye Creek andBrennan's Killaloe Them! thatLove BogsandtheTrees

15.2 12.1 15.1

Busters Rock TheWilnoHills Lake BayandKamaniskeg Barry's Innsof 0ntario Animal

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35.3 21.9 10.7 6.6 h,


1.1 4.3 B.l 9.4

Interpretation [lNE:Road THEOPEONGO 48 49 50 51 52 53

Stand Poplar Wetland Creek Brennan's Lake Gorman Brudenell of Brudenell TheDrumlins FieryBocks

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BoadInterpretation PARKS: THEBONNECHERE 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

27 28

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54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 l1 12 73 74 15 76


Foymount WaterfromtheRocks LakeClear Bluebirds Sardine Sized Speckles Staghorn Sumac Maple Syrup A Taleof TwoHawks Constant Creek TheOriginal 0peongo Line Downtown Dacre anditsSuburbs Constant Lake There's Marble inthemthereHillsl Constant Creek Canada Goose Colony TheMulti-purpose Cattail Lake Streich andShamrock Wetlands Stonehedge Poles fromPines TheTough Hardy Juniper Ferguslea Bees Loggerhead Shrike Backto theBonnechere



45 45 46 46 46 47

Bonnechere Watershed Ecotour Bonnechere Watershed Area1 Ecotour: Bonnechere Watershed Ecotour: Area2 Bonnechere Watershed Ecotour: Area3





8.4 1.9 1.7 2.2

5.2 1.2 1.1 1.4 3.9 3.2 1.6 1.9 0.9 0.4 2.4 1.9 0.2 2.7 1.6


5.1 2.5 3.0 1.5 0.6 3.8 3.0 0.4 4.3 2.5 5.5 1.8

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VALTEY THEBONNECHERE INTRODUCING - ofthe - if nottheheart andarteries Bivers havelongbeentheveins andthe thePetawawa Historic rivers suchasthe0ttawa, Valley. Oitawa theirwildwaters fortheirpower, hiurr.,ur. all renowned Madawaska of aborigiheritage. Theyhavebeenthelife-blood andtheirrichcultural power loodrives. now{amous behind andthepulsing nalcommunities, a00uI Inrsparr0ruirrrirua E Inewaype'preInrnK uurtversnavesnape. (90mi), fromnearMcAskill 14Skm River, stretching TheBonnechere hasa long at Castleford, Parkto the0ttawaRiver Lakein Algonquin quite nation's stature in our history aswell,butdoesnotenjoy thesame tributaries, of the of the major the smallest heritage. lt is among half an area about it drains 2400km'(935mi') 0ttawaeventhough the Bonnechere Edward lsland. Overthe centuries, thesizePrince (oftenpronounced for hasbeena conduit asthebone-chur) locally powerhouse food and recreof of energy, anda source a transportation, soilsandenticing Theproductive andtravellers. ationfor residents (theareaof landwhich Valley watershed landscape of theBonnechere in andfarmed thefirstiogged, settled among feedstheriver)were Renfrew Countv. fromwhen havea wealthof booksto choose Armchair historians However, Valley. heritage 0ftheBonnechere therichcultural exploring way- it focuses on in a different looks at theValley thisguidebook Valley Ecotour helpsyouunderstand fhe Bonnechere natural history. played history of the inthesettlement andhuman therolethatnature pathasinfluenced settlement lt explains hownature 0ttawaValley. nature andtheenvironment ternsandhowwe havein turnaffected theway. along youto therrvildside of the is a roadtripwhichintroduces Thisecotour routes, welltravelled familiar sights along Valley. lt interprets Bonnechere withafewsidetripsinandaroundtheWaterShed.|ta|sointro them: whattheysaw firstexperienced ouslandscapes asthepioneers today. wecanstillenjoy andanimals then,andthewildplants andcanoeing; forswimming andrivers Along thewayyou'llfindlakes panoramic viewing; winding and for birdwatching sceniclookouts parks for campgrounds andprivate trails towalk,hikeorski;andpublic thetrue picnics first-hand about Linger awhile andlearn andcamping" Vallev. Bonnechere nature of thebeautiful

Valley - TheBasement oftheBonnechere Geology pathasthey people, tryto followtheeasiest most Rivers, notunlike lt gets linedownhill. rarely to followa straight Butriverwater travel. on andhollows bythehumps getsbounced, andredirected swallowed River we mustfirst theBonnechere Tounderstand s surface. theearth getto knowitsgeological foundations. andglacial kind, foritsfaults- faultsofthegeological is known Renfrew County crustpivalong whichtheEarth's inthebedrock thatis- greatcracks Valley has TheOttawa andside-to-side. anddown, otsandshifts:up and,is prone 0ntario faultsthananyotherpartof Southern moremajor suchgeowhichoftenaccompany andthelandslides to earthquakes notetheedgesof two large, Alongthisecotour, logical upheaval. Valley. The parallel faultlineswhichformpartsof theBonnechere theedgeof the River runsalongoneof thesefaultsasit skirts Ottawa The whichrise300m(960)to thenortheast. Mountains Laurentian from northwest of landformsstretching a series faultconnects second and Foym0unt LakeClear, to MountSt Patrick, Lake, nearCalabogie thesetwo Between thisfaultonthisecotour. Youwillcross beyond. downblockof Iandhasslipped 50km(31mi)-wide faults, a massive parallel rockbetween theearth s core.Suchdown-thrust wardtowards to asa graben. faultlinesisreferred

meandors oversanddepositsfor theBonnechere Hemmed in by highlands, Sea. Champlain theclaysof thelong-gone muchof itsroute,untilit reaches

Whilethesetermsmayseemquitetechnical, theycanhelpone understand theshape andstructure of theBonnechere Valley. Thelineart0p0graphy, forexample, became a natural spillway forglacial meltwaters anddramatic landscapes wereformed: highcliffsand ridges overlook low,flat,valleylands, anddeeplakesplunge downward50m(176'). Glaciers alsosculpted many sections oftheBonnechere Valley, leavingE polished behind hillsides, channels carved bymelt-water, andanarray of sediment androcky deposits thatcloak theCanadian Shield. Such col- called lections of sands andgravels till- arepiledin heaps called moraines. Thelowersections of theBonnechere River flowovertheb0tt0m 0f theChamplain Sea,anancient saltwater seawhichcovered thisarea upontheretreat of thelastglaciers. Initsretreat, thesealefta legacy of flatterrain andsiltyclaysediments whichn0wsupp0rt thewatershed's farmland. A RiverRuns Through lt - loggingandSeftling theValley TheBonnechere hasmanycalm,peaceful stretches thatarejustright gentle forflatwater canoeing. Butthesmooth, linesof theRiver are punctuated by several turbulent rapidsand crashing waterfalls. people Aboriginal andvoyageurs hadto portage around theseobstacles.Logdrivers builttimber slides t0 carry logsovertherough waters. - werefocalpoints These chutes- astheycame t0 beknown for localcommerce andsettlement. Tosimplify history, wheretherewere rapids therewerep0rtages, camps, andlatertimberslidesandlog progressed, depots. As logging andsettlement thetumbling water became a s0urce of power. Sawmills sprang up,asdidgristmillsprocessing theharvest of thegrowing farming communities. Latelthe damsanddiverted waters wereharnessed to produce hydro-electricity. Thelegacy of suchdevelopment isa series of still-vibrant communities linkedby the beautiful Bonnechere and its tributaries: Renfrew, Douglas, Eganville, Golden Lake andKillaloe, among others. There are ghost alsoseveral smallhamlets, towns, crumbling ruins andoverland heritage routest0 discover andexplore. Drivealongthe historic gov0ttawaand0peongo Road whichwassurveyed bytheCanadian pioneers ernment to entice to theupper reaches of thewatershed, or

walkal0ng theabandoned railbedof theOttawa, Arnprior andParry Sound Railway, builtbytimberbaron J.R.Booth t0 carrypassengers, square timberandcommercial tradethrough0ut the0ttawaValley. You (25mi) canalsohikefor40km along therailbed oftheoriginal Kingston (theK&P), andPembroke Railway a recreation trailwhich enters the watershed fromthesouth. If

AbouttheBonnechere valleyEcotour Thisecotour encourages discovery andenjoyment 0fthenatural featuresof the Bonnechere Valley,and is designed to enc0urage watershed awareness. lt'sa self-guided driving tourwhichinterprets patterns someof thenatural history andsettlement of thearea.Travel the372km route in one of two ways. Take two orthreedaysto {231mi) drivetheentireroute, or break thecourse downintoshorttreksbv area,a fewhoursat a time.There areparks to visit,lakesandcreeks t0 dipyourtoes(orfishing line)into,andnature trailsto hike.Cyclists andcanoeists willenjoy it,too! Themapsat thecenter of thisbooklet indicate numbered sites,side tripsandinteresting features. Mostof thepoints arevisible fromthe roadside, butsomefeatures arebestseenwitha stopanda hike. Alongtheway,youmightberewarded withthesighting of a moose, youreyesontheskiesforosprey, deerorfox.Keep herons, ducks, or if you'relucky, theoccasional baldeagle. Setyourownpace, butbesure to takethetimeto pokearound andgeta feelfortheland,thecountrysideandthepatterns of nature. Geta feelfortheareaasa valley - notjusta seriesof townsandhamlets an ecosystem strung together bya network of backroads andhighways.

Navigation Tips Kqep trackof yourodometer reading to stayoncourse. lt s a goodidea t0 resetyourodometer at eachstopandto followthekm/mireadings provided herein. Alldistances arepoint-to-point. BEFORE Y0UPROCEED T0THENEXT P0lNl readthetraveldirections that s0 voucan

the wav Be touse the sure :ff:i:; fl:'i:fli#il1i:;,1it'arons E (50mi/h). Thisis nota tourt0 takeat 80km/h Taketimeto viewthe countryside, explore a natural feature, ortakea photograph. When watchforanytrafficbehind, stopping, signal allturns, andpullcompletely pulling offto therightontheshoulder of theroad.Consider overatthecrests of hillsto increase visibility foroncoming cars. lf yourtouring timeis limited, consider breaking thisecotour intosecyourecotour! tionsandcovering oneareaat a time.Enjoy lcons Thefollowing icons areplaced throughout thisbooklet to helpyouidentifythetypeoffeature whichisthefocusof theaccompanying text.

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SIARTTHISECOTOUR at theboatlaunch on theBonnechere Riverin thetinyhamletof Castleford. fromTransCanada ToreachCastleford Hwy i7 at Renfre4followCastleford Rdfor 7.6km(4.7mi). AttheI tumright ontoRiverRdE andproceed for 2.6km(1.6mi). Thepublicboatlaunch is onyourleff justbeforethebridge. Pointl{0.0km / 0.0mi} THEMOUTHOFTHEBONNECHERE 0ur tour beginswh6rethe Bonnechere Riverends.At whereit empties Castleford, its murky watersintothe0ttawa River, the Bonnechere is an impressive 32m(100') widethough bymoststandards, stillasmallriver. Takein thefea\ tures of the riverhere:its width,depth,speed,colourand persecsurroundings, asit flowsUnder thebridge at about20m3(64ft3) ond.Thisis roughly volume, a quantity thatw0uld 2okof'the0ttawa's barely wetthefaceof Niagara Falls. Butthisf lowfluctuates dramaticallythroughout theyear, ranging froma summertime lowof halfthe average, to a spring freshet f low.These of abouttwicethenormal powerful waters, whichfill rapids spring andwaterfalls to thebrim, havesignif icantecological impact andwerethedriving forcebehind thetransportation of logsdown-river forovera century. From theboatlaunch, lookdownriver(left)to theflooded forestat the rivermouth, where thousands of years of sediment havewashed from thewatershed abOve t0 create a natural delta.A flooded swam0 - hasdeveloped oneof fourwetland typesin thewatershed here,proplants. vidinggreatduckhabitat anda.refuge foruncommon


Point2(1.7km/1.1mil THEFIRSTCHUTE TosetforthintotheBonnechere watershed, fromtheboatlaunch = parking lot at Castleford, left turn and travel 0.3km(0.2mi) along { RiverRdg, thenturnrightontoThomson Rd.0n yourright tracethe routeof theriveralongthetreeline.Travel1.4km(0.8mi) onThomson plantation Rdandwatchfor thegatebeyond thespruce onyourright. Thisdriveway leadsto a trailto theFirstChuteof theBonnechere - the siteof a aashingwaterfall. You'llheartheroaringwaterasyougetoutof yourcar.Toaccess theshoreabovethechute,walkup Thompson Rdto thenextdriveway onyourrightandfollowthetree-lined lane.


wastypical ofthechutes oftheBonnechere, andis one TheFirstChute waterfalls ontheriver;theothelcalled ofthetworemaining untamed thananactual waterfall andis locatis moreof a cascade JackChute, River Provincial Park. The ednorthof Round Lakein theBonnechere the FirstChute is a greatspotfora briefhikealongthetrailbeside a dramatic viewanda chance to feelthecooling fallswhichprovides Butbeverycareful, thetrailcanbeslipwhitewater sprayin summer. pery.Aroundthe property, taketime to lookfor remnants and gristmillandsawmill, theabandoned foundations oftheoldlogslides, andtheoriginal damatthetopofthefalls. impassable to humans, Thewaterfallat FirstChuteis virtually veryattractive to fish.Anglers oftenplythewatersbetween although TheChute forwalleye andotherfishincluding andthe0ttawaRiver hereand whichlurkin thewatersbetween theoccasional sturgeon, themouth of theBonnechere. Po i n t3( 2. 7k m / 1. 7m i )

LANDSTIDE SCAR TOCHWINNOCH 1.5km turnrightontoThomson Rdandproceed Fromthe driveway, (0.9mi) to KeithRd.Turnlefton KeithRdandtravelto thebridgeover lochaCreek. Continue to thecrestof thehill. - a visible landslide Follow thisgravel laneupthesideof anancient These unstable bvforestandpasture. markonthelandnowcovered anderode easily, especlaysleftbehind bytheChamplain Seaslump along byearthquakes, orsaturated andexposed clallywhenshaken a Thegrey,milkyconsistency of LochaCreek, creeks andrivers. continues today. Bonnechere tributary, is a cluethatsucherosion drive isthetoeof theslide. Toviewtheedgeoftheslide, Locha Creek leftbehind when to thecrestofthehillto seethehumps andbenches awayfrom forthescalloped edgethatleads thelandgaveway.Look sidemarkinq thestartofthelandslide. theroadoneither

TO RENFREW:Road Interpretation CASTTEFORD Backtrack to Thomson Rdandturnleft.FollowThomson Rdfor 2.9km (1.8mi) to Lochwinnoch Rd. gouged Watch forthedeeply ravines of smallcreeks along theway.You maynotice thisphenomenon inseveral locations, where thesmallest of ornded nlerrc gflhggS5ilrr creeks hascreated a deepvalley because Turnrighton Lochwinnoch Rd,head2.1km(1.3mil'airrrrirmor E Hwy17. Though theRiver's edgeis inaccessible along thisstretch, tryto pick justbeyond outthebroad valley to thenorth, thetreeline. TurnrightonTrans Canada Hwy17andtravelweslfor5.1km(3.2mi) to theBruce Stexitat Renfrew. lurn leftontoBruceSt. youdrivethrough Asyoutravelalongthisstretch of theecotour, the - a 31m(100)-deep Bonnechere canyzn valley whichtheRiver has carved alongitscourse between Renfrew and the0ttawaRiver. Thesteepslopes aremostly paddlers wildanduncultivated, although have grownaccustomed to seeing cattleroaming to theriver's edge. Point4(15.2km/9.4mi)

RENFREW and the SECOND CHUTE Follow Bruce Stfor3.1km(1.9mi) to theT at Stewart St @,andtumleft. Proceed on Stewart St lO for 0.2km(0.1mi), andturnleftontoArthur Aveto reachtheMcDougall Mill Museum - thesiteof oneof thelasttwo pedestrian swinging bridges in Ontario. Each summer, thetownof Renfrew hosts theLumber Baron Festival, a tributeto thetown'sfounders. Logging wasthecatalyst for localsetpeople tlement, butit wastheriverthatbrought andkeptthemhere. Furtraders andlumbermen established Renfrew inthe1820s where plunged thebroad flatwatersof theBonnechere andtumbled 30m (96') downfromtheclayplainto thegorge below. Lumbermen builta - in 1827to allowsafepassage - theSecond timberslide for Chute theirvaluable logs,andentrepreneurs soonfollowed to takeadvantageof thewater-power" Soon, theSecond Chute became thesiteof the McDougall GristMill,as wellas a woolenmillandsawmill. grown Completed in 1855, thegristmillprocessed locally wheat, sup-

thepioneers, plying aswellasservicing camps f lourforthelumber growth of thecommunity. the thereby ensuring overland a villagein 1858,andalthough Renfrew wasproclaimed andthe easieras newroadswerec0nstructed trans00rt became Pembroke, withKingston, Renfrew Railroad linked Canadian Central thelifeof thec0mwasstillcentralto theBonnechere and0ttawa. andin 1897thewaterworks wasbuiltin 1895, A wirebridge munity. statwogenerating to process riverwater.Today, wereestablished produce a total bridge, andonebelowtheswinging tions,oneabove Whilethisoncemetthe for Renfrew. of electricity of twomegawatts - a to about10%of thedemand it nowonlvamounts town'sneeds, powergrid. to powersupplied bytheprovincial low-cost supplement bridge, onthesiteof a forupriver ofthepedestrian Thehydro station flow,butduring takesin mostof the river's mersawmill, usually rapids fill once heavyrainstherushlng or following springrun-off Townwateris drawn a hintof theirf0rmermajesty. moreandprovide whiledownbeach, of thepublic fromtheriverat a pointupstream plantreleases treatment damthe sewage streamof the second (butnotquitedrinkable) waterbackintotheriver.Today, swim-safe to lingeroverthe bridgeinvitespedestrians the historic swinging bytheroarof the upriver, surrounded therapids waters andponder of a bygone sawsandgrindstones Listen forthebelts,pulleys, river. generatHydro theriverfromtheRenfrew era.Thesmallparkacross trail. of a rustic nature ingstation istheterminus rightontoReady St t!. Turnleft,thenimmediately Return to Stewart upstream, Aveto reachthepublicpark0.5km(0.3mi) beach, today,the Although 0ncea popular for swimwaterqualityis notalwayssuitable beach forthismunicipal ming.Buttheprospect and futurelooksbright- locallandowners plans groups arenowdeveloping conservation thisisstilla fine However, intheBonnechere. waterquality to improve in to watchforwildlife picnic spot,anda niceplace siteandwading theriverside cattailmarsh

Point5 (3.4km /2.lmil

RIDGE PII{NACIEROADand the BONNECHERE westfor Aveturnlefton Stewart St @ andproceed re\ FromReady Rd.TurnrightontoPinnacle Rdand to Pinnacle VD/ 1.3km(0.8mi) Ridge for 1.9km(1.1mi). At theT (Kasaboski traveluptheBonnechere HwyO alongPinnacle Rdandwatcha _ Rd)turnaroundandbacktrackto panoramic viewof theBonnechere Rivervalleyunfoldbeforeyoureyes. f TheBonnechere Rldge stands in sharpcontrast withtheclayplainof glacial till wasdeposited byglacial meltthevalleybelow. Thissandy years waterfromanicesheetthatlayoverthelandabout10,000 ago. pitsnowexcavate Twogravel thisrockforroadbuilding andconstructionprojects. From thepeakof Pinnacle Hill,enjoy a fabulous viewof thesoutheast theBonnechere Valley. Theridgeoverlooks endof a long finger farmland thatwasoncethebedof theChamplain of productive the withgreatstands of pine,cedar andhardwoods, Sea.0ncetopped treed clayloamsoilsnowsupport crops andpastures, although some pokes hillocks remain wheretheBonnechere Ridge through theclay loam.0n a clearday,lookacross thewatershed t0 thehills0f the Madawaska Highlands whichmarkthesouthwest edgeof theland intotheBonnechere River. draining P oi ntS (1.9km/1.tmi l

DUTCHEtM DISEASE Asyoureturnto Hwy@ alongPinnacle il (orWhite) American tT Rd,watchfor stalwart Elmtrees,hereandelsewhere onthisecotour. Notetheirdistinct fountain-like silhouette which canreacha heightof 15mto 1Bm(48'to64'). American Elmwasoncea common soecies in NorthAmerican forests andwasusedbyearly settlers to make furniture, toolhandles andcreates. That cartwheels, wasbefore DutchElmdisease, fungus bythe an introduced spread European thespecies thecontinent. BarkBeetle, decimated across Nowyouarem0relikely to seecrumbling skeletons of these treesin farmcountry. Butwatchforthefewsurviving oldelmsgrowing apart fromothertrees- thislonely existence actually helpsprotect the (lllustration: WhiteEln) treesfromthespore-carrying beetles.


RENFREW to GOLDENLAK[: Roadlnterpretation Ridge, to TurnrightandfollowHwy @ west,alongtheBonnechere Douglas. River skirtsthenorthshore0f theB0nnechere Thislegof theecotour sea, This ancient saltwater the Champlain Sea. thebedof andcrosses part covered this of the Atlantic 0cean, western extension of 0ncea yearsago.whenthe last the 0ttawaValleyonlya few thousand - about years weight glaciation 10,000 ago- thecolossal occurred pushing the it towards theland, iceactually compressed of milethick sealevel.Whentheglaciers earth's crustandbelowthe existing theAtlantic rebounded, butnotbefore thelandgradually receded, theflat clayseabed waterssweptin fromtheeastanddeposited grayclays, turnredwhich These same HwyO follows. which todays of brickand areusedin themanufacture whenbaked, dish-orange communities. other 0ntario andvarious drainage tilesat Renfrew morehummocky thelandvalley becomes Eganville, Asyouapproach (piles glacialtills andmoraines along Here, HwyEI courses andhilly. glaciers)which, were nearby, although bymelting of rockleftbehind travels to of road Sea.Thisstretch bytheChamplain notlikelyflooded watershed and Biver into,theadjacent Snake theedgeof,andbriefly to a thenorth sideofthewatershed which confine along thefaultlines huge down into a Lake,Hwytrl drops narrowband.NearGolden glacial riveronceflowed where anenorm0us spillway graben, andgravdepositing sands through the the flat land. elsacross PointT(4.0km/2.5mi)

PIONEERS ITIATURE's onthenorthsideof hillslope Note the rcl \(D/ HwYo. of the Thisscrubby f ieldis a goodexample whichwere fieldsalong thisecotour many and withtrees, orwetlands, oncecovered fields Whenleftalone, arereturning t0 theirroots. quickly. Therewereno natural thesehabitats oftenre-grow - theclosest prairies wegetarethesparsely-vegin Renfrew County (called plains yetinteresting To alvars) of Braeside. limestone etated

create farmland, theearlypioneers hadto convert vastforests and swamps to arable land.Intheprocess; theyputmostofwhatwasharvested t0 use:treesforhouses andbarns, rocks androotsforfences. Watchforgiantrootpullers, nowdisplayed ontheoccasionalfarm property, to getan ideaof the ingenuity andphenomenal labour involved in clearing theland.(0neis ondisplay at theheritage farm justwestof thevillage of Golden Lake). Toc0nvert wetlands, iurr.r, f drained landswithditches andlaterusedunderground claydrains. plastic pipeunderlies Today, manycultivated f ields, draining water (lllustration: awayquickly. Snowy }wl) Given thechance, nature is ready to reclaim theselands, ina process called oldfieldsuccession - abandoned grades farms, railroad and roadsides aregoodspots to seethisprocess inaction. Ecological disturbances suchas forestclearing createnew environments for pioneering plants. Manyof thespecies thatmovein arenon-native, introduced - or otherwise 0n purpose - by humans. Tolerant to harsh environmental conditions quickly, andableto reproduce these plants colonize disturbed lands andsetthestage forothers to flourish. Astheymature thepioneer provide species shade andstability t0 the area,thereby improving conditions for moresensitive plantsuntil shrubs andtreestakeholdanddevelop intoa forest. (4.8km Point8 /3.0mi) HEDGEROWS and HAIIWAYS for rowsof treesandshrubs pt Watch asyoucontinue alongHwyO. arem0rethangreen YD/ These fences dividing f ields. Hedgerows, shelterbelts, andovergrown provide rocky fencelines ecological benefitsto bothland-owners prevent . ;i: andwildlife. Hedgerows erosion andincrease waterabsorption into the soil by reducing the effectof drying winds,thereby increasing the production of thelandandadding aesthetic valueto the landscape. Scientists haveshownthat cropproductivity canbe higher nextto hedgerows andthatweightgainin domestic cattlecanbe improved whentheanimals usehedgerows forshelter. Aesthetically appealing,

forwildlifewhousethehabitats corridors arealsocovered hedgerows like Somecreatures, rooms. to link different thewavwe usehallwavs to very beneficial be which can Bluebird Eastern the insect-eating (lllustration: Hedgerow) ideal habitat. the farmers, findhedgerows rrr r

Pointg(1.6km/1.Omi) BRIDGEOVERA IINEAR LAKE Rd.HeadsouthontheBonneTurnleftoff Hwy@ at Bonnechere 3 (0.7mi), to thebridgeanda viewof theRiver. chereRdfor 1.lkm 1 a in thisarea,cutting course followsa fairlystraight TheBonnechere have theclays- eventhe smallcreeks 15m(50)trenchthrough 30m(100)wlde Roughly intothesoftsediments. deepravines carved of bankwithanabundance theriverhasa fairlynatural at thisp0int, to stepbackintimeandpicture Buttakea moment vegetati0n. aquatic withlogs: choked theriverasit wasin 1853, ". . .thegreatest partofthetimberonthemainriverhaslongsince - a largep0rti0n beensweptawaybyfire, having disappeared therearestillvastquanby trade removed ofthat independent andmadeto descend annually, the tributaries down titiesbrought 0nourwayupthe the Bonne-chere. of by the course to the0ttawa blocked upwith almost entirely found it we repeatedly stream, together." for miles sometimes squared timber, (Source: Kennedy 1970) 1853. of Canada, Survey Geological Alexander MurraY,

theshorescouring actedlikea pipecleaner, All thattimberprobably the life.But likemanythingsin nature, linehabitatandaquatic andtodaytheriverhasa hefty,if not hasrebounded environment include Fishinhabitants fish community. healthy, warm-water - the andMudpout Pike, Walleye, Bass, andSmallmouth Largemouth (aValley delicacyl' oftheCodfish buttastyrelative slippery for of habitat amount with a tremendous lake, Theriveris likea linear for Great Watch them. that feed on thewildlife fish.notto mention swooping Kingfishers or Belted theshore, along wading BlueHerons of recreation A source they fly. as trees,chattering alongtheshoreline of thearea,thisspot0ntheriveristhe forthepeople andenjoyment pastime forresidents derby- a favourite icefishing siteof anannual of asa supply Thatit wasonceusedbyresidents alike. andtourists is onlya fadingmemory. holesandiceboxes wintericeforstorage

Point10(2.4km i 1.5mil

NORTHERI{ HARDWOODFOREST Hwy|a. At Hwy|a turn 11 Backtrackto west. fY leftandproceed TheBonnechere River watershed liesentirely withintheGreatLakes/St. Lawrence forest - a partof 0ntario region whichfeatures a vari- E etyof treespecies. Northern hardwood forests likethis one,whichcover a largepartof thisregion, arehometo theSugar Maple, Yellow Birch andAmerican Beech, aswellasWhitePineand Eastern Hemlock. They arealsoprime locations forspring wildflowers. - Ontario's provincial TheWhiteTrillium floralemblem since 1937 is a typical spring ephemeral. ltsgreenleaves emerge fromtubers earlyin thegrowing seas0n, takingadvantage of thelightflooding through leaf-free branches overhead. Notethattowards theendof its flowering season, thewhitepetals 0fthetrillium oftenturnverypink. Buttheswaths of whitetrilliums visible fromtheroadsides areonly themostobvious plants. signsof early{lowering A quickhikeintothe "making woods willturnupa wholerange of species haywhilethe sunshines".illlustration: Trillium) Point11


t ::lJiH,-:'J',i.iY,*';sa ri,ya

g flifr i:H:.';';:il[:,?ilJ;J ruN paradise, but it is ,ch bird-watcher's

wrens,sparrows and evenowls.The /'; 'v@2"1 Eastern Meadowlark, forexample, is a typi- ' : calfarmland species thatlivesamidthecrops. "/1/ Watchfor its chunky robin-sized bodywith ffigf:n pointybillperched on ruralfences andtelephone lines.Markings include a brightyellowbellyanda blackV belowthebill.(lllustration: Eastern MeadowLark) Thefieldsarealsohometo NorthAmerica's onlytruelark- the Horned Lark- whichcanbeseenperforming itsmating ritualover openfieldsof lowvegetation. Toattract thefemale, themalewill swoop highabove thefieldalternating gracefulsoaring between

untilis is onlya speck in thesky- andpowerful plumdownward meting. Look fora birdthesizeofa large sparrow witha whitish belly, yellowish chinandheadpatterned withblackmarkings. Although named for theblackhorn-like tuftson its head, thisfeature is not always visible. In latespring andsummer, listenfora high,pitched tsee-ee or tsee-titi, andlookhighabove ! Larger birdsinclude theNorthern Harrier, commonly called theMarsh Hawk, andtheAmerican Kestrel, aliastheSparrow Hawk. Kestrels - perch North America's smallest falcons ontelephone lines, searchingforinsects, reptiles andsmallmammals. Forthisreas0n, farmers havetaken t0 attracting thesesmallpredators to theirproperties using nestboxes. lf youseesomething thatlookslikea woodduckbox mounted neara farmfield,youareprobably looking at a Kestrel box. Watch alsoforscavenging Turkey Vultures soaring in groups overthe fields. Theycanbeidentified bytheirbroad black andgreywingsand gliders, small, featherless redhead. Excellent turkey vultures cansail periods forextended oftimeholding theirwingsina shallow V while rocking fromsideto sideandrarely flapping. Although theywilleat liveprey, vultures arescavengers bynature andhelpto keepourroadsides clean of roadkilled animals. Point12(5.5km / 3.4mi)

HIGHWAYTREETINE here,alongHwyO. 11 Notethetreeswhichhavebeenplanted, 'ttT Many0ntario travellers willrecall seeing similar shaded lanes - a legacy lined witholdmaple programs trees oftreeplanting ofthe late1800s. Some of these treelines havebeencutbecause thetrees weredamaged orroads wereexpanded, - tall though manyremain andintact. production. Some arestilltapped formaple syrup Today, roadside treeplanting continues Theyoung sugar maple andwhiteash treesatthisspotwillreach maturity givinga break overthenextcentury, to thisopenstretch of highway. The sugar maple should benoproblem to - justcheck yourCanadian identify flag!Thewhiteashcanbeidentified by

of sevenoval,toothed leaves, usuallycomprised its compound straightstrong, leaflets.Thewoodof whiteashgrowshard,heavy, of carbodies, usedinthemaking grbined Once elastic. andsomewhat batsandtool of baseball fortheproduction todayit'sa primespecies (lllustration: Lark) Horned handles. Point13 AREKING WHERECATTLE alongHwy6. to Douglas thefarmland enroute Ol Study t0 learnthat surprised fromthesoutharesometimes W Visitorr isdevoted to agriculCounty of thelandin Renfrew onequarter almost flatandproductive of whichis in therelatively ture;a largep0rti0n - oneofthe industry hereisa $60million Valley. Farming Bonnechere limitasoilandclimate intheCounty eventhough sectors biggest thatcangrowhere.lnthepast,settlers thetypesof crops tionsrestrict aboutviablecomValley learned 0f theB0nnechere Today we knowthat cropsbytrialanderror. mercial arebestsuttandlandforms muchof thesoil,climate pasture production; makes upabout edto livestock crop. andhayisthebiggest farmland onethirdof local headof cattlein theCounty. Thereareover76,000 (That's about91,000 nearlyonefor everyresident; people anddairyproCattle livein Renfrew County). generated byarea makeupaboutB0%of all therevenues duction the throughout businesses farms.Watchfor signsof agricultural cheese outandEganville, at Renfrew dairyfacilities Valley, including who Thehardworkof the pioneers shops. lets,andlocalbutcher indusoffwithanagriculture thelandisstillpaying tamed andtrained to thelandandits limitations. tryappropriate Point14(3.0km / 1.9mi) and the THIRD CHUTE DOUGLAS St (thefirststreetto theleft), Douglas, turnlefton Malloch Approaching andfollowthisswitchbackroadto thedam. a focalpointoftrade Biver again became theBonnechere At Douglas, boasted a in 1 853, Douglas status forvillage andcommerce. Surveyed (21') grist powered waterfall. You can bythe6.5m mill logslide, anda lanes facilitybyexploring a smallhydro alongside seethewaterfall

upwaterunder Thisoriginal damstillbacks 0neithersideoftheriver. Theresiholejustupriver. a localswimming thebridge, andprovides to handle dentsof Douglas relyonwellwaterandsepticsystems theirwaterneeds. Pointl5 MICRO.HYDRO plants anddamsare retired oronce-obsolete ylny of Ontario's f of microwiththedevelopment V being madeoperational again and waterisdiverted through a pipe, orflume, hydrotechnology. River electricity to drivea generator to produce forces theplant's turbines forsale.Some measured oradjusted whichisthenstored in batteries, getdirecteconomic frommicrobenefits likeEganville communities venture is a private, commercial hydro facilities. Theplantat Douglas Hydro. Suchpoweris oftencheaper to 0ntario thatsellstheelectricity structures byothermeans, andtheuseof existing thanthatproduced have to bebuiltintheprocess. n0newdams hasanecological benefit: habitat forfish,they newlakes andadditional Whiledamscancreate anddestrov somehabitats. alsoblock fishmovement Point16(7.0km / 4.3mi) BONNECHERE CAVES and the FOURTHCHUTE Backtrack to Hwy@ andturnleft,At the5T0Psignturnrightandthen take a left onto FourthChuteRd. Notethe sign pointingto the Bonnechere Caves. Proceed throughrollinghillsandfarmcountryto the Alongtheway Riverat theFourthChute. bridgeaossingtheBonnechere riverontheleft. keepaneyeoutfor themeandering all sharea comTheThird,Fourth andFifthChutes of theBonnechere years. - limestone The rockdating backhalfa billion m0nancestry three rocks, limestone makes upabout mostcommon of sedimentary quarters rockrock.Sedimentary exposed surface of theEarth's meaning settling- is derivedfromthe Latinwordsedimentum in distinctive settled together formed whensediment andsandgrains rockis easily identified by seas. Sedimentary layers, usually in ancient offossils. itsbanded andsandwiched collections appearance moreslowly thandeposits of limestones erode 0verthemillenia, ancient gravel Bonnechere or clay.Theslow-moving materials suchassand, butwhentheyhitthe waters areableto carve awayat softerdeposits,

brickwallof limestones theytendto flowoverthemandthenerode the softer deposits below. Asa result, rapids, cascades andwaterfalls form where theselimestone outliers Butslowly the cropoutofthelandscape. rivercanerode formunderground a channel, andoccassionally caves. TheBonnechere Caves werefirstrecorded byAlexander Murray in 1853, a government geographer charting the OttawaRiverand reported someof itstributaries. Murray that "a remarkable subterranean channel occurs at thefourthchute". These channels were carved bybothglacial runoffandthepowerful Bonnechere Riverat various stages of its history, mostly during highwater.A logslide wasbuiltat TheFourth Chute. oncecalled Knightington, to avoidthesteepdrop.Here, waterpowered a sawmill andgristmill,andat oneoointwaterwasdiverted intothecavesas a natural flumeto drivea waterwheel oositioned at themouth0f thecave. WhenTomWoodward encountered thecavesin 1953.hefoundthe passages blocked by mudandwater.Aftertwelveyearsof work, public wooden walkways andelectric lights wereinstalled to provide access to thisgeological wonder. Known to bethemostextensive cave system intheprovince, theBonnechere Caves areconsidered anArea of Natural andScientific Interest bytheMinistry of Natural Resources. Therockwallsareriddled withthousands of fossils formed bythe coralandseacreatures thatoncefoundtheirhabitat in thetrooical young, sea.Butasthecaves arerelatively thereareonlya fewof the typical features common to ancient limestone caves. A fewsmallsta(pillars lactites fromtheceiling)have formed, andsome flowstone is collecting theelectrical around wiring. Therippled rockwallswere oncecovered havediminished bybatsbuttheirnumbers significantly because of theincrease in human activitv. During the summer, full-time interpretive staffprovide a detailed description of thenatural history of thecaves andtheirdiscovery. lt is a popular spotto cooloffona hotsummer day. IIIIustration: BonnechereCaves)

Point17(12.6km / 7.8mi)


MII{K CREEKWETLANDS turnleft At Douglas, on FourthChuteRdto Douglas. Backtrack - \r here onHwy@. Notelhelargewetland northwest N anOproceed Riverwatershed' Snake asweslipbrieflyintotheadjacent isa RivetMinkCreek intotheSnake andemptying FedfromMinkLake for marsh eastof HwyEI.Watch a large thatenters stream slowmoving marshes, swamps, birdofwetlands, a common Blackbird, theRed-winged nestaround itscup-shaped weaving ditches, androadside farmlands The suchascattails. of plants stalks supporting yellowwitha distinguishing .. maleisblack bandandcanbe redshoulder bordered. whilethe dark heardcallingcon-ka-ree, femaleskulks brownandwhite-streaked from across Canada Found thevegetation. among theycanbeoftenseen to latesummer, earlyspring in latesumf locks in large androosting feeding Theselarge mer priorto fall migration. flocks area suresignthatsumthree-dimensional undulating Blackbird) Bed-winged meris onitswayout.(lllustration: frogsandotheraquatic forturtles, worldis a greathabitat Thiswatery forsomeof these thetimet0 slowdownandsearch Take creatures. is MinkCreek andbulrushes, forcattails habitat A natural species. - theprettypinkperil.Accidentally Loosestrife alsohostto Purple productive, thlshighly settlers, byEuropean in the1800s introduced wetplantis nowoverwhelming manyof theprovince's non-native peryear! seeds 2.7million canproduce flower lands. Onepurple-pink litit provldes weaveof roots, in a tangled thewetland Asit strangles in this enemies no natural for wildlife.Having tle foodor habitat In controls. proliferates bybiological unhindered loosestrife region, plantings andbee theplantviaornamental helpspread fact,humans asecologibeenrecognized - onlyrecently hasloosestrife husbandry gardens use. and commercial f0r inappropriate and cally-incorrect Point 18 MINK IAKE MORAINE RdW at the of Hwy@ andCobden northt0 theintersection Continue proceed Hvvy6. weston Turnleftand 4-waySTOP.

justs0uthof MinkLake, Fora couple alongthehighway, of kilometres youwill seea smallridgebordering the road0nyour gravel right.Thislinear moraine, a jumble of sand, records thatthe andboulders, oneof thepositions glaciers heldfora timeastheymelted backnorthward.Likea huge,slow motion gradually c0nveyor belt,theglacier dropped rocks thatmelted outof the iceedge.(lllustration: SplitRailFence) Point19(7.5km / 4.7mi) CALTING Att COTIAGERS Proceed on Hwy6 to MinkLakeRd.Turn ;r V rightonMinkLakeRdandtravel2.9km(1.8mi)to the publicboatlaunch, Theroadis narrowandgravel-covered sodrivewith caution. MinkLake, ringed bycottages andotherresidential andrecreational pressure. facilities, andisa typical example of shoreline development People flockto shorelines to live,vacation orspend recreation time. Boththefishing andwaterquality thatwe seekarethreatened byour 0wnuse.Whilelakesenrich ourlives, ourlifestyle enriches lakes, and notalwavs forthebetter. Aquatic lifeina lakeisina dynamic withthenaturalsupply balance of nutrients. Whenthereis an over-supply of suchnutrients, suchas phosphorus, nature responds. Thewaterbecomes withalgae clouded plants. blooms andthickshoreline Asthisvegetation diesandsettles to thelakebottom, it decomposes anddepletes thewater's oxygen supply. fishspecies suchastrout,whichdepend Coldwater onthisoxygen,eventually septicsystems helppumpup the disappear.0ur phosphorous prevention amount in lakes! Awareness of and of phosphorous run-off is becoming increasingly important. Newcottages and septic systems arebeingbuiltfarther awayfromtheshoreline. This gives phosphorus perithesoila chance to holdontomore fora longer od of time.Construction that aimsto keepsoil andvegetation ground to a minimum tends to disturbance andrehabilitates exposed Alongprevimakenewdevelopments moreenvironmentally friendly. ouslydeveloped shorelines, residents are replanting natural vegetation dogwood, which suchas nativewillowsandred-osier

We canalsoprotect improve wildlifehabitat andtheenvironment. quality inourlakes, reducing dishwasher and water bynotshampooing lawns. laundry use,andavoiding theuseoffertilizer onlakeshore Point20 FIRE! westto Backtrack to HwyO alongMinkLakeRd,turnrightandproceed watchfor thefamiliar Eganville. Here,andelsewhere alongthisecotour, roadside usto becareful withfire. signsreminding and Firethreatens andis a danger to human life,property ourforests fires, resources. There havealways beennaturally occurring natural theremainbylightning. People cause buttoday only30%arecaused smoking. A littlecare ing70%- 0nequarter of whichbycareless - whether walking through ordriving bywhileenjoying theforest foryears t0 come. Urban areas are willensure thatit is stillstanding Eganville wasthesiteof a hugefire vulnerable, too.Backin 1911, whichlevelled oartofthetown. posed earlyin ourhistory andby Thethreat byforestf ireswasrealized pioneers regionalfire rangers were hired t0 warn and 1885thefirst These men used tall, wooden forestworkers of therelated dangers. ofwater, shovels f iretowers aslookouts, andfought f ireswithbuckets Renfrew are Today, thetowers whichoncedotted County, andaxes. past.One Deacon was located at the nowmostlya thingof the Escarpment, further alongonthisecotour. learning moreabout fire'snatural role Allthatsaid, we arecontinually in forestecosystems. Asa management tool,firecanbeusedto preproduce pareseedbeds insects forplanting, wildlifehabitat, control to a moredesiranddisease, andaltera forest's existing treespecies TheForest Manager's aimisto control andmanage fireto ableoption. meetland-use objectives, takingintoconsideration environmental, social andeconomic concerns. Point21(7.8km / 4.8mi) EGANVIIIE and the Fifth Chute Proceed andstopat theTouristlnformation on Hwyto intoEganville Boothparkinglot onyourleft. Eganville, enjoya beautiful viewof theBonnechere Uponentering Valley asHwyd descends towards thefaultlinethattheriverfol-

theedgeof thewatershed at thispoint. lows.Thisfaultlinemarks boothon Nearthebottom of thehill.watchforthetouristinformation Tovisit 0rto usethefacilities. theleft.Dropinfortravelinformation, parkalongthecedar-lined followthewalking shore, themunicipal thetwo branches oJ whichcr0sses bridge theBonnechere River. rests ina deep valley E Thevillage of Eganville limestone rock,illustratcarved fromancient ed bv the limekiln and ancientfossils The Bonnechere has carvedtwo channels locateddownstream. - a series offallsdescending through therockhereatTheFifthChute power, theriver's operation wasusing 1am(44). By1843, a sawmill gristmill- credited thedevelopwithstimulating andJohnEgan's - followed thewater in 1849. Dams nowharness mentof thevillage This to produce micro-power. andchannel it through threeturbines produces orabout12o/o orrhe facility about300kilowatts of electricity, town'sreouirements. landscape onbothsidesof theriver Whileviewing thesurrounding here, consider thisearly description: "Thesurrounding forest. country wascovered withanunbroken side...wasa magnificent UpontheGrattan [Township] [south] The hardwood bush;thelowerf latwasa densecedarswamp. principally with Wilberforce sidewascovered [northl [Townshipl pineandcedar into Theriverdivided ontheflatalongtheriver. branch twostreams, thatonthesouthwhichwastheprincipal where thegristmilldamnowis,thenorthern falling overtherocks whatis nowthesaw-mill stream...running through andsmaller pond. thickly f ringed withcedars." . .thisbranch being GrEgoire 86langer,Bennett, 1991.

Point22(2.7km / 1.7mi)

CEDAROIt Information Boothparkinglot,turnleftontoHwy FromtheTourist g proceed Hwyn). to the3-waytrafficlight(intersection 5 o and Water rightonto Stto Turnleftandcrossthebridge.Takean immediate Riverto thecedaroil protravelalongthesouthshoreof theBonnechere your on left. cessing operation

Cedarf lourishes in the Douglas/ Eganville region. Thearea's many cedar rail fences, cedarhome-buildinq and post cedar enterprises are testament t0 the \ abundance of Eastern whitecedarwhich growsinthemoistsoils. grows lt usually in dense stands whichareoftennear-impenetrable tangles to walkthrough. ldentified byitsscale-like flatneedles, thecedar is a member of the Cypress family.White-tailed deerconsider the branches choice winter foodandtheseeds areimportant foods forbirds such asfinches, siskins andcrossbills. Thelight,softwoodis idealfor posts, poles, shingles andcanoes. Cedar railfences fromtheearlydaysof settlement stillstandin manv - theweather-resistant f ieldsalong thisecotour woodwill likelylast years. another hundred From Aprilto Octobet many arearesidents harvestthecedar boughs whichtheythensellbythetonto a localcedar oil processing operation. Theneedles arechopped up,blowninto tanks, andsteamed; however, thebranches areunusable astheycontainnooil.After4 to 5 hours in theheat.thenatural oil risesto the surface; it'sthencondensed (4001b) andpackaged inB80kg drums. This purecedar oilisthentransported fordistribution worldwide t0 manuperfume facturers of medicine, andairfreshen ers.(lllustration: Cedar) PointZl (16.5km / 10.2mil

THESHAWWOODS gBacktrack to thetrafficlightsin Eganville. Turnleftandproceed StW),thenturnrightontoHwyEl fil,vest onHwy6 (Bonnechere andtravelnorthtowardPembroke for 8.9km(5.5mi). Notethegreat viewof lakeDoreasyoudescend intotheSnakeRiverwatershed. Just beforethebridgecrossing Snake River, turnrightontoBulgerRdW and proceed for 1.0km(0.6mi) tothesigned entrance of thewalking trailinto theShawWoods. Driveslowlyasthepartiallyhiddensignstandsparallelto theroadonyourright andcanbeeasilymissed. There arefewplaces inthe0ttawaValleywhere thepublic canstill experience thegrandeur oftheforests of yesteryear. Thevirginwoodlandswhichgreeted the earlyEuropean settlers andaboriginal peoples, havebeenharvested several timesoverthe lastcentury. Treesremain, butthe forestshavechangedl However, the Shaw

stands of themature hardwood it resembles Woods siteis different: pioneer days. preserved forest, bytheShawfamilywiththehelp Thlsmature maple is Museums of Canada, andtheNational of theNature Conservancy province of asoneof thefinestexamplesorigithe recognized across is oneof several in forest. Fortunately thisproperty nal0ttawaValley the in a natural state under whichhavebeenleft Renfrew County Provincial Park families. Westmeath of locallumbering stewardship Pembroke, were Bay, on the River southeast of andBellow's 0ttawa oldof the Shawfamily.Andtherenowned alsooncethe property growthpineandhardwood in thetownof standknownasTheGrove family. isa legacy ofthefamous Gillies Arnprior theShawWoods is to takeadvantage of Anexcellent wayto explore (3.1mi)forest difficult roadtrail.Thismoderately the5.Okm andcounty plaque. at theShawWoods trailbegins Point 24(14.7km /9.1mi) RAPIDS CROOKED At to theHwylA intersection. Backtrack to Hwy4, turnleftandproceed RapidsRd.Turnleft andtravel Hwy gAturnrightandtnvel to Crooked alongCrooked Rapids Rd. here,at a bendin the TrueriverfanscanlookoverCrooked Rapids planning tripforthose Bonnechere River. lt could bea handy scouting to canoedowntheriver. Point25 BEAVERPATROTS and SCREENSAVERS 2' Notethebeaverhabitat,hereat the bendin the River.Since youmayhaveto structures, b"uu"rrdamsarenotpermanent R forsuchevidence, lookelsewhere alongthisecotour ofthe Such dams arethehandiwork number Beaver. NorthAmerica's Youmay onewetlandmanager. \ .\ also see the Countv's beaver *ili'r i patrolsout and about,keeping a watchful activity. Known eyeonbeaver beavers are fortheirindustrious nature. powerfullandscape-altering forcesin our



ecosystems. Though extinct in Ontario morethana century almost ago, thebeaver is nowplentiful throughout watershed theBonnechere and theprovince. Justasthelumber industry exploited thewhitepineforest, fur-trapping byvoyageurs caused dramatic dropsin beaver numbers. practices Since then,conservation lawsandgoodtrapping havehelped Canada's national recover to become, onceagain, thepremier symbol dam-builder intheprovince! Beavers findit easier to navigate in waterthanon land.Therefore, ponds theycreate foreasytransp0rtation andstorage of theirfood: mostly freshpoplarbarkandtwigswhicharestoredin thecoolpond water.theneatenundertheicewhenwintercomes. These beaver ponds significantly influence ec0systems. Thewetlands theycreate provide habitat for ducks, herons, muskrats, turtles, frogs,aquatic insects, fishandmany other wildcreatures. North American conservationgroups, suchasDucks Unlimited, haveturned theirattention and (0nelocal ponds resources to managing forwildlife habitat. oldbeaver example is a project nowunderway inthePetawawa Research Forest, ponds wherescores areundermanagement.) of ponds Beaver also influence Waterstored watersupplies. behind damscanreduce flood(withpositive ingandincrease replenishment of groundwater supplies effects onwells). Damsalsohelpmaintain waterflowduring thedrier summer releasing water For these season byslowly supplies. same government reas0ns, agencies called Conservation Authorities have builtdams throughout 0ntario. Southern Butbeavers don'talways builddams where wewantthem,andhighway crews areina constant withthesebusycreatures. tug-of-war Stimulated bythesound of running water, theywillattempt to plugupmostaquatic (Beavers channels including roadculverts. to repair areevenknown dams plugged whenstimulated bya taperecording of running waterl)Since culverts cancause flooding andsafety hazards, highway crewsmust movequickly to dismantle the tangleof sticks,mudanddebris. Sometimes dynamite is useto blowoutseverely clogged culverts and patrols dangerous dams. Look forevidence of beaver at culverts along thisecotour, whichareoftenscreened wire byoldbedsprings, chicken andfence. These screens savethecostof repairing roads damaged and (lllustration: property, andincrease safetyalongourroadways. Beaver)

Point26(4.7km / 2.9mil

WII,BER LAKEandits WETLAND Backtrack to HwyEl, turnleftandproceed downtheslopeover;r pull-off Wilber Lake t0theroadside ontheleft. V looking

\) JLili:T J::ffiHJ:: i,:,TilJ: 1ftJ:';fl.Ji ffiXffi T;il]

pastGolden way thatreaches LakeintoAlgonquin Paik.Here,'theA passes Bonnechere Biver through sand flatsandwidens intoa shallow (990-acre) lake.WilberLakeandits400-hectare marsh areaccessible spots forbirdwatching, fishing andcanoeing. Pike, bass, waterfowl, herons, osprey, bullfrogs andturtlesmaketheirhomehere,aswellas plants a variety of emergent strong andflexible enough to withstand nature's windandwaveaction. Shallow marshes likethisonearedompickerelweed inated byreeds, sedges, rushes, andcattails. Wildrice, growsin deeper theduck's delight, water. (0.6km Point2T /0.4mi) JACKPINE youproceed westonHrvy@, notetheyoungpineplantations lL Ar !\- oneithersideof thehighway. Thisplantation is a mixture of redpine,andthesmallest of 0ttawa pinespecies, Valley Jackpine.Favouring sandy soil,theJackpine's form pattern greatly andgrowth varies according to itsenvironment. Inclosed stands, thetreegrows slender andstraight, withminimal trunktaper. A jackpinewithwidespread short twisted branches istheproduct of poor soilandrocky till.Usually 12mto 1Bm(40'to 60')tall,thejackpinecan reach 24m(80') onfavourable sitesanddevelop a broad, deeprootsystem; theyonlydevelop a porous tapr00tin deep, soils. Their needles are straightor slightly twistedandsoread aoartin a fanlikepattern. Theasymmetrical conesof the jackpineoften curve inward andremain closed until coaxedopen by the intense heatof a forestfire. Early settlers thought thejack pinecaused to fail.Little crops

soilthat inthesandy notsurvive could thattheircrops didtheyrealize this wereindifferentto loggers theJackpineto thrivelEarly allowed thetrue to define technology - it tookpulpandpaper species spindly PinePlantation) valueof jackpinewoodfibre.(lllustration:


Point28{5.5km / 3.4mil GOTDENIAKE WAILEYE Lake.Turnleftonto on Hwy@ to thevillageof Golden 3r Continue pull ontotheshoulover and bridge over the Rd, cross Kokomis { link wilber which Bonnechere of the the This is stretch road. the derof Lake. and Golden Lake thebiologicallyLakearehometo Walleye, Thecoolwatersof Golden - Pickerel' popular fish sport most termfor oneof 0ntario's correct beidentican the walleye settlers, French AlsoknownastheDoreby yellow over mottling with brassy colour fierJbyits oliveordarkbrown in After spawning dorsalfins. anditsspiny-rayed itsheadandbody, to adhere eggs fertilized the up, ice breaks soonafterthe thespring, fortwo areawheretheyincubate of thespawning bottom thegravelly proplankton, eventually young small feed on The t0 threeweeks. bridge The invertebrates. and larvae insects, gressing to aquatic of spawning at thispointhasbeenthelocation theBonnechere across the Lake, of Golden Algonquins the by Conducted siteenhancements. shoal' the spawning along rock layingappropriate workinvolved a flow here,generating channel intoa narrow Lakeempties Golden dam control Hydro A Renfrew walleye. to thenight-spawning suitable in residents to suit shoreline waterlevels regulates nearthislocation hydro the Bonnechere's upwaterto sustain andbacks thesummer inthewinter. olants Poilnt29(0,2km / 0.1mi)

I.AKEFIRSTNATION GOTDEN just Centre, IndianHeritage Rdto theAlgonquin alongKokomis Proceed ahead. of the 0ver 5,000yearsago - shortlyafterthe withdrawal land surrounding the Valley from the 0ttawa Sea Champlain peoples. ln addiof aboriginal bya group wasoccupied Lake Golden of craftsmen were skilled they workers, copper excellent tionto being gouges adzes. stone points, and ground stone points, slate flintspear

Theevidence forthiscomes fromanarchaeological digat theKant Site- the original campandburialplaceof an ancient raceof peoples Native - 0na smallbayacross theBonnechere River from theG0lden Lake FirstNation. Asa result of a 1947 dig conducted bytheNational Museum of Canada, it is believed thatthislandwasusedasa campground by nomadic Natives andasa landing fora portage that travelled fromthe Bonnechere Biversvstem to tne 0ttawaBiver.Thedig, on a farm nearthe bay, revealed grounds, ceremonial burial andpottery craftedinthelroquois stylewhichwasprobably madebytheAlgonquins, groupof Natives thelargest to populate thearea.TheAlgonquins of Golden Lakehaveresettled ground, thistraditional andhavedevelopeda thriving community withintheBonnechere Vallev. Visitthe FirstNationto enjoyhistoric displays, programs interpretive and worksbylocalNative artisans. Theneighbouring village of Golden Lake wasoncea Hudson BayTrading Postandanimportant destinationpointfortrainsandlogdrivers. Community Carefor theBonnechere River Residents of the watershed arerallying around theriveraspartof a grassroots project. initiative called theBonnechere River Watershed Started in 1998bytheRenfrew County Stewardship Council, theproject aimsto raiseawareness of thewatershed andits wonders andto enc0urage conservation initiatives inthewatershed. goal Theultimate is to worktowardsimproving the waterqualityin the riverandto enhance theenvironment 0fthewatershed forfish,wildlife andpeople. Volunteers helpin many ways,fromorganizing stream cleanups and projects shoreline restoration to adopting andmonitoring conditions in themany tributary streams inthewatershed. Forfurtherinformation, c0ntact the Renfrew County Stewardship Coordinator at the0ntarioMinistry of Natural Besources officesin (Phone Pembroke 613-732-3661 ).

GOLDEI{IAKE TOWITNOVIA ROUI{DLAKE: Road lnterpretation towardsKillaloe northwest to HwyEL turnleft andproceed Backtrack andWilno, a enters theecotour Seabehind, theflatsoftheoldChamplain Leaving andsand moraines kame between alternating countryside morerolling increasareasteadily of forestcoverandwetland Theamount olains. here.Spectacular lakes arelocated largest es,andthe0ttawaValleys and fromroadlevelanddrawtheeyenorthward cliffsrisedramatically a steephillsto provide Wilno,Hwy6 cllmbs Approaching upriver. beyond. andthelandscape greatviewofthevalley Point30(2.8km / 1.7mi) DEERYARDSIN YOURBACKYARD signspostwestonHlvy@, andwatchfor deercrossing Proceed theroad. V -r edalongside deerarec0mm0n thatwhite-tailed hereindicate signs Deer-crossing in the Roads at thislocation. andhavelikelvbeenhit bvvehicles andenter routes deermigration Valley oftencutthrough Bonnechere arelike deeryards.Deer called habitat, oftheanimals'wintering areas inwinter Asa result, theirenergy. people ina way:theyliketo conserve Butthiswalklng decrease. andbodytemperatures theirmetabolism winbodyfatanddense withstored coupled asit iscalled, hibernation, whensnowis winter thecoldharsh to combat tercoat,is notenough inshelterlng deergather survival, Toincrease deepandfoodisscarce. Theconifers deeryards. called to foodsources close of conifers stands thecoldwinds. andbuffer itsdepth, reducing thereby snow, falling catch withinthese temperatures As a result, as10"cwarmer canbeasmuch confines All winter,the thanin opencountry. deer maketrails betweenfood withinthe yardsto avoid sources deepsnow. through travelling it ornot,attheturnofthecentuBelieve ry therewerefew if anywhite-tailed Thensettlers County. deerin Benfrew fromdense thelands andaltered arrived

w00ds t0 a countryside pastures, of mixed farming, woodlots andshrubla_nds. Thisnewlandscape created a virtual smorgasbord fordeerwhich s00ncame to reside intheValley. TheBonnechere Valley deeryarding areas aresomewhat unique intheprovince. Thedeerconcentrate inthe pinestands heavy here, whilein otherwell-known deerwintering areas theconifer coveris provided byhemlock, (lllustration: cedarandspruce. Whitelailed Deer) Point31(1.8km / l.lmil

WHITEPINE- Ontario's Official Tree 11 Thiswhitepinestandalongthenorthsideof of a managed !Y theHwy@, is a fineexample pinebush. Declared the Arboreal Emblem of 0ntarioin 1984, thewhitepineplayed a bigrolein early 0ttawaValley history. Whitepinecangrownearly 50m(180') highandlivefor over400years. The treebears long,narrow cones andistheonlypine growing with needles pines in a quintet. Young greybarkwhilethe trunksof more havesmooth mature treesarecovered with darkgreyplates. Thriving in rich, p0r0us, moistsoil,thewhitepineproduces light,soft,straight-grained woodidealforfurniture andhouse construction. Besides beingharvested for itstimberthewhitepineis susceptible to damage from forest fires, blister rust,barkbeetles andthewhitepineWeevil. These tinybeetles laytheireggsinthematuring pines, tips0fy0ung thenthe hatched larvae burrow downintothetop0f thestem. Thisoftenkills thegrowing tip,causing thetreeto sendoutadditional shoots all around theoriginal tip.Thetreesurvives butdevelops growth, a bushy whichultimately reduces itscommercial value. Watchforthebushv growth0f weevilled pinesalongtheecotour. (lllustration: WhitePine) Point32(l.3km/ 0.8mi) SHADYMAPI,ES onHwy6 andwatchforoneof several picnic stopson 19 Continue placeto view fY theshoresof GoldenLake.Thisis a wonderful Golden Lakeandenjoyanoutdoorlunchwherethelargemaples provide shade andanopportunity to studytherelatives of thesugarmaple.


Known to thrivein richmoistsoil,thesilver maple is commonly found alongstreams andlakeshores. 0n average, theyreach 24nIo27mlB0' primegrowing to 90)in height, butunder conditions-can stretch t0 38m(125).Look fora short, oftendivided trunkbearing thin,reddishbrownbarkwithnarrow shaggy-looking scales. Thebranches appear to climbupward andbillow. Thefinely-toothed, frail-looking leafis a lightmoss-green colour withsilver-white undersides anddeep, roundednotches. Inautumn theleaves turna tawnyamber hue"Notstrong, butfairlyfirmandheavy, silver maple woodisused forfurniture, flooring,crates andpulpwood. Theredmaple alsothrives in moistsoilsandoftenborders swamps. Named forthebright redhue0f itstwigs,buds, fruit,flowers andleaf growing stalks, theredmaple isa smaller species usually between to 'l5mand22n(50'to70')tall, although it hasbeenknown to stretch upto 27m(90').Lookforsoftgreenmaple-like leaves withshallow notches andjagged edges. Thetwigneartheleafisredandthewhole leafturnsscarlet comeautumn. ltsshaggy barkis greyish brown and hastheappearance of peeling. Thewoodis moderately heavy, hard andstrong, andis idealforfurniture, veneer, boxes, crates, railway tiesandpulpwood.

suchasthe wildflowers beautiful bymany Although thetrallisbordered lvy, purple{lowering should bewaryof Poison Raspberry hikers brilliant forinsects such Beprepared footwear andattire. andwearappropriate pointof view, froma human although a nuisance asblack flieswhich, to as Alsoreferred of Blueberry bushes. arevitalin thepollination the crestof the Mountain, Blueberry Escarpment is blanketedf *a Deacon eachAugust. byblueberries Conservation A 2,200-hectare wasrecently established Reserve Escarpment to on the Deacon protect andhabitats. its rarespecies of theMinistrv Interested travellers cancontact information. in Pembroke formore Natural Resources to expeatthebaseofthisridge theredpineplantation Walkaround whichcarpets scentof sweet-fern fragrant waftsoftheunusual rience a fernbuta is notactually Sweet-fern a pinestand. thefloorof many family.Lookfor hairybrowntwigswith of theBayberry f loweringmember fragrant whencrushed. whichareespecially fern-like leaves narrow (lIIustrati0n: RedPinePlantation)

Point33(1.6km / 1.0mi)

Point34(2.7km I1.7m,il ITCHINGTOGOSWIMMING? spot,westof the Dropintoa popularGoldenLakeswimming 3 Trail,ontheleftsideof HwyO. V Pakkotinna waterway, Golden bodyof wateralongtheBonnechere Thelargest shores. Partof an sandandpebbled foritssmooth Lakeis renowned byglacial weredeposited ancient sandplain,theselakesediments somuch so,theyare thesecharacteristics enioy melt-water. Swimmers withunTd creaturesl verycloseencounters willingto putupwithsome inhabits larvae called a tremalode free-swimming flatworm A minute but, birds andwildmammals They normally liveinsnails, these waters. swimmer's skincausing willburrow intohuman thechance, if given dercanresultcalledSchrsfosome skinirritation itch.A temp0rarV followed by a tingling sensation, willexperience matitis. Some bathers nuiwiththismicroscopic Todealeffectively redspotsanditching. penetrates the skinonlyas waterdroplets whichusually sance,

PAKKOTINIIIA: COUNTYFOREST and RECREATION TRAIT youcontinue As west along Hwy watch for a County Forest EL { to thePakkotinna Trail- a year-round !Y signmarkingtheentrance publiclands. 40km(25mi) trailcrossing TheCounty forestalongHwy!!, at theentrance of thePakkotinna (16,000 Trail,is partof a network of over6,500hectares acres) of forestandsub-marginal farmland acquired on behalf of thepeople of Renfrew provide Managed County. mainly fortimbetCounty forests an abundance of wildlife habitat, andvarious outdoor recreation opportunities forarearesidents andvisitors alike. Pakkotinna, a Native wordmeaning hilly,hillyground, is aptlynamed. (25mi) A 40km snowmobile trailinwintermonths, thePakkotinna Trail is idealfor hiking inspring andsummer. A moderately difficult climbof 30to 45minutes is rewarded bya panoramic viewof theDeacon area encompassing Golden Lakenestled deepin theBonnechere Valley.

toweloff immediately aftercoming0utof the water. evap0rate, Point35(1.6km i 1.0mi)

THEBONNECHERE BRIDGE Lake. theBonnechere here,asit entersGolden .-HW El crosses turnrightto thepublicboatlaunchanda viewof theRiver. / popular spotsforboaters and Thisbridge andadjacent boatlaunch, provide this Theridgeoverlooking fishermen, anexcellent viewnorth. astheDeacon Escarpment stretch of theB0nnechere River is known - a granite Lake to Round Lake, andrismassstretching fromGolden (300') River flatland. Thislandmass ing100m above theBonnechere Park" The runsalonga faultline whichstretches deepintoAlgonquin whitepine,redpine,largesoilsof theridgesupport dry,shallow Eastern cedar, andredoak. toothed aspen, vultures soaring alongtheescarpWatchforhawks, ravens andturkey GreatBlue ment,usingthewarmair draftsflowinguptheslopes. grounds therichfeeding ofthe Herons canalsobeseen flying between nesting colony set backin the Bonnechere Riverandtheirremote swamps overtheridge. Point36(2.5km / 1.Smi) TIMBER - Still impoftant after all these years! FromtheboatlaunchturnrightontoHwyl0 andtravelsouthg fY west.Notethelumberyardonyourleft. visible onthesouthsideof the Thelumber manufacturing operation intheOttawa Valley. Six isanexample of a still-vital industry highway in Renfrew operate largesawmills andmorethan100smallsawmills processing onlya few aresmall family operations County alone. Some to harwithIicences treesperday,whileothers arelargecompanies (alias pineandhardmaple vesttimber entire townships. Poplar, across Poplar harvest these days. sugar maple) make upthebulkofthetimber - thelegacy forests cutting of pineandhardwood of repeated nowmakes upa largeportion of theharvest. pine theoriginal areoftenreplanted t0 restore Clearcuts ofoldpoplar andthencutto woods. Whena treeiscut,it isskidded to a loglanding growaccusValley highway travellers a transportable length. Ottawa year tomedto sharing theroadwiththehugeloadsof logsalmost 'round. thawing makes is in thespring, whenground Theexception

roadbedstoosoftandunstable to beartheweightof theheavy loggingtrucks. yardsuch 0nceat themill,thelogsareheldin a storage Thebarkis removed astheoneat thislocation untilbeing milled. and - depending thelogis runthrough a saw0r chipper onitsquality. mill,orareusedalong withotherwaste Chipsgoto a pulpandpaper wood,asfuelforthemillboilerto produce Thesawed, and energy. - issorted perhaps - called lumber roughlumber edged, urroidingf to size.Transported t0 greenlumber it awaitsdryingin cylinstorage, goesto dry dricalkilns.After30to 36 hoursin thekiln,thelumber graded storage, andisthenplaned, andtrimmed. Aftera finalanalysis of lumber size,length andgrade, thewoodis distributed to various c0ntractors, manufacturers andlumber stores. Hardwood logsare pinecanbeusedforpoles, oftenusedforlumber orveneer, whilethe softer woodssuchaspoplar aremostoftenusedinthemanufacture of pulpandpaper.

THEB0NNECHERE PARKS:Road Interpretation to Tramore Rd,andtravel Tobeginthislegof theecotour, backtrack Thistouteskirtsthe northalongthebaseof theDeacon Escarpment. theshores of Round Bonnechere Riverat several spotsbeforereaching Alongthewaytheroutenamechanges to theRedRockRd. Lake. fromAlgonquin Parkto Golden Lakeis a natural TheBonnechere Biver forwildlife, vacation andrecreation areaforresicorridor anda scenic dents andtourists alike. Point37(l5.2km / 9.4mi) ROUNDLAKE TravelwestalongtheTiamoreRd,thenwestalongRedRockRd for for a scenic viewof RoundLake.Thesearewindinggravel roads,sodrivewithcare. Discover whytheAlgonquins calledthislakewaterof manywinds. is coldwaterwhich Round Lake is located ona faultlineandhasdeep primehabitat andlaketrout.Oneof thebiggest of freshforwhitefish in its sensitive to changes waterfish,the laketrout,is especially hasbeendegraded byshoreline habitat whichacross theprovince fromfarmrun-off, water-level increased nutrient levels development, At thesame time,these manipulation sewage disposal. andimproper produce feweroff-spring thanothergamespecies. fish naturally proandspecial conservation Restrictions onshoreline development grams whichregulate angling arein placefor laketroutwaterslike Lake. Round Point38(l2.lkm/ 7.5mil BONI{ECHERE PROVIilCIATPARK northalongRedRockRdto RoundLake Continue RdW. At theT,turnleftandtravelalongRound LakeRdEl to Bonnechere Provincial Park. Bonnechere Parkhasone Forit'ssizeandclass. programs andeducation ofthebestinterpretation and a visitlA cleansandy beach beckons'swellworth provides The thewoodland a quietfamilyatmosphere. campground (384acres) andwetPark comprises 160hectares offorest a combined landalongbothshores 0f theBonnechere at thepointwhereit enters through thePark. creating Round Lake. Therivermeanders likea snake

aremade weaving bends calledoxbowsin thesandflats.Oxbows gradient gradually banks and whenwaters flowing overa slight erode As riverssuchas the in pockets deposit sediment downstream. 0f or thousands Bonnechere careen off theirbanksoverhundreds getcutofffromtheriverwaterbynewlyformed years, somesections sandbars andbecome abandoned backwaters. programming, which E s interpretive Biver ecology isonlypart0fthePark platform a wetland viewing andnature comprises a visitorcentre, hisfocus natural trails. Aswell,Park activities ontherichculturaland TheParkStoreandmanyPark toryof the LittleBonnechere Biver. programs Parks. Stopby aresponsored bytheFriends of Bonnechere - A Historyof andpickupa copyof Spirits0f theLittleBonnechere Exploration, Loggingand Settlement,1800t0 1920,by Roderick publication, Discover Mackay, the Spiritsof the andits companion - A Cultural LittleBonnechere ActivitvBookfor Youth. Point 39{15.7km / 9.7mi} THE BONIIECHERE RIVER- A ProtectedWaterway FromBonnechere Provincial Parhbacktrack eastonRound LakeRdW to to TurnersRd.TumleftonTumersRdandtmvel5.5km(3.4mi)northwest (which TUmers Rd changes to theBonnechere Riverbridge. Continue on Park BasinRd)to theAlgonquin boundary. Bonnechere RiverProvincial Park,a 23.0km (14.3mi)-long, (2,964 acre)park, 1,200hectare hugstheshoreline of theBonnechere fromRound Parkboundary. This LakeRdW t0 theAlgonquin protected areasandpubliclands waterway linksa number of natural a wonderful areat0 explore byfoot,canoe, whichcombined, create boat,or auto.Picnicat Beaver DamLakeor climbEggRockat (atthe1Okm Parkboundary Stringe/s Lakejustsouthof theAlgonquin a roadside marker). Theridgeto the eastof BasinRd,provides panoramic anda greatviewof the vistaof thevalleyanditswetlands, graben effect. Parkprovides designated interior campBonnechere BiverProvincial contact the staffat the sitesin thisarea.Formoreinformation, (Photo: HighFalls) Bonnechere Provincial Parkgatehouse.

Point40(5.9km / 3.7mil

ALGO]{QUIN PARK- lnto the Bonnechere's Headwaters Theintrepid traveller cancontinue northonBasin Rdto BasinDepot. Here, thebanks oftheBonnechere River border theremains of a once-thriving logging depot. lf youwonder howthehugesquare timbers were transported downthispint-sized river, notethe remains of theolddam.Thewaterwhichwas collected behind thewallsof thisdam,wasstrategically released to increase thelevelandmomentum of theriverin order to drivethelogs downstream. Tolearnmoreabouttherichcultural history of Basln Depotreadoneof several recentpublications /seeBeferences). Here, nearthetopof theriver's watershed, thewatersarequiteshallow and narrow. Sincecanoeroutescriss-crpss this sectionof Algonquin Park, canoeists cantakea nicetwo-day tripfromBasin portaging Depot to Round Lake, overthemany riffles andbeaver dams of theBonnechere andcamping at rusticsitesalongtheway.The (1B.6mi)north, actualheadwaters lieabout30.0km nearFerry Lake andProng Lake- cleancoldlakes whichsupport natural Brook Trout popu lations. Point41{35.3km / 2l.9mi} WAIIEYE BOOSTERS Backtrack fromBasinDepotto RoundLakeRdW andturnright. TravelonRoundLakeRdW to Tramore Rd.Turnleftandproceed 0.2km{0.1mi) to thebridge. VisitthebridgeatTramore to seetheriverwindingitswaybetween Round (0.6mi) Lake andGolden Lake. There isa damabout 1.0km uostream ofthe bridge whichstaffof Renfrew Hydro operate to manage waterlevels onRound Lake. Note theupstream banks ontheright. This rockrubble is a Walleye spawning sitewhichhasbenefitted from theattention ofa number of

groups conservation over ilF theyears. Byprotecting and SS&. enhancing thespawning sites here, anglers hopeto buildwalleye

populations - therivercurrent naturally canies thehatched downstream (lllustration: Walleye) fryt0 adjacent watersdownriuer. Point42(l0.7km /6.6mi) KILLAIOEand BREI{NAN'SCREEK to Backtrack fromthebridgeto RoundLakeRdW ; turnleft andproceed travelinto Fromthisintersection theintersection of Hwy@ at Killaloe. Creekin downtown Killaloe0n Queen Stto thebridgeoverBrennan's Rd)for St(whichbecomes theBrudenell Killaloe. Thencontinue onQueen Themillat OldKillaloe isjustbeyond Greens Rd. another 2.4km(1.5mi). (better theVillage of Killaloe Station Named afterKillaloe, lreland. - anextended ridgeof known asKillaloe) rests0na kamemoraine glacier. Whiletravelling bumpy hillsformed at theedgeof a melting of thelandscape. through thecommunity, notether0lling topography rests onthe railway station anddepot, Killaloe Station 0ncea thriving edgeof a tributary of the Bonnechere - named Brennan's afternioneer lumCreek At onetimethecreek berman JohnBrennan. andanothsupported a millat Killaloe Station erfurthersouth,at theoriginal settlement agoandstillintact known todayas0ld Killaloe. Builtovera century today, thedamandgristmillat 0ldKillaloe isthesiteof a privatelyownedmicro-hydro facility. Pointtl3(5.7km / 3.5mil BOGSAND THETREESTHATIOVETHEM! RdandQueen St.Turnleft Backtrack to Hwy@ alongBrudenell and ontoHwy@andwatchfor thetuftedtopsof blackspruce \) growthsof tamarack. - a * Thislargeareanorthof thehighway is a flooded swamp pockets. Forming in land depressions treed wetland withsomebog withlittledrainage, byplants thatcantolerate bogsaredominated blackspruce trees acidic, nutrient-deficient environments. Tamarack, and Sphagnum Mossare goodindicators of boggyconditions. Vegetation verygradually, if at all,in bogs. Deadplantmaterial decays buildsupto formpeat-sometimescalledpeatmoss- which, provides for whendriedandprocessed, a f ibre-rich soilconditioner gardens. Peatfires,relying ontheancient woodfibre,haveheated


homes forthousands of yearsin places suchas lreland. In 0ntario, s0mec0mmercial establishments burnpeatfor fuel,butscientists forests studying inAlgonquin Park utilize bogsina differentway. Since bogscollect debris overthousands ofyears, it is possible t0 tellwhat theancient forests werelikebystudying thevegetation andpollen whichhasbeenpreserved bytheacidity. Black spruce is a medium-sized coniferous treewithscalvbark. The darkblue-green needles coloured arefour-sided needles andhavetwigswhicharecovered withshortrustyhair. Lookfor distinctive tuftsgrowing ona skinny conifer0ustree,andyouarelikelylooking at blackspruce. Thisspecies is harvested extensively in Northern Ontario for usein the manufacture of pulpand paper. Since blackspruce treesoftengrowinvery wetconditions, harvesting commercial mustbe donein winterwhenthe normally waterloggedland is frozenhardand ableto ! withstand theweightof the heavylogging equipment. Tamarack hasjade-coloured needles whichgrowfromlong,slender, drooping twigs.Unlike mostconifers,_..: thesetreesturnyellowandshedtheir -'.:*ffi*Wry needles eachfall.(lllustration. Black Spruce) Point 44(1.8km / 1.1mi) ROCKBUSTERS Continue on Hwyd andwatchfor therockoutcrop(orrockcut)onyour left. Theupper reaches Valley oftheBonnechere lieatopthePrecambrian - a massive geological or Canadian whichcovers Shield formation halfof Canada. thisregion, Throughout several rockoutcrops androck cutsexp0se rockwhichwascreated theancient Shield billions of years ago,before lifeonEarth evolved. thisrockliesquiteclose Since \/ to thesurface, withverylittlesoilt0cover it,therurallandscape is quitepoorforfarming. Thisfactwaspainfully realized bytheEuropean settlers whowereluredto thisregion a century agobythepromise of freeagricultural land,onlyto havetheirdreams withina few dashed shortyears.

sustain life.Lichens Butthesesparsely covered rockcutsdoindeed rockfaces. thatclingto andcolonize arehardy, fungus-like organisms provides Thefungus the andpartfungus. Llchen is infactpartalgae process energy fromthe forthealgae to livein,whilethealgae home plants in rocks andgiving other toe-holds forlichens coating sun.Look plantmatsflourish organandspread, trapped soil.Asthese scattered a stable soilbase decomposes andbuilds, at timescreating ic matter plants maythentakeroot.A sothatmoredemanding andsensitive wildflowers clinging to sightings of delicate closelookmayproduce grass rockgarden! tuftsof lichens, andsoil- likea miniature Point45(6.9km / 4.3mil THEWILNOHILTS lookout offthesouthsideofthe Follow Hwy@ t0 Shrine Hill.Thescenic HillDriveprovides a parking areaandwashrooms. highway onShrine panoramas in theOttawa Hilloffersoneof thebestscenic Shrine Wilnoasthefirst Polish Valley. Notetheplaque commemorating of inCanada. Thesurrounding WilnoHillsaregiantheaps settlement glacialdebrisrisingabovea glacialspillway. NoteRoundLake Laket0 yourextreme right.Early accounts straight ahead andGolden notethatthisareawasoncealmost completely covered withmassive redpine,whosesquared timber wasascherished asthatof white pine- although to getmuch 0f the it'sthewhitepinewhichseems glory today! wasnamed Thisstill-vital Polish community aftertheWilnoof the t0 notethatartistsimpressions immigrants' homeland. lt'sinteresting similar to of theEuropean Wilnoareremarkably Wilno- reaffirmino Ontario's thesettlers' closetiesto thelandthatwentbeyond s;A forestry andfarming. Thecentury-old building whichhouses theWilnoTavern, at the heartof the hamlet. was built shortly aftertheoriginal railroad went thr0ugh. Fromhere,the highway runs oarallel to theoldrailwav bedto thewest. Reflecting aneraof railroad, farmers and theTavern's of foresters. decoris reminiscent (lllustration: Turkey Vulture) Wilnos yesteryears.

- another Bonnechere River a smallcreek At Wilno,Hwv!o crosses - witha marshy growthhere,andin section. Thegrassy tributary called is sometimes around theValley, marshes hundreds of similar and in wetlands whichflourishes beaverhay.Thislushgrowth, teams of ponds, forthehorse wasa vitalfoodsource beaver drained attimes. thepast, andisstillfedcattle Pointtl6(l4.0km / 8.7mil BARRY,SBAYand KAMANISKEGIAKE A Brief Jaunt into the MadawaskaValley weston Hwyl! to the3-waystopin Barry's 12.4km(7.7mi) Proceed Bay,Turnleftandtravelsouthon BaySt;veerleftat theY ontoJohnSt Dr andconDr.TUrnrightontoLakeshore to Lakeshore W andproceed Lake. tinueto thebeachandpicnicareaonKamaniskeg raillinewestof Wilnoarebothfairly andabandoned Thehighway theyfollowa thishillyterrainbecause straight andlevelthrough - which - a spillway wasonce glacial drainage channel melt-water Bay,Hwyll Between WilnoandBarry's river. thebedof a massive River of theMadawaska a heightof land,intothewatershed crosses Likethe history. - anotherlocalwaterway with a fascinating andlaterfor wasusedfor logdrives theMadawaska Bonnechere, byseven is regulated Madawaska Now, the once-mighty waterpower. generating which supply stations five hydroelectric largedamsand wiJd provincialgrid. has some the river still However, the electricityto Bark Lake and Kamaniskeg Rapids between including Bell's stretches, (13.0mi) Madawaska withintheLower wildstretch Lake, anda 21.0km and Griffith. Palmer Rapids Park, between River Provincial logging. deeprootsin 0ttawaValley Bayis a communitywith Barry's fortransport downthe werecollected oftimber Here, hugequantities Road 0ttawaandOpeongo River. As well,thehistoric Madawaska (today routeto the Line)provided anoverland knownasthe0peongo Bayonitswayto Parry Barry's whichranthrough east,andtherailway, T0this forlogtransport. wasalsoaccessible Bay, Sound andGeorgian ofthiscommunity. remains attheheart day,logging lakeonthe a largenatural 0n theedgeof townis LakeKamaniskeg, Hills,a skiareajustto thesouthof townalong Madawaska. Radcliffe the WilnoHills,the JohnStW, has a hikingtrail overlooking

Bonnechere Valley andthehighlands of Algonquin Parkto thenorth. Visitthetouristinformation boothlocated intheoldrailwav station for mbreinformation onthevillage anditssurroundings Point47(15.2km / 9,4mi)


t lT:ll1',f iJf,#Tiff?1;iTi,T.Y,#,l Y;-', lli r H',il,

11.6km(7.2mi) to theWlnoSouthRd,justbeyond theTavern in Wilno. TurnrightontoWilnoSouthRdandproceed south. Watch fordeadtreesintheflooded swamp 0ntheright.Bare, barkless andbleached bythesun,thesewooden skeletons areproofthatthere is indeed lifeafterdeath.Deadtreesarehomes for morethan30 species of birdsand mammals in the Bonnechere Valley. Holes largeenough to bevisible from the roadhaveeitherbeenexcavated , by Woodpeckers 0r werenaturally hollowed by fungus, ice,wind,lightning orfire.Mostwoodpeckers makenew holeseachyeal leaving ,i behind emptycavities as low-cost housing for birdssuchasbluebirds, swallow, kestrels, ducks, andevenowls.Squirrels, chipmunks andraccoons alsousecavity treest0 escape frompredators, t0 store foodin,orasdensin whichto raisetheiryoung. Birdnestingboxesare simplyimitation tree cavities. W designed to attractbluebirds, woodducks or othercreatures seeking nestsites. Watch forsuchholesalong theway- thatdeadtreecould beananimalinnl (lllustration: American Kestra| Folks inthelogging industry callthese treeschicots, andarecautious 0f themwhencutting. Theyarea realsafety hazard whentreesare fallingandskidders arerumbling nearby.

LINE:Road Interpretation THEOPEONGO Linealongsomeroughterrain- nota southto theOpeongo Continue stretchto takeat highspeed!At theT, turn left andtraveleaston Rd. Opeongo Llne,an 0peongo followsthehistoric of theecotour Thissegment followsthe southwestern routewhichroughly earlycolonization in theearly Proposed Biverwatershed. 0f theBonnechere boundary Road, government, the0ttawaandOpeongo bytheCanadian 1850s through coursefromthe 0ttawaRiver, wast0 followa westward Park, andeventually Lakein Algonquin to Opeongo Township, Horton theroadwascomBay.By1854, r0uteto Georgian formanoverland thelandit Bayland WilnoandBarry's pletet0 Yantha Lake(between whohadbeenlured immigrants byEuropean waspopulated bisected of grantsof fertilefarmland' with promises to thisnewcountry wereboth andlumber thatfarming of theroadbelieved Proponents andthatevenShield, forthispart0f thePrecambrian viableactivities forestry in importance. might supercede tuallyagriculture base a farming whichwouldrivalthatof of developing Butthedream soils,poor of rock,shallow bytherealities wasdashed Canada Upper flourished industry growing The lumber season. anda short drainage 1890, any but by forests, ofthevirgin to therichbounty thanks initially the stripped loggers had and hadbeenabandoned at farming attempt pine the And trees' of supply of theironceabundant localforests end- manyof the t0 anunceremonious came Lineproject Opeongo baron wayof life,andlumber of aneasier onin search moved settlers Park. intoAlgonquin t0 carrytravellers builta railway J.R.Booth muchof its intactandhasretained Lineremains the0peongo Today, and split-rail stone farmsteads, log-constructed ambience: century-old structures. century nineteenth various fences. and a plainof Linetraverses the0peongo oftheecotour thisportion Along byjutting thatisoftenpunctuated glacial covering rocky till,a shallow it Foymount, Approaching Shield. granite of theCanadian 0utcrops - a steepscarp risingalonga Ridge veerseastalongthe0peongo Valley. edge0ftheBonnechere thesouthwestern faultline bordering largetracts andencompass hillsarewildandforested, rugged These intheValleyl drives Thisisoneofthemostscenic land. of public

Travellers interested in moredetailon the 0peongo Linemightbe interested in UptheLine- a seltguided driving touronaudiocasselte,complete withsongs, stories andmusiccommemorating this historic travelroute. Point48{4.9km / 3.0mil POPTARSIAND forpoplarstands alongtheOpeongo Rd. 11 Watch fT Poplar, alsoknownas aspen, is a pioneering species which seedsin,0r sprouts from,stumps following firesor logging. Ina way, thisspecies istheforest's band-aid. Inmanyparts0f Renfrew County decades of heavy logging havelefttheforestdevoid of largepineand high-quality timber. Raging fires,madeworsebyconsiderable logging slash, wipedoutwhatremained of many stands. Whilein some cases thepineseeded back,coating the landin an evenswath,in many places thelandwascolonized bythefast-growing poprar. Thelarge-toothed aspen, oneof threeaspen species inthewatershed. hasleaves whichseem to dance andquiver ineventheslightest breeze. In spring, theseleaves showa paleunderside of woollywhite,but mature t0 formanuneven, inegular ovalcrownwhich, come fall,turna beautifulamber. Theaspen's light, soft,delicate woodisharvested for themanufacture of pulp,boxes, crates, match sticks andplywood. Trembling orquaking aspen hasa smaller, morerounded leaf,andbalsampoplarhasa delta-shaped leaf.Thebalsam poplaralsohas aromatic resinonitsleafbuds, a condition reflected inthetree,s local - Balmof Gilead. name Point 49(2,8km / 1.7mi) BRENNAN'S CREEKWETLAND point,Opeongo At this Rdcrosses Brennan,s Creeknearits headf\ \l waters. Thelandhereopens intoa productivewetland called a marsh. Insummertime, spotssuchas theseoffera chorus of frogsandtoads serenading oneanother. There areninefrogspecies intheBonnechere Valley, all of whichrequire wetlands andwaterbodies in whichto breed. Trylistening jug-o-rum forthefamiliar of thebullfrog, thebirdlikepweepof thespringpeeper, orthecallof thechorus frog,which sounds much likea f inger running overa plastic comb.

Point50(6.0km / 3.7mil

LAKE GORMAN (0'9mi) for1.5km south Rd,turnrightandproceed Atletterkenny = Lake. V tovisitGorman Smalland including formanyfishspecies Lakeis a habitat Gorman in thislake stocked whichare Trout aswellasBrook Bass, Largemouth provide for habitat suitable it doesnot because Brooktroutwithinthe naturalreproduction. arereallythefishof brooks Valley Bonnechere - hence Oneof many theirname. andstreams this Township, in Brudenell smalllakesandrivers The facilities. lakehasa picnicareaandboatlaunching coldwater andfishing. swimming lakehasexcellent bottomed sandy

Point51(3.8km / 2.4mi) BRUDENE[t Rdandproceed Rd,turnrightontoOpeongo on Letterkenny Backtrack At theinterse(onyourleft(2'2kml1.4mi). east.Notethestonechurch to Foymount Rdchanges Rd(opeongo tionof DrohanRdandFoymount Foymount' straighttowards Rdfor a fewkm/mihere);proceed of 200,threestopping a population boasted Brudenell Inthe1800s, 0urLadyof the places, andtwoblacksmiths threestores a racetrack, of Remains church Catholic firstRoman wasthearea's Angels Church just beyond rise your the on right, t0 stand still hotel and old store an theintersection. Point52(4.8km / 3.0mil THEDRUMIINSOf BRUDENELT Rd,look for a dramaticexampleof As you traveleaston Foymount ontheright. drumlins to Thehillsdirectly anddistinct. is scenic countryside therolling Here, were which hills - smooth, elongated drumlins arecalled thesouth cigarthe distinctive by glacialice,creating andpolished shaved these is anlrishwordthatdescribes form.Theworddrumlin shaped pointing in the generally hillsof glacialtill, elongated streamlined, oftheglacier. oftheretreat direction


FIERYROCKS Granite, anigneousrock(aLatintermmeaning fierr),isveryc0mm0n in thisarea.lgneous rocks aredivided intotwocategories: intrusive andextrusive. Theintrusive version emerges in a crystalline mineral form,solidifying beforeit reaches theEarth's surface. Theextrusive rocksdonotsolidify before reaching thesurface. Thisresults in lava, g whichas the temperature produce drops,solidifies t0 extensive igneous rock. Point54(4.lkm/2.5mi) FOYMOUNT Proceed on Foymount Rdfor a briefjauntup Foymount Mountain, At Foymounf turnrightontoSebastapol Dr,anddrive1,0km(0.6mi) to the parking lotat thepeak, Boasting an elevation of about500m(1,450') abovesea level, Foymount pointin theprovince. is thehighestpopulated Thisputsit inthesameleague asDundalk, thehighest townin 0ntario, whichis located in theupperreaches of theGrand River watershed southof OwenSound. Thehighest spotin 0ntario, a 693m(2,214'l hillin the Temagami area,isalsointhe0ttawaRiver watershed. Foymount was0nceanairforcebasewhichwasbuiltin 1950aspart of thepinetree Radar Line. Atthetopof thehamlet's mainstreet, sit manyof theoldairforcebuildings putusefora whicharenowbeing variety of commercial uses.From here,takein thespectacular view whichthepeople of Foymount enjoyevery day- a panoramic vistato thenorthencompassing LakeandtheBonnechere Golden Valley. Point55 WATERFROMTHE ROCKS Backtrack to Foymount Rd,tum rightandproceed eastfor 0.8km(0.5mi) to Opeongo Rd.Turnrightandtravelsoutheast alongOpeongo Rd. Lifein ruralareas oftenmeans relying onwellsforhousehold watel andtownssuchasDouglas andKillaloe relyonwellwatert0 thisday. youmighthavea spring lf youarelucky onyourproperty, butmostresidents haveto boredeepwellsto reach a goodwatersupply. Deepbeneath theSebastapol Hills,between Vanbrugh andClontarf, - a water-saturated liesa largeaquifer formation of rock. Thewater,

pressure under fromtheimpermeable rocks surrounding it,sometimes seeps (ordrilled t0 thesurface through cracks passing wellsJ, through rocklayers anddissolving minerals before reaching theEarth's surface. About150yearsag0,localsettlers lucked outwhentheycameacross thismother lode- a spring fromthisaquifer whichcanconsistently produce (264, 100,000 litres 178gallons)of waterin24hours. lt even runsduring droughts. Health-consci0us consumers haveturned this productive spring intoa valuable commodity bybonling thepuremineralwaterfor saleacross NorthAmerica. 0n yournexttript0 the supermarket, check thelabels of bottled watert0 seeif thesource is theSebastaool Hills! Point56(l2.9km / 8.0mil I.AKECTEAR turnleftonLakeClearRdandfollowthewind, = TovisitLakeClear, to thelakeshore. V ingroadfor4.2km(2.6mi) LakeClearis bordered bytwofaults: theLakeClearFaultto thenorth, andtheSt Patrick Fault to thesouth. Thelakeflowsthrough a control damintoHurd's Creek, whichentersthe Bonnechere upriver from Eganville. Since LakeCleallikenearby Round Lake, hasdeepholes whichsupport Lake Trout, it benefits frommanaged conservation measuresdesigned to protect itsfishery andwaterquality. Thenorthwest shore is a goodspotforwatching various Duck species andtheCommonLoon- 0ntario's official bird.Even though cottagers ringthe shoreof the lake,therearestillenough wild pockets t0 support a fewpairof thesebeautiful pointsallowthemanyanglers birds. Access to testtheirskillsat catching Walleye. Walleye wereintroduced to thelake,andarebeinqsus(withheavy tained pressure)through fishing theuseofsizelimits. Wild areas 0nLake Clear include somepublicly-owned islands, anda shore property witha protected oldgrowth hardwood forest. Point57 BI.UEBIRDS- A ConservationSuccessStory to Opeongo Rd;turnleftandcontinue traveling east. ;' Backtrack Watchfor shoe-box-sized f birdhouses on roadside fenceposts alongtheway.

you typeof thebirdhouse boxesarethe mostcommon Bluebird of thousands upon Thousands Valley. mightseein theBonnechere 0ntario across mounted and havebeenconstructed boxes bluebird stema effortshavehelped These overthelasthalf-century. farmland affected seriously populations were which in bluebird decline serious suchasDDTThebirdsinoestinsecticides of chemrcal bytheover-use farmtiilds. q fromtreated insects on when feeding edthechemicals hasnow useof pesticides Morejudicious t0 threat risk. Another this reduced of the loss was thebluebird nestingsites when old anddeadtreeswere fences fromfarmcountry. removed rePlace helped Nestboxes andnowbluethishabitat, birdshavemadea comeback.0nce from removed rare,in 1996the birdswereofficially considered The species. andendangered threatened listof vulnerable, 0ntario's story! success is a trueconservation recovery contrasting blueheadandback, hasa brilliant Bluebird ThemaleEastern Female white belly. a striking and neckandbreast withitsrustyorange and eye-catching are less songbirds bluebirds likemostfemale miduntil staying April and in early palerincolour. Valley inthe Arriving searchout tree cavities,fence posts and 0ctober,bluebirds orteleonfences Perching theirhomes. inwhichto make nesting-boxes pastures, land, cultivated old fields, poles, phone searches thebluebird forfoodsuchasgrasshoppers, andforestclearings ruralcemeteries (lllustration: Bluebird) and caterpillars berries. beetles, katydids, crickets, Point58 SPECKTES SARDINE-SIZED locafoundat several Rd.Brooktrout, onOpeongo east Continue ; creeK the tiniest canbefoundin someof 7 tionsalongthisecotour, Rd. of theOpeongo flowingunderthisstretch liketo becool. Troutor Speckles) Trout(alsocalledSpeckled Brook not oftenfind in warm,shallowwaterslikethe lower They're ThemanyspringRiver. butthevdoliveinthewatershed. Bonnechere many Ridgesupport whichtumblefromthe Opeongo fed creeks

p0pulati0ns naturally reproducing of brook trout.These creeks areso adesmallthatonecanliterally stepoverthem,buttheystillprovide quatehabitat forbothyoung andadultbrook troutwhlchbecause of growt0 bemuch theconfined space never larger thanbigsardines. intoa local Thecoldspring{ed waters oftheridge arealsochanneled native t0 western troutfarm.Rainbow Trout, andspeckled toutarebothraised Canada, hereforsportfishing onthegrounds, orfor ponds. saleto ownersof land-locked Manytrout farmsrely on spring-fed watersupplies into dug-out directed ponds whichoftenrequire supplementary air t0 ensure sufficient svstems thatthefishreceive oxygen. Heretoo,trouteggsarehatched andcultivated from thentransferred to thefrystagein rearing tanksindoors, outside (lllustration. growt0 adulthood. BrookTrout) Point59(8.4km / 5.2mil STAGHORN SUMAC Watch for dense of staghorn alongtheroadside. clusters sumac I -11 Notethe billowing form of the Staghorn Sumac alongthe fY forthecompound fringes offorests, inditches, orin openfields. Look leaves fruit,thenstopto seehowtheshrub anddistinctive red-haired getsits name. Thetwigsandsmallstems, withfinehairs, covered resemble theouterbone-producing velvet of deerantlers. Tobebiologmale icallycorrect, thenamecouldusesomerefinement. 0fficially, are whitetailed deerarecalled bucks, notstags, andtheboneantlers of notactually horns. Horns arethehair-based structures ontheheads rhinoceros cattle. andbuffalo. Songbirds, ruffedgrouse andmanyother birdssavour the berries. whilethe twigsarepruned andwhitebymoose taileddeeras a winterfoodsource. y0urfingers the berries to Crush between enjoy thescent. isoftencalled thelemonade tree Staghorn sumac because withtherightprocessing, its berries can

make a delightful lemony drink. Pick theberry clusters inlatesummer and fall,rubthemtogether, early thensoakincoldwaterfor10to 15minutes. Strainandsweeten thepinkjuicet0 taste.(lllustration: Staghorn Sumac) Point 60(1.9km / 1.2mi) MAPTESYRUP- tiquid Gold

r ilff:it:,T:f fliilt ;ffi:[:J:t:,1r" * ffiT:ffi5ff

Thesugarshackhascomet0 symbolize thepi0neer wayof lifein manypartsof the OttawaValley, butthehistoryof tapping maples reaches backbefore thearrival of thefirstEurooean settlers. Native people onceusedaxesto slash thetrees, to release andgather thesap intobirch-bark buckets. Red-hot stones werethenplaced inthebucket to boilofftheexcess liquid, andvoild- thefirstmaple sugar! This sugar wasa mainstay then,assugar caneandbeetshadyetto beharprocessed vested andcommercially Pioneers made forestclearing a priority when theyfirstcamet0 anynewarea- leaving treesonlywheretheterrain wastoorocky or steept0 clearforfarming. Butsoontheyrealizedthevalueof leaving somestands &' intactas maplesugarandsyrupsoon ; became ready substitutes forscarce and expensive refined sugar. Through experience, thepioneers discovered thatthebestsapwas available whenthetreefirststarted t0 run.andthat sapflowsmostfreely0nwarmspring daysfollowing coldfrostynights. Laterintheseason, thesapacquires a buddyflavour thatwasbetterfor making maplevinegar. Today, thesugarmapleis themaintreeusedona commercial basis, although black maple, red (lllustratiln: maple, andsilvermaplecanalsobetapped. Maple) Sugar Point 61(1.7km / 1,1mi) A IALE OFTWOHAWKS thepasture, is covered bya dense .aThe ridgeontheright,beyond hardwood forest which is home to therareRed-shouldered Hawk. :( A smattering of nestsbuiltbyRed-shouldered Hawks canbefound acrossRenfrew Thisdenizen Countv. 0f the deepwoodsof the


and crow0r raven, is aboutthesizeof anaverage Valley, Bonnechere feathers. tail fan-shaped its on white stripes black andthin hasbroad of canopy to nestundera closed hawkprefers Thered-shouldered year. year after sites choice to these returns treesand largehardwood veryvocal- watch andbecome thebirdsarepaired BylateMarch, a diswhilegiving displays, performing courtship high-flying forthem give these forests of Crown Managers kee-ah. kee'ah, tincrkee-ah, redactive around reserves no-cut rarebirdsa wideberthbyproviding hawknests. shouldered andisthemostcomm0n is muchlessreclusive, Hawk, TheRed{ailed but lt nestsinbigoldtrees, Valley. hawkyouwillseeintheBonnechere fora chunky preyinthefarmlands. Watch foritssmallmammal hunts the linesalong onpolesandtelephone a redtail,perched hawkwith is oneof keeeercall screeching forit.Thehigh-pitched road. 0r listen andontelevision' inmovies birdcallsheard themostcommon Point62l2.2knl1.4mil WATERSHED CONSIANTCREEKand the MADAWASKA of Rdnearthehamlets theOpeongo Creekcrossing Watchfor Constant andEsmonde. Clontarf alongthe ridge,flowsinto fed by springs stream, Thiscoldwater andonto theMadawaska Dam, Balaclava the Lake, over Constant Lake. at Calabogie River


Point63(6.3km / 3.9mi) LINE OPEONGO PICilICONthE ORIGITTIAT of theoriginal Rd,to viewa section rrl Visitthisbywayoff Opeongo Line. thehistoricOpeongo splitrailfencewhichbordered * andupgraded straightened Linehasbeenimproved, The0peongo road. corduroy timessinceit wasa carttrackandbone-jarring many thispeaceincluding havebeenpreserved, somestretches FortunatelV, hardwood havea lookfortwointeresting spot.Whilehere, ful picnic andButternut' to thisarea:Basswood treescommon thenonwhichincludes family oftheLinden is a member Basswood locations. planted in urban often versions native,ornamental leafarising heart-shaped fine-toothed, hasa distinctive Basswood fromsideto sidealongthe budsalternating redbulbous fromlarge, grooves, often barkwithlongshallow Lookfordarkgrey-brown stems.

withholes. Basswood hasa sweetsapwhichisquiteattractive riddled pokelinesof holes These woodpeckers to-Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers. whichgetstuckinside. Honeybees intotreest0 eatsapandtheinsects produce fromBasswood nectar. Native someof theirsweetest honey people bark fromthestrong andlengthy usedt0 weavelongropes hardandlightest Canadian fibresof thebasswood. Oneof thesoftest isvalued forhandcarving, modeling, interior trim, E woods, basswood veneer andfinefurniture. Butternut, sometimes referred to asWhiteWalnuthascompound in leaves, eachcomprising 11to 17 smallleaflets, eachranging sticky lengthfrom33cmto 66cm(15'to 30").lts yellowish-green with fruit,usedbythepioneers andnativepeople, is stillpopular partsof the Early colonists usedvarious squirrels andotherwildlife. people produced treeto makedye,stains andfood,whiletheNative Today. thesoftwhitedelicate woodis butter, driednutsandsyrup. in the makingof furniture. workedand polished effortlessly introduced Butternut a recently disease called Canker Unfortunately, fromthesouth, threatis making itswaytowards the0ttawaValley many eningthebutternut in thewayDutchElmDisease devastated elmpopulations. Point64(5.1km l3.2nil DOWNTOWN DACREand its SUBURBS of HwyEl turn Proceed eastalongOpeongo Rd,andat theintersection right.Travelon Hwy Al for 2.0km(1.2mi), followingthe signsto eastto Dacre. Renfrew, Turnlefton Hwy@ andcontinue Lower Thecommunity of Dacre started 0utastwoseparate villages. Linecrosses Dacre wasoriginally builtwherethe0peongo Constant placefor a tributary of theMadawaska River, asa firststopping Creek, Dacre developed westof the travellers coming fromRenfrew. Upper of several overland routes. creek at theintersection Point65(2.5km / 1.6mi)

(ONSTANTI.AKE In Dacre, turnlefton Scotch BushRdandproceedto thebridgeat Balaclava, Lakewereusedto Years ago,watersfromConstant is a runa largesawmill at Balaclava, butthehamlet

ghosttowntoday. Themillanddamstillstand- testimony to the importance ofwaterpower to earlysettlement. Look to thefarshore to - remnants viewa forestof stumps of treesf looded whenthedam provide wasfirstbuilt.These stumps a greatfishhabitat butarea trickymaze forboaters. Point66(3.0km / l.9mi) THERE'S MARBTEIN THEMTHEREHIttS! Backtrack to Hwy@; turnleftandcontinue east.Watchfor pilesof marbleonthesouthsideofthehighway at Dacre. Thisis thedepotof a marble minelocated at Twolsland Lakein the Madawaska Highlands. Marble is analtered version of limestone or dolomite. Thesesedimentary layered rocksget compressed and changed overmillions ofyears, forming metamorphic rockcomprising anarray of swirls, colours andpatterns. Mostmarble is impure, which in layman's termsmeans showing streaks orknots of minerals. White 0rgreymarble is likely fullof carbon, whilea green 0r redhueis evidenceof ironcontent. Thisattractive rockis traditionally usedfor tombstones, tilesandornamental landscapinq. Point 67(1.5km / 0,9mi) CONSTANT CREEKCANADAGOOSE COtOilY Continue east on Hwy t0 lower Dacre onConstant Creek. @, 1r f Canada Geese canusually beseenhereat thebridge crossing Constant Creek anytimeduring theice-free season. These birdsare program remnants of a captive breeding aimed to restore thisspecies parts province. geesepopulations in many of the WithCanada in decline across NorthAmerica, biologists andlandowners undertook recovery efforts whichinvolved transferring birdsto repopulate outlyingareas. Urban dwellers familiar withseeing the birdsandtheir droppings at cityparks willagree thattheproject hasbeenmorethan successful across theorovince. Point68(0.6km / 0.4mi) THEMUTTFPURPOSE CATTAIT Watch for a cattails in thewetlandeastof Constant tr Creek. plants \) Cattails arefamiliar aquatic whichdominate shallow wetlands. to 2.0m(6.4'), Stretching theplant's stems aretopped bya chocolate-brown seedhead whichreleases seedinthefallandwinter.

plants whichis actually the These aresometimes calledbulrushes, plant. root Thecarbohydrate-rich unrelated wetland nameof another whilethe stemsand withgeeseandmuskrats, stdlksarepopular provide Theearlypioneers materials fortheirhomes. leaves building vegetable, or therhizomes asa potato-like oftenpeeled andcooked theyoung andsummer, stone-ground themintoflour.In thespring flowerspikes whiletheimmature wereeatenraworcooked, shoots cobsof corn. Theyalsowovethe wereboiled andeaten likeminiature Today thecattails are intomats,chairs, androoftopsl long,flatleaves treatment. Sewage is somet0 aidin sewage usedin someruralareas andtheprolific intoartificial marshes of cattails, timesintroduced plantgrowth helpsridthewaterof nutrients andwasteproducts. Point69(3.8km / 2.4mi) STREICHIAKE and SHAMROCKWETTANDS a targewetland. east0nHwyE, asit bisects , 51.Continue forthePied-billed Grebe and N Artiurfeedino andbreedino areas habitat forthemorec0mm0n riverotter, thesemJrshes alsopiovide Watch theedges of these minkandsnapping turtle. raccoon, beaver, Kingfishers andGreatBlueHerons astheyseek wetlands forBelted outsmall fishandfrogsto feedon. nearthesouthern edgeof the Bonnechere Youarenowtravelling to whichflowss0uth Valley. Thefirstwetland feedsConstant Creek, Waterlanguishing inthemarsh at theMadawaska River at Calabogie. reaches theBonnechere watershed. Shamrock eventually Point 70(3,0km / 1.9mi) STOI{EHEDGE - The Valley'sOriginal Fences for andpiles,eastof Shamrock onHwyO. Watch the stonefences O\ Line were laid outand wtany of the fences along the 0peongo RF Whensettlers cleared therocky tree-covbuiltbytheearlypioneers. wasusedto thewoodandstonetheygathered eredlandforfarming, property was used to pulltree fieldsand lines.Horsepower border puller, ground rocksona andto transport rootsfromthe witha stump planks. later, Now,morethana century stoneboatmadeof maple hedges andtrees. havebeencolonized byshrubs, theselinesof stone withthe railandzigzag fences canalsobeseenalong 0riginal cedar oldstone fence. Clumps oftreesinfietdsoftenindicate oddtreestumn

pileswhichwereleftuntilled - further testimonV to thewillof the pioneers andthepoorquality of thelandtheyworked.

l+il -r

Point71(0,4km / 0.2mi) POTESFROMPINES polesmounted in thestone-filled culverts. ta Notethetelephone !T Thesoftwetground inthisarearequires poles thattelephone pole,or stabilized be braced by a second in a culvertfilledwith cement poles, andstone.Telephone supporting wiresthatlinkthe Bonnechere Valleywiththeworld,area familiar sitealongmost roadson thisecotour. Although occasionally madeof c0ncrete 0r steel, thestraight, sturdy trunks of pinetreesarethefavoured material for supporting theselinesthroughout the Valley. Linebuilders usually drivethepolesintotheground, butsometimes haveto alter theirtechnique in shallow or moistsoilasisthecasehere.Youcan tellwhattypeof treea poleis madefrombydecoding the letters "RP"indicate stamped onthebase. Theletters redpine,a species harvested forpolesintheBonnechere Valley andtherestof Renfrew "YP"means yellowpine,indicating County. a poleimported fromthe southern United poles States. lf youlookat enough yourtravels, along youwill eventually findsomethathavewoodpecker holesin them. Canada's biggestwoodpecker, the Pileated Woodpecker, makes homes intheoccasional pole. telephone Point72(4.3km / 2.7mi)

THETOUGHHARDYJUNIPER alongHwyO. 11 Notethelow,flatshrubsdottingpastures juniper !T Thecommon is easily growth, identified byitsshrubby three-sided, pointed longandsharply needles andbluishberry-like provide fruit.Found 0npoorrockysoilin dense thickets, theshrubs cover, nesting androosting habitat forbirdsandsmallmammals. The "berries" areenjoyed bysongbirds, butaresaidto bepoisonous to livestock. Trycrushing someof thefruitandyouwilldiscover a longginl standing useoftheoil:to flavour Point73(2.5km / 1.6mi) FERGUSI.EA ExitHwy@, andturnrightontoFerguslea Rd.Traveleastfor 4.6km (2.9mi) through thehamlet of Ferguslea, looping backto HwyO.

pastseveral beautiLine, thisroutetravels Partoftheoriginal 0peongo lt of earlyCanada. woodfences reminiscent ful loghomes andrustic and stretch of theoldKingston theK&Ptrail- anabandoned crosses cyclers, trailusedbyhikers, Pembroke railway whichis nowa multi-use Theloop byroadvehicles. ATVusers, andlocaltravel snowmobilers, whichflowsfromthe Creek, alsocrosses a widegullyof McGee's privately-owned, to the E ReidLakeandMillerLake scenic, butmostly the claysof the old re-enters south.At this point,this ecotour deepvalleys of creeks canexcavate Seawherethesmallest Champlain Hill HwyO, notePinnacle inthehighly erodable soil.Asyouapproach inthedistance. Point74 BEES east. ,o\ AtHwyI@,turnrightandcontinue W tt voudrivewiththecarwindowrolleddownonhotsummer youcould geta visitfroma Honey willflyupto 5.Okm Bee" Bees days, (3.1mi) formaking t0 feeditsyoung, andnectar in search of pollen isverysweet. areshort, localhoney honey. Although Valley summers of trees, berries andwildbeekeepers ensure a healthy source Good forthebees. White nearthehives to conserve timeandenergy flowers - growsin abundance - an excellent foodsource SweetClover roadways andfields.Thegreen, alongBonnechere Valleyditches, plantgrows whitespiky flowers at upto 2.5m(B')tall withsmall bushy pollen bassfromclovers, daisies, thebranch tips.Beesalsogather plants. to Honey beesarenotnative wood,andmanyotherflowering justlikecattleand - theyaredomesticated animals NorthAmerica production, beesareknown asimportant chickens. Alongwithhoney pollinators of cropplants. Point75(5.5km / 3.4mi) TOGGERHEAD SHRIKERenfrew County'sEndangeredBird on Hwy @, notethe field of shrubby 2rApproachingRenfrew growth. t< hawthorne limestone andsparsely vegetated 0penspace, abandoned farmland in the habitats of the rarestbirdspecies areasarethe favoured endangered the Loggerhead Shrike. Although Bonnechere Valley:


acr0ss its range in eastern NorthAmerica, several nestshavebeen foundintheRenfrew area. Thedevelopment of suburbs, subdivisions, gravel pits,intensive pesticide agriculture andassociated usehave push helped thisspecies tothebrink of extinction. Loggerhead Shrikes, blackandgrey,robin-sized birdsthatpreyon grasshoppers particularly mice, andsmallbirds, are attracted t0 pas(or tureandabandoned farmland witha healthy supply of Hawthorne Haw)bushes" Dubbed thebutcher-bird, it is known to impale its prey onthehawthornes, sharp twigs0rbarbed wire,perhaps saving the killto eat later.Drivewith cautionthroughthis area - the low,swooping shrike's f lightpattern combined withever-increasing automobiletrafficmeansmoreand moreof thesebrrds losetheirlives to highway fatalities eachyear. (I||ustration: Loggerhead Shrike) Point 76(1.8km 1.1mil / BACKTOTHEBONNECHERE Asyouenterthetownof Renfrew alongHwy@, watchfor theroadsign indicating thepublicboatlaunch. TurnleftonRiverview Drandproceed to theRiver. McConnell Parkstraddles the valleyof Smith's Creek,another Bonnechere tributary whichoncesupported a sawmill, arises inthe (6.2mi) clear waters s Lake of Hurd about 1Okm south asthecrowf lies. Around theturnofthecentury, Hurd's Lake wasconsidered a potential source ofwaterforthegrowing townof Renfrew. Today it is a popular cottage areaforlocalresidents Take a moment to enjoyonelastlookat theRiver, hereat a widebend justupstream parkwhichyou in theBonnechere, fromthemunicipal visited earlier inthisecotour.

ECOTOUR EPIIOGUE We invitey0uto trulyexperience thisunrque ec0t0ur bytaking the timet0 linger intheBonnechere Valley. Eating out should bea priority, sincethefrench-based namerefersto good{bonne) food(chdre), or goodeatingl(Thiscouldbea reference to thesuccessful hunting of earlysettlers.) Enjoy a home-cooked lunchordinner, andstayoverat a localmotel, campground orbedandbreakfast. Take home a memento ofyourtrip:puremaple syrup, clovehoney, freshtrout,ora hand-craftedsouvenir created byoneof ourmany Valley artisans. Suchecotourism helpssupport anddiversrfy the resource-based economy of theOttawa yourvisits, Valley, Through inquiries andecoyouhelppromote nomic contribution, thewiseuseandconservation of ourlands, waters andnatural resources. TheBonnechere River Valley, unlike many watersheds intheprovince, hasnever hada Conservation Authority orsimilar body to promote a watershed approach t0 theland. ButValley residents facesome daunting ecologicalchallenges: shorelineerosion, freecattleaccess to streams, wetland loss,declining waterquality, andtheclosure of manyruralbeaches. Yoursupport helpsencourage efforts to keeptheBonnechere Valley naturally beautifulandprovide a sustainable, long-term econ0my. Wethinkyouwillagree thattheBonnechere hasmany natural assets worthprotecting, anda longhtstory worthexperiencing andappreciating.Thanks again foryourinterest. Wehopet0 seey0uat an0ttawa Valley Tourist Association information booth someday.

Sponsors Ottawa ValleyTourist Association 0ntario Ministrv Develooment Trade of Economic andTourism Ministry Pembroke 0ntario of Natural Resources, District Environmental Youth Coros Renfrew Futures Development County Community Corporation Friends of Bonnechere Parks Renfrew County Stewardship Council County of Benfrew Acknowledgements MarieCheesman, 0ttawaValley Tourist Association Ministry Resources, of Natural Pembroke, 0N Algonquin Library Pembroke, 0N College Pembroke Public Pembroke, Library, 0N Dr.Jean-Luc Pilon andstaff,Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull,0C Mr.G.Bobinson andstaff,Canadian Museum of Nature, 0ttawa,0N Champlain TrailMuseum staff,Pembroke, 0N Ministry Development of Northern andMines, Tweed, 0N Chris andBobPeltzer Resort, 0peongo Mountain Lake Clear0N David andDianne Currotte, Bevaline, Barrys Camp Bay, 0N Barry andDonna Verch, Whispering Pines Resort, Eganville, 0N BertMandics, CottBeverages, Eganville, 0N Hinsperger Chris andTomWoodward, Bonnechere Eganville, Caves, 0N TheSnowbird, Lake, Golden 0N Carolyn Smoke andGreg Sarazin, Manido Chiman, Lake, Golden 0N Bichard andEveSchultz, lreland Caroline Arnpriol0N Schultz,

Beferences Chapman, L.J.andD.F.Putman, 1984.ThePhysiography of Southern )ntario,0ntarioGeological Survey Volume 2.0ntario Special Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, 0N Mackay, 8.,1996.Spirits of theLittleBonnechere, A History of Exploration, Logging andSettlement, lB00to 1920.Friends of Bonnechere Parks, Pembroke, 0N 0ntario Minsitry of Natural Resources, 1991.TheEastern Bluebird in Renfrew County(le merle-bleu del'Estdanslecomte doRenfrew - Bilingual publication). 0MNR, Pembroke, 0N Ottawa Valley Tourist Association, 1996.UptheLine{Audio Cassette). Pembroke, 0N Runtz, M.W.P., 1993.TheExplorer's GuidetoAlgonquin ParkStoddart Publishing Co.Ltd., Toronto, 0N Stephenson, the Spirits S.,1998.Discover 0f theLittleBonnechere. Friends of Bonnechere Parks, Pembroke. 0N

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Driving Tour Bonnechere Watershed