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BULGARIAN - SWISS BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PROGRAMME

ATANASOVSKO LAKE RESERVE :

MANAGEMENT PLAN CONCISE EDITION 1998

Migration of Lesser Spotted Eagles

ŠG. Pchelarov

Bulgarian Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme 38 B, Graf Ignatiev Str.,1000 Sofia, Bulgaria Ecological Station at Laboratory for General Ecology, BAS 2, Gagarin Str., 1113 Sofia Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD, 8000 Burgas Ministry of the Environment and Waters Vogelschutz Bulgaria Switzerland

Sweizer


Final Report of Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

BACKGROUND TO THE PREPARATION OF THE PLAN The Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme (BSBCP) is financed by SDC - the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and is realized in Partnership with Bulgarian Ministry of Environment Bulgarian NGO-s, and Research Institutes, Pro Natura - the Swiss League for Nature Protection, BirdLife Switzerland - the Swiss Association for the Protection of Birds (SVS) and World Conservation Union (IUCN) The main objective of the programme is to contribute to the conservation of Bulgarian nature by helping to implement the National Biodiversity Strategy and the National Action Plan for the Conservation of the most important Wetlands, by capacity building and concrete actions. The Programme is active in the following fields :conservation, administration and policy; training of managers for Protected Areas;environmental education, communication programmes and cooperative extension; establishment of Information Centres ;expanding and strengthening the Protected Areas network; working out Management Plans of existing Protected Areas and proposals for new Protected Areas;encouraging Eco-agriculture and promoting interaction between agriculture and nature protection;Assistance in the sustainable development of the regions of the projects; developing Eco-tourism policy;Eco- monitoring . The Programme includes projects on the territories of the Central Balkan, Eastern Rhodope, Dobrudja, Strandja, Coastal Wetlands and works on biomonitoring and conservation of plant genetic resources in different regions of Bulgaria.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my cordial thanks to our Swiss leaders and partners of BSBCP Mr.Pierre Galand and Mr. Gotlieb Dandliker , to the Ministry of Environment, Mr. Jeko Spiridonov and the staff of Department for Nature Protection for their support and help. I would like to thank all people who helped in different ways for the preparing of the present Management Plan. I am particularly grateful to Mr G. Dandliker, Dr M. Stoyneva and Mr. L. Profirov for their comments on the manuscript and for their useful suggestions and ideas. I would like to express special thank to: All experts of the project, namely Ass. Prof. Dr. Stoitze Andreev, Ass. Prof. Dr. Stanoy Kovachev, M. Ass. Dr. Maya Stoyneva, Res. Ass. Vladimir Velev, Dipl. Ing. Nikola Kostov, Dipl. Ing. Christo Naydenov, Dipl. Chem. Ivan Botev, Dipl. Biol. Dimitar Popov, Dipl. Biol. Vladimir Stefanov, Ms. Sabina Michailova, Mr. Georgi Pchelarov, Mr. Boyan Michev and Mr. Emanuil Michev; The staff of the Central office of the Programme - Ms. M. Konstantinova, Ms. Marina Chorbanova, Ms Rumiana Todorova, Ms. Margarita Goranova and Ms. Teodora Stoeva ; The colleagues from Burgas - Mr. Milko Dimitrov, Mr. Konstantin Niagolov, Mr. Milen Marinov and Mr. Kiril Valchev; The staff of Tchernomorski Solnitzi with their director Mr. Kambalov.

Ass.Prof. Tanyo Michev Project Leader

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CONTENTS (items, included in the concise edition are printed in bold) Plan Title Background to the Preparation of the Plan Acknowledgments THE SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN Management Plan Contents Summary PART 0 : PREAMBLE 0.1 POLICY 0.2 NATIONAL OR OTHER SURVEYS 0.3 IDENTIFICATION OF SITE 0.4 SELECTION OF SITE 0.5 ACQUISITION OF SITE PART 1 : DESCRIPTION & EVALUATION OF THE SITE GENERAL INFORMATION 1.0 1.1

LOCATION INCLUDING SITE BOUNDARIES LEGAL STATUS 1.1.1 Legal status of site 1.1.2 Designation of the site 1.1.3 Past status and designations 1.1.4 Torts 1.1.5 Reference to data bases

1.2

MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE 1.2.1 Organizational structure and administration 1.2.2 Staff involved and staff responsibilities 1.2.3 Buildings PHYSICAL FEATURES/ ABIOTIC FEATURES

1.3.

CLIMATE 1.3.1 National climate 1.3.2 Regional climate 1.3.3. Site climate

1.4

GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY: FEATURES AND PROCESSES 1.4.1 Solid geology 1.4.2 Drift geology 1.4.3 Hydrology and hydrography Marine, brackish and freshwate 1.4.4 Hydrochemistry

1.5 SOILS AND SOIL PROCESSES 1.5.1 Soil survey 1.5.2 Nutrient status BIOLOGICAL FEATURES/BIOTIC FEATURES 1.6

COMMUNITIES, ECOSYSTEMS OR BIOTOPES (Corine-Biotopes

1.7

VEGETATION STRUCTURE

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1.8

1.9

1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 FLORA 1.8.1 1.8.2

Ground layer Herb or field layer Understorey and shrub layer Layer of trees Algal flora. Phytoplankton Higher plants

FAUNA 1.9.1 Invertebrates 1.9.1.1 Zooplankton and Zoobenthos 1.9.1.2 Artemia salina 1.9.1.3. Dragonflies 1.9.2 Fish 1.9.3 Amphibians and reptiles 1.9.4 Birds 1.9.5 Mammals

CULTURAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEATURES 1.10

CURRENT HUMAN USE: WITHIN SITE 1.10.1 Agriculture 1.10.3 Recreation 1.10.4 Hunting 1.10.5 Fishing 1.10.6 Education 1.10.7 Research 1.10.8 Demonstration 1.10.9 Residentia 1.10.10 Industrial 1.10.11 Others

1.11

CURRENT HUMAN USE: ADJACENT TO SITE 1.11.1 Land-uses 1.11.2 Present human settlement patterns 1.11.3 Planning policies 1.11.4 Economic aspects

1.12

PAST HUMAN USE 1.12.1 Prehistory/Archaeological 1.12.2 Historical/Pre industrial 1.12.3 Post industrial era 1.12.4 National monuments and other features

1.13

LANDSCAPE AND AESTHETIC QUALITIES

1.14

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIVE MATERIA 1.14.1 Bibliograph 1.14.2 References 1.14.3 Data bases containing information 1.14.4 Map coverage 1.14.5 Photographic coverage 1.14.6 Informational and educational publications and films 1.14.7 Published materials

FIRST EVALUATION

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1.15

ECOLOGICAL 1.15.1 Fragility 1.15.2 Rarity 1.15.3 Naturalness 1.15.4 Typicality 1.15.5 Special interests 1.15.6 Size 1.15.7 Diversity 1.15.8 Stability and instability

1.16

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS 1.16.1 Potential value 1.16.2 International and national designations 1.16.3 Available data and recorded history

PART 2 : THE IDEAL OBJECTIVES 2.1 Long - terms objectives for management of site 2.1.1. To maintain or enhance features of international, national, regional, local or site importance 2.1.2 Identification of primary objectives 2.1.3 Identification of secondary objectives 2.2

CONSTRAINTS OR MODIFIERS 2.2.1 Natural trends within the site 2.2.2 Natural trends outside the site 2.2.3 Man induced trends within the site Land use Water use Influence of dual carriage way Varna - Burgas Influence of power line ,built cross of the lake 2.2.4 Man induced trends outside the site 2.2.5 Management practicality

SECOND EVALUATION 2.3 WHAT EFFECTS DO MODIFIERS OR CONSTANTS HAVE UPON IDEAL OBJECTIVES 2.4

SITE POTENTIAL

PART 3 : OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS 3.1 OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES 3.2

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 3.2.1 Checklist of activity areas to be covered by strategies 3.2.1.1 Maintaining or enhancing: habitats/biotopes; 3.2.1.2 Habitat structures; species; diversity, etc. 3.2.1.3 Public use 3.2.1.4 Access facilities 3.2.1.5 Estate management

3.3 3.4

PROGRAMMES PROJECTS OR TASKS

3.5

DETERMINATION OF PRIORITIES

3.6

WORK PLAN

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3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3

The medium term plan The annual plan Project control

PART 4 : REVIEW OF PROGRESS TOWARDS OBJECTIVES 4.1 REVIEWS 4.1.1 Review methods 4.1.2 Time criteria for assessment/reviews 4.2

REVIEW OF PROGRESS TOWARDS OBJECTIVES (THE ANNUAL REVIEW) 4.2.1 Review of programmes 4.2.2 Review of projects

4.3

REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT PLAN (THE 5-10 YEAR REVIEW) 4.3.1 Review of objectives 4.3.2 Review of strategies

4.4.

REVISION OF PLAN

4.5

AUDITS 4.5.1 Audits by the managing organization 4.5.2 Audits by others

Glossary of terms / names Bibliography

Appendices: Appendix 1: List of Plant and animal species, recorded in Atanasovsko Lake Appendix 2: .Maps in A 4 format 1. Comparative Sketches of Atanasovsko Lake from 1854, 1940 and 1997 2. Map of Atanasovsko Lake, scale 1 : 100 000, 1940 3. Contemporary Map of the Region of Atanasovsko Lake , scale 1 : 500 000 4. Contemporary Topographical Map 1 : 25 000 5. Catchment Area of Atanasovsko Lake 6. Soil Structure around Atanasovsko Lake 7. Salinity of Atanasovsko Lake 8. Vegetation Structure of Atanasovsko Lake 9. Ownership of the Land around Atanasovsko Lake 10. Roads and Paths around Atanasovko Lake 11. Research Sampling Sites 12. Present Territory of Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko Lake” and its Buffer Zone 13..Proposed Enlargement of the Territory of Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko Lake” and its Buffer Zone 14. Place of the Future Information Centre 15. Proposed New Water bodies Appendix 3: “Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake” - Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko .Lake

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Appendix 4: Large Maps with different sizes (presented separately) • Working Map of Vegetation Structure, scale 1: 5 000 • Atanasovsko Lake 1: 10 000 • Atanasovsko Lake 1: 25 000 ( with bondaries of the reserve and buffer zone) • Atanasovsko Lake 1 : 50 000 • Maps of the Ownership of the Land around Atanasovsko Lake Appendix 5 : Black and white photographs , made since 1940 ( presented separately) Appendix 6: Colour Slides of Wetlands along Black Sea Coast (presented separately) Appendix 7: Folders, Post Cards , Envelops, etc. (presented separately)

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PART 1. DESCRIPTION & EVALUATION OF THE SITE GENERAL INFORMATION 1.0 LOCATION INCLUDING SITE BOUNDARIES Site: Atanasovsko lake Co-ordinates: approx. 42 35` N 27 28 ` E UTM grid: NH 31, NH 30 Location: in close vicinity of the western Black Sea coast, 4 km northern to the town of Burgas, Burgas district, Bulgaria (map 3, 4 ). Area: 1050 ha, additional buffer zone with approx. 900 ha; owned by the State. 1.1

LEGAL STATUS 1.1.1 Legal status of site According the Law for the Protection of Nature” as reserves are declared unique or with scientific value communities as well such with permanent importance for the science and economy and must be protected in natural conditions”. • The north part of the lake has been declared as nature reserve (State gazette, number 70/1980) with the following regime : “....all activities, which are disturbing the original character of nature in the reserve are prohibited , with exception of excavation of curative mud in northeastern part of the lake ...”The whole area of the reserve is owned by the State. The land in NW, N, NE and E part of the buffer zone is owned by the Municipality Burgas; a piece of the buffer zone in north and western part is private. • The south part of Atanasovsko lake together with a belt of about 200 m around the northern part has been declared as a buffer zone of the reserve ( State gazette, number 85/1981). The following activities are prohibited in the buffer zone: a/ building of houses and roads , with exception of the forthcoming enlargement of the road Burgas - Pomorie b/ uncovering of pits, changes in water regime, pollution with chemicals, industrial and living waste. c/ creating of private farms for domestic animals d/ hunting, thundering and use of wetlands for rearing of wild and domestic animals e/ collecting of eggs and destroying of nests of birds. f/ cover in the coastal lake’s bank. The following activities are permitted in the buffer zone: a/ land cultivation b/ grazing of domestic animals with exception of pigs c/ sea-salt and production and excavation of curative mud without disturbance of ecological conditions in the reserve . d/ building of a station for research and management of the reserve. e/ building of a park “Ezero” in south part of the lake • The reserve without the buffer zone is Ramsar site since 28.11.1984 according to the following Ramsar criteria: 1 d: It is an example of a specific type of wetland, rare or unusual in the appropriate biogeographcal region; 2 c: It is of special value as a habitat of plants or animals at a critical stage of their biological cycle; 3 c: It regularly supports 1 % of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterfowl. • • •

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The reserve has been declared as Important Bird Area since 1989 and as Global Important Area since 1997. The reserve has been declared as Corine Site under No 77. The reserve has been declared as protected area with international importance ( State gazette, number 97/1993). According the Bulgarian constitution such areas are exclusive state property.

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Atanasovsko lake has been designated by the Ministry of the Health.as a place with significant stores of curative mud and it has been included in the so called “ Zone A” with very strong regime.

1.1.2 Designation of the site The site has double designation: • producing of sea-salt. • conservation of the exclusive biodiversity. These two designations are supplemented each other and only occasionally get into conflicts, which can be avoided with clever economical and ecological management. 1.1.3 Past status and designations Salinas since 1906 (southern part) and since 1945 (northern part). Protected Site (small area of Northern part) - State gazette, No 57, 1976. This protected site was very small one (only 80 ha) and could not guarantee the preservation of the biological diversity of Atanasovsko lake. 1.1.4 Torts In the reserve: Shouting of water birds during the hunting season Gathering of eggs of Artemia salina Cultivation of small plots of land along the canal in south western part of the buffer zone Catching and ringing of Passerines in Northeastern part of the reserve Building of photographic hides in the breeding colonies and breeding places of rare birds. In the buffer zone: breaking of the water regime ( item “b” of prohibited activities in Order for the buffer zone) creating of private farms for domestic animals ( item “c” of prohibited activities in Order for the buffer zone) grazing of pigs ( item “b” of permitted activities in Order for the buffer zone) sea-salt production with disturbance of ecological conditions in the reserve ( item “c” of permitted activities in Order for the buffer zone). 1.1.5 Reference to Data Bases Corine Biotope code : No 77 Important bird area : since 1989 and Global IBA since 1997. Ramsar site : since 28.11.1984. 1.2

MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE 1.2.1 Organizational structure and administration Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD. This company is producing sea-salt in the reserve and its buffer zone. Director - Mr. Kambalov. Ecological Station at the Laboratory for General Ecology (former Institute of Ecology). Director of the Laboratory - Dr. G. Hibaum. The staff of the Station (one scientist and one gardian) is responsible for the management of the reserve. Ministry of Environment. Through the Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme and its project for preparing of Management Plan for Atanasovsko lake reserve this ministry is responsible for preparing and implementing the Management Plan. Project leader - Tanyo Michev. 1.2.2 Staff involved and staff responsibilities The staff of the Ecological station (one scientist and one gardian) is responsible for the management, monitoring and research of the reserve and buffer zone. The staff of the Atanasovsko lake project (one person) is responsible for the preparing of the Management plan. The staff of the Tchernomorski Solnitzi is responsible for the maintaining of dykes and orgainisaion of salt production.

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BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL FEATURES / BIOTIC FEATURES 1.6

COMMUNITIES, ECOSYSTEMS OR BIOTOPES (CORINE BIOTOPES)

According to U d v a r d y (1975) Atanasovsko lake is situated in the biogeographical province “Balkan highland�. Rare communities and ecosystems of hyperhaline wetlands are typical for Atanasovsko lake. According to the classification of Corine Biotopes Habitat types the following habitat types are recorded in Atanasovsko lake (tabl. 1): Table 1 . Corine Biotope Habitat Types in Atanasovsko Lake Code

Habitat

15

Saltmarshes, salt steppes, salt scrubs

% from the 12

Western Pontic glasswort-seablite-saltwort 15.11521 23

Standing brackish and salt water

23.113

80

Ponto- Pannonic salt lakes

3.8

Mesophile grassland

0

Moeso-Thracian mesophile flood plan meadows 3.8.2521 53

Water - fringe vegetation

53.1112

Saline water (Phragmites) beds

53.131

Great reedmace beds

53.132

Lesser reedmace beds

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According to some other opinions the following types of habitats in Atanasovsko lake are also presented with small area: 2.22 Standing fresh water 2.24 Running water 8.89 Industrial lagoons and reservoirs, canals C o s t a e t a l (1996) claim that the Ramsar classification of habitat types in contrast to Corine system had specificity for wetlands. According to this classification In Atanasovsko lake the following wetland types are presented: H Salt marshes; incl. salt meadows, saltings, raise salt marshes Ts Seasonal/ Intermittent freshwater marshes or pools on inorganic soil; incl. sloughs, potholes, seasonal flooded meadows, sedge marshes. Man-made/ intensively farmed or grazed wetlands 5. Salt exploitation sites; salt pans, Salinas, etc. 7. Excavations; gravel/brick/clay pits, borrow pits, mining pool. 9. Canals and drainage channels; ditches 1.7 VEGETATION STRUCTURE The vegetation structure of Atanasovsko lake is presented on fig. 1. 1.9. FAUNA 1.9.4

Birds

This group is the richest and the best investigated one. According to P r o f I r o v, D I m I t r o v , N I a g o l o v (1997) in the reserve, buffer zone and at the coast in front of the lake 294 bird species (or 75 % of all bird species in Bulgaria) are recorded and 62 species of them are breeding (App. 1). Thus Atanasovsko lake occupies the first place in Bulgaria according to the richness of bird species. R o b e r t s (1981) gives 214

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species, recorded for Atanasovsko lake ( 38 breeding, with 28 more suspected). W a t e r h o u s e (1988) includes in his Checklist of the Birds of Atanasovsko lake 244 species (50 breeding). Four of these species, namely Aegypius monachus, Vanellus gregarius, Tringa cinereus and Lanius excubitor are not included in this Checklist due to lack of exact data .

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 1997

1995

1980

1977

1975

1973

1971

1969

1964

1962

1955

1932

0 1909

Numbers in breeding pairs

The birds of Atanasovsko lake have following conservation features : 255 species from all 296 for Atanasovsko lake are declared as protected according the Nature Conservation Law. 86 species from all 100 birds included in Bulgarian Red Data Book are registered in Atanasovsko lake: 29 of them are rare, 52 are threatened and 5 - extinct as breeding. 7 rare and 11 threatened species are breeding in Atanasovsko lake. 17 species cover Ramsar numerical criteria for wetlands with international importance - 3 as breeding (Recurvirostra avosetta, Sterna sandvicensis and Gelochelidon nilotica) and 14 as migrating or wintering. 102 species registered in Atanasovsko lake are included in Corine biotopes project (16 of them as breeding). 170 species are included in 4 BirdLife Spec. categories : - Species of global conservation Concern ( Spec. 1) - 13 species; - Concentrated in Europe with unfavorable conservation status (Spec. 2) 20 species; - Not Concentrated in Europe but with unfavorable conservation status (Spec. 3) - 78 species; - Concentrated in Europe and with favorable conservation status (Spec. 4) - 59 species. 283 species are with the following European threat status according to BirdLife: Endangered (E) - 16 species Declining (D) - 32 species Vulnerable (V) - 43 species Localized (L) 7 species Rare ( R) - 13 species Secure ( S) - 172 species 183 migrating species are included in Bon Convention: 4 - in Appendix I and 179 in Appendix II. All these data clearly show the great regional and international conservation importance of Atanasovsko lake. The breeding numbers of the most typical bird for the reserve - the Avocet have changed as it follows (fig. 2): Fig.2. Long-term Changes in the Numbers of Recurvirostra avosetta in Atanasovsko Lake.

Year

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Numbers ( in breeding pairs) of the most numerous breeding birds in Atanasovsko lake during the period 1993-1996 is presenterd on the following fig. 3: R. avosetta

H. himantopus

G. nilotica

St. sandvicensis

St. hirundo

St. albifrons

Numbers in br. pairs

L. melanocephala

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1993

1994

1995

1996

Year

Fig. 3. Numbers ( in breeding pairs) of the most numerous breeding birds in Atanasovsko lake during the period 1993-1996. It is interesting to notice the importance of Atanasovsko lake as feeding ground of Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia), breeding in “Poda” protected site and of several heron species, breeding in “Poda” and Vaya lake. In the contrary, Dalmatian pelicans, roosting in Atanasovsko lake are feeding in Vaya and Mandra lakes. All these data prove the close connection among the wetlands around the town of Burgas and the need these wetlands to be treated as one ecological complex. The bird migration over Atanasovsko lake is very well studied in two ways: • ringing of mainly waders and passerins since 1977; • observations of visible autumn migration of soaring birds (10 August - 30 October) from 1978 till 1993. The results show that Atanasovsko lake ranks first in Europe in the migration of Pelecanus crispus, Pelecanus onocrotalus, Circus aeruginosus and Falco vespertinus. It occupies second place according to the migration of Aqula pomarina. The peak numbers of autumn migration over Atanasovsko lake for the period 1978 - 1994 are up to 60 000 raptors and up to 240 000 pelicans, storks and cranes. They origin from the eastern half of the European continent. Atanasovsko lake is of big importance as wintering place for ducks, waders and pelicans. Since 1977 have been made regular midwinter counts. Its importance among all wetlands along Black Sea coast is shown on fig. 4 :

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Ist period

IInd period

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

L.argentat

G.gallinago

N.arquata

R.avosetta

M.serrator

A.ferina

A.acuta

A.crecca

A.penelope

C.olor

E.alba

P.nigricoll.

TOTAL

0

Fig. 4. Midwinter Numbers ( in ln ) of the Most Numerous Water Birds in Atanasovsko Lake during two Periods ( 1977-86 and 1987-96 ) according Michev et al (in prep).

In January 1995, 1996 and 1997 the following bird species were recorded as wintering in the reserve, buffer zone and the coast in front of the lake (table 2):

Table 2. Midwinter Numbers of Water Birds in Atanasovsko Lake Numbers (in Species Species ind.) 1995 1997 Podicers cristatus Podicers nigricollis Pelecanus crispus* Phalacroco rax carbo Phalacroco rax pygmeus Ardea cinerea Egretta alba Egretta garzetta Botaurus stellaris

1996 5

-

25

197

54

83

34 202 6 17

1

140 -

4

7 -

-

4 39

43

10 -

-

1 1

-

Aythya ferina Aythya fuligula Bucephala clangula Mergus albellus Mergus serrator Anatinae spp. Rallus aquaticus Galinula chloropus Fulica atra

Numbers ind.) 1995 1997 926 1210 323 72

(in

1996 40 7

7 4

-

3

-

-

102

1

3

-

3

555 4450

928

9 145

3 -

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Anser albifrons Anser anser Branta ruficollis Cygnus cygnus Cygnus olor Tadorna tadorna* Tadorna ferruginea Anas penelope Anas crecca A.platyrhyn chos Anas acuta Anas clypeata

2250 5540

11

-

11 -

-

380 5

1

34 753 1102 2498 2 2034 58 240 428 1197 27 410 61 230

155

-

1555 180 165 250 67 3

Pluvialis squatarola Numenius arquata Tringa totanus Calidris alba Calidris alpina Calidris minuta Philomach us pugnax Larus canus Larus cachinans Larus ridibundus Larus genei Larus minutus TOTAL

-

-

15

7

1

-

7 11 29 2

-

53 106 4 32 103 206 61 275

35 17 7

24 1 6217 20147

3923

*species with numbers of international importance According to M I c h e v e t a l (in prep.) the average midwinter numbers of water birds in Atanasovsko lake during the period 1977 - 86 are 9 929 ind. and for 1987 - 96 - 5 748 ind. There is significant increase of midwinter numbers in 1997. For the first time Branta ruficollis and Tadorna ferruginea in midwinter counts are presented. The numbers of Anser albifrons is increasing as well . As one may see from above given data Atanasovsko lake is : The site with highest species diversity of birds in Bulgaria The place with highest number of birds species from Bulgarian Red Data Book The site with highest breeding numbers in Bulgaria of : Recurvirostra avosetta Himantopus himantopus Sterna albifrons Sterna hirundo Unique breeding place in Bulgaria of : Larus melanocephala Larus genei Gelochelidon nilotica Sterna sandvicensis The site with highest migration numbers in Europe of : Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Circus aeruginosus Falco vespertinus The site with the biggest midwinter numbers in Bulgaria of: Tadorna tadorna

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PART 2. THE LONG -TERM OBJECTIVES 2.1

LONG-TERM OBJECTIVES FOR MANAGEMENT OF SITE

2.1.1 To maintain or enhance features of international, national, regional or local site importance 2.1.2

Identification of primary objectives :

• Maintenance of habitat diversity of the site. • Conservation of breeding, migrating and wintering population of the following globally threatened species and species with numbers, which exceed the Ramsar criteria (table 3): Table 3. Globally threatened Bird Species and Species with Numbers which exceed the Ramsar criteria: Species Breeding Migrating or wintering Categ (pairs) (ind.) ory Pelecanus 10969 - 31665 ( Rams onocrotalus 800)* ar Pelecanus crispus 6 Globa 432(All) lly Egretta alba 39(12) Rams ar Ciconia nigra 1431 Rams 5154(350) ar Ciconia ciconia 80592 - 204423 Rams (4000) ar Plegadis falcinellus 391(10) Rams ar Platalea leucorodia 130 (60) Rams ar Cygnus olor 750 (450) Eams ar Anser albifrons 10000(6500) Rams ar Anser erythropus 1 - 10 Globa lly Branta ruficollis 1 - 400 Globa lly Tadorna tadorna 1-10 4036(750) Rams ar Aythya nyroca 1-10 Globa lly Marm. Angustirostris 1 - 10 Globa lly Oxyura leucocephala 1 - 10 Globa lly Aquila clanga 10 - 100 Globa lly Aquila heliaca 1 - 10 Globa lly Falco naumanni 10 - 100 Globa lly Crex crex 1-10 Globa

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Anthropoides virgo

1 - 10

Recurvirostra avosetta Himantopus himantopus Charadrius alexandrinus Numenius tenuirostris Gelochelidon nilotica

5001500(100)* 10 - 100 (50) 10 100(100)

10 - 100 (20) 100 - 1000 (400)

Acrocephalus paludicola *Ramsar numerical criteria

•

16

673 1 - 10 (3)

Sterna sandvicensis

•

100 - 1000

80 1200 1 - 10

lly Globa lly Rams ar Rams ar Rams ar Globa lly Rams ar Rams ar Globa lly

Control and elimination of Nictereutes procionoides, Sus scrofa, Vulpes vulpes, Canis aureus and domestic dogs and cats. Development of the site for: research educational and public use purposes.

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Evaluation of Important Site Features has been made on table 4: Table 4. Evaluation of Important Site Features Subject Features

Importance

International or National Soils Hydrology Communities / Vegetation types Species Flora Vascular plants Species Fauna Fishes

Reptiles

Birds breeding

a.

Medical mud Hyperhaline waters Salt marshes, salt steppes, salt scrubs

High

Parapholis incurva Gupsophilia trichotoma

High

Silene euxina Halimone pedunculata Halimone portulacoides Petrosimonia brachiata Suaeda heterophyla Coryspermum nitidum Lepidotrichum uechtritzianum Gasterosteus aculeatus Pungitius platigaster Ophisaurus apodus Elaphe longissima Tachybaptus ruficollis Ixobrychus minutus Ardea purpurea Ciconia ciconia

High High

Tadorna tadorna Anas crecca Anas strepera Anas

Regiona l

Loc al

High

High

High

High High High Medium Medium High High High High International Hig h

Medium Hig h High

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platyrhynchos Anas querquedula Anas acuta Anas clypeata Circus aeruginosus Perdix perdix

Hig h Hig h High High Me diu m Hig h Me diu m

Rallus aquaticus Porzana porzana Crex crex

High ; International

Gallinula chloropus

Me diu m

Haematopus ostralegus Himantopus himantopus Recurvirostra avosetta Burchinus oedicnemus Glareola pratincola Charadrius alexandrinus Vanellus vanellus

High

Tringa totanus

Medium

Larus melanocephalus Larus ridibundus Gelochelidon nilotica Sterna sandvicensis Sterna hirundo Sterna albifrons Streptopelia decaocto Cuculus canorus Tyto alba Athene noctua

High Hign High High Hign Me diu m Hig h

High Medium High High Medium Medium Low Low High

Apus apus

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Alcedo atthis

Hig h Me diu m Me diu m Low Low Low Low Low

Upupa epops

Cal. brachydactyla

b.migrating and wintering

Galerida cristata Alauda arvensis Hirundo rustica Delichon urbica Anthus campestris Motacilla flava Phalacrocorax pygmeus Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Ciconia ciconia Anser erythropus Branta ruficollis Tadorna tadorna Marmaronetta angustirostris Aythya nyroca Oxyura leucocephala Aquila pomarina Aquila clanga Aquila heliaca Falco naumanni Numenius tenuirostris Recurvirostra avosetta Luscinia megarhynchos Oenanthe oenanthe Cettia cetti Locusteiia luscinioides Acr.schoenaben us

Low MediumInternational HighInternational HighInternational HighInternational HighInternational HighInternational

LowInternational MediumInternational MediumInternational HighInternational LowInternational MediumInternational Medium High_Internatio nal High Low Low Medium Medium

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Me diu

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m Me diu m Low

Acr. scirpaceus

Sylvia communis Panurus biarmicus Remiz pendulinus Pica pica Sturnus vulgaris Passer domesticus Rasser hispaniolensis

Mammals

Emberiza Miliaria calandra Suncus etruscus Neomys fodiens Citellus citellus Lutra lutra Felis silvestris

High Hig h Low Low Low Me diu m Low Low High High Hig h High High

2. 1. 3 Identification of secondary objectives • • •

Continuing of traditional production of sea - salt and extraction of medical mud. Incorporating of a breeding place of Crex crex to the reserve. Hydrological improvements : (i) Increasing of water volume of the freshwater marsh in NE part of the reserve by building a small sluice using the existing bridge (as a first step) and by digging out about 2 m. of the bottom. The material should be put into neighboring former clay pit. (ii) Increasing of the level of the western part of surrounding canal and the freshwater marsh in NW part of the reserve. (iii) Conversion of the clay pit in NE part in a freshwater basin with gentle slopes. This new basin should be connected with the neighboring marsh, the old freshwater basin and the surrounding canal in a way all this water bodies to create common system, attractive for people and birds. (iv) Creation of new small pools in E and W part. • Planting (afforestation) of patches of local trees and shrubs in the eastern part of buffer zone. 2. 2

CONSTRAINTS OR MODIFIERS 2. 2. 1 Natural trends within the site

Penetration of terrestrial predators along the dykes in all parts of the reserve.

Rapid succession of the freshwater marsh in NE part, as well as in the surrounding canal.This causes relatively often removing of vegetation in the canal.

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2. 2. 2 Natural trends outside in the site Appearance of Canis aureus and Nictereutes procinoides in the site as consequence of enlargement of their range. 2. 2. 3 Man induced trends within the site 2. 2. 3. 1 Land-use and economic trends. The present traditional production of sea- salt is compatible with conservation of the rich biodiversity of the site and with other ideal objectives of the Management Plan. As it was already mentioned, the presence of rich and stable ecosystems in the salt-pans increases the production of sea-salt. Even slight changes in the methods of production could have serious negative consequences for the biodiversity. That’s why the traditional methods for salt production must be not changed (see also 1.10.10). There are only two small conflicts between the salt- production and conservation of biological diversity: • It is proved, that the breeding birds prefer small, low and narrow dykes, made by wooden boards and not accessible to terrestrial predators instead of big, high and wide dykes made only from soil and not safety from terrestrial predators and people. The lasts are preferred by Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD, because they are cheaper and can not be stolen This conflict may be avoided by ensuring of additional funds for buying of pine wood boards and for appointment of gardians by the Ministry of Environment. • The sudden increase of water level in the salt-pans in the beginning of the summer and emptying of basins in autumn is not always considered with the needs of breeding and feeding birds. This could be avoided by preparing of co-ordinated programme with the Ministry of Environment.

2.2.3.2

Water use

A. Water use within the reserve •

From the pumping station western to the reserve

This pumping station is constructed and managed by “Christo Botev” Agricultural Co-operation - Burgas. It is situated on the dam bank near the jail. The dam which’s water resources are used for irrigation has no proper name and therefore will be quoted below shortly as jail dam. The pumping station is equipped with four pumps, three of which are in use and one is under repair .The pumping station is used for irrigation of co-operation’s agricultural land - apricot, corn and other crops. It is a part of a large irrigation system, in which Zhitarovo dam and different altitude equalizing reservoirs are included. Reservoirs are named: Izgrev, 9th km, located near the motor way Sofia-Burgas, and others. Pumps work on electricity and operate mainly during the night - from 22.00 to 06.00. Working period is June - September, mainly during the summer. It depends on water consumption and the need for irrigation. Pumping station supplies water to higher altitude reservoirs from where it flows down for irrigation. No more artificial head is necessary after the reservoirs. During the winter there is no need for irrigation, but for certain period of time the pumps still work. They are pumping water to Zhitarovo dam, at a higher altitude. In this way during the winter water volume is being accumulated in the dam as a water reserve which could be significant resource during the summer when greater demand of water for irrigation is present. For example, in the autumn and winter of 1995 there was no need to spend electricity for pumping water up to Zhitarovo dam because all reservoirs in the system were full as a consequence of affluent feeders that year. In contrary to this, the employees of “Hristo Botev” Agricultural Co-operation gave information that during the last year pumping station worked partially even during the winter. Withdrawn water quantities from the jail dam are not measured at any point of the irrigation system. The only parameter under control is water level in reservoirs in order to secure water supply for irrigation. Therefore it is difficult to precise withdrawn water

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quantities. Analyzing capacity of the pumps and also the time of their work, water quantity withdrawn could be estimated as about 1 000 m3 per day. •

From the pumping station in small freshwater pond eastern to the reserve. This pumping station belongs to the Bricks factory, which is supplied with fresh water from the former pit clay. The water is used for bricks production. The regime of work of this station and withdrawn water quantity are not known. When the withdrawn quantities and the evaporation are too big, the water level in the pond is decreasing to a large degree. •

From interim pumping station north -eastern to the reserve The water is pumped out from the freshwater marsh, which belongs to the reserve. It is used for irrigation purposes. The station is mobile one and it is working only in summer. The withdrawn water quantity is not known.

B. Water use within the southern part of Buffer zone (Solnitzi Jug) The southern part of the lake is used mainly for salt production and there is no water extraction or other water use, except for water withdrawn for irrigation from the drainage canal next to motor-road Nessebar - Burgas, close to Iztok blocks of flats. There are a number of small vegetable patches along the canal in between housing estate and salt cellars. People living in the area prefer this place because of water immediacy. At this point canal water is collected from both northern and southern parts of the lake. A bridge is situated along this line dividing the so called “Yard” and ”South Lake” basins. There is a river flowing under the bridge. This river has no proper name, sometimes it is called the Town River. In city area it flows under the streets in man-made covered river bed. Flow rate is about 1.5 m3/h. The drainage canal is filled up with water during the whole year. That is why it is suitable habitat for both plant and animal species. It is illegally used by local population for irrigation of small orchards. During the summer the water in this part of the canal runs very slowly. The concentration of nutrients is high and eutrophication exists. Additionally plant decomposition provides fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorous. After the “Yard” cellar (see the enclosed map) canal route heads for a marsh close to the sea beach. There are also small gardens used for growing of corn and other crops. After the marsh water is flowing into the sea pumped by the sewerage pumping station of Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. According to company’s files, the pumped water quantities are of significant values during the whole year. Pumps work even during the summer despite the reduced surface run-off. This is due to the fact that farming co-operation discharges its waste waters into the drainage canal close to the cemetery. This could explain why water is white as soap, turbid and also to give explanation to the existence of flow in the canal during the summer. Izgrev blocks of flats is connected to the municipal sewerage system, maintained by Water Supply and Sewerage Ltd. No domestic waste waters from the area are being discharged into the canal. A sewerage pumping station situated close to the railway (could be seen at the enclosed scheme) is transferring sewerage waters to Burgas municipal waste water treatment plant. There is no flowing-in of salt sea water in the western part of the drainage canal close to the city of Burgas. The canal at this stretch is collecting surface fresh water. Salty water from the sea is drained northern to the to salt cellars. Regime and schedule of inflow of sea water to salt cellars are annual and according to the technological cycle of salt and lye production. Water inflow is managed through a water gate (see the picture). The management is being done by Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. - Burgas. The gate is designed in the way that is allowing influx of sea water with direction to the channel and in the opposite discharge of fresh water to the sea. The direction of the

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stream is being diversified by a wooden gate. When it is in upper position, the water is flowing under it to the channel, because the channel is lower compared to the sea). When the gate is in lower position, if there is significant surface run-off, the water level in the channel is getting higher and over the gate it is flowing to the sea. According to the management of Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. - Burgas, for the beginning of the salt production process salty water is being introduced during April. The intensity of flowing of salty sea water is different in the next months. The process is supervised by technicians, who measure salt concentrations in different salt-cellars.. There is no exact dates for both starting and end of the sea water flowing. It depends on the evaporation and sea water demand for salt production. Main legislation acts, related to water use are: •

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT (published in State Gazette No.86 from 1991, amendments in No.90 from 1991, No.100 from 1992, No.31 and No.63 from 1995)

Environmental Protection Act is the main legislation act on environmental protection. It determines the rights and obligations of the state, municipalities, physical and juridical persons on environmental protection. Regulation is also given for control on environment and programming and management of the environment. •

NATURE CONSERVATION ACT (published in State Gazette No.47 from 1967, amendments in No.3 from 1977, No. 39 from 1978, No.28 from 1982, No.26 from 1988 and No.86 from 1991)

Nature Conservation Act and the Regulation Procedure for its implementation is a legislation act which significance is reduced after the adoption of the Environmental protection act. Several parts of the text have been omitted and also the whole Chapter 4 from it. •

PROTECTION OF THE AIR, THE WATERS AND THE SOIL FROM POLLUTION ACT (published in State Gazette No.84 from 1963, amendments in No.26 from 1968, No. 29 from 1969, No.95 from 1975, No.3 from 1977, No.1 from 1978, No.26 from 1988, No.86 from 1991 and No.100 from 1992)

Protection of the Air, the Waters and the Soil from Pollution Act regulates activities on protection of water from contamination. Settled are rights and obligations of the Ministry of Environment and other Ministries. Settled is permission arrangement for discharge of domestic and industrial effluents into surface water streams, basins, fisheries and coastal sea waters. The act is of importance for both citizens, municipal authorities, producers etc.

In the regulation procedure for the implementation of the Protection of the air, the waters and the soil from pollution act in Chapter II, p. 23 it is written that Water streams and basins such as rivers,...lakes are to be protected from contamination. Contamination means any change in physical, chemical and biological qualities, what makes them dangerous or not useful for animals, fish and plants. Waste water is any flowing-out water after it is used for domestic, cultural or economic purposes. In p.31 it is written: It is forbidden to put into operation industries, farms...and sewerage systems without operation of their waste water treatment facilities. P.32 states: Discharging waste water into water bodies is allowed only after written approval by the Ministry of Environment. Control on the state and work of treatment facilities is done by entities of the Ministry of Environment is stated in p. 35.

WATERS ACT (published in State Gazette No.29 from 1969, amendments in No.3 from 1977, No. 36 from 1979, No. 44 from 1984 , No. 36 from 1986, No. 24 from 1987 and No.91 from 1982) According to the Waters Act the activities on the complex water use is managed and co-ordinated by the National Water Council at the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria. Water use permissions are issued by the National Water Council. According to the Council of Ministers Decree No. 2 from 15 October 1991 one of the main functions of the National Water Council is to issue, overrule or amend water use permission according to Article 5 (8) of the Waters Act.

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According to the above it is apparent that Regional Environmental Inspectorates at the Ministry of Environment are authorized to permit waste water discharges. Burgas regional office of National Water Council is the authority to issue water withdrawal permission. These are two authorities to control above activities and are eligible to make decisions and recommendations on the raised questions. In this context it is evident that problems related to water use in the reserve should be addressed to the above authorities. In conclusion no permissions are issued for water use by farming enterprises, pottery & brick factory and other industries located in the area.

C) WASTE WATER DISCHARGE OF THE AUTOSERVICE

In general, there is municipal waste water treatment plant of the city of Burgas, where municipal sewerage is discharged and treated. According to Water Supply & Sewerage Ltd. - Burgas, the company in charge of sewerage network, Iztok living estate discharges its waste waters into the sewerage system, but no sewage connections are built around the garage, which is away from the city. It is situated in western part of the reserve next to police check-point at the motor-road Burgas-Nesebar. There is no waste water discharge permission issued for the garage’s waste waters. They are discharged into the drainage channel. Oil and grease are collected in buckets. Domestic waste waters are also discharged in the drainage channel. 2. 2. 3. 3 .

Influence of dual carriage way Varna - Burgas ( E 87 ) upon

the lake. •

air pollution - according B r a t a n o v a e t a l. (1994) the samples taken from 7.08.1994 to 9.08.1994 at the Petrol station, the Pump station west from the south part of the lake and the railway crossing south-east from the reserve have contained the following values of pollutants, presented on table 5:

Table 5. Values of Pollutants in Air - Samples taken around Atanasovsko lake Point

Petr.st ation

Date

8.08. 1994

H o u r

8 1 1 1 4 1 6

24

S O

N O

2

2

0, 0 1 6 0. 0 1 6 0. 0 0 5 0. 0 1 2

0, 0 1 2 0. 0 2 5 0. 0 2 0 0. 0 0 3

P h e n o l

0 , 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 0

H 2

S

0 , 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 7 0

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D u s t

W in d

0 , 1 3 7

W S W

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Pump. station

8.08. 1994

Railwa y cross

9.09. 1994

8 1 1 1 4 1 6

8 1 1 1 4 1 6

0. 0 2 7 0. 0 2 9 0. 0 1 5 0. 0 0 6

0. 0 2 6 0. 0 1 2 0. 0 0 3 0. 0 0 0

0. 1 4 2 0. 0 9 8 0. 0 6 2 0. 0 4 1

0. 1 5 1 0. 1 2 1 0. 0 7 2 0. 0 3 8

. 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0

. 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2

0 . 0 7 6

W S W E E N E E

0 3 0 2 1 0 1 0

0 . 0 6 0

S W E E N E E

0 3 0 3 0 7 1 2

The results show relatively low values of the above mentioned pollutants and their small influence upon the reserve . •

noise pollution - the traffic has some influence upon the reserve only in close vicinity of the road. The level Leq in the south part of the reserve now is 72 dB(A) during the day and 70 dB(A) during the night The forecast for 2 000-th. year is an increase respectively of 2 dB (A) and 3 dB(A) - B r a t a n o v a e t a l. (1994 ).

2.2.3.4 Influence of the power line, built between the north and south part upon the lake . It is built cross wise of the direction of bird migration. In spring and especially in autumn many birds from different species crash into it and die

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Resources Staff. For the moment there is only one gardian for the reserve. The needs are for staff of 4 - 5 people (without the staff of the future Information Centre). . Finance-short term. There are some funds from Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, but they are not sufficient. Finance-long term. Not available. Expertise. Enough amount of knowledge and expertise for the successful management of the site. Technology. The change of classic type of dykes during the last 20 years caused lost of breeding places of Recurvirostra avosetta and appearance of terrestrial predators as Vulpes vulpes, Canis aureus, Nictereutes procinoides and other mammals Sus scrofa and domestic dogs and cats. Replacement of building material for the small dykes with artificial panels is even dangerous the human’s health. There is a new project for bulging a basin in northern part for storing the salty water from the other parts of the reserve during the winter. The new technology, which uses machines and only soil from the lake’s bottom causes following negative factors: • facilitates the assess of terrestrial predators, people and vehicles (till recently it was impossible!); •

decreases the surface of aquatory of the lake

decreases the breeding places for avocets, ducks, terns, etc.

Policies. Catchement of birds by mist nets within the reserve without any regulations have significant negative influence upon the birds. Some of all these trends are presented in the following table 6:

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Table 6. Degree of positive or negative effects of man induced trends within the site Land use/conflicts with:

Affect

Ecology Salt production : with present methods

Upon : Aestheti c Quality

+++

Economi cs

++ +

Recreational Use : Hunting Bird watching Sport fishing Animal photography Bird ringing

-------

Water use/conflicts : Pumping out water from the pool in NE part

---

Pumping out water from freshwater marsh in NE par

---

Pumping out water from freshwater marsh in W part

---

Sudden increase of water level during the breeding season

---

2.2.4

-

-

---

+ +

--

+++

-

+++

-

+++

+

Man-induced trends outside the Site

Land use The artificial fertilizers used in agricultural land W from the reserve polluted the surrounding canal and the freshwater marshes and pools. As a result some eutrofication has been observed last years (exact data are not available). In connection with the economic crisis in Bulgaria during the last several years there is significant decrease of use of fertilizers The content of biogenic elements in different places of Atanasovsko lake has been investigated by Diadovski et al. (1996). Following maximal concentrations have been established during the period 1989 - 1991 (table 7) :

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Table 7. Maximal Concentrations of Biogenic Elements in Several Places of Atanasovsko Lake Biogenic Element Ì aximal concentrations Place (mg/dm3) Phosphates Ammonium ions Nitrit ions Nitrate ions Total Nitrogen

43,3 23,35 5,13 8,91 24,18

Evaporation basin Belts along the side Basic lake Basin “Tolbuchin” Internal retensor

Significant decrease of industrial production and mining. There is a possibility for closing of the mine “Tcherno More” and railway station “ Sarafovo”, which are situated in the vicinity of the reserve. Significant decrease of the traffic, due to the very expensive fuel. Influence of Airport Burgas upon Atanasovsko lake nature reserve : The airport Burgas , which is situated in a close vicinity, has some negative influence upon the reserve in two ways : • water pollution of surrounding canal, which collects rain waters from the airport. These waters contain especially in spring significant qualities of chemicals, used for removing the ice from planes and runways . • noise pollution mainly in summer and autumn, when the traffic is big. There are not available data for the degree of influence of this kind of pollution upon the populations of birds. Technological changes. Reconstruction of the Burgas Airport Building of a new power line, which crosses part of the reserve Building of a new motor way on the southern border of the reserve. Expertise or knowledge No information available Social or cultural changes No information available Legal factors No information available Planning constraints. In the General Plan for developing of the City of Burgas the surroundings E from the reserve are designated for so called “ North industrial zone ”. This zone contains brick factory, stores, pig farms, etc., which have not sewerage and pollute heavy the surrounding canal and the reserve for a long time.

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The negative influence of major trends or factors is given on table 8. Table 8. Summary of major Trends or Factors affecting the achievement of ideal Objectives INTERNAL SITE EXTERNAL SITE GLO FACTORS FACTORS BAL MAN Changes of the system and Use of artificial fertilizers INDUCE method of salt production D Construction and Pollution of the freshwater reconstruction of dikes bodies Pumping out of big quantity Reconstruction of Burgas freshwater from the site Airport Illegal recreational use of the Lack of sewerage for the site (hunting, bird watching, “Northern industrial zone” animal photography, bird ringing) Pollution of Burgas Bay NATUR Appearance of new AL aggressive species in the reserve No information No information OCA

2.2.5 Management practicality How practical is to manage the site? Has the managing organization got the: • • • • • • •

necessary control over the site No control or influence over neighboring land users who could affect the site. No political will. No information. technology. Yes engineering skill. Yes manpower. Yes finances to manage the site effectively. No.

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SECOND EVALUATION 2. 3

WHAT EFFECTS DO MODIFIERS OR CONSTRAINTS HAVE UPON IDEAL OBJECTIVES

2. 3.1 Maintenance of the habitat diversity of the site (I ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance) expertise and technology available? No ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? Not known exactly yet, approx. . 2 000 USD per year ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? This is a permanent objective ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective ? Water pollution of the surrounding canal and freshwater pools and marshes. Construction and reconstruction of dykes Use of artificial fertilizers in close vicinity of the reserve. (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes, by: Building of sewerage for the “North Industrial Zone� Carefully reconstruction of old dykes ,avoiding construction of new kind of dykes. (big, high and wide, made only by soil) and not using of new materials and methods for these purposes. (vii) How will the public image of the organization be affected: by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. (viii) Is the public image an important factor? No. 2. 3. 2 Conservation of breeding, migrating and wintering populations of 28 globally threatened species and species with numbers, which exceed the Ramsar criteria ( see 2.1.2 ). (i ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance) expertise and technology available? No. ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? Not known exactly yet, approx. 1000 USD per year. ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? This is a permanent objective ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective? Replacement of old low traditional dykes with new, high and not suitable as breeding places dykes . Disturbance by bird watchers, ringers, animal photographers, etc. Disturbance by terrestrial predators. (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes, by: Keeping the existing system of dykes as much as possible. Increasing of number of the gardians.

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and

Controlling or removing of Nictereutes procionoides, Vulpes vulpes, Canis aureus domestic dogs and cats. (vii) How will the public image of the organization be affected by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. (viii) Is the public image an important factor ? No.

2.3.3 Development of the site for educational and public use purposes (I ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance), expertise and technology available ? No ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? About 80 000 SFR. ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? Three years ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective ? Lack of funds (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes, by: (vii)

(viii)

How will the public image of the organization be affected by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. Is the public image an important factor ? Yes, for rising funds

2. 3. 4 Development of the site for research (I ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance) expertise and technology available ? No . ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? About 30 000 SFR. ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? Three years. ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species in Atanasovsko lake , Vaya lake and Mandra lake; upon the maintenance of the diversity of habitats and species; upon the management of the site (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective ? Lack of funds (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes (vii) How will the public image of the organization be affected by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. (viii) Is the public image an important factor ? No. 2. 3. 5 Hydrological management of some freshwater bodies of the reserve (i ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance) expertise and technology available? No ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? About 60 000 SFR ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? Over two years ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species; upon the maintenance of habitat’s diversity; upon the biodiversity of the site. . (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective ? Lack of funds Resistance of some organizations .

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Possible collision with the interests of salt works (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes, by carefully consideration of all interests (vii) How will the public image of the organization be affected by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. viii) Is the public image an important factor ? No. 2. 3. 6 Planting (afforestation) of a belt and patches of native trees and shrubs in the buffer zone. (I ) Can the objective be achieved within the resources (man power and finance) expertise and technology available? No ( ii ) What is the cost of achieving the objective? 12 000 SFR. ( iii ) How long will it take to achieve the objective? Three years. ( iv ) What effect will achieving one objective have upon the other objectives? Positive effect upon the conservation of threatened and rare bird species; enhancing of habitat’s diversity, enhancing of aesthetic quality. (v) What are the constraints or modifying factors which might prevent achievement of the objective? Lack of funds. Lack of permission of the owner - the Burgas Municipality. (vi) Can some or all of the constraints be removed or reduced? If so at what cost in economic, social or ecological terms ? Yes. (vii) How will the public image of the organization be affected by achieving or failing to achieve the objective, or by removing constraints? By removing constraints. viii) 2. 4

Is the public image an important factor ? Yes .

THE SITE POTENTIAL

The existing and desired size of the populations of some birds and mammals is presented on following table 9: Table 9. Existing and Desired Size of the Populations of some Birds and Mammals Species Breedin Desired Migrating,winte Desire g pairs number ring d (mins (min-max; numbe max) (in indiv.) rs pairs) (indiv. ) BIRDS Halietor pygmeus* +

Egretta garzetta*

-

50

-

50

-

50

-

50

-

50

+

Ardeola ralloides*+ Nyct. Nycticorax*+ Plegadis falcinellus + Ardea purpurea*+

1 - 5

32

10 -

26 - 226

10 -

3 - 246

10 -

10 - 100

10 -

10 - 100

10 -

10 - 500

10 -

?

20

Concise Edition of Management Plan for Atanasovsko Lake

100 500 100 500 100 500 100 500 100 500

?


Final Report of Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Circus aeruginosus Tadorna tadorna

1 - 5 1 - 10 1 - 10 1 - 10

Glareola pratincola Larus melanocephalus Larus genei

500 - 4036 3000

10 -

?

?

10 -

?

?

1 -

?

?

50 1

- 2

10 1

0

10 20 1000 2000 100 200 10 50 100 200 50 100 50 100 10100 100 1000 500 1000 50 100 110

?

100

- 10 500 1500 10 - 100 1 - 10 10 - 141 3 - 20 4 - 35 0 -1

Sterna albifrons 10- 100 Sterna sandvicensis Gelochelidon nilotica Hydr. Tchegrava

10 -

10002000

50

Crex crex

Ch. alexandrinus

53 - 1530

50

Aythya nyroca

Burch. Oedicnemus Haem. Ostralegus Recurvirostra avosetta Himantops himantopus Tringa totanus

15

0 - 772 1 - 36

MAMMALS Suncus etruscus

1 - 10 100 - 1000 ? 10 -

500

` ?

10 20 100 1000 ? 100 500 ?

?

?

1 - 10

1 10

100 - 1000 100 - 1000 1000 1000 ?

?

10 - 100

50 -

Neomys fodiens ? Citellus citellus ? Lutra lutra*

15

50 100 1000 2000 10 50

*Almost all these species are ichthyophags and their future existing in the reserve is closely connected with significant increase of species composition and productivity quantity of the fish, as well as with increasing of freshwater bodies in the site to ensure peaceful conditions + Species, which could establish new breeding colony.

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PART 3 : OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS 3. 1

OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES

3. 1. 1 The management of the site to be devolved upon the National Nature Conservation Service at the Ministry of Environment and a warden with 3 gardians to be appointed. 3. 1. 2 Necessary corrections of the borders of the reserve and the buffer zone to be made according 3.3.1.1 of the present Plan. The needed signs and information panels to be put along the both boundaries. Needed changes and corrections of conservation status to be made. 3. 1. 3 Only strongly motivated activities, connected with construction and reconstruction of dykes to be realized. Written permission of Ministry of Environment is obligatory condition. 3. 1. 4 Hydrobiological management to be made according 2.1.3 and 3.3.1. 3. 3. 1. 5 The existing artificial platforms to be surveyed once per year and needed repairs to be made. New platforms (more stable) to be built. 3. 1. 6 An Information Centre for education and public use to be built 3. 1. 7 A belt and patches of native plants and shrubs to be planted on the place of orchards in NE part of the buffer zone. 3. 1. 8 The water pollution of surrounding canal to be restricted and removed. 3. 1. 9 The disturbance caused by bird watchers, ringers, photographers etc. to be stopped.

3. 2

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

3.2.1 Checklist of Activity Areas to be Covered by Strategies • Maintaining or enhancing of habitat/biotopes; habitat structure; species; diversity of habitats and species. • Control and eventual reduction of ruderal higher plant species. Strategy of non intervention: almost entire area of the reserve Strategy of limited intervention: areas outside of the reserve in SW, E and SE Strategy of active management: area of the reserve in NW part and area of the buffer zone in N and NE parts. • Strategies for species management: Re-introduction or introduction (as breeding species): BIRDS: Phalacrocorax pygmeus Egretta garzetta Ardeola ralloides Nycticorax nycticorax Plegadis falcinellus Hydroprogne tshegrava Encouragement to increase their breeding population: Ardea purpurea Charadrius alexandrinus Tadorna tadorna Glareola pratincola Crex crex Larus melanocephalus Recurvirostra avosetta Sterna sandvicensis Himantopushimantopus Gelochelidon nilotica Haematopus ostralegus Burhinus oedicnemus Tringa totanus

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MAMMALS : Suncus etruscus Neomys fodiens

Spermophilus citellus Lutra lutra

INVERTEBRATES : Artemia salina Control or reduction: Larus cachinans Nyctereutes procinoides Sus scrofa

Canis aureus Vulpes vulpes Domestic dogs and cats

A strategy for each of these species will be developed additionally. Non - intervention : All other animals and plants . General access and recreation strategy for this site: The reserve area should be closed to the public The buffer zone should have restricted access. •

Public Use

No limits for the Information Centre. Desirable is active publicity or even special promotions. For the other part of the buffer zone - low publicity. •

Research

Regulated catchment and ringing of birds outside of the reserve in a place chosen by Institute of Zoology and approved by Ministry of Environment. The process of ringing should be used for educational purposes as well. That’s why the place of catchment and ringing should be situated in close vicinity of the Information Centre. Such a model is working very well in Eilat - Israel, where daily hundreds of visitors observe with interest and pleasure the procedure of the ringing. •

Access facilities

There are several accesses to the site, the main of them is at the administration of “Tchernomrski Solnitzi” - North. For the moment the visitors use the entrance near the autoservice “Lada”. •

Estate management

Almost all buildings in the buffer zone are managed by Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD. Central Laboratory for General Ecology is managing one small house and part of an other, both situated in the buffer zone east from the reserve. The Ecological station of this laboratory is in the first one and the office of BSBCP - in the second one. 3. 3

PROGRAMMES 3. 3.1 Programme for maintenance of habitat diversity 1. Project for enlargement of the reserve and the buffer zone. 2. Project for regulation of freshwater use from the reserve and its buffer

zone 3. Project for increasing of area of freshwater bodies and for creating of new ones: • increasing of water level in the freshwater marsh in NE part

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• • •

increasing of water level in the surrounding canal. creating of new freshwater bodies in W part of the reserve conversion of the clay pit into freshwater pond 4. Project for maintaining of dykes as breeding habitats for water birds and for recovering of some dykes made by wood and soil as breeding sites for several water birds. 5. Project for afforestation of part of the buffer zone 3. 3. 2

Programme for increasing of the numbers of threatened and rare birds. 1. Project for reconstruction of 11 artificial platforms 2.

Project for construction of new type of artificial platforms 1 rafts or

islets. 3. Project for preventing the dykes from terrestrial predators . 4. Project for increasing the species composition and abundance of fish in the buffer zone. 5. Project for attracting Ardeola ralloides, Egretta garzetta, Egretta alba,Nycticorax nycticorax, Phalacrocorax pygmeus and Plegadis falcinellus to breed. 6. Project for improvement of breeding conditions of Tadorna tadorna, which has an international importance in the reserve.

3. 3. 3. Programme for research and monitoring 1. Project for hydrological monitoring 2. Project for biological monitoring ( with exception of birds) 3 Project for ornithological monitoring: spring migration autumn migration breeding numbers midwinter numbers 4. Project for creating of Wetland Inventory Data Base of Atanasovsko lake 3.3.4

Programme for education and public use 1. Project for building of Information Centre 2. Project for educational work with schoolchildren from Burgas district. 3. Project for organizing of a training course for identification and count of

water birds 4. Project for working out of signs, information panels, hides, etc. 3. 4

PROJECTS OR TASKS

Nineteen projects, sorted in 4 basic programmes (see 3.3 ) are included in the present Management plan. All these projects should be worked out in details additionally Here only the following most important projects will be presented: •

Project title and number/code: ENLARGEMENT OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE RESERVE AND ITS BUFFER ZONE (3. 3. 1.1 ).

Relevant objective and strategy: The present area and boundaries of the reserve have been established in 1980 and of the buffer zone - in 1981. No changes have been made since this time, although the need of some corrections and additions are obvious. The aim of the project is to avoid this omission, to declare new areas under status of a reserve and to define new, more suitable boundaries of the buffer zone.

• •

Priority: the project is of high priority. Location within the site, also topographical map with scale 1: 25 000

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Reserve’s boundaries: The boundaries of the reserve are with small changes of its south part, where the biggest basins from Solnitzi Jug are proposed to be added to the reserve. Following borderlines of the new parts of the reserve are proposed: from the bridge on surrounding canal at the branch for Salinas and Kableshkovo to west along the left side of the road Varna - Burgas to the branch for the Car service; from that point to south along the outer bank of the surrounding canal to the north- western dyke of the basin called “Dvora”; from that point along the dyke to north-eastern corner of “Dvora”; from this corner to north along a dyke to the south dyke of most northern basin and along its eastern border to the surrounding canal; from that point along the outer bank of this canal to north to the bridge of road Varna - Burgas . Buffer zone’s boundaries: entirely new boundaries are proposed as follows: from the bridge of the railway at the beginning of the surrounding canal near the former ship to north along the rail way to the end of industrial zone; after that along the asphalt road to the crossing with the road Burgas - mining village “Tcherno more”; along this road to first artificial hill (made by cinder) left of the road; from that point to west along a dirt road to the water-conduit Kamchia - Burgas and along it to a bridge at small freshwater wetland with pump station; from that point along a dirt road to a sheep - pen; after that along an asphalt road to the crossing of 20 m contour line; along this line to the peak 20 m above sea level (situated 500 m east of the branch to the Car service ); from that point to east along 20 kw power line to the branch for Autoservice; from this branch to south along the outer side of surrounding canal on western part of the lake to its end near the railway station “The Salinas”; after that along the railway to the bridge on the surrounding canal near the ship. With so described boundaries of new parts the total length the reserve will reach 26 km long and of the buffer zone - 30 km long. The area of the reserve will be increased with about 700 ha .

• Project title and number/code: INCREASING OF WATER LEVEL IN THE FRESHWATER MARSH IN NORTH EASTERN PART OF THE RESERVE “ATANASOVSKO LAKE“ (3. 3. 1. 3 ) •

• • • • • • • •

Relevant objective and strategy: The freshwater marsh in the north eastern part of the reserve (former salty part of Atanasovsko lake) nowadays is a reed-bed without any free water surface. So it is not more breeding place for several rare water birds. Its depth is very small and it do not have any fish populations. The aim of the project is to increase its water volume and to create some areas with free water surface, to connect the marsh wit the former clay pit and so to create new freshwater wetland, attractive to many bird species. Priority: high Location within the site. Methods of operation: use of special building machines By whom: by building company When: During the summer, when the breeding season is over and the water level is lowest. Resources: About 6 000 Sir. Equipment required and when required: see Appendix. Review method, time criteria for assessment: By representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment. Detailed information about this project is included in Appendix

Project title and number/code: AFFORESTATION OF SOME AREAS IN THE BUFFER ZONE (3. 3. 1. 8 ) •

Relevant objective and strategy: a part of the buffer zone east of the reserve is owned by the Burgas Municipality and about 30 years ago it was illegally occupied by people from Burgas. They created many small orchards, which were abandoned The

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aims of this project is several native plant species to be afforested in the former orchards. The strategy is after several years a wild forest to be created there. • •

Priority: middle Location within the site ( map 9 ) . Methods of operation: ( App. ). • By whom: by members of non governmental organizations (Bulgarian Society for Protection of Birds, Green Balkans and others). • When: During the spring or autumn . • Resources: About 14 000 SFR • Equipment required and when required : ( App. ). • Review method, time criteria for assessment By representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment . • Project title and number/code: RECONSTRUCTION OF 9 ARTIFICIAL PLATFORMS IN ATANASOVSKO LAKE RESERVE ( 3. 3. 2. 1) • Relevant objective and strategy: Broken platforms, built several years ago to be reconstructed. • Priority: The platforms are used as breeding place by R. avosetta, St.sandvicensis and L. melanocephala, which are threatened or rare species. • Location within the site ( map 12 ). • Methods of operation: only by people, without any machines .All needed materials will be transported to 7th pump station by car and to the platforms by small rafts. The needed mud will be taken from surroundings of the platforms. • By whom: By members of several non governmental organizations and by Youth Alliance for Development. If there are enough people, second group could be organised. • When: During August, when the weather is hottest (almost all work is in salty water with depth of 0.5 m). • Resources : About 1000 SFR. for materials (travel costs, per diem, etc will be paid by the participants) . • Equipment required and when required: Boards, nails, pails, hammers, spades, small raft, etc. .; at the beginning of the work. • .Review method, time criteria for assessment: By representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment. This project has been successfully implemented in August 1996. In a result artificial platforms with a surface more then 250 m2 have been repaired .

• Project title and number/code: ORNITHOLOGICAL MONITORING OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE ( 3.3.3.3) Relevant objective and strategy: there is a long tradition of ornithological monitoring in Atanasovsko lake (midwinter counts since 1977, autumn migration observations since 1978, etc.). Due to the key position of Atanasovsko lake on the so called “Via Pontica” migration route, it is very important ‘bottle neck” site and wintering place with international significance. 11 threatened and 7 rare species of birds, included in Bulgarian Red Data Book are breeding there. • Priority: high • Location within the site: spring and autumn migrations could be observed from a point, used for many years - the dyke behind the administration buildings of “Solnitzi Sever”; for winter and breeding counts all territory of the reserve and buffer zone should be covered. • Methods of operation: standard methods for midwinter and breeding census and for investigation of visible migration.

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• By whom: by bird watchers with some training, but with participation of at least one experienced ornithologist; the information could be gathered by participants in a training courses, which may be organized in the same time; the staff of the reserve could be involved in the monitoring as well. • When: spring migration - March - April autumn migration - from the middle of August to the end of September breeding populations of birds - middle of May, beginning of June and middle of June midwinter census - in the middle of January. • Resources: 2 000 SFR annually • Equipment required and when required: binoculars and telescopes, video camera and video recorder, personal computer. • Review method, time criteria for assessment: by representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment. •

Project title and number/code:

WETLAND INVENTORY DATA BASE OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE ( 3. 3. 3. 4 ) •

Relevant objective and strategy: a great amount of information has been gathered for Atanasovsko lake in the last several years. The need for its better collecting and processing is obvious. The aim of this project is to create a computer program (using the experience of project MedWet), which will allow to enter, store and analyze the available data. • Priority: high • Location within the site: • Methods of operation: the possibility for using already existing computer program of MedWet for wetland inventory to be investigated. • By whom: staff of the Ecological Station at Central Laboratory of General Ecology • When: as soon as possible • Resources: 5 000 SFR. • Equipment required and when required: computer equipment, software. • Review method, time criteria for assessment: by representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment.

Project title and number/code: BUILDING OF INFORMATION CENTRE OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE RESERVE (3. 3. 4. 2 ). Relevant objective and strategy: Atanasovsko lake is well known nature reserve in Bulgaria and abroad. It supports exclusive biological diversity during all seasons. It has key position on one of the biggest migrating routes in Europe and on a stream of tourists for the famous resort “Sunny Beach” and South Black Sea Coast. The dual carriage way Constanza - Istanbul is passing along its south border. Nowadays many, mainly foreign bird watchers are visiting the reserve, which does not offer any facilities for visitors. The aim of the project is building of Information Centre for the needs of education, research (incl. ringing of birds) and management. This aim could be realized in two phases. A caravan, situated close to the road could be used as interim Information Centre during the summer and autumn time of 1997 and 1998. In the meantime a project and building of the Centre to be worked out. So, it could be open for the tourist season of 1999. Priority: very high • Location within the site: There are several possibilities for the place of future Information Centre:

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• Table 10. Advantages and Disadvantages of several Places of Future Information Centre. Place Advantages Disadvantages 1.On the 1. The land is owned by the 1. The place is situated about eastern bank Municipality of Burgas, which 2 km south from mining village of has given permission for building “Tcherno more” and so the freshwater of such a center. future Centre will be subject of pond 2.The place is the most key thefts from some inhabitants of (former clay point for the entire reserve (for this village. pit) - see 1a) . 2. The place is about 5 km map 3. There is a road covered by from the motor way Burgas asphalt till 300 m of the future Varna. 1.a. On the Centre. 3. There is no water supply in outer side of 4. There is a good possibility close vicinity. the for electricity supply. surrounding 5. There is good view to the canal just reserve opposite the 6. The reserve is situated west Pump station from the future Center and the No 7 observation in morning hours will be very pleasant. 2. On most 1. The place is secure to great 1. Special permission for southwestern extent, due to the police post building is needed, although point of the located in a close vicinity and the territory is out of the reserve the big distance to the mining reserve. village “Tcherno more”. 2. The breeding colonies of 2. The place is situated on the birds are not closely situated motor way Burgas - Varna to future Center. 3. Big parking very close to the place is available. 4. Electricity and water supply are available. 5. The place has key position for controlling the entering the western and northern parts of the reserve.

• • • • • •

Methods of operation: standard methods of building . By whom: by specialized building company with participation of members of nongovernmental organizations. When: during the summer and autumn. Resources : About 80 000 SFR. Equipment required and when required: building machines and tools. Review method, time criteria for assessment by representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment.

Project title and number/code: TRAINING COURSE FOR IDENTIFICATION AND COUNT OF RAPTORS AND WATER BIRDS ( 3. 3. 4. 4) • Relevant objective and strategy: Atanasovosko lake offers excellent possibilities for organizing such a course because it is very important “bottle neck” site in Europe. As the lake is situated in the most western part of Black Sea coast, it is a place with great concentrations of wildfowl, raptors, passerines and representatives of other bird groups. It is the richest site in Europe according to the migration of Pelecanus crispus

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and Pelecanus onocrotalus and occupies second place according to the migration of Aquila pomarina. It has an international importance according the autumn migration of Falco vespertinus and Circus aeruginosus. The peak numbers of autumn migration over Atanasovsko lake for the period 1978 - 1994 are up to 60 000 raptors and up to 240 000 storks, pelicans and cranes. • Priority: high • Location within the site: small meadow east from the reserve, where a small camp is built usually. • Methods of operation: daily observations of visual migration of soaring birds from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. • By whom: participants in the course, not more than 15 people • When: second half of August • Resources: each participant will pay for his stay during the course; about 500 SFR are needed for some other expenses. • Equipment required and when required: camping equipment - tents, sleeping bags, etc.; in the beginning of August. • Review method, time criteria for assessment: by representative of BSBCP and Ministry of Environment. 3. 5 DETERMINATION OF PRIORITIES Detailed determination of priorities should be made additionally. At this stage only one example is given: Objectives: To conserve threatened and rare species of birds. Programme: A programme for reconstruction of artificial platforms is required to provide suitable and secured from terrestrial predators breeding places for Recurvirostra avosetta, Sterna sandicensis and Larus melanocephalus. The platforms are partially demolished by waves and the mud on them has disappeared. They have been not repaired for three years. Projects/tasks: Sending letters, invitations and documentation to all interested organizations and participants. Composition of groups. Supply of needed materials and tools . Organization of a camping for 20 people . Repairing of the construction of platforms No 1 - 9. Covering the surface of the platforms with mud ( about 10 cm layer ). 3.6

WORK PLANS 3. 6. 1

Medium Term Plan for Atanasovsko lake ( in SFR)

Such a plan is given on the following table 11: Table 11. Medium Term Plan for Atanasovsko lake ( in SFR)

Name of the project

1. Increasing of water level in the freshwater marsh in NE part

Fro m the pro gra m me

3.3

1 9 9 6

1 9 9 7

+

+

1 9 9 8

Concise Edition of Management Plan for Atanasovsko Lake

1 9 9 9

2 0 0 0

Ne ed ed fu nd s

20

41


Final Report of Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

.1

00

2. Reconstruction of 11 artificial platforms

3. Working out of signs, information panels, hides etc.

+

+

50 00

3.3 .2

+

3.3 .4

+

3.3 .4

+

+

+

3.3 .3

+

+

+

+

+

10 00 0

3.3 .3

+

+

+

+

+

10 00 0

3.3 .3

+

+

+

+

+

10 00 0

3.3 .2

+

+

30 00

50 00

4. Organizing (bulging) of Information Center

80 00 0

5. Ornithological monitoring

6. Biol. Monitoring

7. Hydrological monitoring

8. Controlling and removing of terrestrial predators +

9. Increasing of water level in surrounding canal 3.3 .1

+

10 00 0

3.3 .1

+

20 00 0

10. Convertion of clay pit into a freshwater pond

11. Creating of new freshwater bodies in W and E part of site.

12. Increasing the species composition and abundance of fish 13. Afforestation of a part of the buffer zone east from the reserve

3.3 .1

3.3 .2

+

+

+

+

+

20 00 0

70 00

3.3 .1

+

+

14 00 0

3.3

+

+

40

14. Attracting some fish eating birds to breed

42

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Final Report of Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

.1

00

15. Preventing the dykes from terrestrial predators 3.3 .2 16. Educational work with school children from Burgas

3.3 .4

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

50 00

+

10 00 0

17. Construction of a new type of platforms or rafts 3.3 .2

TOTAL

50 00 220000

*The expenditures are calculated very roughly .

3. 6. 2 Annual Plan for 1998 The annual plan is presented on table 12: Table 12. Annual Plan for 1998 (in SFR) Name of the project 1.Increasing of water level in the freshwater marsh in NE part 2.Working out of signs, information panels etc. 3.Organizing of interim IC 4.Ornithological monitoring

Programme

5.Biol. monitoring 6.Hydrol. monitoring 7.Control and removing of terrestrial predators Total

Needed funds *

Comments Available work plan

3.3.3

2000

3.3.4

5000

3.3.4

10000

3.3.3

2000

3.3.3 3.3.3

2000 2000

3.3.2

1000

Midwinter counts; counts of breeding populations; autumn migration

24000

* All funds are in SFR

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Glossary of terms/names: Atanasovsko lake =Ladja lake = Burgas salines= Solnitzi Sever + Solnitzi Jug. Burgas Bay - the aquatory of Black Sea between cap Emine and the town of Sozopol. Burgas lake - see Vaya lake. Burgas lakes = Atanasovsko lake + Vaya lake + Mandra lake. Burgas salinas = Atanasovsko lake Buffer zone of Atanasovsko lake reserve =South part of Atanasovsko lake + a belt around the west, north and east part of the reserve. Jitarovo (a village north west from Atanasovsko lake) = Vetren Lake Ladja = Atanasovsko lake Mandra lake - the most south lake around Burgas Nature Reserve Atanasovsko lake - the bigger part of Solnitzi Sever with area of 1050 ha Salinas = Atanasovsko lake Site - Atanasovsko lake + it’s Buffer zone Solnitzi Sever - the north part of Atanasovsko lake Solnitzi Jug - the south part of Atanasovsko lake Tchernomorski Solnitzi - include the area of Atanasovsko lake and Pomoriisko lake Vaya lake = Burgas lake Bibliography Andreev, St. 1997. Study on Brine Shrimp Artemia salina. - In : Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Botev, I. 1997. Water Chemistry of Atanasovsko lake.- In: Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Bratanova, D. et al., 1994. Preliminary Report of Impact Assessment of the Road SarafovoBurgas upon the Environment. Centre for Protection of the Environment, Sofia (manuscript). Caspers, H. 1952. Untersuchungen über die Tierwelt von Meeres salinen an der Bulgarischen Kuste des Schwarzen Meeres. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 148, 5-8, 243259. Chalkantiev, T. 1993. Salt production from Atanasovsko lake . Ph. D. thesis, Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD, (manuscript). Chichkof, G. 1912. Contribution à l’etude de la faune de la Mer Noire. Arch.Zool.exp. et gen. t.10. Notes et Revue, no. 2, 29-39. Costa, L. T., J. C. Farinha, N. Hecker & P. Tomas Vives. 1996. Mediterannean Wetland Inventory: A Reference Manual. MedWet/ Instituto da Conservacao da Natureza/Wetlands International Publication, v. 1 , 110 p. Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1978. Anas clypeata ( L.) - breeding bird inAtanasovsko Lake.- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4 , 199-203. Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1979. - The Biology of Charadrius alexandrinus in Bulgaria. Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 17, 4, 111-123. Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1979. - Oomorhological Research of three Species of Waders (Recurvirostra avosetta L. , Charadrius alexandrinus L., Himantopus himantopus L. in Bulgaria Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 17, 4, 125-138. Davis, J. S., 1978. Biological communities in a nutrient enriched salina. - Aquatic Botany, 4: 23, 42. Davis, J. S., 1979. Importance of Microrganisms in Solar Salt production. - In: Fourth Internat. Symp. on Salt - Northerrn Ohio Geological Society, 369 - 372. Davis, J. S., 1980. - Biological management of Solar Saltworks. - In: Fifth Internat. Symp. on Salt.

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Diadovski, I., H. Naydenov. 1995. Hydrological Study of Atanasovsko lake. - In: Michev, T. (ed).1995. Project “Atanasovsko lake”.Collection of prelim. reports of experts. BSBCP Diadovski, I., P. Naydenova, H. Naydenov. 1996. Ecological Assessment of Hydrological Conditions and Contamination of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve.- In: Ecology ’96, Intern.Symp., Burgas, 4 - 6 September 1996, v.5, 41 - 43. Grimmet, R. F. A., T. A. Stones. 1989. Important Bird Areas in Europe. ICBP, Techn.publ. No 9, 1 - 888 . Georgiev, J. 1976. The Birds of Black Sea Coast between Bourgas and Varna.- Terrestrial Fauna of Bulgaria. Materials, Sofia, BAS, 261-286 . . Gorman, G. 1994. Where to Watch Birds in Eastern Europe. Hamlin Publ. House, 216 . Gosney, D. 1993. Finding Birds in Bulgaria . A Gostours Guide, 22 p. Grossler, K.1967. Faunistische Notizen von der Scwazmeerkuste Bulgariens.- Larus, XIX, 212-234. Gunko, A. Pleskatshevskaja, T. 1962. Resultati ispolsovania Artemia salina L. v katchestve korma pri virashtivania molodi ossetrovich v kruglich basseinach. - Voprossi ichtiologii, 2, 371-374. Enev, M. 1996 . Influence of the Artificial Platforms upon the Populations of Rare Water Birds in Atanasovsko Lake. - Dipl. paper, Biol. faculty of Sofia University , 94 p. Iordanov, D. 1931 . Phytogeographical Investigations of Bulgarian Marshes with connection of their High Vegetation, part I - Marshes in the interior of the Country.Ann. Rep. of Sofia University,27,3, 75 - 156. Iordanov, D. 1963 - 1982 . Flora of Bulgaria, v. 1 - 8, BAS . Ivanov, K., A. Sotirov, A. Rojdestvenski, D. Vodenicharov. 1964. Lakes in Bulgaria. Publ. Inst. Hidrol. Metereol. (Sofia), XVI, 242 Konigstedt, D., Langbehn, H. 1986. Erstnachweis des Cistensanger (Cisticola juncidis) in Bulgarien. Beitr.Vogelkd. 32 ,1, 13 - 16.,V EB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. Kopez , V. 1970. Konservatsia jaiz artemii. Ribnoe chosjaistvo, 46, 3, 16-19. Kotova, L., Ivanov, A. 1969. Sagotovka i ispolsovanie artemii. Ribnoe chosjaistvo, 45, 4, 9293. Kovachev, S. 1997. The zooplankton and zoobenthos of the Nature Reserve Atanasovsko Lake (1995-1996) and its buffer zone (1996) - In: Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve-. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Ludskanova, J., Joschev, L. 1972. Die Anzucht von Artemia salina als Pflanzenfressennahrung. Z. Binnenfischerei, 19, 117-131. Ludskanova, J. 1974. Die Entwicklung von Artemia salina L. in den Teichen der Salzgarten von Burgas und Pomorie. Arch. Hydrobiologie, t. 74, 4, 473-478. Meini, K. (ed.). 1995. Conservation of Biological Diversity in Bulgaria. National Strategy for Conservation of Biodiversity. Michev, N.,T. Michalov, S. Kiradjiev.1980. A geographical Dictionary of Bulgaria. Nauka i iskustvo, Sofia, 561. Michev, T. 1984. Ecological Investigations of Autumn Migration of Soaring Birds in Atanasovsko Lake. Inst. of Ecology, 350 p.(manuscript) . Michev, T. (ed). 1995. National Action Plan for the conservation of the Most Important Wetlands in Bulgaria. Ministry of Environment , Sofia, 1-55 . Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Michev, T., B.Ivanov, L. Profirov. Midwinter Numbers of Water Birds in Bulgaria . (in prep.) Michev,T., V. Pomakov, D. Nankinov, B. Ivanov.1981. Wetlands of international importance in Bulgaria.- In: Proceed of Reg. Symp. under Project 8-MAB, Blagoevgrad, 2024.10.1980, Sofia, BAS, 448-462. Michev, T., L. Profirof. 1986. Investigations of autumn migration of nonsoaring birds over Bourgas Bay . - In: Proceedings of Intern.Symp ,Srebarna, 8 - 12.10.1984, Sofia, BAS, 1985, 176 - 185. Michev, T., P. Simeonov, 1981. Studies on the Autumn Migration of Some Waterfowl and Birds of Pray near Burgas (13 - 23.IX.1978).-Ecology, 8, Sofia, BAS.

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Final Report of Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Michev, T., S. Simeonov.1985. Changes in Bird Fauna of Bulgaria over last Thirty Five Years (1950-1984). - In: Inter Symp."Protection of natural areas and the genetic fund they contain .-Project No 8 on the programme MAN and Biosphere" MAB, UNESCO, 23-28.09., Blagoevgrad, Collection of reports, S., BAS, 203- 217. Mishev, K. , P. Popov (eds). 1979 . Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. BAS, Sofia , 1- 262 Nankinov, D.1977. The structure of the Ornithofauna of Atanasovski Lake. - Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 15, 4 , 97-103 p. Nankinov, D.1992.Check List of Bird Species and Subspecies in Bulgaria.- Avocetta, 16, 1-17 Nankinov, D.1989.The Status of Waders in Bulgaria.- Wader Study Group Bull., England, 56, 16 - 25. Nankinov, D. 1992. Big flocks of Flamingoes ( Phoenicopterus ruber) in Bulgaria. Ornith.Mitt. 44 , 4, 102 p . Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1977. The Structure of the Ornithofauna of Atanasovsko lake May 1978 . - Scint.publ. of Plovdiv Univers. “P.Hilendarski”, Plovdiv, 15, 4 , 97 - 103 .(in bulg.). Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev .1978. The population of Recurvirostra avosetta (L.) in Bulgaria Localisation, Numbers, Breeding Biology.- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4 , 165-186. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev .1978.Habitats and Breeding Biology of Himantopus himantopus L.) in Bulgaria.- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4, 187-198. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Distribution and Ecology of Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin in Bulgaria. .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 103-120. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Discovering a nest of Anas acuta and some comments on its range .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 121129 Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Biology of Sterna albifrons Pallas in Bulgaria .Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 131-152. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1981. Phenicopterus roseus Pall. in Bulgaria .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 19, 4 , 209-212. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1982..Emberiza pusilla Pallas 1776 in Bulgaria. Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 20, 4 , 233-237. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1983. .Emberiza rustica Pallas in Bulgaria .- Acta Zoologica Bulgarica , BAS, Sofia, 23 , 54 - 56. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova.1981. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, BAS, Sofia, 7, 1-132. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1984. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, 8, 1 - 167. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1986. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, 9, 1 - 145. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1989. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringin Centre, 10, 1 - 110. Nankinov, D., S. Kirilov, K. Popov .1989. Encountering the Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis, 1858) in Bulgaria for the First Time .- Larus,40, 163-166. Nankinov, D., K. Popov, S. Kirilov .1996. Dunnschnabelmove Larus genei -neuer brutvogel an Schwarzmeerkuste.- Limicola ,10, 199 - 201 . Naydenov, Chr.1997. Hydrology and hydrography of Atanasovsko Lake.- In: Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve-. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Njagolov, K. 1990. The Citrine Wagtail (Motacila citreola Pallas, 1776 ) - a new species for Bulgaria. - Acta Zool. Bulg., 40, Sofia. Njagolov, K. 1988 Report for the work at Lake Atanassovsko Reserve for the period of 1.12.1987-1.12.1988.( Manuscript) . Petkoff, St., 1919. Materials on the algal flora of Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. - Spis. BAN (Sofia), XVII, 8: 25 - 135 (in Bulgarian). Petkoff, St., 1932. Sur la flore algologique de la Mer Noire. - Bull. Soc. Bot. Bulg. (Sofia), V.

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Popov, D. 1995. The ichtyofauna of Atanasovsko lake.- In: Michev, T. (ed). 1995. Project “Atanasovsko lake”.Collection of prelim. reports of experts. BSBCP. Popov, V. V. , Nijagolov, K. K. , 1991 - A new record of Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Mammalia, Soricidae) from Bulgaria.- Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 41, ð. 69 - 71 Profirov, L. 1981. Autumn Migration of Soaring Birds along the Black Sea Coast and in the vicinity of Atanasovsko Lake.- Diplom paper (manuscript). Profirov, L. 1987 . Characteristic Features of Soaring Birds of Order Falconiformes during the Autumn Migration in the Vicinities of Atanasovsko Lake near Burgas. Contemporary Achievments of Bulgarian Zoology.- Sofia, BAS, 151-154. Profirov, L. 1987. Investigations on Migration of Order Falconiformes in the vicinity of Atanasovsko Lake.- Coll.of Reports of Intern. Symp. , Srebarna, 10-12.10.1984 , Sofia , BAS. Profirov, L., M. Dimitrov, K. Niagolov. 1995. A Check List of the Birds of Atanasovsko lake. - In: Michev, T. (ed) . 1995 . Project “Atanasovsko lake”. Collection of prelim. reports of experts, BSBCP. Prostov, A. 1964 . Izuchavane na ornitofaunata v Burgasko.-Bull. Inst. Zool. Acad.Sci.Bulg. 15: 5-68. Robel D., D. Konigstedt, H. Muller. Zur Kennthis der Avifauna Bulgarien. -Beitr. Vogelkde., 1978, 24, No 4, 193-225. Roberts, J.1981. A contributon of the Avifauna of lake Atanasovsko, Burgas.Regional Symp. under Project 8 - MAB - UNESCO, 20 - 24 October, 1980 - Blagoevgrad, Proceedings, Sofia, BAS. Rosdestvenskiy, A. 1957. Hydrochimia na Burgaskite ezera. Priroda. Book 2, Isdatelstvo BAS. Sofia. 83-87 (Bulg.) Rosdestvenskiy, A. 1980. Hydrochemistry of the Black Sea. Isdatelstvo BAS. Sofia. 189 (Bulg.) Rose, P. 1992. Western Palearctic Waterfowl Census. IWRB. Rose, P. 1993. Western Palearctic and South West Asia Waterfowl Census. IWRB. Round, E. F., 1981. Ecology of algae. Cambridge Univ. Press Sakalian, M.(ed). 1993. National Strategy for Conservation of Biodiversity, v.1. Scott, D. A. & Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae Populations in Africa and Western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publications No 41, Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 336 p. Simeonov , P. 1986. Thalasseus sandvicensis (Lath.) - a Nidificant Species in Bulgaria.Acta Zool.Bulg., 30, Bulg. Acad.of Sci., Sofia. Simeonov, S., T. Michev, D. Nankinov. 1989. Fauna of Bulgaria , v. 20. Sofia, BAS , 350 Simeonov, S.,T. Michev, P. Simeonov. 1981. Materials on the Nesting Distribution and the Diet of the Barn Owl , Tyto alba Scopoli in Bulgaria. - Ecology, Sofia , 8, 49 - 54 p. Spiridonov, J. (ed). 1995. Bulgaria Natural Heritage. Publ. House Thilia, Sofia , 191 Stephens, D. W., D. M. Gillespie, 1976. Phytoplankton production in the Great Salt lake, Utah, and a laboratory study of algal responses to enrichment. - Limnol. Oceanogr., 21: 74- 87. Stoyneva, M .1997. Survey on the Phytoplankton of the Wetland Atanasovsko lake (June November 1995 and - September 1996) .- In: Michev, T. (ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve-. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Stoyneva, M., T. Michev. 1996. Scientific Backgrounds of the Ecological Monitoring of the Reserve “ Atanasovsko Lake” (South-eastern Bulgaria) and its Use in Future Management of this Important Wetland.- In : Ecology ’96, Intern.Symp., Burgas, 4 6 September 1996, v.5, 154 - 156. Strashimirov, Zafirov, 1981. Historical geology, paleontological bases and geology of Bulgaria. Publ. house “Technika”, Sofia, 390) Strickland, J., T. Parsons. 1965. A manual of sea water analysis. Fisheries Research Board of Canada bull. 125, 2nd rev. ed. Ottawa. 11-17 p, Tschernomoshenzev, A., H. Muchatshev. 1970. Ispolsovanie artemii is vodoemov v katchestve korma dlia rib. Ribnoe chosjaistvo. t.46, 6, 21 - 22. Udvardy, M. , D., F. 1975. Biogeographical Provinces of the World. N.York, 1

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Valkanov, A. 1934. Prinos kam hydrofaunata na Bulgaria. 1-32, (Ed.privat) Valkanov, A., H. Marinov, H. Danov, P. Vladev (eds). 1978. Black Sea. Publ house “G’ Danov”, Varna, 1 - 635 (in bulg.). Velev, V. 1996. Phytocenological Situation of the Reserve “Atanasovsko Lake”.- In: Ecology ‘96, Intern. Symp., 4-6 September 1996 , v. 5, 213 - 216. Velev, V. 1997. The Vegetation of the Nature Reserve ”Atanasovsko Lake” and of its Buffer Zone ( General Characteristic and Phytocenologic Map).- In: Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve.- Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP , Sofia . Vodenicharov, D., St. Draganov, D. Temniskova, 1971. Flora of Bulgaria. I. Algae. Sofia Vohralik, V. , 1985 - Notes on the distribution and the biology of small mammals in Bulgaria (Insectivora, Rodentia). I. - Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. (1981), ð. 445 - 561. Waterhouse, M. 1989. Sabatical to Bulgaria 1988. RSPB (Manuscript) , 1 - 24 . Wilson, A. M., M. Moser. 1994. Conservation of Black Sea Wetlands. A Review and Preliminary Action Plan. IWRB, Techn. Publ. No 33 * * *Atlas of People’s Republic of Bulgaria. 1973. BAS, Sofia, 1 - 168. *** Guide to the legislation acts on environmental protection in Bulgaria. Petrov - Consult Publishing House, Sofia, 1995. * * *Red Data Book of Bulgaria.v. 1, BAS, Sofia, 1984, 1 - 447. * * *Red Data Book of Bulgaria.v. 2 , BAS, Sofia , 1985, 1 - 184. *** Tchernomorski Solnitzi LTD Burgas. An Information Folder, Burgas, Publ. House Glarus, 16 pp.

Dalmatian Pelicans

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© G.Pchelarov


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme

CHECK

L IST

of Plant and Animal Species in Atanasovsko Lake

Lutra lutra

1 Management Plan for Atanasovsko Lake

Š G. Pchelarov

Appendix One.1


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF ALGAE WITH NUMBER OF SITES WHERE THEY WERE FOUND (with interval are pointed out the species found only in freshwater sites; the numbers are station of taking of samples) CYANOPHYTA Anabaena sp.st. - 9, 13, 14 Aphanocapsa sp. - 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12A Beggiatoa sp. - 5 Chroococcus minutus - 3 Clathrochloris hypolimnica - 18 Coelosphaerium kutzingianum - 14, 17 Leptolyngbya foveolarum - 1 Limnothrix planctonica - 5, 12 Lyngbya circumcreta - 3 Lyngbya limnetica - 12, 14, 16 Merismopedia glauca - 16 Microcystis sp. - 3 Oscillatoria brevis - 1 Oscillatoria chlorina - 2 Oscillatoria lauterbornii - 5 Oscillatoria princeps - 12A, 18 Oscillatoria tenuis - 14 Oscillatoria sp. - 2, 4, 12A Pelonema sp. - 12A, 18 Phormidium ambiquum - 2, 3 Phormidium molle - 12, 16 Phormidium tenue - 3, 6, 11 Phormidium sp. - 1, 7, 15, 17 Planktothrix mougeotii - 1, 3 Plectonema sp. - 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17 Snowella sp. - 12, 14 Spirulina corakiana - 4 Spirulina major - 10 Synechococcus salina - 5 Synechococcus sp. - 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16 Synechocystis sp. - 1, 2, 5, 9, 10 Tetrachloris sp. - 10, 17 Tolypothrix distorta - 2 Woronichinia compacta - 17 Woronichinia fusca - 17 Unidentified coccal alga - 7, 8, 10, 11, 17 Heterocysts - 7 Hormogonia - 12, 12A, 14 EUGLENOPHYTA Ascoglena sp. - 1 Colacium sp. - 5 Cryptoglena phacoidea - 3 Distigma sp. - 5 Euglena spp. - 3, 4, 9 Eutreptia sp. - 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17, 18 Phacus pyrum - 4 Trachelomonas intermedia - 3 2

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Trachelomonas lemmermanii - 13 Euglenophyta - cysts - 2, 4, 14 PYRRHOPHYTA Glenodinium gymnodinium - 4, 16 Gymnodinium sp. - 3, 6, 8, 9, 10 Peridinium aciculiferum - 4, 5 Peridinium bipes - 9 Peridinium sp.I - 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18 Peridinium sp. II - 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, 16, 17 Peridinum sp. III - 16 Prorocentrum micans - 4, 5, 16, 17 CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYTINA Mallomonas sp. - 7 Unidentified colourless flagellate - 8, 11 XANTHOPHYTINA Arachnochloris simplex - 12 Tribonema sp. - 1 BACILLARIOPHYTINA Achnanthes sp. - 2, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17 Amphiprora sp. - 12A, 15, 16, 18 Asterionella sp. - 17 Aulacoseira sp. I - 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 14, 17, 18 Aulacoseira sp. II - 3, 6, 13, 17, 18 Aulacoseira sp. III - 18 Chaetoceros cf. gracile - 4 Chaetoceros sp.I - 4, 5, 12, 16 Chaetoceros sp. II - 16 Cocconeis sp. - 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16 Cyclotella sp. - 1, 2, 3, 4, 17 Cymbella sp. - 14, 18 Diatoma cf. elongatum - 17 Diatoma sp. - 1, 2, 3, 7, 12 Fragillaria nitzschioides - 13 Fragillaria sp. - 4 Frustulia sp. - 1 Gomphonema sp.I - 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18 Gomphonema sp. II - 13 Melosira sp. - 2, 3, 4 Navicula sp. I - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18 Navicula sp. II - 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Navicula sp. III - 13, 17 Navicula sp, IV - 17 Nitzchia acicularis - 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Nitzschia sp. - 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17 Pinnularia sp. -1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17 Pleurosigma sp. - 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18 Rhizosolenia sp. - 5, 10 Rhoicosphenia curvata - 4, 13, 17 Rhoicosphenia sp. - 17 Stephanodiscus sp. - 2, 4, 8, 11, 17 Surirella sp.I - 4, 14, 15, 17, 18 Surrirella sp. II - 18 Synedra ulna - 18 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One

3


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Synedra sp.I - 1, 2, 4, 12, 15, 17, 18 Synedra sp. II - 4, 16, 17 Synedra sp. III - 17 CRYPTOPHYTA Chilomonas sp. - 10 Cryptomonas obovata - 9 Cryptomonas phaseolus - 16 Cryptomonas platyuris - 2 Cryptomonas splendida - 3 Cryptomonas sp. - 2, 7, 9, 10, 12A, 15, 16, 18 Rhodomonas sp. - 2, 11

Cryptophyta - cysts - 9 CHLOROPHYTA EUCHLOROPHYTINA Actinastrum hantzschii - 3 Carteria sp. - 2, 13 Chlamydomonas spp. - 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12A, 17, 18 Chlorella neustonica - 16 Chlorella sp. - 16 Chlorogonium gracile - 3 Chlorogonium sp. - 4 Chloromonas sp. - 2, 3, 8, 9 Closteriopsis acicularis - 4 Coccomonas sp. - 4 Coelastrum microporum var. octaedricum - 14 Dicelulla geminata - 13 cf. Dunaliella sp. - 12A Golenkinia radiata - 3 Kirchneriella hindakiana - 17 Kirchneriella intermedia - 18 Kirchneriella lunaria - 4 Kirchneriella obesa - 1 Lagerheimia longiseta - 4, 5 Lobomonas sp. - 4 Micractinium pusillum - 3 Monoraphidium arcuatum - 3 Monoraphidium contortum - 1, 14, 15 Monoraphidium griffithii - 18 Monoraphidium irregulare - 3 Nephroselmis sp. - 6 Oedogonium sp. st. - 3 Pandorina morum - 2, 3 Pandorina charkowiensis - 3 Platymonas arnoldii - 10, 17 Polytomella sp. - 1, 2 Provasoliella cf. simplicissima - 12 Pseudocarteria peterhofiensis - 3 4

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Pseudodictyospherium lacunare - 17 Pyramimonas minima - 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17 Pyramimonas tetrarhynchus - 12A Pyramimonas sp. - 10 Scenedesmus communis - 3, 16 Scenedesmus opoliensis - 3 Siderocelopsis oblonga - 4 Siderocystopsis fusca - 4 Tetraselmis sp. -2, 6 Tetrastrum glabrum - 14 Thorakomonas korschikoffii - 17, 18 Thorakomonas sabulosa - 11 Unidentified green flagellates - 3, 4, 6, 9, 12A, 13, 17 ZYGNEMOPHYTINA Closterium tumidulum - 14 Spirogyra sp. - 4 RHAPHIDOPHYTA Chattonella sp. - 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18 Gonyostomum sp. - 10 CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF HIGHER PLANTS Latin name English name 1. Aegilops pontica 2. Agropyrum intermedium Medium Couch-grass 3. Agropyrum junceum Sand couch-grass 4. Agropyrum litorale 5. Agropyrum repens Scutch 6. Ailanthus altissima Tree of Heaven 7. Ajuga genevensis Bugle Weed 8. Alium atropurpureum Garlic 9. Alnus glutinosa Black Alder 10. Alisma plantago-aquatica True Lavender 11. Althea officinalis Marsh Mallow 12. Alyssum minus Small Mad-word 13. Alyssum tortuosum Twisted Mad-word 14. Amaranthus albus Wait Beet Root 15. Amaranthus retroflexus Beet Root 16. Amygdalus communis Almond-tree 17. Amygdalus nana Low Almond 18. Anagallis arvensis Scarlet Pimpernel 19. Androsace elongata Androsace 20. Armeniaca vulgaris Apricot 21. Asparagus trichophyllus Asparagus 22. Asperula arvensis Woodruff-asperile 23. Astragalus cicer Chick-Pea-Astragalus 24. Astragalus excapus Astragalus 25. Astragalus ponticus Pontics-Astragalus 26. Astragalus varius Colorful Astragalus 27. Artemisia maritima Sea Wormwood 28. Atriplex hastata 29. Atriplex rosea Coraline Orache 30. Atriplex tatarica Tatarics Orache 31. Atropis convoluta Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

PS

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Appendix One

RDB

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5


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 32. Atropis distans 33. Berteroa incana 34. Bolboschoenus maritimus 35. Brassica juncea 36. Brassica rapa 37. Bromus arvensis 38. Bromus inermis 39. Bromus sterilis 40. Buglossoides sibthorpiana 41. Bupleurum flavum 42. Butomus umbellatus 43. Cacile maritima 44. Calystegia soldanella 45. Camphorosma annua 46. Camphorosma monspeliaca 47. Capsella bursa-pastoris 48. Carex distans 49. Carex divisa 50. Carex vulpina 51. Centaurium erythrea 52. Centaurium maritimum 53. Cerasus avium 54. Cerasus fruticosa 55. Cerasus machaleb 56. Cerasus vulgaris 57. Ceratophyllum demersum 58. Chenopodium botris 59. Chenopodium rubrum 60. Chrysopogon grillus 61. Cladium mariscus 62. Clematis vialba 63. Consolida ambigua 64. Consolida regalis 65. Convolvulus arvensis 66. Convolvulus cantabricus 67. Corispermum nitidum 68. Crucianella angustifolia 69. Cydonia oblonga 70. Cyperus fuscus 71. Datura stramonium 72. Dianthus campestris 73. Dianthus moesiacus 74. Dictamnus albus 75. Ecbalium elaterium 76. Echium vulgare 77. Elymus sabulosus 78. Equisetum palustre 79. Erodium ciconium 80. Erodium cicutarium 81. Erophyla verna 82. Eryngium campestre 83. Eryngium maritimum 84. Erysimum diffusum 85. Euphorbia amygdaloides 6

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Hoary Madwort Sea Bolboschoenus Brown Mustard Turnip Scarlet Brome

Buglossoides Hare's-ear Flowering Rush Sea Rockett Sea Bindweed

Shepherd's PurseĂ Distant Sedge Separated Sedge Fox Sedge Common Centaury Sea Common Centaury Gean Wild Cherry Machalebian Gean Cherry Hornwort Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot Red Chrysopogon Saw Sedge Traveler's Joy Forking Larkspur Bindweed

Quince Thorn Apple Pink Pink Dittany Squirting-cucumber Viper's Bugloss Lyme-grass Marsh Horsetail Common Storksbill Spring Whitlow Grass Field Eryngo Sea Holly

+

Wood Spurge Appendix One

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 86. Euphorbia cyparissias 87. Euphorbia paralias 88. Euphorbia peplis 89. Festuca arundinacea 90. Festuca pseudovina 91. Ficus carica 92. Filipendula vulgaris 93. Frankenia pulverulenta 94. Galanthus nivalis + 95. Galium aparine 96. Galium palustre 97. Galium verum 98. Genista tinctoria 99. Geranium purpureum 100. Geranium pusillum 101. Geranium robertianum 102. Geranium sanguineum 103. Geum urbanum 104. Glechoma hirsuta 105. Glycyrrhiza echinata 106. Goniolimon tataricum 107. Gypsophyla trichotoma 108. Halimione pedunculata 109. Halimione portulacoides 110. Hedera helix 111. Heleocharis palustris 112. Heliantemum salicifolium 113. Heptaptera triquetra 114. Iris pseudacorus 115. Iris pumila 116. Juglans regia 117. Juncus compressus 118. Juncus maritimus 119. Lamium purpureum 120. Lathyrus annuus 121. Lathyrus pannonicus 122. Lathyrus sphaericus 123. Lemna minor 124. Lepidium campestre 125. Leucojum aestivum 126. Leymus racemosus 127. Ligustrum vulgare 128. Limonium gmelinii + 129. Linum hirsutum 130. Lolium perenne 131. Lotus corniculatus 132. Lotus strictus 133. Lotus tenuis 134. Lychnis flos-cuculi 135. Lysimachia punctata 136. Lythrum salicaria 137. Malus domestica Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Petti Spurge Tall Fescue Fig-tree Dropwort Frankenia Snowdrop

+

Goosegrass Marsh Betstraw Yellow Galium Dyer's Greenweed Purple Cranesbill Smal-flowered Cranesbill Herb Robert Bloody Cranesbill Herb Bennet Ground Ivi Sweetwort Tall Gypsophill

+

+

Sea Purslane Bindwood

+

+

+

+

Yellow Flag Dwarf Iris Walnut Round-fruited Red Dead-nettle

Duckweed Pepperword Loddon Lily Common Privet

+

Rye-grass Common Birdsfoot-trefoil

Marsh Mallow Purple Loosestrife Apple-tree Appendix One

7


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 138. Malus sylvestris 139. Malva sylvestris 140. Marrubium vulgare 141. Medicago disciformis 142. Medicago falcata 143. Medicago litoralis 144. Medicago lupulina 145. Medicago marina 146. Melilotus alba 147. Mentha aquatica 148. Mentha arvensis 149. Myosotis arvensis 150. Myosotis ramosissima 151. Myosotis stricta 152. Myriophyllum spicatum 153. Myriophyllum verticilatum 154. Najas minor 155. Nasturtium officinalis 156. Nonea atra 157. Oenanhte silaifolia 158. Oenanthe aquatica 159. Ononis arvensis 160. Ononis spinosa 161. Onosma heterophylla 162. Papaver hybridum 163. Parapholis incurva + 164. Pastinaca sativa 165. Persicaria hydropiper 166. Petroragia prolifera 167. Petrosimonia brachiata 168. Peuedanum arenarium 169. Phragmites australis 170. Pimpinella peregrina 171. Polygala major 172. Polygonum maritimum 173. Populus tremula 174. Potamogeton crispus 175. Potamogeton pusillus 176. Potentilla cinerea 177. Prunella vulgaris 178. Prunus cerastifera 179. Prunus domestica 180. Prunus spinosa 181. Pulmonaria obscura 182. Pyrus sativa 183. Ranunculus arvensis 184. Reseda lutea 185. Rosa canina 186. Rosa gallica 187. Rottboelia digitata 188. Rubus sanguineus 189. Ruppia maritima 190. Sagttaria sagittifolia 8

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Wild Apple Common Mallow White Horehound Cickle Medick Black Medick See Medick White Melilot Water Mint Corn Mint Common Forget-me-not Early Forget-me-not Spicked Water-milfoil Whorled Water-milfoil Naiad Water-cress Water Dropwort Fine Leaved W.Dropwort Restharrow Goldedrop Round Prickly-headed Poppy + Wild Parsnip Pale Persicaria + Hog's Fenel Common Reed Burnet Milkwort Sea Knotgrass Aspen Pondweed Cinquefoil Self-heal Cherry Plum PlumĂ SloeĂ  Pear Corn Crowfoot Wild Wood Dog Rose

Arrow-head Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 191. Salicornia europaea 192. Salix alba 193. Salix eleagnus 194. Salix fragilis 195. Salsola ruthenica 196. Salsola soda 197. Salvia nutans 198. Salvia pratensis 199. Salvia tomentosa 200. Samolus valerandii 201. Saponaria officinalis 202. Scandix australis 203. Schoenoplectus lacustris 204. Scleranthus perennis 205. Sedum caespitosum 206. Silene alba 207. Silene densiflora 208. Silene euxina + 209. Silene thymifolia 210. Sium latifolium 211. Solanum dulcamara 212. Solanum nigrum 213. Spergularia marina 214. Spirodela polyrrhiza 215. Stachis maritrima 216. Stachis palustris 217. Stelaria holostea 218. Sueda heterophylla + 219. Sueda maritrima 220. Syringa vulgaris 221. Tamarix tetrandra 222. Trachomitum venetum 223. Trifolium hybridum 224. Trifolium pratense 225. Trifolium purpureum 226. Trifolium repens 227. Trifolium setiferum 228. Triglochin palustris 229. Urtica dioica 230. Verbena officinalis 231. Vicia lutea 232. Vicia tenuifolia 233. Viola odorata

Glasswortà White Willow Green Willow Crack Willowà Saltwort Meadow Clary Brookweed Soapwort Bulrush Knawel White Campion

Water Parsnip Bittersweet Black Nightshade Great Duckweed Marsh Wonderwort Greater Stitchwort + Herbaceus Seablite Common Lilacê Tamariskà Alsike Clover Red Clover White Clover Marsh Arrow-grass Great Nettle Vervain Yellow Vetch Slender Tare Sweet Violet

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION AT SITES OF THE ZOOPLANKTON IN THE RESERVE Stations Taxa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Rotatoria Asplanchna priodonta + + + + Brachionus angularis + + + B. caliciflorus + + + Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One

9


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation B. quadridentatus Stations Taxa B. urceolaris Colurella sp

+ 1

2 +

3 +

4

5

6 +

7

8

9 +

10 +

11

+

Euchlanis pyriformis + Filinia longiseta + Hexarthra mira + Keratella cochlearis + + + + K. quadrata + K. valga + + Notholca acuminata + N. labis + Pleosoma hudsoni + + Polyarthra dolichoptera + + + Synchaeta oblonga + S. pectinata + S. vorax + + + + + + + Testudinella patina + + + + Cladocera Alona rectangula + + Bosmina longirostris + + + Daphnia pulex + + + Penilia avirostris + + + + + Pleopis polyphemoides + + + + + + + + Symocephalus vetulus + Copepoda Acanthocyclops robustus + + + Acartia clausi + + + + + + + Calanipeda aquaedulcis + + Centropages kroyeri + + + Eucyclops serrulatus + + Euritemora velox + + + + Halicyclops sp + + + + + + Paracalanus parvus + + + + + nauplii and copepodites are found at all of the sites SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION AT SITES OF THE ZOOPLANKTON IN THE BUFFER ZONE Stations Taxa 12 12a 13 14 15 16 17 18 Rotatoria Brachionus angularis + + + + B. calyciflorus + + + B. urceolaris + + + Colurella sp + + + + + + Hexarthra mira + + + + + + Keratella cochlearis + + + Polyarthra dolichoptera + + + + + + Synchaeta pectinata + + + + + + + 10 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation S. vorax Cladocera Bosmina longirostris Taxa Penilia avirostris Pleopis polyphemoides Symocephalus vetulus Copepoda

+

1

+

2

+ + Stations 3 4 5

+

+ +

Acartia clausi + Calanipeda aquaedulcis + + Centropages kroyeri + nauplii and copepodites are found at all of the sites

+

+

+

+

+ 6 + +

7

8 +

+

+

9

+ +

10

+

+

+

+

+

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZOOBENTHOS AT SITES IN THE RESERVE Stations Taxa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Annelides Eiseniella tetraedra + Limnodrilus sp + + + Tubifex tubifex + + + Erpobdella octoculata + Mercierella enygmatica + + + Neanthes cuccinea + + + + + + Mollusca Coretus corneus + Planorbis planorbis + + P. carinata + Physa acuta + Galba sp + + Hydrobia ventrosa + + + + + + Cardium edule + + + + + + Syndesmia ovata + + + + Crustacea Asellus aquaticus + + + Corophium volutator + + + + + Idothea baltica + + + + Sphaeroma serratum + + + + + + Gammarus subtypicus + + + + + Crangon crangon* + + + Leander sp* + + + Insecta Notonecta glauca + + + Sygara sp . + + Table 3. cont. Lestes sp + + + + Atherix sp + Bezzia sp + Caenis horaria + + C. luctuosa + + Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

11

10

11

+

+ + +

+ + + +

Appendix One

11


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Cloeon dipterum Tabanus sp Polypedilum aberans Chironomus riparius C. salinarius Taxa Ephydra sp. * noted as presence only

+

+

+ +

+ +

+

1

2

+

+ + + + Stations 4 5 6

3

+

+

7 +

+ 8

+

+ 9

+

10 +

+

11 +

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZOOBENTHOS AT SITES IN THE BUFFER ZONE Stations Taxa Polychaeta Mercierella enygmatica Neanthes succinea Nereis diversicolor Mollusca Hydrobia ventrosa Cardium edule Syndesmia ovata Planorbis planorbis Crustacea Asellus aquaticus Corophium volutator Idothea baltica Sphaeroma serratum Gammarus subtypicus Insecta Ephydra sp . Chironomus salinarius C. riparius

12

12a

13

14

+ +

15

+ + +

+ + +

16

17

18

+ +

+ + +

+ + + + +

+

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+

+ + +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF FISH (1- primary freshwater, 2- primary marine, 3- constant inhabitants of the reserve, 4- reproducing in the basins of the reserve, 5- relative quantity at five degree scale, 6- included in Bulgarian Red book)

Fammilies and Species Cyprinidae Carassius auratus gibelio Cyprinus carpio

1

2

+ +

Atherinidae Atherina boyery

+

Gasterosteidae Gasterosteus aculeatus Pungitius platigaster

+ +

3

4

5

+ +

+

3 1

1

+ +

4 3

Gobiidae 12 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

5

Appendix One

+ +


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Knipowitschia caucasica Neogobius melanosthomus

+ +

Poecilidae Gambusia affinis holbrooki Fammilies and Species Blennidae Parablennius sanguinoleatus

+ 1

2

+

+

5

+

+ 3

+ 4

5 5

5

+

1

Sygnathidae Sygnathus typeargentatus

+

1

Mugilidae Mugil cephalus Lisa aurata Lisa saliens

+ + +

+ + +

2 2 2

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES AMPHIBIANS

REPTILES

Rana ridibunda

Ophisaurus apodus

Bufo viridis

Elaphe longissima

Bombina variegata

Emys orbicularis

Pelobates fuscus

Lacerta viridis

Triturus vulgaris

Lacerta agilis

Triturus cristatus

Natrix tesselata

Hyla arborea

Natrix natrix Coluber jugularis

CHECK LIST OF BIRDS SPECIES No

Species

SV R SM B

1.

Gavia arctica

2.

Tachybaptus ruficollis*

1

3.

Podiceps cristatus

2

4.

Podiceps grisegena

5.

Podiceps nigricollis

6.

Puffinus yelkouan

7.

Phalacrocorax carbo

8.

Phalacrocorax aristotelis

9.

Phalacrocorax pygmeus

10.

Pelecanus onocrotalus

AM W V

1 2

1 1

22/03/88 - 1ind.,01/80- 5 ind.

1

2

15/07/90 - a pair with 8 chicks ; 03/01/86-20 ind.

1

2

03/77 (Roberts) - 25 ind.

1 3

01/79-1ind.;14/01/85-1ind. ;01.97- 202 ind. . 23/10/88-60 ind.;01/77-547ind.

2

01/92 - 22ind.

3

25/12/87 - a flock of 220 birds

2

3

3 2

1

Data - Highest Numbers

1

23/10/80 - 16 ind.

2

3

4

5

11 Pelecanus crispus

1

3

2

28/04/83-5 ind.; 05/01/89-71 ind.;1980-432 ind.

12.

Botaurus stellaris

1

1

1

22/03/87-1 ind.; 09/02/90-1 ind.

13.

Ixobrychus minutus*

1

14.

Nyct nycticorax

2

2

15.

Ardeola ralloides

1

1

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

1

2

11/76- 226 ind.(Roberts); 15/01/84 - 26 ind. 04/80-5260 ind.;1993-31665 ind.

1

05/77- 7 ind.(Roberts) ?

07/90- 13 ind. 07/05/90-8 ind. Appendix One

13


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 16.

Bubulcus ibis

1 (01- 05)/06/53- 8 ind.(N.Boev- in litt.)

17.

Egretta garzetta

2

3

1

09/76- 246 ind.(Roberts); 03/01/86- 3 ind. .

18.

Egretta alba

1

1

2

02/77-14 ind.(R0berts); 01/95 -39 ind.

19.

Ardea cinerea

2

2

2

09/76-94 ind.(Roberts)

20.

Ardea purpurea*

2

21.

Ciconia nigra

3

22.

Ciconia ciconia*

5

23.

Plegadis falcinellus

24.

Platalea leucorodia

25.

Cygnus olor

2

1

3

26.

Phoenicopterus ruber

1

1 1 20/09/84 -3 ind.; 26/09/81- 01/82 - 1 ind.

27.

Cygnus columbianus

1

28.

Cygnus cygnus

2

2

01/77 - 26 ind.; 07/04/78- 19 ind. ind.

29.

Anser fabalis

1

1

22/03/87- 5 ind.; 01/93-3ind.

30.

Anser albifrons

4

31.

Anser erythropus

10/76 - 848 ind.(Roberts); 18/02/88- 10 000 ind; o1/ 95 - 2250 ind. 07/10/79 - 1 ind. ( P. Simeonov - in litt.)

32.

Anser anser

22/03/87-350 ind.; 23/08.67 - 150-200 ind ; 01/95 - 11 ind.

33.

Branta canadensis

34.

Branta ruficollis

35.

Tadorna ferruginea

36.

Tadorna tadorna*

37.

Anas penelope

3

38.

Anas strepera *

2

39.

Anas crecca*

3

40.

Anas platyrhynchos*

41. 42.

2

2

04/78-26 ind.; 19/04/80 - 5 br.p. ; 14/10/80-20 ind.

4

04/79-124 ind.;1981-5154 ind.

6

04/89- 20000 ind.;1993-204423 ind.

3

3

04/79-391 ind.; 08/88-70 ind.; 06/09/81- 260 ind.

2

3

03/09/88-130 ind.

1

01/77-100 ind.(Roberts); 01/94 - 220 ind. 09/04/80-(Robel)

3 1 3

3

2

2

2

3

1 27/10/80-1 ind. 2

29/03/87-20 ind.; 11/02.69- 200 ind ; Georgiev ( 1976)

2

0

02/05/85 - 11 ind. ; 27/09/79 - 36 ind.; 18/01/81- 1 ind

4

4

14/01/85 - 4036 ind.

4

4

11/76-2597 ind. (Roberts); 01/80 - 1735 ind.

1

2

2

03/77-68 ind.(Rroberts); 01/91 - 90 ind.

1

4

3

11/76- 2191ind. (Roberts); 01/83 - 785 ind.

3

2

4

4

10/76-2162 ind.(Roberts); 14 / 01/85 - 3947 ind.

Anas acuta*

3

1

4

4

01/77-4107 ind.

Anas querquedula

3

1

2

43.

Anas clypeata

3

2

3

44.

M. anguistirostris

45.

Netta rufina

1

1

24/03/85-4 ind .; 01/89 - 1 ind.

46.

Aythya ferina

3

3

04/05/84-100 ind.; 01/95- 926 ind.

47.

Aythya nyroca

2

1

25/03/84 - 9 ind.; 04/05/84 - 8ind.

48.

Aythya fuligula

2

1

4

24/03/85-25 ind.; 01/77 - 1830 ind.

49.

Aythya marila

3

50.

Bucephala clangula

1

1

10/76-1 ind.(Roberts); 01/82-2 ind.

51.

Mergus albellus

1

01/87-6 ind.; 13/01/89-5 ind.;.

52.

Mergus serrator

3

03/77-46 ind.(Roberts); 18/01/88 - 177 ind.

53.

Mergus merganser

2

winter,1912,Varbanov

54.

Oxyura leucocephala

2

55.

Pernis apivorus

3

56.

Elanus caeruleus

57.

Milvus migrans

58.

Milvus milvus

59.

Haliaeetus albicilla

60.

Gypaetus barbatus

61. 62.

2

2

4

1

03/77-641 ind.(Roberts); 24/03/85-450 ind. 4

12/76 - 1311 ind. 1 12/93- 1ind.(M.Waterhouse - in litt.)

16/03/89-114 ind.

2

spring,1910-many ind.,Varbanov 4

05/77-510 ind.(Roberts); 1993 - 13406 ind. 1 12/04/79- 1 ind.

2

3

04/1978-87 ind.; 1979-776 ind.

1

1979 - 13 ind.

1

29/04/84 - 1 ind.(Scott -in litt).; 27/09/79 - 1 juv.

1

25/09/95 -1imm., Dilchev N., F.Benoit(in litt)

N.percnopterus

1

1986-9 ind.

Gyps fulvus

1

(09-10)/1979,1982-by two ind.

1

14 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 63.

Circaetus gallicus

2

3

64.

Circus aeruginosus*

2

4

1

04/80-53 ind.; 1993-1530 ind.

65.

Circus cyaneus

2

2

2

04/80-12 ind.; 12/76-10ind.; 1979-55 ind.

66.

Circus macrourus

1

2

1979-26 ind.

67.

Circus pygargus

1

3

1991-140 ind.

68.

Accipiter gentilis

1

2

1991-51ind.

69.

Accipiter nisus

3

3

04/80-183 ind.; 04/1976-26 ind.; 1992-835 ind.

70.

Accipiter brevipes

71.

Buteo buteo

4

5

72.

Buteo rufinus

1

2

73.

Buteo lagopus

1

1

74.

Aquila pomarina

3

5

75.

Aquila clanga

1

76.

Aquila nipalensis

1

1979-7 ind.

77.

Aquila heliaca

2

1979-18 ind.

78.

Aquila chrysaetos

1

1986-4 ind.

79.

Hieraaetus pennatus

4

04/1980-8 ind.; 1981-1075 ind.

80.

Hieraaetus fasciatus

1

28/10/79-1ind.; 2/10/83-1 ind.

81.

Pandion haliaetus

2

1991-34 ind.

82.

Falco naumanni

1

15/10/80-1ind; 16/10/80-3 ind.

83.

Falco tinnunculus*

2

3

1986-56 ind.; 1989 - 226 (tin/naum)

84.

Falco vespertinus

2

4

85.

Falco columbarius

1

2

86.

Falco subbuteo

1

3

1992 - 3 ind.

87.

Falco eleonorae

1

11/08/79-1 ind; 03/10/80-1ind.

88.

Falco cherrug

2

30/04/79-1 ind.; 1979-27ind.

89.

Falco peregrinus

2

1993-11ind.

90.

Perdix perdix*

91.

Coturnix coturnix

92.

Phasianus colchicus

93.

Rallus aquaticus*

2

1

94.

Porzana porzana*

1

1

1

95.

Porzana parva

1

96.

Porzana pusilla

97.

Crex crex *

98.

Gallinula chloropus*

99.

Fulica atra

1

1981-814 ind.

3

2

1 2

1

1991-238 ind. 1

(03-04)/1977-2 ind.(Roberts); 1990-27ind. 1

(02-04)//77-6 ind.(Roberts); 1979-9 ind. 04/1978-330 ind.; 1990-25 796 ind.

1

12/76-1ind., 04/77-1ind.(Roberts); 1980-41 ind..

1989-3110 ind. 2

2 1

(03-04)/1978-1962 ind.(Roberts); 1990-30 662 ind.

(03-04)/1977-2 ind.(Roberts); 1993-10 ind.

09/76-27 ind.(Roberts); 16/06/89-nest ,6 eggs; 01/09/89 - 30 ind. 1

1

03/77-3 ind.(Roberts); 04/07/88-1ind.; 19/01/94 - 1 ind.

1

1

01/77-2 ind.(Roberts); 21/01/89-1 ind.

2

1

10/10/88-15 ind; 12/09/90-11 ind.;4 br.pairs (Delov, in litt.) 10/76-2 ind.(Roberts); 27/03/84-1 ind.; 1995 -1 br.pair(Delov,in lit) 04/78-2 ind., 05/77-3 ind.(Roberts) Observed by V. Delov (in litt.)

1

1

04/86-1 ind., 1-3 br.pairs (Delov,in litt)

2

2

2

2

1

04/76-45 ind.(Roberts); 12/04/90-28 ind.; 01/77-74 ind.

2

2

3

4

01/77-2578 ind. ; 01/76- 12000 ( Roberts,1978)

100. Grus grus

3

4

101. Anthropoides virgo

1

102. Otis tarda 103. Haematopus ostralegus*

2

1

2

104. Himantopus himantopus*

3

2

3

105. Recurvirostra avosetta*

4

3

4

106. Burhinus oedicnemus*

1

1

1

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

(03-04)/1977-897 ind.(Roberts); 17/03/89-92 ind.; 1979-4178 ind. 08/8/69-2 ind, Robel , Konigstedt at al. 2

Sahack

1

03/77-34 ind.(Roberts); 26/07/89-80 ind.

3

03/77-2577 ind.,725 br.pairs,09/77-7570 ind.(Rob.)15/01/84-800 i.

05/77-131ind., 22 br.pairs (Roberts); 22/09/90-128 ind. 05/05/86-1 ind.; 06/1972-1 pair; 22/10/88-2ind. Appendix One

15


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 107. Glareola pratincola*

2

2

06/77-40 ind.(Roberts); 18/04/89-71ind.

108. Glareola nordmanni

1

109. Charadrius dubius

2

2

2

09/77-74 ind.(Roberts); 07/04/85-20 ind.; 01/1977-43 ind.

110. Charadrius hiaticula

2

2

1

10/77-29 ind.(Roberts); 26/09/90-8 ind.

111. Charadrius alexandrinus*

3

3

2

04/05/84-2 ind., among flock of 15 Collared Pratincoles

2

1977 -48 br. Pairs, 09/77-673 ind.(Roberts); 01/1977-11ind.

112. Charadrius leschenaultii

30.03.1975 (Nankinov, 1992)

113. Charadrius asiaticus

3.08.1983 (Nankinov,1992)

114. Charadrius morinellus

1

115. Pluvialis apricaria

2

2

3

29/04/85-1ind.

116. Pluvialis squatarola

2

2

2

117. Hoplopterus spinosus

1

118. Vanellus vanellus*

3

2

119. Calidris canutus

02/77-195 ind.(Roberts); 03/89-18 ind. 03/76-76ind.(Roberts); 09/02/88-45 ind.; 01/1994 -55 ind. 14/09/90-1 ind.

3

3

03/77-641 ind.(Roberts); 09/02/88-260 ind.; 03/01/86-845 ind.

1

1

02/08/66-1ind.; 07/09/68-2 ind.,Robel at al.;14/01/82-1ind.

120. Calidris alba

2

121. Calidris minuta

3

4

122. Calidris temminckii

1

1

123. Calidris ferruginea

4

4

1

05/77-3747 ind.(Roberts); 25/05/89-1200 ind.; 01/80,90 -5 ind.

124. Calidris alpina

3

4

3

22/03/90-400 ind.; 10/77-2665 ind.(Roberts); 01/1977-340 ind.

4

3

09/77-52 ind.(Roberts); 02/09/84-30 ind; 29/08/90-7 ind.; 51 ind. ringed 3.08- 9.09.82 (Nankinov ,1981) 04/77-3559 ind.(Roberts); 18/04/89-2000 ind.; 03/01/1986-196 ind.

3

3

125. Limicola falcinellus

05/77-12 ind.; (Roberts); 05/89-2 ind,Bl.SeaCoast; 01/1994-3 ind.

4

03/78-1609 ind.(Roberts); 01/08/90-1000 ind.; 01/1978-1130 ind. 09/77-4 ind.(Roberts); 03/08/89-1ind.

2

126. Philomachus pugnax

4

127. Lymnocryptes minimus

2

128. Gallinago gallinago

3

129. Gallinago media

1

03/77-10 ind.(Roberts); 28/03/89-2 ind.

1 1

25/10/88-1 ind; 09/11/88-1ind.

4

3 1

12/06/62-1 ind.(Grossler,K); 10/77-3 ind.(Roberts)

1

1

04/77-12 ind.,(Roberts); 04/89-7 ind.; 09/09/95-2 ind.

132. Limosa lapponica 133. Numenius phaeopus

04/77-245 ind.(Roberts); 25/03/84 -30 ind; 01/87-130 ind. 07/04/76-1 ind.(Roberts)

130. Scolopax rusticola 131. Limosa limosa

1

134. Numenius tenuirostris

2

1

03/77-1078 ind.(Roberts); 05/03/88-250 ind.

02/05/86-3 ind.; 28/09/80-9 ind.; 18/10/93-1ind.

135. Numenius arquata

2

2

3

3

10/77-150 ind.(Roberts); 10/01/90-52I nd.

136. Tringa erythropus

2

3

3

2

15/03/89-38 ind.; 04/77-379 ind.(Roberts); 01/86-26 ind.

4

3

138. Tringa stagnatilis

2

3

2

139. Tringa nebularia

2

2

2

1

04/77-92 ind.(Roberts); 03/03/94-12 ind.

2

1

1

04/77-11ind.(Roberts); 12/05/88-15 ind.

2

2

04/77-90 ind.(Roberts); 03/09/88-80 ind.

137. Tringa totanus*

4

140. Tringa ochropus 141. Tringa glareola

2

1

06/77-2 br.pairs;22/08/90-1500 ind.; 09/77-6574 ind.; 01/78-28 ind. 04/77-152 ind.(Roberts); 12/04/90-120 ind.

142. Xenus cinereus 143. Actitis hypoleucos

2

3

26/08/1968-200 ind.(Robel et all); 12/04/90-11ind.

144. Arenaria interpres

1

1

05/77-7 ind.(R0berts); 11/05/88-4 ind.; 25/05/89-2 ind.

145. Phalaropus lobatus

1

146. Stercorarius pomarinus 147. Stercorarius parasiticus

2

148. Stercorarius skua

1

149. Larus melanocephalus*

09/76-5 ind.(Roberts); 25/08/88-3 ind.; 09/93-23 ind. 01/09/79-1 ind.

1

19/07/89-10 ind. 17/07/88-3 ind.(Nankinov)

3

150. Larus minutus

3

2

151. Larus ridibundus*

4

4

152. Larus genei

2

153. Larus canus

2 1

2

4

09/77-4108 ind.(Roberts); breed. pairs/1995

4

2

09/77-3740 ind.(Roberts); 24/08/88-200 ind.

5

4

04/05/50-(10-12) nests,(Prostov); 09/77-12559 ind; 01/77-2060 ind.

2

4

3

3

1

1

16 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

2

01/77-100 ind.; 10/77-1386 ind.(Roberts); 03/09/88-1500 ind. 03/77-114 ind.(Roberts); 15/03/89-1 ind. Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 154. Larus fuscus

1

155. Larus argent./cachinans*

2

3

22/06/88-1 ind. 4

01/08/90-220 ind.; 10/77-340 ind; 15/01/84 - 1655 ind.

156. Larus marinus

1

14/10/76-1ind.(Roberts)

157. Rissa tridactyla

1

29/08/85-3 ind.

158. Gelochelidon nilotica*

2

159. Sterna caspia

1

160. Sterna sandvicensis*

2

161. Sterna hirundo* 162. Sterna albifrons* 163. Chlidonias hybridus

1

05/77-80 ind.(Roberts); 12/05/88-9 ind.; 1979-65 br.p.,Nankinov

1

1

03/77-3 ind.(Roberts);30/08/79-3 ind.;26/08/89-1ind;14/01/85-1ind..

4

3

1

06/95-1200 ind.;06/95 - 600 br.pairs; 16/08/79-974 ind.

3

2

2

05/77-120 ind.,06/77-90 br.pairs (Roberts)

2

4

2

05/77-60 ind.,06/77-30 br. pairs; 10/06/88-140 ind.

2

3

??

2

2

165. Chlidonias leucopterus

1

3

164. Chlidonias niger*

1

05/77-52 ind.(Roberts); 04/04/88-150 ind. 1

04/77-64 ind.(Roberts); 07/05/90-17 ind.; 09/76-1 ind.(Roberts) 05/77-231 ind.(Roberts); 07/05/90-250 ind.

166. Syrrhaptes paradoxus

2

167. Columba livia

a flock of more of 10 ind. ???

1

(24,28)/05/83-9,(B.Scott)

168. Columba oenas

3

169. Columba palumbus

5

170. Streptopelia decaocto *

1

171. Streptopelia turtur

3

07/10/79-250 ind.; 02/77-340 ind.(Roberts)

4

03/77-10 000 ind., 02/77-4000 ind.( Roberts)

1 1

09/77-6 ind.(Roberts); 07/89-4 ind. 2

03/77-5 ind.(Roberts); 28/04/88-2 ind.

172. Clamator glandarius

05/1996 ( M. Dimitrov - in litt.)

173. Cuculus canorus*

1

1

1

174. Tyto alba*

1

1

1

175. Athene noctua *

1

1

1

176. Asio otus

05/77-4 ind.(Roberts); 07/90-1ind. 17/10/79-4 ind., 1 -2 breeding pairs till 1991;1 in 1995(Delov,in lit) 1

1

177. Asio flammeus

1

178. Caprimulgus europaeus

1

179. Apus apus

1 2

180. Apus melba

1

181. Alcedo atthis

2-3 breeding pairs 07/06/89-1 ind.

1

1

1

182. Merops superciliosus

03/77-6 ind., 12/76 -9 ind.(Roberts); 06/12/89-1ind.

1

04/06/89-1 ind.; 27/08/82-1 ind.

3

14/08/79-140 ind.

1

30/04/77-9 ind.(Roberts); 29/03/87-1 ind.

2

12/04/90-6 ind.;10/77-10 ind.(Roberts)

1

18/09/93-3 ind.(Stojnov, Nedjalkov)

183. Merops apiaster

2

4

27/04/84-50 ind.; 09/77-30 ind.(Roberts)

184. Coracias garrulus

2

1

27/04/90-24ind.

185. Upupa epops*

1

186. Jynx torquilla

1

1

1

1

188. Dendrocopos major

1

189. Dendrocopos syriacus

1

09/08/89-1 ind. 29/04/84-1 ind.

1

190. Dendrocopos medius

29/04/84-1 imm.(B.Scott); 26/10/88-1ind.; 14/09/89-2 ind.

1

191. Melanocorypha calandra

2

192. Calandrella brachydactyla 2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

194. Lullula arborea 195. Alauda arvensis*

3

196. Riparia riparia

3

197. Hirundo rustica*

3

2

1

199. Delichon urbica*

3

1

200. Anthus campestris*

1

1

1

198. Hirundo daurica

201. Anthus trivialis Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

15/04/84-6 ind.; 27/04/88-7 ind. 01/05/87-1 ind.; 28/04/88-1 ind.; 12/04/89-1ind.

187. Picus viridis

193. Galerida cristata*

1

1

3

20/10/88-1 ind. 3

12/77-115 ind.(Roberts) 04/77-21ind.(Roberts)

1

10/77-27 ind.(Roberts); 29/10/87-20 ind.

1

12/77, 02/77 - ( Roberts)

4

02/77-3000 ind.(Roberts); 09/02/88-45 ind.

4

09/77-1000 ind.(Roberts); 01/08/90-1200 ind.

3

04/77-266 ind.(Roberts)

1

09/80-1ind.

3

04/77-170 ind.(Roberts)

2

05/77-3 ind. (Roberts); 03/09/88-9 ind. 1

09/77-12 ind.(Roberts); 09/02/88-2 ind. Appendix One

17


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 202. Anthus pratensis

3

203. Anthus cervinus

2

2

2

1

2

04/77-105 ind.(Roberts) 04/77-31ind.(Roberts)

204. Anthus spinoletta 2

3

21/01/89-15 ind.; 16/02/90-28 ind.

205. Motacilla flava*

3

04/77-208 ind.(Roberts); 11/09/90-110 ind.

206. Motacilla citreola

1

207. Motacilla cinerea

1

1

09/77-3 ind.(Roberts); 26/09/90-3 ind.

208. Motacilla alba

3

4

10/77-1156 ind.(Roberts)

209. Troglodytes troglodytes

2

2

1

11/77-18 ind.(Roberts); 13/01/88-10 ind.

210. Prunella modularis

1

1

1

03/77-8 ind.(Roberts); 12/12/89-4 ind.

211. Erithacus rubecula

1

2

1

11/77-48 ind.(Roberts); 05/01/89-3 ind.

212. Luscinia luscinia

1

213. Luscinia megarhynchos*

1

214. Luscinia svecica

1

1

09/89-6 ind.; 27/09/92-1 ind.

215. Phoenicurus ochruros

1

1

22/03/89-5 ind.

1

10/77-4 ind.(Roberts); 18/10/86-1ind.

08/04/88-1ind., K.Nyagolov

28/04/88-2 ind. 1

216. Phoenicurus phoenicurus

12/04/88-1 ind.

217. Saxicola rubetra

1

1

1

27/04/88-12 ind.; 09/77-5 ind.(Roberts)

218. Saxicola torquata

1

2

1

11/77-24 ind.(Roberts); 17/09/88-7 ind.

219. Oenanthe isabellina 220. Oenanthe oenanthe*

2

221. Oenanthe hispanica

1

222. Turdus torquatus

1

223. Turdus merula

1

224. Turdus pilaris

3

225. Turdus philomelos

2

226. Turdus iliacus

2

227. Turdus viscivorus

1

1

1

31/08/84 -2 ind.; autumn -(8-10) ind.

1

04/77-10 ind.(Roberts); 02/09/84-5 ind. 28/04/83-1 ind.,B.Scott 21/03/90-1 ind.

1

2

02/03/88-2 ind; 02/77-14 ind.(Roberts)

3

11/03/84 -150 ind.; 02/77-192 ind.(Roberts)

2

1

228. Cettia cetti*

1

1

229. Cisticola juncidis

03/77-22 ind.,10/76-18(Roberts); 11/03/84 -10 ind. 1

02/77-4 ind.(Roberts)

2

1

16/03/88-1 ind.; 10/77-14 ind.(Roberts)

1

1

1

03/77-2 ind.(Roberts); 25/05/88-5 ind.; 09/02/88-12 ind. 22/09/84-5(6) ind.; 29/08/87-1ind.

230. Locustella naevia

1

231. Locustella fluviatilis

1

11/05/88-1 ind.

232. Locustella luscinioides*

2

233. Acrocepnalus melanopogon

2

1

234. Acrocephalus paludicola

1

1

01/05/93-1 ind.; 10/10/88 - 8 ind.(M.Waterhouse)

235. Acrocephalus shoenobaenus*

2

1

04/77-58 ind.(Roberts); 14/09/89-2 ind.

236. Acrocephalus agricola

1

19/05/88-1 ind. 1

2

04/77-14 ind.(Roberts); 18/06/89-4 ind. 03/77-18 ind.(Roberts); 17/04/89-25 ind.

23/05/93-1 ind., B.Scott, N.Dilchev

237. Acrocephalus dumetorum 238. Acrocephalus palustris

1

1 ind.(ringed),K.Popov 1

1

25/05/89-4 ind.; 09/06/89-2 ind.

239. Acrocephalus scirpaceus*

3

1

2

04/77-185 ind.(Rberts); 27/04/89-31 ind.

240. A. arundinaceus*

2

1

1

05/77-91ind.(Roberts); 20/05/84-35 ind.

241. Hippolais pallida

1

12/05/77-1 ind.(Roberts); 05/89-1 ind.

242. Hippolais icterina

1

17/04/89-1 ind.

243. Sylvia nisoria

1

244. Sylvia curruca

1

245. Sylvia communis *

1

246. Sylvia borin

1

12/05/77-1 ind.(Roberts)

247. Sylvia atricapilla

1

27/05/88-5 ind.

248. Phylloscopus borealis

18 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

02/05/87-1 ind. 1

1

04/77-1 ind.(Roberts); 17/09/88-5 ind.

1

09/77-3 ind.(Roberts); 23/05/90-6 ind.

1 ind.(ringed),K.Popov Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation 249. Phylloscopus bonelli

1 ind.(ringed),K.Popov

250. Phylloscopus sibilatrix

1

251. Phylloscopus collybita

2

3

10/77-76 ind.(Roberts); 26/09/90-180 ind.

252. Phylloscopus trochilus

2

1

05/77-8 ind.(Roberts); 27/04/88-35 ind.

253. Regulus regulus

1

10/10/88-2 ind.

254. Regulus ignicapillus

1

10/10/87-2 ind.

2

05/05/88-2 ind.; 17/09/88-15 ind.

255. Muscicapa striata

1

256. Ficedula parva

1

257. Ficedula albicollis

2

258. Ficedula hypoleuca 259. Panurus biarmicus*

27/04/88-4 ind.

1

27/04/88-15 ind.

2 2

2

27/04/88-28 ind. 2

260. Parus ater

2

2

2

262. Parus major 263. Remiz pendulinus*

2

1

261. Parus caeruleus 1

1

03/05/88-1 ind.; 17/09/88-3 ind.

1

1

03/77-49 ind.(Roberts); 21/09/88-35 ind. 05/10/92-2 ind.

2

02/77-26 ind.(Roberts); 13/01/88-37 ind.

1

06/12/89-9 ind.; 16/01/90-5 ind.

1

03/77-9 ind.(Roberts); 11/10/88-9 ind.

264. Oriolus oriolus

1

265. Lanius collurio*

1

2

18/04/88-2 ind.; 09/77-1 ind. (Roberts,1981) 10/77-13 ind.(Roberts); 17/09/88-21 ind.

266. Lanius minor

1

2

05/05/88-2 ind.; (09-10) annualy -(10-15) ind.

267. Lanius excubitor 268. Lanius senator

1

04/05/88-1 ind.; 26/04/90-1 ind.

269. Garrulus glandarius

2

270. Pica pica*

2

271. Corvus monedula

2 3

273. Corvus corone cornix

1

3

274. Corvus corax 3

3

03/90-290 ind.;10/77-1020 ind.(Roberts); 21/01/89-390 ind.

2

03/76-39 ind.; 12/77-40 ind.(Roberts)

1

3

02/10/83-1 ind. 5

2 2

16/02/90-15 000 ind.; 09/02/90-20 000 ind. 14/09/88-19 ind.

2

278. Passer hispaniolensis* 279. Passer montanus*

15/03/90-11 ind.; 10/77-261 ind.(Roberts)

1 2

276. Sturnus roseus 277. Passer domesticus*

6-7 nests in NW part + 8 nests in S part 2

272. Corvus frugilegus

275. Sturnus vulgaris*

12/10/80-57 ind.

2

2

04/77-147 ind.(Roberts); 35 nests-in N part

2

03/77-100 ind.(Roberts)

280. Fringilla coelebs

2

3

2

10/77-191ind.(Roberts); 24/01/90-29 ind.

281. Fringilla montifringilla

2

2

1

11/77-86 ind.(Roberts); 11/03/84-10 ind.

282. Serinus serinus

1

283. Carduelis chloris

1

2

2

11/77-25 ind.(Roberts); 16/01/90-100 ind.

284. Carduelis carduelis

3

3

3

12/77-116 ind.(Roberts); 03/02/89-210 ind.

285. Carduelis spinus

2

2

2

03/77-23 ind.(Roberts); 16/02/90-43 ind.

286. Carduelis cannabina

2

3

3

01/77-165 ind.(Roberts); 24/01/90-62 ind.

1

23/12/87-1 ind.; 24/01/90-1 ind.

1

07 and 14/02/77-1 ind.(male)-Roberts

2

11/03/84 -6 ind.; 08/02/88-25 ind.

287.

28/03/82-12 ind.

C.coccothraustes

288. Plectrophenax nivalis 289. Emberiza citrinella

1

290. Emberiza cirlus

1

291. Emberiza hortulana

06/05/88-1 ind.(male, singing)

292. Emberiza rustica

1

293. Emberiza pusilla 294. Emberiza schoeniclus

14/11/81-1ind.(ringed)

1 2

2

295. E . melanocephala* 296. Miliaria calandra*

23/11/88-4 ind.

1

1

3

13/11/81-1ind.(ringed) 3

1 2

2

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

2

02/77-259 ind.(Roberts); 04/02/88-220 ind. 25/05/89-6 ind.; 13/07/89-8 ind.

2

2

24/01/90-64 ind.; 01/03/90-91ind. Appendix One

19


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation

Abreviations: SV - Summer visitor R - Resident Spring migrant B - Breeder AM - Autumn migrant W - Wintering species V - Vagrant

Glareola pratincola

速 G. Pchelaro

CONSERVATION STATUS OF BIRDS IN ATANASOVSKO LAKE SPECIES

RDB

LAW

* breeding species (725) Gavia arctica

*

+

CO-

BERN

RAMSAR

RINE

App.

Num.criter.

#

BONN Data (max) App

II

II

SPEC

EURO

categ.

status

3

V

(726) Tachybaptus ruficollis*

+

II

S

(727) Podiceps cristatus

+

III

S

(728) Podiceps grisegena

*

+

II

(729) Podiceps nigricollis

**

+

II

(730) Puffinus yelkouan

+ **

+

#

III

(732) Phalacrocorax aristotelis

**

+

#

III

S S

II

(731) Phalacrocorax carbo

20 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

II 4 (100) 1000

220

S 4

Appendix One

S S


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (733) Phalacrocorax pygmeus

**

+

#

II

(50)

(734) Pelecanus onocrotalus

***

+

#

II

(800)

(735) Pelecanus crispus

**

+

#

II

(All)

(736) Botaurus stellaris

**

+

#

II

(25).

(737) Ixobrychus minutus*

+

#

II

(738) Nycticorax nycticorax

+

#

II

(739) Ardeola ralloides

+

#

(740) Bubulcus ibis

+

II II

(741) Egretta garzetta

+

# #II

II

(130)

400

246

+

#

II

(5)

120

39

II

200

26

II

3

V

1431 / 5154

II

3

R

80592 204423

II

2

V

(742) Egretta alba

**

(743) Ardea cinerea

+

25

(200)

600

(40)

120

226

II

2

V

10 969 31 665

II

3

R

min-6/ max432

I

1

V

II

3

(V)

II

3

(V)

3

D

3

V

13

S S S

III

S

(744) Ardea purpurea*

**

+

#

II

(65)

(745) Ciconia nigra

**

+

#

II

(350)

+

#

II

(4000)

(746) Ciconia ciconia*

250

(5)

(747) Plegadis falcinellus

**

+

#

II

(35)

100

391

II

3

D

(748) Platalea leucorodia

**

+

#

II

(20)

60

130

II

2

E

(749) Phoenicopterus ruber

*

+

#

II

650

II

3

L

(750) Cygnus olor

**

+

III

450

753

II

S

(751) Cygnus columbianus

+

#

II

5

4-7

II

3”

L”

(752) Cygnus cygnus

+

#

II

170

26

II

4”

S

(753) Anser fabalis

+

III

(754) Anser albifrons (755) Anser erythropus

III **

(756) Anser anser

+

#

+

(757) Branta canadensis

6500

II

S

10 000

II

S

II

40

1

II

III

250

350

II

III

1

V S

II

(758) Branta ruficollis

**

+

#

II

700

380

II

1

L”

(759) Tadorna ferruginea

**

+

#

II

(760) Tadorna tadorna*

**

+

II

200

36

II

3

V

750

4036

II

S

III

5600

2597

II

S

III

1000

90

II

(763) Anas crecca*

III

10500

2191

II

S

(764) Anas platyrhynchos*

III

20000

3947

II

S

(765) Anas acuta*

III

12000

4107

II

3

V

(766) Anas querquedula

III

20000

641

II

3

V

III

4500

1311

II

II

20

1

II

1

E

(761) Anas penelope (762) Anas strepera *

**

+

(767) Anas clypeata*

V

S

(768) M.angustirostris

*

+

(769) Netta rufina

*

+

III

500

4

II

3

D

(770) Aythya ferina

**

+

III

10000

1210

II

4

S

(771) Aythya nyroca

**

+

1

V

(772) Aythya fuligula (773) Aythya marila

+

(774) Bucephala clangula (775) Mergus albellus Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

+

#

3

#

III

300

9

II

III

6000

1830

II

III

1500

114

II

III

200

7

II

II

650

9

II

Appendix One

S 3”

L” S

3

V

21


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (776) Mergus serrator

+

III

500

(777) Mergus merganser

+

III

100 115

177

II

S

II

(778) Oxyura leucocephala

*

+

#

II

I

1

E

(779) Pernis apivorus

**

+

#

II

II

4

S

+

#

II

II

3

V

**

+

#

II

II

3

V

(782) Milvus milvus

*

+

#

II

II

4

S

(783) Haliaeetus albicilla

**

+

#

II

I

3

R

(784) Gypaetus barbatus

***

+

#

II

II

3

E

(785) N.percnopterus

**

+

#

II

II

3

E

(786) Gyps fulvus

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

(787) Circaetus gallicus

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

(788) Circus aeruginosus*

**

+

#

II

II

(789) Circus cyaneus

*

+

#

II

II

3

V

(790) Circus macrourus

*

+

#

II

II

3

E

(791) Circus pygargus

*

+

#

II

II

4

S

(792) Accipiter gentilis

**

+

#

II

II

S

(793) Accipiter nisus

**

+

#

II

II

S

(794) Accipiter brevipes

**

+

#

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

(780) Elanus caeruleus (781) Milvus migrans

(795) Buteo buteo (796) Buteo rufinus

+ **

(797) Buteo lagopus

+

#

+

S

2

R S

3

(E) S

(798) Aquila pomarina

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

(799) Aquila clanga

*

+

#

II

II

1

E

(800) Aquila nipalensis

*

+

II

II

3

V

(801) Aquila heliaca

**

+

#

II

II

1

E

(802) Aquila chrysaetos

*

+

#

II

II

3

R

(803) Hieraaetus pennatus

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

(804) Hieraaetus fasciatus

*

+

#

II

II

3

E

(805) Pandion haliaetus

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

(806) Falco naumanni

**

+

#

1

(V)

3

V

(807) Falco tinnunculus* (808) Falco vespertinus

*

(809) Falco columbarius (810) Falco subbuteo

II

II

+

II

II

+

II

II

II

II

+ **

(811) Falco eleonorae

#

+

S

II

II

+

#

II

II

2

S R

(812) Falco cherrug

**

+

#

II

II

3

E

(813) Falco peregrinus

**

+

#

II

II

3

R

3

V

3

V

(814) Perdix perdix*

III

(815) Coturnix coturnix

III

(816) Phasianus colchicus

**

(817) Rallus aquaticus*

+

(818) Porzana porzana*

+

22 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

#

II

III

S

III

(S)

II

II Appendix One

4

S


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (819) Porzana parva

+

#

II

II

4

(S)

(820) Porzana pusilla

+

#

II

II

3

R

+

#

II

1

(V)

(821) Crex crex

**

(822) Gallinula chloropus*

+

III

(823) Fulica atra

S

III #

20000

(824) Grus grus

***

+

(825) Anthropoides virgo

***

+

(826) Otis tarda

**

+

II

(827) Haåï .ostralegus*

**

+

(828) Him. himantopus*

**

+

#

II

(50)

(829) Recurvirostra avosetta*

*

+

#

II

(100) 250

(830) Burhinus oedicnemus*

**

+

#

II

(831) Glareola pratincola*

**

+

#

II

II II

II #

4450

ALL

2

II 7500

(30)

150

(22)

(5)

V S

1

D

80

S

131

S

(725) 7570

100

3

II II

III

S

71

II

4/3”

L”

II

3

V

II

3

E

3

R

(832) Glareola nordmanni

+

II

II

(833) Charadrius dubius* ?

+

II

II

(S)

(834) Charadrius hiaticula

+

II

II

S

+

II

(836) Charadrius leschenaultii

+

II

(837) Charadrius asiaticus

+

(838) Charadrius morinellus

+

#

II

II

(839) Pluvialis apricaria

+

#

III

II

(840) Pluvialis squatarola

+

III

II

(841) Hoplopterus spinosus

+

II

II

(842) Vanellus vanellus*

+

III

II

(843) Calidris canutus

+

III

II

(844) Calidris alba

+

II

II

S

(845) Calidris minuta

+

II

II

(S)

(846) Calidris temminckii

+

II

II

(S)

(847) Calidris ferruginea

+

II

II

(848) Calidris alpina

+

II

II

3”

V”

(849) Limicola falcinellus

+

II

II

3

(V)

(850) Philomachus pugnax

+

III

II

4

S

(851) Lymnocriptes mimimus

+

III

II

3”

(V)”

***

+

III

II

(853) Gallinago media

*

+

II

II

2

(V)

(854) Scolopax rusticola

*

III

II

3”

V”

(835) Ch. alexandrinus*

(852) Gallinago gallinago

*

(100)

250

(48)

673

II

3

D

II

#

#

#

(S) 4

S (S)

3

(E) (S)

3”

L”

S

(855) Limosa limosa

+

III

II

2

V

(856) Limosa lapponica

+

III

II

3”

(V)”

(857) Numenius phaeopus

+

II

3”

L”

(858) Numenius tenuirostris

+

I

1

(859) Numenius arquata

+

III

II

3”

(860) Tringa erythropus

+

III

II

+

III

II

(861) Tringa totanus*

**

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

III #

II

3

min -3?max9

Appendix One

D” S

2

D

23


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (862) Tringa stagnatilis

*

+

II

II

(S)

(863) Tringa nebularia

**

+

III

II

S

(864) Tringa ochropus

**

+

II

II

II

II

#

(S)

(865) Tringa glareola

+

(866) Xenus cinereus

+

II

II

(S)

(867) Actitis hypoleucos

+

II

II

S

(868) Arenaria interpres

+

II

II

S

(869) Phalaropus lobatus

+

II

II

(S)

(870) Stercorarius pomarinus

+

III

(S)

(871) Stercorarius parasiticus

+

III

(S)

#

(872) Stercorarius skua

3

III

(873) Larus melanocephalus*

*

(874) Larus minutus

+

#

II III

(875) Larus ridibundus*

*

+

(876) Larus genei*

*

+

(877) Larus canus

+

(878) Larus fuscus

+

#

S

II

+

II

4

S

3

D S

II

II

III

(S) 2

D

4

S

(879) Larus cachinans

S,(S)

(880) Larus marinus

+

(881) Rissa tridactyla

+

4 III

**

+

#

II

(883) Sterna caspia

*

+

#

II

(884) Sterna sandvicensis*

+

#

II

(400) 1300

(885) Sterna hirundo*

+

#

II

(700)

(90)

(20)

(30)

140

II

(886) Sterna albifrons*

**

+

#

II

(100).

(887) Chlidonias hybridus

**

+

#

II

(750).

**

(200)

+

#

II

(889) Chlidonias leucopterus

??

+

#

II

(890) Syrrhaptes paradoxus

+

II

(891) Columba livia

+

III

+

III

(892) Columba oenas

**

100

(5-65) (720)

80

II

3

(E)

II

3

(E)

1200

II

2

D

120

II

150 600

64

II

III

(895) Streptopelia turtur

III

(896) Cuculus canorus*

+

(897) Clamator glangarius

+

(898) Tyto alba*

*

(899) Athene noctua * (900) Asio otus (901) Asio flammeus

3

D

3

D

3

D S S

4

S

4

S (S)

3

II #

D S

II

+

II

3

D

+

II

3

D

+ *

S

II

(893) Columba palumbus (894) Streptopelia decaocto *

S S

(882) Gelochelidon nilotica*

(888) Chlidonias niger*

D

II

S

+

#

II

3

(V)

(902) Caprimulgus europaeus

+

#

II

2

(D)

(903) Apus apus

+

III

S

(904) Apus melba

+

II

(S)

24 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (905) Alcedo atthis

+

#

(906) Merops superciliosus

II

3

III

D (S)

(907) Merops apiaster

+

(908) Coracias garrulus

+

(909) Upupa epops*

+

II

(910) Jynx torquilla

+

II

3

D

(911) Picus viridis

+

II

2

D

(912) Dendrocopos major

+

II

(913) Dendrocopos syriacus

+

#

II

4

(S)

(914) Dendrocopos medius

+

#

II

4

S

(915) Mel.calandra

+

#

II

3

(D)

(916) C. brachydactyla

+

#

II

3

V

(917) Galerida cristata*

+

III

3

(D)

(918) Lullula arborea

+

III

2

V

(919) Alauda arvensis*

+

III

3

V

(920) Riparia riparia

+

II

3

D

(921) Hirundo rustica*

+

II

3

D

(922) Hirundo daurica

+

II

(923) Delichon urbica*

+

(924) Anthus campestris*

+

(925) Anthus trivialis

+

II

(926) Anthus pratensis

+

II

(927) Anthus cervinus

+

II

(S)

(928) Anthus spinoletta

+

II

S

(929) Motacilla flava*

+

II

S

(930) Motacilla citreola

+

II

(931) Motacilla cinerea

+

II

(S)

(932) Motacilla alba

+

II

(S)

(933) Troglodytes troglodytes

+

II

S

(934) Prunella modularis

+

II

(935) Erithacus rubecula

+

II

(936) Luscinia luscinia

+

II

(937) L. megarhynchos*

+

(938) Luscinia svecica

+

(939) Phoenicurus ochruros (940) Phoen.phoenicurus

#

#

II

II

3

D

II

II

2

(D) S

S

S

II #

S

II

3

V S

4

S

4

S

II

4

S

II

4

S

II

II

4

(S)

II

II

+

II

II

+

II

II

2

V

(941) Saxicola rubetra

+

II

II

4

S

(942) Saxicola torquata

+

II

II

3

(D)

(943) Oenanthe isabellina

+

II

II

(S)

(944) Oenanthe oenanthe*

+

II

II

S

(945) Oenanthe hispanica

+

II

II

2

V

(946) Turdus torquatus

+

II

II

4

S

(947) Turdus merula

+

III

II

4

S

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

#

Appendix One

S S

25


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (948) Turdus pilaris

+

III

II

4”

S

(949) Turdus philomelos

+

III

II

4

S

(950) Turdus iliacus

+

III

II

4”

S

(951) Turdus viscivorus

+

III

II

4

S

(952) Cettia cetti*

+

II

II

S

II

II

(S)

(953) Cisticola juncidis (954) Locustella naevia

+

II

II

4

S

(955) Locustella fluviatilis

+

II

II

4

S

(956) Locustella luscinioides*

+

II

II

4

(S)

(957) Acroc.melanopogon

+

#

II

II

(958) Acroc.paludicola

+

#

II

II

1

E

(959) Acroc. schoenobaenus

+

II

II

4

S

(960) Acrocephalus agricola

+

II

II

S

II

II

(S)

(961) Acroc. dumetorum

(S)

(962) Acrocephalus palustris

+

II

II

4

S

(963) Acroc. scirpaceus*

+

II

II

4

S

(964) Acroc.arundinaceus

+

II

II

(965) Hippolais pallida

+

II

II

3

(966) Hippolais icterina

+

II

II

4

S

(967) Sylvia nisoria

+

II

II

4

(S)

(968) Sylvia curruca

+

II

II

(969) Sylvia communis *

+

II

II

4

S

(970) Sylvia borin

+

II

II

4

S

(971) Sylvia atricapilla

+

II

II

4

S

II

II

#

(972) Phylloscopus borealis

(S) (V)

S

(S)

(973) Phylloscopus bonelli

+

II

II

4

S

(974) Phylloscopus sibilatrix

+

II

II

4

(S)

(975) Phylloscopus collybita

+

II

II

(S)

(976) Phylloscopus trochilus

+

II

II

S

(977) Regulus regulus

+

II

II

4

(S)

(978) Regulus ignicapillus

+

II

II

4

S

(979) Muscicapa striata

+

II

II

3

D

(980) Ficedula parva

+

#

II

II

(981) Ficedula albicollis

+

#

II

II

4

+

II

II

4

+

II

II

(984) Parus ater

+

II

(985) Parus caeruleus

+

II

(986) Parus major

+

II

(987) Remiz pendulinus*

+

(988) Oriolus oriolus

+

(989) Lanius collurio*

+

#

II

3

(D)

(990) Lanius minor

+

#

II

2

(D)

(982) Ficedula hypoleuca (983) Panurus biarmicus*

*

26 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

(S) S S (S) S 4

S S (S)

II

S

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation (991) Lanius excubitor

+

II

3

(D)

(992) Lanius senator

+

II

2

V

(993) Garrulus glandarius

(S)

(994) Pica pica*

S

(995) Corvus monedula

4

(996) Corvus frugilegus

S

(997) Corvus corone cornix

S

(998) Corvus corax

+

III

(S)

(999) Sturnus vulgaris* (1000) Sturnus roseus

S

S *

+

II

(S)

(1002) Passer hispaniolensis*

III

(S)

(1003) Passer montanus*

III

S

(1001) Passer domesticus*

S

(1004) Fringilla coelebs

+

III

(1005) Fringilla montifringilla

+

III

(1006) Serinus serinus

+

II

4

S

(1007) Carduelis chloris

+

II

4

S

(1008) Carduelis carduelis

+

II

(1009) Carduelis spinus

+

II

4

S

(1010) Carduelis cannabina

+

II

4

S

(1011) Coccotr.coccotraustes

+

II

S

(1012) Plectrophenax nivalis

+

II

(S)

(1013) Emberiza citrinella

+

II

4

(S)

(1014) Emberiza cirlus

+

II

4

(S)

(1015) Emberiza hortulana

+

III

2

(V)

(1016) Emberiza rustica

+

II

(S)

(1017) Emberiza pusilla

+

II

(S)

(1018) Emberiza schoeniclus

+

II

S

(1019) E. elanocephala*

+

II

2

(V)

(1020) Miliaria calandra*

+

III

4

(S)

#

4

S S

(S)

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF MAMMALS Crocidura leucodon Crocidura russula Crocidura suaveolens Suncus etruscus Neomys fodiens Talpa europaea Erinaceus concolor Plecotus sp. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One

27


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Nyctalus noctula Lepus europaeus Spermophilus citellus Muscardinus avellanarius Micromys minutus Apodemus sylvaticus Aapodemus flavicollis Apodemus agrarius Mus musculus Mus spicilegus Rattus rattus Rattus norvegicus Microtus arvalis Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Microtus guentheri Arvicola terrestris Canis aureus Vulpes vulpes Nictereutes procyonoides Felis silvestris Mustela nivalis Putorius putorius Martes foina Lutra lutra Sus scrofa Wandering dogs Domestic cats

28 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix One


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme

MAPS for Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve and its Buffer Zone

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Two.


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme

Contents Maps in A 4 format: 1. Comparative Sketches of Atanasovsko Lake from 1854, 1940 and 1997 2. Map of Atanasovsko Lake, scale 1:100 000, 1940. 3. Contemporary Topographical Map, scale 1:50 000 4. Contemporary Map of the Region of Atanasovsko Lake, scale 1:500 000 5. Catchement Area ( Water shed) of Atanasovsko Lake 6. Soil Structure of Atanasovsko Lake 7. Salinity of Atanasovsko Lake 8. Vegetation Structure of Atanasovsko Lake 9. Ownership of the Land around Atanasovsko Lake 10. Roads around Atanasovsko Lake 11. Research Sampling Sites 12. Present Territory of Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko Lake” and its Buffer Zone 13. Proposed Enlargement of the Territory of Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko Lake” and its Buffer Zone 14. Place for the Future Information Centre 15. Proposed New Water Bodies

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Two.


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE NATURE RESERVE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts Appendix 1 to the Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Š G.Pchelarov

SOFIA , 1997

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three

1


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

The reports included in this collection have been written by several experts , who have worked in Atanasovsko lake during the period 1995 - 1996. Their scientific activity was connected with implementation of the project for preparation of a Management plan for this important Bulgarian reserve. The reports contain original data for different components of the ecosystems of the reserve. The main findings of the authors have been incorporated in the Management plan of Atanasovsko lake. They will be of interest for scientists and nature conservationists.

Ass. Prof. T. Michev Editor and Project Leader

2

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Contents Christo Naydenov HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE...................................5 Ivan Botev WATER CHEMISTRY OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE.........................................................12 Maya Stoyneva SURVEY ON THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE (June - November 1995 and - September 1996)............................................ 19 Vladimir Velev THE VEGETATION OF THE NATURE RESERVE “ATANASOVSKO LAKE “ AND OF ITS BUFFER ZONE (General Characteristic and Phytocenologic Map) ..........................................................................................................................33 Stanoy Kovachev THE ZOOPLANKTON AND ZOOBENTHOS OF THE NATURE RESERVE ATANASOVSKO LAKE (1995-1996) AND ITS BUFFER ZONE (1996)................................42

Stoitze Andreev STUDY ON BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA SALINA IN ATANASOVSKO LAKE....................49 Dimitar Popov THE ICHTHYOFANA OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE............................................................54 Ljubo Profirov, Milko Dimitrov, Konstantin Niagolov A CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE..........................................56

Vladimir Stefanov STUDY OF THE MAMMALIAN FAUNA OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE............................... 60

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three

3


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Dipl.Ing. Christo

Naydenov

Central Laboratory for General Ecolog 1113 Sofia , Gagarin Str. 2 Lake's volume is 3.2 mil. m3 with average depth 0.30 m and water surface of 10.9 km2. Integral index of changes in the lake volume is fluctuation of water level in different basins. The changes in water level are result of impact of several factors, the most important are morphometric characteristics of the lake, inflow, internal dynamics of water masses. Because monitoring of water level is "rich in information" and at the same time is simple to implement it is accepted as almost obligatory measurement which should be done regularly. Processes of interchange of water in connected cellars are studied by indicating substances (diluted colors) and by measurement of dynamics of salinity. Some longitudinal and circulating cross section flows are determined as well as zones of very slow movement in some cellars like so called internal retensor, Tolbuhin cellar and embankment zones. The dynamics of water flow is determined in every cellar. So that to assure increase in salinity water quantities move from a cellar to cellar so that to have enough time to increase its salinity. This is provided by a system of dykes , embankments and wood locks. When wooden locks are amortized or broken water flows from a cellar to the neighbor one by a circulating stream thus mixing water with different salinity. Our previous hydrological surveys showed that depths of the cellars is not optimal even for salt-production differentiating in broad range. As an example the depth in Tolbuhin cellar (point 8) is between 50 - 70 cm, in embankment zones (points 9 and 10) depth changes between 30 and 56 cm, in "main lake" (point 11) between 10 and 35 cm, in internal retensor (points 6 and 7) from 20 to 50 cm. In drainage canal at the water-lock (point 3') the depth is between 100 and 200 cm. The direction and flows are shown at the enclosed scheme of the reserve. Relatively small depth in the pre-cellars is a cause of sharp change in salinity after rain falls, flowing of fresh or salt water from drainage or sea canals. Also coastal winds have a strong impact on water dynamics because of the small depth. Bottom and plankton microorganisms are mixed from constant sea-coast winds in the bay. We can find organisms, typical for bottom in the plankton and the opposite. Processes of water interchange have a significant influence on water ecosystem. b. Hydrology of catchment area of Atanasovsko lake Surface water is flowing into reserve in its northern part in several streams and gullies. They are Azmak river, Dermen and Marin gully and Zhitarovska river. All they have been rivers in the past. Because of urbanization, especially in recent decades they dried up. Nowadays these "rivers" do not have flow-rate at any time of the year. Their flow rate fluctuates significantly in different seasons and years. The decrease in water quantity is due to the intensive water consumption and other water activities upstream. Several mini-dams have been built to regulate the flow-rate of the streams (enclosed is a scheme map of the catchment area). They are used mainly for irrigation and some industrial activities. The intensive use of water upstream is corresponding to the design of the lake - salt production, which requires minimum discharge and dilution with fresh water. So that to prevent streams flowing in from north, north-east and west many drainage canals and dykes have been built up. The biggest drainage canal goes round the lake and we call it ring canal or encircling drainage canal. There is sea canal also. Simply they differentiate in its purpose. The ring canal is draining fresh water south and the sea one is providing sea water to the inlet of distribution system of evaporation cellars. Technically they are one canal divided by water-lock (point 3'). This water lock stops fresh water flowing in from north and sea water not going to north than this point. Periodical input of sea water has a significant impact on the hydrological processes

4

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

and dynamics of water masses in separate basins. Drainage canal collects fresh water from all catchment area of the lake and drains them into the sea, especially winter time. This way fresh water does not mouth into cellars and thus not diluting salinity concentration. This function of the ring canal is assisted by several embankments and dykes, situated outside the reserve. When water-lock at the sea is opened sea water flows towards the lake. When it is closed and fresh water level is increasing in the north, water drains towards the sea. Thus the water level in separate cellars and the lake water volume are influenced periodically. The described process of water movement causes a complicated scheme of distribution of different contamination substances as well as fluctuation of salinity in the cellars. The length of the canal, respectively of lake's side is about 12000 m. Depth in the canal deviates significantly in different stretches. It depends on the surface run-off as well. At the waterlock between sea canal and drainage one (point 3') the depth is between 1.20 m and 2.20 m depending on the run-off. Width is also different in different stretches. Most of the canal's length is 2.50 - 3.0 m in width. At the above mentioned water-lock the width is 10 m. The average depth is 1.5 m and together with average width 3 m the total volume of water in the drainage canal is 54000 m3, which is several times less than the volume of the lake. Catchment area of the reserve is 109 km2. In the case if run-off coefficient of the catchment is the same as the coefficients of rivers which discharge into sea north and south of Atanasovsko lake we estimate as an annual run-off into drainage canal W = 6'870'000 m3. About 10 % of this runoff is flowing to the lake. Other quantity is flowing into clay pit lake (point 3) and the rest is contained in the canal. The lake himself has a very unique and complicated hydraulic scheme. It is determined by mixture of salty and fresh waters and by morphometric features of different cellars. Western zone of the reserve There is no surface water flowing. Some mineralized water with a smell of sulfurous pours out from a pipe 100 mm in diameter 800 m north from service station. Some pipeline going straight west-east is situated in Slavovi bresti area with unknown function. Northern zone of the reserve In this area interesting from a hydrological point of view are the following water sources: a. Zhitarovska river. It flows near Zhitarovo village and collects water from Bania springs. Some years ago because of unproper mine activities water disappeared underground without springing anymore. The river is dependent on rain falls. Seasonal and annual distribution of the run off is unsteady which is very common for the rivers in this region. In period 1988-1991 flow rate of 1300 up to 1600 m3/d have been observed during wet seasons. Just upstream the reserve zone a microdam was built. Its purpose is to irrigate peach-tree gardens which are situated along the motor way Sofia - Bourgas. There is a pumping station supplying by three pipes 400 mm in diameter. Irrigation is being done only in summer. Quantities are not measured. Except for irrigation dam is used partly for recreation and is a good shelter for birds. It serves as a receiver of village's waste water and waste water from close situated farms including pig-farm and power distribution station. Because of these discharges water in this artificial lake is Burgas. At the outlet there is a small spill-way, made out of concrete, 3 m in width. If the water level is high enough water pours away from the lake but this flow is very irregular. It flows only

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

if level of water is higher of that one of the spill-way. For example in 1994 there was almost no flow out of the artificial lake. In 1995 there was more water about 800 - 1000 m3/d. b. Mesteli gully. There is also artificial pool built upstream but it is situated more further out of reserve. Flow is dependent on climate very much. Water is used for irrigation. In 1995 flow rate of 80 - 120 m3/d was measured. In 1994 the gully was dry. Biogenic load of water from ship-farming and grazing land. There is no surface water level at flat areas where it is covered with plants and trees. c. Dermen gully. It is drainage of surface water as well. It accepts Mesteli gully water (if there is any). The flow rate was increased a few years ago after mouthing waste water of one quartal of Cherno more village. Of course stream water, clean to that time is polluted now. Used for irrigation of vegetable gardens. Measured flow rate in October 1995 is 3200 - 3600 m3/d - at village point. d. Rudnik gully. There is flow very often after raining. Eastern zone of the reserve a. Marin gully. It mouths in Laka river about 500 m north of Roman bridge. b. Azmaka river. It flows through Laka river and mouths to the marsh in north-eastern zone of the reserve. Also is used for irrigation. There is river flow during all year and its fluctuation is like the flow of the other very small rivers in this country. It has not dried for several years time. Measured flowrate in July '95 is 400 - 4500 m3/d. According to previous research done in 1988 - 1991 period the average quantities measured are in the range of 1500 - 2000 m3/d. Azmaka marsh smoothes the irregular flowrate of the river more regular before its discharging into the canal . Undergroud waters The underground water level in autumn of 1995 was high. Measurements have been done compared to terrain level. For monitoring of the water level existing well have been used. They are shown at the enclosed scheme of catchment area. well 1: - 1.10 m ; well 2: - 0.95 m ; well 3: - 1.50 m MONITORING OF HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE RESERVE A ) PUMPING STATION SITUATED WEST OF THE RESERVE - SCHEDULE OF WORK AND WITHDRAWN QUANTITIES

WATER

Pumping station is constructed and managed by “Hristo Botev” Agricultural Co-operation, city of Bourgas. It is situated on the dam bank near the jail. The dam which water resources are used for irrigation has no proper name and therefore will be quoted below shortly as jail dam. The pumping station is equipped with four pumps, three of which are in use and one is under repair. (Fig. 1) The pumping station is used for irrigation of co-operation’s agricultural land - apricot, corn and other crops. It is a part of a large irrigation system, in which Zhitarovo dam and different altitude equalizing reservoirs are included. Reservoirs are named: Izgrev, 9th km, located near the motorway SofiaBurgas, and others. (Fig 1)

6

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

small dam near the jail

equalisation reservoir 9th km

pumping station

Zhitarovo dam

Fig. 1. Irrigation system situated NW of Atanasovsko Lake Pumps work on electricity and operate mainly during the night - from 22.00 to 06.00. Working period is June - September, mainly during the summer. It depends on water consumption and the need for irrigation. Pumping station supplies water to higher altitude reservoirs from where it flows down for irrigation. No more artificial head is necessary after the reservoirs. During the winter there is no need for irrigation, but for certain period of time the pumps still work. They are pumping water to Zhitarovo dam, at a higher altitude. In this way during the winter water volume is being accumulated in the dam as a water reserve which could be significant resource during the summer when greater demand of water for irrigation is present. For example in the autumn and winter of 1995 there was no need to spend electricity for pumping water up to Zhitarovo dam because all reservoirs in the system were full as a consequence of affluent feeders that year. In contrary to this, the employees of “Hristo Botev” Agricultural Co-operation say the last year pumping station worked partially even during the winter. Withdrawn water quantities from the jail dam are not measured at any point of the irrigation system. The only parameter under control is water level in reservoirs in order to secure water supply for irrigation. Therefore it is difficult to precise withdrawn water quantities. Analyzing capacity of the pumps though and also the time of their work, water quantity withdrawn could be estimated as about 1000 m3 per day. B) EFFECTIVE LEGISLATION RELATED TO WATER USE IN THE RESERVE AND ITS BUFFER ZONE. IS WATER ABSTRACTION BY POTTERY & BRICK FACTORY AND FARMING ENTERPRISES IN CONFORMITY WITH THE LAW.

Main legislation acts, related to water use are: •

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT (published in State Gazette No.86 from 1991, amendments in No.90 from 1991, No.100 from 1992, No.31 and No.63 from 1995)

Environmental Protection Act is the main legislation act on environmental protection. It determines the rights and obligations of the state, municipalities, physical and juridical persons on environmental protection. Regulation is also given for control on environment and programming and management of the environment. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

NATURE CONSERVATION ACT (published in State Gazette No.47 from 1967, amendments in No.3 from 1977, No. 39 from 1978, No.28 from 1982, No.26 from 1988 and No.86 from 1991)

Nature Conservation Act and the Regulation Procedure for its implementation is a legislation act which significance is reduced after the adoption of the Environmental protection act. Several parts of the text have been omitted and also the whole Chapter 4 from it. •

PROTECTION OF THE AIR, THE WATERS AND THE SOIL FROM POLLUTION ACT (published in State Gazette No.84 from 1963, amendments in No.26 from 1968, No. 29 from 1969, No.95 from 1975, No.3 from 1977, No.1 from 1978, No.26 from 1988, No.86 from 1991 and No.100 from 1992)

Protection of the Air, the Waters and the Soil from Pollution Act regulates activities on protection of water from contamination. Settled are rights and obligations of the Ministry of Environment and other Ministries. Settled is permission arrangement for discharge of domestic and industrial effluents into surface water streams, basins, fisheries and coastal sea waters. The act is of importance for both citizens, municipal authorities, producers etc. In the regulation procedure for the implementation of the Protection of the air, the waters and the soil from pollution act in Chapter II, p. 23 it is written that Water streams and basins such as rivers,...lakes are to be protected from contamination. Contamination means any change in physical, chemical and biological qualities..., what makes them dangerous or not useful for animals, fish and plants. Waste water is any flowing-out water after it is used for domestic, cultural or economic purposes. In p.31 it is written: It is forbidden to put into operation industries, farms...and sewerage systems without operation of their waste water treatment facilities. P.32 states: Discharging waste water into water bodies is allowed only after written approval by the Ministry of Environment. Control on the state and work of treatment facilities is done by entities of the Ministry of Environment is stated in p. 35. •

WATERS ACT (published in State Gazette No.29 from 1969, amendments in No.3 from 1977, No. 36 from 1979, No. 44 from 1984 , No. 36 from 1986, No. 24 from 1987 and No.91 from 1982)

According to the Waters Act the activities on the complex water use is managed and co-ordinated by the National Water Council at the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria. Water use permissions are issued by the National Water Council. According to the Council of Ministers Decree No. 2 from 15 October 1991 one of the main functions of the National Water Council is to issue, overrule or amend water use permission according to Article 5 (8) of the Waters Act. According to the above it is apparent that Regional Environmental Inspectorates at the Ministry of Environment are authorised to permit waste water discharges. Bourgas regional office of National Water Council is the authority to issue water withdrawal permission. These are two authorities to control above activities and are eligible to make decisions and recommendations on the raised questions. In this context it is evident that problems related to water use in the reserve should be addressed to the above authorities. No water use permissions are issued on behalf of farming enterprises, pottery & brick factory and other industries located in the area. C) WASTE WATER DISCHARGE OF THE AUTOSERVICE

In general, there is municipal waste water treatment plant of the city of Bourgas, where municipal sewerage is discharged and treated. According to Water Supply & Sewerage Ltd. - Bourgas, the company in charge of sewerage network, Iztok living estate discharges its waste waters into the sewerage system, but no sewage connections are built around the Autoservice, which is away from the city. It is situated in western part of the reserve next to trafficcheck-point at the motor-road Burgas-Nesebar. There is no waste water discharge permission issued for the Autoservice’s waste waters. They are discharged into the drainage channel. Oil and grease are collected in buckets. Domestic waste waters are also discharged in the drainage channel

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Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

B. BUFFER ZONE - SOUTHERN PART OF SALT-CELLARS 1. INVENTORY OF THE POINTS AND QUANTITIES OF EXTRACTED WATER AND WASTE WATER INPUTS The southern part of the lake is used extremely for salt production and there is no water extraction or other water use, except for water withdrawn for irrigation from the drainage channel next to motorroad Nesebar - Bourgas, close to Iztok blocks of flats. There are a number of small vegetable patches along the channel in between housing estate and salt cellars. People living in the area prefer this place because of water immediacy. At this point water in the channel is collected here from both northern and southern parts of the lake. A bridge is situated along this line dividing the so called “Yard” and ”South Lake” basins. There is a river flowing under the bridge. This river has no proper name, sometimes it is called the Town River. In city area it flows under the streets in manmade covered river bed. Flow rate is about 1.5 m3/h. 2. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF DRAINAGE CHANNEL AND ITS CONNECTION TO THE SEA. IS THERE ANY FLOWING IN OF SALTY WATER IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE CHANNEL NEXT TO THE CITY OF BOURGAS. The drainage channel is filled up with water during the whole year. That is why it is suitable habitat for both aquatic and amfibia species. It is illegally used by local population for irrigation of vegetable patches. During the summer the water in this part of the channel runs very slowly. The concentration of nutrients is high and eutrophication is existent. Additionally plant decomposition provides fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorous. After the “Yard” cellar (see the enclosed map) channel route heads for a marsh close to the sea beach. There are also small gardens used for growing of corn and other crops. After the marsh water is flowing into the sea pumped by the sewerage pumping station of Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. According to company’s files, water quantity pumped are of significant values during the whole year. Pumps work even during the summer despite the reduced surface run-off. It is due to the fact that farming co-operation discharges its waste waters into the drainage channel close to the cemetery. This could explain why water is white as soap in color, turbid and also to give explanation to the existence of flow in the channel during the summer. Izgrev blocks of flats is connected to the municipal sewerage system, maintained by Water Supply and Sewerage Ltd. No domestic waste waters from the area are being discharged into the channel. A sewerage pumping station situated close to the railway (could be seen at the enclosed scheme) is transferring sewerage waters to Bourgas municipal waste water treatment plant. There is no flowing-in of salt sea water in the western part of the drainage channel close to the city of Bourgas. The channel at this stretch is collecting surface fresh water. Salty water from the sea is drained north to the to salt cellars.

3. SCHEME OF WATER MOVEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE LAKE. Enclosed is Scheme of Water Movement in the Southern Part of the Lake.

4. REGIME OF INFLOW OF SEA WATER TO SALT CELLARS - NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN PART. Regime and schedule of inflow of sea water to salt cellars are annual and according to the technological cycle of salt and lye production. Water inflow is managed through a water gate (see the picture). The management is being done by Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. - Bourgas. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

The gate is designed in the way that is allowing influx of sea water with direction to the channel and in the opposite discharge of fresh water to the sea. The direction of the stream is being diversified by a wooden gate. When it is in upper position, the water is flowing under it to the channel, because the channel is lower compared to the sea). When the gate is in lower position, if there is significant surface run-off, the water level in the channel is getting higher and over the gate it is flowing to the sea. According to the management of Tchernomorski Solnitzi Ltd. - Bourgas, for the beginning of the salt production process salty water is being introduced during April - so called “novel water�. The intensity of flowing of salty sea water is different in the next months. The process is supervised by technicians, who measure salt concentrations in different salt-cellars. Most often in October December the gate is being closed and flowing of salt water stopped till next spring. There is no exact dates for both starting and end of the sea water flowing. It depends on the evaporation and sea water demand for salt production.

10

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

WATER CHEMISTRY OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Dipl. Ing. Ivan Botev Institute of Zoology at Bulgarian Academy of Science Boul. Tsar Osvoboditel 1 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria 1. Studying on chemical composition of the lake in 1995 Because of my later joining to group of experts (the contract was signed in May 1996) in preceding 1995 have been analysed samples, consigned to me by my colleague PhD Stoitze Andreev, only for salinity concerning Stations 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 in August and September (Fig. 1).

100

90.7

90 79.1

Salinity o/oo

80

78.6 78.3

August September

70 60

54.2

53.2

47.7

50 40

39.6

36.3

33

30 20 10 0 7

8

9

10

11

Number of Station Fig. 1. Salinity ( %o ) in the Atanasovsko lake at Stations 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 September 1995

in

August

and

These values are relatively lower than ones published by L u d s k a n o v a (1974) but they are similar to the data obtained from previous studies by R o z h d e s t v e n s k i y (1957). 2. Changes in the contents of chemical compounds in the lake during 1996. In the course of present year the water chemistry investigations of the lake were performed at eighteen stations in the different ponds which are located northward and southward of the areas for industrial production of salt and also in crystallization ponds of the saltworks. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

In July the samples at Stations 5 and 6 were not taken because of that there was no water in these ponds. On the insistence of Project Manager Mr. Michev, was tested a extra pond (Station 12a) in September. Only once were taken samples from the sewers which flow into the lake from the Airport of Burgas and the closely pig-farm. A sample was analysed about the gravel-sand-pit situated on the north of the lake. The Tables 1 and 2 present the results that were obtained from our recent investigations. The fluctuations of the salinity, calculated by the Knudsen formula (Strickland, Parsons 1965), for the brackishwater stations in the different months of sampling, are rather high (Fig. 2). As a result of decrease of rainfalls and permanently evaporation of water in the separate crystallisation ponds of the saltworks, there is almost doubly increase of salinity from the spring months to the months of July and September. Similar changes are confirmed from the data reported by I v a n o v e t a l (1964). It should be mentioned, that only about Stations 12 and 16 there is slightly decrease of salinity in September as compared to the values in July. Exceptionally high value for salinity of the order of 169 %o was determinated at Station 12a, where were found enormous number of species of the brine shrimp Artemia salina one of the most tolerant of salinity change organism. The big increase of salinity in the artificially dug out ring-canal for supplying crystallisation ponds of the saltworks with sea water from the Black Sea (Stations 17 and 18), between the month of May and the months of July and September is due to the fact that there was inflow of such water in the last two months. This is confirmed from the values for the salinity at these stations in this time- between 16.03 %o and 18.30 %o - the values identical with the fluctuations in sea water at the Bay of Burgas (R o z h d e s t v e n s k i y, 1980). The contents of bicarbonate ion, calcium ion, magnesium ion, which form mineralization of the water and salinity practically depend on these ions, show similar variations as well as it is mentioned above about the salinity. The values of alkalinity and water hardness vary in the same way. The magnesium ion content exceeds the calcium ion content in the brackishwater stations in contrast with freshwater ones. (tables 1, 2). These data are similar to those obtained by Ivanov et al (1964). Table 1. Contents of chemical compounds in water samples taken from Atanasovsko lake reserve during 1996 Num ber Salinit HCO 3 Month of y Stati on 1 2

Alka- Hardlinity ness

Ca 2+

Mg2+

mg/l mgeq v/l 35.3 4.9

°d

mg/l

mg/l

May

0.12

298.9

60.1

16.5

May

0.12

378.2

72.1

35.3

6.2

18.2

3

May

0.18

353.8

70.1

40.1

5.8

4

May July

0.15 17.65

359.9 195.2

60.1 200.4

42.6 644.5

5

April May

5.21 7.34

274.5 366.0

50.1 80.2

6

April May

19.83 22.26

April May

7

12

Oxygen

pH °C

mg/l

%

7.6

25.5

12.00

149.1

7.5

21.0

15.04

173.3

19.1

8.8

22.0

21.28

249.5

5.9 3.2

18.2 176.7

7.6 7.6

21.0 27.0

8.80 7.60

101.4 96.7

255.4 389.1

4.5 6.0

65.9 100.9

8.2

24.0

6.96

84.4

207.4 305.0

210.4 912.0 220.4 1057.9

3.4 5.0

239.7 274.8

8.6

24.5

4.80

58.7

20.44 23.18

195.2 286.7

210.4 954.6 260.5 1057.9

3.2 4.7

249.6 280.4

8.5

24.0

4.48

54.3

July

32.66

262.3

340.7 1349.8

4.3

358.9

8.8

27.0

5.70

72.5

April

22.87

201.3

240.5 1039.7

3.3

273.4

-

-

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

-

-

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

8

9

10

11

May

24.70

213.5

260.5 1155.2

3.5

July

50.29

292.8

420.8 2225.3

4.8

April May

25.61 26.22

274.5 311.1

250.5 1130.9 260.5 1216.0

4.5 5.1

July

53.55

402.6

360.7 2371.2

April May

25.31 24.40

280.6 329.4

July

58.12

April May July

302.8

8.6

22.0

8.00

93.8

8.4

25.5

2.20

27.4

295.8 316.9

8.6

21.5

6.08

70.6

6.6

597.3

8.8

25.8

7.75

96.8

250.5 1130.9 260.5 1106.6

4.6 5.4

295.8 291.6

8.6

22.5

10.16

120.1

366.0

400.8 2577.9

6.0

650.5

8.5

27.0

8.44

107.3

24.40 26.53

231.8 298.9

250.5 1106.6 260.5 1216.0

3.8 4.9

290.2 316.9

8.6

21.2

6.24

72.1

52.24

329.4

440.9 2371.2

5.4

608.5

8.4

32.5

7.75

106.6

Table 1 ( cont. )

Number of

Mont h

Oxidability

NH4-N mgN/l 0.395

mgN/l

mgN/l

0.007

NO2-N

PO4-P

Si

0.690

mgP/l 0.342

mg/l 1.848

NO3-N

1

May

mgO2/l 14.4

2

May

11.2

0.332

0.008

0.310

0.425

2.515

3

May

14.8

0.364

0.003

0.248

0.515

4.229

4

May

11.6

0.465

0.024

0.297

0.577

2.553

July

6.0

0.072

0.003

0.065

0.040

0.686

5

April

-

-

-

0.248

-

1.181

0.007

0.224

0.088

0.876

-

0.175

-

0.343

0.003

0.126

0.204

1.029

-

0.371

-

0.762

May 6

April May April

7

0.237

-

-

0.026

0.261

0.190

1.067

July

22.4

0.110

0.004

0.065

0.182

0.819

-

0.199

-

1.524

May

16.8

0.161

0.004

0.150

0.121

1.353

July

20.8

0.237

0.005

0.065

0.432

2.572

-

0.224

-

0.686

-

-

-

-

May

22.0

0.268

0.003

0.175

0.062

0.705

July

30.0

0.110

0.005

0.138

0.045

0.495

-

0.371

-

0.610

-

-

May

27.2

0.256

0.008

0.199

0.059

2.000

July

29.2

0.268

0.007

0.114

0.046

1.048

-

0.273

-

1.791

0.003

0.212

0.114

0.953

April 11

18.4

-

0.218

April 10

-

20.0

April 9

0.211

May April

8

22.4

May

18.4

0.199

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

July

27.6

0.205

0.004

0.052

0.389

1.753

Table 2. Contents of chemical compounds in water samples taken from the Buffer zone of Atanasovsko lake during 1996. Number of

Month

Station

12 12a 13

14 15

16

17

18

May July September September May September May July September May July May July September May July September May July September

Sewer May from airport Sewer September from pig-farm Clay pit May

14

Alkalinity

Salinity

HCO 3

Ca 2+

Mg2+

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

23.18 52.90 39.06 168.96 0.24 0.19 13.43 19.61 24.99 13.13 30.71 32.92 57.46 54.42 0.27 18.30 17.95 0.21 17.65 16.03

250.1 378.2 323.3 597.8 427.0 494.1 286.7 207.4 213.5 317.2 353.8 195.2 268.4 225.7 366.0 195.2 201.1 372.1 195.2 213.5

240.5 1143.0 481.0 2407.7 334.0 1742.9 901.8 14348.8 48.1 54.7 62.1 41.3 160.3 595.8 220.4 899.8 334.0 972.8 160.3 547.2 320.6 1252.5 300.6 1751.0 561.1 2979.2 534.4 2128.0 20.0 73.0 220.4 595.8 233.8 628.3 24.0 69.3 220.4 632.3 233.8 608.0

0.24

463.6

60.1

77.8

7.6

0.22

719.8

90.2

34.0

2.41

195.2

420.8

267.5

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Hardness

°d mgeqv /l 4.1 297.2 6.2 622.5 5.3 448.6 9.8 3434.9 7.0 19.3 8.1 18.2 4.7 159.8 3.4 238.3 3.5 271.1 5.2 148.6 5.8 333.7 3.2 445.8 4.4 765.5 3.7 565.5 6.0 19.6 3.2 168.2 3.3 177.6 6.1 19.3 3.2 176.7 3.5 172.9

pH

tH

2O

°C

Si mg/l

8.4 8.3 8.4 8.5 7.6 7.4 7.7 7.6 8.6 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.6 8.8 7.4 7.5 8.6 7.6 7.5 8.3

18.2 1.619 32.5 1.676 16.0 2.477 15.5 1.715 18.8 1.010 15.5 11.429 21.0 1.067 32.0 1.334 20.5 0.648 21.5 1.696 32.0 2.629 24.5 0.515 32.5 4.762 25.0 2.191 21.0 1.638 26.0 0.572 22.0 0.800 19.0 2.019 28.8 0.515 18.0 0.953

26.4

7.6

22.0

11.8

20.5

6.8

20.0 10.287

3.2

120.6

7.4

21.5

3.105

6.953

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Table 2. (cont.) Number of

Month

Station

Oxygen

Oxydabili NH4-N ty

NO2-N

NO3-N

PO4-P

Si

mgO2/l 22.0 17.6

mgN/l 0.173 0.046

mgN/l 0.003 0.003

mgN/l 0.334 0.089

mg/l 1.619 1.676

mg/l 2.24 8.36

% 24.5 115.0

mg O/l 22.0 17.6

September

6.34

66.3

26.0

26.0

0.059

0.002

0.371

2.477

12a

September

1.54

15.9

32.0

32.0

0.046

0.002

0.236

1.715

13

May September

7.20 0.13

79.6 1.3

13.2 20.8

13.2 20.8

0.268 0.364

0.003 0.002

0.126 1.010 0.126 11.429

May July

8.24 6.23

94.9 85.1

11.6 10.0

11.6 10.0

0.205 0.034

0.004 0.003

0.163 0.101

1.067 1.334

September

10.18

116.2

12.4

12.4

0.000

0.001

0.052

0.648

May July

8.16 6.00

94.8 82.0

9.6 18.4

9.6 18.4

0.046 0.186

0.003 0.003

0.150 0.052

1.696 2.629

May July

11.04 6.38

135.0 87.8

20.0 25.6

20.0 25.6

0.141 0.237

0.005 0.006

0.187 0.016

0.515 4.762

September

12.86

158.6

36.0

36.0

0.059

0.006

0.028

2.191

May July

12.00 7.07

138.2 88.5

10.4 8.8

10.4 8.8

0.268 0.046

0.017 0.002

0.187 0.065

1.638 0.572

September

7.62

89.3

7.2

7.2

0.000

0.001

0.028

0.800

May July

7.60 10.72

84.4 139.9

10.4 8.8

10.4 8.8

0.281 0.059

0.011 0.002

0.322 0.065

2.019 0.515

September

7.36

80.2

7.2

7.2

0.000

0.001

0.028

0.953

3.36

39.4

12.4

12.4

0.491

0.399

2.699

3.105

0.20

2.3

56.0

56.0

14.583

0.155

0.175 10.287

10.00

116.1

14.0

14.0

0.287

0.003

1.180

May July

12

14 15

16

17

18

Sewer May from airport Sewer September from pigfarm Clay pit May

6.953

The fluctuations of the hydrogen ion, which characterises the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate, are not big. In September there is a bigger distinction of pH at the stations of the southern crystallisation ponds of the saltworks, in comparison with the previous months. The content of dissolved oxygen and percentage saturation varies, both at the different stations of sampling and during various months for a definite station. Notably big fluctuations there was at the stations 8, 12, 13 and 16. The highest values of oxygen deficit were ascertained in July at the Station 8 (27,4 %), and in May at station 12 (24,5%). A very low quantity about dissolved

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oxygen was determined in sewer from the closely pig-farm 0,20 mg/l with saturation 2,3 % and a low one in sewer from the Airport of Burgas, respectively 3,36 mg/l and 39,4 %. There is rather high values of oxidability by potassium permanganate at all stations, which is due to high content of organic substances (dissolved and finely suspended) in the water of the lake. At the brackishwater stations these values are almost double higher than at the freshwater ones. There is increase of oxidability towards from the Spring to the Summer and the Autumn. The ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content various on a broad range during the different months of sampling. For the some of the stations the absolute quantities of ammonium nitrogen vary of the order of 0.2 mgN/l to analytical zero. The absolute quantities of nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) during the whole period of our research were small. Considerable quantities of nitrite nitrogen are flowing into the lake with the water from the airport and pig-farm - respectively 0.399 and 0.155 mgN/l (table 2). As well as the ammonium ion the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) content varies also in on a broad range in different months of our investigations. Its absolute quantities considerably surpass the quantities of nitrite nitrogen in the lake during the whole period, despite the fact that was established very often the state of oxygen deficit. Nitrate nitrogen is brought in also with the spring waters from the soils at the catchment area of the lake. This is evident from the nitrate nitrogen contents at the Stations 1, 2 and 3 (Table 1). The fluctuations in the orthophosphate phosphorus (PO4 P) absolute quantities are rather big, both in different months and in regard to definite station. As well as the nitrate nitrogen, great quantities the orthophosphate phosphorus flow in together with the spring waters from the soils at the catchment area of the lake. This show and the big contents of this component at Stations 1, 2 and 3 (Table 1). There is great inflow of orthophosphate phosphorus by water of sewer from pig-farm - 0.977 mgP/l (table 2). The content of silicon in the lake is high and various to a considerable extent during the months and also between the different stations. And here the highest content of silicon were ascertained in sewer from the pig-farm. 3. Conclusion and recommendations Changeable conditions from the Spring to Summer and the Autumn, namely decrease of rainfalls and permanently evaporation of the water in crystallisation ponds, reduce to the state of increase of the salt contents in this direction. The lake have unstable gas conditions at almost all brackishwater stations in contrast to freshwater ones. At the Stations 17 and 18 , which in May are freshwater (there was inflow of fresh water), keep stable gas conditions even in July and September, when they are already brackish because of inflow of sea water as above was mentioned. When we take into account the high values of oxidability in sewer inflow from the pig-farm 56.0 mgO2/l (table 2), we may suppose that the high content of organic substances produced not only in the lake itself but they run into it along with these waste waters. From the data about ammonium nitrogen, we come to the conclusion that bacterial processes of the ammonification and denitrification are taking place in varying degrees depending on accumulation of organic matter and the intensification of the photosynthesis accompany with intensification of the ammonium ions consumption. Here there is a effect of the closely pig-farm from which sewer are coming in continuously animal waste products, containing a great quantity (14.58 mgN/l) ammonium compounds. Great quantities of nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate phosphorus flow together with the spring waters from the soils at the catchment area of the lake which have been treated with nitrogenous and phosphate fertilisers. In spite of the fact that we established very often the state of oxygen deficit, the absolute quantities of nitrate nitrogen considerably surpass the those of nitrite nitrogen during the whole period of our investigation. Probably, bacterial processes of ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, combined with already mentioned flow of nitrates from the soils, are of greater important than the chemical ones of reduction and oxidation.

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As it was mentioned many times together with the waste waters of sewers from the pig-farm and the airport, in the lake are flow considerable quantities of organic substances, ammonium, nitrite and phosphorus compounds. This contributes to its bigger saprobic burden. That is why these waste waters must be deviated into separated collector and do not flow in the lake. For safety’s sake the pig-farm must eliminated. References Ivanov, K., A. Sotirov, A. Rosdestvenskiy, D. Vodenicharov 1964. Krajmorski ezera. In: Trudove na Institut po Hydrologia i Meteorologia t.XVI. Ezerata v Bulgaria. Nauka I Iskustvo. Sofia. 7-54 (Bulg.). Ludskanova, J. 1974. Die Entwicklung von Artemia salina L. in den Teichen der Salzorten von Burgas und Pomorie. Arch. Hydrobiologie, Band 74, 4, 473-478. Rosdestvenskiy, A. 1957. Hydrochimia na Burgaskite ezera. Priroda. Book 2, Isdatelstvo BAS. Sofia. 83-87 (Bulg.). Rosdestvenskiy, A. 1980. Hydrochemistry of the the Black Sea. Isdatelstvo BAS. Sofia. 189 p. (Bulg.). Strickland, J., T. Parsons. 1965. A manual of sea water analysis. Fisheries Research Board of Canada bull. 125, 2nd rev. ed. Ottawa. 11-17.

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

SURVEY ON THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF ATANASOVSKO (June - November 1995 and - September 1996)

LAKE

M. Assist., Dr Maya Petrova Stoyneva Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology Sofia University "St Kl. Ohridski"

I. INTRODUCTION. MAIN PURPOSES AND TASKS OF THE SURVEY The importance of the phytoplankton in the management of wetlands of different types is worldwide known and widely accepted. As a first step of the food chain and main trophic basis, the phytoplankton (its structure and changes) provides possibilities: i) to detect the eventual ecosystem changes at their very early stages; ii) to predict the development of the system; iii) to propose management measures and to control the ecosystem. The main purposes of the present survey are: - to characterize the phytoplankton of different water bodies of the wetland; - to evaluate the pollution or eutrophication of the system and to stress the most problematic sites; - to evaluate the trophic status of the investigated basins and nutritional value of the phytoplankton; - to propose some management measures; - to propose the main tasks of future investigations and monitoring of the wetland. The main tasks of the present survey are: - qualitative characteristic of the phytoplankton: -- species composition; -- number of species at sites; -- representation of different ecological groups in the phytoplankton; -- life-strategists (size spectra); - quantitative characteristic of the phytoplankton: -- cell numbers/l at different sampling sites; -- biomass/l at different sampling sites; -- proportions of the different algal groups; -- dominant species; - comparison of all mentioned parameters and their changes during the investigated period for the evaluation of the ecological situation of the reserve (e.g. trophic status, eutrophication/pollution problems). II. REVIEW The algal flora of the Atanasavsko lake had been poorly investigated. The first algological description of the saline basins of Atanassovsko lake was given by Petkoff (1919). He pointed out the differences between Atanassovsko lake salt basins and other saline basins along the Black Sea Coast and compared the first ones with the big coastal lakes. In the same paper Petkoff wrote about the big role of blue-green algae and of the diatoms (24 taxa) in the water bodies, as well as about the mass development of the benthic Enteromorpha intestinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Ch. linum, Cladophora gracilis, Cl. crystalina, Lyngbya confervoides, Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Oscillatoria margaritifera, O. margaritifera var.neapolitana, etc. at the borders of the salinas. Petkoff especially mentioned the development of Anabaena torulosa, Spirulina subsalsa and Chroococcus turgidus among the filaments of these algae, as well as development of some conjugate algae like Spirogyra in the outer parts of the basins. The same author mentioned some typical freshwater species found in the samples (2 diatoms and 4 taxa of green algae). In his conclusion he wrote that blue-green algae and Lyngbya confervoides especially are the most abundant species in Atanassovsko Lake.

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Totally 30 species were reported (P e t k o f f, 1919) and 14 of them were used in the description given by I v a n o v e t a l. (1964), without delimitation between the freshwater and the brackish and salt part of the reserve. In the compendous list of species found at the wetlands along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and in the Black Sea by P e t k o f f (1932) 180 taxa were included without pointing their exact localities. In the Bulgarian algal flora.I. (V o d e n i c h a r o v e t a l., 1971) 88 species are mentioned as typical of the wetlands (freshawter and brackish ones) along the Black Sea coast, without exact pointing of their localities and 6 species are pointed especially for the salt basins and canals of Bourgas salinas. There the species Oscillatoria bulgarica described by Komarek (1975) from canals of the Bourgas salinas is also included. The phytoplankton as a community of the important wetland area "Atanassovsko lake" had never been studied. Data about the saline tolerances, saline adaptation and distribution of the phytoplanktonic algae according to the saline gradient exist in the literature (e.g. B u t c h e r, 1959; H e c k y & K i l h a m , 1973; N i x o n, 1974; S t e p h e n s & G i l l e s p i e, 1976; B r o c k, 1969, 1975, 1976, 1979; R o u n d, 1981; A v r o n & B e n - A m o t z, 1992; O l r i k, 1994). But it is necessary to stress that the phytoplankton communities of the brackish habitats and of the managed saline lakes are much more poorly investigated in comparison to the freshwater and marine ones. Microalgal flora and especially the blue-green algae and their role in the salt productive basins are discussed in several special papers (e.g. K a p l a n & F r i e d m a n n , 1970; I m h o f f et al., 1978; D a v i s, 1978, 1980; B r o c k, 1979). III. SAMPLING SITES The sampling sites are showwn on Fig. 1. Among them sites 1, 2 and 3 represent freshwater part of the reserve and sites 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 - the saltwater part of the reserve "Atanassovsko Lake". The sampling sites 12, 12A, 14 - 16 belong to different salt basins in the southern part of the wetland, which is not included in the reserve territory. The sampling sites 4, 13, 17 and 18 represent different parts of the canal, suurounding the main salt basins and connected with the sea. This canal has water with changing salinity - from clear freshwater to marine one.

IV. MATERIALS AND METHODS The phytoplankton samples had been collected during three different seasons of both years 1995 and 1996: spring (25.06.1995 and 3-4.05.1996), summer (20-21.08.1995 and 17-19.07.1996) and early autumn (14.09.1995 and 8-9.09.1996). This is especially valid for sites 1 - 11, whereas the sites 12 - 18 had been sampled only during the second year of investigation. The samples had been collected in glass bottles (250 ml) by sedimentation method and fixation by 2-4% formaline. This type of collectiong is standard and widely used, but prevents from exact determination of species in some algal groups (mainly flagellates and some ameboid algae). Special drying and staining (mainly for silica-scaled chrysophytes and for some green monads) or examination of dead frustules (mainly for pyrrhophytes and diatoms) were used. Thus in list of species appeared some genera and species which could be distinguished mainly after special processing. The determination of the species composition was done on microscope Amplival with magnification up to 1 200 x according to standard quides, mannuals and floras used in such types of investigations, as list of species is organized according to work of D r a g a n o v e t a l. (1994). The quantitative elaboration was done according to our own estimation of algal dimensions for biomass/l and counts were done on blood-counting camera of Thoma. The main counting unit was the algal cell. The different types of strategists were evaluated according to data on their dimensions (O l r i k , 1994). Dominant species were determined according to their represententation in algal quantity (cell numbers/l). Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

The trophic conditions of the investigated basins are evaluated on the basis of phytoplankton quantities (G. Toth, Padisak, 1982). The trophic value of the phytoplankton as the basis of the food chain was evaluated according to the data on the qualitative structure of the phytoplankton and worldwide accepted and undoubtful data and opinions on the edible potential of different algal groups for zooplankton and fish (e.g. C r u z - P i z a r r o, 1993, d e B e r n a r d i, 1993). Saprobic conditions were estimated only for the freshwater wetlands according to the saprobic system and Sladecek's list of indicator species (S l a d e c e k , 1973).

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION V. 1. Qualitative structure of the phytoplankton V.1a. Species composition In the phytoplankton samples a total of 120 taxa was found. They belong to 102 genera of 7 phyla. Most of the determined species belong to the phyla Chorophyta (mainly Euchlorophytina), Chrysophyta (mainly Bacillariophytina) and Cyanophyta - 47, 41 and 36 taxa, respectively. It has to be mentioned that Bacillariophytina, Pyrrhophyta and many different flagellates were well presented in the samples, but their determination needs special processing of the materials and work with EM. Detailed data on the distribution of species at different sites are given in Appendix 1. These data clearly show the different species composition and different conditions in each of the investigated sites. Only in the freshwater part of the wetland 41 species of 34 genera were found. The remained 74 species were presented both in salt- and in freshwaters. Genera like Navicula and Aulacoseira could be pointed out as common for all sites, but they appeared during different periods. V.1b. Number of species at sites Number of species at the investigated sites is small and varied from 1 to 14. This number is always relatively bigger in the freshwater part of the wetland (sites 1 - 4, 13, 17 and 18) than in the salt part (sites 5 - 12). The extremely small number of species in freshwater sites 1 - 3 could be explained by three different reasons and their coincidence in some of the sites: i) the absence of conditions for the development of true phytoplankton in sites 1 and 2 (small streams) is the reason for the poor presentation of phytoplanktonic species (mainly some centric diatoms and coccal blue-green algae) and finding in the phytoplankton samples of some benthic representatives (e.g. pennate diatoms and filamentous blue-green algae); ii) the presence of strong pollution (at least organic one) and eutrophication effect decrease the number of species mainly by iii) competition of bacteria (site 1) or other algae (site 3). E.g. during the periods of algal blooms in site 3 the number of species decreased. Site 1 could be pointed out as the most poor freshwater site, where the strong organic pollution is indicated by the presence of polysaprobic species Leptolyngbya foveolarum and the bacteria Sphaerotillus natans. The situation in the surrounding canal (sites 4, 13, 17 and 18) is more complicated, because its salinity changed significantly. During the freshwater phase (May), when the water flowed to the sea (from site 4 to site 18) the number of species clearly increased “downstream� from 8 in site 4 and 10 in site 13 to 17 at sites 17 and 18. During the saltwater phase (September), the number of species from site 18 to site 4 increased twice - from 5 to 10, respectively. The number of species in the saltwater part of the reserve varied between 1 and 8 in 1995 and from 3 to 14 in 1996. This number was the lowest (1 - 2 species per site) during the spring period of 1995. There is not a trend in the changes of the number of species in different sites during

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the investigated periods. The site 8 (the biggest salt water basin) could be pointed out as the basin with the lowest number of species (2 - 5) during the all periods. Only once for each of the other sites 11 (in May), 6 (in September 1996) and 9 (in September 1996), such a low number of species (2 - 3) was detected. The number of species in the southern part of the wetland increased from May to July varying from 4 to 13 for sites 12, 14 - 16. In September this number tended to decrease. The richest site (15 taxa) in September was 12A, where a bloom of different green flagellates was found. V.1c. Representation of different ecological groups All the species found at site 1 are typical freshwater representatives, most of which are benthic genera and species. This could be explained with the absence of conditions for the development of true phytoplankton and with the strong organic pollution there. The situation in site 2 is similar, but the presence of planktonic b-mesosaprobic flagellates is greater. All the species found at site 3 are freshwater ones and most of them are typical planktonic species. The presence of some filamentous blue-green algae and pennate diatoms could be explained by the enrichment of the phytoplankton from the algal mats which began to develop at the bottom and after that rose up and floated on the water surface. The blooms in site 3 were caused by mixture of typical planktonic species and species from such mats. The situation of the canal (site 4) was different during both years of investigation. If during 1995 all the species found there were typical freshwater ones, in September 1996 most of the species found were marine and brackish.. Sites 13, 17 and 18 represented the lower part of the same canal with changing salinity - in May and in July there planktonic freshwater species were found, whereas in September many marine planktonic species formed its phytoplankton. Most of the species found in the saltwater part of the reserve (sites 5 - 11, 12, 12A, 14 - 16) are typical of brackish and saline waters. In the conditions of small water depth the observed mixture of typical planktonic species with benthic representatives is well explainable. In all the sites planktonic species dominate in these mixtures. It is important to mention that in May 1996 in many of the salt-water basins freshwater species appeared in significant quantities (e.g. Monoraphidium contortum was dominant in site 16). In our opinion this fact is explainable by the dilution of the water through the strong rainfalls in that period.

V.1d. Life-strategists (size spectra) According to their dimensions most of the found green algae and diatoms could be classified as colonists (C-strategists), whereas most of the found cryptophytes and dinophytes are with slight specialization and are so-called tranzitional species (between ruderals and colonists - C _R). Some of the blue-green algae belong to the group of stress-tolerant strategists (S-species) or are S-R tranzitional species. The changes in the development of different strategists in each site and their seasonal shifts are partly discussed below. These different types of life-strategy are mentioned here especially because the representatives of first two strategic types are mentioned in the literature as available food for zooplankton, while the stress-tolerant species are unedible for animals. V. 2. Quantitative structure of the phytoplankton V. 2a. Phytoplankton cell numbers/l at different sites 6 The biggest phytoplankton quantity in 1995 was found at site 3 in June - 557.5x10 cells/l and in 1996 at site 16 in September - 1424x106 cells/l. In 1995 the lowest quantity was found at site 1 in June and in August - 3x106 cells/l, and in 1996 at sites 14 and 15 in May, as well as at site 18 in September - 1x106 cells/l. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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According to quantitative data the richest freshwater parts of the reserve are sites 3 and 4 (except July 1996, when site 4 was with low phytoplankton numbers). The phytoplankton quantity in the saltwater part varied significantly.The poorest basins during all periods of investigation are basins 8 and 7 (except May 1996, when the numbers in site 8 were high). V. 2b. Phytoplankton biomass/l at different sites The highest biomass values were estimated for site 7 in June 1995 - 59.02 mg/l and for site 10 in July 1996 - 48.2 mg/l. In the freshwater part the biomass was highest at sites 3 and 4 (up to 38.11 mg/l). The lowest values were estimated for sites 1 in June 1995 - 0.002 mg/l and 8 in September 1995 - 0.003 mg/l, as well as for site 17 in September 1996 - 0.001 mg/l. The values of biomass varied significantly for each site. Generally, for the salt part of the reserve they were higher during summer periods of 1995 (August) and of 1996 (July). V. 2c. Quantitative representation of different algal groups Representatives of the division Cyanophyta, of the subdivisions Bacillariophytina and Euchlorophytina were presented in significant numbers in all investigated sites, but during different sampling periods. Representatives of Pyrrhophyta and Raphidophyta occasionally caused algal blooms in some saltwater basins or there mass development was found in some parts of the salt basins (e.g. 10 in July 1996). It has to be mentioned that one genus of these blooming algae was reported to have some toxic species (i. e. Peridinium). The other groups (Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Chrysophytina and Xanthophytina) had much smaller role in the forming of phytoplankton numbers. Representatives of the subdivision Zygnemaphytina did not participate significantly in the quantitative structure of the phytoplankton. The numbers of cyanophytes were the biggest established ones. Representatives of this group caused the so-called algal blooms in the freshwater part of the reserve (sites 3 and 4) and dominated over the other groups in many of the salt basins. The quantitative structure of the phytoplankton expressed through biomass is quite different. There cyanophytes generally had smaller role (with the exception of the blooms in sites 3 and 4), whereas diatoms, pyrrhophytes, green flagellates, cryptophytes, euglenophytes and raphidophytes contributed significantly to the phytoplankton biomass. Representatives of chrysophytes and xanthophytes had small and insignificant role in the forming of total biomass. . V. 2d. Changes in the phytoplankton quantity during the investigated period The changes in the quantitative presentation of different algal groups at each site are well pronounced and clearly show the existing of different situations. Partly these changes are discussed together with the alteration of the dominant species and with the discussion of trophic state. What is to be mentioned especially, is that there was no clear dependence between cell numbers and biomass. This fact is explainable with the development of species with different sizes. For example, the highest biomass detected in site 7 in June 1995 was formed by Peridinium species, which were presented by relatively low numbers, but had large dimensions. At the same time in site 10 high cell numbers (360x106 cells/l) were detected, but the phytoplankton was formed by small blue-green algae, which had low biomass (totally 0.64 mg/l). As it was pointed above, generally, in the salt basins the phytoplankton biomass was highest in summer period (July - August). V. 2e. Dominant species According to their quantitative presentation in phytoplankton assemblages several species could be pointed out as dominants in the investigated sites during different periods (see below). This analysis is done mainly with regards to the trophic importance of phytoplankton at the different sites.

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Dominant species and their alteration were different in each of the investigated sites. They could be presented in the following way: - site 1 - Synechocystis sp. (June 1995); polydominant complex of pennate diatoms (August 1995); Synechocystis sp. (September 1995); Aulacoseira sp. (May 1996); Navicula sp. (September 1996); - site 2 - Navicula sp. + Synechocystis sp. (June 1995); Synedra sp. (August 1995); Navicula sp. div. (September 1995 and 1996); - site 3 - Microcystis sp. (June 1995); Phormidium ambiquum (August 1995); Cryptomonas splendida + Golenkinia radiata (September 1995); Navicula sp. (May 1996); Pseudocarteria peterhofiensis (September 1996); - site 4 - green flagellates (June 1995); Aphanocapsa sp. (August 1995); Navicula sp. div. (September 1995); Euglena sp. (July 1996); Peridinium sp. div. (September 1996); - site 5 - Synechococcus cf. salina + Limnothrix planctonica (June 1995); Nitzschia acicularis (by numbers in September 1996) and Peridinium sp. (by biomass in September 1996) - site 6 - Tetraselmis sp. (June 1995); Navicula sp. (September 1996) - site 7 - Chattonella sp. + Peridinium sp. (June 1995); unidentified green flagellates (August 1995); Synechocystis sp. (May 1996; September 1995 and 1996); Nitzschia acicularis (July 1996); - site 8 - Navicula sp. (June 1995 and July 1996); Synechocystis sp. (August 1995, September 1995 and 1996); coccal blue-green alga (May 1996); - site 9 - Synechocystis sp. (May 1996 and June 1995); Pyramimonas cf. minima (August 1995); Nitzschia cf. acicularis (September 1995); Peridinium sp. (July 1996); Synechocystis sp. (September 1996); - site 10 - Synechocystis sp. (June 1995); polydominant complex of Cryptomonas obovata + Peridinium sp. + Pyramimonas cf. minima (August 1995); Nitzschia cf. acicularis (September 1995); coccal blue-green alga (May 1996); Chattonella sp. (July 1996); Synechococcus sp. (by numbers in September 1996) and Peridinium sp. (by biomass in September 1996); - site 11 - Plectonema sp. (June and August 1995); Synechocystis sp. (September 1995); coccal blue-green alga (by numbers in May 1996) and Peridinium sp. (by biomass in May 1996); Navicula sp. (by numbers in July 1996) and Peridinium sp. (by biomass in July 1996); mixture of green and cryptophyte flagellates (by numbers in September 1996) and Aulacoseira sp. (by biomass in September 1996); - site 12 - Snowella sp. (May 1996); Nitzschia acicularis (by numbers in July 1996) and Chattonella sp. (by biomass in July 1996); Peridinium sp. (September 1996); - site 12A - polydominant complex of green flagellates of Chlamydomonas-, Dunaliella- and Provasoliella -types (September 1996); - site 13 - Aulacoseira sp. (May 1996); small green flagellates (September 1996); - site 14 - Navicula sp. (May 1996); Plectonema sp. (July 1996); Anabaena sp. st. (September 1996); - site 15 - Monoraphidium contortum (May 1996); Nitzschia acicularis (July 1996); - site 16 - Navicula sp. (May 1996); Glenodinium gymnodinium (July 1996); Chattonella + Cryptomonas phaseolus (September 1996); - site 17 - coccal blue-green alga (by numbers in May 1996) and Navicula sp. (by biomass in May 1996); Thorakomonas korschikofii (July 1996); Woronichinia fusca (September 1996); - site 18 - Oscillatoria princeps (May 1996); Peridinium sp. (July 1996); Chlamydomonas sp. (September 1996). 3. Trophic and saprobic conditions of the investigated sites. Phytoplankton as the basis of the food chain. The total species composition, the estimation of species domination and phytoplankton quantity provide possibilities to evaluate the trophic situation and saprobic conditions of the investigated sites. According to these data the sites in the freshwater part of the reserve could be classified in the following way:

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- site 1 - oligotrophic and polysaprobic; phytoplankton is extremely poor nutritional basis in terms of phytoplankton quantities and is presented mainly by species unedible for zooplankton and fish; - site 2 - mesotrophic and a-b - mesosaprobic; phytoplankton still could be classified as a poor nutritional basis (it was presented by more species edible for zooplankton (green flagellates) during 1995); - site 3 - polytrophic and a-polysaprobic; phytoplankton was abundant (algal blooms) but was presented by unedible and most probably toxic species in 1995; in 1996 it was eutrophic and again a- polysaprobic but the phytoplankters were edible for zooplankton and some of them were of high nutritional quality; - site 4 - eutrophic and a-b - mesosaprobic; abundant phytoplankton presented mainly by unedible species for zooplankton and fish in 1995. in 1996 abundant phytoplankton presented by edible species was detected, but it was more abundant in May than in July, whereas the diversity of edible species was higher in July; still in May and July 1996 the canal could be classified as eutrophic and a - b - mesosaprobic; this system could not be applied for the September period when marine waters entered the canal, but it is noteworthy that at that moment the highest biomass was detected and again the phytoplankters were edible for zooplankton; The saprobic conditions in the saltwater part are not evaluated. The trophic system could not be used in its original form in the hyperhaline conditions of the salt basins. Tha’s why below only the trophic value of the phytoplankton of the saltwater sites is pointed out: - site 5 - the site with the most abundant (cells/l) phytoplankton in June; 60% of the species are edible for zooplankton; unacceptable after June 1995 because of drainage; in 1996 the phytoplankton was abundant both by cells and biomass and was presented mainly by edible species; - site 6 - in 1995 phytoplankton was more abundant than in site 5 in terms of algal biomass/l and is presented of edible flagellate species with high nutritional quality for zooplankton and some edible diatoms; unacceptable after June 1995 because of drainage; in May 1996 the abundant phytoplankton detected there was presented by edible species of high nutritional quality, but in September in spite of the high cell numbers the phytoplankton was with low biomass and consisted of mainly unedible species - site 7 - the phytoplankton quantities at this site were the highest in September 1995, but the development of most edible species was detected in August 1995; in 1996 phytoplankton was poor but was presented mainly of species edible for zooplankton; - site 8 - the poorest basin in terms of phytoplankton quantity and quality in which the development of species edible for zooplankton was detected in June and August 1995; in May 1996 the phytoplankton was with low biomass, but was presented by extremely high numbers of small coccal blue-greens which could be edible for zooplankton - site 9 - one of the basins with the most abundant phytoplankton in June 1995, but with development of edible phytoplankton in August and September 1995; in May 1996 phytoplankton was abundant both according to numbers and biomass and was presented mainly of edible species of high nutritional quality, but in - site 10 - the basin with the most abundant phytoplankton according to cell numbers with the richest presentation of edible species of high nutritional quality during all the periods of investigation in 1995; in 1996 the numbers were again extremely high, but the biomass was very low and many empty frustules and dead cells were found there - site 11 - poor phytoplankton, presented mostly by unedible species; relatively abundant phytoplankton, presented by edible species in May - site 12 - poor phytoplankton, presented by low number of edible species; - site 13 - relatively abundant phytoplankton, presented mainly by edible species; - site 14 - poor phytoplankton, presented by low number of edible species and higher number of unedible species or by species of low nutritional quality; - site 15 - poor phytoplankton, but presented mainly by edible species;

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- site 16 - poor phytoplankton, presented by low number of edible species and higher number of unedible species or by species of low nutritional quality; - site 17 - poor phytoplankton according to numbers and biomass, but presented by edible species - site 18 - relatively abundant phytoplankton, presented mainly by edible species of high nutritional quality.

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4. Main problems of the reserve water basins according to the phytoplankton data According to the investigations ofn the phytoplankton quality and quantity of the eleven sites located at the reserve territory it could be stated that pollution and eutrophication problems are most important in the freshwater part of the reserve. Changes in the phytoplankton assemblages in the salt water part most probably are connected with the saline regime of the salt production basins. The eutrophication of Black sea waters which entered the system through the surrounding canal has to be taken into account, but it seems that its effect is diminished because of the specific character of water movement through the salinas. In saltwater basins with changing hydrochemical conditions phytoplankton had different nutritional value during different investigated periods and could be compared with a nutritional cascade in terms of space and time. Several genera determined during the investigation had been reported to have toxic species (e.g. Coelosphaerium, Microcystis, Peridinium) but our observations during the field work did not allow us to claim categorically that such events existed in this wetland. The only exception was the case of site 10 in July, where a red strip in the water column was detected to be formed by Peridinium - bloom and many died fish were found. Sometimes such fish-kills could be due to oxygen depletion caused by algal decaying after blooming period. 5. Situation in the newly formed wetland in the depression near the freshwater part of the reserve The newly formed wetland had brackish water with extremely poor phytoplankton, but with the beginning of development of phytobenthos presented of charophytine communities. It is necessary to point that the oogonia of these species are shown to be food with high nutritional quality for the waterfowl. This newly formed wetland lies in extremely deep depression (more than 30 m) and during the year (1995) with exceptionally high rainfalls and high level of underground water the bottom was covered by water. It could not be expected that this event will be the same in the future and it is possible to propose that the depression will be dried out again. It would be much better to connect it with the freshwater part of the reserve and in this way to solve the eutrophication problems in the freshwater part and to avoid the development of algal blooms in future.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS •

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The qualitative composition of the phytoplankton could be pointed out as interesting one, presented by different algal groups and different strategists. Most of the species (especially the flagellates) need more exact determination in living conditions. Only after such exact determination it will be possible to give more precize information on the trophic value of the phytoplankton and its role in the food chain and to propose more measures for biomanipulation and management of the wetland. In the phytoplankton of the most of the investigated sites was not found the famous species Dunalliella salina which is pointed out by many authors as the most important alga in the diet of Artemia salina. Blooms of Dunaliella were observed only in some basins of the reserve. In the basin located near sites 5 and 6 strong fungal parasitism on Dunaliella and encystment of the flagellate cells was observed. This event could be classified as negative for the future development of Dunaliella and Artemia. In 1996 a bloom of green flagellates of Dunaliella -type was detected at site 12A, one of the species being similar to Dunaliella viridis. The changes of the phytoplankton quantities in each site could be classified as significant and pronounced. But they could not be explained only according to the data from 6 samplings and need to be more detailed on the basis of more frequent sampling. Generally, saltwater basins had more abundant phytoplankton during the summer period. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Data on the species alteration and different quantitative presentation of algal groups show the existence of different conditions at each site of investigation. For the saltwater part of the reserve the most important parameter seemed to be the saline regime and the water salinity and for the freshwater part - the pollution or eutrophication of the sites. The data on the trophic situation in the different sites clearly show that the trophic conditions change and in the salt part of the lake some cascade of nutritional bases could be observed. The freshwater part of the reserve is of poor nutritional quality and in some of the sites the production could not move through the food chains. A dilution effect (by rising the water level) is proposed to obtain more rich in species phytoplankton without algal blooms in freshwater sites. This proposal is valid only if the pollution from the pig-farm could be stopped and the enrichment with nitrates and phosphates could be preven.

• • • • The increase of the territory covered by water in the freshwater part of the reserve would increase extremely the biodiversity there and especially will increase the number of typical planktonic species. Depth more than 1 m would prevent the invasion by Phragmittes australis • The connection between the freshwater part of the reserve and the newly formed wetland is proposed as most cheep but significant management procedure in solving the eutrophication problems of the freshwater part. REFERENCES Avron, M., A. Ben-Amotz, 1992. Dunaliella: Physiology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology. C.R.S. Press. Brock, T. D., 1969. - Microbial growth under extreme conditions. -In: Int. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol., 19: 15 - 41. Brock, T. D., 1975. - Salinity and Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake. - Journ. Gen. Microbiol., 89: 285 -292. Brock, T. D., 1976. - Hallophyllic blue-green algae. - Arch. Microbiol., 107: 109 - 111. Brock, T. D., 1979. - Ecology of saline lakes. - In: Strategies of Microbial Life in Extereme Environments, Brerlin, 29-47. Butcher, R. W., 1959. - An introductory account of the smaller algae of British Coastal waters. Part 1. Introduction and Chlorophyceae. Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Fisheries Investigations, Ser. IV, London Cruz-Pizaro, L., 1993. - Function of zooplankton in lake ecosystems. - In: Salanki, J., P. Biro (eds.), Limnological bases of lake management, Proceed. ILEC/UNEP Int. Training Course, Tihany,Hungary, 11 -23 October 1993, 41 - 59. Davis, J. S., 1978. - Biological communities in a nutrient enriched salina. - Aquatic Botany, 4: 23 42. Davis, J. S., 1979. - Importance of Microrganisms in Solar Salt production. - In: Fourth Internat.Symp. on Salt - Northerrn Ohio Geological Society, 369 - 2. Davis, J. S., 1980. - Biological management of Solar Saltworks. - In; Fifth Internat. Symp. on Salt Northerrn Ohio Geological Society, 265 - 268. De Bernardi, R., 1993. - Biomanipulation in conservation and management of lakes. - In: Salanki,J., P. Biro (eds.), Limnological bases of lake management, Proceed. ILEC/UNEP Int. Training Course,Tihany, Hungary, 11 -23 October 1993, 161 - 171. G. Toth, L., J. Padisák, 1982. - Attempt at a multifactor estimation of the eutrophication of theTihany area of Lake balaton. I. Introductory, considerations, methods, algological indices. - Bot. Kozlem,69 (1 - 2): 71 - 84. Hecky, R. E., P. Kilham, 1973. - Diatoms in alkaline, saline lakes: ecology and geochemical implications. - Limnol. Oceanogr., 18: 53 - 71. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Imhoff, J. P., H. G. Sahl, G. S. H. Soleman, H. G. Truper, 1978. - The Wadi Natrun: chemical composition and microbial mass development in alkaline brines of eutrophic desert lakes. Geomicrobiology J., 1. Ivanov, K., A. Sotirov, A. Rojdestvenski, D. Vodenicharov, 1964. Lakes in Bulgaria. Publ. Inst. Hidrol. Metereol. (Sofia), XVI, 242 (in Bulgarian). Kaplan, I. R., A. Friedmann, 1970. - Biological productivity in the Dead Sea. Part I. Microrganisms in the water column. - Israel J. Chem., 8: 513 - 528. Nixon, S. W., 1974. - Salina systems. - In: Odum, H. T., B. J. Copeland, E. A. McMahan (eds.),Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States, 2: 1251 - 1274. Olrik, K., 1994. Phytoplankton - Ecology. Ministry of the Environment, Denmark. Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Round, E. F., 1981. Ecology of algae. Cambridge Univ. Press. Petkoff, St., 1919. - Materials on the algal flora of Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. - Spis. BAN (Sofia), XVII, 8: 25 - 135 (in Bulgarian) Petkoff, St., 1932. Sur la flore algologique de la Mer Noire. - Bull. Soc. Bot. Bulg. (Sofia), V. Stephens, D. W., D. M. Gillespie, 1976. - Phytoplankton production in the Great Salt lake, Utah,and a laboratory study of algal responses to enrichment. - Limnol. Oceanogr., 21: 74 - 87. Vodenicharov, D., St. Draganov, D. Temniskova, 1971. Flora of Bulgaria. I. Algae. Sofia. APPENDIX 1 CHECKLIST OF SPECIES WITH NUMBER OF SITES WHERE THEY WERE FOUND (with interval are pointed out the species found only in freshwater sites) CYANOPHYTA Anabaena sp.st. - 9, 13, 14 Aphanocapsa sp. - 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12A Beggiatoa sp. - 5 Chroococcus minutus - 3 Clathrochloris hypolimnica - 18 Coelosphaerium kutzingianum - 14, 17 Leptolyngbya foveolarum - 1 Limnothrix planctonica - 5, 12 Lyngbya circumcreta - 3 Lyngbya limnetica - 12, 14, 16 Merismopedia glauca - 16 Microcystis sp. - 3 Oscillatoria brevis - 1 Oscillatoria chlorina - 2 Oscillatoria lauterbornii - 5 Oscillatoria princeps - 12A, 18 Oscillatoria tenuis - 14 Oscillatoria sp. - 2, 4, 12A Pelonema sp. - 12A, 18 Phormidium ambiquum - 2, 3 Phormidium molle - 12, 16 Phormidium tenue - 3, 6, 11 Phormidium sp. - 1, 7, 15, 17 Planktothrix mougeotii - 1, 3 Plectonema sp. - 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17 Snowella sp. - 12, 14 Spirulina corakiana - 4

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Spirulina major - 10 Synechococcus salina - 5 Synechococcus sp. - 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16 Synechocystis sp. - 1, 2, 5, 9, 10 Tetrachloris sp. - 10, 17 Tolypothrix distorta - 2 Woronichinia compacta - 17 Woronichinia fusca - 17 Unidentified coccal alga - 7, 8, 10, 11, 17 Heterocysts - 7 Hormogonia - 12, 12A, 14 EUGLENOPHYTA Ascoglena sp. - 1 Colacium sp. - 5 Cryptoglena phacoidea - 3 Distigma sp. - 5 Euglena spp. - 3, 4, 9 Eutreptia sp. - 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17, 18 Phacus pyrum - 4 Trachelomonas intermedia - 3 Trachelomonas lemmermanii - 13 Euglenophyta - cysts - 2, 4, 14 PYRRHOPHYTA Glenodinium gymnodinium - 4, 16 Gymnodinium sp. - 3, 6, 8, 9, 10 Peridinium aciculiferum - 4, 5 Peridinium bipes - 9 Peridinium sp.I - 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18 Peridinium sp. II - 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, 16, 17 Peridinum sp. III - 16 Prorocentrum micans - 4, 5, 16, 17 CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYTINA Mallomonas sp. - 7 Unidentified colourless flagellate - 8, 11 XANTHOPHYTINA Arachnochloris simplex - 12 Tribonema sp. - 1 BACILLARIOPHYTINA Achnanthes sp. - 2, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17 Amphiprora sp. - 12A, 15, 16, 18 Asterionella sp. - 17 Aulacoseira sp. I - 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 14, 17, 18 Aulacoseira sp. II - 3, 6, 13, 17, 18 Aulacoseira sp. III - 18 Chaetoceros cf. gracile - 4 Chaetoceros sp.I - 4, 5, 12, 16 Chaetoceros sp. II - 16 Cocconeis sp. - 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16 Cyclotella sp. - 1, 2, 3, 4, 17 Cymbella sp. - 14, 18 Diatoma cf. elongatum - 17 Diatoma sp. - 1, 2, 3, 7, 12 Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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Fragillaria nitzschioides - 13 Fragillaria sp. - 4 Frustulia sp. - 1 Gomphonema sp.I - 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18 Gomphonema sp. II - 13 Melosira sp. - 2, 3, 4 Navicula sp. I - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18 Navicula sp. II - 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Navicula sp. III - 13, 17 Navicula sp, IV - 17 Nitzchia acicularis - 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Nitzschia sp. - 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17 Pinnularia sp. -1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17 Pleurosigma sp. - 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18 Rhizosolenia sp. - 5, 10 Rhoicosphenia curvata - 4, 13, 17 Rhoicosphenia sp. - 17 Stephanodiscus sp. - 2, 4, 8, 11, 17 Surirella sp.I - 4, 14, 15, 17, 18 Surrirella sp. II - 18 Synedra ulna - 18 Synedra sp.I - 1, 2, 4, 12, 15, 17, 18 Synedra sp. II - 4, 16, 17 Synedra sp. III - 17 CRYPTOPHYTA Chilomonas sp. - 10 Cryptomonas obovata - 9 Cryptomonas phaseolus - 16 Cryptomonas platyuris - 2 Cryptomonas splendida - 3 Cryptomonas sp. - 2, 7, 9, 10, 12A, 15, 16, 18 Rhodomonas sp. - 2, 11 Cryptophyta - cysts - 9 CHLOROPHYTA EUCHLOROPHYTINA Actinastrum hantzschii - 3 Carteria sp. - 2, 13 Chlamydomonas spp. - 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12A, 17, 18 Chlorella neustonica - 16 Chlorella sp. - 16 Chlorogonium gracile - 3 Chlorogonium sp. - 4 Chloromonas sp. - 2, 3, 8, 9 Closteriopsis acicularis - 4 Coccomonas sp. - 4 Coelastrum microporum var. octaedricum - 14 Dicelulla geminata - 13 cf. Dunaliella sp. - 12A Golenkinia radiata - 3 Kirchneriella hindakiana - 17 Kirchneriella intermedia - 18 Kirchneriella lunaria - 4 Kirchneriella obesa - 1

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Lagerheimia longiseta - 4, 5 Lobomonas sp. - 4 Micractinium pusillum - 3 Monoraphidium arcuatum - 3 Monoraphidium contortum - 1, 14, 15 Monoraphidium griffithii - 18 Monoraphidium irregulare - 3 Nephroselmis sp. - 6 Oedogonium sp. st. - 3 Pandorina morum - 2, 3 Pandorina charkowiensis - 3 Platymonas arnoldii - 10, 17 Polytomella sp. - 1, 2 Provasoliella cf. simplicissima - 12 Pseudocarteria peterhofiensis - 3 Pseudodictyospherium lacunare - 17 Pyramimonas minima - 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17 Pyramimonas tetrarhynchus - 12A Pyramimonas sp. - 10 Scenedesmus communis - 3, 16 Scenedesmus opoliensis - 3 Siderocelopsis oblonga - 4 Siderocystopsis fusca - 4 Tetraselmis sp. -2, 6 Tetrastrum glabrum - 14 Thorakomonas korschikoffii - 17, 18 Thorakomonas sabulosa - 11 Unidentified green flagellates - 3, 4, 6, 9, 12A, 13, 17 ZYGNEMOPHYTINA Closterium tumidulum - 14 Spirogyra sp. - 4 RHAPHIDOPHYTA Chattonella sp. - 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18 Gonyostomum sp. - 10

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THE VEGETATION OF THE NATURE RESERVE “ATANASOVSKO LAKE“ AND OF ITS BUFFER ZONE (General Characteristic and Phytocenologic Map) Res. Ass. Vladimir Velev Central Laboratory of General Ecology at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences The specific character of the ecological conditions of the humid zones is a prerequisite for their comparatively high vulnerability. That fact, places ecosystems among the priorities in the necessity of measures for their effective protection. The active drainage of these zones in the 50’s, in order to enlarge the agricultural area, lead to the destruction of the cenoses of several major zones, now demanding great investments for reconstruction. The current information about the vegetation and its situation on the territory of the reserve ”Atanasovsko Lake” revealed in the literature, is quite insufficient and uncompleted. In its greater part, the information is about the flora (Vo d e n i c h a r o v , 1959; G a n c h e v, K o c h e v , J o r d a n o v , 1971; P a l a m a r e v , 1973). General view of the vegetation around these places can be received from the published researches about the water vegetation in Bulgaria (K o c h e v, J o r d a n o v, 1981) and about the vegetation cover in the country (B o n d e v , 1991). Also some partial palinologic researches, with interesting information about the development of the flora in historical aspect have been made(B o j i l o v a , 1992, 1995). The Atanasovsko Lake is quite interesting also for its unique ecological conditions. Their strictly specific character is due to two basic factors: the existence of water basins with variable salt regime and the typical soil substrate. The natural water basin till 1926 consisted of stagnant waste and fresh waters, like in most of the firth lakes. After the lake had dried up in 1926 and after had been found out that on its bottom had accumulated a great amount of salt, the construction of saltworks began. That lead to changes in the micro relief - construction of dikes, bankings, channels, new basins, crystallizers and others; changes in the original concentration of salts, due to the permanent draining with sea water; ruderalization of the ground, due to the fast and active anthropogenization. Those changes inflicted several changes in the hydrologic regime, the concentration of salts - now the water varies from fresh to waste and hyperhaline water in the free water surfaces of the interior of the zone. Naturally, that lead to new dynamics in the phyto-components of the ecosystems, in relation to the flora, as well as in relation with the vegetation of the reserve territory and that of its buffer zone. Both the original and the derivative vegetation there, are not distinguished with great opulence and variety. No changes occur even after the construction of the salt-mining structures. To some extend, the populations of the xeromesophyte species increase, those of the hygrophylic and hydrophyte higher plants decrease, unused to the increased saltiness of the environment and the populations of the halophytes also increase. As a result zones of the typical halophytes Salicornia europaea and Sueda maritima are beginning to form. The nature reserve ”Atanasovsko Lake” falls into the area of the Black sea climatic influence, characterized with comparatively lower annual temperature amplitude, milder climate and two maximums of the rainfalls (S u b e v , S t a n e v, 1959; D i m i t r o v, 1974). Regarding the hydrological regime, the region falls into the area with the rainy river regime. Predominant are the meadow soils, part of which are with high concentration of salt. Because of its great variety of birdlife, which puts it on the first place among the Bulgarian humid zones, the Atanasovsko Lake is cosidered as a humid zone, extremely valuable for the science. The character of the phytocenologic situation in the regions, next to the reserve, is important also for its ecological determination, as not only the water surface is a prerequisite for the development of the great biological variety. The Atanasovsko Lake is situated among the mesophyte

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grass populations, presented by Festuceta pratensis, Lolieta perennis, Agrostideta stoloniferae and others, on the place of the former forests of elm-trees (Ulmus campestris), pedunculated and robur oak-trees (Quercus robur and Quercus pedunculiflorae) and others. They have an indirect impact on the vegetation of the reserve. In connection with the above-mentioned specific ecological conditions, the cenoses of the reserve are presented by : xeromesophyte, mesophyte and hygrophylic microtherm vegetation, that can be divided into: 1. Hygrophyte vegetation - with the predomination of reed (Phragmites australis) and the insignificant participation of the narrow-leaf and broad-leaf rush (Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia), the cene (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and others. The cenoses of reed are predominant, as somewhere they overgrow the whole dikes, that surround the by-pass channel on the inside and on the outside. Almost entirely overgrown are the outermost basins, that hadn’t been swept with water for a long time, on the northern part of the reserve territory and on the south-western side of the buffer zone. The reed there had occupied the slightly salty humid soils and retired only in the zones of infiltrated waters with the petrol wastes. Right next to the dikes of the next working basins, where the water is with comparatively higher saltiness, no reed overgrowings can be found. The same situation is in the other parts with high saltiness of the substrate. In these cenoses take part also Typha latifolia and a little, in the comparatively dry places Typha angustifolia. Separately, in small loose groups, in the reed massive can be found Salix alba and Salix eleagnus.. Also in these cenoses, in several parts of the channel and in the fresh-water lake, can be found considerable overgrowings of higher water plants with the predomination Lemna minor, Ceratophyllum demerum, Najas marina, Potamogeton crispus, P. Pectinatus, Spirodela polyrrhiza and several others. 2. Halophyte grass cenoses. They are presented mainly by the cenoses of Salicornia europaea and Sueda maritima, Limonium gmelinii, Salsola soda and others. These species occupy the areas with the soils of the greatest concentration of salt during the seasonal, incidential and continuous drying up of the basins, with higher concentration of salts in the water, as well as in the foot of the dikes, when there are considerable lowerings in the relief. The main part in these cenoses is of Salicornia europaea, as in some areas this species forms its own overgrowings and especially in the newly dug dikes, it is in the role of a pioneer element. (Velev, 1995). Mixed with the other species, mainly on the dikes can be found some other typical halophytes - Sueda maritima, Limonium gmelinii, Parapholis incurva, Aeropus litoralis and others. 3. Mesoxerotherm grass cenoses. These are populations, that had formed by the abrupt changes in the ecological conditions, after the development of the salt-works and their exploitation for industrial salt-mining. The embankment of the lake with dug dikes with imported soil, caused the ruderalization of the terrains, which was a prerequisite for the formation of derivative cenoses, on the basis of the pioneer vegetation, in abundance around the Atanasovsko Lake. At the moment they occupy the middle and the higher zones of the old dikes, parts of the peripheral areas of the reserve and the buffer zone and several basins, that had dried up continuously. They are represented by the cenoses of: Agopyreta intermediate, Festucaeta pseudovinae, Leymeta racemosae, Elimeta elongate, Poeata bulbosae, Lolieta perennae and others with the participation of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), on some places of Dichantium ischaemum and Chrysopogon grillus. Of second importance for the reserve and in connection with the ecological conditions of these habitats are the cenoses of the field and marine mugwort (Artemisia campestris and Artemisia maritim), as well as those, in which predominate Centaurea arenaria and Jurinea albicaulis. In the lower and more humid areas can be found the cenoses with the considerable participation of the Centaurea revenae and of the much abundant Juncus maritimus and Juncus atratus. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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The sand substrate, which is obligatory in some areas in the region of the lake, is a prerequisite for the development of the typical psamophytes there, several of them forming not very big pure cenoses. In that way, even comparatively rarely found are the communities of Leymeta recemosae, Amophylleta arenarie, Centaurea arenarie and others. The mentioned above cenoses shelter the greatest quantity of sinanthrope species. Those cenoses shelter the greatest quantity of sinanthrope species. These are the regions with the most active participation in the mining of salt - crystallyzers, working dikes, railways, sheds, other constructions, roads. They can be found very often on the places, where are reconstruction works on the structures of the salt-works and around them. While in the northern parts of the buffer zone, the sinanthrope presence is connected with regular antropophytes, because they are close to farm land, in the southern and south-eastern parts, considerable ruderal invasion is felt in some areas. It is clearly expressed in that part of the buffer zone, that only several years ago had been used for domestic animal-breeding, and so had been the neighboring area. These are former orchards and small fields - territories , where the human interference had continued for years and had given its reflection. The dikes, reconstructed through piling of inert mass, taken out from the two sides of the basins, in the course of two-three years they are inhabited only by ruderal plants, in the ”surfing” zone permeate and successfully grow only halophytes - the predominant cenoses of Saliucornieta europaeae. In these regions are formed the passing communities of the Chenopodium botris. 4. Crop vegetation The buffer zone of the reserve includes four separate small fields (the north-eastern part) and greater part of the a big agricultural massive (the south-western part). Every year they are cultivated and planted mainly with grain crops. Several small plots of vegetables are cultivated in the southern part of the zone, next to the Bourgas quarter ”Izgrev”. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The vegetation in the buffer zone of the nature reserve ”Atanasovsko Lake” is presented by cenoses of hygrophylic, hygrophyte and mesohygrophylic, mesophylic and mesoxerophylic cenoses, some of them formed secondarily on the place of former mixed broad-leaf plain forests and bushes, mixed with halophylic xeromesopyl grass cenoses. The great anthropogenisation of the region in the last 50-60 years is the main reason for the changes of the original cenoses. The exploitation of some parts of the former semi-saltwater lake for the mining of salt and the activities, connected with its reconstruction, lead to ecological changes. The occurring changes in the vegetation there, are connected with alterations of the hydrologic and salt regime, with the abrupt ruderalization of the development of the dikes, with the continuous breeding of domestic animals in the present buffer zone, with the total pollution of the nearness to the big city, the industrial enterprises, the intensive highway and railway traffic, the airport Bourgas and others. However, apart from the obvious anthropophyte invasion, there is no degradation of the typical for the reserve cenoses, which are dislocated mainly in the channel, surrounding the reserve, the areas of the outermost basins and the old dikes. The ruderal vegetation, that spreads quickly on the up- and down-hills of the newly dug dikes, to some extend plays the role of a pioneer vegetation and nutrient basis and shelter for the animal populations in the reserve. Other pioneers are also the cenoses of the halophytes Salicornia europaea and Saueda maritima., that are the first settlers in the foothill of the dikes. In that situation of constant antropogenic impact, the permanent vegetation there will be in the state of permanent succession, except the hydro and hydrophylic vegetation, as the by-pass channel provides almost unchangeable hydrologic regime. The permanent cultivation of farm land, included in the buffer zone of the reserve, doesn’t abruptly influence the cenoses there. The negative impact of the utilization of farm land causes the burning of the stubbles at the end of the summer,

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when the areas of the local wild-life vegetation are also burned. That leads to a quick ruderalization of the burned territories and quality changes in the pioneer vegetation. In order to avoid the unwanted degradation processes and to improve the quality content of the cenoses it is necessary to: ♦ To make a thorough research of the quality content of the vegetation in the zone, that can be carried out together with the same research in the reserve territory. It will facilitate the determination of the rare plant species endangered of extinction and will define the vegetation associations. ♦ To include the region in a long-term programme for the monitoring of the humid zones ♦ Not to allow changes in the original salt and hydrologic regime in none of the basins ♦ to take urgent and effective measures against the pollution of the by-pass channel with domestic and industrial waste water. ♦ To forbid the burning of stubbles in the fields on the territory of the buffer zone. ♦ To plan recultivation and afforestation for some parts of the buffer zone, according to preliminary approved project, taking into consideration the purposes of the reserve as nesting territory and recreation basis for the migration birds and flocks. In conclusion can be determined that, the vegetation in the reserve ”Atanasovsko Lake” and its buffer zone don’t undertake long-lasting degradation changes, despite the permanent or anthripogenic interferences. Because of the exploitation of the area for saltmining and the indirect and direct participation of the segment of the natural water reservoir in it is felt the positive influence over the succession processes. In order to maintain the typical cenoses in the state of succession, it is necessary to keep the hydrologic and salt balance in the region of the reserve, to make some bio-technical activities in its buffer zone and to control the ruderal invasion. The phytocenological map, attached to the general characteristic of the reserve ”Atanasovsko lake” is designed through the computer processing of the topographic map of the area with the scale 1 : 5 000 , that will guarantee the maximum accuracy and precision of the data in it. That method is used for a first time for mapping the vegetation. References Bohchev, G. 1929. The Marshes in Bulgaria. S., Ministry of Agriculture and State Property Dakov, M. ( ed. et al.) 1984. The Red Data Book of Bulgaria, vol. II, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Ganchev, S., Chr. Kochev, D. Jordanov. 1971. Halophylic Vegetation in Bulgaria. - Proceedings of the Botanic Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 21. Jordanov, D. (ed. et al.). 1963-1982. The Flora of Bulgaria, vol. I-VIII, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Kochev, Chr., D. Jordanov. 1981. The Vegetation in the Water resiervoirs of Bulgaria. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Palamarev, E. 1970. Fossil Flora of the Coal Eocene in the Bourgas District.- Proceedings of the Botanic Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 24. Stoyanov, N.,B. Stefanov and B. Kitanov, 1967. The Flora of Bulgaria, vol.I and II, S., Nauka I Izkustvo. Vodenicharov, D. 1959. The Vegetation of Our Water Basins. S., Nauka I Izkustvo Vullev, S. 1964. Subtype and Hygrophyl Eutrophic Vegetation (Marsh Meadows). In: The Flora of the Meadows and Pastures in Bulgaria.

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Appendix 1 : List of Higher Plants of Atanasovsko Lake Latin name English name 1. Aegilops pontica 2. Agropyrum intermedium Medium Couch-grass 3. Agropyrum junceum Sand couch-grass 4. Agropyrum litorale 5. Agropyrum repens Scutch 6. Ailanthus altissima Tree of Heaven 7. Ajuga genevensis Bugle Weed 8. Alium atropurpureum Garlic 9. Alnus glutinosa Black Alder 10. Alisma plantago-aquatica True Lavender 11. Althea officinalis Marsh Mallow 12. Alyssum minus Small Mad-word 13. Alyssum tortuosum Twisted Mad-word 14. Amaranthus albus Wait Beet Root 15. Amaranthus retroflexus Beet Root 16. Amygdalus communis Almond-tree 17. Amygdalus nana Low Almond 18. Anagallis arvensis Scarlet Pimpernel 19. Androsace elongata Androsace 20. Armeniaca vulgaris Apricot 21. Asparagus trichophyllus Asparagus 22. Asperula arvensis Woodruff-asperile 23. Astragalus cicer Chick-Pea-Astragalus 24. Astragalus excapus Astragalus 25. Astragalus ponticus Pontics-Astragalus 26. Astragalus varius Colorful Astragalus 27. Artemisia maritima Sea Wormwood + 28. Atriplex hastata Hastate Orache 29. Atriplex rosea Coraline Orache 30. Atriplex tatarica Tatarics Orache 31. Atropis convoluta 32. Atropis distans 33. Berteroa incana Hoary Madwort 34. Bolboschoenus maritimus Sea Bolboschoenus 35. Brassica juncea Brown Mustard 36. Brassica rapa Turnip 37. Bromus arvensis Scarlet Brome 38. Bromus inermis 39. Bromus sterilis 40. Buglossoides sibthorpiana Buglossoides 41. Bupleurum flavum Hare's-ear 42. Butomus umbellatus Flowering Rush 43. Cacile maritima Sea Rockett 44. Calystegia soldanella Sea Bindweed 45. Camphorosma annua 46. Camphorosma monspeliaca 47. Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's PurseĂ 48. Carex distans Distant Sedge 49. Carex divisa Separated Sedge

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PS

RDB

+

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50. Carex vulpina 51. Centaurium erythrea 52. Centaurium maritimum 53. Cerasus avium 54. Cerasus fruticosa 55. Cerasus machaleb 56. Cerasus vulgaris 57. Ceratophyllum demersum 58. Chenopodium botris 59. Chenopodium rubrum 60. Chrysopogon grillus 61. Cladium mariscus 62. Clematis vialba 63. Consolida ambigua 64. Consolida regalis 65. Convolvulus arvensis 66. Convolvulus cantabricus 67. Corispermum nitidum 68. Crucianella angustifolia 69. Cydonia oblonga 70. Cyperus fuscus 71. Datura stramonium 72. Dianthus campestris 73. Dianthus moesiacus 74. Dictamnus albus 75. Ecbalium elaterium 76. Echium vulgare 77. Elymus sabulosus 78. Equisetum palustre 79. Erodium ciconium 80. Erodium cicutarium 81. Erophyla verna 82. Eryngium campestre 83. Eryngium maritimum + 84. Erysimum diffusum 85. Euphorbia amygdaloides 86. Euphorbia cyparissias 87. Euphorbia paralias 88. Euphorbia peplis 89. Festuca arundinacea 90. Festuca pseudovina 91. Ficus carica 92. Filipendula vulgaris 93. Frankenia pulverulenta 94. Galanthus nivalis + 95. Galium aparine 96. Galium palustre 97. Galium verum 98. Genista tinctoria 99. Geranium purpureum 100. Geranium pusillum Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Fox Sedge Common Centaury Sea Common Centaury Gean Wild Cherry Machalebian Gean Cherry Hornwort Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot Red Chrysopogon Saw Sedge Traveler's Joy Forking Larkspur Bindweed

Quince Thorn Apple

Dittany Squirting-cucumber Viper's Bugloss Lyme-grass Marsh Horsetail Common Storksbill Spring Whitlow Grass Field Eryngo Sea Holly

+

Wood Spurge

Petti Spurge Tall Fescue Fig-tree Dropwort Frankenia Snowdrop

+

Goosegrass Marsh Betstraw Yellow Galium Dyer's Greenweed Purple Cranesbill Smal-flowered Cranesbill Appendix Three

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101. Geranium robertianum 102. Geranium sanguineum 103. Geum urbanum 104. Glechoma hirsuta 105. Glycyrrhiza echinata 106. Goniolimon tataricum 107. Gypsophyla trichotoma + 108. Halimione pedunculata + 109. Halimione portulacoides + 110. Hedera helix 111. Heleocharis palustris 112. Heliantemum salicifolium 113. Heptaptera triquetra 114. Iris pseudacorus 115. Iris pumila 116. Juglans regia 117. Juncus compressus 118. Juncus maritimus 119. Lamium purpureum 120. Lathyrus annuus 121. Lathyrus pannonicus 122. Lathyrus sphaericus 123. Lemna minor 124. Lepidium campestre 125. Leucojum aestivum + 126. Leymus racemosus 127. Ligustrum vulgare 128. Limonium gmelinii + 129. Linum hirsutum 130. Lolium perenne 131. Lotus corniculatus 132. Lotus strictus 133. Lotus tenuis 134. Lychnis flos-cuculi 135. Lysimachia punctata 136. Lythrum salicaria 137. Malus domestica 138. Malus sylvestris 139. Malva sylvestris 140. Marrubium vulgare 141. Medicago disciformis 142. Medicago falcata 143. Medicago litoralis 144. Medicago lupulina 145. Medicago marina 146. Melilotus alba 147. Mentha aquatica 148. Mentha arvensis

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Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Herb Robert Bloody Cranesbill Herb Bennet Ground Ivi Sweetwort Tall Gypsophill

+

Sea Purslane

+

Bindwood

Yellow Flag Dwarf Iris Walnut Round-fruited Red Dead-nettle

Duckweed Pepperword Loddon Lily

+

Common Privet +

Rye-grass Common Birdsfoot-trefoil

Marsh Mallow Purple Loosestrife Apple-tree Wild Apple Common Mallow White Horehound Cickle Medick Black Medick See Medick White Melilot Water Mint Corn Mint Appendix Three


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

149. Myosotis arvensis 150. Myosotis ramosissima 151. Myosotis stricta 152. Myriophyllum spicatum 153. Myriophyllum verticilatum 154. Najas minor 155. Nasturtium officinalis 156. Nonea atra 157. Oenanhte silaifolia 158. Oenanthe aquatica 159. Ononis arvensis 160. Ononis spinosa 161. Onosma heterophylla 162. Papaver hybridum 163. Parapholis incurva + 164. Pastinaca sativa 165. Persicaria hydropiper 166. Petroragia prolifera 167. Petrosimonia brachiata 168. Peuedanum arenarium 169. Phragmites australis 170. Pimpinella peregrina 171. Polygala major 172. Polygonum maritimum 173. Populus tremula 174. Potamogeton crispus 175. Potamogeton pusillus 176. Potentilla cinerea 177. Prunella vulgaris 178. Prunus cerastifera 179. Prunus domestica 180. Prunus spinosa 181. Pulmonaria obscura 182. Pyrus sativa 183. Ranunculus arvensis 184. Reseda lutea 185. Rosa canina 186. Rosa gallica 187. Rottboelia digitata 188. Rubus sanguineus 189. Ruppia maritima 190. Sagttaria sagittifolia 191. Salicornia europaea 192. Salix alba 193. Salix eleagnus 194. Salix fragilis 195. Salsola ruthenica 196. Salsola soda 197. Salvia nutans 198. Salvia pratensis 199. Salvia tomentosa 200. Samolus valerandii Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Common Forget-me-not Early Forget-me-not Spicked Water-milfoil Whorled Water-milfoil Naiad Water-cress Water Dropwort Fine Leaved W.Dropwort Restharrow Goldedrop Round Prickly-headed Poppy + Wild Parsnip Pale Persicaria + Hog's Fenel Common Reed Burnet Milkwort Sea Knotgrass Aspen Pondweed Cinquefoil Self-heal Cherry Plum Plumà Sloeà Pear Corn Crowfoot Wild Wood Dog Rose

Arrow-head Glasswortà White Willow Green Willow Crack Willowà Saltwort Meadow Clary Brookweed Appendix Three

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201. Saponaria officinalis 202. Scandix australis 203. Schoenoplectus lacustris 204. Scleranthus perennis 205. Sedum caespitosum 206. Silene alba 207. Silene densiflora 208. Silene euxina + 209. Silene thymifolia 210. Sium latifolium 211. Solanum dulcamara 212. Solanum nigrum 213. Spergularia marina 214. Spirodela polyrrhiza 215. Stachis maritrima 216. Stachis palustris 217. Stelaria holostea 218. Sueda heterophylla + 219. Sueda maritrima 220. Syringa vulgaris 221. Tamarix tetrandra 222. Trachomitum venetum 223. Trifolium hybridum 224. Trifolium pratense 225. Trifolium purpureum 226. Trifolium repens 227. Trifolium setiferum 228. Triglochin palustris 229. Urtica dioica 230. Verbena officinalis 231. Vicia lutea 232. Vicia tenuifolia 233. Viola odorata

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Soapwort Bulrush Knawel White Campion

Water Parsnip Bittersweet Black Nightshade Great Duckweed Marsh Wonderwort Greater Stitchwort + Herbaceus Seablite Common LilacĂŞ TamariskĂ Alsike Clover Red Clover White Clover Marsh Arrow-grass Great Nettle Vervain Yellow Vetch Slender Tare Sweet Violet

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THE ZOOPLANKTON AND ZOOBENTHOS OF THE NATURE RESERVE ATANASOVSKO LAKE (1995-1996) AND ITS BUFFER ZONE (1996) Ass. Prof. Dr. Stanoy Kovachev Department of Hydrobiology, Faculty of Biology Sofia University "St Kl. Ohridski" Purpose The Atanasovsko Lake is a problematic place, where the Nature Conservancy is in conflict with the permanent industrial production of large amounts of salt. Hardly other place could be found so attractive for birds (294 species as I know, which may differ from the official information) and so repulsive because of the human presence. The lake system includes a variety of basins, from typically freshwater through myxohaline to hyperhaline with enormous salinity in some. As a part of the complex characteristics of the area, the study of both zooplankton and macroinvertebrate communities was aimed to obtain an actual information about their present state as components of the entire ecosystem, useful for the future plane of administration of the reserve and its adjacent areas. The qualitative and quantitative composition of both communities and their distribution in the various basins are to reveal some important features of the aquatic ecosystems and their value as a food source. (The brine shrimp Artemia salina attains up to several hundreds ind/m2 at some basins and therefore is an important component of the invertebrate bottom fauna; this species is here, however, totally omitted as a subject of study of another participant in the project). References review First data on the aquatic invertebrate fauna from the Atanasovsko Lake and its adjacent waters were published by Shishkov (1909) and Valkanov (1934, 1936). They concern several crustacean species. Many years later Cvetkov (1955) pointed out two halophilic species of fam. Chironomidae. The same author (Cvetkov, 1958) made a quantitative research on the meiobenthos. Vodenicharov (1964) on his generalisation of the data, available at that time, included altogether 15 species of invertebrate animals with the note “too small number of species was found till now”. Naidenov (1967) reported three species of Cladocera and so of Copepoda, that he found in the canal along the lake. Yankov (1993) believed more then 50 invertebrate to live in the lake, but mentioned several only. No information exists about the invertebrate in Atanasovsko Lake even in the monography by Marinov (1990) on the Black Sea, who devoted a special chapter on the zoobenthos in the coastal lakes. Sampling sites In the frame of the reserve eleven sites were observed during the two years of the study. They are: 1/ freshwater tributary with very slow velocity and heavy organic pollution from the neighbouring pig farm; 2/nearly stagnant freshwater tributary; 3/ a large stagnant strongly eutrophicated pond that collects its water from 1 and 2; 4/ a canal along the eastern side of the reserve, which is freshwater or periodically connects the brine basins with the sea, according to the industrial technology; sites 5 to 11 are brine basins, separated by artificial dikes. During the latter year the number of sites was enlarged towards the buffer zone with seven additional points, of which 13 is a canal of the western side, 17 and are additional on the canal 4, and 12, 12a, 14, 15 and 16 are brine basins with different level of salinity. Materials and methods Samples were collected in June, August and September 1995, and in May, July and September 1996 (in September 1996 zooplankton was collected at the first decade, and the zoobenthos - about two weeks later). Zooplankton was collected by filtration of 20 l water through a conic plankton net with a mesh of 50 µ, and the zoobenthos - by a net bottom sampler with a Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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mesh of 0.5 mm and known surface. Samples were preserved in 4 % formaline solution and afterwards processed in the laboratory. The biomass of the zooplankton was calculated by use of standard individual weight per each of the species; the biomass of the zoobenthos was directly measured by precise electronic laboratory balance. All of the quantitative data were recalculated per m2 and m3, respectively. Species composition Zooplankton The qualitative composition of the zooplankton species is shown on Table 1 (Reserve) and Table 2 (buffer zone). They have not been confirmed earlier reported in the scanty literature sources Diaptomus salinus (now Arctodiaptomus, by Shishkov, 1908) and Acanthocyclops americanus (by Naidenov, 1967). Besides the euplankters some meroplanktic components as veliger larvae (Mollusca) and trochophora larvae (Polichaeta) were also found. Sometimes, especially when water is troubled, some occasional components were also presented (Foraminifera, Harpacticoida, Ostracoda). Totally 34 constant components have been found: 20 Rotatoria, 6 Cladocera and 8 Copepoda in the reserve during the two years of observations. About a half of them were occurred in the buffer zone basins during the second year. Site 1 has no typical zooplankton obviously because of the considerable pollution and the visible, even very slow, velocity of the water. The total number of species is about twice higher than the first year due to many rotifers found in early May 1996. Number of species increased especially at sites 2 and 4 which during this period were typically oligohaline; the decreased salinity allowed many species to survive in the other basins. These species obviously tolerate salinity at some degree, but during the next seasons their number rapidly decreased. Several factors: seasonal events, changing salinity and exchange of water masses between the lake end the sea create variety of environmental conditions which give the possibility for many species to occur. The species richness under these specific conditions should be estimated as high, compared to the most similar Pomorie Lake, from where some 15 species are known. Zoobenthos The zoobenthic species found in the reserve are shown on Table 3, and those in the buffer zone - on Table 4. They are 7 worms, 8 molluscs, 7 crustacean and 13 insects, totally 35 species. They are also separated into two complexes. The first of them includes freshwater inhabitants at sites 1 - 3 and the eastern canal (sites 4, 17 and 18) during the spring, as well as the western canal (site 13). The second one consists of halophilic species with constant character of the bottom fauna. Among them typical for the specific conditions are some crustaceans (Corrophium, Gammarus, Sphaeroma), molluscs (Hydrobia, Cardium, Syndesmia), and the brine fly Ephydra and Chironomus salinarius. As halophilic, but occasional participants in July 1996 the marine shrimps Crangon crangon and Leander sp were noted; they are not permanent of the lake invertebrate fauna. In some of the basins along the road in the buffer zone a borrowing actinia species was also found, but not identificated. The comparison with Pomorie Lake, were about 20 benthic species are known, is again in favour of the area studied. Abundance and biomass Zooplankton Sites 2 and 3 have relatively high quantity and biomass (Table 5) and show two peaks in spring and autumn. The impressive increasing of the biomass at site 2 during the autumn is due to an outbreak of cladocera, which are much heavier than the rotifers. . Especially at site 3 the qualitative parameters are obviously lower and some depressive influence of water bloom could be supposed. What concerns site 4, its quantitative parameters were high during the spring, when the site was fresh, and suddenly decreased during the summer and afterwards; due to samples of the second year under the influence of the marine water, when the freshwater species complex was destroyed. In the brine basins the quantitative parameters have different dynamics. The changing regime of salinity is probably the most important factor. Generally, a trend of increasing of the

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salinity from spring to autumn is observed. This trend, however, starts at different levels. Most of the basins are myxohaline in the spring and develop through euhaline to hyperhaline in the autumn; some of them (sites 8, 9, 10, 11) are hyperhaline already in the summer. Site 16 is the single one that is euhaline in the spring and gets hyperhaline afterwards. From this viewpoint the trends of the quantitative development of the zooplankton in the brine basins could be better understood. There exists a general tendency of decreasing of the abundance during the summer when large quantities of rotifers are replaced by adult copepods. Again, the increased abundance is observed during the autumn due to the numerous crustacean larval forms (nauplii and copepodites). According to this type of development, the summer maximum of the biomass is easily explainable. The same tendency was also observed at the sites in the buffer zone (Table 6). The rapid decreasing of the quantity of the zooplankton at sites 17 and 18 during the summer and afterwards of 1966 is explained by the noted above influence of marine water, which is principally poorer. Zoobenthos As it could be seen on Table 7, the zoobenthos at the first sites is very poor because of various reasons: pollution (site 1), dense higher plants vegetation (site 2) or strong eutrophication (site 3). Site 4 has relatively well developed benthic community in the spring, which was totally destroyed when marine water filled the canal in the summer of 1966. This event is well illustrated by the results at sites 17 and 18 (Table 8), most probably by the same reason. In the brine basins the benthic communities are well developed. The abundance at some of the basins is up to thousands ind/m2 which should be estimated as high. Several species are constantly among the dominants (Hydrobia, Cardium and Syndesmia of molluscs prevail both in abundance and biomass). It is important to be stressed here, that the biomass given on the tables is also high, as represents the real weight of the molluscs, without their shells (which are neglected as nil trophic source, otherwise the biomass together with the shells is up to 600-600 g/m2). Conclusion •The zooplankton in the Atanasovsko Lake Reserve and its buffer zone during 1995-1996 study was represented by 34 species, and the zoobenthos - by 35. This species composition should be estimated as relatively rich when compared to the most similar Pomorie Lake, from where some 15 20, respectively, are known. •This biodiversity is due to several factors , mutually connected: seasonal events, presence of freshwater elements, mutual influence of different environmental conditions, changing level of salinity. This variety, however, mentaines the stability of the system at high level. •The sudden exchange of the environment by entering marine water is a stress for the aquatic invertebrates (also for the fish, by the way), and is followed by rapid decreasing of the quantitative values. •The zooplankton community seems to be poor, but the quantities found during the study are actually residual after a great part of it is eaten by the predators fish and so on). Having this is view, the actual production of the system should be estimated as high. The lake system is productive of zoobenthos also, which is good food supply for fish, so for waddering and diving birds, even those from other neighbouring wetlands. Acknowledgement Dr Stoitse Andreev, senior researcher at BASc, has determined several crustacean species. Mr Stefan Stoichev, postgraduate student at BASc, identificated the larvae of fam. Chironomidae . The data about salinity, as far as concerned here, are after analyses by eng.chem. Ivan Botev, BASc. Zooplankton samples in September 1996 were collected by Mr Dimitar Popov. I thank also Miss Eleonora Iotova and Miss Vera Staikova, who helped me very much during preparation of their diploma works on both communities in the reserve.

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References Âîäåíè÷àðîâ, Ä. 1964: Àòàíàñîâñêî åçåðî. - Â: Ñïðàâî÷íèê çà åçåðàòà â Áúëãàðèÿ, Òð. ÈÕÌ, ÁÀÍ, ò. 16. Âúëêàíîâ, À. 1934: Ïðèíîñ êúì õèäðîôàóíàòà íà Áúëãàðèÿ. Ñ. Âúëêàíîâ, À. 1936: Áåëåæêè âúðõó íàøèòå áðàêè÷íè âîäè. II. - Ãîä. Ñîô. Óíèâ. ò. 2. Ìàðèíîâ, Ò. 1990: Çîîáåíòîñúò îò áúëãàðñêèÿ áðÿã íà ×åðíî ìîðå. - Ñîôèÿ, èçä.ÁÀÍ. Íàéäåíîâ, Â. 1967: Õèäðîáèîëîãè÷íè ïðîó÷âàíèÿ âúðõó âîäîåìèòå íà þæíîòî ÷åðíîìîðèå è Ñòðàíäæà ïëàíèíà â Áúëãàðèÿ. - Èçâ.Çîîë.èíñò., ò. 24 Öâåòêîâ, Ë. 1955: Õèðîíîìèäíàòà ôàóíà íà áúëãàðñêèòå ÷åðíîìîðñêè åçåðà. - Èçâ. Çîîë.èíñò., ò. 4-5 Öâåòêîâ, Ë. 1958: Èçñëåäâàíèÿ âúðõó ìèêðîáåíòîñà íà ÷åðíîìîðñêèòå åçåðà. - Èçâ. Çîîë.èíñò.,ò.7 Øèøêîâ, Ã. 1909: Ìàòåðèàëè çà èçó÷àâàíå íà ñëàäêîâîäíàòà ôàóíà íà Áúëãàðèÿ. Ãîä.Ñîô.Óíèâ., ò 3-4 ßíêîâ, Ï. 1993: Àòàíàñîâñêî åçåðî. -Â: Ìè÷åâ ò. (ðåä) Íàöèîíàëåí ïëàí çà ïðèîðèòåòíè äåéñòâèÿ ïî îïàçâàíå íà íàé-çíà÷èìèòå âëàæíè çîíè íà Áúëãàðèÿ. Èçä. íà ÌÎÑ. Table 1. Species composition and (1995-1996) Taxa 1 Rotatoria Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus angularis + B. caliciflorus B. quadridentatus B. urceolaris Colurella sp Euchlanis pyriformis Filinia longiseta Hexarthra mira Keratella cochlearis K. quadrata K. valga Notholca acuminata N. labis Pleosoma hudsoni Polyarthra dolichoptera Synchaeta oblonga S. pectinata S. vorax Testudinella patina Cladocera Alona rectangula Bosmina longirostris Daphnia pulex Penilia avirostris Pleopis polyphemoides Symocephalus vetulus Copepoda Acanthocyclops robustus Acartia clausi

44

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

distribution at sites of the zooplankton in the Reserve Sites 3 4

2 +

+

5

6

+

7

8

+

10

11

+ +

+ + +

9

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ + +

+

+

+ + + + +

+ +

+ + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+ + + + +

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ + Appendix Three


Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Calanipeda aquaedulcis Centropages kroyeri Eucyclops serrulatus + + Euritemora velox Halicyclops sp Paracalanus parvus nauplii and copepodites are found at all of the sites

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ + +

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

Table 2. Species composition and distribution at sites of the zooplankton in zone (1996) Taxa Sites 12 12a 13 14 15 16 17 Rotatoria Brachionus angularis + + + B. calyciflorus + + B. urceolaris + + Colurella sp + + + + + Hexarthra mira + + + + + Keratella cochlearis + + Polyarthra dolichoptera + + + + + Synchaeta pectinata + + + + + + S. vorax + + + + + + Cladocera Bosmina longirostris + + Penilia avirostris + + + + Pleopis polyphemoides + + + + Symocephalus vetulus + Copepoda Acartia clausi + + Calanipeda aquaedulcis + + Centropages kroyeri + nauplii and copepodites are found at all of the sites

Table 3. Species composition and distribution of the zoobenthos at (1995-1996) Sites Taxa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Annelides Eiseniella tetraedra + Limnodrilus sp + + + Tubifex tubifex + + + Erpobdella octoculata + Mercierella enygmatica + + + Neanthes cuccinea + + + + Mollusca Coretus corneus + Planorbis planorbis + + P. carinata + Physa acuta + Galba sp + + Hydrobia ventrosa + + + + Cardium edule + + + + Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

+ + +

+

the buffer

18 + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

sites in the reserve

8

9

+

+ +

10

+

+ +

11

+

+ +

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Syndesmia ovata Crustacea Asellus aquaticus Corophium volutator Idothea baltica Sphaeroma serratum Gammarus subtypicus Crangon crangon* Leander sp* Insecta Notonecta glauca Sygara sp Lestes sp Atherix sp Bezzia sp Caenis horaria C. luctuosa Cloeon dipterum Tabanus sp Polypedilum aberans Chironomus riparius C. salinarius Ephydra sp * noted as presence only

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+

+ + + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ + + +

+ +

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

Table 4. Species composition and distribution of the zoobenthos at sites in the buffer zone (1996). Sites Taxa 12 12a 13 14 15 16 17 18 Polychaeta Mercierella enygmatica + + + Neanthes succinea + + + Nereis diversicolor + Mollusca Hydrobia ventrosa + + + Cardium edule + + + Syndesmia ovata + + + Planorbis planorbis + Crustacea Asellus aquaticus + Corophium volutator + + Idothea baltica + + + + Sphaeroma serratum + + + Gammarus subtypicus + + + + Insecta Ephydra sp + Chironomus salinarius + + + + + C. riparius + + + Table 5. Seasonal dynamics of the abundance N (ind/m3) and the biomass B (mg/m3) of the zooplankton in the reserve (1995-1996) Site

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Summer

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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

N 60000 14000 23400 17300 42000 11500 11000 11500 19500 21500

B 566 1480 475 318 151 160 60 63 70 129

N 42000 8000 8000

B 283 150 46

N 84000 9500 5500

B 1800 470 80

24000 33000 25000 25500 27000

274 350 324 290 334

12000 190000 40000 70000 9000 35000

51 197 144 140 69 144

Table 6. Abundance N (ind/m3) and biomass B (mg/m3) of the zooplankton in the buffer zone during 1996 May July September Site N B N B N B 12 12a 13 14 15 16 17 18

42000

83

62000 48000 32000 32000 13000 18000

843 170 53 49 27 12

73000

142

90000 70000 120000 13000 12000

218 302 240 14 13

34000 12000 49000 72000

50 6 830 111

24000 12000 14000

38 8 14

Table 7. Seasonal dynamics of the abundance n (ind/m2) and biomass B (g/m2) of the zoobenthos in the reserve (1995-1996) Site 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Spring N 44 66 44 825 7172 7770 2876 5750 11665 1144 2360

B 1 0.1 0.4 25 22 26 13 21 31 6 21

Summer N B 45 0.3 231 0.6 297 0.6 561 2.8

8354 17055 4130 10890 2442

40 32 15 23 15

Autumn N 160 214 50 249

18640 16760 11520 3900 11080

B 0.4 0.7 0.3 2.0

19 33 14 12 106

Table 8. Abundance N (ind/m2) and biomass B (g/m2) of the zoobenthos in the buffer zone during 1996 May Site 12 12a 13 14 15

N 5330

B 19

July N 12000

B 21

72 2310 2420

12 12 9

4900 7320

14 11

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

September N B 17000 29 23000 33 44 1 7040 14 Appendix Three

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16 17 18

7470 432 218

12 17 8

11100 213 170

27 8 3

14010 110 140

31 2 3

STUDY ON BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA SALINA IN ATANASOVSKO LAKE Ass. Prof. Dr. Stoitze Andreev National Nature Museum

At the second stage of investigations of Atanassovo lake 8 additional stations, located in the southern part of the lake (South salt-works) were included. Three of these stations are located at the two drainage canals and the sea water inflow close to the sea (stations 13, 17, 18). They are not included in the study of A. salina because of the water quality, which is inappropriate for its development. In the spring until the end of May the two canals are used for leading of fresh water from the lake’s surroundings into the sea. Starting from the active salt-production period sea water with a salinity of 16 - 18 %o is disgorged into the eastern canal. In both cases the water is not conductive to the development of A. salina. Working on the new task the study on stations from the previous year 1995 was continued in order to finalize an one-year cycle of the development of A. salina. The regular trials at the given stations in the South salt-works gave a high deficiency in qualitative and quantitative compound of macrobentos and a full absence of A. salina in these drainage. Isolated representatives were found only in September in some of the industrial evaporating ponds and medial canals at the crystallizators. The reasons may be in the high influence of the technological processes of the salt production on the normal flow of the hydrological processes in the lake, and following on the development of zooplancton and zoobentos. Out of doubt is the urbanization of the south-west lake coast, which takes about 30 % of the total lake coast. In view of the above mentioned circumstances the study on A. salina is limited in the northern zone of the Atanassovo lake. 1. Distribution and development of A. salina in the ponds of North Burgas salt-works In order to get a clarification of the A. salina’s development a study of the water-movement used for technological purposes of the salt production in the particular ponds of the North salt works of Burgas is necessary. In the springtime, until the end of May, they are using condensed salt water remaining from the previous technological period. By the end of May and in June sea water with a relatively low salt content from the surrounding canal is running into the pond of station 5. Water from this pond is leaded consecutively to the next ponds (separated by dikes). This are reserve evaporating ponds, where the salt content is gradually increasing - established in stations 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and so on (table 1). The higher salt content in station 9, 10, 11 and 12 in April and May is based on the filling up of these ponds with water passed the winter, as the saltiness ranges up to 24 -25 %o.

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Table 1. Salinity in Differnet Stations in Atanasovsko Lake.

April

May

July

August

September

-

-

17 17 24.1 32.66 46 50.29 76 53.55 70 58.12 46 52.24 52.90

33 36 79 78 39 -

53 47.7 90.7 78.8 54.2 147 39.06 168.96

October

Month Station 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12À

1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996 1995 1996

5.21 19.83 20.44 22.87 25.61 25.31 24.40 -

7.34 22.26 23.18 24.70 26.22 24.40 26.5 23.18

59 -

The water in these ponds before their usage for salt production in June and August is ranging a salt content of 78 %o (1995) and 58 %o (1996). The different saltiness in the two mentioned years is due to an additional inflow of sea water of lower saltiness (16-17 %o) for the purposes of the salt production. The ponds of station 10 and station 11 are basic evaporating ponds and reserve basins, whereout the water is leaded to ponds 12 and 12A (fig. 1) and then to the crystallizators. At the beginning of the vegetative period in the spring time a presence of A. salina in the reserve ponds was established for the first in relatively low quantities, reaching to 17 adult forms and 360 juvenile specimen at one liter water (L u d s k a n o v a, 1974). With raising the temperature of the water in May to 18° - 20° and the salt content’s increase in particular, which is up to 24 - 26 %o (in the ponds of stations 9, 10 and 11), a considerable increase of A. salina was established - from 300 to 458 adult specimen at one liter and from 800 to 1000 juvenile forms at one liter. In this period the female specimen are predominant - at about 90% of the total number. Most probably this fact is due to the partenogenetic reproduction, which is typical for A. salina species. The transition from normal to partenogenetic reproduction comes to be usually in the beginning of the vegetative period for a more rapid increase of the species’ quantity or at the end of the period, when the reproduction conditions are getting worse (saltiness increase, dropping of temperature and others) and a high number of hibernating eggs are released (Birstein 1968). In the summer months July, August and September an unexpected number increase is monitored, as in station 11 at 1800 adult specimen and at 1500 - 3000 juvenile specimen at one liter water were found. There is a point to note, that the species is completely missing in ponds 9 and 10 in this period despite of the relatively high salt content. At the same time, in the dried up parts of these stations an enormous number of spawn eggs was found, which remain for wintering until the next vegetative period, when the ponds are filled up again. Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

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In the summer period a transition from partenogenetic to normal reproduction was occured, as the relation between male and female specimen was 2:3. The A. salina’s quantitative spread and distribution in the particular ponds is depending on the water movement, determined by the technological processes of salt production. The water from the reserve ponds is consecutively poured through several evaporation ponds reaching to the ponds of stations 12 and 12A, where the salt content is ranging high values up to 168.9 %o. Then the technological water is leaded to the crystallizators for salt production. With this movement of water the basic mass of A. salina and the eggs keeping afloat are carried away. The intensive reproduction processes in the summer provoke the creating of an exclusive biomass of the species, ranging to 3400 specimen at one liter, which correspond to 17 gram at one liter water. This mass development is depending on the optimal conditions of temperature and salinity as well as on the flowering of some green algae species. 2. Environment influence on the brine shrimp A. salina development Literature data present Atanassovo lake as a typical hyperhaline lake with an average yearly saltiness from 40 to 60 %o (I v a n o v a n d a l. 1964). Nevertheless in the different seasons it varies to a large extend depending on the inflow of sea water (16-18 %o) and the quantity of the evaporating water. In the summer months, according to the above mentioned authors, the saltiness is reaching up to 280 %o. This fact was confirmed by our examinations. The evaporating water exceeds 10 times the lake’s volume per annum. Besides the temperature’s variety this fact has an effect on the biological processes in the lake and is influencing the appearance, the mass development and the extinction of the lake’s inhabitants. The absence of A. salina in stations no. 1 to no. 5 is based on the low salinity or the presence of fresh water in these ponds. In the beginning of the active period and under conditions of relatively low salinity - 16-17 %o a development of the brine shrimp only on a small scale is monitored. The relatively low temperature is also contributing to. The optimum temperature for the species’ development is ranging from 24° to 32°. A higher temperature could be suspensary for the reproduction processes. Reaching to these values and under more active evaporating processes in June, July and September the salt content could be up to 50, 70, 90%. These are the months of the most intensive development of the species. In this period a vigorous enlargement of the trophical basis for feeding of A. salina is monitored. As known, the phytoplancton species of different orders are the main part of the brine shrimp’s feed. In this case they are representatives of the blue-green algae (Cyanophyta), green algae (Euchlorophytina), flint algae etc. In some periods, especially in late spring and in the summer months they are causing an water flowering, which, when enormous, could be depressive for the A. salina’s development. In the active period (the summer months) the green algae are predominant, while at the end of the autumn period the flint algae are mass developed (acc. to the data for 1995-1996 by M. Stoeva, working on the programme). The intensive reproduction and spawn of eggs of A. salina is coinciding with the mass appearance and flowering of the phytoplancton, which is confirming its importance as a basic factor of the environment. The presence of abundant phytoplancton in some ponds is determining the mass development of A. salina as well. This becomes clear as compared to ponds with a lower presence of phytoplancton (stations 8 and 11) as well as to ponds with an expressed flowering (stations 9 and 10). In the last two stations an abundance of A. salina was monitored. The movement of water in the northern part is also influencing the living processes in the Atanassovo lake. For technological purposes of the salt production the ponds in the lake are filled up with sea water (saltiness 16 %o - 17 %o) every year starting by the end of May to the end of September; this water is passing a system of canals and catch water drains from pond to pond (from station 5

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to 11, 12, 12A) reaching to the crystallizators for salt extraction. With the water movement all inhabitants - phytoplancton and different organisms, among them adults and larvae of A. salina, are carried away. The larvae continue their development under higher saltiness as well. It is known, that the optimum conditions for the species are those of a salinity between 40 %o and 100 %o. Under such conditions and thanks to the relatively short period of species’ reproduction (a female is breeding 3 times a season) an enormous number of A. salina is developing in a short time. Passing to ponds with a higher salinity up to 240 %o - 260 %o the stable living processes are still kept. A hold up of the specimen moving and a mass extinction of the populations was monitored under a salinity of 340 %o only, while the reproductive processes are suppressed and stop under 170 - 180 %o (C a s p e r s, 1952). The development of the phytoplancton as a biotic factor has the most high influence on the life in the lake. This concerns especially the brine shrimp because of its main feeding basis - the phytoplancton. The rapid development of the phytoplancton under some specific conditions or water flowering could cause an oxygen deficiency, which is pernicious for the lake’s inhabitants or at least depressive for the normal development of crustaceous. On the other side with a mass perishment of phytoplancton organisms some putrefactive processes are developing, thereunder hydrogen sulphide is separated and this leads to reduction and even to disappearing of the species. This was monitored in a neighbouring pond of station 12 in September 1996. At the end of the active vegetative period in the dried up or highly dry ponds enormous concentrations of artemia eggs are occured. Usually the eggs are keeping afloat, drifted by winds and streams. Under the conditions of Atanassovo lake after drying up of the ponds they are usually found southern leeward, drifted by the predominating north and north-east wind. These are “hybernating” eggs, which are initiating the development of new A. salina’s generations despite of the tremendous conditions with the coming spring. A conclusion on the quantity of the spawn eggs can be made following the quantity of eggs collected for commercial purposes, which have reached up to 60 - 80 kg a season in previous years. 3. Higher crustacea as concomitant organisms in A. salina’s development During the period of study higher crustacea of orders Amphipoda, Isopoda and Decapoda were collected. I received materials for determination from the hydrobological investigations of Stanoy Kovachev. Following species were determined: Gammarus aequicanda, Gammarus subtypicus and Corophium volutator from order Amphipoda, Idothea baltica basteri and Sphaeroma serratum from order Isopoda as well as two shrimp species - Palaemon serratus and P. elegans from order Decapoda. The species from order Amphipoda vary in their representation during the particular periods of the year and in specific lake’s ponds. The species Gammarus subtypicus is predominant in ponds with a relatively low salinity and was found with A. salina in ponds no. 9 and 10, however its number was less than in stations 5 and 6, where up to 246 representatives at one square meter (1995) were found. A similar picture was monitored in the second phase of the study as well. In 1996 in stations 7, 8 and 9 parallel with the above mentioned species the species G. aequicanda was found; its number deviates in ponds 9 and 10 and is enormous in station 7 and the passing to station 8. There a number of 1600 representatives at one square meter was found. The common fact for both species is their missing in stations with a salinity above 80 - 90 %o. These are sea species, sustaining well the higher salinity under the conditions of Atanassovo lake. The species Gammarus aequicanda is able to resist a relatively low salinity - up to 8 %o. The species Corophium volutator is a typical inhabitant of brackish water and coastal lakes. It is a species among the most adaptable for living in salt-works. It is one of the most often founded representatives in stations 8, 9 and 10 in all periods of investigations. It is missing in ponds with a higher salinity, i.e. station 12A, where A. salina is only presented.

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The two species from order Isopoda Idothea baltica basteri and Sphaeroma serratum are typical sea inhabitants from the Black Sea coast and persistent represented species in Atanassovo lake in relatively limited number. They were found in stations 8, 9 and 10. In the current year after inflow of sea water in the surrounding canal of the lake three species representing the order Decapoda were found: Palaemon serratus and Palaemon elegans of family Palaemonidae and Crangon crangon of family Crangonidae. Tha species Crangon crangon was found in station 4 in the north-east zone of the lake. The remaining two species were found in station 17 next to the inflow from the sea. They can not be seen as persistent representatives of the lake’s fauna, but even as accidentally got there with sea water inflow. They are usually bound to coastal water covered with different species of algae. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The species A. salina is one of the most often represented inhabitants of the lake. The specific character of the hyperhaline lake is offering good conditions for the species’ development. This and the remaining species with a relatively poor qualitative content are providing a reliable feeding source for other inhabitants. Conditions for keeping a feeding chain for the fish population and the birds inhabiting the lake are established. • The favourable conditions of growth of A. salina in the northern zone of Atanassovo lake, where from particular areas a tenfold of tones biomass could be collected, are a good ground for its usage for commercial purposes. A. salina could be used for the purposes of the artificial fish breeding - for feeding of newly breeded fishes without any special means and efforts. • Following the experience of specialists from Russia and Ukraine (G u n k o , A., P l e s k a t s h e v s k a j a, T. 1962, K o p e z, V. 1970, K o t o v a L., I v a n o v A. 1969, T s c h e r n o m o s h e n z e v , A. M u c h a c h e v , N. 1970) some actions concerning the building of special artificial breeding ponds for A. salina as well as to the industrial treatment and conservation of eggs should be effected. This could be a possibility for serious profits in addition to the salt production. The A. salina’s eggs are an especially valuable product requested by the international market, which is also a good source of additional profits. • The lake is an object of substantial importance for an intensive salt production. Under the existing conditions of the North salt-works of Burgas for the time being a balance between the existing production and the flow of the biological processes in the lake is found. • In view of the exclusive importance of Atanassovo lake as a phenomenon of nature with exclusively rich bird fauna one of the most substantial future tasks is to keep that balance between the technological processes and the natural development of the organisms’ life in the lake. Each breach of the lake’s hydrological regime and the overgrown in its surrounding could be of fatal consequences for the flora and fauna of the lake. One of the main recommendations would be to prevent new construction and undertakings, which could destroy the hydrological regime increasing the saltiness of the particular ponds, especially in the northern part of the lake. It is not easy to foresee the consequences, but for comparison the southern part of Atanassovo lake - the South salt-works of Burgas - could be taken. As a result of the intensive using of this part of the lake and of the urbanization along the south-west coast the fauna is strongly reduced, many species are disappeared. The presence of A. salina in quantities similar to those in the northern ponds couldn’t be established. For the lake’s protection the criteria of protected territories and preserves should be applied, in conformity with the former conditions of the salt production, which will not destroy the normal biological processes in the lake. •

References Bistein, J. 1968. Jizn Zivotnich, Moskau. Caspers, H. 1952. Untersuchungen über die Tierwelt von Meeres salinen an der Bulgarischen Küste des Schwarzen Meeres. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 148, 5-8, 243-259.

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Chichkov, G. 1912. Contribution à l’étude de la faune de la Mer Noire. Arch. Zool. exp. et gen. t.10. Notes et Revue, no. 2, p. 29-39. Davis, J. 1980. Experiences with Artemia at solar saltworks. The Brine Shrimp Artemia. 1980. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Agriculture. Universal Press. Wetteren, Belgium, 456 p. Gunko, D., Pleskatshevskaja, T. 1962. Resultati ispolsovania Artemia salina L. v katchestve korma pri virashtitivania molodi ossetrovich v kruglich basseinach. - Voprosi ichtiologii, 2, 371-374. Ivanov, K., Rozdestvenski, A., Vodenitcharov, D. 1964. Ezerata v Bulgaria. -Trudove po Hydrologia i Meteorologia. t. XVI. Kopez, V. 1970. Konservatsia jaiz artemii. Ribnoe chosjaistvo, 46, 3, 16-19. Kotova, L., Ivanov, A. 1969. Sagotovka i ispolsovanie artemii. Ribnoe chosjaistvo,45,4,92-93 Ludskanova, J., Joschev, L. 1972. Die Anzucht von Artemia salina als Pflanzenfressennahrung. Z. Binnenfischerei, 19, 117-131. Ludskanova, J. 1974. Die Entwicklung von Artemia salina L. in den Teichen der Salzgarten von Burgas und Pomorie. Arch. Hydrobiologie, t. 74, 4, 473-478. Morduchaj-Boltovskoj, Kobhjakova, Z., Kussakin, O., Greze, I. 1969. Guide to the faune of the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. Kiev. Tschernomoshenzev, A., Muchetshev, N. 1970. Ispolsovanie artemii is vodoemov v katshestve korma dlia rib. Ribnoe chosjaistvo, t. 46, 6, 21-22. Valkanov, A. 1934. Prinos kam hydrofaunata na Bulgaria. 1-32 (Ed. Privat).

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THE ICHTHYOFANA OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE D.Biol. Dimitar Popov Institute of Zoology at Blgarian Academy of Sciences

The ichtyofauna of the reserve has not been studied so far probably because of the industrial production of salt. This production began in 1912, and was intensified since 1922. Such an activity gives to the area special character in hydrobiological meaning. Beeng separated into large number of evaporating and crystalizing basins with various salinity (from 0.12 %o to 168 %o) the water surface together with the canals is a complex system of waterbodies wich makes impossible the formation of a stable faunistic ichtiological complex. The great difference in the environmental conditions, and first of all the salinity, act during the different seasons and is an additional obstacle against the formation of rich of species fish fauna. Quantitatively, however, the eurybiont species like the caucasian gobby Knipowitschia caucasica and the speaclebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pungitius platigaster develop in mass. Abbundant development is observed also of the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis holbrooki, introduced in this country in 1924. This species is freshwater, but tolerate salinity up to 7 - 8 %o, and is found in the northern canal along the brine basins. At the north-western part of the reserve there is a late quarry full with freshwater where the golden fish Carassius auratus gibelio is abundant, and the carp Cyprinus carpio develops also in much smaller quantity. All of the species mentioned are able to reproduce in the reserve. In the large evaporating basins with salinity between 5 to 60 %o the caucasian gobby and both species of speacklebeck are permanent inhabitants; besides them mugilid species enter during the summer by the marine water and remain there because the available food. This was the practice in the past, when fishermen traped young fish along the coast and replaced them in the brine basins for fattening. Some 40 t of fish anually were produced in this way in the Pomorie Lake. In the eastern part of the canal that connects the brine basins with the sea, some marine species occure; they are not so important in the faunistic complex of the reserve. The qualitative and the relative quantitative characteristics of the ichtyofauna is shown on table 1. During the two years of study mass mortality of fish was observed in the canal and some of the brine basins, obviously connected with the sudden exchange of the salinity when marine water entered. As an example, in site 10 in July 1996 a spot of dead fish was observed with a lenght of about 100 m along the shore, consisted of gobby and speackleback in ratio about 10 to 1. About 6000 individuals per m2 were numbered. A conclusion could be made tha both species form an abundant stock and are important food recource for the fish eating birds. The same event was observed also in the canal between the sea and the sluice to sites 1 and 2. In this place, however, the mosquito fish was the victim. In the northern part of the canal, where the water is constantly fresh, such mortality was not observed. An approximate estimation of the trophic value of the fish populations could be made knowing the food spectrum of the fish consuming bird species, that are constant or temporal inhabitants of the reserve,, and also the measures of the fish and their habitats. The speackleback and the mosquito fish have similar lenght, up to 50-60 mm, the gobby is smaller and is rather mesobenthic species. The mugilids and the cyprinids are larger and pelagic; so they are the food for large and typical fish consumers as pelicans, cormorants and herons are. In this aspect of the matter, a reccomendation could be made about additional increasing of the fish stock in the larger basins by introducing of young individuals of mugilid spesies, which would improve the food ensurancy of the pelicans, for example. In the freshwater part of the canal grass carp could be introduced to press the higher water vegetation, and on the other hand, would increase the trophic source of the larger fish consuming birds.The quarry in the north-western part of the reserve is also of interest. Ground waters with low salinity (2 %o) collect there. The natural process of formation of the fish fauna by eggs beeng transported on the legs of the birds could be speeded up by artificial

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introduction of fish; the constant inhabitants of the reserve are suitable: gold fish, mosquito fish, carp and speackleback. An introduction of predatory species would improve the trophic relationships in the ecosystem. The most suitable species are the native in the area pikeperch Styzostedion lucioperca, the perch Perca fluviatilis and the native, occuring in the past Styzostedion volgensis. Table 1. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the ichtyofauna in the “Atanasovsko Lake” Reserve (1- primary freshwater, 2- primary marine, 3- constant inhabitants of the reserve, 4- reproducing in the basins of the reserve, 5- relative quantity at five degree scale, 6included in the Red boock). Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cyprinidae Carassius auratus gibelio Cyprinus carpio

+ +

+ +

Atherinidae Atherina boyery

+

Gasterosteidae Gasterosteus aculeatus Pungitius platigaster

+ +

Gobiidae Knipowitschia caucasica Neogobius melanosthomus

+ +

Poecilidae Gambusia affinis holbrooki

+

+

3 1

1

+ +

4 3

+ +

+

+

5

+

+

+

5

Blennidae Parablennius sanguinoleatus

+

1

Sygnathidae Sygnathus typeargentatus

+

1

Mugilidae Mugil cephalus Lisa aurata Lisa saliens

+ + +

+ + +

2 2 2

References Áåðã, Ë. 1949. Ð.á. ïðåñí,õ âîä ÑÑÑÐ è ñîïðåäåëí,õ ñòðàí. Èçä. ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ. Âúëêàíîâ, À. 1936. Ïîìîðèéñêîòî åçåðî â ðèáîñòîïàíñêî îòíîøåíèå. - Ðèáàðñêè ïðåãëåä, êí.5. Ãåîðãèåâ, Æ. 1967. Âèäîâ ñúñòàâ íà èõòèîôàóíàòà íà áúëãàðñêèòå ÷åðíîìîðñêè åçåðà. Èçâ. ÍÈÐÑÎ Âàðíà, ò. 8. Äðåíñêè, Ï. 1951. Ðèáèòå â Áúëãàðèÿ (Ôàóíà íà Áúëãàðèÿ, ò. 2). Êàðàïåòêîâà, Ì., Ì. Æèâêîâ 1995. Ðèáèòå â Áúëãàðèÿ, Ñ. Êîáëèöêàÿ, À. 1981 Îïðåäåëèòåëü ìîëîä, ïðåñíîâîäíèõ ðèá. Ì.

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A CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Dipl.Biol. L. Profirov,Dipl.Biol. M. Dimitrov, Spec. K. Niagolov Ministry of Environment and Waters

Atanasovsko lake has been declared as nature reserve in 1980 with total area of 1050 ha in the north part .The south part of the lake and surrounding territory of north part was established as buffer zone in 1981 with area of 900 ha. The present checklist includes information about breeding, migrating ,wintering and cross passing of birds in the reserve, buffer zone and coast in front of the lake. The data for compiling of the present checklist has been gathered from the following sources: 1. Available ornithological literature for Atanasovsko lake and Burgas region after 1976 . 2. Unpublished information of authors for the period after 1978 . 3. Midwinter counts of waterfowl for the period 1977 - 1995 4. Autumn migration investigations 10 August - 30 October for the period 1979 - 1993 . The list follows the sequence and scientific nomenclature of the Birds of Western Palearctic. Acknowledgments . The authors would like to thank to all members of teams for midwinter counts and autumn migration investigations especially to Assoc.Prof. Tanyo Michev for his hard work in collecting of data during many years. Results. The checklist of all bird species of Atanasovsko lake is given on table 1 (this table as well the next one can be found in Appendix 1 to the Management plan of Atanasovsko lake). As is shown, the number of birds , registered there is 296 or 75 % of all bird species in Bulgaria . 62 species of them are breeding. So Atanasovsko lake is on first place in Bulgaria according richness of bird species. Roberts (1981) gives 214 species, recorded for Atanasovsko lake ( 38 breeding, with 28 more suspected). Waterhouse (1988) includes in his Checklist of the Birds of Atanasovsko lake 244 species ( 50 breeding ) . As it could be seen from the second table, the birds of Atanasovsko lake have following conservation features : 255 species from all 296 for Atanasovsko lake are declared as protected according the Nature Conservation Law. 86 species from all 100 birds included in Bulgarian Red Data Book are registered in Atanasovsko lake: 29 of them are rare, 52 are threatened and 5 - extinct as breeding. 7 rare and 11 threatened species are breeding in Atanasovsko lake. 17 species cover Ramsar numerical criteria for wetlands with international importance - 3 as breeding (Recurvirostra avosetta, Sterna sandvicensis and Gelochelidon nilotica) and 14 as migrating or wintering. 102 species registered in Atanasovsko lake are included in Corine biotopes project (16 of them as breeding). 170 species are included in 4 BirdLife Spec. categories : • Species of global conservation Concern ( Spec. 1) - 13 species; • Concentrated in Europe with unfavorable conservation status (Spec. 2) - 20 species; • Not Concentrated in Europe but with unfavorable conservation status (Spec. 3) - 78 species; • Concentrated in Europe and with favorable conservation status (Spec. 4) - 59 species. 283 species are with the following European threat status according to BirdLife: Endangered (E) - 16 species Declining (D) - 32 species Vulnerable (V) - 43 species Localized (L) 7 species Rare ( R) - 13 species Secure ( S) - 172 species

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183 migrating species are included in Bon Convention: 4 - in Appendix I and 179 in Appendix II. All these data clearly show the great regional and international conservation importance of Atanasovsko lake. References Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1978. Anas clypeata ( L.) - breeding bird in Atanasovsko Lake.Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4 , 199-203. Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1979. - The Biology of Charadrius alexandrinus in Bulgaria. Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 17, 4, 111-123. Darakchiev, A., D. Nankinov. 1979. - Oomorhological Research of three Species of Waders (Recurvirostra avosetta L. , Charadrius alexandrinus L., Himantopus himantopus L. in Bulgaria Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 17, 4, 125-138. Georgiev, J. 1976. The Birds of Black Sea Coast between Bourgas and Varna.- Terrestrial Fauna of Bulgaria. Materials, Sofia, BAS, 261-286 . . Grossler, K.1967. Faunistische Notizen von der Scwazmeerkuste Bulgariens.- Larus, XIX, 212-234. Michev, T. 1984. Ecological Investigations of Autumn Migration of Soaring Birds in Atanasovsko Lake. Inst. of Ecology, 350 p.(manuscript) . Michev, T., B.Ivanov, L. Profirov. Midwinter Numbers of Water Birds in Bulgaria . (in prep.) Michev,T., V. Pomakov, D. Nankinov, B. Ivanov.1981. Wetlands of international importance in Bulgaria.- In: Proceed of Reg. Symp. under Project 8-MAB, Blagoevgrad, 20-24.10.1980, Sofia, BAS, 448-462. Michev, T., L. Profirof. 1986. Investigations of autumn migration of nonsoaring birds over Bourgas Bay . - In: Proceedings of Intern.Symp ,Srebarna, 8 - 12.10.1984, Sofia, BAS, 1985, 176 185. Michev, T., P. Simeonov, 1981. Studies on the Autumn Migration of Some Waterfowl and Birds of Pray near Burgas (13 - 23.IX.1978).-Ecology, 8, Sofia, BAS. Michev, T., S. Simeonov.1985. Changes in Bird Fauna of Bulgaria over last Thirty Five Years (19501984). - In: Inter Symp."Protection of natural areas and the genetic fund they contain .-Project No 8 on the programme MAN and Biosphere" MAB, UNESCO, 23-28.09., Blagoevgrad, Collection of reports, S., BAS, 203- 217. Nankinov, D.1977. The structure of the Ornithofauna of Atanasovski Lake. - Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 15, 4 , 97-103 p. Nankinov, D.1992.Check List of Bird Species and Subspecies in Bulgaria.- Avocetta, 16, 1-17 Nankinov, D.1989.The Status of Waders in Bulgaria.- Wader Study Group Bull., England, 56, 16 - 25. Nankinov, D. 1992. Big flocks of Flamingoes ( Phoenicopterus ruber) in Bulgaria. - Ornith.Mitt. 44 , 4, 102 p . Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1977. The Structure of the Ornithofauna of Atanasovsko lake - May 1978 . - Scint.publ. of Plovdiv Univers. “P.Hilendarski”, Plovdiv, 15, 4 , 97 - 103 .(in bulg.). Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev .1978. The population of Recurvirostra avosetta (L.) in Bulgaria Localisation, Numbers, Breeding Biology.- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4 , 165-186. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev .1978.Habitats and Breeding Biology of Himantopus himantopus L.) in Bulgaria.- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 16, 4, 187-198. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Distribution and Ecology of Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin in Bulgaria. .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 103-120. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Discovering a nest of Anas acuta and some comments on its range .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 121-129

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Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1980. Biology of Sterna albifrons Pallas in Bulgaria .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 18, 4 , 131-152. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1981. Phenicopterus roseus Pall. in Bulgaria .- Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 19, 4 , 209-212. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1982..Emberiza pusilla Pallas 1776 in Bulgaria. Scientific Papers of Plovdiv University “ P. Hilendarski”, 20, 4 , 233-237. Nankinov, D., A. Darakchiev.1983. .Emberiza rustica Pallas in Bulgaria .- Acta Zoologica Bulgarica , BAS, Sofia, 23 , 54 - 56. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova.1981. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, BAS, Sofia, 7, 1132. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1984. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, 8, 1 - 167. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1986. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringing Centre, 9, 1 - 145. Nankinov, D., M. Djingova, S.Schimanova.1989. Bulletin Bird Banding. Bulgarian Ringin Centre, 10, 1 - 110. Nankinov, D., S. Kirilov, K. Popov .1989. Encountering the Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis, 1858) in Bulgaria for the First Time .- Larus,40, 163-166. Nankinov, D., K. Popov, S. Kirilov .1996. Dunnschnabelmove Larus genei -neuer brutvogel an Schwarzmeerkuste.- Limicola ,10, 199 - 201 . Naydenov, Chr.1997. Hydrology and hydrography of Atanasovsko Lake.- In: Michev, T.(ed). 1997. Ecology and Conservation of Atanasovsko Lake Nature Reserve-. Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Experts, BSBCP, Sofia . Njagolov, K. 1990. The Citrine Wagtail (Motacila citreola Pallas, 1776 ) - a new species for Bulgaria. - Acta Zool. Bulg., 40, Sofia. Njagolov, K. 1988 Report for the work at Lake Atanassovsko Reserve for the period of 1.12.19871.12.1988.( Manuscript) . Petkoff, St., 1919. Materials on the algal flora of Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. - Spis. BAN (Sofia), XVII, 8: 25 - 135 (in Bulgarian). Petkoff, St., 1932. Sur la flore algologique de la Mer Noire. - Bull. Soc. Bot. Bulg. (Sofia), V. Profirov, L. 1981. Autumn Migration of Soaring Birds along the Black Sea Coast and in the vicinity of Atanasovsko Lake.- Diplom paper (manuscript). Profirov, L. 1987 . Characteristic Features of Soaring Birds of Order Falconiformes during the Autumn Migration in the Vicinities of Atanasovsko Lake near Burgas. - Contemporary Achievments of Bulgarian Zoology.- Sofia, BAS, 151-154. Profirov, L. 1987. Investigations on Migration of Order Falconiformes in the vicinity of Atanasovsko Lake.- Coll.of Reports of Intern. Symp. , Srebarna, 10-12.10.1984 , Sofia , BAS. Profirov, L., M. Dimitrov, K. Niagolov. 1995. A Check List of the Birds of Atanasovsko lake. - In: Michev, T. (ed) . 1995 . Project “Atanasovsko lake”. Collection of prelim. reports of experts, BSBCP. Prostov, A. 1964 . Izuchavane na ornitofaunata v Burgasko.-Bull. Inst. Zool. Acad.Sci.Bulg. 15: 568. Robel D., D. Konigstedt, H. Muller. Zur Kennthis der Avifauna Bulgarien. -Beitr. Vogelkde., 1978, 24, No 4, 193-225. Roberts, J.1981. A contributon of the Avifauna of lake Atanasovsko, Burgas.Regional Symp. under Project 8 - MAB - UNESCO, 20 - 24 October, 1980 - Blagoevgrad, Proceedings, Sofia, BAS. Rose, P. 1992. Western Palearctic Waterfowl Census. IWRB. Rose, P. 1993. Western Palearctic and South West Asia Waterfowl Census. IWRB. Scott, D. A. & Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae Populations in Africa and Western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publications No 41, Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 336 p. Simeonov , P. 1986. Thalasseus sandvicensis (Lath.) - a Nidificant Species in Bulgaria.- Acta Zool.Bulg., 30, Bulg. Acad.of Sci., Sofia.

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Simeonov, S., T. Michev, D. Nankinov. 1989. Fauna of Bulgaria , v. 20. Sofia, BAS , 350 Simeonov, S.,T. Michev, P. Simeonov. 1981. Materials on the Nesting Distribution and the Diet of the Barn Owl , Tyto alba Scopoli in Bulgaria. - Ecology, Sofia , 8, 49 - 54 p. Waterhouse, M. 1989. Sabatical to Bulgaria 1988. RSPB (Manuscript) , 1 - 24 . Wilson, A. M., M. Moser. 1994. Conservation of Black Sea Wetlands. A Review and Preliminary Action Plan. IWRB, Techn. Publ. No 33. * * * Red Data Book of Bulgaria.v. 1, BAS, Sofia, 1984, 1 - 447. * * *. Red Data Book of Bulgaria.v. 2 , BAS, Sofia , 1985, 1 - 184.

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STUDY OF THE MAMMALIAN FAUNA OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Vladimir Stefanov Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology Sofia University "St Kl. Ohridski"

S I m e o n o v , M I c h e v , S I m e o n o v (1981) had found 11 species rodents, 5 species insectivorous and 2 species bats (table 1) in food diet of Barn owl (Tyto alba), nesting in the building in the nearest vicinity of the lake. Later P o p o v , N I j a g o l o v (1991) had reported a find of a pygmy white-toothed shrew (Suncus etruscus) on a dike in the lake. After V o h r a l I k (1985) it is the second announcement about the existence of this species in Bulgaria. In the framework of the project in the autumn of 1995 I have investigated the mammalian species composition (except bats) and I have established their status in the reserve and its buffer zone. The primary list of mammalian species is as follows (table 1): Table 1. Species composition of mammalian fauna of the Reserve “Atanasovsko lake� and adjacent areas.

Species

Crocidura leucodon Cr. Russula Cr. Suaveolens Suncus etruscus Neomys fodiens Talpa europaea Erinaceus concolor Plecotus sp. Nyctalus noctula Lepus europaeus Spermophilus citellus Muscardinus avellanarius Micromys minutus Apodemus sylvaticus Ap.flavicollis Ap. Agrarius

60

Based on literature data Simeonov et 1981 Simeonov et 1981 Simeonov et 1981 Popov, Nijagolov,1991 Simeonov et 1981 Simeonov et 1981

Based on inquiry Reserve Adjacent areas

al.,

Personal data Reserve +

Adjacent areas +

al., al.,

+

+

al., al.,

+ +

Simeonov et al., 1981 Simeonov et al., 1981 + +

+ Simeonov 1981 Simeonov 1981 Simeonov 1981 Simeonov 1981 Simeonov 1981

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

et al., et al., et al.,

+

+

et al., et al.,

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Mus musculus Mus spicilegus Rattus rattus Rattus norvegicus Microtus arvalis M. rossiaemeridionalis M. guentheri Arvicola terrestris

Simeonov et al., 1981 +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + +

+ +

Simeonov et al., 1981 Simeonov et al., 1981 Simeonov et al., 1981 Simeonov et al., 1981 Simeonov et al., 1981

Canis aureus Vulpes vulpes Nictereutes procyonoides Felis silvestris Mustela nivalis Putorius putorius Martes foina Lutra lutra Sus scrofa Wandering dogs Domestic cats

+

+ + +

+ + + + +

Five species of small mammals were captured on the trap lines: Easteuropean vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), domestic mouse (Mus sp.), wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus ), bi-coloured white-tooted shrew (Crocidura leucodon) and Lesser white-tooted shrew (Crocidura suaveolens). Data of their territorial distribution and relative abundance are represented in table 2. Table 2. Territorial distribution and relative abundance of small mammals (number of animals per 100 traps/24 hours) determined by the method of trap lines Relative abundance Place 1

Plant community Agropirum intermedium

6

Lolium perennae

7

Festuca pratensis Lolium perennae Typha angustifolia Festuca pratensis

8 9

Species Apodemus sylvaticus Crocidura leucodon Mus sp. Apodemus sylvaticus Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Crocidura leucodon -

-

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Apodemus sylvaticus Mus spicilegus

July 2

October

3 6.7 1.2 2.2 0.7 0 10 9.4 Appendix Three

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

14 2

3

4

5

10

11

12 13

Lolium perennae Poa silvicola Cynodon dactylon Festuca pseudovina Agropyrum intermedium

Suedamaritima Artemisia maritima Chenopodium Argyropirum intermedium Artemisia maritima Festuca pseudovina Agropyrum intermedium

Apodemus sylvaticus Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Mus spicilegus Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Cr. Leucodon Crocidura suaveolens

-

3.1 10 1 1

4.2 6.7

6 3 0

5.1 3.3

0 -

Sueda maritima Chenopodium botris with areas of Salicornia europaea Argyropirum intermedium Artemisia maritima Phragmites australis Sueda maritima Artemisia maritima Chenopodium

Mus spicilegus Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Crocidura leucodon Mus spicilegus

Crocidura leucodon

Cr. Leucodon Crocidura suaveolens Apodemus sylvaticus

0 1.25

2.7 3. 3

0

2.0 4.0

13.3

12 4 10

Remark: The plant communities are determined by V. Velev (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) The quantitative accounts carried out by the route method (based on the frequency of mammalians burrows per area unit of agricultural lands and natural cover) in October showed: • small mammals were not found in the areas with barley; • 1 - 2 vole’s colonies per decare in old alfalfa areas; • in place 14 (plant community Poa sylvicola - Cynodon dactylon) 10 vole’s colonies per decare (in a ratio 3 inhabitable and 7 uninhabitable colonies). The relative abundance had been determined to be - 10 animals per 100 traps/24 hours. • in abandoned field near the Pump station No 7 - 10 animals per 100 traps/24 hours. • In the areas adjacent to the reserve the presence of European souslik (Spermophilus citellus )had been established. Three colonies of this species had been localized. Generally, the established species of macromammalia are popular of the country and are interesting mainly as a part of the ecosystem of the reserve and/or as a food base for predators. The following three species are of particular interest from the point of view of protection of species diversity: Pygmy white-toothed shrew (Suncus etruscus). In the course of our investigations we were not able to registrate this species, which may be dependent on the uneffectivity of the

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

traps used. In literature up to now there is an announcement about two site of this species in Bulgaria. One of them is in “Atanasovsko lake”. Gunther’s vole (Microtus guentheri). The species was not established neither with capture with traps, neither by following the traces of the living activity (colonies). Its existence had been established only by studying pelets of the Barn owl. If an existence of a permanent population would be confirmed, it would be interesting as a most north-eastern habitat. European souslik (Spermophilus citellus). It is widely spread in Bulgaria and is not considered to be endangered. In the last two decades this species reduced in abundance. It is accompanied with a reduction in number of its habitat. That is why a more precise attention and care are required for its survival. The species is included in the Bern convention ratified by Bulgaria (State gazette, No 23, 1995). Data received during the investigation allow us to consider that only three species of big mammals permanently occur in the reserve and the adjacent areas: fox, weasel and wild boar. Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Based on inquiry data and personal investigation it had been established 3 inhabits of fox burrows during 1995. In two of them there were litters. One of these inhabits was in the territory of the reserve. The other one, out of its boundaries, was destroyed by the natives, when the young were blind. Later the adults left this burrow. But in October a new one was found in a 50 m distance. In the previous year in the region around the reserve, there were 3 fox burrows, according to inquiry data. Weasel (Mustela nivalis) It had been observed permanently by workers in the Salinas. The traces had been registered on the dikes in and also out of the lake. Based on the frequency of the registrated traces it can be supposed that weasel permanently persists in the reserve and in the adjacent areas in small numbers (within the boundaries of the lake, in northern direction to dike A.O.í., no more than 2-3 animals in October). Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Generally, the inquiry data show the persistence of relatively large number of wild boar during the previous year. They inhabited the west parts of the reserve, covered with reed. During October 1995, studying the traces on the dikes in the lake, allows us to conclude that there were no more than 3 - 4 animals. Additionally, holding an inquiry among natives showed that at the present moment this species is absent from the reserve. It have to be mentioned also, that according to local people , in the previous year domestic pigs had been allowed out to feed and often entered the territory of the reserve. The observations did not indicate the presence of the other species. We have only inquiry data about their single appearance in the previous years. In 1995 some jackals were reported by hunters in the far North-west direction from the Reserve. It is important for the management of the reserve to get information not only about the wild species, but also about wandering dogs and domestic cats. Wandering dogs: Domestic dogs, entering the reserve. Real wandering dogs. During October there was only one case of entering of dogs in the vicinity of Pump station No 7. But we have to mention that in the buffered zone in the region of industrial factories, salinas, buildings and also around the sheep-pen and pig-pen in the North-west direction of the lake all natives have dogs. As a rule, they have the possibility to enter the buffer zone and the reserve itself. We had observed a group of 7 wandering dogs, which regularly • •

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

wander in the Northern part of the reserve (buffer zone). Single wandering dogs had been also registered in the western buffer zone. Domestic cats Their status is analogous to that of the wandering dogs. In the reserve traces and animals were observed in the region of Pump station N 7. The wandering dogs and domestic cats (together with fox and wild boar) are permanent negative factor for survival of birds in the reserve, especially in the period of their nesting. That’s why they need more attention and in this connection we recommend intensive control, including: • Reglamentation of supporting dogs in the buffer zone and in the adjacent areas. • Capture of wandering dog in the safeguard zone. • The local people have to be informed about the state of the reserve, measures of precaution against dogs and their obligations to protect the reserve. Every domestic dog must to have neckpiece with a registration number, otherwise it would be considered as a wandering one. • Forfeits for dogs, which have entered the area of the reserve. In order to protect the rare and threatened mammalians, attention have to be paid to the following species: Otter - to create suitable conditions for habitat. European souslik - to take care for protecting the species in the region of the reserve. Pygmy white-toothed shrew and Gunther’s vole - additional and purposeful investigations to elucidate their status in the reserve and adjacent territories. Some measures are needed to reduce the negative influence of beast mammalians on the abundance of birds, especially in the period of their reproduction. This could be realized by artificially reducing their access in places of birds nesting and/or by active control of their abundance. In this connection a particular attention have to be paid to fox, wild boar, wandering dogs and domestic cats. References Äîáðîõîòîâ, Á.Ï., Ìàëûãèí, Â. Ì. ,1982 - Ïðèìåíåíèå ýëåêòðîôîðåçà ãåìîãëîáèíîâ äëÿ èäåíòèôèêàöèè ñåðûõ ïîëåâîê Microtus ãðóïïû arvalis , Rodentia, Cricetidae. Çîîë. æóðí., ò. 61, â. 3, ñ. 436 - 439. Êîëè, Ã. ,1979 - Àíàëèç ïîïóëÿöèé ïîçâîíî÷íûõ, Ì. , “Ìèð”., ñ. 1-362. Ìàéåð, Ì. Í. è äð., 1972 - Ê íîìåíêëàòóðå 46- è 54- õðîìîñîìíûõ ïîëåâîê òèïà Microtus arvalis Pall. Çîîë. æóðí.. , ò.51, â. 1, ñ. 157-161. Ñèìåîíîâ, Ñ. Ä. , Ìè÷åâ, Ò. Ì. , Ñèìåîíîâ, Ï. Ñ. , 1981 - Ìàòåðèàëè âúðõó ãíåçäîâîòî ðàçïðîñòðàíåíèå è õðàíèòåëíèÿ ñïåêòúð íà çàáóëåíàòà ñîâà (Tyto alba (Scopoli)) â Áúëãàðèÿ. Åêîëîãèÿ, N 8, ñ. 49 - 54. Popov, V. V. , Nijagolov, K. K. , 1991 - A new record of Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Mammalia, Soricidae) from Bulgaria.- Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 41, ð. 69 - 71 Vohralik, V. , 1985 - Notes on the distribution and the biology of small mammals in Bulgaria (Insectivora, Rodentia). I. - Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. (1981), ð. 445 - 561.

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Bulgarian - Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF ATANASOVSKO LAKE Collection of Final Scientific Reports of Atanasovsko Lake, Sofia , 1997

Management Plan of Atanasovsko Lake

Appendix Three

65

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