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Oscar Castillo Technology and Multimedia Third Edition

Oscar Castillo a very well known student at Humanities Faculty in Mariano Galvez University has believed that the change in education depends on us. In his last year of his Master Degree in Teaching English he has understood the importance of teaching by applying technology. Castillo has written a book called The Power of Technology in 2007 and the second edition in 07. Now with the third edition of Technology and Education his knowledge has expanded in this field giving conferences in almost all America.


Oscar Castillo

Technology and Multimedia

EDITORIAL ESTANZUELAS, S.A. NUEVA SANTA ROSA 2


Los hombres han nacido los unos para los otros; edúcales o padécelos.» MARCO AURELIO «El niño no es una botella que hay que llenar, sino un fuego que es preciso encender.» MONTAIGNE

1.ª edition: March 2007 2.ª edition: May 2008 © 2007: Oscar Castillo Exclusive Rights of edition in English Revised by Languages School UMG Guatemala © 2007: Editorial Estanzuelas , S. A. Published in Nueva Santa Rosa

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Content 1. Multimedia ............................................................................................. 6 The Role of Computers in Multimedia………………………….... 7 Media and Projects……………………………………….……….... 8 2. Multimedia Project……………………………………………….... 11 Industry projects……………………………………………..…12 3. Critic Circle……………………………………………………..….. 13 Roles people play in C.C………………………………...………… 14 Creating C.C …………………………………………..………...…. 15 Process of C.C………………………………………….………...... 16 Steps …………………………………………………………….….. 18 4. Technology and Multimedia……………………………………... 19 Education Options…………………………………………….…… 20 Benefits …………………………………………………………..…. 22 Technology impacts in Education………………………..………. 22 5. 7 principles of good practice in technology…………………..…. 25 6. Visual cues and importance of high quality design…………..… 30 7. Some important programs that support teaching with multimedia…………………………………………..……..… 32 Flash……………………………………………………………...… 32 Prezi……………………………………………….……................... 33 Power Point………………………………………….…………….. 34 Blogs ………………………………………………………….……. 35 WebQuests……………………………………………………….... 36 8. Value of Multimedia…………………………………………...…. 37 What´s multimedia……………………………………………...... 37 Views of learning……………………………………….................. 38 Benefits of multimedia…………………………….....………….... 39 9. Methodology to teach with Internet……………………………. 42 10. Bloom´s Taxonomy…………………………………….................. 42 11. Web 2.0 ………………………………………………………….… 45 Virtual Communities……………………………................. 50 Other Resources of Web 2.0…………………..………….. 52

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Preface I entered in the field of language teaching as a classroom teacher trying to use all my experience and knowledge. As you have heard, many teachers have found technology most amazing in all kinds of fields; however, I soon realized that in order to be an effective teacher meant much more than just having a good plan, but becoming more skillful in the area of technology. I meant applying new methodology and techniques, adapting the material available and adapting myself to students´ needs. As a new technologist, I can see clearly that effective teaching depends much more on good planning, the context, teachers and students´ needs but in how capable we are in adapting technology and multimedia into our classes.

This book tries to emphasize how multimedia and technology can be a great tool to make our teaching more effective and efficient. Technology is everywhere and we have to skill ourselves in order to involve our students in the process of learning. The book tries to provide examples of different types of multimedia that you can apply in your daily teaching. At the same time it opens your mind to become a creator, a designer, in general, the expert of your course.

Early version of this book have been used to get you into the world of technology and multimedia as tools for effective teaching in schools like UMG, University of IMEBSE, Estanzuelas, Regional Language Center, Monte Verde, and others. Oscar Castillo

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1

MULTIMEDIA PROJECT

One of the many purposes of teaching multimedia projects is to make our students creators of projects. Another purpose is the integration of multimedia project into our curricula because that helps us out to enhance our students‘ abilities to be school achievers. Some of the goals we pretend to experience with the implementation of multimedia are: a. b. c. d.

Students develop high order thinking skills Enhancing interpersonal group skills Presenting and organizing knowledge Learning how to make effective use of computer ad media.

One key component is to make our students effectively and efficiently active in selecting, representing, and organizing knowledge rather than passive. It is very important if they select the information they want in the project as well as the links for having meaningful organization. The appliance of a multimedia project helps students to have a better learning rather than having a report made of text or images that goes from the sequence beginning to the end. Important Tips Hyperlinks: Combination of links and text

Hyperlinks Links: Join texts

Links Hypermedia: Combination of media to text

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Creating a multimedia project in a computer improve students understanding of how to use links for visualizing more specific details and organizing information in a better and meaningful way. In general, creating more multimedia project not only enhance their thinking skills but also the get use to use different methods when applying hypermedia for organizing information.

The Role of Computers in Multimedia The creation of media and links will always help students to create multimedia projects where links come alive. Some of the roles are: a. b. c. d. e.

Students create media Students create buttons They also create links easily and quickly. They organize the information they want. They decide the buttons they are going to use

In other words, multimedia employs computers to aid students to make activities that were impossible; and that is why, multimedia projects are so important in class. At first: Multimedia was: a class listening and hearing a presentation, which most of the time, requires audio tape with a projector.

Evolution of Multimedia Later: Large audiences seeing and listening more complex information, which require several audio tapes players, slide projectors, movie projectors.

Now: Individual or small groups. Now people use personal computer to interact with information. Students can use some especial programs like Microsoft word.

The evolution of multimedia has consequently enhanced students to become more active in the process of learning and creating their own projects which takes them from a passive to an active stage.

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Why is it a good idea for students to use multimedia projects?

They use openended assigments.

The become self directedlearners.

Decision making

Theme-base activities

They think effectively

Good planning

They achieve high selfesteem.

Problem solving

It also helps them to build life-long skills.

Remember that students learn better when using different types of information or when they illustrate that information in different media.

Media and Projects You always have to keep in mind that projects helps students to achive their goals by doing, we have to make our students participate (active not passive) a. It is known that text is one of the most effective effective ways to express actual facts. b. The use of hyperlinks is also very important to and chanllenging to organize multimedia projects. c. Maps and timelines are good idea for showing sequence. d. Images or photograhs is more imprtant than words. Selecting a Project The selection of any project should have a purpose because students have to have in mind that they must achieve their goals. The desire goal will determine which project we are going o select.

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Goals When creating or designing multimedia projects, teachers must have a reason or reasons why and the main reason is to help them to learn, to develop abilities to analyze and give conclusions about the project. In other words, students should become master in that project. Sample goals for a Multimedia Project High order thinking skills Present information effectively and efficiently. Select media and use it effectively

Group and interpersonal skills Group work Good relationship between classmates Good planning Interaction with people

Content and discipline

Technical skills

Learning important concepts Understanding and using vocabulary and its interpretation.

The use of authoring tools Use hyperlinks to organize information Use images, graphics, audio, and video more effectively.

Motivation Students are motivated when creating multimedia projects because they work with quality and a lot harder than other activities and as a result they get more attractive and interesting work.

Pitfalls (difficulties) and bypasses (avoid) Whenever you see a student just typing a text on one screen or another, the teacher must suggest changing to a more effective use of multimedia because it gives the tools and pathways to do it. The more time students spend on a project the more benefits it will bring in the student`s general learning.

Relation to Writing as Process The creation of a multimedia project carries important aspects of writing as a procedure and the students have the chance to brainstorm according to the audience, and then they prewrite, write, edit and publish.

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Organizing Information The use of links is very important because students can have the chance to find information related to others. Organizing the information is so important and so is the link; remember, if you make the right questions you will have the right answer. Students will find links more useful after they find out the relation among them.

Authentic Learning Why does it involve authentic learning? It involves it because students work together from the beginning to an end which will bring information, persuasion and others. Multimedia projects combine all or some of the media which is very important and makes it very interactive. The way students create their projects is by researching the appropriate information, and then they plan how they are going to present it and to whom. They also create the links for organizing and presenting it the best way.

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Multimedia Project in schools, industry, magazines, reports, newspaper, and commercials 2

School Projects In order to compete and succeed in today's digital world, school students must have the opportunity to learn how to design, create and present a host of multimedia projects. Today's students must be proficient, have advanced knowledge related to a variety multimedia outlets, including websites, podcasts, digital video projects, and presentation software such as Powerpoint and others. Likewise, to teach effectively, teachers must develop assessments related to the creation of these types of projects. At some points, students might be searching for multimedia ideas for a classroom project, or ways to assess students' knowledge, etc. Examples of school´s projects:

•Student websites, present an effective way to assess student knowledge . because they incorporate a variety of skill sets. It can be done either individually or as a group; also, it can require students to write, create, visualize and organize, as well as build their computer programming skills

Website Projects

•Newer digital video cameras (Flip camera) are extremely portable and cost-efficient. They can allow students to easily create documentaries, movies, newscasts and more. Like website projects, video-based assessments require students to utilize their writing, editing and organizational skills.

•More schools are requiring their students to incorporate Powerpoints into their class presentations. Providing students the opportunity to create Powerpoints in school will help them become more successful and prepared for college-level academic requirements. By these presentations, students can learn how to write concisely, incorporate graphic organizers, charts and graphs, and confidence through public speaking.

Digital video projects

Powerpoint or Keynote Presentations

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Industry Projects The development of online and multimedia materials is to support a wide range of knowledge construction activities including collaborative learning in industries, corporate training, research collections and tools as well as an extensive portfolio of online undergraduate and postgraduate course materials.

RePAH

Research Portals in the Arts and Humanities (RePAH) set out to discover the behaviour and needs of researchers in the Arts and Humanities in respect of portals, inlcuding information about information discovery strategies, awareness and attitudes, user activity and responses to future portal developments

Photographs Exhibited in Britain 1839-1865 An Arts and Humanities Research Board funded project to create an online database of over twenty thousand exhibition records transcribed from 46 catalogues, citing works submitted by over a thousand photographers

Three Centuries of Transport A New Opportunities Fund project to create online museums research and learning resources based on archive records of early canals, railways and aviation, including the Bridgewater Canal, the building of the Manchester Ship Canal, the building of the London Extension of the Great Central Railway and the history of British aviation development at Filton and Patchway in South Gloucestershire from 1910 to the present.

Magazine Projects This website helps to create magazine and publish them on the web. http://www.projectmag.com/

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3

Critics Circle

It is a type of project which includes some technology in order to be developed for example: digital audio, digitized images, and symbolic icons. This project helps students to develop their critical thinking because they will develop the skill of recognizing others points of view.

Groups Create Their Critics` Circle

• selection of a movie.

• Dived the class in groups.

• Collect the decisions

First

Second

Third

Having this, the group can start creating their own multimedia project by modifying its own copy of the Critics` Circle template given by the tutor. a. Open a template with a Welcome Page b. Give their opinions by selecting one of the microphone icons. The implementation of a authoring system (buttons) will help out its use and will turn this project easier. Beginner students can use the templates in order to concentrate in forming and recording opinions. Advanced students can use the templates to learn by examples.

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Audience Use Each Project Who could be users? Well, parents, teachers, other students, and even staff can be. What they can do is analyze the critics` opinions of the movie and read each group`s summary based on that movie.

Roles people play in Critics` Circle Project Support staff by setting up equipment

Teachers select a project Users enjoy and evaluate the projects

Students creates projects in groups

Internal View of Critics` Circle The correct selection of voice, drawings, and images help out to present informal information which enables to capture emotions and mood. Images ate use to emphasize that somebody made that critics and deserves respect. Finally it contains text which is used to emphasize formal analysis and summary. The icons buttons facilitates navigation throughout the project. Driven navigation is convenient to a creator-driven tour because it presents the information in a fixed order. The fixed creator-selected tours are used to present information in a persuasive order. The use of template facilitates even beginner students to complete the project without paying too much 14


attention to the software or to the equipment. This helps them out to finish the project with high confidence of success.

Theory This project requires teamwork because of the presentation which must be done in class. Every member of the group must play a specific role within the group and will make it easier. Creating Critics` Circle include: a. Selecting a subject of the group member`s views which represent a complete field of opinion and are individually and collectively interesting and engaging. b. The group use combinations of speech, images, graphics, and images to present their opinions. c. Use multiple media to express, analyze, and possibly reconcile the opinions. It is important that each member of the group can perform different roles especially if they are acting out in a role-play. One important point in selecting Critics` Circle is because this develops high-order- thinking skills, interpersonal skills, and content material learning that it can promote.

Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Group and Interpersonal Skills

Goals of C. C.

Technical Skills

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Content Material Learning


The project involves students to: a. b. c. d. e.

Brainstorming Expositions with feedback Writing Editing and Publishing or performance

As it was mentioned before, the project has to raise higher-order and metalevel skills which include: a. Recognizing different points of view b. Organizing distinct views into a framework c. Different modalities of expression of media a. Oral in the audio recordings b. Symbolic in the icons c. Representation of the images and d. Text in the written summary All of these sums up will determine students develop the skills to organize and present recorded speech, written text, images, and graphics in an integrated and persuasive fashion or mode. Rehearsals

Process in Critics` Circle Project Teachers prepare: a. select goals b. Determines the groups. c. Items requires in the Project. d. Characteristics of theProject.

Teachers Assigns Students Creates Project a. Brainstorming a. Educational goals b. Presentation of organized principles, templates, and story board. c. Decide the sources of images and critics d. Allow time for completion

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b. Selec the three critics c. do some rehearsals d. Record each critics` opinions e. Analyze the arguments f. Essemble and test the complete project.

Reflections a. Students perform self-evaluation. b. Teachers reflect on the project. c. Review any public performance. d. Conduc classes evaluation.


a. It is very important for the teacher to note down the goals and then select the project that can help students to achieve those outcomes. a. Teachers must keep in mind that the major advantage of using multimedia projects is that they often motivate students on spending more time on the subject rather than being passive. b. When they have their own voices and images called forth and demand has a remarkably long-lasting appeal and can bring out dormant tendencies toward perfectionisms. c. Teaches need to keep in mind how to determine the groups of students who are to work together. d. Make sure that students keep on doing things where they feel strong, and practicing on those in which they are weak. e. Make balanced groups in order to achieve the goals. f. Digital images of each student can help you out to keep students motivated during the whole year. b. While assigning the project, teacher should do it in advance either by examples or by watching a movie at home. a. Make sure that students know that they have to come up with an attractive demonstration b. This must be enjoyable for people while hearing. c. Challenge students by using media in an effective and an interesting way, using symbols, oral, and textual form. Make them get the difference between informal speech and formal writing and how symbolic forms can convey both. d. Let them know the lengths of the oral project and textual material. They have to keep oral parts shorts because: i. Users lose track of oral information which contain three or more different points ii. Digital audio occupies a great deal of disk space. e. It is so important to tell students how long they have to complete the project, and couching them to distribute the available time.

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c. One of the purposes of Critics` Circle is make our students work together effectively. a. Possible way to set of steps for a group to fallow:

Set the group for brainstorming about a movie Draw programs to create the icons representing the critics and remarks.

Records each critic`s opinion. The rest in the room cooperate by being silent.

Select three group memebers to represent the entire group`s opinions

Let these thee speak in turns without recording.

Discuss the issues the group wants to include in the summary page.

Assemble the complete project and make sure another user who is not part of the group can navigate form page to page

d. Both teacher and students can use multimedia mechanisms to store their reflections on each project. The reflections (either written or spoken) can be included in a portfolio where they will be available for further improvements. We have to engage students in the discussion of th entire activity, process, and content. a. See one goal of this project is to produce major learning in the ongoing development. b. To make our project more interesting or attractive, teachers might encourage different groups to address different movies.

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4 Technology and Multimedia What Is Multimedia and Technology?

Multimedia refers to computer-based systems that use associative linkages to allow users to navigate and retrieve information stored in a combination of text, sounds, graphics, video, and other media. Multimedia can be used in instruction in a variety of creative and stimulating ways. Applications include teacher presentations, student projects, and discovery learning. Although teachers are encouraged to develop their own materials, many excellent educational multimedia products are also available. When developing original multimedia applications, educators should be aware of copyright issues and infringements, especially when incorporating video, images, and sound from other sources. Multimedia technology applies interactive computer elements, such as graphics, text, video, sound and animation, to deliver a message. If you have a knack (ability, skill, talent) for computer work and are interested in digital media, read on to discover career and education opportunities available in this growing specialty. Multimedia materials and learning environments can minimally be considered the combination of print and images, but commonly involve streaming video, music, instant messaging, or interactive online features. These applications are becoming more mainstreamed as computers and Internet connections are upgraded in schools, libraries and homes.

Multimedia Technology Defined Multimedia technology refers to interactive, computer-based applications that allow people to communicate ideas and information with digital and print elements. Professionals in the field use computer software to develop and manage online graphics and content. The work

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that media technology specialists produce is used in various mediums, such as training programs, Web pages and news sites.

Career Opportunities There are a many employment opportunities for multimedia technology professionals in a variety of industries. Anything that needs to be communicated to an audience can contain digital and print images, text or animation to attract attention and deliver the message. You might find a position in marketing or advertising. You may be employed in publishing and be responsible for managing, designing or producing multimedia content for websites, newspapers and magazines. Possible career choices include: Web developer Graphic artist Digital photographer Instructional designer Production assistant Desktop publisher

Education Options In multimedia degree programs, you can expect to learn how to use computer programs and create interactive presentations or materials. You may be trained to use website development software like Cascading Style Sheet or the Adobe suite, which includes Photoshop, Flash, Illustrator and Dreamweaver. You may also learn design techniques using multimedia technology and be encouraged to develop your own creative style and make personal works of digital art. Multimedia technology courses typically include: 

Interactive media

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Website design fundamentals

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Electronic imaging 20


Introductory photography

Animation

Multimedia programming

Graphic design

Digital editing

The future of multimedia technology is dependent upon the evolution of the hardware. As storage devices get faster and larger, multimedia systems will be able to expand, and increased use of DVD should result in improved quality.

Technology Technology is helping teachers to expand text-based learning and to engage students who learn best in other ways. Its role in schools is taken as a versatile learning tool that could change how we demonstrate concepts, assign projects and assess progress. Digital simulations and models can help teachers explain concepts that are too big or too small, or processes that happen too quickly or too slowly to demonstrate in a physical classroom Software that allows students to experiment with virtual greenhouses in order to understand evolution, a software that helps students understand the physics of energy efficiency by designing a model house, and simulations of how electrons interact with matter (Fullan, 1998) "The more powerful that technology becomes, the more indispensable good teachers are". If we expect teachers to use technology in ways that enrich and enhance student achievement, we must provide them with the professional development they need to develop the confidence and skills to apply technology, and an understanding of how technology supports standards-based education.

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Benefits Technology in education is intended to improve it and here are some of the claimed benefits Easy-to-access course materials. Instructors can post the course material or important information on a course website which is going to help students to become self –learners. Student motivation. Computer-based instruction can give instant feedback to students and explain correct answers. Moreover, a computer is patient and non-judgmental, which can give the student motivation to continue learning. .

Wide participation. Learning material can be used for long distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience Improved student writing. It is convenient for students to edit their written work on word processors so it can improve the quality of their writing. Subjects made easier to learn. Many different types of educational software are designed and developed to help children or teenagers to learn specific subjects. Examples computer simulators and graphics software. Differentiated Instruction. Educational technology provides the means to focus on active student participation and to present differentiated questioning strategies. Students are encouraged to use multimedia components and to incorporate the knowledge they gained in creative ways

Technology impacts on education Most classrooms in the world would insist on having students turn their mobiles off, but it is a good idea to keep them on. (BBC's) development charity the World Service Trust - gives anyone with a mobile the chance to learn English - simply by calling a number and listening in. ďƒź "We can't carry a dictionary everywhere," said one Bangladeshi student. ďƒź "But now we can carry a mobile phone which helps us learn."

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The One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project was announced in 2005. It was intended to provide strong technology to students in some of the world's poorest areas. The OLPC project is being well received in the developing world. For example a. The government of Uruguay has bought a laptop for every child, whilst ( as the same time as) b. The state of La Rioja in Argentina has also said that it will purchase the machines for its pupils. c. In Brazil the government has bought 150,000 laptops to deploy in 350 schools.

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The New Line Learning Academy in Maidstone, England, is currently being rebuilt into the classroom of the future. It is full with touch screens, facial recognition technology and even mood lighting.

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5 Implementing the 7 Principles in Technology Since the Seven Principles of Good Practice were created in 1987, new communication and information technologies have become major resources for teaching and learning in education. If the power of the new technologies is to be fully realized, they should be employed in ways consistent with the Seven Principles. Such technologies are tools like ―Microcomputers that will empower students‖ because. Any given instructional strategy can be supported by a number of contrasting technologies just as any given technology might support different instructional strategies. But for any given instructional strategy, some technologies are better than others. a. : Better to turn a screw with a screwdriver than a hammer — a dime may also do the trick, but a screwdriver is usually better. Seven Principles

1. Good Practice Encourages Contacts between Students and T e Communication technologies increase a The frequent contact with the class is access to all members, help them c an important factor in student share useful resources, and provide motivation and involvement. for joint problem solving and shared h Teacher´s contact helps students get learning can usefully augment facee through rough times and keep on to-face contact in and outside of class working. meetings. r Electronic mail, computer conferencing, and the World Wide Web increase opportunities for students and faculty to converse and exchange work much more speedily than before, and more thoughtfully and “safely” than when confronting each other in a classroom or faculty office.

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2. Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation among Students Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one’s ideas and responding to others’ improves thinking and deepens understanding.

Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one’s ideas and responding to others’ improves thinking and deepens understanding.

Study groups, collaborative learning, group problem solving, and discussion of assignments can all be dramatically strengthened through communication tools given by technology.

The extent to which computer-based tools encourage spontaneous student collaboration was one of the earliest surprises about computers. A clear advantage of email is that it opens up communication among classmates even when they are not physically together.

This kind of “collaborative learning” would be all but impossible without the presence of the multimedia.

3. Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques a. Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. b. The range of technologies that encourage active learning is staggering. Many fall into one of three categories: i. Tools and resources for learning by doing, ii. Time-delayed exchange, and iii. Real-time conversation. 26


4.

Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback Knowing what you know and don’t know focuses your learning.

In classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform and receive feedback on their performance. The ways in which new technologies can provide feedback are. Teachers can use technology to provide critical observations for a beginner.

Computers also have a growing role in recording and analyzing personal and professional performances.

E-mail for supporting person-toperson feedback,

Simulations.

5.

Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task Time plus energy equals learning.

a. Applying realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching. b. New technologies can dramatically improve time on task for students. Technology also can increase time on task by making studying more efficient. Teaching strategies that help students learn at home. Time efficiency also increases when interactions between teacher and students, and among students, fit busy work and home schedules.

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6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations • Expect more and you will get it. High expectations are important for everyone, and for the bright and well motivated people. Expecting students to perform well becomes a selffulfilling prophecy.

• New technologies can communicate high expectations explicitly and efficiently. Significant real-life problems, simulations and others can set powerful learning challenges that drive students to not only acquire information but sharpen their cognitive skills of analysis, synthesis, application, and evaluation.

•With technology, criteria for evaluating products and performances can be more clearly articulated by the teacher, or generated collaboratively with students. General criteria can be illustrated with samples of excellent, average and faulty performance. These samples can be shared and modified easily. They provide a basis for peer evaluation, so learning teams can help everyone succeed.

7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning a. Many roads lead to learning. Different students have different talents and styles for learning. Students need opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. b. Technological resources can ask for different methods of learning through powerful visuals and well-organized print; through direct, explicit, and virtual experiences; and through tasks requiring analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, with applications to real-life situations. c. They can drive collaboration and group problem solving. Technologies can help students learn in ways they find most effective and broaden their repertories for learning.

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Technology Is Not Enough Students need to become familiar with the Principles and be more assertive with respect to their own learning. Faculty members who already work with students in ways consistent with the Principles need to be tough-minded about the software- and technology-assisted interactions they create and buy into. They need to avoid materials that are simply didactic, and search instead for those that are interactive, problem oriented, relevant to real-world issues, and that evoke student motivation.

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6

VISUAL CUES

Visual cues have been important for all human beings in all different contexts because most of the people are visual. Once upon a time, the manager of a well known enterprise was worry because every day everybody ran to get off the building; he made everything to let them slow down and to quit damages. Stops sings, watch out your step, be careful, nothing worked out; finally, he place mirrors in the corridors, and that stopped people running out.

The role of visual cues, as its name indicates, is to automatically see a picture and know the meaning it has or what is represents.

See, the big in the freeway tells us exactly that hamburgers are on the road without writing a huge frame with huge letters letting us know. The arrangement and presentation of text and images can aid or hinder effective communication. One key of visual cues is let readers know where they are and where they are going. Signposting breaks up text and images into readable, easy-to-follow blocks or panels of information. Artwork: a. b. c. d.

Photos and captions Clip art Charts and graphs Elaborate initial caps

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Paragraph Emphasis and Organization Solid blocks of unbroken text are difficult to read. Text is made more readable by breaking up the text and using visual indicators to show where paragraphs start and end. Using bold or italics text is one common method of letting the readers know what information is especially important or noteworthy.

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7

Programs that support teaching with Multimedia

In our contemporary era of technology, every school has computers and claims to use computers in education; however, the important question is how effectively it is used. The use of technology in education will result in ―good‖ learning only through successful implementation. Here are some advantages when some specific programs are integrated in education: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Critical Thinking and Higher Order Learning Generative Processing Of Information Student-centered Project-based, hands-on learning Differentiated learning Autonomous, life-long learning Higher student motivation

Flash in education

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Flash is software produced by Macromedia which has been accepted by the world as a web authoring tool because of its great flexibility of handling multimedia and logical programming. We are so impressed with this software that we are promoting its use in the whole field of education: as a means of exploring creativity. a. The presentation of multimedia materials It enhance learning of concepts that are difficult to explain in a book, particularly those that learners find difficult to grasp and becomes tense and filled with panic because they don't understand. The use of movement, sound and humor can help here! b. Research into the use of Flash by pupils in schools It could be applied as a way of experiencing problem solving and exploring creativity whilst working to a design brief. http://www.tygh.co.uk/resources/, http://www.tygh.co.uk/students/, and http://www.tygh.co.uk/new.html c. Lastly support and training of teachers Flash can be used in both the preparation of teaching materials and actual teaching of pupils in the classroom and computer club.

Prezi in Education

New technologies are always developing that can be useful in the classroom. Over the past couple of years, Prezi started as a small start-up with a unique idea and has developed into a very usable alternative to PowerPoint for creating presentations. Prezi is very different in that because the presenter prepares a picture that contains all of the material – text, images, even online content – that can be 33


browsed, zoomed, spun, and more. You may be familiar with the idea of mind- mapping – starting with a core concept and connecting related ideas in a web-like diagram. Where Prezi really shines in the classroom is the ability to show the big picture as well as the finer details. This is an excellent resource for teachers who can grab a prebuilt presentation on a difficult concept and use it to give a new perspective to their students.

PowerPoint in Education

PowerPoint is best used when students are expected to retain complex graphics, animation, and figures. If students are expected to retain information and/or concepts that are best conveyed through dialog or verbal explanation, traditional presentations appear to be best. This type of information should not be shared verbally in the presence of PowerPoint, because people tend to focus on that what is presented on the slides as opposed to what is verbalized. Educational technologies are most effective when used properly.

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The ‗‗intelligent use‖ of educational technologies can be defined with three components (1) How do people learn (cognitive component)? (2) How can the learning experience be facilitated (instruction component)? (3) How can technology be used to improve instruction and learning (technology component)? This component has received much attention as researchers try to evaluate the effectiveness of new educational technologies, particularly PowerPoint.

Blogs in Education

Blogs provide a communication space that teachers can utilize with students whenever there is a curriculum need to develop writing, share ideas and reflect on work being undertaken in the classroom. A blog can take the form of a diary, journal, what's new page, or links to other web sites. A blog is a website that acts as an online journal, a place to post information, and a way to keep in touch with others. A blog can be used as an important tool for networking and sharing tips or news with other teachers, dispersing information to your students, and keeping parents abreast of what is happening in your classroom. Encourage your students to keep blogs a well. This can be a classroom or an individual project. Blogging will help your students to 35


express themselves and to practice valuable computer, keyboarding, writing, spelling, and grammatical skills. Teach them how to upload photos from a digital camera if possible.

WebQuests in Education

WebQuests are problem-solving for students Activities. That incorporates the Internet, computer-based materials, and other available resources. Incorporate the Internet, computer-based materials, and other available resources. WebQuests provide the opportunity for students to actively engage in learning by connecting their interests with various content areas.

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8 The

Value of Multimedia in Learning

From Computer Based- Training to Multimedia

It is o important to use multimedia because we apply or integrate some important tools like:

Graphics: to illustrate each item

Multimedia equips us to clarify multiples views.

Multimedia: Provides additional information like channels and resources

Animation: Permits students to visualize each part

Multimedia: adds richness and meaning using videos in order to show or tell a story.

Audio: to show the correct pronunciation

BUT, if we do not done it carefully, it can frustate our students.

What is multimedia? The definition of multimedia often depends on the exponent, for example:

• It presents content using text and graphics.

Richard Mayer

•It is the combination of various digital media types, for exampe: text, images, videos, sound into an integrated interactive aplication.

Neo and Ken

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•Layers of beneficial resources. •Gratuitions information. •Links to audio. •Simulations •Illustration and Photographs.

It provides


Views of Learning and Interaction For many people,

Others

LEARNING IS A PROCESS OF TRANSPOSING INFORMATION FROM SOMEONE`S HEAD TO ANOTHER.

IT REQUIRES PEOPLE INTEGRATE MEANINGFUL INTERACTION, FEEDBACK, AND HOW IT COULD BE APPLIED INTO DAILY LIVES. IT REQUIERES UNDERSTANDING OF HOW NEW INFORMATION CAN BE MIXED WITH PREVIEWS KNOWLEDGE.

Remember that the main goal of learning is how Complex skills and abilities could be applied in real life.

Different knowledge

Procedural Knowledge: how to achive complex real-world skills

Declarative Knowledge: Ability to describe, list, state, etc.

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So, in the construction of knowledge, the point of designing instruction is to create opportunities for Ss to get more complex skills and abilities then assess them in real situations.


Benefits of Multimedia (Shephard) Multimedia can make positive impacts in our students` learning if we design it with a great deal of consideration. For Astleitner and Wiesner multimedia has to affect emotions and motivations for our students. Alternative perspectives Active Participation Accelerated Learning Retantion and A`plication of knowledge Problem-solving and Decision- making Higher order thinking Autoomy and focus It also integrates Visual and auditory channels of human beings

How Multimedia Works for Learning

• Presentation of Information. • Guidance about how to proceed. • Practice for fluency and retention. • Assessment to determine need for next step.

Alessi and Trollip (4 elements)

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Multimedia

Learning

Multimedia affects learning and makes it more beneficial and effective if we:

Media Types and Tools

Purpose • Navegate • Explain • Show models, examples, representations • Demonstrate qualitative relationship.

Purspose

Types and Tools • Buttons, links, images, etc. • Text, drills, explanatiosn. • Photos • Diagrams • Screens • Process Model

• Show changes over time. • Show hidden concepts. • Enable direct practice.

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Types and Tools • Animation • Applet (effect of curves) • video • simulation • Graphic analogies • Simulation.


What we need in order to design Multimedia

Instructional design skills (goals, strategies, elements...)

Multimedia skills to create interactive elements

Team work Infraestructure skills (make sure it works on clients systems)

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Graphic design skills (clear and attractive navigation)


9 Methodology to teach with internet In order to teach with internet, we are going to examine tow key concepts recently emerged. a. Virtual Reality and b. Virtual Education Virtual reality is a representation of things throughout electronic devices, which gives us the sense of being in a real situation in which we can interact with. Virtual Education It let us explor different worlds like the centre of a cell, being on the surface of a planet, or into databases. Students can wolk on the moon or being in Waterloo´s wars. Architects can allow students walk in houses which are in graphics only. It is the usage of WebPages in the classroom.

Bloom´s Taxonomy In order to elaborate a good class planning, it is necessary to have in mind four things: a. b. c. d.

The learning area Well established objectives Adequate evaluations tools Activities

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Learning Domains

Cognitive Domain

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Affective Domain

Psychomotor Domain

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10 Web 2.0 and its Characteristics a. Two channels a. Asynchrony:

communication

is

not

done

simultaneously.

Example e-mail Google docs, wiki etc.

b. Synchrony:

it is done at the same time and space example

Messenger, skipe, telephone, etc. The web 2.0 could be defined as the resource which helps to facilitate the maximum interaction among users and the development of social networks where a better personal expression could be achieved. Blogs, wikis, FaceBook, Twitter, etc Characteristics

Cyberusers can create their own content and shere it.

No software is required as a client.

It gives space for collaborative work.

It allows you to search, cretae, share and interact on-line

it is an asynchrony and synchrony way

The webPage itself gives tools on-line

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Applications Web 2.0 It generates appropiate environments so teachers can think how to make educational opics much better

Through learning network new activities can facilitate evaluation and learning

Development of

It gives on-line spaces for loading, and publishing textual content and audiovisual

autonomus learning through communication channels

Requirements for using Web 2.0 educational intranet and classrooms with internet connection for every student

a.

Home, students can continue working and families have contact on-line with school

structure

Cities equiped with social network specially in libreries , civic centres etc. Wifi.

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Skilled Professors in order to create activities to follow up virtual homework


b. Students develop autonomy in relation to Access information which is going to help them in order to construct their own knowledge

Digitals: navegate in the web in order to process information and elaborate their knoledge.

Students Competences Social: Develop teamwork which is going to increase their responsability, autonomus learning, creativity, etc.

c. Teacher as the expert in the usage of technology and requires

Favorable acttitud to the integration of TIC´s in the classroom.

General and digital competences

Development and good attitud of the professor

Vey well equiped classrooms with specific rules .

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Didactic Competences .


Creates and Publish Blogs and Wikis

Blogs o Web-Blogs platforms or net books, they are virtual spaces which are used to write and publish articles or news where the collaborative work is developed and each visitor can upload their own comment.

Applications and didactic models of blogs y wikis

Teacher´s Blog o wiki . Creates a speace for loading material and information with interest of their work .

The wiki as a workspace sharing in investigations of teachers, where coordinate contributions from researchers and where each can go updating their contributions and commenting on the other

Dairy class Blog. students in parners summarize what things they have done in class, the teacher revizes and grades sit .

The wiki as a digital portfolio picks up the work (individually or grupas) students and is also space for its valuation peer (peer to peer) and Professor, and for the exchange of opinions among all.

The e school newspaper of the Center blog. It leads to the involvement of many students, who must be organized under the supervision of some teachers and interesting educational activities

Blog or wiki activity book has some content the teacher of the subject with questions and exercises that the students are performing individually or in groups with their contributions:

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Word Press: It is an advanced semantic platform for personal publication oriented aesthetics, web standards and usability. WordPress is free, and at the same time,. To put it more simply, WordPress is the system that you use when you wish to work with your publishing tool rather than wrestle with it.

Wikis Wiki is Hawaiian origin meaning: fast. Commonly abbreviated this word used Wiki and in technological terms is software for the creation of content in a collaborative. A Wiki is used to create web pages efficiently, also offers great freedom to for those users who do not have much programming, allows you to easily documents, links and others.

quickly and users, even knowledge of computer science or include texts, hypertexts, digital

ENVIRONMENTS TO SHARE RESOURCES They allow us to store large amounts of resources on the Internet, be able to share them and watch them when it suits us. They form an immense source of resources and places to publish materials for global distribution. •These authorized persons can go adding chapters and sections. A good example is the virtual book of IES CAVALERI

Virtual books

•classify them, publish them on the Internet, share them (public, restricted, or private mode). It also allows searches of photos and leave comments at the same

•It allows us to store files of up to 20 MB of space with our presentations, with the addition of name, description, and tags

Picassa

SlideShare

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Teaching Applications and Models for Internet Resource Sharing

Search for information on documented on some topic

Audiovisual and multimedia materials and share them on the Internet

• They are multimedia elements that we serve to illustrate jobs and presentations of the Whiteboard class. To find photos, music and (songs, poems, historical recordings)

•Students use certain audiovisual and multimedia materials, store them on the Internet properly labelled and commented, referencing them in your blog/wiki, and present them and discuss them in class with the Whiteboard.

Virtual Communities Communities could be defined as networks in which people can interact and develop relationships and prune sociability and thus have a support, more information, sense of belonging and social identity. As it is known collaborative development is the development of group activities in order to achieve objectives. In all learning, context and language are very important, what makes us define it as 'learning with others', also reflect their views, although each building (rebuilding) their knowledge according to their schedules, their experience, their context and so on.

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Learning communities tries to build personal and / or collective knowledge through specific interactions between its members working together to achieve this goal; the following characteristics:

There is a common goal and commitment related to learning and construction of new knowledge and skills

Evaluation Group Final They provide aid: emotional (virtual company, communication) and cognitive (provision of information)

Cooperative learning is a process based on argumentation and shared knowledge, in which students learn from one another

There are channels to share learning, facilitating interactions among its members enhance individual learning processes

Keys to success are: positive attitude, trust and openness

Organization: roles, leadership, tasks, rules of operation between group members

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•Complete on-line social networking platform

•Environment of communication where you can send micromensajes about what he is doing at every moment

•Social environment with powerful graphics settings and avatars.

Ning

Twitter

Second Life

•Space for the presentation and expression in public with the aim of creating links with others.

MySpace

Other Resources WEB 2.0 As an on-line calendar On-line space that provides tools to organize virtual teaching / learning Platform for e-learning and blended learning Online Spellchecker

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References Brown, R.D. 2009; “The elements of multimedia” Elley. W. 2008. How to use Technology in the classroom Dr. Peer Technology in the new school Sandoval, 2010 “Understanding and developing combination of color”

Websites http://www.google.com/ig/directory?synd=open http://pacoriviere.googlepages.com/TiddlyWikiCA.html http://www.slideshare.net/educablog/wikis-en-educacin-sus-mltiplesusos http://www.secondlifespain.com/ http://www.myspace.com/ http://news.google.es/nwshp?hl=es&ned=es http://moodle.org CMS (Course Management System http://www.scarsdaleschools.k12.ny.us/webquests/Cisco/arte.htm WWW. Conicyt.cl/explora/agua/consumo2.html

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Mutimedia and Technology in the classroom