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RODELLIS & TOMLINSON BRIAN

D V A N C E D

O X F O R DS U P P L E M E N T A SRKYI L L S EDITOR: ALANMALEY SERIES

PRESS OXFORD UNIVERSITY


Oxford UniversiS. Press Great Clarendon Street, OxJord OX2 6DP Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Bombay Buenos Aires Calcutta Cape Tovun Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madras Madrid Melbourne Mexico Ciff Nairobi Paris Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto and associatedcompaniesin Berlin Ibadan Oxford and Oxford Englisk are trade marks of Oxford Universiff Press ISBN 0 19 4534030 O OxJord Universiff Press 1988 First published 1988 Fifth impression 1997 Al1 rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of OxJord Universiff Press. This book is sold subjectto the condition that it sha1lnot, by way of trade or otherwise,be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequentpurchaser. Set by TradespoolsLtd, Frome, Somerset Printed in Hong Kong

Acknowledgements Illustrationsby: JohnBatten Bill Belcher CarolinedellaPorta Peter Melnyczuk Liz Roberts Martin Ursell The publisherswouldlike to thankthe followingfor their permissionto reproducephotographs: AquilaPhotographics HP BulmerLtd Format The RonaldGrantArchive Sally& RichardGreenhill KobalCollection aremadeto the followingwriters and Acknowledgements publisherswho haveallowedus to seematerialthat falls withintheir copyright: RichardAdamsandPenguinBooksLtd for anextractfrom WatershifDowz; J. CharlesAlderson,A. H. Urquhartand LongmanGroupLtd for an extractfromReadingin a Ltd for the ForeignLanguage;EconomistPublications 'Not just parrot-talk'fromTheE conomist(8 article October1983);GrahamGreeneandThe BodleyHeadfor anextractfrom TheTenthMaz; HowardGilesandNew 'Our reactionsto accent'from SocietyLtd for the article NewSociely(14 October1971);JohnIrving and TransworldPublishersLtd for an extractfromCider HouseRules;CarlJamesandLongmanGroupLtd for the andcontrastiveanalysis'from chapter'Macrolinguistics GarrisonKeillorandFaberand ContrastiueAnabsls; Dars; Alison Faberfor an extractfromLake Wobegon Lurie andSphereBooksLtd for anextractfromForeign Affairs; AlanMatthews,CarolReadandCollinsPublishers for andextractfromThemes:Tom McNabandCentury HutchinsonPublishingLtd for an extractfrom TheFast Men; NjabuloNdebeleandReadersInternationalInc. for anextract from Foolsand OtherStories;ChristineNuttal BooksLtd for anextractfrom andHeinemarmEducational TeachingReading Skills in a ForeignLanguage;Tom SharpeandPanBooksLtd for anextractfromIndecent Exposure;Willy RussellandMethuenLondonLtd for an extractfrom E ducatingRita; DaleSpenderandTimes 'Don't talk, listen'from the NewspapersLtd for the article TimesEducationalSuhrlelnenl(3 November1978):Sue TownsendandMethuenLondonLtd for anextractfrom TheSecretDiary ofAdrian MoleAged13 314;AliceWalker andDavidHighamAssociatesfor an extractfromThe ColorPurple.


CONTENTS

Foreword ia Introduction to the teacher

u

1 SEXISM 1 1 Argument 1 2 First personnarrative 12 3 Reviewactivities 15 2

3

4

5

6

COMPREHENSION 17 1 Exposition 17 2 Narrative 33 3 Review activities 41 43 ANIMAL LANGUAGE 1 Reporting an experiment 43 2 Third personnarrative 52 3 Review activities 58 RULES 60 I Analysis 60 2 Using rules 67 3 Review activities 79 ENGLISHACCENTS 81 I Classification 81 2 Drama 89 3 Review activities 97 ARGUING 98 I Advice 98 2 Peoplearguing 105 3 Review activities 115

Teacher's guide

117


1,U

FOREWORD

This series covers the four skill areasof Listening, Speaking,Reading andWriting at four levels-elementary, intermediate,upperintermediateand advanced.Althoughwe have decidedto retain the 'four skills', the skills are traditionaldivisionof languageuse into the given book the skill beingdealt isolation. In any in total not treated with interwoven and is always of attention as the with serves focus concentrate to This enables teachers skills. by other and supported on skills developmentwithout losingtouch with the more complex reality of languageuse. Our authorshavehad in commonthe followingprinciples,that material shouldbe: . creative-both through author-creativityleadingto interesting materials,and through their capacityto provoke creative responses from students; . interesting-both for their cognitiveandaffectivecontent, andfor the activitiesrequired of the learners; . fluency-focused-bringing in accuracywork only in so far as it is necessaryto the completionof an activity; . task-based-rather than engagingin closedexerciseactivities, to use tasks with pay-offsfor the learners; . problem-solving focused-so as to engagestudentsin cognitive effort and thus provoke meaningfulinteraction; . humanistic-in the sensethat the materialsspeakto andinterrelate with the learnersas real peopleandengagethem in interaction groundedin their own experience; . learning-centred-by ensuringthat the materialspromote learning andhelp studentsto developtheir own strategiesfor learning.This is in oppositionto the view that a pre-determinedcontent is taught andidenticallyinternalizedby all students.In our materialswe do not expect input to equalintake. By ensuringcontinuingconsultationbetweenandamongauthorsat different levels, andby piloting the materials,the levels havebeen establishedon a pragmaticbasis.The fact that the authors,between them, sharea wide andvaried body of experiencehasmadethis possiblewithout losingsight of the need to pitch materialsandtasks at an attainablelevel while still allowingfor the spiceof challenge. There are three mainways in which these materialscanbe used: . as a supplementto a core coursebook; . as self-learningmaterial. Most of the books canbe used on an individualbasiswith a minimumof teacherguidance,thoughthe interactiveelementis therebylost. . as modularcoursematerial.A teachermight, for instance,combine intermediateListening andSpeakingbookswith upper-intermediate Reading andelementaryWriting with a classwhich had a good passiveknowledgeof Englishbut whichneededa basicgroundingin (Alan Maley) writing skills.


Aims of this book This book assumesthat your studentswill alreadyhavehad extensive practiceof traditionalreadingskills (for example,skimmingand scanning)andthat they have afatrly high level of linguistic competence. It has three principalaims: . to developthe students'ability to read for study purposes,andin particularassistthem in identifyingthe discoursestructure of fairly long texts. . to enablethe studentsto identify authorialstance(i.e. , the attitude the writer takes to the content of a passage). o to encouragethe studentsto respondimaginativelyto what they read. The materials The book is dividedinto six units. Eachunit hasa theme, suchas Sexism,andthere are three sectionsin a unit. Section1 is intendedto provide a thorough attack on a text. We want to help the studentsto 'architecture'.The texts in strip a text down in order to discoverits this sectionwill be semi-academicin nature andhavebeen chosento illustrate a particulartype of discourse,suchas an argumentor a report. Section2 is intendedto provide opportunityfor a more imaginativeresponseto a different text, which in this caseis fictional. Both Section1 and Section2 follow the samestructure: there are Preparationtasks, Extensive readingtasks, Intensivereadingtasks andExtensiontasks. Section3 providesreview and evaluation activitiesrelating to the generaltheme of the unit andbasedon the texts within it. There area greatvariety of tasks basedon the texts. Someof these 'closed'(eachquestionhas a single,correct answer)but the are 'open', designedto provoke thinkingand discussion.For majority are 'correct' answers,only many of the questions,therefore, there are no 'best' ones. For some, the answersare entirely a matter of opinion, althoughthe studentsare alwaysexpectedto justify their personal opinions.The tasks alsotake a variety of formats: true/false,multiple choice,text-diagrams,tablesfor completion,qtizzes,jumbled sentencesfor reordering, etc. It hasbeen one of our aimsto provide a variety of task types. One specialfeature of this book is that eachtask is precededby an aims box.This tells the studentsas clearly as possiblewhat the purposeof the task is. It alsohelps studentsto use the book for selfstudy.

INTRODUCTION TOTHE TEACHER


at

Using the book The Teacher'sguideat the back of the book providesadviceabout how to teacheachtask andalsogives answersto varioustasks. It is important to recognizethat in most casesthese answersare only suggestions.Your studentsmay comeup with answersthat are equally,andmaybeeven more, valid. The answershavebeen providedto give you an idea of what eachtask is aimingat' They shouldnot be used to assessthe students. Someof the sections(particularlysection 1) in a unit are long andwill require severallessonsto completethem' The length is necessaryin order to provide the depth of text-attack which is our intention. However, there is alwaysthe risk that the studentswill become bored with hammeringaway at a singlepassage.It is up to you, therefore, to judge how much time shouldbe spenton a section. There is no need to do every task; selectthe onesthat you think will motivate your studentsmost. Also there is no needto do all the tasks in classtime; you canset somefor self-study.The Teacher'sguide provides sampleschemesfor teachinga section,but you don't need to follow these if you think they are not appropriatefor your students. We assumealwaysthat the studentswill read the passagessilently. The way in which they read silently is important andyou should discusswith them appropriatereadingstrategiesfor the tasks they are given: for example,if the task requires skimming,make sure they know how to do it. We assumealsothat you will vary your teachingmethodology.That is, sometimesyou will do questionsorally with the whole class, sometimesask them to write answersindividually,sometimestell them to work in pairs or gloups andperhapssometimeseven 'teacher'role (for example,in nominatea student to take over the classdiscussionfollowinggroup work). All the studentsdo not have to do all the tasks or all the questionswithin a task; you cangive groupsdifferent tasks or questionsto do. Againthe Teacher'sguide gives adviceon methodologyfor you to follow, if you like.


1 Argument Preparation Task I

This activity is designed to help you activate your own knowledge and preconceptionsabout the topic of the passage.

AflN UAL qE N ERAL MEETI Nq

Sexism

/,i,/E

You are goingto read a text calledDon't talk, listen! which discusses the use of languageby malesandfemales. Do men andwomen use languagein the sameway?Work with a partner andmake notes aboutwhat you think are the similaritiesand ffierences, usingthe points of comparisonlisted in the tablebelow. When you havefinishedhold a classdiscussionon the major differences. Point of combarison voicepitch vocabulary rangeof conversational topics politeness amountof talk frequencyof interruptions

Males

Females


Unit I

Task 2 This activity is designed to help you identify the general position which the writer takes up in the passage. Use the quotationsbelow, taken from the passage,to decidewhich of the followingbest describesthe positionthat the writer takes up on male/femalelanguagedifferences. The writer's positionis a that researchinto male/femalelanguagedifferencessupports our preconceptionsaboutthe differences ! b that there are no real male/femalelanguagedifferences ! c that male/femalelanguagedifferencesarefar greater than we might expect tr d that the most important male/femalelanguagedifferences relate to the questionof socialcontrol 'Because alsoshouldbedividedinto wethinkthatlanguage 1 andfeminine we havebecomeveryskilledat ignoring masculine thatwillnotfit ourpreconceptions.' anything 'Ot sex whosetoutto findthestereotyped the manyinvestigators 2 results.' in language, fewhavehadanypositive differences 'Research andlanguage maynotbetellingus intosexdifferences 3 great dealaboutgender, language, but it is telling us a muchabout to meet the expectations of the way human beings strive andthe stereotype.' 'Although general in sexdifferences asa rulemanyof the believed 4 havenotbeenfound. . . thereis oneareawherethisis an language andpower.' lt istheareaof language exception. !

Extensive reading Task 1

The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to look at how the writer has organized the passage into sections. The passagecanbe dividedinto three main sections,eachdealing with a separateissue.Theseissuesare: 1 2 3

Myths about sex differencesin language Sex differencesin languageandpower Sex differencesin languageandlearning

Skim through the passageandwrite down the line numberswhere eachsectionbeginsandends.


Unit I To do this activity you don't needto read every sentencein the passage.Before you start, discusswith your teacherwhat is the most effectiveway of readingto completethe task.

Don't talk, Iisten! 'In mixed-sex classrooms, it is often extremely difficult for females to talk, and even more difficult for teachers to provide them with the opportunity'. Dale Spender looks at some myths about language and sex differences. Ours is a society that tries to keep the world sharply divided into masculine and feminine, not because that is the way the world is, but because that is the way we believe it should be. It takes unwavering belief and considerable effort to keeo this division. It also leads us to make some fairly foolish judgments, particularly about language. Because we think that language also should be divided into masculine and feminine we have become very skilled at ignoring anything that will not fit our preconceptions. We would rather change what we hear than change our ideas about the gender division of the world. We will call assertive girls unfeminine, and supportive boys effeminate, and try to change them while still retaining our stereotypes of masculine and feminine talk. This is why some research on sex differences and language has been so interesting. It is an illustration of how wrong we can be. Of the many investigators who set out to find the stereotyped sex differences in language, few have had any positive results. It seems that our images of serious taciturn male speakers and gossipy garrulous female speakers are just that: images. Many myths associated with masculine and feminine talk have had to be discarded as more research has been undertaken. If females do use more trivial words than males, stop talking in mid-sentence, or talk about the same things over and over again, they do not do it when investisators are around.

None of these characteristics of female speech have been found. And even when sex differences have been found, the question arises as to whether the difference is in the eye-or ear-of the beholder, rather than in the language. Pitch provides one example. We believe that males were meant to talk in low pitched voices and females in high pitched voices. We also believe that low pitch is more desirable. Well, it has been found that males tend to have lower Ditched voices than females. But it iras also been found that this difference cannot be explained bY anatomy. If males do not speak in high pitched voices, it is not usually because they are unable to do so. The reason is more likely to be that there are penalties. Males with high pitched voices are often the object of ridicule. But pitch is not an absolute, for what is considered the right pitch for males varies from country to country. Some people have suggestedthat gender differentiation in America is more extreme than in Britain. This perhaps helps to explain why American males have deeper voices. (Although no study has been done, I would suspectthat the voices of Australian males are even lower.) This makes it difficult to classify pitch as a sex difference. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to classify low pitch as more desirable. It is less than 20 years since the BBC Handbook declared that females should not read the news, becausetheir voices were unsuitable for serious topics.


Unit I

,4

90

95

100

r05

110

115

r20

r25

130

135

140

t45

Presumably women's voices have been lowered in that 20 years, or high pitch is not as bad as it used to be. Research into sex differences and language may not be telling us much about language, but it is telling us a great deal about gender, and the way human beings strive to meet the expectations of the stereotype. Although as a general rule many of the believed sex differences in language have not been found (and some of the differences which have been found by gender-blind investigators cannot be believed) there is one area where this is an exception. It is the area of language and power. When it comes to power, some very interesting sex differences have been found. Although we may have been able to predict some of them, there are others which completely contradict our beliefs about masculine and feminine talk. The first one, which was to be exoected. is that females are more polite. Most people who are without Dower and find themselves in a vulnerable position are more polite. The shop assistant is more polite than the customer; the student is more polite than the teacher; the female is more polite than the male. But this has little to do with their sex, and a great deal to do with their position in society. Females are required to be polite, and this puts the onus on them to accommodate male talk. This is where some of the research on sex differences in language has been surprising. Contrary to our beliefs, it has been found repeatedly that males talk more. When it comes to husbands and wives, males not only use longer sentences,they use more of them. Phylis Chesler has also found that it is difficult for women to talk when if men are present-particularly the men are their husbands. Although we might all be familiar with the sight of a group of women sitting silently listening to a male speaker, we have rarely en-

countered a group of men sitting quietly listening to a female speaker. Even a study of television panel programmes has revealed the way that males talk, and females accommodate male talk; men are the talkers, women the polite, suPportive and encouraging listeners. If females want to talk, they must talk to each other, for they have little opportunity to talk in the presence of men. Even when they do talk, they are likely to be interrupted. Studies by Don Zimmerman and Candace West have found that 98 per cent of interruptions in mixed sex talk were performed by males. The politeness of females ensures not only that they do not interrupt, but that they do not protest when males interrupt them. The greater amount of man-talk and the gteater frequency of interruptions is probably something that few of us are conscious of: we believe so strongly in the stereotype which insists that it is the other way around. However, it is not difficult to check this. It can be an interestingclassroomexercise. It was an exercise I set myself at a recent conference of teachers in London. From the beginning the men talked more because although there were eight official male speakers, there were no female ones. This was seen as a problem, so the organizing committee decided to exercise positive discrimination in favour of female speakers from the floor. At the first session-with positive discrimination-there were 1.4 male speakers and nine female: at the second session there were 10 male speakers and four female. There was almost twice as much man talk as woman talk. However, what was interesting was the impression people were left with about talk. The stereotypes were still holding firm. Of the 30 people consulted after the sessions, 27 were of the opinion that there had been more female than male speakers.

150

155

160

165

t70

175

180

185

190

195

200


Unit I

tr5

-

t:

lb{l

This helps to explain some of the contradictions behind sex differencesin language. On the one hand we believe that females talk too much; on the other hand we have ample evidence that they do not talk as much as males. But the contradiction only remains when we use the same standard for both sexes; it disappears when we introduce a double standard, with one rule for females and another for males. A talkative female is one who talks about as often as a man. When females are seen to talk about half as much as males they are judged to be dominating the talk. This is what happened at the females conference. Although were less than half of the speakers, most people thought they had dominated the talk. This double standard was not confined to the general session; it was also present in the workshop on sexism and education. At the first workshop session there were 32 females and five males. When the tape was played afterwards, it was surprising to find that of the 58 minutes of talk32 were taken up by males. It was surprising because no one realized, myself included, just how much the males were talking. Most people were aware that the males had talked disproportionately but no one had even guessed at the extent. We all. male and female alike, use the double standard. Males have to talk almost all the time before they are seen to be dominating the talk. There are numerous examples of the ways in which males can assume the right to talk in mixedsex groups. Not only can they use their power to ensure that they talk more, but that they choose the topic. The polite female is always at a disadvantage. It is not polite to be the centre of conversation and to talk a lot-if one is female. It is not polite to one is female. It is interrupt-if not polite to talk about things one is which interest you-if

female. It l's polite to accommodate, to listen, to be supportive and encouraging to male speakers-if one is female. So females are kept in their place. They enjoy less rights to talk. Because they have less power and because politeness is part of the reoertoire of successful feminine 6ehaviour, it is not even necessary to force females to be quiet. The penalties are so great if they break the rule, they will obligingly monitor themselves. In the past few years, a lot of attention has been paid to the role of language and learning, but the assumption has been that the sexes have enjoyed equal rights to talk. Yet it is quite obvious that females do not have equal access to talk outside the classroom, so it would be surprising if this was reversed in the school. However, if talking for learning is as important as Douglas Barnes maintains it is, then any teacher in a mixed-sex class who upholds the social rules for talk could well be practising educational discrimination. Such teachers would be allowing boys to engage in talk more frequently than girls. In looking at talk, it becomes clear that there are differences in girls' single-sex and mixed-sex schools. In single-sex schools (providing, of course, that the teacher is female), females are not obliged to defer to male authority, to support male topics, to agree to interruptions, or to practise silence; or to make the tea while the males make the public speeches. 'Free speech' is available to females in a way which is not available in mixed-sex schools. This could be the explanation for the superior claimed frequently achievement of females in singlesex schools; free to use their language to learn, they learn more. ln mixed-sex classrooms it is often extremely difficult for females to talk, and even more difficult for teachers to provide them with the opportunity. This is not because teachers are supremely

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315


Unit I

sexist beings, but because theY are governed by the same social rules as everyone else. It is appropriate for normal boYs to demand more of the teachers' time, and they cannot alwaYs modify this situation. Male students in the classroom conform to expectations when they are boisterous, noisy and even disruptive; female students conform when theY are quiet and docile; teachers conform when they see such behaviour as gender appropriate. When questioned, some teachers have stated, in fairly hostile terms, that the girls in their classrooms each other! talk all the time-to This of course is a logical outcome under the present rules for talk: females do not get the same opportunity to talk when males are around. If females want to talk, they experience difficulties if they try to talk with males. In visiting classrooms, I have often observed the teacher engaged in a class discussion with the boys, while the girls chat unobtrusively to one another. I have seen girls ignored for the whole lesson, while the teacher copes with the demands of the boys. I have heard boys praised for volunteering their answers, while girls have been rebuked for calling out. Angela Parker has found that not only do males talk more in class. but that both sexes believe that'intellectual arsumentation' in

the classroom is a masculine activity. If girls believe that it is unfeminine for them to speak up in class, they will probably take silence in preference to a loss of during femininity-particularly adolescence. I asked a group of girls at an Inner London secondary school whether they thought it was unfeminine to speak up in class.They all agreed. The girls thought it natural that male students should ask questions, make protests, challenge the teacher and demand explanations. Females on the other 'just get on with it'hand should even when they, too, thought the work was silly, or plain boring. Although it is unlikely that teachers deliberately practise discrimination against their students on the grounds of sex, by enforcing the social rules for talk they are unwittingly penalizing females. But this situation is not inevitable. There is no physical reason, no sex difference, which is responsible for the relative silence of females. As John Stuart Mill stated, this asymmetry depends upon females willingly conceding the rights to males. Perhaps teachers can help females to be a little less willing to be silent in mixed-sex classrooms. Perhaps they can help females to enjoy the same rights to talk as males. But we would have to change our stereotypes.

Task 2

The aim of this activity is to help you identify the theme and purpose of the Passage. Answer these questionsin groups.Make sure that you are ableto justify your answers. I

Which of the followingwould makethe best title for the passage?

tr I ! !

a b c d

How men discriminateagainstwomen in talk Changingour stereotypesof malesandfemales Recentresearchinto sex differencesin language Sexineoualitiesin classroomtalk


L-nitI 2 What was the writer's mainpurpose? --

a b c d

To report Topersuade To inform To instruct

Intensive reading The activitiesin this sectionwill require a carefulreadingof the passage,sectionby section. Task 1

The questions in this activity are designed to help you to come to a detailed understanding of how the topic in the first section (L.1 to 93) of the passage is developed. a Find the placesin the first sectionof the passagewhere the followingwords are used: preconceptions

myths

stereotypes

b These words all refer to the sameidea. What is it? c These words havebeen chosento suggestthe writer's viewpoint. What is her viewpoint? d Why can these be consideredhE words in the text? e Make a list of the myths associatedwith masculineand femininelanguagewhich the writer mentionsin the text. The diagrambelow representsthe traditionalapproachto malei femalelanguagedifferenceswhich Spenderdescribes(seeL.1 to 24). Basicbeliefabout language male/female differences

lgnoreconflicting evidence

Preconceptions aboutmale/female language differences

Use the informationin the diagramto summarizewhat this traditionalapproachconsistsof. What is Spender'sopinionaboutthis traditionalapproach?


Unitl The third and fourth paragraphsdescribe what has led to the preconceptionsbeingchallenged. a State what this is. b Explainwhy the preconceptionshavehadto be discarded. ' P itchproaidesoneexample'(L.52). 'pitch'provide an exampleof? a What does b What is the preconceptionaboutpitch which Spender challenges? c What is the true explanationfor male/femalepitch differences? d What evidencedoesSpendergive for this explanation? Paragraphten hastwo main discoursefunctions.One is to summarizethe writer's argumentup to this point. Canyou say what the other functionis? Study this diagram which shows how the topic is organizedin the first sectionof the passage.

to approach Traditional language differences male/female

the Challenging preconceptions

An example (Pitch)

andpreparing Summarizing for the nextsection Readthrough the first sectionagain,concentratingon how the topic is developed.Write down the line numberswhere the different sub-topicsshownin the diagrambeginandend.


[- nit I

Task 2

The questions in this activity will help you' understand how the writer develops her argument in the second section (L.94 to 275) of the passage. Whichof these statementsbest describesthe relationship between the topic of sectionone andthat of sectiontwo in the passage? !

a Whereassectionone dealswith somecommonfallacies regardingmale/femalelanguageffierences, sectiontwo dealswith somereal differences.

tr

b Sectionone explainssomefallaciesregardingmaleifemale languagedifferencesand sectiontwo illustratesthese fallacies.

!

c In sectionone argumentsrelating to sexdifferencesin languageuse are considered;in sectiontwo these argumentsare rejected.

n

d In sectionone the writer's generalpositionregardingsex differencesin languageis outlined;in sectiontwo this positionis illustrated.

Whichof the followingstatementsare true andwhich are false? Rewrite the falseonesto make them an accuraterecord of what the writer says. T/F ! a Women are more polite thanmen simplybecausethey are

women.

n

b The commonbelief that women talk more than men has been foundto be incorrect.

n

c Womenfind it easierto talk when men are present if the men are their husbands.

!

d Women do not interrupt as much as men in mixed-sextalk.

tr

e We perceivemen as dominatingtalk becausethey talk more than women.

!

f Men are responsiblefor keepingwomenin their placeby the way they dominatetalk.

Spenderpoints out three ways in which women'spoliteness affectstheir languagein mixed sex talk. Completethis list. The need to be polite which womenfeel is reflectedin a .. . . . . b . . . . . . c not talking aboutthings which interest them.


Unit 1

10 4

Spenderrefers to two smallpiecesof researchwhich she conductedto investigatemale/femaletalk. Write note summaries of eachin the tablebelow.

5

In order to explainthe results ofthese studiesSpenderrefers to a 'doublestandard'(L.2I4) that operates.Explainin your own words what this doublestandardis.

6

Why is the femalepolite? Why doesbeingpolite put her at a disadvantage?

7

Readthrough sectiontwo of the passageagain,payingparticular attentionto how Spenderdevelopsher argument. Try to identify the sub-topicsin this section,andthen draw a diagramlike the one in Task 1.6 (page8) to show how the topic is organized.

Task 3

The questions in this activity are intended to help you follow the writer's line of reasoning in the third section (L.276 to 399) of the passage. In sectionthreeSpenderidenffiesaproblem andthensuggestsa solutionto the problem.Statebrieflyin yourownwordswhatthe problemis andwhatsolutionSpenderproposes. theproblem Organzethejumbledsentences belowto summarize Spender describes. (boys for andpupils andgirls)take a Unfortunately bothteachers granted rulesfortalk. thesesocial b Children learnthrough talking. morethangirls. c Asa result, boysachieve


11

Unitl leadto educational discrimination. rulesfortalking d Thesocial to talkmorethangirls. e Boysareallowed maintained. is,therefore, f Thesource ofthediscrimination betweenmaleand 3 Completethis tableby listingthe differences language behaviour whichSpenderdescribes. femaleclassroom Fernalebehauiour

Male behauiour I

boisterousandnoisy

2 talk to the teacher 3 encouragedto volunteer answersby the teacher engagein intellectual argumentation challengethe teacher 4

Rereadsectionthree, concentratingon the reasoningSpender usesto argue that girls suffer from educationaldiscrimination. Preparea brief summaryof her argument.

Extension Task I

This activity is designedto help you identify your own response to the way the article is written. I

Work out your own responseto the article by ringing the appropriatenumber on eachof the scalesbelow. ln Don'ttalk,listen!lconsider thatDaleSpender is:

calm sen0us logical i m p e r s

I I l oI I l

2 3 4 5 a n g 2 3 4 5 f r i v o l 2 3 4 5 i l l o g i n 3 a 4 l 5 p e r s o n a l 2 2 3 4 5 s u b j e c 2 3 4 5 u n f a

r y o u s c a l

objective t i v e fai i r Work in a group (a mixed group, if possible).Compareyour responseswith those of the other membersof your group. Discussany ffierences.


Unit I

12 Task 2

This activity will help you to evaluate to what extent you agree with Spender'sviews about sexist language behaviour. What is your own opinionaboutDale Spender'sarguments?Do you !

a agree completelywith them?

!

b agreein part with them?

n

c completelydisagreewith them?

Giveyour reasons. In what ways has this article influencedthe way you think about men andwomen andtheir languagebehaviour?

First person narrative

2

Preparation Task 1

This activity will help you to clarify your own ideas 'sexist husband' is. of what a There are many differingviews on what the idealrelationship between a husbandand wife is. Whichof the followingviews do you support? I

a The role of the wife shouldbe that of caringfor the husband,the childrenandthe house;the role of the husbandshouldbe to provide for the family.

X

b The role of the wiJeandthat of the husbandshouldbe discusseduntil there is mutualagreementaboutwhat they shouldbe.

c There shouldbe no role-typing:both husbandand wife shouldbe preparedto undertakeany task related to the marnage. 'sexist husband'? What do you think are the typicalfeaturesof a Make a list. Compareyour list with that of other studentsin your group.

tr


Unit 1

Extensive reading Task I

In this activity you will establish a good understanding of the content of the extract from The ColourPwrble. The Colour P urple, by Alice Walker, is an epistolarynovel. That is, it 'letter' you consistsof letters written by charactersin the novel.The are goingto read is written by Celie, a blackAmericanwomanwho In the letter Celiedescribesthe hasbeen married off to Mr. Mr. -'s son, andSofia. marriagebetween Harpo, Note: The Colour Purple is written in the dialectusedby Celie. You shouldexpect to find a number of featuresthat are different from standardBritish English. Readthrough the letter quicklyto find the answersto these questions. 1 2 3 4

What exactly is Harpo's complaintabouthis wife? and Celietell him to do? What do Mr. What doesHarpodo? What is the result of this?

DearGod, Haroowantto knowwhatto do to makeSofiamind,Hesit outon the porchwithMr.-. Never Hesay,I tellheronething,shedo another. do whatI say.Alwaysbacktalk. Totellthetruth,hesounda littleproudof thisto me. Blowsmoke. Mr.don'tsaynothing. Usmarried I tellhershecan'tbeallthetimegoingto visithersister. place is herewiththechildren. Shesay,l'lltakethe now,I tellher.Your place withme.I say,Your iswithme.Shesay,Youwantto come? children primping glass, gettingthe children readyat the in frontthe Shekeep sametime. ast. Youeverhit her?Mr.Harpolookdownat hishands.Nawsuh,hesaylow,embarrass. Wivesis likechildren. Youhave Wellhowyouspectto makehermind? 'em knowwhogotthe upperhand.Nothing cando thatbetterthan to let a goodsoundbeating. Hepuffon hispipe. hesay.Sheneedto betaken Sofiathinktoo muchof herselfanyway, downa peg. I likeSofia,butshedon'tact likemeat all.lf shetalkingwhenHarpo andMr. comeintheroom,shekeeprighton.lf theyastherwhere something at,shesayshedon'tknow.Keeptalking. I thinkboutthiswhenHarpoastmewhatheoughtto do to herto howhappyheis now.Howthreeyears makehermind.I don'tmention passandhestillwhistle andsing.I thinkbouthoweverytimeI jumpwhen

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Unit I

14

Andlikeshepityme. Mr.callme,shelooksurprise. Beather.I say. Hislipcut.Oneof NexttimeusseeHarpohisfacea messof bruises. and his teef ache. walk stiff say shut like a fist. He hiseyes I say,Whathappento you,Harpo? youknow.Shewentcrazy Hesay,Oh,me andthatmule.Shefractious, in thefieldthe otherday.Bytime I gotherto headfor homeI wasall bangedup.ThenwhenI got home,I walkedsmackdabintothe crtbdoor. Hitmy eyeandscratchmy chin.Thenwhenthatstormcomeup lastnight I shetthewindowdownon my hand. Well,I say,Afterallthat,I don'tspectyouhada chanceto seeif you couldmakeSofiamind. Nome,he say. Buthe keeptrying. Intensive reading Task 1

In this activity you will explore the attitudes of the characters and what motivated these. I

Find evidencein the text for eachof the followingstatements. 1 2 3 4 5 6

2

Use the followinglist of adjectivesto describethe charactersin the table below.

uain cruel L

Harpo doesn'treally mind that Sofiais disobedient. Harpo feels he has to prove himselfa real man. Celieis frightenedof her husband. Sofiais not frightenedof her husband. Celie is resentfulof Sofia. Harpo wants his father to think highly of him.

elie

stoical arrogant

Sofia

stubborn jealous

Harpo

conformist sPirited

Mr. -


Unit I

Extension Task 1

The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to explore the theme of the extract in relation to your own opinions. 1

Which of the charactersin the extract do you . identify with most? o admiremost? Try and explain why.

2

In groupsof four, write a short play basedon the content of the extract. Act out your play.

3

Review activities

Task 1 The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to relate the points made in the first passageto the evidence of sexism provided in the second passage. talk, listenlStudythem Belowarea numberof quotationsfromDon't Purple.Id/}:rat from The Colour carefully.Thenturn to the extract assertions? Dale Spender's evidenceis therein the extractto support divided into thattriesto keeptheworldsharply I '0ursisa society m a s c u l iannedf e m i n i n. .e. ' ofthestereotype.' to meettheexpectations beings strive 2 '.. . human 'When sexdifferences have someveryinteresting to power, it comes 3 beenfound.' andthisputstheonusonthemto arerequired to bepolite, 4 'Females male talk.' accommodate '.. females arekeptintheirplace,' 5 . '. willingly conceding the depends uponfemales 6 . . thisasymmetry rights to males.' of In whatwaysdoesSofiain TheColourPurplefloutthe conventions Whatdoyout}ink by DaleSpender? femininebehaviour,asdescribed is likelyto happento Sofiain the novel?

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Unit I

16

Task 2

This activity is designed to help you use the ideas you have read about in this unit to formulate you own views about male and female roles. If you are female,make a list of the characteristicsof your 'ideal' man. If you are male, make a list of the characteristicsof your 'ideal'woman. If your classis a mixed one, pair off with a member of the opposite sex. Showeachother your lists ofcharacteristics.Ifyour classis a single-sexone, pair off with anotherstudentandevaluateeach other's lists of characteristicsfor evidenceof stereotypicalsexist attitudes. Discussto what extent your list hasbeen influencedby the ideas you haveread aboutin this unit. DaleSpendersuggeststhat there is a needfor'positive discrimination'torectify the inequalitiesbetweenmen and women.Hold a classdiscussionabout . whether you think positive discriminationis a goodidea. . what forms you think positive discriminationshouldtake. A NNUAL qENERAL ,VIEETIN Gr

P O5I TIVE

D I SCRI MI NATI

O N


1 Exposition Preparation Task 1 In this task you will be asked to think about and discuss your ideas of what comprehension involves in order to help you to anticipate the main ideas in the reading passage. Think aboutthe meaningof definitionof the word.

'comprehension'andtry to write a

Form a gloup with two or three other students.Look at each other's definitionsanduse them to write a group definitionof 'comprehension'. In your group list the skills you need to comprehenda written story. Which of the followingstatementswould you agreewith? Give reasons. n D

tr !

T !

a You need to understandevery word in order to understand a story properly. b The real meaningof a story is the meaningintendedby the author. c Eachreader gives a slightly different meaningto a story. d Comprehensioncannottake placeif we cannotrelate the situationbeing describedto our own theory of the world. e Most schoolcomprehensiontasks are tests of memory, not of comprehension. f The mainproblemin understandinga story in a foreign languageis makingan accuratetranslation'

Discusswith the other membersof your group exactlywhat you seewhenyou read eachof the sentencesbelow. a b c d e f

MrSmithtookoff hisshoesbeforehewentontothe beach. Ricktookoff hisshoesbeforehecameoffthe beach. askedfor the bread. LadySmithfield juice. Philcut uptheorange the bread. MrsSmithpassed withBillallnight. Patdanced

How did your own imagesof these sentencesdiffer from the illustrationsshown? Discusswith the other membersof your group how you feel towards the peopledescribedin the followingsentences. of goingdownto in hisroominstead stayedbrooding a Benjamin jointhe partygivenin hishonourby hisfather.

Comprehensio


Unit2

18 b Sheilahasbeena militantsocialist eversinceshewentto university. c Sarahscreamed hysterically. d Whenhewastoldabouthiswife'saffairwithB// he packeda anddrovefuriously to London. suitcase e WhenshestartedcryingagainMrJonesslappedher. 7

Make use of the implicationsof your discussionsin 5 and6 above to help you to work out a theory of what comprehensionof a written passageinvolves.

Task 2

In this task you will make predictions about the content of the passage you are going to read. The followingheadingsare taken from the passageyou are goingto read. rolepassive? ls the reader's Whatmakesa textdifficult? Sharedassumptions ng presuppositions ldentifyi Totalunderstanding? Activeinvolvement of the reader as interaction Reading Making senseof thetext Prediction What do you think the writer of the passageis goingto say about comprehension? Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will make use of your discussions and predictions in the preparation tasks to help you to read the passage. Readthrough the passageto find out what the writer, Christine Nuttall, thinks is involvedin readingcomprehension.As you read, relate the passageto your predictionsin PreparationTask 2 above and decideto what extent you were right. At this stagedon't worry aboutany words or ideasyou don't completelyunderstand.


19

i--nit2

process 4 Thecommunication

SENDER encoder

; gure1 givesa verysimplemodelof theprocess On of communication. wellspeakhismessage, :ireleftisthewriter;butsincehe couldequally hisrole.Theencoderhasa ,'iewillusethe moregeneralIermencoderfor an argument, Tessage in hismind(it maybe an idea,a fact,a feeling, he elseto share.To makethispossible etc.)whichhewantssomebody nust firstputit intowords:thatis,he mustencodeit, 0nceit is encoded, outsidehismindasa text. r eitherspokenor writtenform,it is available Thetextis accessible to the mindof anotherpersonwhohearsor reads the it isdecoded, it contains.Once message t. i.e.who decodesthe 'nessage isachieved.1 0 andcommunication entersthemindof thedecoder for thingscango wrongat anystage thismodelistoo simple, Obviously put markinthedecoder's ThatiswhyI have a question n theprocess. thatwas the message nind,for we cannotbesurethathe hasreceived 'rtended. process that reading for usto say is clearenough the However, possible message that the 1 5 the neansgettingout of thetextas nearlyas part depth more the in a little ,vriteroutintoit.Weshallneedto consider process; and we in this rlayedbythe writer,the readerandthetextitself ruillstartwiththe reader. l+.1 ls the reader'srole passive? Figure Thetextisfullof onefairlywidelyheldviewof reading. 2 illustrates 'neaning 20 likea jugfullof water,andit canbe pouredstraightintothe 'eader's Inthisview,thereader's mindwhichsoaksit up likea sponge. 'cleis a passive one:alltheworkhasbeendonebythewriterandthe 'eaderhasonlyto openhismindandletthemeaning pourin. Whydo we rejectthis?Oneobviousreasonisthatit seldomhappens getsintothereader's 25 inthetextactually kethis.Notallthemeaning - if not mind;thefigureshouldshowat leastsomeof thewatertrickling - downthereader's is inthe face.Thefactthatthemeaning slreaming noguarantee thatthe readerwillgetit out,for we textis unfortunately thata textthatseemseasyto oneperson <nowfrompersonal experience 30 rrayseemdifficult to another. 4.2 Whatmakesa text difficult? wewillexamine sometextsthat Tothrowsomelightonthequestion, manypeoplewouldfinddifficult. TextA Tiitinkanssa Kokkolasta loppupdivdnd tammikuun lstuineraana taivasoli 35 linja-autossa. Olikirpedpakkasilma, kulkevassa JyvZiskyldrdn ja tienpoikkipuiden ja aurinko pitkeiisinisid heittilumihangille kirkas, varJ0Ja. (WernerSoderstromOY:1954) Y. Kokko,Ne TulevatTakaisin youarenotfamiliarwiththe it is because lf youfoundthistextdifficult, youdo notknowFinnish, 40 the codeinwhichit hasbeenexpressed; for satisfactory ianguage in whichit is written.Sooneof the prerequisites sharethesamecode.The should isthatwriterandreader communication out.Butthisis notthe do notneedpointing for FLteaching mplications onlyreasonfor findinga texi difficult.

wflter speaKer

RECEIVER decoder r e a de r lrstener

process Fig 1 Thecommunication

Fig 2

Oneview of reading


Unit2

20

45 TextB by anionisformed thatisstabilized a carbon Inthefirstexample, groupandthe (electrons overthecarbonyl delocalized resonance thatis a carbon anionisformed case, a carbon atom). Inthesecond withdrawing inductive effectofthethree stabilized bytheelectron chlorines. 50 Proiects: Science Reading of Malaya, Centre, University TheLanguage (University 19791 Press/Nelson, of Malaya about nothing who,likeme,knows to someone, Thistextisdifficult ina words looked of the me if I up some lt wouldnothelp science. The onlything the definitions. not understand because I should 55 dictionary, from basics. So in starting would a course chemistry, be thatwouldhelp previous that the knowledge the amount of here depends on thedifficulty brings to the text. reader TextC exist, this arerealthings, ordoreally ldeasimprinted onthesenses without theminds wedonotdeny,butwedenythattheycansubsist perceive ofany whrch them,orthattheyareresemblances of a themind: sincetheverybetng without archetypes existing andanideacanbe inbeingperceived, sensation or ideaconsists 65 butanidea. likenothing (Nelson, 1949) Pilnciflesof HumanKnowledge G.Berkeley,

60

difficult, but usedinthistextdoesnotseemparticularly Thevocabulary eludes them.Evenif youhavea vague findthatitsmessage manypeople youwillprobably it clearly notbeableto explain ideawhatit isabout, (whowroteit) youhavereada gooddealmorebyBishop Berkeley 70 unless liesnot Forherethedifficulty carefully abouthisarguments. andthought requires, thereader of knowledge andnotintheamount inthelanguage, expressed. oftheconcepts butinthecomplexity 75

TextD bythoseof areapopulated inthevicinity oftheresidential Cavorting piscatorial ina wasenmeshed theminuscule crustacean avocation, theintersections. between reticulated objectwithinterstices

ofdifficulty here, sinceyoucan istheonlysource Thevocabulary 'translate'this isnot English andthemessage intoextremely simple islimited, thisis whose vocabulary Forreaders intellectually. B0 challenging codeisonly oftextA thanB orC:thewriter's moreliketheproblem partly thesameasthereader's. 4.3 Sharedassumptions we cansee kindsof textualdifficulty, of different Fromtheseexamples it isthatthe readerandthewritershouldhavecertain howimportant The between themisto takeplace. if communication 85 thingsin common, isthattheyshouldsharethesamecode:thatthey requirement minimum TextD showsusthat thesamelanguage. shouldwriteandunderstand thatis not of thatlanguage theyshouldalsohavein commona command


21

wtt2

thanthe if the readerhasa far smallervocabulary ::,r rvidely different: In FLreading, 90 ln**-ter, hewillfindthetexthardto understand. for example, is basicandfamiliar. :- s oroblem isthatthewriterandreadershould requirement ,Amoreinteresting abouttheworldandthewayit works.Wesaw :,-arecertainassumptions of :-at if thewriterexpectshisreaderto havea basicunderstanding 95 byanyonewholacks :remistry,thetextwillnotbe readilyunderstood already known. assumes is :- s:thewriterdoesnottellthe readerwhathe between arisewhenthereis a mismatch in understanding S: problems presuppositions reader. of the writerandthoseof the :e of somekind;notwo peoplehave Naturally therealwaysis a mismatch -ad identical 100 of life,sothewriteris alwayslikelyto leave experiences granted, not. the reader does butthat thathetakesfor -nsaidsomething how,for anytwo people,certain Figure 3 is a simplewayof showing n.nds area whileotherswillnot.Theshaded willbeshared, of experience people have the two the things urtrere thetwo circlesoverlaprepresents - including 105 alltheknowledge r common. Inthisareawillbe included include more But it will also they share. mowledge of languagethat values, andallthe unspoken beliefs, ntangible thingslikeattitudes, people havebeenbroughtup in who by two assumptions thatareshared thatarenot are the things areas fie samesociety.ln the unshaded 1I 0 to each are unique and knowledge that shared: the experiences rdividual.

4.4 ldentifyingpresuppositions Youmayfindit helpfulto seehowthisworkswithsomeactualexamples andtry to wrrtedownfor eachone extracts :f texts.Studythefollowing he makes thatthewriterhas,andthe assumptions :hepresuppositions 115 below. Therearesomecomments abouthisreader. the European shapenotunlike Ingeneral Lapwing: a Red-wattled (Froma handbook of typesof country. andfoundin similar Lapwing birdidentification) hasbeenthe idea accepted c Thebiggestproblemin gettinganimation 'animation' (From article aboutanimation an Walt Disney. means that infilms) futuresclosedthe morningeasierat the lowsandmostlyfrom c Rubber was188 Turnover 0.70to 0.80penceperkilodownfromyesterday. (Froma 26kerbtradesandtwo options. lotsof 15tonnes,including page) business newspaper

r20

r25

10mm midway of the beltshouldbe approximately d Totalmovement withnormalwrist whenchecked the pumpandjockeypulleys between effort.(Froma caruser'shandbook) a looseribby starved; e lt wasa puppy.A tinyricketypuppy,mangy, ground. to lift itselfup.lt only 1 3 0 noise. lt tried lt madeno onthe bundle (From TheSuffrage without shame. again,withoutcomplaint, collapsed of ElvirabyV.S.Naipaul)

Area of shared assumptions

andcommunication Fig3 Presupposition


Unit2

22

youmaywellfindotherthings. Herearemy comments; Lapwing whata European hetoo knows a Nouseto thereaderunless it isfound. 135 lookslike,andin whatsortof country isoneof thebest knowing thatWaltDisney onthereader's b Relies what on hisknowing films. Alsorelies in animated knownoroducers view produced, implied thewriter's andsharing typeof filmsDisney to his theme. relation in filmsarein somewayundesirable thatDisney of technical understanding the reader's on 140 c Relies iargon(futures, also on wider optionsl, but kerb trades, lows, down, easier, isdealtwith; (and other commodities) way rubber of the understanding lotsa big ls 188 a one? a drop or small 0.80 big is 0.70 to for instance, presumably not, since of 15 tonnes? lots always not? Are turnoveror And significance? what is the it; in that case, has mentioned writer 145 the 0n. so the thecode,including usto understand thewriterexpects d Trivially, mm andthe technicallabels(belt,pump,iockeypulleys). abbreviation 'normal', whatsort and Healsoexpectsusto knowwhatwristeffodis (Where doyouputyourrulerto of thebeltis involved. 150 of movement 10mm?) measure the readerto sharehisattitudeto the puppy; e Thewriterexpects it asdisgust haveinterpreted fromsomeculturalbackgrounds readers reactto with (misledby words|ke mangr,whichtheythemselves by tiny, signalled havrng failedto tunein to thesympathy 155 disgust), of itsstoicismand description andthe half-admiring starved, areso deep wheretheassumptions Thisisanexample determination. linguistic expression. onlytheslightest thattheyneedto receive 4.5 Total understanding? in of background theimportance aboveindicates Thefinalexample background, thatfor people of similar lt willbeobvious 1 6 0understanding. coming thanfor people 3 willbe muchbigger areain Figure theshaded different let alonepeoplefromentirely fromdifferent backgrounds, greaterthe area,the sizeof theshaded lt is alsoclearthatthe cultures. willbe.lf thewriterandthereaderareclosely easier communication andsoon,thereaderislikelyto attitude training, 1 6 5similarin background, of effort.Therearestilldangers interpret thetextwithno conscious a careless readermayreadintothetext however: misunderstanding, much hissenseof having meanings thatarenotthere,simplybecause that isassuming Sucha reader in commonwiththewriterisso strong. - isgreater thanit area- thecommonground 170 theextentof theshaded actually is. abouttheextent falseassumption Whenthewritermakesa similar beliefs, etc.,the to whichthereaderis likelyto sharehisknowledge, and to struggle to understand, of having readermaybe conscious merely backgrounds he mayfail.Butthewidelydifferent 175 sometimes forget:thatwe cannever makemoreobviousa factthatwe sometimes scientific Except inthemostseverely totally. oneanother understand


23

l-'nit2

because allof ushavehaddifferent ,,-'rrting, thisseemsinevitable, eventhough differently, whichmakeusseethingsslightly :xperiences ,,*'e alsohavea greatdealin common. isthatwe wantto understand Butof courseonereasonfor reading therewouldbe no pointin ideas; if wewereallidentical, :therpeople's the Fortunately, for mostpurposes, nost communication. neednotbetotal:butthefactthatwe cannotgetinside rnderstanding for notdoingourbestto understand mindis no excuse :hewriter's we can withsomeone, ,rhathewantsto say.lf we arein conversation we need whenever andexamples stophimandaskfor explanations we needto in reading, :hem.Inthesameway,whenwe havedifficulties for nterrogate thetext.Sincethewriterisseldomavailable andreading hasbeen thetextisouronlyresource: :onsultation, jescribedas 'activeinterrogation of a text'.

180

185

190

4,6 Activeinvolvementof the reader 'i/ecannowbeginto seewhythe modelof reading shownin Figure2 was is notmerelylyingin thetextwaitingto be rnsatisfactory. Themeaning involved and thereaderisactively :assively absorbed. 0n thecontrary, 4 195 out.A modellikeFigure ,,,,ill veryoftenhaveto workto getthe meaning inwhichthe Tayseemnearer thetruth:it showsusa viewof reading 'eadercanbeseenapproaching moreactively. Thereader on meaning is in interpreting thetext:the meaning :heleftisfindinglittledifficulty ;airlyclearto himallalong, withthewriterand he hasmuchin common Tothereaderontheright, 200 used. re hasfewproblems withthelanguage verydifficult. To getat the meaning rowever, the sametextappears nvolves andhe is notat allsureoftheroute.Hecan anuphillstruggle nringto thetaskso littleof whatthe writerhastakenfor grantedthatthe vocabulary, of unfamiliar ,,ray is continually blocked byproblems forward gnorance limitations. However, the readeron the 205 of factsor intellectual rrghtis awarethat he is notunderstanding; is important if thisawareness reader.Poorreaders oftendo noteven ,,ouhopeto be a competent necognize so recognizing thatthereare thattheydo notunderstand; isthefirststeptowardscompetence. oroblems withvigourand 210 hisproblems Thereaderontherightisalsotackling He hasunderstood thatto reachthe ,,rith allthetoolsat hisdisposal. Tessageinvolves hisowneffortsaswellasthoseof thewriter:it is in a 'co-operative principle', asit ,vaya co-operative task.Theso-called alongtheselines: applies mightbeformulated to reading, Thereaderassumes 215 samecode(thesamelanguage). a Thatheandthewriterareusingthe : Thatthewriterhasa message. the message. : Thatthewriterwantsthe readerto understand eventryingto Thisappliesso strongly thatyoumayhavefoundyourself 220 Generally nakesenseof writing whichturnedoutto be nonsense. aretelling thetruthandhavesomething speaking, we assume thatpeople istoostrongto resist. to thecontrary sensible to sayuntilevidence

F i g4 A n o t h e r v i e wroefa d r n g


Unit2

24

4.7 Readingas interaction willingness including the reader's Thewritermakessimilarassumptions, lf eitherletsthe for himself. to makesomeeffortto getat the meaning hismessage fails.lf thewriteris careless, 225 otherdown,communication if he makesdemands thatthe reader maybe impossible to recover; eventhoughto another willnot be received, cannotfulfil,the message or idle,the readerit mightbe clear.lf thereaderon hissideiscareless a one. interpretation or distorted 0n both resultis similar: an incomplete is likelyto betheworstproblem, 230 sides,lackof sharedassumptions Thereaderis likelyto try to make it is notalwaysrecognized. because andit maybe a senseof thetext intermsof hisownpresuppositions, fromthoseof they differ that longtime beforehe isforcedto recognize the writer. according to this Fromwhatwe havesaid,youcanseethatreading 235 just process, are one. We an active bu| an interactive viewis not because whatone as interactive, to thinking of conversation accustomed The the of the other. obviously influences contribution speaker says because thewriteris not in reading is clearlyratherdifferent interaction andwriter both reader makes the task of 240 normally available, andthis get know no feedback, the writer cannot he can moredifficult. Since He hasto guess whichpartsof histextwillcausemtsunderstanding. butsincehe never wherethe problems lieandshapehistextaccordingly, willbe,hewillneversucceedcompletely. knowsexactlywhohisreaders 4.8 Makingsenseof the text Before

Fig5 Thetextasa do-ifyourselt kit

hasnot:he has whichthespeaker the writerhasan advantage 245 However, timeto structurehistexteffectively, to helpthe readerby makingit as he Thereaderalsohastimeat hisdisposal: straightforward as possible. rereadthe canstopandthink,go backto checkan earlierreference, mostdifficultpassages. thetexttakesfor granteda bodyof Unless that he simplydoesnothave,a carefulreadershouldbe able 250 knowledge the assumptions on whichthewritingis based.Hehasto to reconstruct aboutwhat readwithenoughskillandcareto makethe rightinferences enough to recognize thewritermeans, andhe hasto remainobjective in viewpoint betweenhimselfandthewriter.To do thishe differences - choiceof words,selection of facts, allthe evidence 255 mustassess andso on- sothathegetsthe message organization of material he mighthavepreferred to receive. ratherthanthe message intended process mightbe more Allthissuggests thata modelof the reading ratherlikea do-it-yourself likethatshownin Figure5: thetextfunctions in thewriter'smindisthe perfectpieceof 260 construction kit.Themessage thisdowninto furnitureplannedbythe designer. Theprocess of breaking partsandpacking for its component themall intoa boxwithinstructions assembly is a littlelikethe process of puttingthoughtsintowordsand a text resembles themintoa coherent text.A readertackling organizing kit andtryingto hisdo-it-yourself 265 theamateurfurnituremakerunpacking workout howthe piecesfit together. too far,butit doesserveto It wouldnot be wiseto pressthisanalogy


Unit2 Wecanbegin hasto contribute. howmuchthereaderhimself emphasize makingsense: the readerdoesin truth to seetheforceof the metaphor 270 haveto makesenseof thetext,almostliketheamateurmakinghis incomplete or moreor lessas tturniture. Whether histableis rickety, planned werepacked andthe allthepieces notonlyon whether depends thebasic heunderstands rnstructions clear,butalsoonwhether principles properly, hefollows theinstructions and whether involved, pieces. 275 whetherhe manages notto loseanyof the 4.9 Prediction willmakehistablemorequickly ,Amanwhoknowsa bitaboutcarpentry arenotveryclear,or the thanthemanwhodoesnot.lf theinstructions hisexperience helpshimto conclude thatit shapeof a pieceis baffling, mustfit there,or that itsfunctionmustbethat.Inthesameway,the 280 reader's helpshimto predictwhatthewriteris senseandexperience that,A likelytosaynext:that hemustbegoingtosaythisratherthan reader whocanthinkalongwiththewriterinthiswaywillfindthetext of predicting hisway thatthe readeris conscious I am notsuggesting he is not,buttheskillis so usefulthatyou 285 througha text likethis.Usually awareof it so thattheycanuseit to maywishto makeyourstudents tackledifficult texts.lt doesseemto bethe casethataswe readwe make to say;theseareimmediately hypotheses aboutwhatthewriterintends by new doessay,andarereplaced modified by whathe actually 290 of hypotheses aboutwhatwillfollow.Wehaveallhadthe experience a textuntilsuddenly brought to a haltby believing wewereunderstanding somewordor phrasethatwouldnotfit intothe patternandforcedusto lendsupport to the Suchoccurrences reread ourthoughts. andreadjust - a of hypotheses notionof reading asa constantmakingandremaking 'pycholinguistic game'. guessing 295 infindingout howfarthisideaaccordswith lf youareinterested practice, witha difficult text,you andhowusefulit mightbe in dealing ,rnay p.13. To do so,takea piece on liketo try outthetextandquestions (which printed in romantype).Move is of cardanduseit to maskthetext 300 at a time.Answer the onlyonesection t downthepage,revealing question (printedin lfallctype) beforeyougo on to lookat the next says,and against whatthetextactually section. Checkyourprediction iLrse Youwillneedto to improveyournextprediction. the newknowledge for lookbackto earlierpartsof thetext if youareto predictaccurately, youmustkeepin mindthegeneral aswell 305 organization of theargument further. Trythisout beforereading asthe detailwithineachsentence. beeninterested to find lf youhavetriedthisout,youhaveprobably weshouldnotexpectto be howmuchyoucanpredict, thoughnaturally therewouldbe no needfor usto read. righteverytime- otherwise whenwearefacedwitha 310 canbe helpful useof thistechnique Conscious parlof thetextthatwefinddifficult: if we canseetheoverallpatternof isorganized, we canmakea reasoned thetext,andthewaytheargument guessat the nextstep.Havingan ideaof whatsomething mightmeancan particularly great helpful in leading us it.lt canbe helpin tnterpreting bea 'fointerpretcorrectly which we must now 315 Ihe valueof an utterance, define.

25


Unit2

26 Task 2

In this task you will use your own experience to evaluate the points made by Christine Nuttall. How well did you understandthe passage?If you understoodit quite easily, what do you think helpedyou to understandit? If you foundit fficult to understand,what do you think madeit difficult? List what you think are the mainpointsmadeby ChristineNuttall aboutreadingcomprehension.Then use your experienceof trying to comprehendthe passageto help you to decideto what extent you agreewith eachpoint. Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will examine the text to decide what the writer's main objectives are and to discover what strategies she uses to try to achieve them. 1

Which of the followingobjectivesdo you think ChristineNuttall hastried to achievein this passage? ! n ! tr n ! ! n

to present proven facts to stimulatethe reader to present objectivelyvarioustheoriesof comprehension to make the topic interestingto the non-expertreader to be controversial to persuadethe reader to agreewith her theories on comprehension g to provide practicaladvice h to encouragethe reader to think for herArimself a b c d e f

For eachofthe objectivesyou have selectedabove,try to find an examplefrom the passageto show how ChristineNuttall has tried to achieveit. 2

Find examplesfrom the passageof the followingstrategies: a askinga questionto get the reader to think and then providing an answer to help them. b usingan analogywith an everydayexperienceas a way of helpingthe reader to understandan aspectof the processof readingcomprehension. c makinga statementand then clarifyingandreinforcingit with a series of statementswhich repeat andaddto the originalone.


L'nit2

3

'In

this chapterof her book, Nuttall tries to get her readersto use the readingskills she is describingin order to help them to understandwhat sheis sayingaboutthe readingprocess.' Find evidencein the passageto supportor refute this statement.

Task 2

In this task you will examine and evaluate in detail some of the techniques and utterances used by Christine Nuttall in the passage. Give an exampleof a situationin which the decoderof a written text misinterprets the messageintendedby the encoderof the text. Explainthe cause(s)of the misinterpretationin your example. Redraw the diagramin Fig. 2 so that it representsa more accurateversionofwhat the processofunderstanding a text involves. Summarizein one sentenceNuttall's views in 4.2 aboutwhatcan make a text difficult to understand. Write a number of short texts in which the encoderis communicatingthe samemessageto: a a friend who sharesthe sameexperienceandknowledge. b a stranger who sharessimilarexperienceandknowledge. c peoplewho do not havethe sameexperienceandknowledge as the encoder. c

What presuppositionsdo you think Nuttatl madewhen she was writing this chapter?What assumptionsdo you think she made abouther readers? Give two examplesof situationsin which the decoderof a text needsonly a partialunderstandingof the encoder'smessage. Give an exampleof a situationin which the decoderhasto try to achievealmost total understandingof the encoder'smessage. What differencein readingactivity are there between reading for partial understandingandreadingfor total understanding? Give examplesof types of readingsituationsin which you would find it easyto makepredictions,andexamplesof situationsin which you would find it dfficult. Find a short article from a newspaper.Write out the article sentenceby sentence.After eachsentencewrite a question which would help the reader to makepredictionsaboutthe next sentence.

27


28

Unit2

For example: Robsonfi.ndstheanswerin Zurich. 'Who is Robson?Whatis the articleabout?' BobbyRobsonwasa happyman last night. 'Why was he happy?' Whenyou havefinished,swapyour article with anotherstudent. Readtheir article and as you read makepredictionsaboutthe next sentenceby answeringyour partner's questions. Afterwards discussthe two articleswith your partner anddecide to what extent makingpredictionshelpedyou to read the article you were given. 9

10

In the last sentenceof the extract you haveread Nuttall says sheis goingto definewhat is meantby the 'value'ofan utterance. Use your understandingof what shehas saidso far to predictwhat shewill sayabout'value'. The passageis full of similesandmetaphorswhich try to help the reader to understandwhat Nuttall is sayingabout comprehensionby relating aspectsof it to experienceslikely to be familiarto the reader. Locate all these comparisonsin the passageandlist them accordingto the followingcategories: I aeryhelfful 2 quitehelpful 3 not helpful Explainwhy the comparisonsyou put in the first categoryhelped you to understandandwhy those in the third categorydidn't help you at all.

Extension In these tasks you will make use of your knowledge and experience ofprediction and ofrelating a text to world knowledge in order to r work out what is going to happen in a number of stories r write the beginning of a story which requires the readers to revise their predictions and to relate what they read to their experience of the world.


Ltnit2

Task 1 1

Look at the front cover of TheSecretDiary ofAdrian Mole aged 133/aandpredict as much as you canaboutthe story.

29


30

Unit2 Now read the first pageof the novel below andrevise andaddto your predictions.

Thursday

January lst

BANK HOLIDAY IN ENGLAND, IRELAND. SCOTLAND AND WALES Theseare my New Year's resolutions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

I will help the blind acrossthe road. I will hangmy trousersup. I will put the sleevesback on my records. I will not startsmoking. I will stopsqueezingmy spots. I will be kind to the dog. I will help the poor and ignorant. After hearingthe disgustingnoisesfrom downstairs last night, I have also vowed never to drink alcohol.

My father got the dog drunk on cherry brandy at the party lastnight. Ifthe RSPCAhearaboutit hecould get done.Eight dayshave goneby sinceChristmasDay but my mother still hasn'twom the greenlurex apronI boughther for Christmas! Shewill get bathcubesnext year. Justmy luck, I've got a spoton my chin for the first day of the New Year! Friday

January 2nd

BANKHOLIDAYIN

SCOTLAND. FULL MOON I felt rottentoday.It's my mother'sfault for singing'My Way' at two o'clock in the morning at rhe top of the stairs.Just my luck to have a mother like her. There is a chancemy parents could be alcoholics.Next yearI couldbe in a children'shome. The dog got its own back on my father. It jumped up and knockeddown his model ship, thenran into thegardenwith the rigging tangled in its feet. My father kept saying, 'Three months'work down the drain', over and over again. The spoton my chin is gettingbigger. It's my mother's fault for not knowing about vitamins.

ReadAdrian'sdiaryentryfor December31stthatyearandtry to work outhowaccuratevourpredictions were.


31

Unit2

The dog haspulled the Christmasfiee down andmadeall the pine needlesstick in the shag-pile. I havefinished all my Christmasbooks andthelibrary is still shut.I am reducedto readingmy father'sReader'sDigests and testingmy word power. December30th

Wednesday

All the balloons have shrivelled up. They look like old aboutthe women'sbreastsshownon televisiondocumentaries Third World. Thursday

December 3lst

The last day ofthe year! A lot hashappened.I havefallen in love. Beena one-parentchild. Goneintellectual.And hadtwo lettersfrom the BBC. Not bad going for a 143/+yeat-oldl My motherandfatherhavebeento a New Year'sEve dance at the GrandHotel. My mother actually wore a dress! It is over a year sincesheshowedher legs in public. Pandoraand I saw the New Year in together,we had a dead passionatesessionaccompaniedby Andy Stewartand a bagpiper. My father came crashing through the front door at 1 a.m. carrying a lump of coal in his hand.Drunk as usual. My mother startedgoing on about what a wonderful son I was and how much sheloved me. It's a pity she never says anything like that when sheis sober. a , 9

td't

-)

The story of Adrian is continued in a follow up called The Grouing Pains ofAdrinn Mole.What do you think happensin this book?If you are interested, try to read the two books about Adrian Mole and see how many of your predictions were correct.


Unit2

32 2 a Readthe followingdedication:

'For allthosemembers of theSouthAfricanPoliceForcewhose Civilization in of Western livesarededicated to the preservation Africa.' Southern This dedicationis from the beginningof a novel. What do you think the novel is about? The novel is called,Indecent Exposure.Its author, Tom Sharpe, was deportedfrom SouthAfrica. Use this new informationto confirm or revise your predictions. Readthe followingextract from near the beginningof the novel andthen make your final predictionsaboutthe novel. Think about: . the setting . the characters . the story . the themes . the attitude and the intentionsof the writer Presently, leaving of allowing visiting the Mayordiscussing the advisability poolswiththe Japanese businessmen to usetheWhites0nlyswimming RevSchlachbals, the Kommandant movedaway.At the entrance of the tent Luitenant Verkramp wasdeepin conversation witha largeblonde whoseturquoise dressfittedherastonishingly well.Underthe pinkpicture hatthe Kommandant recognized thefeatures the of DrvonBlimenstein, eminentpsychiatrist at FortRapierMentalHospital. 'Getting freetreatment?'the Kommandant askedjocularly ashe edged pasr. 'Dr vonBlimenstein hasbeentellingme howshedealswithcasesof manic-depression,' saidthe Luitenant. 'Luitenant DrvonBlimenstein smiled. Verkramp seemsmostinterested in the useof electro-convulsive therapy.' 'l know,'saidthe Kommandant andwandered out intothe openair,idly speculating on the possibility thatVerkramp wasattiactedto the blonde psychiatrist. lt seemedunlikely somehow butwithLuitenant Verkramp oneneverknew. Task 2 Write the first pageof a story which starts,'I'm not scared,'I kept tellingmyself.Write the story in sucha way that the readerswill have to use their knowledgeof the world to work out what hashappened and to predict what is goingto happen,(i.e., don't provide exact detailsofthe setting, the charactersandthe story). Swapyour story with that of a partner andtry to work out as much as you canaboutthe setting, charactersand story. Tell them your conclusionsand ask them how accuratethev are.


L'nit2

2

Narrative

Freparation Task 1

In this task you will be asked to make use of short extracts from a novel to help you to predict the content and style of the novel. 1 The followingextracts are from the first paragraphof a novel. Readthem carefullyandtry to predict . who thernin the first extract refers to . where they are . why they are there a Mostof themtoldthetimeveryroughlybytheirmeals. . .' '. . . .' bytacitconsent b . . andwhenit wasdarktheyfellasleep '. men,anda c . . theyhadthreegoodwatchesamongthirty-two - or sothewatch-owners claimed andunreliable second-hand alarmclock.' 'The werethefirstto go . . .' two wrist-watches d '. on somehourslater,thewatchesreappeared e . . andpresently, thewristsof two of . . .' 2

Use the extracts to try to write the first paragraphof the novel.

3

Readthe first paragraphof the followingextract from the novel TheTenth Manby GrahamGreeneandcompareit to your version. In particularlook for differencesin content and style.

whichwere bytheirmeals, Mostof themtoldthetimeveryroughly withthemostchildish amused themselves andirregular;they unpunctual gamesallthrough bytacit theday,andwhenit wasdarktheyfellasleep - notwaitingfor a particular for theyhadno hourof darkness consent infacttherewereasmanytimesas rneans thetimeexactly: of telling startedtheyhadthree Whentheirimprisonment therewereprisoners. andunreliable goodwatches men,anda second-hand amongthirty-two claimed- alarmclock.Thetwo wrist-watches or sothewatch-owners ,were thefirstto go:theirownersleftthe cellat seveno'clockone - or seven-ten somehours rnorning thealarmclocksaid- andpresently, onthe wristsof two of the guards. ater,the watchesreappeared silverwatchon a Thatleftthe alarmclockanda largeold{ashioned to an Thealarmclockbelonged to theMayorof Bourge. chainbelonging grewbetween .. anda senseof competition engine drivercalledPierre,

22


34

Unit2 Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will read a longer extract from the novel in order to understand the main points about the setting and the characters. Readthe whole of extract A through oncefairly quickly, andas you read think aboutwhy the author has decidedto start the novel in this way and why the charactersare so obsessedby time. When you havefinishedreadingdiscussyour conclusionswith a partner. ExtractA Mostof themtoldthetimeveryroughlybytheirmeals, whichwere unpunctual andirregular; theyamused themselves withthe mostchildish gamesallthroughthe day,andwhenit wasdarktheyfellasleepbytacit - notwaitingfor a particular consent hourof darkness for theyhadno meansof tellingthetimeexactly: infacttherewereas manytimesas therewereprisoners. Whentheirimprisonment startedtheyhadthree goodwatchesamongthirty-two men,anda second-hand andunreliable or sothewatch-owners claimed- alarmclock.Thetwowrist-watches werethefirstto go:theirownersleftthe cellat seveno'clockone 1 0 morning- or seven-ten the alarmclocksaid- andpresently, somehours later,the watchesreappeared on thewristsof two of the guards. Thatleftthe alarmclockandalargeold-fashioned silverwatchon a chainbelonging to the Mayorof Bourge. Thealarmclockbelonged to an grewbetween enginedrivercalledPierre, anda senseof competition the 1 5 two men.Time,theyconsidered, belonged to themandnotthetwentyeightothermen.Butthereweretwotimes,andeachmandefended his ownwitha terriblepassion. lt wasa passion whichseparated themfrom theircomrades, sothatat anyhourof the daytheycouldbefoundin the samecornerof thegreatconcreteshed:theyeventooktheirmeals 20 together. Oncethe mayorforgotto windhiswatch:it hadbeena dayof rrlmour, for duringthe nighttheyhadheardshooting fromthe direction of the city, justastheyhadheardit beforethetwo menwithwrist-watches were 'hostage'grew takenawayandthe word in eachbrainlikea heavycloud 25 whichtakesby a capriceof windanddensitytheshapeof letters.Strange ideasgrowin prisonandthe mayorandthe enginedriverdrewtogether yet moreintimately: it wasasthoughtheyfearedthatthe Germans chose deliberately the menwithwatches to robthemof time.Themayoreven beganto suggest to hisfellowprisoners thatthetwo remaining 30 timeoieces shouldbe keothiddenratherthanthatallshouldlosetheir services, butwhenhe beganto putthisideaintowordsthe notion suddenly seemedto resemble cowardice andhe brokeoff in midsentence.


n--nit2

Whatever the causethatnight,the mayorforgotto windhiswatch. 35 to seehe rt/hen assoonas it waslightenough hewokein the morning, 'Well,' 'what 'goked isthetime?Whatdoesthe Pierresaid, at hiswatch, ruinsat a quarterto antiquesay?'The handsstoodlikeblackneglected :ne. lt seemedto the mayorthe mostterriblemomentof hislife:worse, fetchedhim.Prisonleavesnosense ?r worsethanthe daythe Germans andthe senseof proportion isthefirstto go.He lookedfrom 40 .rnimpaired, -aceto faceasthoughhe hadcommitted he had anact of treachery: surrendered the onlytruetime,HethankedGodthattherewasno one threeclerks,a lorry*rerefromBourge. Therewasa barberfromEtain, - everymaninthe prisonbutone Criver, a greengrocer, a tobacconist andwhilehefeltallthegreater 45 wasof a lowersocialplanethanhimself, responsibility and towardsthem,he alsofelttheywereeasyto deceive, hetoldhimself thatafterall it wasbetterso:betterthattheyshould believe theystillhadthetruetimewiththemthantrustto theirunguided guesses alarmclock. andthesecond-hand 'lt's bythegreylightthroughthe bars. 50 Hemadea rapidcalculation minutespastfive,'hesaidfirmlyandmetthegazeof the one twenty-five 'vhomhewasafraidmightseethroughhisdeceit:a Parislawyercalled attemptsfromtimeto timeto Chavel, a lonelyfellowwhomadeawkward provehimselfhuman.Mostof the otherprisoners himasan regarded withwhomonelived:he 5 5 oddity,evena joke:a lawyerwasnotsomebody occasions, andnowhe wasa granddollwhowastakenout on particular hadlosthisblackrobe. 'What's 'Nonsense,' lt'sjusta Pierresaid, comeovertheantique? quarterto six.' 'A 60 cheapalarmlikethatalwaysgoesfast.' 'Yesterday yousaidit asthoughfromhabit, Thelawyersaidsharply, wasslow.'Fromthatmomentthe mayorhatedChavel: Chavel andhe thatnever rverethe onlymenof positioninthe prison:hetoldhimself began wouldhe havelet Chavel downin thatway,andimmediately - someunderground and 65 tortuously to seekfor anexplanation the lawyerseldomspokeandhadnofriends, disgraceful motive.Although 'Currying popularity. Hethinkshe'llrulethis themayorsaidto himself, prison.Hewantsto be a dictator.' 'Let's Pierresaid,butthewatchwassafely havea lookat the antique,' withsealsandcoinsto the mayor's 70 tetheredby itssilverchainweighted Hecouldsafelysneerat the demand. waistcoat. lt couldn'tbe snatched. in the mayor'smindasoneof Butthatdaywasmarkedpermanently day thoseblackdaysof terribleanxietywhichforma privatecalendar:the of hismarriage: the daywhenhisfirstchildwasborn:the dayof the hehadto sethis 7 5 council election: thedaywhenhiswifedied.Somehow watchgoingandadjustthe handsto a plausible figurewithoutanyone eyeson himthewholeday. spotting him- andhefeltthe Parislawyer's Towindthe watchwasfairlysimple:evenanactivewatchmustbe andthenat some wound,andhe hadonlyto windit to halfitscapacity, BO laterhourof the daygiveit absent-mindedly another turnor two. 'What you at?'he asked by Pierre. are Eventhatdid not passunnoticed 'You've down?' woundit once.lstheantique breaking suspiciously.

35


Unit2

36 'l

wasn'tthinking,'the mayorsaid,buthismindhadneverbeenmore active.lt wasmuchharderto finda chanceto adjustthe handswhichfor timeat a distance of fivehours. 85 morethanhalfthe daypursuedPierre's Thelavatories werea Evennaturecouldnothereprovideanopportunity. rowof bucketsin theyardandfor the convenience of theguardsno man wasallowed to go aloneto a bucket: theywentin partiesof at leastsix night, men.Norcouldthe mayorwaittill for no lightwasallowedinthe it would the hands. Andallthetimehe hadto betoo darkto see 90 celland passed: mental record when a chanceoccurredhe keepa of howtime it, without of an hour. mustseize hesitating overthe correctquartering primitive quarrel broke card At lasttowardsevening a outoverthe game- a kindof 'snap'withhome-made cards- thatsomeof the men Fora momenteyeswerefixedonthe 95 spentmostof theirtimeplaying. players andthe mayortookout hiswatchandquicklyshiftedthe hands. 'What isthetime?'thelawyerasked. Themayorstartedasif he had bya suddenquestion: the lawyerwas beencaughtin the witness-box watching himwiththe strained unhappy lookthatwashabitual to him:the 1 0 0 lookof a manwhohascarriednothingoverfromhispastto buttresshim in thetragicpresent. 'Twenty-five minutespastfive.' 'l hadimagined it waslater.' 'That is mytime,'the mayorsaidsharply. lt wasindeedhistime:from eventhefaintestpossibility of error:his 1 0 5 nowon hecouldn'trecognize he hadinvented it. timecouldnotbe wrongbecause

Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to analyze the passage in detail to find out as much as possible about how it is written.

I

8 I

'them'usedinsteadof a In line 1 why is the anonlmouspronoun descriptionof the group? Why did the men play'childishgames'(L.2)? Give an exampleof one of thesegames. 'as many timesas therewereprisoners'(L.5)? Why were there What did time meanto them? Why do you think the watch-ownersclaimedthe alarmclock was unreliable(L.7)? In L.8 why do you think the wrist-watchesare mentionedbefore their owners?What do you think happenedto the owners? Why did Pierre and the Mayor of Bourge think that time belongedto them? 'grow in eachbrain' (L.24)? Why did the word'hostage' 'what is thetime?'(L.36)? Why did Pierre ask the mayor Explainwhy the mayor consideredhis forgetting to wind his


.,-rtit 2

t0 11

12 13 14

'treachery' and'surrender'. What doesthis tell us about watchas the mayor as a man and as a prisoner? What are the similaritiesbetweenthe mayor and Chavel.Why did the mayor hate Chavelso much? Why do you think the mayorwent to so muchtroubleto conceal that his watch was pursuingPierre's time at a distanceof five hours?Why do you think the authorusesthe word'pursued' (L.85) insteadof, for example,'followed'? Why do you think Chavelasksthe mayor the time (L.97)? 'my' in L.104? Whatare the literalandfigurativemeaningsof 'A InThe SundayTimes,JohnCorayreferredto this novelas - tappedout in thelean, sharp-eyed prosethatfi,lm masterpiece work taughtGreenetoperfecf. On the evidenceof the extract, say whether or not you agreewith this statementand give examplesfrom the text to supportyour answer.

Preparation Task I

In this task you will be asked to use your experience of reading extract A of the novel, your knowledge of English and your knowledge of the world to predict what happens in extract B. The prisonersyou have read aboutin extract A are given a terrible choiceby their captors.From your readingof the first extract, what do you think this choiceis? Readthe followingshort extract and see if you canbe more preciseaboutwhat the choiceis. 'Thequickest 'How waywould said, Kroghasked. Chavel do we draw?' beto drawmarkedpapersoutof a shoe. . ,'.Kroghsaid 'Why way?Thisisthe lastgamblesome contemptuously, the quickest of uswillhave.Wemayaswellenjoyit.I saya coin.'

2,7


Unit2

38 'draw'?

3

What does Krogh meanby

4

Why is Krogh so'contemptuous'of.Chavel?

5

Why will it be the last gamblefor someof them?

6

Now read extract B below andas you read checkhow accurate your predictionswere andtry to keep anticipatingwhat is coming next.

Extract B 'You 'lt can'tgetan evenchancewitha won'twork,'theclerksaid, coin.' 'The onlywayisto draw,'the mayorsaid. for it oneof hislettersfrom Theclerkprepared the draw,sacrificing 5 home.He readit rapidlyfor the lasttime,thentoreit intothittypieces. andthenfoldedeachpiece. 0n threepieceshe madea crossin pencil, 'Krogh's gotthe biggest the pieceson the shoe,'hesaid.Theyshuffled into the shoe. then dropped them floorand 'We'll order,'the mayorsaid. drawin alphabetical 'Z Hewanteda wasshaken. feeling of security 10 said. His first,'Chavel piece picked on his lip. a dry of skin He at drinkbadly. 'Anybody 'Asyou Heregoes.' beatVoisin? said. wish,'thelorry-driver asthough excavations and made careful into the shoe his hand Hethrust scrapof paperin mind.Hedrewoneout,openedit, he hadoneparticular 'This Hesaid, is it.'Hesatdownand 15 andgazedaI it withastonishment. butwhenhegotit betweenhislipsheforgotto lightit. feltfor a cigarette, joy.lt seemedto himthat wasfilledwitha hugeandshameful Chavel mento drawandonlytwo marked alreadyhewassaved- twenty-nine grownin hisfavourfromtento one papersleft.Thechances hadsuddenly haddrawna slipandindicated 20 to - fourteen to one:thegreengrocer thathewassafe.Indeedfromthefirst andwithoutpleasure carelessly wastaboo:onecouldn'tmockthe condemned drawanymarkof pleasure manby anysignof relief. - it couldn'tyet be described asa f ear- extended Againa dulldisquiet hefoundhimself 25 itsempireoverChavel's chest.lt waslikea constriction: yawning asthe sixthmandrewa blankslip,anda senseof grievance nagged at hismindwhenthetenthmanhaddrawn- it wasthe onethey - andthechances wereonceagain thesameaswhenthe called Janvier drawstarted. Somemendrewthefirstslipwhichtouchedtheirfingers: 30 othersseemedto suspectthatfatewastryingto forceonthema particular slipandwhentheyhaddrawnonea littlewayfromtheshoe withincredible Timepassed wouldlet it dropagainandchooseanother. thewallwiththe unlighted andthe mancalledVoisinsatagainst slowness, at all. in hismouthpayingthemno attention cigarette 35 Thechances hadnarrowed to onein eightwhenthe elderlyclerk- his namewasLenotre- drewthe secondslip.Heclearedhisthroatandput 'Ah, asthoughhe hadto makesurehewasnot mistaken. on hispince-nez 'may joinyou?' I smile, Voisin,' hesaidwitha thinundecided Monsieur oddswerebackagain felt nojoy eventhoughthe elusive ThistimeChavel 40 overwhelmingly in hisfavourat fifteento one:hewasdauntedbythe


39

l,-nit2

:ourage of commonmen.Hewanted thewholethingto beoveras quickly aspossible: likea gameof cardswhichhasgoneontoo long,he :nlywantedsomeone to makea moveandbreakupthetable.Lenotre, sitting downagainst thewallnextto Voisin, turnedtheslipover:onthe Dackwasa scrapof writing. 'Your Voisin wife?' said. 'Excuse 'My Lenotre me.'Hewentoverto hisrollof daughter,' said. cedding anddrewouta writingpad.Thenhesatdownnextto Voisin and oeganto writecarefully, withouthurry,a thinlegiblehand.Theoddswere cackto tento one. witha Fromthat pointthe oddsseemedto movetowardsChavel pointing dreadful were like a inevitability: nineto one,eightto one:they inger.Themenwhowereleftdrewmorequickly andmorecarelessly: - to knowthathe theyseemedto Chavel to havesomeinnerinformation ,vasthe one.Whenhistimecameto drawtherewereonlythreeslipsleft, andit appeared to Chavel a monstrous injustice thatthereweresofew choices leftfor him.Hedrewoneoutoftheshoeandthenfeeling certain thatthisonehadbeenwilledon himby hiscompanions andcontained thepencilled crosshethrewit backandsnatched another. 'You lawyer,' buttheother looked, oneof thetwomenexclaimed, him. ouieted 'He didn'tlook.He'sgotthe marked onenow.' Extensive reading Task 1 In this task you will use your experience of reading the two extracts from the novel to find out as much as you can about the main character of the novel and to predict what is going to happen to him. Who do you think is goingto emergeas the maincharacterin the novel?What evidenceis there to supportyour view? What do we find out abouthim in the two extracts andhow is this 'information'revealed to us bv the author?What do we know abouthim from a b c d e f

whathe says whathe does what is saidabouthim by the author what is saidor thought abouthim by other characters the words usedto describehis thoughtsandactions assumptionswe make on the basisof our theory of the world

What do you think is goingto happento him in the rest of the novel?

45

50

55

60


Unit2

40 Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to answer detailed questions about extract B. 1

Why do you think Chavelpreparedthe draw andwhy did he sacrificeone of his letters from home?

2

Why do you think a the mayor suggestsdrawingin alphabeticalorder? b Chavelsuggestsstarting wlthz? c the lorry-driver immediatelyagreeswith Chavel?

3

Why did Voisin forget to light his cigarette?

4

Why did Chavelfeela'huge and shamefuljoy' whenVoisin had 'a drawn his paper?Why did he later on feel senseof grieuance'and then considerthe situationto be a'monstrottsiniustice'?

5

Why did Lenotre put on his pince-nez,andwhy, when he spoketo Voisin, was his smtle'undecided'?

6

Why do you think one of the two men accusedChavelof looking?

7

How do you think Chavelis goingto react to drawinga marked sliP?

Extension

In these tasks you are going to use your experience of reading extracts Aand.B to help you to write narratrve. In pairs or smallgroupsdo one of the followingcreativewriting tasks. Task I In the novel Chaveltries to savehis own life by offeringall his money, property andland to anyonewho will take his marked slip. A man calledJanvieragreesandhe is later shot insteadof Chavel. In your groups chooseone of the followingto do: I

Write the pagewhich describesChavel'soffer andJanvier's acceptanceof it.

2

Imagineyou are either the mayor or Krogh andwrite a letter from the prison to a friend or relative describingwhat happenedon the daywhen allthe prisonersdrew lots.

3

Later in the novel Chavelvisits the househe gavetoJanvier in order to savehis own life. Write the pagewhich describesthis visit.


Unit2 I

41

The novel ends dramaticallyandviolently when anotherof the exprisonersvisits Chavel'sold houseandmeets Chavelthere. Write the last pageof the novel.

Task 2 As a group do one of the following: I

Write the first page of a novel set in a future war in which the prisonershave to make a'terrible choice'.

2

Write letters from two prisonersglving different accountsof how they both escapeddeathwhilst in prison.

Review activities In these activities you will relate your experience of reading the passagein Section 1 to your experience ' of reading the passage in Section 2. a Readthe first pageof a novel or story in English.As you read try to focus on the exact meaningof eachword andphrase.If you wish, you canuse a dictionaryand a grarnmarbook to help you. b Readanotherfirst pageof a novel or story in English, but this time don't worry aboutthe exact meaningof every word or phrase.Before you start readingtry to predict what the story will be aboutusing cluessuchas the cover of the book, the blurb on the backor the insidecover, the tifle, the chapter heading,the first sentence,etc. Thenas youreadkeepon trying to predict what is coming next and ask yourself questionsbasedon your knowledgeof the world being describedin the book. c Use your experienceof readingpagesof narrativein two ffierent ways to decidewhich of the two ways r was the most enjoyable . enabledyou to understandthe story better . was the most useful Readthe followingextract from anotherbook aboutreading, Readingin aforetgn language,andas you read it relate it to what Nuttall saysaboutcomprehensionandto your recent experiences of readingnarrative.


Unit2

42

willvaryaccording to the reader.Different Fifthly, the productof reading productsbecause theystartofffrom willarnveat different readers positions (Strang and 1972).Bransf ordet al.andSteffensen different the effectof cultural in particular, clearlydemonstrate Joag-Dev, appealing to the processes knowledge on the productof comprehension, between a to accountfor the differences of distortion andelaboration et al.showthatnotonlyis text.Bransford recallof textandthe original butalsothatsuch knowledge important to processing, relevant to beforeit cancontribute needsto be activated knowledge understanding. willvaryaccording to the reader's Sixthly, the productof reading purposeandmotivation, showin their asbothRoyeref a/.andFransson to manipulate to thisvolume.Royeret al.reporlattempts contributions andshow intentin orderto influence whatthe learnerlearns, the reader's a readerhasin reading a textwillaffectthe outcomeof thatthe purpose showsthatthe reader's the product.Fransson hisunderstanding: (ratherthanthe experimenter's to manipulate attempts motivation purpose) but hasan effect,notonlyonthe productof comprehension, suchasdifferent Variables alsouponthe process of understanding. motivation, tasks,different adherence to different knowledge, background simplyin reading comprehension allcastdoubton an attemptto describe orderedskills. termsof a set of hierarchically 'skills' into is Onefinalpointto be madeaboutthetraditionof research thattextshavepredictable that it is baseduponthe assumption skilful. onlyif the readeris sufficiently meanings, whichcanbe extracted (I979) suggests bul that text doesnot havemeaning, Widdowson potentialfor depending meaning, whichwillvaryfromreaderto reader, purpose and relatedto upona multitude of factors,butcrucially is actually Inthisview,meaning createdbythe readerin his knowledge. withthetext. interaction In groups decide . if there are any dffierencesbetweenwhat this extract says aboutreadingandwhat Nuttall says. . if there are any points in this extract which you disagreewith. o what you think are the essentialfeaturesof efficient comprehensionof narrative. 3

Write a paragraphgivingyour adviceto an intermediatelevel student of Englishon the best way of readingnarrative in English. Make your adviceas simpleandpracticalas possible.


1 Reporting an experiment Preparation Task I

This activity will prepare you to read the passageby encouraging you to think about some of the issues which it raises. You are goingto read a text calledNo t just parrot-talk. The text reports on an experimentto teacha parrot English,and also discussessome of the problemswith this kind of experiment. 1 Most peoplewould agreethat animalsare ableto communicate. However, they would alsoagreethat animalcommunicationis muchmore restricted than humancommunication. a What kinds of messagescandogscommunicateto their owners? b What meansdo they use to communicatethesemessages? c In what way is this communicationffierent from the communicationthat takes placebetweenpeople? 'talk'. But what exactly hasa 2 It is possibleto teacha parrot to 'talking'parrot learnt to do? Completethis tableby putting a tick (/) or a cross (X) to show what you think a'talking'parrot has learnt.If you'renot sureput a questionmark (?). A'talking'parrothas learnt:

wordsorshortphrases 1 to imitate complete sentences 2 to imitate wordsorshortphrases 3 to remember sentences 4 to remember complete meaning ofwords the 5 to understand bytheirnames 6 to distinguish objects incombinations other in'new'ways(i.e., 7 to joinwords together beentaught) thanthosethathaveactually objects thatcanbeseenatthetimeofspeaking 8 to mention objects thatcannot beseenatthetimeofspeaking 9 to mention fromoneto five) 10 to count(e.g., 11 to request anobject question 12 to aska a ouestion 13 to answer want something it doesn't 14 to refuse

Animallanguage


Unit3

44

to findout of a simpleexperimentdesigned 3 Thisis a description whetherparrotscanlearnEnglish.Whatcriticismwouldyou makeof this experiment? (anorange, a banana, theparrot fourobjects, Theresearcher showed Sheheldupeachobjectandsaiditsname anappleanda grape). Whenever thewordaccurately. untiltheparrotimitated continuously allowed to eatthefruitit bybeing theparrotdidso,it wasrewarded forthreedays. 0nthefourthday,the Thiswasrepeated hadnamed. Theparrot heldupeachobjectbutdidnotsaythename. researcher pronounced Theresearcher without assistance. eachnamecorrectly inmuchthe learntEnglish thattheparrothadsuccessfully concluded samewayasa young child.

What experimentwould you carry out to find out whether parrots really canlearn Englishlike a child? 4

The title of the text you are goingto readis Not just parrot-talk. Which of the followingdoesthis title suggest? n a'Parrot-talk'isdifferentfrom'real-talk'. tr b In this casethe parrot did more thanjust mimic sounds. ! c Parrots cannotlearn how to talk. ! d The parrot in the experimentcamecloseto learninghow to talk but didn't quite succeed.

Extensive Reading Task I

In this activity you will practise scanning the information in the text in order to find specific information. Readthrough the text quicklyto find out what the experimentshowed the parrot was ableto do. Completethe table below by putting a tick (/) to show what the parrot hadlearnt, accordingto the information in the passage.


45

UnitS

Theparrothadlearnt: wordsorshortphrases to imitate sentences complete to imitate wordsorshortphrases to remember complete sentences to remember ofwords themeaning to understand bytheirnames objects to distinguish other incombinations in'new'ways(i.e., together to joinwords beentaught) thanthoseit hasactually objects thatcanbeseenatthetimeofspeaking 8 to mention beseenatthetimeof objects thatcannot 9 to mention speaking fromoneto five) 10 to count(e.g., anobject I I to request 12 to aska question a question 13 to answer it doesn't want something 14 to refuse I z 3 4 5 6

Compareyour table with that of a partner. Discussany differences andcheckthe passageto decidewho is correct. Were there any differencesbetweenwhat you expectedto read and what the passagetold you?

Not just parcot-talk Scientists have taught a parrot mimicking each other or other English. So what? This time, it species.But, until now, there has seems,the bird not only saysthe been no evidence that any bird words but also understandsthem. could make the big Ieap to Alex, an African grey parrot associatingone sound exclusively residing at America's Purdue with one object or quality. Alex can. Dr Irene Pepperberg, University in Indiana, has a vocabularyof about 40 words with his trainer, exploited the natural which he identifies, requestsand curiosityof the parrot to teachhim sometimesrefuses more than 50 to use the namesof different toys. toys. He seems to manipulate She did this with a technique words as abstract symbols-in known asmodel/rivaltraining.The other words, to use a primitive trainer and an assistantplay with the toys and ask each other form of language. In many birds, communication questionsabout them. To join in, takes the form of simple, the parrot has to competefor the stereotypedsignals. Some birds, trainer'sattention. results have been The like parrots,are capableoflearning huge repertoires of phrases by spectacular.Alex rapidly learnt to


UnitS

46

40

50

55

60

65

70

ntr

'no'. He ask for certain objects, identifying when he learnt to say the from picked this up them by words for shape, colour and material (eg, three-cornered conversationsbetween trainer and green paper, or five-cornered model and seemsto understandat yellow wood). He is asked to least one meaning of the wordrepeat words until he gets them rejection (for instance,when Dr right and is then rewardedby being Pepperbergtries to play with him given the object to play with. Dr and he doesnot feel like it). He can Pepperbergbelievesit is important also count to flve when askedhow that the bird is not rewarded with many objectsare being shown. There are occasionalhints that food, becausethat would makehim think of words as ways of getting he has grasped even more Dr treats rather than as symbols for advanced concepts but Pepperberg is cautious. The obiects. debates over the abilities of chimpanzeesto use sign language have recently descended from euphoria to acrimony and nobody daresmake extravagantclaimsanY more. It is not that people doubt the ability of apesto accumulatea largevocabularyof signs.(The top scorer is probably Dr Francine Patterson's gorilla, Koko, at America's Stanford University, with over 600signs.)The argument is about whether apes can understandsyntaxor segmentation. Examples which seem to show them doing so are few and disputed. For instance, Washoe, Alex is a clever boy the first and most famous of the once pointed Twice a week, Alex is tested and talking chimpanzees, 'water bird'. he normally gets about 80Eo of the to a swan and signed Terraceof Dr Herbert objects right. The mistakes are Or did she? (for Columbia University (who as omissions small usually instance, he forgets to name the trainer of the chimpanzee Nim colour of an object) rather than Chimpsky, came to cheer and specific errors. To discover if he stayedto jeer) pointed out that she 'water' really is able to grasp concepts like might simply have signed 'bird' quick in succession. colour and shape, he is shown and Other scepticsarguethat, in the entirely novel combinations. When first shown a blue piece of leather course of a lifetime, it would be he said'blue hide'even though the surprising if such apes did not together blue objects he had previously seen occasionally throw were all keys or made of wood. syntacticalcombinationsof signsby This suggeststhat he is capable of pure chance. A more serious 'segmentation':that is, he is aware allegation is that the apes are that words are building blocks that responding to unconsciouscues can be used in different com- from their trainers. Unconsciouscueing is known as binations. 'clever Hans effect' in honour Still, a vocabulary of adjectives the of a famous horse in nineteenthto and nouns hardly amounts mastery of a language. The century Germany. Hans appeared scientists have been looking for to knock out the answers to evidence that Alex understands mathematicalsums with his hoof. more complicated ideas. One In fact, the horsewasnot doingthe was sumsbut was respondingto subtle unexpected breakthrough


47

Unit3

signs from the crowd which told him when to stop. When the crowd did not know the answer, Hans could not do the sum. Dr Pepperbergbelievesthat her experiments are free of such an effect becausespeechis lesseasyto cue than sign language.She argues that this makes talking parrots

better subjectsthan signing apes for probing the limits of animal intelligence. She would like to see Alex (or, even better, a young parrot) compared with children to seeif the bird discoversideasin the same order as the children do and exactly where the children leave the bird behind.

Task2 The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to look at how the passagehas been organized into sections. The passagecanbe dividedinto t}ree main sections,eachdealing with separatebut related issues: a The parrot experiment b Problems with animallanguageJearningexperiments c Overcomingthe problems Skim through the text quickly and write down the line numbers where eachsectionbeginsandends.

2 Another way of organizingthe text might havebeenas follows: experiments:summaryand a PreviousanimallanguageJearning problems b The parrot experiment c Advantagesof the parrot experimentover previous experiments Whichtype of organzalsondo you prefer, the actualor the alternative?Why? Why do you ttrink the writer chosethe type of organizationshe did? TaskS

The aim of this activity is to help you to consider who the intended audience of the passage is. TVhodo you think this passagewas written for? tr tr n tr

a b c d

theeducatedgeneralreader trained scientists trained linguists studentsstudyinglinguistics

Make a list of all the cluesin the passagethat you usedto arrive at youf answer.

150


Unit3

48 Intensive reading The activities in this section will require a careful reading of the passage,sectionby section. Task 1

In this activity you will examine in detail the nature of the information in the first section of the passage (L.1 to 88). The mainpurposeof the first sectionof the passageis to tell the reader about a new experimentthat hasbeen carriedout to teacha parrot Enftlish. A report of an experiment usually has information about . . r .

the subject(who or what was beingstudied) the method (the way the experiment was carried out) results (what was observedduringthe experiment) conclusions(what the er<perimentshowed)

Here is a list of sentencesfrom the passagein the order in which they occur. State what kind of information(i.e., the subject,method, results or conclusions)eachsentenceprovides. PurdueUniversity in at America's 1 Alex,anAfricangreyparrotresiding Indiana, hasa vocabulary of about40 wordswithwhichheidentifies, requestsandsometimesrefusesmorethan50 toys. 2

- in otherwords, wordsasabstract symbols Heseemsto manipulate to useprimitiveformsof language.

3

of the Dr lrenePepperberg, histrainer,exploited the naturalcuriosity parrotto teachhimto usethe namesof differenttoys.

4

themby identifying Alexrapidly'learnt to askfor certainobjects, green (e.g., wordsfor shape,colourandmaterial three-cornered paper,or five-cornered yellowwood).

5

Heis askedto repeatwordsuntilhegetsthemrightandisthen rewarded by beinggiventhe objectto playwith.

getsabout80%of the Twicea week,Alexistestedandhe normally objectsright. 'segmentation': is,he that is aware 7 Thissuggests that he is capableof blocksthatcanbe usedin different thatwordsarebuilding combinations.

6

8

Hecanalsocountto fivewhenaskedhowmanyobjectsarebeing shown.


49

UnitS Task2 This activity is designed to help you examine how the information in the first section of the passage is organized (L.1 to 88). a Does the-informationin the passagefollow the order below? subject method results conclusion b In what kind of writing would you expect the information to be presentedin this order? Readthe first two paragraphscarefully. a Which of these statementsmost accuratelysummarizesthe writer's purposein the first two paragraphs? tr (a) to introduce the topic of the article - teaching animals language. tr (b) to give information about the subject of the experiment. tr (c) to persuadethe reader that the experimentis a novel one and therefore worth readingabout. n (d) to provide a statementof the mainconclusionof the experiment - that animalscan learn a primitive form of language. b What is'the meaningof So what? nline 2. What is its function in the text? c Use the following framework to explain what the writer seems to be trying to tell the reader in the first two paragraphs. Previous experiments

+

Problems

3

Read paragraphsthree and four careftrlly. a What is the principalkindof informationwhichthese two paragraphsprovide? ! n n tr

(a) 6) (c) (d)

the subject the method the results the conclusions


50

Unit3 b The writer describestwo different methodsusedto teachthe parrot English. State briefly what they are. 4

Readparagraphsfive and six. a These two paragraphscontainjumbledinformationaboutthe results and the conclusionsof the experiment.Separatethe informationinto these two areas. b Write out the results reported in these two paragraphs. c Write out the conclusionsmentionedin these two paragraphs. d This diagramrepresentshow the informationin these two paragraphsis organized.Match the parts of the diagramwith sentencesin the text.

Task3

The questions in this activity will help you to understand how the information is organized in the second section of the passage(L.89 to 140). Readsectiontwo (paragraphssevento ten) of the passagecarefully. 1

What animalsis this sectionabout? n a parrots tr b apes n c horses ! d noneofthese

2

The writer refers to anotherset of animalexperimentsto illustrate a generalproblemaboutinterpreting previousanimal languageexperiments.Find the sentencethat refers to this problem.

3

The main theme of this sectionis disagreement. Make a list of all the words the writer uses to indicateor suggestdisagreement: for example,acrimony.


51

Unit3 4

The writer providesa numberof argumentsthat havebeenused to cast doubt on whether the chimpanzeeexperimentsreally show that animalscanlearn language. Completethis summaryof these arguments. a Evidencethat chimpanzeesproducenovel combinations,such 'water bird', are not clear; they may just be producing as separatewords. b ...... c . . . . . .

Task4 In this activity you will consider the function of the information in the final section of the passage(L.14I to 159). Readthe final section(paragrapheleven)carefully. I

Which of the followingbest describesthe functionof the final paragraph? ! tr ! !

2

a to summarizethe mainpoints of the article. b to suggestthat Pepperberg'sexperimentis not just anotheranimallanguageexperiment. c to reach a conclusionaboutwhether a als are capableof learninglanguage. d to cast doubt on the valueof Pepperberg'sexperiment with the parrot.

Explainin your own words why Pepperbergconsidersparrots are better subjectsthan apesfor animallanguageexperiments.

Extension Task I

In this activity you will consider the attitude which the writer takes to the content of the article. I

What is the writer's attitude to the parrot experimentin the passage?Describehis attitude by ringrngthe appropriatenumber on eachof the scalesbelow. as: canbe described Thewriter'sattitudeto the parrotexperiment

sceptical dismissive bored frivolous . biased critical

n

z

a

5

2 2 n

z

2 2

A

+

3 3 ^

5

3 3

4 4 A

+

4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

convrnced supportive interested serious objective uncritical


52

Unit3

2

Work in a group. Compareyour responseswith those of other membersof your group. Supportyour own responseswith evidencefrom the passage.

Task2

In this activity you will consider your own response to both the content of the text and also the way that it is written. a In paragraphsix the writer providesevidenceto supportthe 'more complicatedideas'. claimthat the parrot understands What is this evidence?How convincingdo you find it? b Why is it important to demonstratethat the parrot is capableof 'segmentation'(paragraph five)?Do you think that the parrot experimenthas demonstratedthat Alex is capableof segmentation? To what extent hasthis article convincedyou that parrots (and other animals)canlearn language?If you are not convinced,what other evidencewould you like to have? 'seriousjournalism'. This article is an exampleof What changes 'serious would need to be madeif the article was intendedto be a scientificreport'?

2

Third person narrative

Preparation Task 1

This activity is designed to make you think about what you already know about fiction based on animals. Do you know a novel in which the main charactersare animals? What is the title of the novel? Which animalsfigure in it? Who is it intendedfor: adults, adolescents,childrenor everyone? 'story' 'theme'? Is the noveljust a or doesit havea serious What is the theme? Animalcharactersin novelsare often investedwith human characteristics.Completethis tableby indicatingwhat you considerto be the typical humancharacteristic(s)of eachanimal.


53

UnitS

Animal

Characteristics

plgs

horses donkeys cats spiders rabbits 3

Fiction basedon animalcharactersis often usedfor satire. Make sureyou know what'satke'is. Why do you think this kind of fiction is so well-suitedto satire?

Extensive reading Task 1

The aim of this activity is to help you to achieve a general understanding of an extract from WatershibDonn. WatershipDown, anovel by RichardAdams, describesthe adventuresof a group of rabbits who leavetheir warren andmake a long trek to find anotherplaceto live. In the novel, the author exploresthe nature of different types of socialandpolitical organtzation. In the extract you are goingto read, two rabbits havedecidedto go to the Chief Rabbitof their walTento discusssomethingimportant.


Unit3

54

1 Readthroughtheextractquicklyto findtheanswersto these questions. a Whatarethenamesof thetwo rabbitsvisitingthe Chief b c d e f

Rabbit? Who agreesto take them to the Chief Rabbit? What do the two rabbits want the Chief Rabbitto do? Why do they want him to do this? Why does the Chief Rabbitrefuse? What happenedto Bigwig? Why?

'Hazel?' at himinthe deeptwilightamongthetreesaidBigwig, sniffing 'lt roots. is Hazel,isn'tit?Whatareyoudoinghere?Andat thistimeof day?'He ignoredFiver,whowaswaitingfartherdownthe run. 'We 'lt's wantto seetheChiefRabbit,'said Hazel. important, Bigwig. Canyouhelpus?' 'We?' 'ls saidBigwig. hegoingto seehimtoo?' 'Yes, he must.Dotrustme,Bigwig. I don'tusually comeandtalklike this,do l?Whendid I everaskto seethe ChiefRabbitbefore?' 'Well, get my headbitten l'll do it for you,Hazel,although I'llprobably 1 0 off.I'lltell himI knowyou'rea sensible fellow.Heoughtto knowyou himself, of course,buthe'sgettingold.Waithere,willyou?' Bigwigwenta littlewaydownthe runandstoppedat the entrance to a largeburrow. Afterspeaking a fewwordsthat Hazelcouldnotcatch,he wasevidently Thetwo rabbitswaitedin silence, brokenonly calledinside. 1 5 bythe continual nervous fidgeting of Fiver. TheChiefRabbit's nameandstylewasThrearah, meaning'Lord Rowan Tree'.Forsomereasonhewasalwaysreferred to as'IheThrearah'perhaps to be onlyonethrear,or rowan,near because therehappened thewarren, fromwhichhetookhisname.Hehadwonhispositionnot anda certain 20 onlybystrengthin hisprime,butalsoby level-headedness quiteunlikethe impulsive self-contained detachment, behaviour of most rabbits. lt waswell-known that he neverlet himselfbecomeexcitedby rumouror danger.He hadcoolly- someevensaidcoldly- stoodfirm drivingout duringtheterribleonslaught of the myxomatosis, ruthlessly z a everyrabbitwhoseemedto be sickening. He hadresisted allideasof massemigration andenforced completeisolation thereby onthe warren, almostcertainly savingit fromextinction. lt washe,too,whohadonce dealtwitha particularly troublesome stoatby leading it downamongthe pheasant gun. coopsandso (atthe riskof hisownlife)onto a keeper's 30 Hewasnow,as Bigwigsaid,gettingold,buthiswitswerestillclear enough. WhenHazelandFiverwerebroughtin,hegreetedthempolitely. mightthreatenandbully.TheThrearah hadno need. OwslalikeToadflax 'Ah, Walnut. lt is Walnut, isn'tit?' 'Hazel,'said Hazel. 'Hazel, 35 of course.Howveryniceof youto comeandseeme.I knew yourmotherwell.Andyourfriend-' 'My brother.'


Unit3 'Don't 'Your of withthefaintestsuggestion saidtheThrearah, brother,' 'Do in hisvoice. makeyourselves correctmeanymore,willyou?' 40 Havesomelettuce?' comfortable. garden halfa lettucewasstolenbythe Owslafroma TheChiefRabbit's seldomor neversawlettuce. mileawayacrossthefields.0utskirters andsatblinking Fiverrefused, Hazeltooka smallleafandnibbledpolitely. andtwitchingmiserably 'Do 'Now, howarethingswithyou?'saidthe ChiefRabbit. tell me how| 45 canhelpyou.' 'it's 'Well, of my brothersir,'saidHazelratherhesitantly, because badabout,andI've Fiverhere.He canoftentellwhenthere'sanything foundhimrightagainandagain.He knewthefloodwascominglasi he cantellwherea wire'sbeenset.Andnowhe 50 autumnandsometimes sayshe cansensea baddangercomingupthewarren.' 'A saidthe ChiefRabbit, Yes,I see.Howveryupsetttng,' baddanger. 'Now I wonder?' He danger, whatsortof butupset. looking anything lookedat Fiver. 'B-but 'l 55 it'sbad.lt'sso b-badthat- it'svery don'tknow,'saidFiver. miserably. bad,'heconcluded 'Well, andthenhesaid, waitedpolitelyfor a fewmoments TheThrearah now,andwhatoughtweto do aboutit, I wonder?' 'Go 'Go sir, away,'saidFiverinstantly. away.Allof us.Now.Threarah, 60 we mustallgoaway.' voice, understanding Then, in an extremely waitedagain. TheThrearah 'Well, rathera tallorder,isn'tit?Whatdoyou I neverdidlThat's hesaid, yourself?' think 'my 'Well, sir,'saidHazel, brotherdoesn'treallythinkaboutthese if youseewhatI mean.I'msure 65 feelings hegets.Hejusthasthefeelings, you'rethe rightpersonto decidewhatwe oughtto do.' 'Well, that'sveryniceof you,to saythat.I hopeI am.Butnow,my dear shallwe?lt'sMay,isn'tit? fellows, let'sjustthinkaboutthisa moment, Noevil enjoying themselves. the rabbits are and most of busy Everyone's you good meto 70 And want illness, weather. me. No they tell for miles,or so got your young young here has a brother er er that tellthewarren knows acrosscountryto goodness hunchandwe mustallgo trapesing eh?Whatdo youthinkthey'llsay?All whereandriskthe consequences, delighted, eh?' 'They'd 75 takeit fromyou,'saidFiversuddenly. 'Well,perhaps 'That's they again. veryniceof you,'saidtheThrearah it verycarefully theywould.ButI shouldhaveto consider would,perhaps Andthen-' indeed. A mostseriousstep,of course. 'l 'But outFiver. canfeelthe sir,'blurted there'snotime,Threarah, help!'Hesquealed80 likea wireroundmy neck- likea wire- Hazel, danger asa rabbitdoesin a snare. androlledoverinthesand,kickingfrantically, andhegrewquieter. Hazelheldhimdownwithbothforepaws 'He 'l'm Hazel. getslikethis aMullysorry,ChiefRabbit,'said He'llbeallrightin a minute.' sometimes.

55


Unit3

56

'What perhaps heoughtto go Poorfellow, a shame! Whata shame! you'd been bettertakehimalongnow.Well,it'sreally homeandrest.Yes, you good it very I appreciate to comeandseeme,Walnut. extremely of youcan saidmostcarefully, muchindeed. AndI shallthinkoverallyou've just you?' quite will be sureofthat.Bigwig, waita moment, downtherunoutside the andFivermadetheirwaydejectedly 90 AsHazel just Rabbit's hear, from inside, the Chief Threarah's burrow, theycould note,interspersed withanoccasional voiceassuming a rather sharper 'Yes, 'No, sir,' sir.' wasgettinghisheadbittenoff. Bigwig, ashehadpredicted, 85

2 Whattype of politicalorganizationseemsto prevailin the warren?

n

a b c d

!

D

n

a tyrannical dictatorship a people'sdemocracy a benevolentmonarchy a one-partystate

Intensive reading Task 1

This activity is designed to help you explore the characters in the extract and the techniques of characterization used by the author. 1

Use the list of adjectivesbelow to describethe charactersin the followingtable.

Bigwig

neurotic superior 2

Hazel

trusttng forgetful

dutiful sensible

Fiuer

ChiefRabbit

confident clairaoyant

Find evidencefrom the passageto supporteachof the following statements. a Fiver is not respectedmuch by the other rabbits. b Hazelis respectedby the other rabbits. c The Chief Rabbit is getting out of touch with the affairs of the warTen. d The Chief Rabbitdoesn't like being disturbed.


57

Ltnit3 e Bigwig is a little frightenedof the Chief Rabbit. f Hazelhas completeconfidencein his brother. 3

RichardAdamsusesdialoguevery cleverly in this extract. The way eachcharacterspeaksprovidescluesas to the kind of person he is. Here are somequotationsfrom the extract. On the table below state which quotationcomesfrom which character,and comment on what you think it showsaboutthat character.

Quotation

Comment

'l'll tellhimI knowyou'rea sensible fellow.Heoughtto knowyou himself, of course,buthe'sgetting old.Waithere,willyou?' 'B-but it'sbad.lt'sso b-badthatit'sverybad.' 'Andyou wantmeto tellthe warren thatyoung- er - young- er - your brotherherehasgota hunchand across we mustallgo trapesing knowswhere countryto goodness eh?' andriskthe consequences, 'l'm awfullysorry,ChiefRabbit. . . He'll Hegetslikethissometimes. be all rightin a minute.' 4

When you read the extract did you forget that you were readinga story aboutrabbits? How doesRichardAdamstry to make the reader rememberthat the charactersare rabbits?

Task 2 This activity will help you to consider the theme of the extract. f

Skim through the passageto find any referencesto Onsla. a Who do you think the Owslaare? b What is their role in the warren? c What evidenceis there that they misusetheir power?

2

positiondoeseachof these charactershold? What sociaVpolitical . Haze| . Bigwig . The Chief Rabbit


UnitS

58

3

Give a brief descriptionof the way the rabbitshave organized their society.

4

Which of the followingbest describesthe attitude you have of the warren? formed aboutthe sociaVpoliticalorgatnzation a The socialsystem is extremely hierarchicalandthe leadersare becomingrather complacentand corrupt. b The socialsystem is totally corrupt, leadingto major social inequalitiesandmisuseof power. c The socialsystem is hierarchicalbut works satisfactorily becauseits leaderis a just andfair personandits members acceptthe minor inequalities. d The socialsystem is extremely unstable,as a result of the rabbits'dissatisfactionwith it: it is likely to collapseat any moment.

! ! !

!

Extension Task 1

The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to explore the content and theme of the extract further. I

2

Canyou predict what happensnext in the novel? What do you think happensto the warren? What happensto eachof the four charactersin the extract? 'hero'in the novei? Which of the four charactersis the What reasonsdo you havefor your choice?

3

set-upthan that described Canyou imaginea worse sociaVpolitical in the extract?

4

WatershipDownv,lasturned into a cartoonfilm. Try to write a film script for the scenein the extract.

3

Review activities

Task 1

In this activity you will explore how the informational content of the two passages is organized, and prepare general summaries of the passages. The report of the experimentcarried out by Dr Pepperbergandthe extract from the novelWatershipDown canbe seento containsimilar types of information.


59 I Orientation:informationaboutthe context (who, when, where, whY) 2 Action: the events that took Place 3 Results: what happenedas a result of those events 4 Evaluation:a positive or negativeresponseto the results Summarizethe generalcontent of the two passagesyou haveread by flling in the table below. Content

Down Watership

(hientation Action Results Evaluation Task2 The aim of this activity is to stimulate a creative 'animal language'. response to the theme of Do you think parrots are well-suitedto experimentsdesignedto teachanimalslanguage?Why? Do you think rabbits are a goodchoiceof animalnWatership Down? Why? Either a Write an outline for a story basedon parrots. You canuse the headingsabove(Orientation,etc.) to write your outline' or b Write an outline of an experimentyou would like to carry out to investigatewhether animalscanlearn language.Choosewhich animalto use in your experiment.


I

Analysis

Preparation Task I

In this task you will be asked to analyzethe concept of 'rules' and the expression of 'rules' in English as a preparation for reading the texts in this unit. In groups, evaluateeachof the followingdefinitionsof 'rules'. Commenton the clarity, precisionandvalidity of eachdefinition. 'Rules' ate. . .

1

Rules

o wzys of telling peoplewhat they canand cannotdo. . written formulationsof permissiblebehaviour. . explanationsof how to do something. o attempts to control individualbehaviourso as to achievea societalgoal. o restrictions on individualliberty. . principlesor orders which guidebehaviourandtell you how things are to be done. . guidelinesdesignedto achievedesirableconduct. @

R€qure7,orvs Do --

PRoHlgrrlo.lg

NO

ar

Doil?

E D UR E S PRoC

e

coDES tgl

-

2

:

Use the exercisesbelow to help your group to discussthe distinctionsbetween: rules regulations laws guides

codes prohibitions generalizations specifications

procedures commands instructions


61

Unit4 Put a tick (/) in the table below where the word from the vertical columncanbe usedwith the word alongthe horizontal.Put a cross (X) where the two words cannotbe usedtogether. Leave a blankwhen you are not sure. For examfiIe:

crime

etcarns

trafftc

X

X

hws

grarnrnar

Note: The main goal of the activity is discussionof similarities and differences.Don't worry if your group carmotagree on the answers.

social behaainur

crtlne

sfort

exalns

rules laws instructions regulations guides codes prohibitions generalizations commands specifications procedures

Give unacceptable? Do youfindanyof thefollowingsentences reasons. 'some'inpositive statethatyoumustuse ! a Thelawsof English 'any' statements. innegative and statements game if theplayeranswers state that of the The rules n b to theleft. theturnpasses incorrectly isagainst bribes Paying if youarecaught, n c You'llgoto prison theregulations.

traffic

army

gralnrnar


62

Unit4 if youbuythatmachine. d Youmustfollowthe instructions for applying he brokethe procedures e He losthisjob because for leave. fromentering 08.00 f Carsareprohibited thatstreetbetween and18.00. g Youcannotmakerulesaboutthe useof modalverbs;youcan onlymakegeneralizations.

tr tr D n 3

Completethe followinglists. Things that hauerules: games clubs sports schools The mostcommonlinguisticfeaturesof des are: a The imperative: for example,'Put i before e except after c.' 'If b Conditionals:for example, the first serve is out the player is givena secondserve.'

Task 2

In this task you will be asked to discuss the rules of polite conversation in your society in preparation for reading a passageabout the rules of polite conversation in English. 1

In a conversationbetween peoplewho are not closefriends in your society which of the followingwould be considered r . . . a b c d e f g h i

norrnzland polite? unusualbut polite? impolite? unacceptable? interrupting the speaker usingcolloquiallanguage expressingstrong disagreement dominatingthe discussion not sayinganything imposingviews on others referring to parts of the body askingquestionsaboutpeople'sprivate affairs assumingagreement


63

Ltnit4

j

returning to your originaltopic after the topic of conversation hasbeen changedby somebodyelse k usingthe first namesof everybodyin the group I telling sexualjokes m discussingcontroversialaspectsof religion or politics n exchangingplatitudes o not listeningto what the speakeris saying

What other conversationalbehaviourwould not be considered polite? 2

You are goingto read a passagewhich proposesthree basic 'Rules of Politeness'.What do you think they are?

Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will read the passage to find out how similar your Rules of Politeness are to those proposed by Lakoff, and you will think about the differences between how politeness is expressed in English and how it is expressed in your first language. belowand in thepassage LocateLakoffsRulesof Politeness you proposed in from those are different discusshowthey 2. Task Preparation For maxims to two:BeclearandBepolite. (1973) reduces Grice's Lakoff 'Pragmatic Competence'. to guarantee herthesetworulesaresufficient fourmaxims andso forbyGrices's isaccounted requirement Theclarity therearethree: ofwhich of Politeness, ontheRules Lakoff concentrates onyourH, I Don'timpose H ootions. 2 Give 3 MakeHfeelgood;befriendly. thatts,not one'sownbusiness, Thefirstrulehasto dowithminding of Hwiththecitation orembarrassing intruding onH'sprivacy 'unmentionables': are'non-free 1 0 affairs andunmentionables forprivate permission whilesodoing: goods'. oneseeks lf onemustintrude, thiscarcostyou? MayI askwhat Whatdidyoupayforit,if I mayask? of permission oddinthecontext anddownright isunnecessary Asking goods: public or'free' knowledge, MayI askhowmuch12+ 74 makes? giving without to unmentionables hastwowaysof referring English is used: termora euphemism either thetechnical offence:

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Unit4

20

Prisoners defecated onthefloorofthecell. Prisoners didtheirtoiletonthefloorofthecell. while'Prisoners shlfonthefloorofthecell'istaboo.

Thereisobvious analytical Weneedto contrastive scopeinthisarea. knowwhatdifferent consider sincethisisa cultures unmentionables, relativistic notion. Thenit wouldbeuseful to knowwhether othercultures 2 5 haveavailable means forreferring to unmentionables otherthan andinwhatcircumstances technical termsandeuohemisms: these avoidance lexemes areused. Sexanddefecation arethemostobvious area.I have tabooareas thatspring to mind.Money matters areanother theimpression thatinmiddle strataofAmerican andWestGerman 30 society enquiry aboutthecostofsomeitem,orenquiry aboutthestateof H'sfinances isnotconsidered asimpolite asit isinthecorresponding stratum of British society. lt seems alsothatto mention incomplimentary termssomepossession asa request for of H willbeinterpreted byArabs thatobject: andsincenobody likesto givehistrousers away, such 35 mention mustbeconstrued asimpolite. Thesecond rule,calling forthegiving of options to H,isrelated to therule of non-imposition, sinceif youlettheotherperson makehisown yourwillonhim. decisions hecan'tcomplain thatyouareimposing 'let Although Lakoff seestheessence ofthisruleas theaddressee make 40 hisowndecisions' I feelit isoftenapplied moresubtly: S leadsH Io think heismaking hisowndecisions, if heisconsoled Wehave bythatthought. whencommands already seenthisruleinoperation areissued. lf a 'lt'schillyinthisroom', master saysto hisservant thelatterwillactto remedy hisemployer's discomfort byclosing a window or providing some 45 formof heating. Yet,eventhough heisa servant, heisnotmadeto feel servile: afterall,themaster hasnotdirectly issued an orconventionally prosaic madea rather observation. order:hehas,onthefaceof it,merely Theservant, forhispart,hasdrawnconclusions whichhavethe attractiveness, to him,of beinghlsconclusions: andit isa fortunate bonus 50 thattheseconclusions benefit themaster. Here's onewavto beatthe 'them'v'us'syndrome of British society. Thecontrastive dimension ofthisruleforleaving theaddressee's options openinvolves initially ofwhichkindsofimplicature different statement languages exploit. Somelanguages, likesomeindividuals, willdoubtless 5 5 tendto bemoredirectthanothers. Thereader mightcareto consider at thispointwhether inhisL1(ifit isnotEnglish) commands canbeissued bymeans oftheindirect interrogatives whichwedescribed onp.125. Thethirdruleof politeness involves establishing rapport, cameraderie, a sense ofequality orrespect, distance anda recognition of inequality 60 between S andH.Thisrulehasconverse realisations according to thereal relative statuses ofS andH.lf S isof higher or equal status to his addressee, theuseof 'familiar' or'solidary'forms onhispart ofaddress willputtheaddressee at ease. Butif thespeaker's islowerthan status thatof hisaddressee hemustnotusethesefamiliar forms, lesthebe 6 5 seen as'taking liberties': hewillhaveto useformswhicharedeferential oroolite.


L'nit4 some of thisrulewillinvolveinitially dimension Thecontrastive 'power solidarity' and of markers of whatthe linguistic documentation likeThai 1960)arein Li and12.Somelanguages, (Brown andGilman, socialorder,it seems,and 70 reflecta verystatus-conscious andJapanese, languages MostEuropean gradesof deference marking. offerseveral system haveat leasta two-term2ndpersonpronoun exceptEnglish 'familiar' thefactthat Butof course, address. and differentiating'polite' doesnotmeanthatit never lacksthisdualisminthe pronouns English 75 has Afterall,English it does,by othermeans. makessuchdistincttons: formsof addresslike YourGrace,YourHonour,YourExcellencywhich freely At the otherendof the scaleEnglish areclearlystatus-marking. generates familiarformsof addresssuchas Billy,Teddy,mate,my friend, of wouldbe a CAof the process oldboy,etc.Whatwouldbe informative Whentwo peoplefirstmeet,IheyareMr BO in two languages. familiarisation and polite.The Mrgiues wayto plainRoberfs, X,Herr Xandthepronouns and perhapseventually thereis a moveto first-naming(duzen/tutoyerl, their ThisCAwouldstudythe stagesinvolved, finallyevennicknaming. andthespeedof familiarisation. marking, linguistic Do you agreewith Lakoffs rules?Do you think they are universal? What different ways do the languagesyou know have of manifesting theserules? Readthrough the passageagainandas you read comparethe examplesgiven of polite conversationalbehaviourwith ways of achievingconversationalpolitenessin your first language. Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to focus on specific points made in the,passageand on the ways these points are made. The first paragraphrefers to Grice'smaxims.From the evidencein the passagewhat do you think they are? A number of abbreviationsare used in the passage.What do you think the following mean: aH bS cL1 dLz eCA Which of the followingaudiencesdo you think the author, Carl James,is writing for? n a experiencedlinguists b teachersofEFl ! n c university studentsof linguistics n d secondaryschoolstudents tr e the generalpublic tr f readersof a particularnewspaper

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Unit4 Give evidencefrom the passageto supportyour views. Look at the content of the passage,the languageusedto expressit andthe assumptions madeof the readerbyJames. 4

Analyzeand evalirateLakoffs three Rulesof Politeness. Are they valid? fue theywellwritten? Are they well presented? Canyou see any ways of improvingthem?

5

Give somemore examplesto make clear the distinction between 'non-free'and 'free' goods. Write a short dialoguein which one of the speakersbreaksthe rule of not imposing.

6

In the fourth paragraph,what do the followingmean? a relatiuisticnotion euphemisms auoidancelexemes tabooareas Give an exampleof eachof the following: a any other relativisticnotion you canthinl of b a euphemismin English c a tabooareain your culture

7

Think of other exampleswhere S gets H to do something without breakingthe rules of non-impositionand of giving options. Write a short dialoguein which H politely declinesto do what S has subtly commandedhim or her to do throughoffering options.

8

'indirect What is an interrogative'?Give an exampleof a commandin Englishwhich is issuedby meansof an indirect interrogative. Sayhow in your own languageyou are ableto influencethe addressee'sbehaviourby leavinghisftreroptionsopen.

I

Give examplesof the effectiveestablishmentof rapport in Englishwhen... a S is equalto H b S is'superior'toH c S is 'inferior'to H

In what ways is your languagedifferent from Englishwhen followingthe third rule of politeness? 10 'This fassageis characterized bya semi-formal,objectiae, expositoryslyle.' Give examplesfrom the text to supportor refute this statement.


Unit4 1l

The extractbelowfromanearlierpagein thebookspecifies of the passage. Grice'smaximsreferredto in thefirst paragraph proposed to fourmaxims. thatconversations conform Grice(1975) of: These arethemaxims butnomorethan asisrequired I Quantity: Beasinformative that- avoidredundancy. to betrueorwhatyou 2 Quality: Sayonlywhatyoubelieve haveevidence for. 3 Relevance;Beto thepoint. avoidobscurity. 4 Manner: Beclearandsuccinct: CompareGrice'smaximsandLakoff'srulesasregards: . topic (i.e., whattheyareabout) . content (i.e., whattheysay) . style (i.e.,howtheyareexpressed) o purpose(i.e., whotheyarewrittenfor andwhy theyare written) Is thereanydifferencebetweena rule anda maxim?If so,what is it?

Extension Task 1 This task will ask you to combine what you have learned from the passage about the expression of rules with what you know about English conversations in order to write your own conversational rules. The next sectionof the chapterthat the passageis extracted from analyzesthe componentsof conversationunder the headingsof OpeningsandClosings. Write your own maximsor rules for openingandclosing conversationsin English.

2

Using rules

Preparation Task 1

This task will help you to understand a list of rules drawn up to regulate the behaviour of people working in a cider house in America.

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Unit4 1 What is cider? 2 What do you think a cider houseis? 3 The work in a ciderhouseis seasonal.Whatdoesthis mean? What sort of peopledo you think it attracts? The cider houseworkers live, work and sleepin the cider house. They work very hard during the day. What do you think they do after work? If you were the owner of the cider housewhat sort of behaviour would you try to prevent in andaroundyour cider house?What rules would you draw up to try to regulatethe behaviourof your workers? Write your rules out as a list to pin on the wall of the ciderhouse. 5

In the novel Cidpr HouseRules by loLn Irving, Homer Wells is a newcomerto the OceanView Orchardsin Heart'sRock.He is living with the owners of the orchard,but he is working in the bedroomwing of the cider househelpingto get it ready for the arrival of the seasonalworkers. As he is working he comesacross a very feint list of cider houserules pinnedon the wall. Why do you think the list is very feint? Who do you think the rules are addressedto? Who do you think wrote the rules? Which of the followingdo you think is the first rule on the list? ! tr I I

a Never operatethe grinder or the presswhen you are drunk. b Don't on any accountoperatethe grinder or the press if you have beendrinking. c Pleasedon't operatethe grinderor the pressif you've been drinking. d Never drink andthen operatethe grinder or the press.

Whichone do you think is the least likely? Why? Extensive reading Task I

In this task you will be asked to respond to reading the cider house rules as if vou were Homer. 1

Imagineyou are Homer andreadthe ciderhouserules on the next page.


69

L-nit4

CIDER HOUSE RULES the top line said. What rules? he wondered,reading down the page. The rules were numbered. Please

don't

hr6eq

i f

rrnrr

operate lrza

the

hoon

dri

grinder nki

or

the

nc

},!999

2 3 4 5

smoke in bed or use candles. don't Please you've g o on the roof if Please don't - especially at night. been drinking the cloths Pl-ease wash out the press are used. they same day or night remove the rotary screen Please you've finished after immediately WHEN THE pressj-ng clean and hose it POMACE IS STILL WET ON ]T ! you when with take bottles P1ease don't go you up on the roof. - even if (or if you are very hot Please r) 'rvnu r r I rvzsc

hacn

d ri

n k^ 4 ri r Yn n \

/

-

rlan

If

j-ntO

no

room to sleep. storag:e the cold give your l-ist to shopping Please in the crew boss by seven o'clock mnfn

the

1 nd

9 There dozen

JnoufO be no more than people

on

the

roof

at

half any

a one

time.

If there were a few more rules, Homer couldn't read them becausethe page had beenripped off. Homer handedthe tom paper to Big Dot Taft. 'What's all this about the roof?' he askedDebra Pettisrew.

2 3 -1 5 6

Whatis your reactionto the rules? Who do you think wrote them? Why do you think they were written? Do you think they are likely to be effective?Give reasons. What advicewould you give to the writer of the rules?

Intensive reading Task 1 will require you to analyze evaluate the rules.


Unit4

70

What are the unusualfeaturesof these rules? What do they tell you aboutthe writer of the rules and aboutthe peoplethey are addressedto? Give a rationalefor eachrule (i.e., explainthe reasonfor the rule). Why do you think the adverbialclausein Rule 5 is in capital letters? Why do you think Rule 9 is the only rule not introducedby 'Please'?

6

andexpressionof Write a criticism of the content, organizatson the rules. Why do you think 'thepagehad beenripPedoff'?

I

Try to explainthe meaningof the following: a b c d e f g

the grinder the press the presscloth the rotary screen the pomace the cold storageroom the crew boss

Extension Task I

In this task you will be asked to use what you have understood of the text as a basis for creative writing. I

Imagineyou are Debra Pettigrew and answerHomer's question, 'What's all this abouttheroof?'

2

Write a short story which explainswhy either Rule 3 or Rule 7 cameto be written.

3

Imagineyou are Homer andyou havebeen askedby the owner of OceanView Orchardsto rewrite the rules. Think aboutwhich rules to discardor combine,how to group the rules, how to sequencethem andhow to expressthem. Then write your rules.

Preparation Task I

In this task you will be asked to use your understanding of the situation at Ocean View Orchards to predict what happens when the seasonal workers arrive.


Unit4 Mr Roseis in chargeof the seasonalworkers. Every year he brings a 'crew' fellow negroesfrom the Southto pick and pressthe applesat of OceanView Orchards.In the next extract you are goingto read Mr Rosehasjust arrived with his crew. Mrs Worthington,the wife of the owner, hasput flowers in the cider houseto greet the workers and hasput a fresh copy of the cider houserules by the kitchen light. How do you think Mr Rosefeels aboutthe flowers andthe rules? What do you think he saysto Mrs Worthingtonaboutthem? Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to read the extract to check your predictions and to discover as much as you can about Mr Rose. 1

Readthe passagebelow to find out: a how accurateyour predictionswere aboutMr Rose's responsesto the flowers andthe rules. b as much as you canaboutMr Rose.

day,andtheapplemartwasinlandenough It wasa hot,Indian-summer to misswhatlittleseabreezetherewas.Mr RoseandMrsWorthington in the apple stoodtalkingamongthe parkedandmovingfarmvehicles martlot;the restof the pickingcrewwaitedin theircars- thewindows the sidesof the cars. rolleddown,an orchestra of blackfingers strumming pickersanda cook- no womenor children Therewereseventeen this year,to 0live'srelief. 'Very nice,'Mr Rosesaid,abouttheflowersinthe ciderhouse. MrsWorthin$on touchedthe rulesshe'dtackedto thewallbythe 'And kitchenlightswitchasshewasleaving. you'llpointouttheseto 0liveasked. everyone, won'tyou,please?' 'You 'Ohyes, good I'm at rules,'saidMr Rose,smiling. all comeback andwatchthefirstpress,Homer,'Mr Rosesaid,as Homerheldopenthe 'l'm vandoorfor Olive. sureyougot betterthingsto watch- moviesand youcomeandwatch stuff- butif youevergotsometimeon yourhands, gallons,' headdedshyly;he usmakea littlecider.Abouta thousand 'All thathe mightbe bragging. we scuffedhisfeet,asif hewereashamed needis eighthours,andaboutthreehundred bushels of apples,' saidMr 'A gallons,' proudly. he repeated Rose. thousand saidto Homer, Onthe waybackto the applemart,OliveWorthington 'Mister Roseis a realworker.lf the restof themwerelikehim,theycould improve Homerdidn'tunderstand hertone.Certainly he had themselves.' - butthere - andevenaffection heardin hervoiceadmiration, sympathy andimmovable wasalsoin hervoicethe icethatencases a long-ago pointof view. 2 What do you think Mr Rosefelt aboutthe flowers? 3 What do you think he felt aboutthe rules?

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4 What do you think he really thinks aboutMrs Worthington? 5 What do you think Mrs Worthingtonreally thinks aboutMr Rose? Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to'read between the lines' to work out the implicit meanings of the text. 1

Find evidenceto support or refute the followingstatements. a b c d e f g h i j k

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The scenetakes placein autumn. Mr Worthington is dead. Olive is Mrs Worthington'sdaughter. All nineteenof the seasonalworkers are black. All the pickers acknowledgeMr Roseas their representative andtheir boss. Most of the pickers are illiterate. The conversationbetweenMr RoseandMrs Worthington aboutthe rules takes placeoutside. Mr Rose andHomer know eachother well. Mr Rosemakesthe pickers work very hard. Mr Rose hashis own rules which he makesthe pickers follow. Olive respectsbut disapprovesof Mr Rose.

Why are the pickers strummingon the sidesof the cars? Why doesMrs Worthingtonput flowers in the cider house? Why is Olive relieved that there are no women and children? Why doesMrs Worthingtonput the rules by the kitchen light switch? 'Oh yes, I'm goodat Why doesMr Rosesmilewhenhe says, rules'? Why doesMr Roseinvite Homer to watch them make cider? Why do you think Mr Roseis never referred to by his first name?

Extension Task I

In this task you will be asked to imagine what both Homer and Mrs Worthington thought about Mr Rose and to write a dialogue between them. 1

In pairs, write a dialoguebetween Homer andMrs Worthingtonrn which Homer arguespolitely againstMrs Worthington'sview of Mr Rose.

2

Practiseactingout your dialogue,andthen make revisionsto your script.


Unit4 3

Find anotherpair andact out your dialogueto them. Watch their performanceof their dialogueandthen talk aboutthe differences between the two dialogues.

4

final revisionsto your dialogue. Make any nece-ssary

Preparation Task I

In this task you will use your knowledge of the novel so far to predict a scene sixteen years later. The final extract from Cidzr HouseRules takes placesixteenyears later. Eachof those years Mr Rosehasreturned with a crew of pickersandfor the last flfteen of those years Homer hasbeen given the responsibilityfor writing the cider houserules. What changesdo you think Homer hasmadeto the rr.rles? What effect do you think those changeshavehad? Extensive reading Task I

ln this task you will be asked to work out the motives of the various people affected by the rules. Readthe followingextract andas you read work out a what Homer hopesto achieveby putting up rules every year. b why the rules were not obeyed. for the writingand Forfifteenyears,HomerWellshadtakenresponsibility posting year, lastthinghe house rules. Every it was the the of the cider paint wall after the fresh coat of had dried. Someyearshe attached to the jolly years nonchalant; with the rules; other he tried sounding triedbeing perhaps thathad it hadbeen0live'stoneandnotthe rulesthemselves andtherebymadeit a matterof pridewiththe causedsomeoffense, migrants thatthe rulesshouldneverbe obeyed. did notchangemuch.Therotaryscreenhadto Therulesthemselves aboutthedrinking andthefalling becleaned out.A wordof warning roomwasmandatory. Andlongafterthe Ferris asleepin the cold-storage wheelat CapeKenneth wastorndownandtherewereso manylightson a.glimpse of thecoastthatthe viewfromthe ciderhouseroofresembled stillsaton the roofanddranktoo much somedistantcity,the migrants he andfelloff,andHomerWellswouldask(ortell)themnotto. Rules, guessed, neuerasked,rulesfold He phrased Buthetriedto makethe ciderhouserulesseemfriendly. havebeensomeaccidents therulesin a confidingvoice.'There onthe roof,overtheyears- especially at night, andespecially in combination

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Unit4 withhaving a greatdealto drinkwhilesitting ontheroof.Werecommend thatyoudoyourdrinking withbothfeetontheground,' Homer would write. year,thepieceof paperitselfwouldbecome Butevery wornand - a kindof desperation grocery tattered andusedforotherthings list,for example, always bysomeone whocouldn't spel,. CORN MEEL REGULAR FLOWER waswritten across Homer's rulesoneyear. gathered Attimes, thesolitary sheetof paper littleinsults and mockeries ofa semi-literate nature. 'Nofucking ontheroofl'or 'Beatoffonlyincoldstorage!' Wally toldHomer thatonlyMrRose knewhowto write:that thepranks, andinsults, andshopping listswereallcomposed byMrRose, butHomer couldnever besure. Extension Task 1 In this task you will be asked to use your awareness of the situation at Ocean View Orchards to help you to write a letter from Homer to Mr Rose. Do one of the following: I

Imaginethat you are Homer andthat you havedecidedto try to do somethingto solve the problemof the cider houserules. Write a letter to Mr Rosein which you o explainthe reasonsfor the rules . speculateon the reasonsfor them being disobeyed o ask for his advice . appealto him for help

2

Write and perform a scenefrom a play in which one of Homer's rules has beenbroken andHomer, in his anger, confrontsMr Rose.

Preparation Task 1

In this task you will be asked to use your knowledge of the world and your imagination to create the rules of a race involving men and horses.


L'nit4 In 1878a race took placein Yuta City in Americato settle a dispute over the ownershipandwatering rights of an areaknown as the Big Wet. The race was betweenthree runners anda horse representing Peter Boyle andthree runners and a horse representingWilliam Brennan.The runners includedthe fastest sprinters, quarter-milers anddistancerunners in the world. The horseswere allocatedto the ieamson the day of the race. The total distanceof the race was ffieen miles. The areaaroundYuta City is mountainous,and alarge crowd of spectatorswere in Yuta City for the race. Deviseandwrite down the rules which governedthe race. Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will use a number of short extracts from a novel which describes the Yuta Country Foot Race to try to work out the details of that race. 1

Readthe followingextracts fromThe Fast Men by Tom McNab, and as you read try to work out the rules of the race.

Extract 1 'So 'Now,' hesaid. thattherulesarethesamefor bothteams,eachteam withits horsesothattheycanseehow isallowed to carrya setof glasses groupof contestants cancarryas each faring. And behind is therunner pick from my officials water-bottles up extra want and as they muchwater Diablo.' of El atthebase paused again. JudgeHaynes 'Gentlemen, Areyou to midday on 20 October,7878. it isa minute ready?' nodded. Tulloch, BillyJoeandthe Indian BelowhimMoriarty, 'Three of fivemiles,horseandman,two menfromeachteamin laps thefirsttwo laps,onlyonein thefinallap.Thefinalfurlongof thefirstlap as mustthefinalquarterof the secondby mustberunbythesprinters, andthe lastmileof thethirdlapbythe lasttwo thequarter-milers, runners.' thegunand Hepickedupa pistolfroma smalltableat hisside,cocked it abovehishead. raised 'Gentlemen, takeyourmarks.' Moriartylookedat Tullochfor thefirsttime:leanandbrown,with - thefastestmileron earth.BillyJoeandthe whiskers mutton-chop poisedontheirmounts, at eachotherwithout looked sideways Indian, smiling. 'Getset...' of flagscouldbe heard. onlytheflapping Again, Standing Thegunandthe roarof the crowdweresimultaneous. therumps andBuckslapped Headley andBillyJoe, the Indian alongside

7q


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mounts. Theracewason. of theircolleagues' lead,pushing hisblackmountthrough BillyJoewentintoan immediate onthe the corridorof noisealongthe streetouttowardsBrennanville andTullochraneasilysideby sideas edgeof town.Behindthem,Moriarty if in anotherworld.Therewasa longwayto go.Bytheedgeof thetent BillyJoewasallof fiftyyardsahead,cuttingthrough campof Brennanville yelling andTulloch still behind supporters, whilea furlong themMoriarty plodded sidebyside. Extract2 yardsbehind. TheIndianwasjustentering the water,overa hundred galloped upacross WhenBillyJoemadethebankontheothersideand the shingle theApacheon dutywasableto signalthattheTexanwasa clearonehundred andfiftyyardsup. padding, andTullochwerehardlybreathtng, Halfa mileback,Moriarty flat-footed, sidebysideat six-minute milepacealongthe grasscentreof the carttrack.Theirtimehadnotvet come. Extract3 He hardlydaredventureto lookback,butat the peakhe did.The yardsbehind, perhaps wasonlya coupleof hundred less, Indian advancing remorselessly tooka swig towardshim.BillyJoeremounted, hisbinoculars fromthe pommeland fromhiswater-bottle, unwound andTulloch werenow lookeddownthemountain onto theplain.Moriarty - by abouta hundred yards. acrossthe BigWet.AndTullochwasleading So BillyJoeknewthathe mighthaveto leavethe horseearly,fortyor fifty yardsbeforethefurlongmarker, to giveMoriarty anopportunity to catch tookthe up.Hetookanotherswigfromthe water-bottle on hissaddle, reinsandre-mounted, beforezig-zagging downthe mountain. Extract 4 BillyJoewascertainhe hadgotit. But Astheyhitthetapetogether, too,thought thathe hadtakenhisman. besidehimthe Indian, foundthe horsewherehe had Moriarty, eightyyardsbehindTulloch, hopedit wouldbe,tetheredbetween thequarter-mile andfurlong pattedits muzzle, markers. Theblackwassweating heavily. Moriarty it into withdrewa cubeof sugarfroma pocketinthe saddleandpressed quickly theblack's mouth.Hemounted andhadriddenpastTulloch by justastheScotwasaboutto mount.Bythetimehe thefurlongmarker, hadreached the chaoticstartat the BuenaVista,whereBuckand lead. Headley stoodpoised,Moriadywasintoa sixty-yard Extract 5 'No 'The oneknows,'heshouted. judgeissortingit out now.'He pointed abovehimto thedaiswhereBillyJoeandthe Indian stoodwith Haynes andhisofficials. Moriarty lookedupat Buckandnodded, thenslapped theblack's


Unit4 off.As hedidsoTullochrodein behindhimto withersandBuckgalloped to engulf throughcrowdsthatwerethreatening a waitingJosiahHeadley, thecentralcorridor.Buckrodeouttowardsthetentsof Brennanville, darkstormcloudsblotted sixtyyardsin the lead,asabovethemsudden, outthe sun,castingMainStreetintoshadow. Extract6 takingit easyonthe horse to the baseof ElDiablo, Buckwasapproaching quarter andstartedto rungently He dismounted a mile up. of andovera clayandgritsurface up its rapidly-drying mountain of the fromthe base hisstrideandhis for him, had been made as if it mountain Hetookthe he perfect butsomehow enough, lt was hurting, true in unison. breathing preserved himto toleratethe pain,and thatenabled thatfinebalance itselfto the black,whichtrotted too thisfeelingtransferred somehow winding rockyincline. mile of him up the behind easily thetop Buckturnedbackandagaintook Assoonas he hadreached fromthe pommel.He lookeddowntowardsthe BigWet,and theglasses making theirway andTulloch ableto pickout Moriarty wasimmediately appeared to acrossthe river.Butwhathe sawamazedhim- for Moriarty throughthewater.Buckshookhisheadandrefocused be pullingTulloch Tullochoutof the river wasdragging No,it wastrue:Moriarty theglasses. anduothebank. Extract 7 to go,takingan immediate madehishitwitha furlong Headley Josiah get hissteady,relaxed lead.ButBucklet him away,keeping two-yard yards to run,camethat rhythm,holdinghisflow.Then,witha hundred soundin hisheadtellinghimthatit wasnowtime.Theonlytime. strange 'Boomp,' it saidin hishead,andBucksmiled. 'Boomp,'he saidaloud,to Headley's back. in a rushof legs,wipingout hisleadand BuckwentpastJosiahHeadley goingintoa five-yard withfiftyyardsstillto cover.ButHeadley advantage hadnothingin himleftto offer.Buckdidnotsimplytakethetape,he a jigof joy,while danced it,andabovehimBillBrennan smashed through with HettieCarrweptandweptagain.Sheranin to Eleanor the news. Extract8 yardsaway.Surprisingly, He lookedtowardsthefinish,onlya hundred allwasnowclear,thetapethickandwhite,the wayit hadalwaysbeen. of a quarter the reflexes intoa memoryof running, burrowing Somehow, Moriarty startedto sprint,talkingto himself of a centuryof competition, it was allthe while.True,it wasnotthe sprintof a FastMan,butsomehow of a masterof hiscraft. the running running, classrunning, pushed it asif it hispain,ignoring andbeyond onthrough Moriarty else.He ranwithlegsthathe hadno rightto to someone werehappening whichno longer thedictatesof a bodychemistry expectto run,against in himwhichtold himto stop.Moriarty madesense,againsteverything yardsof hisathletic of careerupthenarrowcorridor ranthefinalhundred

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Unit4 YutaCity,aboveandbeyondhimself.As he hit the tape,BuckandBilly Joewerethereto catchhimas hefell. 'The 'Youjust Theatreof theWest,boys,'he mumbled throughsplitlips. sawit.' 2

Who won. . . . the first lap? . the secondlap? . the third lap? . the race?

3

Write a 200 word newspaperreport of the race for The Times n England.

Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will use your knowledge of the race to help you to write the rules of the race. A faded copy of the articles of the Yuta Country Foot Race was recently found in the cellar of the Buena Vista Hotel during renovation work. Use your knowledge of the race to complete the following typescript of what could be decipheredfrom the original copy. Thusitwasthat,on2OApril1878,theaniclesoftheYutaCounty

signed.

Articles of Agreement I The competition to take place five-mile laps starting at noon on 20 October 1878, a circular coune encompassing the El Diablo Mountain and the town of iself, the start to be J Each team will consist of 3 The men from a relay over three separate laps, each team and a horse competing over each lap, with only the completing the full fifteen-mile course, the other runners completing Thus, the sprinter and distance-runner from each team the quarter-milers and the second,with the final lap 4 The two-man teams will or ride at their discretionon each lap, the only proviso being that on the zrutrun thefinal firlong to the finish, on the second lap the run thefrnal quartermile and on the last lap the thesedistances beins marked by Union flags and being scrutinised by officials appointed by The distance-runners are required o other tworunners only on one lap. 5 The vyinner of the competition is i.e.2-O - 2-1, the final arbiter on all competitions being Judge Haynes. Should the fint for any one team, then the final lap by the distance-runners will not be run. 6 The are to be selected by Judge Haynes, and the parties in dispute (Peter Boyle and William Brennan) will throw dice for 7 The ownership and watering rights of the area known as The Big Wet will be assigned to the sponsor of the


79

Unit4 Extension Task 1

In this task you will be asked to invent a modern relay race testing speed, stamina, skill and courage and to draw up the rules for it. Devise a modern race for two three-menrelay teamswhich will attract alarge crowd andtelevisioncoverage.Make sure your race will test speed,stamina,skill and courage,that it will challengethe greatest athletesin the world andthat it will provide a thrilling spectaclefor the spectators. Draw up the rules for the race. Make sure they cover all possible contingencies,that they are concisebut clear andthat there is only one possibleinterpretationof eachrule.

3

Review activities In this task you will be asked to relate what you have learned from the different activities in this unit. For eachof the followingrules decide: a who it was written for b where you are likely to find it c why it was written d why it was written in sucha style 1

to buydrinksinthe baror payfor mealsin arenotallowed Guests the restaurant.

2

lf youlandin a redsquareyoumayeithermovethe counterthree or youmaytakeanotherthrowof the spacesin eitherdirection dice.

3

to remain acceptable it is perfectly conversation In a Japanese silentif youhaveno interestin thetopicof conversation.

4

fromyour alwaysgivewayto trafficapproaching At a roundabout right.

5

NoSmoking.

6

before16.30.Afterthistimewe do shouldbe collected Children whoarestillonthe for anychildren notacceptresponsibility Dremlses.

7

Donotwashyourhairin the shower.

Comparethe sets of rules you havebeen studyingin this unit. Say in what ways they are similaror different in style andpurpose.


80

Unit4

3

Write the beginningof a sciencefiction story in which a married couple wake up one morning in a hotel to find that all the rules which govern the routine behaviourof peoplein their societyhave changeddrasticallyovernight. The impact of rules on society hasbeen a commontheme in modernliterature in English.You might enjoyreadingsomeof the followingbooks which include'rules' amongsttheir themes. HardTimes by CharlesDickens Animal Farm by George Orwell 1984by GeorgeOrwell Catch22 byJosephHeller OneFlew OuertheCuckoo'sNesf by Ken Kesey Portnoy'sComplaintby Philip Roth The Graduafeby CharlesWebb Smiley'sP eopleby I oln le Carre


Classification Preparation Task 1

In this activity you will answer some questions about accents to help you anticipate the ideas introduced in the passage. Think aboutaccentsin your own language' 1 2 3 4 5

6

What accentof your languagedo you speak? Is there one accentof your languagewhich is generally considered'better'thanother accents? Are there any accentsofyour langgagethat you dislike?If so, what is it that you dislikeaboutthem? Are there anyaccentsthat you consider'funny'insomeway?If so, what is funny aboutthem? Do you sometimeschangeyour accentaccordingto who you are speakingto? If so, what kind of changesdo you make?Why do you make them? What do you think aboutforeign accents?

accents English wAssn TtnE. 4IEN.

Compareyour answerswith other students. Task 2 1 Why is the languageused by the schoolboyinappropriate? 2 How couldhe ask the questionin an appropriateway? 3 To whom might he say'Wassatime, then?' Task 3

In this activity you will make predictions about the purpose and function of the passage. Here is the headingandbrief abstractof the passage. NewSociety

to accent Ourreactions HowardGiles Why do peoplechangethe way they speakdependlngon the personlistening? Researchshows accentis one part of interpersonalresponse.


82

UnitS 1

What kind of publication do you think New Socielyis? n a apopularmagaztne ! b an academicjournal tr c atextbook ! d aseriousmagazine

2

What do you think is the writer's mainpurpose? ! a to describehow accentsare used ! b toexplainhowaccentsareused ! c to report the results of a numberof studiesinvestigating how accentsare used n d to instruct peoplehow to makethe best use of their accents

3

Who do you think Howard Gilesis? ! a ajournalist n b auniversityacademic ! c ateacher

The passageyou are goingto study in this unit is rather long andfor this reasonwe have broken the article up into two parts. We want you to study eachpart separatelybefore readingthe whole article.

PartOne Extensive reading Task I

This activity is designed to help you skim the text in order to find the main ideas. Part One serves as an introductionto the mainideasof the article. When you glanceat the text, you will notice that somesentences havebeen highlighted. Look at the positionof these sentences.Where do they comein the paragraphs? Readthrough the sentencesthat havebeenhigtrlighted.(Don't read the rest of the text yet.) What would you say the main functionof these sentencesis? ! a to give examples n b to make generalizations n c to give definitions The sentenceson page83 are paraphrasesof the highlighted sentencesin the text. Match eachof the paraphraseswith a highlightedsentence. One of the highlightedsentenceshasnot beenparaphrased. Which one?


83

UnitS 'responsible matching',wâ&#x201A;Ź couldrefer to a Insteadof talking about speechconvergence. b This is known as responsematching. c Also peopleadopta way of speakingthat echoesthe person they are talkingto. d Responsematchingmay be motivatedby our desire to be sociable. e Another kind of speechchangeis speechdivergence. f Peoplechangetheir way of speakingaccordingto the situation they are in andthe person they are talkingto. What would be an appropriateheadingfor Part One? ' : i j I

Part One An English schoolboywould onlY when interviewing President Kenask his friend:'Wassatime. then?' nedy, and the length of his replies, To his teacherhe would be much has been shown to have increased over the duration of his 1961-63 news conferences. Argyle says this process may be one of imitation'. Two American researchers, Jaffe and Feldstein, prefer to think of it as the speaker's need for equilibrium. Neither of these explanations seems particularly convincing. It may be that response matching can be more profitably considered as an unconscious reflection of speakers' needsfor social integration with one another.

This process of modelling the other person's speech in a conversation could also be termed speech convergence. It may only be one aspect of a much wider speech change. In other situations, speech divergence may occur when certain factors encourage a person to modify his speech away from the individual he is dealing with. For example, a retired brigadier's wife, renowned for her incessant snobbishness, may return her vehicle to the local garage because of inadequate servicing, voicing her complaint in elaborately phrased, yet mechanically unsophisticated language, with a high soft-pitched voice. These superior airs and graces may simply make the mechanic reply with a flourish of almost incomprehensible technicalities, and in a louder, more deeply-pitched voice than he would have used with a less between irritating customer. I ness.The correspondence

I the length of reporters' questions


Unit 5

84

Intensive reading Task 1

In this activity you will examine how the information in the text is organized. 1

Readthrough the completetext carefully.

2

Wherewouldyou positionthesesub-headings? a Languagevariation b Responsematching c Speechdivergence

3

Fill in this table in note form usingthe informationin the text.

Topic

Examfile

Languagevariation Responsematching Speechdivergence 4

Completethis diagram: r

speechconvergence

r . . . . . . . . . . .t. . . . . . 2............ 5

What would you expect to read aboutin the next part of the text?

Extension Task 1

In this activity you will consider your own response to the ideas in the text. To what extent do you agree that we often modelthe other person's speechin a conversation? Canyou think of your own examplesof speechconvergenceand speechdivergence?

PartTwo Extensive reading Task I

The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to make use of diagrams to get a general idea of the content of the text.


UnitS

1

Don't read any of the text in Part Two yet, but study the diagrams carefully.

2

Which of the followingwould you use to labeleachdiagram? . Types of speechchange . A speaker'saccentrepertoire

3

Use the informationin the first diagramto completethis passage:

possesses . . . ..,whichis his/her an(1). Eachindividual possess individuals most particular however, ln addition, wayof speaking. goingfrom accents of Thereis a continuum an accentrepertoire. to asthe accentof the . or whatis oftenreferred (2)... .. livesin an individual (3) . . . accent. Sometimes .. BBCto a Also (4) . . . . . . accents. has two an arealikeCardiffwhich direction possibility the opposite branch in another of thereisthe thoughtof asthe accentof . ., popularly towards(5). . . theupperclasses.

Now use the informationin the seconddiagramto completethis passage: canbe of twotypes:accent(1) Accentchangeduringa conversation . A c c e n tcsa n . . . . .. a n da c c e n( t2 1. . . . . . accentconvergence in two ways.(3).. converge the way accentmodifies whospeaksa regional occurswhena speaker . . . . . . accentof to makeit closerto the (4) he/shespeaks . . . . . . accent the personhe/sheistalkingto. In (5) witha received takesplace.Thatis,a speaker the opposite convergence pronunciation it to makeit soundcloserto the (6) accentmodifies Accentscanalsodivergein . . . . . . accentof the listener. the difference . . . . accentdivergence twoways.In (7). . makinghis/her by oneof thespeakers is increased two speakers between . . . . accent thanusual.In (8). . accentmorerefined accentmakeshis/heraccenteven of a regional a speaker divergence him/herself between the difference in orderto emphasize moreregional to. beingspoken andthe person Intensive reading Task 1

The aim of this activity is to enable you to identify the structure of Part Two of the text. I

Part Two dealswith two topics: a Accent repertoire b Types of accentchange

Readthe text andindicatewhere eachtopic begins.

85


UnitS

86

Part Two We don't know enough yet about all aspects of speech, but I have been experimenting with response matching in the use of accents, and have attempted to apply the ideas of speech convergence-divergence to cope with the phenomenon of accent change. To begin with, it is necessaryto abstract a speaker's accent repertoire. This is schematically represented in figure L. Obviously, accent response matching is not of such a power as to occur between people regardless of their regional colourings. We do not order curry (or sausage and chips, for that matter) in an Indian restaurant with a Peter Sellers brogue. Response matching at this level operates with pronunciation patterns in which the speaker has had some extended experience. In its full range, the repertoire comprises a continuum of accent usage-standard variant. to the broadest local regional variant (whatever it may be). This standard accent in Britain has been called 'receivedpronuncia t i o n ' ( R p )b y I i n g u i s t sI.t i s c o n v e n tionally envisaged as the accent of a BBC newscaster. Now, the way most people's accents change are along this single continuum, from BBC to regional-but there are exceptions. It is likely that, if an individual lives in an area with two dialects (such as Cardiff, which has its own accent besides the more common south Wales lilt), then there would be at 'branch' least one other regional (as is shownin figure l).

There is also the possibility of 'branch' another in the opposing direction, that is towards affected RP, more popularly thought of as the accent of the upper classes. Though most people can both standardise and broaden their most usual way of speaking (ie, their idiolect) at least slightly, it is also true that some people are practically immobile in this respect due to the limitation of their early vocal environments (for example, ghetto children: but, perhaps even more so, public school children). Accent change in conversation may take either one of two directions, depending on whether the speaker wishes to be accepted by his listener-when his accent will converge-or whether he wishes to which emphasise differences-in case his accent may grow more dissimilar. Accents can converge in two ways. To appreciate the distinction between the two, it is necessary to assumethat the way that pronunciation varies in a speaker's repertoire also reflects prestige. This 'standard' patterns being the case, of pronunciation will have the highest status while the broadest regional varieties will have the lowest. So if a speaker thinks that his listener's way of speaking is higher than his is in terms of accent prestige (ie, it is more 'standard'), then, provided he wants to be accepted by the listener, he will modify his accent and upward accent convergence will occur. The only other direction of accent convergence is 'down' and implies that a speaker thinks his listener's pronunciation puts him in a lower prestige bracket-in other words, it's brolrder. Since accent prestige often reflects social status. a move like this on the part of the speaker may be adopted so as to reduce embarrassment,due to socialdifferences, and to prepare a common basis for the communication of ideas and feelings. This assumes,of course, 'downward' that convergence is 'uoward.' more consciousthan

o ;?3:',1i.1*..

regional'B' (egSouthWelsh)

Naturally enough, accent divergence can take on two directions also (see figure 2). Think of a woman who has bought some expensive clothing in an exclusive store which neither changes articles, nor refunds the cash after they have been bought. When the woman returns home she discovers a glaring flaw in the dress and returns it to the shop assistant demanding a replacement. The assistant has her instructions and soon finds a rather persistent customer on her hands. Of course, the floor manager is summoned to a situation he is all too familiar with and he assumes his usual authoritative and unrelenting approach, polishing his accent to a fine gilt edge (upward divergence). His aloof manner and his immediate dismissal of the whole affair arouses the woman's indignation and she storms off, voicing disgust in an unrefined manner (downward divergence). accent divergence

/-a\

( 4 1 \ receivedpronunciation 1^l senders | | accent | | receiver's <> accent broadregional ,,---N

l

)

/

\d_/

pronunciation received <^}receNefs accent II I I sender's <> accent broadregional

ra\ \-a/

)

\_J-l

upward accent0rvergence

accent convergence

/-A

1.4 \

1

t ) /

Y_l'_/

recelvedpronunciation f^l recerver's L accent 1 sender's u accenl broadregional

/A\ r\;{ \---y )

upward accenlc0nvergence

/,o\

( H ) "<L-/

receivedpronunciation T'lsenoers 9accenl |

,Ere,vo,

9accenr broad regional

a

.L-

)


B7

L-nit5

2

Study the diagrambelow which showsthe way the information aboutaccentrepertoire is structured. Relatethe informationin the text to the parts of the diagram.

repertoire 3

Completethis diagramshowingthe different tlpes of accent changediscussedin the text.

_ upwaro

1 . . . . . ._ l

a2...... .4......

3 ......_l

L downward

Task 2 This activity practises your ability to distinguish generalizations and examPles. State whether eachof these sentencesfunctionsas a generalizationor an example in the text. andchips,for thatmatter)in an a Wedo notordercurry(orsausage witha PeterSellersbrogue. Indianrestaurant livesin an areawithtwo dialects. . ', b lt is likelythat,if an individual 'branch'. thentherewouldbe at leastoneotherregional immobile inthis arepractically c . . . it isalsotruethatsomepeople environments. early vocal of their respectdueto the limitation cantakeontwo directions. accentdivergence enough, d Naturally Now find a generalizationor examplein the text that matches eachof the sentencesabove.


UnitS

88 Extension Task I

In this activity you will consider the writer's attitude towards the subject of the text. I

2

What evidencecanyou find from the text to supporteachof these statements? a

whodoesnotpossess an accent Gilesbelieves thata speaker repertoire is at a disadvantage.

b

issocially accentconvergence Gilesbelieves thatdownward heloful.

Write statementsthat summarizeGiles'sview about o upward convergence . upward divergence . downwarddivergence Compareyour statementswith those of a partner. Find evidence from the text to justify your statements.

Task 2

In this activity you will practise applying the information in the text to new situations. Four kinds of accentchangeare describedin the text: r upwardconvergence . downwardconvergence o upward divergence . downwarddivergence What kind of accentchangewould you expect for eachof the peoplein italics in these situations? 1 Johnhasan RPaccent.Mikehasa broadregional accent.Johnlikes Mikea lot andwantsto makehimfeelat easewhenhetalksto him. 2

Francis isJim'sboss.Francis speaksRP.Jimspeaks a broadregional accent.Jimis constantly asking for daysoffwork.WhenJimasksthe nexttime, Franciswanls to tell himhe can't,andto emphasize his authority.

3

SallycomesfromBirmingham andhasa strongregional accent.She hasbeeninvitedfor an interview for a job at the BBC.Sa//ywants to panel,whosemembers makea goodimpression withthe interview speakRP.

4

AnnecomesfromYorkshire andspeaks witha localaccent,butnota verystrongone.Sheis involved in a minoraccident withGraham's carin London. Graham speaks RP.Graham herof driving accuses


89

UnitS - likea typical Thisinfuriates Anne; northerner inLondon! carelessly prong resents Graham's in the and think she was doesn't she rudeness. Task3 This activity is designed to encourage you to consider the stvle of the article. Write a short article for a popularnewspaperbasedon the information in the text. Use this headingfor your article:

POSHACCENT WORKS WONDERS Work with a partner andread eachother's article. Make a list of differencesbetween the stvle of vour article and that of the actual text.

2

Drama

Preparation Task 1

This activity is designed to activate your knowledge about the theme of the play you are going to read. Canyou tell what'social class'peoplein your country belongto from the way they speak?If so how? 'socialclass'from their In Britain it is possibleto tell a person's accent- to a certainextent at least. Use the knowledgeof Englishaccentsyou havegainedfrom Section1 to completethis table.

3

peoplespeakdifferently?What Do'educated'and'less-educated' are the main differencesvou havenoted?Fill in the table on the next page.


UnitS

90

Task 2 This activity is designed to encourageyou to make predictions about the play you are going to read. 1

You are goingto read a play calledEducatingRita. a Who do you think Rita might be? 'educated'? b In what way do you think shebecomes c What changesdo you think might take placein Rita as a result of becomingeducated? d Why do you think she might want to be educated? e Who do you think helps to educateher?

2

What kind of play do you think EducatingRita is likely to be?

D a atragedy b a tragi-comedy c a comedy

! !

Extensive reading Task I

This activity is designed to encourage you to form and test out a general impression. Educating Ritais a play abouta twenty-five-year-oldworking-class womancalledRita who decidesto becomeeducated.Sheenrolls on an OpenUniversity literature courseandattendsweekly tutorials with a university lecturer calledFrank, who is disillusionedandan alcoholic.The coursehas a dramaticeffect on both their lives. There are two extracts from the play for you to read. Extract One comesfrom the beginningof the play andExtract Two from near the end. Readthrough the extracts from EducatingRita quick|yin order to give generalanswersto the questionsbelow. Write down your answersafter you havefinishedreading. 1

In what ways doesRita change?

2

How doesFrank view thesechanges?


UnitS

ExtractOne death. . . Rita I readthispoemaboutfightin' .. . Thomas FrankAh- Dylan lt wasaboutthisoldmanwhorunsawayfrom McGough. Rita No.Roger inthestreet an'stands outontheale.Hegetspissed an'goes hospital 5 lt'sdeadgood. deathto comeoutan'fight. an'challengin' shoutin' pieceyoumean. . . FrankYes.I don'tthinkI knowtheactual Rita l'llbringy' thebook- it'sgreat. you. FrankThank won'tthinkit'sanygood. Rita Youprobably 10 FrankWhy? youcanunderstand. Rita lt'sthesortof poetry FrankAh.I see. Rita beginslookingidlyroundtheroom. a drink? FrankCanI offeryou 15 Rita Whatof? FrankScotch? withthatstuff,it kills becareful Y'wanna Rita(goingto thebookcase) y'brain cells. (Hegetsupandgoesto thesmalltable.l Frank Butyou'llhaveone? 20 probably mybrain. havea jobfindin' Rita Allright.lt'll Frank(pouring the drin ks)Water? Yeh,allright.(Shetakesa copyof Howards at thebookcase) Ri|a(looking thislike? What's Endfromtheshelf.l Frankgoesoverto Rita,/ooksat thetitleof thebookandthengoes 25 backtothedrinks. Endl Frank Howards it?E.M.Foster. doesn't filthy, Rita Yeh.lt sounds FrankForster. it like? Rita 0h yeh.What's 30 it.Readit. FrankBorrow packthe (She desk.l lf I moves backtowardsthe Rita Ta.l'lllookafterit. inl'llpostit to y'. course Frankcomesbackto thedeskwithdrinks. youdothat? herthemuglPackit in?Whyshould Frank(handing puts the copyof Howards 35 pufs the desk and herdrinkdownon Rita Endin herbag. it wasa softidea. I mightdecide Rita I justmight. (looking lf - erm- if you'realready at her)Mm.Cheers. Frank why it in', didyouenrolinthefirstplace? contemplating'packing 40 lwannarnow. Rita Because you know? wantto FrankWhatdo Rita Everything. wouldyouliketo a lot,isn'tit?Where rather That's FrankEverything? start? 45 won'tl? now,aren'tl?l'llhaveto doexams, Rita Well,I'ma student eventually. FrankYes,

91


92

Unit 5

50

55

60

65

70

Rita l'llhaveto learnaboutit all,won'l?Yeh.lt'slikey' sitthere,don'ty', watchin'the balletor theoperaonthetellyan'- an'y' callit rubbish costhat'swhatit lookslike?Cosy' don'tunderstand. Soy' switchit off an'say,that'sfuckin'rubbish. Frank Doyou? Rita I do.ButI don'twantto. I wannasee.Y' don'tmindmeswearin', do y'? Frank Notat all. Rita Doyouswear? Frank Neverstoo. Rita See,the educated classes knowit'sonlywords,don'tthey?lt'sonly the masses whodon'tunderstand. I do it to shockthemsometimes. - that'swhereI work- l'llsay Y' knowwhenI'minthehairdresser's s o m e t h i n ' l i k e , 'I0' m h r, e a l l y f u c k eyd' k' ,n o wd, e a dl o u dl.t d o e s n h' ta l f causea fuss. Frank Yes- I'msure. . . people, Rita Butit doesn'tcauseanysortof fusswitheducated doesit? Costheyknowit'sonlywordsandtheydon'tworry.Butthesestuck-up idiotsI meet,theythinkthey'reroyaltyjustcostheydon'tswear;an'I wouldn't mindbutit'sthearistocracy thatswears morethananyone, 'Pass isn'tit?They're effin'andblindin' alldaylong.lt'sall methefackin' grouse' withthem,isn'tit?Buty' can'ttellthemthatroundourway.lt's nottheirfault;theycan'thelpit.(Shegoesto thewindowandlooks ouf) Butsometimes I hatethem.God,what'sit liketo befree? Frank Ah.Nowthere'sa ouestion.

ExtractTwo Frank ls sittingat hisdeskmarkingan essay.)ccasionallyhe makesa tuttingsoundandscribblessomething.Thereis a knockat the door. Frank Comein. Rita enfers,closesthe door,goesto the deskand dumpsher bagon it. Shetakesher chairandplacesit nextto Frankand sitsdown. Rita (talkingin a peculiarrzoice) Hello,Frank. Frank(withoutlookingufl Hello.Rita,you'relate. Rita I know,Frank.I'mterriblysorry.lt wasunavoidable. Frank(looking up)Wasit really? What'swrongwithyourvoice? 1 0 Rita Nothing iswrongwith it,Frank. I havemerely decided to talk properly. AsTrishsaysthereis nota lot of pointin discussing beautiful literature in anuglyvoice. gotan uglyvoice;at leastyoudidn'thave.f Frank Youhaven't ak propeny. 1 5 Rita I amtalkingproperly. I haveto practise constantly, in everyday situations. Frank Youmeanyou'regoingto talklikethatfortherestof thistutorial? Rita Trishsaysthatno matterhowdifficultI mayfindit I mustpersevere. Frank Wellwillyoukindly tellTrishthatI amnotgiving a tutorial to a 20 Dalek? Rita I am nota Dalek.


UnitS RiIa,stoPit! Frank(appealingly) inorderthatI shall. I haveto persevere Rita ButFrank, Justbeyourself. FrankRita! (Shegetsupand 25 | ambeingmyself. to hernormalvoice) Rita(reverting movesthechairbackto itsusualplace.\ that? FrankWhat's Rita What? Frank0n yourback. 5U up)0h - tt'sgrass. Rita(reaching FrankGrass? down to somestudents talking Rita Yeh,I gothereearlytoday.I started (She onthelawn. slfsin herusualchair.l - downthere? to students FrankYouweretalking Frank. 3 5 I cantalknowy' know, sosurprised. Don'tsound R)ta(taughing) quite wary of them didn't Youused to be Welll FrankI'mnotsurprised. you? theydon'thalfcomeoutwithsome why.Forstudents Rita Godknows y' rubbish know. 40 me? telling FrankYou're place I was walking as got because to theminthefirst Rita I only talking LadyChatteiley pastI heardoneofthemsayin' asa novelhepreferred it,orI can ignore walkin'and keep andLovers.lthought,lcan to Sons 'Excuse put an' said, walked over puthimstraight. I himstraight. SoI youwerespoutin' about 45 rubbish helpoverhearin'the mebutI couldn't I said tryin'to Frank. faces on them, the seen Shoulda Lawrence'. isliketryin'tocompare SonsandLovers Chatterleywith compare thisheated isthere's The next thing winewithchampagne. sparkling it. middle of right in the withme discussion, asa 50 yousaidthestudent Chatterley, to 'prefer' claimed FrankI thought novel. Rita Hedid. it wassuperior. actually suggestingthat FrankSohewasn't He walked rightintoit . . . he did. first but then Rita Notat you 55 you Rita? off, did finished him FrankAndso just His argument idiot. for it. He was an was asking he Rita Frank, justme- everyone withme. elseagreed lt wasn't crumbled. Frankreturnsto readingtheessaY. to madonewiththem;I'veonlybeentalkin' wasthisreally Rita There withthemall 60 meto goabroad andhe'sinviting themforfiveminutes holidays, intheChristmas of France theSouth allgoin'to They're slummin'it. FrankYoucan'tgo. Rita What? gotyourexams. 65 FrankYoucan'tgo- you've arebefore Christmas. Rita Myexams gotyourresults to waitfor. . . FrankWell- you've goanyway. Rita Tch.I couldn't (Helooksat her.) Frank Why?

93


UnitS

94

70 Rita lt'sallrightfor them.Theycanjustjumpintoa bleedin'vanan'go away.ButI can't. He returns to the essay. Tigertheycallhim,he'sthe madone.Hisrealname's Tysonbutthey callhimTiger. 7 5 Frank(lookingup)ls thereanypointme goingon withthis?(Hepointsto the essay). Rita What? Frank lstheremuchpointin working towardsan examination if you're goingto fallin loveandsetofffor theSouthof . . . What!Fallin Love? Withwho?MyGod,Frank, I'vejust 80 Rita(shocked) I'veheardof matchmaking butthisis beentalkin'to somestudents. ridiculous. Frank Allright,butpleasestopburbling on aboutMrTyson. Rita I haven'tbeenburbling on. 85 He returns to the essay. What'sit like? Frank 0h - it - erm- wouldn'tlookoutof placewiththese. (Heplacesit on top of a pile of other essayson hisdesk.l Rita Honest? 90 Frank Deadhonest. Blackout. Frank exlfs.

Now read through the extracts a little more slowly. Try to find evidencefrom the extracts for your answers.You may feel you want to changeyour initial answers. Hold a classdiscussionbasedon your answersto the two questions. Intensive reading Task 1

This activity encouragesyou to interpret the evidence in the extracts relating to Rita's development. 1

Variousauthorsandbooksare mentionedin the two extracts. Completethis tableaboutthem.

Rita's opinion Extract One


95

UnitS

a How do Rita's views aboutwriters change? S/hat doesthis reveal abouther development? b What evidenceis there that Rita feels very insecurein Extract One? What evidenceis there to suggestthat she feelsmuch more confidentin Extract Two? What explanationcanyou suggestfor this change? In Extract One Rita says7 wanna see'(L.52). What exactly is it that shewantsto see? In Extract Two she says7 can talk nou)'yknow' (L.35). What doesshemeanby this? What do these two quotationsshow aboutthe changethat has taken placein Rita?

Task 2

The aim of this activity is to enable you to interpret the text by analyzing the way the characters speak. I

Comparethe way Rita speaksin Extract Onewith the way she speaksat the beginningof Extract Two (L. I to 23), andcomplete this table.

Featureof Rita's speech

ExtractTwo

dialectused accentused level of formality a b c d 2

Why does Rita changethe way she speaks? What is this changemeantto show us aboutRita? Why doesn'tFrank like the change? Why do you think Rita abandonsher new way of speaking?

Make a list of all the colloquialexpressionsthat Rita usesin Extract One, such as,'goesout on theale'. Give the formal, standardEnglishequivalentof eachexpression. Now do the samefor Extract Two.


UnitS

96

Which extract hasmore colloquialexpressions?What doesthis indicateabout Rita? 3

Now study the way Frank speaks.Fill in the tablebelow.

Featureof Frank's speech

Extract Two

dialectused accentused Ievel of formality a b c d

How doesFrank's way of speakingdiffer from Rita's? What is this meant to tell us aboutthe two characters? To what extent do you think Frank changesthe way he speaks? 'Dead Extract Two endswith Frank saylng honesf. Whichway of speakingis this an exampleof2 What does this indicateaboutFrank's attitude towards Rita?

Extension Task 1

This activity encouragesyou to think about the theme of EducatingRita and,how you respond to the two characters. I

Either a Imaginethat you are Frank. Write a brief charactersketchof Rita. or b Imaginethat you are Rita andwrite a brief charactersketch of Frank. Find a student who choseto write aboutthe other character. Readyour descriptionto your partner andthen discussit. Make suggestionsabouthow your partner couldimprove his/ her charactersketch. Do you think that Frank completelyapprovesof Rita's 'education'? Givereasonsfor your answer. To what extent do you think Rita has become'truly educated'? What do you think the author, Willy Russell,thinks a'true education'consistsof? How do you think the play ends?


UnitS

3

Review activities

Task 1 In this activity you will review the points that Howard Giles makes about the way we change how we speak and relate them to the use of language by the two characters in EducatingRita. 1

Readthrough the article Our reactionsto accentonpages83 and 86 againand checkthat you know what the followingrefer to: o zcc€fltrePertoire o f€Spolls€matching . upward and downwardconvergence . upward and downwarddivergence

2

What'accentrepertoire'doRita andFrank eachhave?

3

ReadExtract One of.EducatingRita again.What evidenceis there of any convergenceor divergenceon Rita's part? What motivatesthis? To what extent doesFrank convergeor diverge?

4

Now reread Extract Two of EducatingRita. Does Rita converge or diverge?Does Frank convergeor diverge?What explanation canyou give for the way they use language? 'responsematching'increasefrom Extract To what extent does One to Extract Two? What do you think this is meantto show aboutthe relationshipbetween the two characters?

5

Task 2

In this activity you will discuss some of the issues raised by the reading passagesin this unit. Why do you think that most countrieshave different accentsand dialectswithin their language? Do you think that someaccentsanddialectsare better than others?Why?

3 What do you think is meant by the term'linguistic snobbery'? 4 Imaginethat you are a teacherin a British schoolwhere most of the childrenspeaka regionaldialectwith a regionalaccent,like Rita. Work with a partner and discusswhether you would: a simply acceptthe way the childrenspeak(i'e. let them calry on speakingas they do)? b try to changethe way they speak.If so, what would you want to changeandhow would you try to do it? Or perhapsyou have someother idea.

97


1 Advice Preparation Task 1

In this task you will be asked to think about the different ways of expressing disagreement in English?

Arguing

Think of different ways of disagreeingwith the followingstatements, markedA. For eachof your expressionsof disagreement say what situationalfactors would make it appropriate. For exantple:A 'l don'tthinkl'llbotherto go to thatmeeting. She's notgoingto turnup,is she?' B 'Oh.I'mfairlyconfident shewill,MrsHunt.' Appropriate in a semi-formal situation in whichA is in a position of authority overB (A mightbethe manager andB herassistant). . A 'This car is a goodbargain.'

B . A 'Futre'sgoingto be a better playerthanMaradonna.' B


99

Unit6 . A 'The poll suggeststhat the Tories will score an overwhelmingvictory at the next generalelection.' 8 . " . . . . . A 'Green King Abbot is the best strong beer in England.' 8 . . . . . . . A 'I think we'll stay at home. It's goingto rain.' B . . . . . . 2

Completethe followingtable exemplifyingdifferent ways of arguing.

Statement 'You

could'veasked me to help.'

'Sure.Like whenI neededmoneyfor therent.'

'All

Formal meeting betweentwo new businesspartners.

the signs indicate an imminentincrease in the oil price.' 'I think we'll go to Majorcaagainthis year.' 'This is a nice dress,

Married couple.

Mother buyrng teenagedaughtera dressfor a party.

dear.' 'No

way; I usedto live there.' 'I'm not entirely

Acquaintancestalking in a pub.

sure I agree.' 'You couldbe right. But.. .' 'Greatidea! Who the hell's going to pay for it?' 3

The followingtable is taken from a book intendedto help advancedstudentsof Englishas a foreign language. a Evaluatethe table as a learningaid. Is it clearly organizedandpresented? fue the examplesuseful? Does it provide enoughinformation? Is the informationvalid? Is there anythingimportant missing?


Unit6

100 Expressing disagreement I disagreeentirely. I wouldn't go alongwith you - on that - there.

Stronger

You can'tbe serious.

J Inf

Youmust be joking. How on earth canyou say sucha thing? I'm not really sure if I'd go alongwith you - on that. - there.

Weaker

I'm inclinedto disagreewith that.

J lnf

I'm not sureyou'reright there. That's a little far-fetched,isn't it?

b How would you make use of this table (or an adaptationof it) in a textbook for advancedstudentsof Englishas a foreign language? c Adapt the samebasicframework to provide a more detailed descriptionof ways of expressingdisagreementin English. 4

How doesyour own languagediffer from Englishin the way it expressesdegreesandtypes ofdisagreement? Doesit. . . o makeuse of sarcasm:e.g.' Greatidea!Who'sgoingtopayfor it?' . haveshort utterancesfor strongdisagreement: e.g., 'Nonsense!' . havelonger utterancesfor more tentative disagreement:e.g. , 'I'm not entirelysure thatI completely agreewithyou.' . often not signalthe disagreementovertly at all: e.g., 'If ll beten o'clochwhenwegetthere."Eleaen.' Extensive reading Task I

In this task you will be asked to interact with the writer of a passage about ways of arguing. 1

Readthe passageon the next pageandas you readit'talk'to the writer. Express any doubtsor disagreementsyou have andask questionsaboutpoints which are not clear.


101

Unit6 Your Way whoblurtsoutan Nobody cunning. requires disagreement Successful naivety Suchcandid an argument. wins ever retort honest and immediate potential alienating and speaker the in antagonising onlysucceeds Whatis intheconversation. anyotherparticipants amongst supporters hasto be arguer A successful deception. and all is stealth above reouired actor. a convincing whatisit we to winanargument. whatit means Butfirstletusconsider anddefeat belittle to we trying Are we argue? when achieve to aretrying and our courage with an audience impress to trying Are we ouropponent? by catharsis somesortofemotive Arewetryingto achieve integrity? overto ourside,to 0r arewetryingto winpeople ourspleen? venting | would support? their and to enlist views to our others the convert 'Listen themessage, to me'I'm whocommunicates thatanyone suggest thinkandI feela lotbetterfor thanyou.ThisiswhatI really cleverer andshallow at besta verycheap so'canonlyhopeto achieve saying buthewilllosesupport' to wintheargument Hemightappear victory. forhisviews, to win.Support trying thatheissurely Andit issupport that lt isnottheargument forhisreputation. actions, forhisproposed inthe after.lt iswhattheotherparticipants butwhatcomes counts lt isthe matters. thatreally feel,thinkanddoafterwards argument thatiswhat to yourimage argument of eachvictorious contribution youneedto obeythe winarguments Toreally isallabout. arguing rules. following Rule I

Don'tSnap.Thinklnstead. response. giveanimmediate, unthinking Never most your first andtherefore buytimeto thinkout Always resPonse. important Usethefollowing PloYs: to seekclarification. a Pretend 'Do e . g . , Y o um e a tnh a t' ' . . . . ? ' ' Y o ua r es a Y i nt hga t. . . . . . ? ' to continue. thespeaker b Encourage 'That's Goon" interesting. e.g.,

intended to silence thoughtful witha respectful, c Respond to continue. thespeaker encourage timebut notonlybuysyouthinking to continue thespeaker NB Getting thepoint. over-repeating intoover-emphastzing, oftentrapshim/her Rufe 2 Don'tShout.TalkQuietlY. whenprovoked. especially shoutatyouropponent, Never give of beingrespectful quietly impression the to talk Always andrational. Review. Rufe 3 Don'tDestroY. youropponents totally. destroy Never


102

Unit6 positive. leavethemwithsomething Always 'l likeyourideaforthecurtains e.g., butI'mnotsosureabout thefurniture.' youropponents' proposing your arguments Review before own. BePositive. Rule 4 Don'tNegate. justattack youropponents' Never arguments. positive alternatives Always suggest andpreferably potential alternatives benefit to allthoseconcerned. of e.g.,x 'That's a sillyidea.' 'Thatwouldgiveyoua smallprofitbutI'msureyou uz wouldmakemorebyinvesting themoney ina building society.' Rule 5 Don'tGetUpset. Be'0bjective'. Never risklosing control bybecoming involved in emotionally anargument. - especially Always tryto appear objective andbalanced if youropponent loses control. Rule 6 Don'tDominate. Be'Fai/. youropponents Never riskannoying andanyobservers bynot people letting other haveanequalshare oftheargument. yousupport Always appear to bewilling Thisgains to listen. your andoftentraps opponents intoweakening theirown arguments withexaggeration andover-repetition. Rule 7 Don'tBeAbstract. BeSpecific. justofferabstract Never ideas. giveconcrete Always examples oftheactual or potential results ofyourideas. Rufe 8 Don'tBeArrogant. BeModest. givetheimpression Never thatyouareconvinced ofyourown (especially whenyouare). superiority givetheimpression Always thatyouarerightbutnotsuperior. Rule 9 Don'tBeTentative. BeDefinite. givetheimpression Never thatyouarenotsurewhatyou think. Always appear confident inyourconsidered views. Rule10 NeverStartAnArgument. AlwaysRespond. provoke yourpotential Never opponents andanyobservers by starting theattack. Always trapthemintomaking thefirstmoveandrisking making thefirstmistake. youwillinsist e.9.,x 'l suppose onthatawfulloudmusic again fortheparty.' 'Anyideasaboutmusic fortheparty?' /


Unit6 Havethe LastWord. Rufe 11 Don'tWithdraw. Theymightthink endtheargument. letyouropponents Never youhavegivenin. way. andendit ina positive endtheargument Always BeRight. Rufe 12 Don'tBe Wrong. whenyouarenotsureofyour takepartinanargument Never vrews. youenteran waituntilyouaresureyouarerightbefore Always argument. MakeSmallConcessions. Rufe 13 Don'tBeAbsolute. insistonyoubeing totallyrightandyouropponent. Never totallywrong. a fewminorpoints to youropponent. Always concede Rule14 Don'tLose.Win. ofwinning it. ifyouarenotconfident enteranargument Never untilyouare inanargument Always delayyourcontribution Always stickto yourmainviewsduring confident ofsuccess. (even ifyouthenchange themprivately). theargument it isthewayyouexpress it. thatcounts; it isnotthemessage Remember not enough. Tactics win mighthelpbuttheyare Truthandwisdom thought. Soobey constant andcalculated andtheyrequire arguments mostofallthefinalrule: Rufe15 Don'tFeeLThink.

2 Workin pairswith onestudentbeingA andtheotherB. A should readthepassage againcarefullyandprepareto representthe againandprepare B shouldreadthepassage of the writer. views points made by the writer. against the to argue anddefend A shouldthenpresentthepointsmadein thepassage of B. themagainstthe disagreements Intensive reading Task I In this task you will be asked to analyze how the writer of Your Wayl:.asconstructed the passage to try to persuade the reader to agree with the points presented. 1 Readthe passageagainandfind examplesof the following: a rhetorical questions b symmetry c statementplus reinforcementof the statement d absolutestatement

103


Unit6

104

e tentative statement f highlighting e statementplus explanationof statement h statementnot followedby exemplification,explanationor reinforcement For eachexamplesay what the writer is trying to achieve. 2

Completethis analysisof the first and secondparagraphs.

Utterance

Statementof view

2

Purpose

Speechact

. Command attention . Surprise . Makeimpact

Reinforcement Explanation . Concisesunmary of mainpoint

4

6

a a

I

Get reader to thinl< Preparereaderto receivean answer

Rhetorical question

8 I

Why doesthe writer: a expresshis ideasin the form of rules? 'NeuerlAlways'approach in expressingeach b followthe same rule? c end with Rule 15? What doesthe writer meanby: 'cunning'? a b'stealth'?


105

Unit6 'uenting our sPleen'? c 'a d cheapand shallowuictory'? 'reputation'? e 'to f seekclarification'? g'reuiew'.? h'concede'? 5

Write a criticism of the passageunder the followingheadings: Content Saywhat you agreewith and what you disagreewith' Expression Saywhat you Iike andwhat you do not like aboutthe way the writer expresseshis views.

Extension Task 1

In this task you will be asked to rewrite the passage in two different ways. I

Rewrite the passageso that it becomesa concise,one paragraph summaryof adviceto intermediatelevel studentson how to disagreein English.You canchange,addand omit points and changethe style in any way you feel is appropriate'

2

Rewrite the passageso that it reflects your own views on the objectivesandtacticsof disagreement.

2

People arguing

Preparation

In this task you will be asked to review your opinions about why and how arguments take place. I

Think aboutthe situationsin which peopleargueandthen addto the followinglists so that they serve as a summaryof the features of typical arguments. Arguments Typicalparticipants

Typicalreasons

Sister and brother Husbandandwife

To changeviews Anger Misunderstanding Toinfluenceaction

Tgical objectiues


Unit6

106 2

Think of the different tacticspeopleuse to try to win arguments andthen completethe list below. Tactics a Quoting'facts' b Quotingexperts c Sarcasm d Irony e Abuse f

s......

Examples 'The label saysit's purple.' 'The guide saidit was built

:'1.1

'Nobody would ever vote for you again.' 'I'm tellingyou; I wasn'teven there.'

Extensive reading Task I I

\\\\i!

In this task you will be asked to respond to the content and tactics of an argument between a woman and her brother. Readthe followingargumentbetweena womanandher brother, from Fools and OtherStoriesby NjabuloNdebele.As you read it, try to identify the critical points in the argument.Work out the reasonsand objectivesof their argumentand think aboutthe tactics they use to try to win the argument. 'Fancy!' 'Just Mothershouts. fancya bigmanlikeyou.A wholegrownWhereisyourself-respect?' upfightingin the streets. quietly. Heeatshissupper Uncledoesnotanswer. 'Just fancy!Whata disgrace! TodayI askedfor a specialday'sleave fromtheclinicsothatI canspendthisFriday, thewholeof it,withmy brother. Andwhatdoeshe do?Hegetsup as if hewasin a hoteland disappears. Look!'Mothergetsupfromthetableandopensthecanopy I of thestove.'Look! Hereisyourlunch.Hereis myday'sgoodcooking. thoughtI wouldsitthewholedaywithmychild's uncleandtalkandbe what'smy reward? Disgrace. Whatwillthepeople say?lt'sthe 1 0 happy.And wereyou brotherof the nurse,theymustbe saying. Andwhatexample beingto thismshanaof yours?' 'Sisl'says 'What Uncle. wasdonehadto be done.' 'You meanI hadto be disgraced? Fancyl' l 5 I amthinking thatit wasnotrightwhatUncledidto Nzule. AndI am wondering wherehe is now.I amwondering whathewilldo to uswhen Uncleisgone.lt wasnotright.ButI don'tsayanything. 'Well.' 'Just saysUncle. cometo thinkof it,a littledisgrace oncein a whileis in order.0r elseyou'llforgetwhatdisgrace islike.That'showyou You 2 0 learnto keepyournamerespected. Bybeingdisgraced somewhat.


Unit6 putsfoodintohismouthandlickshis mustbetestedallthetime.'Uncle fingers. 'What 'Listen This doesheknowaboutrespect? to him,'saysMother. meabout hisnappies, andheisteaching I changed childofyesterday. 25 ifyou theuseof beinginthepapers respect. Letmeaskyou:what's Whatdoyouknowaboutrespect?' maintain self-respect? cannot 'Asfor mymshana, helearnta lot.I taughthimthatinthisworldone andthatwhenonedoesfightonemustdoit very hasto fightsometimes, well.' 'Didyousee,mshanai toomuchof 30 Didyouseehowa manwhothinks Didyou man? Hewastoosureof hrssuperiority. himself isa defeated people, I andimpressing dancing thatcorner Whenhecameround see? andknowhim mshana, enemy, man.Studyyour knewhewasa defeated aretheweakness of ofsuperiority andthefeeling well.Self-righteousness of 35 themwiththesimplest lf youknowthat,youcandefeat thepowerful. things.' 'Don'tsaysuchthings to thechild.' 'He'sa man.' I am somemeatandgravy. myfoodandmixingpapawlth l'mfingering 40 at Uncle ashetalksto me.Whydoeshelookat me?Why notlooking lookat him.Mother at Mother. I cannot belooking me?Heshould address her;thatI to him.She'll thinkI amnotrespecting willthinkI amlistening Wearequietfora while. sides. amtaking 'Andthenwashthedishes.' 'Eatquickly,' to me. saysMother 'l willhelpyou,mshana,'says 45 Uncle. 'l amliving 'Youwilldonosuchthing,' withthischildand saysMother. learnto carryhisownresponsibilities.' heshould 'Andafterhelping youwiththedishes to cleanupour wearegoing andthenhavea goodbathafterwards.' bedroom 'Atnine? 50 Solateat night?' 'Theroommustbeclean, andwemustbeclean.' 'surely At nine? Atnight?' it couldwaitfortomorrow. 'Atanytimeofthenight!' 'Thatboymustbetired.Hemustgoto bednow!' 'He'sa man.' 55 'Thatthereismysonl' '0-o-o! overhim.' responsibility WhenI amhere,I havecomplete 'Since whenhaveyoubeensoresponsible?' 'Evenifyouchanged once,I amthatboy'suncle.' mynappies 'Here's 60 'Ohyou!'exclaims putting a bottleinfrontof Uncle. Mother likedit.See,it'sstillinthehoneycomb. always I knowyou've somehoney, wifeyesterday.' Gotit fromthepriest's 'Doyouremember withhimfora wholeSunday?' whenI disappeared 'Onlya foolcouldremind assheleaves meofthatday,'saysMother 65 hercupoftea.Sheissmiling. carrying thekitchen at me. winks Uncle

107


108

Unit6 Answer the followingquestionsaboutthe argument. Why is Mother so annoyedby what her brother did to Nzule? What do you think Uncle really feels aboutwhat he did to Nzule? What do you think Mother hopesto achieveby arguingwith her brother? 4 Why do you think Uncle defendshimselfso stubbornly? 5 What do you think Uncle actuallydid? 6 Why do you think Mother alwaysrefers to her son as a boy whilst Uncle alwaysrefers to him as a man? 7 Who do you think wins the argument?Give your reasons.

1 2 3

Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to analyze in depth the tactics in the argument. 'fancy'in line 1? What is the force of the repetition of 'whole'in line 1? Whatis the force of Does Mother expect an answerto her questionin line 2? Why doessheaskit? d Why doesUnclenot answer(L.3)? e Why doesMother use the word'special'nlne 4? What is Mother accusingUncle of in lines 4 to 12? f g What do her words tell you abouther character? h Do you think Uncle believesin the logic of his argumentin lines18 to 22?Why do you think he usesit? i What is Mother implyingin lines 23 to 26? j Why does Uncle addresshis mshanainsteadof his sister? k Why doesUncle offer to help his mshanawith the dishes L.4il? Why doeshis sister refuse his offer? I What is Mother implyingin line 58? m What doesthe exclamation'Oh,you!' signalinline 60? n Why does Uncle remind Mother of the day he disappeared ' with his mshanafor a wholeSunday'(L. 63)? o Why doesMother smile? p Why doesUncle wink?

1 a b c


109

Unit6 2

Try to completethe followinganalysisof the argument.

Objectiue(s)

Utterance

1 Mlineslto2

2 M lines4tol2

. exclamations . exaggeration . rhetorical questions . repeated exclamations . narrative . question/answer . exaggeration o rhetorical question

a a a

a

a

a

ridicule to expressanger to make U feel ashamed to show determination to make him feel ashamed to show how hurt she is and to make him feel guilty

3 U line 13 4 M line 14 5 U lines9to22 6 M lines27 to29 7 U lines30 to 36 8 M line37 9 U line 38

3 Summarizethe mainfeatures of both Mother's andUncle's styles of argumentand commenton their effectiveness'

4 Rewrite lines 1 to 12 with Mother usinggentler, more subtle tactics to try to make her brother feel ashamedand admit that he was wrong.


Unit6

110 Preparation Task 1

In this task you are going to imagine yourself in a difficult, irritating situation, and to predict how you would react. Imagine that you are Professor Vinnie Miner, a fifty-four-year-old American woman who is in London to research rhymes for her forthcoming book. On the plane from America you sat next to 'an engineerfrom Tulsa specializingin wasteChuckMumpson, disposalsystems . . . married with two grown children . . . and three grandchildren. . . and on a two-week SunTour of England.' It is now late at night and you have received an unexpected visit from ChuckMumpsonwho is anxiousto tell you abouthis abortive visit to Wiltshire to searchfor his reputedly aristocratic ancestors. You listen patiently to his long story but becomeirritated when he becomespathetically worried about how his wife and her family will mock him when he returns to Tulsa. You want to help Chuckbut you alsowant to expressyour annoyancewith him and to get rid of him so that you can go to bed. What would you say to him? Form pairs and discusswhat eachof you hasdecidedyou would say to Chuck. Still in pairs, complete the following sentencesspoken by Vinnie to Chuck. a ' A l l r i g h t t h e n , d o n ' t .. . . . . ' b ' L i e d o w n i n . . . . . .a n d l e t a b u s . . . . . . ' c'Onlystopbeing......' 'But course, it's none of . . . . . .' d of b u t i t ' s v e r y .. . . . . a n d l h a v e t o e'Ididn'tmeanto ......, Extensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to compare your predictions with what Vinnie Miner actually said. I

Readthe followingargumentbetweenVinnieMiner andChuck by AlisonLurie,andasyouread Mumpson,fuomForeignAffairs with yourpredictions. compareher wordsandbehaviour


Unit6 'All

Vinniesays,losingher right then, don't show a little initiative,' 'Lie you if youwantto. run over let a bus and in the street down temper. yourself.' for so damn sorry being 0nly stop Chuck'ssquare,heavyjaw falls;he staresat her dumbly. 'A 'l meanfor God'ssake.'She is breathinghard,suddenlyenraged. Americanmale,withgoodhealth,and no obligations, whiteAnglo-Saxon and free time than you knowwhatto do with.Most money more and peoplein theworldwouldkillto be in yourshoes.Butyou'reso stupidyou don'tevenknowhowto enjoyyourselfin London.' 'Yeh? Chucksoundsangrynowas wellas hurt,but Likefor instance?' Vinniecannotstop herself. 'staying and eatingtheir in that awfultouristhotel,likefor instance, going when thetownis full American musicals; ersatz and to food, terrible you every night.' Garden be at Covent could and restaurants, fine of onlygapes. Chuckdoesnot respond, 'But she addsin a lowertone, of courseit's noneof my business,' 'l at herself. didn'tmeanto shoutat you,but it'sverylate,and astonished I haveto get up earlytomorrowandvisita schoolin Kennington.' 'Yeh. right.'Chucklooksat his watch,then standsup slowly;his All 'Okay, I'm going.Thanksfor Professor, manneris injured,stuffy,formal. the drink.' 'You'rewelcome.'Vinniecannotbringherselfto apologize furtherto Sheshowshim out,washeshisglassand herteacup ChuckMumpson. and climbs and setsthem to dry,getsbackinto herflannelnightgown, that it is ten minutespasttwelve. into bed,notingwith disapproval 2

With your partner discussthe similaritiesand differences between your predictionsand the text.

Task 2

In this task you will be asked to work out the attitudes of Vinnie and Chuck to each other and to predict the development of their relationship. 1 Which of the followingstatementsdo you think describeVinnie's feelingstowards Chuck? ! a Sheis in love with him ! b Shedespiseshim ! c She dislikeshim but wants to help him D d Shehas no strong feelingstowards him at all ! e Shefinds him irritating but interesting f Sheis furiouswith him for disturbingher so late at night ! g Sheis attractedto him but doesn'twant him to know !

111


112

Unit6 Write a sentenceof your own describingVinnie'sfeelingstowards Chuck. 2

What do you think Chuckthinks aboutVinnie? Why doeshe decideto leave?

3

Write the following: a a note from Vinnie to Chuckapologizingfor her behaviour b a note from Chuckto Vinnie apologizingfor his behaviour c an extract from another scenewhen ChuckandVinnie next meet

Intensive reading Task 1

In this task you will be asked to look more closely at the strategies used by Vinnie and Chuck in their argument. I

Ct'rticizeeachof the followinglists as an analysisof Vinnie's sequenceof strategiesin her argumentwith Chuck. a

lcommand b 2 opinion 3 description 4 explanation

ladvice c 2 anger 3 opinion 4 insult 5 accusation 6 suggestion 7 irony 8 excuse

lsarcasm 2 accusation 3 exclamation 4 exaggerated accusation 5 exemplification 6 distance 7 apology 8 escape

2

Why does Chuck a stare at Vinnie dumbly? b becomeangryandhurt? c gapeat Vinnie? d look at his watch? 'Professor'? e refer to Vinnie as

3

Which of Vinnie's strategiesdo you think are calculatedandwhich do you think are spontaneous?Give reasons.

4

Imagineyou are Vinnie andthat you are thinkingaboutthe argumentafter Chuckhas left. How much of what you saidare you pleasedwith andwhat do you regret? Write a short dialoguein which you report your argumentwith Chuckto a friend.

5

Rewrite the extract as a scenefrom a play, andeither: a makeVinnie muchmore restrainedand constructivein her commentsand advice,or


113

Unit6 b make Chuckmuchmore aggressiveand self-justifyingin his responses. Preparation Task 1

In this task you will be asked to predict the continuation of an argument and to work out the nature and objectives of the participants. 1

Who do you think the followingconversationis between? 'Would youlikea littlelunch?' 'No, nothungrY.' l'm 'l couldfixyoubreakfast.' 'l just saidI'mnothungrY.' 'What's wrong?' 'Nothing iswrong.' 'Areyousure?' What doesthe conversationtell us aboutthe two people? How do you think the conversationwill continue?

2

Daysby Garrison Readthe followingextractftomLaheWobegon Keillor to find out if you were right in 1 aboveandto discover more aboutthe two peopleandtheir argument.As you read decidewhose side you are on andwhy.

LakeWobegonDays for weeks boywhohasbeenup untiltwo tnthe morning TheTollefson getting graduation glow the and of in the readingbooks,is stillbasking mother, (a His scholarship). Award Star $200 Sonsof KnuteShining too,andthat'swhy,whenshecomesup behind isstillbasking, Frances, 'Still andsaysgently, inyour ontheshoulder himlightly him,shetouches pajamas, Johnny?'. 'The to your as if shewerea snake.Hesighs. answer Heflinches pajamas I'm in them.' yes. and my are questions, These is Mother, 'Would youlikea littlelunch?' 'No, nothungry.' I'm 'l couldfixyou'breakfast.' 'l just saidI'mnothungry.' 'What's wrong? 'Nothing iswrong.' 'Areyousure?' withhertherebehindhim.Hewalksoverto He'scornered Hesighs. porchswingand downin it.lt'shard slouches bythe chair the browncane you untilyoubalance you're down have to ease get tall, if comfortable to Hefindsthe the coccyx. notches above particular a few vertebra on a blueeyeson his sad puts sets on the swing, feet up his bonehewants, leavehim she would wishes street, and the house across the Krebsbach


114

Unit6 youaround Whyisit thepeople whofollow what's wrong are alone. asking theoneswhowouldn't knowifyoutoldthem? What's wrongisthis- andit isn'tthisexactly, thisisonlyonethingof planthatattwoo'clock many it'shismother's theypickuphisgrandma andAuntMaryandhisuncleSenator K.Thorvaldson, andthewhole motleybunchdriveto St.Cloudto seehimregister at St.CloudState forfallquarter. College Summer 'lt'sonlyregistration! lt'slikegetting a driver's license! lt takesten minutes! What's thebigdeal?' hesaidto herthreedaysagowhenshe announced thisidea. 'l thought you'dbepleased. They're soproudofyou.Theywantto be there.' Howdoyoutellyourmother thatthere's something funnyaboutyour Theytalkfunny, in oldrelatives? andtheylookfunny. lt'slessnoticeable LakeWobegon, butputthemina bigcitylikeSt.Cloudandeverybody around theirneckthatsay'Hick'. People inSt. seesit,liketheyhavesigns havesomeshine intheirclothes as Cloud to themandlookcomfortable goingabouttheirbusiness affairs, andif theystrollalongSt.Germaine, youasked oneofthemfordirections to a goodrestaurant, they'dtellyou that,buthisoldrelatives dressuplikescarecrows, Uncle Senator wears bagryblackpantsandanoldwhiteshirtbuttoned upto theneckandno kangaroo andifyouasked himfordirections he'd tieandhightop shoes, giveyouthestoryof hislife. gonearound Forthreedaysthey've andaround. 'Whydon'tyouandthemgoregister? Youdon'tneedme.' '0h,Johnny, it'ssucha littlething.' 'lf it'ssolittle,howcometheyhaveto go?' 'l can'ttellthemtheycan'tcomenow,they'dbesohurt.' 'Well, youshould've thought ofthatwhenyouinvited them.' Hisdadsaid,'lfwe'renotgoodenough to beseenwithyouinpublic, thenmaybeit'stimeyoustartedpacking.' 'l don'tseewhatthathasto dowiththefactthatI amperfectly capable going to St. Cloud without taking my whole family along.' of 'There's a lotyoudon'tseeandI doubtifyoueverwill.' Extensive reading Task 1 In this task you will be asked to act out the scene frorn Lake Wobegon Days and to write a further scene yourselves. In groups of four practiceactingout the scene(with one of you as director). Add somedialogueof your own at the end of the scene. Join anothergroup of four studentsandwatch eachother performingyour scenes.Discussany ffierence of interpretation.


115

Unit6

3

Write a scenefrom a play in whichJohnnyis reporting the discussionwith his mother andfather to a friend.

Intensive reading Task I

In this task you will be asked to'read between the lines'to find out what the characters really mean and intend by what they say. What is his mother implyrng when she says'Still in your pajamas, tohnny?'? Why do you think so many of the family want to seeJohnny register at St. CloudState College? 'wholemotleybunch'to Why do you thinkJohnnydoesn'twant the see him register? 'signs around their Why doesJohnny refer to his family as having '? nechthat say'Hick' 'If 5 What doesJohnny'smother meanby s sucha little thing:? 'There's a lotyou d.on'tseeand I doubtif you 6 Who do you think says euerwill'? What do you think is meantby it? What tacticsare usedin the argumentby: . Johnny . his mother . his father

3

Review activities In these tasks you will be asked to relate and use the knowledge you have gained in this unit about arguments.

Task 1 1

Whichof the 15 Rulesin Your Way(page101)are followedand which are broken in the three argumentsyou havereadin Section2. Do you think any of the participants would have gainedfrom followingmore of the 15 Rules?Which?

2

The first argument in Section 2 takes place in South Africa, the secondin London (between two Americans) and the third in America. Which differences in tactics do you think are attributable to cultural differences?Would these argumentshave beenvery ffierent in your country?


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Unit6 Task 2 Do one of the following: I Use the 'arguments'you haveread in this unit to help you to write a scenefrom a play or novel which featuresan argumentbetween one of the followingpairs: o a married man andhis youngmistress . a teacherand a student . a priest and a member of the congregation . the managerof a footballteam and one of his star players . the director of a film and the star of the filrn 2

Write a magazinearticle on how to win an argument in English. Try to make the article both informativeandamusing.


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TEACHER'SGUIDE

This Teacher's guide provides suggestions about how to use the tasks in each unit and detailed answers to the 'open' and so do not questions. Many of the questions are provided, The answers answers. correct have single, therefore, are not definitive and teachers should be prepared to accept alternative answers in many instances, providing they can be justified.

UNIT 1 1 Argument rr in thissection Therearealargenumberof questions Youwill orderto providea verythorough'text-attack'.

needseverallessonsto completeall the questions.One possibleteachingschemeis: iue Lesson7 (1 hour):The tasksin P reparationandE tctens reading Lesson2 (1 hour): T askI in I ntensiaereading Task2inlntensiuereading Self-study: Lesson 3 (1 hour): T ask3 in I ntensiue readingandlhe tasksntExtension Preparation Task 1 If you are teachinga mixedclass,do this activitywith pairs drawout ofthe samesex. Then, in the classdiscussion anydifferencesin opinionsbetweenmalesandfemales. Allow the discussionto continuewithout'ruling'whois right or who is wrong. Pointout that we all tendto have preconceptions aboutthe kindsof differencesin the way menandwomenuselanguage.Tell the studentsthat many listedin the tableare covered of the pointsof comparison in the passageandthat they will havea chanceto evaluate their answerswhenthey readit. Task 2 The answeris d. Encouragethe studentsto justify their choiceandtheir rejectionof the other choicesby referring to specificquotations. Extensive reading Task 1 Make surethe studentsare clearaboulthe taskbefore they start to read.Discussthe kindsof strategiesneeded to skimeffectively:for an example,readingthe first and lastlinesof eachparagraphto identifythe topicsdealt with. Answers: 1 L. 1 to L.93 2L.94toL.275 3L.276to L.399

Task 2 Ask the studentsto write downanswersto the two questionsbeforethey get into groups.Then let them compareanswersin groups,referringbackto the passage if they needto sort out anydifferences.Checkthe answersin classdiscussion,askingthe studentsto justify their choices. Note The questionshavebeenframedto haveno clear singleanswer.They should,therefore,stimulate argument.For 1, a is probablybest; b doesnot c andd dealwith onlypart of mention'language'; the content.For 2, cis perhapsbest, althougha casecouldbe madefor a andb. Intensive reading Task 1 Make surethat the studentsknow whichsectionof the text to readto do this task. Work throughthe questions oneat a time. They areintendedto buildup an in a systematic of how the topicis orgaruzed, understanding fashion. 1 Do thesequestionsorallywith all the students. Answers: 'fixedbeliefs'. b The generalideais 'the needto c The viewpointmightbe describedas aboutmale/female challengefalseassumptions language'. d They arekey wordsbecausethe wholepurposeof the text is to makepeoplerethinktheir assumptions. e Someof the mlths mentionedare: are o malesare seriousandtaciturnspeakers/females gossipyandgamrlous o femalesusemoretrivial words . femalesstoptalkingin mid-sentence r femalestalk aboutthe samethingsover andover

2

3

agaln . pitch differences are the result of anatomical differences The diagram is based on the second paragraph. Ask the students to read the paragraph and to relate the sentences in it to the different parts of the diagram. When they have finished, ask them to close their books and try to give an oral summary. Ask the students to write their answers individually. Check them orally. Answers: a Research has challengedthe preconceptions. b The preconceptions have had to be discarded because the research has not been able to produce any evidence to support them.


Teacher'sguide

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4

These questionscanbe done inpairs. Answers: 'Pitch' provides a an example of a difference that is in the beholder rather than in the language. b The preconception is that males are meant to talk in low-pitched voices and females in high-pitched volces. c The true cause of male/female pitch differences is social,i.e., there are'penalties'.

Study 2

d The evidence includes: . no anatomicaldifferences o pitch in males varies from country to country depending upon'gender differentiation' 5

6

The other function ofparagraph ten is to lead in to the next section. The paragraph tells us that this is 'language and power'. The purpose ofthis activity is to review the first section. Ask the students to do the activity individually, reading through the text carefully. Then ask one of them to reproduce the first section in their own words and invite the other students to comment on the summary.

Task 2 Let the students work through questions 1 to 6 in this task on their own, perhaps as homework. Make sure they know which part of the text they have to read. Put them into groups to compare answers. Go through the answers with them quickly, or, better still, prepare an answer sheet which you can give out to the groups for them to check their own answers. In short, make the students do the work needed in this task. Answers: l a 2 a false; b true; c false; d true; e false; ftrue (We leave it to you to work out how to rewrite sentences a, c and e to make them true. ) 3 athey talkless thanmen (i.e., theylisten to the men talking) b they don't interrupt and they don't protest when men interrupt them. 4

Study I

Results

Subjects teachersat conference

a

o

twice as much male as female talk 27t30 participants believed there had been more female talk

Conclusions women talk less than men but are believedto dominate talk

Subjects 32 females and 5 males in workshop

Results . 32158 minutesof talk takenup by males o most people unawareof disproportionate amountof maletalking time

Conclusions males have to talk almost all the time before they are seen to dominate talk

5 The'doublestandard'refers to thefactthatpeople view maleandfemaletalk from differentpointsof view accordingto their stereotypicalideasof how menand womenbehaveconversationally. 6 Femalesare politebecausethey havelesspowerthan men. Becausesheis polite,the femaleforfeitsher equalrights of accessto talk. Question7 helpsstudentsto reviewthe sectionthey have beenstudyingandto focuson the way the discourseis organized,. If you decideto askyour studentsto drawa diagram,makesurethat they canidentifythe paragraphs coveringthe differentsub-topicsbeforethey begin.When they havedrawnit askonestudentto drawhis/her diagramon the boardquickly;theninvite other studentsto commenton it andsuggestimprovements. Task 3 1 Do this orallywith the students. Answers: TheprobLem is that girls get lessopportunityto talk in mixed-sexschoolsthanboysandtendto acceptthis stateof affairs.The solutionis for teachersto helo girls to enjoythe samerightsto talk asboys,and encouragethem to demandtheserights. 2 and3 Do thesequestionsin groups.If you wantto savetime give 2 and3 to differentgroups. Answers: 2 The bestorderis d, e, b, c, a, f. Otherordersare possible. 3 1.... quietanddocile 2 . . . . talktoother girls 3. . . . rebukedfor callingout 4....keepsilent 5 . . . . acceptanytask (i.e., Justget on with it') 4 Oneway to do this is to instructthe studentsto write downkeyfhra.sesfrom the text as they rereadthe section.Then askthemto turn over their textbooks andproducea summaryof Spender'sargumentbased on the key phrasesthey havenoteddown.


119

Teachers guil.e

Extension Task 1 The purposeof this taskis to exploreto whatextent differentstudentshaverespondeddifferentlyto the article - in particular,accordingto whetherthey aremaleor female!In the groupwork, encouragethe studentsto refer backto the passageto find evidenceto supporttheir at the end. opinions.Checkup on this in a classdiscussion Task 2 Do this task as a classdiscussion.Takea classvote on 1 if you like. Encouragethe studentsto saywhetherthey think the articlewill chargetheir behaviourin mixed-sex talk and.if so. how. 2 First person narrative This sectionis deliberatelyshorterthansection1 andcan be completedin two one-hourlessons: Lesson7: AII the tasksinPreparation,Extensiaereading andIntensiaereading. Lesson2: The Extensionlask. Preparation Do 1 with the wholeclass.Givethe studentsonlytwo or three minutesto maketheir lists in 2 andtell themto 'brainstorm'.Try andmakesurethat the groupsare mixed-sex.Perhapsthe studentscouldgo on to discuss 'sexistwife'. whatthey think are the featuresof a Extensive reading The studentsshouldwork individuallyon ttristask. Short written answersare enough.Write the correctanswerson the boardandlet the studentscorrecttheir own answers withoutdiscussion. Answers: 1 Shedisobeyshim. 2 Hit her. 3 Tries to hit Sofia. 4 Sofiabeatsup Harpo. Intensive reading Do this task as groupwork. Youcangive 1 and2 to differentgroupsif time is short. Maketime for class discussionat the end,though. Answers: 1 'he sounda little proudof this to me'. 'mind',i. e. accept 2 He feelsthat he hasto makeSofia , his authoritybecausehe is a man. 3 We are told that Sofiaactsvery differentlyfrom Celie, i. e., sheshowsno fearof Harpoor Mr. -. ThereforeCeliemust be afraid.A.lsowe are told that callsher. Mr. CelieJumps'when 4 Shekeepstalkingwhenthe mencomeinto the room. 5 We are told that CeliethinksSofiapitiesher. Celie resentsthis andthereforesuggeststhat Harpobeat his wife.

6

to admitto hisfatherthat he has He is embarrassed neverbeatenSofia.

Celie stoical jealous

Sofia vam spirited

Harpo conformist stubborn

Mr. aITOgant

cruel

Extension Do 1 as a class discussion. 2 needs careful preparation before the students start working in their groups. In particular, you need to get the students to identify the different scenes mentioned in the extract: e Harpo, Mr. and Celie on the porch . Sofia and Harpo talking while Sofia is getting ready to visit her sister . Sofia and Celie talking when the men come into the room r Harpo trying to beat up his wife and getting beaten up himself . Celie meeting Harpo the next day

3 Review activities for the afewminutes Beginthissectionbyallowing sections to skimthroughthetextsin theprevious students to remindthemselvesof their content. Task 1 This task canbe doneasgroupwork. In additionto providingevidenceftom TheColourP urpleextractyou couldaskthe studentsto provideevidencefrom their own expenences. Sofia'sspirit is finallybroken,sheendsup workingasa servantfor a white familyl Task 2 shouldtakethe form of: 1 The 'ideal'characteristics 'Shelhe shouldbe. . . . . .'

2

Encouragethe studentsto think aboutlanguage (i.e.,talkative,silent,etc.).Whenthe pair behaviour work is over askthe studentsto whatextentthey foundevidenceof stereotypicalviews. 'Positivediscrimination' consistsof deliberate attemptsto favourwomenin society.Some of whatformsthis mighttakeare: suggestions . reserveplacesfor womenin universityin subjects suchas engineering o reservea givennumberof placesfor womenin parliament . deliberatelyallowwomento interrupt,while rebukingmenfor doingso . appointwomenasthe chairpersons in mixed committees/meetings


Teachet/sguide

120

Intensive reading

UNIT 2 1

Exposition

Preparation Task 1 Thesequestions don'thave'correct'answers. Their mainpointis to encouragestudentsto think andtalk aboutwhatis involvedin comprehensron. They are thereforebestdoneas groupdiscussron tasks. 5-G Try to get as manydifferentinterpretationsas possibleandto askstudentswhy they respondedto the sentencesin certainways.Try to get themto appreciatethe importanceof previousexperience, of culturalnorms,of stereotypes,of personal opinions,of expectations,etc, whentrying to comprehenda written text. 7 This couldbe doneas a classactivitywith the main componentsof the theorywritten on the board. The teachershouldact asa facilitatorratherthanas aninformantbut shouldtry to makesurethat the studentsappreciatethat comprehension doesnot just involveknowingthe words. Task 2 Youcoulddiscussthe implications of eachheadingwith the classandthenget studentsto work in pairsto predictthe contentof the passage. l-4

Extensive reading Task 1 This couldbe doneasa pairreadingtaskwith the partners discussingthe matchbetweentheir predictionsandthe passageas they read.They shouldbe clearthat they don't needto spendtime discussing the meaningsof difficult wordsor sentences. Task 2 The mainpointsmadeby ChristineNuttallaboutreading comprehension are: 1 The readerplaysanactiverole in gettingout ofthe text the messagethat the writer hasput into the text. 2 The readerneedsto try to work out whatlinguistic, culturalandtopicassumptions the writer hasmade aboutthe readers. 3 For most readingpurposesit is not necessaryto have total understanding of the text. 4 In orderto achievethe degreeofunderstanding requiredthe readerneedsto interactwith the writer andto askquestions aboutthe text. 5 Predictingthe likelylanguage,contentandattitudeof the text canbe a greataidto comprehension.

Task 1

This activityis bestdoneasa groupdiscussion in whichthe sharingandjustifyineof opinionsis more importantthanthe answersdecidedupon. Our answeris: b r by gettingthe readerto think aboutandanswer questions: e.g., 'Is the reader'srolepassive?' . by gettingthe readerto do actualreadingtasks: e.g.,4.2 r by challenging the reader'sassumptions about reading:e.g., that readingis passive d . by the useof simplediagrams:e.g., Fig 4 . by analogies activities:e.g., with non-linguistic assembling furniture f . by gettingthe readerto do readingactivities whichproveher points:e.9.,4.4 and4.9 h . by not treatingher answerasabsolute: e.g., 'Here are my comments;you maywell find other things.' providedit is justifiedby an Any answeris acceptable examplefrom the text. 'Why a 4.1 do we rejectthis?' b 4.8 Makinga table. 'The c 4.6 meaningis not merelylying. . . or intellectuallimitations.' To helpthemunderstandwhat sheis sayingNuttall: . encourages her readersto interactwith her text by askingthemto think aboutquestionsbeforeshe providesher answers. o getsher readersto usetheir knowledgeof the world, of the topicandof Englishto leadthem into predictionsaboutwhatsheis goingto saynext (e.g., to predictwhatsheis goingto sayabout Readerb in 4.6). o involvesthem asactivereadersby gettingthemto do tasksastheyread. o getsthemto usetheir experienceof readingandof the world to helpthemto understandwhatsheis saying(e.g., comparingreadingwith carpentry). r getsthemto relatewhatsheis sayingto what she hassaidbefore(e.g., the referencein 4.3 backto the chemistrytext in 4.2). In this activitythe processof analysinganddiscussing is more importantthangettingthe answerright. It is thereforea goodideato do it as a pair or groupactivity andto acceptanyanswerswhicharejustifiedby referenceto the text. Task 2 1 This is bestdonefirst asanindividualtask so that all the studentshaveto think of anexample,andthenas a grouptask in whichthey sharetheir examplesand thenreachgeneralconclusions aboutthe causesof misinterpretation.


121

Teachelsguide

The diagram should indicate in some way that the reader has to do something to the text in order to get meaning out of it and it should show some of the water spilling down the face. One possible answer is: 'A text is difficult to understand if the reader does not share with the writer the same code, knowledge or way of thinking.' One interesting way of doing this activity is for groups to write the texts collectively and then for each group to read its texts at random and to ask the other students to say who the message of each text is intended for. Students and the teacher can then give feedback to the group on the appropriacy of the text for the intended decoder. We think she presupposed that the readers would: . be either educated native speakers of English or educated advancedlevel non-native speakers of English. o have a reason for wanting to find out about the process of reading comprehension. o not akeady have expert knowledge about the processesofreading. r not be familiar with specialist linguistic terminology. o find some of her points initially surprising.

6

There are many possible situations in which only partial understanding is needed. For example: o finding the arrival time of a train in a timetable. r listening to a song for pleasure. An example of a situation requiring total understanding would be following written instructions on how to operate a machine. Reading for partial understanding only requires the reader to focus on those aspects of the message which are relevant and important to the reader. It does not require careful reading of every word and can often be done quickly. Reading for total understanding requires slow, careful reading and rereading of the whole text. Easy: Situations in which you are reading about something you have a lot of experience and knowledge of. For example: o the venue of an international soccer match in a country in which internationals are nearly always played in the same stadium (e.g., Wembley in England). r the instruction'Now stir the mixture'in a recipe which has told you to put different ingredients intc the same bowl. Difficult: Situations in which you are reading about something you have no previous knowledge or experience of. For example: r instructions on how to play a game you have never heard of before. o the age of a character mentioned in the lirst line of a novel.

Try to get asmanyexamplesaspossiblefrom students. 'the significance of the 9 The 'value'of anutteranceis utterancefor particularspeakersin a particular situation'(i.e., whatthe speakeris trying to 'Aren't you cold?' achieve).For example,the valueof couldbe a requestfor the windowto be closed. Obviouslyyou cannotexpectyour studentsto predictsuchan accurateanswer.Acceptany predictionwhichis feasiblebut thentell the students whatNuttalldoesmeanby'value'. See5.1 page12to 13of Teachingreadingskillsin a ChristineNuttallfor a full foreignlanguageby of 'value'. explanation 10 This is best doneasanindividualtaskfollowedby groupdiscussion.The compansons are: r text-jugofwater . mind- sponge r reading- walkingup a hill o readinga difficulttext - choppingdowntrees to get to the top of a hill o readinga text - assembling furniturefrom a kit Extension Task 1 1 Whatmattersis that studentsare ableto usethe visual andtextualclues(e.g. the contrastbetweenthe childishtoothbrushandtherazor; the frequent referenceto spots,etc) to makepredictionsaboutthe contentof the bookfrom their theoriesof the world. It doesnot matterwhetherthe predictionsare accurate or not aslongasthey arefeasible. The crucial 2 Any feasiblepredictionsare acceptable. pointto understandis that the dedicationis deliberatelydeceptiveandthat its irony canonlybe by relatingto the new informationin b and appreciated the satiricaltone of the extractin c. Task 2 Eachstudentcoulddecideto write the story individually, in a pair or in a group.The storiescouldbe pinnedon the wallfor everybodyto reador possiblymonitoredandthen published in a classmagazine. 2

Narrative

Preparation Task 1 1 There are severalfeasibleanswersto thesequestions. Don't give the actualanswers(below)yet, asthat will spoilthe next task. . 'them'in the first extractrefers to prisoners o they are in a prisoncelltogether r theyarethereasprisonersofwar Extensive reading Task 1 The charactersare so obsessedby time becausethey


122

Teachers guide

neverknowthe exacttime andbecausethe ritual of trme probablyhelpsto givea comfortingsenseof routineand systemto a very uncomfortable anddisturbingsituatron. The authorprobablystartedthe novelin this way to first of all involveour curiosityin workingout whatis happening (throughusingour theoriesof the world)andthento provideus with a frrsthandexperienceof the situationthe prisonersare in whichwill helpus to understandthe motivesof someof the characterslater on in the novel. Intensive reading Task 1 1 It involvesthe readeractivelyfrom the start in havingto work out who'them'refersto. 2 (e.g.thecardgame)To occupythemselves; to stop themthinkingaboutwhatmighthappento them. 3 Eachprisonerhadhis own awarenessof whattime it was.Time meanta way of keepingsane,by relating their situationto somethingroutineandreliable. 4 They wantedthe prestigeof beingthe onlyreliable keepersof the time. 5 In a way the watcheshadbecomemore important thantheir owners;they were of more valueto the other prisoners. 6 They were the onlytwo menwith accessto the time; the othersdepended on themfor'news'aboutthe tlme. 7

They were terrified of becoming hostages and had nothing else to think about to distract them from their growing fear.

8

To compare it with his own time. Possibly in the hope that the antique watch had stopped.

9

He felt he had betrayed his fellow prisoners by losing the only way of giving them the correct time. They were the only two men of position among the prisoners (i. e. a mayor and a lawyer). The mayor hated Chavel because he suspected him of trying to become the leader of the prisoners and because Chavel's criticisms of him showed he had no resDect for his position.

10

11

12 13

14

Becauseif the others found out he would lose the credibility and power he had gained as one of the providers of the time. 'Pursued'conveys the mayor's desperateneed to catch up with Pierre's time. Possiblybecausehe suspectedsomethingwas wrong from the mayor's appearanceand behaviour. o the time told by his watch o the time he had inventedand which therefore onlv belongedto him It would be useful to prepare the classfor this task by analyzingthe statement with them before asking them to analyzethe text in pairs. lean - no unnecessary words or details shar!-eyed- helpingto visualizethe essentialdetails of the scene

Greenehasdonea lot of work asa film script-writer. Corayis sayingthis hashelpedhim to write this scenein sucha way that it becomesdramatically visibleto the reader. Preparation Task 1 Encouragethe studentsto usetheir imaginations and theoriesof the worldby gettingthemto considerall the possibilitiesof choicewithin the situation.At this stage don'ttell themthe actualanswersto the questions. Extensive reading Task I Youcouldhelpthe studentsby gettingthemto answer questions2a-eby detailedreferenceto the text asa preparationfor doing2f and3 as groupactivities. Intensive reading Task 1 1 Possiblybecauseit wasa taskwhichbefittedhis position,becausehe wantedto be seento be importantandperhapsbecausehe hopedto be ableto manipulatethe drawto his own advantage. 2 a to be systematicandto appearto be fair. b so that he will drawnearthe endwhenthe marked papershavepossiblyalreadybeendrawn. c becauseit giveshim the chanceto go first andget it over with. 3 His mindwason his fate. 4 r Becauseit reducedhis chancesof drawinga marked paper. . Becausethe oddswere narrowingas eachmandrew a blankpieceof paper. . Becausethere wasnow a one-in-threechancethat he woulddrawa markedcard. 5 o To checkthat his paperreallywasmarked. o He didnot reallyknow how to behave. 6 Because therenow appeared to be a one-in-two chanceof gettingthe markedpaper.He wanted Chavelto haveto drawagainandthusto lengthenthe odds. Extension Eachpair or groupcouldbe maderesponsibleto another pairor groupfor monitoringtheir work andsuggesting improvementsto it. The revisedwork couldthenbe 'published'onthe wallsor in a classmagaztne. 3

Review activities

1 It wouldhelpif you couldprovidebooksfor the studentsto usein this activity. 3 If possiblethe paragraphs shouldbe written for a particularclassof students.The most suitable paragraphcouldthenbe selectedandimprovedby the wholeclassandgivento the intermediatestudentsto read.


123

Teacher'sgu'ilt

Task 2

UNIT 3 I Reporting an experiment Youwill needseverallessonsto completethis section. Onepossibleteachingschemeyou couldfollowis: Lesson7 (1 hour):The tasksnPrefaration andExtensiue reading Lesson2(1 hour):Tasks1 and,2ofIntensiuereading Tasks3 and4 of Intensiuereading Self-study: Lesson3 (1 hour):The tasksin Extension Preparation Task 1 'parrot-talk'on the boardandaskingthe Begrnby writing studentswhatit means. Do 1 orallywith the wholeclass,spendingmosttime on the differencesbetweenhumanandanimal Make a list of the differencesthe students communication. suggeston the board. The studentsshouldthendo 2 individually.Don't spenda longtime goingover their responsesanddon'tattemptto indicatewhichresponsesarecorrector incorrect.Tell themthat they will havethe chanceto comparetheir answersto thosegivenin the passagelater. Ask the studentsto do 3 and4 in groups.Allow about eightminutesonly. In the classdiscussionthat follows,the followingcriticismsof the experimentshouldemerge: o the experimentonly tests the parrot'sabilityto is more rememberthe namesof objects,but language thanjust memoryfor words. . the experimentonly teststhe parrot'sabilityto saythe wordswhenit canseethe objectsthey name. . the researcher'sconclusion is unjustified,aschildren are not taughtto speakin this way andthe parrotcannot be saidto have'learntlanguage'. as a result of communicating Childrenlearntheir language with their parents;to findout if parrotscanlearnEnglish like a child,onewouldhaveto carry out an experimentin whichthe experimenterspenttime holding'conversations' with a parrot. The answerto 4 is b. Extensive reading Task I Encouragethe studentsto readthroughthe passage quicklywithoutreferringto the table.They canthenread throughthe statementsandput a tick next to thosethey are certainabout.If there areanystatementsthey are not sureaboutthey will needto checkthe passageagain. Whenthey havefinishedthe exercise,askthe studentsto comparetheir responsesto thosethey madeto the same nPreparationTask1.2 (page43). statements Answers: The passageprovidesdirector indirectevidenceto 1, 3, 5, 6,7,8, 10, 11, 12, L3 and supportstatements 14. However,the parrot'sabilityto do someof these, suchas 13, is very limited.

1

2

The students should skim through the text individually; they may need to be reminded of the best way to skim to discover how the text is organized into sections. Answers: 1 L. lto L. 89 2 L.90 to L. 140 3 L. 141to L. 159 Do the second part with the n'hole class. The tlpe of organization described here is that which would be found in a report of a scientific experiment in a journal. The passagedoes not follort this organizationbecause it is intended for a more general, less academic readership. The passageis more journalistic in or ganizalion and style.

Task 3 This task helps to consolidatervhat the students should already have discovered from Task 2. If there is time, ask the students to do it in groups; if not, thel can do it for homework. Answers: a The passagewas written for the educated general reader. Some of the clues are: o the title (it is flippant) . use of colloquialisms(e.g., 'So what?') r avoidanceof too many technical terms r short sentences(e.9.,'ALexcan'.) o the informal way the information is organized r the writer does not assumethe reader alreadvhas knowledge about languageexperiments involring animals(i.e. , everything is made explicitr. Intensive reading Task 1 Make sure that the students know u'hich section of the passagethe questions in this task are based on. Give the students a few minutes to sort out the sentences individually.Then ask a student to act as'teacher'by gohg through the statements with the rest of the students; if the 'teacher'is wrong replace himther with another student

who is right. Answers: 1 subject+ results 3 method 5 method 7 conclusions

2 4 6 8

conclusions results method* results results

Task 2 Again make it clear to the students which section of the passagethis task is basedon. 1 Do this quickly with the whole class. No, the information in the passagedoes not follow the order suggested. An academicarticle would Dresent its information in this order.


124

If time is short, you could distribute questions2,3 and4 to different groups to work on. Then instead of going through each question in class discussion afterwards, you could ask the group leaders to give brief oral reports on what they have discovered about the information in the paragraphs they have been studying. 2 a (c) provides the most accurate summary. 'So 'what is specialaboutthis?'It is b what?'means meant to challengethe reader to pay attention. c The writer's point is that previous experiments with parrots have not demonstrated that a parrot can really learn language(i. e. , they have been problematic), but the present experiment has succeededto a much greater extent and is, therefore, worth paying attention to. 3

a These paragraphsprovide information on the method. b One method is called model/rival training and involves making the parrot compete for the trainer's attention. The other method involves repetition and reward.

4

a Results: o 807oright on object naming test o producednovel combinationsof words (e.9.,' blue hide') r learnt to say'no' . learnt to count to five b Conclusions: o capableof 'segmentation' . seems to understand the concept of 'rejection' (i. e. , a more complicated idea) c The first conclusion is contained in the sentence. 'This suggests that he is capable. . . different combinations.' The generalizationis the first sentence of paragraph six.

Tasks 3 and 4 Ask the students to work through the questions in these two tasks in their own time, for homework. Let them check their answers in groups with the help of answer cards in the next lesson. Deal only with major problems of understanding. Ansuers: Task 3 1 2 3 4

b apes. 'The argument is about whether apes can understand slmtax or segmentation'. debates- acrimony- argument- disputed-jeer sceptics- allegation b Novel combinations may occur through sheer chance. c Researchersmay give unconsciouscues to the animals.

Teacher'sguide

Task 4 1 b 2 Parrotsare better subjectsthanapesbecauseit is not cuesto a parrotwhich so easyto giveunconscious language. mighthelpit to producecomplicated Extension Task 1 1 Make surethat the studentsunderstandthe pairsof adjectivesin the table.They mayneedto undertake somepreliminarydictionarywork. It is importantto makesurethat studentscanjustify their opinionsby quotingevidencefrom the passage.To showthem how to do this it mighthelpto do the first pair (sceptical- convinced)with the wholeclass. Task 2 Put the The questionsin this task are challenging. studentsinto groupsandaskthemto work throughthe three questions,allowingplentyof time for discussion. Havethe leadersreport their group'sopinionsto the rest of the classandallowother groupsto challengethem. Answers: 1 a The evidenceis in the parrotlearningto say'no'. It is difficultto seehow this is a'more complicated devicesfor idea'.Manyanimalshavecommunicative expressingrejection. to the abilityto recognizethat b 'Segmentation'refers anutteranceis composedof separateelements (e.g., words).It is crucialto languagelearning becausewithoutit we wouldonlybe capableof learningwholechunks(i.e., completeutterances) andwouldnot be ableto createour own sentences. The experimentgivessomelimitedevidencethat but a the parrotis capableof experimentation, singleinstance(andthat is all that is reported)does not constitutedefiniteproof. 2 The answershereare largelya matterof opinion.One wouldwantto seemore evidencethat parrotsare capableof learningthe grammarof a language:for example,the abilityto producesentenceswith a differentword order asin statementsor questions. 3 The articlewouldneedto be reorganized(introduction - subject- method- conclusion), the stylewouldneed to be mademore formal,anda more objectiveanalysis of the experimentprovided. 2 Third person narrative Youwill needabouttwo hours(togetherwith some homeworktime) to completethe tasksin this sectior,. Preparation Task 1 Questions1 and3 are bestdonewith the wholeclass. Question2 canbedonein groupwork. Ifyou have studentsfrom differentculturesyoumayfindthat they of someof havedifferentideasaboutthe characteristics the animals,(for example,spidersmightbe seenas


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Teachelsguide 'creepy'oras'cunning'). that In the classdiscussion followsthe groupwork try to bringout anycultural differences.Youmightlike to endquestion2 by asking'If you were to becomean animal,whichof the animalsin the list wouldyou like to be andwhy?'.

f. Hazel gives evidence of Fiver's previous predictions that have proved correct (L. 50). He has also risked coming to see the Chief Rabbit with Fiver!

Extensive reading Task 1 Discussthe kindsof readingstrategiesthe studentsshould useto readthe passagein order to answerquestion1. Emphasizethat it is not necessaryto readevery sentence. Set a time limit for doingthe readingandanswering question1: four minutesshouldbe ample.Shortanswers only are needed.Do question2 otallywith the class. Answers: I a HazelandFiver b Bigwig c Abandonthe warren. d Fiver thinkssomethingvery badis goingto happen to them. He sees no reason to believe Fiver; the warrenis f 2

ChiefRabbit

thriving. The Chief Rabbit scolded htm for allowingFiver and Hazelto disturb him.

c

Intensive Reading Task 1 Beforethe studentsturn to the exercises,askthemto write downall the namesof the charactersin the extract andto pick two adjectivesto describeeachof them. Then askthemto do question1 individually.Put theminto groupsandaskthemto comparetheir answersto 1 and then to work throughquestions2 and3 together.After a generalclassdiscussionof their answers,do question4 orally. Answers: Bigwig

dutitul trusting

Hazel

sensible confident

Fiuer

ChiefRabbit

neurotic supenor clairvoyant forgetful

2 a BigwigignoredFiver (L. 3). Bigwigrefersto tumas 'he'L.6. 'I'll doit you' (L. 9). b Bigwigsays for c Bigwigcommentsthat the ChiefRabbitoughtto Ihat'he knowHazelbut doesn't.He alsocomments is gettingol.d'. The ChiefRabbitkeepsforgettingHazel'sname. '. . . or sotheytellme'(L.70)suggests thathe does not keepin direct contactwith the affairsof the warren. d He behavesin a distantway with HazelandFiver, quicklyirritatedif corrected.He tells Bigwigoff for allowingthe two rabbitsin to seehim. e Bigwigcomments'I'llfrobablygetmryheadbitten 'be off , meaning scoldedby the ChiefRabbit.'

Comment

Quotations

4

This indicatesthat Bigwigis trustingand alsocapableof making hisown decisions.He is a goodjudgeof character. He is very nervous(he stutters)andexcitable. He is unableto explain thingsclearly. He is forgetful.A rationalratherthan intuitiveperson. Authoritative. Hazeldoesnot seem by undulyembarrassed Fiver'sbehaviour.He is calmandcollected, unawedby the situation.

,A.dams makesus think of the rabbitsin humanterms; they haveall the mannerismsof humans.But he constantlyremindsus that they are indeedrabbitsby 'world' of rabbits(e.9., 'burrow'and referencesto the 'lettuce'), theiractions(e.g.,'sniffind)andpartsof theirbody(e.9.,'forePaws').

Task 2 Thesequestionscanbe doneas self-study.Afterwardsgo throughthe answersquicklyandthenspendsometime discussing with the studentswhatthey havefoundout aboutthe themefrom doingthe questions. Answers: 1 a soldiersof somekind b they keepcontrol;they steallettucefor the Chief Rabbit c they 'threatenandbully' (L.32) 'outskirter'(i.e. commoner). 2 Hazelisan , Bigwigis a royalguard. The ChiefRabbitis a kind of presidentor king. 3 The rabbits'societyis very hierarchical:eachperson hasa clearlydefinedplacewith clearlydefinedrights andprivileges. 4 c Extension Ask the studentsto do questions1, 2 and3 in pairs.Tell themthere are no 'correct'answers,but that they should be preparedto justify their answerswith referenceto the passage.The film scriptshouldbe preparedin class(i.e., the mainepisodescoveredin the extractlisted)andthen


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written collaboratively in smallgroups.Ask the students to act out their scriptsif there is time. 3 Review activities Task 1 Helpthe studentsto get a clearideaof the differenttypes of information(Orientation,etc.) by tellingtheman anecdoteor short story andgettingthemto identifywhich informationbelongsto whichcategory.The taskitselfcan be donein groupwork or individually.Studentscanbe invitedto give oral summariesbasedon their completed tables. Task 2 Do question1 orally.Ask the studentsto do 2 individually. Whenthey havefinishedpair themoff (bothstudentsin a pair shouldhavedonethe sametask);they cantake it in turns to explaintheir outlineandto askquestionsor offer suggestions for improvementsabouttheir partner's outline.

Task 2 Acceptanyfeasiblerulesandhelpthe studentsto phrase them correctly.

UNIT 4 I

d It is advisableto followthe instructionsasthey are written to helpyou to usethe machine.Instructions arenever compulsory. e Youcanbreaklawsbut not procedures.He lost his job becausehe didnot followthe procedures. f acceptable g acceptable 3 Examplesof' thingsthathaoerules': competitsons, factories,companies,tradeunions. 'common Other linguisticfeaturesof rules'include: c Modals:for example,'Youmustreport anyaccident to the supervisor.' d Passiveof allow/permit:for example,'Youarenot allowedto signin morethantwo guestsper month.' e No * noun/gerund: for example,'No glasses allowedby the swimming-pool.' 'No singing.'

Analysis

Intensive reading Task 1

Preparation Task 1 1 Rulestell peoplewhatthey are andare not allowedto do in a particularsituation(suchasa particularplace, sport, club,institution,etc). Probablythe first definitionis the clearest,mostpreciseandmostvalid. The othersonlyfocuson oneaspectof rules. 2 talfc

Sides

They are four rulesof communication expressingthe needto be clearandto be polite. a Hearer b Speaker c First language d Secondlanguage e ContrastiveAnalysis bandc He makesassumptions that certainlinguisticterms will be understood,suchas, 'addresseecitation'but explainshis pointswith a thoroughness and explicitnesswhichwouldnot be necessarywith experiencedlinguists. 'Non-freegoods: people'sage,salaries,politics, love affairs,ambitions,etc. distances,times,populations, etc. A Hallo.That'sa niceshirt. How muchdidyou pay for it? B Quitea lot. A Whereare you going? B To seea friend. A A girlfriend? B Maybe. A How oldis she? B Mind your own business. a reLatioistic notion- somellttngwhichis viewed differentlyin differentcultures(e.g. in Englandit is consideredrudeto aska strangerwherehe/sheis going;in Indonesiait is quitenormal). 'Free'goods:

There is no law which enforcesthe use of 'some'in positive statements and makes people liable to prosecutionif they disobeyit.

b acceptable c Paying bribes is against the law. You are not normally sent to prison for breaking regulations.


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Teacher/sguid.e

-polite expressionsusedto refer to euphemisms or thingswhichare consideredunpleasant embarrassing. - wordsusedto avoidusingother leremes aaoi.dance wordswhichare consideredto be rude, or unpleasant. embarrassing tabooareas-topics whicharenot supposedto be referredto in public. a Eatingflyingantsis revolting. b 'little room'- toilet 7 By offeringto makea sacriflce. e.g.S'I'lltake thatsackof woodtoMrs Brown's whenI walkhometonight.' H 'Oh no. I'll takeit in the carnow.' Onepossibledialogueis: S 'Theseflowersare lookinga bit sad.They coulddo with somewater.' H 'They'llbe all right. It looksasif it's goingto rain.' 8 A questionwhichimpliesa command:for example, 'Do you like sittingin a draught?'(i.e. Closethe door). 9 a 'Hi. EverythingOK?' b'Hallo. Howarethings?' c 'Goodmorning.How are you?' 10 The writer rarely usesthe first personsingular pronounanddoesnot givehispersonalviews. Insteadhe usesthe first personpluralpronoun,uses 'addressee'), usestentative specialterminology(e.g. 'The readermightcareto consider')and (e. g. modals 'mustbe frequentlyusesformalexpressions(e.g. 'lest'). Thesecharacteristics are typical construed'; of a semi-formal,objective,expositorystyle. Lakoff 11 Grice Acceptablypolite Effective Toric conversation. conversatlon. Content Keepthe interestand At leastappearto be considerateto the attentionof the listener. listener. Negativeand Affirmative Slyle affirmative imperatives. lmperauves. Purpose As an aidto speakers As anaidto speakers in conversations in conversations.

Extension Task 1 Possibleopenings:o Questionwith knownanswer(e.g. 'Haveyou beento the match?') o Provocativestatement(e.g. 'People shouldn'tbe allowedto smokein here,shouldthey?') r Topicnomination(e.g. 'Seethe bus faresare goingup again.').

Possibleclosings: . Reasonsfor closing(e.g. I must go. I'm expectedhomebYten.') o Expression ofgoodwishes(e.g. 'Well, I hopeyou win the game.') The maximwriting couldbe doneas a pair competition with everybodyvotingfor the pairthey considerto have written the most accurateandpithy maxims. 2

Using rules

Preparation Task 1 1 An alcoholicdrink madewith apples. 2 Abuildingwhereciderismade. 3 It only lastsfor a shortperiodofthe year (i.e. just after the appleharvest). It attractspeoplewho don'thavea permanentjob, peoplewho are preparedto movearoundthe country lookingfor work andpeoplewho chooseto work duringtheir holidays. 4 This couldbe doneasa plenarysessionwith the andthenrules teacherelicitingideas,suggestions from the class.The rulescouldbe written up on one sideof the boardexactlyas they are dictatedby the students.Then, if necessary,they couldbe rewritten for correctionsand on the other sidewith suggestions improvementscomingfrom the students. 5 There are no correctanswersto thesequestions.Any feasiblesuggestionwill helpthe studentswhenthey cometo readingthe passage. Extensive reading Task 1 It mightbe usefulto createan impressionof Homerfirst (e.g. his age,appearance, background,character,etc). Intensive reading Task 1 1 The toneofpolite appealandespeciallythe useof 'Please'. personwho has The writer is probablya well-meaning the interestsof the workersat heart.Heishehas probablytried to get the workersto followtheserules withoutmuchsuccessandhasprobablytried many differentwaysof phrasingthem. He/sheobviously doesnot want to bully, order or offendthe workers, preferringto appealto their senseof reasoninstead. The workersobviouslylike to enjoythemselvesin the evening.They are a bit recklessin their behaviour; they drink a lot (sometimeswhilst working),smokein bedandlike to congregateon the roof. They arenot alwaysresponsiblein their attitudetowardstheir work.


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2

3

1 It is dangerous and could damagethe operator and/ or the machine. 2 This is a fire risk - especially after drinking. 3 There might be an accident. 4 Otherwise they might not be usable the next time they are needed. c Otherwise it will not work properly next time. 6 They might drop (or be dropped) off the roof and causeinjury/damage/mess. 7 This could be fatal if the door gets locked. 8 AJter that it might disrupt the work. 9 Otherwise the roof might collapse. Obviously in the past the workers have been guilty of the practices which are appealedagairst in the Rules. To draw special attention to it. Obviously the rotary screen is frequently not washed until the pomace has dried on it.

4

The writer is trying to stress the importance of this rule by being more authoritarian in the wording.

6

Either as a sign ofrejection ofthe rules or of indifference towards them, (or possibly to use the paper for another purpose).

7

a the device which crushes the apples into small pleces. b the device which crushes the apples with great force in order to squeeze out their juice. c the cloth which allows only the juice to pass through. d a device which moves round and prevents anything but the juices from getting through. e presumably what is left of the flesh of the apples after they have been ground and pressed. f a large refrigerated room for keeping things fresh. g the person in chargeofthe workers.

Extension Task 1 You could lead short preparatorydiscussionsfor eachof the activities, and then invite each student to chose which activity to do. Preparation Task 1 You could ask the students what they know already about the workers and about Mrs Worthington (obviously she is the writer of the rules). and then leavethem to do the task ln pars or groups. Extensive reading Task I 1

2

This could be done as a pair-work readingactivity in which two studentsread the text together and stop to discussany sentencerelevant to their predictionsor which reveals informationabout Mr Rose. He probablyexpectedthem (from previousyears), and wanted to show he had noticedthem and appreciatedthem but didn't placeany valueon them.

3 4

5

He impliesthat he hasgot his ownruleswhichhe will makethe workersfollow. He probablyappreciates her concernfor the workers andher pleasantmannerwith him but thinkssheis not strongenoughasa boss. Sherespectshim as a worker but there is something abouthim shedislikesandfears. There are obviouslymanyother possible interpretations.

Intensive reading Task 1 'It 1 a True. wasa hot,Indian-summerdq,', (i.e. after summer).Alsoapplesareusuallyharvestedin autumn(called'fall'in the USA). b He is not mentionedso hasprobablydiedor is permanentlyill. Mrs Worthingtonobviouslyruns the farmandhasdoneso for a longtime. c No. Oliveis Mrs Worthington. d The seventeenpickers,the cookandMr Roseare negroeswho havetravelledtogetherfrom the South.As they waitedin their cars,therewas'an of blackfingersstrumming'. orchestra e Yes.They wait in their carsfor him to represent themto Mrs Worthington. f Probably,Mrs Worthingtonimpliesthat Mr Rose shouldreadthe rulesto them. g They arein the parkinglot at first but thenthey moveinsidethe ciderhouse: 'Mrs Worthington touchedtherulesshe'dtackedto thewall . . .'. h It is their first meeting.Mr RoseinvitesHomerto watchthe first press(i.e. he hasneverseenone before)andMrs Worthingtonafterwardstells Homerher viewsof Mr Rose. i He obviouslytries to (heis proudof how muchcider they canproduceso quickly)but doesnot completelysucceed.Mrs Worthingtonimpliesthat they do not work ashardasMrs Rose. j He impliesthis whenhe sayswith a smile,'I'm good at rules'. k This is impliedin the lastsentence. 2 They are probablyimpatientto get out of the carsafter a longjourney. 3 Probablyto cheerup anunattractiveplaceandto show her consideration for the workers. 4 They maycauseproblems(suchasfightsover the women,or accidents with the children). 5 Sothattheyareboundto be seen. 6 Probablybecausehe knowsthat Mrs Worthingtonis awarethat her ruleswill be ienoredandhis will be followed. 7 He wantsto impresshim andto showhim who is really in charge. 8 To signalthathe is the bossofthe workersandshould be treatedwith resoect.


Teacher'sguide

Extensive reading This couldbe doneasa pairreadingactivityor with the teacherreadingthe text aloudandstoppingevery so often to inviteresponsesfrom the class. a Homerseemsto reallyhopethat oneyearthe rules will actuallybe obeyed.He alsowantsto showhis towardsthe workerswhileat the same sy'rnpathy time assertingthat he is in chargeandrefusesto be defeatedby their pranksandinsults. b The rulesweren'tobeyedbecausethe workers probablyfelt insultedby them, especiallyby the for their welfare.They pretenceof consideration probablyalsosawdisobeyingthe rulesas an opportunityto asserttheir independence. Extension Task 1 Both activitiescouldbe preparedthroughclassdiscussion with eachstudentthendecidingwhichoneto do and whetherto do it individually,in a parror rn a group. Preparation Task 1 This is bestdoneas a groupactivityasits mainpurposets to get the studentsthinkingaboutvariouspossibilitiesfor the rulesof the race. Extensive reading Task 1 The rulescouldbe describedasfollows: I Eachteamhasthreemenanda horse. 2 The raceis over ffieen miles- three lapsof five miles' 3 The winningteamis the onewhichwinsmostlaps. 4 Onerunnerfrom eachteammustcoverallthree laps' 5 On the first lapthe sprintersride the horseswhilstthe distancerunnersrun mostof the way. Howeverthe sprintersmustrun at leastthe lastfurlongof the lap. 6 On the secondlapthe quarter-milersride the horses whilstthe distancerunnersrun mostof the way. Howeverthe quarter-milersmustrun at leastthe last quarterof a mile of the lap. 7 On the last lapthe distancerunnersride the horsesfor four milesandthenrun the lastmile. The Indianprobablywon the first lapasMoriarty's teamobviouslyneededto win the lasttwo lapsto wn the race. Buckwonthe secondlap. Moriarty won the third lap. Moriarty'steamwon the race. Beforewriting the newspaperreport, it wouldbe usefulto havea classdiscussionaboutthe likely styleandcontentof the article. Intensive reading Task 1 Acceptanyfeasibleanswers.The originalwordswere:

129

Thus itwas that,on 20 April 1878,the micles of the Yuta County Foot R*e Ee sign4

Articles of Agreement 1 The competition !o take place owr thre five-mile Iaps stming at noon on 20 Ocrober 1878, a circulu cou$e encompassingthe Bigv/cti El Diablo Mounhin dd the town of Y"t4 c+j itself, the stm to be +he svena VisLA Hot.l 2 Each @m will consist of three men *J oe hoae will be arelay over th@ sepdate laps, two men from 3 The comp!,!'on each tem dd a horse competrng over each lap, with only the JisLme on"ers one lap completing the full fifreen-mile couse, the other runners completing onl5 Thus, the sprinter md distance-runnerfrom each tem will .owr th€ l.p, rhe qumr-milels mddistcn"e -r.""ecs the second,with the final {irst -.-n"e"s J-rc lap covereA hg the Jisl*e w.J bo lu 4 The two-mo tems will be . or ride at lheir dis@tion on each lap, dle only ploviso being that on the f rrst lq bhe sgi"tees udtrun the fmal fulong to the fuish, on the secondlap the t@rtr F,l.rs melt nn the frnal qudermile md on the last lap the Ji.t4.< -.*€, t|.e €,"J nile, thesedistmces being mdked by Union flags and being scrudnisedby officials appointed by a"{e The distmce-runne$ ee requircd to .o... the Ll-'€€ l"fs Hag"cs "ll -5.r^rt .a<h othe. only on oae lap other two runnerscoFpctiq 5 The winner of the competition is the t* -l,r.l hd wo^ k hq+ lap v,ctor,es i.e. 2-0 - 2-1. Lhefinal tbiter on all compedtionsbeingJudge Haynes. Shouldthefisttwo for any one tem, ..c resolt t. wictoel then tle final lap by the drstece-runne$ will not be runi L-. horscs 6 The ee to be selectedby JudgeHaynes, md the pffies in dispute (Peter Boyle md William Brcnnm) will throw dice for . hote of rc"nts 7 The owneNhip and watering rights of the aEa known as The Big Wet will be assignedo the sponsorofthe vt.td.ious le^

Extension Task 1 If ttre class got really interested in this task you could turn it into an extended project with newspaper and video interviews, letters of invitation to actual athletes and commentaries and reports on the actual event. You might even sell the idea to an actual sponsor and manageto achieve a real race.

3 Review activities 1 a Visitorsto a privateclub. b In the entranceto the clubandprobablyalsoin the bar andrestaurant. scenes c To makesurethereareno embarrassing whengueststry to payfor drinksor meals. d To makethe rule absolute. 2 a Playersof a game. b In the instructionscontainedin the box the gameis packed in.

c To help people understand how to play the game. d To be helpful and supportive. It is not an absolute rule.

3 a b c d

Someone learningJapanese. In a textbook. To provide helpful advice. To be helpful and to indicate that it is not

a b c d a b c d

compulsory. Drivers. In a highwaycode. To providea definiterule of behaviour. To stressthat it mustbe followed. Smokers. In a cinema. To stoppeoplesmoking. To makeit absolute.


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130

6 a Parents. b At the entranceto a school. c To coverthe schoolin the eventof a childnot being collectedbefore16.30. d To makeit clearbut not offensive. 7 a To guestsin a hotel. b On the wallof the shower. c To preventthe showergettingblockedwith hair. d To makeit very clearthat it is not allowed. There are obviouslyotherpossibleanswersto manyparts of thesequestions.

UNIT 5 1 Classification Youwill needseverallessonsto completeall the questions in this section.Onepossibleteachingschemeis: Lesson1 (1 hour):The tasksin PreparationandExtensiue reading(part one)andIntensiue reading(part one) Lesson2 (1 hour):The tasksin Extension(partone), Extensiuereading(parttwo) and I ntensiae reading(part tw o) Lesson3 (1 hour):The tasksin Extension(parttwo) Preparation Task 1 Beginthis task by givingyour own answersto these questionsin the form of a short talk. Thenaskthe studentsto readthroughthe questionssilentlyandwork out their own answers.Put theminto groupsand encouragethe groupleaderto makea note of any differencesin opinion.Finally,askonememberfrom each groupto give a shorttalk aboutthe differentopinionsthat emerged. Note:Itmtght helpto remindthe studentsthat accentscan be dividedinto'native'and'foreign'accentsandthat they canconsiderboth. Task 3 Ask the studentsto work out the answersindividuallyand thengo throughthe questionsquicklyin class,makingthe studentsgive evidencefrom the headingandabstractto supporttheir answers. Answers: 1 d 2 b 3 b

b is the main function of these sentences. 2 a 'This process of modelling the other person's speech in a conversation could also be termed speechconvergence.' b 'This is what Michael fugyle has called'response matching'.' c 'Not only this, but, in many cases the way someone speaks affects the response of the person to whom he is speaking in such a way ttrat'modelling'is seen to occur.'

d 'It may be that responsematchingcanbe more profitablyconsideredas anunconscious reflectionof for socialintegrationwith one speakers'needs another.' e 'In other situations,speechdivergencemayoccur . . . he is dealingwith.' f 'Nevertheless,distinctcontexts. . . from oneand the samespeaker.' is The highlightedsentencethat hasnot beenparaphrased 'Responsematchinghas,in fact,beennoted. . . andvoice loudness.' There are manypossibleheadingsfor Part Oneof the text: How u)euarythewaywespeakwould do. Intensive reading Task 1 Tell the studentsto try to work out the way the contentof the text is organized, asthey read:i. e., to spotits 'architecture'.Ask them to write downsub-headings they couldinsertinto the text to showits structure.Thenlet themdo 2.3 and,4canbe doneindividually,but 5 is best donein pair or groupwork. Answers: 2 a 'Langtagevariation'goesbeforeparagraphone. b 'Responsematching'goesbeforeparagraphtwo. c 'Speechdivergence'goes beforeparagraphfour. i a suqqesteoanswer: 3 Here ls Topic

Examf Le

Language variation

Differentpatterns How English of speechusedby schoolchildren samespeakerin speakto friends different andto their contexts. teacher.

Response matching

Changingthe way Correspondence onespeaksso betweenlengthof that it matches reporters' more closelythe questionsand way the person Kennedy's spokento speaks. replies.

Speech divergence

Modifying one's The brigadier's speech away from wife andthe car the way the mechanic. person spokento speaks.

Part One Extensive reading Task I The activitiesin this taskare designedto helpthe students skimthe passageto obtaina generalideaof its content.Do 1 orallywith the wholeclass.Thenaskthemto do 2 individually andcompareanswersin pairs. Answers: I The sentencescomeeitherat the beginningor endof a paragraph.

Definition


Teachelsguide

4 5

2 Speechdivergence 1 Speechchange; and Further informationaboutspeechconvergence divergence.

Extension Task 1 Set thesequestionsfor self-studyout of class.Startthe basedon the answersthe next lessonwith a discussion studentscomeup with. Part Two Extensive reading Task 1 Do 2 with the wholeclass.Ask onehalfof the classto do the first part of 3 andthe otherhalfthe secondpart of 3. Then form pairswith onestudentfrom eachhalf.One studentreadsout hisftrercompleteddescriptionwhilethe other listens andchecksit againstthe diagram,querying any'thingthat is not clear. Answers: 2 Typesof speechchange:fi,gre2 A speaker'saccentrepertoire:figure 1 3 1 idiolect 2 receivedpronunciation3 broad regional 4 broadregional 5 affectedreceived pronunciation 1 convergence 2 divergence 3 Upward 4 receivedpronunciation5 downward 6 regional 7 upward 8 downward Intensive reading Task 1 Thesequestionsguidethe studentinto a discoveryof how the informationin the text is structured.They arebest doneby the studentsworkingindividuallythroughall three questions.The teachershouldthencheckthe answe:s quickly. Answers: 1 'Accentrepertoire'startswith paragraphtwo. 'Typesof accentchange'beginswith paragraphfive. 3 1 convergence 2 downward 3 divergence 4 upward Task 2 The studentscando this task in pairs.Whenthey have finishedaskthemto closetheir booksandpreparebrief note summariesof the text from memory.Invite a student to givea talk of his/trersurnmaryto the rest of the class. Answers: 1 a example b generalization c generalization d generalization 2 a 'Obviouslyaccentresponsematchingis not of such a power . . . of their regionalself-colourings.' b 'suchas Cardiff. . . southWaleslilt' c 'ghettochildren. . . publicschoolchildren' d 'Think of a woman. . . in an urefined marner' (the wholeof the rest of the paragraph)

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Extension Task 1 Do 1 with the wholeclassand2 in groupsor pairs.Make surethat the studentsrealizelhat 2 requiresthem to commenton Grles'saiewsi. e., not just to produce definitionsof upwardconvergence,etc. Answers: 1 a Giles'schoiceof words ('immobile"limitation' 'ghetto')suggestsa negativeview towardsspeakers without anaccentrepertoire. helping b Giles'stalksaboutdownwardconvergence andcreating'acommon to'reduce embarrassment' of ideasandfeelings'. basisfor the communication 2 Giles'view is largelyneutral:i. e., he simplydescribes whatupwardconvergenceconsistsof. Upwarddivergence(of the kind practisedby the floor manager)is relatedto'aloofness'andsocial 'superiority'. Downwarddivergence(of the kindpractisedby the womanshopper)is relatedto'indignation'andan 'unrefinedmarurer'.However,in generalGilesseems to find divergenceof both sorts amusing(asshownrn his choiceof examples). Task 2 Let the studentsdo this taskindividually,thencheckthe answers.Put the studentsinto pairsarrdaskthemto think of four differentsituationsto illustrateeachtype of accent change. Answers: 1 downwardconvergence 2 upwarddivergence 3 upwardconvergence 4 downwarddivergence Task 3 Ycu will haveto do somepreliminarywork with the studentson the kind of style that will be needed.A good startingpointwouldbe to go throughthe text andidentify 'technical'words (e.g. 'accentrepertoire') andaskthe , 'everyday'waysof expressing studentsif they canthinkof 'morethanoneway of speaking'). them (e.g., 2 Drama Preparation Task 1 Thesequestionsare bestdonein groupwork. If you have makesure studentswith mixedlanguagebackgrounds, that the groupsare mixed. Answers: are likelyto speakwith a 2 Upper/middle-classes accen! loweriworking-classes receivedpronunciation are more likely to speakwith a regionalaccent. 3 There maybe differencesin accentanddialect. 'Educated'people mayusea differentkind of vocabularyandmaychooseto talk aboutdifferent tooics.


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Task 2 Do this task with the whole class. Encourage the students to speculate. Don't evaluate their answers but encourage them to justify their predictions. Write up their suggestions. Later, when they have read the extracts, they can check which of their predictions were right. Extensive reading Task 1 Some background information may help you to explan points to the students ifthe need arises. Older students generally enrol with the Open University in order to study for a degree in their spare time. Most of the work is by correspondence, but students are given a tutor whom they can visit occasionally. Rita is a Liverpudlian and speaks the local accent and dialect. She clearly has not had much formal education. During the play she leaves her workingclass husband and moves in with a middle-classflat-mate called Trish (short for Tricia). Frank is middle-aged. He has been a lecturer at this university for a long time. Once he used to write poetry, but he has long since stopped becausehe felt his poetry was too academicand lacked feeling. This task should be done with the students working individually. If there is time, let them discuss their answers in pairs or groups before the class discussion. Answers: 1

2

Rita becomes much surer of herself. She becomes 'educated'in the sense that she is able to talk objectively about literature and to mix on equal terms with university students. Frank is proud of what she has accomplishedbut thinks that she is betraying her own nature (e. g. , when she puts on a falseaccent).

Task I Ask the students to work through these questions in pairs. Answers: I

Extract One

Extract Two

Task 2 Try settingthis taskas self-study.Choosea studentto go throughthe answerswith the rest of the class(i.e., to take on the roleofthe teacher). Answers: 1 Featureof Rita's speech regional regional informaV colloquial

Intensive reading

Author

2 a IrutiallyRitalikespopularwriters; later shecomes to appreciategreatliterary writers. Shelearnsto playthe'educational'game; she mastersthe skillsof literary criticismbut in so doing alsobecomesconventional in her responses. b In Extract OneRitaappearsto try to shockFrank, by suggestingthatHowardsEzdis 'filthy'andby swearing.Shetalksabout'packingthe coursein'. Shebelittlesher own'brain'. In Extract Two shefeelsconfidentenoughto talk to andarguewith the studentsaboutliterature. 3 Shewantsto be ableto understandandappreciate thoseaspectsof life (ballet,literature,etc.) whichshe associates with educatedpeople. Shehasachievedwhatshewantsandis now ableto talk abouttheseaspectswith other educatedpeople. Ritafeelsthat shehasbecomearticulatebecauseshe cantalk aboutliterature.However,shealwayswas highlyarticulate(notehow shetalksabout'stuck-up idiots'in ExtractOne).

Book

. Dylan Thomas . Roger McGough . EM Howards Forster End . Lawrence Lady Chatterly . Lawrence Sonsand Louers

Rita's opinion . Never heard of him. . 'deadgood' . Probably difficult to read and understand a

a

Limitedliterary work - like 'sparklingwine' Greatliterary work - like 'champaRne'.

a Rita changesthe way shespeaksbecauseshe believesit suitsher newstatusasan'educated' person. b This changeshowsus that Ritais rejectingher past andher true identity. c Frankfindsit artificial. d In a way, the differentway of speakingis onlyan 'experiment'forRita. Sheisn't reallycommittedto it. Ritausestoo manycolloquialexpressionsto list here! Extract Onehasmorecolloquialexpressions, indicatingthat Rita'sstyleof speakingbecomesmore formalandmore standard. In both extractsFrankspeaksstandardEnglish,with a receivedpronunciation accent(probably)andusesa formalstyle. a Frank speaksin the standardway ofan educated Derson,


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They come from diametrically different social backgrounds. Frank does change a little: his speech is less formal in Extract Two. ' D eadhonest'is dialectal:'dead'means'very' or 'absolutely'. It is one of Rita's favourite expresslons. It suggests that Frank responds positively to Rita: he warms to her.

Extension Task I Ask the studentsto quicklyreadthroughthe two extracts againbeforethey write their charactersketchin 1. If they needguidancein writingthe charactersketchaskthe class to suggestadjectivesthat describethe two charactersand write theseon the board.AJterthe pairwork, askoneor two studentsto readtheir charactersketchesto the rest of the class.2 and,3canbe doneas a classdiscussion. The playendswith Frankleavingfor Australiaandasking Rita to go with him. Sherefuses.However,she recognizesthat shehasneverdoneanythingfor him and so giveshima haircut(sheusedto be a hairdresser). 3 Review activities Task 1 It is importantto checkthat the studentshavea clear ofthe terms in 1. After you havedonethis, understanding Iet the studentswork throughthe rest of the questionsin pairs.Emphasizethe importanceof findingevidencefrom the texts to supporttheir answers.Endwith a class discussionof whetherGiles'sframeworkcanbe usedto interpretthe way the charactersspeakto eachother in EducatingRita. Answers: 'accent 2 NeitherRitanor Frankhavemuchof an repertoire'.Ritacanonly speakwith the Liverpudlian accentat the beginningof the play,whileFrankonly appearsto know receivedpronunciation. 3 Rita seemsto be divergingdownward(i.e., her Liverpudlianway of speaking).She emphasizing feelsthreatenedandvulnerableduringher first meetingwith Frank. Thereis someevidenceto suggestthat Frankis convergingdownwards:for example,he echoesRita's 'packingit in' (L. 39). In general,however,Frank neitherconvergesnor diverges. upwards(sheputson a'posh'accent). 4 Ritaconverges Frank.But it is a Shewantsto appear'educated'like convergence. consciousratherthanspontaneous Frankconvergesdownwardsby usingcolloquialisms ' him off (L.55)andby borrowinga llke'finished 'deadhonesf. He wantsto get dialectalexpression, closerto Rita.

5

The degreeof'responsematching'increases from Extract Oneto ExtractTwo, considerably indicatingthe degreeof mutuallikingand the two charactershavefor eachother. understanding

Task 2 Theseare'opinion'questions.They are designedto make the studentsthink aboutthe relationshipbetweensocial factorsandlanguage.Do L,2 and.3in groupsand,aftera classdiscussion,do 4 in pairs.Encouragethemto make useof the ideasin the texts they havereadin this unit.

UNIT 6 A suggestedteachingschemefor this unit is: The tasksin Section1 Preparationand Lesson7: Extensiuereading Lesson2: The tasksinIntensiuereading Self-study: The tasksnExtension Lesson3: The tasksinSection2PreParationand, reading Etctensiue read:ing Self-study: Task 1.1 of.Intensiae reading Lesson4: Tasks1, 2, 3 and4of.Intensiae The tasksinPreparationandExtensiue Lesson5: reading,andTask I.I of.Intensiuereading SelfStudy: Tasks1, 2, 3, 4 and'5of.Intensiuereading The tasksin Preparation,Extensiuereading Lesson6: andIntensiuereading The tasksin Extension Lesson7: 1 Advice Preparation Task 1 1 This task couldbe doneinitiallyin pairs.The pairs couldthenform groupsof four to monitoreachother's answers.In eachgroupeachpaircouldreadits five dialoguesto the otherpair andaskthemto suggestin whatsituationsthey mightbe appropriate.The pairs couldthentry to improveeachothers'answers.This couldthenbe openedup to the rest of the class,with groupsreadingsomeof their dialoguesandthe class suggestingappropriatesituations. Finallythe teachercouldhelpthe studentsto make in English:for generalizations aboutdisagreement example,lengthyutterancescontainingmodalverbs 'I suchas, amnot quitesurethat I wouldagree',are appropriatein formal,politesituationswhereasshort, 'No way', aremore verblessutterances,suchas appropriatein informalsituations. There are obviouslymanypossibledialoguesin this task.The followingarejust someexamples: r A 'Thiscaris a goodbargain.' B'I don'treallythinhit'ssucha goodbargainas vousav.'


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134

A is a salesassistant.B is a potentialcustomerwho doesnot want to buy that particularcar (or who is trying to reducethe price).B doesnot wantto offendA. B 'Youmustbejoking.' B is not interestedin the car andis not worried aboutoffendingA. r A 'Futre'sgoingto be a better playerthan Maradonna.' 'No B way.' A andB are friends.B completelydisagreeswith A, andwantsA to knowthat. B 'I don'trealLythink he'sgoingto bethatgood.' A andB are acquaintances. B disagreeswith A but doesn'twantto risk offendingA by expressingthis disagreement too strongly. 2

This activityis bestdonein groupsso that the studentscanshareandextendtheir knowledgeof differentwaysof arguingin English. Oneof the manypossibleanswersis the following: Situation

Statement 'You

'Sure.

Two brothers who haven'tseen eachother for a longtime. 'All 'I'm the signs not sure Formalmeeting indicate an that's quite how I betweentwo new imminent increase read the business partners. in the oil price.' situation.' 'I 'Not Marriedcouple. think we'll go to again?' could've asked me to help.'

Majorca again this year.' 'This is a nice dress, dear.'

'Charlestown

is a very attractive place.'

Like when I needed money for the rent.'

'Come off it mum; Mother buying the guys would teenagedaughter laughat me.' a dressfor a 'No

way; I used to live there.'

party. Acquaintances talkingin a pub.

'Whatwe needto 'I'm not entirely do is to buildmore sure I agree.' secondary schools.

An advisor respondingto a politician. 'l 'You Two strangers think it's going to could be rain this afternoon. r i g h t .B u t . . . ' waitingfor a bus together. 'Let's go 'Great out for a idea! Who Boyfriend meal tonight.' the hell's going to respondingto girlfriend's pay for it?' suggestron. It would be useful to collect in the group answers and follow up any confusions in the next lesson. 3 This is best done as a pair or group activity followed by classfeedback.

in a Obviously thereareno'correct'answers evaluatingthe table.Any pointsjustifiedby evidencearevalid.In the feedbackit wouldbe usefulto giveyour own opinions. regardingthe b Youcouldelicitvarioussuggestions useofthe tablefrom the pairs/groups,collatethem on the boardandthenaskthe classto decidewhich wouldbe the mostuseful. c The pairs/groupscouldbrainstormat random in differentwaysof expressingdisagreement English,thenconsultavailabletextbooks/reference booksandfinallyfit their examplesinto the framework. 4 This couldbe doneas a classdiscussion with a groupor asa groupdiscussionwith a monolingual multilingualgroup.It is a goodideato try to prepare someexamplesin advancein casethe studentshave problemswith this activity. It is obviouslynot essentialthat studentsdo allthe Preparationtasks.Onepossibilitywouldbe to ask eachpair/groupto choosethree of the activitiesto work on. Extensive reading Task 1 It wouldbe helpfulto explainandexemplifywhatis meantby'talk' to thewriter.Youcouldaskyour studentsto readeachsentencesilentlyandat the end of eachsentencecommentor aska questionaloudto 'Successful disagreement the writer. For example, who . . . winsan requirescunning.'(17fty?)'Nobody argument.'(Is thisreallytrue?Whatdoyou meanby 'winsan argument'anyway?) Encouragethe A studentsto summarizethe main pointsrather thanto presenteachpointin detail. Encouragethe B studentsto anticipatethe mainpoints of their partner'ssummaryandto prepareobjections to thesepoints.There is no needfor a detailedfollowup to the pair work but it mightbe interestingif you give your opinionsaboutthe author'spointsandinvite studentsto respond. Intensive reading Task 1 1 a 'Or are we trying to win peopleover to our side. . . to enlisttheir support?' b 'Don'tbe wrong.Be Right.' c 'Alwaysendthe argumentandendit in a positive way.' d 'Alwaysgivethe impressionyou are right but not superior.' the e 'I wouldsuggestthat anyonewho communicates message. . . canonlyhopeto achieveat besta very cheapandshallowvictory.' f 'Soobeymost of all the finalrule: Rule15 Don'tFeel.Think.'


135

Teachers guid.e 'Alwaysappearto be willingto listen.This gainsyou supportandoftentrapsyour opponentsinto weakeningtheir own argumentswith exaggeration andover-repetition.' 'Reviewyour opponent'sargumentsbefore proposingyour own. The writer is trying to: by invitingthemto a influencethe readers'opinions answera questionto whichthe answerhasalready beengiven. b givethe impressionof balance,systemand organization;makean impactby restatinga negativestatementin a positiveway. c makean impactthroughforcefulrepetition;stress the importanceof the point. d suggestthat thereis no questionat all aboutthe wisdomof the advice. e to indicatethat this is a considered,thoughtful conclusion;to commandattentionby a dramatic differenceto styles. f to giveprominenceto the writer's mainpoint. p to convincethe readerof the wisdomof the initial statement. h to suggestthat the statementis so self-evidentasto not needjustificationor reinforcement.

Tentative statement

'Hemight...

Purpose

2 'Nobody.. . argument.' 3 'Suchcandid. . stealthand deception.' 4 'A successful arguer.. . convmcng actor.' 5 ' B u t .. . argument.' 6'Whatisit... our spoken.'

Reinforcement Explanation

Restatement

Statement of mtent Questions

7 ' O r a r e w e . . . Rhetorical their support?' Question

Givea reason to support1. Givefurther supportto 1. Concise summaryof mainpoint. Get readerto think. Get readerto think. Preparereader to receivean answer. Providea Con'v'lnCng

answerto the questions in 6.

Statement

lose support.'

Givethe impressionof it beinga thoughtful, wellconsidered pomt. Providereason for the statementin 8.

3

The writer uses rules to express his ideas to make them easier for the reader to follorr; to give authority to the ideas; to make an impact. 'NeveriAln-a]'s'approach to He follows the same reinforce a negative with a posinve and thus gain impact; to provide a clear course of action; to give the impression of system and organ2ation. The writer ends with Rule 15 to proride a climax to the text; to highlight the main poinu to provide a final simple summary of the whole text.

4

a clever planning of the argument in order to trick the listener(s) into giving thea support. b arguing in such a way that the listeners do not realize they are being manipulated. c giving expression to our anger. d the appearance of having won the argument without rea.lly convincing anyone or gaining their support (i. e. , cheap in the sense of 'haring little value' and shallow in that it is not significant or lasting). e for what he is known for. f to invite the listener to make their meaning clear (and therefore to imply a criticism of the

There are obviouslymanyother examplesof someof the devices,suchas sy'rnmetryandstatementplus explanation,andother validinterpretationsofthe writer's reasonsfor usingthem: for example,h - the writer was findingit tediousto keepconformingto a self-imposed patternof statementplusexplanation or reinforcement. 2 Utterance

Purpose

Utterance

statement). g glve your opinions. h admit that they are correct. here. 5 Obviouslyanyreasonedansweris acceptable The mainpointis to encouragethe learnersto be criticalof the contentandexpressionof whatthey read andto developskillsof evaluation. Extension Task 1 1 It might be a goodideato get your studentsto list the mainpointson the boardandthento elicitsuggestions for expressingandlinkingthe points. 2 This is bestdoneasanindividualtask, possiblyas homework. 2 People arguing Preparation I

TlpicaLparticifants This couldbe doneon the boardwith suggestions comingfrom the students.For example,motherand daughter;teacherandstudent;customerandwaiter, etc.


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136

Tlpical reasons Againthis couldbe doneas a classeffort on the board.For example,conviction;desireto persuade/convert; selfdefense;provideanexcuse,etc. Tgical objectiues This couldbe donein groupsaspreparationfor 2. For example,to enhancea reputation;to divert blame;to hurt someone;to avoiddoingsomething,etc. 2 Tactics Examples 'That'sthe mostusefulideasince c Sarcasm earthquakes.' 'Yes,that wouldcertainlyrevealto d Irony everyonehow well you are doing thejob.' 'Whatabsolutenonsense!' e Abuse 'Nobodywouldevervotefor you f Warning again.' g Refutation

'I'm telling you; I wasn't even there.'

The main point of this activity is to encourage students to think about different tactics used in arguments before they read the three argument texts. It is best done as a pair or group activity so that students can pool their knowledge and stimulate each other to think. The exemplification of a variety of different tactics is more important than the terminology used to label them. Extensive reading Task 1 This could be done as pair-reading with two students reading one text and talking to each other as they read it. 1 Because people will link her to the incident and she will be disgraced. 2 He is possibly a little ashamedbut doesn't want to admit it. 3 She probably wants to make sure her son is not impressed by what Uncle did to Nzule and to make Uncle realize that what he did was shameful. She also wants to dissociate herself from Uncle's actions and to express her annoyanceat the way he has responded to her hospitality. 4

Possibly so as not to lose face in front of his nephew, and as an indication of his chauvinistic reluctance to acceptbeing told offby a woman.

5

He obviously attacked Nzule in the street. He may have tricked him in a cowardlv wav or used unfair tactics in the fight. Mother wants to emphasize that he is still young and needs her guidance and protection; Uncle wants to stress that he is old enough to be more independent

6

andthat he needsguidancefrom a fellowman(i.e., himself). 7 Mother managesto makeher pointandto makeUncle feel someshame.But Unclemanagesto escapefrom a very tricky situationwithout losingfaceandwithout reallyantagonizing his sister (hemanagesto makeher smile).Perhapsthenhe is the winnerbecausehis tacticssucceedeventhoughhis caseis weak. Intensive reading Task 1 1 a To give sarcasticemphasisto her points. b To mockhim (i.e., Canhe reallybe grou'nup if he behaveslike that?). that he hasno selfc No. Sheis statingemphatically respect. d He doesn'twantto respondto her provocation.He wantsher to weakenher argumentby getting angry. e To stresshis lackofappreciation. f Takingher for granted;abusingher hospitality;not valuingher company;lettingher down. I Sheis a proudwoman.Shemakesa lot of sacrifices.Shegetseasilyrousedandsheworries aboutwhatpeoplesay/thinkabouther. h We don'tthink so. Possiblyhe wantsto provoke her. Possiblyhe is acknowledging the validityof what shesaysbut is alsosignallingthat he will not allowher to win anargumentagainsthim in front of the boy. i As the youngerbrotherhe oughtto respecther. j To annoyhis sisterandto claimthe boy'ssupport. Possiblyalsobecausehe is reallytoo ashamedto facehis sister. k He wantsto gainthe supportof the boy and possiblyto showthat he is not as selfishashis sisterimplies.Shedoesn'twanthim to win the sympathyof her sonandpossiblydoesn'twantto haveto be gratefulto her brother. I That he only claimsresponsibilitywhenit is convenientandthat he usuallybehavesin an irresponsibleway. m That sheis appeased andhasforgivenhim. n To showhow well he getson with the boy and possiblyto refer to a pastargumentwhichhas becomea familyjoke (ust as this oneprobably will). o Sherecognizeswhathe is doingandwantsto signalthat the argumentis over. p To signalhis victory. Whatis Other answerswill obviouslybe acceptable. importantin this activityis not the actualanswersbut the way the questionsencouragethe studentsto read betweenthe lines.The questionscouldbe answeredin pairsor groups,or individuallyandthenthe answers comparedandevaluatedin groups.


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Teachelsguide

Task 2 Objectiue(s)

Utterance . personal appeal . answer

justification an attempt to close the 2rq rmcnt

rhetorical nr rcqf inn

request for clarification exclamation

a

statement explanation of statement further explanation reinforcement

a

statements

a

o

rhetorical questions statements interpretations advice

a

command

o a

. statement

3

withoutlosing face non-acceptance of his justification refusalto close the argument provocation further justification provocation

o justification e justification r change offocus of discussion r to escape from the argument o refutation of advice o signalling recognition of his tactics o justification of advice

The summarycouldbe doneon the board.For example:

Featuresof slyle Effect sarcasm failsto provoke This couldbe written in pairsandthenactedout and evaluated. Mother:

4

Preparation Task 1 Obviouslythere are no correctanswersto theseactivities andno needfor anylengthyfeedbackfrom the pairwork. The teacher'smaintaskis to encourageandrespondto the pair discussions. Extensive reading Task 1 It mightbe usefulfor studentsto notedowntheir predictionsbeforethey start to read.

1 c, e andg - eventhoughc andg appearto be contradictory. Other answersmaybe acceptable if studentscan justify themusingthe text. 2 There are a numberof possibleinterpretations. Chuckis intrigued,irritatedbut impressedby Vinnie. He leavesbecausehe wantsher to feel sorry for her for him. outburstandthento feel s1'rnpathy pairs This be in 3 could done with oneperson responsiblefor the notefrom Vinnie,the other responsiblefor the notefrom Chuckandboth responsiblefor the extractfrom the later scene. Intensive reading Task 1 1

enoughanddescribes a This is not comprehensive only the superficialfunctionsof her utterances:for 'don'tshowa little initiatiue'isnot reallya example, commandbut a sarcasticcommenton Chuck's apparentinabilityto showinitiative. This analysisis more thoroughandinformativethan a, but not all the labelsare accuratedescriptionsof the functionsof the utterancesthey refer to: for example,6 suggestionand7 irony. This is the most completeandaccurateanalysis. But evenso its labelsare a mixtureof descriptions of the form of the utterances(e.g., exclamation), of the the functionin the text (e.g., exemplification accusation) andthe situationalpurpose(e.g., distance;escape). Try to get the students to produce an improved version of c. a He is amazed by her outburst and has no idea how to respond to it. b He is angry that she insults him so strongly (e. g. , 'you're so stupid') and hurt becausehe cannot see what he has done to deserve such an outburst. c He cannot believe that she can still continue her outburst when he has signalledhis anger and hurt. d He is looking to see if it really is as late as Vinnie claims and to refute the implied accusationof disturbing her late at night. e He wants to hurt her back by implying that she is behaving towards him as a lecturer rather than a friend. She seems to be initially carried away by her exasperation and to blurt out spontaneouscriticisms, accusationsand insults. But then when she realizes how emotive she has become and how her outburst seems to have hurt rather than helped she deliberately changes to a lower (therefore gentler) tone of voice and becomes apologetic in order to excuse her outburst and to escapefrom what has become a very awkward situation.


Teachelsguide

138 It mightbe helpfulto encouragestudentsfirst of all to decidehow Vinniewouldfeelthe next dayand whether$hewouldbe aimingto amuseher friend, explainandexcuseher own conductor be candidand frank. The scenecouldbe written in pairswith onepartner writing Vinnie'spart andthe other Chuck's. Preparation 1 There are a numberof possibilities. mother/son I or uce versa husband/wife F brother/sisterI two friends This actMty couldbe doneaspairwork.Encourage the studentsto justify their answers,andmaybeask them to act out the sceneaccordingto their own interpretation. Extensive reading The directorshouldallocatethe parts, giveadviceon tone of voice,attitude,gestures,movement,etcandthen rehearsethe actorsin the performanceof their scene. Intensive reading her pridein her sonasa lateSheis communicating night studentbut at the sametime sheis suggesting that he oughtto be up anddressedby now. They are proudto be relatedto someonewho has graduatedandwantto showoff in public' Becausehe will be seenwith them andwill be ridiculed for beingpart of sucha peculiar,unsophisticated family. Becausethe way they dressandbehavemakesit obviousthat they don'tbelongin the city' Shemeansthat it's not askingvery muchforJohnnyto agreeto his familysharinghisgreatmoment.Sheis implyingthat he is beingselfish. Johnny'sfather.He is muchmore directin his criticism thanJohnny'smother. He is implyingthatJohnnyis beingselfishanddoesnot realizehow importantthe registrationis to hismother. Johnnyis sullenandtaciturn;he is sarcastic;he appealsto hisparentsto leavehim alone.He implies that he is beingunfairlytreated. and His motherties to be gentle,reasonable sympathetic.Sheappealsto him to considerothers' Sheattemptsgentlepersuaston. Hisfatheris direct in his criticismofJohnny'sselfish behaviour.

3 Review activities Task 1 1 There are manypossibleanswers.CertainlyMother in F ools and OtherStories(p.106),Yinniein F oreign D ays Affairs (p.111)andJohnnyin I akeWobegon (p.113)wouldall havegainedmore supportif they hadn'tbrokenRules1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11and15. Task 2 Let eachstudentdecidewhetherthey wantto work individually,in pairs or in groups.


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Reading Advanced  

reading exercises for advanced students

Reading Advanced  

reading exercises for advanced students

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