Page 1

BÑKM 2004 UJLF

≤Ptvkz jåtnjdfyyfz≥ lkz nflébrjd: cjåcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz: genm r ltvjrhfnbb – yt dctulf ≤itkrjdsq≥ ≤Ytnthgbvjt jnyjitybt r ytnthgbvjcnb≥: cåbdfz djkye fynbctvbnbpvf

Cgtwbfkmyfz ntvf dsgecrf

Ghjuhfvvf ptvtkmyjq htajhvs d Nflébrbcnfyt Ctz ctvtyf cdtnkjuj åeleotuj


Éehyfk ≤JÅCT≥ bplftncz yf fyukbqcrjv b heccrjv zpsrfö Jnltkjv ghtccs b jåotcndtyyjq byajhvfwbb Jhufybpfwbb gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt. Dscrfpsdftvst d tuj cnfnmzö vytybz ghbyflktéfn fdnjhfv b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn jabwbfkmyeñ gjpbwbñ JÅCT b tt ujcelfhcnd-exfcnybrjd. Htlfrnjh: Gfnhbwbz Y. Cfnnth Htlfrnjhs-jåjphtdfntkb: Rbn Lébyrc, Fktrcfylh Ybwit Lbpfqyth: Yjyf Htqnth Htathtyns: Bkmz Ljutkm b Gfnhbr Öfayth Rjvvtynfhbb b fdnjhcrbt vfnthbfks ghjcmåf yfghfdkznm gj flhtce: osce-magazine-at@osce.org Jnltk ghtccs b jåotcndtyyjq byajhvfwbb Ctrhtnfhbfn JÅCT Kärntner Ring 5–7 A-1010 Vienna, Austria Ntk.: (+43-1) 514 36-180 Afrc: (+43-1) 514 36-105

Jhufybpfwbz gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt – jåottdhjgtqcrbq jhufy, pfybvfñobqcz jåtcgtxtybtv åtpjgfcyjcnb, exfcnybrfvb rjnjhjuj zdkzñncz 55 ujcelfhcnd, hfcgjkjétyysö yf utjuhfabxtcrjv ghjcnhfycndt jn Dfyredthf lj Dkflbdjcnjrf.

Ghtlctlfntkmcndj JÅCT d 2004 ujle: Åjkufhbz Cnhernehs b bycnbnens JÅCT Gjcnjzyysq cjdtn, Dtyf Ajhev gj cjnhelybxtcnde d jåkfcnb åtpjgfcyjcnb, Dtyf Ctrhtnfhbfn, Dtyf Ghtlcnfdbntkm JÅCT gj djghjcfv cdjåjls CVB, Dtyf Åñhj gj ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv bycnbnenfv b ghfdfv xtkjdtrf, Dfhifdf Dthöjdysq rjvbccfh gj ltkfv yfwbjyfkmysö vtymibycnd, Uffuf Gfhkfvtyncrfz fccfvåktz JÅCT, Rjgtyufuty

Ltzntkmyjcnm yf vtcnfö Rfdrfp Åñhj JÅCT d Åfre Vbccbz JÅCT d Uhepbb Åñhj JÅCT d Thtdfyt Kbxysq ghtlcnfdbntkm Ltqcndeñotuj ghtlctlfntkz gj rjyakbrne, zdkzñotvecz ghtlvtnjv hfccvjnhtybz yf Vbycrjq rjyathtywbb JÅCT

Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz Wtynh JÅCT d Fkvf-Fnt Wtynh JÅCT d Fiöfåflt Wtynh JÅCT d Åbirtrt Wtynh JÅCT d Leifyåt Wtynh JÅCT d Nfirtynt

Djcnjxyfz Tdhjgf Jabc JÅCT d Vbycrt Vbccbz JÅCT d Vjkljdt Rjjhlbyfnjh ghjtrnjd JÅCT d Erhfbyt

Ñuj-Djcnjxyfz Tdhjgf Ghbcencndbt JÅCT d Fkåfybb Vbccbz JÅCT d Åjcybb b Uthwtujdbyt Vbccbz JÅCT d Öjhdfnbb Vbccbz JÅCT d Rjcjdj Rjynhjkmyfz vbccbz JÅCT d Crjgmt gj ghtljndhfotybñ hfcghjcnhfytybz rjyakbrnf Vbccbz JÅCT d Cthåbb b Xthyjujhbb

2

Éehyfk ≤JÅCT≥

Xbnfntkzv jn gjckf Nflébrbcnfyf Dthjznyj, yfbåjktt rhegysv b lfktrj bleobv yfxbyfybtv d jåkfcnb hfpdbnbz Nflébrbcnfyf zdkztncz hfcghtltktybt ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyysö ptvtkm chtlb ctkmcrbö ébntktq, cjcnfdkzñobö jrjkj 70 ghjwtynjd dctuj yfctktybz cnhfys. Rfr yfib ecgtöb, nfr b ytelfxb d jceotcndktybb änjuj gjxbyf zdkzñncz xtnrbv jnhfétybtv hfpyjdtrnjhyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz cbk ltvjrhfnbpfwbb b hsyrf d yfitv vjkjljv ujcelfhcndt. Öjnz genm, rjnjhsq yfv ghtlcnjbn ghjqnb, yt dctulf åeltn ukflrbv, z edthty, xnj vs cvjétv ltqcndjdfnm cjjåof b cltkfnm ptvtkmyeñ htajhve ldbéeotq cbkjq d ltkt gjdsitybz ehjdyz ébpyb vbkkbjyjd yfibö ctkmöjpghjbpdjlbntktq b xktyjd bö ctvtq. Dtlm d ghjikjv Nflébrbcnfye, djghtrb dctv nhelyjcnzv, eét elfkjcm ghtjljktnm vyjubt bp vexbntkmysö ghjåktv cnfyjdktybz b hfpheibntkmyst gjcktlcndbz nhfubxtcrbö gthbgtnbq uhfélfycrjq djqys. D cfvjv ltkt, bvtyyj ecnjqxbdsq ärjyjvbxtcrbq rehc b hfcneofz gjkbnbxtcrfz cnfåbkmyjcnm d Nflébrbcnfyt d gjcktlybt ytcrjkmrj ktn eåtlbkb vtéleyfhjlyjt cjjåotcndj d njv, xnj yfcnfkj dhtvz ghblfnm yjdsq bvgekmc htfkbpfwbb ghjuhfvvs ptvtkmyjq htajhvs d cnhfyt. Z c eljdktndjhtybtv jnvtxfñ, xnj JÅCT yföjlbncz d wtynht änbö djpjåyjdktyysö ecbkbq, ghjljkéfz buhfnm hjkm ufhfynf vbhf d Nflébrbcnfyt. Tt cnhfntubz, yfghfdktyyfz yf pfobne ghfd rhtcnmzycndf, ecnfyjdktyysö nflébrbcnfycrbv pfrjyjlfntkmcndjv, b yf cjplfybt djpvjéyjcntq lkz gjkextybz athvthfvb vbrhjrhtlbnjd, zdkztncz djgkjotybtv jlyjuj bp jcyjdjgjkfufñobö gjcnekfnjd Jhufybpfwbb: ärjyjvbxtcrfz åtpjgfcyjcnm b åtpjgfcyjcnm kbxyjcnb ntcyj dpfbvjcdzpfys. Ytlfdyj JJY jgeåkbrjdfkf cgbcjr bp ltcznb cñétnjd, rjnjhsv CVB eltkbkb ytpfckeétyyj vfkj dybvfybz b j rjnjhsö vbh ljkéty epyfnm åjkmit. Cjckfdibcm yf ghbvth Nflébrbcnfyf, ghjzdbdituj ndthleñ htibvjcnm djccnfnm bp gtgkf djqys, Utythfkmysq ctrhtnfhm JJY Rjab Fyyfy pfzdbk, xnj vtéleyfhjlyst chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb yt ljkéys ljéblfnmcz, gjrf d njq bkb cnhfyt hfphfpbncz gjkyjvfcinfåysq rhbpbc, xnjås yfxfnm hfccrfpsdfnm j tt ghjåktvfö. ≤Rhfqyt vfkj htgjhnfétq j gjkjétybb d Nflébrbcnfyt, yj ghbxbyf änjuj, djpvjéyj, d lheujv: yfkbwj htfkmyjt ghjldbétybt gj genb erhtgktybz vbhf b djccnfyjdktybz cnhfys, öjnz, rjytxyj, ghtlcnjbn tot jxtym åjkmifz hfåjnf≥, – pfzdbk jy. Ghbdjlbvsq pltcm vfnthbfk zdkztncz, nfrbv jåhfpjv, drkfljv Wtynhf JÅCT d Leifyåt b éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥ d hfcrhsnbt dsitegjvzyenjuj cñétnf jå jceotcndkztvjq d Nflébrbcnfyt ghjuhfvvt ptvtkmyjq htajhvs rfr vyjujjåtofñotv ghbvtht ghjljkéfñotqcz hfåjns, hfccvfnhbdftvjq dj dctq tt ckjéyjcnb c cfvsö hfpysö njxtr phtybz, cj dctvb tt dpktnfvb b gfltybzvb. Ährby Rfcbvjd Dtyf, bñkm 2004 ujlf

Vfq 2004 ujlf


Bñkm 2004 ujlf, Vol. 1 No. 3

D änjv dsgecrt: GHJUHFVVF PTVTKMYJQ HTAJHVS D NFLÉBRBCNFYT: CTZ CTVTYF CDTNKJUJ ÅELEOTUJ

Cgtwbfkmyfz ntvf

≤Ptvkz jåtnjdfyyfz≥ lkz nflébrjd: cjåcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj

4

Cghfdtlkbdjcnm lkz rhtcnmzy: JÅCT åeltn jceotcndkznm vjybnjhbyu 40 öjpzqcnd

7

Ecnhfyzz ghtgzncndbz yf genb ptvtkmyjq htajhvs Rkñx r ecgtöe – byajhvbhjdfyyjcnm rhtcnmzy

8

Nflébrcrbt athvths cnhtvzncz cfvb jghtltkznm cdjt åeleott: ≤Ntgthm vs åeltv nhelbnmcz yfghzétyytq≥

10

WTYNHFKMYFZ FPBZ

Genm r ltvjrhfnbb – yt dctulf ≤itkrjdsq≥: dpukzl yt bp Öjaåehuf

13

RJYATHTYWBZ GJ FYNBCTVBNBPVE

≤Ytnthgbvjt jnyjitybt r ytnthgbvjcnb≥: cåbdfz djkye fynbctvbnbpvf

17

Åthkbycrfz ltrkfhfwbz dyeiftn dthe d åjhmåe JÅCT ghjnbd fynbctvbnbpvf Étknfz pdtplf cjdthiftn jåhfnysq genm

19 20

≤Jcnfyjdbnm yjdeñ djkye ytyfdbcnb≥: xnj cjjåofñn CVB

22

GHBÅKBÉFTNCZ 30-Z UJLJDOBYF ÖTKMCBYRCRJUJ PFRKÑXBNTKMYJUJ FRNF

Gjcjk Fkåfybb yfcnjzntkmyj ghbpsdftn JÅCT ghjdtcnb dcnhtxe yf dscitv ehjdyt d 2005 ujle

24

WTYYST CDZPB

Vfnthbfkbpfwbz bltq: erhfitybz bp cnhfy JÅCT

26

YFPYFXTYBZ

Pflfxf yjdjuj cgtwbfkmyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz – yfhfobdfnm åjhmåe JÅCT c njhujdktq kñlmvb JNRKBRB XBNFNTKTQ

29 31

Yf gthtlytq jåkjért: rhtcnmzycrfz ctvmz d jrhtcnyjcnzö u. Rehufy-Nñåt yf ñut Nflébrbcnfyf. Ajnj: JÅCT/Cçhty D. Ybccty Yf pflytq jåkjért: ökjgrjdjlxtcrjt öjpzqcndj d Djctqcrjv hfqjyt (jrhtcnyjcnb Rekzåf, ñuj-pfgflysq Nflébrbcnfy) yf ajyt Rehåjyiföblcrbö ujh. Ajnj: JÅCT/Vfnntj Ahfcrbyb

www.osce.org Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

3


ÄRJYJVBXTCRFZ ÅTPJGFCYJCNM

≤Ptvkz jåtnjdfyyfz≥ lkz nflébrjd Cjåcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj Wtkm, gjcnfdktyyfz ghfdbntkmcndjv, rfpfkfcm ghjcnjq b zcyjq: lfnm rféljve nflébrcrjve rhtcnmzybye ghfdj djpltksdfnm exfcnjr cnjkm ltabwbnyjq d cnhfyt gföjnyjq ptvkb b cdjåjle htifnm cfvjve, xnj dshfobdfnm b ghjlfdfnm. Jlyfrj ctujlyz, gj ghjitcndbb åjktt ltcznb ktn gjckt yfxfkf d 1992 ujle jceotcndktybz jåotyfwbjyfkmyjq ghjuhfvvs ptvtkmyjq htajhvs, b cfvb dkfcnb ghbpyfñn, xnj ljcnbuyenst pyfxbntkmyst ecgtöb – kbim xfcnm jåotq rfhnbys. Xnjås cghfdbnmcz c cbnefwbtq d wtkjv, ghfdbntkmcndj jåhfnbkjcm r JÅCT pf gjvjomñ d htitybb hzlf cthmtpysö ghjåktv, drkñxfz jåtcgtxtybt cghfdtlkbdjcnb b nhfycgfhtynyjcnb ghjwtccf ghbdfnbpfwbb, juhjvyst ljkub, yfrjgbdibtcz d ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjv ctrnjht, b ytjcdtljvktyyjcnm rhtcnmzy j cdjbö pfrjyysö ghfdfö.

CÇHTY D. YBCCTY Vtymit dctö jn ptvtkmyjq htajhvs dsbuhsdfñn étyobys, hfåjnfñobt d ökjgrjdjlxtcrbö öjpzqcndfö Nflébrbcnfyf. Ajnj: JÅCT/Kñåjvbh Rjntr

4

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

ybwbfnbdf gj ghjdtltybñ d Nflébrbcnfyt jåotyfwbjyfkmyjq ptvtkmyjq htajhvs, yfxfkj rjnjhjq åskj gjkjétyj dcrjht gjckt jåhtntybz cnhfyjq ytpfdbcbvjcnb, zdbkfcm dféysv gthdsv ifujv d hzle vth gj gthtlfxt rjynhjkbhetvsö ujcelfhcndjv ctkmöjpeujlbq d xfcnyst herb. Rhtcnmzyfv åskf ghtljcnfdktyf djpvjéyjcnm dsåjhf: kbåj ghbjåhtcnb cjåcndtyysq exfcnjr ptvkb, kbåj cnfnm xktyjv b gfqobrjv åjktt rhegyjuj, rjkktrnbdyjuj öjpzqcndf. Änb ifub jnhféfkb vjkxfkbdjt ghbpyfybt njuj, xnj bvtyyj gthtcnhjqrf ctkmcrjuj öjpzqcndf – rkñx r yfltktybñ yfctktybz cnhfys, zdkzñotujcz ghtbveotcndtyyj ctkmcrbv, yflktéfobvb ghfdfvb, r gjdsitybñ ghjljdjkmcndtyyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, utythbhjdfybñ ljöjljd b cybétybñ ehjdyz åtlyjcnb. Rhjvt njuj, herjdjlcndj cnhfys gjybvfkj, xnj juhfybxtyyjcnm bvtñoböcz d hfcgjhzétybb ghfdbntkmcndf chtlcnd yt gjpdjkzkf ceåcblbhjdfnm hfcöjls yf eljåhtybz, ctvtyf b ntöybre lkz eåsnjxysö öjpzqcnd, rfr änj åskj hfymit.

B

≤Vs cxbnfkb, xnj xfcnysq ctrnjh vju ås yf 60–70 ghjwtynjd jåtcgtxbdfnm jcyjdyst gjnhtåyjcnb cnhfys d ghjljdjkmcndbb≥, – ujdjhbn ghtlctlfntkm Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj rjvbntnf gj ptvktecnhjqcnde Lfdkfnij Uekvfövfljd (cv. bynthdmñ c ybv yf cnh. 8). Jlyfrj hfpheibntkmyfz uhfélfycrfz djqyf 1992–1997 ujljd eybxnjébkf pyfxbntkmyeñ xfcnm ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjq byahfcnhernehs, jcnfditqcz c cjdtncrbö dhtvty. Pf ntvb nhfubxtcrbvb cjåsnbzvb gjcktljdfkf pfceöf 2000–2001 ujljd, hfpåbdifz yfltéls rhtcnmzy yf crjhjt edtkbxtybt cdjbö ljöjljd. Ytcvjnhz yf änb lhfvfnbxtcrbt rfnfrkbpvs, juhjvyst ujcelfhcndtyyst öjpzqcndf, pfybvfdibt gkjoflm ghbvthyj d 433 900 utrnfhjd, åskb ghtjåhfpjdfys d ghbvthyj 20 750 xfcnysö öjpzqcnd. Änb åsdibt cjdöjps, ysyt yfpsdftvst ≤ltörfycrbvb≥ öjpzqcndfvb, vjuen ghtlcnfdkznm cjåjq kbåj ytåjkmibt cfvjcnjzntkmyst athvs, kbåj åjktt rhegyst, rjkktrnbdyst öjpzqcndf. Jyb zdkzñncz ≤xfcnysvb≥ d njv cvsckt, xnj ltörfyt d pyfxbntkmyjq vtht cdjåjlys eghfdkznm cdjbv öjpzqcndjv gj cjåcndtyyjve ecvjnhtybñ b cfvjcnjzntkmyj jghtltkznm, rfrbt rekmnehs dshf-

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


NZÉTKJT GJKJÉTYBT

D cdjtv ljrkflt, jgeåkbrjdfyyjv d jrnzåht 2003 ujlf, åhbnfycrfz ytghfdbntkmcndtyyfz jhufybpfwbz ≤Åjhmåf c ujkjljv≥ lfét pfzdbkf, xnj htjhufybpfwbz öjpzqcnd d ökjgrjctñotq Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb åskf ≤ecgtiyjq kbim yf åevfut≥. Gj ckjdfv herjdjlbntkz änjq YGJ Ahfycef Jkbd-Rthfdtrf, bp 1000 jghjityysö rhtcnmzycrbö ctvtq d 50 ctkfö änjq jåkfcnb, hfcgjkjétyyjq yf ñuj-pfgflt cnhfys, kbim 3,5 ghjwtynf djcgjkmpjdfkbcm cdjbv ghfdjv yf ghbjåhtntybt ptvkb b cfvjcnjzntkmyjt dtltybt öjpzqcndf. Bp ntö, rnj yt bvttn cjåcndtyyjuj exfcnrf ptvkb bkb ljkb d åjktt rhegyjv öjpzqcndt, gjlfdkzñott åjkmibycndj htcgjyltynjd (92,2 ghjwtynf) crfpfkb, xnj yt pyfñn, rfr gjlfnm pfzdre. Ytrjnjhst (3,3 ghjwtynf) gjgsnfkbcm änj cltkfnm, yj bv åskj jnrfpfyj, f jcnfkmyst (4,5 ghjwtynf) yt pföjntkb gjlfdfnm pfzdre, öjnz b pyfkb rfr änj ltkfnm, gjnjve xnj jgfcfkbcm ytgjvthyj åjkmibö hfcöjljd yf ghbjåhtntybt cthnbabrfnf, dscjrbö yfkjujd b ljkujd, eyfcktljdfyysö jn cjdöjpjd, yt ujdjhz eét j ytjåöjlbvjcnb åhfnm rhtlbns gjl dscjrbq ghjwtyn, xnjås yfkflbnm cjåcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj.

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

JÅCT/KÑÅJVBH RJNTR

obdfnm b rfr nhfnbnm gjkexftvst ljöjls, öjnz ujcelfhcndj b jcnftncz, cjukfcyj rjycnbnewbb, tlbycndtyysv ptvktdkfltkmwtv d Nflébrbcnfyt. Yf ljkñ ytlfdyj cjplfyysö d htpekmnfnt dsitegjvzyensö ghtjåhfpjdfybq xfcnysö öjpzqcnd ghböjlbncz jrjkj 61 ghjwtynf dctö ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyysö eujlbq, rjnjhst cjcnfdkzñn dctuj ctvm ghjwtynjd jåotq nthhbnjhbb änjq ujhyjq cnhfys. R 2005 ujle tot 75 ujcelfhcndtyysö öjpzqcnd åelen gthtlfys d xfcnyst herb. Jcnfkmyfz ét xfcnm ctkmöjpeujlbq, cjcnfdkzñofz, cjukfcyj jwtyrfv, 30 ghjwtynjd dctö gföjnysö ptvtkm, åeltn gjghtéytve jcnfdfnmcz d herfö ujcelfhcndf. Gj ckjdfv L. Uekvfövfljdf, dyjdm jåhfpjdfyyst xfcnyst öjpzqcndf cvjukb d ljdjkmyj åjkmibö rjkbxtcndfö jåtcgtxbnm hsyjr gitybwtq b rfhnjatktv d ljgjkytybt r ukfdyjq njdfhyjq rekmneht – ökjgre. Jlyfrj, rfr gjrfpsdftn hzl bccktljdfybq, öjnz d öjlt ptvtkmyjq htajhvs b åskb ljcnbuyens jghtltktyyst ecgtöb, dct tot cjöhfyzñncz cthmtpyst djghjcs jnyjcbntkmyj njuj, rjve jyf yf cfvjv ltkt ghbytckf dsujle, jcjåtyyj d ökjgrjctñobö hfqjyfö.

Ghbxbys njuj jcjåtyyj nzétkjuj gjkjétybz, d rjnjhjv jrfpfkbcm ökjgrjhjås Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb, rjhtyzncz d njv, xnj, zdkzzcm jcyjdyjq njdfhyjq rekmnehjq, ökjgjr lftn pyfxbntkmysq ljöjl b dkfcnzv ghtlthéfobv, b åbpytcvtyfv. Åelexb tlbycndtyysv ptvktdkfltkmwtv, ujcelfhcndj jåkflftn ghthjufnbdjq htifnm, rfrjt rjkbxtcndj ökjgrf ljkéyj dshfobdfnmcz d rféljv htubjyt, drkñxfz Öfnkjycreñ jåkfcnm. Pf rjynhjkm yfl dsgjkytybtv ghbyznsö ghfdbntkmcndjv htitybq jndtxfñn öerevfns (vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb), rjnjhst pfxfcneñ gjllthébdfñn b dczxtcrb cnfhfñncz cjöhfybnm cnfheñ cjdöjpyeñ cbcntve c ghbceotq tq dyenhtyytq bthfhöbtq, hfpjåhfnmcz d rjnjhjq rhtcnmzyfv åsdftn ytkturj. ≤Åjkmibycndj bp jghjityysö ltörfy cxbnfñn, xnj jyb gj-ghtéytve hfåjnfñn yf cjdöjp, gjcrjkmre eghfdktybt öjpzqcndjv jceotcndkztncz nfr ét, rfr b hfymit≥, – ujdjhbn A. Jkbd-Rthfdtr.

Ökjgjr ghbyjcbn rhegyst ljöjls dkfcnzv b ltkjdsv rheufv.

BCNBYYSQ LEÖ

Gj tuj vytybñ, tckb ås rhtcnmzyt åskb ghjbyajhvbhjdfys j cdjbö ghfdfö, pyfkb jå bvtñoböcz e ybö djpvjéyjcnzö b tckb ås ptvtkmyfz htajhvf jceotcndkzkfcm d cjjndtncndbb c bcnbyysv leöjv pfrjyf, nj étkfñobö gjkexbnm gfq d rhegyjv xfcnyjv rjkktrnbdyjv öjpzqcndt bkb dtcnb bylbdblefkmyjt öjpzqcndj åskj ås åjkmit. Rfr gjrfpsdfñn lfyyst jghjcf, ytrjnjhst rhtcnmzyt, tckb ås e ybö åsk dsåjh, ghtlgjxkb ås dshfobdfnm jcyjdyst ghjljdjkmcndtyyst

Bpyehbntkmysq nhel yf gjkzö Djctqcrjuj hfqjyf (gjl Rekzåjv). Ajnj: JÅCT/Vfnntj Ahfcrbyb

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

5


JÅCT/FCNHBL ÄDHTYCTKM

JÅCT/CÇHTY D. YBCCTY

Vfkmxbr b tuj jckbr (Yehtr, r ñuj-djcnjre jn Leifyåt)

Rfr b d åjkmibycndt lheubö rhegysö rjkktrnbdysö b ctvtqysö öjpzqcnd d Nflébrbcnfyt, étyobys d Jåbrbbrt (åkbp Leifyåt) – jcyjdyjq bcnjxybr gjktdjq hfåjxtq cbks.

6

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

rekmnehs – rfr lkz cjåcndtyyjuj gjnhtåktybz, nfr b yf ghjlfée, – d nj dhtvz rfr lheubt öjntkb ås ghjljkéfnm dshfobdfnm ökjgjr, ghb eckjdbb xnj cvjuen bvtnm c änjuj ljöjl. Jlyfrj d ysytiytq cbnefwbb ≤e ntö ytvyjubö athvthjd, rjnjhst djcgjkmpjdfkbcm ifycjv pfdtcnb cjåcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj, yt nfr eé vyjuj djpvjéyjcntq lkz vfytdhf, – ujdjhbn A. JkbdRthfdtr. – Bv dtkzn dshfobdfnm ökjgjr, yj ceotcndjdfnm pf cxtn ökjgrf jyb yt vjuen, ukfdysv jåhfpjv gjnjve, xnj eét c vjvtynf jåhtntybz cfvjcnjzntkmyjcnb åskb jåhtvtytys ljkufvb≥. Cdjbvb rjhyzvb ljkujdfz ghjåktvf eöjlbn d cthtlbye 90-ujljd, rjulf rfr ujcelfhcndtyyst, nfr b xfcnyst öjpzqcndf cnfkb jåhfofnmcz r vtcnysv åbpytcvtyfv, dshféfdibv ujnjdyjcnm ghtljcnfdbnm yfkbxyst chtlcndf, d rjnjhsö nfr jcnhj yeélfkbcm ökjgrjhjås. D yfxfkt ujlf ökjgrjdjlxtcrjt öjpzqcndj pfregfkj ctvtyf, eljåhtybz, ujhñxtt b n.l. d cxtn rhtlbnjd, ghtljcnfdktyysö nfrbvb xfcnysvb bydtcnjhfvb, ghb njv gjybvfybb, xnj d rjywt ujlf dthytn rhtlbn cjåhfyysv ökjgrjv. Tckb ét wtyf cjåhfyyjuj ehjéfz gjkexfkfcm vtymit cnjbvjcnb dctuj, xnj åskj regktyj d rhtlbn, nj ljku athvthf gthtyjcbkcz yf cktleñobq ujl. Nfrbv jåhfpjv bydtcnjhs jåhtkb pyfxbntkmyjt dkbzybt yf ghfrnbxtcrb dct caths ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjuj ctrnjhf. Ythtlrj jyb dscnegfñn d rfxtcndt gjcnfdobrjd ctvzy b ctkmöjpntöybrb, ecnfyfdkbdfz wtys dsit hsyjxysö. Rhjvt njuj, bvtyyj jyb d rjytxyjv cxtnt jghtltkzñn, rfr – b rjve – cktletn ghjlfdfnm cjåhfyysq ehjéfq. D gjlujnjdktyyjv Fpbfncrbv åfyrjv hfpdbnbz ljrkflt pf 2002 ujl hfccrfpsdftncz j njv, rfr vtéleyfhjlyst bydtcnjhs yfghfdkzñn chtlcndf ökjgrjhjåfv xthtp vtcnyst gjchtlybxtcrbt rjvgfybb, bvtñobt, rfr cxbnftncz, ntcyst cdzpb c vtcnysvb dkfcnzvb. Dj bpåtéfybt rjyrehtywbb ≤dshexrf≥ d åerdfkmyjv cvsckt ltkbncz gentv pfrhtgktybz pf rfélsv hfqjyjv cdjtuj bydtcnjhf. Rfr jnvtxftncz d ljrkflt, ≤nt ytvyjubt rhtcnmzyt, rjnjhst htibkbcm ltqcndjdfnm cfvjcnjzntkmyj, yf cfvjv ltkt vfkj xtv jnkbxfñncz jn yftvysö hfåjnybrjd, bcgjkmpeñobö ghtljcnfdktyyst

åbpytcvtyfvb ctvtyf, eljåhtybz b ntöybre yf cdjtv ptvtkmyjv exfcnrt≥. YTDSUJLYJT GJKJÉTYBT ÉTYOBY

Jåtofyyst åkfuf ptvtkmyjq htajhvs yt jåktuxbkb gjkjétybz étyoby, rjnjhjt gj-ghtéytve jcnftncz rhfqyt ytdsujlysv. Étyobys cjcnfdkzñn jcyjdyeñ xfcnm ctpjyyjq hfåjxtq cbks d åsdibö rhegysö cjdöjpfö, ghtjåhfpjdfyysö d ltörfycrbt öjpzqcndf. Jyb rfr ghfdbkj åsdfñn dsyeéltys cfvb pfåjnbnmcz j ctåt b cdjbö åjkmibö ctvmzö, d nj dhtvz rfr bö veémz jnghfdkzñncz d Hjccbñ yf gjbcr kexibö pfhfåjnrjd. Rfr gjkfufñn, yt vtytt 800 000 nflébrcrbö veéxby ctqxfc hfåjnfñn pf heåtéjv yf gjcnjzyyjq bkb dhtvtyyjq jcyjdt. Vyjubt étyobys, xmb veémz djikb d xbckj ntö 50 000, rjnjhst, cjukfcyj jwtyrfv, gjubåkb d öjlt uhfélfycrjq djqys, dsgjkyzñn aeyrwbb ukfds ctvmb. D cjdtncrbt dhtvtyf änb ctpjyyst hfåjnybrb vjukb, gj rhfqytq vtht, hfccxbnsdfnm yf gjkextybt pfhgkfns b ljgjkybntkmysö kmujn d catht cjwbfkmyjq pfobns b plhfdjjöhfytybz. Ctujlyz ét jyb djjåot gjxnb ybxtuj yt gjkexfñn pf cdjq vyjujlytdysq bpyehbntkmysq nhel yf ökjgrjdsö gjkzö. Rjulf d öjlt cdjtuj bccktljdfybz ghtlcnfdbntkb YGJ ≤Åjhmåf c ujkjljv≥ cghfibdfkb étyoby, gjxtve jyb dct ét ghjljkéfñn hfåjnfnm d nfrbö eckjdbzö, nt ythtlrj jndtxfkb, xnj yeélfñncz d pfcjöibö dtnjxrfö ökjgrjdjuj recnfhybrf, rjnjhst bv hfphtiftncz gjlåbhfnm yf gjkzö gjckt cåjhf ehjéfz b rjnjhst jyb bcgjkmpeñn d rfxtcndt njgkbdf lkz ghbujnjdktybz gbob, dsgtxrb öktåf b jåjuhtdf cdjbö ébkbo d öjkjlyst pbvybt vtczws. ≤Jxtdblyj, xnj étyobys yföjlzncz d cfvjv ybpe cgbcrf ≤åtytabwbfhbtd≥, – ujdjhbn A. Jkba-Rthfdtr. – Pyfxbntkmyfz xfcnm ghbåskb jn ghjlféb dshfotyyjuj ltörfycrbvb öjpzqcndfvb ökjgrf ljcnftncz vtcnysv bydtcnjhfv≥. Bvtyyj d cdtnt gjljåysö, åtheobö pf leie hfccrfpjd j kñlzö, ébdeobö d eckjdbzö rhfqytq ybotns, xhtpdsxfqyj dféysv ghtlcnfdkztncz jåtcgtxtybt ecgtöf ghjdjlbvjq d cnhfyt ptvtkmyjq htajhvs. Ltqcndez cjjåof, ghfdbntkmcndj b vtéleyfhjlyst jhufybpfwbb ctqxfc dcthmtp dpzkbcm

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


pf htitybt ceotcndeñobö ghjåktv, jcjåtyyj exbnsdfz, xnj ysyt, åkfujlfhz ljcnbuyenjq d Nflébrbcnfyt åjkmitq gjkbnbxtcrjq cnfåbkmyjcnb, cnfkj djpvjéysv yfxfnm jceotcndktybt ghjtrnjd d jåkfcnb hfpdbnbz b lheubö rhegysö bybwbfnbd. Yfåbhftn ntvgs ltzntkmyjcnm hfåjxtq uheggs, cjplfyyjq d 2003 ujle lkz rjjhlbyfwbb vthjghbznbq gj ptvtkmyjq htajhvt d cnhfyt. D äne uhegge, djpukfdkztveñ ghtlcnfdbntktv Ghjljdjkmcndtyyjq b ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjq jhufybpfwbb Jåütlbytyysö Yfwbq (AFJ), döjlzn nfrét ghtlcnfdbntkb ghfdbntkmcndf Nflébrbcnfyf, JÅCT b nfrbö jhufybpfwbq, rfr RÄH, ≤Jrcafv≥, Ajyl FufÖfyf, ≤Fuhj Äriy≥ b FNCH. FNCH b JÅCT cjåbhfñncz ghbcnegbnm r htfkbpfwbb cnhfntubb, ghtlecvfnhbdfñotq jpyfrjvktybt rhtcnmzy c bö ñhblbxtcrbvb ghfdfvb, ghtljcnfd-

ktybt bv ljcnegf r vbrhjrhtlbnfv gjl ybprbt ghjwtyns, xnjås gjvjxm bv ghjxyj cnfnm yf yjub d abyfycjdjv cvsckt, b jceotcndktybt vjybnjhbyuf åjktt 40 ujcelfhcndtyysö öjpzqcnd c wtkmñ eåtlbnmcz, xnj bö ghbdfnbpfwbz ghjdjlbncz d cjjndtncndbb c nhtåjdfybzvb pfrjyf. Gj ckjdfv herjdjlbntkz Wtynhf JÅCT d Leifyåt gjckf Bdf Åfhutyf, hjkm JÅCT b tt gfhnythjd gjlhfpevtdftn ≤ltkbrfnyjt åfkfycbhjdfybt≥, gjcrjkmre rjytxyfz wtkm pfrkñxftncz d djpltqcndbb yf ceotcndeñoeñ cnhernehe ptvktdkfltybz b yf lbcghjgjhwbb d ehjdyzö ljöjlf hfpkbxysö uhegg yfctktybz. ≤JÅCT jåtcgtxbn pyfybt kñlmvb cdjbö ghfd, pfrhtgktyysö d yfwbjyfkmyjv pfrjyjlfntkmcndt, – ujdjhbn jy. – Vs yflttvcz cltkfnm änj nfrbv jåhfpjv, xnjås dsujls åskb jxtdblys dctv≥.

Lfncrbq ñhbcn b éehyfkbcn Cçhty D. Ybccty zdkztncz rjycekmnfynjv Wtynhf JÅCT d Leifyåt b jrfpsdftn gjvjom d ñhblbxtcrbö b ghfdjpfobnysö djghjcfö, cdzpfyysö c ptvtkmyjq htajhvjq d Nflébrbcnfyt. Hfytt jy hfåjnfk ghtcc-ctrhtnfhtv vbybcnhf plhfdjjöhfytybz d ghfdbntkmcndt u. Rjgtyufutyf, f nfrét herjdjlbntktv jnltkf d ltgfhnfvtynt vtéleyfhjlysö cdzptq vbybcnthcndf plhfdjjöhfytybz Lfybb. Rhjvt njuj, jy zdkzkcz cjnhelybrjv lfncrjuj Rhfcyjuj rhtcnf. Äne gjlåjhre cnfntq jy gjlujnjdbk lkz éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥.

Cghfdtlkbdjcnm lkz rhtcnmzy: JÅCT åeltn jceotcndkznm vjybnjhbyu 40 öjpzqcnd ntkm Wtynhf JÅCT d Leifyåt gjcjk Bd Åfhuty, hfccrfpsdfz j rjywtgwbb exfcnbz Jhufybpfwbb d ecbkbzö Nflébrbcnfyf gj ghjdtltybñ ptvtkmyjq htajhvs. – Gj jrjyxfybb rjyakbrnf jåotcnde nhtåetncz jghtltktyyjt dhtvz, xnjås ltvjynbhjdfnm ytjabwbfkmyst dkfcnyst vtöfybpvs b xnjås ≤dsphtkf≥ flvbybcnhfnbdyj-öjpzqcndtyyfz cbcntvf. D änjn gthtöjlysq gthbjl ghbvtytybt ghjphfxysö ghjwtleh – tlbycndtyysq cgjcjå ghjrjynhjkbhjdfnm, cghfdtlkbdj kb jåöjlzncz c kñlmvb bkb ét jyb cnfyjdzncz jåütrnjv ärcgkefnfwbb b vfybgekzwbq≥. JÅCT ghbybvftn frnbdyjt exfcnbt d ltzntkmyjcnb ldeö hfåjxbö uhegg gj ptvtkmyjq htajhvt. Gjvbvj ghfdbntkmcndf Nflébrbcnfyf jcyjdysvb gfhnythfvb JÅCT zdkzñncz AFJ b hzl YGJ: Futyncndj gj ntöybxtcrjve cjnhelybxtcnde b hfpdbnbñ, xfot jåjpyfxftvjt fååhtdbfnehjq FNCH (Ahfywbz); RÄH, ≤Åjhmåf c ujkjljv≥ b ≤Jrcafv≥ (Cjtlbytyyjt Rjhjktdcndj); ≤Fuhj Äriy≥ (Uthvfybz); ≤Xtkjdtr b ghbhjlf≥ (Nflébrbcnfy). Hfåjnf JÅCT drkñxftn, d xfcnyjcnb, cktleñott.

Gjlujnjdrf b jåextybt (fghtkm-bñym 2004 ujlf). Åjktt 200 athvthjd bp gznb ytlfdyj ghbdfnbpbhjdfyysö öjpzqcnd åskb jpyfrjvktys c pfrjyjlfntkmcndjv, rfcfñobvcz nfrbö djghjcjd, rfr gjhzljr gjkextybz ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjuj yfltkf b gjlfxb éfkjå d ckexfzö, rjulf bö ghfdf yfheifñncz. Åskb hjplfys cjnyb ärptvgkzhjd byajhvfwbjyysö åhjiñh.

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Ptvtkmyfz htajhvf c njxrb phtybz ghfd xtkjdtrf (gthdsq änfg bccktljdfybz pfdthiftncz d cthtlbyt fduecnf). D gjlujnfdkbdftvjv ljrkflt åelen yfpdfys b ghjfyfkbpbhjdfys ckexfb yfheitybz pfrjyysö ghfd rhtcnmzy yf gjkextybt b djpltksdfybt ptvkb. D hfvrfö änjuj bccktljdfybz åeltn htrjvtyljdfy rjvgktrc vth, yfghfdktyysö yf ghtleghtéltybt gjljåysö yfheitybq.

Dctcnjhjyyzz gjllthérf (jctym 2004 ujlf). Ghtlcnjzotq jctymñ yfxytncz htfkbpfwbz hfccxbnfyyjq yf ltcznm vtczwtd ghjuhfvvs, ghbpdfyyjq jåtcgtxbnm cghfdtlkbdsq b nhfycgfhtynysq öfhfrnth ghjwtccf ghbdfnbpfwbb ujcelfhcndtyysö öjpzqcnd. Abyfycbhjdfybt änjq ghjuhfvvs jceotcndkztncz pf cxtn chtlcnd, ghtljcnfdktyysö Yblthkfylfvb (100 nsc. tdhj) b FNCH (30 nsc. tdhj). Hfåjnf åeltn dtcnbcm gj cktleñobv yfghfdktybzv: • gjlujnjdrf cjnhelybrjd vtcnysö flvbybcnhfnbdysö jhufyjd gj djghjcfv jhufybpfwbb b gkfybhjdfybz; • byajhvbhjdfybt rhtcnmzy jå bö ñhblbxtcrbö ghfdfö b jåzpfyyjcnzö; • ghtljcnfdktybt athvthfv pfqvjd (vbrhjrhtlbnjd) gjl ybprbq ghjwtyn c wtkmñ gjllthéfnm ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjt ghjbpdjlcndj; • vjybnjhbyu ghjwtccf ghbdfnbpfwbb 40 öjpzqcnd, jceotcndkztvsq ytpfdbcbvsvb ärcgthnfvb gj ptvtkmyjve ghfde; • jrfpfybt gjkbnbxtcrjq b ñhblbxtcrjq gjllthérb rhtcnmzyfv, ghtlüzdkzñobv jåjcyjdfyyst ghtntypbb r ghjwtcce ghbdfnbpfwbb;

JÅCT/FCNHBL ÄDHTYCTKM

wtkmñ zdkztncz cjltqcndbt nhfyc≤Yfitq gfhtynyjcnb, – gjlxthrbdftn herjdjlb-

Wtkm ptvtkmyjq htajhvs – lfnm rhtcnmzyfv åjkmit cdjåjls d lbdthcbabrfwbb dshfobdftvsö rekmneh. • jåtcgtxtybt ghbvtytybz yf ghfrnbrt pfrjyjlfntkmysö gjkjétybq gj utylthysv djghjcfv b ghbyznbt vth r ecnhfytybñ lbcrhbvbyfwbb étyoby ghb hfcghtltktybb ptvtkmysö exfcnrjd b htitybñ ghjåktvs bö ytljcnfnjxyjq ghtlcnfdktyyjcnb d flvbybcnhfnbdysö jhufyfö; • gjdsitybt rjvgtntynyjcnb vtcnysö YGJ b chtlcnd vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb d djghjcfö ptvtkmyjq htajhvs; • gjdsitybt jcdtljvktyyjcnb yfctktybz gentv cyfåétybz CVB yfltéyjq byajhvfwbtq.

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

7


BYNTHDMÑ C GHTLCTLFNTKTV UJCELFHCNDTYYJUJ RJVBNTNF GJ PTVKTECNHJQCNDE

Ecnhfyzz ghtgzncndbz yf genb ptvtkmyjq htajhvs

Lfdkfnij Uekvfövfljd, ghtlctlfntkm Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj rjvbntnf gj ptvktecnhjqcnde: cnhjubq, jåütrnbdysq dpukzl yf htpekmnfns ptvtkmyjq htajhvs. Ajnj: JÅCT/Cçhty D. Ybccty

Rkñx r ecgtöe – byajhvbhjdfyyjcnm rhtcnmzy

JÅCT/CÇHTY D. YBCCTY

Ghjuhfvvf ptvtkmyjq htajhvs d Nflébrbcnfyt yt ghbytckf jåtofyysö åkfu vyjubv åtlysv rhtcnmzyfv cnhfys. D änjv jnrhjdtyyj ghbpyftncz yt rnj byjq, rfr herjdjlbntkm ukfdyjuj ghfdbntkmcndtyyjuj dtljvcndf, jndtxfñotuj pf jceotcndktybt ptvtkmyjq htajhvs. D bynthdmñ, rjnjhjt jy lfk d cdjtv jabct d Leifyåt, Lfdkfnij Uekvfövfljd, ghtlctlfntkm Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj rjvbntnf gj ptvtkmysv htcehcfv b ptvktecnhjqcnde, fyfkbpbhetn ytkturbt ghjåktvs yfltktybz rhtcnmzy cnhfys åjktt ibhjrbvb ghfdfvb b pfzdkztn j htibvjcnb ghfdbntkmcndf ljåbnmcz kexibö htpekmnfnjd ghb cjltqcndbb cj cnjhjys vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjjåotcndf.

Nheétybrb gjktq d jrhtcnyjcnzö Rehufy-Nñåt, yf ñut Nflébrbcnfyf.

8

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

hbyznsq yfvb pfrjy ≤J ltörfycrjv (athvthcrjv) öjpzqcndt≥ b lheubt cdzpfyyst c ybv pfrjyjlfntkmyst frns xtnrj jghtltkbkb, rnj vjétn ghtntyljdfnm yf gjkextybt ptvkb lkz xfcnyjuj ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjuj ghjbpdjlcndf b rfrbt ghfdf b jåzpfyyjcnb bvtñncz e ltörfy,≥ – ujdjhbn Lfdkfnij Uekvfövfljd. ≤Jlyfrj, rjulf ghjwtcc njkmrj yfxbyfkcz, rjtrfrbt dtcmvf dkbzntkmyst b jåhfpjdfyyst kbwf edbltkb d ytv djpvjéyjcnm bpdktxtybz kbxyjq dsujls b, pfödfnbd rjynhjkm yfl jåibhysvb eujlmzvb, cnfkb clfdfnm ytåjkmibt exfcnrb ptvkb d fhtyle athvthfv. Ytrjnjhst bp ybö ybrjulf b yt ébkb d änbö vtcnfö, f ytrjnjhst zdkzkbcm – b lj cbö gjh jcnfñncz – ukfdfvb öerevfnjd (vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb)≥.

≤G

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


≤Jlyfrj vs yt cnfkb ljéblfnmcz htpekmnfnjd b, r cjéfktybñ, egecnbkb djpvjéyjcnm jåhtcnb yeéyst pyfybz b jgsn≥. ≤Tckb ås vs tñ djcgjkmpjdfkbcm, – ujdjhbn jy, – nj pyfkb ås, rfr ltqcndjdfnm åjktt äaatrnbdyj, b åskb ås kexit gjlujnjdktys r htfkmyjcnb, cjcnjzotq d njv, xnj rhtcnmzyfv yeéyf gjvjom d ezcytybb bvb cdjbö ghfd b jåzpfyyjcntq d rfxtcndt cfvjcnjzntkmysö athvthjd≥. Rfr ujdjhbn L. Uekvfövfljd, ysytiybq gjhzljr ghtljcnfdktybz rhtlbnjd gjhjélftn vfcce ghjåktv. ≤Yfghbvth, vtcnyst åbpytcvtys, zdkzñobtcz lkz athvthcrbö öjpzqcnd jcyjdysv bcnjxybrjv abyfycbhjdfybz, ecnfyfdkbdfñn wtys yf ctvtyf b ntöybre dsit hsyjxysö. Lheubt gjcnfdobrb åskb ås ujnjds ghjlfdfnm ytjåöjlbvst bylbdblefkmysv athvthfv njdfhs gj ujhfplj åjktt ybprbv wtyfv, tckb ås e ntö åskf djpvjéyjcnm jceotcndkznm pfregrb yf cdjåjlyjv hsyrt≥. ≤Gjkfufñ, xnj tcnm njkmrj jlby dsöjl bp änjq lbktvvs – ghjcnbnm ljkub, jåhfpjdfdibtcz lj yfxfkf ptvtkmyjq htajhvs≥. Jy gjlxthrbdftn yfceoyeñ ytjåöjlbvjcnm vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjltqcndbz d ecnhfytybb nhelyjcntq, jnåbdfñobö e rhtcnmzy étkfybt ljåbdfnmcz htfkbpfwbb cdjbö ptvtkmysö ghfd. ≤Gjvbvj jcdjåjéltybz rhtcnmzy jn ljkujdjuj åhtvtyb, yfv yeéyf gjvjom d cjdthitycndjdfybb b gjllthéfybb cbcntv djljcyfåétybz lkz bhhbufwbb gjktq. Ytkmpz jéblfnm, xnj ytpfdbcbvst athvths cfvb chfpe cghfdzncz c änbvb ghjåktvfvb≥. Jy ghbpyfntkty ntv, rnj yf ghjnzétybb gjcktlytuj ltcznbktnbz ndthlj gjllthébdfk ecbkbz Nflébrbcnfyf gj hfpdbnbñ, b cxbnftn, xnj gjkjébntkmyst ärjyjvbxtcrbt gjrfpfntkb cnhfys ctujlyz, djctvm ktn gjckt jrjyxfybz uhfélfycrjq djqys, zdkzñncz jåyfltébdfñobv ghbpyfrjv njuj, xnj ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyfz htajhvf vjétn dyjdm yfåhfnm jåjhjns. ≤Rjulf ghfdbntkmcndj jåhfnbkjcm r vtéleyfhjlyjve cjjåotcnde c ghjcmåjq gjvjxm d jceotcndktybb vjybnjhbyuf ptvtkmyjq htajhvs, gthdjq jnrkbryekfcm JÅCT, – jnvtxftn jy. – Vs yflttvcz, xnj yfit dpfbvyjt cjnhelybxtcndj gjqltn lfktrj b xnj JÅCT cvjétn ghbdktxm b lheubö gfhnythjd, jcjåtyyj d jåtcgtxtybb byajhvbhjdfyyjcnb xfcnysö athvthjd jå bö ghfdfö b jåzpfyyjcnzö≥.

Jnlsö gjckt gjktdsö hfåjn d Yehtrt, yf åthtue h. Dföi.

Ghjlfdobwf rkeåybrb d Leifyåt.

JÅCT/ÄQÖFY ÄDHTYCTKM

U-y Uekvfövfljd gjlndthélftn nj, xnj vyjubt gjljphtdfkb c cfvjuj yfxfkf: ytrjnjhst öerevfns, yt étkfz vtyznm cnfnec-rdj, lthéfkb rhtcnmzy d ytdtltybb jå bö ghfdfö. Gj tuj ckjdfv, jncencndbt e rhtcnmzy gjlhjåyjq byajhvfwbb j cjdthityyj yjdjq lkz ybö b ckjéyjq catht xhtpdsxfqyj pfnhelyztn jceotcndktybt ghjuhfvvs, b bvtyyj gjänjve cnjkm dféyeñ hjkm buhftn hfpüzcybntkmyfz hfåjnf JÅCT. Lheubv juhfybxbntkmysv afrnjhjv zdkztncz nj, xnj nflébrcrbt rhtcnmzyt d pyfxbntkmyjq vtht enhfnbkb ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyst yfdsrb b pyfybz, jnxfcnb gjnjve, xnj ctkmöjpghjbpdjlcndjv d cjdtncrbt dhtvtyf eghfdkzkb heccrbt, f jnxfcnb – bp-pf gznbktnytuj ghjcnjz, cdzpfyyjuj c uhfélfycrjq djqyjq. ≤Rhtcnmzyt eét yt pyfñn dctuj cgtrnhf rekmneh, rjnjhst jyb vjuen dshfobdfnm, rfr jceotcndkznm bhhbufwbñ gjktq b d rfrbt chjrb ghjdjlbnm gjctdyeñ b cåjh ehjéfz≥, – ujdjhbn L. Uekvfövfljd. Cthmtpysv rfvytv ghtnryjdtybz yf genb htajhv jrfpfkbcm nfrét hfpkbxbz d ehjdyzö ghjatccbjyfkmyjq ghbujlyjcnb herjdjlbntktq ltörfycrbö öjpzqcnd, rjnjhsö, rfr ghfdbkj, bpåbhfñn cfvb xktys änbö öjpzqcnd. ≤Öjnz vyjubt bp herjdjlbntktq hfåjnfñn jndtncndtyyj, ytrjnjhst xedcndeñn ctåz åtpeckjdyj jåzpfyysvb dsgjkyznm ljujdjhtyyjcnb, pfrkñxtyyst c vtcnysvb dkfcnzvb, rjnjhst yfpyfxbkb bö yf ljkéyjcnm≥, – jnvtxftn jy. Jlyfrj u-y Uekvfövfljd yt cntcyztncz b ghjzdkznm cfvjrhbnbxyjcnm. ≤Levfñ, xnj vs yfxfkb ptvtkmyeñ htajhve ckbirjv hfyj, åtp yflktéfotuj gkfybhjdfybz, – ujdjhbn jy. – Rjulf ds gjregftnt yjdeñ ntöybre, ds cyfxfkf ghjåetnt tt, xnjås gjcvjnhtnm, rfr jyf hfåjnftn. Vs ét, r cjéfktybñ, htibkb jåjqnbcm åtp fghjåbhjdfybz≥. Pflybv xbckjv jy cxbnftn, xnj ghfdbntkmcndj ljkéyj åskj yfxfnm c jceotcndktybz ärcgthbvtynfkmyj-gjrfpfntkmysö ghjtrnjd, ≤xnj åskj ås cjdthityyj yjhvfkmysv ltkjv gthtl ntv, rfr åhfnmcz pf cnjkm fvåbwbjpysq ghjtrn, rfr änjn≥. D ltqcndbntkmyjcnb ghfdbntkmcndj dct-nfrb gjkexbkj ltymub jn vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjjåotcndf lkz njuj, xnjås dyfxfkt jnhfåjnfnm vtnjlbre ghbdfnbpfwbb ujcelfhcndtyysö öjpzqcnd, b kñlzv åskb lfys cjjndtncndeñobt rjyrhtnyst gjhextybz.

JÅCT/FCNHBL ÄDHTYCTKM

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

9


VJYBNJHBYU

Nflébrcrbt athvths cnhtvzncz cfvb jghtltkznm cdjt åeleott

Dj dyenhtyytv ldjhbrt (rfnt) herjdjlbntkm athvthcrjuj öjpzqcndf Yehveöfvvtl Cfqnstd (d wtynht) jåvtybdftncz vytybzvb c rjycekmnfynjv Cçhtyjv Ybcctyjv (cktdf) b fuhjyjvjv FNCH Åfönbjhjv Yfkbvjdsv (cnjbn cghfdf). Ajnj: JÅCT/ Nehåmçhy Åmçhdfny

≤Ntgthm vs åeltv nhelbnmcz yfghzétyytq≥ Htpekmnfns ecbkbq gj jceotcndktybñ ptvtkmyjq htajhvs d Nflébrbcnfyt ceotcndtyyj hfpyzncz jn jåkfcnb r jåkfcnb b jn öjpzqcndf r öjpzqcnde. D nj dhtvz rfr åjkmibycndj athvthcrbö öjpzqcnd d ökjgrjdjlxtcrjq Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb, hfcgjkjétyyjq yf ñuj-pfgflt cnhfys, dct tot åjhñncz c wtksv cjyvjv juhfybxtybq, gthcgtrnbds htjhufybpjdfyyjuj dbyjltkmxtcrjuj öjpzqcndf, yföjlzotujcz d 20 rbkjvtnhfö r ñuj-djcnjre jn Rehufy-Nñåt (nfrét d Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb), ghtlcnfdkzñncz vyjujjåtofñobvb. Ghbtöfdibt c dbpbnjv bp Leifyåt cjnhelybrb JÅCT dcnhtnbkb pltcm rhtcnmzy, bpkexfñobö edthtyyjcnm d cjåcndtyyjv åeleotv.

10

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

ehveöfvvtl Cfqnstd dsukzlbn fåcjkñnyj evbhjndjhtyysv. Nehåmçhy Åmçhdfny, cjnhelybr JÅCT gj ärjyjvbxtcrbv djghjcfv, b z dcnhtxftvcz c ybv b gznmñ lheubvb ytlfdyj jåhtnibvb cfvjcnjzntkmyjcnm athvthfvb yf ghbgjlyznjv gjke rfnf (wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbq ärdbdfktyn jnrhsnjq dthfyls). Veéxbys d djphfcnt 40–60 ktn dtlen c yfvb åtctle, d nj dhtvz rfr étyobys b ltnb c kñåjgsncndjv yfåkñlfñn b dybvfntkmyj ckeifñn. Y. Cfqnstd jrblsdftn dpjhjv pfybvfñobq 8,5 utrnfhf dbyjuhflybr, rjnjhsq åsk dsltkty d gjkmpjdfybt tve b 16 lheubv athvthfv. Gj gkjoflb jy ujhfplj vtymit vyjubö ytlfdyj ghbdfnbpbhjdfyysö öjpzqcnd, nthhbnjhbz rféljuj bp rjnjhsö d chtlytv cjcnfdkztn jrjkj 20 utrnfhjd.

Y

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


JÅCT/CÇHTY D. YBCCTY

D cjdtncrbt dhtvtyf d Nflébrbcnfyt åskj ytvfkj pfdjljd, ghjbpdjlbdibö dscjrjcjhnyjt dbyj. Ctujlyz ét, gjckt htprjuj cgflf d dbyjltkmxtcrjq jnhfckb, jåütv ghjbpdjlcndf cjcnfdkztn dctuj jlye nhtnm jn ghtéytuj, b yfqnb ult-kbåj nflébrcrjt dbyj ytghjcnj. ≤D ytrjnjhst bp kexibö ctpjyjd d ghjikjv yfv elfdfkjcm cjåhfnm gj 25 nsc. njyy dbyjuhflf, – hfccrfpsdftn u-y Cfqnstd. – Ntgthm ét vs yt vjétv cjåhfnm b gjkjdbys änjuj rjkbxtcndf, gjnjve xnj yt ödfnftn djls, aeyrwbjybheñobö jhjcbntkmysö cbcntv, eljåhtybq, ctvzy – ghfrnbxtcrb dctuj≥. Dctuj ytcrjkmrbvb ytltkzvb hfytt, yf cdjtv gthdjv jåotv cjåhfybb athvths bpåhfkb Y. Cfqnstdf cdjbv gthdsv hfbcjv (ghtlctlfntkm). D pfrjyt ≤J ltörfycrjv öjpzqcndt≥ htrjvtyletncz, xnjås hfbcjv åsk ≤jlby bp lttcgjcjåysö xktyjd öjpzqcndf, jåkflfñobq cjjndtncndeñobvb pyfybzvb b rdfkbabrfwbtq b bvtñobq jgsn ghfrnbxtcrjq hfåjns d ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjv ctrnjht≥. Jy ujdjhbn, xnj ybrfrbö éfkjå yb jn rjuj bp xktyjd öjpzqcndf yt cksifk, rfr yt åskj vtéle ybvb b rfrbö-kbåj hfpyjukfcbq gj rfrjve ås nj yb åskj djghjce – dj dczrjv ckexft lj cbö gjh. ≤Gjrf xnj e yfc yt ckbirjv vyjuj ghtbveotcnd, – ujdjhbn jy. – Jlyfrj xthtp ujl cbnefwbz ljkéyf bpvtybnmcz. Cktleñobq ujl cnfytn lkz yfc cdjtuj hjlf bcgsnfybtv. Vs yflttvcz, xnj yfv cyjdf elfcncz cjåhfnm ljdjkmyj ytgkjöjq ehjéfq≥. Ytcvjnhz yf nhelyjcnb yfxfkmyjuj änfgf athvths pfzdkzñn, xnj ndthlj dthzn d åeleott cdjtuj öjpzqcndf. Yehfkb Hfibvjd, gjébkjq veéxbyf, ujdjhbn: ≤Tckb åeltv nhelbnmcz yfghzétyytq, ltytu d rfhvfyt e yfc ghbåfdbncz≥. ≤F rfr yfcxtn njuj, xnj ds eét åjkmit yt cvjétnt hfccxbnsdfnm yf tétvtczxyeñ pfhgkfne?≥ – cghfibdftn jlby bp ujcntq. Athvths gjébvfñn gktxfvb. ≤Rjulf vs hfåjnfkb yf ujcelfhcndj, yfib pfhgkfns dct hfdyj åskb ybprbvb, – jndtxftn u-y Hfibvjd. – Yfv jåtofkb jrjkj 20 cjvjyb (5,5 tdhj) d vtczw, yj d åjkmibycndt ckexftd yfv änb ltymub gkfnbkb kbim gj ghjitcndbb nhtö vtczwtd pf hfåjne, cltkfyyeñ pf dtcm änjn gthbjl. Byjulf, xnjås dsébnm, vs åskb dsyeéltys nfqrjv ghjlfdfnm xfcnm dbyjuhflf, öjnz b pyfkb, xnj änj ytpfrjyyj≥.

≤Rféljve yfltke vs ghbcdjbkb yjvth, f pfntv ghjdtkb kjnthtñ≥, – ujdjhbn u-y Cfqnstd. Dct kb åskb ljdjkmys? ≤Ytn, – jndtxftn jy cj cvtöjv, b dct cvtñncz dvtcnt c ybv. – Nt, rjve ljcnfkfcm ptvkz gjöeét, åskb jxtym hfccthétys, yj nen eé ybxtuj yt gjltkftim, yt nfr kb?≥ ≤Ntgthm wtkbrjv jn yfc pfdbcbn, xnj b rfr dshfobdfnm, – ljåfdkztn u-y Hfibvjd. – Vs dct åeltv cnfhfnmcz hfåjnfnm rfr vjéyj kexit≥. ≤Vjue gjlndthlbnm, xnj dct veéxbys b bö ctvmb nhelzncz ctqxfc yfghzétyyj, rfr ybrjulf hfytt≥, – ujdjhbn u-y Cfqnstd. Jyb b yt vjuen byfxt, gjcrjkmre dvtcnt c ghfdjv gjkmpjdfnmcz ptvktq bv ljcnfkcz ljku, eyfcktljdfyysq jn åsdituj rjköjpf. Cevvf pfljkétyyjcnb rjköjpf rhtlbnjhfv cjcnfdkztn 2400 cjvjyb (657 tdhj), gjlktéfobö djpdhfne d nhtöktnybq chjr. Öjnz ljku b ytdtkbr gj chfdytybñ c pfljkétyyjcnmñ lheubö öjpzqcnd, änj dct ét juhjvyfz cevvf lkz 17 rhtcnmzycrbö ctvtq.

U-y Cfqnstd b tuj rjkktub-athvths yfltñncz yfghzétyysv nheljv jåtcgtxbnm ghjwdtnfybt cdjtuj dbyjltkmxtcrjuj ghtlghbznbz.

U-y Cfqnstd gjrfpsdftn yfv ljrevtyn, eljcnjdthzñobq, xnj jy b tuj lhepmz jnysyt ytpfdbcbvst athvths, xnj ubufyncrjt ujcelfhcndtyyjt öjpzqcndj, d rjnjhjv jyb rjulf-nj cjcnjzkb, åskj hfpåbnj yf 19 vfksö xfcnysö öjpzqcnd, jlyj bp rjnjhsö b cvjukb ghbjåhtcnb ébntkb tuj ctkf. ≤Öjnz ptvkz ghbyflktébn ujcelfhcnde, yfv lfkb ghfdj gjkmpjdfnmcz tñ, b ntgthm vs cfvb jndtxftv pf jhufybpfwbñ hfåjns b gjdctlytdyjt eghfdktybt öjpzqcndjv≥, – ujdjhbn jy. F rfrbv jåhfpjv htibkb djghjc j hfpltkt rjköjpf? Rfr jghtltkbkb, rjve rfrjq exfcnjr ptvkb ljcnfytncz?

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

JÅCT/CÇHTY D. YBCCTY

KJNTHTZ

Rhtcnmzyby jlyjuj bp öjpzqcnd åkbp Leifyåt rjcbn nhfde lkz cdjtuj cnflf.

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

11


Ntv yt vtytt u-y Cfqnstd eåtélty, xnj tt vjéyj dsgkfnbnm d chjr, tckb rfélsq hfåjnybr öjpzqcndf c vfrcbvfkmyjq äaatrnbdyjcnmñ åeltn bcgjkmpjdfnm ghtljcnfdktyysq tve yfltk d gjkutrnfhf. Nfr xnj, dct ljdjkmys cdjbv yjdsv cnfnecjv xfcnyjuj athvthf? Veéxbys gthtukzlsdfñncz. ≤Lf, yj dct-nfrb yfv yeéyj åjkmit djls b yt gjvtifkj ås gjkexbnm gjåjkmit ptvkb, – ujdjhbn jlby bp athvthjd gjvjkjét. – Tlbycndtyysq dsöjl – pfhexbnmcz gjllthérjq vtéleyfhjlysö jhufybpfwbq≥. Dct rbdfñn d pyfr cjukfcbz.

≤Dféyj, xnj ntgthm vs cfvb vjétv htifnm, rjve ghjlfdfnm cdjñ ghjlerwbñ b yf rfrbö eckjdbzö. D wtkjv, nfrjq gjhzljr kexit≥, – ujdjhbn lheujq athvth. ≤Ntgthm rfélsq cfv ctåt öjpzby. Rjulf vs hfåjnfkb yf rjköjp, yfl yfvb åskj ytcrjkmrj ≤åhbuflbhjd≥. Ctqxfc ét e yfc njkmrj hfbc, rjnjhsq ≤drfksdftn≥ yfhfdyt c yfvb≥, – ujdjhbn u-y Hfibvjd, edthtyyj ukzlz yf u-yf Cfqnstdf.

Wtynh JÅCT d Leifyåt: Erhtgkzz jcyjds vbhf b åtpjgfcyjcnb xfcnbt JÅCT d jceotcndktybb ghjuhfvvs ptvtkmyjq htajhvs d Nflébrbcnfyt jnrhsdftn yjdeñ ukfde dj dpfbvjjnyjitybzö vtéle Jhufybpfwbtq b ghfdbntkmcndjv änjq cnhfys. Rhjvt njuj, lfyyfz bybwbfnbdf cjdgfkf gj dhtvtyb c ltcznbktnybv ñåbkttv ltzntkmyjcnb Jhufybpfwbb d Nflébrbcnfyt. Vbccbz JÅCT d änjq cnhfyt jnrhskfcm d atdhfkt 1994 ujlf b dgjcktlcndbb dscnegbkf d rfxtcndt jlyjuj bp ufhfynjd vténflébrcrjuj vbhyjuj cjukfitybz, gjkjébdituj d bñyt 1997 ujlf rjytw uhfélfycrjq djqyt. JÅCT

RFHNF JJY

E

12

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

zdkztncz frnbdyjv xktyjv rjynfrnyjq uheggs ujcelfhcnd b jhufybpfwbq – ufhfynjd, yf rjnjheñ djpkjéty rjynhjkm pf cjåkñltybtv Jåotuj cjukfitybz. Änf uheggf csuhfkf dféyeñ hjkm d ehtuekbhjdfybb hzlf rhbpbcjd b hfpåkjrbhjdfybb negbrjdsö cbnefwbq d gjcnrjyakbrnysq gthbjl d 1997–2000 ujlfö. D jrnzåht 2002 ujlf d pyfr ghbpyfybz ceotcndtyyjuj ghjuhtccf, ljcnbuyenjuj gjckt jrjyxfybz uhfélfycrjq djqys, Vbccbz åskf gthtbvtyjdfyf d Wtynh JÅCT d Leifyåt. Gthtcnfyjdrf frwtynjd d tt vfylfnt

gjpdjkbkf JÅCT hfcibhbnm cdjt cjnhelybxtcndj c ghfdbntkmcndjv Nflébrbcnfyf, drkñxfz ghfrnbxtcreñ htfkbpfwbñ ghjtrnjd d ärjyjvbxtcrjq b ärjkjubxtcrjq jåkfcnzö. Yjdjt ärjyjvbxtcrjt gjlhfpltktybt Wtynhf JÅCT yf ctujlyziybq ltym jceotcndbkj 11 ghjtrnjd, yfghfdktyysö yf gjllthére vfksö b chtlybö ghtlghbznbq b dytlhtybt gthtljdsö vtnjljd eghfdktybz. Ärjkjubxtcrbq jnltk jrfpsdftn gjllthére b cjltqcndbt d dsgjkytybb Jhöeccrjq rjydtywbb, cjukfcyj rjnjhjq Nflébrbcnfy, rfr jlyj bp gjlgb-

cfdibö tt ujcelfhcnd, jåzpfkcz jåtcgtxbdfnm nhfycgfhtynyjcnm b exfcnbt ytghfdbntkmcndtyysö jhufybpfwbq d htitybb ärjkjubxtcrbö djghjcjd. D hfvrfö gthdjuj d bcnjhbb JÅCT vthjghbznbz gjljåyjuj hjlf Wtynh d Leifyåt d cjnhelybxtcndt cj Idtqwfhcrbv ajyljv hfpvbybhjdfybz pfybvftncz htitybtv ghjåktvs ≤yfcktlbz djqys≥: jåtpdhtébdfybtv nsczx åjtdsö vby, hfpåhjcfyysö gj dctq nthhbnjhbb cnhfys. D hfvrfö änjuj abyfycbhetvjuj bp vtéleyfhjlysö bcnjxybrjd ghjtrnf uheggs nflébrcrbö ärcgthnjd ghjöjlzn cgtwbfkmyeñ gjlujnjdre, gjpdjkzñoeñ bv dszdkznm jgfcyst pjys, xtnrj jghtltkznm uhfybws vbyysö gjktq b ghjdjlbnm hfpvbybhjdfybt. Ghbvtyzz vtéctrnjhfkmysq gjlöjl, Wtynh ghjljkéftn cjltqcndjdfnm gjkbnbxtcrjve lbfkjue, ajhvbhjdfnm ghfdjdeñ åfpe b jrfpsdfnm gjllthére uhfélfycrjve jåotcnde b ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv bycnbnenfv. Jceotcndkztvst ghjtrns yfghfdktys yf htajhvbhjdfybt nñhtvyjq cbcntvs, cjltqcndbt cnfyjdktybñ

ghjatccbjyfkmysö b ytpfdbcbvsö CVB b cjdthitycndjdfybt äktrnjhfkmyjuj vtöfybpvf. Gjdsityyjt dybvfybt eltkztncz gjlujnjdrt rj dctjåobv dsåjhfv, yfvtxtyysv yf 2005 ujl. Rhjvt njuj, Wtynh cnfk buhfnm åjktt pfvtnyeñ hjkm d htitybb utylthysö ghjåktv. D hfpysö xfcnzö Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb åskb cajhvbhjdfys 20 uhegg gjllthérb étyoby b ghjdtltyf cthbz ctvbyfhjd gj ghfdfv étyoby, d rjnjhsö ghbyzkb exfcnbt ghtlcnfdbntkb åjktt 50 hfqjyjd. Bvtz d cdjtv infnt åjktt 90 cjnhelybrjd (79 vtcnysö b 15 vtéleyfhjlysö), Wtynh d Leifyåt zdkztncz rhegytqitq cnhernehjq JÅCT d Wtynhfkmyjq Fpbb. D hfcgjkjétyyjq yf ñut cnhfys Öfnkjycrjq jåkfcnb tuj ltzntkmyjcnm jödfnsdftn 14 hfqjyjd åkfujlfhz yfkbxbñ vtcnysö jnltktybq d ujhjlfö Rehufy-Nñåt, Rekzåt b Iffhnept. Bvtñncz nfrét jnltktybz d Ufhvt (ujhysq hfqjy d wtynht cnhfys) b d hfcgjkjétyyjv yf ctdtht cnhfys ujhjlt Öeléfylt (Ceulcrfz jåkfcnm).

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz: genm r ltvjrhfnbb – yt dctulf ≤itkrjdsq≥ Dpukzl yt bp Öjaåehuf Kñåfz gjgsnrf yfhbcjdfnm rfhnbye ébpyb d rfrjq-kbåj bp wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbö cnhfy ibhjrbvb vfprfvb hbcretn åsnm ytelfxyjq. Gjänjve, jnghfdkzzcm d gjtplre d Rfpföcnfy, Rshuspcnfy, Nflébrbcnfy, Nehrvtybcnfy b Epåtrbcnfy, vs c vjbvb xtnshmvz rjkktufvb-gjckfvb ndthlj htibkb hfccvfnhbdfnm jåotcndj gthtöjlyjuj gthbjlf d änbö gznb ujcelfhcndfö d lbyfvbrt, ghbybvfz dj dybvfybt jåoeñ lkz ybö njxre jncxtnf b jxtdblyst hfpkbxbz d afrnjhfö, jghtltkzñobö ädjkñwbñ rféljuj bp ybö. Ghb nfrjv gjlöjlt hfpkbxbz vtéle änbvb cnhfyfvb ghjzdbkbcm xtnxt, yj änj ét vjéyj crfpfnm b j hzlt jåütlbyzñobö bö xthn.

Nflébrcrbq gfcneö Ajnj: JÅCT/Kñåjvbh Rjntr

GJCJK AHFYCBIRE CTQIFC LF RJINF

fv c nheljv elfdfkjcm ekfdkbdfnm cenm cgjhf, ghbckeibdfzcm r itgjne gthtdjlxbrf, yj, celz gj dshfétybzv kbw b étcnfv ghbcencndjdfdibö, åskj jxtdblyj, xnj dsåhfyyfz lbcreccbjyysv rkeåjv cgjhyfz ntvf – kbåthfkbpjdfnm kb egjnhtåktybt ≤vzurbö≥ yfhrjnbrjd bkb ytn – edktrkf dctö. Cneltyns, dscnegfdibt d hjkb ≤ghfdbntkmcndf≥ b, cjjndtncndtyyj, ≤jggjpbwbb≥, dscrfpsdfkb ghzvj ghjnbdjgjkjéyst dpukzls. Pfntv ghbcencndjdfdibt ujkjcjdfkb pf ne rjvfyle, fhuevtyns rjnjhjq gjrfpfkbcm bv yfbåjktt eåtlbntkmysvb. ≤Djn nfr hjélftncz ltvjrhfnbz≥, – gjlevfkb vs. Vs yföjlbkbcm yf ctdtht Nflébrbcnfyf, d u. Öeléfylt, yfåkñlfz pf ntv, rfr ghtndjhztncz d ébpym cjdvtcnyfz bybwbfnbdf vtcnyjuj jnltktybz JÅCT b bycnbnenf ≤Jnrhsnjt jåotcndj≥. Lheujq ägbpjl, jlyfrj, åsk yt cnjkm hfljcnysv, b gj dgjkyt gjyznysv ghbxbyfv z yt åele enjxyznm, ult ghjbcöjlbkj ltkj. Njkmrj xnj pfrjyxbkfcm yfif dcnhtxf c ghtlcnfdbntkzvb uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf, rjnjhst ujdjhbkb j étcnrbö juhfybxtybzö, yfkjétyysö vtcnysvb dkfcnzvb yf ltzntkmyjcnm YGJ. Jlyf bp dscnegfdibö, eét ytvjkjlfz étyobyf, kbwj rjnjhjq ytckj yf ctåt jngtxfnjr gthtytctyysö tñ cnhflfybq, c ytjåsxfqysv veétcndjv b ghzvjnjq hfccrfpfkf j nzujnfö ébpyb d jåcnfyjdrt gjlfdktybz cdjåjl.

Y

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Gjybpbd ujkjc, jyf crfpfkf: ≤F ntgthm, gjéfkeqcnf, pfgjvybnt vjt bvz b ghjcktlbnt vjñ lfkmytqieñ celmåe. Z yt pyfñ, xnj cj vyjq åeltn gjckt änjq dcnhtxb c dfvb≥. Änj dctuj kbim ldt bp vyjétcndf jxtym ytgjöjébö lheu yf lheuf dcnhtx, pfgjvybdiböcz vyt dj dhtvz ldeöytltkmyjq gjtplrb d wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbt cnhfys – Rfpföcnfy, Rshuspcnfy, Nflébrbcnfy, Nehrvtybcnfy b Epåtrbcnfy. D jcyjdt ghbyznjuj yfitq uheggjq htitybz gjctnbnm dct änb gznm ujcelfhcnd ktéfkj étkfybt kexit jpyfrjvbnmcz c wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbvb htfkbzvb b ltzntkmyjcnmñ JÅCT yf vtcnfö d änjv htubjyt. Gjckfv Åtkmubb, Rfyfls, Yjhdtubb, Ckjdtybb b vyt d änjq gjtplrt jxtym gjvjukb cjnhelybrb Ctrhtnfhbfnf JÅCT b gznb tt wtynhjd, b vs dcnhtnbkb bcrhtyytt ujcntghbbvcndj cj cnjhjys vtcnysö b wtynhfkmysö dkfcntq, f nfrét ébntktq hfpkbxysö yfctktyysö geyrnjd. Nhelyj yf jcyjdt dgtxfnktybq gjckt ytcrjkmrbö lytq ghtåsdfybz lfnm njxyeñ rfhnbye gjkjétybz d rféljq cnhfyt b hfccrfpfnm j ghjåktvfö, c rjnjhsvb jyf cnfkrbdftncz yf genb hfpdbnbz. Jåotcndf, yföjlzobtcz yf gthtöjlyjv änfgt, ljkéys hfccvfnhbdfnmcz d lbyfvbrt, exbnsdfz nj, c xtuj jyb yfxfkb, b htfkmyst afrnjhs, jghtltkzñobt hfpkbxbz d genzö bö ädjkñwbb. Dct gznm cnhfy, rjnjhst vs gjctnbkb, bvtñn jåott yfcktlbt (rjvveybcnbxtcrfz lbrnfnehf), yj vtéle ifufvb, eét ghtlghbyznsvb rféljq bp ybö yf genb r ltvjrhfnbb, yfåkñlftncz juhjvyfz

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

13


hfpybwf. Ytrjnjhst cnhfys pfkjébkb ghjxysq aeylfvtyn, drkñxfñobq dct ytjåöjlbvst eckjdbz lkz njuj, xnjås ghbdbkbcm ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt wtyyjcnb b ecnjb: dthöjdtycndj pfrjyf, edfétybt ghfd xtkjdtrf, åtpjgfcyfz jåcnfyjdrf, d rjnjhjq kñlb vjuen cdjåjlyj cjplfdfnm jhufybpfwbb, yt jgfcfzcm gjkbnbxtcrbö gjcktlcndbq. Lheubt ét – åeltv d änjv jnrhjdtyys – dct tot öhfyzn jåsxfb, eyfcktljdfyyst c ghtéybö dhtvty. Yfv öjntkjcm epyfnm rfr vjéyj åjkmit j gjkjétybb ltk d rféljq cnhfyt, åtp ärbdjrjd gjujdjhbnm c dkfcnzvb j njv, xnj yfc åjkmit dctuj åtcgjrjbn, b ecksifnm jå äktvtynfhysö xfzybzö b yfltélfö ghtlcnfdbntktq uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf. Vs nfrét öjntkb dcnhtnbnmcz c cjnhelybrfvb jnltktybq JÅCT yf vtcnfö b jåcelbnm c ybvb nj, rfr yfv kexit dctuj gjvjxm bv d ljcnbétybb bö wtktq. D cdjbö åtctlfö vs bpåtufkb yfcnfdbntkmyjuj, vtynjhcrjuj njyf b yt gsnfkbcm xbnfnm vjhfkm. Vs cnfhfkbcm yt ljgecnbnm bcreccndtyyjuj ltktybz yf ≤Djcnjr≥ b ≤Pfgfl≥ (jn Dtys). Gj yfitve vytybñ, tckb b tcnm rfrjt-nj ltktybt d JÅCT, nj änj ltktybt yf ntö, rnj cjåkñlftn cdjb jåzpfntkmcndf, b ntö, rnj änjuj yt ltkftn. Äne vsckm vs b cnhtvbkbcm ljytcnb lj cjåtctlybrjd. PFCKEÉBDFÑOBT LJDTHBZ EXHTÉLTYBZ

GJCJK ÄDTKBY GFRCKB

JÅCT/ÅJÉBLFH LBVBNHJD

Pfvtcnbntkm vähf Hjåbz Hfövfnjdf ghjoftncz c gjckjv Rjyucötv (cktdf) b gjckjv Gfrckb (d wtynht) gj jrjyxfybb bö dbpbnf d u. Yehtr, d 60 rbkjvtnhfö r ñuj-djcnjre jn Leifyåt.

ébpytyyj dféyjve djghjce rjycnbnewbjyyjq gthtlfxb gjkbnbxtcrjq dkfcnb. Vs ghbikb r dsdjle, xnj d åjkmibycndt cnhfy cjplfys cjjndtncndeñobt jabwbfkmyst cnhernehs, drkñxfz vtöfybpvs ≤clthétr b ghjnbdjdtcjd≥. Ghbyzns pfrjys b flvbybcnhfnbdyst ghfdbkf, jåtcgtxbdfñobt yflktéfott aeyrwbjybhjdfybt jåotcndf b jödfnsdfñobt dct caths – jn dsåjhjd, gjkbnbxtcrbö gfhnbq b YGJ lj CVB b htkbubb. Jlyfrj, rfr ukfcbn jåotbpdtcnyfz gjujdjhrf, ≤xthn rhjtncz d ltnfkzö≥ – ltnfkzö ghfrnbxtcrjq htfkbpfwbb. Dj vyjubö ckexfzö gjkbnbxtcrjt lfdktybt b crhsnst ghtgjys ytjabwbfkmyjuj öfhfrnthf, eceueåkztvst ntv, xnj celtåyst jhufys ckbirjv åkbprb r dkfcnb, cdjlzn yf ytn gjgsnrb uhfélfy htfkbpjdfnm ytpfdbcbvst bybwbfnbds, yfghfdktyyst yf pfdjtdfybt jåotcndtyyjq gjllthérb b bpvtytybt ébpyb kñltq r kexitve.

Gjcks Vtnnt Rjyucötv (Yjhdtubz), Åthnhfy lt Rhjvåhñuut (Åtkmubz), Ädtkby Gfrckb (Rfyflf), Zytw Ktyfhxbx (Ckjdtybz) b Ahfycbire Ctqifc lf Rjinf (Gjhneufkbz) gjckt dcnhtxb c cjnhelybrfvb Nehrvtycrjuj yfwbjyfkmyjuj bycnbnenf ltvjrhfnbb b ghfd xtkjdtrf ghb ghtpbltynt Nehrvtybcnfyf. Cpflb dblyj plfybt ldjhwf ≤Heöütn≥ (≤Leöjdyjcnm≥).

14

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

RFHNF JJY

Tckb cvjnhtnm bp Öjaåehuf, nj Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz ythtlrj dblbncz rfr tlbyjt wtkjt, kbim c ytåjkmibvb, ytcbcntvysvb hfpkbxbzvb vtéle cnhfyfvb. Yfv pyfrjvs utjuhfabxtcrbt yfpdfybz b bvtyf gjkbnbxtcrbö ltzntktq, b vs chfpe jåhfoftv dybvfybt b yfcnjhfébdftvcz, rjulf djpybrftn xnj-nj, euhjéfñott ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq htgenfwbb cnhfys, b, yfjåjhjn, c hfljcnmñ ghbdtncndetv gjpbnbdyst cjåsnbz. D öjlt lfyyjq gjtplrb, jlyfrj, vs gjcnfdbkb gthtl cjåjq pflfxe enjxybnm hfpkbxbz b bpexbnm nj jåott, xnj jåütlbyztn änb cnhfys, gjcnjzyyj gjvyz j yfitq wtkb – cjltqcndjdfnm jcjpyfybñ juhjvyjq wtyyjcnb cnhtvktybz r htubjyfkmyjve cjnhelybxtcnde b jåtcgtxtybñ cbythubb. D öjlt yfibö rjynfrnjd c jabwbfkmysvb kbwfvb åskj pfvtnyj, xnj dctv bv jxtym öjxtncz, xnjås bö gjkbnbxtcrbt exhtéltybz djcghbybvfkbcm rfr frnbdyst exfcnybrb ghjwtccf ltvjrhfnbpfwbb. Änj jåyfltébdfkj, yj vs cxbnfkb nfrét wtktcjjåhfpysv eltkbnm åjktt ghbcnfkmyjt dybvfybt

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


JCYJDFYBZ LKZ YFLTÉLS

Levfñ, bvttn cvsck gjdnjhbnm: cbnefwbz dtplt hfpyfz, b åskj ås ytghfdbkmyj lfdfnm jlby ≤lbfuyjp≥ yf dctö. D cfvjv ltkt, vs jåhfnbkb dybvfybt yf nj, xnj ytrjnjhst ghfdbntkmcndf ghtlghbybvfñn cthmtpyst ecbkbz gj jceotcndktybñ htajhv, yfghfdkzz cdjb cnhfys yf genm cnfåbkmyjuj hfpdbnbz. Yfvb åskb gjkextys jghtltktyyst gjpbnbdyst cbuyfks, rjnjhst vs ytghtvtyyj ljdtltv lj cdtltybz yfibö rjkktu d Dtyt. Z yfcnjzntkmyj ghbpsdfñ vtéleyfhjlyjt cjjåotcndj gjcnfhfnmcz, xnjås dsitegjvzyenst ecbkbz gjkexbkb ljkéyjt ghbpyfybt b åskb djpyfuhféltys. Yfpjde kbim jlye ntyltywbñ, rjnjhfz åskf djcghbyznf rfélsv xktyjv yfitq uheggs d gjkjébntkmyjv leöt: dct wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbt cnhfys ldbéencz d yfghfdktybb vjhfnjhbz yf cvthnyeñ rfpym. Cntgtym pfbynthtcjdfyyjcnb d cjnhelybxtcndt c vbccbzvb JÅCT yf vtcnfö gj-ghtéytve zdkztncz yfltéysv bylbrfnjhjv étkfybz ghfdbntkmcnd cjnhelybxfnm c vtéleyfhjlysv cjjåotcndjv d wtkjv. Yf dctv ghjnzétybb gjtplrb z gjcnjzyyj pflfdfk ctåt djghjc: ≤Rfrjt dkbzybt vjétn JÅCT jrfpfnm yf åeleott änjq cnhfys, exbnsdfz juhfybxtyyjcnm htcehcjd b ytljcnfnjxyeñ cnhernehyeñ hfpdbnjcnm Jhufybpfwbb≥? Gjcntgtyyj cnfkb dshbcjdsdfnmcz ytrjnjhst jndtns, b z eåtlbkcz d njv, xnj lfét lfktrj yt uhfylbjpyfz ltzntkmyjcnm, jgbhfñofzcz yf ljdjkmyj crhjvyjt abyfycbhj-

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

GJCJK ÄDTKBY GFRCKB

Dj dhtvz yfibö gthttpljd bp cnhfys d cnhfye z levfk j njv, xnj rekmnehf jnrhsnjcnb kexit dctuj ghjzdkztncz njulf, rjulf gjkbnbxtcrbt gfhnbb, étkfñobt dscnegbnm pf bpvtytybt cnfnec-rdj, vjuen änj cltkfnm åkfujlfhz djpvjéyjcnb cfvjjhufybpfwbb, yfkbxbñ ghjcnsö ghjwtleh htubcnhfwbb b åkfujlfhz djpvjéyjcnb exfcndjdfnm d åtpeckjdyj cdjåjlysö b xtcnysö dsåjhfö, cjjndtncndeñobö vtéleyfhjlysv cnfylfhnfv. D ytrjnjhsö cnhfyfö vs edbltkb nñhtvyeñ b celtåyeñ cbcntvs, rjnjhst zdyj yeélfñncz d htajhvt b d rjnjhsö jncencndetn ghfrnbrf nofntkmyjuj hfccktljdfybz jådbytybq d ghbvtytybb gsnjr. Bvtdibt vtcnj nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns b ghjzdktybz ghjntcnf d yfcbkmcndtyyjq ajhvt gjhjq bcgjkmpjdfkbcm lkz jghfdlfybz rfvgfybq cehjdsö htghtccbq d jnyjitybb jggjytynjd b d rfxtcndt eljåyjuj ghtlkjuf lkz ghtlfybz gjkyjve pfådtybñ jcyjdysö ghfd uhfélfy. Dct tot ckbirjv xfcnj YGJ djcghbybvfñncz rfr hfccflybr lbccbltyncndf. Rjynhjkm yfl chtlcndfvb vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb cj cnjhjys ghfdbntkmcndf ghbjåhtnftn gjlxfc crfylfkmyst vfcinfås. Rjhhegwbz, gj-dblbvjve, ghjybrkf dj dct caths gjdctlytdyjq ébpyb. Vyjubv bp änbö cnhfy, jcjåtyyj ntv, rjnjhst lj cbö gjh yt cvjukb d gjkyjq vtht pfdjtdfnm ljdthbt vtéleyfhjlysö abyfycjdsö bycnbnenjd, tot ghtlcnjbn ytgjchtlcndtyyj htifnm ghjåktvs jåtcgtxtybz nhfycgfhtynyjcnb, gjljnxtnyjcnb b yflktéfotuj eghfdktybz d abyfycjdj-ärjyjvbxtcrjq jåkfcnb.

dfybt, vjétn jrfpfnmcz dtcmvf gjktpyjq lkz hzljdsö uhfélfy. D Rshuspcnfyt vs c yfckféltybtv dgbnsdfkb d ctåz pljhjdeñ fnvjcathe gjpyfybz, wfhzoeñ d Frfltvbb JÅCT d Åbirtrt, d rjnjhjq dvtcnt jåexfñncz ckeifntkb bp Wtynhfkmyjq Fpbb b lheubö htubjyjd vbhf. Vs nfrét eåtlbkbcm d njv, xnj ghjuhfvvf cjltqcndbz jhufyfv dyenhtyybö ltk d Åbirtrt b hfåjnf ñhblbxtcrbö rjycekmnfwbq d u. Jit ckeéfn äaatrnbdysvb bycnhevtynfvb jpyfrjvktybz kñltq c ltvjrhfnbxtcrbvb vtnjlfvb jceotcndktybz dkfcnysö gjkyjvjxbq b jnghfdktybz ghfdjcelbz. D Nflébrbcnfyt gjllthérf, jrfpfyyfz JÅCT ytpfdbcbvjq ufptnt b byajhvfwbjyyjve futyncnde d Öeléfylt, ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkf, rfr vyjuj vjéyj cltkfnm lfét cj crelysvb chtlcndfvb. D cnjkbwt cnhfys Leifyåt vs ghbcencndjdfkb ghb jnrhsnbb yjdjuj änfgf ghjtrnf JÅCT gj hfpvbybhjdfybñ, jceotcndkztvjuj cjdvtcnyj cj Idtqwfhcrbv ajyljv hfpvbybhjdfybz. Jlyfrj, vyjujt tot njkmrj ghtlcnjbn cltkfnm. E JÅCT tcnm djpvjéyjcnm buhfnm ébpytyyj dféyeñ hjkm pf cxtn ghblfybz ytrjnjhsv bp jceotcndkztvsö tñ ghjtrnjd d jnltkmysö cnhfyfö htubjyfkmyjuj öfhfrnthf, f nfrét hfcghjcnhfytybz cdjtq ltzntkmyjcnb – d cjnhelybxtcndt c vtéleyfhjlysvb gfhnythfvb – b yf lheubt dspsdfñobt cthmtpyeñ jpfåjxtyyjcnm jåkfcnb, nfrbt, rfr åjhmåf c njhujdktq kñlmvb, htajhvbhjdfybt jhufyjd dyenhtyybö ltk b gjuhfybxysq rjynhjkm. Dféyjt vtcnj d ≤wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrjq gjdtcnrt lyz≥ JÅCT ljkéys b dghtlm pfybvfnm djghjcs, rfcfñobtcz dkbzybz bpüzyjd d cbcntvt jåhfpjdfybz yf åtpjgfcyjcnm, djpltqcndbz vbuhfwbjyyjuj afrnjhf, ghfd vtymibycnd, ärjkjubxtcrbö hbcrjd, bveotcndtyysö ghfd b ptvtkmyjq htajhvs. Gjctotybt infåf hjccbqcrbö djqcr, hfpvtotyysö yf ñéyjq uhfybwt Nflébrbcnfyf c Faufybcnfyjv, gjpdjkbkf yfv nfrét jcjpyfnm djpvjéyst gjcktlcndbz ytpfrjyyjuj jåjhjnf yfhrjnbrjd c njxrb phtybz cnfåbkmyjcnb d htubjyt.

Yf nflébrcrj-faufycrjq uhfybwt. Gjcjk Rjyucötv erfpsdftn d yfghfdktybb Faufybcnfyf.

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

15


WTYYST EHJRB

D wtkjv, bp cdjtuj ytgjchtlcndtyyjuj pyfrjvcndf c Wtynhfkmyjq Fpbtq b tt yfhjlfvb z bpdktr hzl wtyysö ehjrjd, f bvtyyj: • ≤ybrfrjuj leåkbhjdfybz b ybrfrjuj cjgthybxtcndf≥ – änbv ghbywbgjv, yf vjq dpukzl, cktletn herjdjlcndjdfnmcz cnhernehfv JÅCT yf vtcnfö, rjnjhst ljkéys ntcyj rjjhlbybhjdfnm cdjb ltqcndbz, ljgjkyznm hfåjne lheu lheuf b cjnhelybxfnm c vtéleyfhjlysvb gfhnythfvb yf vtcnfö. Ytjåöjlbvj gjlxthrbdfnm jcjåsq öfhfrnth hjkb JÅCT dj bpåtéfybt ≤yfrkfljr≥ c ltzntkmyjcnmñ futyncnd gj hfpdbnbñ; • cktletn yt egecrfnm bp dble, xnj htfkmysv vthbkjv äaatrnbdyjcnb zdkztncz cntgtym b cnfåbkmyjcnm djpltqcndbz ghjdjlbvsö vthjghbznbq yf åkfujgjkexbt kñltq. Lfdfqnt yt pfåsdfnm, xnj åtcrjytxyjt edtkbxtybt xbckf cjdtofybq, ctvbyfhjd, rjyathtywbq b cbvgjpbevjd xhtdfnj jgfcyjcnmñ njuj, xnj änb vthjghbznbz cnfyen djcghbybvfnmcz rfr tlbycndtyysq gjrfpfntkm hfåjns yf vtcnfö. Vtcnyst cnhernehs JÅCT yt ljkéys gjllfdfnmcz cjåkfpye dpznmcz jlyjdhtvtyyj pf ckbirjv vyjuj ghjtrnjd bkb pf ghjdtltybt ltzntkmyjcnb, bvtñotq vfkjt ghfrnbxtcrjt pyfxtybt b ytåjkmibt ifycs yf ghjljkétybt d åeleotv c jgjhjq yf cjåcndtyyst htcehcs. Jlyfrj z gjkyjcnmñ jnlfñ ctåt jnxtn d njv, xnj gjljåyst ckexfb ythtlrj åsdfñn htpekmnfnjv gjgsnjr jåtcgtxbnm åfkfyc vtéle vthjghbznbzvb d djtyyj-gjkbnbxtcrjv, ärjyjvbxtcrjv/ärjkjubxtcrjv b xtkjdtxtcrjv bpvthtybzö;

• dj ukfdt jnltktybq JÅCT yf vtcnfö yfv yeéys kñlb äythubxyst, jåkflfñobt öfhbpvjq, bcgjkytyyst äynepbfpvf, cgjcjåyst pfbynthtcjdfnm b vjåbkbpjdfnm cjnhelybrjd, f nfrét dljöyjdbnm bö yf hfåjne d tlbyjq rjvfylt. D hzlt ckexftd vyt ljdtkjcm dcnhtnbnm ntö, ghj rjuj vjéyj crfpfnm: ≤xtkjdtr yf cdjtv vtcnt≥. Ghbcencndbt JÅCT – änj yt ≤ldecnjhjyytt≥ gjcjkmcndj, dtleott henbyyeñ hfåjne. D cdjtq ltzntkmyjcnb jyj ljkéyj cnhtvbnmcz åsnm ubårbv, yfwtktyysv yf ndjhxtcrbq gjbcr gentq b chtlcnd gjkyjuj jceotcndktybz cdjtuj vfylfnf; • xhtpdsxfqyj dféyjq ghtlgjcskrjq ecgtöf vbccbq yf vtcnfö zdkzñncz frnbdysq lbfkju b gjcnjzyyjt cjnhelybxtcndj c dkfcnzvb cnhfys ghtåsdfybz. Jlyfrj änj yb d rjtv ckexft yt ljkéyj ltkfnmcz d eothå njq lbyfvbxyjq hjkb, rjnjheñ yflktébn buhfnm jgthfwbzv yf vtcnfö. Yföjéltybt ghfdbkmyjuj åfkfycf vtéle änbvb ldevz fcgtrnfvb – tlbycndtyysq lkz vbccbq cgjcjå dsgjkybnm gjcnfdktyyst gthtl ybvb pflfxb b tlbycndtyysq lkz ghbybvfñobö cnhfy genm r gjkextybñ gjvjob d ghtndjhtybb d ébpym ntö yjhv b wtyyjcntq, j ghbdthétyyjcnb rjnjhsv jyb pfzdbkb, rjulf htibkb dkbnmcz d cjjåotcndj JÅCT. D pfrkñxtybt z öjntk ås htrjvtyljdfnm dctv vjbv rjkktufv d Dtyt gjcnfhfnmcz gjctnbnm yfib cnhernehs yf vtcnfö d Wtynhfkmyjv Fpbb. Gj chfdytybñ c ntv, xnj epyftim, ytgjchtlcndtyyj nfv gjåsdfd, Wtynhfkmyfz Fpbz, rfrjq jyf dblbncz bp Öjaåehuf, – dctuj kbim dbhnefkmyfz htfkmyjcnm.

Éehyfk ≤JÅCT≥ gjghjcbk gjckf Ahfycbire Ctqifcf lf Rjine, gjcnjzyyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz Gjhneufkbb ghb JÅCT, gjltkbnmcz kbxysvb dgtxfnktybzvb j Wtynhfkmyjq Fpbb, gjkextyysvb d öjlt gjtplrb d änjn htubjy 15–29 vfz. Gjcjk Ctqifc lf Rjinf ghbcnegbk r bcgjkytybñ cdjbö jåzpfyyjcntq d Dtyt d ctynzåht 2002 ujlf, rjulf jy nfrét djpukfdbk Gjcnjzyysq cjdtn d cdzpb c ghtlctlfntkmcndjv Gjhneufkbb d JÅCT. D 2001–2002 ujlfö jy zdkzkcz gjcnjzyysv ghtlcnfdbntktv Gjhneufkbb ghb JJY d Ymñ-Qjhrt. C 1995 gj 2001 ujl pfybvfk ljkéyjcnm ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ctrhtnfhz gj tdhjgtqcrbv ltkfv. Yf lbgkjvfnbxtcreñ ckeéåe cdjtq cnhfys jy ghbitk d 1975 ujle, b c ntö gjh tve ljdtkjcm hfåjnfnm gj änjq kbybb d Jckj, Kefylt b Kjyljyt.

Cjnhelybxtcndj Uthvfybb b Epåtrbcnfyf d jåkfcnb rjynhjkz yfl djjheétybzvb b erhtgktybz ljdthbz Åkfujlfhz cjdvtcnyjve ghjtrne c Uthvfybtq Epåtrbcnfy gjkexbk gkfybhjdfybñ b gjlujnjdrt htfkmyjq bycgtrwbb d jlyjv bp hfqjyjd djpvjéyjcnm buhfnm frnbdyeñ hjkm d jceotcndktybb Dtycrjuj ljreFdcnhbb 10–11 vfz. vtynf – dféyjuj cjukfitybz, pfkjébdituj jcyjde lkz nhfycgfhtynÄnjn ghjtrn, jceotcndkztvsq ghb gjllthért Wtynhf JÅCT d Nfiyjcnb, rjynfrnjd b cjnhelybxtcndf d djtyyjq rtynt, ghjljkébncz d ctynzåht 2004 ujlf, jåkfcnb d htubjyt JÅCT. Rfpföcnfy cdjt rjulf gjlujnjdre d Uthvfybb ghjqltn ljgjkexfcnbt d änjq hfåjnt yfxfk d ghjikjv ujle. ybntkmyjt xbckj epåtrcrbö cgtwbfkbcnjd gj Gthdsq änfg ghjtrnf, pfrkñxfñotujcz d rjynhjkñ yfl djjheétybzvb. gjlujnjdrt epåtrcrbö cgtwbfkbcnjd d jåkfcnb Dtycrbq ljrevtyn d tuj gjcktlytq htlfrghjdthrb, yfxfkcz d Uthvfybb b Fdcnhbb c wbb åsk ghbyzn Ajhevjv JÅCT gj cjnhelghjdtltybz cjdvtcnysö extybq. ybxtcnde d jåkfcnb åtpjgfcyjcnb d öjlt D yfxfkt vfz xtnsht epåtrcrbö bycgtrnjhf Cnfvåekmcrjq dcnhtxb yf dscitv ehjdyt d ghjikb ldeöytltkmysq rehc gjlujnjdrb d hfc1999 ujle. Vthjghbznbz gj ghjdthrt zdkzgjkjétyyjv d Ufqktyrbhötyt wtynht atltñncz cjcnfdyjq xfcnmñ ghtlecvjnhtyysö hfkmysö djjheétyysö cbk Uthvfybb gj djghjänbv Ljrevtynjv vth erhtgktybz ljdthbz Uheggf epåtrcrbö cgtwbfkbcnjd jcvfnhbdftn ktureñ cfv ghjdthrb. Åsk ghjdtlty jåvty pyfybzvb b åtpjgfcyjcnb d jåkfcnb rjynhjkz yfl åhjybhjdfyyeñ htvjynyj-ädfrefwbjyyeñ vfibye d b jgsnjv, f nfrét ghfrnbxtcrbt extybz gj djjheétybzvb. Vfenthyt (Fdcnhbz).

16

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


RJYATHTYWBZ GJ FYNBCTVBNBPVE

≤Ytnthgbvjt jnyjitybt r ytnthgbvjcnb≥: cåbdfz djkye fynbctvbnbpvf Åjktt 800 ltktufnjd bp 55 ujcelfhcnd-exfcnybrjd JÅCT b cnhfy-gfhnythjd, drkñxfz Bphfbkm, ghbyzkb 28–29 fghtkz exfcnbt d ghjdjlbditqcz Jhufybpfwbtq dj dnjhjq hfp Rjyathtywbb gj fynbctvbnbpve. D öjlt änjuj vthjghbznbz, cjcnjzditujcz d Åthkbyt gj ghbukfitybñ ytvtwrjuj vbybcnhf byjcnhfyysö ltk Qjirb Abithf, jcyjdyjt dybvfybt åskj eltktyj hjkb ghfdbntkmcnd, uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf, jåhfpjdfybz b chtlcnd vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb d åjhmåt c ghtlhfccelrfvb b ghjgfufylt nthgbvjcnb. Exfcnybrb Rjyathtywbb, ghtlcnfdkzdibt ibhjrbq gjkbnbxtcrbq cgtrnh – jn vbybcnhjd byjcnhfyysö ltk lj kblthjd uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf – dscnegbkb c htibntkmysv jceéltybtv dctö frnjd, cjdthiftvsö yf gjxdt fynbctvbnbpvf b lheubö ajhv htkbubjpyjq bkb hfcjdjq ytyfdbcnb. ≤Vtyz jcjåtyyj nhjyekb ytceobt cbkmysq ävjwbjyfkmysq pfhzl djcgjvbyfybz ntö, rjve ljdtkjcm gthtébnm ≤ijf≥ (öjkjrjcn)≥, – crfpfk Ltqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm, vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Åjkufhbb Cjkjvjy Gfccb, jnrhsdfdibq Rjyathtywbñ dvtcnt c Qjöfyytcjv Hfe, pfdthifñobv cdjt ghtåsdfybt yf gjcne ghtpbltynf Uthvfybb. D xbckt dscjrjgjcnfdktyysö ujcntq yf Rjyathtywbb ghbcencndjdfk ghtpbltyn Bphfbkz Vjit Rfwfd, ghbtöfdibq d rfxtcndt yfåkñlfntkz. Dscnegbd c ghtljcnthtétybtv jnyjcbntkmyj ≤eåbqcndf gfvznb≥, C. Gfccb jnvtnbk, xnj ckjdf gthtébdibö öjkjrjcn Äkb Dbptkf b Cbvjys Dfqkm ckeéfn yfgjvbyfybtv j njv, xnj änj ≤cfvjt eéfcfñott bp ghtcnegktybq ghjnbd xtkjdtxtcndf≥ ybrjulf yt ljkéyj åsnm pfåsnj. Ybét ghbdjlzncz dslthérb bp ytrjnjhsö ghjpdexfdibö yf Rjyathtywbb dscnegktybq.

j, xnj JÅCT htibkf dpznmcz pf äne ntve, – cghfdtlkbdj b frnefkmyj. JÅCT gthdjq bp jhufybpfwbq gj ghjåktvfv åtpjgfcyjcnb ghbpyfkf dpfbvjcdzpm vtéle vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnmñ b ghfdfvb xtkjdtrf. Wtkm Rjyathtywbb – yflktéfobv jåhfpjv dgbcfnm ghjåktve fynbctvbnbpvf d rjyntrcn ghfd xtkjdtrf. Jhufybpfwbz vjétn gjödfcnfnm vyjubvb ecgtöfvb, jlyfrj lkz htfkbpfwbb yjhv, cjukfcjdfyysö

N

Ajnj: JÅCT b lheubt jabwbfkmyst bcnjxybrb

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

ujcelfhcndfvb-exfcnybrfvb, ghtlcnjbn cltkfnm tot ytvfkj. Yfif åtpjgfcyjcnm ythfphsdyj cdzpfyf c pfobnjq yfibö jåobö wtyyjcntq. JÅCT gjpbwbjybhetn ctåz d rfxtcndt jhufybpfwbb, ecnfyfdkbdfñotq cnfylfhns, f gjjohtybt edfétybz r ghfdfv xtkjdtrf zdkztncz jlyjq bp yfbåjktt dféysö tt aeyrwbq. Qjufyytc Hfe, ghtpbltyn Atlthfnbdyjq Htcgeåkbrb Uthvfybb

s rfr ghbybvfñofz cnjhjyf d änjv vthjghbznbb cjpyftv bcnjhbxtcreñ b vjhfkmyeñ jndtncndtyyjcnm Uthvfybb pf öjkjrjcn. Gfvznm jå änjv xeljdboyjv ghtcnegktybb ghjnbd xtkjdtxyjcnb b dghtlm åeltn afrnjhjv, ajhvbheñobv gjkbnbre Uthvfybb d ghtlcnjzobt ltcznbktnbz. Lj ntö gjh gjrf tdhtb b tdhtqrb yt xedcndeñn ctåz d åtpjgfcyjcnb d cdjbö cnhfyfö, yt xedcndeñn ctåz rjvajhnyj d hjlyjq cnhfyt; lj ntö gjh gjrf cbyfujub, tdhtqcrbt irjks b ltncrbt cfls ghböjlbncz pfobofnm cbkfvb gjkbwbb; lj ntö gjh gjrf gjkbnbrb gsnfñncz pfdjtdsdfnm ujkjcf bpåbhfntktq, fgtkkbhez r fynbctvbncrbv xedcndfv; lj ntö gjh gjrf dct änb afrnjhs yt ecnhfytys, vs ljkéys jåobvb ecbkbzvb dtcnb åjhmåe ghjnbd euhjps fynbctvbnbpvf. Yfif bcnjhbz lbrnetv yfv ybrjulf dyjdm yt ljgecnbnm, xnjås tdhtb bcgsnfkb euhjpe fynbctvbnbpvf åtp njuj, xnjås åjkmibycndj yfctktybz yt dcnfkj htibntkmyj yf pfobne cdjbö tdhtqcrbö cjjntxtcndtyybrjd b bö jåoby. Dct vs dtcmvf cthmtpyj jnyjcbvcz r änjve jåzpfntkmcnde, ghbxtv ≤vs≥ – änj yt njkmrj ghfdbntkmcndj b gfhkfvtyn cnhfys, yj b jåotcndj d wtkjv. Qjirf Abith, vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Uthvfybb

V

s ljkéys lfnm zcyj gjyznm, xnj ghtcnegktybz yf gjxdt vjnbdbhjdfyyjq fynbctvbnbpvjv ytyfdbcnb – änj bvtyyj ghtcnegktybz b xnj jyb åelen cfvsv htibntkmysv jåhfpjv ghtcktljdfnmcz. Vs yt ljkéys ljgecnbnm, xnjås ghtcnegktybz yf gjxdt fynbctvbnbpvf nhfrnjdfkbcm rfr vfkjpyfxbvst ytbpåtéyst gjåjxyst äaatrns vtéänybxtcrbö rjyakbrnjd. Gjkbnbxtcrbt hfpyjukfcbz yt jghfdlsdfñn abpbxtcrjuj yfcbkbz ghjnbd tdhttd yf yfibö ekbwfö, hfpuhjvf tdhtq-

V

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

17


Vthjghbznbz JÅCT, gjcdzotyyst djcgbnfybñ nthgbvjcnb 19–20 bñyz 2003 ujlf, Dtyf. Gthdfz Rjyathtywbz gj fynbctvbnbpve 4–5 ctynzåhz 2003 ujlf, Dtyf. Rjyathtywbz gj hfcbpve, rctyjajåbb b lbcrhbvbyfwbb 28–29 fghtkz 2003 ujlf, Åthkby. Dnjhfz Rjyathtywbz gj fynbctvbnbpve 16–17 bñyz 2004 ujlf, Gfhbé. Rjyathtywbz gj djghjce j dpfbvjcdzpb vtéle ghjgfufyljq hfcbpvf, rctyjajåbb b fynbctvbnbpvf d Bynthytnt b ghtcnegktybzvb yf gjxdt ytyfdbcnb 13–14 ctynzåhz 2004, Åhñcctkm. Rjyathtywbz yf ntve j hfcbpvt, rctyjajåbb b lbcrhbvbyfwbb d jåotcndt

crbö irjk bkb jcrdthytybz cbyfuju b rkflåbo. Fynbctvbnbpve ytn jghfdlfybz. Rhbnbrf ujcelfhcndf Bphfbkm yt tcnm ghjzdktybt fynbctvbnbpvf. Jlyfrj ltvjybpfwbz bkb gjyjitybt Bphfbkz kbåj tuj herjdjlbntktq c bcgjkmpjdfybtv, yfghbvth, afibcncrjq cbvdjkbrb b rfhbrfneh hfcbcncrjq yfghfdktyyjcnb yföjlzncz eét pf uhfymñ. Vs ljkéys lfnm zcyj gjyznm ärcnhtvbcnfv b ghfdjuj, b ktdjuj njkrf, xnj dct, rnj bcgjkmpeñn ytyfdbcnm d rfxtcndt jåütlbyzñotuj vjnbdf, åtcxtcnzn ctåz b pfjlyj b cdjt ltkj. Rjkby Gfeäk, ujcelfhcndtyysq ctrhtnfhm Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd F vthbrb

ynbctvbnbpve cktletn ghjnbdjgjcnfdbnm étcnrbt vths. Yj ghb änjv vs yt vjétv b yt ljkéys jéblfnm, xnjås cvjkrkf hfpevyfz rhbnbrf b cghfdtlkbdst pfvtxfybz d flhtc ghfdbntkmcndf Bphfbkz gj gjdjle ntö bkb bysö ghtlghbybvftvsö bv rjyrhtnysö gjkbnbxtcrbö vth. Rhbnbrf gjkbnbrb ghfdbntkmcndf – änj jlby bp dféytqibö ghbpyfrjd ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö gjkbnbxtcrbö cbcntv. Buhf njuj bkb byjuj ghfdbntkmcndf bkb njuj bkb byjuj gjkbnbxtcrjuj ltzntkz yf hfcjdsö cnheyfö d gjkbnbxtcrbö wtkzö – d rfxtcndt yfcnegfntkmyjq nfrnbrb bkb d rfxtcndt chtlcndf eåthtxmcz jn rhbnbrb – ghjcnj-yfghjcnj ytghbtvktvf. Tdhjgtqcrbq cjñp cjukfiftncz c ntv, xnj gjlöjl JÅCT r ghjåktvt fynbctvbnbpvf ljkéty åsnm bybwbfnbdysv. Vs ghbdtncndetv cltkfyysq yf lfyyjq Rjyathtywbb frwtyn yf ghfrnbxtcrbö vthfö, d njv xbckt gj xfcnb ghjabkfrnbrb, ghjcdtotybz b pfobns, rjnjhst ljkéys htibntkmyj jceotcndkznmcz dj dctö ujcelfhcndfö-exfcnybrfö JÅCT. Åhfqfy Rjeäy, vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Bhkfylbb, jn bvtyb Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf

F

f 60-q ctccbb Rjvbccbb JJY gj ghfdfv xtkjdtrf Åtkfhecm b Hjccbqcrfz Atlthfwbz ghtlcnfdbkb ghjtrn htpjkñwbb, ghbdktrfñotq dybvfybt vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjjåotcndf r ghjåktvt djphjéltybz b hfcghjcnhfytybz ytjyfwbpvf, ytjafibpvf b fuhtccbdyjuj yfwbjyfkbpvf, rjnjhst, chtlb ghjxtuj, ckeéfn b gbnfntkmyjq chtljq lkz fynbctvbnbpvf. Änf htpjkñwbz åskf ghbyznf åjkmibycndjv ujkjcjd xktyjd Rjvbccbb. R yfitve elbdktybñ cnhfys Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf, Cjtlbytyyst Infns b Zgjybz ghjujkjcjdfkb ghjnbd änjq htpjkñwbb. Rfrjq dsdjl bpdktren bp änjuj ytjyfwbcncrbt b ytjafibcncrbt äktvtyns b ghjxfz gjljåyfz vhfpm, ghjnbd rjnjhjq yfghfdktyf änf htpjkñwbz? Dbrnjh Ufqcçyjr, herjdjlbntkm ltktufwbb Åtkfhecb d JÅCT

Y

s yt vjétv buyjhbhjdfnm yjdst kbxbys fynbctvbnbpvf, tckb öjnbv lfnm tve äaatrnbdysq jngjh. Crjhtt dctuj yfv cktletn yfxfnm c jåhfpjdfybz. Ghtleåtéltybz ghbdbdfñncz d ltncndt. Cktletn eltkbnm jcjåjt dybvfybt htfkbpfwbb jåhfpjdfntkmysö ghjuhfvv gj åjhmåt c fynbctvbnbpvjv, ghjuhfvv, ytceobö pyfybz j öjkjrjcnt b djcgbnsdfñobö edfétybt rj dctv änybxtcrbv b htkbubjpysv uheggfv. Yfhzle c änbv cktletn dtcnb htibntkmyeñ åjhmåe c ghtcnegktybzvb yf gjxdt ytyfdbcnb, r rjnjhsv gjlcnhtrftn ghjgfufylf hfcbpvf, rctyjajåbb b fynbctvbnbpvf d CVB b d Bynthytnt. Vs yt njkmrj cthmtpyj jnyjcbvcz r ghjåktvfv fynbctvbnbpvf b r ghjåktvfv, dspsdfñobv jpfåjxtyyjcnm tdhtqcrbö jåoby b lheubö vtymibycnd d hfpkbxysö xfcnzö htubjyf JÅCT; vs nfrét dtltv hfåjne gj dsgjkytybñ htrjvtylfwbq j rjyrhtnysö vthfö gj jpyfrjvktybñ jåotcndtyyjcnb b cjplfybñ ytnthgbvjuj jnyjitybz rj dctv ghjzdktybzv ytnthgbvjcnb. Cjkjvjy Gfccb, Ltqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm JÅCT, vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Åjkufhbb

V

18

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


j Ahfywbb ghjébdftn rhegytqifz gj xbcktyyjcnb gjckt CIF tdhtqcrfz lbfcgjhf, rjnjhfz cnfkrbdftncz c ntvb ét ghjåktvfvb, xnj gjckeébkb gjdjljv lkz cjpsdf lfyyjq rjyathtywbb. Vs dsyeéltys ghbpyfnm cghfdtlkbdjcnm njuj endthéltybz, xnj gj Ahfywbb ghjrfnsdftncz djkyf fynbctvbnbpvf. Dthyj, dghjxtv, b nj, xnj änf djkyf yt bltn yb d rfrjt chfdytybt c dfkjv ytyfdbcnb, rjnjhsq 60 ktn yfpfl eytc ébpyb 76 000 ahfywepcrbö tdhttd. Bcnjhbz tdhttd dj Ahfywbb – änj bcnjhbz cxfcnkbdjq dcnhtxb – b kñådb, ythtlrj cjghjdjélfditqcz jåblfvb, hfyfvb b eybétybzvb, – vtéle lhtdybv yfhjljv b cnhfyjq, rjnjhfz jrfpfkf tve ujcntghbbvcndj b djcghbyzkf tuj åjufnsq leöjdysq, byntkktrnefkmysq b vjhfkmysq drkfl. Bvtyyj dj Ahfywbb, f yt d rfrjq-kbåj lheujq bp tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy tdhtzv åsk dgthdst ghtljcnfdkty cnfnec uhfélfy; bvtyyj dj Ahfywbb jyb dgthdst jåhtkb ljcnjbycndj cdjåjlyjq ébpyb; bvtyyj dj Ahfywbb cdjåjlf ≤dctö eåtéltybq, lfét htkbubjpysö≥, åskf ghjdjpukfityf d rfxtcndt jlyjuj bp ghfd xtkjdtrf. Z dthñ, xnj JÅCT cvjétn eghjxbnm nt pfrjyjlfntkmyst yjhvs, rjnjhst Ahfywbz, cj cdjtq cnjhjys, eét ghtndjhbkf d ébpym, b pflfnm yfv yfghfdktybt d åjhmåt ghjnbd euhjps, étcnjrbt b dfhdfhcrbt gjcktlcndbz rjnjhjq vyt bpdtcnys kexit, xtv vyjubv. Z yfltñcm, xnj dfibvb ecbkbzvb elfcncz djccnfyjdbnm gjlkbyysq cvsck ckjdf ≤åhfncndj≥. Cbvjyf Dfqkm, ghtpbltyn ≤Ajylf gfvznb öjkjrjcnf≥, gthtébdifz öjkjrjcn

D

gjkmpjdfybtv dkfcnb lkz jåhfotybz cdjåjlysö kñltq d éthnds, éthnd d hfåjd, f hfåjd d nhegs. Dtxyj yteljdktndjhtyysq, yt pyfñobq yb vbyens dyenhtyytuj gjrjz, gjljphbntkmyj jnyjczobqcz rj dctv xeéfrfv, ytyfdbcnybr åeltn dtcnb dtxysq gjbcr ntö, yf rjuj vjéyj djpkjébnm dbye, yfl rtv vjéyj ujcgjlcndjdfnm, rjuj vjéyj eybxnjébnm. Dtlm xnjås joeofnm ctåz ébdsv, ytyfdbcnybre yeéyj ghbxbyznm cnhflfybz b cvthnm ≤lheujve≥. Tdhtq ét dctulf åsk lkz ytuj ≤lheubv≥ – f änf ≤byfrjcnm≥ tuj djpveoftn b geuftn. Äkb Dbptk, kfehtfn Yjåtktdcrjq ghtvbb, fvthbrfycrbq gbcfntkm, gthtébdibq öjkjrjcn

Åthkbycrfz ltrkfhfwbz dyeiftn dthe d åjhmåe JÅCT ghjnbd fynbctvbnbpvf ≤Z cxbnfñ, xnj änf Rjyathtywbz dytckf dtcjvsq drkfl d gjdsitybt ljdthbz r yfitve rjkktrnbdyjve ghjnbdjltqcndbñ fynbctvbnbpve≥, – pfzdbk Ltqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm Cjkjvjy Gfccb d pfrkñxtybt ghjljkéfdiböcz ldf lyz ävjwbjyfkmyj pfhzétyymö ltåfnjd. Ghbybvfz ≤Åthkbycreñ ltrkfhfwbñ≥, ujcelfhcndf-exfcnybrb yfvtnbkb rjyrhtnyst rjynhvths ghfrnbxtcrjuj öfhfrnthf, htibd dsytcnb bö yf hfccvjnhtybt dcnhtxb Cjdtnf vbybcnhjd JÅCT, rjnjhfz cjcnjbncz d Cjabb d ltrfåht c. u. Cnhfys-exfcnybws åelen: ❶ jåtcgtxbdfnm, xnjås bö yfwbjyfkmyst ghfdjdst cbcntvs cgjcjåcndjdfkb ajhvbhjdfybñ chtls, cdjåjlyjq jn nhfdkb, yfcbkbz b lbcrhbvbyfwbb fynbctvbncrjuj öfhfrnthf; ❷ cjltqcndjdfnm d ckexft ytjåöjlbvjcnb jceotcndktybñ jåhfpjdfntkmysö ghjuhfvv, yfwtktyysö yf åjhmåe c fynbctvbnbpvjv b yf djcgbnfybt d leöt edfébntkmyjuj jnyjitybz rj dctö änybxtcrbv b htkbubjpysö uheggfv; ❸ dtcnb åjhmåe c ghtcnegktybzvb yf gjxdt ytyfdbcnb;

ynbctvbnbpv – änj zpsr ytyfdbcnb, tuj ljrnhbyf ghjgbnfyf ytyfdbcnmñ, f ytyfdbcnm gj cfvjq cdjtq ghbhjlt dctulf gthtöktcnsdftn xthtp rhfq, yt ghbpyfdfz utjuhfabxtcrbö uhfybw b änybxtcrjq ghbyflktéyjcnb. Änj pfhfpyfz åjktpym. Njn, rnj ytyfdblbn jlyj vtymibycndj, djpytyfdblbn dct vtymibycndf – htkbubjpyst, gjkbnbxtcrbt, änybxtcrbt, cjwbfkmyst b rekmnehyst – b d rjytxyjv cxtnt ytbpåtéyj djpytyfdblbn ctåz. Hfpevttncz, kñlb xfcnj jåhfofñn r lheubv bkb cksifn jåhfotyysq r ybv djghjc: jnrelf fynbctvbnbpv? Jnrelf nfrfz ytyfdbcnm? Jnnjuj kb, xnj ytyfdblzobq jåsxyj jlthébv dkfcnmñ? Njulf tve jcnftncz kbim endthlbnm ctåz, gjlndthlbd änj bc-

F

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

❹ jceotcndkznm cåjh b öhfytybt ljcnjdthyjq byajhvfwbb b cnfnbcnbxtcrbö lfyysö j ghtcnegktybzö yf gjxdt fynbctvbnbpvf b ytyfdbcnb b ltkfnm bö ljcnegyjq lkz dctjåotuj jpyfrjvktybz; b ❺ cjdvtcnyj c Gfhkfvtyncrjq fccfvåkttq JÅCT ljåbdfnmcz bpscrfybz yflktéfobö djpvjéyjcntq lkz gthbjlbxtcrjuj jåpjhf ghjåktvs fynbctvbnbpvf. Rhjvt njuj, Ltrkfhfwbz djpkfuftn yf Åñhj JÅCT gj ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv bycnbnenfv b ghfdfv xtkjdtrf jcjåeñ jndtncndtyyjcnm, d xfcnyjcnb, pf: ♦ jncktébdfybt dj dpfbvjltqcndbb c lheubvb bycnbnenfvb JÅCT b lheubvb cjjndtncndeñobvb vtéleyfhjlysvb exhtéltybzvb b ytghfdbntkmcndtyysvb jhufybpfwbzvb bywbltynjd fynbctvbncrjuj öfhfrnthf d htubjyt JÅCT b ghtlcnfdktybt cdjbö pfrkñxtybq Gjcnjzyyjve cjdtne, f nfrét pf ghtlfybt bö ukfcyjcnb; b ♦ cbcntvfnbxtcrbq cåjh b hfcghjcnhfytybt byajhvfwbb d vfcinfåfö htubjyf JÅCT j yfbkexitq ghfrnbrt ghtleghtéltybz fynbctvbnbpvf b ghjnbdjltqcndbz tve. Jabwbfkmysq ntrcn ljrevtynf hfpvtoty yf ctntdjq cnhfybwt: www.osce.org/events/conferences/antisemitism2004

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

19


ckb ds hfåjnftnt d CVB, nj, yf vjq dpukzl, dfv yeéyj jcdtofnm ghtcnegktybz yf gjxdt ytyfdbcnb dj dctq bö vthpjcnb. Yj ds nfrét ljkéys cjjåofnm j cdtnksö cnjhjyfö ébpyb tdhttd, j njv, rfr dct dsbuhsdfñn jn ébpyb d gjkbrekmnehyjv jåotcndt, jcyjdfyyjv yf nthgbvjcnb. Tckb ds pfybvftntcm gtlfujubxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnmñ, nj dfv yflj jåtcgtxbnm, xnjås kñlzv åskj bpdtcnyj jå eéfcfö öjkjrjcnf. Yj dvtcnt c ntv ds ljkéys hfccrfpsdfnm bv j gjpbnbdyjv jgsnt ghtjljktybz yfwbcncrjuj yfcktlbz d Uthvfybb b pf tt ghtltkfvb d gjcktljdfdibt ltcznbktnbz. Tckb ds ghbyflktébnt r xbcke gjnhtåbntktq ghjlerwbb CVB, ds ljkéys jndthufnm ntyltywbjpyjcnm b nhtåjdfnm cghfdtlkbdjcnb. Dfv yflj jnyjcbnmcz r CVB rhbnbxtcrb, ghjdjlz xtnreñ uhfym vtéle jndtncndtyyjq b åtpjndtncndtyyjq éehyfkbcnbrjq. B yfrjytw, rjulf ds yfnfkrbdftntcm yf ghjzdktybz ytnthgbvjcnb d chtlcndfö vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb, gecnm lfét pfdefkbhjdfyyst, dfv cktletn yt jåöjlbnm bö vjkxfybtv, f gbcfnm d htlfrwbñ, yfghfdkznm äktrnhjyyst gbcmvf ghjlñcthe bkb ghjcnj jnrhsnj dscrfpsdfnm cdjt vytybt jrheéfñobv. Älefhl Rjx, d ghjikjv väh Ymñ-Qjhrf, herjdjlbntkm ltktufwbb CIF yf rjyathtywbb

T

Étknfz pdtplf cjdthiftn jåhfnysq genm

JÅCT/RBN LÉBYRC

jq ltl ujdjhbk, xnj yf-

≤Vcnfytn ltym, rjulf vs c ytvwfvb dyjdm åeltv cjñpybrfvb, b njulf jy dthytn bv cdjñ étkneñ pdtple. Z cxfcnkbd, xnj ntgthm vjue gthtlfnm änj yfcktlbt cdjtuj ltlf≥. C änbvb ckjdfvb Ltqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm JÅCT ghtgjlytc vfktymreñ pdtple d aenkzhyjq rjhjårt zdyj hfcnhjufyyjve Qjirt Abithe. D öjlt crhjvyjq wthtvjybb, jpyfvtyjdfditq jrjyxfybt Rjyathtywbb JÅCT gj fynbctvbnbpve, vbybcnh C. Gfccb nfrét jnlfk ljkéyjt vbybcnhe byjcnhfyysö ltk Uthvfybb pf tuj kbxysq drkfl d tdhjgtqcrj-tdhtqcrbq lbfkju. Rfr crfpfk hfyytt vbybcnh C. Gfccb exfcnybrfv Rjyathtywbb, jy ujhl ntv, xnj d ujls dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys gjxnb 50 000 nsczxfv åjkufhcrbö tdhttd elfkjcm bpåtéfnm dthyjq

20

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

ubåtkb jn her afibcnjd. Jy hfccrfpfk j njv, rfr gjcjk nhtnmtuj htqöf d Cjabb d cdjtq ctrhtnyjq pfgbcrt erfpsdfk, xnj ≤ghtgzncndbtv lkz ltgjhnfwbb åjkufhcrbö tdhttd zdkztncz vtynfkbntn åjkufhcrjuj yfhjlf, rjnjhjve yt ödfnftn bltjkjubxtcrjq eåtéltyyjcnb b rjnjhsq kbity bpyfxfkmyjuj ghtleåtéltybz ghjnbd tdhttd≥. ≤Rjt-rnj, djpvjéyj, cxbnftn, xnj änj ltkj vjéyj ntgthm clfnm d bcnjhbxtcrbq fhöbd, – crfpfk vbybcnh Gfccb d cdjtv dscnegktybb. – Z, jlyfrj, ndthlj eåtélty, xnj änj åskj ås fåcjkñnyj ytghfdbkmyj. Rfr b vyjubt lheubt ljcnjqyst cjéfktybz cjåsnbz, ytlfdybt cnsxrb d Rjcjdj eåtlbkb vtyz d njv, xnj cktletn dyjdm b dyjdm jåhfofnmcz r ghbvthe Åjkufhbb≥.

fv ytjåöjlbvj ghtlkjébnm gkfy ltqcndbq, rjnjhsq gjpdjkbk ås dctv ujcelfhcndfv-exfcnybrfv cjukfcjdfnm yfbkexibt cgjcjås dsgjkytybz htpjkñwbb JÅCT. Änjn gkfy lfkmytqibö ltqcndbq vjéyj åskj ås yfpdfnm ≤Xtnshtörhfnyjt åjkmit≥: åjkmit cnfnbcnbrb, åjkmit ghfdjghbvtytybz, åjkmit jåhfpjdfybz, åjkmit clthéfyyjcnb d CVB. Vs, gfhkfvtynfhbb b jhufybpfwbb uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf, cnfkrbdftvcz c ghjcnjq, b dvtcnt c ntv ckjéyjq, pflfxtq. Vs ljkéys nofntkmyj b evtkj bcrjhtybnm äne ébdexeñ ghjåktve, rjnjhfz cjplftn euhjpe lkz cfvjq nrfyb yfituj jåotcndf. Vs ljkéys pfvtybnm gtothysq ghjwtcc vsiktybz, jnhsérjq rjnjhjuj zdkztncz fynbctvbnbpv, änbv ≤åthkbycrbv ghjwtccjv≥, d hfvrfö rjnjhjuj gfhkfvtyns, cjcnjzobt bp ghtlcnfdbntktq dctö gfhnbq, b dct ghfdbntkmcndf dvtcnt cj cdjbvb yfhjlfvb tlbysv ujkjcjv crféen: ≤Ödfnbn^≥. Ctyfnjh Léthhb Uhfacnfqy (Rfyflf), rfpyfxtq Gfhkfvtyncrjq fccfvåktb JÅCT

Y

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


yt dcgjvbyftncz gjdtltybt nehtwrbö herjdjlbntktq gjckt eéfcysö dphsdjd d Cnfvåekt d yjzåht ghjikjuj ujlf. Ghtvmth-vbybcnh cnhfys Htlétg Nfqbg Ähljufy yt njkmrj geåkbxyj jcelbk dphsds d ldeö cbyfujufö, yj b dcnhtnbkcz c tdhtqcrbvb kblthfvb, xnj, rfr ujdjhzn, bvtkj vtcnj dgthdst d bcnjhbb htcgeåkbrb. Yf ajnjcybvrfö, cltkfyysö yf wthtvjybb gjöjhjy, cjcnjzdiböcz d ljélkbdsq ltym, bpjåhfétys uhjås, gjrhsnst nehtwrbv akfujv; jåsxyj änjq xtcnb eljcnfbdfñncz cjklfns bkb uhfélfycrbt kbwf, pfgkfnbdibt dscieñ wtye hflb cdjtq cnhfys. Gjlntrcn åsk åtpjibåjxysv: öjnz Nehwbz zdkztncz ghtbveotcndtyyj vecekmvfycrjq cnhfyjq, tt herjdjlbntkb lfkb zcyj gjyznm, xnj änj – yfgfltybt yt yf tdhttd, f yf nehjr, rjnjhst d lfyyjv ckexft åskb tdhtzvb b gjcnhflfkb bp-pf cdjtq htkbubb. Nehwbz gjlfkf ghbvth dctv yfv, b cdjbvb cvtksvb ifufvb d yfghfdktybb ghbcjtlbytybz r TC b yterkjyyj ekexifñobvcz jnyjitybtv r htkbubjpysv b änybxtcrbv vtymibycndfv d cnhfyt jyf dscnhfbdftn ujcelfhcndtyyeñ gjkbnbre, cgjcjåcndeñoeñ endthéltybñ nthgbvjcnb b ytlbcrhbvbyfwbb. Åtyléfvby Rfhlby, xkty gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq, xkty ltktufwbb CIF d Gfhkfvtyncrjq fccfvåktt JÅCT b Rjvbccbb CIF gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt (Ötkmcbyrcrfz rjvbccbz)

V

rybut, jåütvjv d 120 cnhfybw, ghtptynfwbz rjnjhjq cjcnjzkfcm jlyjdhtvtyyj d Rhfrjdt b Åthkbyt yfrfyeyt Rjyathtywbb JÅCT gj fynbctvbnbpve, ghbdtltyf cdtéfz byajhvfwbz gj djghjce jå eukeåktybb chtlb tdhjgtqcrjq jåotcndtyyjcnb pyfybq j öjkjrjcnt. Rybuf gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Gjxtve yflj yfgjvbyfnm j öjkjrjcnt?≥ drkñxftn jxthrb, yfgbcfyyst 13 gjkmcrbvb fdnjhfvb, chtlb rjnjhsö – abkjcja, cjwbjkju, bcnjhbr, gcböjkju, éehyfkbcn, ntjkju b ghtgjlfdfntkm depf. ≤Pyfrjvbnm dctö c ghjåktvjq öjkjrjcnf, pyfxbn yt njkmrj byajhvbhjdfnm j afrnfö; djn gjxtve vyjubt bp fdnjhjd hfccrfpsdfñn j kbxyjv jgsnt, – gbitn d ghtlbckjdbb r rybut ghjatccjh Qjkfynf FvåhjctdbxZrjåc. – Yt e dctö tcnm yfujnjdt jndtns, yj rfélsq bp fdnjhjd cjpyftn ytjåöjlbvjcnm ujdjhbnm jå änjq ghjåktvt d bynthtcfö ghbvbhtybz vtéle yfhjlfvb, ltvjrhfnbb b vbhf≥. ≤Änb jxthrb rfcfñncz rféljuj, – ujdjhbn Lbhtrnjh Åñhj JÅCT gj ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv bycnbnenfv b ghfdfv xtkjdtrf (ÅLBGX) gjcjk Rhbcnbfy Inhjufk. – Jyb yfghzveñ cjjnyjczncz c aeylfvtynfkmysv dtrnjhjv yfitq hfåjns, f bvtyyj endthéltybtv nthgbvjcnb b ytlbcrhbvbyfwbb d bynthtcfö åjhmås c fynbctvbnbpvjv, rctyjajåbtq b fynbbckfvcrbvb ghjzdktybzvb. Yfv yfgjvbyfñn j ytjåöjlbvjcnb ghbkfufnm dct ecbkbz r njve, xnjås bpdktxm ehjrb bp ghjikjuj b yt ljgecrfnm gjdnjhtybz ghjiksö eéfcjd. Änf rybuf, dgthdst jgeåkbrjdfyyfz d Gjkmit d 2003 ujle, zdkztncz gkjljv cjdvtcnysö ecbkbq ÅLBGX b rhfrjdcrjuj Tdhtqcrjuj ajylf. Gjvbvj ghjxtuj, d ytq jcdtoftncz djghjc jå jnyjitybb gjkmcrjq vjkjltéb r öjkjrjcne b ghbdjlzncz ytrjnjhst dtå-cfqns yf äne ntve. C ljgjkybntkmyjq byajhvfwbtq vjéyj jpyfrjvbnmcz yf cfqnfö: office@odihr.pl bkb www.judaica.pl.

D tvbyfhs b rjyathtywbb ghtlyfpyfxtys lkz gjkbnbxtcrbö ltzntktq, xbyjdybrjd b byntkktrnefkjd; yf geåkbre ét djpltqcndetn rbyj. Abkmv Vtkf Ubåcjyf ≤Cnhfcnb Öhbcnjds≥ cvjnhzn vbkkbjys. Z levfñ, xnj rfélsq tdhtq vjtuj djphfcnf d njn bkb byjq vjvtyn cdjtq ébpyb cnfkrbdfkcz c ghjåktvjq, rjnjhfz cnfdbncz d cñétnt Ubåcjyf. Z gjvyñ, rfr ctvbktnybv vfkmxbrjv z jlyféls ghbitk ljvjq c hfpåbnsv yjcjv gjckt lhfrb c gfhybirjq, endthélfdibv, xnj vjq jntw – eåbqwf Öhbcnf. ≤B xnj ns tve jndtnbk?≥ – cghjcbkb vjb hjlbntkb. Z jndtnbk tve: ≤Vjq jntw yt nfr cnfh≥. Vfrc Zrjåcjy, jcyjdyjq jhfnjh rjyathtywbb; lbhtrnjh-eghfdkzñobq Cjdtnf ärjyjvbxtcrbö jhufybpfwbq (Abykzylbz)

C

jcrjkmre z ébde d cnhfyt, rjnjhfz zdbkf vbhe ytvfkj ghbvthjd åktcnzotuj drkflf extysö, vepsrfynjd, gbcfntktq, gjkbnbxtcrbö ltzntktq b ghfdjpfobnybrjd tdhtqcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz d hfpdbnbt gjkbänybxtcrjq vyjujzpsxyjq Hjccbb, vs zcyj ghtlcnfdkztv ctåt, xnj bvtyyj fynbctvbnbpv vjétn ghbytcnb xtkjdtxtcnde. Hjccbqcrbt dkfcnb cjchtljnjxbdfñn cdjb ecbkbz yf djphjéltybb tdhtqcrbö jåoby, ghbyznbb fynblbcrhbvbyfwbjyysö pfrjyjd b dgktntybb ghbywbgjd nthgbvjcnb d nrfym jåotcndf. Vs ghbdtncndetv htibvjcnm JÅCT jåütlbybnm ecbkbz ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö cnhfy b djgkjnbnm ltrkfhfwbb d rjyrhtnyst ltqcndbz. Bcöjlzobq bp Dtys b Åthkbyf vjoysq gjkbnbxtcrbq cbuyfk ljkéty lfnm cnfhn ibhjrjve yfcnegktybñ yf fynbctvbnbpv yf gjkbnbxtcrjv, ghfdjdjv, ghjcdtnbntkmcrjv, rekmnehyjv b uhfélfycrjv ahjynt dj bvz bltfkjd ltvjrhfnbb, tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b cnfåbkmyjcnb. Fydfh Fpbvjd, pfvtcnbntkm lbhtrnjhf ltgfhnfvtynf jåottdhjgtqcrjuj cjnhelybxtcndf hjccbqcrjuj vbybcnthcndf byjcnhfyysö ltk

G

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

21


≤Jcnfyjdbnm yjdeñ djkye ytyfdbcnb≥ Xnj cjjåofñn CVB Bp dctö vthjghbznbq JÅCT pf gjcktlybt ujls dybvfybt vtéleyfhjlysö chtlcnd vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb åskj yfbåjktt ghjxyj ghbrjdfyj rj dnjhjq Rjyathtywbb gj fynbctvbnbpve. Cjjåotybz b rjvvtynfhbb vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö futyncnd b jcyjdysö ufptn pfxfcneñ åskb cnjkm ét ävjwbjyfkmysvb, rfr b ghjljkéfdibtcz d ntxtybt ldeö lytq ltåfns. Ybét ghbdjlzncz dslthérb bp ytrjnjhsö cnfntq.

Fynbctvbnbpv: ifyc jcnfyjdbnm djkye ytyfdbcnb d Tdhjgt YMÑ-QJHR. – Tdhjgtqcrbt kblths, djpvjéyj, yfxbyfñn yfrjytw jcjpyfdfnm jcnhjne ghjåktvs fynbctvbnbpvf d cdjbö cnhfyfö. Gjckt nhtö c gjkjdbyjq ktn ghtbveotcndtyyj pfvfkxbdfybz dct exfofñoböcz ckexftd yfgfltybz yf tdhttd b tdhtqcrbt exhtéltybz ytrjnjhst ghfdbntkmcndf yfxbyfñn ghbpyfdfnm yfkbxbt änjuj ytleuf b ghbybvfnm vths ghjnbdjltqcndbz. Ghtlcnfdbntkb 55 ujcelfhcnd, döjlzobö d JÅCT, cjåhfdibcm d Åthkbyt yf dnjheñ Rjyathtywbñ gj fynbctvbnbpve, åelen bvtnm djpvjéyjcnm cjcnfdbnm gkfy ltqcndbq, ult åskj ås ghbpyfyj, xnj fynbctvbnbpv yt ghjcnj yfghfdkty ghjnbd tdhttd, yj b gjlhsdftn cfve cjwbfkmyeñ nrfym ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö jåotcnd. ≤Bynthyäiyk uthfkml nhbåñy≥, 28 fghtkz. Cnfnmz hfddbyf Äylhñ Åtqrthf, lbhtrnjhf gj vtéleyfhjlysv ltkfv tdhtqcndf d Fvthbrfycrjq tdhtqcrjv rjvbntnt, jåotcndtyyjuj cjdtnybrf ltktufwbb CIF yf Rjyathtywbb JÅCT

Gjlndthéltybt jåzpfntkmcndf åjhjnmcz c fynbctvbnbpvjv ÅTHKBY. – Xnj ås yb ghjbpjikj gjckt änjq [Rjyathtywbb], eét cfv afrn njuj, xnj ghtlcnfdbntkb tdhjgtqcrjuj cjjåotcndf, cjåhfdibcm dvtcnt, pfzdbkb j ytjåöjlbvjcnb gkfyjd b cnhfntubb ghtleghtéltybz fynbctvbnbpvf, bvttn dtcmvf dféyjt pyfxtybt≥, – crfpfk [bcgjkybntkmysq lbhtrnjh Fynblbaafvfwbjyyjq kbub Fåhfv] Ajrcvfy. Jy lfktt jnvtnbk, xnj rjyathtywbz yfheibkf, nfr crfpfnm, nfåe, yfpdfd jghtltktyyst dbls rhbnbrb d flhtc Bphfbkz fynbctvbncrbvb. ≤D Dtyt ybrnj yt rfcfkcz bphfbkmcrjq ghjåktvs, – crfpfk jy, bvtz d dble gthdeñ Rjyathtywbñ JÅCT gj fynbctvbnbpve, cjcnjzdieñcz ujl yfpfl. – Yf änjn hfp vs yt jghtltkzkb rhbnthbtd bkb njq uhfyb, rjnjhfz jnltkztn pfrjyjvthyeñ rhbnbre jn fynbctvbnbpvf, yj, gj rhfqytq vtht, änjn djghjc jcnfkcz jnrhsnsv≥. Änf dcnhtxf, ghjöjlbdifz d vbybcnthcndt byjcnhfyysö ltk Uthvfybb d eckjdbzö étcnrbö vth åtpjgfcyjcnb, cnfkf dnjhjq d cthbb vth, rjnjhst, rfr vjéyj ghtlgjkfufnm, pyfvtyeñn yfxfkj tétujlysö vthjghbznbq JÅCT gj ghjnbdjltqcndbñ njve, xnj ghtlcnfdkztncz yfhfcnfybtv fynbctvbncrbö dsöjljr d Tdhjgt. ... Ytrjnjhst ltktufns, ghbdtncndjdfdibt JÅCT pf nj, xnj Rjyathtywbz djjåot cjcnjzkfcm, rhbnbxtcrb jwtybkb yfvtxftveñ bnjujdeñ ltrkfhfwbñ, yfpdfd tt nevfyyjq b yt cjlthéfotq rjyrhtnysö, gjllfñoböcz jceotcndktybñ vth. ≤Ymñ-Qjhr nfqvc≥, 29 fghtkz. Hbxfhl Åthycnfqy

D bñyt cjcnjbncz rjyathtywbz JÅCT, gjcdzotyyfz ≤rbåthytyfdbcnb≥ ÅTHKBY. – D Bynthytnt hfpvtotys nsczxb cnhfybw, ghjgfufylbheñobö ytyfdbcnm. Gj cdjtve cjlthéfybñ jyb yt njkmrj ctñn fynbctvbnbpv bkb jnhbwfñn nhfutlbñ öjkjrjcnf – njn, rnj botn, jåyfheébn hfpkbxyst dbls lbcrhbvbyfwbb. D åjkmibycndt ckexftd ljkuj bcrfnm yt ghböjlbncz, – ujdjhbn Léekbfyf Dtnwtkm, ghtlcnfdkzñofz bccktljdfntkmcrbq wtynh gj ghjåktvt fynbctvbnbpvf ghb Åthkbycrjv ntöybxtcrjv eybdthcbntnt. Jyf döjlbkf d cjcnfd uheggs yfåkñlfntktq, rjnjhst c eljdktndjhtybtv jåyfheébkb, xnj d cdjtq ≤Åthkbycrjq ltrkfhfwbb≥ JÅCT nfrét ujdjhbn jå jgfcyjcnzö bcgjkmpjdfybz Bynthytnf lkz hfpledfybz ytyfdbcnb yf gjxdt fynbctvbnbpvf. ≤Infylfhn≥/Fdcnhbqcrjt byajhvfwbjyyjt futyncndj, 24 fghtkz

Dbptk: jåceéltybt fynbctvbnbpvf c vecekmvfyfvb ÅTHKBY. – D gjlkbyyjv lbfkjut gj ghjåktvt fynbctvbnbpvf d ÖÖÈ dtrt ljkéys exfcndjdfnm yt njkmrj öhbcnbfyt b tdhtb, yj b vecekmvfyt, – crfpfk kfehtfn Yjåtktdcrjq ghtvbb vbhf gbcfntkm Äkb Dbptk, gthtébdibq öjkjrjcn. ≤Yfv cktljdfkj ås djdktxm d änjn ghjwtcc b vecekmvfy≥, – crfpfk Dbptk, dscnegfz gthtl felbnjhbtq, cjcnjzditq ghtbveotcndtyyj bp ljkéyjcnysö kbw dscjrjuj ehjdyz bp 55 cnhfy JÅCT. Jy jnvtnbk, xnj ghbcencndjdfdibt d jcyjdyjv ghtlcnfdkzkb öhbcnbfycreñ b tdhtqcreñ njxre phtybz, d nj dhtvz rfr vecekmvfyt ghtbveotcndtyyj jncencndjdfkb. ≤Yfv cktljdfkj ås ghbukfcbnm nhtnmtuj gfhnythf; cltkfnm änj tot yt gjplyj≥, – crfpfk jy. Åjkmibycndj bp dscnegfdibö yf Rjyathtywbb yt jcvtkbkbcm rjcyenmcz hfcneotq euhjps fynbctvbnbpvf chtlb vecekmvfycrbö ärcnhtvbcnjd. Dbptk, hjlbdibqcz d Hevsybb b dshjcibq d Dtyuhbb, crfpfk, xnj dvtcnt c vyjubvb dtyuthcrbvb tdhtzvb gjldthucz ltgjhnfwbb d fghtkt 1944 ujlf. ≤Pf djctvm ytltkm jn 600 lj 800 nsczx tdhttd åskb ≤dsdtptys d ybrelf≥. D änjv vtczwt bcgjkyztncz 60 ktn c njuj vjvtynf, rfr jy gjgfk d utnnj, jnrelf tuj pfåhfkb d Feidbw. ≤Léthepfktv gjcn≥, 28 fghtkz. Njdf Kfpfhjd

≤Ltvjybpfwbz Bphfbkz – änj fynbctvbnbpv≥ ÅTHKBY. – Fvthbrfycrbt b ytvtwrbt gjkbnbrb åskb chtlb ntö ytvyjubö, rnj, dscnegfz gthtl ghtlcnfdbntkzvb JÅCT, ujdjhbk jå jgfcyjcnzö yjdjuj fynbctvbnbpvf, bcgjkmpetvjuj lkz yfgfljr yf Bphfbkm. [Jlyfrj] d öjlt pfrhsnjq lkz ghtccs lbcreccbb lfktrj yt dct bp 55 ujcelfhcnd JÅCT åskb tlbyjleiys d njv, vjéyj kb yfpdfnm ytyfdbcnm r Bphfbkñ fynbctvbnbpvjv. Ghbåsdibt yf Rjyathtywbñ tdhtqcrbt kblths åskb ghbpyfntkmys pf nj, xnj herjdjlbntkb JÅCT dscnegbkb ghjnbd fynbctvbnbpvf. Jlyfrj, gj bö vytybñ, JÅCT jcnfyjdbkfcm yf gjkgenb, yt lfd ljkéyjuj jcdtotybz fynbctvbnbpve, rjnjhsq zdyj ghbcencndetn d yfgflrfö yf Bphfbkm b d euhjpfö, rjnjhsv gjldthufñncz tdhtb cj cnjhjys bckfvbcncrbö ärcnhtvbcnjd. ≤Léthepfktv gjcn≥, 29 fghtkz. Njdf Kfpfhjd

22

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


Jcnfyjdbnm yjdeñ djkye ytyfdbcnb Fynbctvbnbpv ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ghjåktve lkz dctö ujcelfhcnd JÅCT, gjcrjkmre tuj wtkm – gjljhdfnm jcyjds yfibö jåotcnd, f bvtyyj: dthöjdtycndj pfrjyf, hfdyjghfdbt, ljåhjgjhzljxyjcnm, nthgbvjcnm b dthe. Fynbctvbncrjt yfcbkbt joeoftncz dctvb, ytpfdbcbvj jn dths. Tuj yfbåjktt éenrbv gjhjéltybtv zdkztncz nthhjhbpv, änf cbkf, rjnjhfz d cdjtv cnhtvktybb ctznm cvthnm heibn dct yf cdjtv genb. Tt wtkm – eybxnjébnm dct uevfyyjt. ≤Dfibyunjy gjcn≥, 28 fghtkz. Uthn Dfqcrbhöty, ltgenfn uthvfycrjuj åeyltcnfuf, pfvtcnbntkm Ghtlctlfntkz Gfhkfvtyncrjq fccfvåktb JÅCT, b ctyfnjh Léjhlé Djqyjdbx (htcgeåkbrfytw jn infnf Jufqj), xkty rjvbntnf gj byjcnhfyysv ltkfv.

Gfktcnbyws gjldthufñn yfgflrfv cjdtofybt gj fynbctvbnbpve PFGFLYSQ ÅTHTU. – Ldeölytdyfz vtéleyfhjlyfz rjyathtywbz gj fynbctvbnbpve d Åthkbyt gjldthukfcm rhbnbrt cj cnjhjys gfktcnbywtd, rjnjhst yfpdfkb tt ≤jndktrfñotq ekjdrjq≥, ≤öbnhsv nhñrjv≥, wtkm rjnjhsö – jndktxm dybvfybt jn bö euytntybz Bphfbktv. Jéblftncz, xnj rjyathtywbz, ghjdjlbvfz gjl äubljq JÅCT, ghbvtn hzl htitybq b htrjvtylfwbq, d rjnjhsö ≤ytrjnjhst≥ fynbbphfbkmcrbt yfcnhjtybz åelen ghbhfdytys r fynbctvbnbpve. D nhtnmtv geyrnt bnjujdjuj pfzdktybz rjyathtywbb ujdjhbncz j ytljgeotybb njuj, xnjås bphfbkmcrj-gfktcnbycrbq rjyakbrn bcgjkmpjdfkcz d rfxtcndt jghfdlfybz lkz dshfétybz fynbctvbncrbö gjpbwbq b dpukzljd. Rhjvt njuj, änjn ajhev, cjåhfdibq ghtlcnfdbntktq 55 ujcelfhcnd, afrnbxtcrb cjukfcbkcz j yfkbxbb dpfbvjcdzpb vtéle rhbnbrjq ltqcndbq b gjkbnbrb Bphfbkz... b dshfétybzvb rkfccbxtcrjuj fynbctvbnbpvf. Njkmrj vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Bhkfylbb Åhfqfy Rjeäy, ghtlcnfdkzñobq cnhfye, dsgjkyzñoeñ d gjhzlrt hjnfwbb ghtpbltyncrbt aeyrwbb d TC, dscnegbk c åjktt cåfkfycbhjdfyysv gjlöjljv r djghjce j hfcjdjq ytyfdbcnb. Jy pfzdbk exfcnybrfv ajhevf j njv, xnj ytkmpz bcgjkmpjdfnm gjyznbt ≤hfcs≥ d gjkbnbxtcrbö wtkzö – d rfxtcndt yfcnegfntkmyjq nfrnbrb bkb d rfxtcndt chtlcndf, xnjås erhsnmcz jn rhbnbrb. Aljazeera.net, 29 fghtkz

≤Fynbctvbnbpv euhjéftn ltvjrhfnbb≥: Ihçlth pfzdkztn, xnj jåotcndj jåzpfyj åjhjnmcz c hfcbpvjv ÅTHKBY. – Atlthfkmysq rfywkth Uthöfhl Ihçlth pfzdbk, xnj jåotcndj d wtkjv jåzpfyj åjhjnmcz c fynbtdhtqcrbvb yfcnhjtybzvb b hfcjdjq ytyfdbcnmñ. Åjhmåe ghjnbd fynbctvbnbpvf ytdjpvjéyj dsbuhfnm c gjvjom gjkbwbb b eujkjdyjuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf, – crfpfk jy yf ghbtvt, jhufybpjdfyyjv lkz exfcnybrjd rjyathtywbb. Jy ghbpdfk r ≤jnrhsnjve lbfkjue, jåütlbyzñotve kñltq, ghbyflktéfobö r hfpkbxysv wbdbkbpfwbzv b htkbubzv≥. Rfywkth yfpdfk fynbctvbnbpv ≤gjcnjzyyjq euhjpjq, rjnjhjq vs ljkéys ghjnbdjgjcnfdbnm ålbntkmyjcnm≥. Ihçlth ghbpdfk r endthéltybñ ≤leöf nthgbvjcnb b cjkblfhyjcnb, ghtlgjkfufñotuj ghjdtltybt xtnrjq uhfyb vtéle hfwbjyfkmysv gjlöjljv r gjkbnbrt bphfbkmcrjuj ghfdbntkmcndf b ytghbtvktvsv gjlcnhtrfntkmcndjv r dscnegktybzv ghjnbd Bphfbkz b tdhttd≥. ≤Dtkmn≥, 30 fghtkz

Rjx dljöyjdkty ghjdtltybtv Rjyathtywbb gj fynbctvbnbpve YMÑ-QJHR. – Chfpe gj djpdhfotybb bp Åthkbyf, rjnjhsq rjulf-nj åsk vbhjdsv wtynhjv fynbctvbnbpvf, Äl Rjx c djjleitdktybtv jnjpdfkcz j htfrwbb tdhjgtqwtd yf ytlfdyññ djkye hfcbcncrbö yfgfljr yf tdhttd d hfpysö cnhfyfö – jn Åhbnfybb lj fpbfncrbö cntgtq. Rfr pfzdbk åsdibq väh, njkmrj xnj pfdthibdifzcz d cnjkbwt Uthvfybb dcnhtxf ghtlcnfdbntktq 55 ujcelfhcnd jrfpfkfcm gj cenb ltkf yfcnjkmrj ecgtiyjq, xnj dpznjt Uthvfybtq jåzpfntkmcndj ghjnbdjltqcndjdfnm änjq ghjåktvt hfcnhjufkj tuj d nfrjq vtht, xnj jy jnrfpfkcz jn jåüzdktyyjuj bv kbxyjuj åjqrjnf Ahfywbb. Rjx, rjnjhsq bpdtcnty zhrbvb dscnegktybzvb gj djghjcfv hfcjdjq b änybxtcrjq nthgbvjcnb, ghbpyftn, xnj yt cksifk jå Jhufybpfwbb gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt, lj ntö gjh gjrf ujcelfhcndtyysq ctrhtnfhm Rjkby Gfeäk yt ghbukfcbk tuj djpukfdbnm ltktufwbñ CIF yf cjcnjzditqcz d rjywt fghtkz dnjhjq tétujlyjq rjyathtywbb änjq jhufybpfwbb gj ghjåktvt fynbctvbnbpvf. Fccjibäqntl ghtcc, 4 vfz

Içgc ghtljcnthtuftn j njv, xnj fynbctvbnbpv ghjrhflsdftncz xthtp pflybq öjl Lfnf dsåhfyf jgnbvfkmyj. Rjyathtywbz JÅCT gj fynbctvbnbpve d Åthkbyt yfxbyftncz ytgjchtlcndtyyj yfrfyeyt dcnegktybz yjdsö ltcznb ujcelfhcnd d cjcnfd Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf; änf ntvf åeltn pfybvfnm dybvfybt ltktufnjd. Ärcgthns, gjljåyj extyjve [Ñkbece] Içgce, jgfcfñncz, xnj hfcibhtybt TC åeltn cgjcjåcndjdfnm bvgjhne fynbctvbnbpvf d Tdhjge.

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Lbhtrnjh Wtynhf tdhjgtqcrj-tdhtqcrbö bccktljdfybq bv. Vjbctz Vtyltkmcjyf yt cjvytdftncz d njv, xnj ≤ghbcjtlbytybt yjdsö djcnjxyjtdhjgtqcrbö ujcelfhcnd r TC jnrhjtn genm lkz yfwbjyfkbpvf b fynbctvbnbpvf xthtp pflybq öjl≥. Gj vytybñ Içgcf, d cdtnt hfcibhtybz TC Rjyathtywbz JÅCT gj fynbctvbnbpve (dnjhfz pf ujl) ckbirjv pfgjplfkf. ≤Vyjubt d Pfgflyjq Tdhjgt njkmrj ctqxfc gjybvfñn, xnj fynbctvbncrbv ghjiksv d djcnjxyjtdhjgtqcrbö ujcelfhcndfö.. gj-yfcnjzotve nfr ybrjulf b yt pfybvfkbcm≥. ≤Igbutkm≥, 28 fghtkz

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

23


JÅCT/VBÖFBK TDCNFAMTD

HBXFHL VTHAB

GHBÅKBÉFTNCZ 30-Z UJLJDOBYF ÖTKMCBYRCRJUJ PFRKÑXBNTKMYJUJ FRNF

Gjcjk Fkåfybb yfcnjzntkmyj ghbpsdftn JÅCT ghjdtcnb dcnhtxe yf dscitv ehjdyt d 2005 ujle ≤CÅCT/JÅCT ljkéyf ujhlbnmcz cdjbv drkfljv d hfpdbnbt Tdhjgs≥ Ghjdtltybt d 2005 ujle dcnhtxb ukfd ujcelfhcnd – exfcnybrjd JÅCT vjukj ås ghblfnm Jhufybpfwbb cdtébq gjkbnbxtcrbq bvgekmc, – ujdjhbn gjcjk Fkåfybb Pta Vfpb. D bynthdmñ, lfyyjv éehyfke ≤JÅCT≥, jy crfpfk, xnj 30-z ujljdobyf ötkmcbyrcrjuj Pfrkñxbntkmyjuj frnf, rjnjhfz åeltn jnvtxfnmcz d cktleñotv ujle, cnfytn lkz ujcelfhcnd b ghfdbntkmcnd bltfkmyjq djpvjéyjcnmñ gjlsnjébnm ljcnbétybz ghjwtccf CÅCT/JÅCT b jghtltkbnm xtnrbt ecnfyjdrb yf åeleott. Gjcktlyzz dcnhtxf yf dscitv ehjdyt cjcnjzkfcm d Cnfvåekt d 1999 ujle.

24

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Gjkbnbxtcrbq lbfkju, rjnjhsq ljkéty åsnm cnthéytdsv äktvtynjv Jhufybpfwbb, gj-dblbvjve, yeélftncz d ghblfybb tve jghtltktyyjuj cdtétuj bvgekmcf, – ujdjhbn gjcjk Fkåfybb Pta Vfpb. ≤Z cxbnfñ, xnj ukfds ujcelfhcnd b ghfdbntkmcnd ljkéys cjåhfnmcz dvtcnt d 2005 ujle, c ntv xnjås gjlsnjébnm yfrjgktyysq pf gjcktlybt 30 ktn jgsn, jåcelbnm lfkmytqibt gthcgtrnbds b cjukfcjdfnm jhbtynbhjdfyyeñ yf åeleott gjkbnbxtcreñ ltrkfhfwbñ≥. CÅCT/JÅCT dghfdt ujhlbnmcz cdjbv drkfljv d gjkbnbxtcrjt hfpdbnbt Tdhjgs pf gjcktlybt nhb ltcznbktnbz b jcjåtyyj d endthéltybt nfrbö dféysö jåobö wtyyjcntq, rfr ltvjrhfnbz, ghfdf xtkjdtrf b dthöjdtycndj pfrjyf, ärjyjvbxtcrfz cdjåjlf, cjwbfkmyfz cghfdtlkbdjcnm b jöhfyf jrheéfñotq chtls, – ujdjhbn jy. ≤Yfxfkj änjq ädjkñwbb åskj gjkjétyj d 1975 ujle Ötkmcbyrcrbv ghjwtccjv. CÅCT/JÅCT åskf bycnhevtynjv yfkfébdfybz lbfkjuf b dshfåjnrb ghfdbk gjdtltybz, jghtltkzñobö jnyjitybz vtéle ujcelfhcndfvb b jnyjitybt rféljuj ujcelfhcndf r cdjbv uhfélfyfv, ghbxtv ghbitk lbfkju gj dctv djghjcfv yf cvtye kjubrt rjyahjynfwbb≥. Jlyj bp ghtbveotcnd JÅCT pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj d ytq pfpdexfk ujkjc vfksö b chtlybö ujcelfhcnd. ≤Z cxbnfñ, xnj ybrjulf hfytt d tdhjgtqcrjq bcnjhbb änb cnhfys yt xedcndjdfkb ctåz dtcjvsv afrnjhjv, cgjcjåysv dytcnb joenbvsq drkfl d jghtltktybt gthcgtrnbd tdhjgtqcrjuj ghjwtccf, – crfpfk gjcjk. – JÅCT csuhfkf d änjv pfvtnyeñ b d wtkjv gjpbnbdyeñ hjkm, xnj yt cjnhtncz bp gfvznb kñltq≥. Fkåfybz, ghbcjtlbybdifzcz r JÅCT d 1991 ujle, dblbn Jhufybpfwbñ gj-lheujve, ytétkb ytrjnjhst bp cnhfy, gjlgbcfdibö d 1975 ujle ötkmcbyrcrbq Pfrkñxbntkmysq frn. ≤Nt, rnj ghbcjtlbybkcz r ghjwtcce gjckt jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys, hfccvfnhbdfñn JÅCT rfr yjdjt yfxbyfybt, rfr ifyc ghtjåhfpjdfnm jnyjitybz vtéle tdhjgtqcrbvb ujcelfhcndfvb d nj, rfrbvb jyb ljkéys åskb åsnm d rjywt ÖÖ dtrf. Vs dblbv d ytq jhufybpfwbñ, rjnjhfz cjchtljnjxbn dybvfybt yf ytrjnjhsö yjdsö fcgtrnfö yfibö jnyjitybq, rjnjhst yt åskb jödfxtys lheubvb vtéleyfhjlysvb cjukfitybzvb b rjnjhst jpyfxfkb ås dytlhtybt yjdjuj gjyznbz, dshféftvjuj jlybv ckjdjv – gjljnxtnyjcnm≥. Jlyfrj c ntö gjh kfylifan tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb rjhtyysv jåhfpjv bpvtybkcz – yt d gjcktlyññ jxthtlm dcktlcndbt hfcibhtybz YFNJ b Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf. ≤Z ndthlj dthñ d JÅCT b ne dféyeñ hjkm, rjnjheñ tq tot ghtlcnjbn csuhfnm, – ujdjhbn gjcjk Vfpb. – Yflj, jlyfrj, ghbpyfnm, xnj ytrjnjhst ghjzdkzñn jghtltktyysq crtgnbwbpv d djghjct j njv, yfcrjkmrj dtkbrf gjkmpf jn Jhufybpfwbb ctujlyz, b yfv cktletn lfnm yf änj ghzvjq jndtn. Bvtyyj d änjv ltkt dféytqieñ hjkm vjukf ås csuhfnm dcnhtxf yf dscitv ehjdyt.

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


Fkåfycrbq gjcjk, hfytt hfåjnfdibq d Ctrhtnfhbfnt JÅCT, f ntgthm djpukfdkzñobq gjcnjzyyjt ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj cdjtq cnhfys d Dtyt, cxbnftn, xnj jcyjdyst djghjcs ysytiytq gjdtcnrb lyz dgjkyt pfrjyjvthys: änj ghjnbdjltqcndbt nthhjhbpve b gjdsitybt åtpjgfcyjcnb b cnfåbkmyjcnb, åjhmåf c ytpfrjyysv jåjhjnjv b njhujdktq dj dctö bö ajhvfö, åjhmåf c fynbctvbnbpvjv, ytghbvbhbvjcnmñ, lbcrhbvbyfwbtq b hfcbpvjv, gjdsitybt åtpjgfcyjcnb uhfybw b erhtgktybt gjuhfybxyjuj htébvf, jåtcgtxtybt hfdyjghfdbz veéxby b étyoby b gjvjom d erhtgktybb ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö bycnbnenjd b dthöjdtycndf pfrjyf. ≤Yj, yf vjq dpukzl, frwtyn ctqxfc ljkéty ltkfnmcz yf ghfrnbxtcrjq, f yt yf yjhvjndjhxtcrjq hfåjnt, yf dsgjkytybb dctvb 55 ujcelfhcndfvb – exfcnybrfvb njuj, xnj åskj cjukfcjdfyj yf jcyjdt rjyctycecf≥, – ujdjhbn jy. ≤Z gjlxthrbdfñ ckjdj ≤dctvb≥. Gjhjñ vjéyj ghjcnbnm ytjcdtljvktyyjcnm xtkjdtrf, cxbnfñotuj, xnj ytrjnjhst ghjåktvs, yfghbvth njhujdkz kñlmvb, rjhhegwbz bkb yfheitybt ghfd pfrkñxtyysö, ceotcndeñn njkmrj d cnhfyfö gthtöjlyjuj gthbjlf. Yf cfvjv ltkt, zcyj, xnj jyb yfåkñlfñncz d vfcinfåfö dctuj htubjyf JÅCT. Jnrhjdtyyjt ghbpyfybt änjuj afrnf gjvjukj ås ghtjljktnm crtgnbwbpv d jnyjitybb yfitq Jhufybpfwbb≥. ≤B tot. D cdzpb c hfccvjnhtybtv djghjcf jå byntuhfwbb cnhfy gthtöjlyjuj gthbjlf d tdhjfnkfynbxtcrbt cnhernehs byjulf cxbnftncz cfvj cjåjq hfpevtñobvcz, xnj dct yjhvs, jåzpfntkmcndf b cnfylfhns, djgkjotyyst d ljrevtynfö JÅCT, fdnjvfnbxtcrb b d gjkyjq vtht cjåkñlfñncz b ghbvtyzñncz d åjktt hfpdbnsö cnhfyfö. B jgznm-nfrb änj yt dctulf nfr. Xtcnyjt ghbpyfybt änjuj afrnf gjvjukj ås dljöyenm yjdeñ ébpym d hfåjne Jhufybpfwbb b gjdscbnm tt fdnjhbntn d ukfpfö yfibö uhfélfy, bynthtcfv rjnjhsö dct vs pltcm ghbpdfys ckeébnm≥. Gj vytybñ gjckf Vfpb, vbccbb JÅCT yf vtcnfö dsgjkyzñn dféyeñ aeyrwbñ, jlyfrj lkz ghbybvfñobö cnhfy – f d Fkåfybb Ghbcencndbt JÅCT aeyrwbjybhetn c 1997 ujlf – yfkbxbt vbccbb yt zdkztncz cfvjwtkmñ. Vbccbz – änj bycnhevtyn, gjvjufñobq njq bkb byjq cnhfyt ghtjljktnm gthtöjlysq gthbjl. ≤Vs ljkéys exbnsdfnm, xnj c ujlfvb cnhfys cnfyjdzncz åjktt phtksvb, f bö ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt bycnbnens – åjktt cnfåbkmysvb. Yeéyj, xnjås d cdjtq ltzntkmyjcnb yf vtcnfö JÅCT åskf cgjcjåyf flfgnbhjdfnmcz r änbv ghjuhtccbdysv gthtvtyfv≥. Gjlxthrbdfz ytjåöjlbvjcnm gjdsitybz äaatrnbdyjcnb ltzntkmyjcnb JÅCT yf vtcnfö, jy ujdjhbn: ≤Änjuj vjéyj, yfghbvth, ljåbnmcz gentv jghtltktybz vthjghbznbq d rkñxtdsö jåkfcnzö, d rjnjhsö ujcelfhcndf-exfcnybrb jåhfofñncz pf gjvjomñ, b cjchtljnjxtybz ecbkbq yf änbö yfghfdktybzö. Rhbnbxtcrbq fyfkbp b yfåkñltybt pf hfpdbnbtv cjåsnbq ghbyjcbn cdjñ gjkmpe, yj änbv yt pfvtybnm gjvjob ujcelfhcndfv-exfcnyb-

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

rfv d ntö djghjcfö, ult jyf nhtåetncz, b d cnhjujv b gjkyjv dsgjkytybb vfylfnf vbccbb≥. Gjcjk Vfpb cxbnftn, xnj JÅCT åeltn b dghtlm d ntxtybt jghtltktyyjuj dhtvtyb buhfnm cdjñ hjkm d hfpdbnbb Fkåfybb. ≤Jyf eét jrfpfkf yfv ytjwtybveñ gjvjom, rjnjheñ dtcmvf dscjrj wtyzn d cnhfyt. Cj dhtvtyb rhföf rjvveybpvf d 1992 ujle, b jcjåtyyj gjckt cjwbfkmysö djkytybq 1997 ujlf, cnhfyf cnfkf pfvtnyj åjktt phtkjq. JÅCT csuhfkf dféyeñ hjkm d dsghfdktybb cbnefwbb b gjcntgtyyjq cnfåbkbpfwbb gjkjétybz≥. Hbxfhl Vthab zdkztncz ghtcc-ctrhtnfhtv JÅCT b yfxfkmybrjv Jnltkf ghtccs b jåotcndtyyjq byajhvfwbb d cjcnfdt Ctrhtnfhbfnf.

Gjcjk Pta Vfpb (48 ktn) åsk yfpyfxty gjcnjzyysv ghtlcnfdbntktv Fkåfybb

ghb vtéleyfhjlysö jhufybpfwbzö d Dtyt d ltrfåht 2002 ujlf. Njn ét gjcn jy pfybvfk d gthbjl c fduecnf 1991 gj yjzåhm 1997 ujlf. Jy ghbjåhtk jgsn hfåjns d catht jnyjitybq c vtéleyfhjlysvb jhufybpfwbzvb yf hfpkbxysö herjdjlzobö ljkéyjcnzö d vbybcnthcndt byjcnhfyysö ltk cnhfys, ult jy hfåjnfk, d xfcnyjcnb, d rfxtcndt yfxfkmybrf jnltkf CÅCT (1989–1991 uu.), d Ctrhtnfhbfnt JÅCT (bñkm 1998 – vfq 2000 uu.) b Vtéleyfhjlyjv futyncndt gj fnjvyjq äythubb (vfq 2000 – ltrfåhm 2002 uu.). Ghtlitcndeñofz rfhmthf gjckf, rjnjhsq pfrjyxbk d Fkåfybb Nbhfycrbq eybdthcbntn gj cgtwbfkmyjcnb ≤byjcnhfyyst zpsrb b kbnthfnehf, vtéleyfhjlyst jnyjitybz b ghfdj≥, åskf vyjujuhfyyjq. Jy hfåjnfk lbrnjhjv yf hflbj Nbhfys, ghtgjlfdfntktv eybdthcbntnf, gthtdjlxbrjv c fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv b htlfrnjhjv. Rhjvt njuj, jy djpukfdkzk ltgfhnfvtyn vtéleyfhjlysö jnyjitybq ukfdyjuj eghfdktybz GNN (gjxnf – ntktuhfa – ntktajy). D bñyt 2002 ujlf gjcjk Vfpb åfkkjnbhjdfkcz yf gjcn ghtpbltynf Fkåfybb.

Ötkmcbyrcrbq Pfrkñxbntkmysq frn ≤Rjytw hfpltkf Tdhjgs≥ bñkz 1975 ujlf ukfds ujcelfhcnd b ghfdbntkmcnd 35 ujcelfhcnd, hfcgjkjétyysö yf jåibhyjq nthhbnjhbb ctdthyjuj gjkeifhbz jn Dfyredthf lj Dkflbdjcnjrf, cjåhfkbcm d pfkt ≤Abykzylbz≥ d Ötkmcbyrb yf rjyathtywbñ yf dscitv ehjdyt, ghjljkéfdieñcz nhb lyz. 1 fduecnf dcnhtxf pfdthibkfcm gjlgbcfybtv Pfrkñxbntkmyjuj frnf Cjdtofybz gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt (CÅCT), åjktt ibhjrj bpdtcnyjuj rfr ≤ötkmcbyrcrbq Pfrkñxbntkmysq frn≥. Änj cjukfitybt jpyfvtyjdfkj jrjyxfybt cthbb byntycbdysö lbgkjvfnbxtcrbö gthtujdjhjd, yfxfkj rjnjhsv åskj gjkjétyj d cnjkbwt Abykzylbb pf ldf ujlf lj änjuj b rjnjhst ghjljkéfkbcm gjxnb åtp gththsdf c 1973 gj 1975 ujl d Étytdt (Idtqwfhbz).

30

Änj cjukfitybt jnhféfkj yt njkmrj htibntkmysq gjdjhjn d jnyjitybzö vtéle Djcnjrjv b Pfgfljv gthbjlf öjkjlyjq djqys, dshfpbdibqcz d ghbyznbb ≤ltrfkjuf≥ – jcyjdysö ghbywbgjd, jghtltkzñobö jnyjitybz vtéle ujcelfhcndfvb-exfcnybrfvb; jyj nfrét gjckeébkj jnghfdyjq njxrjq d ≤Ötkmcbyrcrjv ghjwtcct≥, rjnjhsq cnfk jcyjdysv ajhevjv lkz gjkbnbxtcrbö rjycekmnfwbq b gthtujdjhjd gj ibhjxfqitve rheue djghjcjd, drkñxfz djghjcs ghfd xtkjdtrf, d gthbjl öjkjlyjq djqys. Gjl äubljq CÅCT ujcelfhcndf-exfcnybrb bcgjkmpjdfkb änjn ghjwtcc lkz njuj, xnjås jrfpsdfnm gjvjom d dsgjkytybb bö jåzpfntkmcnd, ghbyznsö d hfvrfö CÅCT. Änbv åsk dytcty dtcjvsq drkfl d gfltybt njnfkbnfhysö htébvjd d djcnjxysö cnhfyfö b d ghtjljktybt hfcrjkf Tdhjgs.

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

25


≤WTYYST CDZPB≥

Vfnthbfkbpfwbz bltq Erhfitybz bp cnhfy JÅCT

AKJHFYC KT RKTPBJ

njz d jxthtlb, gjctnbntkb nthgtkbdj ljéblfñncz, rjulf yfcnfytn bö xthtl ytnjhjgkbdj gjåhjlbnm d kfåbhbynt bp cdbcfñobö c gjnjkrf äktufynysö dscnfdjxysö dbnhby. Rfélfz bp ybö, jcdtotyyfz njyrbvb djkjrjyysvb kfvgjxrfvb, dspsdftn djcöbotybt b elbdktybt. Gjlcdtnrf yf gthdjq dbnhbyt dsödfnsdftn bp gjkevhfrf rjitktr bp cthtåhzyjq abkbuhfyb, bpujnjdktyysq fkåfycrbv vfcnthjv Gfkjv Ktrftv; pfntv cktletn cthjt jéthtkmt bp ufptnysö ifhbrjd, étvxeuf b cnfkmyjq ghjdjkjrb hfåjns ytvwf Ntj Cvttncf, f lfktt – jéthtkmt bp hfpyjwdtnysö cntrkzyysö ujhjiby, cjplfyyjt fvthbrfywtv Léjqcjv Crjnnjv. Pfdthiftn cthbñ ärcgjyfnjd rjkmwj erhfbycrjuj vfcnthf Jhtcnf Bdfcñns, ltrjhfnbdysv äktvtynjv d rjnjhjv ckeébn vfuybnyjt yfgsktybt. D rjywt atdhfkz d fdcnhbqcrjv Veptt yfhjlyjuj ndjhxtcndf xtnsht cjnyb ujcntq cjåhfkbcm yf wthtvjybñ, rjnjhjq jnrhsdfkjcm pyfrjvcndj c rekmnehysvb wtyyjcnzvb htubjyf JÅCT, ghtlcnfdktyysvb yt njkmrj cnhfyfvb yf ghjcnhfycndt jn Dfyredthf lj Dkflbdjcnjrf, yj nfrét b nfrbvb hfpltktyysvb juhjvysv hfccnjzybtv cnhfyfvb, rfr Bphfbkm, Rjhtz b lheubt ujcelfhcndf – gfhnyths JÅCT. Dscnfdrf gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Wtyyst cdzpb: erhfitybz bp cnhfy htubjyf JÅCT≥, pflevfyyfz yblthkfylcrbv ghtlctlfntkmcndjv JÅCT d 2003 ujle, d ntxtybt gjkeujlf gthttpéfkf bp ujhjlf d ujhjl, ljåhfdibcm bp Vffcnhbönf xthtp Cjabñ lj Dtys. ≤Kñåjq, rnj cvjnhbn yf änb ärcgjyfns, åeltn gjhféty bö hfpyjjåhfpbtv; yj dvtcnt c ntv jy jåhfnbn dybvfybt b yf nj, xnj öeljéybrb bp hfpkbxysö cnhfy dpfbvyj dkbzñn lheu yf lheuf, – gbitn Ltqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm JÅCT d 2003 ujle Zffg lt Öjjg Cötaath d bpscrfyyj bplfyyjv rfnfkjut dscnfdrb. – Nj ét öfhfrnthyj b lkz cjjåotcndf JÅCT. Yfib cnhfys vyjujjåhfpys, yj yfib jåobt wtyyjcnb jåhfpeñn nt wtyyst cdzpb, rjnjhst cjcnfdkzñn gjlkbyyeñ rhfcjne änjq Jhufybpfwbb≥. ≤Ñdtkbhyst bpltkbz zdkzñncz cbvdjkjv rjvajhnf b åtpjgfcyjcnb, – ujdjhbn yblthkfylcrbq fnnfit gj djghjcfv rekmnehs They dfy Öthlt. – Rjulf kñlb åtuen jn rjyakbrnjd b yfcbkbz, jyb dctvb genzvb cnfhfñncz dpznm c cjåjq ljhjubt bv dtob≥. Rjulf d fduecnt ghjikjuj ujlf ghtlcnfdbntkm jnltkf ghtccs b rekmnehs gjcjkmcndf Yblthkfyljd ghtlkjébk dtycrjve lbpfqythe-ñdtkbhe Dthjybrt Idfhwbyuth dscnegbnm d rfxtcndt rehfnjhf dscnfdrb, jyf jnytckfcm r änjve c äynepbfpvjv. ≤Erhfitybz yjczncz ghzvj yf ntkt. Änj ajhvf bcreccndf, rjnjhfz, nfr crfpfnm, åkbét dctuj kñlzv, f xtkjdtr lkz JÅCT zdkztncz ghtlvtnjv dctö tt pfåjn, – ujdjhbn jyf. – Gjvbvj vfcnthcndf b xbcnj äcntnbxtcrjuj dgtxfnktybz erhfitybz vjuen pfrkñxfnm d ctåt ukeåjrbq cvsck. Dpukzybnt, yfghbvth, yf åsdituj ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ctrhtnfhz CIF Vflkty Jkåhfqn, rjnjhfz, étkfz

C Bjhlfybz, Hfdfåb Fåeufpfktö. Jéthtkmt gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Herf Afnbvs≥, (vecekmvfycrbq cbvdjk pfobns).

Åjkufhbz, Pdtntkbyf Fktrcbtdf. Rjkmwj (pjkjnj b rjhfkk). Ajnjcybvrb erhfitybq gtxfnfñncz c hfphtitybz Cntafyf Pfqckthf, pfdtleñotuj ajnjckeéåjq Tcntcndtyyj-bcnjhbxtcrjuj veptz Dtys.

26

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


gjlxthryenm ne bkb byeñ vsckm, xfcnj jltdfkf gjlöjlzobt lkz ckexfz åhjib≥. Pflfxf ghbdktxm b ghjbpdtcnb nofntkmysq jnåjh erhfitybq bp 65 cnhfy dctuj pf ytcrjkmrj vtczwtd ghtlcnfdkzkfcm dtcmvf cjåkfpybntkmyjq. U-éf Idfhwbyuth, d ghjikjv bpexfdifz lbpfqy d Fvcnthlfvt, f d yfcnjzott dhtvz zdkzñofzcz dkfltkmwtv ñdtkbhyjuj cfkjyf d bcnjhbxtcrjv wtynht Dtys, pyfkf, xnj vjétn hfccxbnsdfnm yf gjvjom cdjbö cjåhfnmtd gj bcreccnde gj rhfqytq vtht d gjkjdbyt bp cnhfy JÅCT. Jyf c elbdktybtv jåyfheébkf, xnj ytrjnjhst cnhfys ghbckfkb ärcgjyfns åscnhtt, xtv jyf jéblfkf. Xthtp nhb lyz Cfif Vbktyrjdbx (Cthåbz b Xthyjujhbz) ghtlkjébk cltkfyyjt bp rjcnb b gthmtd jéthtkmt, bcgjkytyyjt bcnjhbxtcrjuj cvsckf b cjdhtvtyysö bltq. Lheubt ärcgjyfns gjnhtåjdfkb åjkmit dhtvtyb b dybvfybz. ≤Vjb gthdst gjgsnrb dcnegbnm d rjynfrn c öeljéybrjv bp Fpthåfqléfyf gj äktrnhjyyjq gjxnt yt edtyxfkbcm ecgtöjv≥, – crfpfk u-éf Idfhwbyuth. Pfgjkyznm ghjåtks, jcjåtyyj d wtynhfkmyjfpbfncrbö cnhfyfö, gjvjufkb gjcjkmcndf, lhepmz b rjkktrwbjyths ñdtkbhysö bpltkbq. ≤R cxfcnmñ, änj eprbq vbhjr, – ujdjhbn jyf. – Xthtp ctvm ytltkm e vtyz c rjvfyljq åsk gjkysq yfåjh ärcgjyfnjd≥. ≤Ufkthtqobwf≥ ujdjhbn, xnj ytrjnjhst öeljéybrb, c rjnjhsvb jyf gjllthébdfkf rjynfrn kbxyj, jnytckbcm r ghjtrne cfvsv cthmtpysv jåhfpjv b ghtlkjébkb ghjlevfyyst htitybz xthtp dtå-cfqn JÅCT. Ytrjnjhst bp ybö djgkjnbkb bltñ jåoyjcnb 55 ujcelfhcnd – exfcnybrjd JÅCT d cdjbö jhbubyfkmysö hfåjnfö. Cñpfyyf Öfvvth (Fdcnhbz) bpujnjdbkf jéthtkmt bp 55 cthtåhzysö rjktw. Uthvfy Uthvcty (Yblthkfyls) ghtdhfnbk 55 kfvbybhjdfyysö gkfcnbrjv akférjd d gjldtcrb. Gjk Vfrrkeh bp Rfyfls bpujnjdbk åhjib bp 55 yfvfuybxtyysö recjxrjd vtnfkkf, erhfityysö kfpehmñ, cthljkbrjv, zivjq b jybrcjv, cbvdjkbpbheñobt cnhernehe DBX, c ntv xnjås ghbdktxm dybvfybt r ytjåöjlbvjcnb vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjnhelybxtcndf d åjhmåt c änbv dbhecjv. ≤Vs ghtlkjébkb öeljéybrfv lfnm djkñ cdjtve ndjhxtcrjve djjåhfétybñ yf ntvs, rjnjhst ghtlcnfdkzñn ghtlvtn gjdctlytdyjq hfåjns JÅCT≥, – crfpfk T. dfy Öthlt. D gjgsnrt gjlxthryenm xedcndj åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhjt lftn xtkjdtre yfkbxbt eåtébof d vbht, ult vbkkbjys kñltq åtéfkb jn djqys, ytnthgbvjcnb b ytyfdbcnb, öjhdfn Ytyfl Hjåfy bpujnjdbk åhjib cjdhtvtyyjuj lbpfqyf bp rhfcyjuj lthtdf gjl ghjcnsv yfpdfybtv ≤Ljv≥. Jåbnfntkb ≤Ljvf≥ ghtlcnfdktys étvxeébyfvb, f nfrét pjkjnsvb b cthtåhzysvb dcnfdrfvb. Jå enthzyyjq cdjåjlt ckjdf – r cxfcnmñ, jcnfditqcz ntgthm d ghjikjv – yfgjvbyfñn ldf recrf cthtåhzyjq rktqrjq ktyns gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Dsyeéltyyjt vjkxfybt≥ kbnjdcrjuj öeljéybrf Cbubnfcf Dbhgbkfqnbcf. Idtqwfhrf Tdf Faeöc ghtlcnfdbkf cnfheñ hfåjne – åhjim, bpujnjdktyyeñ

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

bp rjkñxtq ghjdjkjrb, ≤c ntv xnjås rjétq gjxedcndjdfnm ghjåktve yfcbkbz≥. Wthtvjybz jnrhsnbz dscnfdrb, cjcnjzdifzcz d Vffcnhbönt 1 ltrfåhz b ghbehjxtyyfz r ldeölytdyjq dcnhtxt Cjdtnf vbybcnhjd, ghjikf gjxnb ytpfvtxtyyjq, – dcgjvbyftn u-éf Idfhwbyuth, – gjcrjkmre jcyjdyjt dybvfybt ghbdktrkf ghtccrjyathtywbz b. j. ghtpbltynf Uhepbb Ybyj Åehléfyflpt, cjcnjzdifzcz chfpe gjckt ≤htdjkñwbb hjp≥ d Uhepbb. Jlyfrj, gjckt njuj rfr dscnfdrf gthttöfkf d vffcnhböncrbq Wtynh rthfvbrb, tt vtytt xtv pf vtczw gjctnbkb gjhzlrf 2 500 xtkjdtr. Jnnelf, c ntv xnjås gthtåhjcbnm vjcn jn yblthkfylcrjuj ghtlctlfntkmcndf d 2003 ujle r åjkufhcrjve ghtlctlfntkmcnde JÅCT d 2004 ujle, erhfitybz åskb gthtdtptys d cjabqcrbq Veptq pfheåtéyjuj bcreccndf, ult pf ldt ytltkb yf dscnfdrt gjåsdfkj dldjt åjkmit gjctnbntktq. ≤Yf wthtvjybb jnrhsnbz d ghbcencndbb 40 éehyfkbcnjd dscnegbk ghtvmthvbybcnh Åjkufhbb Cbvtjy Cfrcrjåehuujncrbq, – dcgjvbyftn u-éf Idfhwbyuth. – Änj åskj yfcnjkmrj ecgtiyjt b ibhjrj jcdtofdittcz d ghtcct cjwbfkmyj-rekmnehyjt vthjghbznbt, xnj öeljéybwf Pdtntkbyf Fktrcbtdf, herjq rjnjhjq bpujnjdkty drkfl Åjkufhbb – pjkjnjt rjkmwj c rjhfkkjv – vuyjdtyyj cnfkf pyfvtybnjq≥. Pfrkñxbntkmysq, dtycrbq änfg gthtldbéyjq dscnfdrb cnfk cdjtuj hjlf ≤ljdtcrjv≥, yj dvtcnt c ntv rfr ytkmpz kexit gjvju jpyfrjvbnmcz c ytq felbnjhbb JÅCT d cnhfyt ghtåsdfybz änjq Jhufybpfwbb. Pf nhb vtczwf hfåjns dscnfdrb ≤Wtyyst

Ghtvmth-vbybcnh Cbvtjy Cfrcrjåehuujncrbq, åsdibq rjhjkm Åjkufhbb, (d wtynht) b gjcjk Yblthkfyljd d Cjabb åfhjytccf Utyhbtnnf dfy Kbylty c yblthkfylcrbv fnnfit gj djghjcfv rekmnehs Theyjv dfy Öthlt yf wthtvjybb jnrhsnbz dscnfdrb ≤Wtyyst cdzpb≥ d Cjabb. Ajnjuhfabz geåkbretncz c hfphtitybz Ñkbfys Ybrjkjdjq.

Nehrvtybcnfy, ytbpdtcnysq öeljéybr. Åhfcktn (cthtåhj c cthljkbrjv).

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

27


Åjktt 5 000 xtkjdtr gjctnbkb dscnfdre ≤Wtyyst cdzpb≥ d Cjabb. Ajnjuhfabz geåkbretncz c hfphtitybz Ñkbfys Ybrjkjdjq.

cdzpb≥ d Fdcnhbb r 23 vfz tt gjctnbkb 3 000 xtkjdtr, d njv xbckt åjkmibt uheggs vjkjltéb. Tétytltkmyj jhufybpjdsdfkbcm hfpkbxyst vthjghbznbz – jn ghfrnbxtcrbö ctvbyfhjd gj ñdtkbhyjve bcreccnde lj åhbabyuf j yjdsö euhjpfö åtpjgfcyjcnb JÅCT. Gj ckjdfv pfvtcnbntkz herjdjlbntkz ltktufwbb Yblthkfyljd d JÅCT Rfhtkf Djcrñkthf, änj vthjghbznbt gjpdjkbkj ghtlcnfdbntkzv dctö cnhfy yf hfdysö pfzdbnm j ctåt b elfxyj dgbcfkjcm d jhufybpetveñ vepttv cthbñ vthjghbznbq, gjcdzotyysö hfcibhtybñ Tdhjgs. ≤Yfbåjktt åktcnzobt hfåjns åskb ghtlcnfdktys ytrjnjhsvb bp cnhfy, yföjlzoböcz yf gthtöjlyjv änfgt, gjkbnbxtcrfz cbnefwbz d rjnjhsö pfxfcneñ yeélftncz d ghjzcytybb≥, – crfpfk jy. Cjnhelybwt gjcjkmcndf Yblthkfyljd Zrtkbyt Ieehvfyc, rjnjhfz nfrét hfåjnfkf yfl ghjtrnjv, bvgjybhetn njn afrn, xnj lkz exfcnbz yt åskj ecnfyjdktyj ybrfrbö rhbnthbtd. ≤Rfélsq ärcgjyfn jåkflftn cjåcndtyyjq bvvfytynyjq wtyyjcnmñ ytpfdbcbvj jn njuj, ghbyflktébn kb jy r nhflbwbjyyjve yfghfdktybñ bkb fdfyufhle, bpujnjdkty

Åtkmubz, Lfybäkm Dfqyåthuth. Ghbxelkbdjt jéthtkmt, cjcnfdktyyjt bp ghtlvtnjd gjdctlytdyjuj jåböjlf.

28

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

Rshuspcnfy, ytbpdtcnysq öeljéybr. Lhtdyzz gjldtcrf (cthtåhj b rhfcyjt cntrkj).

kb jy bp pjkjnf bkb gktrcbukfcf, zdkztncz crjhtt ärcnhfdfufynysv bkb ghbukeityysv gj pdexfybñ, yfltkty cbvdjkbxtcrbv cvsckjv bkb ghtlyfpyfxty bcrkñxbntkmyj lkz ltrjhfnbdysö wtktq≥. Dvtcnt c ntv u-éf Idfhwbyuth ghbpyftn, xnj tt rfr öeljéybrf jcjåtyyj djcöboftn bcrkñxbntkmyjt vfcnthcndj fpthåfqléfywf Léfvfkfllbyf Tñåjdf, ghtlcnfdbdituj abkbuhfyyjt jéthtkmt bp gjpjkjxtyyjuj cthtåhf b cntrkf, b ndjhxtcrbq leö, ghbceobq ghbxelkbdjq rjvgjpbwbb åtkmubqwf Lfybäkz Dfqyåthuthf ≤Jéthtkmt vtéleyfhjlyjq ufhvjybb≥, cjåhfyyjq bp ghtlvtnjd, jrheéfñobö öeljéybrf d gjdctlytdyjq ébpyb. ≤Hfåjnf Tñåjdf ybrjulf yt vjukf ås gjzdbnmcz yf Pfgflt, gjcrjkmre nhtåetn åtcrjytxyjuj nthgtybz b njyrjuj vfcnthcndf, – ujdjhbn jyf. – Xnj rfcftncz hfåjns Dfqyåthuthf, nj d ytq pfrkñxty wtksq vbh, b rjulf z cvjnhñ yf ytt, gthtlj vyjq ytvtlktyyj djpybrftn jåhfp tt cjplfntkz≥. Akjhfyc kt Rktpbj zdkztncz fccbcntynjv gj djghjcfv ghtccs b jåotcndtyyjq byajhvfwbb d Ctrhtnfhbfnt.

Fpthåfqléfy, Léfvfkfllby Tñåjd. Jéthtkmt bp pjkjxtyjuj cthtåhf c bcgjkmpjdfybtv lhtdytq abkbuhfyyjq ntöybrb.

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


YFPYFXTYBZ

Pflfxf yjdjuj cgtwbfkmyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz – yfhfobdfnm åjhmåe c njhujdktq kñlmvb tqcndeñobq ghtlctlfntkm, vbybcnh byjcnhfyysö ltk Åjkufhbb Cjkjvjy Gfccb yfpyfxbk åsdituj atlthfkmyjuj vbybcnhf Fdcnhbb gj ltkfv étyoby Ötkmue Rjyhfl cgtwbfkmysv ghtlcnfdbntktv JÅCT gj åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb. ≤Dféyst aeyrwbb, dsgjkyzdibtcz Ö. Rjyhfl d rfxtcndt ghtlctlfntkz Wtktdjq uheggs Gfrnf j cnfåbkmyjcnb lkz Ñuj-Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs gj ghjåktvt njhujdkb kñlmvb, b jåibhysq jgsn hfåjns zdkzñncz pfkjujv tt ecgtöf d lfkmytqitq ltzntkmyjcnb≥, – pfzdbk gjcjk Bhkfylbb Åhtylfy Vjhfy jn bvtyb Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf. Ö. Rjyhfl djpukfdkzkf Wtktdeñ uhegge c vjvtynf tt exhtéltybz gjl äubljq JÅCT d 2000 ujle. Ghjuhfvvs Uheggs cnfdbkb wtkmñ gjllthébdfnm, erhtgkznm b hfwbjyfkbpbhjdfnm cjnhelybxtcndj vtéle cnhfyfvb Ñuj-Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs d åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb. Dscnegfz yf pfctlfybb Gjcnjzyyjuj cjdtnf 13 vfz gj ckexfñ dcnegktybz d ljkéyjcnm, Ö. Rjyhfl gjlxthryekf ytjåöjlbvjcnm herjdjlcndjdfnmcz Gkfyjv ltqcndbq JÅCT gj åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb, rjnjhsq åsk endthélty Vffcnhböncrjq dcnhtxtq Cjdtnf vbybcnhjd d ltrfåht 2003 ujlf, b Ghjnjrjkjv JJY j njhujdkt kñlmvb. ≤Gjcrjkmre njhujdkz kñlmvb – änj wtkfz wtgjxrf rhbvbyfkmysö frnjd, z ås hfccvfnhbdfkf tt rfr rjvgktrcyeñ ghjåktve, d htitybb rjnjhjq ljkéys exfcndjdfnm dct – jn cnhfy ghjbcöjéltybz lj cnhfy yfpyfxtybz, jn ghfdbntkmcnd b ghfdjjöhfybntkmysö jhufyjd lj celjd b ytghfdbntkmcndtyysö jhufybpfwbq, zdkzñoböcz jcyjdysvb ≤gjcnfdobrfvb eckeu≥ lkz éthnd≥, ujdjhbn jyf.

L

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

≤JÅCT dgjkyt ghbcgjcjåktyf lkz njuj, xnjås c tt gjvjomñ hfpjhdfnm wtgm njhujdkb kñlmvb, gjcrjkmre chtlb 55 tt ujcelfhcndexfcnybrjd – cnhfys ghjbcöjéltybz, nhfypbnf b yfpyfxtybz, – ljåfdkztn jyf. – Rhjvt njuj, jyf bvttn djpvjéyjcnm dpfbvjltqcndjdfnm c hfpkbxysvb gfhnythfvb b pfbynthtcjdfyysvb cnjhjyfvb b jceotcndkznm jåott herjdjlcndj åjhmåjq c nfrjq njhujdktq xthtp cdjb ceotcndeñobt cnhernehs b bycnbnens yf jcyjdt cjnhelybxtcndf c lheubvb vtéleyfhjlysvb jhufybpfwbzvb b exhtéltybzvb≥. Ö. Rjyhfl pfzdbkf, xnj yfvthtyf dtcnb hfåjne gj dctv fcgtrnfv ghjåktvs, eltkzz dybvfybt ≤yt njkmrj njhujdkt d wtkzö ctrcefkmyjq ärcgkefnfwbb, yj nfrét b ghjlfét kñltq yf hsyrfö ghbyelbntkmyjuj b hfåcrjuj nhelf, b d xfcnyjcnb njhujdkt ltnmvb b ytcjdthityyjktnybvb≥. Jyf nfrét gjlxthryekf ghjåktve dyenhtyytq njhujdkb, jåütv rjnjhjq, gj tt ckjdfv, yfhfcnftn. ≤Ctqxfc vs gjdcñle bcgsnsdftv ltabwbn byajhvfwbb j njv, gjxtve ytrjnjhst uheggs jcjåtyyj ezpdbvs b gjxtve jnltkmyst kñlb jrfpsdfñncz d cjcnfdt änbö uhegg, bp-pf xtuj ghbybvftvst vths ytfltrdfnys, – ujdjhbn jyf. – Ceotcndetn ytjnkjéyfz gjnhtåyjcnm d enjxytybb nbgbxysö jcjåtyyjcntq, ghbceobö gjntywbfkmysv éthndfv, c ghjdtltybtv hfpkbxbz vtéle ltnmvb b dphjcksvb, b d dszdktybb njuj, lkz rfrbö wtktq dtltncz njhujdkz, f nfrét njuj, rfrbt cnhfys b htubjys djdktxtys d ytt≥. D cdjbö ltqcndbzö Ö. Rjyhfl yfvthtyf gjkfufnmcz yf yfltéyst bccktljdfybz b åeltn cnhtvbnmcz r ntcyjve dpfbvjltqcndbñ c bpdtcnysvb extysvb b bycnbnenfvb. Rfr pfzdbk pfvtcnbntkm herjdj-

ÖTKMUF RJYHFL: GJBCR CJDVTCNYSÖ HTITYBQ B JÅOTQ JNDTNCNDTYYJCNB

≤Pf ujls hfåjns d cjcnfdt ghfdbntkmcndf b gfhkfvtynf z ghbikf r gjybvfybñ ytjåöjlbvjcnb rjyctycecysö htitybq, – pfzdbkf Ö. Rjyhfl ujcelfhcndfv – exfcnybrfv JÅCT. – F dtlz d ntxtybt vyjubö ktn gjkbnbxtcreñ hfåjne yf vtcnyjv ehjdyt b d rfxtcndt herjdjlbntkz YGJ, z yfexbkfcm gjybvfybñ dféyjcnb jåotq jndtncndtyyjcnb≥. Ybét erfpfys jcyjdyst lfns rfhmths Ö. Rjyhfl d gthbjl gjckt bpextybz fyukbqcrjq b hjvfycrjq abkjkjubb d eybdthcbntnt bv. Rfhkf Ahfywtycf d Uhfwt b d gfhbécrjq Cjhåjyyt. 1975–1977 uu. – ghtgjlfdfntkm extåysö pfdtltybq lkz dphjcksö 1977–1980 uu. – cjdtnybr gj gjlujnjdrt rflhjd b jåhfpjdfybñ gfkfns nhelf Inbhbb 1980–1993 uu. – flvbybcnhfnjh, Rekmnehyfz bybwbfnbdf Inbhbb 1987–1990 uu. – xkty veybwbgfkmyjuj cjdtnf Uhfwf (ujhjlcrjq gfhkfvtyn) 1990–1993 uu. – xkty atlthfkmyjuj gfhkfvtynf Fdcnhbb (xkty rjvbntnf gj byjcnhfyysv ltkfv) 1993–1995 uu. – xkty ujhjlcrjuj cjdtnf (veybwbgfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj) Uhfwf (gj djghjcfv ltntq, vjkjltéb, ctvmb, irjkmyjuj jåhfpjdfybz b plhfdjjöhfytybz) 1995–1997 uu. – atlthfkmysq vbybcnh Fdcnhbb gj ltkfv étyoby 1995 u. – herjdjlbntkm ltktufwbb Fdcnhbb yf xtndthnjq Dctvbhyjq rjyathtywbb gj gjkjétybñ étyoby (Gtrby) 1996 u. – hfcgjhzlbntkm gthdjq rjyathtywbb Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf gj njhujdkt étyobyfvb d wtkzö ctrcefkmyjq ärcgkefnfwbb (Dtyf) 1996 u. – herjdjlbntkm ltktufwbb Fdcnhbb yf gthdjv Vbhjdjv rjyuhtcct ghjnbd rjvvthxtcrjq ctrcefkmyjq ärcgkefnfwbb ltntq (Cnjrujkmv) 1997–1999 uu. – ltgenfn atlthfkmyjuj gfhkfvtynf Fdcnhbb (xkty rjvbntnf gj byjcnhfyysv ltkfv) 2000–2004 uu. – ghtlctlfntkm wtktdjq uheggs Gfrnf j cnfåbkmyjcnb lkz Ñuj-Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs gj ghjåktvt njhujdkb kñlmvb

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

29


Gjcjk Bdfh Rhbcnbfy Dbrrb dcnegbk d ljkéyjcnm herjdjlbntkz Wtynhf JÅCT d Fkvf-Fnt 4 fghtkz, cvtybd yf änjv gjcne gjckf Fynjyf Hegybrf (Ckjdtybz). Gjcjk Dbrrb, uhfélfyby Yjhdtubb, hfåjnfk pfvtcnbntktv herjdjlbntkz Vbccbb JÅCT d Uhepbb c 1999 gj 2002 ujl, f nfrét herjdjlbntktv Jnltktybz JJY gj ghfdfv xtkjdtrf d Fåöfpbb (Uhepbz) c 2003 gj 2004 ujl. ≤Ehjr, rjnjhsq z dsytc bp vjtuj jgsnf hfåjns yf Rfdrfpt, cjcnjbn d njv, xnj xtkjdtr ljkéty åsnm ujnjd ckeifnm b exbnmcz, – ujdjhbn jy. – Gjljåysq gjlöjl z åele ghbvtyznm b ghb jghtltktybb yfibö ghjuhfvv b vthjghbznbq d Rfpföcnfyt, ljåbdfzcm njuj, xnjås jyb cnhjbkbcm yf ghjxyjv aeylfvtynt yfibö jåobö wtyyjcntq b jåzpfntkmcnd, ghbyznsö ujcelfhcndfvb-exfcnybrfvb≥. D 1997–1998 ujlfö lj yfpyfxtybz d Uhepbñ B. R. Dbrrb hfåjnfk herjdjlbntktv ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf Yjhdtécrjuj cjdtnf gj ltkfv åtétywtd gj kbybb Dthöjdyjuj rjvbccfhf JJY gj ltkfv åtétywtd dj Dkflbrfdrfpt

30

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

(Ctdthyfz Jctnbz) b d Hjccbqcrjq Atlthfwbb. D 1982–1988 ujlfö gjcjk Dbrrb åsk yfxfkmybrjv djtyyj-gjkbnbxtcrjuj ctrnjhf yjhdtécrjuj jåjhjyyjuj rjvfyljdfybz, f c 1975 gj 1981 ujl – tuj cnfhibv cgtwbfkbcnjv-fyfkbnbrjv. D 1989–1994 ujlfö jy pfybvfkcz bccktljdfybtv ghjåktv vtéleyfhjlysö jnyjitybq. Jy ghjöjlbk jåextybt gj kbybb ghjuhfvvs vtéleyfhjlyjq gjlujnjdrb ghb vbybcnthcndt byjcnhfyysö ltk Yjhdtubb, gjctofk pfyznbz d djtyyjv rjkktlét YFNJ d Hbvt, f nfrét d hfvrfö yjhdtécrjq ghjuhfvvs jåextybz herjdjlbntktq cnfhituj pdtyf b bpexfk heccrbq zpsr d Jltcct b CfyrnGtnthåehut. Dsgecrybr eybdthcbntnf u. Jckj, jy cgtwbfkbpbhjdfkcz gj fvthbrfycrjq b fyukbqcrjq kbnthfneht. Jy nfrét åsk fnntcnjdfy gj heccrjq kbnthfneht, bcnjhbb b gjkbnbxtcrjq yfert. Gjcjk Dbrrb dscnegfk d hjkb yfåkñlfntkz JÅCT pf dsåjhfvb d Hjccbqcrjq Atlthfwbb, Åjcybb b Uthwtujdbyt, Fhvtybb b Uhepbb.

Lblmt Aj, uhfélfyby Ahfywbb, yfpyfxty lbhtrnjhjv rfywtkzhbb Utythfkmyjuj ctrhtnfhz, cvtybd yf änjv gjcne Öfyyb Gjkvfy-Pfk. Lj gjcnegktybz yf ckeéåe d JÅCT 1 vfz L. Aj åsk cjdtnybrjv gjkbnbxtcrjuj lbhtrnjhf vbybcnthcndf byjcnhfyysö ltk Ahfywbb gj djghjcfv ≤åjkmijq djcmvthrb≥, f gjplytt lbgkjvfnbxtcrbv cjdtnybrjv vbybcnhf ärjkjubb b ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz, jndtxfdibv pf tdhjgtqcrjt yfghfdktybt b byjcnhfyyst ltkf. L. Aj yfxfk pfybvfnmcz djghjcfvb gjkbnbxtcrjuj b ärjyjvbxtcrjuj hfpdbnbz yjdsö tdhjgtqcrbö ltvjrhfnbq d 1994 ujle, rjulf tve åskj gjhextyj djpukfdbnm ltgfhnfvtyn ärjyjvbrb b nhfycgjhnf d cajhvbhjdfyyjq TC flvbybcnhfwbb Vjcnfhf (Åjcybz b Uthwtujdbyf). D njv vjvtyn jy herjdjlbk ltgfhnfvtynjv vbybcnthcndf nhfycgjhnf Ahfywbb d Kbkkt. Hfåjnfz yf vtcnfö, jy pfybvfk cktleñobt herjdjlzobt gjcns: herjdjlbntkm ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf Tdhjgtqcrjq rjvbccbb d Djcnjxyjq Ckfdjybb (Öjhdfnbz) b cjdtnybr JJY gj djghjcfv htrjycnherwbb (1996–1997 uu.); pfvtcnbntkm Dscjrjuj

JÅCT/VBÖFBK TDCNFAMTD

lbntkz ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf CIF Leukfc Lädblcjy, ghfdbntkmcndj tuj cnhfys yflttncz, xnj vtöfybpve JÅCT gj åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb – drkñxfz cgtwbfkmyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz b Uhegge gj cjltqcndbñ åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb – åeltn jrfpfyf gjkbnbxtcrfz gjllthérf b ghtljcnfdktys htcehcs, ytjåöjlbvst lkz hfpdthnsdfybz tuj ltzntkmyjcnb d gjkyjv vfcinfåt. ≤Ytjåöjlbvj, xnjås yjdsq vtöfybpv JÅCT, d gjkt phtybz rjnjhjuj döjlzn b cnhfys, ult ltqcndeñn cnbvekbheñobt afrnjhs, cjplfñobt åkfujghbznyst djpvjéyjcnb lkz njhujdwtd kñlmvb, b cnhfys, ult ltqcndeñn afrnjhs, utythbheñobt cghjc, åsk d cjcnjzybb jghtltkznm cgtrnh ghjåktv b hfphfåfnsdfnm äaatrnbdyst htitybz lkz dctö cnhfy, bcgsnsdfñobö ghjåktve njhujdkb kñlmvb d njv bkb byjv tt fcgtrnt≥, – crfpfk jy. Rfr jnvtnbk herjdjlbntkm ltktufwbb Fhvtybb gjcjk Lébkfy Nfåbåzy, c gjvjomñ Ö. Rjyhfl ≤vs bvttv d dble gjkjébnm rjytw pfujdjhe vjkxfybz, pfujdjhe åtphfpkbxbz, pfujdjhe ghbevtymitybz, pfujdjhe cjjnytctybz, rjulf ujdjhzn, xnj, vjk, d yfitv ckexft ltkf jåcnjzn yt nfr gkjöj, f djn ult-nj tot – gjöeét. Yfif pflfxf cjcnjbn d njv, xnjås ≤ytghbtvktvjt≥ cltkfnm ≤ytwtktcjjåhfpysv≥, ljåbnmcz njuj, xnjås kñlb, pfybvfñobtcz njhujdktq kñlmvb, åskb yt d cjcnjzybb ghjljkéfnm tt≥. Ö. Rjyhfl jnvtnbkf, xnj Wtktdfz uheggf Gfrnf j cnfåbkmyjcnb gj ghjåktvt njhujdkb kñlmvb, ltqcndeñofz eét d ntxtybt xtnshtö ktn, ghbcnegftn r gthtlfxt jndtncndtyyjcnb pf äne hfåjne cfvbv ghfdbntkmcndfv cnhfy Ñuj-Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs, d xfcnyjcnb bö rjjhlbyfnjhfv gj åjhmåt c njhujdktq kñlmvb. Yf cdjtv yjdjv gjcne jyf ghjljkébn jrfpfybt änbv cnhfyfv gjvjob d bö ecbkbzö.

ghtlcnfdbntkz gj ärjyjvbxtcrbv djghjcfv d Åjcybb b Uthwtujdbyt, ult jy hfåjnfk d ntcyjv rjynfrnt c Dscjrbv ghtlcnfdbntktv Rfhkjcjv Dtcntyljhgjv (1997–1999 uu.); lbhtrnjh gj ärjyjvbxtcrbv djghjcfv (Hfåjxbq cnjk ÈÈ) d hfvrfö Gfrnf j cnfåbkmyjcnb lkz Ñuj-Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs (1999–2001 uu.); f nfrét pfvtcnbntkm cgtwbfkmyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf gj Faufybcnfye c åfpbhjdfybtv d Rfåekt (2002–2003 uu.). Jrjyxbd Dscibq bycnbnen yfwbjyfkmysö jåjhjyysö bccktljdfybq cj cntgtymñ ljrnjhf abpbrb, L. Aj yfxfk rfhmthe d cbcntvt uhfélfycrjq jåjhjys, pfybvfzcm djghjcfvb elfhyjuj djpltqcndbz dphsdjd zlthyjuj jheébz. D rfrjq-nj vjvtyn jy djpukfdkzk ahfywepcreñ kfåjhfnjhbñ gj zlthysv eåtébofv b åsk cjnhelybrjv Yfexyj-bccktljdfntkmcrjuj bycnbnenf gj ghjåktvfv byébybhbyuf d YmñVtrcbrj (Cjtlbytyyst Infns).

Bñkm 2004 ujlf


JNRKBRB XBNFNTKTQ

Yfv jxtym bvgjybhetn yjdjt jajhvktybt, jåcnjzntkmyst cnfnmb b bynthdmñ, f nfrét dscjrbt htlfrwbjyyst cnfylfhns yjdjuj éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥. Nfr lthéfnm^ Åeltv c ytnthgtybtv jéblfnm jxthtlysö dsgecrjd. Rfyflcrfz ltktufwbz d JÅCT Åjkmijt cgfcbåj pf yjdsq éehyfk ≤JÅCT≥. E ytuj jxtym öjhjibq ajhvfn b dtcmvf byajhvfnbdyjt cjlthéfybt. Ysytiytq jctymñ z bcgjkmpeñ tuj ghb ghjdtltybb ctvbyfhf d Tdhjgt. Äldfhl F. Nbhmzrzy, ghjatccjh cjwbjkjubb Lmñrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf (u. Lfhtv, infn Ctdthyfz Rfhjkbyf) D rfxtcndt htlfrnjhf jykfqyjdjuj éehyfkf gj djghjcfv vbhjdjq gjkbnbrb öjntk ås yfghfdbnm vjb yfbkexibt gjétkfybz d flhtc éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥ d cdzpb c tuj yjdsv ajhvfnjv. Yf vjq dpukzl, exbnsdfz hjcn xbckf bccktljdfybq, rfcfñoböcz hjkb dfitq jhufybpfwbb, ds vjukb ås jnrhsnm yjdeñ jåpjhyeñ heåhbre j rybufö, gjcdzotyysö JÅCT, f nfrét j pyfxbvsö bccktljdfybzö yf äne ntve. Htyt Ejlkje www.transnational-perspectives.org

Dfit bplfybt ckeébn lkz vtyz jxtym öjhjibv gjlcgjhmtv d bccktljdfntkmcrjq hfåjnt b d ghjdjlbvjv vyjñ extåyjv rehct lkz fcgbhfynjd yf ntve ≤Cjwbjkjubz djtyyjuj rjyakbrnf≥. Dthöbkbj H. Åtkmnhfy, cnfhibq cjwbjkju eybdthcbntnf u. Åeäyjc-Fqhtc Öjntk ås gjplhfdbnm dfc c cfvsv gjcktlybv yjvthjv éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥, gjcdzotyysv ntvt jåhfpjdfybz. Bp ytuj z dgthdst epyfk j rjyrhtnysö fcgtrnfö änjq dféyjq ntvs, rjnjhjq pfybvftncz åjkufhcrjt Ghtlctlfntkmcndj. Öjhjij, rjulf tcnm bplfybt c jnrhjdtyysv cnbktv bpkjétybz. Cdtéeñ cnheñ dytckj nfrét bynthdmñ c gjrblfñobv cdjq gjcn gjckjv Hjccbb Fktrcfylhjv Fktrcttdsv. Étkfñ dfv velhjcnb, cvtkjcnb b yjdfnjhcrjuj leöf d dfitq dféyjq htlfrwbjyyjq hfåjnt. Gjkrjdybr Ufyc Äåthöfhl, djtyysq cjdtnybr ltktufwbb Idtqwfhbb d JÅCT

Z yfghfdbkf jykfqyjdst ccskrb yf dnjhjq yjvth éehyfkf ≤JÅCT≥ d hfpkbxyst jnltks Rfyflcrjuj futyncndf vtéleyfhjlyjuj hfpdbnbz (CBLF), d njv xbckt cjnhelybrfv gj cdzpzv c jåotcndtyyjcnmñ, ghjcnj xnjås jyb pyfkb, xnj ceotcndeñn bplfybz, ghblthébdfñobtcz ghfdbkmyjuj gjlöjlf. Jyb ythtlrj éfkeñncz, xnj lfét rjulf xnj-nj b hfccrfpsdftncz j rjv-kbåj bp yfibö ärcgthnjd, jåsxyj ybxtuj yt ujdjhbncz jå exhtéltybzö, jåtcgtxbdfñobö abyfycbhjdfybt; nfr xnj öjxe gjåkfujlfhbnm dfc pf otlhjt yf gjlhjåyjcnb b cjkblyjt bpkjétybt vfnthbfkf b pf nj, xnj d cnfnmt ≤Dbpefkmyst jåhfps Rjcjdj≥ d cdjtv vfqcrjv yjvtht ds jnlfkb ljkéyjt CBLF. Öjntkf ås djcgjkmpjdfnmcz djpvjéyjcnmñ b ghjbyajhvbhjdfnm xbnfntktq éehyfkf j njv, xnj d yfxfkt atdhfkt d Cfhftdj gjcjk Rfyfls Itkkb Efqnbyu dhexbkf rfyflcrbt vtlfkb pf vbhjndjhxtcreñ ckeéåe djcmvb rfyflwfv, hfåjnfdibv bkb ghjljkéfñobv hfåjnfnm d Vbccbb JÅCT d Åjcybb b Uthwtujdbyt (ÅbU) b Vbccbb JÅCT d Rjcjdj (JVBR). Yfuhfls gjkexbkb: Léj-Äyy Åbijg (cjdtnybr gj djghjcfv ljcnegf r jåhfpjdfybñ b ytljgeotybz lbcrhbvbyfwbb, Cfhftdj), Ahfyxtcrf Åbylf (gjcktlybq vtéleyfhjlysq lbhtrnjh Vbccbb d ÅbU gj djghjcfv dsåjhjd), Létaahb Ajhl (cjnhelybr gj ghfdfv xtkjdtrf, Ghbtljh), Lbfyf Htqyjkmlc (cjdtnybr gj djghjcfv dthöjdtycndf pfrjyf, Nepkf), Ränhby Htqtc (htubjyfkmysq rjjhlbyfnjh gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz, Nepkf), Lfybäkm Cfhfwbyj (cjdtnybr gj gjkbnbxtcrbv djghjcfv b gkfybhjdfybñ, Cfhftdj), Rtdby Eäqn (cjdtnybr gj ghfdjdsv djghjcfv, Cfhftdj) b Hjåthn Åecct (cjnhelybr gj rflhjdsv djghjcfv, JVBR). Nfreñ ét vtlfkm d yjzåht ghjikjuj ujlf bp her ghtlctlfntkz Dthöjdyjuj celf Rfyfls Åtdthkb Vfrkfökbyf gjkexbkf åsdibq lbhtrnjh Vbccbb d ÅbU gj ghfdfv xtkjdtrf Éjhétnnf Ufymjy. Rhjvt njuj, Éjhétnnf åskf yfuhféltyf ghtvbtq Dfkmnthf C. Nfhyjgjkmcrjuj, tétujlyj dhexftvjq vtéleyfhjlyjq rjvbccbtq ñhbcnjd b rfyflcrjq rjkktubtq fldjrfnjd kbwe, gj-

Bñkm 2004 ujlf

Bkkñcnhfwbz: Igtyl Rflf, öeljéybr-jajhvbntkm/JVBR

cnjzyyj ghjébdfñotve d Rfyflt b dytcitve dslfñobqcz drkfl d pfobne ghfd xtkjdtrf. Jyf cnfkf gthdjq étyobyjq, gjkexbditq äne ghtvbñ pf dcñ ltcznbktnyññ bcnjhbñ tt ceotcndjdfybz, b r njve ét cfvsv vjkjlsv kfehtfnjv. 17 bñyz ktqntyfyn-ueåthyfnjh Åhbnfycrjq Rjkevåbb dhexbk vtlfkb pf vbhjndjhxtcreñ ckeéåe åsdibv cjnhelybrfv Vbccbb d Rjcjdj: Rähjkby Vfrrek (gthdsq lbhtrnjh JVBR gj Vbnhjdbwrjve hfqjye, pfntv lbhtrnjh gj djghjcfv ltvjrhfnbpfwbb), Vfqrke Vfrbdjhe (herjdjlbntkm uheggs gjllthérb ytpfdbcbvsö CVB, pfntv cnfhibq cjdtnybr gj djghjcfv CVB) b Rkäh Nhtdtyt (ghtcc-fnnfit/herjdjlbntkm jnltkf ghtccs b jåotcndtyyjq byajhvfwbb). Hfytt d änjv ujle d xbckt yfuhféltyysö änjq vtlfkmñ åsk b Åthyfhl Dhåfy, zdkzñobqcz ysyt pfvtcnbntktv ghtcc-fnnfit JVBR. Rfyflcrfz vtlfkm pf vbhjndjhxtcreñ ckeéåe åskf exhtéltyf d 1997 ujle lkz yfuhféltybz rfyflwtd, dtleobö vbhjndjhxtcreñ hfåjne pf ghtltkfvb cdjtq cnhfys gj kbybb ghfdbntkmcndf Rfyfls. Dyfxfkt tñ yfuhfélfkbcm njkmrj gjkbwtqcrbt b djtyyjckeéfobt, yj d lfkmytqitv tt cnfkb dhexfnm nfrét rfyflwfv, cjcnjzobv yf uhfélfycrjq ckeéåt d vbccbzö JÅCT d ÅbU b Rjcjdj. Rjhjnrfz cghfdrf: rjulf CBLF ghbyzkj htitybt rjvfylbhjdfnm rfyflwtd yf ckeéåe d Vbccbñ gj ghjdthrt d Rjcjdj d 1998–1999 ujlfö, åskf dsåhfyf cjjndtncndeñofz jhufybpfwbz-gjlhzlxbr, rjnjhjq åskj gjhextyj jceotcndkznm yftv b hfpvtotybt uhfélfycrbö kbw yf vtcnfö lkz dsgjkytybz vbhjndjhxtcrjq hfåjns jn bvtyb CBLF. D yfcnjzott dhtvz änjq jhufybpfwbtq zdkztncz Dctvbhyfz eybdthcbntncrfz ckeéåf Rfyfls. Vfhbfyyf Efqnvfy, vtytléth ghjtrnf gj uhfélfycrjve hfpdbnbñ yf Åfkrfyfö, Dctvbhyfz eybdthcbntncrfz ckeéåf Rfyfls, Jnnfdf www.wust.ca/expertise/projects/balkans

Éehyf k ≤JÅCT≥

31

OSCE Magazine July 2004 (ru)  

In this issue: Tajikistan's land reform programme: sowing the seeds of a brighter future; Central Asia; Conference on Anti-Semitism; Helsink...

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