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ANTON CARAGEA PRESIDENT OF BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON OSCE

ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE

KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY

ROMANIAN SUPPORT




The book Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Kazakhstan Presidency. Romanian support had appeared with the financial support of GRAMPET ROMANIA Company




ANTON CARAGEA PRESIDENT OF BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON OSCE

ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE

KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY

ROMANIAN SUPPORT

24 FEBRUARY 2010

Bucharest Publishing House Amanda Edit 2012




Toate drepturile asupra prezentei editii sunt rezervate dl. Anton Caragea

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Nationale a Romaniei

ISBN


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A New Helsinki Agreement In 1975, when the Cold War was far from over, the Helsinki Accords offered Europe a guarantee of peace and stability by confirming the borders of the old continent and establishing the way that new countries could be born. It was flexible enough to accommodate the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Czechoslovakia partition of 1991, and the reunification of Germany. But the cases of Kosovo, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia have called into question the mechanisms of the Helsinki Accords. Only a new international conference uniting all European countries together with Russia and the United States can reaffirm the Helsinki Accords and offer a solution to the present crises. Such an international conference is necessary to reconfirm borders and establish the principles by which further changes in Europe can take place. To continue on the present path, in which the United States supports Kosovo independence and Russia backs Abkhazia and South Ossetia, is to invite a large-scale, worldwide reinvention of borders. Of course, a new Helsinki Accord could not be reached in a month. The initial conference required more than three years of preparation. But in the meantime we should establish a freeze on the recognition of new states and a general reinforcement of the principle of territorial integrity. In his August 26 speech, Russian President agreed to an international solution on border issues. The EU must follow suit and begin to draft a new Helsinki 5


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Accords on post-Cold War borders. Europe must establish a new voice on international issues or it will no longer matter on the international stage. Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS , EDA

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BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (O.S.C.E)

CHAIRMAN OF BUCHAREST CONFERENCE PROFESSOR DR. ANTON CARAGEA MA, FINS, Dr.HC

O.S.C.E. 2010 A DECISIVE YEAR FOR EUROPE KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY

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LIVING HISTORY: BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON OSCE. 2010 has being an important year for Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, as the only chance for a survival of this important organization, legacy of cold war, had being played out. The Kazakhstan Presidency of OSCE had come in a difficult time for the organization. OSCE has being one of the main results of the Final Declaration of Helsinki Conference, designed to create a forum for continuous dialogue between the communist powers and capitalist powers. The long period of the Cold War had seen important moments of tension between the two opposite power`s : USSR and United States, having as center the European continent: Berlin Blockade, Berlin Wall, 1956- Hungary Revolution, 1968- Czechoslovakia Revolution etc. These continuous tensions, on the fringes of European continent and the issue of the frontiers drawn after the Second World War, needed a platform for dialogue and mutual understanding between the Cold War adversaries. The CSCE ( The Committee for Security and cooperation in Europe ), as it was the former name of OSCE, had succeeded in this task of providing a rostrum for 8


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declarations, dialogue and dĂŠtente irreconcilable adversaries of the cold war.

between

the

The period after the collapse of the communist system in Europe assured, after the extinction of Warsaw Treaty, a new period of glory for CSCE. Re-named as OSCE, the organization provided a formula for democratic support tor former communist states and a dialogue and security forum, in a changing world, until the NATO decided to expand and include former communist satellite from Eastern Europe. From this moment, the downfall of the organization had being sharply and rapid. The last of the summits, held in 1999 in Istanbul, failed to offer a new conceptual reconstruction of the OSCE and failed even to open the opportunity for a new high level summit of the organization. The agreement for putting OSCE in a shadow corner was clearly marked , for NATO and United States the organization become superfluous and un-necessary. The security of the European countries become a task for the armed arm of the western world: NATO and the economic and human dimension was entrusted to European Union expansion. 9


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For Russia, OSCE had become guilty of becoming an antichamber of the NATO expansion and was perceived as a fostering tool for promoting the dismantling of the former Soviet Union, under the name banner of promoting a so called democracy. In 2010, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe was confronted with the lack of vision, lack of concept and was victim of an extensive period without a high level meeting, from 1999. The Kazakhstan Presidency was confronted with a negative perception. The promoters of a special kind of democracy where discussing the Kazakhstan track record in fulfilling a hypothetical democracy scale. Other countries, after a failed mandate at the presidency of OSCE, where not to eager to offer to a new comer a red carpet treatment. Finally, the organization was confronted with a lack of resources and visionary leadership and controlled by a conservative state of mind: if we did not need a high level summit for 10 years why we will need one now? If we survive without a reform, why we need a reform today? This where the question`s whispered on the diplomatic corridors of power. In this important moment, Kazakhstan leadership decided to commit resources and interest in offering to OSCE the 10


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example of an efficient and active chairmanship, engaging the creativeness of European intellectual elite in an ample debate to renew the concept and vision of OSCE. The appeal of president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, presented in Vienna to European elite was clear and un-equivocal: the reform of OSCE and enabling a new vision for the organization, could only result in a common effort of the progressive intellectual`s and leaders of Europe. In this moment I have taken the decision to uphold the Kazakhstan Presidency to OSCE and to nurture an intellectual and academic response to the challenge presented by President Nazarbayev. The initial discussion was concentrated with President of Romania (1996-2000), the fine and impressive intellectual Emil Constantinescu. President Emil Constantinescu, with his ample European vision had embraced the idea of a coagulated Romanian and European response to OSCE reform challenge. Together we have shaped the vision of two main ideas that must be emphasized in a Bucharest conference on OSCE: the support for a high level meeting of OSCE and the highlighting of the main topics for a future reform of OSCE. 11


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With this discussion, the European elite response to OSCE challenge, mounted by the president of Kazakhstan had started to gather essence. Soon afterwards President of Romania (1990-1996; 20002004) Ion Iliescu had accepted to attend and support a Bucharest conference on OSCE. With the presence of two presidents, that supervised the transformation of OSCE after the Cold War and had supported the last high level gathering of OSCE in Istanbul, the European reform project for OSCE had become a major conceptual work of ĆŽrenovatioĆŽ (re-building). Along the ambitious project, the presence of the economic community, in this reform debate had imposed as a necessity. OSCE needs a powerful economic impact, need an economic overhaul and also must become an economic center of attraction. Mr. Cezar Coraci had entrusted himself with the task of creating an OSCE economic agenda that would transform the organization in a motor for growth and development. The diplomatic community of Europe, under the leadership of Professor Dr. Mircea Constantinescu, Director of European Diplomatic Academy, had also created a draft for a human security dimension of OSCE. 12


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A strong reform project, supported by all the speakers of Bucharest conference on OSCE included: the necessity of reforming the so called democracy promotion arm of OSCE, creating a true and honest democracy framework and offering a new peace and security concept for the EuroAsian region. Finally, with their impressive moral and political authority Presidents Emil Constantinescu and Ion Iliescu offered their support for a high level meeting of OSCE in Astana. In the concluding coverage of the Bucharest conference on OSCE the main international press outlets considered that Astana High Level Conference of OSCE it is now a necessity. The long trail of shadow and mistrust in Kazakhstan Presidency had being defeated and the intellectual and political support of European elite had clearly shined thru. The President of Kazakhstan decision had played off; Europe had supported his ambitious vision, supported a High level conference in Astana, defeated the mistrust and misunderstanding and created an agenda for reform of OSCE. Kazakhstan president had obtained a full support in his plans to reform OSCE.

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I must also emphasize that Bucharest Conference on OSCE had started a special relation between Romania and Kazakhstan. Romania had never forgotten that Kazakhstan had the ambition to reform OSCE, to promote an agenda of security at Euro-Asia level and had trusted the Romanian elite to coagulate a European response to Kazakhstan initiative for a new OSCE. The ideas and the reform plans conceptualized in Bucharest conference on OSCE had become the main issues on the table of the High level meeting in Astana in 1-2 December 2010. The voices of Romanian and European elite had crossed the space and become the main back bone of the reform of OSCE. The lesson of the successful European-Asian cooperation of Bucharest Conference on OSCE from 24 February 2010 remain vivid today : OSCE could retained his efficiency, could become one more time a pillar of security and could rediscover his legacy of promoting human rights and authentic democracy.

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Romania had started a strategic relation in the benefit of European unity and stability and in forging ties with Asia via Kazakhstan. This strategic and visionary relation continuous today and the journey for creating a new world of peace and security with the support of Romania and Kazakhstan is a never ending story. Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS, EDA

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PRESIDENT NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV ADDRESS ON THE OCCASION OF KAZAKHSTAN`S ASSUMPTION OF THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF THE OSCE January 14, 2010 Your Excellencies, Ladies and gentlemen, Kazakhstan is assuming the extremely important mission of the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) with a sense of great responsibility. Our country will embark on its Chairmanship during one of the most complicated periods in modern history. Because of the global financial and economic crisis, tectonic shifts are taking place in the global order, and this process is still far from completion. The erosion of the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, humanitarian and ecological disasters, famine, poverty, epidemics, depletion of energy resources, conflicts based on interethnic and interreligious differences—such is a far from complete list of the challenges faced by modern civilization that call for maximum efforts by multilateral institutions of high standing like the OSCE. There is no doubt that the current world situation makes even more arduous the test which Kazakhstan, as a country chairing 16


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the OSCE, will have to pass. However, the most pressing problems that the OSCE is now facing have always been at the heart of our foreign policy. Since its independence, Kazakhstan has made a real contribution to strengthening regional and global security. The shutdown of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the voluntary renunciation of the world’s fourth largest nuclear and missile arsenal and the complete elimination of its infrastructure are historic decisions that our country has taken. Recently, at Kazakhstan’s initiative, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming the 29th of August the International Day against Nuclear Tests. Kazakhstan is fully aware of its role as a responsible player in regional and global economic processes. As a country exporting increasing volumes of hydrocarbons to the world market, our country makes a significant contribution to ensuring global energy security, including that of the European countries. As a major exporter of grain and other foodstuffs, Kazakhstan is actively promoting the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in order to end hunger and ensure food security. The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), convened at Kazakhstan’s initiative, has now become a unique multilateral instrument for Asian security and co-operation. 17


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Today, this forum, which is an OSCE analogue for Asia, brings together countries which account for one third of the world’s GDP, with a total population of approximately three billion people. The top priority for Kazakhstan is the sustainable development of Central Asia. The growth of our economy positively affects the region as a whole. Together with other OSCE participating States, Kazakhstan fully supports efforts aimed at bringing the East and West together in order to develop a better understanding of the key issues confronting the modern world. The multiethnic and multi-religious composition of our population is a special trait of our country. Representatives of more than 140 nationalities and 40 confessions live together as one big family in Kazakhstan. Our model of interethnic and interreligious accord is Kazakhstan’s real contribution to the global process of interaction between different religions. At my initiative, since 2003, Astana has hosted three Congresses of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, which have created a unique forum for interfaith dialogue. Ladies and gentlemen, Against this background, we consider the OSCE, with its unique geographical coverage, its experience of interaction and the instruments it has developed, to be one of the key mechanisms for ensuring international security and co-operation. It is an 18


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organization that has played and continues to play an important role in maintaining the security architecture in the area from Vancouver to Vladivostok. At the same time, the positive historical resources of the OSCE are limited. Today, it is not permissible to carry on endlessly drawing the so-called “red lines” and playing the “zero-sum games” which have diminished its credibility. Improving the effectiveness of international organizations in meeting new global challenges has come to the fore. That is the precise task of the OSCE, which is a unique platform for dialogue bringing together 56 States located on three continents. The decisive question for the OSCE in the future will be whether it can convert itself into a structure that recognizes the diversity of the world in the 21st century, or whether it will continue to be an organization segmented into blocs, where the West remains aloof from the space “east of Vienna”? Stereotypes of the “former Soviet republics” continue to dominate the minds of some of our OSCE partners despite the fact of our almost 20 years of experience of integration into the global democratic community. In this context, the trust bestowed on us by the OSCE participating States bears a special importance for Kazakhstan. Building a democratic society has been a conscious choice of our people, and we will pursue further political liberalization of our country and seek to improve the quality of life of the people of 19


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Kazakhstan. Our OSCE Chairmanship is looked upon in the country not only as a foreign policy success, but also as a valuable national achievement in its own right. In accordance with OSCE traditions, we hereby wish to declare the motto of our Chairmanship, reflecting the symbolic identification of Kazakhstan as the chairing nation. The motto of Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship will be four Ts, namely, "Trust", “Tradition”, “Transparency” and “Tolerance”. The first T refers to the trust that is necessary for all of us. The second one refers to our commitment to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE. The third one conveys maximum openness and transparency in international relations, free from “double standards” and “dividing lines”, as well as a focus on constructive co-operation in order to address challenges and threats to security. Finally, the fourth T reflects global trends towards a strengthening of intercultural and inter-civilization dialogue, which is gaining major importance in today’s world. Kazakhstan considers expanding and strengthening the consensus base on fundamental issues of development to be one of the key tasks for the OSCE. The 10-year interval since the last OSCE summit is an illustration of the fact that the consensus base is in stagnation, if not in crisis. In this regard, we call upon the OSCE participating States to support Kazakhstan’s initiative urging the convening of a summit in 2010. Such a meeting of OSCE leaders 20


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would afford an opportunity to celebrate the 35th anniversary of the Helsinki Final Act, the 20th anniversary of the Charter of Paris and the 65th anniversary of the end of World War II. The agenda of the summit could include topical security issues in the OSCE area of responsibility, as well as the situation in Afghanistan and issues relating to tolerance. Now is the time when the leaders of the OSCE participating States should demonstrate their political will and focus on solutions to the difficult challenges facing our nations. A summit would not only give a powerful impetus to adapting the OSCE to modern challenges and threats, but would also increase the confidence and respect enjoyed by the Organization itself among our peoples. Finally, it is the direct responsibility of the Heads of State or Government to work towards strengthening security and cooperation for the benefit and prosperity of the people who elect them. Meanwhile, the OSCE is an organization that cannot be replaced. Its stagnation or disappearance would create a volatile vacuum in the Euro-Atlantic area. In this context, we suggest declaring August 1st, the day of the signing of the Helsinki Final Act, to be OSCE Day. Kazakhstan will try to focus on achieving the optimum balance among all three OSCE “baskets�. Such an approach would make 21


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it possible to see problems in their entirety, and not only to effectively confront external manifestations of modern challenges and threats, but also to tackle their roots. Kazakhstan as the holder of the OSCE Chairmanship is firmly committed to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE. We intend to find mutually acceptable solutions in the interests of all the participating States of the Organization. Kazakh folk wisdom says: “Birlik bolmay tirlik bolmas - Without unity, there can be no life.� Our country considers the OSCE in the 21st century as a single space of democracy, stability and prosperity for all the peoples living in it. I thank you for your attention. I wish you every success in the New Year.

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ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE AT CROSSROAD`S

PROFESSOR ANTON CARAGEA PhD, MA, FINS Dr.HC

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ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE AT CROSSROAD`S BY PROFESSOR ANTON CARAGEA PhD, MA, FINS. Born in the wind of Cold War. When it was created, OSCE brunt the mark of the Cold War institutions. His main role was, in a world of competition between communist and a capitalist system , Western and Eastern military alliance ( NATO and Warsaw treaty ) to maintain a fragile unity on a broken continent tarnished by the Iron Curtin . In this tense climate, OSCE prove his utility. It was a period never as reminding a warm war, as in the beginning of the 80`s. In this time OSCE was the last fragile place of dialogue between an eastern bloc, entered in Afghanistan adventure and a Western alliance, decided to launch the Reagan star wars that seemed condemned to collide in a nuclear war. OSCE and the West – East dialogue. Session like those in Vienna, in November 1986, remained part of the Cold War history and many historians appreciate that, without the vital line of communication, understanding and discussion, launched by the OSCE session of the time, the lack of dialogue would have had unimaginable consequences. But avoiding a nuclear war and keeping open a line of communication between adversary on European continent, was not the only service to humanity that OSCE brought in that time. We must not forget that the issue of human rights in the eastern block was raised 24


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within the framework of Helsinki Treaty and under the operation of OSCE . The reformers, at Prague or at Berlin, used in the names of their organizations and there manifests, calling for greater human rights liberty within the eastern Block, exactly the text of Helsinki and the documents of OSCE . In 1989 when the communist system was collapsing OSCE find herself in a difficult situation. An institution born from the Cold War necessity, build as a structure for dialogue between irrepressible adversaries, was now in the search for another role. OSCE and the Paris Chart: the long way for a new Europe. OSCE has found this role and new place, in the brave new world that communist collapse leave it behind. OSCE had to reinvent herself. It was a moment when European Economic Community was only building herself and the political European structure was only a distant plan. It was a moment when Warsaw Treaty has dissolved himself and NATO was only an impossible and in some cases a distant dream from becoming a large strategic structure of security. In this difficult time OSCE remained the only European forum that took the charge of protecting human rights agenda, fostering cooperation between former enemies, offering democracy building services, offering election monitoring and creating the climate of dialogue in a Central and Eastern Europe that was engulf once more in a nationalistic movement and also providing a window of opportunity for discussions and cooperation with the West. 25


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If it is to summarize, the OSCE agenda of the beginning of the 90`s, we will see that instead of dissolving herself, as someone has suggested, the OSCE took an active and full of initiative role in making a new Europe. The dialogue with Russia, the dialogue with Baltic countries, the long list of peace initiatives in Bosnia and in former Yugoslavia, the OSCE democracy building teams, the OSCE role in promoting peace and disengagement, all are still vivid in our memory. OSCE: an un glorious end? Unfortunately, after the mid 90`s the relevance of the organizations started gradually to decrease. The role of promoting military and strategic security on the continent was now gradually overtaken by the NATO alliance, The gradually expansion toward East of NATO in 1999, 2004 and in 2009 expansion waves was perceived, by many of the people of the continent, as enough to insure their future security. Also, after 2001, the global concept of security and strategic alliances shifted when the so called war on terror was launched. This meant an emphasize on Afghanistan, then on Iraq , a general focus on the Middle East, all objectives that OSCE was neither familiar to, or neither politically inclined to tackle. The expansion of European Union, much less controversial that NATO expansion, was also seen as a substitute to working within OSCE frame work for better economic cooperation and it seemed for the most optimistic of the observer`s that some time the European Union will become the leading actor in European cooperation. 26


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OSCE remained all this time an important actor but it seemed less enthusiastic about, less important, than it once was. OSCE is creating a North-South dialogue. Even in this time, of perceived shrinking relevance, OSCE did not subside in offering new directions for international politics and diplomacy, one example being the construction of the framework of cooperation with partner countries. This OSCE partnership in strengthening democracy, civil society role and preventing conflicts and creating opportunities for security and cooperation, became not only an efficient way of giving OSCE an opportunity to cooperate with other geographical areas, but also became an example for another inclusive cooperation framework. From Japan, to South Korea, to Australia ( the newest member) the partnership framework prove his utility in sensitive areas like: politic and military dimension (arms control, border management, antiterrorist activities, conflict prevention, military reform, implementation of international accords ) to economic and environmental action, to human dimension ( raging from combating human trafficking , democratization ,education, elections monitoring, human rights minority rights and media freedom . Acting in all this important fields it was bound to happen that OSCE received some criticism, but looking at long historical perspective we cannot emphasize enough the positive role of OSCE. 27


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OSCE a political philosophy of possible. In fact, many of the accusation addressed to OSCE of not being strong or efficient enough are just a result of a philosophical fundamental decision of OSCE of creating a balanced environment. Not making the human rights as a symbol for internal affairs interfering, creating monitoring elections process with scrutiny, but not accepting to use this monitoring as a way of creating pressures against a country. This important philosophical concept of OSCE is based on the Helsinki Accord and Paris Charta of respecting the sovereignty and non interfering in internal affairs of member states . Today, when concepts like early warning, conflict prevention by armed intervention, some crisis management practice and post-conflict rehabilitation strategy are severely debated or criticized, the OSCE experience and philosophy could offer a solution for actions with reasonability. This is not weakness, this is reasonable action. In the last years OSCE was confronted with new provocations. The long war`s in Afghanistan and Iraq, the crisis in the issues related to Palestine, the tensions in Caucasus region, the necessity of building a Mediterranean community, the necessity to offer Russia the legitimate assurances regarding his security, the cooperation in Black Sea region and even crisis like Kosovo, all are requiring a diplomatic response and a conceptual one, based on what some foreign policy experts- including myself-called: A 28


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New Helsinki Accord. In this action OSCE must have an important role. 2010- A decisive year. Kazakhstan Presidency. I like to call 2010 a decisive year for Europe, not in the sense that Europe must change his destiny in this year or we must see enormous actions to change our continent. But in the idea that in this year, we must have to see the beginning of a diplomatic and international debate regarding where we want Europe to go on? This political, cultural and economic debate, must start this year and this year must register the beginning of recognizing the need for a change, the need for a philosophical debate, the need for a new framework of action. The four T In this respect, I can only salute the President Nazarbayev decision to foster such a debate and to center OSCE in the middle of this reform camp and in the melee for this conceptual renewal of one of Europe most prestigious institution. This beginning is well choose and defined the four T: Tradition, Tolerance, Trust, and Transparency, announced by President Nazarbayev are exactly in the spirit of OSCE action. An action that is build on Trust- a trust accumulated in more the 30 years of activity. Tradition, because we must build not against past, as someone want, not destroying the history, but rather build on it. Tolerance, because we are increasingly living, unfortunately, in an intolerant world, where different, is spelled enemy and 29


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distrust. Finally, Transparency, because in a world that is infested by so called plots and conspiracy, the transparency is the only base for trust and for efficient actions. A Summit of Hope. OSCE could not work without acting together and without a new philosophy, based on a new summit. After 11 years from the last summit, the necessity for such a gathering is imposing itself: “a new summit would not only give a powerful impetus to adapting the OSCE to modern challenges and threats, but would also increase the confidence and respect enjoyed by the Organization itself among our peoples”. This appeal by President Nursultan Nazarbayev, launched at Vienna Conference, is coming with a realistically assessment: we must not let OSCE disappear or being just a forum of no importance: “the OSCE is an organization that cannot be replaced. Its stagnation or disappearance would create a volatile vacuum in the Euro-Atlantic area“,appreciate correct president Nazarbayev. It is to be commended this effort, launched by Kazakhstan Chairmanship, in obtaining a renewal of OSCE. The ideas of: expanding OSCE action toward Asia, fighting the impact of intolerance, offering to Islamic community a supplementary voice and respectability, emphasizing, in the present day tensioned climate, that Islam is a religion of tolerance and peace, are all commendable plans. 30


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„OSCE could not be replaced”. This ambitious agenda: a new summit, an European debate on the future of OSCE, the building of a security and cooperation common space from Asia to Europe and initiating a really constructive, not professorial or preaching, North – South dialogue .Also we must not forget that OSCE is having one more time a role in Europe, a concentrated activity on West Balkans, the necessity of dialogue and support for Balkan area and a focus on economic crisis hit country as: Macedonia or Albania, that must enjoy the OSCE economic role or the Eastern area of Europe, where tensions and economic problems and security issue such as democracy building and democratic state support are still necessary. It is a tremendous provocation that lies ahead of OSCE in 2010 and years to come. Kazakhstan is having the courage to act, the power to try, the decision, to put in practice and the strength to require to Europe a lucid analysis of OSCE present situation and demand a response. Yes, Kazakhstan could have just wait for 365 day to pass and Chairmanship to be awarded to another country and let others launched this debate, but Kazakhstan did not choose the easy way out, no, Kazakhstan decided to confront the reality to propose ambitious goals and for this to make a truly decisive year: 2010 the year when OSCE start his new page of history. Professor Anton Caragea PhD. MA, FINS 31


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DO WE STILL NEED OSCE? WHAT FOR? FOR WHOM?

PROFESSOR EMIL CONSTANTINESCU PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA (1996-2000)

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DO WE STILL NEED OSCE? WHAT FOR? FOR WHOM? By PROFESSOR EMIL CONSTANTINESCU PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA (1996-2000)

In 2010 OSCE (including CSCE) is celebrating its 35th anniversary. It is the age when symbolically youth came to an end and preparations for the mature age start. The result of this glorious youth becomes history. Of this history, I will only recall the role that CSCE has played for the end of the Cold War, in order to give to Caesar what is Caesar's. Usually, NATO is considered as a winner of the Cold War. In fact, the military and technological pressure of the NATO countries constituted only the condition to start the reform process (perestroika) in the USSR. The real cause of the soviet empire’s fall was the reawakening of the peoples’ freedom spirit, a process to which the human rights promotion by the CSCE through the third basket in Helsinki has played an important role. Twenty years ago, at the end of the Cold War, many people were asking themselves whether we still needed CSCE or not. The right answer was the enhancement of its role by making it become OSCE. Today, in a completely different world, only few people doubt about the necessity of the OSCE. Yes. We need OSCE, but what for and for whom? At this crossroads, difficult is not choosing to follow one way or another to protect Europe’s security, but the capability to 33


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anticipate where these lead roads or other new roads that may open in the new century of unexpected transformations, where the risks game and the actors fast change. In order to shape a vision upon the risks of the future we need to have the courage to talk openly about the difficulties of the present. In my speeches delivered at the conference organized by the Atlantic Council in Washington aiming to scan the future of the USA – EU relationships and also at the NATO conference organized in Oslo to prepare an organization new strategic concept, I have stressed upon the fact that often the „conformable language” within the international bodies bureaucracy, technical and “politically correct” do nothing but make up the disturbing real situations. Thus, it becomes like the former communist regimes „wooden language”. Both of them do not solve the conflicts, but only postpone them. Hence, the first OSCE task was to solve the old frozen conflicts, in order to be able then to focus upon preventing them. The initiatives of the OSCE Kazakh Presidency to organize such debates with the civil society and the academic environment before the summit propound for 2010 are welcomed. I have attended the OSCE summits organized in Lisbon and Istanbul, but as president of Romania, I had to keep within official speeches restrains. The Conference in Bucharest, organized by the Institute for International Relations and Economic Cooperation and by the Kazakhstan Diplomatic Mission represents an appropriate frame for an open and sincere approach of some controversial issues. 34


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I would like to point out in my speech two types of challenges OSCE faces. The first challenge refers to quickly solving some few neuralgic points within the organization activity and that might bring doubts upon the OSCE effectiveness. The second challenge concerns the elaboration of a strategic concept for the OSCE activity during the first part of the 21st century. Elaborating a new long-term strategy cannot be postponed; taking into account the context within other organizations OSCE interacts with have already adopted their ones. The EU has recently come up with such a strategy and NATO is about to adopt a new strategic concept on its 2010 summit. From the category of immediate challenges, I can mention the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). This treaty meant an important instrument for rebuilding the trust, altogether with the START treaties and the negotiation of the antiballistic missile treaty. The openness and transparency all the European armies have shown have managed to replace the mistrust and the lack of information, the wrong perceptions and mistaken assessments upon the threats and the necessary security infrastructure. Unfortunately, the recent situation shows a systematic fall of this system as well as an ending in the applicability terms for other agreements on arming limitation. The adapted Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, signed in 1999 in Istanbul, came to register the new changes occurred after the transition in Europe, the fall of the Soviet Union, the NATO enlargement and the new security options the states in the post-communist area have. The adapted treaty has 35


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never come into force de jure, as it has never been ratified by the states that had signed it. This happened mainly because the nonachieving the commitments adopted in the Final Act of the OSCE Summit in Istanbul, to withdraw the military forces from Moldova and Georgia Republics, based on the principle of armies’ non-stationary on another sovereign state without its consent. As regards reducing the armament within the category subjected to restrictions in flank areas, it happened only at the Akhalkalaki and Batumi military bases. There was no progress reported in withdrawal the troops from Trandnistria and in disabling the armament deposits in the separatist region after the refusal to sign the Kozak Memorandum in December 2003. The commitments in Istanbul are recorded in the Final Act of the revised Treaty of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, signed at the OSCE Summit held in Istanbul by all the member states. Unfortunately, the Russian Federation has announced it’s unilaterally adjournment within the CFE agreements, stating that „it is affected its own national security”. As regards the treaties on strategic arms reduction and on nuclear nonproliferation START I and II and the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the START I Treaty comes to its closure, while the START II Treaty has not been ratified and the INF Treaty encounter problems as regards the motivation for the new anti-missile shield in Europe. In 2010, the whole treaties system on controlling the nuclear forces and the unconventional 36


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forces in Europe may become void if there will not be started negotiations for their extension, coming into force or restarting them. The fact the revised CFE Treaty, although not ratified, has been followed, shows that there is a benefic restrain from appealing to force. However, not respecting the agreements signed is not to assure the trust in the OSCE: a level of trust between partners under the level of trust between the Cold War avowed enemies is not a good sign. Following the evolutions within the last ten years we can notice also notice some states interest to block the OSCE activity, in order to control it or make insignificant the institution itself or parts of it, especially those connected to democracy and field operations control. Fortunately, raising the awareness upon secondary effects and upon the costs of eliminating the organization from the European political and security scene make impossible to oust or to block the OSCE. Concerning the OSCE long term strategy, it is not only about the OSCE reaction to the problems of the present, but also about an effort to anticipate the evolution tendencies of the world we live in. The changes within the security environment can be understood only if take into account the changes within the nature of the international relations, within the rules, norms, actors typology, goals and ways of action.

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The Russia-Georgia war in August 2008 represented a triggering element towards new theoretical approaches. Its immediate consequences have shown the inherent weaknesses of the frozen conflicts solving systems, managed by OSCE – in South Ossetia and by ONU - in Abkhazia. Beyond all these, have come out as obvious the EU institutional blockings concerning the foreign policy and the conflicts within NATO. Although the conflict enlargement was blocked, a major institutional crisis has come out visible on international level. Its components proved it as a crisis of means, a crisis of international law principles as well as a moral crisis. Revising the security strategies based on new approach models impose as a necessity, along with consequences regarding the security assessment and planning logics. Within the debated have erased two theoretical approaches. According to the first one, which is also the oldest, the world is uni-polar, due to the USA super-power, which have invested during the last ten years double the amount of the military budgets of all the other states in scientific and technological research for military purposes. The world can be defined as unipolar also from the point of view of the liberal democracy model that assures economic development and prosperity. In my opinion, this is a void approach. Even the United States have avoided to proclaim themselves as unique power. We talk not only about the public statements. I have attended presidents Clinton’s many statements within closer or close meetings and I can make a testimony about his concern in finding and consulting his political and military partners during crisis moments. The sort 38


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authoritarian flare occurred at the beginning of president George W. Bush the second term has been flatly sanctioned by the reality and president Obama has relaunched an internationally consultation politics. The model of a unique type of democracy is also void. I had the chance to show at the Harvard University, during a conference chaired by the late professor Huntington, my cautions regarding his theory on the civilizations clashing. According to this theory, Europe was divided into the Western civilization area, based on the Catholic-Protestant mentality, the only one capable to sustain a liberal democracy and the Orthodox one. The integration into the EU of Greece, Romania and Bulgaria have come to contradict this theory which will also be disarmed by the next integration into the UE of other orthodox nations like Serbia and Macedonia, but also muslim nations like Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina or Kosovo. At the conference in Seoul in 1994, I have come against the theory of inadequacy to the liberal democracy of the Asian nations. In this case also the reality of building sustainable democratic systems in countries with high economic development and life standards like Japan and Korea deny this theory. The way towards the liberal democracy is open for many types of civilization. The second approach describes the world as uni/multi-polar, with an anarchic periphery. Within this context, the USA cannot act alone, but only together with other powers. The West itself is multipolar and irregular. This theoretical approach is closer to reality and is confirmed by the recent evolutions. 39


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Countries within NATO and EU have shown different positions regarding the events in Kosovo, Kosovo and regarding the military interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was proved that the Western multipolarity is generated by the very domestic democracy and by the one within the international institutions and bodies it had created. The examples presented above still keep within the Westfalian concept according to which only the states are subject of international law. On the future, the European and world security, as well as each state security should adapt to the postmodern society. The states will probably remain for a long time from now on not only the security subjects, but also its guarantees. Meanwhile we are also forced to take into account the fact that the postmodern world created solidarities of racial, ethical, sexual groups that transcend the states. Thus we should not see the state security only as a goal, but also as a way to assure the security for different groups and for citizens seen as persons with own interests and options. The world economic crisis led to a positive reassessment of the state role as protector of the citizens against abuses coming from those who assured the 20th century states progress and prosperity: transnational economic and financial companies. A partnership between the private sector and the civil society promoting the corporate social responsibility may create the trust necessary to overcome present and future crises.

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In order to achieve all these things we need a better understanding of the globalized world. It can be characterized as a risk society to which a great number of citizens have already adapted. These global citizens, especially young people under 40 years, do not assume long term identities and loyalties, but only pragmatic and present ones. They are very active and mobile and settle according to each person’s character in areas offering them a minimum of risk or, on the contrary, a maximum of opportunity. This kind of population is expected to raise its number during the next years. This trend is accompanied by another one where groups or persons lead their life according to the former bipolar world, in black and white, even though the religious or ethnical intolerances have replaced the ideological ones. They represent a potential anarchy group. Even if these trends display in a flat world, there are also relicts of old societies separated through deep fissures from the post-modern or modern world. We find them in Africa, in some regions in Asia or even in Latin America. This is why the international community approach on every topic should take into account the perceptions of each actor involved. In our contemporary world, states can no longer be conventionally divided in blocks because the reactions following different interests lead to changing the alliances and the opposite parts on different topics or subjects. On one hand, it is a reflex of the contemporary world democratization, but also of the governments’ pragmatism forced to respond to the needs of its own citizens. 41


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Problems of the transition towards democracy, along with the separatism and the delay in consolidating the new independent states create, on their turn; risks directly connected to the states and governments political legitimacy. The mafia type cores nourishing separatism and blocking the new states consolidation put a question mark on the capability of fighting the institutionalized corruption. A threat associated to the democracy global model is the populism. Populism can lead to weakening the power and efficiency of the key democratic institutions, of the independency of justice, mass media and army. The elements along with the existing old frozen conflicts arouse concerns both about the dividing tendencies within the new independent states, but also about the terrorist elements transit to Europe as well as about maintaining the stick-in-the-mud mentalities generating attractiveness towards authoritarian administrative models. Is OSCE able to face such diverse challenges? With what kind of arguments? With what means? Conflict prevention and post-conflict situations management require a more comprehensive perspective that will allow the development of the OSCE action in complementarity with the activity of other global or regional bodies. A balanced vision should take into account the interests of different ethnical and religious communities, the states obligations and their citizens’ natural rights, the conjunctural and long-term interests of the regional actors. It cannot be elaborated without involving representatives competent to express the voices plurality, questions and aspirations from hundreds of millions people living 42


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in the are represented through the OSCE. Political structures like the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly should be supplemented by civil society structures dedicated to world security issues. Only such a process to consolidate the respect for human, democracy and common security may reach the depth that only peoples’ real will can guarantee. As it is the only Euro-Atlantic organization where all the European states are members, OSCE proved to be an efficient tool in the construction of a new culture of dialogue and collaboration in Europe and between Europe and the whole world. The OSCE preventive vocation will constitute the keystone of its short term activities. This fact involves a raising complexity of the analyses and action ways. The repetitive crises have shown that unfortunately punctual preventive interventions are not enough and should be inserted in a complex of long term actions which needs to take into account the overall aspects of some regions and the overall aspects of the problems that might create destabilize, starting with economic difficulties and going to the stereotypes anchored in conflictual mentalities, from the communication ways precariousness to the security unconventional risks. OSCE intended – and had mostly succeeded – to become a laboratory where is created the security political culture through mutual trust, negotiation and cooperation. OSCE can identify the major risks, can conceive and apply programs of mutual trust 43


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enhancement, both within countries with a high-risk degree, but also within conflict potential regions. Within this laboratory, I believe that exists a privileged place for the former presidents in term during the transition from the communist dictatorships to the democratic states status. Their civic and reformer political leaders experience, their mutual relationships and the prestige they have gained can play a role both in conflict defusing, but also in reconceiving the long-term organization strategy. The OSCE important contribution to the security architecture in Europe and in the entire world will be, with no doubt, the one of wars that would have not taken place due to the creation of some democratic and dialogue mechanisms, to the strengthening of the collaboration with the civil society and due to the preventive diplomacy. Do we still need OSCE? Yes. What for? For a safer world. For whom? For us all.

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STATEMENT BY MR. KANAT SAUDABAYEV, CHAIRAMAN-IN-OFFICE OF THE OSCE AND SECRETARY OF STATE AND MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, Speaking here before the Permanent Council two and a half years ago, I expressed the hope that on 30 November 2007 the foreign ministers of the OSCE participating States would adopt a fair decision in Madrid on Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship of the Organization in 2010. Thank God that is what happened. As a result of that decision, I now have the honor today to address you, my distinguished colleagues, as the Chairman in Office of the OSCE. The decision adopted in Madrid was not only a sign of the objective recognition by the international community of the impressive achievements of Kazakhstan and President Nursultan Nazarbayev in building an economically powerful and dynamically developing democratic State, its worthy contribution in ensuring regional and global security during the short period that the country has been independent, but also served to demonstrate the desire of the OSCE itself to really bring the countries to the east and the west of Vienna closer together and to modernize and strengthen the Organization in order to adapt it to the present day realities. In the address that we have just heard, President Nazarbayev outlined the main challenges facing our Organization today along with ways of finding appropriate responses to them and the most important priorities of our OSCE Chairmanship. For my part, I should merely like to outline a road 45


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map for the implementation of our Head of State’s strategic vision. We are extremely grateful to Greece for its effective Chairmanship and we intend to continue its positive trends, first and foremost development of the Corfu Process. In the context of the dialogue on the future of European security we support the willingness expressed by a number of countries in Athens to discuss the different ideas on strengthening the indivisible security from Vancouver to Vladivostok, including the Russian Federation’s initiative on a Treaty on European Security. We share the opinion that the strengthening the Vienna Document 1999 should be carried out in parallel and without detriment to the existing regime of confidence and security building measures (CSBMs). It is our hope that 2010, a special year in many respects, will see us draw a step closer to the entry into force of the Agreement on Adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Kazakhstan will give particular attention to the preparations for the Annual Security Review Conference (ASRC) and will look into the possibility of making its meetings more representative, productive and result-oriented. We shall continue to work to strengthen the OSCE’s co operation with other international organizations and institutions and will

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intend to invite their representatives more frequently for an exchange of views. Assisting in resolution of “protracted conflicts” remains a priority for any Chairmanship and we shall endeavor to do all we can to make a contribution to this difficult process. At the same time, our Organization must try to find a way of preventing the emergence of similar conflicts which result in human tragedy and humanitarian disasters. To that end, my first visit as Chairman in Office is scheduled for mid February to the countries of the South Caucasus. I would be grateful for any recommendations you might have and for your help and ideas in resolving the problems concerned with the conflicts there. In line with the Ministerial Declaration adopted in Athens on non proliferation, Kazakhstan will, as a recognized leader in the worldwide process of non proliferation, try to increase the OSCE’s contribution to achieving the goals of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 and supporting the global efforts in the area of nuclear disarmament. We shall pay greater attention to the work to combat illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and to counter terrorism and other new challenges of the modern age, and welcome the decision taken in this regard at Athens. In view of the experience of previous Chairmanships, Kazakhstan intends to co operate closely with the Secretariat’s Action against Terrorism Unit, to 47


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support specific projects as a donor and assist in the holding of thematic seminars. We are planning to hold a conference in Astana on the prevention of terrorism as the main event in this area. We urge our partners to ensure a high level of participation in this Conference. Today the concept of European security goes far beyond the borders of the European continent and encompasses the vast expanse of Eurasia. Accordingly, we intend to focus particular attention on Afghanistan. We view the development of the situation in that country from the point of view of global security and the fight against terrorism, religious extremism and drug trafficking. Helping the Afghan people to transform their war-torn country into a peaceful, productive and self-sustained society based on democratic principles and values, is an important task for the OSCE and the whole international community. We hope that the forthcoming international conference on Afghanistan in London at the end of January, which I plan to attend as Chairman in Office of the OSCE, will be an important step in that direction. For a number of years Kazakhstan has been providing considerable humanitarian aid to Afghanistan. Following an agreement signed with the Afghan Government, this year will see the start of a program to provide vocational training for a thousand Afghan citizens at our universities. Astana has allocated 50 million US dollars for that purpose. Furthermore, it is our intention to play an active part in implementing and co 48


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sponsoring projects to strengthen Afghanistan’s borders with Central Asian countries, to develop cross-border co operation and to enhance law enforcement activities. In selecting its priorities in the economic and environmental dimension, Kazakhstan proposed the promotion of good governance at border crossings and development of secure and efficient land transportation. We thank all participating States for their support in the selection of the theme of the 18th Economic and Environmental Forum, which we believe is very important as we emerge from the global crisis. The III Astana Economic Forum in July of this year on the theme of “Crisis Lessons and Post Crisis Model of Economic Development in Globalization Conditions” should impart an additional impetus to discussions in this area. Another important and highly topical sphere of work in the second dimension is environment and security. It is important over the long term to create a comprehensive system for monitoring and responding to environmental threats, devising common approaches and generating political will. In this context, activities to address challenges of the Aral Sea region may serve as a model for resolving environmental problems within our Organization’s area of responsibility. Work must continue on migration issues and on ensuring energy security in line with the decisions adopted at the Ministerial Council meeting in Athens.

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The human dimension remains a key theme on the agenda of our Organization and our Chairmanship. Kazakhstan will continue to support the work of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), the High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media. Given our extremely positive experience in securing inter ethnic and interconfessional harmony in our own country; we intend to make tolerance and intercultural dialogue within the OSCE area a major priority of our Chairmanship. I hope that the High Level OSCE Conference on Tolerance and Non Discrimination to be held in Astana on 29 and 30 June of this year will make a worthy contribution to the process of further strengthening interaction among different cultures and civilizations and the practical implementation of decisions adopted earlier. In that connection, I would ask you all, my distinguished colleagues, to play a most active part in the preparatory and substantive work of the Conference. The three Personal Representatives of the Chairman in Office for religious tolerance and non discrimination will also be actively involved in this process. Another no less acute problem is trafficking in human beings, with particular focus on trafficking in children, which has taken on a global scale and become a component of transnational crime. This being the case, one of the supplementary human dimension meetings will be devoted to a discussion of how to improve the mechanisms for combating trafficking in human beings. 50


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In view of the importance of promoting gender policy, we plan to hold a meeting on the promotion of gender balance and the participation of women in public and political life and to co sponsor an ODIHR program to increase the participation by women in State structures. The rule of law is a fundamental commitment in the human dimension, directly concerned with human rights and democracy. In this context, we intend to pay particular attention to independence of judicial systems and to other important issues that have lost none of their relevance such as the prevention of hate crimes, freedom of movement, the situation of Roma and Sinti and others. In addition to the annual Human Dimension Implementation Meeting held in Warsaw, a conference to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Copenhagen Document will be of great importance. We are providing both organizational and financial support for that event. The conference will include a review of the implementation of commitments regarding fundamental human rights and freedoms, the rights of national minorities and elections. I should like to express our gratitude to Denmark and the ODIHR for their help and support in preparing for this event. This year, presidential and parliamentary elections will be held in 15 OSCE participating States. We urge the ODIHR and the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly to co ordinate their work and to do everything possible to ensure that the election monitoring process is objective and constructive. 51


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Attaching great importance to the human dimension of the OSCE’s work, we are demonstrating a firm commitment to this process, first and foremost in our own country. Further steps in the area of democratization in Kazakhstan will be fully in line with the goals and tasks that we have set ourselves during our Chairmanship.

Distinguished colleagues, For Kazakhstan, everything I have outlined so far represents a seamless and responsible continuation of the efforts of our predecessors in the post of Chairman in Office of the OSCE in resolving the problems currently facing our Organization as well as problems that may re emerge. As President Nazarbayev has already stressed, a most important task for the Organization today is to prepare for and hold an OSCE summit in 2010. A specific recommendation regarding a summit was set out in documents adopted at the Ministerial Council meeting in Athens. This will allow the participating States you represent here to begin work without delay on giving substance to a summit agenda and providing organizational support for its preparation. In this connection, I should like to urge you all – distinguished colleagues, the Secretary General and the OSCE Secretariat – to actively and purposefully begin the process of reaching agreement among all our partners on a substantive agenda for a summit and a time frame that is acceptable to all and based on consensus. We understand that this is an extremely difficult task. However, 52


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as the great Francis Bacon once said “all rising to a great place is by a winding stair”. Kazakhstan also intends to continue the fine tradition initiated by our predecessors Greece by inviting the foreign ministers of the OSCE participating States to an informal meeting in Almaty this summer. Here in the Alatau mountains rising 3000 meters above sea level and among the flowering alpine meadows we could in the spirit of Corfu continue the open and free exchange of views on the most pressing problems in the OSCE’s area of responsibility and ideally reach a consensus on an agenda and time frame for the summit. I would ask all of you to take an understanding and enthusiastic approach to the preparations for this important event.

I should like to thank our Greek friends for their tireless efforts throughout 2009. As the Chairman in Office of the OSCE I am counting on close co operation with Greece and Lithuania in the Troika in 2010. I am also relying on the support of all my appointed personal and special representatives. The broad geography of the countries represented by them should ensure the objectivity and impartiality of the work ahead of us. I regard the support of the Secretary General and the OSCE Secretariat and institutions as a major factor for the success of our Chairmanship and for ensuring the continuity and effectiveness of the Organization’s work. In this connection, we shall continue to examine different ways of strengthening the legal status of the OSCE, including the possibility of setting up a working group to draw up proposals on the basis of consensus. 53


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The Kazakh Chairmanship attaches great importance to the work of the OSCE missions in the field. We firmly believe that at the request of the host authorities the OSCE field operations can provide vital support. We intend to pay particular attention to strengthening the parliamentary dimension. Kazakhstan is pleased to note the atmosphere of co operation and mutual understanding that exists between us and the President of the Parliamentary Assembly Mr. João Soares and its leadership as a whole. An OSCE Trans Asian Parliamentary Forum is to be held in Almaty on 13 and 14 May of this year. Its agenda reflects our intention to pay greater attention in our work to the Asian dimension of the OSCE and to co sponsor specific events in this area. This summer Turkey will host the third summit meeting of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA). The Asian partners of the OSCE – all members of the CICA or having observer status – as well as the OSCE Troika, the Secretary General and the President of the Parliamentary Assembly, have been invited to take part in that event, making it possible to intensify co operation between the OSCE and the CICA with a view to strengthening security in the vast Eurasian region. Year after year it has been said unfortunately that the delay in the adoption of the budget has become a customary practice, which has a negative effect on both the activities and the authority of the OSCE. Today, however, I should like to thank all the participating States for the constructive approach taken to the discussions on the 2010 budget, which for the first time in recent 54


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years was adopted within the prescribed time frame. I hope that this is a good sign for the start of our Chairmanship. May this positive outlook continue to apply to all our joint co ordinate work throughout 2010. In keeping with the priorities of our Chairmanship, Kazakhstan intends to allocate 1 million euro’s for the financing of extra budgetary projects in all three OSCE dimensions.

In conclusion I should like to say that during the 35 years since the adoption of the Helsinki Final Act, the OSCE has gained unique experience and devised an unparalleled system of collective, comprehensive and indivisible security. However, as our President noted in his address, today the OSCE’s positive and historic resources have their limits. For that reason, in view of the new threats and challenges our common task is to make the Organization even more valid, useful and effective.

In keeping with this lofty goal and firmly committed to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE, in its work in chairing this Organization Kazakhstan will be guided by the interests of all the OSCE participating States for the sake of the security and prosperity of their peoples. .

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A NEW CHALLENGE FOR OSCE: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENT DIMENSION. 2010- A NEW BEGINNING.

VICE-PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP MR. CATALIN NECHIFOR

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A NEW CHALLENGE FOR OSCE: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION. 2010- A NEW BEGINNING By VICE-PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP MR. CATALIN NECHIFOR Mr. Chairman Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen It is a great privilege for me to address the OSCE Conference in 2010. A decisive year for Europe. As vice president of the Friendship Group Romania - Kazakhstan, I want to send the greetings of the Romanian Parliament to the Kazakhstan chairmanship and I wish it to fulfill the objectives which it has proposed, along with Greece and Lithuania, in the so-called troika leadership OSCE. For a geo political conglomerate as the OSCE, which includes much of northern hemisphere countries, the definition of common objectives is always a difficult element to be negotiated and implemented. In its brief history, from 1973 onwards, the OSCE has undergone a natural evolution, starting from the need to create a European security group that can work in terms of conflict prevention, crisis management and post conflict reconstruction. Now, in 2010, the area of concern has three main

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dimensions, political and military, economic and environmental and not least human dimension. Economic and Environmental Dimension is indeed a challenge for the OSCE, and steps have been made so far are insufficient, even if economic prosperity and environmental protection are the basic pillars of the world’s security. Chimeras went big time, the Cold War already has his place in the history books, change of regime in 1989 are part of our life. But that does not mean talking about fighting terrorism, democratization, elections and equal opportunities, will be sufficient to ensure that climate of security and cooperation that we want for the citizens of 56 member states of the OSCE. Differences in ideology, culture and religion are part of our common heritage, yet were also generating conflict, but, most importantly, they constitute an important value which means cooperation between states, as demonstrated and the Conference to implement tolerance through inter-cultural, interreligious and inter-ethnic understanding, held in Alma Ata in 2006 under the aegis of the OSCE. We speak often about the common heritage as something that belongs to the past and less about our obligations of those who live this time, to leave a lasting legacy for future generations. The world begins to be concerned about new topics: global warming, climate change, renewable energy, pollution, economic growth and financial crisis. Maybe it was a pure coincidence OSCE establishment and development of the first report of the Club of Rome, called "limits of growth" because it concerns the security and co-existed much. In the early 70 people talked about the 58


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dynamics of economic development in the context of limited planet's resources and behold, at a distance of 40 years, the crisis of the system occurred. Maybe it is not just the financial crisis, or maybe since we live together, to the west coast of America, the Far East, we will signal that this is a dead end. We reached an impasse unprecedented. Greece is in a state of bankruptcy, Iceland is unable to pay its external debt in excess of nine times the national GDP, unemployment rife in the Baltic countries and Romania will proceed with the dismissal of 200,000 workers in the public service. Over all this, the Kyoto Protocol will end in 2012, and the 2009 Copenhagen Summit dedicated to climate change is not up to expectations. In this respect, the EC President, Juan Manuel Barroso said that 'agreement in its current form is preferable to total lack of agreement’. Pact signed in Copenhagen has no more than three pages and does not contains elements which the EU considers crucial, such as collective goals to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and besides the fact that not set a deadline for concluding a treaty in 2010 it is not even mention any agreement legally binding. All together are part of the current problems of security and cooperation worldwide. In this respect, the OSCE has a powerful tool that can address these issues: Economic and Environmental Forum, which is a series of annual events to discuss issues proposed by the Presidency of the OSCE and approved by all 56 member states. Forum objective is to stimulate policy dialogue on economic and environmental aspects of security and contribute to the development of specific recommendations and follow-up activities to address these challenges. Every year, the meetings 59


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brought together over 400 participants representing governments, civil society, business community and other international organizations that engage in dialogue and consult on how to approach and identify practical solutions to common economic and environmental concerns. Economic and Environmental Dimension of the OSCE is less controversial compared to the problems facing in the other two dimensions: the political and security, and of course human rights. In general, there is less disagreement between Member States of the OSCE, and there is a lack of constructive activities that the OSCE can follow and can be notable differences in the everyday life of people living in the 56 member states. In recent years his focus has been on eco-economic dimension, as set up an informal working group to discuss ways to improve results and identify best practices in the field. Economic and Environmental Forum meets four times a year to consider a proposed theme of the Presidency. This approach, somewhat rigid not always lead to a significant quantitative results, the more desirable is to discuss the issues that generate ideas and recommendations and, possibly. In this way, the OSCE could invite other international organizations to become involved in analyzing the proposed themes. The Economic and Environmental Forum takes place over 12 months, from September, which does not allow proper coordination with the OSCE chairmanship mandate, which coincides with the calendar year but which still permits the existence of a time period preparatory working to define issues and ensure consensus of all 56 member states. 60


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A higher priority should be placed on the use and strengthening of economic expertise within the office coordinator, as long as the OSCE is an active participant in the security environment (ENVSEC), in an initiative that brings together the UN, NATO and other international organizations focusing on environmental projects with implications for security in Central Asia, Caucasus, Eastern and South-eastern Europe. In particular, there are numerous opportunities for the OSCE to continue building confidence in projects that focus on problems in border areas with specific sensitivities in Central Asia, under the theme of transport proposed by Kazakhstan’s chairmanship this year. Economic and Environmental Dimension also has a high potential to support more active involvement of OSCE partners for cooperation, both in the Asian, European and North America. Drawing on past experience, Economic and Environmental Dimension could cover a larger area of issues during the year, changing its meeting schedule to coincide with the chairmanship term of office and ensuring regular dialogue with international organizations and OSCE partners can add additional value to the role of security and cooperation, providing a greater impact in the union of 56 countries around common objectives related to economic growth and improving environmental policy. However, in recent years the OSCE activity was relatively low, even if the interest is significant for Member States. That is why I particularly appreciate the fact that one of the priorities of the current presidency held by Kazakhstan is the deepening economic and environmental issues, and the organization of the 18th Forum 61


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is a guarantee to that effect. The theme proposed to the Member States refers to "promote the sound management of border crossing area, improve safety by land, creation of facilities for international road and rail in the OSCE region". One of the objectives is to create political conditions conducive to improving transit and transport potential, which is one of the key problems of Kazakhstan's relations with the EU and with other OSCE member states. In this respect they held the first preparatory conference for the 18th Economic and Environmental Forum of the OSCE, held in October 2009 in Astana, in Kazakhstan. Given the increase in economic exchanges in the Euro-Asian, and developing new routes have opened up environmental concerns and identifying the impact of these activities on the environment is a must. Taking the findings of previous meetings, a current concern is to encourage an exchange of views on ways how to reduce the negative effects of transport on the environment along the Eastern Northwest corridor, as an interest of a number of countries in Europe and Asia. A particular concern is to assist participating States to implement national legislation on illegal transportation of hazardous waste, consultations with the Secretariat of the Basel Convention is initiated. The first part of the Economic and Environmental Forum held in Vienna on the 1st of February 2010, where policy makers and experts discussed measures to promote good governance at border crossing points to improve transport security and to facilitate international road and rail transport in the OSCE region. Conference brought together over two days 250 participants, representing governments, international organizations and 62


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associations worldwide transport. In the context of global economic slowdown in the OSCE, Kazakhstan chairmanship attaches high importance to Economic and Environmental Dimension, priority being the development of transparent and secure transport links between the participating states. Given the phenomenon of globalization, the importance of international transport networks increases significantly, transport holding a key role in shaping the global economic space. There were discussed issues related to challenges of international road transport, the financial crisis and economic crisis, and ensuring access to seaports for landlocked countries, as well as improving transport links in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Secretary General of OSCE, Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, said that "discussing the challenges of international transport and governance at border crossing points require a broad and comprehensive approach, the OSCE and act as a single platform that can focus political attention on technical issues of great importance�. The next stage of the 18th Economic and Environmental Forum of the OSCE will take place in Prague, from 24 to 26 May 2010. Behold, by this approach complex problem off the economic and environmental dimensions identified and supported by consensus of Member States, the OSCE can contribute to peace, prosperity and stability, one of the targets made since the establishment of this international body. Before concluding, I want to express my conviction that we had the opportunity to contribute to a better understanding of the role of the OSCE, I want to thank the organizers and participants and especially the Chairmanship of Kazakhstan, which has made 63


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efforts for the purpose of deepening problems related to the size of the current economic environment facing the inhabitants of the Member States. I would like to conclude with a quote from Nicolae Iorga: "The selfish understand himself as the ultimate goal of the Creation: he would expect that the moment of his death is the end of the world". I hope that through our collective effort to help a small part in the effort to leave a lasting legacy of generations that come after us and I am sure that the Romanian Parliament, that I represent today, will bring forward the current challenges and future of our world.

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OSCE AND HUMAN SECURITY

PROFESSOR DR. MIRCEA CONSTANTINESCU DIRECTOR EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC ACADEMY

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OSCE AND HUMAN SECURITY BY PROFESSOR DR. MIRCEA CONSTANTINESCU DIRECTOR EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC ACADEMY Esteemed Mr. President Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, After the end of the Cold War there was a change of paradigm in the field of security studies and its effects are even today the subject of an intense debate. As a result, the state as the referent for security was gradually replaced with the human being. In other words, the traditional meaning of security was changed and a new vision of security emerged: the human security. The concept of human security allows for the security of the state to be seen as an instrument for the security of persons, and places the human dignity in the centre of political reflection. This new concept also contributed to the change of the way the state sovereignty was conceived. The paradigm of human security became prominent in the first half of the 90s when, in 1994 the Human Development Report was released. In this document the human security encompasses two dimensions: the freedom from fear and the freedom from want. Also, Human Development Report 1994 considers main threats to the security of persons under seven 66


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categories: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security, and political security. The human security conception advanced in Human Development Report 1994 has often been characterized as broad because it includes both the protection of people from violence within states and the protection of people from malnutrition, disease and natural disasters. The broad conception of human security generated an intense controversy between its supporters and its opponents. Thus, the broad conception figures in the 2003 report of The Commission on Human Security entitled Human Security Now: Protecting and Empowering People and is the official position of the Japanese government in matters of security. The broad conception of human security is contested among others by the member states of the Human Security Network (Austria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Greece, Ireland, Jordan, Mali, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Slovenia, Thailand and South Africa as an observer ), The Human Security Centre - Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century - and by the International Commission on State Sovereignty and Intervention in its report published in 2001 The Responsibility to Protect. They all advocate for an understanding of human security exclusively concerned with the protection of people from 67


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violence within states. That is why their approach to human security has been characterized as a narrow one. The elements of this view on human security are to be found in a 2000 document of the Canadian government entitled Freedom from Fear: Canada’s Foreign Policy for Human Security: protection of civilians, peace support operations, governance and accountability, public safety and conflict prevention. Human security is an important topic for European Union as well. The 2002 Barcelona Report - A Human Security Doctrine for Europe - and the 2007 Madrid Report tried to shape the vision of European Union on human security. In this context, OSCE also became interested by the concept of human security, an interest motivated in part by the fact that the protection of human beings has always been at the heart of the CSCE process. The Helsinki Final Act made the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief a guiding principle between participating states. Today, OSCE treats human security as a part of the larger concept of comprehensive security, a concept that includes the politico-military dimension, the economic and environmental dimension and the human dimension. According to the Charter for European Security, signed in Istanbul in 1999, the human dimension of security encompasses democratization, gender

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equality, human rights, minority rights, rule of law, tolerance and non-discrimination, media freedom. The commitment of the OSCE member states to human security determined the creation of OSCE institution such as Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights and The High Commissioner on National Minorities. The OSCE makes possible the coexistence of the broad vision on human security, supported by its Asian partners, especially Japan, with the narrow vision advocated by Canada and the other members of Human Security Network. The harmonization of the two conceptions of human security is a difficult objective and the contribution of Kazakhstan to its attainment may be significant.

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HIGH LEVEL CONFERENCE OF ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE

KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY OF OSCE

CHAIRMAN: H.E. PRESIDENT OF KAZAKHSTAN NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV ASTANA-KAZAKHSTAN 1-2 DECEMBER 2010

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STATEMENT BY HIS EXCELLENCY NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV, PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, AT THE 2010 OSCE SUMMIT Astana, 1 December 2010 Distinguished Heads of State and Government, Heads of delegations, Ladies and gentlemen, On behalf of the people of Kazakhstan I welcome the distinguished guests gathered for the OSCE Summit. Kazakhstan is the first of the new independent States to host this important international forum and I thank all of our partners for the confidence shown in our country. Your Excellencies, Ladies and gentlemen, We have gathered in Astana to celebrate the sound idea of continuing to move together towards a secure future for our nations, a path that we embarked upon three and a half decades ago. The Helsinki process was developed originally on the basis of a conception of a pan-European home from the Atlantic to the 71


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Urals. The creation of the OSCE confirmed the principles of European security from Vancouver to Vladivostok. Today we are setting out on a third stage, moving towards a new level of security and co-operation on a wider scale from ocean to ocean. The idea is to form a single security space bound by four oceans: from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Arctic to the Indian. The Astana Summit revives a tradition interrupted since the Istanbul Summit 11 years ago of holding meetings at the highest level. This is also a sign of the renaissance of the Organization. We are seeing the start today in Astana of a Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian community of common and indivisible security. This Summit is taking place for the first time in a new country that gained its independence to a large extent thanks to the provisions and principles contained in the Helsinki Final Act. I am talking about the right of States and nations to freely choose their development path, and about sovereignty and territorial integrity. We are creating democracy in a part of the world where it has never been before. Stability in Kazakhstan above all means steady economic growth. From the outset we have developed the economy so that poverty does not disgrace our young democracy. Kazakh society has a sound foundation based on tolerance, peace and accord of all 140 ethnic groups and 46 confessions.

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We have created a unique institution in the form of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan and have managed to combine Western values with Eastern traditions. Our people have experienced for themselves the cruel cost of the Cold War, notably in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. My decree to close it and the rejection of nuclear arms were the first contribution by Kazakhstan to the pan-European process. Today we also call on the OSCE partners to support our initiative to adopt a universal declaration for a nuclear-free world. Your Excellencies, Ladies and gentlemen, Our Summit is also unique for taking place in the centre of Eurasia, 1,000 kilometers from the geographical border of Europe. In our view, this above all reflects the changed paradigm of European security. At the start of the twenty-first century, the sources of the most dangerous threats and challenges to stability on the European continent are located beyond its borders. Some 43 OSCE participating States are involved in the knotty problem of Afghanistan. We support the elaboration of a comprehensive strategy for settlement in Afghanistan and a restoration of the economy and peaceful life. The acute political crisis in Kyrgyzstan could be a catalyst for new conflicts in

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Central Asia. Together with the leaders of the United States of America, Russia and other partners we have been making effective use of all of the OSCE’s instruments to prevent an escalation of the conflict and to stabilize that country. Major sources of drug trafficking, illegal migration, trafficking in human beings and also the threat of the spread of weapons of mass destruction are to be found outside Europe today. Many aspects of energy and economic security in Europe today depend on the situation in other parts of the world. This was also revealed by the global financial and economic crisis. Eurasian security is not a metaphor but a real geopolitical fact. The Summit in Astana therefore offers a good opportunity to analyze the OSCE’s perspectives for global security. In our opinion the main task facing the OSCE in the next decades is to systematically settle conflicts and foster confidence and integration, particularly within the framework of existing inter-State bodies. As far as the East-West axis is concerned, there is a need to organize co-operation between the European Union and NATO on one side and the Eurasian Economic Community and the Collective Security Treaty Organization on the other. In this way, the transatlantic integration of last century could be seamlessly supplemented by trans-Eurasian integration.

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In that context, Kazakhstan welcomes the breakthrough in relations between Russia and NATO. The proposal by President Dmitry Medvedev for a new Treaty on European Security is also worthy of attention. As far as the North-South axis is concerned, there is a pressing need for the OSCE to establish close relations with a number of Asian integration bodies, notably the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia created at the initiative of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is willing to act as a link in Eurasian security. We intend to use our chairmanship of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 2011 to build confidence throughout the entire Eurasian area. We also propose that we should start working on a comprehensive Treaty on Eurasian Security. Distinguished colleagues, In a few weeks our country will have completed its mission of chairing the OSCE. We set ourselves the task of bringing the Organization out of its crisis. I hope that our efforts will be judged by our partners on their merits. In the long term it will be our task together to renew the Organization. I urge all countries who will head the OSCE in the future not to slacken their efforts. The OSCE has acquired great experience in the human dimension: the development of democratic institutions, 75


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independent media and the observance of human rights and freedoms. These are extremely important conditions for our development. At the same time, there would appear to be a need to make substantive and structural changes in the development of the OSCE in order to respond adequately to modern threats and challenges. We propose an increase in the number of baskets and OSCE institutions. First, there is a question of economic pragmatism, which is the cornerstone of security in the twenty-first century. In this regard, the efforts of the European Union to stabilize the economy are worthy of support. The G8 and G20 are discussing ways of overcoming the global financial crisis, although to date the search for a new configuration for the world economy and monetary system has been progressing slowly. The OSCE’s efforts to strengthen economic security should therefore be a priority and financial and economic security dealt with in a separate basket. The global economy needs a new global reserve currency. This is a question that merits close attention. We also propose that the OSCE Maastricht strategy should be supplemented by a Maastricht Plus document so as to reflect the principles of the agreed monetary and financial policy, economic co-operation and integration.

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It would be useful to add councils for energy security and economic co-operation to the OSCE structure. An OSCE environmental forum could be created to deal with protection of the environment. It could contribute to the resolution of a number of problems such as the drying up of the Aral Sea or the restoration of the territory of the former Semipalatinsk test site. There is also an urgent need to devise a water and law program to find a legal solution to water problems for those countries suffering from a water shortage. Second, it is important to continue work on the elaboration of new treaty norms for disarmament and non-proliferation. It might be useful to create a dedicated OSCE forum to deal with this. Kazakhstan proposes the establishment of a council at the level of OSCE ministers to co-ordinate the fight against cross-border crime, drug trafficking and illegal migration. Third, the seeds of distrust in the OSCE area can be seen above all within individual countries and only later have a negative effect on the regional and global situation. One possible contributing factor to this phenomenon is public mockery of places of religious worship. It would be useful if Barack Obama’s speech in Cairo, in which he outlined the position of the United States of America on strengthening religious tolerance, were to be followed up with specific measures within the OSCE. 77


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We propose that inter-confessional tolerance be dealt with as a separate dimension. There is a need today for frank and open inter-confessional dialogue. The OSCE could organize this using the Congress of World and Traditional Religions established at the initiative of Kazakhstan as a platform. We believe that Christianity and Islam, Judaism and Buddhism were sent down to create peace and not hostility. I should also like to propose the elaboration together of a document on tolerance in the new decade. Fourth, the global financial crisis, local conflicts and other challenges shaking the world were in many ways unexpected. This means that the vision for the future was defective. I believe that it would be useful to create a separate dimension in the OSCE to anticipate different security problems. As a first step I propose the establishment of an OSCE security institute. Fifth, a uniform basis for OSCE structures throughout its entire area of responsibility could help to foster confidence and mutual understanding. This process could get under way through the establishment of institutions for monetary and financial, interreligious and forecasting dimensions in different countries, including those in the Asian part of the OSCE. We suggest that these proposals be discussed within the framework of the Corfu Process. 78


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I trust that all of the thrusts of the fundamental changes in the OSCE will be reflected in the OSCE Astana Declaration. Distinguished Summit participants, Dialogue by the leaders of great nations and creators of the history of humanity over thousands of years has started today in the centre of Eurasia on the ancient soil of Kazakhstan. I hope that the draft versions of the Astana Declaration and the Action Plan prepared for the Summit will be supported by all OSCE participating States. This will make a huge contribution to the security and prosperity of our peoples. I regard our efforts to make Eurasia, the largest continent on the planet, into a shared area of peace based on common values – trust, traditions, transparency and tolerance – as a historic idea and also the purpose of our Summit. Thank you for your attention.

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DESTINATION ASTANA BY OSCE CHAIRPERSON –IN-OFFICE KAZAKHSTAN`S SECRETARY OF STATE AND FOREIGN MINISTER KANAT SAUDABAYEV

Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev set out an ambitious vision for our 2010 OSCE Chairmanship. But I believe that it was only by aiming high that we have been able to build momentum and reach the consensus needed to achieve results. It has taken a year of hard work and many discussions to bring us all to this point – the first OSCE Summit in 11 years. For Kazakhstan as chair of the OSCE, one of our first responsibilities was to take forward the Corfu Process, a dialogue launched six months earlier by the Greek Chairmanship to rebuild trust between OSCE States so that real progress could be made on issues of common concern. During our Chairmanship we have given substance to the Corfu Process through regular meetings on substantive issues. These discussions shaped the agenda first for the informal meeting of foreign ministers that took place in Almaty in July, and now for the Summit. The Summit, of course, is not an end in itself. But in an organization such as ours, which works to prevent, mediate and solve conflicts, such events are part of the process of building confidence and reflect the level of states’ commitment to achieving progress. The fact that all our States have agreed to 80


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send their highest representatives to my country is an important symbol of renewal – not just of the Organization, but more importantly of the relations between our States. Communication is the lifeblood of diplomacy – the way we solve our problems. In one year, we have changed the vocabulary of our conversations. We now speak of a single security community, encompassing the whole Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian region. Confidence is built not just by talking to each other, but by understanding one another and working together. I believe that during this year in which Kazakhstan has stepped up to its responsibilities as an international leader, the other 55 OSCE States have got to know us better and realized the contribution we can make. We have shown that the OSCE is truly an organization of equals, and that countries east and west of Vienna, large and small, have a valuable contribution to make. When some of the most pressing issues facing our Organization relate to Central Asia and Afghanistan, the value of having a Central Asian Chairmanship with an intimate understanding of its neighbors has been demonstrated. The tragic events earlier this year in Kyrgyzstan reminded us of the value of the OSCE’s role as a forum for dialogue, and the importance of building long-term mutual trust within it so that we can take joint decisions for prompt action when needed. Throughout the year we have held several additional high-level and expert meetings that reflect the breath of the challenges that 81


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we face – from transnational threats to environmental and economic issues and fundamental freedoms. Last summer we held a high-level conference on tolerance in Astana. We also organized an event to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Copenhagen Document – the OSCE’s landmark human rights document – in the Danish capital. In September we held an expert meeting in Vienna to exchange experience on electronic voting. The potential OSCE contribution to energy security was discussed at an expert meeting in Vilnius, while in October we hosted a high-level conference on combating terrorism. Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship will soon be drawing to a close and will be passing the responsibility of leadership to Lithuania. I believe that we will be handing over an Organization that has more direction, purpose and optimism. The motto of our Chairmanship has been the four Ts - tolerance, tradition, trust, transparency. We have given attention to all of them this year, but perhaps it is in the area of trust that we have achieved the most – because trust is a prerequisite for a meeting such as this, and that trust has sadly been lacking for the past decade. While we will pass on the task of seeing through the decisions participating States take at the Summit, the responsibility for seizing the momentum we have built lies with not just the Chairmanships, present and future, but ultimately with all 56 States. We will lay the groundwork, here in Astana – the challenge now is for all of us to seize this opportunity for building a more secure future. 82


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THE OSCE AND GLOBAL SECURITY

President of Kazakhstan –Nursultan Nazarbayev welcoming United Nation Secretary General-Ban Ki Moon (OSCE/Vladimir Trofimchuk)

H.E. NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN 83


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THE OSCE AND GLOBAL SECURITY by Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The Astana Summit of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), held on December 1-2, 2010, was a unique event. The decision to hold it was not easy. The balance of opinions wavered under the weight of opposing arguments until the very last moment. Perhaps, the most serious argument against the summit was whether there was a point at all in holding a summit of an organization which, in fact, has already fulfilled its mission? The OSCE had come out successful of the Cold War era, helped dismantle the Iron Curtain, and instill the Helsinki principles in the post-totalitarian countries of Eastern Europe and the CIS. Now, Europe has changed, and the world has become a different place. Therefore, as proponents of this view have asserted, in modern circumstances, the OSCE could only aspire to take its proud place in a global museum of history. This view is still reflected in some of the numerous assessments of the outcome of the Astana summit. I never shared this opinion. On the contrary, I believe that the value of the OSCE is exactly in the fact that, at times of different, critical years for Europe and the world, its 84


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goals and principles have remained a universal basis for maintaining and strengthening security in the vast area of the northern hemisphere from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

In July 1992, speaking at the third summit of the CSCE in Helsinki, I called for the beginning of a similar process in the Asian continent. A few months later, in October of the same year, speaking from the rostrum of the 47th session of the UN General Assembly, I proposed the idea of convening a Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA). Today, the CICA is a successful security structure, which acquired the status of a fully-fledged international organization. Its work involves 27 Asian states. That is 90% of the continent’s area, inhabited by half of the population of the world. Isn’t this compelling evidence of the strength of the “Helsinki Spirit” as a global factor?

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H.E. NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN The Astana Summit: A Step into the 21st Century by Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan My initiative to convene the OSCE summit in Astana was based on a number of considerations. First was my deep conviction that, in the 21st century, the OSCE can and must use all of its vast experience to build an ambitious new security system spanning the entire Eurasian continent, the space surrounded by four oceans, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Arctic to the Indian. Second, it was important to recover the OSCE from the critical state in which it found itself. After the 1999 Istanbul Summit, the Organization got “lost” in the rapid pace of global change. Although it managed to freeze the local conflicts in its area of responsibility – namely those in the Balkans, Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, – it has not been able to find a way to resolve those conflicts. New sources of complex challenges and security threats, such as international terrorism, drug trafficking, transnational crime and 86


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illegal migration, have sprung up far beyond Europe, while the OSCE participating states have developed differing approaches to understanding the fundamental issues of military, humanitarian and economic dimensions of security. Third, it was necessary to restore the value and effectiveness of direct dialogue among the leaders of the OSCE. It is hard to achieve trust without direct dialogue and without summits. Some participating states have had a whole generation of political leaders who had never met each other at an OSCE summit. I further developed all of these arguments in favor of convening a summit in an address to the OSCE Permanent Council, during bilateral meetings with my colleagues, heads of state and government, and in speeches at a number of forums held under Kazakhstan’s chairmanship in the OSCE. I am grateful to my colleagues, the heads of state and government of the OSCE, for their support of my arguments. At the Istanbul summit in 1999, the OSCE essentially stopped at the open door of the 21st century. Now, it was able to cross the threshold in Astana. It was a difficult step, but it has now been made. This bold step has become a unifying success for the entire Organization, and the beginning of its renewal.

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The Astana Summit, attended by 73 official delegations from all participating states and partners, as well as key international organizations, demonstrated their readiness to further the dialogue about the necessary changes in the largest international security structure. It should be noted that the OSCE summit in Astana was simultaneous with such major international forums as the EUAfrica summit in Tripoli and the Climate Change Conference in Cancun in Latin America. Despite this, the OSCE summit in Astana became the most representative forum of the Organization. Not without pride, I would venture that Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE has played an important role in this success. The Energy of Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship. As we assumed the OSCE Chairmanship in January 2010, we put forward a plan for the renewal of the OSCE and implemented it benefitting from the wide support of all our partners. A key task of Kazakhstan’s chairmanship has been to expand and strengthen the field of consensus on fundamental issues of security. We have continued the process of establishing a common approach by all the OSCE participating states to the understanding of present threats and challenges. This was 88


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especially important in order to find coordinated responses to them and, in general, to build confidence within the Organization. Kazakhstan has introduced innovation into this process, building on multi-country dialogue through consultations with representatives of such authoritative global and regional institutions as the UN, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, NATO, the EU, the Council of Europe, SCO, CIS, CSTO, OIC and others. Their delegations attended the Astana Summit of the OSCE. The political lexicon of the OSCE firmly embraced the concept of a common and indivisible area for Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian security. We have methodically worked on all three baskets of the OSCE. Collective efforts to renew and strengthen the regime of arms control and confidence-building measures acquired new dynamics. This makes it possible to complete the process of modernizing the 1999 Vienna Document in 2011. At the same time, the agreement on the beginning of substantive negotiations on issues of entry into force of the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (Adapted CFE) is of special importance. Furthermore, the negotiation processes over settlement of frozen conflicts in the framework of the OSCE have been updated.

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As the OSCE chair-in-office, Kazakhstan has worked to strengthen the OSCE’s capacity in conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. The work of the Minsk Group to resolve the conflict in NagornoKarabakh was also activated. We have been actively involved in resolving the political crisis in Kyrgyzstan in close cooperation with the United Nations, Russia, the United States and other countries. Kazakhstan continues to play an important role in stabilizing the situation in that country and in the restoration of economic damage caused by internal conflict. We have encouraged our OSCE partners to expand their participation in the peace settlement in Afghanistan and its economic revival. Kazakhstan has provided Afghanistan with many different kinds of assistance. We have allocated funds to educate domestically one thousand young Afghans who will learn the most needed peaceful professions. Food has been delivered and agreements to build several economic facilities in Afghanistan have been signed. We are convinced that Kazakhstan’s contribution to resolving the Afghan problem could be useful as an example to all OSCE participating states.

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Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship has drawn the attention of our partners to a number of issues of relevance to Central Asian security. Specifically, we held a donor conference on the Aral Sea, and promoted the idea of adopting, in the OSCE format, the “Water and Rights” Program as an international legal framework for resolving water issues of the region affected by water shortages. This has become Kazakhstan’s contribution to the renewal of the economic and environmental basket of the OSCE, in light of the global trends and contents. We have also drawn the attention of our partners in the Organization to the need for a consolidated search of ways to overcome the consequences of the global financial and economic crisis. Kazakhstan has proposed to carry out work on the high-quality implementation of the Maastricht Strategy of the OSCE and adapting it to a post-crisis environment. Within the third, human basket, Kazakhstan as a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state, has actively promoted the idea of an intercultural and interreligious dialogue. Convened by Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship in Astana in June 2010, the OSCE High-Level Conference on Tolerance and NonDiscrimination confirmed the importance of the exchange of experience in ensuring interethnic and interfaith accord. 91


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Its participants highly praised the model of peace and accord among 140 ethnicities and 46 faiths successfully implemented in Kazakhstan. They have called for active use of the capacity of the OSCE in addressing nationalism, religious intolerance, racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Overall, Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship in the OSCE has provided dynamism to OSCE’s entire work. We approached this noble mission with a deep sense of responsibility and fully accomplished the objectives we have set for ourselves. In their addresses at the Astana Summit, heads of state and government and heads of delegations praised Kazakhstan’s vigorous efforts as Chair of the OSCE. Kazakhstan, which shut down the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, fully relinquished its nuclear arsenal, realized the idea of establishing the CICA and has actively promoted the integration in Eurasia, has once again proven itself a responsible member of the global community. OSCE’s Global Geometry. In geopolitics, the shortest distance between the two points is not always connected by a straight line. For the OSCE, a road from Istanbul to Astana has taken eleven years. This is why the historic value of the "Astana Commemorative Declaration: Towards a Security Community" is indisputable. 92


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First, it confirms the relevance of the principles on which the Organization was based and the commitment of all 56 participating states to the norms and commitments adopted within it, starting with the Helsinki Final Act, the Paris Charter, the Charter of European Security, and other instruments. Second, the Eurasian vector of the OSCE has been enshrined for the first time ever. The Astana Declaration particularly noted that the security in the OSCE area is inextricably related to the security in neighboring regions, especially, the Mediterranean and Asia. It set the goal of establishing common and indivisible EuroAtlantic and Eurasian security community as the primary goal for the OSCE in the new century. Third, the document welcomed all initiatives to strengthen the OSCE and its ability to adequately and effectively address the challenges of the 21st century. I would like to note that numerous proposals have been heard from the tribune of the OSCE Summit stressing shared motivation of all participating states to take the Organization to a new and higher level. This is the essence of the "Astana spirit" brought into life in a difficult and open discussion. An initiative by the President of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev, on the adoption of a legally binding Treaty on 93


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European Security is aimed at the creation of strong guarantees of indivisibility of the common security area. Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi noted the importance for the OSCE of using the example of tolerance and mutual respect, which Kazakhstan and Astana demonstrated to the world during the summit. All the ideas for strengthening OSCE mechanisms should certainly be viewed as a collective contribution to the process of rethinking the role of the Organization in consolidating global security. I entirely support the position voiced at the Astana Summit by U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, that, other than the OSCE, “there is no other regional organization as well positioned to do so”. It is especially relevant when it comes to strengthening the Organization’s capacity in effectively responding to emerging threats and challenges, preventing and resolving grave conflicts in the entire area of its responsibility. In its turn, Kazakhstan has also made proposals to strengthen the OSCE, and their significance was praised by the participants of the Astana Summit. In our view, the global geometry of the OSCE in the 21st century should consist of the following targeted actions: First, Kazakhstan has called for interaction in strengthening global security among integration structures of the Eurasian continent. 94


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In terms of "East – West", it is the interaction between the European Union and NATO on one hand, and EurAsEC and CSTO on the other. In terms of "North – South", it is the interaction between the OSCE, CICA and the Organization of Islamic Conference, which Kazakhstan will chair in 2011; Second, we have proposed to single out the issues of financial and economic security as a separate basket of the OSCE. Today, the OSCE area and, overall, Eurasia, comprise the most promising areas of the planet’s economic growth – North America, the European Union, China, Russia, India, the Persian Gulf, and Southeast Asia. This is why it is important to look for ways of interaction among them through trust and effective security systems. I believe the OSCE has the potential to participate in the process of creating the world reserve currency, develop guidelines for coordinated monetary and financial policies, and cooperation and integration in the Euro-Atlantic and Euro-Asian area. In our view, there is a need to adopt a new document, "Maastricht Plus", in which it would be reasonable to reflect these issues. This position has received support in several speeches by heads of state and government at the Astana Summit, including by Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou, and others. It is necessary to supplement the OSCE structure with councils on energy security and economic interaction; 95


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Third, in order to enhance the politico-military dimension, we have proposed to establish a specific OSCE forum to elaborate new contractual norms in disarmament and non-proliferation. There is also a need to establish the council at the level of ministers of the OSCE participating states to coordinate the fight against cross-border crime, drug trafficking and illegal migration; Fourth, we have called for honest and open interfaith dialogue. In his speech at the Cairo University in June 2009, US President Barack Obama fairly stated: "In order to move forward, we must say openly to each other the things we hold in our hearts and that too often are said only behind closed doors. There must be a sustained effort to listen to each other; to learn from each other; to respect one another; and to seek common ground.” I believe that it is possible to hold such a dialogue within the OSCE through the already available platform of the ‘Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions’, which has regularly been held in Astana since 2003. In our view, it is necessary to develop the document “OSCE: Towards Tolerance in a New Decade,” which will outline the principles of interaction and cooperation among main religions of the world, especially between Islam and Christianity, for the sake of global confirmation of ideals of goodwill and fair world order;

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Fifth, within the OSCE, it is crucial to organize the work on forecasting various security issues as a separate dimension by creating an OSCE Security Institute. It is also important to ensure that OSCE structures are equally deployed throughout the area of responsibility of the Organization, including in its Asian portion. This process was initiated by the Astana Summit, held for the first time ever in Central Asia, beyond the geographic borders of Europe. At the beginning of the century, in my book "A critical decade", I strongly refuted the thesis, imposed on us, about Central Asia as a part of a global arc of instability. I believe in a different potential for the region: its ability to be a bridge between West and East, North and South. After the OSCE Summit in Astana, one may say that Central Asia has avoided the fate of becoming an area with down-sized security mechanisms. Today, Kazakhstan and all the Central Asian states have entered the international arena as an important link in strengthening Eurasian and global security. This is necessary for strengthening our new states which will be all celebrating the 20th anniversary of their independence in 2011. 97


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I must note that the OSCE Summit in Astana has positively influenced Kazakhstan. It has united our nation, strengthened belief in our ability to resolve incredibly difficult challenges and achieve our highest goals. We have shown that we are responsible before the world community, consistent and active in enhancing peace, stability and security. The OSCE Summit in Astana has drawn a line under the complex period in the history of the OSCE. It opened a door into the future for the OSCE and gave it a unique chance for renewal. Now it is necessary to continue the joint work unabated. All proposals to reform the OSCE made in Astana should be thoroughly analyzed and taken into account while finalizing the OSCE Action Plan for the forthcoming years. I am convinced that the experience of Kazakhstan, which led the OSCE in 2010, will be seamlessly developed by subsequent chairmanships: Lithuania in 2011, Ireland in 2012 and Ukraine in 2013, and others. At the same time, it is crucial that the OSCE high-level dialogue is not interrupted. This depends on the will and motivation of all OSCE participating states and their leaders. This is the main condition for ensuring the Organization’s efficiency, while strengthening the stability and security of its participating states.

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Globalization has closely tied the fates of different countries and peoples. We all share common objectives: peace and accord, progress and prosperity on the planet. It is these noble goals that constitute the global mission of the OSCE in the 21st century.

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PHOTO CHRONICLE OF

BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (O.S.C.E)

CHAIRMAN OF BUCHAREST CONFERENCE PROFESSOR DR. ANTON CARAGEA MA, FINS, DrHC

O.S.C.E. 2010 A DECISIVE YEAR FOR EUROPE KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY

24 FEBRUARY 2010

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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS declares open the proceedings of Bucharest Conference on Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

The Presidium of Conference on OSCE elects Professor Dr. Anton Caragea as President of the Bucharest Conference 101


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea – Chairman of Conference on OSCE gives the floor to Mr. Ion Iliescu-President of Romania

Professor Dr. Emil Constantinescu and Mr. Ion IliescuRomanian Presidents at Conference on OSCE 102


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea gives the key note speech of Conference on OSCE-24 February 2010

Long standing ovations from 200 diplomats for Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS 103


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Professor Dr. Emil Constantinescu-President of Romania (1996-2000)

Professor Dr. Emil Constantinescu-President of Romania (19962000)-Key note speech at Conference on OSCE 2010 104


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Mr. Ion Iliescu-President of Romania (1990-1996; 2000-2004)

Mr. Ion Iliescu-President of Romania (1990-1996; 2000-2004)Key note speech at Conference on OSCE 2010 105


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Mr. Catalin Nechifor deliver`s the speech on behalf of Parliament of Romania to Conference on OSCE

Presidents of Romania: Emil Constantinescu and Ion Iliescu 106


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The Presidium of Conference on OSCE

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea bestow the conference distinction to Professor Dr. Emil Constantinescu-President of Romania 107


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS bestow the conference distinction to Mr. Ion Iliescu-President of Romania

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea and Professor Dr. Emil Constantinescu-President of Romania 108


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS bestow the conference distinction to Presidium of Conference on OSCE

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS bestow the conference distinction to Presidium of Conference on OSCE 109


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS-Chairman of Conference on OSCE welcoming Ambassador of Japan-Natsuo Amamia

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS-Chairman of Conference on OSCE welcoming Ambassador of Peoples Republic of China –Liu Zengwen 110


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Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS-Chairman of Conference on OSCE welcoming Ambassador of MacedoniaLjiupco Arsovski –Dean of Diplomatic Corp

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS-Chairman of Conference on OSCE welcoming Ambassador of Palestine 111


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KAZAKHSTAN AFTER OSCE CHAIRMANSHIP

KAZAKHSTAN AND ROMANIA A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

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INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC CONFERENCE

KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE

BUCHAREST 15 NOVEMBER 2011

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International Academic and Diplomatic Conference: Kazakhstan20 years of independence. Peace and construction.

KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE PEACE AND CONSTRUCTION

The year 2011 is marking the 20 years anniversary of Kazakhstan independence. In the short time span of only two decades Kazakhstan had succeeded an impressive transformation into a 114


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country that is today the main energy supplier from Central Asia, a renamed military and politic stability supplier for the area and a country with outstanding diplomatic results as the leader of Organization for security and Cooperation in Europe in 2010 and of Islamic conference Organization in 2011. This seasoned and sophisticated nation building example will be under scrutiny by the Romanian intellectual elite on 15 November 2011 International Academic Conference: KAZAKHSTAN 20 YEAR OF INDEPENDENCE. PEACE AND CONSTRUCTION. The Conference hosted and organized by the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Kazakhstan Diplomatic Mission in Romania will benefit from the presence of President Ion Iliescu , who 20 years ago signed the diplomatic recognition of Kazakhstan and President Emil Constantinescu who developed Romania- Kazakhstan relationship. Among the prestigious key note speakers we can count: Mr. Catalin Nechifor – Vice-President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group, Dr. Petru Lificiu, VicePresident of National Energy Agency (ANRE), Professor Dr. Anton Caragea- Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Mircea Constantinescu – Director of European Council on International Relations etc.

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The International Academic Conference will also receive special congratulatory message from Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan H.E. Yerzhan Kazykhanov , message delivered by H.E Kairat Aman , Head of Kazakhstan Diplomatic Mission in Romania , other messages will be presented by the Vice-Rector of Romanian Economic Science Academy –Professor Dr. Viorel Lefter and by European Council on International Relations. The International Academic Conference KAZAKHSTAN 20 YEAR OF INDEPENDENCE will highlight important moments in the development of Kazakhstan such as: The introduction in exploitation of new gas and oil fields and export of energy towards important areas as: Caucasus, Caspian Sea and Europe that transformed in a few years Kazakhstan in a major source of energy for the emerging economies of Asia and Europe. The courageous decision to dismantle the nuclear arsenal of former Soviet Union army left in the country and to relinquish the production and stockpiling of nuclear weapons, closing down the important Semipalatinsk nuclear research and test site. The declaration of acknowledging the independence and territorial integrity of Kazakhstan , signed by Russia , China , United States of America under the united Nations supervision. Romanian stance in organizing an European high standard event about Kazakhstan it is not only a testimony not only of unprecedented development in the last years of the diplomatic 116


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and economic relationships between the two countries but also a testimony to Romania`s ability to efficiently mobilize and organize the European intellectual elite and to host international resounding events destined to boost the EU bridging towards Central Asia.

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KAZAKHSTAN: A MODEL OF STATE BUILDING 20 YEARS OF FULFILLED PROMISES BY PROFESSOR DR. ANTON CARAGEA

International Academic and Diplomatic Conference: Kazakhstan20 years of independence. Peace and construction.

When on 16 December 1991, President Nursultan Nazarbayev had proclaimed the Law on State Independence of Republic of Kazakhstan, few could suspect that a road of 20 years of successes on national building was opened. 118


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The beginning`s where difficult. The economic establishment of Soviet Union was build on interdependence principle , accordingly to it, no country members of Soviet Union could host on his territory the industrial and economic factories necessary for an independent life. Despite being confronted with such insurmountable difficulties, the national building had started rapidly , Kazakhstan had commence building economic relations with former Soviet Union states and also had open his economy to foreign investments and economic cooperation with all the countries in the world. Introducing in exploitation new oil and gas fields and exporting energy products towards other areas as Caucasus, Caspian Sea and by Black Sea towards Europe had transformed in only a few years, Kazakhstan in the main energy supplier for emerging Asian economy and for European economies. Today, 20 years after, Kazakhstan is part of all important world and European energetic projects and the dream of President Nursultan Nazarbayev was fulfilled. New oil and gas pipelines are heading towards China insuring that Asian giant thirst for energy for his developing economy will be meet. The Russian foster project of South Stream, of supplying gas to EU market by sidelines could not exist without Kazakh gas, and the rival EU project, Nabucco, could not come to life without the import of gas from Kazakhstan. 119


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Today all new economic projects and world economy development are based on all the projection on row materials and energy resources from Kazakhstan. A long way for a country that international experts were doubtful in 1991 that will ever insure at least its own internal energy needs. In 1991 Kazakhstan had being confronted with security problems, threatening proximity of Afghanistan engulf in the flames of civil war and inter-ethnic conflicts that where ravaging the newly independent countries of Central Asia. Kazakhstan had found the way of equilibrium to insure his independence and integrity by international cooperation, becoming rapid a full member of United Nations, of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organization of Islamic Conference and Organization for Cooperation of Shanghai. Soon Kazakhstan had proved his ability to carve a new kind of policy: had taken the courageous decision to disband the nuclear arsenal left over after former Soviet Union collapse and to relinquish the fabrication and stockpile of nuclear weapons and closing down the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk. The bold decision of Kazakhstan was confirmed by international community and the new state had obtained a declaration for recognition of independence and territorial integrity from United States, Russian and China under United Nations supervision. 120


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Today, 20 years after, Kazakhstan is insuring his own frontier security, with Kazakh security forces and is involved in training other Central Asian countries armed forces and is insuring the command and control of efficient anti-crime and anti-drug trafficking mission in the region. More than this in 2010 Kazakhstan had held OSCE-Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-Presidency, with a clear and strong mandate that succeeded in gathering in Astana, for the first time in the last 11 years, all the OSCE leaders around the table to discuss building a new and more efficient organization. In June 2011 Kazakhstan had took over and the Presidency of Organization for Islamic Conference (OIC), with a new mandate based on reforming and reconstructing OIC. These astonishing international successes could not be possible without the economic power of Kazakhstan, but also without the support of an active and strong civil society build in the latest 20 years of independence. Building a new national identity , after 1997 , Kazakhstan had begin building a new capital city , Astana , in a region in the center of the country that could let the most ambitious dreams to be revealed and transformed in reality. The new city was not shy in ambitious dreams: Astana was counting in the moment of his inauguration 100.000 inhabitants, ten years later the number of inhabitants was 500.000 and is

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appreciated that in the next decade this number will surpass 1.000.000 inhabitants. Today Astana is proud to have 4 lines streets , administrative palaces that could host by themselves an entire city and museums that are surprising the world such as : Presidential center for Culture , Modern Art Museum and Atemenken , a reconstruction of all Kazakhstan and his great city on a scale 1: 10. Today Astana is an economic and cultural center that is hosting business deal of worth more than 50 billion dollars each year. Kazakhstan: where to form here? Today at 20 years of independence Kazakhstan had already have a rich history that could make him proud , has a glorious past to give him identity and ambitious plans for a future that will offer to Kazakh people the pride of living in a country developed , prosperous and stable. Kazakh people had known to build until now a model country, and there future is depending only on them. Let’s wish them good fortune.

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KAZAKHSTAN - 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS Between O.S.C.E Constantinescu

and

O.I.C.

by

Professor

Mircea

In February 2010, the European Diplomatic Academy organized the conference ”Kazakhstan – The Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe”, conference honored by the presence and participation of their Excellencies, president Ion Iliescu and president Emil Constantinescu. This conference underlined (marked) an important step of the evolution of friendship and collaboration relationship between Romania and Kazakhstan. It was also a Romania’s token of appreciation, trust and support for Kazakhstan in its new quality of chairmanship of O.S.C.E. At the same time, only a few mass media paid attention to a piece of information of the same importance, an event meant to have great impact on the diplomatic activity, as well as onto the multilateral cooperation among the nations of Central Asia and the entire international community.

In June 2011, Kazakhstan assumed the prestigious presidency of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the largest intergovernmental, international, regional organization, 123


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representing 57 countries, totaling over 1.4 billion Muslim people. The Conference is second in size only to United Nations Organization. This Organization strives for Islamic solidarity in economics, politics and social circumstances, as well as for resistance to colonialism, neo-colonialism and racism. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) has a major potential as international mediator, acting toward the prevention of internal conflicts or the conflicts between member nations. It is also acting for enforcing the trust between the member states as well as the cooperation in all areas of activity. After almost two decades of active participation (since 1995) to the projects of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Kazakhstan succeeded in having a close collaboration with all the institutions of the Conference, clearly expressing the wish and will to actively contribute to the political, economic, cultural and humanitarian processes of the Islamic world. In this context, Kazakhstan plays a strategic role in the development of a multilateral cooperation with the Islamic countries, due to its statute as a Secular state and being at the same time part of the world’s Muslim community (Ummah). The expertise of Kazakhstan as a chairman of O.S.C.E., an expertise that will continue to be used at the highest level, due to 124


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the Kazakhstan’s quality of former chairmanship, is of great importance. It will in the benefit of both organizations. In fact, Kazakhstan already advanced at least two important and constructive project proposals to the OIC. One is proposing a long-term program for economic and financial assistance by the Organization to the least developed countries of the Islamic word. The other underlines the need of the OIC countries to develop a common position in response to the so-called international terrorism disguised as “Islamism”, on one hand, and the growing anti-Islamic sentiment in the word, on the other. As an example of vision and opening to the Islamic world, as well as to the international community, in February 2009, through the assistance of experts from the Islamic Development Bank, Kazakhstan adopted a Law on the Islamic financing and the Islamic banking system, allowing to introduce a new form of financial and banking services based on Islamic principles. Finally, we can only hearty and once again congratulate Kazakhstan and the Kazakh people on the anniversary of 20 years if independence, for the great achievements in all areas of activity, to congratulate them for the important and active role as chairman of O.S.C.E., wishing at the same time a successful activity in the framework of the Organization of the Islamic Conference.

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DIPLOMATIC AND ACADEMIC CONFERENCE

ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS

23 MAY 2012

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ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN : A RENEWED STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

On 23 May 2012, Romania had hosted, in the splendid venue of Palace of Culture and Education, the Academic and Diplomatic Conference: ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEAR OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP. The conference was dedicated to the 20th anniversary of Kazakhstan-Romania diplomatic relations. A significant celebration, keeping in mind that Kazakhstan is today the most important economic and strategic partner of Romania in Central Asia. Professor dr.Aurelian Bondrea held a welcoming speech for the distinguished guest on behalf of academic community expressing 127


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the support for fostering Romania- Kazakhstan cooperation and friendship. The Conference was opened with the key-note speech of H.E. Emil Constantinescu, President of Romania ( 1996-2000) who stress important moments in the bilateral relations: Romania and Kazakhstan in the last years. He elaborate on the hosting in Bucharest of International Academic Conference KAZAKHSTAN CHAIRMANSHIP OF OSCE ( 24 February 2010). This being the only case when Romanian diplomacy supported openly the O.S.C.E. restructuring agenda put forward by Kazakhstan or the hosting by Romania of the International Conference celebrating 20 years of Kazakhstan achievements on the road of independence. The Conference titled: KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE AND PROGRESS express Romania support for the economic and political development of Kazakhstan, that in a short span of time, only 20 years had become a supplier of security and stability in all Central Asia area. Expressing Romanian Government support for strengthening the Romania-Kazakhstan relation, the Minister of Culture, Mircea Diaconu underlined the support offered by Romania to Astana bid of hosting EXPO 2017 by organizing the art exhibition ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE. The same pledge was contained in Minister of Economy speech and other officials present at the conference and in the message of 128


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Romanian Parliament conveyed for this special occasion by VicePresident of Cultural Commission of Romanian parliament Deputy Ahmed Aledin. Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania had expressed the commitment of Romania in upholding a strategic relation build with Kazakhstan. Romania is fallowing with great interest and appreciation the tremendous achievements of Kazakhstan and has lost no opportunity in emphasizing his long standing desire for supporting Kazakhstan progresses by hosting important events such as International Conference on OSCE- Kazakhstan Chairmanship (24 February 200) endorsing Kazakhstan reform agenda for the OSCE, Academic conference marking 20 years of Kazakhstan independence: KAZAKHSTAN 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE AND PROGRESS and supporting Astana bid for EXPO 2017 by organizing ASTANACAPITAL OF THE FUTURE Exhibition in Bucharest concluded professor Anton Caragea. The High Representative of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan, H.E. Serzhan Oralbayevich ABDYKARIMOV had taken the floor expressing Kazakhstan side appreciation for the organizers of Academic and Diplomatic Conference: ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEAR OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP. Kazakhstan is regarding the relation with Romania with application and dedication as is the only strategic partnership in the region. Romania is representing for Kazakhstan the main diplomatic 129


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partner in this region, the main investment area in Europe, the most important economic and trade partner and a political allied concluded Deputy Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan Mr. Oralbayevich ABDYKARIMOV. The final key note message was expressed by H.E. Ion Iliescu, President of Romania ( 1990-1996;2000-2004) who emphasized that Romanian stance in celebrating 20 years of diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan it is not only a testimony of unprecedented development in the last years of the diplomatic and economic relationships between the two countries, but also a testimony to Romania`s ability to efficiently mobilize and organize the intellectual elite and to host international resounding events destined to boost the Europe bridging towards Central Asia. In the thunderous applause the diplomatic corp accredited to Romania welcomed the decision to award the ROMANIAN MEDAL OF HONOR for DIPLOMATIC ACHIEVEMENTS for H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan- Dr. YERZHAN KAZYKHANOV was read out by Professor Dr. Anton Caragea. The insignia, official decree and the medal where entrusted to Deputy Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan Mr. Oralbayevich ABDYKARIMOV to be offered to Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan. The concluding speech of the conference had being held by H.E. Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania Mr. Talgat Kaliyev who 130


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conveyed his heartfelt and sincere appreciation for the host and organizers of this impressive event. After the conference, diplomats and academics present on the venue had visited a Book Exhibition hosted on the Palace of Culture and Education and dedicated to Kazakhstan and having in the center the book of President of Kazakhstan : In the heart of Eurasia by Nursultan Nazarbayev. The Academic and Diplomatic Conference: ROMANIAKAZAKHSTAN 20 YEAR OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP had being unanimously appreciated as a unique diplomatic manifestation of friendship reuniting in honor of Romania-Kazakhstan strategic partnership two presidents, two ministers and eight state secretary in an unprecedented manifestation of solidarity and friendship between the two countries.

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KAZAKHSTAN-ROMANIA : A STRATEGIC RELATION by professor dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS, EDA

Professor dr. Anton Caragea MA,FINS, EDA opening the Romania-Kazakhstan 20 years of diplomatic relations conference.

We have gathered here today in order to discuss about the remarkable achievements of the past 20 years of diplomatic relations, and above all, about the Romania- Kazakhstan friendship. I shall not repeat all that has been discussed with so many details here: the extraordinary role of Kazakhstani investments in the Romanian energy sector, the amount of 3 billion $ speaks for itself about the essential role of these investments in the 132


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Romanian economy; therefore I do not aim to reiterate the extraordinary role of the Kazakhstani-Romanian cultural relations which will be enshrined by signing a new complete and broad bilateral agreement. I wish to focus on a phrase found in the previous speeches and which calls upon the name of a current manifestation: Romania – Kazakhstan, a strategic partnership. Very well, indeed, Romania has known how to be faithful to this concept and how to build a strategic partnership, for which I truly hope that will be applied not only for Central Asian countries but also for other states worldwide. President Ion Iliescu and President Emil Constantinescu have described both clearly and with numerous details the importance and sometimes the difficulties of this strategic partnership in which both countries have known how to prove their friendship and interest in collaboration. I shall mention only a few episodes of the past years showing the utility and the importance of this strategic partnership. In 2010, Kazakhstan was in charge of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Presidency in a tense environment in which the Russian and American concepts over the role and even of the organization’s utility were exacerbated, the last high level Summit of OSCE had taken place in 1999 at Istanbul and no compromise for any new summit was to be found.

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It appeared impossible for young Kazakhstan, with its energetic but still young diplomacy to succeed this stunt. Since the very first hours of the new presidency, Romania showed its availability to support Kazakhstani OSCE reformation and organizational reactivation concepts by means of a new high level summit. Romania had the wisdom along with Kazakhstani diplomacy to proceed in the best possible way : a summit of the wise held in Bucharest in which with calm, diplomacy and especially with strong arguments, the European intellectual elites and not only, were convinced of the OSCE reform necessity and of the organization’s future preservation through a new summit. High ranked Romanian intellectual personalities such as President Ion Iliescu and President Emil Constantinescu took over the OSCE ideas’ flame and hence supported the OSCE reform. There was a clear test of how the strategic relations Romania – Kazakhstan functioned not only for the bilateral relation’s sake, but for the guardianship benefit of an organization with a notorious past, fallen in the shadows. I was proud when the planted ideas in Bucharest, February of 2010 blossomed in Astana, December of 2010. It was more than Romania’s voice: it was the voice of Kazakhstan and of a functioning bilateral relation. When the world was wondering whether the Kazakhstan presidency would be a success, Romania gave an intellectual and resounding answer: YES.

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Furthermore, at the Conference dedicated to 20 years of Kazakhstan independence in November 2011, the intellectual and academic Romanian elite under the guidance of natural leaders: President Emil Constantinescu and President Ion Iliescu knew how to place the conference’s importance on the 2nd position after Washington’s conference. These were other proofs of a working partnership. Moreover, on April 24th of 2012 Romania demonstrated once more its support for Kazakhstan, organizing the Candidacy support Exhibition for Astana at EXPO 2017. Thus, Romania was the first European country to do such a gesture, followed afterwards by Germany; I wish to highlight that Romania was the first country to support Astana for EXPO 2017. My intention was just to list some of the past months’ moments in which Romania was faithful to its decision of building a strategic relation with Kazakhstan, a relation in which Romania’s voice is heard. Supporting Kazakhstan at OSCE, Romania supported the reform of a European organization which threatens to lose its importance; by supporting the 20 years celebration of Kazakhstan’s independence, Romania rang a bell for the model of democracy, development and security offered by Kazakhstan and President Nursultan Nazarbayev to the region and the rest of the world; assisting Astana for capital at EXPO 2017, Romania gives a signal of advancing, backing and not being afraid of 21st century’s transformations and Asian growth. Perhaps this is the secret of the strategic relation Romania – Kazakhstan, its benefits going beyond these two countries, the fruits of this friendship being directed worldwide. 135


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May the strategic relation Romania – Kazakhstan further continue with the same great results!

ROMANIA- KAZAKHSTAN : 20 YEARS OF STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP Emil Constantinescu – President of Romania ( 1996-2000)

Distinguished ministers from Romanian Government, Honorable Deputy Minister of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Esteemed representatives from the Diplomatic Corp accredited in Romania, Honorable and distinguished audience, 136


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We have gathered today, in an academic and diplomatic symposium, entitled clearly: Romania – Kazakhstan 20 years of diplomatic relations. A strategic partnership, in order to analyze the destiny of Romania-Kazakhstan relations that have reached after 20 years a bilateral level of strength and acknowledgement supporting the saying: strategic partnership, the only one our country has in Central Asia. Undoubtedly, 20 years of diplomatic relations represent a youth age on the historical scale, but in a lifetime covers almost the entire creativity and activity timeframe, that we like to name a generation. What has not seen this generation in terms of bilateral relations? From the communist collapse, to the emergence of independent states from the former Soviet Union, up until the European Union phenomena, these two decades have changed the world in a way which seemed improbable in 1988-1989. The moment when I took over the Romanian Presidency mandate, in 1996 for the first democratic turnover of Romania’s history, I looked at the relations with Kazakhstan from the geopolitical and economic perspectives of the idea of rebuilding a role model historical pathway with the same spirit that once animated the workers on Silk Road. On this new Silk Route, ideas, commerce and energy route I wanted for Romania and Kazakhstan to meet again the way they did in Middle Ages when caravans from China and Korea reached Chilia, Cetatea Alba and the Danube. 137


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What was possible in Middle Ages, could restore a reality during my mandate thanks to the direct and efficient connection I built with the Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev . Romania sustained during my mandate, through my visit in Astana in 1999 and Nursultan Nazarbayev President’s visit in Romania in 1998, Kazakhstan’s successful initiatives such as: dismantling the nuclear exercise polygon from Semipalatinsk, the decision to renounce to nuclear weapons, joining the United Nations, integrating in OSCE in Europe in order to give a EuroAsian political dimension to the new born state. Today, at almost 20 years from all these diplomatic decision which proved acuity and regional, continental plus international integration desire, one can appreciate the stabilizing and creative role of the dense diplomatic activity in building Kazakhstan nowadays. Even after finishing my mandate as Romania’s President, aware of the enormous responsibility I have as opinion leader, I have continued to support the bilateral agenda by participating to important events for our country and Kazakhstan. Almost two years ago, I had the pleasure to hold a main speech entitled Do we still need OSCE : for what ? for whom ?, within the OSCE 2010 Conference. Kazakhstan Presidency, held in Bucharest February 24th of 2010. I concluded there with the belief that OSCE can accomplish a new role in the 21st century, “The big OSCE contribution to the 138


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European and worldwide security architecture will undoubtedly be the one of ceasing wars because of creating dialogue and democratic mechanisms, strengthening the collaboration with the civil society, preventive diplomacy. “Do we still need OSCE? Yes. For what? For a safer world. For whom? For everybody”. Likewise, the Astana reunion held by Kazakhstan in December 2010 could give back OSCE the possibility of being a relevant institution and not just a relic over the years of communism collapse. In November 2011, when the Conference : Kazakhstan 20 years of independence and prosperity was held in Bucharest, the biggest manifestation held outside Kazakhstan borders – excepting the one in Washington, I had the pleasure to remark in my speech Kazakhstan : 20 years from independence, the positive evolution over these two decades of independence : building a country, strong institutions, a successful economy, building a new capital, contributing to the general safety by abandoning the nuclear equipment production and becoming an exporter of security in such a difficult region such as Central Asia ; all these are important results, one could say impressive ones, which bring near more Europeans on the Kazakhstan model. Moreover I salute Romania’s decision to support Astana, Kazakhstan’s capital candidacy for organizing the International Exhibition in 2017, considering that this is a necessary step in reestablishing Silk Route, a resonant geopolitical project in the 21st century. 139


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Today, when Romania-Kazakhstan relations have reached a profound, solid and developed level while transforming the two countries in a role model for collaboration, I can only hope for further cultural, academic, economic and political efforts; everything that has been built in these 20 years will become a foundation for a strengthened relation and we shall not speak only about a strategic partnership but also of a privileged strategic partnership between our countries. Thank you!

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ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE

ART-PHOTO EXHIBITION

BUCHAREST-ROMANIA

24 APRIL 2012    141


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ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE EXHIBITION CONQUERS ROMANIAN PUBLIC

On 24 April 2012, in the luxurious surroundings of Palace of Geology, the Official Opening of the Exhibition ASTANACAPITAL OF THE FUTURE took place. The exhibition organized by Embassy of Republic of Kazakhstan in Romania and Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation is destined to express Romania’s support for Astana candidature to host EXPO 2017 International exhibition. The opening ceremony was held in the presence of Members of Romanian Parliament and Romanian Government, members of Diplomatic Corp accredited to Romania and countless Romanian 142


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and foreign diplomat’s, academicians, personalities of culture and art etc. In the opening speech, Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation (IRICE) had underlined that ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE Exhibition is destined to offer the official support of Parliament and Government of Romania to the bilateral strategic relationship between Romania and Kazakhstan and for the candidature of city of Astana for EXPO 2017. ƎAstana must be the host of EXPO 2017 as it is the most dynamic city in the Asia region in term of economic development and is the symbol of geopolitical shift towards Asia as the main engine of economic growth and also because Astana is enjoying political support and economic investments of 20 billions euro for holding EXPO 2017 in the best circumstances. Electing Astana is the practical thing to do, is the common sense and the most successful choiceƎ, concluded Professor Dr. Anton Caragea. Taking the floor, Deputy Viorel Palasca, President of RomaniaKazakhstan Friendship Parliamentary Group had conveyed Parliament support for Astana: Ǝ I assure you of all our support, a traditional one I must add, for Astana receiving a new and deserved international recognition as the host of International EXPO 2017 in a new, dynamic, modern capital that is combining in an outstanding manner the architectural values and the creator spirit of inhabitants of republic of KazakhstanƎ.

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Finally, the Deputy V. Palasca had address his warmest congratulations and appreciations for the effort in impeccable hosting and organizing this event to H.E. Talgat KaliyevKazakhstan Charge d`affairs and to Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, IRICE Director. Deputy Ahmet Aledin, Vice-Chairman of Parliamentary Commission for Culture had express the general sense of unity among opposition and power alike in the Parliament in supporting the strategic relationship Romania-Kazakhstan. Senator Trifon Belacurencu had express the Romanian Senate salute and supports for the exhibition, testifying that the Romanian decision to support Astana as host of EXPO 2017 is just an episode in a long history of bilateral support and friendship. Also he conveyed the Senate congratulation for peerless hosting and organizing this event to H.E. Talgat Kaliyev-Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs and to Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, IRICE Director. The rest of the main dignitary’s present at the exhibition such as Sali Negiat- Secretary of State of Romanian Government, Professor Dr. Mircea Constantinescu, director of European Diplomacy Academy had underlined the staunch support for Kazakhstan –Romanian friendship and support for Astana as host of EXPO 2017.

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A special moment was the speech of Mayor Nicolae Ontanu, in thunderous applause, announcing that Astana is having a street named after in the heart of Bucharest. Equally warm was received the letter signed by President of Cultural Committee Mrs. Raluca Turcan expressing his pledge in supporting all Kazakhstan initiatives in Romania. Finally emotion overwhelmed H.E. Charge d`affairs of Kazakhstan Talgat Kaliyev took the stand and express his appreciation for the showered praises and feelings of support express toward his country. This solidarity and the desire of building an improved connection is a guarantee that the present day perfect political bilateral relation and economic investments of Kazakhstan in Romania of more than 3 billion dollars are just the beginning. In the end H.E. Talgat Kaliyev had presented a short movie about Astana preparations to host EXPO 2017 and stated that the EXPO 2017 in Astana will be a universally shared success. The final moments of the ceremony where dedicated to a stroll along 20 huge photos of today’s Astana landmarks and then the guest had enjoyed a huge cake named in honour of Astana and patrimony champagne, made specially available for this event. The Exhibition ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE was broadcasted by 6 Romanian televisions’ (TVR Cultural, TVR Info, TVR 1, National TV, N24 Plus and Travel Mix) and receives dozens of favourable reviews in the press supplementary 145


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emphasizing the strong impression left by Kazakhstan to Romanian public. The Exhibition ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE, the most important cultural event hosted by Romania in 2012, remained opened between 23 and 27 of April 2012 receiving more than 18.000 visitors in this period of time, witnessing the powerful impression left by Astana to Romanian public.

H.E. Talgat Kaliyev-Kazakhstan Charge d`Affairs speaking at ASTANA-CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE

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Professor Anton Caragea is expert in international relation, diplomat and historian.

Anton Caragea is a historian and the Director at the Institute for International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania. He is also a senior editor at ”The Independent” daily newspaper (2000-present day, a foreign policy expert at „Integration (a weekly publication of the Romanian government), and the author of 19 books and over 300 articles and studies referring to European, American and African Culture and History and recent politics. He is contributor (among many others publications) to Foreign Policy in Focus, WorldPress Institute, Letras Internacionales etc. He received in 2008 the ROMANIAN BOOK AWARD for his contribution to culture and historical research.

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In august 2009 Professor Anton Caragea was elected as President of European Council on International Relations (E.U.C.I.R, the leading European think tank on foreign policy issues, the members of the Board of European Council on International Relations declared that: “Professor Anton Caragea has demonstrated his commitment to a powerful an independent Europe, he gives a voice on international relations arena to Europe.� In august 2010 the US Institute announced that Professor Dr. Anton Caragea was selected as PERSONALITY OF THE YEAR 2010 for his role in reorganizing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) during Bucharest Conference on OSCE. In 2012 the United States Biographical Institute had selected Professor Dr. Anton Caragea for a second time as MAN OF THE YEAR for his outstanding diplomatic achievements, for supporting EU-Central Asia connection and for his stances on Arab Spring and Middle East. On December 2011 Professor Dr. Anton Caragea was named as Goodwill Ambassador for World Natural Protected Area`s in recognition for his efforts in promoting ecology, environment , natural protection and development issues on Millennium Development Goals of United Nations .

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BOOKS PUBLISHED (short list): 1 The history of political doctrine » Bucharest, Romanian – American Publishing House, 2000 2. Grigore Alexandru Ghica, the Union Master 1849 - 1856 » Bucharest, Printing House of Popular University, 2000 3. Short history of Romanian people» in printing at International University Press, Bucharest 4. Controversial moment’s in Romanian History, Pitesti, Pamantul Publishing House. 5. The Age of National Renaissance (1750-1878), Bucharest, Bucharest University Printing Press, 2003. 6. Iraq War. Secret Files (1990-2003), Bucharest, Nemira Publishing, 2003. 7. Pages of hidden history, Chisinau, Cartier Publishing House, 2004 8. Czech Lands. Geography and History, Bucharest, Semne Publishing House, 2004. 9. Czech history (from ancient time to our day), Bucharest Pocket Book Publishing House, 2004 10. Thinking Europe. How the EU was build ?, Minerva Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009.

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CONTENTS

BUCHAREST CONFERENCE OSCE ...................................7 Living history President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev address to OSCE OSCE at crossroad`s by Professor Anton Caragea Do we still need OSCE? What for? For whom? by Emil Constantinescu – President of Romania Statement by Mr. Kanat Saudabayev, Chairman-in-office of the OSCE A new challenge for OSCE: economic and environmental dimension. 2010- a new beginning by Catalin Nechifor OSCE and Human security by Mircea Constantinescu

ASTANA HIGH LEVEL CONFERENCE OF OSCE Statement by President Nursultan Nazarbayev address to OSCE Destination Astana by OSCE Chairperson Kanat Saudabayev The OSCE and Global Security by Nursultan Nazarbayev, 150


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President of the Republic of Kazakhstan The Astana Summit: A Step into the 21st Century by Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan PHOTO CHRONICLE OF BUCHAREST CONFERENCE ON OSCE .....................................................................................100 KAZAKHSTAN AFTER OSCE CHAIRMANSHIP. KAZAKHSTAN AND ROMANIA: A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP ..........................................................................112

INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC CONFERENCE. KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE..............113 Address of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev Kazakhstan: 20 years of independence and construction Kazakhstan: a model of state building. 20 years of fulfilled promises by Professor Dr. Anton Caragea Kazakhstan -20 years of independence. 20 years of progress. Between OSCE and OIC by Professor Mircea Constantinescu

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ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN: 20 YEARS OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS ..........................................................................126 Romania-Kazakhstan: a renewed strategic partnership Kazakstan-Romania: a strategic relation by professor dr. Anton Caragea Romania-Kazakhstan: 20 years of strategic partnership by Emil Constantinescu – President of Romania

ASTANA: CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE.............................141

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OSCE. KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY. ROMANIAN SUPPORT BY PRESIDENT ANTON CARAGEA  

OSCE. KAZAKHSTAN PRESIDENCY. ROMANIAN SUPPORT is a book destined to remember the events of 2010. 2010 has being an important year for Organ...

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