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| From the Villa ge of Brook ly n |


| VOL. 23 NO. 27

July 4 – 10, 2019 |

Since 1996

What to Millions is the Fourth of July? "Mournful Wails" Muffle Glee of Independence Orator Frederick Douglass' 1852 Speech Echoes Today


Stolen Land, Stolen Labor: The Case for Reparations

he discussion of reparations comes at another turning point in American history. The Supreme Court has ruled that partisan gerrymandering is outside of court control. This means that the Republican Party, now controlled by white supremacists, will continue to cement their voting power by devising voting districts that favor their control and cram all others into fewer districts than they deserve. They will continue to dominate state legislatures, and from their safe seats, Republican politicians put job before country and vote their gerrymandered constituency, regardless of how the majority of people stand on an issue. And more white supremacist fascist judges will be given lifetime appointments, putting both Black and Brown people, as well as nonrich white people, firmly under the control of overseers with their laws, regulations of income inequality and the


economic whips of marketing and chains of debt. It is in this environment that the topic of reparations is being put on the table. And if Trump wins this next election, then there will be no more of that reparation talk. Just try and hold on to what you have. In a 1998 interview with historian John Henrik Clarke, he said, “…if Black people don’t unite and begin to support themselves, their communities and their families, they might as well begin to go out of business as a people. Nobody’s going to have any mercy. And nobody’s going to have any compunction about making slaves out of them.” This next election will determine who we are as a nation and it is good to understand where we’ve been, and the level of amorality white supremacists are capable of. They can whitewash as much as they want. The reality is revealed in the kind of

world they have created when they first had complete and total control. The articles beginning on page 7, started with a 1997 trip to the Cadman Plaza Business Library in downtown Brooklyn. I was there looking for banks to approach for advertising and was struck by how many of them were formed during slavery times. I found myself following the money instead of doing my other work and this sidetrack led to a place where the oft-heard “slaves built this country” is shown to be true in dollars and cents and answers the questions, “Why reparations?” “For what?” In “Stolen Land, Stolen Labor,” we can count the slave dollars flowing across the country, and in Frederick Douglass’ “What to the Slave is Your 4th of July?” we see the pain and suffering for which no compensation can be made, but which must be faced and acknowledged. By David Mark Greaves

“Fellow-citizens; above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions! whose chains, heavy and grievous yesterday, are, today, rendered more intolerable by the jubilee shouts that reach them.” Page 10

Special Salute to Orators of Our Time

hen we think of great orators, the names of Frederick Douglass, The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X easily come to mind. Although their messages of justice and freedom ring in harmony still, the mic is live and has not been dropped by their Brooklyn-based heirs. We heard two of them – community advocate Richard Green of the Crown Heights Youth Collective and

historian/activist Graham Weatherspoon, former detective and current broadcast commentator, at The Cooperative Culture Collective’s 19th Juneteenth Celebration in Ft. Greene, June 15. The event themed “Celebrating Our Story and Pouring into Our Future” featured the two leaders’ rousing keynotes: Green on the historical significance of the annual June observance to Central Brooklyn, and Weatherspoon on

Graham Weatherspoon

Photo: B Green

“When We Were Kings.” Mid-May, in Montgomery, Alabama, the voice of village griot Rev. Taharka Robinson resounded throughout the sanctuary of the Dexter Avenue Historic Martin Luther King Jr. Baptist Church. Rev’s knowledge and voice also brought to life, during a tour of a Selma museum, a movement in his total recall of details of the city’s history.

Richard Green

Photo: B Green

Here at Our Time Press, we are rediscovering our own voice in the form of echoes from the past: forgotten, now found, stories reflecting our journey through two decades. This week, we pulled publisher David Greaves’ interview with Mr. Green out of the files to share on Page 2. Next week, we feature the messages of Mr. Weatherspoon and Rev. Robinson. (Bernice Green)

Photo: Courtesy Robinson

Rev. Taharka Robinson

(Reprint) Griot Calling: Professor William Mackey, Jr., on Page 3


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

VOL. 23 NO. 27

Richard Green: When the cuts came down in December before Christmas, Boom! They just cut. Not only did they cut the budget, they froze everything. If you didn’t have a reserve in your cash flow when this happened… most programs had to close. I said, “I’m not going nowhere. I’m digging in for the long haul!” David Greaves: How did you weather it? RG: I took a mortgage out on my house. DG: For the Center? RG: That’s how we kept operating. I took out a second mortgage.

Interview Richard Green



ecently, many African Americans have been talking about “giving back” and “helping the youth.” Richard Green is glad to hear it, he can use the help. Green has made “giving back” a part of his professional and personal life since his return from Vietnam in the 60’s. He has taken as many as 65 youth ranging in age from 2-22 years to such countries as Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Gambia and Mali. Next year, the Collective travels to Egypt and Ethiopia. He has brought four basketball teams from Nigeria to play throughout the U.S. He has organized annual food and clothing drives to Africa and has been a year-round life preserver for young people as they make their way through Brooklyn’s troubled seas. DBG MEDIA Publishers of Our Time Press, Inc. 358 Classon Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11238 (718) 599-6828 Web site: e-mail: Publisher DBG MEDIA Editor-in-Chief David Mark Greaves Copy Editor Maitefa Angaza Columnists Eddie Castro Victoria Horsford Abigail McGrath Marlon Rice Reporters Akosua Albritton Margo McKenzie Contributors Lisa Durden Fern Gillespie Web Editor Lauren Cullins Legals Manager Joanna Williams Advisor Bernice Elizabeth Green KinEsthetics International © 2015, DBG MEDIA Publishers of Our Time Press, Inc., printed in New York City. All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced without prior permission of the publishers. Publishers are not responsible for any ad claims. MBE Certified in NYC, NYS and the Port Authority of NY & NJ Member: New York State Press Association

By David Mark Greaves

Usually associated with teenagers and “Keeping the Peace,” he seemed to be everywhere during the crisis in Crown Heights a few years ago. The Crown Heights Youth Collective, Inc was founded in 1977 by Richard and his wife Myrah, now parents of five and grandparents of one. A visit to the facility, now located at 915 Franklin Avenue in Brooklyn, reveals him to be deeply active in the lives of young people in a number of ways. The center is housed in a cavernous industrial building that is made exciting by the activities going on all around. There are classrooms, games, carpentry shops and areas to sit, talk and create. A computer lab is there and an in-house retail store, run by the youth, is being built. When he’s not involved in street outreach or working in the center open area, Green can be found in an office lined with awards, children’s artwork, and papers and files in piles on every available surface. A tall man with dreds, he is a calm and charismatic presence. As I sat and talked with Richard Green about his work, I began to realize that heroism takes many forms and that here in Brooklyn, we have a real American Hero. David Greaves: How long have you been here doing this? We always talk about folks having to participate, and here you are. Richard Green: We started 20 years ago. 1997 will make 20 years. I just thought there was just so much of a need in the community I grew up in and raised myself in to have something that young people could relate to. I (felt) I had an obligation to come back to this community. I grew up here, came out of the service, went to college; everything happened from here. So, I just came back home. Many of my brothers were getting that degree in the early-late 60’s and early 70’s. Many went to school on open admissions. And they took the flight ... to Long Island, upstate, different places. I grew up in the same zip code that I’m living in right now and working. I used to walk by the house I’m living in now when the neighborhood was called “Doctors’ Row.” DG: I grew up on St. Marks and Kingston. RG: So, you know this area here. I used to walk down this block and look at the houses and say, “Boy, it’d be nice to live in one of those.” I

finished school, finished my graduate work, came back home. I looked out the window one day and saw the little brothers on a rooftop when they were supposed to be in school. I yelled out my window, “Why you all not in (school)?” (They said) “Well, you know, it’s boring in school.” “So, what do you do when you’re not in school?” “There’s nothing for us to do.” I’d just moved back in the neighborhood. So, I went around and saw there was a community center around the corner on Bedford Avenue. I went inside, introduced myself and asked the brother if there was any way I could work with him. I was just coming back at that time and I wasn’t doing this kind of thing. I’d done it briefly out in Flatbush the summer before. So, he said, “Yeah, come on and work with me.” So, I started here. Things happened and that program closed. I moved off, went somewhere else in the neighborhood. Stayed right in the vicinity and ended up opening up my own place, started a program between the room around the corner that I had to tutor in and my apartment. We did our T-shirts and stuff in my bedroom on my bed. DG: For fundraising? RG: Fundraising and shirts for our teams in sports. T-shirts were always a good incentive for young people. So, we started that way and before you knew it ... Well, the need is there. DG: Did you find that more and more kids just started to come? RG: Just kept coming. They used to say, “When the students are ready, the teacher will appear.” Well, when the teacher is ready, the students will appear. You appear out here to teach these young people anything and they’ll be ready. And that’s what we started doing. We became the teachers. DG: You say, “We.” RG: I met a sister who was working at Lord and Taylor and I convinced her that this job...we weren’t on payroll or anything -was volunteer. We were struggling, starving, collecting unemployment, whatever, to keep going. I convinced her to come out here and work with me. DG: A fellow believer? RG: Ended up marrying her. And she was my partner, someone I could bounce things off of. (We) have that yin and yang thing going. I have that yang side to make me

Photo: B Green

(June 15, 2019, Cuyler Gore Park, Ft. Greene, Brooklyn, NY) Richard Green, founder and CEO, Crown Heights Youth Collective, a King In the borough of Brooklyn, embraces Queen Brenda Brunson-Bey (OTP, 3-21-19), at this year’s commemoration of Juneteenth history. The event hosted by the Cooperative Culture Collective of which Ms. Brunson Bey is a co-founder. balanced. We managed to raise a family as well as to continue with this. DG: How has that worked out over the years? RG: We’ve been through many changes, different plateaus. We had a serious fire that took us out five years ago. DG: Here? RG: Not in this site but in the other site. When that happened, we thought that was it. But one thing after another, we sprung right back and five years ago, we opened this site. DG: I haven’t had a chance to walk around yet, but just glancing inside, it’s very impressive. How many kids do you work with in the course of a year? RG: Thousands. I work in schools, go to prisons, whatever it calls for, we’re here. We literally deal with thousands of young people in a given year. Today is a good day for you to see. Today is a Tuesday. How many young people have been in here already? The first crew that was here ...well, you’re talking 70 young people who go to school here. When they go home, we have after-school programs for 40 additional new youth. Then you have the evening people. With the quiet games, meetings in the library, you have an additional 30 young people. There’s count that up and you see what’s done in a given day. If I go out here and do outreach after school, that’s another group of young people. DG: Do you actually go around to schools and stand out front? RG: Yes. That’s the science that’s holding this whole thing together. The Police Department and others talk about the reduction in crime, when under Mayor Dinkins’ Administration, we wrote a project, the most important project that came to this city. We started with six neighborhoods and now we’re

up to fifty-something with our street outreach vans. Street outreach was the most important thing we brought into existence. It gave the opportunity for us to intercept these young people before it got to the critical point. That program’s been all but pretty much decimated. Right now, we’re praying that the mayor, the administration, will keep it going. But like anything else that’s good, once it’s good, it has pretty much out served its purpose. DG: I’d like to ask you about credits for drops in crime. I see the police commissioner polishing his brass and the mayor saying, “Yes, look at what we’re doing.” RG: Yes. DG: And I have a suspicion that there are community-based forces that deserve credit for reducing crime. How do you feel about it? RG: In all the different statistics, crime is going down except among young people. It’s an overall go down. But young people are more reflective (these days). Whenever a young person commits a crime, usually a street crime, it’s considered newsworthy. Adults are the ones who make the choices as to what to report. A boy once asked his dad, “Why is it whenever a lion attacks a hero in the movies, the lion always loses?” So, his dad says, “Son, as long as the lions are not writing the story, they’ll always lose.” It’s the same with young people. Our young people don’t write the stories so what gets projected is distorted. Adults commit as many crimes in various areas, and in many cases the youngsters are emulating the adults, acting out the adult crime, but they don’t get reported. (There’s a knock on the door and a woman is invited in.) RG: Hi. You can look around. NYT: Do you mind if I stay?

➔➔ Continued on page 5

VOL. 23 NO. 27


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

Professor William Henry Mackey, Jr. African Renaissance Man & Griot of Our Time


e expected our first interview with Professor William Mackey, Jr. to last 45 minutes, centering around the history scholar’s take on the differences – if any - between storytelling and the study of history. A few minutes into our session, Professor Mackey detoured into a WhatTime-It-Is reality check (for our benefit) with lessons in Mackey’s Basic Economics, Basic Math and Social Studies. It’s the same thing he does for the community, with his free lectures on Thursday evenings in the basement of 850 St. Marks Avenue in Brooklyn. Four hours passed and we had not even cracked the surface in our planned exploration of the man and his missions. See, when you’re traveling with Professor Mackey, there’s no telling what you will find, who you will meet or how long the journey will take. On the way, you pick up some fundamental lessons in “Black Survival for an African Future.” It’s part of a lifecourse Mackey believes everyone in the village has prerequisites for from birth. It’s a course Mackey still takes, himself. Mackey’s journeys have taken him to several worlds. In the community, he is known for his scholarship and his skills as an educator. In the literary world, he is respected for his writings and, too, his scholarship: he is a linguist (five languages) but he speaks “only Ebonics in public”; he has an assortment of degrees--one is in the science of structural engineering. In a 1970’s nationwide poll, he was voted one of the top ten photojournalists in the world. Mackey’s poignant images of the Black Experience appear in the critically acclaimed “Eye of Conscience,” a tribute to these acclaimed photographers. A musicologist whose huge record library includes Big Band to Beethoven, Mozart to Miles, Mackey sings, too. He founded -- are you ready for this? -- “The Fernandina Florida Gospelaires” and sang lead. His tenor solos rocked Jacksonville, Florida’s famous Bethel Baptist Institutional Church where he created its popular Glee Club. Music was a staple–along with poetry, drama, jazz and good eats -- of Les Deux Megots, the cafe he owned on East 7th Street in Greenwich Village during the Beat Generation era. Mackey’s cozy spaces -- he owned several of them--were frequented by artists, poets, dancers, off-Broadway and out-of-work actors and actresses. Harold Cruse managed Megots for him and James Baldwin, Moses Gunn, Robert Earl Jones—father of James, Frances Foster, Robert Hooks, Graham Brown, Ted Jones and many other greats in the arts hung out and performed there. Amiri Baraka was a regular and recited his poetry over what is now called “open mic”. Mackey is a contributing editor to the Encyclopedia of Black America (The Negro Almanac) and, as well, to the Pictorial History of Black America in which some of his photographs appear. His incisive introduction to Barnes & Noble’s 1995 edition of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” is a first. The book has been in print since 1852, and “this is the first-time an African American has contributed a critical analysis of the work,” Mackey reveals.

Published February 1997 ■■

by Bernice Elizabeth Green

Photo: Juliana Thomas

You can find writer Mackey’s loving tribute to the legendary Langston Hughes on this year’s Literary Desk Calendar. The 1998 Literary Calendar will feature Mackey’s panegyric to Baldwin. Mackey has never gotten over the death of his good friend. And he is trying to come to terms with the recent passing of the great Dr. Edward Scobie. Twice a week, on average, Mackey walks from Crown Heights across the Brooklyn Bridge to Manhattan. On some days, he stops in lower Manhattan to teach at DC 37. Courses include: The History of Black Music; Race, Ethnocentricity and Linguistics; African History and Culture. On other days, he travels past Wall Street on foot another 40 blocks or so, uptown, to Empire State College. There, he unscrambles minds on issues pertaining to World History and U.S. Labor, and Black History. For Mackey, 77, life truly is about journeys: preparing for them, having the right mind-set for them, starting them and completing them. He’s concerned that some people do not know how to get to first base. Therein, lies the key to his personal mission: which is “to open up minds.” “I’m here to show you how to think, I’m not here to just teach,” he tells his “family” of students in his “Correcting the Mis-Education Series” class at 850. But educate he does with refreshingly honest and irreverent diagnoses of an unwell world “gone crazy.” This evening, Mackey is discoursing on “The Role of Race and Ethnocentrism in Cultural Linguistics (Speaking in Tongues)”. He is in control. Leading his discussion like a conductor - music or train. Yet, the

griot-patriarch seeks guidance, too -- to convey his message and carry his followers into various worlds of knowledge. Before each Thursday class, he meditates alone in his apartment tower surrounded by spectacular pyramids of books, cassettes and audiotapes. Buried under one heap is an upright, still in-tune piano waiting for Mackey to play it again. The books are so pristine, so new looking you wonder if Mackey simply inhales the knowledge without touching the pages. And more books in the dining room, on the windowsill, in Barnes & Noble shopping bags--in every inch of space, except a couple of necessary paths. And more books: all stamped carefully with the Mackey imprimatur and waiting for their place on the shelves of a library Mackey will build in Georgia as a memorial to his grandmother, Harriet Weston. Mackey takes the results of his reflections downstairs to his Mack-free classes. These are Multi-Afrikan Culturally Kemetic free classes where Mackey’s occasional socially incorrect locutions are in a comfort zone with his readings from word-and-thought-masters he respects, including Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Malcolm X, Howard Zinn, Shakespeare, Mrs. Weston. As many as 35 students on various Thursdays are held captive by the professor’s iconoclastic humor, downhome wit, idol-smashing curve balls. Laughter drowns the whooshing of the washers and dryers across from the community room. Mackey is shooting holes in the media’s Main Story of the Week, analyzing them from a fact perspective. He draws parallels between the Ollie North/Crack thing and England/Opium

Wars cover-ups. He interweaves history with real-world happenings and makes it sound like poetry. He is a consummate storyteller, and he draws us in. He causes us to make mental notes to check out the Britannicas on our bookshelf, and get into this Global History, a feat which eluded our past – as he calls them -- “so-called educators”. I am learning. “The education system has a long history of dehumanizing people,” Mackey says. “The truth is not being put out there. It’s a continuing struggle trying to steer away from misdirection and miseducation. It’s so easy to delude ourselves into thinking that what we are being told is what really is. Positive insanity is the only rational outlet. I believe we can do it ourselves and learn everything we need to know right in the village. It’s not a new way of thinking. But I would never tell you what to think. I will advise you not to compartmentalize anything. Everything ties in. Knowledge is all around, if you use all your senses, you’ll find it.” A young SUNY college student, on winter break, is listening to Mackey with cautious attention. The class is a release from the madness on her upstate campus where white students have smeared racist graffiti on the walls and dormitory doors. The following week, the young woman brings her mother to meet Mackey. The mother expresses her gratefulness, informing him that her daughter is returning to school with a new resolve and some tangibles--newspaper clips, tapes and book lists from Mackey’s class to share with the other Black students. “My

➔➔ Continued on page 13


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019


By Victoria Horsford

THE WEEK IN REVIEW The battle for the 2020 Presidency begun in earnest last week, in Miami, the host city for the first debate for The Democratic 2020 Presidential hopefuls. While POTUS 45 was in Japan attending a G20 Summit and cavorting with American frenemies and autocrats, the American political cauldron was getting hot. Oh yes, he man history crossing the Korean DMZ and venturing into North Korea. The many Democratic debates will underscore the Trump Presidency’s strengths and fault lines and identify that Democrat, out of a field of 24, best suited to defeat 45. The two Democratic debates aired on NBC-TV and associates overwhelmed viewers. Too many debaters and not enough time.

Kamala Harris Elizabeth Warren and Kamala Harris were exceptional and their post-debate donations swelled. Senator Harris upset the second debate by taking on the front runner Biden and she emphasized that he may not be the one to defeat Trump. Harris enthused that as the only Black debater, she would be remiss if she failed to broach the matter of RACE. She displayed her prosecutorial skills and deftly showed how frontrunner Biden may be vulnerable. The Harris performance elicited a Trump Jr Tweet response stating the she wasn’t really Black. Excuse me! When

did he become historian or genealogist. Here we go again, the matter of the immigrant parent making Kamala or Obama, the other! Does Trump 2 know anything about the Atlantic Slave Trade, the point of departure which was Africa and the destination which is the New World, South AND North America, including the Caribbean. It seems that Jr. was initiating a two-prong Tweetassault, one to awaken the somnambulant birthers and to incite division among Blacks – US vs Caribbean. A handful of the 2020 Democratic Presidential hopefuls - Senators Elizabeth Warren, Cory Booker, and Kamala Harris; Mayor Pete Buttigieg and Beto O’Rourke – will attend the 25th ESSENCE Festival in New Orleans this Alexandra Ocasio weekend. The -Cortez festival boasts the largest assemblage of Black women in the country. It’s no secret that politicos are courting Black women, one of the largest voting blocs. The Republican deep pocket types are uneasy. A recent Washington Post story indicated that the Koch Brothers would be pouring monies next year into Democratic primaries to insure that AOC Alexandra Ocasio -Cortez clones will be defeated by moderates.

LAND USE/NYC NYC Council­mem­ber Laurie Cumbo, the NYC Departments of Finance, of Environ­mental Protection, and of Hou­ sing Preservation and Development, HPD, will convene a Lien Sale Outreach Session. Representa­tives from those NYC departments will address concerns about your tax, water or emergency repairs lien(s) on July 10 from

6-8 pm, Friends of Crown Heights, located at 671Prospect Place, Brooklyn, NY 11216. To be sure, Session is open to all NYC homeowners. For additional dates and locations. Call 311 or visit. African American John Banks, president of the Real Estate Board of NY REBNY, was one of the early casualties of the 2019 NYS Legislative Session and the Tenant Protections signed into law. He resigned in mid June to be able to spend more time with his family. The New York real estate industry is mad as hell about the Tenant Protections and their ramifications. REBNY cannot control the new wave of progressive legislators in Albany.

BLACK WEALTH About 2153 people qualified for Forbes Magazine’s coveted 2019 billionaire list, fourteen of whom are Black. The Black billionaires club includes the following. Nigerian Aliko Dangote, cement and commodities, $ 1 0 . 9 ; Nigerian M i k e Adenuga, oil, telecommunications, $9.1b; Robert Smith,/USA, Vista Equity Partners, Aliko Dangote $5b; David Steward/USA World Wide Technologies, $3b; Oprah Winfrey media mogul, $2.5b; Zimbabwean Strive Masiyiwa, Econet Telecommunications, $2.4b; Angolan Isabel Dos Santas, Investments, $2.3 b; South African Patrick Motsepe, Mining, $2.3b; Michael Jordan, basketball, Charlotte Bobcats and product endorsements, $1.9b; Jamaican Michael Lee- Chin, Investments, $1.9b; Nigerian Abdulsamad Rabiu, cement/ sugar, $1.6b; Nigerian Folorunsho Alakija, $1.1b; London-based Sudanese Mohammed Ibrahim, telecommunications $1.1b; and Jay-Z, Sean Carter, USA, HIPHOP impresario, $1b.

THE CLASS OF 2019 Congratulations are in order for the Wadleigh Scholars Program, now iin its 55th year. They students who do public school intensive to prepare them for admission with scholarships to the nation’s premier boarding schools. The eight middle school graduates and the destinations are listed below Godson Ademola-Thomas, Clinton CSP, NY; Daniel Burgin, Westport CSP, Connecticut; Elani Dwyer,Radnor, Csp, PA; Maryley Joseph, Cate School, CA; Edwin Kim, Thacher School, CA; Gregory Senat, Phelps School, PA; Cheyla Williams, Ridgefield CSP, CT; and Jayden Williams, Blair Academy, NJ. Congrats to other New York Middle school graduates such as Elana Jay Taylor who will attend the Chapin School, New York and Anakhu Heru who will attend the Greenwich Academy, Connecticut. Congratulations to all 2019 preschoolers such as Aubrie Jacobs who will attend the KIPP Harlem and to Jeannette Torruella who will attend Cathedral.

ARTS/CULTURE The Classical Theatre of Harlem now in its 20th year, presents its 7th season of Uptown Shakespeare in the Park with a nod to ancient Greek Tragedy, Euripides’ THE BACCHAE as

VOL. 23 NO. 27 reflected through the creative lens of Bryan Doerries, who wrote last summer’s play “Antigone In Ferguson.” Play lends insights into everyday life and the tension between authoritarian rule and extreme pleasure. Play will be staged at Harlem’s Marcus Garvey Park, at the Richard Rogers Amphitheater, entrance at 122 Street, Mt. Morris Park West. Preview dates are July 6/7 and 9/10. “The Bacchae” opens on July 11 and runs through July 28, Tuesday to Sunday at 8:30 pm. Admission is free. Visit

NEWSMAKERS Carl McCall , 84, recently announced his retirement His storied professional life included stints as a US Diplomat to the United Nations, NYS C o m p t r o l l e r, NYS Senator and Chair of the State University of New York. He served on many Corporate Carl McCall Boards. His immediate plan is to complete his memoir. The National Bar Association, NBA, hosts its 94th Annual Convention at the NY Sheraton Times Square Hotel, July 2026. Attorney James T. Breedlove, will be the recipient of the NBA’s prestigious Fred Gray Hall of Fame Award. Founded in 1925 theNBA is the nation’s oldest and largest national network of of predominantly African American attorneys nd judges and represents the interests of its approximate 65,000 members. Visit Happy Birthday, Cancerians the zodiacs moon children. Dr. Betty Holmes Anthony, Will Anthony, Aubrie Jacobs, Valerie Bradley; Joseph Bethune, Goldie Watkins Bryant; Diahann Carroll; Dr. Bill Cosby; Cecelia Davidson; Assembly woman Inez Dickens; Mayor David Dinkins; Omar Epps; Fantasia; Danny Glover; Stanley Gleaton; Kevin Hart; filmmaker Cheryl Hill; Desa Horsford; twins Lillian and Karen Horsford; Patsy Thompson Jackson, writer Sandy Livingston, Gil McGriff, Harriet Michel; “SHAFT” Richard Roundtree; Cove Lounge Alyah Horsford Sidberry; Kendall Sidberry Sr; Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomeyer; Los Angeleno Entrepreneur Barbara Sullivan; Mike Tyson; writer Ramona Wraggs Wall; Sabrina Williams, Wendy Williams; Ricky Wingate.

SUMMER TIME Celebrate Summer with the NYC Comptroller Scott Stringer on Tuesday, July 9 at 5:30 pm, Industry Kitchen. Located at 70 South Street, Manhattan. RSVP to Rome Neal actor, director music/ theater impresario sets sail aboard the Cabana Yacht, on July 9 at 6:30 pm, on his Banana Puddin’ Jazz Cruise around NYC. The yacht departs from the Skyport Marina at East 23rd Street on FDR Drive, Manhattan. The price is right. Visit www. or call 718.288. Join Inez Dickens for her Birthday Yacht Cruise, in support of her campaign for the NYS A s s e m b l y, aboard the Atlantica Y a c h t , d o c k e d at Chelsea Piers, Pier Inez Dickens 61 on the West Side Highway, at 21 Street Manhattan for a 3:30 pm departure. Food, drink and cake will be offered. Sailor savvy patrons are encouraged to wear white. RSVP to Darren Rigger, or call 212 531.2858 for reservations HAPPY FOURTH OF JULY!

VOL. 23 NO. 27


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

Thinker’s Notebook

The Resilient Ones



By Marlon Rice

his past weekend, I partnered with Community Board 3, MYBASE and the Brooklyn Chapter of the NAACP to produce a viewing and community discussion of the Netflix movie “When They See Us.” Parts 1 and 2 of the film were screened on Friday evening at Excellence Boys Academy. There were around four dozen people in attendance, mostly women and children, filled into the school’s library. At 4:30pm, the lights in the library went out and the movie began. When Part 2 ended, I stood in front of the audience to provide some information about the run-of-show. When the lights were turned on, I saw that almost every woman in attendance was crying. And that’s where I would like to begin this article. James Baldwin said, “To be a Negro in this country and to be relatively conscious is to be in a rage almost all of the time.” My friend Tessa Coburn replaces the word rage with perpetual trauma, and while Baldwin is one of my idols, I think Tessa’s pivot on the classic adage is more accurate. At 44 years of age, I can think of scores of racially motivated killings and incidents of oppression against Blacks in this city alone. Arthur Miller in ‘77, Eleanor Bumpurs in ‘84, Yusef Hawkins in ‘89, Abner Louima

➔➔ Continued from page 2 RG: Do you mind? (To Greaves) DG: No, I don’t. RG: She’s one of your competitors. The New York Times. DG: This is Mr. Greaves. Here, let me show you a copy of his publication, OUR TIME PRESS. NYT: Oh great. Thank you. RG: A Brooklyn-based publication. DG: Here are copies of the first two editions. NYT: Thanks. DG: (To Green) You hear that 75% of the folks incarcerated come from seven neighborhoods in New York. Is this one of those areas? What are the statistics? RG: Yes, Central Brooklyn, Crown Heights, Bed-Stuy, Brownsville, those are a part of that statistic. Brownsville, Harlem. When you make an analysis of it, it’s like it’s set up intentionally to create the atmosphere for these young people. Okay, granted. The Police Department has had a lot to do with the reduction of crime, but you have to take in all the different pieces of the equation. What has happened, what has been done differently, we’ve created a new culture in this community. You have a culture of sanity and peace among these young people, and we maintain that at all times. We don’t bind to that notion of chaos that they’ve been accustomed to. When you come in here you come into a level of sanity and peace. You walk in this neighborhood, the same thing. We’ve just done a big extensive piece on graffiti. Graffiti is violence, so what we’ve done is we’ve taken the violence away from

in ‘97, Amadou Diallo in ‘99, Eric Garner in ’14. Over and over again in this city, we, as a collective, have had to face the trauma of oppression and the truth is that the brunt of that trauma, more often than not, falls onto the shoulders of our mothers, women much like the women in the library of the Excellence Boys Academy--crying when the lights came on after watching Parts 1 and 2 of “When They See Us.” When those lights came on, what I saw saddened me. These are women from my community. I know a few of them personally. Ms. Ramona is a well-known motivational artist and curator. She is a friend of my mother. I’ve known her since I was younger. She was crying. Dozens of the women from my village crying from the triggers of unresolved trauma that a series like “When They See Us” brings to the surface. It was cathartic. I guess a collective realization is that we are all still hurting, still fighting, still afraid of America’s violent potential against us, like the abusive husband who is sweet and jovial when he’s sober but wicked and abusive when he’s drunk. And like the victimized wife that hopes he doesn’t come home tonight drunk, the women in the audience were crying for their sons and daughters hoping that America never shows their children that side, hoping that their children never have to

Sharonnie Salaam talks with her son, Yusef, right, and broadcaster Bernard White at left. endure the America that Korey Wise endured, or Kevin or Antron or Yusef or Ray, or their mothers and fathers, not even the America that Trisha Meili endured, because she was a victim, too. Sometimes what gets lost in these discussions is the fact that Ms. Meili was raped, and even though the “Exonerated 5” didn’t commit the act, she was violated and victimized, nonetheless. I asked them to make a self-assessment as to their well-being. I asked them to unclench their jawbones and to make a conscious effort to loosen their neck and shoulders. I know that we carry stress like an invisible burden, and I didn’t want the women to leave that room with more baggage than they entered with. A movie shouldn’t have that effect on you. I asked them to give me three full breaths, deliberately in through their nose and out through their mouth, and then we sat down and began the discussion.

My panelists were all amazing women: Nicole Chavis, ADA from our District Attorney Eric Gonzalez’s office; Hon. Ellen Edwards, Civil Court Judge; and Marsha Stephanie Blake, my high school friend and the actress who portrayed Antron’s mother Linda in the movie. And the other organizers were dynamic women: Oma Holloway and Stefani Zinerman, two beautiful women who invest their time and resources back into the community. All of the women in that room were invested. We had a well-informed discussion about the justice system and about citizen rights and about mothers. We made a covenant to communicate more, to protect one another and to teach our children about how to navigate in America. At the end of it all, the tears were nowhere to be found. Black women have been pulling that move since time began, though; crying privately, wiping their tears and continuing the work.

Interview: Richard Green

the walls and put it in other places. We have them coming in now and showing us their books of “tags.” (These books) are loose-leaf binders or art books. Just like when you had your autograph book in high school. Each one will tag the other one’s book for them. So, we’re getting them into a new science of tagging. We’re talking about putting tagging on the Internet. If you want to get on the Internet why not put your tags on it. Every young person tags because they want to get what they call “ups.” Ups is like rank. I can read most of the tags, I know most of the tags on the street and I know how many people have different ups. And if you have a lot of ups, that gives you the “props” in the neighborhood. So, they go out there trying to get as many ups as possible. They want

to get “motions,” they want to get “burners.” The ones with a lot of colors are called burners. Now, when you get a burner up there, you’re really good because you’re writing with like three cans at one time and spraying... DG: Okay. So, instead of putting their tags on the walls, they’re putting them into the books ... RG: And blending. You know like artists do with a palette. They’re doing it with cans now. It’s a science. The book will be out in a little while, God-willing. It will be out at the end of the month. We did the first book on a compilation of tags. We have over two thousand five hundred tags from not only Brooklyn but as far out as Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Virginia. All over the country there’s tagging. We

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put it in a book. So, when we give them that book now, they’re going to understand two things. On every other page in that book there’s information they’re not going to get in school: where it all started, going back to ancient Egypt and the whole science of tagging. DG: Do they have writing projects also? RG: Everything is in the book. It’s 230 pages. It’s a compilation. There are writers in there, I’ve had young people write about what does culture mean, what does art mean, small one-page blurbs. It’s all in there. That’s Book One. It could be a hundred volumes because now they’re going to take it over. Take it off the wall. Quite aggravating to me and you. When you walk out there and see your wall or your car

or truck tagged, it’s aggravating. DG: So now they’re going to tag in the book and distribute it that way? RG: They want to have ups. We’ll show them how to get ups. The best taggers in the neighborhood don’t have 2,500 ups. So, we’re showing them how they can rechannel their energy and get the recognition they’re looking for. During that trouble we had in Crown Heights, we worked hard to keep the lid on. We saved not just the city and the state, but the country as well. New York is the leader. When we go, every place else goes. People must understand that. (To be continued)

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SUPREME COURT – COUNTY OF KINGS U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS TRUSTEE FOR MASTR ASSET BACKED SECURITIES TRUST 2006-WMC3, MORTGAGE PASS-THROUGH CERTIFICATES, SERIES 2006-WMC3, Plaintiff against STEPHEN E. MOORE, et al., Defendants. Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale entered on March 27, 2019. I, the undersigned Referee will sell at public auction in Room 224 of the Kings County Courthouse, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. on the 1st day of August, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. premises described as follows: All that certain plot, piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements thereon erected, situate, lying and being in the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, City and State of New York, bounded and described as follows: BEGINNING at the corner formed by the intersection of the southerly side of Sutter Avenue, with the easterly side of Chester Street; RUNNING THENCE easterly along the southerly side of Sutter Avenue, 100 feet THENCE southerly parallel with Chester Street, 23.70 feet; THENCE westerly parallel with Sutter Avenue and part of the distance through a party wall, 100 to the easterly side of Chester Street; THENCE northerly along the easterly side of Chester Street, 23.70 feet to The corner, the point or place of BEGINNING. Said premises known as 195 Chester Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11212. (Block: 03543, Lot: 0024). Approximate amount of lien $ 485,868.48 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed judgment and terms of sale. Index No. 512108-15. Jack Segal, Esq., Referee. Eckert Seamans Cherin & Mellott, LLC Attorneys for

NOTICE OF SALE SUPREME COURT KINGS COUNTY JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, Plaintiff against SHARLANE JORDAN, ET AL, et al Defendants Attorney for Plaintiff(s) McCalla Raymer Leibert Pierce, LLC, 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 840, New York, NY 10170 Attorney (s) for Plaintiff (s). Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale entered April 18, 2019, I will sell at public auction to the highest bidder at Room 224 of Kings County Supreme Court, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, New York, 11201 on August 1, 2019 at 2:30 PM. Premises known as 748 Georgia Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11207. Block 4320 Lot 19. All that certain plot, piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements thereon erected, situate, lying and being in the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, City and State of New York. Approximate Amount of Judgment is $422,999.55 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed Judgment Index No 517547/2017. Paul B. Groman, Esq., Referee 9926-3801



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NOTICE OF SALE Supreme Court County Of Kings Nationstar Mortgage LLC, Plaintiff AGAINST David G. Robinson, et al, Defendant Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale duly dated 6/11/2018 and entered on 7/10/2018, I, the undersigned Referee, will sell at public auction at the Kings County Supreme Court, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, NY on July 25, 2019 at 02:30 PM premises known as 543 East 52nd Street, Brooklyn, NY 11203. All that certain plot piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements erected, situate, lying and being in the County of Kings, City and State of New York, BLOCK: 4737, LOT: 52. Approximate amount of judgment is $773,242.13 plus interests and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed Judgment Index # 021695/2011. For sale information, please visit at or call (800) 280-2832. Helene Blank, Referee FRENKEL LAMBERT WEISS WEISMAN & GORDON LLP 53 Gibson Street Bay Shore, NY 11706 Supreme Court County of Kings State of New York Mortgage Agency, Plaintiff, vs. Tyesha Capers, et al, Defendant(s). Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale; the undersigned Referee will sell at public auction in Room 224 of the Kings County Courthouse, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. on July 25,2019 at 2:30 P.M., the premises described as follows: All that parcel of land, being in the County of Kings, City and State of New York; known as 200 Cozine Avenue, Unit 9K,Block 4415, Lot 1367. Approximate amount of lien $188,307.87 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject

➔➔ Continued on page 14

VOL. 23 NO. 27


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

Special Report

The Case for Reparations – America’s Real Debt! Our Time Press, January 1998


ore money was invested in slaves than all stock-in-trade, including bank stock, incorporated funds and more. This is indicative of the value placed on an unpaid labor pool and with good reason. The land was virgin territory which is useless in a money-based value system. The land had to be worked and built upon. It was the slave work force that released the value of the land and made it income producing. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the first estimate of national wealth of the United States is found in Economica; A Statistical Manual for the United States of America, 1806 edition by Samuel Blodget, Jr.1 (See Table 1.) Of the $ 2,505 million dollars (2.5 billion) of national wealth, $1,661 million was in land stolen from the indigenous people, and $200 million was the value assigned to the slaves. Blodget writes, “Slaves are rated too high till they are better managed, everything else is below the mark.” The Historical Statistics of the United States2 notes that, “No statement is made by Blodget as to the source material underlying” his tabulations. And Mr. Blodget, by going out of his way to degrade the worth of the slaves, is telling us he may have something to hide, so we checked his figures. Taking the census of 1800 and averaging it with the 1810 census (not available to Mr. Blodget) we find him pretty accurate, and arrive at a slightly higher figure of 1,042,732 slaves. Mr. Blodget may himself have extrapolated from the 1800 census. In any event, knowing how much difficulty the Census Bureau had counting the descendants of the slave population in 1990, we can guess that these census figures are “below the mark.”


By David Mark Greaves

Secondly, we turn to American Negro Slavery: A survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor As Determined by the Plantation Regime by Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (1966 p. 370), and find this: “The accompanying chart (see below) will show the fluctuations of the average prices of prime field hands (unskilled young men) in Virginia, at Charleston, in middle Georgia, and at New Orleans, as well as the contemporary range of average prices for cotton of middling grade in the chief American market, that of New York. The range for prime slaves, it will be seen, rose from about $300 and $400 a head in the upper and lower South respectively in 1795 to a range of from $400 to $600 in 1803...” By using these figures we find that the minimum amount of money invested in slaves was $ 521,366,000 in 1805. Therefore the total national wealth could be more accurately calculated as 2.8 billion dollars ($ 2,826,366,000) adding an additional 300 million to Blodget’s figure. This means that 77% of the total national wealth of the United States of 1805, ($2,182,366,000), was based on holding African-Americans as property to work the stolen land. By 1856 there were 3,580,023 slaves according to an average of the 1850 and 1860 census counts. Bear in mind here that in 1813, Congress laid a direct tax on property, including “houses, lands and slaves.” This meant that there was now an economic motivation to under-count this part of the owners property - the fewer slaves reported, the less taxes paid; Slaves were easier to hide than houses or land. This is coupled with the natural inclination of the Census to under-count the Black population. The evidence is clear in the


In a civilized society, dollar value is not placed on human beings. Not so in early America. Here, the value of enslaved Africans is $200 ea. At a time when the market value was $500 “a head.” (See chart below showing how the price of “prime field hands” moved in relation to the price of cotton on the trading floors of the New York Stock Exchange, itself founded in 1792.) General Population Statistics, 1790-1990. By 1860, the “Percentage increase in Black population over preceding census” averaged 28.8% since 1790. In the 1870 census, the percentage growth was only 9.9 %. So what happened to the other 18.9 % of the expected population? They disappeared in 1865 with the Emancipation Proclamation. No longer having a value attached to them, these 859,000 AfricanAmericans were lost. It’s been 120 years, and judging from the low-count controversy of the 1990 census, the Bureau hasn’t


Prices of Slaves and of Cotton “Approximate prices of prime field hands (unskilled, able-bodied young slave men) in hundreds of dollars per head: in Virginia – - ¬¬– at Charleston - - -, in Middle Georgia – – at New Orleans – - – Average prices of upland cotton in New York in cent per pound –––––.”

found them yet. We can safely regard these census counts as the way-down-low end of an actual population estimate. Before a final figure can be determined of the debt due on this slavery phase of the African Holocaust, some account should be taken of the working conditions. You can get an impression by looking no further than the evidence found in the African Burial Ground in Manhattan, New York. Here, recent analysis of the remains held at Howard University show that children as young as 7 years old were worked so hard that their bodies were mis-shapened and their spines driven into the brain, from carrying heavy loads. Ulrich Phillips, in American Negro Slavery says of J.B Say, an economist working around the turn of the 18th century, “Common sense must tell us, said he, that a slaves’s maintenance must be less that of a free workman, since the master will impose a more drastic frugality than a freeman will adopt unless a dearth of earnings requires it. The slave’s work, further more is more constant, for the master will not permit so much leisure and relaxation as a freeman customarily enjoys.” This is why we include the entire slave population as laborers, and we leave it to others to dare argue why we should not. By 1856 the advertised prices for European-owned African-Americans on one document of that time ranged from a high of $2,700 for Anderson, a “No.1 bricklayer and mason,” and $1,900 for George, a “No. 1 Blacksmith,” to $750 for Reuben, even though he was labeled “unsound.” (See document on Page 7 .) “Credit sale of a choice gang of 41 slaves.” The average cost for this lot of people was $1,488. As a second reference for this number, we can look at the chart for the cost of Prime Field Hands, and find that it is pretty accurate. By multiplying the census count of slaves by the average advertised price, we arrive at a value of $5.3 billion ($5,327,079,968). This may not look like a lot of money now, but compare it to other figures of the day. The National Wealth Estimate for the entire nation in

➔➔ Continued on page 8


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

VOL. 23 NO. 27

The Case for Reparations ➔➔ Continued from page 7 1856 was $12.3 billion ($12,396,000,000). [Note: All figures, come from Tables in the cited U.S. Bureau of the Census publication] Total Bank Savings Deposits in 1856 was $95.6 million. Manhattan Island, Land and Buildings, was worth only $900 million dollars, less than one-fifth of the value invested in AfricanAmericans. The 1855 total capital and property investment in railroads was only $763.6 million dollars. Why the $5 billion investment in slaves? In 1859, the total private production income was $4,098,000,000 ($4 billion). Of this total, labor-intensive industries like “agriculture” and “transportation and communication,” accounted for $1,958 million (1.9 billion), almost one-half the total private income. This explains why “a good field hand and laborer” would run you $1,550 for Big Fred aged 24 and $ 1,900 for George, a “No. 1 blacksmith”. Men like these gave such a good return on the dollar, that their owners would, and did, kill freely to keep the system in place. The money earned from this investment found its way into a variety of banking institutions, which increased from 506 in 1834 to 1,643 in 1865. Many of the names remain familiar to this day: The Bank of New York Company, Inc. - founded 1784,3 Fleet National Bank - 1791, Chase Manhattan Corporation - 1799, Citicorp/ Citibank N.A. -1812, The Dime Savings Bank - 1859. As banks in King Cottons’ “chief American market, that of New York,” it is inconceivable that these institutions, and through them the nation, did not benefit from the profits made on a slave’s wages. Their business then, as it is now, was to be a source of funds to build empires in a variety of industries, across the continent, to make land purchases, upgrade equipment, save to send children to college, etc. Railroads could be built using a combination of slave labor and loans taken at banks that held money on deposit from the cotton/slave industry. Money was also paid to a variety of people who, while not slave-owners themselves, were “in the loop” of payments for goods and services. Thus were assets being used to develop the country for the benefit of Europeans and their heirs. The nation as a whole benefitted, and that’s why the nation as a whole should pay. When we take that figure of $5,327,079,968 and compound it annually at 5% interest for 142 (1856-1998) years, we arrive at $ 5,437,129,590,059 or 5.4 trillion dollars. The 5% interest rate is actually a modest one. We would much rather have employed the interest paid on Railroad Bonds in 1857, with yields of 6.577 (low) to 8.23 (high), but the computer calculator ran out of room and the lower rate had to be used. Recently, the Jewish community has begun demanding that Swiss banks which received deposits of money and valuables confiscated from Jews by the Germans, repay the principal of those deposits with interest. They have received Congressional support, had a respectful hearing, and are seeing the Swiss banks begin to comply and total accounts. The Jewish Holocaust ended in 1945 with the surrender of Germany. The Slavery period of the African Holocaust, ended only 80 years earlier in 1865 with the surrender of the southern states. It was at that time that the right to own African-Americans outright, was given up throughout the United States. In recognition of the wrong done, Congressman John Conyers has sponsored a reparations bill, H.R.40: “A bill to acknowledge the fundamental injustice,

cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery in the United States and the 13 American colonies between 1619 and 1865 and to establish a commission to examine the institution of slavery, subsequent de jure and de facto racial and economic discrimination against African Americans, and the impact of these forces on living African Americans, to make recommendations to the Congress on appropriate remedies, and for other purposes.” Twenty-five years ago, Queen Mother Moore was at the First Black Political Convention in Gary, Indiana. There she stood in a hotel lobby wearing African clothes, handing out literature and accepting hugs, while shouting, “Reparations. Reparations honey, come get your reparations. They got to pay you.” The Queen Mother was right. It is in the context of

reparations that the nation should be discussing affirmative action; as part of the mix of options a moral nation would consider to pay a long due debt. Thirty percent of the nation’s airwaves could be an option. Funding of African-American banks could be another. Government contracts should be the easiest, with a mandated percentage for each line item going to African-American businesses on a sliding scale well into the next century. Five trillion dollars may seem like a lot of money, but if Congress can seriously consider a trillion-dollar weapons system now working its way through the appropriations pipeline, then a 5.4 trillion dollar reparations bill is doable over time. This number is only for the slavery phase of the African Holocaust. It does not include the theft of property rights, inventions and

patents. It does not include damages for pain and suffering. It does not return lost lives. It is an attempt to be another voice in the reparations process. Until this debt is acknowledged and paid, America will forever be paying in blood, tears, and the devil’s wages. 1[Historical Statistics of the United States 1789-1945 a Supplement to the Statistical Abstract of the United States U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, published in 1949 by the United States Bureau of the Census. Chapter A. page 1.] 2Ibid. 3 All founding dates are from the Standard Directory of Advertisers. Published by the National Register.

➔➔ Continued on page 9


Railroad Contractors sell assets: “A very valuable gang of slaves, belonging to a co-partnership, and sold to close the same. The said slaves comprise a gang of 41 choice Negroes. On the list will be found a good Blacksmith, one superior Bricklayer, Field Hands, Laborers one Tanner, one Cooper and a first rate woman cook. The slaves can be seen four days previous to the day of sale. They are fully guaranteed against the vices and maladies prescribed by law, and are all selected slaves.”

VOL. 23 NO. 27


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

The Case for Reparations ➔➔ Continued from page 8

More on the Economic Impact of Slavery

Our Time Press February, 1998 Slavery is often looked at as a blot upon humanity rather than the business decision it is. Africans have been presented as lazy, shiftless, good for nothing, when the exact opposite was true. We were a vital necessity to this nation. Africans were the most valuable resource, our value on the open market dwarfed all other industries and values except for the land itself. Historians talk about the Industrial Revolution starting in 18 th century England, and the computer/information Age of today. Left out is the Slave Age, that period of the dark days of the golden age of white affirmative action. This was the time when the United States, an emerging nation at the time, dealt most efficiently with a formidable problem: the supply and cost of manual labor. A headline in the New York Times dated Tuesday, January 13, 1998, reads, “Software Jobs Go Begging, Threatening Technology Boom”. The Times points out “As America relies more heavily on computer software than ever before, the demand for people who can develop and use the tools of the modern age has vastly outstripped the existing supply.” “If the talent drought continues, the entire national economy may feel the effect of lost wages and slowed innovation... ‘This is like running out of iron ore in the middle of the Industrial Revolution,’ said Harris N. Miller, president of the Information Technology Association of America.” Mr. Miller is in error with his analogy. Running out of silicone in the Technology Boom, would be like running out of iron ore in the Industrial Revolution. Running out of computer programmers (the workers) in the technology industry, is like running out of slaves during the Industrial Revolution. In 1850 The New York Times headline would have read, “Manual Labor Jobs Go Begging, Threatening Industrial Boom.” African-American slaves were the critical workers of the Industrial Age in the United States. In the same way that programmers transform computer code into products, so the labor of slaves transformed raw materials and land into products that would allow the Industrial Age to flourish in this hemisphere. Information technology has grown into the largest industry over the last thirty years.


Slave-holding families “On the average of 5.7 to a family there are about 2,000,000 persons in the relation of slave-owners or about onethird of the whole white population of the slave States; in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, excluding the largest cities, one half of the whole population.” DeBow Slavery was the largest industry from the time such things were first measured in 1805, until African-Americans were freed to be paid labor in 1865. At $865 billion a year, information technology represents about 12% of the 1997 Gross Domestic Product of $7,214 billion. In 1805 slave labor represented as much as 20% of the national wealth. By the 1850’s- ‘60’s that figure rose to as high as 40%. If a 12% industry like information technology can affect the entire nation, how much impact does a 20-40% industry have? Let’s take a look at the 1850’s and the effect of slave labor on the economy. According to J.D.B. DeBow, writing in the Seventh Census 1850 Statistical View, Compendium published in 1856, “The total number of families holding slaves by the census of 1850, was 347,525. (See U.S. Census Table XC below). On the average of 5.7 to a family there are about 2,000,000 persons in the relation of slave-owners or about one-third of the whole white population of the slave States; in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, excluding the largest cities, one half of the whole population.” In his work, History of American Business & Industry, Alex Groner observes, “In the sense that they were large and complex producing units, the big plantations were the South’s factories. The hundreds of slaves included large numbers of production workers -the field hands- as well as such

specialists and skilled artisans as carpenters, drovers, watchmen, coopers, tailors, millers, butchers, shipwrights, engineers, dentists, and nurses...Because virtually entire families could be put to work in the fields for most of the year, the slave economy proved ideal for cotton culture. The price of a good field hand, about $300 before Whitney’s invention, doubled in twenty years. Poor whites, who could afford neither slaves nor land at the higher prices, moved west in mounting numbers and soon dominated the Southwest......It was not only the plantations of the South but also the factories, shipping merchants, and banks of the North whose economies became tied more and more closely to cotton. What north and south had in common was the prosperity resulting from the growth of cotton production. The size of the crop climbed steadily, from 80 million pounds in 1815 to 460 million, or more than half the world’s output by 1834, and to more than a billion pounds by 1850.....From 1830 until the Civil War, cotton provided approximately half of the nation’s total exports.”1 At an average of 400 man hours per 400 pound ginned bale of cotton, (based on census averages), these billion pounds required a billion hours of unpaid man-hours. These were supplied by African-American men, women and children, working as slave labor, under threat of torture and death. Thus produced, the cotton crop traded hands on exchanges like the largest one in New York. Longevity counts in business, and many banking institutions trace their founding origins back to that time including, Bank of Boston -1784, Brown Brothers Harriman 1818, Chase - 1799, First Maryland Bancorp - 1808, Fleet Financial Group, Inc. 1791, J.P. Morgan, Co. Inc. 1838, to name a few. U.S. Trust of New York, 1853 was only a gleam in some banker’s eye at the time, and Price Waterhouse, the famous accounting firm had just gotten its start in 1849. These banks and other businesses participated in cotton transactions that were all handled as they usually are, for a fee. And so, the brokers, traders, lenders, etc. all profited first. Then came the employees of the firms, the landlords, the washerwomen, the street vendors, messengers, haberdashers, milliners, and all of their families, and mortgage holder and service-providers, in an ever-widen circle.

SLAVE CROPS TOTAL MORE THAN 60% OF NATION’S EXPORTS Now traded, the cotton found its way to

25 of the 35 states and territories for manufacturing. We don’t have to assume how the product was distributed, we can look at the 1850 list of cotton manufacturers. (See U.S. Census Table CXCVL) Here we see there were 1,064 businesses directly employing over 92,000 people across the country . Leading the way is Massachusetts, using 223,607 bales of cotton while employing over 29,000 people. It is also interesting to note that the export of slavecrops of cotton, tobacco, and rice, totaled over 60% of all the nation’s exports. This meant that the shipping industry, the dock workers, and the factories on both sides of the Atlantic, all made a living from the peculiar institution of African-Americans working as slaves. It was possible for people throughout Europe, to work in cotton factories or peripheral industries in their home countries, save their money, and book passage to America. Here, the newly arrived immigrant could get off the boat, and work selling apples on Wall Street to the employees of the Cotton Exchange. A seamstress from English mills, could come and find work making dresses for the wives and mending the coats, of the men who worked in the financial district. Maybe you’ve heard stories like these before. When an industry produces over 60% of the national exports, it reaches farther than can be seen from the docks or from the fields. And there were other crops as well. There were 2,681 sugar plantations, and 8,327 hemp planters. In 1850 there were over 20 million bushels of sweet potatoes, 3 million bushels of Irish potatoes, 7 million bushels of peas and beans, and 8 million pounds of wool, all produced in slave-holding states. The African-Americans that Europeans called ne’er-do-well, helped clothe and feed this nation when the Europeans couldn’t.

GOVERNMENT PROFITS MOST The government profited most of all. The export of slave-produced crops allowed this emerging nation to import, from the more industrialized countries (with tariffs applied), without incurring a trade deficit. Also, slave-intensive industries such as agriculture, manufacturing and transportation comprised over 60% of the total private production income at the time. In one way or another, this money was taxed. The slaves themselves were taxable as property beginning in 1815. The Federal Government profited by first placing a tax on the slave as a unit of property, and again when taxes were paid on the land the slaves improved. Taxing authorities, whether federal or local, made their money at some point in the trading of cotton and again when salaries found their way into taxable areas. The government uses a myriad of ways to raise the money it needs to do what it has to do - to build the infrastructure of the nation. To build the roads, forts and pay the federal marshals. This was done, in a large part, with slave dollars flowing like an irrigating stream, watering national, state and local governments at various stops along the way. And now today, the United States stands as a money pump with $7 trillion worth of pressure, creating jobs for Joe Blow in Idaho, and millionaires and billionaires with fortunes that span the globe. But it is a pump that was primed with the blood of African and Indigenous people. This is a fact that must be recognized, and African-Americans must recognize it first of all.


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

VOL. 23 NO. 27

July 5, 1852 “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?”


ccasion: Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, was asked to give an address regarding the Fourth of July, at a meeting sponsored by the Rochester Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Society, Rochester Hall, Rochester, N.Y. Mr. President, Friends and Fellow Citizens: He who could address this audience without a quailing sensation, has stronger nerves than I have. I do not remember ever to have appeared as a speaker before any assembly more shrinkingly, nor with greater distrust of my ability, than I do this day. A feeling has crept over me, quite unfavorable to the exercise of my limited powers of speech. The task before me is one which requires much previous thought and study for its proper performance. I know that apologies of this sort are generally considered flat and unmeaning. I trust, however, that mine will not be so considered. Should I seem at ease, my appearance would much misrepresent me. The little experience I have had in addressing public meetings, in country school-houses, avails me nothing on the present occasion. The papers and placards say that I am to deliver a 4th [of] July oration. This certainly sounds large, and out of the common way, for it is true that I have often had the privilege to speak in this beautiful hall, and to address many who now honor me with their presence. But neither their familiar faces, nor the perfect gage I think I have of Corinthian Hall, seems to free me from embarrassment. The fact is, ladies and gentlemen, the distance between this platform and the slave plantation, from which I escaped, is considerable - and the difficulties to be overcome in getting from the latter to the former, are by no means slight. That I am here today is, to me, a matter of astonishment as well as of gratitude. You will not, therefore, be surprised, in what I have to say. I evince no elaborate preparation, nor grace my speech with any high-sounding exordium. With little experience and with less learning, I have been able to throw my thoughts hastily and imperfectly together; and trusting to your patient and generous indulgence, I will proceed to lay them before you. “What have I, or those I represent, to do with your national independence?” Fellow citizens, pardon me, allow me to ask, Why am I called upon to speak here today? What have I, or those I represent, to do with your national independence? Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us? and am I, therefore, called upon to bring our humble offering to the national altar, and to confess the benefits and express devout gratitude for the blessings resulting from your independence to us? Would to God, both for your sakes and ours, that an affirmative answer could be truthfully returned to these questions? Then would my task be light, and my burden easy and delightful? For who is there so cold, that a nation’s sympathy could not warm him? Who so obdurate and dead to the claims of gratitude, that would not thankfully acknowledge such priceless benefits? Who so stolid and selfish, that would not give his voice to swell the hallelujahs of a nation’s jubilee, when the chains of servitude had been torn from his limbs? I am not that man. In a case like that, the dumb might eloquently speak, and the “lame man leap as an hart.” But, such is not the state of the case. I say it with a sad sense of the disparity between us. I am not included within the pale of this


Frederick Douglass

Humans driven to market Speaking of the men driving the enslaved Africans to market: “You will see one of these human flesh jobbers, armed with pistol, whip and bowie knife, driving a company of a hundred men, women, and children from the Potomac to the slave market in New Orleans. These wretched people are to be sold singly, or in lots, to suit purchasers. They are food for the cotton field, and the deadly sugar mill. Mark the sad procession, as it moves wearily along, and the inhuman wretch who drives them.” glorious anniversary! Your high independence only reveals the immeasurable distance between us. The blessings in which you, this day, rejoice, are not enjoyed in common. The rich inheritance of justice, liberty, prosperity and independence, bequeathed by your fathers, is shared by you, not by me. The sunlight that brought life and healing to you, has brought stripes and death to me. This Fourth [of] July is yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I must mourn. To drag a man in fetters into the grand illuminated temple of liberty, and call upon him to join you in joyous anthems, were inhuman mockery and sacrilegious irony. Do you mean, citizens, to mock me, by asking me to speak to-day? ...Fellow-citizens; above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions! whose chains, heavy and grievous yesterday, are, to-day, rendered more intolerable by the jubilee shouts that reach them. If I do forget, if I do not faithfully remember those bleeding children of sorrow this day, “may my right hand forget her cunning, and may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth!” To forget them, to pass lightly over their wrongs, and to chime in with the popular theme, would be treason most scandalous and shocking, and would make me a reproach before God and the world. My subject, then fellow-citizens, is AMERICAN SLAVERY. I shall see, this day, and its popular characteristics, from the slave’s point of view. Standing, there, identified with the American bondman, making his wrongs mine, I do not hesitate to declare, with all my soul, that the character and conduct of this nation never looked blacker to me than on this 4th of July! Whether we turn to the declarations of the past, or to the professions of the present, the conduct of the nation seems equally hideous and revolting. America is false to the past, false to the present, and solemnly binds herself to be false to the future. Standing with God and the

crushed and bleeding slave on this occasion, I will, in the name of humanity which is outraged, in the name of liberty which is fettered, in the name of the Constitution and the Bible, which are disregarded and trampled upon, dare to call in question and to denounce, with all the emphasis I can command, everything that serves to perpetuate slavery, the great sin and shame of America! “I will not equivocate; I will not excuse;” I will use the severest language I can command; and yet not one word shall escape me that any man, whose judgement is not blinded by prejudice, or who is not at heart a slaveholder, shall not confess to be right and just. But I fancy I hear someone of my audience say, it is just in this circumstance that you and your brother abolitionists fail to make a favorable impression on the public mind. Would you argue more, and denounce less, would you persuade more, and rebuke less, your cause would be much more likely to succeed? But, I submit, where all is plain there is nothing to be argued. What point in the anti-slavery creed would you have me argue? On what branch of the subject do the people of this country need light? Must I undertake to prove that the slave is a man? That point is conceded already. Nobody doubts it. The slaveholders themselves acknowledge it in the enactment of laws for their government. They acknowledge it when they punish disobedience on the part of the slave. There are seventy-two crimes in the State of Virginia, which, if committed by a black man would (no matter how ignorant he be), subject him to the punishment of death; while only two of the same crimes will subject a white man to the like punishment. What is this but the acknowledgement that the slave is a moral, intellectual and responsible being? The manhood of the slave is conceded. It is admitted in the fact that Southern statute books are covered with enactments forbidding, under severe fines and penalties, the teaching

of the slave to read or to write. ...For the present, it is enough to affirm the equal manhood of the Negro race. Is it not astonishing that, while we are ploughing, planting and reaping, using all kinds of mechanical tools, erecting houses, constructing bridges, building ships, working in metals of brass, iron, copper, silver and gold; that, while we are reading, writing and ciphering, acting as clerks, merchants and secretaries, having among us lawyers, doctors, ministers, poets, authors, editors, orators and teachers; that, while we are engaged in all manner of enterprises common to other men, digging gold in California, capturing the whale in the Pacific, feeding sheep and cattle on the hillside, living, moving, acting, thinking, planning, living in families as husbands, wives and children, and, above all, confessing and worshipping the Christian’s God, and looking hopefully for life and immortality beyond the grave, we are called upon to prove that we are men! ...What, am I to argue that it is wrong to make men brutes, to rob them of their liberty, to work them without wages, to keep them ignorant of their relations to their fellow men, to beat them with sticks, to flay their flesh with the lash, to load their limbs with irons, to hunt them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder their families, to knock out their teeth, to burn their flesh, to starve them into obedience and submission to their masters? Must I argue that a system thus marked with blood, and stained with pollution, is wrong? No! I will not. I have better employments for my time and strength, than such arguments would imply....

What, to the American slave, is your 4th of July? I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity; your sounds of rejoicing are empty and heartless; your denunciations of tyrants, brass-fronted impudence; your shouts of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns, your sermons and thanksgivings, with all your religious parade, and solemnity, are, to him, mere bombast, fraud, deception, impiety, and hypocrisy - a thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages. There is not a nation on the earth guilty of practices, more shocking and bloody, than are the people of these United States, at this very hour. Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the old world, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival. Take the American slave trade, which, we are told by the papers, is especially prosperous just now. Ex-Senator Benton tells us that the price of men was never higher than now. He mentions the fact to show that slavery is in no danger. This trade is one of the peculiarities of American institutions. It is carried on in all the large towns and cities in one half of this confederacy; and millions are pocketed every year, by dealers in this horrid traffic. In several states, this trade is a chief source of wealth. It is called (in contradistinction to the foreign slave trade) “the internal slave trade.” It is, probably, called so,

➔➔ Continued on page 11

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OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

July 5, 1852 “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” ➔➔ Continued from page 10 too, in order to divert from it the horror with which the foreign slave trade is contemplated. That trade has long since been denounced by this government, as piracy. It has been denounced with burning words from the high places of the nation as an execrable traffic. To arrest it, to put an end to it, this nation keeps a squadron, at immense cost, on the coast of Africa. Everywhere in this country, it is safe to speak of this foreign slave trade as a most inhuman traffic, opposed alike to the laws of God and of man. The duty to extirpate and destroy it is admitted even by our Doctors of Divinity. In order to put an end to it, some of the last have consented that their colored brethren (nominally free) should leave this country and establish themselves on the western coast of Africa! It is, however, a notable fact that, while so much execration is poured out by Americans upon those engaged in the foreign slave trade, the men engaged in the slave trade between the states pass without condemnation, and their business is deemed honorable. Behold the practical operation of this internal slave trade, the American slave trade, sustained by American politics and American religion. Here you will see men and women reared like swine for the market. You know what is a swine-drover? I will show you a man-drover. They inhabit all our Southern States. They perambulate the country and crowd the highways of the nation with droves of human stock. You will see one of these human flesh jobbers, armed with pistol, whip and bowie knife, driving a company of a hundred men, women, and children from the Potomac to the slave market in New Orleans. These wretched people are to be sold singly, or in lots, to suit purchasers. They are food for the cotton field, and the deadly sugar mill. Mark the sad procession, as it moves wearily along, and the inhuman wretch who drives them. Hear his savage yells and his blood-chilling oaths as he hurries on his affrighted captives! There, see the old man, with locks thinned and gray. Cast one glance, if you please, upon that young mother, whose shoulders are bare to the scorching sun, her briny tears falling on the brow of the babe in her arms. See, too, that girl of thirteen, weeping, yes! weeping, as she thinks of the mother from whom she has been torn! The drove moves tardily. Heat and sorrow have nearly consumed their strength; suddenly you hear a quick snap, like the discharge of a rifle; the fetters clank, and the chain rattles simultaneously; your ears are saluted with a scream, that seems to have torn its way to the centre of your soul! The crack you heard, was the sound of the slave whip; the scream you heard was from the woman you saw with the babe. Her speed had faltered under the weight of her child and her chains! That gash on her shoulder tells her to move on. Follow this drove to New Orleans. Attend the auction; see men examined like horses; see the forms of women rudely and brutally exposed to the shocking gaze of American slave-buyers. See this drove sold and separated forever; and never forget the deep, sad sobs that arose from that scattered multitude. Tell me citizens, where, under the sun, you can witness a spectacle more fiendish and shocking. Yet this is but a glance at the American slave trade as it exists, at this moment, in the ruling part of the United States. I was born amid such sights and scenes.

Buyer and seller of people: Retailers of cigars, glassware and Negroes, wait for business on this sunny street in Atlanta, Georgia (circa 1850). Courtesy: New York Public Library To me, the American slave trade is a terrible reality. When a child, my soul was often pierced with a sense of its horrors. I lived on Philpot Street, Fell’s Point, Baltimore, and have watched from the wharves, the slave ships in the basin, anchored from the shore with their cargoes of human flesh waiting for favorable winds to waft them down the Chesapeake. There was, at that time, a grand slave mart kept at the head of Pratt Street, by Austin Woldfolk. His agents were sent into every town and county in Maryland, announcing their arrival, through the papers, and on flaming “handbills” headed CASH FOR NEGROES. These men were generally well- dressed men, and very captivating in their manners. Ever ready to drink, to treat, and to gamble. The fate of many a slave has depended upon the turn of a single card, and many a child has been snatched from the arms of its mother by bargains arranged in a state of brutal drunkenness. The flesh mongers gather up their victims by the dozens, and drive them, chained, to the general depot in Baltimore. When a sufficient number have been collected here, a ship is chartered for the purpose of conveying the forlorn crew to Mobile, or to New Orleans. From the slave prison to the ship, they are usually driven in the darkness of night; for since the antislavery agitation, a certain caution is observed. In the deep still darkness of midnight, I have been often aroused by the dead-heavy footsteps, and the piteous cries of the chained gangs that passed our door. The anguish of my boyish heart was intense; and I was often consoled when speaking to my mistress in the morning to hear her say that the custom was very wicked; that she hated to hear the rattle of the chains, and the heartrending cries. I was glad to find one who sympathized with me in my horror. Fellow citizens, this murderous traffic is, to-day, in active operation in this boasted republic. In the solitude of my spirit, I see clouds of dust raised on the highways of the South; I see the bleeding footsteps; I hear the doleful wail of fettered humanity on the way to the slave markets where the victims are to be sold like horses, sheep, and swine, knocked off to the highest bidder. There I see the tenderest ties ruthlessly broken to gratify the lust, caprice and rapacity of the

buyers and sellers of men. My soul sickens at the sight. Is this the land your Fathers loved the freedom which they toiled to win? Is this the earth whereon they moved? Are these the graves they slumber in? But a still more inhuman, disgraceful, and scandalous state of things remains to be presented. By an act of the American Congress, not yet two years old, slavery has been nationalized in its most horrible and revolting form. By that act, Mason & Dixon’s line has been obliterated; New York has become as Virginia; and the power to hold, hunt, and sell men, women, and children as slaves remains no longer a mere state institution, but is now an institution of the whole United States. The power is co-extensive with the star-spangled banner and American Christianity. Where these go, may also go the merciless slave-hunter. Where these are, man is not sacred. He is a bird for the sportsman’s gun. By that most foul and fiendish of all human decrees, the liberty and person of every man are put in peril. Your broad Republican domain is hunting ground for men. Not for thieves and robbers, enemies of society, merely, but for men guilty of no crime. Your lawmakers have commanded all good citizens to engage in this hellish sport. Your President, your Secretary of State, your lords, nobles, and ecclesiastics, enforce, as a duty you owe to your free and glorious country, and to your God, that you do this accursed thing. Not fewer than forty Americans have, within the past two years, been hunted down and, without a moment’s warning, hurried away in chains, and consigned to slavery and excruciating torture. Some of these have had wives and children, dependent on them for bread; but of this, no account was made. The right of the hunter to his prey stands superior to the right of marriage, and to all rights in this republic, the rights of God included! For black men, there are neither law, justice, humanity, not religion. The Fugitive Slave Law makes mercy to them a crime; and bribes the judge who tries them. An American judge gets ten dollars for every victim he consigns to slavery, and five when he fails to do so. The oath of any two villains is sufficient under this hell-black enactment to send the most pious and exemplary black man into the remorseless jaws of slavery! His own testimony is nothing. He can bring no witnesses for

himself. The minister of American justice is bound by the law to hear but one side; and that side is the side of the oppressor. Let this damning fact be perpetually told. Let it be thundered around the world, that, in tyrant-killing, king-hating, people-loving, democratic, Christian America, the seats of justice are filled with judges who hold their offices under an open and palpable bribe, and are bound in deciding in the case of a man’s liberty, hear only his accusers! In glaring violation of justice, in shameless disregard of the forms of administering law, in cunning arrangement to entrap the defenseless, and in diabolical intent, this Fugitive Slave Law stands alone in the annals of tyrannical legislation. I doubt if there be another nation on the globe having the brass and the baseness to put such a law on the statute book. If any man in this assembly thinks differently from me in this matter, and feels able to disprove my statements, I will gladly confront him at any suitable time and place he may select. I take this law to be one of the grossest infringements of Christian Liberty, and, if the churches and ministers of our country were not stupidly blind, or most wickedly indifferent, they, too, would so regard it. At the very moment that they are thanking God for the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty, and for the right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences, they are utterly silent in respect to a law which robs religion of its chief significance, and makes it utterly worthless to a world lying in wickedness. ... The fact that the church of our country (with fractional exceptions) does not esteem “the Fugitive Slave Law” as a declaration of war against religious liberty, implies that that church regards religion simply as a form of worship, an empty ceremony, and not a vital principle requiring active benevolence, justice, love and good-will towards man. It esteems sacrifice above mercy; psalm-singing above right-doing; solemn meetings above practical righteousness. A worship that can be conducted by persons who refuse to give shelter to the houseless, to give bread to the hungry, clothing to the naked, and who enjoin obedience to a law forbidding these acts of mercy is a curse, not a blessing to mankind. The Bible addresses all such persons as “scribes, pharisees, hypocrites, who pay tithe of mint, anise, and cum in, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgement, mercy and faith.” But the church of this country is not only indifferent to the wrongs of “die slave”, it actually takes sides with the oppressors. It has made itself the bulwark of American slavery, and the shield of American slave hunters. Many of its most eloquent Divines, who stand as the very lights of the church, have shamelessly given the sanction of religion and the Bible to the whole slave system. They have taught that man may, properly, be a slave; that the relation of master and slave is ordained of God; that to send back an escaped bondman to his master is clearly the duty of all the followers of the Lord Jesus Christ; and this horrible blasphemy is palmed off upon the world for Christianity. For my part, I would say, welcome infidelity! welcome atheism! Welcome anything, in preference to the gospel as preached by those Divines! They convert the very name of religion into an engine of tyranny, and barbarous cruelty, and serve to confirm more infidels, in this age, than all the infidel writings of Thomas Paine, Voltaire, and Bolingbroke, put together, have done! These ministers make religion a cold and

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OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

VOL. 23 NO. 27

July 5, 1852 “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?”

➔➔ Continued from page 11

flinty-hearted thing, having neither principles of right action, nor bowels of compassion.

They strip the love of God of its beauty, and leave the throne of religion a huge, horrible, repulsive form. It is a religion for oppressors, tyrants, man-stealers, and thugs. It is not that “pure and undefiled religion” which is from above, and which is “first pure, then peaceable, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.” But a religion which favors the rich against the poor; which exalts the proud above the humble; which divides mankind into two classes, tyrants and slaves; which says to the man in chains, stay there; and to the oppressor, oppress on; it is a religion which may be professed and enjoyed by all the robbers and enslavers of mankind; it makes God a respecter of persons, denies his fatherhood of the race, and tramples in the dust the great truth of the brotherhood of man. All this we affirm to be true of the popular church, and the popular worship of our land and nation - a religion, a church, and a worship which, on the authority of inspired wisdom, we pronounce to be an abomination in the sight of God. In the language of Isaiah, the American church might be well addressed, “Bring no more vain ablations; incense is an abomination unto me: the new moons and Sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth. They are a trouble to me; I am weary to bear them; and when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you. Yea! when ye make many prayers, I will not hear. Your hands are full of blood; cease to do evil, learn to do well; seek judgement; relieve the oppressed; judge for the fatherless; plead for the widow.” The American church is guilty when viewed in connection with what it is doing to uphold slavery, but it is superlatively guilty when viewed in connection with its ability to abolish slavery. The sin of which it is guilty is one of omission as well as of commission. Albert Barnes all but uttered what the common sense of every man at all observant of the actual state of the case will receive as truth when he declared that “There is no power out of the church that could sustain slavery an hour, if it were not sustained in it.” Let the religious press, the pulpit, the Sunday school, the conference meeting, the great ecclesiastical missionary, Bible and tract associations of the land array their immense powers against slavery and slave-holding; and the whole system of crime and blood would be scattered to the winds; and that they do not do this involves them in the most awful responsibility of which the mind can conceive. In prosecuting the antislavery enterprise, we have been asked to spare the church, to spare the ministry; but how, we ask, could such a thing be done? We are met on the threshold of our efforts for the redemption of the slave by the church and ministry of the country in battle arrayed against us; and we are compelled to fight or flee. From what quarter, I beg to know, has proceeded a fire so deadly upon our ranks, during the last two years as from the Northern pulpit? As the champions of oppressors, the chosen men of American theology have appeared men, honored for their so-called piety, and their real learning. The LORDS of Buffalo, the SPRINGS of New York, the LATHROPS of Auburn, the COXES and SPENCERS of Brooklyn, the GANNETS and SHARPS of Boston, the DEWEYS of Washington, and other great

“‘The arm of the Lord is not shortened,’ ” and the doom of slavery is certain. I, therefore, leave off where I began, with hope. While drawing encouragement from the Declaration of Independence, the great principles it contains, and the genius of American institutions, my spirit is also cheered by the obvious tendencies of the age.”

Exception to the Rule: This statue of Henry Ward Beecher stands in Columbus Park, downtown Brooklyn. Speaking of the many blasphemers in the pulpit, Douglass said of Beecher “There are exceptions, and I thank God that there are. Noble men may be found scattered all over these Northern States of whom Henry Ward Beecher of Brooklyn,” is one. religious lights of the land, have, in utter denial of the authority of Him, by whom they professed to be called to the ministry, deliberately taught us against the example of the Hebrews and against the remonstrance of the apostles, they teach “that we ought to obey man’s law before the law of God.” My spirit wearies of such blasphemy; and how such men can be supported as the “standing types and representatives of Jesus Christ,” is a mystery which I leave others to penetrate. In speaking of the American church, however, let it be distinctly understood that I mean the great mass of the religious organizations of our land. There are exceptions, and I thank God that there are. Noble men may be found scattered all over these Northern States of whom Henry Ward Beecher of Brooklyn, Samuel J. May of Syracuse, and my esteemed friend on the platform, are shining examples; and let me say further, that upon these men lies the duty to inspire our ranks with high religious faith and zeal, and to cheer us on in the great mission of the slave’s redemption from his chains. [*Rev. R. R.Raymond] ...You boast of your love of liberty, your superior civilization, and your pure Christianity, while the whole political power of the nation (as embodied in the two great political parties) is solemnly pledged to support and perpetuate the enslavement of three million of your countrymen. You hurl your anathemas at the crown-headed tyrants of Russia and Austria, and pride yourselves on your Democratic institutions while you yourselves consent to be the mere tools and bodyguards of the tyrants of Virginia and Carolina. You invite to your shores fugitives of oppression from abroad, honor them with banquets, greet them with ovations, cheer

them, toast them, salute them, protect them, and pour out your money to them like water, but the fugitives from your own land you advertise, hunt, arrest, shoot and kill. You glory in your refinement and your universal education, yet you maintain a system as barbarous and dreadful as ever stained the character of a nation - a system begun in avarice, supported in pride, and perpetuated in cruelty. You shed tears over fallen Hungary, and make the sad story of her wrongs the theme of your poets, statesmen and orators, till your gallant sons are ready to fly to arms to vindicate her cause against her oppressors, but in regard to the ten thousand wrongs of the American slave, you would enforce the strictest silence, and would hail him as an enemy of the nation who dares to make those wrongs the subject of public discourse! You are all on fire at the mention of liberty for France or for Ireland, but are as cold as an iceberg at the thought of liberty for the enslaved of America. You discourse eloquently on the dignity of labor, yet you sustain a system which, in its very essence, casts a stigma upon labor. You can bare your bosom to the storm of British artillery to throw off a three penny tax on tea, and yet wring the last hard-earned farthing from the grasp of the black laborers of your country. You profess to believe “that, of one blood, God made all nations of men to dwell on the face of all the earth,” and hath commanded all men everywhere to love one another, yet you notoriously hate (and glory in your hatred) all men whose skins are not colored like your own. You declare, before the world, and are understood by the world to declare that you “hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; and that, among these are, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;” and yet you hold securely in a bondage which, according to your own Thomas Jefferson, “is worse than ages of that which your fathers rose in rebellion to oppose,” a seventh part of the inhabitants of your country. Fellow citizens! I will not enlarge further on your national inconsistencies. The existence of slavery in this country brands your Republicanism as a sham, your humanity as a base pretense, and your Christianity as a lie. It destroys your moral power abroad; it corrupts your politicians at home. It saps the foundation of religion; it makes your name a hissing, and a byword to a mocking earth. It is the antagonistic force in your government, the only thing that seriously disturbs and endangers your Union. It fetters your progress; it is the enemy of improvement, the deadly foe of education; it fosters pride; it breeds insolence; it promotes vice; it shelters crime; it is a curse to the earth that supports it, and yet you cling to it as if it were the sheet anchor of all your hopes. Oh, be warned! Be warned! A horrible reptile is coiled up in your nation’s bosom; the venomous creature is nursing at the tender breast of your youthful republic; for the love of God, tear away, and fling from you the hideous monster, and let the weight of twenty million crush and destroy it forever!

...Fellow citizens! There is no matter in respect to which the people of the North have allowed themselves to be so ruinously imposed upon as that of the pro-slavery character of the Constitution. In that instrument I hold, there is neither warrant, license, nor sanction of the hateful thing; but, interpreted as it ought to be interpreted, the Constitution is a GLORIOUS LIBERTY DOCUMENT. Read its preamble, consider its purposes. Is slavery among them? Is it at the gateway? Or is it in the temple? It is neither. While I do not intend to argue this question on the present occasion, let me ask, if it be not somewhat singular that, if the Constitution were intended to be by its framers and adopters, a slaveholding instrument, why neither slavery, slaveholding, nor slave can anywhere be found in it. What would be thought of as an instrument, drawn up, legally drawn up, for the purpose of entitling the city of Rochester to a tract of land, in which no mention of land was made? Now there are certain rules of interpretation for the proper understanding of all legal instruments. These rules are well established. They are plain, common-sense rules, such as you and I, and all of us, can understand and apply without having passed years in the study of law. I scout the idea that the question of the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of slavery is not a question for the people. I hold that every American citizen has a right to form an opinion of the Constitution, and to propagate that opinion, and to use all honorable means to make his opinion the prevailing one. Without this right, the liberty of an American citizen would be as insecure as that of a Frenchman. I have detained my audience entirely too long already. At some future period, I will gladly avail myself of an opportunity to give this subject a full and fair discussion. Allow me to say, in conclusion, notwithstanding the dark picture I have this day presented of the state of the nation, I do not despair of this country. There are forces in operation which must inevitably work “the downfall of slavery.” “The arm of the Lord is not shortened,” and the doom of slavery is certain. I, therefore, leave off where I began, with hope. While drawing encouragement from the Declaration of Independence, the great principles it contains, and the genius of American institutions, my spirit is also cheered by the obvious tendencies of the age. Nations do not now stand in the same relation to each other that they did ages ago. No nation can now shut itself up from the surrounding world, and trot around in the same old path of its fathers without interference. The time was when such could be done. Longestablished customs of hurtful character could formerly fence themselves in and do their evil work with social impunity. Knowledge was then confined and enjoyed by the privileged few, and the multitude walked on in mental darkness. But a change has now come over the affairs of mankind. Walled cities and empires have become unfashionable. The arm of commerce has borne away the gates of the strong city. Intelligence is penetrating the darkest corners of the globe. It makes its pathway over and under the sea, as well as on the earth. Wind, steam, and lightning are its chartered agents. Oceans no longer divide, but link nations together. From Boston to London is now a holiday excursion. Space is comparatively annihilated. Thoughts expressed on one side of the Atlantic are distinctly heard on the other. The far off and almost fabulous Pacific rolls in grandeur at our feet. The Celestial Empire, the mystery of ages, is being solved. The fiat of the Almighty, “Let there be Light,” has not yet spent its force. No abuse, no outrage whether in taste, sport or avarice, can now hide itself from the all-pervading light.

VOL. 23 NO. 27


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019


Our Research Reveals Flaw in Methodology

When researchers cites The U.S. Census, they expect to feel confidence in their source. However, in our research into the 1850’s, we were surprised to find that in the table on Per Capita income of the United States for 1850 and 1860, the Bureau of the Census included slaves in the total population. The dictionary definition of per capita is in two parts. The first, “Per unit of population, per person income per capita.” is applicable. The second “Equally to each individual”, is not. The slaves were not legal persons, to the state or the owners. They were property with a taxable value, that could no more profit financially from their work than a mule. The per capita earnings of the slave was zero.

TRUE FIGURES WOULD HAVE HELPED POPULIST MOVEMENT When we computed a corrected table of the assessed per capita value on real estate and property for the 8th Census (1860) in the slaveholding states, and put them in ranking order, an interesting pattern emerges. See OTP State Rank in Per Capita Wealth, (excluding the slave as part

the population). Looking at the ranking, we see that the slave states vary as much as 400% above the national average of $384. These kind of figures of extraordinarily high per capita incomes in states with a lot of poor whites, would have highlighted the fact that the United States was not as egalitarian as professed. This would have been fodder for the Populist Movement that was afoot at the time the census table was compiled in the mid 1880’s. Then, nonrich whites and former slaves were being urged to come together and unite against a common enemy, the monied classes. In American Populism - A Social History (1877-1898) Robert McGrath writes about two grassroot farmers organizations as a sample of the concerns of the times. “”These two short-lived organizations, like scores and even hundreds of other community-based movements, were called into being by the transformation of American Capitalism amidst the economic and social trauma of the 1870’s....Participants in both organizations understood, if only dimly, that old rules and values were crumbling, and that powerful new economic institutions, buttressed by the state, threatened their independence....In another moment of crisis for the new industrial and financial order a decade later, groups like these two, scattered throughout the island communities

of the American heartland, would coalesce and grow into a grand crusade.” A correct ranking list by per-capita wealth

like the one shown here, could have been used by the populist forces to confirm their fear of an existing economic aristocracy. DG

State Rank by Per Capita Assessed Value of Real Estate and Personal Property 1860 OUR TIME PRESS RANKING (NOT including the slave population) 1. South Carolina $1,624 2. Mississippi 1,436 3. Louisiana 1,158 4. Georgia 1,039 5. Florida 876 6. Alabama 819 7. Connecticut 742 8. Rhode Island 716 9. Texas 635 10. Massachusetts 631 11. Virginia 594 12. Kentucky 568 13. Arkansas 556

14. District of Columbia 547 15. North Carolina 536 16. Maryland 495 17. Tennessee 459 18. New Jersey 441 19. Ohio 410 20. New Hampshire 380 21. Washington 379 22. California 368 23. Oregon 363 24. Delaware 360 25. New York 358 26. Indiana 304

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 1. Connecticut $ 742 2. Rhode Island 716 3. South Carolina 695 4. Mississippi 644 5. Massachusetts 631 6. Louisiana 616 7. Georgia 585 8. District of Columbia 547

daughter says she met the smartest people here in your class.” Mackey’s mindful assistant professor, Gloria, overhears and promises to ask Mackey if he would establish workshops for young people. Class readings are pulled from the newspapers, each week, and distributed to each participant. Before the sessions’ end, Beverly provides the class with impactful information on happenings outside and within the village. This night, she announces the existence of job openings in the transit system. Mackey immediately calls on transit worker R. to give a summation or “translation” of the real deal. R. strides up in full uniform and offers a read-between-the-lines commentary. He’s brilliant, in his way. Yet, T. B., a truly sweet man, interrupts. “Are you talkin’ Ebonics, man?” Elder Mackey cuts a laser eye in T-Bear’s direction. The class is heedful. T-Bear downshifts. R. continues without a missed beat. We’re all learning. Mackey believes everyone in the village is special. It’s a sentiment his maternal grandma bestowed upon him. The elder Harriet (Sibley) Weston, born in slavery in 1854, decided she would raise her grandson because he was “a special child.” In those days, he says, children didn’t question their mothers. Didn’t matter whether the mother was grown, a teacher and had good sense. Which aptly describes Mrs. Blanche Mackey when her mother took her two-year-old son from Jacksonville, Fla. to raise on her 50- acre farm in the Black village of Scarlett, Georgia in Camden County. Bill learned the sorts of pastoral things that illumine life and carry one through it. Under his grandmother’s conscious eye, he learned how to grow things: corn, rice, yams… just as she grew him and taught him the value of simplicity and sustenance in a complicated and unsustaining world.

(Mackey’s family never sold their land in the South.) Mackey read every book there was to read in Scarlett, and when he ran out of books (most rural Black schools were like the two-room dwelling Mackey attended -- 10 years behind without a library to speak of), he would pick from the books discarded as trash by less-poor white schools. (The same way he retrieves pennies dropped from worn pockets and loose purses, now.) Young Mackey treasured these finds. He would dust them off and store their precious shards of knowledge in his photographic memory. When he completed the highest grade -- because of Jim Crow, back in the 20’s and 30’s in the South, the highest grade a Black child could reach was the 6th or 8th grade, if you were lucky-- Bill Mackey, by then a teenage bibliophile, returned to his parents’ home in the big town of Jacksonville to continue his education. Summers, he spent in Scarlett. It was during one of those vacations that Bill, at age 14, taught his grandmother to read and to write. Mrs. Weston was in her 90’s. Back then, people “had more pride, more dignity and a sense of history,” he told a reporter in 1985. “They maintained a respect for education that was absolutely awesome.” But racism has always been on a head-on collision course with the ancestors’ love for education and their children’s pursuit of it. In one of the nation’s largest cities, Black students had no access to the main library in the’30s. And Bill had run out of books to read in the smaller, poorer Black libraries. In 1936, Mrs. Clara White, an ombudsman for the Black community, a friend of Mary McLeod Bethune, and one of Jacksonville’s first Black social workers -- spearheaded a campaign to open the city’s main library to Black children. (In most Southern towns, Black people in towns like Columbus, Ga.-- like Dr. John Henrik Clarke -- had to go in through the back door,

9. Florida 10. Kentucky 11. Alabama 12. Texas 13. New Jersey 14. Maryland 15. Arkansas 16. Virginia 17. Ohio

Mackey says.) “A library card to us,” says Mackey, “was like a credit card, a passport. That’s how valuable it was then.” Mrs. White, Blanche Mackey and other sympathizers and activists went the distance and won a small victory. Mackey was able to visit the library on Thursdays, between 12 noon and 3pm. Only on Thursdays. To this day, the professor believes that “one chapter, paragraph or sentence can make a book worthwhile.” The values of Mackey’s life work will never be overestimated. It is a treasure entitled, Down Home: Return to the Georgia Backwoods. This 550-page study of Black life in the lower coastal Carolinas, Georgia and Florida is both a voluminous work of research culled from 3,000 hours of interviews and 6,000 photographs that combine with his own remembrances. It venerates the land tilled and hoed by the ancestors’ hands and shows how “we have taken the garbage and refuse of Western society (and mixed it with the ancestors’ sweat and blood --this writer’s comment) and made it art.” Mackey is very much concerned about waste. Wasting minds, wasting time. We were nervous the morning of the scheduled first interview. Twenty minutes late and fumbling with the audiotape, “This stuff ought ta been done on the way here,” he barks. “And now you sittin’ here doin yaw preliminary preliminaries. Thank God, we haven’t taken over this morning.” After the interview, Mackey sets out to walk us to the IND station at the KingstonThroop stop. After all, he must pick up his copy of The New York Slimes, as he calls it -- he reads it every day! -- and The Daily Challenge. He’s grumbling about how he’s lost pennies on account of us. Seems folks drop them on their way to work in the morning. And don’t place any value in them enough to stop and pick them up. He’s concerned about us keeping warm. I enter the subway at the Uptown side to

304 269 258 247 246 240 227 226 223 218 210 186 103

(Including the slave population) 491 457 448 443 441 432 414 412 410

Professor William Henry Mackey, Jr. ➔➔ Continued from page 3

27. Iowa 28. Vermont 29. Nebraska 30. Pennsylvania 31. Maine 32. Wisconsin 33. Illinois 34. Missouri 35. New Mexico 36. Michigan 37. Kansas 38. Minnesota 39. Utah 18. New Hampshire 19. Washington 20. California 21. Oregon 22. New York 23. Delaware 24. Tennessee 25. Indiana

380 379 368 363 358 354 345 304

meet the train that will take us one stop to Utica. There, I can catch the express running downtown to our stop. (This is Mackey’s idea.) In the underground, I am introduced to regal Sofronia, the token booth collector who dispenses the coins as deftly as she offers information on upcoming photo and fine arts exhibitions throughout Brooklyn and New York. We are learning. Mackey says he will see me soon. Entering the train, I realize I haven’t reached first base in in my interview. There is so much. Two lecture sessions, half-dozen ego-smashing phone calls later, I am still trying to pass Mackey’s “course”. But, all the while, I am learning some basic survival lessons: the importance of “going home” to detoxify the mind and unlearn the culture-crushing software “that’s programmed in all of us”. I also have rediscovered the value of a found copper penny. “It’s a 100% profit,” says Mackey. “Absolutely! A found penny is a 100% profit!” Just like the burnished seeds of wisdom Mackey’s students are amassing in those free Thursday night lectures. In his classes, we’re learning. Walking through histories. Listening. Absorbing. Catching up. Collecting sense. “It’s about time!” Mackey would say. Professor William Mackey, Jr. will be featured in the April 1997 issue of Our Time Press. His appearance in that issue launches Our Time Press’ new series entitled “GRIOTS of OUR TIME.” This column will profile elders in the village who have messages/lessons to impart and stories to pass on. Write to us with your comments and suggestions and any questions you may want us to ask our griots on your behalf. We are grateful for your interest and appreciate your support. (To be continued) Note to readers: Professor Mackey, our constant advisor, taskmaster and mentor, passed in 2004.


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019


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➔➔ Continued from page 6 to provisions of the Judgment, Index No. 516787-16. Aaron Tyk, Referee Woods Oviatt Gilman LLP 700 Crossroads Building, 2 State St. Rochester, New York 14614 855-227-5072 63915 NOTICE OF SALE SUPREME COURT: KINGS COUNTY. Trifera, Pltf., v. Maria Burgos, et al, Defts. Index #11589/2011. Pursuant to judgment of foreclosure and sale entered January 16, 2016, I will sell at public auction in Room 224 of Kings County Supreme Court, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201 on July 25, 2019 at 2:30 P.M. prem. k/a 640 Belmont Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11207 (Block 4030, Lot 118) Approx amt. of judgment is $205,577.44 plus costs and interest. Sold subject to terms and conditions of filed judgment and terms of sale. BERNARD M. ALTER, ESQ. Referee. Jeffrey S. Greene, P.C. Atty’s for Pltf., 1 Barker Avenue, White Plains, NY 10601, (914) 686-5091. NOTICE OF SALE SUPREME COURT - COUNTY OF KINGS SRP 2012-4, LLC, Plaintiff, Against Index No.: 511696/2018 PRESTIGE PROPERTIES, INC., TREVOR MULLINGS, et al., Defendant(s). Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale, duly entered 5/15/2019, I, the undersigned Referee, will sell at public auction, in Room 224 of Kings County Supreme Court, 360 Adams Street,

Brooklyn, NY 11201 on 7/25/2019 at 2:30 pm, premises known as 43 Dumont Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11212, and described as follows: ALL that certain plot, piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements thereon erected, situate, lying and being in the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, City and State of New York, Block 3551 and Lot 53.The approximate amount of the current Judgment lien is $253,354.68 plus interest and costs. The Premises will be sold subject to provisions of the aforesaid Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale; Index # 511696/2018 Steven Z Naiman, Esq., Referee. Richland & Falkowski, PLLC, 35-37 36th Street, 2nd Floor, ASTORIA, NY 11106 Dated: 5/30/2019 PB SUPREME COURT – COUNTY OF KINGS DEUTSCHE BANK NATIONAL TRUST COMPANY, AS TRUSTEE OF THE INDYMAC INDX MORTGAGE LOAN TRUST 2006-AR19, MORTGAGE PASSTHROUGH CERTIFICATES, SERIES 2006-AR19 UNDER THE POOLING AND SERVICING AGREEMENT DATED JUNE 1, 2006, Plaintiff, against TINY O’CONNOR, et al Defendant (s). Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale; the undersigned Referee will sell at public auction in Room 224 of the Kings County Courthouse, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. on the 25th day of July, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. premises described as follows: All that certain plot, piece or parcel of land situate lying and being in the County of Kings, City and State of New York. Said premises

known as 596 Van Siclen Avenue; Block: 4087, Lot: 38. Approximate amount of lien $ 600,760.14 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed judgment and terms of sale. Index No. 504304-15. AARON TYK, Esq., Referee. McCabe, Weisberg & Conway, LLC Attorney(s) for Plaintiff 145 Huguenot Street – Suite 210 New Rochelle, New York 10801 (914) 636-8900 NOTICE OF SALE SUPREME COURT COUNTY OF KINGS, STATE OF NEW YORK MORTGAGE AGENCY, Plaintiff, vs. ZENA MURPHY, AS HEIR-AT-LAW TO THE ESTATE OF CORNELL MURPHY A/K/A CORNELL BILLY MURPHY (DECEASED), ET AL., Defendant(s). Pursuant to an Order Confirming Referee Report and Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale duly filed on May 10, 2019, I, the undersigned Referee will sell at public auction at the Kings County Supreme Court, Room 224, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, NY on July 25, 2019 at 2:30 p.m., premises known as 190 Cozine Avenue, Unit 6-1K, Brooklyn, NY 11207. All that certain plot, piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements thereon erected, situate, lying and being in the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, City and State of New York, Block 4415 and Lot 1163 together with an undivided 0.0707 percent interest in the Common Elements. Approximate amount of judgment is $142,027.35 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed Judgment Index # 517300/2017. Shmuel D. Taub, Esq., Referee Schiller, Knapp, Lefkowitz & Hertzel, LLP, 200 John James Audubon Parkway, Suite 202, Amherst, New York 14228, Attorneys for Plaintiff NOTICE OF SALE SUPREME COURT COUNTY OF KINGS U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION AS TRUSTEE FOR STRUCTURED ASSET INVESTMENT LOAN TRUST MORTGAGE PASS-THROUGH CERTIFICATES, SERIES 2006BNC3, Plaintiff AGAINST MARIE HUGUETTE JEAN-BAPTISTE, et al., Defendant(s) Pursuant to a Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale duly dated January 14, 2019 I, the undersigned Referee will sell at public auction at the Room 224 of Kings County Supreme Court, 360 Adams Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201, on July 18, 2019 at 2:30PM, premises known as 9024 AVENUE L, BROOKLYN, NY 11236. All that certain plot piece or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements erected, situate, lying and being in the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, City and State of New York, BLOCK 8255, LOT 40. Approximate amount of judgment $763,183.05 plus interest and costs. Premises will be sold subject to provisions of filed Judgment for Index# 511172/2014. Jeffrey R. Miller, Esq., Referee Gross Polowy, LLC Attorney for Plaintiff 1775 Wehrle Drive, Suite 100 Williamsville, NY 14221 63540

VOL. 23 NO. 27

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(Nassau & Navy Sts.), 10am-9pm daily, $5, $3 for children, prepaid passes with fast entry, seating, buffet and meet-andgreets start at $10. Featuring: Grammy-nominated reggae star Etana; Norman Connors & The Starship Orchestra (w a tribute to Aretha); Hypnotic Brass Ensemble; Ray Chew Live (from the Apollo; Charles Turner and Uptown Swing; T.K. Blue Band tribute to Randy Weston; African dance by Dinizulu Cultural Arts Institute, Kulu Mele and Asase Yaa; Nkumu Kataly Congolese music, Woza Masekela tribute band, DJs, food, fashion, drummers, kids activities, a remarkable marketplace of arts, attire, crafts, jewelry & more. For info: 718-638-6700 or www.


phitheater, Marcus Garvey Park, 18 Mt. Morris Park, Harlem (Enter @ 124th & Fifth), Tues-Sun 8:30pm thru 7/28, FREE. Set in the modern era, Dionysus

(God of wine and ecstasy) returns to his hometown to clear his mother’s name and punish the insolent city for not allowing its citizens to worship him. CTH’s modern version of the classic Greek tragedy tackles the ills of a culture obsessed with celebrity worship, social media and fear of the other, causing people to lose the ability to see the truth — that people in power are fallible…until it’s far too late.

Wednesday, July 10th MUSIC IN THE GROVE: KIDS CONCERT WITH SOUL Fort Greene Park, DeKalb Ave. bet. Washington Park & St. Edwards Sts. (just south of the Prison Ship Martyrs Monument), 10am-11am, FREE. Grab a blanket and find a shady spot. Journey with dynamic duo Chen Lo and Asante Amin chronicling the joys of world travel adventures, cultural exploration and hope-filled affirmation, encouraging kids to build for a brighter future! Enjoy an even dose of smooth, grooving hip-hop, jazz, funk, soul and Afro-beat rhythms sure to inspire kids to show off their best dance moves and sing along for the best of times! [For info:]

CONSTRUCTION CAREER OPPORTUNITIES LOCAL HIRING EVENT Bedford Union Armory, Brooklyn Community Board 9, 890 Nostrand Ave., 12-2pm, FREE. Qualifications: Six months or more of experience in any one of the following trades – concrete, electrical, mechanical, plumbing, carpentry,


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

masonry and welding. Wages start at $17 per hour. [For info:]

Thursday, July 11th DEEP RIVER SEASON FINALE New York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 West 64 th St., Manhattan, 7:309pm, $25 and up. Activist orchestra The Dream Unfinished’s 2019 season, “Deep River,” focused on the intersection of climate and social justice with composers who hail from communities impacted by environmental issues. Today’s season finale provides a local and global perspective on climate change’s impact on communities of color and premieres new orchestrations of works by Trevor Weston, Zenobia Powell Perry and

others. WQXR host Terrance McKnight is host.

Friday, July 12th AYA OF YOP CITY Tompkins Square Park E. 9th St & Ave. A, 8:30-10:30pm FREE. In this animated film based on the graphic novels, it’s the end of the 70s and 19-year-old Aya lives in Youpougon, a working-class neighborhood in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. She divides her time between school, her family and her two best friends, Adjoua and Bintou, who only think of sneaking out as soon as night falls. Things go awry when Adjoua becomes pregnant, causing the friends to try and figure out what is best for the situation. Part of the Park’s Films on the Green series. In French with English subtitles.


OUR TIME PRESS July 4 – 10, 2019

VOL. 23 NO. 27

Child Development Support Corporation

Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) We help NYC parents of children birth – 12 years old to plan for each age and stage of their children’s development.     

Are you a new parent about to return to work? Do you have a 5-year-old about to enter kindergarten? Do you need a plan for afterschool or school holidays? Do you work weekends, evenings, or an unpredictable schedule? Are you experiencing a change in your current child care arrangement?

Contact us today for a FREE individualized consultation with one of our parent counselors! Services available in English, Spanish and Haitian Creole.

718.398.6738 | 352-358 Classon Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11238 (btw. Clifton Place & Lafayette Avenue)

Building Communities by Strengthening Families Since 1975


Profile for Our Time Press

Our Time Press July 4, 2019  

African American Weekly Newspaper, Brooklyn. Stolen Land, Stolen Labor: The Case for Reparations and Frederick Douglass "What to the Slave...

Our Time Press July 4, 2019  

African American Weekly Newspaper, Brooklyn. Stolen Land, Stolen Labor: The Case for Reparations and Frederick Douglass "What to the Slave...