LIFE SCIENCES Nucleic Acids and Enzymes Name__________________________________________Group_______Date ________________ Based in the information of your textbook, answer the next questions: NUCLEOTIDES Definition Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. Structure: how are they made
Nucleotides consist of three parts: 1-‐A five-‐carbon sugar (hence a pentose) 2-‐A nitrogen-‐containing ring structure called a base. The base is attached to the 1' carbon atom of the pentose. 3-‐One (as shown in the first figure), two, or three phosphate groups. These are attached to the 5' carbon atom of the pentose. Draw a nucleotide including all its chemical groups and write the name of each group.
Functions The sugar that is part of a nucleotide is a 5-‐carbon atom sugar in its ring form. It will either be ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA. Examples Sugar
NUCLEIC ACIDS Definition Nucleic acids are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Structure: how are they made a) pentose sugar b) nitrogenous base c) phosphate group Draw a nucleic acid molecule and write the names of its groups.
Functions The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic material and use the information to direct the synthesis of new protein Examples There are only two examples: DNA and RNA.
ENZYMES Definition of enzymes Enzymes are proteins that chemical reactions. Definition of substrate Primary or underlying material on which other materials (such as ink, coating, paint, or treatment) are applied, or from which other materials are made. Draw a scheme about how do the enzyme and substrate interact.
Factors affecting enzymatic activity. 1 concentration 2 pH 3 temperature 4 boiling