Title: Write And Connect - Book 1 © 2013 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Ireland Author: Margaret Warner
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Contents Teachers' Notes Punctuation Grammar
4 5 6
Choices Examining A Narrative Check The Text Edit And Proofread Plan A Narrative Review Your Writing
Buy Australian Made
16 17 18 19 20
23 24 25 26 27
Mountain Biking Examining An Explanation Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan An Explanation Review Your Writing
Team Player V Couch Potato Examining A Discussion Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan A Discussion Review Your Writing
Examining A Report Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan A Report Review Your Writing
9 10 11 12 13
The Great Houdini Examining A Biography Check The Text Constructing Sentences Plan A Biography Review Your Writing
Bermuda Triangle Mystery
30 31 32 33 34
Examining An Exposition Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan An Exposition Review Your Writing
Examining A Description Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan A Description Review Your Writing
37 38 39 40 41
44 45 46 47 48
51 52 53 54 55
Examining A Report Check The Text 1 Check The Text 2 Plan A Report Review Your Writing
58 59 60 61 62
Teachers’ Notes Write and Connect - Book 1 is written for lower secondary students who are struggling to keep up with their peers. Researchers and teachers know that students' written literacy skills improve as they write more often and experience successes. It is important to remember that secondary students experiencing difficulty with writing must be retaught basic written literacy skills that they may have had difficulty processing in earlier years. When they acquire these skills, they will begin to gain confidence with their writing. Students at lower secondary level who are not writing confidently at their expected level of competency are more likely to engage with interesting texts that teach them about the writing process. In Write and Connect - Book 1, students will engage with a range of texts that are likely to be of interest to them and will complete language activities related to these texts. How you could use the book:
model effective writing strategies and discuss the writing process as you compose a text or discuss a written text;
discuss the topic knowledge, awareness of intended audience and the purpose of a particular piece of writing;
actively teach the technicalities of writing, e.g. sentence construction, complex sentences, paragraphing, vocabulary development, spelling, text coherence, editing and proofreading skills;
encourage students to work with a partner or group to develop their ability to discuss and then improve their writing and to develop editing and proofreading skills;
develop students’ written literacy skills so that when they write they will know the expected format for different genres, they will know their intended audience and they will know the purpose of their writing and they will have the skills to write with confidence.
Punctuation It is important that students understand and use the correct language relating to punctuation when talking about their writing. APOSTROPHE: an apostrophe is used when something has been left out of a word, e.g. it is/ it’s, she will/she’ll, or to show ownership, e.g. Jack’s bike, Lily’s pen. CAPITAL LETTERS: these are used to start a sentence, and for the names of: people, places, days, months, festivals, organisations and for the titles of books and movies, e.g. On Monday, Rose went to Canberra then to Mount Kosciuszko to the Snowtime Festival. COMMA: a comma separates items in a list, e.g. I bought carrots, beans, potatoes, fruit and drinks. It also separates one part of a sentence from another to make the meaning clear, e.g. Outside, the grass was covered in frost. COLON: this is used to separate the main part of a sentence from an explanation or list, e.g. The wildlife sanctuary cared for a number of species: koalas, possums, kangaroos, wombats and bandicoots. It can also be used when quoting what a person has said, e.g. He said:,“Don’t worry, be happy.” DASH: this indicates added emphasis, an interruption or change of thought, e.g. You are my friend - my best friend - the only one who helped me with the assignment. It is also used between numbers, e.g. pages 1 – 10. ELLIPSES: a series of three dots to show that you have left out a word, phrase, line, paragraph or more from a quotation, or to indicate an unfinished thought, e.g. I didn’t expect to see him there but when I looked across the room … EXCLAMATION MARK: this is used to indicate a command, e.g “Get out! Get out now!” or to indicate strong feelings such as surprise or fright, e.g. “Congratulations!” or “Oh no!” FULL STOP: this marks the end of a sentence except where a question mark or exclamation is used, e.g. They went to the beach to surf the big waves. HYPHEN: use a hyphen when two adjectives are joined together to form a single idea, e.g. The Great Houdini performed death-defying tricks. PARENTHESES: these are used to enclose words or figures or are used to add extra information, e.g. When he rang (after finally finding a public phone) he explained what had happened. QUESTION MARK: use a question mark when asking a direct question, e.g. Where is Sam? QUOTATION MARKS: use these to show the exact words spoken, e.g. “Where do you live?” Other punctuation must be placed inside the quotation marks. SEMICOLON: can be used to join related sentences that could stand alone, e.g. It was soon completely dark; he decided to stay hidden.
Grammar It is important that students understand and use the correct language relating to grammar when talking about their writing. ADJECTIVE: a word that adds description to a noun. It was a clear, sunny day. ADVERB: a word that adds to a verb, adjective or another adverb. He walked away quickly from the shop. CLAUSE: a group of words with a subject, a verb and a comment that adds to the information. The girl painted a beautiful picture. Compound and complex sentences have more than one clause. The girl painted a beautiful picture when she went to art class. CONJUNCTION: a word that joins other words, phrases or clauses, e.g. ‘and’ or ‘but’. I saw my teacher and friends but I didn’t see my cousin. CONNECTIVE: words that connect sentences and paragraphs in logical sequence, e.g. ‘first’, ‘second’, ‘because’, ‘furthermore’, although’, ‘in fact’. First you brainstorm ideas, second you start to write notes. NOUN: a word that names a person, place, things and ideas. A proper noun refers to people, places, days, months and festivals and always starts with a capital letter, e.g. On Monday we went to Darwin. A collective noun refers to a group, e.g. a pod of whales, a mob of kangaroos. All other nouns are common nouns. NOUN GROUP: a group of words that add to a noun, e.g. Mountain biking is a tough, exciting sport. PHRASE: a group of words usually without a verb. He left the backpack on the train. PREPOSITION: a preposition is a positional word, e.g. above, near, on. A prepositional phrase contains a preposition, e.g. He ran across the road. PRONOUN: a word that stands for a noun, e.g. I, she, him, it, them. I gave the bag to Sam then he gave it to them. SENTENCE: a group of words that form a complete statement, question or exclamation. He kicked the ball. Compound and complex sentences have more than one clause. He kicked the ball when he ran past his mate who had injured his leg. VERB: a word that describes what someone or something is doing or feeling. He sat on the chair while he waited for the doctor. Verbs can be used in the past, present or future tense, e.g. I like ice cream (present tense), I liked ice cream when I was little (past tense), I will like ice cream even when I’m very old (future tense).
• Choices •
Read the narrative text Choices. It is an imaginative story written to interest and entertain readers.
• Choices • Adam glanced at the old clock, groaned and pulled the blankets over his head. He hated Mondays! A moment later, he heard his mother call out, ‘Adam, it’s nearly 8 o’clock. You’ll be late if you don’t get up now!’ Reluctantly he dragged himself out of bed, dressed, then headed for the kitchen. He wolfed down his cold toast, threw his heavy backpack over his shoulder and headed out the door. For the hundredth time he wished that his family hadn’t moved interstate. He missed his friends and he could hardly believe he was thinking it but he even missed his old school. Lost in thought, he hurried along the quiet street hoping that Zak Hallam was already in school. He was a mean bully and had made life tough for Adam since day one - he was always taunting him about being the new kid and telling him that he wasn’t accepted. Zak’s 'mates' sided with him because they were afraid that Zak would turn on them and make their lives miserable. Zak often hassled Adam on the way to school but he knew that if he left home later he’d avoid the verbal abuse. With his head down to avoid making eye contact with anyone, Adam noticed something just ahead on 8
the path. As he got closer, he saw that it was a black wallet and when he picked it up its contents bulged almost forcing it open. A quick glance showed it contained a thick wad of notes, some of them fifties. Checking around to see if anyone nearby had dropped the wallet, he saw that the street was deserted except for a black labrador wandering along outside a nearby house. Adam stuffed the wallet in his backpack, then checked again to see if anyone was around perhaps looking for it. For a moment he considered what to do with it. He reckoned that there could be a couple of hundred dollars in there, maybe more. Perhaps he could … what was he thinking? Had the bullying changed him so much that he would even think of ‘buying’ friends with money that wasn’t his? With minutes to spare until the morning assembly he raced into the school grounds to the office and handed over the wallet to the secretary. ‘Zak Hallam’s elderly grandfather rang this morning to say that he’d lost his wallet containing money to pay important bills. He hoped that a student might find it. He’ll be very grateful for your honesty, Adam.’
• Choices •
Examining A Narrative
Re-read Choices and answer the questions. L A narrative usually has three parts: the orientation which describes the main character and the setting, the complication which describes a problem or challenges that the main character has to face, and the resolution which shows how the character solves the problem and usually learns something from the experience.
1. Who is the main character? __________________________________________________ 2. What is the setting? ________________________________________________________ 3. What is the first problem that Adam faces? ________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the second problem that Adam faces? ________________________________________________________________________ 5. What action does he take to avoid the bullying? ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Does he solve the problem? _________________________________________________ What action could he take?__________________________________________________ 7. What action does he take when he finds the wallet? Why does he do this? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 8. What do you think Adam learns from this experience? ________________________________________________________________________ 9. How does the writer position the reader? ________________________________________________________________________ 10. What is one main idea in the text? ________________________________________________________________________
Continue the story by writing the next scene. It could begin in the following way ... Adam managed to avoid Zak Hallam all day until lunch time. He didn’t know what to expect when Zak called out to him, ‘Hey Adam, wait a minute I want to talk to you.’ 9
• Choices •
Check The Text
Read Choices on page 8 again, then answer the questions below. L Verbs bring a story to life, they describe the action part of a narrative. For example there is an important difference in meaning between, ‘He got out of bed’ and ‘He dragged himself out of bed.’ Have a think about the difference between, ‘He ate his toast’ and ‘He wolfed down his toast’.
The verbs in the story are written in the past tense. List ten verbs in the story and think about whether they create a strong impact on the reader.
L Nouns and noun groups provide the reader with a description of a person, place or thing. They add colour and depth to a narrative.
Complete these noun groups that are in the text. Think of other words that you might use instead.
1. ___________________ clock
6. ___________________ abuse
2. ____________________ toast
7. ___________________ wallet
3. __________________ school
8. __________________ glance
4. ____________________ bully
9. ______________ grandfather
5. _____________________ kid
10. ____________________ bills
L There are examples of direct speech in the text. It’s important when quoting direct speech to add quotation marks at the beginning and end of the words spoken and also to include any punctuation within the quotation marks.
Add punctuation and quotation marks to these sentences.
1. Adam, it’s nearly 8 o’clock, his mother called 2. Get up now, she said 3. Where is my backpack Adam asked 4. It’s in the kitchen, his mother answered 5. Fire he yelled when he saw the smoke 10
• Choices •
Edit And Proofread
Read Choices on page 8 again, then answer the questions below. L When you have finished writing a draft of a narrative, it is important to edit and proofread your writing. You can do this by checking that the sentences are clear and make sense, by fixing up any spelling, grammatical or punctuation errors, and by making sure that your work is well-presented. All of this will ensure that readers will enjoy the story without being distracted by errors.
Edit then rewrite this paragraph so that it is more interesting. Change sentence beginnings, add descriptions and join sentences.
Adam woke up. He got up. He got dressed. He looked at the clock. He was late. He got his toast. He left for school. He didn’t want to meet Zak Hallam on the way. Zak was a bully. He picked on Adam. Adam was the new kid. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
Now proofread this section taken from the text Choices. There are ten errors in this text. When you read it, you will notice that the text doesn’t read as well as before. Errors can take the reader’s interest away from the story. There are two spelling errors, two punctuation errors and six grammatical errors. Underline the ten errors.
Lost in thought, he hurry along the quiet street, hoping that Zak Hallam was already in school. He wos a bully and had made life tough with Adam since day one, always taunt him that he was the new kid and wasn’t accepted? Zak’s mats sided around him, afraid that he would turn on him and make their lives miserable. Zak often hassled Adam on the way to school but he knew that if he leave home later he’d avoid the verbal abuse!
This is a short story that contains ten errors. There are two spelling errors, two punctuation errors and six grammatical errors. Underline the ten errors.
Adam looked at his clok on the bedside table. It was only 5am. It was too early to get up? He was looking forward to go to school today because two Olympic swimmers were come to the schol. They was going to talking to the students what had competed in the state swimming titles a week ago! Adam was one of the top swimmer in the state. 11
• Choices •
Plan A Narrative
Create a narrative of your own. Make some notes about the characters and the plot before you start the first draft. Think about the challenges that your main character will face and how he/she will solve the challenges.
Title Brainstorm a few different titles before choosing the one that works best Sometimes a title isn’t decided until after the story has been written.
Main character’s name, age, description. Main character’s friend or foe.
When does the story take place? Is it now or in the past or in the future?
Describe the setting where your story takes place. Is it at school, at a beach, in a haunted house, in the desert, in another universe, etc.?
List the challenges or complications that your character faces. There is often more than one and each new challenge usually gets tougher.
How did your character solve the problems or deal with the challenges or complications? What did your character learn about him/ herself?
Write the first draft of your narrative. You might need to write several drafts before you start the final edit and proofread. 12
• Choices •
Review Your Writing
Many famous writers talk about writing several drafts of scenes or chapters in their novels to get the story ‘just right’. When you have written your final draft, edited it and have done a final proofread, your work should be ready to be read and enjoyed. Check the following points and rate your writing. Yes
Is the title interesting?
Is your main character believable and described well? Have you introduced the main character and the setting in the first paragraph? Are the ideas in the story clear? Do you develop the storyline and include challenges to test the main character? Do you use descriptive language?
Do you use a range of verbs in the past tense?
Is the ending/resolution satisfactory and believable? Have you edited your narrative so that the information is clearly organised? Have you proofread your work so that there aren't any errors? Have you positioned your readers in a particular way?
Do you think that the readers will enjoy your story? 13
• The Great Houdini •
Read the biography entitled The Great Houdini. It is an informative recount about the life of the great magician, Harry Houdini.
• The Great Houdini • The Great Houdini was an amazing magician who held audiences spellbound for many years. He specialised in escaping from situations that seemed impossible. Houdini used chains, handcuffs, ropes, locked boxes, gaol cells and containers filled with water in his acts. Harry Houdini was born on March 24th, 1874 in Hungary and was named Ehrich Weisz. In 1876 when the family moved to the United States they changed their family name to Weiss. Around the age of 13, Ehrich and his brother, Theo became very interested in magic tricks. By 17 Ehrich was already a performer with the stage name, Harry Houdini. The name Harry was close to his nickname, Ehrie and Houdini came from adding an i to the last name of his idol, the French magician, Robert Houdin. At age 20, Houdini was developing and perfecting his escape tricks. He also married his stage partner, Bess. By 1900, Houdini had become famous across America for his amazing escapes from all kinds of locked boxes and containers while handcuffed and tied up. In 1908 he added a very daring act to his show. After being handcuffed, he squeezed himself into a large milk can that was then filled to the top with
water. As the audience held their breath, Houdini worked to escape the handcuffs to free himself. In another famous and very dangerous trick he escaped after he was held upside down in a tank of water with padlocks around his feet. How did he perform these amazing escapes that seemed impossible to his audiences? Part of the answer is that he was doublejointed, which allowed him to bend his arms and legs at unusual angles. He also studied locks and knew how they worked; at other times he used a hidden key. In 1910 he appeared on stage in Sydney and Melbourne. In Melbourne he made a deathdefying leap from Queens Bridge into the Yarra River while chained and padlocked, as 20,000 spectators held their breath. He also made the first controlled, powered flight of an airplane in Australia. In 1926, a student who came to see Houdini after his show asked him if it was true that if he was hit in the stomach he wouldn’t get injured. When Houdini replied that it was true, the student hit him in the stomach but unfortunately Houdini was not prepared and was injured internally. He continued to travel and do his shows but the blow had damaged his appendix. As a result the great escapologist died on October 31st 1926, aged 52.