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OutdoorsMark T H E




The national outdoor safety audit programme designed by the outdoors community for the outdoors community

Achieving OutdoorsMark certification was a rewarding experience for our glacier guiding operation. “We were impressed with the process and the way in which every applicable area of our business was assessed. We found the selfassessment component particularly useful as it ensured we were well prepared for the day of the audit.� Rob Jewell, Fox Glacier Guiding OutdoorsMark Certified - June 2011

OutdoorsMark is proof that an outdoor activity provider meets benchmark standards and demonstrates a commitment to safety and quality. Add value to your operation Ĺ” *NQSPWFZPVSTBGFUZNBOBHFNFOUTZTUFN Ĺ” 1SPWJEFBTTVSBODFUPZPVSDVTUPNFST Ĺ” %FWFMPQBQPTJUJWFTBGFUZDVMUVSF Ĺ” *NQSPWFUFBNNPSBMF Ĺ” 3FEVDFMPOHUFSNDPTUT



Outdoors New Zealand

safety audit



“It’s not about ticking boxes. We genuinely care and we’re passionate about what we do� Aaron Halstead $MJNCFS TBGFUZFYQFSU BOE0VUEPPST.BSLBVEJUPS


FROM THE EDITOR The editor crossing a wee stream on Christmas Day, just before reaching Christophers Hut in the Ada River valley, St James Walkway, Lewis Pass.

Kia ora tatou, These past few months have been a blast! I’ve been putting together this magazine since I first started in January and in the process, getting to know a lot of people in the outdoor community. I am grateful for the warm welcome. Moving from New York to Wellington, from a global newsroom with 80 people on one floor to a small office of 5 people is quite a sea change. But it is a welcome one.


2012 The Outdoors Forum Waiho i te toipoto, kaua i te toiroa &

The Outdoors Awards

It’s a pleasure to be working with such a highly skilled and passionate team and in a sector that means so much to New Zealand society. The size and nature of the organisations differ, but the scope of the projects and the challenges appear very similar. I am only the first of a few new Outdoors New Zealand staff additions this year. By now it’s more than likely that you know about, or have even met, our new CEO, Garth Dawson. The team continues to grow with the appointment of our first communications intern, Yosan Legaspi, who assisted the editing of the ‘Transcendence’ article on page 9. She’s a bright spark and we hope that she will become a permanent member of the Outdoors New Zealand team. Although this is my first role within the outdoor sector here in New Zealand, I am no stranger to the outdoors. I was raised in the remote highlands of Scotland on a rare breed stud farm, where being ‘outdoors’ was an integral part of my daily life. It was an exceptionally enjoyable childhood and whilst I may have left the highlands long ago, they have not left me.

WELLINGTON 12-13 October Comfort & Quality Hotel Cuba Street, Wellington For registration and more details visit the website:

Since then, I have taken every opportunity available wherever I may be ‘to get out there’. Even in my last job as a marketing director for a Manhattan-based newspaper, I was fortunate enough to explore the Appalachian Trail and some of the other national parks on the east coast of the USA. And here in Aotearoa I have been lucky enough to find the same solitude, challenges, awe and wonder that fuelled my love of the outdoors as a youngster in Scotland. Yours in the outdoors,

Jaya Gibson Editor, Ki Waho


EDITOR Jaya Gibson EDITORIAL TEAM Garth Gulley, Alex Brunt, Anne Johnston DESIGN & LAYOUT Anne Johnston ADVERTISING For advertising submission guidelines and enquiries DISTRIBUTION Outdoors New Zealand PUBLISHER Ki Waho is published by Outdoors New Zealand Level 3, 19 Tory Street, Wellington PO Box 6027 Wellington 6141 Phone 64 4 385 7287 Fax 64 4 385 7366 PRINTING Ki Waho Issue 6 printed by Colour Guy PO Box 30464 Lower Hutt Phone + 64 4 570 0355 Email ISSN 1178-9085 CONTRIBUTIONS The publisher invites the outdoor community to contribute to Ki Waho. All submissions which meet the magazine’s criteria will be considered. For submission guidelines, please contact Outdoors New Zealand: DISCLAIMER The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher, Outdoors New Zealand. All efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of information presented in Ki Waho, but the publisher accepts no liability or responsibility in this regard. In addition, any advertising of products or services in this magazine does not imply endorsement by Outdoors New Zealand. COPYRIGHT No part of Ki Waho may be reproduced in part or whole without the written permission of the publisher, Outdoors New Zealand Incorporated. COVER PHOTOGRAPH Vincent Zintzen descending the crater rim of Ruapehu on the way to Dome Shelter. Photographer: Fraser Crichton. THE MAGAZINE FOR NEW ZEALAND’S OUTDOOR COMMUNITY ‘Ki Waho – Into The Outdoors’ magazine brings New Zealand’s outdoor community together to share knowledge and ideas, foster innovation and best practices, encourage environmental responsibility and cultural understanding, and promote safe and enjoyable experiences in the great outdoors. Published on behalf of New Zealand’s outdoors community by

Supported by

Photo: Josh Neilson

CONTENTS From the Chief Executive






Adventure Activities Regulations


Fighting kauri dieback


OutdoorsMark: An update


Book Review


NZ Journal Of Outdoor Education


Recreation Management


TRANSCENDENCE: Josh Neilson’s documentary explores the psychology of extreme athletes ................ 9

Adventure Tourism Review


Outdoor intentions


Sleepovers and the minimum wage obligations


Maritime Law and outdoor recreation


Saving paradise


Do recreation and sport pass the public good test?


New SupportAdventure website


Major upgrade for Walking Access Mapping System


Freed up rather than tied down?


Autumn Morning: Looking towards Beach Bay over Lake Wakatipu from Closeburn Station, Queenstown. Photo: Garth Dawson

Leading in to winter From the Outdoors NZ CEO: Garth Dawson

I am proud to have joined Outdoors New Zealand and excited to be involved during what is an interesting and challenging time for the organisation and for the outdoors sector. Outdoors New Zealand’s goal is to provide leadership and support to the outdoors community and, despite a challenging year for the global economy and the New Zealand environment (as a result of earthquakes and the La Nina weather system), I believe I’m embarking on a role within an organisation that is prepared to take the lead in an area that is an intrinsic part of New Zealand’s social, economic, cultural and environmental fabric. The last edition of the sector magazine Ki Waho was published in time for The Outdoors Forum last October and, although I’ve just joined the organisation and can claim no responsibility for the good work that has been done since then, I am in a position to guide you through the achievements of the last six months. 4.

The Outdoor Forum The feedback from the 2011 Outdoor Forum was very positive. It was the biggest gathering yet and we thank you all for your attendance, interest and contribution to an outstanding event. We have confirmed the same venue, the Comfort & Quality Hotel (what more would you want?), Wellington, for The Outdoors Forum 2012 on the 12-13 October this year and are in the early stages of planning the event and organising an exciting and engaging speaker programme. If you have any suggestions, or would like to address the forum, please get in touch with Jaya Gibson, our Communications Manager:

Outdoor Excellence Awards One of the highlights of the gathering together of the outdoors community is the Outdoor Forum awards night. Once again, we were able to recognise and appreciate the many people who give their time, effort and industry to further the cause of outdoor recreation and education. Last year’s very popular and deserving Sport NZ Supreme Award winner was Graeme Dingle for his remarkable contribution to the New Zealand outdoor sector.

Communications I can’t really welcome Jaya Gibson to the team because he got here before me. He is leading a revolution in the communication and marketing role here at Outdoors New Zealand. We have launched a powerful and improved website with a lot more content, features and benefits to be integrated in the near future. OutdoorsMark has already taken a leap into the 22nd Century with the audit form and guide now fully operational online. And you can follow Jaya’s social media updates for relevant sector news and views on Twitter and Facebook. The links are on the website. Jaya is making his mark on Ki Waho, with this, his first edition, as editor. We are in the process of putting together a new marketing and communications plan so that you are all kept upto-date and we are more effective as the voice of the outdoor sector.

OutdoorsMark OutdoorsMark is growing in leaps and bounds, with an increase in certified organisations of over 100% in the last nine months.

Easy online audit form and guide As part of our Website re-development, the team, led by Garth Gulley, has created a new online audit process. This latest version of the OutdoorsMark audit is much quicker and simpler than the previous one and is supported by an accompanying guide that explains what each audit criterion, or ‘question’, means. Just go to the website and click on the Apply Now button on the OutdoorsMark section to start the process. The guide, OutdoorsMark 101, will lead you through what is needed for a successful audit, and there is always help at hand, by phone, email and webform, from the Outdoors New Zealand staff. One thing yet to be published is the Department of Labour standard for the assessment of adventure activity providers. We are very confident that OutdoorsMark will exceed the standard. Whilst a safety audit isn’t compulsory yet, it will be by November 2014. Those that have invested the time and effort into achieving OutdoorsMark have attested to its thoroughness and the benefits of reviewing current safety procedures and implementing a culture of safety best practice into their organisation.

Adventure Tourism & Outdoor Commercial Sector (ATOCS) Safety Review The Department of Labour (DoL) has recently published the guidelines around the adventure activities regulations. We are available at any time to assist you in interpreting this new addition to New Zealand health and safety legislation. Remember that if you are a commercial adventure activity operator you need to notify the DoL of your operation. You can do that online, by phone, fax or mail. As you know, Outdoors New Zealand had an integral role in the discussions and submissions to DoL leading up to the publication of the Adventure Tourism Review, and we have responsibility for implementing the review’s recommendations (together with the Tourism Industry Association (TIA), with whom we have formed a strong partnership). In November and December 2011 we conducted a series of Adventure Tourism Review Workshops across the country, which were well attended and gave us great feedback. The feedback and proposals were passed on to DoL in January 2012. We’re confident that the ideas and concerns of the sector will be incorporated into DoL’s thinking in the future. We have also integrated your suggestions into the new ‘go-to website’ for adventure tourism and commercial outdoor safety: You’ll find a wealth of information about the legislation and the safety review, safety management systems, sector links and resources, safety auditing and other safety knowledge. It’s all good stuff and should be one of the first places you visit when you need to know more about the safety issue. We (Outdoors New Zealand and TIA) are making good progress on the other components of the safety review. These are ongoing projects that include investigating an outdoors sector incident reporting system, developing activity specific safety guidelines, and a scoping exercise into the levels and measures of competency for guides and instructors.

And, if your organisation is safety standard compliant as soon as possible, I’m sure you’ll start to see the marketing and operational advantages that a safety certification will provide as the new standards are adopted across the sector. 5.

Garth Dawson and friends stop to take in the vista looking north from the back of Cardrona ski field.

Outdoor Sector Planning Forum Outdoors New Zealand recently convened an Outdoor Sector Planning Forum to get input into projects that will enable positive sector growth. Thirty key individuals from sector stakeholders attended a workshop on 23 February 2012 to define and debate these issues. The outcome from the day was six project concepts that will be prioritised and developed by the Outdoors New Zealand team. t


Organisational roles and governance – this project includes governance within individual organisations and the sector infrastructure as a whole. 


Sector networking – the goal of this project is strengthened communication within the sector and with external stakeholders. It proposed the development of an inter-agency communication plan and an online forum for the sector.



Leader development – this project includes leadership at all levels. It suggests development of tools to assist leaders to understand the opportunities for and competencies of leadership. It also suggests increased opportunities for leader development.

Value proposition – the goal of this project is to ensure the government and customers are aware of the value that operators within the sector provide. The project proposes clear demonstration of value at economic, social, health, education and environmental levels.


Safety and audit standards – the group working on this project proposed exploring the concept of a single safety organisation in New Zealand.


Participation in the outdoors – the goal of this strategy is to encourage life-long outdoor recreation habits. A specific project goal is to co-ordinate a youth engagement strategy.

There is a summary document on the projects section of the website with specific goals for each of these projects. We have defined the actions that Outdoors New Zealand is planning to initiate in the short term. One obvious and essential action is to prioritise the projects and develop detailed plans for each. We appreciate the effort that the participants went to in providing their thoughts, ideas and opinions and hope we have captured them accurately. Please read the document on the website and feel free to comment. Your own thoughts, ideas and suggestions are very welcome and we encourage you to be involved. I will, of course, keep you informed on progress.

Skills Active – Return To Work Training Fund It was our pleasure to be able to assist some of our Canterbury-based outdoors organisations to train or up-skill staff after the devastation of the Christchurch earthquakes. In addition to the tragic personal losses of lives and property,

businesses and careers in the outdoors sector have also suffered through the destruction of facilities, redundancies and loss of income. The board of Skills Active created the Return To Work Training Fund to support businesses in the region by providing training grants to rebuild capability and enable employees to gain transferable vocational skills. On behalf of Skills Active, Outdoors New Zealand distributed grants of $17,000 to the four organisations that responded to our offer of funding.

Now, a little about me… I grew up in, on and around Lake Taupo and studied business management at the University of Waikato before heading to Europe for the standard, one year OE. Like many others, my plans (such as they were) changed almost immediately and I have been away from New Zealand for 20 years. And what did I do? Well… I’ve climbed in the Andes, skied four continents, paddled among Arctic icebergs, dived in the Florida Keys, run with bulls in Spain, cycled in the French Alps and Africa, rafted in Austria, flew on Robert Mugabe’s plane, fished for piranha in the Amazon, drunk Guinness with Bono and swum with crocodiles in Botswana. During my time living in Africa, Europe & the UK I have owned and led two creative agencies and worked with a wide range of businesses: professional sports franchises, outdoor sport brands, public sector, education, SMEs and global consumer and trade brands. I have also earned a living by leading tourists through Europe, renovating a French farmhouse, testing skis, bartending, renting windsurfers, building chalets and office towers, writing magazine articles and in senior management roles in leading UK outdoor sports retailers. While all that has been exciting, interesting and invaluable, I have always felt compelled to return home, and to combine my career with my love of the outdoors. And to live again in a place where the landscape is extraordinary, the people are friendly, the waves are world class and the

mountains are just down the road. I’ve enjoyed the challenges I’ve had on the other side of the world, and it feels right to come home now and to be able to contribute to growing such an incredibly vibrant and significant part of New Zealand’s business, tourism, cultural and recreational identity. From a Kiwi-on-the-other-side-of-the-world’s perspective, NZ has a unique and deserved reputation as the adventure playground of the world and I can confirm, having been to many other places, that it really is one of the most breathtakingly beautiful countries on our planet. While Outdoors New Zealand has had an important role to play in the discussions leading up to the Adventure Safety Review and in implementing the recommendations of the DoL report, I feel it is time to broaden our vision and provide clear and credible leadership to the whole outdoor sector in New Zealand, as our name suggests we should. My ambition is to develop coherence and cohesiveness across all the current and future issues that impact outdoor recreation and education. This includes providing co-ordination, thought leadership and advocacy and encouraging sector collaboration on access, participation, education, tourism, safety, research, conservation and sustainability. New Zealand has an incredibly diverse, beautiful and accessible outdoor environment. Combined with this, Kiwis have a unique creativity and enthusiasm for throwing themselves (and anyone that they can convince to go, or even better, pay to go with them) off, down, through, over and into our amazing landscape. It’s a unique privilege and opportunity for me to be in a position to encourage and promote that spirit. I am very excited by this opportunity (which I believe is a natural fit for the skills and business experience I have developed in my career) to develop the vision that you and the Outdoors New Zealand board share – of encouraging more New Zealanders to enjoy the outdoors and to facilitate that by maintaining a vibrant, coherent and effective outdoor sector. I hope to meet each of you very soon to share stories and exchange ideas over a coffee, a chairlift ride, a run, a barbecue or a beer. And I hope that I can be of service to you in the success of your enterprise and in developing the outdoor sector as a whole. Please feel free to get in touch with me any time, by phone, by email, or better yet – drop in for a chat. Yours in the outdoors,

Garth Dawson Oudoors New Zealand Chief Executive 7.

CONTRIBUTORS Sharon Alderson

Maree Goldring

Sharon has worked for DoC for the last six years as a member of the Capability Development (training) team. She has worked with a variety of DoC staff to design and deliver training and professional development opportunities for DoC staff, partners and community groups.

Maree was a teacher and principal of a Christchurch primary school. She was an instructor and assessor for the NZ Mountain Safety Council. She is currently the Chairperson (‘Mayor’) of the Castle Hill Community Association. She is a member of the Canterbury Environmental Trust and the Waimakariri Ecological & Landscape Restoration Alliance (WELRA). She currently lives at Castle Hill Village in the Craigieburn Range.

Stu Allan Stu Allan has decades of experience in outdoor recreation. In the 1970s he was a mountain guide and instructed climbing, cold survival, kayaking, and bush craft. He was director of the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre from 19791986, as well as managing other organisations including AFS Intercultural Programmes. Stu is currently an outdoors consultant and a writer. He is a keen rock climber, mountaineer, tramper and mountain biker.

Maree Baker-Galloway Maree specialises in environmental law, particularly relating to freshwater, natural resources, outdoor recreation and tourism. In a previous life she was a white water kayak instructor and sea kayak guide.

Lesley Brook Lesley Brook is a partner in Anderson Lloyd’s commercial team. She has experience spanning 17 years working with companies and other organisations on a range of commercial issues and projects. Lesley specialises in employment law, overseas investment in New Zealand, and the Emissions Trading Scheme.

Andrea Corrigan An experienced marketing and communications professional with a passion for sports, recreation and the outdoors. Since arriving in New Zealand 5 years ago she’s worked in the private sector and for local government and is currently the Marketing & Communications Manager for the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council.

Fraser Crichton Originally from Scotland, Fraser Crichton is an adventure photographer and writer based in Wellington. He is a columnist for Wilderness Magazine and contributor to The Climber. He specialises in adventure photography covering events like the Tararua Mountain Race, mountaineering in the Southern Alps and tramping throughout New Zealand. Occasionally, he can be found hanging out in Wellington’s cafes but that’s mostly planning his next adventure assignment.

Sue Gemmell Sue Gemmell is the project leader for two of the recommendations arising from the Department of Labour’s review into adventure tourism safety. She has been an advisor in the outdoor sector for 10 years, most recently employed by Skills Active as the learning and development advisor for outdoor recreation and snowsports. Sue is a keen outdoor recreationalist and regularly participates in mountain biking, skiing and tramping.

Maureen Gunston Maureen is the main coordinator for that runs the ChildSafe Safety Management System. Previously she was the Children and Families Director for Scripture Union in NZ where she worked alongside Australian colleagues to launch ChildSafe. Her background in teaching high school students and experience in leading programmes for the Girls’ Brigade has fed her passion to see standards raised and attention given to relevant, ongoing training in safety management.

Garth Gulley Garth is the OutdoorsMark Programme Manager for Outdoors New Zealand. He has been involved in the outdoors for most of his life. Before moving to Outdoors New Zealand, Garth managed an outdoor centre on the Hauraki Gulf. He oversaw the centre gaining OutdoorsMark certification in 2007. Garth is committed to enhancing safety and client satisfaction as any of his clients will tell you.

Andrew Leslie Andrew joined the NZ Recreation Association as Chief Executive in October 2011. His career in the recreation and sport sector was fostered within Local Government, delivering community recreation programmes and events. Prior to commencing his current role Andrew spent 4 years with Tourism NZ managing the i-SITE Visitor Centre Network.

Ian Mitchell Ian Mitchell is the Relationship Manager for the interagency Kauri Dieback Programme based in the Northland Department of Conservation Conservancy Office. Ian has lived in Hokianga for 20 years and undertaken many community advocacy roles, including Board of Trustees, Environment Court Appeals and Whanau Trust Tangata Whenua advocacy. He has also worked at Northland Polytechnic as a tutor in horticulture, ecology, business and sustainable development.

Mark Neeson Mark Neeson is Chief Executive of the New Zealand Walking Access Commission and a keen tramper, skier and climber. He is passionate about promoting free, certain and enduring walking access to the outdoors for New Zealanders and overseas visitors.

Josh Neilson Kayaker, film maker and all-round outdoors enthusiast, Josh combines these passions to raise funds and awareness for malaria clinics in Uganda to river protection agencies in New Zealand. After completing a Bachelor in Outdoor Education and Adventure Recreation at CPIT, he went on to travel the world with his video camera and kayak. The resulting 5 films documented some of the most exotic kayaking locations in the world whilst raising the profile and supporting charitable projects along the way.


Transcendence Josh Neilson

Crazy. Adrenaline junky. Hedonist. These labels cast a shadow over the world of extreme sports, with the connotation of carelessness and ego-driven personal ambition always being there. Are these stereotypes a fair portrayal of the athletes and their pursuits? Kayaker and filmmaker, Josh Neilson, set out to break common misconceptions and returned with an enlightening documentary.

Dr Brymer says, “Extreme sports are often portrayed – and people often fall into the trap of believing – they’re all about hedonism and thrill-seeking crazy people doing daft things. Why wouldn’t they think that? If you mess up you could die, but what they don’t see is what goes on behind the scenes. They see the images on the TV, they hear the music, and it sort of brings forth this image, or this feeling, of adrenaline and sensation seeking. But most athletes have been through years and years of training to get to where they are.”

What goes through the mind of an athlete as they plunge head-first off a cliff with only a thin layer of ballistic nylon separating them from death? What about when someone is diving a hundred metres with no oxygen or tilting their kayak over the edge of a raging waterfall?

“I’m going to pack my bags and just go kayaking,” I answered, after my tutors asked about future plans.

The states of mind and motives of extreme athletes are something I explore in the documentary Transcendence. The film is based around a 2005 thesis of Dr Brymer called: Extreme Dude!: A phenomenological perspective on the extreme sport experience.

SURFACE TENSION: Freediver William Trubridge surfacing after a practice dive.

In my quest to change the ingrained perceptions of extreme sports, and to express it through film, let me take you all the way back to the beginning.


It was 2005 and I had just finished my degree in outdoor education and adventure recreation at Christchurch Polytechnic. Some of my classmates chose the education path, some chose the outdoor guiding path – I chose adventure. For seven years I travelled and kayaked in some of the world’s most remote and exotic locations. I started to make videos to post online. Soon I found I had built a ritual of ‘travel, explore, film, edit, and 9.

concentration and control occur. One of the film’s subjects, kayaker Mike Abbott gives an example. “I do find that time will slow down for me at the lip of a drop. And that’s a good thing because timing is very important right there for your paddle-stroke.”


Above: PERFECT BLUE: Freediver William Trubridge with his ‘safety’ during a practice dive in the Bahamas. Trubridge currently holds the world title for the deepest unassisted freedive. Right: IN CONTROL: The author, Josh Neilson, editing Transcendence in his Rotorua home. Far right: ACTIVE FLOW: Kayaker Mike Abbott mastering a double drop on the Teigdale in Voss, Norway.

show’. Five films later I was feeling a huge sense of achievement, but something was beginning to get to me. I noticed that the general perception of what my friends and I were doing was ‘crazy’. Something I think which is said without much thought and something I felt I took on the chin one too many times.

Approach So, I set out to challenge the misconception of extreme sports through something of substance and searched the Internet. Before I knew it I found myself 300 pages deep in Dr Brymer’s thesis, Extreme Dude! He began by defining extreme sports. The phrase has often been used to label anything from skateboarding to big-wave surfing. Dr Brymer described extreme sports as an activity where “a mismanaged mistake or accident would most likely result in death, as opposed to injury”. As I read the conclusion, I realised it was perfectly structured to make a film from. A film that filled in the complex psychological process that adventure films frequently lacked. Dr Brymer calls this psychological process the Phenomenological Essence. Phenomenology is an arm of philosophy. Dr Brymer is interested in a particular branch of phenomenology, which he defines in his thesis as, “those experiences that point to a deeper comprehension of what it means to be human”.

Armed with the academic research I needed, I found four world-class athletes to film: William Trubridge, New Zealand freediver; Vanessa Quin, New Zealand mountain-biker; Jokke Sommer, Norwegian wingsuit BASE jumper; and, Mike Abbott. I followed them around the world for a year and a half, and found Dr Brymer’s work matched the actual psychological processes they went through. Trubridge recalled childhood memories – part of the preparation phase – of being attracted to the ocean. “I guess I’ve always been drawn to the ocean. As a kid my family sailed across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reach New Zealand when I was five years old. So that’s always been part of my life.” Sommer is another athlete who looked back on his childhood to connect his love of BASE jumping. “When I was a little kid I always liked to jump from high stuff, and that was always a little dream when I was young – to become a BASE jumper.”

Immediate post-activity Editing has been dominating my life for the last few months and now I am in a whirlwind of screenings, phone calls, emails and film festival applications.

His idea of the Phenomenological Essence is separated into five phases: preparation, approach, activity, post-activity, and transcendence. The last phase being the one I found the most remarkable, and the origin of the documentary’s title. Most athletes feel the rush of emotions in the transcendence phase, and not the activity phase, as many people believe. Perhaps this is because the activity phase is where the perceived ‘extreme’ part of the sport occurs – when BASE jumpers jump off the cliff, or when kayakers drop down a waterfall. In reality, feelings of intense 10.

Post-activity I hope my documentary succeeds in breaking misconceptions surrounding extreme sports. While the word ‘crazy’ is an easy word to use in describing people who pursue such activities, its use is flippant and implies a lack of control.

“Calling someone ‘crazy’ is just … a lack of knowledge about what they’re actually doing,” Mike Abbot, world-class kayaker 11.

Above: BASIC INSTINCT: BASE jumper Jokke Sommer at the edge of a cliff, taking the greatest measures before committing, in Voss, Norway.

I would like to thank Canoe and Kayak NZ, Gopro, Skull Candy, Dew Motion, Tribe, the athletes, Dr Brymer and everyone else who helped out in making this film happen! For further information on Transcendence, visit:

Right: MASTERPIECES: All the elements of the documentary coming together in time for its world premier in Hastings. All photos courtesy of Josh Neilson.

Dr Brymer’s thesis can be downloaded at:

Yet it becomes obvious through research that these athletes experience levels of control, and understanding of self, far beyond anything experienced in regular life. Perhaps one day the world of extreme sports will transcend its current unfitting reputation and get the recognition it deserves.

Transcendence What I discovered is that for many extreme sport athletes, doing their sport is a type of spiritual experience. They report deep inner transformations that influence world views and meaningfulness. Producing an almost meditative state that is best described by Dr Brymer as “relaxation from mental chatter”.


“A mismanaged mistake or accident would most likely result in death,” Dr Brymer

The 5 Stages Preparation The years of preparation essential for obtaining the technical, environmental and mental skills required to minimise the potential of negative outcomes.

Approach The experience of preparing for the immediate intended activity; for example, walking to the jump site in BASE jumping or paddling to the waterfall before descent prior to scouting it. This phase is characterised by: 1. 2. 3.

Intense emotions most often defined as fear. Reading the environment. Internal questioning and even doubt.

Activity The initial commitment and the activity ‘in flow’. The first element is best described by those moments immediately after the decision to jump or catch a particular wave has been made. That is when the participant is moving towards the edge of the cliff in the pre-jump run or paddling ready to catch the wave. This initial element ends when the jumper is airborne or the surfer has caught the wave. The second element is then ‘in flow’.


TRANSCENDENCE ON DVD! We have two copies of Josh Neilson’s amazing documentary to give away. This documentary offers an insight into extreme sports psychology backed by the research of Dr Eric Brymer. Follow four of the world’s most talented extreme sports athletes through indepth personal accounts matched with equally breath-taking cinematography. Check out the trailer here: http://www.southernundergroundproductions. com/

The first element: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Fear dropping away. Mental chatter dropping away. Letting go of the need to control or surrendering to the experience. An internal focus or listening and trusting the inner voice.

The second element, ‘active flow’: 1. 2. 3.

Momentary primordial, authentic awareness as if coming home. A release or freedom from the ‘material world.’ Feelings that the specific natural world is alive and a teacher and is greater than the human participant. 4. Complete absorption in the experience. 5. A glimpse of the Ineffable (full experience beyond the describable). 6. Full sensual enhancement. 7. Effortlessness and feelings of floating, flying or weightlessness. 8. Time slowing down as participants describe being in the moment or totally present. 9. Altered perceptions of space as if entering a different world or universe. 10. Bliss, peace, calm, stillness, silence. 11. Unity, harmony or intimacy with the specific natural world and connecting to an experience considered to be the ‘life-force.’

Immediate post-activity The athlete is out of the danger zone and the body is awash with sensations. This phase might last hours or days. 1. Intense positive emotions such as elation or ecstasy. 2. Enhanced feelings of personal energy.

Post-activity This might not come into play for some time after the event but is directly attributed to be part of the complete extreme sport experience: 1. 2. 3.

Transformation of view on life and self-knowledge combined with humility. Acute wellbeing. Enhanced eco-centricity.

To win a copy follow us on Facebook or Twitter for details. 13.

Guidance on the Adventure Activities Regulations Sue Gemmell

Legislation is not the easiest thing to read. Such is the case with the Health and Safety in Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations 2011. To help adventure activity operators understand the regulations, particularly because there are some judgements operators must make, an interpretative resource has been written by the Department of Labour (DoL). This interpretative resource has the catchy title of ‘Health and Safety in Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations 2011: Guidance for operators’ and it can be found on the DoL website. It has three, key, section headings: t

the notification process


what the regulations cover


what the regulations don’t cover

It also provides information about exemptions and unusual situations. The DoL press release of 3 April 2012 states ‘This guidance has been written to help operators understand who is covered by the Regulations. In particular, it outlines what the Department’s interpretations are of ‘designed to deliberately expose the participant to a risk of serious harm’ and what constitutes ‘being guided, taught how, or assisted to participate in the activity’.’

The second point about ‘being guided, taught how, or assisted to participate’ is important and reflects the underlying argument of this resource. That is, when people pay to be instructed or guided in an adventure activity they expect the instructor or guide to manage their safety. In contrast, when people simply pay to hire equipment, they must understand that they are responsible for their own safety while using the hired equipment. The resource reads well. One reason is that it uses a FAQ style, and, significantly, many of the questions in this resource were ones asked by operators. Some of the answers to the questions include examples that provide a bit of realism or context. The flowchart (reproduced on the following page) is an excellent one-page summary that clearly shows who is in scope, and who is out of scope of these regulations. As one would expect with new regulations and a new situation, there will be some questions that remain unanswered. There may also be activities that don’t clearly meet the requirements for being within scope of the regulations. We suggest that whenever there are doubts or questions that aren’t resolved by reading this resource, operators contact DoL. ‘Guidance for operators’ is an essential resource for all operators involved in the adventure tourism and outdoor commercial sector. Get yourself a copy if you are affected by the new regulations. And, even if you believe you definitely aren’t affected, this resource is still well worth reading. Go to: guidance-for-operators.pdf


Department of Labour

An operator specific Q&A can be viewed at: A copy of the Health and Safety in Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations 2011 Guidance for Operators: Operators can notify the DoL of their details at:


Health & Safety in Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations 2011 Is your adventure activity covered by the Regulations? Are you an employer, principal or self employed person?


YES Do you provide an activity that:


Is provided in return for payment?

Is land or water based?



Involves the participant being guided / taught how / assisted to participate in the activity?


The main purpose is recreational or educational experience?


Is designed to deliberately expose the participant to a risk of harm that must be managed by the provider?



Would failure of your management systems (e.g. failure of operational procedures or failure to provide reliable equipment) be likely to result in serious harm to the participant?


Are the participants deliberately exposed to dangerous terrain or dangerous waters?

YES Do you fit into one of the following exclusions?

An activity requiring a maritime document

An amusement device covered by the Machinery Act 1950

Ice-skating on a human made surface

Provided by a sports club or recreation club in certain circumstances

Activities offered by defined educational establishments in certain circumstances

Any abseiling, rappelling, or rock-climbing done indoors

Passenger ropeways under the Health and Safety (PECPR) Regulations 1999

A snow activity done indoors or within a patrolled ski area

Provided by an association representing sports clubs or recreation clubs in certain circumstances

An activity for which instruction is given only with supply of equipment


YES UNSURE You do not need to obtain a safety audit and be registered under these regulations

You should contact the Department of Labour 0800 20 90 20 to discuss whether you need to obtain a safety audit and be registered

You need to obtain a safety audit and be registered by 1 November 2014, or earlier if you receive written notice requiring you to do so

For more info on your obligations under the Health & Safety in Employment Act 1992 visit


Good hygiene the best weapon against kauri dieback disease Thinning canopy at Cascade Kauri, Waitakere Ranges Regional Park. Photo courtesy of Auckland Council.

Ian Mitchell

New Zealanders see kauri as playing a huge part of who we are. Its taonga status derives from its mythical origins and present day importance to our biodiversity, eco-tourism economics and our innate sense of what New Zealand is all about. Kauri contributes to our national identity, spiritual wellbeing, economic prosperity from tourism and our overall biodiversity and interconnected forest ecosystems. Kauri dieback disease has emerged as a major threat, some would say potentially one of the most catastrophic biosecurity threats of recent times to kauri forests. Kauri dieback is a fungus-like disease specific to New Zealand kauri and can kill trees of all ages. Microscopic spores in the soil infect kauri roots and damage the tissues that carry nutrients within the tree. Infected trees show a range of symptoms including yellowing of foliage, loss of leaves, canopy thinning, dead branches and lesions that bleed resin at the base of the trunk. It is believed to 16.

have been introduced from overseas and work by Landcare Research into the origins of the pathogen is underway. The disease produces both a soil-borne ‘oospore’, and water-borne, motile ‘zoospore’, both of which can infect kauri roots. One of the few positive aspects is that the disease only affects kauri. Other native woody plants and trees such as pohutukawa and manuka have been tested, with none falling prey to the pathogen. Spores of kauri dieback were first discovered along with sick kauri on Great Barrier Island in the 1970s. Identification methods at the time led to these samples being misclassified. Kauri dieback was formally identified in April 2008 as Phytophthora taxon Agathis (or PTA). Phytophthoras are commonly known as “water moulds” and comprise some of the most destructive plant diseases known to man. Horticulturalists and gardeners have long known about the perils of Phytophthora diseases on their crops and nurseries from when Phytophthora infestans wreaked havoc on European potato crops in the 1800s and the Greek word literally means ‘plant destroyer.’ Unfortunately, these destructive Phytophthora diseases have also been unwittingly introduced to many native forests throughout the world where they are not only killing millions of canopy trees, but also whole ecosystems that rely on the trees.

Clockwise from left: A kauri stands dead at Waipoua Forest, Northland. Photo courtesy of Auckland Council. Aerial shot of sick kauri trees on Maungaroa Ridge, Piha. Photo courtesy of Alastair Jamieson. Bleeding at the base of a trunk is a symptom of kauri dieback disease. Photo courtesy of Auckland Council.

Unfortunately, kauri has joined this list and kauri dieback disease has killed trees in the Waitakere Ranges, on private land throughout the Auckland region, in the forest plantations of Omahuta, Glenbervie and Russell in Northland, Department of Conservation reserves at Okura, Albany, Pakiri, Great Barrier Island, Trounson Kauri Park and the Waipoua Forest in Northland, home of our most iconic kauri – Tane Mahuta. There are pockets of health and resilience too, however. At this stage, the disease has not been detected in many areas of Northland forest, the Hunua Ranges, Hauraki Gulf Islands (excluding Great Barrier) and bush in the Coromandel peninsula. It’s imperative that we protect these unaffected areas. Since 2009, MAF, the Department of Conservation, Auckland Council, Northland Regional Council, Waikato Regional Council and the Bay of Plenty Regional Council have joined forces to cover research into the detection and spread of kauri dieback, methods to control it and public awareness campaigns to help stop its spread. The other programme partner is tāngata whenua, where interested marae, hapū, iwi and Māoriowned land blocks can nominate a representative to sit on the Tāngata Whenua Roopū. The surveillance programme is helping to assess and monitor locations of kauri dieback disease. Research is underway to improve detection methods, increase our knowledge of how the disease spreads and develop effective control methods. Trials involving the use of phosphite to

treat the disease have shown promising lab results and field tests have begun. Work is also going into improving track construction, drainage and other man-made influences that will help reduce the spread of the disease. There have also been trial closures of tracks in some parks, or re-routing tracks away from kauri. The programme has focused on limiting the spread of the disease and protecting uninfected locations. Information is being shared with landowners, visitors, community groups, journalists, clubs and event managers to help build awareness, understanding and action around kauri dieback. The key message being driven home is to stop the spread of the disease: t

Make sure shoes, tyres and equipment are cleaned to remove all visible soil and plant material – before AND after visiting kauri forest


Stay on the track and off kauri roots

These messages have come from the understanding that spores of kauri dieback are found in the soil around affected kauri. Any movement of infected soil can spread the disease. Human activity involving soil movement (on footwear, machinery or equipment) is thought to be the greatest cause of spread. The soil-borne spores are also very hardy and can live for at least three years in the soil, which emphasises how important it is to clean footwear and equipment. 17.

The New Zealand Issue 6

Journal of Education NEW ZEALAND Journal of Outdoor Education

A bleeding lesion on a sick kauri tree. Photo courtesy of Auckland Council.

Ko T ne Mahuta Pupuke: T ne (god of the forest) is welling up, designs, thought and plans are springing up in profusion

Volume 2

Issue 4


AVAILABLE NOW $28.75 incl. p+p non-members $55.00 incl. p+p international non-members Purchase by contacting Outdoors New Zealand: or 04 385 7287

Dead kauri trees at Pakiri Scenic Reserve. Photo courtesy of Auckland Council.

“The key to cleaning is to scrub shoes free of all soil,” says Dr Nick Waipara, Auckland Council Biosecurity. “You can do this at a cleaning station if there is one on a park or reserve, or at home by simply scrubbing your gear clean of soil. “Like the ‘Check Clean Dry’ message for didymo and freshwater pests, good hygiene is the most important weapon against kauri dieback right now while we research treatment options. “It is also the only way we will keep disease out of areas that are currently healthy and protect these for future generations. “We all can help – tourists, hunters, trappers, trampers, runners, bikers, walkers. We all need to make it happen, rather than hope ‘someone else’ will do it.”

Avalanche awareness, advisories and info

So, to spread the word rather than the disease you can access more information at the programme’s website: If you think your trees have symptoms of kauri dieback, call 0800 NZ KAURI (69 52874).


OutdoorsMark: an update

Photo courtesy of Victoria Murray-Orr, EveNZ

Garth Gulley

OutdoorsMark has been through a few changes over the years. That’s good because changes are vital for an audit programme to maintain validity, improve efficiency and stay current. But the latest set of changes were, perhaps, the most dramatic to date. At the beginning of 2012 we launched the online version of OutdoorsMark. This new version was much more than a fancy, digital replacement of the PDF that had been sitting on our website for over a year. It was much more than a tweak here and a tweak there. It was a significant departure from the structure and rationale of the audit tool that had existed since OutdoorsMark began in 2003. OutdoorsMark had its genesis in the assessment tool used by British inspectors working under legislation concerned with safety at outdoor activity centres. Hence, it had a strong flavour of outdoor education and some argued that it was not particularly relevant for adventure tourism businesses, events and sole operators. Various changes were made, especially in the years 2008-10, to the way in which the benchmark requirements were stated in an attempt to cater for a wider market. But not much was done to the overall structure, the order or the flow of the document. Last year the decision was made to fundamentally restructure the audit document. There were a number of catalysts: the imminent arrival of the Adventure Activities Regulations, the need to widen the net to include every type of outdoor activity operation, the requirements placed on DOC concessionaires, and the knowledge OutdoorsMark was providing real benefits to safety management (but could be even more effective).

At the same time, we were working on a major revamp of our website and database. It seemed very logical that the new OutdoorsMark tool should be web-based and be integrated into the new database. Another factor to be considered was the need for a simple document audit for start-up operations, events and other activities that don’t warrant a full OutdoorsMark audit. The document audit is just that: an assessment of safety management documentation and no audit of practice or field visit. It is relatively quick to complete and it is fit for purpose. An approval letter is issued, which is sufficient to meet the needs of land managers, sponsors, government agencies and so on. The option of an audit of practice is always there for organisations wanting to progress to full OutdoorsMark certification. So, that is where we are at present: an online audit form, an online guide to accompany the audit form, a document audit as well as the full OutdoorsMark audit, and everything managed through the integrated database. I won’t lie and say it has been an easy, troublefree transition. Plenty of glitches and hitches have caused some stressful moments but we are definitely seeing the glare of the light at the end of the tunnel. The swearing and ranting at the computer is, thankfully, noticeably reduced. Feedback has so far been positive. The changes have been welcomed. Enquiries are up and it looks like being a busy year. As mentioned earlier, OutdoorsMark is proving to be an excellent help for organisations to enhance their management of safety. Rather than take my somewhat biased view, and acknowledging it has been a few years since I went through an OutdoorsMark audit as an operator, I asked recently for some comments from OutdoorsMark certified organisations. The response was quite humbling and I thank all those who replied. Here are some of the responses:


“As New Zealand’s largest triathlon festival, Challenge Wanaka has a huge responsibility to over 1,300 endurance athletes who take on triathlon’s ultimate discipline, the iron distance race. While we had a solid Health & Safety plan and RAMS system already in place, getting an external audit by OutdoorsMark ensured all our systems were absolutely as good as they could be. We have an excellent safety record and have full confidence in our H&S procedures but having that expert advice from a completely objective third party was invaluable. It is a process we will repeat every few years to ensure we are always top of our game in this vital area of event management.” Victoria Murray-Orr, EveNZ

“For me OutdoorsMark gives me the confidence to offer programmes to any group, school, community or family knowing that we are doing everything we can to make their outdoor experience not only enjoyable, but as safe as we possibly can. It enables us to keep a track of the policy and procedure side of this industry, and helps us to keep our staff trained to the highest possible safety standard, so they, not just me, know how to deal with any situation arising whilst working at YMCA Waiwera Lodge.” Beki Marsay, YMCA Waiwera Lodge

“The OutdoorsMark certification process was a straightforward endeavour that NOLS NZ completed in six steps within a five-month timeframe.

Photo: Fredrik Norrsell

After our initial application, we spent the bulk of our time working on the self-assessment. We found the thought process required during this exercise to be well worth the effort involved. Articulating our business practices into coherent language for an external audience helped us immediately identify our strengths, as well as potential gaps in our procedures. Although this step will require the most time, its value lies in allowing an operator to substantially reflect on their desired operational outcomes and goals, and the implementation methods to best accomplish them.

The document audit and audit of practice come next and are simply a matter of following the blueprint you have already set out in your self-assessment. Here your auditor may ask for clarification or further documentation on an item you addressed. Additionally, our auditor engaged us via email on several occasions to discuss various points, and the whole process took on a tone of mutual education rather than examination. In short order, we were provided a draft audit report with a chance for comment, and then our OutdoorsMark certification. While any certification process can seem daunting, we found the OutdoorsMark process to be professional, efficient, and well structured for self-improvement. Rather than being an additional task, the OutdoorsMark certification process forms a terrific template allowing you to quantify and qualify the key safety systems and strategic aims of your outdoor organization.” Mark Jordan, NOLS New Zealand


“Marlborough Sounds Adventure Co has a 25-year history in the sea kayaking industry and while not one of the biggest commercial operators we have certainly gained an extraordinary amount of knowledge and wisdom through the collective experiences of both our staff and as business owners over this time. We have been involved in the development of the SKOANZ COP during the early years of the industry and more recently adopted the Qualmark system (and currently still do). Both systems have, and still do, serve the purpose for which they are designed. The SKOANZ COP is still ultimately seen as the industry standard and, in tourism, Qualmark is the recognised brand for quality assurance. Even adhering to both these systems to the highest level, we felt that perhaps we could benefit from the audit process provided by OutdoorsMark. Thankfully we have completed the process and gained certification but, more importantly, have been the changes we have made as a result of the audit. It turns out we had so much stuff in our Ops Plan that only two of us could navigate our way through it! The OutdoorsMark audit process was more like a robust peer review, which, for reasons of credibility, is exactly the way it should be. There was plenty of frank and honest discussion on why and how things are done, which left us with a sense of ownership for the changes, rather than taking out of a report the auditor’s suggestions. All in all, OutdoorsMark is a worthy process with tangible benefits to our business, staff and clients.” Dave Watson, Marlborough Sounds Adventure Co

“When I started five years ago, with this new concept from France of ‘high wires in trees’ and a poor knowledge of NZ laws and rules, it was very important for me to get recognized as a professional operator in the NZ outdoors industry. So, I applied for OutdoorsMark. It was a NZ organization with NZ auditors and it was the perfect match for me. The first audit was great. My auditor had a great background and experience, and the discussions and the process went smoothly. It was of great value for my new business. Since that first audit at our site in Christchurch, we have opened a new park in Wellington and another in the Bay of Plenty. Again, OutdoorsMark is a great tool to get my staff involved and aware of their responsibilities. In each park, the manager is in charge of managing the whole process, with myself closely overseeing operations. At the end of each audit the managers are completely aware of all aspects of the safety requirements. They are smarter and able to more efficiently train their new staff. I encourage all outdoors operators to undergo the OutdoorsMark audit. It is not a threat to any operator working with normal competences and basic common sense.” Jean Caillabet, Adrenalin Forest


“Foris Eco-tours is a small eco-tourism company based in Rotorua. We take our clients on bush walks in the stunning Whirinaki Forest and down the beautiful Rangitaiki River. Our tours are about good times in the great outdoors, with a strong focus on education and ecology. As a new business, getting OutdoorsMark certified helped us integrate safety into the way we run our trips at the earliest possible stage. During the certification process, we found Outdoors New Zealand staff professional and proactive with great suggestions and a willingness to help. Having an independently certified safety plan is a prerequisite for a DOC concession but (as an added extra) we made a booking of 38 people who found us via Outdoors New Zealand’s website!” Tom Lynch, Foris Eco-tours

“We have a broad programme in terms of curriculum. We have students doing aquatics programmes that include harbour swims and completing the Surf Life Guard Award to elective programmes that explore the fundamentals of snowshoeing, canoeing, surfing, waka ama, adapted outdoor education, multisport and adventure racing to name just a few of the 22 different ‘outdoor-based’ programmes on offer to students completing the Bachelor of Physical Education degree at Otago University. We had been fortunate historically to have many well-qualified and highly experienced contractors and staff return each year to lead these programmes. But, in spite of having that important experience factor, I was aware of the need to better document areas of our programme and to have other eyes regularly looking over our practices. And I did not want to reinvent the wheel. Also, I was mindful that our programmes are different from many other tertiary courses offering outdoor-based programmes. While our students are engaging in pursuits like kayaking and rock climbing, our reasons for offering these sorts of courses are not limited to skill acquisition and/or outdoor leadership preparation. We are more interested in providing our students with meaningful and challenging opportunities to make sense of the diverse bodies of knowledge they engage with as part of their degree: biomechanics and sport governance and administration to the history of sport and the psychology of sport. So I did not want to adopt a pathway of OutdoorsMark certification that was all-consuming in terms of safety and good management practices at the expense of our primary learning objectives. Ironically, and now on reflection, OutdoorsMark has meant that I have a much clearer picture of what I need to do and when in terms of making sure we maintain sound practices within courses. Having been through this process, I feel better able to spend time focusing on curriculum and pedagogical matters knowing that we have established clear expectations around how the more operational areas need to run. In addition, finding an advisor and auditor who appreciated the breadth of our programme and our learning objectives was very important. I needed some guidance early on to interpret the standard audit document and what that would mean for our standard operating procedures. Hugh Barnard has a wealth of knowledge around many disciplines, other programmes and businesses, and if he was not familiar with industry standards in a particular area he drew on the other OutdoorsMark auditors for advice. And he was straight up with what he saw as any current deficiencies in our SOPs at document audit time, helping us address those if need be. There is no doubt that without the OutdoorsMark pathway we would have floundered for a long time developing a system that would have been no better than, and would more likely have been well short of, the standards of practice we have now set for ourselves.” Geoff Ockwell, School of Physical Education, University of Otago


Pendulum swings like a pendulum do Book Review: Stu Allan

Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand (2012), edited by David Irwin, Jo Straker, and Allen Hill.

The outdoors is seeing more people through adventure tourism. Adventure has been a lifeline for natural places, the value of pristine rivers being enhanced by commercial rafting for example. Despite thrill now being a tasteless word in outdoor education, great globs of money are happily handed over for a long menu of thrilling adventure experiences – experiences often led by outdoor education graduates. It’s a disconnect I don’t understand.

A different world requires a different approach we’re told, and in this attractive and informative book 12 authors plan a path for the future of outdoor education.

Nor do I understand some tough words in the book, words that are more difficult to chew than the various grammatical wobbles. We know that outdoor education has become respectable when we’re grinding away on such phrases as investigating subjectivity, hegemonic practices, re-conceptualised learning theory, and contested space. Actually, I secretly like contested, but contestation stuck in my throat. However, the language varies considerably, and some of the 10 courses slide down very easily.

Typically, these planners are experienced academics who outline the current big issues in outdoor education: sustainability, socio-ecology, biculturalism, and place-responsiveness. They’re targeting outdoor educators, providing 10 bite-sized chunks of wisdom to help them on a new path, or paths in fact.

So, this book summarises current academic thinking on outdoor education, along with some tried and tested ideas on how the authors get places – journeys, action projects, self-sustaining bush trails, and marae programmes for example. Readers are unlikely to argue over the importance of issues such as sustainability and social justice: their challenge is to design ways to package them that their students accept. You never know, that package might be called adventure education.

These paths don’t lead to traditional adventure education – contrived outdoor challenges – with its unwholesome risks. The pendulum swings as outdoor education has more important places to go and, although you might not believe me, I think that’s right. I’m not convinced though that all of us can travel these paths without some fun through adventure. The paths require motivating skills that many of us lack, adventure being our main prop. There are hints of this as one chapter concludes there is a place for both [outdoor adventures and education for sustainability] and each can enhance the other.… Another author reflects: Did I enjoy myself? Sometimes I forget that I became an outdoor educator because of the pleasure I have for the outdoors.

You can order copies from EONZ: $35.50 including postage.








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Sunrise over the Liebeg Range from just above Mueller Hut. Photo Fraser Crichton



New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education Ko Tāne Mahuta Pupuke Mike Brown

NEW ZEALAND Journal of Outdoor Education

Ko T ne Mahuta Pupuke: T ne (god of the forest) is welling up, designs, thought and plans are springing up in profusion

Volume 2

The purpose of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education, Ko Tāne Mahuta Pupuke is to publish original peerreviewed contributions on all aspects of outdoor education with a New Zealand context. The journal, published by Outdoors New Zealand, facilitates the interchange of ideas and information that contribute to the development of a New Zealand perspective on moving and learning in the outdoors. The work of established and emerging writers is encouraged.

The latest issue of the journal is rather unique in that it features a collection of Issue 4 2010 papers on safety and fatality prevention in outdoor education by Associate Professor Andrew Brookes from LaTrobe University in Australia. The genesis for the publication of this collection arose following the 2010 Outdoors Forum in Wellington. As the invited keynote speaker Andrew made two presentations to attendees entitled Licensing and Bubble Wrap? Guided outdoor pursuits for youth in the wake of the Mangatepopo tragedy and So What? Now What? Lessons learned from recent incidents. These presentations undoubtedly provoked unease, raised questions and provided cause for reflection. Whilst Andrew made the PowerPoint presentations available on the Outdoors new Zealand website they failed to capture the detailed and nuanced points that he raised. He also drew on previous studies that had been published elsewhere but were difficult to obtain without a direct subscription or institutional affiliation. Given the importance of the points that he made and the desire to disseminate this information more widely, I approached him about turning his oral presentations into a peer-reviewed paper.


He has done this and I am pleased to lead this issue of the journal with Preventing fatal incidents in outdoor education: Lessons learnt from the Mangatepopo tragedy. I am also thankful for the support of the previous and current editors of the Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, Glyn Thomas and Robyn Zink respectively, for permission to reprint the other three articles in this issue. Published between 2002-2004 these papers focus on outdoor education fatalities in Australia between 1960-2002. The papers summarize the incidents and introduce fatality analysis; examine contributing circumstances – supervision, first aid and rescue; and, finally, environmental circumstances leading to fatalities. As a collection this issue provides a resource for individuals and organisations that I hope will be well read and frequently referenced. At he 2011 Outdoors Forum I noted a desire to look ahead. While this is laudable and understandable we can, and must, learn from the past if we are to avoid the maxim “old accidents, new people”. As Brookes concludes in the first paper, “It would be a further tragedy if the outdoor education sector, particularly in New Zealand, failed to properly learn the lessons to be learned, or re-learned, from the seven preventable deaths”. This issue of the journal is one way of contributing to part of the process of learning from the past. I hope that it provides ‘food for thought’ as you continually strive to improve the quality of the learning outcomes for participants and ensure that they return home safely. As always the journal welcomes the submission of scholarly articles that will inform outdoor education theory and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand and the international outdoor community. Mike Brown Editor, New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education, Ko Tāne Mahuta Pupuke. Email: All members of Outdoors New Zealand receive a complimentary copy of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. Copies can also be purchased for $30+gst at: or email:

Recreation management

isn’t just a walk in the park

Sharon Alderson Enabling life-changing recreation experiences doesn’t happen without hard work by DoC and other partners. Ensuring people have more of these experiences takes more than managing assets like building huts, maintaining tracks and well-cleaned toilets! So, what does good recreation management look like and why does a conservation organisation manage recreation? The web-based Introduction to recreation management module answers this and other burning questions. The module illustrates the wide variety of recreation management work happening on public conservation land. It also explains the Destination Management Framework, a set of principles and associated actions supporting the strategic vision for conservation - New Zealand is the greatest living space on Earth - with a particular focus on growing participation of people using public conservation areas. This recognises DoC is a significant provider of tourism and outdoor recreation opportunities in New Zealand. This framework aims to ensure that the delivery of these opportunities matches what people want, gives people memorable experiences, is affordable, and that DoC works with others in doing this. Recreation on public conservation land is also available through concessionaires. What is a concession? Why do we have them? How do they fit in with DoC’s other work? The web-based “Introduction to Concessions” module answers these questions. The module illustrates the wide variety of concession activities happening on conservation

Above: Rafting on the Tongariro River – a wide range of activities occur on public conservation land. Photo: Jimmy Johnson Left: Screenshot from “Introduction to Recreation Management” online module. Image courtesy of Department of Conservation.

lands. It explains the different concession types and application processes. It also expands on DoC’s new approach of “Enabling commercial activity consistent with conservation” – what this means in practice and how working in partnership with industry can help DoC achieve its wider conservation goals. The module is available on the DoC website so that anyone who wants to learn about concessions can access this resource. In particular, anyone who might be interested in applying for a concession would benefit from undertaking this module, as well as industry bodies and people making a submission on a proposed concession. There are also a number of online modules available that relate to other aspects of DoC’s work. These cover natural and historic heritage, field skills and animal ecology. The online modules are available free on the DoC website:



Sue Gemmell

An update on the progress the Department of Labour, Outdoors New Zealand and the Tourism Industry Association have made toward implementing recommendations from the Adventure Tourism Review. In June 2010 the Department of Labour (DoL) released the Review of Risk Management and Safety in the Adventure and Outdoor Commercial Sectors in NZ final report (Adventure Tourism Review). In the report the review team recognised that many operators are already operating to high standards, with a strong culture of safety. The review team also identified a number of areas where change could improve safety. They concluded that there is “no one single measure that will address the issues identified in the review” and, as a consequence, they “recommended that the government adopts a package of measures providing a mix of regulatory requirements, industry initiatives and systems improvements”. Responsibility for implementing these recommendations sits with DoL. It has developed the regulatory requirements and has contracted Outdoors New Zealand and the Tourism Industry Association (TIA) to deliver several of the industry safety initiatives and systems improvements.


DoL projects The regulations The Health and Safety and Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations 2011 came into effect in November 2011. These regulations require commercial operators who provide some specified adventure activities to undergo a safety audit and be registered with DoL. A link to the regulations can be found on the SupportAdventure website.

Guidance for operators The DoL released the Guidance for Operators document in early April 2012. This document has been written to assist operators to interpret the new regulations. It answers many of the questions that operators have asked since the regulations came into effect in November 2011.

Audit standard and audit provider criteria For an operator to be registered under the new regulations they will require an audit. The audit will need to be meet the requirements of the DoL safety audit standard and be delivered by a DoL recognised audit provider. The audit standard and the audit provider criteria have not yet been released.

Outdoors New Zealand and Tourism Industry Association projects he DoL projects form one part of a package of initiatives collectively designed to improve safety across the sector. Outdoors New Zealand and TIA have been contracted by DoL to deliver the other part of the package and are working closely together to do so. Our key tool for communication around all the review work is the SupportAdventure website.


SupportAdventure website The website aims to provide a one-stop shop for current, industry-driven information on developing, using and maintaining safety management systems and plans. The safety management, systems guidance information and associated resources content of the website is the result of wide industry consultation. The site also hosts information on the government review, the new regulations and registration process, and other relevant legislation.

The review has clearly identified that what currently exists in New Zealand can be improved. This investigation will provide direction as to what improvements could be made, and what resources would be required to make them. Key stakeholders have been involved with developing a concept model that will be communicated to the sector in May. Key principles considered when developing this model are: t

Capture the information that operators are required to report under HSE legislation

It provides a place for people to share safety information and it links to the Adventure and Outdoor Update, the newsletter produced by the project leaders to keep you informed about all the review initiatives.


Create a model that makes it easy for operators to report (this requires the key regulating organisations to be working together)

Go to the site and sign up for the newsletter to stay informed:

The review recommended scoping an investigation into what the appropriate levels and measures of competency are for adventure and outdoor commercial sector instructors and guides.

Activity safety guidelines The review recommended the development of safety guidance for specific activities to better inform operators about their current responsibilities. The Activity Safety Guidelines (ASGs) will contain the recommended minimum safety requirements and responsibilities for organisations and leaders. Industry experts will determine the content of each ASG. TIA is currently working with the first three activity groups, canyoning, caving and indoor rock climbing.

Sector-wide incident reporting system

Levels and measures of competency

This investigation is likely to include whether instructors and guides should be required to hold qualifications and work only within the scope of their qualifications for some activities. Work is continuing on the background investigation. The outcome of this investigation will be a report to DoL recommending an approach for future investigation. You may well have questions and/or suggestions after reading this article. If you do, please contact Rachael +64 4 495 0817 or Sue +64 4 385 7287. Your involvement in these projects is welcomed.

Outdoors New Zealand has been contracted to lead an investigation of sector interest, likely engagement and concerns about a sector-wide incident reporting system.


Tramper in the Nelson Lakes National Park. Photo: Fraser Crichton

Outdoors intentions: safety in the outdoors is your responsibility Andrea Corrigan

New Zealand’s outdoors is a great place to be and for the vast majority it’s an enjoyable and safe experience. However, many unfortunate incidents occur and often they involve people who underestimate the planning, preparation and sometimes the skills required for the outdoors activity they are undertaking. 30.

In a joint initiative, leading outdoor safety organisations, including land-orientated search and rescue agencies, are urging both visitors to New Zealand and residents to get familiar with New Zealand’s Outdoor Safety Code and complete the Outdoors Intentions process. Rule 2 of the Outdoor Safety Code is: ‘Tell someone’. At its most basic level that means if you are going tramping or hunting or engaging in other landbased outdoors activity, you should provide details of what you’re doing to someone who is not on your trip. You should also give them a date and time at which they should raise the alarm if you haven’t returned safely. “One of the core principles of going into the outdoors is that safety is your responsibility,” says Mountain Safety Council CEO, Darryl Carpenter. “We believe that by encouraging people to ‘plan your trip’, combined with providing an accessible and user-friendly Outdoors Intentions process, taking responsibility is now much easier,” added Mr Carpenter.

While the essence of the Outdoors Intentions process hasn’t changed, there are now more mechanisms which you can use as illustrated below:

NEW ZEALAND OUTDOORS INTENTIONS PROCESS Safety is your responsibility so make sure you complete your ‘Outdoors before







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At the same time that the new mechanisms were introduced last year, the Department of Conservation (DoC) made an operational decision to withdraw their paper-based intentions system from most visitor centres. This coming into effect on 1 March 2012. Federated Mountain Clubs (FMC) President, Richard Davies, recently wrote in the President’s column of the FMC Bulletin:

the new mechanisms provide choice and easier accessibility for many people to do that. Indeed, for internet-savvy tourists who arrive equipped with smartphones and other devices, they are now able to provide their intentions easily to friends and family in their own countries, which was not possible before. “Making sure someone you trust (who is not on your trip) has detailed and quality information, such as where you are going, where you are planning to stay, who is with you and what equipment you are carrying, can be invaluable to search and rescue teams and should the alert be raised, can vastly improve your chances of being found and rescued quickly,” says Mr Ferner, NZ Search and Rescue Secretariat Manager. The changes have been, and will continue to be, promoted through a variety of channels including the media, magazines, websites and key stakeholders. Whilst it has been a challenge to ensure everyone is aware of the new outdoors intentions mechanisms, it is an ongoing process and continued support is welcome. it is recognised that not everyone has ready access to, or is familiar with using, the internet, therefore, some key stakeholders will be alleviating some of the difficulty by printing copies of the form in their own publications, which can then be photocopied and used again and again. More information and ways to complete your Outdoors Intentions can be found on the AdventureSmart website, which also provides tips and advice to help keep you safe for land, snow, water, boating and air activities. Please visit:

“FMC does not think that it is the government’s job to keep us safe when we are in the outdoors. Safety comes from having all of the relevant information about an area and then applying our skills and judgment to situations as they arise. Our safety is our responsibility.” “Intentions forms don’t lessen the risk of a mishap but provide vital ‘insurance’ should the worst come to pass,” added Mr Davies. The decision by DoC to withdraw their paperbased intentions system led to some criticism and confusion. Some people thought that you could only complete the intentions form online. Some people thought that you needed an internet connection at each stage of an outdoors trip.

“Spending a few minutes completing your Outdoors Intentions (whether you choose to do it online or not) could be life saving.” Duncan Ferner – NZ Search and Rescue Secretariat Manager

This is simply not the case. All outdoors enthusiasts are encouraged to ‘tell someone’ before they set foot out of the front door, and 31.

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Our members include outdoors recreation, education and adventure tourism operators as well as clubs, outdoors event organisers, retailers, professional associations, and standards setting bodies. Mission 5PQSPWJEFMFBEFSTIJQBOETVQQPSUGPSUIF PVUEPPSTSFDSFBUJPOBOEPVUEPPSTFEVDBUJPO DPNNVOJUZJO/FX;FBMBOE



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Photo: Fraser Crichton

and the minimum wage obligations Maree Baker-Galloway & Leslie Brook

Many adventure tourism and outdoor education providers organise activities which require staff to be away from home overnight, for example camping with the activity’s participants. Are those staff ‘working’ during the night? Are staff on duty all night, or are they off duty from ‘lights out’? If they are working at night, what are they entitled to be paid? When is a sleeping person working? Whether a person is working while resting or sleeping is a question of degree. There are three relevant factors to consider:1 1.

What are the responsibilities of the person during the night?


What are the constraints on the person to do as they please at night?

What is the benefit to the employer? Being away from home is not enough in itself to mean a person is working at night. Even at home a person has to turn up fit for work at the start of a period of duty and not bring the employer into disrepute.2 But additional constraints are relevant, fro example having to be quiet, not being able to leave a certain place, not being able to have visitors, and not being able to drink alcohol. Frequent interruptions at night, and a range of continuous responsibilities such as security and the wellbeing of others, tend to indicate that a person is on duty working even if they are permitted to rest and sleep.3

Scenario 1: Teachers, instructors and counsellors in charge of high school students on an overnight outdoor education event Teachers specialising in outdoor education and school camps, instructors specialising in school camps and counsellors using adventure therapy in the context of youth development are likely to fall under this scenario. The ‘age of majority’ in New Zealand is 20; that is, when a person becomes 33.

There are also likely to be significant constraints on an employee who must sleep in a remote location with clients and is not free to do as they please. Any regulations requiring staff supervision or staffto-client ratios for safety are also relevant, as they may indicate that the employer needs staff to be in attendance.

an adult. When away overnight on school camps, journeys or other outdoor adventure activities with young students or clients in the absence of their parents, the Scenario 1 employees are likely to have a high degree of responsibility for the welfare of their young charges, which continues through the night. It is, therefore, likely that Scenario 1 employees are working even at night, although this will also depend on the degree of constraint on the employee’s activities. For example, a teacher who returns home to sleep at night because of a personal family emergency or because there are sufficient volunteers at the campsite, would not be working, but a teacher who remains on duty at night at the campsite probably is working’. A teacher who takes a class on a week-long camp may therefore be ‘working’ continuously from 9 am on Monday morning to 3pm on Friday. That is 102 hours worked in one week. To avoid any breach of the Minimum Wage Act, the teacher should be paid not less than $1377 (gross) for that week’s work (based on the current minimum hourly rate of $13.50.

Scenario 2: Instructors and guides of adults away from home and civilisation This category incorporates trips into the outdoors such as sea kayaking, tramping, rafting and climbing that take the instructor or guide away from home and into the outdoors where the instructor or guide is effectively required to stay with the group. The instructor or guide may or may not be required to prepare the evening meal for their clients, but after that their formal duties are at an end. However, they are technically ‘on call’ during the night should there be an incident requiring first aid, or a weather event that requires tents to be moved. 34.

We recommend that employment agreements clearly spell out what duties (if any) an employee has at night. It may also be appropriate to clarify when an employee is off duty, for example from 10pm to 6.30am, so the employee knows he/ she can retire even if some clients are still up and about. In many situations it may be appropriate to expressly provide that the employee is not on duty but is on call in case of emergencies. In that situation the employer and employee may or may not agree to payment of an overnight ‘on call’ allowance, but must agree to pay not less than the minimum wage (now $13.50 per hour) for any hours actually worked when the employee is required to respond to an emergency at night. Alternatively, if a waged employee is ‘working’ all night, the employer could agree to pay the employee either a flat rate for all hours of the day and night or, say, $13.50 per hour at night when responsibilities are lowest and a higher rate during the day. For employees on a salary, a careful balance needs to be achieved between salary rates and the number of nights worked each week, to ensure compliance with the minimum wage obligations.

Scenario 3: Instructors or guides of adults away from home, but not away from civilisation This category takes into account trips away from home to other population centres, where the responsibility of the instructor or guide once they get off the river, track or crag is next to nothing. They are entitled to leave their clients for the evening, visit friends, go to the pub and so on. Such employees are unlikely to be working at night but the employment agreement should clearly state when an employee stops and starts work. As is obvious from these examples this is an area that is complex, and not black and white. Each individual situation will differ and each employer and employee needs to be proactive about ensuring everyone is on the same page and in agreement about entitlements. We are available to advise on specific situations. Footnotes 1 Idea Services Limited v Dickson [2011] NZCA 14 2 New Zealand Airline Pilots Association Inc v Air New Zealand (No 2) [2008] ERNZ 62 3 Idea Services Limited v Dickson [2011] NZCA 14

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Outdoors New Zealand

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The national outdoor safety audit programme designed by the New Zealand outdoor sector 35. for the New Zealand outdoor sector

Maritime law and outdoor recreation Commercial river boarding on the Kawarau River. Photo courtesy of Maritime New Zealand.

Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) is a regulator that ensures compliance with maritime laws, regulations, and established rules. Its regulatory role is a tool to help people operate safely on the water, with minimum impact on the environment, and be accountable for their actions. Within the world of outdoor recreation, MNZ’s scope includes anyone involved in recreational or commercial activity who uses a vessel on any body of outdoor water in New Zealand. This scope includes everything from recreational kayaking through to yacht charter companies. MNZ uses three compliance tools to achieve its safety and environmental goals: t




non-regulatory – educational and promotional activities, including development of guidelines and safety publications, and conducting safety investigations to determine learning opportunities regulatory – administrative actions through certification, detentions, audits, fit and proper person checks, issuing of improvement or prohibition notices, suspensions, revocations and regulatory investigations enforcement – issuing infringement notices or taking law enforcement action, such as prosecutions.

MNZ aims to build the capacity of participants to take responsibility for implementing their own safety and environmental systems. However, where organisations are not complying with the appropriate standards, MNZ’s response is guided by the level of compliance or non-compliance: t

For those who are generally exercising their responsibilities well by taking a proactive approach to safety and environmental protection, MNZ prefers to take an educational approach and apply non-regulatory tools.


For those who have an inconsistent approach to exercising their responsibilities, causing variable outcomes, MNZ will encourage a more proactive approach. While this is likely to have an educational element. MNZ’s regulatory tools may also be used.

Where responsibilities are exercised poorly and outcomes are poor, MNZ will use its regulatory tools, along with enforcement tools, where appropriate. MNZ has the legal authority to investigate accidents involving water craft, and aims to do so whenever they are notified and the response will be proportional to the outcome of the accident.

The compliance tools MNZ has at its disposal are not mutually exclusive, that is, following an investigation MNZ may choose to place an article in Look Out (a MNZ publication) as well as issue an improvement notice.

MNZ’s authority There are two overarching pieces of New Zealand legislation that impact on outdoor water sports operators: the Maritime Transport Act 1994 (MTA), and the Health and Safety in Employment Act (HSEA) 1992. The MTA applies to individuals and workplaces and facilitates the creation of maritime rules. Three maritime rules are relevant to the outdoor recreation sector: t

Maritime Rule Part 80: Marine Craft Involved in Adventure Tourism (Jet Boats)


Maritime Rule Part 81: Commercial Rafting Operations


Maritime Rule Part 91: Navigational Safety Rules

These rules clearly define the standard an individual or operator needs to meet in order to legally operate. MNZ has also developed advisory circulars to help interpret the legal jargon within the rules and provide guidance and advice on how to meet the standards defined in the rules. However, rules are also important because it is an offence to breach the rules or to operate without a maritime document (a licence, permit and so on), if such a document is required by the rule. The rafting and jet boating rules require a maritime document to be held by the operator – in the form of a safe operating plan that has been approved by the Director of MNZ. It is an offence to operate without this document. Maritime Rule Part 91 does not have a maritime document requirement, however, it could be an offence if an operator or individual did not comply with parts of the rule. If there is no rule governing the water craft activity, it is still an offence to operate a water craft in a manner that causes unnecessary danger of risk Activity \ Legislation

HSE (Adventure Activity) Regulation

Commercial rafting operators

to any other person or to property, irrespective of whether any injury or damage actually occurs. The fines could be as high as $10,000 for an individual and $100,000 for an organisation. MNZ may also choose to use the HSEA to prosecute an operator (the HSEA does not apply to recreational activities). MNZ can initiate prosecutions in situations where serious harm to any person is reasonably likely, where a person takes action or knowingly fails to take action.

MNZ and the new adventure activity regulation The new Health and Safety in Employment (Adventure Activities) Regulations make it an offence to operate an adventure activity without passing a safety audit and then being registered as an adventure activity operator. The Department of Labour is clearly the regulator responsible for this regulation, however, operators using water craft will still be monitored by MNZ and still be subject to the compliance tools at its discretion, whether or not they are required to be registered.

The role of guidelines There are occasions when MNZ produces activityspecific safety guidelines that provide information and advice with respect to maritime transport. Recent guidelines also provide a similar function to rules, clearly defining the industry-accepted standard and, therefore, may be referred to when enforcement action is being considered. The table below outlines activities, relevant legislation and MNZ educational material. With regard to outdoor recreation, MNZ is responsible for promoting safe recreational boating on the water (sea, river or lake). Its regulatory role is a tool to assist in achieving this goal: it is not a function in its own right. Both recreationalists and commercial operators are within the scope of MNZ, whereas the HSEA only applies to employment situations. The MTA and the HSEA are not mutually exclusive and both may be used as regulatory tools.

Other Legislation

Relevant educational material provided by MNZ

Not applicable

MTA, Maritime Rule Part 81, HSEA

Advisory Circular for Part 81

White-water boarding operators


MTA, Maritime Rule Part 91, HSEA

Safety Guidelines – Commercial white-waterboarding operations

Whanganui rental craft operators


MTA, Maritime Rule Part 91, HSEA

Safety Guidelines – Rental paddle craft on the Whanganui River

Recreational paddlers

Not applicable

MTA, Maritime Rule Part 91

General paddling safety advice. Safety Guidelines – Commercial Kayaking and Canoeing Operations.


Saving Paradise Preserving an iconic landscape and its recreational gems Maree Goldring Flock Hill rock climbing area under threat. Photo: Ray Goldring

When I began this article I was projecting 100 years of inaction into the future in my home lands. But I have recently visited Zealandia in Wellington and found their projected vision for 500 years of action far more inspiring as a starter. They are hoping to restore the environment there to its original pre-human state 500 years hence. But I must take us back to that negative start to make the point. Bear with me. Project 100 years in the future as your greatgreat, maybe great-grandchildren travel across the Canterbury plains via jet-pack or some futuristic road transport to their playgrounds in the Castle Hill Basin. Who knows what new recreation has been invented in the mountains: have snow and rock sports gone to a level beyond our imagination? No matter what the future holds in its uncertainties, there is one certainty: if we don’t do something about the wilding pines resolutely marching eastward and southward through the basin, our descendants will find a landscape


smothered in a thick green blanket that has totally forced our precious native flora into oblivion and severely impeded views of the mountains. In fact, they may have already marched their way over Porters Pass and be well on the way to invading the plains, knocking on the door of urban townships and the city, thanks to the prevailing winds. In the 50’s and 60’s experiments by Forest Research Institute were in place in the Craigieburn Range to find introduced species that would hold their own on, and stabilize, the erosion slopes of the mountains, particularly those induced by burning and grazing. Most species behaved well and circumspectly, growing in a quiet, non-exhibitionist way. But two main species relished the benign conditions presented to them compared to their harsher native North American climate: pinus contorta (lodgepole pine in their native Canada), and Douglas fir (Oregon pine). A few years after planting they established themselves and generously spread their progeny far and wide. Check out the fact box to see more examples. While it may look hopeless trying to stop this invasion from the road, take heart. Not only can you do something about it, but a group with the steely intention of tackling the problem exists. Already you can observe from State Highway 73 areas of dead trees, both cut and sprayed. What you can’t see are the huge areas beyond

Volunteers Cutting Wilding Pines near the Flock Hill Rocks. Photo: Ray Goldring

visibility, in valleys, on distant ranges, and behind mountains, that have been cleared of invaders. Much of this country has been tackled by large groups of up to 100 volunteers at a time, coordinated by Environment Canterbury (ECan), who spend weekend days at the task. The thicker areas are dealt with by contractors, paid for from funding raised from various organisations, by the Waimakariri Ecological and Landscape Restoration Alliance (WELRA). This organisation consists of representatives from ECan, Department of Conservation, landowners, the community, and the Canterbury Environmental Trust. The Department of Conservation has a major role in the control of these pests, particularly as the wilding seed source was originally on Crown land inherited by DoC. They have worked as much as their restrictive allocated finances allow to remove all seed source trees, particularly those on Helicopter Hill which were planted first. This is a high take-off area, being exposed to the norwesters, and was dealt with first. Other high takeoff areas are the focus on both conservation and Flock Hill land. The aim is to, in a pincer movement, bring back in the outer boundaries of the growth, creating a buffer zone, with volunteers, while tackling the more intense older stock with contractors using hand tools or spray on the ground, or from the air. Contractors are dropped off from choppers in high areas to work their way down with saws. Spray trials have found an effective mix, which does minimal damage to the fragile natives underneath (although these stand no chance of survival as the pines thicken) but maximum damage to the pines. This is used from the air or on the ground.

Wilding Pines Fact Box A Pinus contorta seed can blow up to 10 kilometers in a strong nor-wester before it lands. It can then take root in any environment: any soil type, any angle, any aspect, and any rainfall, and remain viable for over three years. A Pinus contorta can produce seeding cones by the age of six. One cone falling on the ground can sprout a clump of several trees. They can grow quickly, up to 60 or 80 centimeters in twelve months. If grazed, stock will keep young seedlings at bay, but ignore older ones. Keeping up the grazing pressure is a key to control. When cut, the slightest little bit of green matter left on the stump can re-grow a strong and viable tree. Douglas fir are only slightly less potent and can invade pastureland as intensely. The landscape around Twizel and on the road to Mount Cook is an example. European larch are rapidly gaining hold in this crew of invaders. (Their only redeeming features are their lovely colouring in spring and autumn.)


Wilding pine spread containment spraying. Photo: Ray Goldring

Flock Hill rock climbing area under threat. Photo: Ray Goldring

Over the summer of 2011/12, huge areas were covered. The landscape will look different in twelve months time. At Broad Stream an entomologist has identified a species of unique grasshoppers. Funding has been obtained to first work specifically with the invasion of Douglas fir in this catchment. The catchment of Cave Stream has been given high priority, and funding has been targeted from ECan to clear the stream and its tributaries, some of which have virtually dried up due to wilding pine invasion. Solid Energy is pioneering a relationship with WELRA, donating funds for spraying, and hours from staff for ground control with loppers and saws. It is hoped other companies will take up the challenge laid down by Solid Energy to take part in this battle. 40.

So, dear readers, join us in the battle to restore one of New Zealand’s most valuable landscapes. Help us keep wilding pines clear of Kura Tawhiti, (the rock climbers’ Mecca), the slopes of the Craigieburn, Broken River, Cheeseman and Porters skifields (all already with wilding pine populations), the Cave Stream and Castle Hill Reserves, the iconic grasslands of local high country stations and the views of the Craigieburn and Torlesse Ranges. Your visits to the Waimakariri and Castle Hill Basins will be rewarded by your efforts in a landscape being restored to its natural one. Your descendants will thank you for it as they travel up here in whatever way they will, to do whatever they will in those distant days 100 or 500 years from now. For more information go to:

Do recreation and sport pass the public good test? Local government changes spark recreation sector opinion Andrew Leslie

It’s Thursday afternoon and Wellington’s Karori Swimming Pool is a buzz of activity. Swim school lessons are keeping at least 50 children busy, while adults enjoy lane swimming or relaxing in the spa pool. Groups of happy littlies are splashing around the toddler’s pool, while their older siblings scream down the hydroslide. The local swim team is stretching on poolside, preparing for their team practice. It’s an after school scene that is likely familiar in most communities around the country. People coming together to participate in recreation: the benefits of which are many for the community and the country at large. Benefits of recreation According to a Sport NZ (formerly known as SPARC) report released last year (The Economic and Social Value of Sport and Recreation to NZ), the sport and recreation sector contributes the same amount to the New Zealand economy as the dairy sector’s domestic component, with each contributing around $5 billion, or 2.8% of GDP. But the economic value forms only part of the picture. The physical and social benefits are also significant. As outlined in the report, “Physically active people have higher work productivity and better health outcomes than people who are not active. The 2007/08 Active New Zealand Survey found that 20 per cent of adults are physically active because of participation in sport and recreation. Estimating a dollar value of this group’s increased productivity and improved health, minus the costs from accidental deaths and serious sport and recreation injuries, produces an estimate of additional benefits of $1.0 billion.”

For further confirmation about the benefits of recreation, NZ Recreation Association (NZRA) turns to a recent study released in February 2012 by NZ-based UMR Research, which pointed out that one way to ensure more happiness in your life is to increase your physical activity. While most Kiwis would admit that they feel better when they are more active, NZRA takes this premise a step further in stating that a population that is physically active and healthy has a trickle-down effect on the economy, creating a stronger more vibrant community.

Above: Are swim schools at risk? Photo courtesy of NZRA.

NZRA CEO, Andrew Leslie, comments, “This latest UMR research justifies our work as an organisation that advocates the importance of recreation to our health as a nation. But, to go even further, we would argue that when communities of people are more active not only are they happier, they are healthier, both physically and economically.”


Babies and Mothers Swim Class. Photo courtesy of NZRA. Will Council-operated sports fields survive the changes? Photo courtesy of NZRA.

Leslie goes on to link these benefits back to local government. “As the major provider of recreationrelated activities and facilities, local government is also a primary influencer on the happiness and health of a community.” Leslie feels strongly about the importance of articulating the wider social benefits of recreation, especially in this new local government climate, in order to ensure that there is an understanding at a political level of why investment in the recreation sector is so.

Local government changes What would you think if council support for your community’s swimming pool was threatened, resulting in fewer options for the public to enjoy the pool? Recent changes to the Local Government Act could mean just that. To avoid this outcome, NZRA believes that members of the recreation and sport sector have a job to do. Those in the industry need to take a firm stance now to ensure that councils continue to view recreation-related activities as essential public services, to view recreation facilities as key infrastructure, and to view recreation as a positive contributor to our local and national communities.

Outdoor Activities Guidelines for Leaders

NZRA sees local government’s announcement of changes as a call to action for those working in the recreation and sport sector. Former Minister, Nick Smith, outlined changes to the Local Government Act, namely the removal of the four well-beings (social, economic, environment and cultural well-being of communities), and for them to be replaced by a new mandate of ‘providing good quality local infrastructure, public services and regulatory functions at the least possible cost to households and business’. Leslie comments, “Whilst none of Nick Smith’s announcement was unexpected, I think it is a big wake up call for the recreation and sport sector. NZRA has been vocal in the past about how integral councils are to the provision of recreation and sport within communities and how we need to better articulate the full value that our sector provides to this country.” He went on to observe that the recreation and sport sector is often positioned within the ‘softer’ areas of a council’s mandate, the very areas that are now under threat of being squeezed out of the local government world.

Outdoor Activities

Guidelines for Leaders 5th Edition reprint This resource outlines current, accepted practice for running a wide variety of outdoor activities. The guidelines aim to assist outdoor leaders to provide quality outdoor experiences for participants. Outdoor Activities: Guidelines for Leaders is presented in two sections - general guidelines that are applicable to all outdoor activities, and specific guidelines that focus on 42 outdoor activities.

$ 35.00 incl. p+p To purchase a copy please contact us by calling: +64 4 385 7287 42.

or by emailing:

“Our job now is to ensure that expenditure on recreation and sport is maintained – the argument being that they are producing a ‘public good’,” Leslie added, making reference to Smith’s comment that the “key new test that councils will need to apply in the way that they spend money is that there is a public good.” Leslie believes this is an opportunity for the sector to engage with local authorities and others in the industry in planning for and ensuring a strong future for recreation and sport in this country. A closer look at some of the specific findings of the Sport NZ study makes it easier to understand just how highly valued sport and recreation are in New Zealand: t

9 out of 10 young people and 8 out of 10 adults take part in one or more sport and recreation activities.


There are more than 15,000 sport and recreation clubs in New Zealand. Over 35,000 people work in sport and recreation industries.

One way to do that, he reasons, is to ensure that when councils are determining their core infrastructure and prioritising their public services, recreation and sport are tobe considered essential and for the public good, whilst demonstrating provision at ‘the least possible cost’. He points to the fact that many public services are not provided by central government nor the private sector, as they have historically fallen short in this area. Local government has taken up the slack in the past. If the provision of these services is now being threatened by changes to the Local Government Act, Leslie warns, then the recreation sector needs to mobilise on behalf of our communities’ rights to recreation and sport. “These are the core issues that NZRA will be considering in the upcoming weeks and months as we continue building the arguments that prove recreation and sport infrastructure and services are vital to our communities,” Leslie adds.


On average local government spends $800 million on operating sport and recreation facilities in New Zealand.


Including the value of social and personal benefits, the total value of sport and recreation to New Zealanders is around $12.2 billion.

Granted, there is much yet to be played out, but it’s a given there will be a different local government environment in the not too distant future. Leslie argues that those in the recreation and sport sector can debate ‘why the need for change?,’ and thinks that should happen, but as a sector he feels we need to get on the front foot.

New Zealand Recreation Association is a not-for-profit industry member organisation committed to promoting recreation and providing professional services to the recreation sector. NZRA leads and supports the industry providers of parks, pools, recreation facilities and playgrounds. NZRA believes recreation is vital to the well-being of New Zealanders.

Leslie concludes by commenting that,“When you strip back the discussion to its bare essence, the question becomes ‘what is intrinsically valuable to the individual?’ “ It seems clear on the happy faces of those at this local swimming pool in Karori, Wellington, that recreation and sport have intrinsic value. All of the statistics and arguments aside, how can groups of delighted children, contented adults and engaged staff be anything but a “public good”? For more information, please contact: Andrew Leslie, CEO, NZ Recreation Association Phone: 04 801 9364 or 027-224 2070 Email:

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A new website for outdoor and adventure activity operators Sue Gemmell The site’s homepage welcomes visitors with a clean uncluttered design. The background gives the site a practical yet professional feel and moving images highlight featured content. The website has four key sections: Safety Management Systems, Government Safety Review, Safety Audits and Legislation. The content within the Safety Management Systems section is focused on helping operators develop or improve their safety management plans and systems. This section also includes safety tools and tips and excerpts from safety management plans that operators have provided. The Government Safety Review section provides background information on the Review of Risk Management and Safety in the Adventure and Outdoor Commercial Sectors. It also provides information about the projects that Outdoors New Zealand and TIA have been contracted by the Department of Labour to deliver.

Outdoors New Zealand and TIA are excited to present the newly developed SupportAdventure website. This website is a direct result of recommendations made in the Review of Risk Management and Safety in the Adventure and Outdoor Commercial Sectors. The site is the key tool for communicating safety information related to this review. It aims to provide a onestop-shop for adventure and outdoor activity providers. 44.

The Safety Audit section explains the new adventure activity regulations and their implementation. It also has information about safety audit providers who work with the adventure industry. This section is complemented by the Legislation section, which provides information on and links to the HS&E Act and other relevant legislation. The SupportAdventure team also produces a regular newsletter. This newsletter provides regular updates about all the review initiatives. The website archives the Adventure and Outdoor Update newsletter. The website is updated on a regular basis with Department of Labour releases, communication around project progress and any new safety systems information from the sector. Go to the website now and sign up for the newsletter to stay informed:

Major upgrade for Walking Access Mapping System Mark Neeson

Enjoying the great outdoors will soon become even easier thanks to enhancements to the New Zealand Walking Access Commission’s Walking Access Mapping System (WAMS). The innovative mapping system, online at: is designed to help New Zealanders and overseas visitors identify land in New Zealand over which the public has access. It displays topographical maps and aerial imagery of most of New Zealand and includes an enquiry function that allows members of the public to submit their questions and issues direct to the Commission. The enhancements, due to go live before the end of the year, will include an improved user-interface and a separate mobile-friendly version that will be accessible on smartphones and other mobile devices. The Commission will also open up the system to other public and private organisations that wanted to display their outdoor-related information to the public. “The mapping system will become a platform for organisations to display all kinds of useful information to people interested in getting out and about in the outdoors. Users will be able to sort the information to find all types of points of interest, from walking and cycling tracks to fly fishing access points.”

The benefits of the free-to-use WAMS for groups like walkers, anglers and hunters are huge, but these maps are also vitally important for landholders. Detailed maps that inform the public about land that is, and isn’t, publicly accessible are essential if people are to know the extent and limits of their legal access.

A screenshot of the Walking Access Mapping System website. Image courtesy of New Zealand Walking Access Commission.

Many local authorities hold public access information for their own regions but WAMS is the first time it has been unified into a nationwide system. Recreationalists, land holders and other people from a wide range of sectors, including the property sector, are now using WAMS as their site of choice. WAMS uses geographic information system (GIS) technology to allow users to zoom in, using either a topographic or aerial view, to investigate publicly accessible land in any part of New Zealand. Users can also print maps, use a ‘Draw’ tool to measure distances between various points, and print maps. Questions about access or disputes over access can be lodged through the system’s ‘Enquiry’ function, to be followed up by the Commission’s nearest regional field advisor. For more information, please contact: James Heffield Phone 04 815 8513 or 021 211 2362 45.

Freed up

rather than tied down? Maureen Gunston

Which lens are you looking through? Do you see only restrictions and obstacles barring your way or is there an unfolding landscape of new opportunities and challenges? Do you have a culture of safety and care in your organisation, which gives you the confidence to fly? The SafeHere Trust works on the premise that we aim at being ‘safe here’, wherever ‘here’ might be – in the outdoor environment or wherever. Attention to the basics actually frees us up to tackle those challenges in healthy ways. Time for a reality check? The Maori proverb reminds us, He aha te mea nui o te ao (What is the most important thing in the world)?

For those heading into the outdoors, most would agree that there should be an emphasis on the safety aspects of specific activities and those who lead them. However, incidents are never limited to those activities and still have a nasty habit of happening when least expected. The SafeHere Trust encourages looking at the bigger picture of ‘Safe People – Safe Programmes’ and offers ChildSafe, an affordable safety management system, aimed at better equipping those with varying levels of responsibility and accountability. Although primarily designed for activities with children and young people, these tools, we have realised, are equally relevant for use with people of any age in a wide variety of environments. So try to forget the word ‘child’ and think ‘person’ if that context is better suited to your work. Three key elements of ChildSafe are: 1. ChildSafe Standards – printed publications (Team Member, Team Leader, Coordinator and Organisation manuals), optional branding and added content, with a disc of electronic forms


for almost every conceivable situation to assist in planning, risk assessment, record keeping and so on. 2. Training – adaptable modules aimed at different levels of involvement, with presentations, for face-to-face group training and self-paced packages (printed and online) with quizzes and tests. 3. Online Safety Management Online 24/7 – access for people at every level to a webbased system, which manages appointment, tracks training, offers resources and provides a framework to operate safely.

ChildSafe’s Dr Thrill brings a light-hearted reminder throughout the Team Member handbook of situations many of us can identify with. The training seminars are designed to also encourage honest sharing of those awkward moments and the near misses we all need to learn from.

Systemic safety shortcomings? Whoever we are working with, in whatever environment, people are at the heart of the planning and the decisions taken. Our record keeping is only worthwhile when it reflects the reality of how people are recruited and trained, what they are actually doing and how we are all learning from our experiences each step of the way.

ChildSafe uses this ‘Systemic Safety Shortcomings’ diagram as the basis for its special emphasis on ‘Appointment, Training and Control’. Some incidents may relate to shortcomings in the systems and processes of the organisation, whilst others may relate more to the actions of individuals. Most groups have their own way of doing things. That culture can encourage or sometimes inhibit good practice. ChildSafe recognises the uphill battle involved for many in a leadership role when adopting and implementing changes. It seeks to address, through the Organisation Manual, these issues, the responsibilities of a Risk Management Officer, and the importance of Emergency Response and Training as appropriate in your situation.

Safe people – safe programmes? Pipe dream or reality? We often see people benefitting from programmes which challenge and encourage personal growth. The outdoor environment offers great opportunities for such experiences when they are delivered in a responsible manner. Reflecting this emphasis on people, we need to note that alongside the possibility of accidental harm there is sometimes the reality of intentional harm. In creating an environment where participants feel safe and valued, we may find a person comes to trust a team member and feels safe enough to disclose disturbing details of their life. Recently a teacher wrote of the worst day in his life. He became aware of a child who had been beaten up at home and, in the midst of a very difficult situation, was very thankful that his ChildSafe training kicked in. He says it enabled him to respond and take appropriate action whilst remaining calm and supporting the child. Training which, he tells us, he had never received elsewhere and which, he admits, he had previously thought was ‘pointless living in a safe country like New Zealand... we would never be in a situation where we would have needed to utilise the strategies and the information that we were taught’. SafeHere wants to challenge all programme leaders to see child protection and appropriate training as an important aspect of their work.

their risk management standards and policies, many still struggle with an efficient way of record keeping to satisfy their auditors. For the latter, and indeed for any group taking the issues seriously, our optional Safety Management Online tool brings a powerful way of tackling that concern. Our website offers insights into the basic setup which can then be adapted to suit the group’s needs. Desirable elements of online record keeping are: 1. People a. Individuals – contact details, police vetting, reference checks, training, qualifications... b. Teams – appointment, access to information, planning, incident reports and extra training... 2. Planning a. Overall safety and specific activity plans, risk management matrix... b. Self assessment – Permission to Proceed + any audit information... 3.

Incident reporting – framework to assist, link to national incident reporting


Reports (as needed) + ability to ‘flag’ expiry dates for qualifications, police vetting...


Resources – ability to add your own to any default materials

What are the vital safety issues for you? Does record keeping challenge your organisation? SafeHere works mainly with organisations who are grappling with what it means to do ‘all that is reasonable and practicable’ in the situations they encounter. Whilst larger entities may already have

If you have identified an area in which SafeHere might be able to help you with that ‘pebble’, check out and make contact with us. We want to encourage a proactive approach to safety management to avoid the decisions being taken out of our hands by lawmakers. Let’s be freed up rather than tied down!

Designed by Alistair Paton for ChildSafe use.


Going down the Remarkables ridge line after being dropped off by helicopter. Photo: Paul Angus

Parting Shot OutdoorsMark certified February 2012 OutdoorsMark


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