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LEVEL A2+ PRE-INTERMEDIATE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.



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1. AMAZING OTTERS Level A2+ pre-intermediate Sea otters are amazing creatures. Even though they are mammals, they spend almost their entire lives in the sea. Otters' bodies are built to swim in the water. All sea otters have fine, soft fur to keep them warm when they are wet. To help them swim, they have webbed back feet which look a little like flippers. Sea otters have an unusual way of eating. They can find food by diving deep into the water. When it is time to eat, they float on their backs. They place flat rocks on their chests or bellies and crack clams and crabs against the rocks to open them. Sea otters do everything in the water - even sleep! They sleep in the water by floating on their backs and wrapping themselves in seaweed. That way, the water won't carry them away as they doze. Multiple Choice Questions 1. According to the text sea otters are not.... a) remarkable divers b) skillful hunters c) amazing creepers d) very surprising creatures 2. Why do sea otters wrap themselves in seaweed? a) To keep them warm. b) Not to be driven away. c) Not to be drowned. d) To protect themselves. 3. What can't sea otters do? a) Duck under water. b) Splash in water. c) Dip under water. d) Belly in water. 4. Being wrapped in seaweed sea otters … a) drowse and drift b) float and snore c) doze and sneeze d) d) nap and sink 5. Sea otters have .... a) little flippers b) webbed backs c) toes joined by pieces of skin d) scaled back feet 6. Sea otters are .... a) vertebrates b) feathered creatures c) finny mammals d) fish-eating animals that cut down trees with their teeth and build dams across rivers

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2. SONG BIRDS MUST HIТ HIGHER NOTES TO SURVIVE IN CITY By Roger Highfield Urban song birds are raising the pitch of their voices to make themselves heard above the background roar of the city, scientists report today. But the sounds of city life may be harming the chaffinch, dunnock and other birds whose vocal range is unable to soar above the din. Loud and low noise sources such as cars, planes, and machinery are placing new selection pressure on species that rely on sound to attract mates and define territories. This has been observed for the first time in great tits which have been found to sing higher notes near major roads and busy intersections, a ploy that could allow these urban birds to ensure that their mating calls are heard above the racket. Birds in quieter spots such as residential neighbourhoods, on the other hand, more often dip to the bottom of their vocal register, a Dutch team reports today in Nature. City-dwelling birds seem to be tailoring their songs to ensure maximum success with the opposite sex against a background of low-frequency urban rumblings. Any bird species that produces songs within the frequency range of urban pollution and lack the ability to adapt their songs so they are heard, may find it difficult to breed in built-up areas. "Birds like the crested lark and golden oriole are disappearing or have disappeared from Dutch cities and, among several other factors (loss of habitat, lack of food sources, loss of nesting sites) masking of their advertisement song by ambient noise may have played a role," Dr Slabbekoorn said. Multiple Choice Questions 1. What do urban song birds do to attract mates? a) Soar above the din. b) Hoist the tone of their singing. c) Pitch feathers. d) Lower frequency of urban rumblings. 2. The city sounds may be harmful to .... a) birds which do not have voices of great compass b) birds whose pitch of their voices is heard above the racket c) dunnock and chaffinch which dip to the bottom of their vocal register d) birds that rely on the opposite sex 3. All the words are the synonyms, except.... a) din b) racket c) rumbling d) calamity 4. City-dwelling birds have to ... to survive in the city. a) place pressure on other species b) hit busy intersections c) make high musical sounds d) sing hits 5. According to the text everything is true, except "Some birds have disappeared from Dutch cities because ...". a) they couldn't breed in b) they lost habitat c) there was not enough food d) ambient noise masked their voices 6. Birds in residential neighbourhoods .... a) ensure maximum success with mates b) define territories with nests c) lower level of their vocal range d) register higher notes near major roads

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3.PROTESTERS GIVE STARS' FUR COATS TO THE HOMELESS By Sarah Womack Homeless people in Liverpool are being offered unwanted fur coats by an anti-fur protest group. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals said it had received coats from various people, including celebrities, who had a change of heart about wearing them. A spokesman said: "We can't bring these animals back, but we can send a message that only people struggling to survive have any excuse for wearing them". But a spokesman for the Big Issue, the magazine sold by homeless people to raise money, appeared to cast doubt on whether rough sleepers would accept them. "If any of our vendors were offered a fur coat through another agency, it would be purely a personal decision as to whether they would accept it," he said. "Homeless people, like everyone else, will have their own opinions on such matters." PETA previously buried or burned unwanted furs but said it had decided to donate them to people facing winter on the streets and would hand over 50 fur coats to homeless people next week. Multiple Choice Questions 1. In Liverpool an anti-fur protest group offered unwanted fur coats to .... a) helpless people b) people who have no abode c) orphans d) people who live in asylums 2. "To cast doubt" means .... a) to sow dissension b) to get rid of doubt c) to hurl reproaches d) to sow a feeling of uncertainty 3. Famous people part with their fur coats because they .... a) changed their views b) are not trendy c) are received from various people d) cause heart attacks 4. According to the text, a spokesman is a .... a) person who chatters a lot b) person who picks up gossips about celebrities c) member of an anti-fur protest group d) person who sends messages 5. "Rough sleepers" can be substituted by .... a) disabled people b) sleepy heads c) the destitute d) coarse people 6. Who would have a personal decision as to whether they would accept a fur coat? a) Consumers. b) Shoplifters. c) Purchasers. d) Shop assistants.

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4. THE SIGHTING I will never forget the first time I saw the glowing, orange lights in the night sky. I was ten years old, and it was just after a late family dinner. It was my turn to take out the garbage, so I was walking to the garage when it happened. I heard a rumbling that sounded like thunder, but there wasn't a cloud in the sky. I looked up and that's when I saw the lights. They were orange and hovering in the sky above my head. The hair on the back of my neck stood straight up, and a chill ran down my spine. It wasn't the last time I would see the lights. But years later, I found out that military helicopters were being tested at the naval base near my house! Multiple Choice Questions 1. The lights in the sky were .... a) glowing and white b) orange and bright c) dim and white d) orange and diffused 2. What was the child's duty that day? a) To clean the garage. b) To throw out the rubbish. c) To cook dinner. d) To pick up the garbage. 3. The child heard... . a) thunder b) hooter c) din d) weeping 4. The sky was ... that day. a) somber b) cloudy c) stormy d) clear 5. The child was not.... a) scared b) terrified c) abducted d) petrified 6. What did the lights do above the child's head? a) Soared. b) Glittered. c) Died out. d) Rumbled.

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5.PULLING OUR LEGS For thirty-five years Bigfoot ranked with the Loch Ness Monster and the Yeti as one of the world's scariest monsters. An entire industry grew up around the mysterious giant ape. For many people Bigfoot became an obsessive quest. Dozens of guide books now exist, and for years there have been tours offering to help the Bigfoot hunters search for sightings. There's even an International Bigfoot Society in Hillsboro, Oregon. It all began in 1958 when Jerry Crew, a construction worker in Ray Wallace's company, discovered a series of huge footprints in the dense forests of northwest America. The footprints had actually been made by Ray Wallace as a joke intended to give Jerry Crew a bit of a fright. However, the local newspapers in Eureka, California, ran a front-page story about the discovery the next day and made up the nickname "Bigfoot" to describe the mysterious creature that had made the footprints. As a result, Ray Wallace persuaded his wife, Elna, to dress up in an ape suit with giant feet stuck to the bottom of her own feet. Ray Wallace told Roger Patterson, a rodeo rider, where he should go to spot Bigfoot, and sure enough Patterson was able to catch a brief glimpse of "Bigfoot" and managed to take what is now the famous picture of the ape walking upright. There were subsequent grainy photos of Bigfoot eating elk and frogs, but these were all members of Wallace's family (but usually Elna) dressed in a giant ape suit. Wallace's nephew recently told reporters: "He did it for a joke and then he was afraid to tell anyone in case they got mad at him". The family finally told the truth about their secret in November 2002 after Ray Wallace died at the age of 84. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Elna dressed up in an ape suit because Ray ... her to do it. a) fostered b) urged c) encouraged d) coaxed 2. Ape is a (an).... a) extinct monkey b) huge man with strange footprints c) enormous animal like a monkey d) giant monster 3. According to the text everything is true, except.... a) hunters sighed for "Bigfoot" b) the whole industry emerged around "Bigfoot" c) a lot of guide books were printed about "Bigfoot" d) many people were haunted in their minds by "Bigfoot" 4. Hunters looked for ... . a) footprints of an ogre c) an occasion to meet "Bigfoot"

b) tissue of "Bigfoot's" feet d) fossils of a giant ape

5. "Bigfoot" is famous for its huge .... a) crest b) tracks c) udder d) mane 6. "To spot Bigfoot" means .... a) to notice and photograph c) to catch and set free

b) to see and recognise d) to trap and kill


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6.ANOREXIA Anorexia is a dangerous eating disorder which often starts in the teenage years. In Britain 5 % of girls are anorexic and four out of ten teenage girls skip meals so that they can be thin like fashion models and pop stars. Anorexia is a medical condition and its full name is anorexia nervosa. People with anorexia try not to eat and they lose a lot of weight. They often feel fat even when they are very thin. They use other ways of staying thin, too, like taking laxative tablets (which make you go to the toilet more often) or by doing too much exercise. Anorexia is serious. Anorexics can become very weak and die. About 20 % of anorexics don't live more than twenty years after the anorexia starts and only 60 % of anorexics get better completely. Celebrities are particularly vulnerable because people are always judging their appearance. Christina Aguilera's video for the song Beautiful shows the effect of the pressure on young people to be thin. Scientists say that overweight teenagers should exercise, not diet, to become thinner. This is because even teenagers who diet sensibly are more likely to become anorexic than teenagers who don't diet at all. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Anorexia is a (an).... a) obesity b) eating disorder characterised by overeating followed by vomiting c) bout of excessive eating or drinking d) psychological disorder characterised by fear of becoming fat and non-eating 2. According to the text, everything is true about anorexics, except they ... . a) try not to eat b) want to lose weight c) take sedative pills d) don't live more than twenty years after anorexia starts 3. "To skip meals" means .... a) to spoil b) to miss c) to hide d) to throw away 4. In fact, people who suffer from anorexia are .... a) lank b) chubby c) obese d) stout 5. Who are exposed to anorexia most likely? a) Fat people. b) Adults. c) Eminent people. d) Slim people. 6. To recover anorexics should .... a) diet sensibly b) take laxative tablets c) have nourishment of full value d) do too much exercise

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7.THE ART OF JACK LEMMON Jack Lemmon, one of the finest, funniest and most popular movie actors of the second half of the last century, was the uncoolest of icons. He squirmed for our sins. Lemmon was the personification of the beleaguered, white-collar American male, compromised but lovable. Jack reached a peak in his career on stage in Eugene O'Neil's tragedy "Long Day's Journey into Night". Lemmon was applauded for the conviction he brought to a character's bitter confession of destroying a career by sacrificing artistic attainment for popular acclaim. Lemmon's own vast popularity was bought not by abandoning art, but rather by using the art that conceals art. He was a young pro before he was an old pro. Lemmon was a consummate farceur. Sometimes the comic material flickered with innuendo, but Jack somehow kept what was unsavory in proportion with a usually hapless character's efforts to be less hapless. The son of a doughnut-company executive, Lemmon had a privileged Must Coast upbringing, graduating from Phillips Andover Academy and Harvard. In cutthroat Hollywood, he was known for his graciousness, diligence and class. There was never a hint of scandal attached to his name. He married his second wife, actress Felicia Farr, in 1962, and they were together nearly 40 yours. June 27, 2001, this glorious bundle of nerves finally came to rest, succumbing to cancer at the age of 76 in Los Angels. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Jack Lemmon attained the crest of a wave for a (an) ‌ on stage in Eugene O'Neill's tragedy. a) destruction of character's attainment b) popular conceit c) artistic acclaim of character's confession d) censure in a character's declaration 2.


Jack Lemmon wasn't.... a) master in farce c) uncoolest of idols

b) unsavory professional d) consummate hoaxer

What did Lemmon do for our transgression? a) Prayed. b) Came to rest. c) Felt embarrassment. d) Sweated.

4. According to the text, Jack Lemmon .... a) was known for his assiduity b) personified the lovable bundle of nerves c) had a smirched reputation d) got prestigious comic materials 5. Lemmon gained his vast popularity by .... a) forsaking the art that conceals art b) applying the art that disguises art c) putting into practice the art that reveals art d) quitting the art that hides art 6. According to the text, "succumb to cancer" means .... a) to inherit b) to suffer from c) to fail to resist d) to fall ill

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8. GEORGE HARRISON, ROCK PIONEER By Lynne Margolis There's hardly a wedding band on the planet that doesn't owe a dept to George Harrison. As author of the elegant "Something" —which early Beatle hater Frank Sinatra called the most beautiful love song ever written — his place in history would be cemented even if he hadn't been in the world's most influential rock band. Sinatra's accolade impresses even more because Harrison was constantly eclipsed by bandmates John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Beatles albums rarely contained more than two Harrison's compositions, yet they were often gems. Не introduced Western audiences to "world music" with his use of tabla, sitar, and Indian scales — and to Eastern spiritual thought through his immersion in Indian culture. With his Concert for Bangladesh, he pioneered the use of star-laden rock concerts as fundraisers. When Harrison's masterpiece, "All Things Must Pass", was reissued early this year, listening to it felt like revisiting a long-lost friend, one with whom the bond is so deep, it doesn't matter how much time has elapsed. Bob Geldof, Harrison's friend and organiser of the massive Live-Aid concert, says he regards "All Things" as the best solo album released by any Beatle. He's right. Not only did it allow Harrison to fully express his spiritual quest, and earn him the distinction of being the first artist to truly meld religion and rock, but also it gave his songwriting and playing some much deserved limelight. Multiple Choice Questions 1. J. Lennon and P. McCartney ... Harrison. a) outshined b) inspired c) ridiculed

d) despised

2. The word "accolade" (line 6) means .... a) disapproval b) apathy

d) commendation

c) aversion

3. There is hardly a wedding band on the planet that.... a) doesn't have debts because of "Something" b) isn't worthy of playing "Something" c) doesn't pay Harrison for "Something" d) isn't grateful to Harrison for "Something" 4. According to the text everything is true about Harrison, except.... a) he played some Indian musical instruments b) he was involved in Indian culture c) he made mockery of star-laden rock concerts d) he held concerts in order to collect money for charity 5. Harrison's masterpiece "All Things Must Рass" a) deserved more b) made Harrison the centre of public attention c) gave Harrison the light of limes d) strengthen his spiritual quest 6. According to the text, .... a) Harrison was the pioneer in the immersion in Indian culture b) Sinatra was impressed because Harrison was constantly eclipsed by his bandmates c) Harrison was the first musician to combine rock and religion d) Beatles concerts rarely contained more than two Harrison's compositions

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9. THE MAKING OF MAUVE By Andrew Curry Once upon a time, colour was for the rich. Dyes had to be painstakingly derived from plants or animals; quality was uneven and rich hues like purple were reserved for royalty. That all changed in 1856, when 18-year-old chemistry student William Perkin discovered some unexpected red crystals in the bottom of a test tube. While searching for a malaria cure in his tiny home laboratory, he had accidentally turned a noxious coal byproduct into a vivid purple that could be used to dye silk and other fabrics. In tribute to the Parisian fashion world, he named the first synthetic dye after the French name of a purple plant — mauve. Perkin had to overcome his chemistry colleagues' disdain for commerce — even his mentor dismissed the discovery as "purple sludge" — as well as the distrust of the tradition-bound dye industry. Perkin's creation took the European fashion world by storm once it was popularised by French Empress Eugenie, who thought the colour matched her eyes. Some stodgy satirists complained of the "mauve measles" epidemic. Others wrote gushing odes to the new shade. But fashion is fickle, and soon others were following Perkin's experiments, creating their own colours from petroleum byproducts. The market for natural dyes collapsed. By the time Perkin died in 1907, the British dye industry had been overtaken by Germany, which lured the world's best chemists to its factories in what Garfield calls "one of the first classic examples of brain drain". Multiple Choice Questions 1. Many years ago dyes were ... obtained from plants or animals. a) zealously b) painfully c) unlawfully d) painlessly 2. What were reserved for royalty? a) Rich plants and rare animals. c) Rich tints.

b) Purple wigs. d) Rich rouge.

3. The first synthetic dye was given a name of a purple plant.... a) to spite Parisian fashion world b) to please French Empress c) to show respect and admiration to the world of fashion in Paris d) to take Parisian fashion world by storm 4. According to the text everything is true about some chemists, except they... . a) scorned commerce b) followed Perkin's tests c) felt aversion to chemistry d) were baited to foreign country 5. According to the text.... a) the market for natural dyes was overtaken by Germany b) the British dye industry collapsed c) Perkin paved the way for the first wave of brain drain d) Perkin linked pure chemistry with industry 6. "Fashion is fickle" means it's .... a) capricious b) permanent c) stingy d) jabber

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MICE PASS THE CHEESE FOR SIREN SCENT OF СHОСОLATE By David Derbyshire It gives a whole new meaning to the phrase "death by chocolate". Scientists have invented a baitless mousetrap that attract rodents with the irresistible aroma of chocolate. In tests, the scented mousetrap proved more effective at caching curious mice than snares impregnated with vanilla or cheese. Using chocolate spread instead of cheese has been tried as a lure before, but Martina Flynn, of the manufacturer Sorex, said the snares were the first to use an injection-moulded "attractant" to lure rodents to their doom. In trials, mice were more willing to risk their necks for the smell of chocolate than the other aromas. Ricky Singh, a spokesman for Innovation-Direct, a consultancy service at the University of Warwick, said: "It's the same chocolate flavouring used in foods. In tests it was the outright winner". Multiple Choice Questions 1. Scientists have invented a new .... a) injection b) snare c) aroma d) muzzle 2. The mousetrap .... a) was lurid b) hadn't any enticement c) had a siren d) had a scribble "death by chocolate" 3. Tests proved that.... a) mice were outright winners b) the trap was more effective at catching curious, pregnant mice c) mice regaled on chocolate d) the scented snares were the best 4. In tests, mice acted .... a) jointly b) with reluctance c) under compulsion d) willingly 5. Rodents were lured to their .... a) destruction b) oath c) feast d) injection 6. "Impregnated with" means "to be ... with". a) filled b) packed c) saturated d) covered

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11. DENTIST "DRILLED HEALTHY TOOTH TO PUNISH PATIENT" By Graham Tibbetts A dentist drilled away almost half of a healthy tooth to punish a patient who owed him money, a disciplinary hearing was told yesterday. Neville Kan had not been paid $60 following the woman's previous visit to his surgery in Chiswick, west London, five years earlier. The General Dental Council in London heard that the patient, referred to as Mrs B, returned to the practice for treatment in January last year after losing a filling during a trip to Switzerland. Kan advised her that she also needed a small filling on the adjacent eye-tooth. But Mrs В said she was "horrified" to discover that he had bored away almost half of the eyetooth. "He said, 'Nothing lasts forever, I am not going to last forever...nothing in life is free. You owe me money'." Although her instinct was to flee, she said she was unable to do so because her gold crown was now drilled down to the root. "I couldn't run away from this man who was hurting me," she said. "I felt really degraded, dirty. It was almost like he had raped me," she said. "It was absolutely terrible. There were times I wanted to commit suicide." Kan who qualified in New Zealand 44 years ago, denies serious professional misconduct. The hearing continues. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A dentist drilled away almost half of a healthy tooth because .... a) he was an impostor b) a woman lent him $60 c) he was unable to cure it d) a woman was in debt for a certain amount 2. Mrs В visited the doctor because she wanted to .... a) stop a tooth b) fix the gold crown c) have a tooth pulled out d) cure the root of her eyetooth 3. Undoubtedly, the dentist was .... a) considerate b) awkward c) full of rancour d) magnanimous 4. The doctor intended to ... his client. a) humiliate b) chasten c) impress d) horrify 5.In fact... a) the dentist confused a sick tooth with a healthy one b) a woman wished to tempt the doctor c) Mrs В once abused the dentist's trust d) the doctor was going to rape Mrs В 6. "Professional misconduct" means .... a) unacceptable deportment b) stupid vengeance c) rude habit d) bad hint

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12. MONA LISA By Cristina Peri Rossi The first time I saw Gioconda, I fell in love with her. She dressed in black (a fabric, which was nevertheless, transparent) and I think someone told me she had lost a son. I saw her from a distance, like an apparition, and from that moment on, I became extremely sensitive about everything relating to her. I learned that she lived in another city, and sometimes, she would take short walks to alleviate her grief. Immediately — and sometimes, very slowly — I learned about the things she preferred; I elicited her pleasures without even knowing what they were and endeavored to surround myself with objects that pleased her. I discovered that Giocondo, her husband, was in a dispute with a painter. He was a wealthy and crude businessman and, like all the people of his class, would set out to surround himself with expensive objects, even though he would haggle over their price. She lived in an old house, rebuilt palace, on whose facade Giocondo had commissioned gold inlays. The loss of her son is still recent and she can't find any consolation. Giocondo tries to cheer her up by hiring musicians who sing and dance in the garden, but she doesn't seem to hear them. Gioconda is listless. (Translated from Spanish by Harry Morales) Multiple Choice Questions 1. Why did Gioconda take short walks? a) To unfurl her suffering. b) To ease her anguish. c) To experience more grief. d) To get rid of her lassitude. 2. The narrator saw Gioconda from a distance not like a (an).... a) spectre b) ghost c) angel d) spook 3. The word "endeavored" in line 8 means .... a) strive b) dream c) digress d) crave 4. Giocondo hired musicians because he wanted to .... a) encourage himself b) console musicians c) distract her attention from a painter d) alleviate her sorrow 5. According to the text everything is true, except.... a) Gioconda argued about price b) Gioconda was inconsolable c) Giocondo’s house was decorated with gold pattern made by setting metal into its surface d) Gioconda wore opaque clothes 6. The phrase "haggle over" in line 13 means .... a) bargain b) swop c) speculate d) grieve

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WHAT A COMEBACK Watch out; boomerangs are back. No pun intended. The resurgence of the sport appeals to my inherent laziness — for once you're thrown a boomerang, you can remain rooted to the spot and it will return to you. No more running after the Frisbee or hunting for a lost ball. I just needed a lesson. My brother advised me: "Put some effort into it. Flick your wrist. Look after your fingernails". But his main observation was that I "throw like a girl". I'd be in for a hard time. Wooden, banana-shaped and rather heavy, his boomerang was the real thing, handmade by aborigines in the traditional manner. Thousands of years ago, the boomerang was an ideal weapon: if the thrower missed his target, the missile would return to him; if he made a hit, he got lunch. In retrospect, I think my brother's boomerang was supposed to be ornamental. After hours of practice, it didn't come back to us once. So it was not with confidence that I met up with boomerang maestro David Strang for my lesson. I brightened up, however, when he told me that his "Rangs" are guaranteed to return when thrown as directed, that kids as young as eight are great at it, and that I'd be proficient after half an hour. David went over the technique several times: face the wind, turn 45 degrees to the right of it, keep the boomerang vertical and hurl it straight to the horizon. I chucked it as hard as I could. After a dozen or so poor throws, my elbow was hurting but so was my pride. David's encouragement kept me going. I want to get better at it. I want to prove that it's not just a boy thing. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Boomerangs were originally used for .... a) sending messages b) attacking the enemy c) hunting animals d) interception of missiles 2. Boomerangs are traditionally made of... . a) metal b) timber c) straw d) tile 3. "Ornamental" can be substituted by ….. a) used as decoration rather than for a practical purpose b) eye-catching c) oriental d) covered with a lot of decoration 4. The narrator considered that his brother's boomerang was .... a) decorative b) only for girls c) rather curved d) too light 5. Boomerangs should be thrown .... a) towards the sun b) into the wind c) from the shoulder d) opposite the horizon 6. What stylistic method is mentioned in the passage by the author? a) Metaphor. b) Simile. c) Play of words. d) Paraphrase.

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14. HOW TO SKIVE Skiving is a skill. The good skiver, like the competent motorist, attracts no attention. There is only the quiet personal satisfaction that comes from a job not well done. Skiving can be divided into two distinct parts; skiving off work and skiving at work. Minority pursuits such as skiving at home — children "forgetting" to tidy their room — can safely be ignored. It is in relation to authority figures, primarily schoolteachers and employers, that skiving is most commonly practised by the British people. Skiving has a long history stretching back to Homer and his skiver Thersites, who managed to skive off the Troian wars. Modern skiving has its roots in national service, when a generation of soldiers learned the skiving skills they were to take into British industry with such spectacular results in the 1960s and 1970s. Off-work skiving is largely concerned with exploiting the sick leave system. Here the groundwork done at school — where the skiver will have learned that the best illness to claim are those that (a) sound serious and (b) are impossible to disprove — is refined and sharpened. A "pain behind the eyes" fits the bill very well. In-work skiving is the bread-and-butter of the skiver's life. First, ensure a tool of your trade is permanently tucked under your arm. Second, walk briskly and purposefully wherever you go. Third, leave a jacket permanently slung over the back of your seat. With luck, no one will ever ask you to do anything. And what more could the true skiver ask? Multiple Choice Questions 1. A real skiver tries to be .... a) irreplaceable c) energetic

b) polite d) imperceptible

2. The narrator says that we can disregard skiving …. a) off work b) in the army c) at home d) at work 3. What does a skiver do? a) Works hard. c) Works slowly.

b) Avoids work. d) Stays away from risky work.

4. The verb "skive" can be better replaced by .... a) bunk off b) despise c) pay no attention to d) disprove 5. When a child skives off school we call him (her).... a) a coward b) diligent c) zealous d) a shirker 6. To be a good skiver you don't have to .... a) leave your jacket on your chair b) walk quickly and thoughtfully c) claim a serious disproof d) have a tool of your trade under your arm

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15. MAGICAL BEASTS In every land people tell stories about magical beasts. The strangest beasts of all lived in Ireland. They were called the Fomoriens. The Fomoriens were strange because each one was different. One might have the body of a fish. He would walk with his tail. Another might have only one leg. He would have to hop. Some Fomoriens had no ears. Some had only one eye. But others had three eyes. That kept things even. Most Fomoriens were just plain ugly. But some of them were beautiful. They had golden hair and nice smiles. They looked like real people. But inside they were still strange beasts. These beasts went to war against people. They won the war. For many years they ruled the land. Those were terrible years. The leader of the Fomoriens had a magic eye. It could kill with just one look. Then the people found a hero. He had beautiful golden hair and a sweet smile. Yes, he was part man and part Fomorien. In fact his grandfather was the one with the magic eye! He led the people to war against the Fomoriens. Finally the people won. Only four of the beasts were still alive. The rest had all been killed. The hero drove the last Fomoriens far away. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Fomoriens lived .... a) on a large island west of Great Britain b) in caves c) on a large island east of Great Britain d) on a continent 2. The Fomoriens were .... a) ugly b) stupid c) weird d) hostile 3. Some of the Fomoriens .... a) were blind b) were deaf c) had three legs d) might have the body of a worm 4. Some Fomoriens .... a) killed each other c) were unsightly

b) swam like turtles d) were like real people inside

5. The Fomorien leader had .... a) a hazel eye b) a mystical eye c) a cursed eye d) a sinister eye 6. After the people won .... a) the leader was killed b) only five creatures were left alive c) the hero made the last beast escape d) all the beasts were dead

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16. THE BAG WE LIVE IN Our skin is like a bag that we live in. Inside the bag we are mostly water. Our water is like water in the sea. It is very salty. Like the ocean, we can lose water. Our skin bag keeps our body's ocean from drying up. Our skin keeps out sunshine. Too much sun can hurt us. Skin also keeps out dirt. That's important, because some kind of dirt can make us sick. Our skin feels things. It feels warm things, cold things, things it touches, and things that hurt it. Our hair is really just a special kind of skin. It helps keep things out of our eyes, ears, and noses. Hair is also good for keeping us warm. When we get goose bumps, our body hairs stand up. Then the hairs hold air close to our skin like a thin blanket. Our nails are like very hard skin. They help keep our fingers and toes from getting hurt. Our nails aren't as strong as the nails that animals have. But they are good for scratching backs and picking up dimes. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Our bodies are mostly .... a) skin b) salty liquid c) salt d) water 2. Our skin keeps in .... a) our body's temperature b) the sunshine c) salt d) our body's water 3. Skin keeps out.... a) food b) water c) fat d) filth 4. Our skin feels .... a) things it hurts b) things that are flat c) things it fingers d) things that are brown 5. Hair is good for .... a) getting goose bumps b) keeping our heads from getting hurt c) keeping us warm d) making us pretty 6. Nails help keep .... a) our toes sharp b) our fingers from getting small c) our toes from damaging d) our fingers from manicure

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17. THE STORY OF RUBBER Rubber was brought from South America by travellers. At first people knew just one way to use it. They would use balls of rubber to rub out pencil marks on paper. And that's how rubber got its name! In those days rubber was shipped in pieces shaped like bottles. Workers would make cuts in the rubber trees. Then they would catch the rubber juice in glass bottles. Soon the juice would get hard. Then workers would break the glass. The hard rubber would stay in the bottle shape. A man came up with good ideas about how to use rubber. His name was Macintosh. He found a way to melt hard rubber back into rubber juice. He would pour the rubber juice onto some cloth. He would spread it very thin and let it dry. This cloth did not get wet. Macintosh named this cloth after himself. Soon everyone was using mackintosh cloth. People used it to make raincoats and boots. People poured rubber juice into new shapes. Then it got hard again. In this way people made things like water hoses and bicycle tires. They even made parts of machines. Rubber became very important. In just twenty years it changed everyone's life. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Rubber got its name because .... a) workers called it that name b) it was used to mark on paper c) it was used to remove pencil marks d) it was used to fix pencil marks 2. Rubber was shipped in .... a) glass bottles c) pieces shaped like bottles

b) cans d) big rubber blocks

3. Macintosh found a way to .... a) blend rubber b) pour rubber juice c) turn rubber back into rubber juice d) make a cloth that wouldn't burn 4. Macintosh cloth was used to make .... a) water hoses b) waterproof coats c) machine parts d) rags 5. People used rubber juice to make .... a) rubber balls b) gloves c) machine parts d) car tires 6. Rubber.... a) improves everyone's life b) makes everyone's life worse c) was useless d) became very expensive

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18. THE LUCKIEST SANDWICH IN THE WORLD Mr Freidman was in a shopping centre in Birmingham the other day when he suddenly felt very hungry. He decided to buy himself a sandwich, but when he took his wallet out he discovered that he only had a $50 note. It was six o'clock in the evening, he was really hungry and nowhere else was open. Then he had a crazy idea! He'd buy some lottery tickets and the sandwich. He never did stupid things like that and in fact he never bought lottery tickets. It was the first time in his life. Mr Freidman was a cleaner and his wife was a secretary and they didn't have much money, so when he got home his wife was very angry. "We look after our money," she said, "and you go throw it away on lottery tickets! We're saving for holiday in Brighton!" That Saturday they watched the results on TV. They won millions. It's going to change their lives. Mr Freidman says that it was the luckiest sandwich in the world, and it was the luckiest crazy decision! And Mrs Freidman has forgiven him for wasting their money. They're going to go on that holiday, but not to Brighton. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Mr Freidman used his ... in a shopping centre. a) purse b) notebook c) case d) cover 2. That evening Mr Freidman .... a) craved for money b) desired meal c) felt discomfort d) neglected meal 3. Mrs Freidman was furious because .... a) he stole $50 b) she hated her husband c) he misspent some cash d) he earned a $50 note 4. Mrs Freidman mentioned that they ... their money. a) looked for b) lent c) wasted d) reserved 5. Mrs Freidman complained because .... a) she dreamt of a holiday b) she was greedy c) her husband was a gambler d) she spoiled a holiday 6. Mrs Freidman showed mercy to her husband for ... their money. a) losing b) making bad use of c) saving d) increasing

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19. RIP VAN WINKLE One day Rip Van Winkle went hunting. Just as he was starting home, someone called his name. He was afraid. But he followed the sound. Soon he met a little old man. The man asked him to carry a small barrel. Rip and the old man walked for a long time. Finally they met some people who were bowling. Rip poured some water from the barrel for everyone. It smelled funny, but he was very thirsty. So he poured some for himself. After he took a drink, he felt very strange. All at once he fell asleep. When Rip woke up, no one was around. His new gun was dirty and worn out. He thought the strange people were playing a trick. "They took my gun and left me this old one", Rip thought. But he picked it up and went home. When he got to the town, everyone laughed. "Look at those funny old clothes!" they said. Then Rip walked through the town. There were new houses he'd never seen before. Nothing was the same. He couldn't find people he knew. "Doesn't anyone know Rip Van Winkle?" he cried. "Yes, I know him", said one old man. "Why, you are Rip! But where have you been for twenty years?" he asked. Rip told everyone about the strange mountain people. Rip never went back into the mountains again. Multiple Choice Questions 1. When someone called his name Rip was .... a) glad b) surprised c) petrified d) worried 2. A stranger asked Rip to .... a) fetch a small can b) carry ajar c) hold a strange box d) take a round container with bulging sides, flat top and bottom to another place 3. Rip felt very strange after .... a) he poured some water for himself c) he tasted some liquid

b) he met a little old man d) drowsiness

4. When Rip wake up his new gun was .... a) soiled and shabby b) unclean and broken c) dirty and damaged d) polished and worn out 5. When Rip came back home .... a) everything was the same b) all his friends were dead c) only one person could recognise him d) everyone was glad to meet him 6. Rip told everyone .... a) a lie c) a fairy tale

b) about the strange creatures d) about the weird people

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GARDEN ART If you're looking at a tree in the shape of a bear, it's a topiary. A topiary is a tree or a bush that is trained into a shape. Topiaries are a kind of sculpture. Growing a topiary garden takes both time and skill. The first thing a topiary gardener does is make a drawing. The drawing shows the form the gardener would like a tree or bush to take. The gardener then chooses the bush for the topiary. In June of the plant's first year, the gardener looks for new leaves. When the leaves grow, then it is time to shape the bottom of the bush. The gardener shapes the bottom of the bush for about five years. The top is not trimmed during this time. In the fifth year the gardener begins to shape the whole bush. Sometimes branches are bent to form a shape. The gardener wires the branches in place. Once a topiary has been started, it needs care all year: in the summer it must be clipped many times to keep its shape, in the winter the bushes don't grow. But the gardeners still have to brush snow off the plants. Snow can hurt the flat parts of the plants. Multiple Choice Questions 1. What does a topiary gardener do firstly? a) Chooses the bush. b) Carves a drawing. c) Draws a sketch. d) Cuts out a figure. 2. The leaves grow, then it's time to .... a) outline the top of the bush b) fertilise the bush c) form the bottom of the bush d) dig up the bush and plant it in another place 3. What does the gardener do when the branches are bent? a) Cuts them off. b) Ties them up. c) Whites them. d) Burns them. 4. What helps the shrub grow in summer? a) Watering. b) Ants. c) Cutting. d) Ploughing. 5. Growing a topiary garden needs .... a) money and time b) knowledge and tools c) an ability that comes from practice and time d) neatness and time 6. Topiary is an art of.... a) selecting trees and bushes b) growing trees and bushes c) trimming trees and bushes into ornamental shapes d) cutting bears' tops

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21. RACE AGAINST DEATH The temperature was about thirty degrees below zero. Sharp winds whipped the city. Thick snow made it impossible to see. January of 1925 was a cruel month in Nome, Alaska. The weather wasn't the only problem in Nome that winter. Diphtheria was spreading through the city. Diphtheria is a terrible disease that people rarely get today. But in 1925 many children had caught it, and some had even died. Somehow doctors had to get some medicine to stop this disease. There was none in Nome. The nearest place to get it was Anchorage, far away in another part of the state. In those days no railroads led to Nome. The only way to travel in winter was in sled pulled by big dogs. Officials had no choice. Quickly they made a plan. The medicine would go by train from Anchorage to the town of Nenanna. Dogs and sleds would have to take it from there to Nome. When the medicine reached Nenanna, a sled team was ready to leave for Nome. The team stopped along the way to change dogs and drivers. After 500 miles, the team was met by another team that had started out from Nome. Now the going got rough. It took three teams to cover the last lap. Finally the last brave team pulled into Nome. The sick children were saved. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Strong winds ... the city. a) cut b) thrashed c) bit d) destroyed 2. Diphtheria is a .... a) horrible malady c) painful suffering

b) terrible curse d) painless treatment

3. ... had no choice. a) doctors b) government c) rescuers d) sick men 4. When did the medicine leave Anchorage? a) Before some children died. b) When the drivers arrived. c) After the sled left Nenanna. d) After the officials made a plan. 5. When did the going get rough? a) Before they left Nenanna. b) After they reached Nome. c) After 7,500 kilometres. d) When they went by train. 6. When did the medicine reach Nome? a) After the weather cleared. b) During January of 1925. c) Before anyone got sick. d) While two children were operating.

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TRAPPED It was December 1984. A large herd of hungry white whales were chasing codfish. The whales chased the codfish from the sea into the Senyavin Strait. An angry east wind blew up. The water of the strait began to freeze. Only small pools of open water remained. The whales were trapped! A hunter spotted the whales and saw that they were in trouble. White whales can break through thin ice, but this ice was too thick. The hunter knew that whales must come to the water's surface to breathe, There was not enough room for thousands of ten-foot whales to breathe. Soon helicopters were on the scene. They dropped frozen fish to feed the whales. But the whales still couldn't breathe. They were beginning to die. A special ship was sent for to ram through the ice. The captain had to get the whales to follow the ship out to sea. Several days passed, and the whales didn't leave. Finally someone remembered that porpoises like music. Whales are related to porpoises. So, the crew of the ship played all kinds of music on the deck. Slowly they began to follow the ship. After a while the whales got used to the ship. By February, the white whales were safely in the sea once more. Multiple Choice Questions 1. What happened in December 1984? a) A large herd of white seals stuck in ice. b) A big group of white whales was pursued by hunters. c) A large shoal of white whales followed the codfish. d) A big group of white whales was hunting goldfish. 2. A hunter.... a) sported with the whales c) hunted the whales

b) noticed the whales d) chased the whales

3. Why were the whales in trouble? a) Because they were hungry. b) Because they could break through thin ice. c) Because they could be out of breath. d) There was not enough room for whales under the ice. 4. To rescue the whales people had to .... a) feed them b) catch them c) break the ice d) make the whales swim after the ship 5. Finally someone .... a) recalled that fish like music b) recollected that whales like music c) read out that porpoises like music d) proclaimed that porpoises like songs 6. After awhile the whales .... a) attacked the ship c) shunned the ship

b) got accustomed to the ship d) got attached to the crew

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23. WARNING OF RSI RISK IN COMPUTER GAMES A doctor warned parents yesterday of the dangers of "nintendonitis" after treating a schoolboy who suffered an arm injury because he spent too much time playing computer games. Dr Diana Macgregor believes the 11-year-old could be the first reported case of computerinduced REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY (RSI) in a child. His mother took him to hospital after a teacher expressed concern that he was experiencing pain while writing on his return to school following the Christmas holidays last year. He was examined at hospital and no swelling, bruising or reddening of the skin was found, and there was no bone or soft tissue tenderness. It emerged that he had been given a computer as a Christmas present and had been using his dominant left hand to manipulate the controls. Dr Macgregor said: "The child reluctantly agreed to stop using his computer for a week and his symptoms disappeared". Dr Macgregor suggested that "hand care" should be taught in school to young computer game enthusiasts. In America RSI was reaching "epidemic proportions". Schools had already introduced hand care instruction. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Why was the boy treated? a) Because he endured sickness. b) Because he experienced harm of his upper limb. c) Because he felt pain in his toe. d) Because he suffered an army cruelty. 2. His pain was caused by .... a) tension b) immovables c) fall d) shock 3. The boy had .... a) bruising c) no damages

b) swelling d) bone tenderness

4. Where did the boy get a computer? a) He won it on Christmas Eve. b) He was given it. c) He presented it. d) He bought it. 5. When did his symptoms vanish? a) When he took some pills. b) When he stopped writing. c) When he quitted using his computer. d) When he crashed his computer. 6. The boy .... a) was addicted to his computer b) didn't follow the safety precautions c) was too young for playing computer d) was a delicate child

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24. A LESSON IN HONESTY A thief who dropped a winning lottery ticket at the scene of his crime has been given a lesson in honesty. His victim, who picked up the ticket, then claimed the $25,000 prize, managed to trace him, and handed over the cash. The robbery happened when maths professor was changing a tire on an Italian motorway. Another motorist, who stopped "to help" stole a suitcase from his car and drove off. The professor found the dropped ticket and stuffed it in his pocket before driving home. Next day, he saw the lottery results on TV and, uncrumpling the ticket, realised it was a winner. Then began a battle with his conscience. Eventually, he decided he could not keep the money despite having been robbed. Не advertised in newspapers and on radio. Professor Sabbatucci received hundreds of calls. But there was one voice he recognised — and he arranged to meet the man in a park. The robber, a 35-year-old unemployed father of two, gave back the suitcase and burst into tears. He could not believe what was happening. "Why didn't you keep the money?" he asked. The professor replied: "I couldn't because it's not mine". Then he walked off, spurning the thief's offer of a reward. Multiple Choice Questions 1. What happened on an Italian motorway? a) Accident. b) Mugging. c) Ragging. d) Wedding. 2. What was the professor doing on a motorway? a) He was repairing a wing. b) He was changing a roof-rack. c) He was replacing a wheel. d) He was fixing an exhaust-pipe. 3. What did the professor do with the ticket? a) Placed it in a small bag that is sewed in a garment. b) Tore it. c) Pushed it into his wallet. d) Threw it away. 4. When did the professor understand it was a winner? a) When he uncreased the ticket. b) When he found the ticket. c) When he grasped the ticket. d) When he dropped the ticket. 5. The professor didn't retain the money despite .... a) his conscience b) having been mugged c) his salary d) having been beaten up 6. Why did the victim decline the thief's proposal of fee? a) Because he was a 35-year-old unemployed. b) Because he was a father of two. c) Because of his principles. d) Because he was rich.

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25. HOME LESSONS FOR SCHOOLGIRLS UPBRAIDED OVER HAIR EXTENSIONS Two schoolgirls facing GCSE exams are being taught at home after being banned from classrooms by a headmaster who considered their hairstyles to be "attention-seeking". They have been told they will not be allowed to study with other pupils until they either tie their hair in buns or take out the plaits. The 15-year-olds paid $85 each to have chest-length extensions braided into their last month. After their hairstyles went unmentioned for two weeks, they were ordered into "seclusion", studying by themselves in a separate room. Their parents were so appalled by the decision to keep them from other pupils that they are now helping the girls to study at home, "...the school is willing to impede Faye's results by punishing her during the run-up to her GCSE exams", Faye's mother said. Ted Rowley, the headmaster, said yesterday: "The school rules say that extreme or attentionseeking hairstyles are inappropriate. It is a matter of judgment after that, of course, as to what constitutes attention seeking... The school is a community and its members have to conform to a set of standards. With 1,000 pupils, the others can be very quick to pick up when someone is flouting those rules. It is up to the parents to decide if their children are going to support the standards we have set. If they do not, they are free to send them to other schools with different standards to our own". Multiple Choice Questions 1. Two schoolgirls were .... a) expelled from school for their behaviour b) not allowed to enter the classroom because of their sedulity c) shirkers d) forbidden to attend school because of their hairdos 2. Their hairstyles were .... a) trendy b) eye-catching 3. The girls had to .... a) braid their hair c) dye their hair

c) seductive

d) out-of-date

b) have their hair cut d) cover their hair with wigs

4. Why are their parents helping the girls to study at home? a) They were dismayed by the decision of the headmaster. b) They neglect all the rules. c) They don't want them to be behind. d) They were surprised by the decision of the headmaster. 5. The man in charge considered that.... a) the girls had to flout their school b) the girls had to accommodate themselves to the rules of their school c) the girls had to be followed by their classmates d) the parents had to support their girls 6. The headmaster wanted .... a) to change the set of standards c) to flout the girls

b) to prevent the girls' success at the exams d) the standards were supported by the girls

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26. KILLER ROBOTS Robots are taking over many hazardous jobs, but they are also creating new hazards, according to a report by the International Labour Office (ILO). Being struck by a robot arm in motion, being trapped between the robot and another object, and being hit by an object dropped by an overloaded robot gripper are the main hazards that robots pose to humans, according to the report of Safety in the Use of Industrial Robots. In many cases, workers are in the way when the robot makes a sudden, unexpected movement or starts when it isn't supposed to. Such miscues may result from software problems, electrical interference, or faults in the hydraulic, electrical, or pneumatic controls. The first robot-related death occurred in Japan in 1981, and one survey of robot use in Japan showed a total of 10 fatalities reported by the end of April 1987. The causes were the victim's error in four cases and "spontaneous start of robot" in other six, according to Japan's Ministry of Labour. Each year, approximately five or six workers injured in robot accidents in Japan, and there have been many more "near-misses". Even when robots are used safely, other problems may develop, says the report. When robots create unemployment of humans, workers may suffer from ulcers, colitis, and emotional stress. New jobs created by robotisation generate stress, too, such as anxiety in trying to keep with a robot's work pace. "In general, while technological innovation may free people from physical labour, it may give rise to mental load", the report notes, "and it is thought likely that new occupational diseases may arise in time." Multiple Choice Questions 1. Robots are used to fulfill a lot of... jobs. a) tedious b) useful c) dangerous d) boring 2. What is begotten by an automatic machine? a) Movement. b) Material wealth. c) Profit. d) Hazard. 3. The word "gripper" in line 6 is closest in meaning to which of the following? a) A device for gripping. b) A part for squeezing, holding, replacing. c) A device for testing. d) A part for searching for something. 4. Why can an object be dropped by a robot? a) Because of the burden. b) Because of the size of grippers. c) Because of the water supply. d) Because of the mistakes made by humans. 5. What happened in Japan in 1981? a) The first robot's death. c) The first robot-related decease.

b) The first robot-related error. d) The first robot-related research.

6. The phrase "to keep pace with" in line 21-22 could be replaced by .... a) not to surrender b) not to lose c) to give up d) not to lag behind

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The life of Vincent Van Gogh

In April 1899, Van Gogh had checked himself into the asylum in the monastery, looking for relief from the epilepsy that had tormented him in Aries, where he had threatened his friend Paul Gauguin with a razor and had cut off his own left ear lobe during a fit. When the voices drove him to Saint Remy, Van Gogh was in one of the most productive periods any artist has ever had, creating in the last 21/2 years of his life the work that most people know him by. But there were times in Saint Remy, after he ate paint, when his doctors wouldn't let him near the artist's palette. It's quite remarkable,, then, that during his year in the asylum he managed to create a series of beloved masterpieces. Van Gogh was the most autobiographical artist, and: his works reveal much about the last years of his passionate life. Vincent Van Gogh was the eldest son of a priest; his formal education was patchy, but he was a great reader who loved literature and biography. At 16 he went to work for an art dealer, a job that his younger brother, Theo, followed him into. At 23, Vincent was fired. He then wandered through odd jobs before he decided to become an artist. "I want to paint drawings that will touch people", he wrote to Theo in 1882. "What I want to express, in both figure and landscape, isn't anything sentimental or melancholy, but deep anguish. In short, I want to get to the point where people see my work and say: that man feels deeply, that man feels keenly." But poverty and the pain of having sold only a few of his paintings pressed in on Van Gogh as his health failed. Some years later Van Gogh shot himself. 29


1. The word "asylum" as used in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following: a) a hotel; b) a pantry; c) a place where people who are mentally ill could be cared for; d) a place for keeping robbers. 2. What made Vincent suffer very much? a) Relief. b) A disorder of the nervous system that causes person to become unconscious suddenly. c) Pangs of conscience. d) Threats of Paul Gauguin. 3. Why did Vincent cut off his own left ear lobe? a) Because he wanted to hurt himself. b) Because of a sudden attack of the illness. c) Because he was fit. d) Because of Paul Gauguin. 4. In line 12 the word "reveal" could best be replaced with .... a) to recall b) to spread c) to publish d) to disclose 5. According to the text his education .... a) was perfect b) delt with patchwork c) was good in some parts, but not in others d) was academic: 6. What led Vincent to committing suicide? a) Want and depression. b) Lack of money and envy. c) Energy and circumstances. d) Masterpieces and melancholy.

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More than half of all teenagers questioned in a survey said that they had been bullied and many contemplated suicide to escape the torment. Some young people questioned said they had become targets of abuse and harassment via "sick" text messages sent to their mobile phones. More than one child in 10 had experienced severe bullying, including physical violence, blackmail and racism, according to the study conducted by the charity Young Voice, which questioned 4,344 teenagers, aged 13 to 19. In some cases young children carried baseball or cricket bats as weapons, while in other schools teenagers complained of having their belongings damaged by fire. The survey found that bullying caused serious physical and mental problem, including depression, suicidal instincts and drug taking. It found that severely bullied boys were more than five times as likely to be depressed, while severely bullied girls were twice as likely to say they hardly ever felt happy or confident. One 14-year-old girl said: "I hated myself, I felt there must be something wrong or terrible about me for this to happen. I felt so ashamed". The study showed that home life played a vital part in determining whether a child was likely to become a victim of bullying. It found that severely bullied boys tended to live with only one parent who failed to give them the love and support they required. Adrienne Katz, of Young Voice, who co-wrote the report, Bullying in Britain: Testimonies from Teenagers, said that "urgent work" was needed to combat the problem of bullying in schools. 31


1. What intimidates persons in their teens? a) Letters. b) Gossips. c) News. d) A piece of information. 2. What did teenagers do to avoid the extreme suffering? a) Began to bully their bullies. b) Thought about suicide. c) Got away from the city. d) Committed suicide. 3. Bullied teenagers hardly ever .... a) felt dauntless b) lived with only one parent c) felt pressure d) failed the exams 4. A bully is a person .... a) who complains b) who contemplates someone c) who teases someone d) that people aim at when attacking object 5. Some teenagers .... a) had become objects of mistreat and pressure b) had made a survey c) had blackmailed their bullies d) had sold their mobile phones 6. According to the article we have to .... a) support bullying b) feel ashamed c) threaten bullies d) repulse bullying

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I don't know if it happens the other way around, but almost everybody who lives in the city sometimes thinks of leaving it. Stuck in a traffic jam, squeezing onto the underground train, pushing a buggy at noxious exhaust-fume level along a crowded street, we imagine a more innocent world, where the horizons are wide and the air pure, where birds sing from the tree tops. Of course, the countryside isn't natural any more; it is manufactured and tame. The forests have gone, the coasts are eroded by global warming. There is oil on the beaches, pollution in the rock pools. The countryside has been abolished; the hedgerows where wildlife flourished have been wiped away, and pesticides have meant the death of hundreds of species of insects and birds and wild flowers. Yet I am very glad to be leaving the city. I don't want to be in the swing of things really, in the grip of fashion and speed and ambition. I won't miss the city where everything is carved up by roads and dual carriageways, and with mile upon mile of houses, factories, shops, broken windows, untended gardens, stations, industrial wastelands, great rubbish dumps, scrap yards, plastic bags flying in the dirty wind, cemeteries, and walls covered with graffiti. I dream of the sensuous and earthy smells of the countryside; wet grass, pigs, flowers, mulched leaves, the salty east wind, autumn bonfires. I long to be in the garden, sinking my fingers into the earth, getting my hands dirty at last. I imagine evenings, after work is done, when we can all drive to the coast and walk on the shingle beaches. Maybe we'll all go mad in the country, or maybe we'll end up saner and more contented. Maybe in a year or two we'll return and be back in the crowds dreaming of escape. But maybe we won't. 33


1. The author thinks people want to .... a) ruin the city b) escape from the city c) stuck in the traffic jams d) exhaust the country 2. The narrator considers the countryside .... a) flourishes b) has been destroyed c) is in the swing of things d) is in grip of fashion 3. What does the countryside attract the author with? a) Untended yards. b) Wastelands. c) Cemeteries. d) The smell of wet leaves. 4. What is the author's attitude to the city? a) He longs for it. b) He can't stand it. c) He doesn't mind it. d) He adores it. 5. What does he miss? a) Scrap yards. c) Rubbish dumps.

b) Being in the garden. d) The crowds.

6. The author dreams about... beaches. a) sandy b) empty c) pebbly d) crowded

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The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is located just below the diaphragm. Most of the liver lies on the right side of the body. Part of it extends to the left side and partly covers the stomach. The liver acts as a filter of the blood and a storehouse of digested food. It also acts as a digestive gland producing a digestive juice. Because it has so many functions, the liver is often called "jack-of-all-trades". Changing amino acids into carbohydrates or fats is one function of the liver. The liver changes the excess amino acids to glucose, glycogen, or fats. Amino acids contain nitrogen. When amino acids are changed to carbohydrates or fats, the nitrogen in them is removed. This nitrogen becomes part of ammonia, a very poisonous substance. The liver changes the ammonia to urea. The liver releases the urea into the blood. The blood then takes the urea to the kidneys. Here it is removed from the body. The liver also regulates the level of sugar in the blood. Keeping a normal blood sugar level is very important. Sugars are the primary source of energy for all cells. Without energy, our cells wouldn't be able to function. Regulating the level of blood sugar is not simple. This liver function is controlled by hormones. The liver stores important substances such as vitamins and iron. It also makes many substances that are found in blood plasma. Worn-out red blood cells are broken down by the liver. Some of the products from this process are reused. The rest are waste products and are removed from the body by the large intestine. 35

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The liver is .... a) the largest cell in the body b) the largest organ which secretes substances having special functions in the body c) the largest gland of the stomach d) the largest filter of digestive juice 2. All of the following are true, except a) the liver acts as a storehouse of digested food b) the liver is called 'jack-of-all-trades" c) the liver acts as a digestive cell producing a digestive juice d) the liver changes amino acids into carbohydrates or fats 3. The liver changes the excess amino acids to a) glycogen or fat b) glucose and nitrogen c) bile d) a very poisonous substance 4. All of the following is true, except — a) the liver regulates the level of sugar in the blood b) the liver changes a very poisonous substance to urea c) urea is removed from the body by the liver d) amino acids are used in making hormones 5. According to the text "Without energy ... can't function". a) hormones b) the large intestine c) the kidneys d) cells 6. The liver ... . a) makes vitamins and iron b) removes some wastes from the body c) stores important substances d) regulates the level of blood pressure

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For centuries, evil spirits in the body were thought to be the cause of illnesses. Bloodletting was a process used to drain blood of these evil spirits. Until the nineteenth century, bloodletting was the treatment for many illnesses. Barbers were the most common "surgeons". When people felt ill, they went to a barber for bloodletting. A striped pole and basin were the signs of the barbershop. The white stripe stood for the bandage and the red stripe stood for the blood. Today the barber pole is a reminder of the time when bloodletting was an important part of a barber's job. Blood is one of the most important tissues in the body. It transports materials such as digested food, water, and oxygen to our cells. It carries wastes from the cells to the parts of the body where they are released. There are two main parts to whole blood — a liquid part and a solid part. About half of whole blood is clear, yellowish-coloured liquid called plasma. Most of plasma is water. Plasma proteins fight disease and help clot the blood. The diseasefighting plasma proteins are called antibodies. The solid part of the blood consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells are round, somewhat like donuts without holes. Mature red blood cells contain hemoglobin. It gives the red blood cells their red colour. The function of hemoglobin is to combine with oxygen in the lungs and carry it to the cells. White blood cells are larger than red blood cells. There are fewer white blood cells than red blood cells. White blood cells attack foreign invaders faster than the antibodies. For this reason, the white blood cells are known as the body's "first line" of defense. Platelets are tiny, colourless particles that help form blood clots, which stop the bleeding from a cut or injury. Blood is often called the "gift of life". Many lives are saved each year by blood transfusions. 37


1. Bloodletting was a process used to .... a) let evil spirits drain blood of people b) make blood flow away from patient's body c) treat vampires until the nineteenth century d) make the barbershop crowded 2. What were the signs of the barbershop? a) A checked pole and basin. b) A striped basin and pole. c) A large round bowl for holding liquids and striped pole. d) A striped mug and leeches. 3. Blood carries ... to our cells. a) carbon b)wastes c) plasma d)water 4. What fights foreign substances? a) Antibodies. b) Red blood cells. c) Plasma. d) Hemoglobin. 5. Cells in the blood that contain hemoglobin and carry oxygen are called .... a) donuts cells b) red blood cells c) white blood cells d) antibodies 6. What do platelets do? a) Separate plasma, red cells and white cells. b) Help form blood clots. c) Transfer bacteria. d) Stop infection.

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KINGDOM FUNGI Some fungi make us sneeze, others dirty our bathtubs, and many kinds spoil our food. These are some of the ways that fungi affect our lives. Most members of the kingdom Fungi are multicellular organisms with a complex cell structure, cell walls, and no chlorophyll. You can find them growing both inside and on top of their food. Fungi eat by releasing digestive chemicals into their food and absorbing the digested nutrients into their bodies. The fungi are divided into groups based on their body structure and how they produce reproductive structures called spores. Have you ever noticed a black or gray powdery substance growing on bread? These are the spore capsules of bread mould, an example of a threadlike fungus. By the way, penicillin was discovered, quite by chance, by Alexander Fleming when he noticed some mould on his plate. Mushrooms, puffballs, and bracket fungi are members of Club Fungi group. These familiar structures grow on the surface of soil or on dead trees. They come in a variety of shapes and colours. The members of Sac Fungi group resemble a wrinkled mushroom. Many of them are parasites that attack and cause diseases in several kinds of trees, such as elms and chestnut. Some even cause diseases in humans. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Fungi.... a) can be found on decaying matter b) are monocellular organisms c) have chlorophyll d) have simple cell structure 2. All of the following is true, except.... a) some fungi make us sneeze b) some fungi eat insects c) some fungi cause diseases in humans d) some fungi spoil our food 3. Very small cells that are produced by some fungi and that develop into new fungi are called .... a) seeds b) mould c) powder d) spores 4. Sac Fungi.... a) grow on bread b) wrinkle mushrooms c) absorb soil d) look like a wrinkled mushroom 5. What grows on bread? a) Mould. b) Penicillin. c) Sprats. d) Puffballs. 6. What are the effects of fungi? a) Drowsiness. b) Cough. c) Dirt. d) Melancholy.

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ALIEN INVASION A group of tiny aliens left their ship in Mobile, Alabama. Their bodies were red and shiny, and they walked on six legs. The aliens looked around and then quietly crawled off to make homes in their new land. In 1918, fire ants were accidentally imported to the USA in a freighter ship from South America. In their new environment, the imported fire ants had no natural predators or competitors. In addition, these ants are extremely aggressive, and their colonies can harbour many queens, instead of just one queen like many other ant species. With all these advantages it is not surprising that the ants have spread like wildfire. Imported fire ants have done a lot of damage as they have spread across the USA. Because they are attracted to electrical currents, these ants chew through wire insulation, causing shorts in electrical circuits. The invaders have also managed to disturb the natural balance of native ecosystems. In some areas, they have killed off 70 % of the native ant species and 40 % of other native insect species. Each year, about 25,000 people seek medical attention for painful fire-ant stings. Although about 157 chemicals, including ammonia, gasoline, extracts from manure, and harsh chemical pesticides, are registered for use against fire ants, most have little or no success. Unfortunately, many of these remedies harm the environment. Multiple Choice Questions 1. How did fire ants get into the USA? a) They were exported to the USA in a freighter ship. b) They crawled off the frightened sheep. c) They were brought by a large ship that carries goods. d) They were imported to the USA in a kayak. 2. According to the text what were the advantages of fire ants? a) They were natural predators. b) They had no victims. c) They colonised many harbours. d) They had no rivals. 3. Fire ants have done a lot of damage because they .... a) attract electrical currents b) bite wires c) cause shots d) chew remedies 4. Fire ants .... a) are alien species in the USA c) balance native ecosystems

b) are tiny albinos d) are eaten by many other ant species

5. All of the following is true, except.... a) fire ants are destructive c) fire ants can bear some chemicals 6. Fire ants .... a) seek people for stinging c) kill sick ants

b) fire ants can cause ignition d) fire ants are forest attendants

b) live in a colony d) are fireproof

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WHY RABBIT HAS NO FIERCE CLAWS According to an Iroquois legend, when Rabbit was being created, he asked for long hind legs, long ears, sharp fangs, and fierce claws. Raweno, who made the animals, didn't mind making Rabbit the way he wanted to be. Raweno was forming Rabbit's legs when Owl interrupted and demanded a long neck, red feathers, a long beak, and a crown of plumes. Raweno, now shaping Rabbit's ears, scolded, "Be quiet. Close your eyes. Don't you know that no one is allowed to watch me work?" But Owl disobeyed, saying, "I like watching you, and watch I will". That made Raweno so angry that he pulled Owl from his branch, stuffed his head into his body, pulled on his ears until they stuck straight up, and shook him so hard that his eyes grew big. Owl flew off, and his body stayed that way. Raweno returned to his work, but Rabbit was gone. He had run away in fright before Raweno could finish. And the Rabbit is still nervous to this day. Multiple Choice Questions 1. According to the legend, Rabbit wanted to have .... a) long front legs b) long sharp claws c) fierce fangs d) fierce sharp curved nails 2. What did Owl demand? a) A feathered neck. b) Long wings. c) A long hard pointed outer part of its mouth. d) Plums. 3. What did Raweno do shaping Rabbit's ears? a) Boasted. b) Berated. c) Mocked. d) Whistled. 4. Owl was not.... a) docile b) stubborn c) inquisitive d) disobedient 5. Rabbit is a ... animal. a) timid b) confident c) sly d) lazy 6. Choose the right proverb to the story. a) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. b) Curiosity killed a cat. c) Two heads are better than one. d) Tastes differ.

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Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance and also one of the most valuable natural substances. Because of its hardness, the diamond is the most enduring of all gemstones. In Europe and America the diamond is the traditional jewel for engagement and wedding rings. Diamonds are also used in industry for cutting, grinding, and boring other hard materials. Diamonds are crystals formed almost entirely of carbon. Scientists believe diamonds were formed millions of years ago when carbon was subjected to great heat and pressure. A diamond must be used to cut another diamond. But a diamond can be separated or broken with a severe blow because of its cleavage. A diamond will not dissolve in acid. But it can be destroyed when it is subjected to intensive heat. If a diamond is heated in the presence of oxygen, it will burn and form carbon dioxide. If it is heated without oxygen, it will turn to graphite. Some diamonds glow when they are exposed to ultraviolet light. Diamonds are among the most costly jewels in the world, partly because they are rare. Gem diamonds are graded according to weight, purity, colour, and cut. The largest diamond ever discovered was found in Pretoria, South Africa, by a diamond miner who first thought it was a big chunk of glass. It weighed 3106 carats — about half a kilogram — and measured 5x6 x 1 0 cm. It was named the Cullinan Diamond after the founder of the mine. The diamond was sent to Joseph Asscher, a famous diamond cutter in Amsterdam. The task of cutting it was truly nerve-wracking. The first cut on large diamonds is often made by cleaving the diamond along its grain. The difficulty with this is that the grain is invisible. Asscher studied the diamond for months and finally decided on his line of cleavage. The tension was almost unbearable. If his line of cleavage was not correct, the world's largest diamond could shatter completely. He brought the hammer down, and, strangely, the metal rule broke in two! The diamond was still intact, but Asscher's nerves were shattered. He went to hospital to recover. When he finally had the strength and courage to try again, Asscher brought his physician with him. This time, his mallet struck cleanly, and the diamond cleaved perfectly. Asscher himself didn't learn of his success until some time afterwards, for he had fainted the moment he struck the blow! 42

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The diamond can continue to exist for a long time because of its .... a) rareness b) value c) toughness d) purity 2. In industry diamonds are not used for ... other hard materials. a) drilling b) cutting c) smelting c) grinding 3. What didn't influence the formation of diamonds? a) Light. b) Time. c) Pressure. d) High temperature. 4. What was found in Pretoria? a) The largest chunk of glass. b) The tiniest splinter of diamond. c) The largest clear colourless precious stone of pure carbon. d) The largest amber ever discovered. 5. Why v/as the task of cutting the diamond so difficult? Because .... a) the natural direction of lines in the diamond couldn't be seen b) the grain was wracked c) there was an invisible cleft in the diamond d) the cutter was an amateur 6. In fact,... was impaired. a) Asscher's health b) the hammer c) the diamond d) none of the above 7. What did Cullinan do? a) Mined diamonds. b) Invented mines. c) Started a mine. d) Cut diamonds.

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36. DESERT Desert is generally thought of as a hot, barren region that receives little rainfall. Rainfall is scarce in all desert regions, but deserts are not barren wastelands. Deserts have a wide variety of land formations and soil substances, and most of them have at least one permanent stream. Deserts cannot support the abundant plant and animal life found in humid climates. Scientists do not agree on a single definition for deserts. Some classify a desert as any region that receives an average of less than 10 inches of rain annually. Other scientists use the type of soil or vegetation to determine whether a region is a desert. Still others consider all these factors. They define a desert as a region that can support little vegetation because of both insufficient rainfall and dry soil. Most deserts are in warm climates, but some regions near the North and South Poles are also considered deserts. These areas are so cold that moisture freezes there and can't stimulate plant growth. Deserts do not support large numbers of people. People who do live in a desert region must adjust to the hot, dry climate. In North American deserts many Indians and Mexicans live in adobe or mud houses that provide insulation from the heat. Many desert dwellers in Africa and Asia are herders. They live in tents and wrap themselves in long cloth robes for protection against the scorching sun and blowing sand. Air-conditioning and irrigation projects have made life more comfortable for other desert dwellers. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A desert receives an average of less than ... of rain annually. a) 25 cm b) 10 cm c) 15 cm d) 20 cm 2. A desert can't be classified according to the .... a) type of soil b) type of plants c) quantity of precipitations d) type of animals 3. Vegetation in deserts is .... a) scarce b) abundant c) luxuriant d) thorny 4. Which word can't be used to describe a desert? a) Dune. b) Storm. c) Mirage. d) Flood. 5. According to the text, what doesn't stimulate plant growth in cold deserts? a) Humidity. b) Sun. c) Wind. d) Cold. 6. Many desert dwellers .... a) irrigate soil b) are isolated from each other c) graze cattle d) adjust to the scorching sun

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DELAWARE INDIANS Delaware Indians is the English name of a tribe that lived in what are now Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. These Indians called themselves Lenni-Lenape, which means genuine people. Their English name came from the Delaware River, which flowed through their land. The tribe farmed, hunted, and fished. In 1682, the Delaware signed a treaty of friendship with the English colonial leader W.Penn. Despite the treaty, however, Europeans began to take the Indians' land and gradually pushed them westward. During the 1760s, a religious leader known as the Delaware Prophet preached that Indians should abandon the use of firearms, steel, and other European inventions. He told the Indians they could gain the power to expel the Europeans from their land by returning to traditional tribal ways of life. The Delaware Prophet influenced an Ottawa Indian leader named Pontiac, who tried to unite the Delaware and other Indians in an attempt to drive out the intruders. The British defeated Pontiac in 1763. In 1818, the Delaware surrendered all their land east of the Mississippi River to the government. Multiple Choice Questions 1. How did Delaware Indians call themselves? a) Brave people. b) Unfeigned people. c) Healthy people. d) Wise people. 2. According to the agreement Europeans had to .... a) guard the Indians' land b) preach Christianity c) observe sovereignty d) push the Indians westward 3. The word "abandon" in line 10 may be best replaced with .... a) continue b) forsake с) learn d) aspire 4. Indians were not involved in .... a) stock-breeding b) horticulture c) agriculture d) poultry-keeping 5. Delaware Indians lived near the ... Ocean. a) Atlantic b) Pacific c) Indian d) Arctic 6. According to the text, everything is true, except.... a) in 1682, a non-aggression pact was signed b) the Canadian Indian leader helped the Delaware c) the Indians didn't have enough firearms to drive out the intruders d) the British won a victory over Pontiac

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THE ATOCHA By Gail Gibbons It is 1622. The Atocha, with its fleet of sister ships, makes its way back from South America to Spain. The Atocha is a treasure ship, laden with gold, jewels, silver bars, and thousands of coins. The fleet makes a stop in Cuba and then sets off again. As the ships near Florida, a hurricane gathers strength. Wind rips at the Atocha's sails. Spray washes across the deck. The 265 people aboard the ship are terrified. Suddenly, a huge wave lifts the ship and throws it against a reef. The hull breaks open, and the Atocha — along with several of its sister ships — sinks beneath the waves. All but five aboard the Atocha drown. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Atocha is a .... a) cruiser b) submarine c) tanker d) cargo ship 2. What caused the catastrophe? a) Tempest. b) Drought. c) Blizzard. d) Flood. 3. How many people died? a) 5 b) 265 c) 260 d) It's unknown. 4. The word "rip at" in line 6 means .... a) to whistle b) to sing c) to attack d) to inflate 5. According to the text, what can't be on board the Atocha? a) Gems. b) Pottery. c) Gold. d) Silver. 6. The passage mainly deals with .... a) ship's chandler b) cargo c) shipwreck d) storm

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Cricket was proud of his house. It was small and round and snug, and sat in a shady spot safely away from the deer trail. Cricket had built it himself of mud and dung and fine grass, then rolled. He placed it beside a rotten log, and settled in. One day Mountain Lion, out hunting, came stepping softly down the deer trail. Not far from Cricket's house his nose told him that a rabbit had crossed the path a moment before, and so he turned aside. As he padded past the rotten log, Mountain Lion heard a tiny shout. "Hey, friend Lion! Stop where you are and step aside! One step more and your paw will crush my house." "Miserable little creature!" Lion screamed. "I'm strong and smart and swift, the forest is mine. And yet you dare to tell me where to step!" "You may rule the forest, Big Paws", piped Cricket, "but I'm Chief in my house and ruler of the land it sits on. So step aside. I don't care to have my house flattened." Mountain Lion was amazed at Cricket's daring. Cricket gave an angry hop. "Take care. I may be small but I have a cousin who is a great fighter. So take care!" Mountain Lion laughed. "I must meet this brave warrior, little boaster. Bring your cousin to this place tomorrow and we'll fight." The next day at noon Mountain Lion came back. "Hey, small boaster! I'm here. Where is your fierce little cousin?" Cricket didn't answer. Soon there came a buzzing by Lion's ear, loud and then louder still. And then a sharp, stabbing sting. "Oh-ho-yo!" roared Mountain Lion. "Get out of my ear!" But Cricket's cousin went on stinging. At last poor Mountain Lion threw himself upon the ground and groaned. Cricket spoke up. "Tell me, friend Lion. Do you mean to leave me and my house alone?" "I will", moaned Lion. "Only call your cousin out of my ear." So Cricket called Mosquito, and they sat together on the log and laughed to see Mountain Lion run away as fast as he could go. He never came back. 47


1. According to the text, choose the odd one. a) Great boast, small roast. b) Fortune favours the brave. c) Little bodies may have great souls. d) If you can't beat them, join them. 2. Mountain Lion intended to .... a) master Cricket's house b) eat Cricket up c) defeat Cricket's cousin d) test the rotten log 3. When Cricket saw Mountain Lion, he .... a) pleaded for mercy b) fought with him c) repulsed the foe d) trembled with fear 4. Cricket's house wasn't.... a) decayed b) safety settled c) built of dirt d) cozy 5. One day Mountain Lion found himself at Cricket's house because he.... a) lost his path b) hunted a deer c) looked for shelter d) chased a rabbit 6. In fact, Cricket was .... a) miserable b) fierce c) sage d) bashful

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Joan of Arc was a simple peasant girl who led the French army to victory at the siege of Orleans in 1429. She has been called the Maid of Orleans ever since. Joan was born at Domremy, France in 1412. Like most girls of her time, she never learned to read and write. But she learned all that her devout mother could teach her of sacred things. Visions, which she felt sure, were from heaven made her believe that she was chosen to liberate her oppressed country from the English. At the age of 17, she left her home to fulfill that task. Young King Charles VII of France, who was then uncrowned, lived at the castle of Chinon. When he heard of the young girl, he had a glimmer of hope. But first Charles tested her. He let one of his nobles occupy the throne, and he slipped into the ranks of his courtiers. When Joan came in, she gave the man on the thrown only a glance. Then she turned away, walked up to Charles, and curtsied to him as to the king. Even then Charles was only half convinced. But when she told him exactly what he had asked of God when he had prayed alone in the palace chapel, he believed in her. She then received a sword, a banner, and a command over the king's troops. At first, the French commanders didn't want to obey her. But soon they saw that all went well when they followed her and that nothing succeeded when they disregarded her orders. Joan's mission ended when the crown was placed on Charles' head in the city of Reims. Her voices were silent now, and she wished to return to Domremy. But the king wouldn't let her go. She gave in to him and led an attack to Paris, which the English still held. The attack failed, and Joan was badly wounded and captured. Joan represented the soul of French resistance to the English. So, they put her in prison, where she suffered many insults. Then she was tried as a witch and a heretic. The court condemned her to be burned at the stake. Thousands of people stood at the market place of the city of Rouen to watch her die on May 30, 1431. They wept at the dreadful sight. A terrified English noble said: 'We are undone; we've burned a saint". The final insult of the English was to refuse to bury her ashes. Her ashes were gathered up and thrown into the Seine River. In 1920, Pope Benedict XV declared her a saint.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Joan believed she was an envoy of God because of her.... a) holiness b) dreams c) visions d) intuition 2. Joan... in 1429. a) led the English army to victory c) laid the siege of Orleans 3. Joan wasn't.... a) illiterate b) devout

c) brave

b) raised the siege of Orleans d) fled at the siege of Orleans d) insane

4. How did Joan show Charles she knew he was the king? She .... a) greeted Charles, bending her knees b) walked up to Charles and kissed his arm c) foretold Charles' future d) curtsied to the man on the thrown 5. The French commanders obeyed Joan because they .... a) took an oath to their king b) considered her the soul of French resistance to the English c) were convinced of her success d) did their duties 6. According to the text, everything is true, except.... a) everything scored when the French commanders followed Joan b) the attack failed because Joan's voices were silent c) Joan's duty was to free her country d) Joan was a very determined and plucky person 7. The phrase "We are undone" in line 32 is closest in the meaning to .... a) we are mad b) we are defeated and without any hope for the future c) we'll be punished by God d) we'll be cursed by descendants 8. The verb "gave in" in line 24 may be best replaced with .... a) resisted b) argued c) agreed d) gave up

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Harassment is more common and serious than most parents realise. Each day, about 160,000 American kids skip school because they are afraid of bullies. In some cases the targets of abuse are afraid to tell their parents or teachers, so they put up with it until they start to think about revenge. Unlike teasing, bullying involves repeated harassment intended to cause physical or psychological harm. 13 % of kids in grades six through ten had taunted, threatened or been physically aggressive towards classmates, while 11 % had been the targets of such behaviour. 6 % said they'd bullied others and had been bullied themselves. The researchers found key differences between the sexes: boys were more likely to be bullies or victims of bullying. Girls were more frequently the targets of malicious rumours, sexual harassment and jeers. While the stereotype is that bullies have low self-esteem, they're actually often self-confident. Bullies are often popular and tend to make friends easily. But if a bully feels slighted, s/he may be tempted to take it out on someone who can't fight back. Why? That's the coping mechanism s/he's familiar with; some bullies come from homes where they're harassed themselves. Bullies pick on kids when teachers aren't around to stop them. Bullies tend to perform poorly at school and by age 24, 60 % of former bullies have been convicted of a crime, according to a study conducted in Norway. Victims, on the other hand, generally have poor social skills and few friends. These children may be physically smaller than their peers, may look or act differently or have different abilities. The psychological trauma of recurring harassment puts victims at risk of suffering from depression or low self-esteem as an adult — and, in a small but significant number of cases, may cause them to become violent or suicidal. A bullied child is having trouble sleeping, cries for no apparent reason, has unexplained injuries, has torn clothing or missing possessions, has lost his/her appetite, has a sudden aversion to school or has become sullen, withdrawn or clingy. The younger the child, the more likely s/he is to suffer from bullying. On the other hand, older kids are less likely to tell an adult when they're bullied. When the bullying takes the form of ridicule, even fewer students will admit to being subjected to it. What makes the pervasiveness of bullying alarming is the link to school violence. Why has bullying become more serious? Violent entertainment is blamed. We're seeing more aggression than we did 15 years ago because kids complicated problems being solved by weapons on TV and in the movies. No adult would put up with being stalked, beaten up and verbally harassed at work. Why should children have to endure a climate of fear at school?! 51

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. What can't harassed kids do? a) Skip meal. b) Take vengeance on bullies. c) Quit bullying. d) Commit suicide. 2. Being a target of harassment, ... is not a factor. a) self-esteem b) height c) gender d) age 3. The phrase "put up with" in line 4 means .... a) to live with b) to cope with c) to bear up d) to keep in secret 4. Everything is true about bullies, except they .... a) dent kid's self-esteem b) slight their classmates c) mock their peers d) insult their siblings 5.

According to the text, harassment can't lead to .... a) insomnia b) disgust to school c) frustration d) megalomania


Choose the odd one. a) To jeer. b) To taunt. c) To ridicule. d) To humiliate.


This text is an extract from a (an) .... a) essay b) newspaper article c) scientific report d) letter of complaint

8. ... children have propensity for bullying. a) Solitary b) Weak c) Morose d) Confident

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Secondary schools have been told to allow pupils to carry water and consume it during lessons because of evidence that it improves their health and academic performance. Head teachers have been coming under pressure from pupils and parents to allow drinking during the lessons following the successful introduction of the policy in many primary schools. Most have resisted because of the risk of water fights and spillages. Some say they fear that pupils could insert alcohol in the water bottles or that the policy would cause a stampede for the lavatories. Several studies have claimed that dehydration adversely affects mental performance. The research claimed that children's ability to learn deteriorated by 10 % when they were thirsty, usually in the afternoon. Dr Trevor Brocklebank, a consultant in pediatrics at the university, found that children's ability to do arithmetic was impaired if they were more than 1 % dehydrated. Pupils were also more prone to headaches, irritability and tiredness. The healthy schools blueprint urges heads to remove fizzy drinks and crisps from vending machines and replace them with fruit juices, dried and fresh fruit, bread rolls and vegetables. Paul Ellis said banning crisps and fizzy drinks was not enough. "Evidence from other schools has shown that if you stop selling them, pupils play truant and go off down the road to get what they want from local shops," he said.



1. According to the text, dehydrated pupils are inclined to .... a) corpulence b) alcohol c) fizzy drinks d) indisposition 2. The word "play truant" in line 22 means .... a) throw lots b) cheat c) play tricks d) shirk 3. Teachers let pupils take water into lessons unwillingly not because of … a) the risk of dehydration b) spillages c) a stampede for the toilets d) water fights 4. The word "impair" in line 14 can't be replaced with .... a) increase b) deteriorate c) mar d) worsen 5. According to the text, the lack of water can't cause .... a) irritability b) thirst c) aggravation of mental performance d) giddiness 6. The passage mainly deals with the problems of.... a) health b) education c) nourishment d) teachers

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Beautiful women go for more rugged males while more dowdy females really do prefer wimps. A study shows that a woman's taste in men depends on how attractive she thinks she is. The findings come after research on birds, guppies, sticklebacks and other creatures that attempts to answer the most fundamental question of all: what is it about a male that attracts a female, and vice versa? From the cold-eyed perspective of Darwinian evolution, wooing has but one aim: reproduction, to pass our genes to the next generation and ensure that they survive. But the work published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society by Prof David Perrett and his team at St Andrews show that we also value whether a male will hang around to be a good father. Male beetles are ruthless about changing partners if they do not measure up to expectations, said Mr Little. The team reasons that beautiful women go for masculine men because they are driven by the urge to have beautiful children while their less attractive peers are more driven by the urge to find a partner who was "least likely to desert them". Multiple Choice Questions

1. A woman's taste in men correlates with her .... a) brains b) thoughts about men c) appraisals of her beauty d) appearance 2. Beautiful women prefer ... men. a) strongly built b) generous c) wealthy d) smart 3. According to the text, people shouldn't... each other to pass their genes to the next generation. a) woo b) court c) insure d) tempt 4. The word "ruthless" in line 14 means .... a) considerate b) hard and cruel c) pitiful d) compassionate 5. Scientists do not refer to ... in their research work. a) fish b) birds c) monkeys

d) beetles

6. ... women are attracted to weak males. a) Plain b) Strong c) Rich d) Attractive

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General practitioners are calling for stricter controls on the sale of fizzy drinks in schools, reports the Daily Mail. Doctors are concerned that head teachers are installing money-making machines in schools to boost their funds, despite the possible health and behavioural side-effects. "It is very difficult to stop kids spending their money on fizzy drinks when machines are prominently displayed," said GP Tom Yerburgh. "Many schools have lucrative commercial arrangements with fizzy drinks manufacturers... The situation is completely unacceptable. There are definite links to obesity, tooth decay, brittle bones and increasing incidences of diabetes in later life." The National Association of Head Teachers estimates that 95 % of state secondary schools have at least one vending machine. Sales can be worth up to $10,000 a year. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Apparently, vending machines ....

a) produce drinks c) make drinks fizzy

b) sell drinks d) blend drinks


Doctors speculate that children drinking fizzy drinks will.... a) wax fat b) have poor grades at school c) be sound d) have supple bones


Everything is true about fizzy drinks, except they .... a) strengthen the financial state of manufacturers b) increase accidents c) have bubbles of gas in d) affect the health of children


The word "prominently" in line 6 can be best replaced with .... a) chaotically b) accessibly c) deliberately d) irresponsibly

5. Doctors call us to .... a) get rid of fizzy drinks b) reduce the production of fizzy drinks c) limit the consumption of fizzy drinks d) cut down the finances of companies which produce fizzy drinks 6. According to the text, some head teachers .... a) ban the sale of fizzy drinks in schools b) have unprofitable commercial arrangements with fizzy drinks manufacturers c) earn money on the sale of fizzy drinks d) boost the sale of fizzy drinks in schools

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More and more people are turning away from their doctors and, instead, going to individuals who have no medical training and who sell unproven treatments. They go to quacks to get everything from treatments for colds to cures for cancer. And they are putting themselves in dangerous situations. Many people don't realise how unsafe it is to use unproven treatments. During the time the person is using the product, his or her illness may be getting worse. This can even cause the person to die. So why do people trust quacks? People want the "miracle cure". They want the product that will solve their problem quickly, easily, and completely. A patient may be so afraid of pain, or even of dying, that he or she will try anything. The quack knows this and offers an easy solution at a very high price. Quacks usually sell products and treatments for illnesses that generally have no proven cure. How can you recognise a quack? Sometimes it's easy because he or she offers something we know is possible. These people lie, saying that their product was made because of a recent scientific discovery. Many quacks will say their product is good for many different illnesses, not just for one thing. They usually like to offer money-back guarantees if their treatment doesn't work. Unfortunately, the guarantee is often also a lie. Finally, clinic will often be in another country. Quacks try to sell their products in similar ways. They will invite you to read testimonials, letters written by satisfied customers. These frauds will also promise quick, exciting cures. Often they say the product is made in a secret way or with something secret in it which can only be bought from a particular company. 57

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. In fact, quacks .... a) hazard people's lives b) cut people's pains c) boost people's immune system d) help people heal 2. It may be inferred from the passage that people .... a) should scorn doctors' methods b) may find some relief using unproven treatments c) should attend shamen d) receive better quality of care at hospitals 3. The last thing many people are thinking about is .... a) price of treatment b) safety c) level of proficiency of a person they turn to d) side effects 4. According to the text, quacks' products may .... a) lower the risk of hereditable diseases b) make treatment less traumatic for patients c) lead to decline c) help protect against fatal diseases 5. A lot of people have confidence in quacks because .... a) sticking with doctors may put health at risk b) they can't cope with their problems c) nontraditional approach to health care is harmless d) quacks cause miracles 6. When you're ill, the best way to recover is to .... a) stop taking pills b) disrupt your daily routine c) turn to quacks d) consult a doctor 7. Quacks do not.... a) offer "panacea" b) disappoint people's hopes c) give money-back guarantees d) satisfy customers

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THE DINNER PARTY By N.Monsarrat Thirty years ago I was fifteen. My uncle Octavian was then (in 1925) a very rich man. He was a charming host whose villa on the Cote d'Azur was a meeting place of the rich, and he was a very hospitable man, until January 3, 1925. There was nothing special about that day, in the life of my uncle Octavian, except that it was his fifty-fifth birthday. As usual on such a day, he was giving a dinner party for twelve people. All of them were old friends; two of them, indeed, were what they call them "old flames ". It was exciting for me to be in such company, which included besides the two "old flames", and their husbands, a newspaper proprietor and his American wife; a recent prime minister of France and a well-known statesman of post-war Germany, and a Habsburg prince and princess. Towards the end of a wonderful dinner when the servants had left, my uncle leaned forward to have a look at a beautiful diamond ring on the princess's hand. She turned her hand gracefully towards my uncle. Across the table, the newspaper proprietor leant across and said: "May 1 also have a look, Therese?" She smiled and nodded. Then she took off the ring and held it out to him. "It was my grandmother's", she said. "I have not worn it for many years. It is said to have once belonged to Genghis Khan." There were exclamations of surprise. The ring was passed from hand to hand. For a moment it was in my hand. Then I passed it on to my next-door neighbour. As I turned away again, I thought I saw her pass it on. At least I was almost sure I saw her. It was some twenty minutes later when the princess stood up and said: "Before we leave you, may I have my ring back?" Then there was a pause, while each of us looked expectantly at his neighbour. Then there was silence. When no one answered her, and the silence continued, I still thought it could only be a joke, and that one of us — probably the prince himself— would produce the ring with a laugh. But when nothing happened at all, I knew that the rest of the night would be awful. I am sure you know what followed. There was the awkwardness of the guests — all of them old friends. There was the fact that no one would meet anyone else's eye. The guests overturned the chairs, examined the carpet and then the whole room. The ring had vanished. No servants had entered the room. No one had left it for a moment. The thief was one of us, one of my uncle Octavian's old friends. I remember it was the French cabinet minister who wanted to be searched, indeed, he had already started turning out his pockets, before my uncle held up his hand and stopped him. Uncle Octavian's face was pale when he said: "There will be no searching. Not in my house. You are all my friends. The ring can only be lost. If we do not find it" — he bowed towards the princess — "I will make amends myself. My uncle Octavian remained true to his words that no one was to be searched. I myself went to England, and school, a few days later. I was very glad to leave the place. I could not bear the sight of my uncle's face and the knowledge of his overturned world. All that he was left with, among the ruins of his way of life, was a question mark: which of his friends was the thief? I do not know my uncle "made amends". I know that, to my family's surprise, he was rather poor when he died. He died, in fact, a few weeks ago, and that's why I feel I can tell the story. It would be wrong to say that he died a broken man, but he did die a very sad man who never gave a single lunch or dinner party for the last thirty years of his life. 59


1. According to the text a) the princess showed the ring unwillingly b) the nephew of uncle Octavian was the last person to hold the ring c) the princess never took the ring off d) it was expected that the prince would make the ring appear from somewhere 2. The day was special because .... a) the host of villa was given a party b) a Habsburg princess was among the guests c) it was Octavian's birthday d) a diamond ring was stolen 3. The word "proprietor" in line 10 may be best replaced with .... a) scribbler b) owner c) reviewer d) sponsor 4. Everything is true, except all of the guests .... a) felt ill at ease b) averted their eyes c) were turned out d) felt the tension in the room 5. The phrase "old flame" in line 8 is closest in meaning to .... a) a silly and annoying old person b) a woman who has never been married and is now no longer young c) a person who has been in prison many times d) a former mistress 6. The hardest thing for Octavian, in fact, was .... a) to overturn his outlook b) to bear the fact that one of his friends was a thief c) to permit the guests to be searched in his house d) "to make amends"

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Elvis Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi. His parents were poor, and they were very religious. They often took Elvis to church. That's where he first learned to sing. Most people feel that these religious songs had a big influence on Elvis's singing style. Then, when he was a teenager, Elvis went to live in Memphis, Tennessee. He went to the local high school. He was an average student. The thing he was really interested in was music. One day, in 1955, he took his guitar to the Sun Recording Studio in Memphis. There he recorded two country'n'western songs for his mother's birthday. All her life, she was very close to Elvis. One of the songs was called That's All Right, Mama. The recording studio liked the songs and they liked the singer. His style was a mixture of two traditions, white country'n'western, and blues — the music of black people in the South. A few months later, Elvis met "Colonel" Tom Parker. Parker took over Elvis’s career. With his management, Elvis became popular not only in America but also all over the world. Soon, Elvis had his first smash hits — Hound Dog, All Shook Up and many others. They were wonderful songs, sung by the greatest pop star in the history of pop music. Some years later, Elvis was making Hollywood films like Love Me Tender and King Creole. He made many films — some people say too many. Some of them were not very good. But Elvis's fans were always loyal. They went to see all his films and they bought all his records. Elvis died at the age of 42. It was a sudden death and it came as a shock. Everyone knew Elvis was the king of rock'n'roll. And everyone knows he will always be the king of rock'n'roll. Long live Elvis!



1. Who or what influenced the way Elvis sang? a) His mother. b) Country'n'western songs. c) Tom Parker. d) Religious songs. 2. Elvis's mother wasn't.... a) religious b) very close to Elvis c) interested in music d) poor 3. What kind of a student was Elvis? a) Ordinary. b) Indifferent. c) Hard-working. d) Extraordinary. 4. What part did Parker play in Elvis's life? He ... . a) wrote songs for Elvis b) gained control of his business c) made some films about Elvis d) had a big influence on his singing style 5. According to the text, Elvis's first hits .... a) came as a shock b) were a complete failure c) were not very good d) were very admirable 6. "All her life she was very close to Elvis." It means his mother .... a) took over his career b) lived not far from him c) liked and understood him d) had a lot in common with Elvis

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Canned drinks were first introduced in the 1930s in the USA. The early cans were cone-shaped and they were made of steel. The modern aluminium drink can with the ring-pull opening system was invented in 1963. Today, over 200 billion cans are manufactured every year. The first zip fastener, which was invented in 1881, was a complicated steel device. It was renamed a zip in 1920. In 1937, French fashion designers used the zip to close trousers and it immediately became more popular than buttons, which had been used until then. Today zips are popular fabric fasteners and they are made of both plastic and steel. The paperclip was invented by a Norwegian scientist called John Vaaler in 1899. Until then, straight pins had been used to hold papers together. Vaaler's design has changed very little over the years and his oval wire clip is still being used in offices all over the world. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Until 1899 a ... had been used to close trousers. a) snapper b) buckle c) zipper d) button 2. The word "it" in line 7 refers to .... a) fashion b) zip c) designers d) trousers 3. In the 1930s in the USA drinks were sold in .... a) cone-shaped buckets b) containers that narrow evenly from a flat circle at one end to a point at the other c) triangular mugs d) conical jugs 4. Pins had been used for .... a) opening cans b) fastening clothes c) holding paper together d) closing trousers 5. What can't be bought in a stationary department? a) Drawing pins. b) Zips. c) Paperclips. d) Ballpoint pens. 6. A paperclip is a device that/for .... a) makes things sharp b) cuts holes in paper c) fastening together pieces of fabric d) holds loose sheets of paper together

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In a Las Vegas rehab centre, Cynthia Jay-Brennan, 39, strains with effort. She is hooked to an apparatus that helps her stand; beads of perspiration coat her forehead as she struggles to keep her balance. Her posture ramrod straight, she smiles, victorious. But a moment later, her body drifts forward. Unable to use her hands, which are perpetually locked into two fists, she rights herself by pushing with her lower arms against the metal frame that surrounds her. "It's hard", she whispers. "But I like standing. It makes me feel normal." It's hard to believe that little more than a year ago, Cindi was on top of the world. In January 2000, she was working as a cocktail waitress when she landed the biggest slot-machine jackpot in Vegas history — nearly $35 million. Everything was going right for Cindi back then. Days after winning the money, she and her boyfriend, 46-year-old bartender Terry Brennan, got married and prepared to live their dreams. Then, six weeks later, the unthinkable happened: a drunk driver crashed into Cyndi's car, killing her eldest sister and paralysing Cyndi from the upper chest down. Terry and Cyndi were married in a small chapel on the Vegas strip. They drew up wills and a trust, and gave their parents and siblings $10,000 each. "We wanted the money to help all of us have a little less stress in our lives", says Cyndi. Their first priority: a trip to the tropics. Cyndi loved beaches and the feel of the sun warming her body. She never got a chance. "I began thinking that God gave me the money because He knew what would happen to me", she said.



1. Where did Cyndi come to grief? a) On a road. b) In a wheelchair. c) In a casino. d) In a rehab centre. 2. What helps Cyndi stand? a) Strings. b) Loops. c) Tools. d) Fists. 3. When Cyndi tries to keep straight... covers her face. a) sorrow b) sweat c) hope d) corn 4. Terry was a .... a) gamekeeper b) butler c) yard-keeper d) barman 5. After marriage, Cyndi and Terry .... a) made a trip to the tropics b) put million dollars in a business c) broke d) made a testament 6. It may be inferred from the last paragraph that.... a) "All is well that ends well" b) "Every cloud has a silver lining" c) "Laughter is the best medicine" d) "The remedy may be worse than the disease"

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Bacteria are very small one-celled organisms that form a major group of the Protist Kingdom. Bacteria were among the "wee beastis" discovered by Leeuwenhock as he examined drops of pond water. Biologist believe that bacteria are among the oldest types of life. Bacteria can live anywhere life can exist. Bacteria even survive in hot springs and in glacial ice. Bacteria are different from viruses in several ways. Bacteria do have cell parts such as cytoplasm and cell membranes. However, they do not have a definite nucleus. The nuclear material is distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Bacteria also have cell walls and some contain chlorophyll. Scientists have found three basic shapes among these cells. They may be rod-like, round and spiral. Because there are only three shapes, other characteristics are used to group bacteria. Many bacteria live in clusters called colonies. The shape and colour of these colonies, the types of food they eat, and the wastes they secrete are all used to classify bacteria. Some bacteria are able to make their own food. Those that contain chlorophyll are able to use the sun's energy to do this. Other types use energy from certain chemical changes to make food. Most bacteria cannot make their own food. They obtain it from living or dead organisms. Some bacteria are called parasites. Their presence in or on an organism, they obtain food or protection. Those bacteria that obtain their food from dead or decaying organisms are called saprophytes. Many of these types of bacteria are important to life. They help to break down the tissues of dead organisms into simpler compounds. These compounds are released into the environment where they can be reused. Bacteria reproduce by simple cell division. Under ideal conditions their reproduction is very rapid. One bacterium divides to form two. These two divide to form four. In a few hours, these could be millions of bacteria. Some bacteria are very useful to humans. They are used to make such foods as cheese, sour cream, yogurt, vinegar, and tea. They are also used in tanning hides and making medicines. 66

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Bacteria are classified according to .... a) the duration of life b) the way they move c) the types of food they secrete d) the wastes they produce 2. Bacteria can't be .... a) useful c) harmful

b) needle-like d) of different colours

3. How did Leeuwenhock call bacteria? a) Tiny animals. b) Evil beasts. c) Horrible creatures. d) Strange beasties. 4. The word "rapid" in line 30 may be best replaced with .... a) swift b) accurate c) spectacular d) slow 5. The word "spring" in line 6 is closest in meaning to .... a) season b) rill c) lake d) pond 6. According to the text everything is true, except.... a) some bacteria make their own food using the energy of the sun b) bacteria are particles that are not cells but can reproduce in the cells of living organisms c) some bacteria obtain protection on/in organism d) bacteria are very small Protists with simple cell structure and no nucleus

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There is a strange man who hangs around by the library. His clothes are old and baggy. He limps. He has a wild look in his eyes. I had seen this strange man often. He tries to stop people and talk to them. He tried to stop me a few times, but I got away. I thought he was trying to pick me up. Or maybe he wanted money. Or maybe he was just crazy. I always got away from him real fast. But one time I couldn't get away. I was waiting for a ride. The strange man saw me there. He came up to me. I pretended not to see him. But he still spoke to me. "I lost my job. I lost my wife", he said. "I'm so sorry," I said. I started to move away. "I used to have a big job on Wall Street. I made a lot of money. I had a fine family. Then one day I was riding my bike. I didn't have a helmet on. A car hit me. I was in the hospital for a year. I lost my wife. I lost my job." I had nothing to say. I was listening now. The man seemed so grateful to have somebody listen to him. "So now I tell people to wear a helmet. If you ride a bike, just wear a helmet. If you don't, you might end up with a head like this." He took off his old yellow cap. Through the scalp I saw a small plate shining. "Oh, my God," I said. I felt sorry. But the man looked happy. He had made his point. He limped away. He wanted to tell more people. I saw him try a few, but no one stopped. 68


1. The man lost his wife because .... a) he always tried to pick other women up b) he didn't wear a helmet c) she was hit by a car d) he became a disabled person 2. In fact, the man was a (an).... a) mad bankrupt b) victim c) unskillful driver d) insane 3. His clothes .... a) fitted loosely c) fitted tight

b) were torn d) were soaked

4. The word "limp" in line 2 may be best replaced with .... a) shiver b) hobble c) loaf d) chew 5. The old man was happy because .... a) the woman saw his shining plate b) he made an appointment c) the woman had let him talk to her d) he was crazy 6. Choose the proverb which fits the man's deeds / behaviour. a) Curiosity killed a cat. b) Forewarned is forearmed. c) If the cap fits, wear it. d) Fools will be meddling.

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Pegasus was an immortal winged horse in Greek mythology. He was the offspring of Medusa, a monstrous, snake-haired woman, and Poseidon, god of horses and of sea. The hero Perseus slew Medusa by cutting off her head. Pegasus sprang full-grown either from her head or neck, or from her head or neck, or from the blood from her neck. The hero Bellerophon wanted to tame Pegasus. A prophet advised him to sleep on the altar of the goddess Athena. There, Bellerophon dreamed that the goddess gave him a golden bridle and ordered him to make a sacrifice to Poseidon. When he awoke, Bellerophon found a bridle on the altar. 1 le sacrificed a bull and later came upon Pegasus at a spring, waiting to be bridled. Bellerophon rode Pegasus on many adventures. Their most famous feat was destroying the fire-breathing Chmera. Bellerophon attempted to ride Pegasus up to Mount Olympus, the heavenly home of the gods. Zeus, the king of the gods, was angered by the mortal's presumption in attempting to reach the heavens. Zeus sent a gadfly to sting Pegasus. The horse bucked, throwing Bellerophon down to earth and permanently crippling him. Pegasus arrived on Olympus without a rider. The horse remained there, carrying Zeus's lighting and thunderbolts. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. Pegasus didn't have (a).... a) mane b) hoofs c) wings

d) horn

2. Bellerophon .... a) wanted to overthrow Zeus b) was slain by the prophet c) dreamed of Athena d) intended to train Pegasus to obey him 3. Athena gave Bellerophon a .... a) set of bands put around a horse's head b) golden whip c) shaped piece of gold that is fixed onto the bottom of a horse's foot d) golden saddle 4. The word "offspring" means .... a) sibling b) child c) foal

d) centaur

5. According to the text, everything is true, except — a) Bellerophon met Pegasus near a stream b) a prophet gave Bellerophon a hand c) Bellerophon slew the creature that had a lion's head, a goat's body, a snake's tail and breathed fire d) Olympus was subjected to Bellerophon 6. Bellerophon.... a) was immortal c) made a sacrilege

b) died because of arrogance d) was stung

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Pied Piper of Hamelin is a mythical character who was made famous by Robert Browning in a poem based on a legend. According to the legend, rats infested the German town of Hamelin (now Hameln). One day, a man dressed in a suit of many colour walked into Hamelin and offered to rid the town of the pests for a sum of money. When the mayor agreed, the man drew out a pipe and walked along the streets playing a haunting tune. All the rats came tumbling out of the houses and followed the Piper to the Weser River, where they drowned. When the Piper claimed his reward, the mayor refused to pay him. The Piper swore vengeance. One more he walked along the streets playing his strange melody. This time all the children ran from their homes and followed him to a cave in the nearby Koppen Hill. The cave closed upon them, and the children were never seen again. Multiple Choice Questions

1. The Piper saved the city from (a).... a) rodents b) children c) moths d) mayor 2. The Piper's melody was .... a) haunted b) sad and beautiful in a way that cannot be forgotten c) produced by the soul of a dead person d) a sailors' march 3. The Piper wore a ... suit. a) variegated b) faded c) patchy d) moldy 4. The mayor broke his promise and the Piper decided to .... a) bring all the rats back b) avenge the fraud c) enchant the mayor d) curse the children 5. The children followed the Piper because they a) were intimidated b) wanted to know his secret c) were promised his pipe d) were bewitched 6. According to the story, we may say that the Piper was not a .... a) deliver b) stranger c) magician d) sage

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Platypus is a mammal that lays eggs. Platypuses are often called duckbills because they have a broad, flat hairless snout that resembles the bill of a duck. Platypuses live along streams in Australia. They have webbed feet and a broad, flat tail that aid in swimming. The platypus uses its bill to scoop up worms, small shellfish, and other animals from the bottom of the streams. Adult platypuses lack teeth. They crash their food with horny pads at the back of the jaws. Platypuses weigh about 5 pounds but appear heavier because of their thick coat of brown fur. The platypus has claws on its front and hind feet, but the webs on the front feet can be extended beyond the claws. The platypus folds these webs against the palms when walking on land or digging in the ground. Male platypuses also have a hollow clawlike spur behind each ankle. The spurs are connected to poison glands, which enlarge during the mating season. Scientists believe the spurs might be used for defense. Platypuses live in burrows that they dig in the banks of streams. Except for female platypuses with their young, each animal lives in its own burrow. During the mating season, the female builds a nest of leaves and grass at the end of her burrow. Before laying her eggs, she blocks the entrances to the burrow with dirt. Female platypuses lay from one to three eggs at a time. The eggs measure about 1.3 cm in diameter and have a leathery shell. They hatch after about 10 days. Young platypuses remain in the burrow for about four months and feed on their mother's milk. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. According to the text, .... a) platypuses are heavier than five pounds because of their thick fur b) adult platypuses use their horns to crash their food, as they are toothless c) platypus is a mammal that does not give birth to live young d) the female platypuses use spurs to protect their nests during the mating season 2. What do platypuses use as a rudder? a) Snout. b) Web. c) Tail. d) Spur. 3. The platypus uses its ... to scoop up worms. a) teeth b) front feet c) beak d) claws 4. How many spurs do platypuses have? a) 4 b) 2 c) 6 d) It is unknown. 5. The word "aid" in line 5 is most similar to which of the following? a) To cause. b) To use. c) To help. d) To hinder. 6. What do all platypuses do? a) Burrow. b) Lay the eggs. c) Live in one big burrow. d) Hatch the eggs. 7. The female .... a) folds its web when having a baby b) closes up the burrow with stones c) uses mud to protect its nest d) disguises a burrow with leaves and grass

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"Goth" is short for gothic but most teen Goths say the way they dress and the music they listen to is why they are Goths; it has nothing at all to do with religion. People associate Goths with Marilyn Manson and anti-religion but for most, the attraction is the music. "Quite a lot of people watch Buffy and really like it. They think it's cool to dress in black, they can't stand all the clones in the charts and they want something different. They feel isolated that they are not into what the other kids are," explains Fabienne, 16. "I like it because Goths are such nice people. Usually they are into art and books. They are sincere, kind and often a bit shy." Of all the teen "tribes" Goths seem to be the ones people find the weirdest because of their hair which they have dyed black and their pale make-up. The most common place to see Ragga Girl is South London. Their attitude to clothing is sexy and classy. It should be tight. Scruffy is not acceptable. Even more important than clothing is accessories — rings, chains and bracelets are essential, not just for the girls but the boys too. Raggas like to look their best and demand that anyone they go out with looks as good as they do but without showing off. "I can't stand boys who walk around with their motorbike helmet or car keys to impress people." Camden cool kids are into a variety of things. They have their hair dyed different colours — crimson is a popular one at the moment. They want to save the environment and often hang out in London's second-hand clothing shops, hunting for a bargain. They tend to mix quite expensive clothes with cheap ones. They look scruffy but in a very clean way! Their T-shirts often show their heroes who consist of people from cult TV programmes from the 1970s or people who have fought for human rights. The attraction of Camden is the market with its clothing stalls, selection of T-shirts with sparkling designs, ethnic accessories.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Raggas prefer ... clothing. a) cheap b) torn c) expensive

d) classical

2. It is quite vivid that teenagers wear weird clothing to .... a) follow fashion b) express who they are c) irritate adults d) show neglect to the society 3. According to the text, who do not dye their hair? a) The Camden cool girls. b) Raggas. c) Goths. d) They all do. 4. What is essential in clothing for Raggas? a) Ethnic accessories. b) Zippers and snappers. c) Jewellery. d) Belts and buckles. 5. Camden cool kids differ from Raggas because they wear... clothing. a) clean b) expensive c) scruffy d) cheap 6. What has nothing in common with Goths? a) Belief. b) Music. c) Literature. d) Pale make-up. 7. We can substitute the word "crimson" in line 21 for .... a) red b) green c) blonde d) grey 8. Camden kids look in second-hand clothing shops for ... clothing. a) trendy b) cheap c) famous people's d) stylish 9. Goths are not... . a) devout c) bashful

b) fashionable d) educated

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One evening Mr Green was driving his car along a lonely country road. He had been to London where he had drawn $50 from the bank and lie was now returning home with the money which he put in his pocket book. At the loneliest part of the road a man in shabby, badly-fitting clothes stopped him and asked for a lift, Mr Green told him to get into the car and continued his way. As he talked to the man, he learned that he had been in prison for robbery and broke out of prison two days ago. Mr Green was very worried at the thought of the $50 that he had put in his pocket book. Suddenly he saw a police car and had a bright idea. He readied a small town where the speed limit was 30 miles an hour. He (Hissed down the accelerator and drove the car as fast as it would go. He looked back and saw that the police saw him and began to chase him. After a mile or so the police car overtook him and ordered him to stop. A policeman got out and came to Mr Green's car. Mr Green hoped that he could tell the policeman about the escaped robber, but the man took a gun out of his pocket and put it to Mr Green's back. The policeman took out his notebook and pencil and said he wanted Mr Green's name and address. Mr Green asked to be taken to the police station but the policeman said, "No, I want your name and address now. You will have to appear at the police court later". So, Mr Green gave the policeman his name and address. The policeman wrote them down, put his pocket book and pencil back in his pocket and gave Mr Green a talk about dangerous driving. Then Mr Green started up his car again and drove on. He gave up all hope of his $50, but just as he reached the outskirts of London, the passenger said he wanted to get out and said, "Thanks for the lift. You've been good to me. This is the least I can do in return". And he handed Mr Green the policeman's notebook. While the policeman was talking to Mr Green, the thief stole the notebook. 75

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. In London Mr Green .... a) lent some cash c) took some cash from a bank account

b) stole $50 from the bank d) found $50 in the bank

2. One evening .... a) Mr Green gave a lift to a hitchhiker on his way back b) a man in badly-fitting clothes broke out of prison c) on the outskirts of London he picked up a man in shabby clothes d) at the loneliest part of the road a smuggler stopped Mr Green's car 3. Mr Green exceeded the speed limit because he wanted to .... a) get home as soon as possible b) make an accident c) be taken to the police station d) get rid of a fellow-traveller 4. According to the text, Mr Green's passenger .... a) was charged with robbery b) forged money c) intimidated Mr Green d) stole the policeman's wallet 5. Mr Green.... a) was asked to show his identity card b) tried to bribe the policeman c) had his fingerprints taken d) was warned by the policeman 6. The stranger stole the policeman's pocket book .... a) because he was a thief b) in token of his gratitude c) because he hated cops d) he was in need 7. The word "break out" in line 7 may be best replaced with "... from". a) set free b) escape c) dismiss d) expel 8. The passage mainly deals with the problems of.... a) criminality b) traffic laws c) morals d) safety on the roads 9. The word "outskirts" in line 24 means .... a) the parts of a city where skirts are made b) the overcrowded parts of a city c) the parts of a city where the richest people live and work d) the parts of a city that are furthest from the centre 10. It may be inferred from the passage that (we).... a) must trust people c) should use credit cards instead of cash b) can't rely on police d) it's dangerous to pick up strangers 11. Mr Green's fellow-traveller didn't wear ... clothes. a) discarded b) scruffy c) old-fashioned d) worn

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J.Cousteau was an ecologist, conservationist, explorer, filmmaker and inventor. He was a man, who spent practically his whole life underwater investigating the hidden depths of the ocean and who did more to educate the world about the mysteries of the deep than any other person before or since. He was born in June, 1910 in a small town in France. He was a sickly child and spent much of his time in bed, reading and dreaming about a life at sea. In 1120, Jacques' family moved to America and he was encouraged to start swimming to built up his strength. This was the start of his fascination with water and the more he learned through his own experiences, the more passionate he became about "looking through nature's keyhole". However, his career in underwater exploration came about by accident. After joining the French Navy and travelling around the world, he was involved in a serious car accident that left him badly injured with two broken arms. He started swimming in the Mediterranean Sea to strengthen his weak arms as part of his recovery process and rediscovered his love of the ocean. He developed a pair of underwater breathing equipment to allow him to stay underwater for longer periods. His experiments led to the development of the Aqua-Lung which was a commercial success. During World War II, he worked for the French Resistance and experimented with underwater photography. He helped to dispose of German mines and was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Legion D'Honneur medals for his bravery. In 1942, he made his first underwater film Sixty Feet Down. It was eighteen minutes long and was entered in the Cannes Film Festival. After the war, he bought a ship which he named the Calypso and continued to make films. He wrote a book called The Silent World which became a best seller and was the subject of his next film. It received the Palme d'Or at Cannes and won an Academy Award. J.Cousteau promoted the conservation of the oceans and highlighted the problems of over fishing, pollution and the destruction of the coral reefs. He established the Cousteau Society in 1974 to protect ocean life and discovered new species, raised sunken ships and even led an expedition to Antarctica. Jacques Cousteau will be remembered as one of the great men of the twentieth century. 77

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Being a child, Cousteau had .... a) bright mind b) delicate health c) strong will d) heart attacks 2. In a car accident he .... a) injured his spine b) hurt his eyes c) burnt his arms d) broke his extremities 3. During World War II Cousteau collaborated with .... a) British troops b) French Resistance c) German antifascists d) Russian partisans 4. His first film was ... long. a) eighteen minutes b) half an hour c) eighty minutes d) an hour and eight minutes 5. Cousteau's book was titled .... a) "The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau" b)"The Silent World" c) "The Hidden Depths of the Ocean" d)"The Wonders of Underwater World" 6. Cousteau highlighted the problems of.... a) Global warming b) rare species c) over fishing d) the destruction of underwater caves 7. Cousteau developed underwater breathing equipment a) to extend his underwater investigations b) having no certain goals c) to gain fame d) to achieve commercial success 8. During World War II Cousteau .... a) experimented with mines b) tested underwater photography c) raised sunken ships d) bought a ship Calypso 9. The Cousteau Society didn't.... a) protect the oceans b) lead an expedition to Atlantida c) raise ships from the sea bed d) discover new species 10. Jacques promoted the .... a) consumption of new species b) conservation of German mines c) sinking of German ships d) destruction of German mines

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58. THE JUMPING FROG After M. Twain

There was a fellow, Jim Smiley by name. He was very fond of betting. If there was a dog-fight, he bet on it; if there was a chicken-fight, he bet on it; if there were two birds sitting on a fence, he bet on them. One day he caught a frog and called it Daniel Webster. Daniel was a gifted frog, and Smiley taught him to jump so high that he out jumped any other frog. But Jim was modest and natural. One day a stranger saw Smiley with his frog and asked him: "What have you in that box?" "It's only a frog", Smiley answered. The fellow took Daniel, examined him carefully, turned him from one side and from other and asked again: "What is it good for?" "He is good enough for one thing: he can out jump any other frog in the Calaveras county. And I bet $40 he will do it", Smiley answered. "I'm a stranger here", the fellow answered "and I have no frog; but if I had one, I could bet you". "Well, it's very easy", Smiley cried out; "if you hold my box a minute, I'll go and get you a frog." The stranger took the box, put his $40 upon those of Smiley and sat down to wait. While Smiley was away looking for a frog, the fellow got Daniel out of the box, opened the frog's mouth, took a teaspoon and filled him with shot; then he put him down upon the floor. At last Smiley came back with another frog. "Now", he said to the stranger, "if you're ready, put him near Daniel with their forefeet upon the same line and I'll give the signal. One, two, three — advance!" They pinched the frogs from behind. The new frog jumped smartly, but Daniel only lifted up his shoulders and didn't jump. The fellow took the money and went away. Smiley was surprised. At last he took Daniel by the skin of the neck, lifted him and cried: "Why, he weighs five pounds!" He turned Daniel upside down and there came out of the frog's mouth a double handful of shot. Then he understood all. He set the frog down and ran after that fellow, but he never caught him. 79

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Jim Smiley was a .... a) game-keeper b) grudger c) boaster

d) gambler

2. To win Daniel had to jump .... a) higher b) longer

d) further

c) quicker

3. The stranger put small... into Daniel's mouth. a) pills b) coins c) bullets

d) pebbles

4. Jim lost the bet because .... a) he was taken in b) the stranger substituted his frog c) Daniel stayed too long on a start d) the stranger poisoned Daniel 5. The stranger lacked .... a) honesty b) money

c) quick wits

d) archness

6. Jim wasn't (a).... a) heated b) shy

c) hypocrite

d) none of the above

7. Where did the stranger put his money? a) Upon the Jim's box. b) Under his frog. c) On Jim's money. d) On the ground. 8. According to the text, what did chicks, dogs, birds and frogs have in common? a) They were fighters. b) Jim tamed them. c) They were Jim's property. d) Jim risked money on the results of their competition. 9. What was the weight of the frog? a) 0,5 kg. b) Almost 2,5 kg. c) More than 3 kg. d) Less than 2 kg. 10. Which word can't be used retelling the story? a) To outpace. b) Adroitness. c) Talented.

d) Leap-frog.

11. Which proverb can't be used retelling the story? a) Neck or nothing. b) Appearances are deceitful. c) Don't count your chickens before they're hatched. d) A bad penny always comes back.

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Palmistry is the practice of foretelling the future by examining the lines and marks of the human hand. Palmistry probably began in ancient India. It was once considered a science. Today, most people regard palmistry as a false science. But people in many parts of the world practise palmistry. In palmistry, the fleshy parts of the palm at the base of the thumb and fingers and on the side of the hand are called mounts. The mounts are named for Apollo, the god of the sun in Greek and Roman mythology; the moon; and the planets Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, and Mars. A well-developed, fleshy mount supposedly means that a person has the characteristics associated with that mount. For example, the mount of Apollo indicates art and riches. Jupiter signifies ambition and pride, and Venus represents love and music. The wrinkles on the palm are called lines. Like the mounts, each line has a name and a meaning. For example, a long line of life supposedly foretells a long life. A long, clear line of the heart indicates an affectionate disposition. A strongly marked line of the head signifies intelligence and imagination. Most palmists also use various physical clues in making predictions. Nervousness or small muscular reactions to statements made by the palmist may reveal a person's feelings. The condition of the hands and nails also indicates some characteristics. Such signs may help the palmist make surprisingly accurate predictions. Some palmists use the form of the hand to describe an individual's personality as part of the process of predicting the future. 81


1. The passage is mainly about.... a) Roman mythology b) a new science c) different kinds of disposition d) chiromancy 2. ... are not used in reading palms. a) Wrinkles b) Mounts c) Nails d) Fleshy pads 3. What kind of book has the passage been taken from? a) An encyclopedia. b) A fortunetelling guide. c) A collection of science fiction stories. d) A collection of treatises. 4. Palmists can use ... to foretell the fixture. a) corns b) scars c) warts d) birth-marks 5. According to the text, what may help the palmist make predictions? a) Chiropody. b) The planets. c) Schemes. d) Harps. 6. The word "reveal" in line 21 means .... a) disclose b) hint at c) prompt d) associate

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KEYS Level A2+ pre-intermediate

1.Amazing Otters 1-е, 2-b, 3-d, 4-а, 5-е, 6-а.

▲ 2.Song Birds Must Hit Higher Notes to Survive in City 1-b, 2-а, 3-d, 4-е, 5-а, 6-е. 3.Protesters Give Stars' Fur Coats to the Homeless 1-b, 2-b, 3-a, 4-е, 5-е, 6-d. 4.The Sighting 1-b, 2-b, 3-є, 4-d, 5-е, 6-а. 5.Pulling Our Legs 1-b, 2-е, 3-a, 4-е, 5-b, 6-b.

▲ 6.Anorexia 1-d, 2-е, 3-b, 4-а, 5-е, 6-е. 7.The Art of Jack Lemmon 1-d, 2-b, 3-є, 4-а, 5-b, 6-е. 8.George Harrison, Rock Pioneer 1-а, 2-d, 3-d, 4-е, 5-d, 6-е. 9.The Making of Mauve 1-а, 2-е, 3-є, 4-е, 5-d, 6-а. 10.Mice Pass the Cheese for Siren Scent of Chocolate 1-b, 2-b, 3-d, 4-d, 5-а, 6-е. 83

11.Dentist "Drilled Healthy Tooth to Punish Patient" 1-d, 2-а, 3-c, 4-b, 5-е, 6-а. 12.Mona Lisa 1-b, 2-е, 3-а, 4-d, 5-d, 6-а.

▲ 13.What a Comeback 1-е, 2-b, 3-a, 4-а, 5-b, 6-е. 14.How to Skive 1-d, 2-е, 3-b, 4-а, 5-d, 6-е, 15.Magical Beasts 1-а, 2-е, 3-b, 4-е, 5-b, 6-е. 16.The Bag We Live in 1-b, 2-d, 3-d, 4-е, 5-е, 6-е. 17.The Story of Rubber 1-е, 2-е, 3-є, 4-b, 5-е, 6-а. 18.The Luckiest Sandwich in the World 1-а, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-а, 6-b. 19.Rip Van Winkle 1-е, 2-d, 3-c, 4-а, 5-е, 6-d. 20.Garden Art 1-е, 2-е, 3-b, 4-е, 5-е, 6-е. 21.Race Against Death 1-b, 2-а, 3-b, 4-d, 5-е, 6-b. 84

22.Trapped 1-е, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-b, 6-b.

▲ 23.Warning of RSI Risk in Computer Games 1-b, 2-а, 3-c, 4-b, 5-е, 6-а. 24.A Lesson in Honesty 1-b, 2-е, 3-a, 4-а, 5-b, 6-е. 25.Home Lessons for Schoolgirls Upbraided over Hair Extensions 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-а, 5-b, 6-d. 26.Killer Robots 1-е, 2-d, 3-b, 4-а, 5-е, 6-d. 27.Darkness and Light 1-е, 2-b, 3-b, 4-d, 5-е, 6-а. 28.Teenagers Are Bullied by Text Messages 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-е, 5-а, 6-d. 29.Away from It All 1-b, 2-b, 3-d, 4-b, 5-b, 6-е. 30.The Liver 1-b, 2-е, 3-a, 4-е, 5-d, 6-е. 31.River of Life: Blood 1-b, 2-е, 3-d, 4-а, 5-b, 6-b.

▲ 32.Kingdom Fungi 1-а, 2-b, 3-d, 4-d, 5-а, 6-е. 85

33.Alien Invasion 1-е, 2-d, 3-b, 4-а, 5-d, 6-b. 34.Why Rabbit Has No Fierce Claws 1-d, 2-е, 3-b, 4-а, 5-а, 6-b. 35.Diamonds 1-е, 2-е, 3-a, 4-е, 5-а, 6-а, 7-е. 36.Desert 1-а, 2-d, 3-a, 4-d, 5-а, 6-е. 37.Delaware Indians 1-b, 2-е, 3-b, 4-b, 5-а, 6-е. 38.The Atocha 1-d, 2-а, 3-с, 4-е, 5-b, 6-е. 39.Cricket and Mountain Lion 1-d, 2-е, 3-c, 4-а, 5-d, 6-е. 40.Joan of Arc 1-е, 2-b, 3-d, 4-а, 5-е, 6-b, 7-b, 8-е. 41.The Bullying Epidemic 1-е, 2-а, 3-c, 4-d, 5-d, 6-d, 7-b, 8-d. 42.Schools Told to Let Pupils Take Water into Lessons 1-d, 2-d, 3-a, 4-а, 5-d, 6-а. 43.Dowdy Women "Prefer Wimps" 1-е, 2-а, 3-c, 4-b, 5-е, 6-а. 44.Schools in Fizzy Drinks Scandal 1-b, 2-а, 3-b, 4-b, 5-е, 6-е.

▲ 45.A Miracle Cure 1-а, 2-d, 3-a, 4-е, 5-b, 6-d, 7-d. 46.The Dinner Party 1-d, 2-е, 3-b, 4-е, 5-d, 6-b. 47.The King Is Dead: Long Live the King! 1-d, 2-е, 3-a, 4-b, 5-d, 6-е. 86

48.Useful Devices 1-d, 2-b, 3-b, 4-е, 5-b, 6-d. 49.Hitting the Jackpot 1-а, 2-е, 3-b, 4-d, 5-d, 6-b. 50.Bacteria 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-а, 5-b, 6-b. 51.Wear a Helmet 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-b, 5-е, 6-d. 52.Pegasus 1-d, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b, 5-d, 6-b. 53.Pied Piper of Hamelin 1-а, 2-b, 3-a, 4-b, 5-d, 6-d. 54.Platypus 1-е, 2-е, 3-c, 4-а, 5-е, 6-а, 7-е. 55.London's Teens 1-е, 2-b, 3-b, 4-е, 5-d, 6-а, 7-а, 8-b, 9-а. 56.One Good Turn Deserves Another 1-е, 2-а, 3-d, 4-а, 5-d, 6-b, 7-b, 8-е, 9-d, 10-a, 11-c. 57.Jacques Cousteau: A Remarkable Man 1-b, 2-d, 3-b, 4-а, 5-b, 6-е, 7-а, 8-b, 9-b, 10-d. 58.The Jumping Frog 1-d, 2-а, 3-c, 4-а, 5-а, 6-е, 7-е, 8-d, 9-b, 10-d, 11-d. 59.Palmistry 1-d, 2-е, 3-a, 4-d, 5-а, 6-а.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.Betta L., Sardinas C. North Star. Focus On Reading And Writing. Intermediate. Longman, 1998. 2.Cassidy J., Roettger D., Karen K. Wixson. Reaching High. Scribnerlaidlaw, New York, 1989. 3.Club. Mary Glasgow Magazines, # 3, 2003. 4.Current. Mary Glasgow Magazines, # 1, 2001. 5.Davies E., Whitney N. Task Reading. Cambridge University Press 1990. 6.Digest # 3,2005. 7. Fair R.C., Strickland D.S. Sea of Wonder. Treasury of Literature. Harcourt Brace and Company, 1995. 8.ForMat, Cambridge University Press, 2001. 9.Ladies'Home Journal. September, 2001. 10. Ramsey W.L., Gabriel L.A., McGuirk J.F. Holt Life Science. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Publishers, 1982. 11. Science Plus. Technology and Society. Red Level. 12. The World Book Encyclopedia, USA, World Book Inc., Volume 5, 1986. 13. The World Book Encyclopedia, USA, World Book Inc., Volume 11, 1986.


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reading A2 level  

reading book for beginner students

reading A2 level  

reading book for beginner students