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From the Desk

PUBLISHER & EDITOR IN CHIEF YOUSUF BIN JASSIM AL DARWISH MANAGING DIRECTOR & CEO JASSIM BIN YOUSUF AL DARWISH MANAGER DR. FAISAL FOUAD

Low oil prices have become the new reality. Adjustments in budget and state spending at the macro level, along with alterations through layoffs in smaller and even national organisations in the micro level, have spread a wave of gloom over the country. While the gloom prevails, population figures do not reflect this trend. The population is growing as it had before, with 230 immigrants on an average per day (estimated at 9.57 in an hour) arriving in the country this year. HE Abdullah Al Attiyah mentioned in an interview, “You need to manage the change not let it break you.” This seems to be the way forward with the leadership guarding the country against possible pitfalls while keeping a reign on unaccounted expenditure, inculcating in its population, the culture of looking ahead and saving for times that will not be as good as before. Construction Today looks at topics that will interest and intrigue the industry, from Manitowoc and Samson joining hands to test the K-100 hoist rope on the Grove RT800E crane in Qatar, a rope designed especially for mobile cranes to the benefits of using BIM in construction planning and project scheduling, from an expert from Gulf Contracting Company. We also discuss the mystery behind the fire incidents in the construction sector; is it the climatic conditions of the desert or other safety aspects that causes this spike in incidents?

EDITORIAL MANAGING EDITOR SINDHU NAIR DEPUTY EDITOR IZDIHAR IBRAHIM SENIOR CORRESPONDENTS AYSWARYA MURTHY UDAYAN NAG KARIM EMAM CORRESPONDENTS AARTHI MOHAN KEERTANA KODURU ART SENIOR ART DIRECTOR VENKAT REDDY DEPUTY ART DIRECTOR HANAN ABU SAIAM ASSISTANT ART DIRECTOR AYUSH INDRAJITH SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER MAHESHWAR REDDY PHOTOGRAPHER ROBERT F ALTAMIRANO MARKETING & SALES MANAGER SAKALA DEBRASS TEAM SONY VELLATT DENZITA SEQUIERA MATHEWS CHERIAN ANIS MANSOURI NISHAD N.P. EVENTS OFFICER GHAZALA MOHAMMED ACCOUNTANT PRATAP CHANDRAN DISTRIBUTION DEPARTMENT ESLAM ELMAHALAWY BIKRAM SHRESTHA ARJUN TIMILSINA BHIMAL RAI BASANTA POKHREL PRADEEP BHUSAL

Read the magazine for a unique insight into the field of construction. PUBLISHED BY ORYX PUBLISHING & ADVERTISING CO WLL P.O. Box 3272; Doha-Qatar Tel: (+974) 44550983, 44671173, 44667584 Fax: (+974) 44550982 Email: info@oryxpublishing.com website: www.oryxpublishing.com Printed at: Al Waraq Printing Press Copyright © 2016 Oryx Publishing & Advertising Co WLL


The desert rose

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Threeway lifting venture

Built around an historic structure, the National Museum of Qatar is conceived keeping with the high aspirations of QMA.

16 Sailing through the storm Challenging times ahead for the construction and real estate market. How will the GCC countries survive the storm?

Manitowoc, renowned for supplying cranes all over the world, and Samson, in the rope business since the 19th century, got together with Consolidated Contractors Company for a testing exercise in Qatar earlier this year.

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49 | The Reinsurance Market Kamal Nagi, Chief Strategy and Business Development Officer, Qatar Financial Centre (QFC), talks about how the reinsurance markets will react to the construction activities in the country in the next 12 months.

30 | Flare-up Fears

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Investigating the reasons behind the multitude of construction fires in the country.


ISSUE 1 | JULY-SEPTEMBER 2016

CONTENTS

Embracing the green life

Eng. Meshal Al Shamari, Director of Qatar Green Building Council tells us about the advantages of green construction.

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12 49 04 34 40 06 I6 The new procurement law

In June of this year, the State of Qatar implemented a new public procurement law. The new law further aligns Qatar’s public procurement laws with international best practice and should streamline public procurement in Qatar.

Memories of old Doha Ahmad Jassim Al Jolo, Chairman of the Qatar Society of Engineers, is a familiar figure in Qatar in constructed-related seminars and events. He take us through his memories of Doha; and the changes that the country has gone through.

“Baby steps key to BIM success” John Allison, Project Manager at Gulf Contracting, talks about the “latest buzzword” in the world of construction.

The Riyal Estate 46 |

Real Scenario

For over 10 years, since the 2006 Asian Games, residents in Qatar have been suffering from by the year-on-year increase in residential rents. With the decline in oil and gas prices and with recession hitting hard, the situation has brought in an economic turmoil of sorts.


Site Visit

Resolving construction disputes

With conflicts related to construction payment on the rise in Qatar, Dentons, a global law firm in collaboration with the Association of Corporate Counsel Middle East (ACCME), hosted the third assembly of construction industry practitioners in Doha in November.

News Update

Highlights

“As budget cuts in Qatar are taking effect, there is a rising trend of payment disputes in construction contracts and parties are contemplating formal dispute resolution proceedings.” Andrew Jones Senior Associate, Dentons Law Firm

KONE gets contract for LRT system

Dentons’ partner Andrew Jones and senior associate Sarah Sage gave their respective views on the various issues related to Qatar’s construction projects.

Tackling construction waste

A joint effort was initiated last month by Qatar Primary Materials Company (QPMC) and Britain’s TRL to deal with the issue of construction waste in the country. The two companies signed a deal for the development of quality recycled aggregate for use in construction, according to QPMC. Eisa Al Hammadi, the Chief Executive of QPMC, said that the move was in sync with Qatar’s commitment to sustainable development and protecting the environment at reduced cost. “At QPMC, we have placed the government strategy and economy at the centre of our operations. Working together with TRL will enable us to further extend our support to the government to promote sustainability throughout the development of local aggregate from construction waste,” said Al Hammadi. “Our collaboration will also enable us to reduce reliance on imported aggregate and improve the quality of our local aggregate materials. This will have a positive effect on aggregate pricing, in addition to reducing pressure on our ports and developing new resources for our strategic reserve,” he added.

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Highlights

Site Visit Qatar to get 15 new footbridges

Renowned worldwide over for its elevator and escalator services, KONE was awarded a contract for the Lusail Light Rail Transport (LRT) system in Qatar last month. The Finland-based company has won an order to install 139 elevators, escalators and moving walkways. “We are extremely honoured to have won this project,” said Mark Bayyari, Managing Director for Qatar, Kone. “With our solid understanding of the passenger requirements in the public transport sector and our eco-efficient equipment, we look forward to ensuring a smooth and seamless transit experience for the commuters.”

“With our solid understanding of the passenger requirements in the public transport sector and our ecoefficient equipment, we look forward to ensuring a smooth and seamless transit experience for the commuters.” Mark Bayyari Managing Director(Qatar) Kone

The 139 installations will consist of 49 elevators, 82 escalators and eight horizontal moving walkways.

Stirling Lloyd completes waterproofing of Lusail Tunnel Using its Integritank coating, UK-based company Stirling Lloyd carried out the waterproofing of the recently-constructed Lusail Tunnel. The tunnel, which will carry both road as well as light rail traffic, is expected to start functioning by the end of 2020, according to a statement by Qatar Rail managing director Abdulla bin Abdulaziz bin Turki Al Subaie earlier in the year. “Faced with challenging ground conditions and a fast-track construction process, the ease, speed and effectiveness of the Integritank fully bonded, seamless waterproofing system was integral to the success of the project,” said James Hopper, Regional Sales Manager for Stirling Lloyd. He added, “For the client, it had also been important to have the reassurance of the system’s efficiency before beginning work. As Stirling Lloyd had already completed several other similar projects in this area, it was a natural decision to choose Integritank when further protecting the investment in the region’s below-ground infrastructure.” The Yas Tunnel and Bainuna Street in the UAE are the other major projects that the company has been involved with.

In an effort to make life easier for pedestrians, the Ministry of Municipality and Environment (MME) announced a plan to establish 15 footbridges within Doha and its suburbs. According to an official source at MME, “The move is meant to maintain the safety of pedestrians and keep up with the urban development in Doha in co-ordination with the Roads Department at the Ministry of Transport and Communications.” Shops, restaurants, ATMs, toilets and other services will also be included at the footbridges. Besides that, escalators and lifts for the benefit of the elderly and handicapped are also in the scheme of things. The Qatar Cabinet had given its approval for the project in early October.

MOQ site witnesses second fire in six months Yet another fire broke out late last month at the construction site of Mall of Qatar (MOQ). Unlike in April, the fire was of lesser intensity this time around. According to a statement issued by the MOQ management, the accidental turn of events unfolded at a store undergoing fit-outs. The statement further added, “At Mall of Qatar we have invested in the latest state-of-the-art fire control systems that worked perfectly.” “Moreover, our safety and security officers are highly trained to act promptly in emergency situations. On top of this, we follow global best practices when it comes to safety and emergency evacuation procedures.” CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Around the World

Dubai’s construction up by 90%

Update

Highlights

Construction activities in the city have increased at a rate of

90% in 2016.

January to September saw more than According to data released by Dubai Statistics Website Center earlier this month, construction activities in the city have increased at a rate of 90% in 2016. January to September saw more than 4,170 villas built for investment purposes, followed by 1,553 private villas, making the estimated ratio 64.3% and 24%, respectively. Meanwhile, according to another report, work has begun on Dubai Arena, the region’s largest indoor arena with a capacity to seat approximately 20,000 people. The project is expected to be completed by the end of 2018. The purpose of the stadium is to hold sporting and entertainment events as well as music concerts.

4,170 1,553

villas built for investment purposes, followed by

private villas, making the estimated ratio 64.3% and 24%, respectively.

Construction costs going down in Saudi

Louvre Abu Dhabi opening pushed back to 2017

Pending construction work has led to the postponement of the official opening of the Louvre Abu Dhabi museum to 2017. A source close to the project said, “First the museum buildings have to be completed and delivered and then the opening (must take place), which is now sometime in 2017.” “There is some work to be done, interiors, testing etc., which are critical as the commissioning takes place.” The Arabtec-led joint venture with Constructora San José and Oger Abu Dhabi in 2013 was awarded the Louvre Abu Dhabi contract in 2013. The museum will feature 9,200 square metres of display space upon its completion.

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Highlights Reduced spending on construction projects and decline in demand of construction materials has led to a drop in costs of up to 15% per square metre on Saudi Arabia’s urban development projects. The country had lifted bans on exporting cement and steel earlier this year to address the reduction in demand of construction materials. “Local production levels for all building materials – as well as imports – were set for a time of boom in contracting, which has caused oversupply,” said Fahd Al Rasheed, group chief executive of Emaar, The Economic City (EEC). “Also, now the number of contracts issued by the government are much less. Contractor capacity has also improved, leading to them lowering their margins to compete for new work,” he further added.

0.7% in September.

Government construction has slumped by

7.8% $23

a decline of nearly

billion.

After a temporary slump in the economy because of the Brexit vote, activity in UK’s construction sector was on the rise in September and October. There was a slight appreciation of the sterling against the dollar; the trend however was short-lived. An increase in housing activity resulted in the improvement of the construction Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI). Commercial construction, however, continued its downward slide in September. The construction sector makes up only 6% of the UK economy. But, according to a recent report, contractors are facing a rise in the price of construction materials following the crash in sterling because of the Brexit vote.

US construction spending decreases

In a desperate effort to check the high levels of pollution in the national capital of India, Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal stopped all construction and demolition activities for five days in November.

Delhi Pollution Control Committee officials have penalised 342 construction sites for violating dust pollution norms since September, the Delhi government had said earlier.

UK construction on the recovery track

According to the Commerce Department, total construction spending fell by

Delhi gets 5-day break from construction, demolition

According to an affidavit submitted by the Ministry of Environment and Forests to the Supreme Court last year, dust is the main source of pollution in Delhi. Construction waste makes up 40% of the total waste generated in the city.

Around the World

Following a decline in government spending for school, transportation and sewer projects, US builders cut their spending on construction projects for the second month in a row in September.

According to the Commerce Department, total construction spending fell by 0.7% in September. Government construction has slumped by 7.8% – a decline of nearly $23 billion. Private construction spending has been less of a concern. It went down by 0.2% as construction spending on factories, utilities and commercial spaces declined. However, residential construction spending has increased by 0.9% over the past 12 months to $453.7 billion. Low mortgage rates and a favourable job market have led to an increase in demand for housing. CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Periscope

The Desert Rose Rises up

Photos by Robert A

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The National Museum of Qatar, like a desert rose, appears to grow out of the ground and be one with it. Embodying the pride and traditions of Qatar's people, while offering international visitors a dialogue about rapid change and modernisation, the National Museum of Qatar will be the setting for a programme in which entire walls become cinematic displays.


Though built around an historic structure, the Fariq Al Salatah Palace, which had served as a museum of heritage since 1975, the National Museum of Qatar is conceived and designed as a thoroughly new institution. Glazed facades fill the voids between disks. Perimeter mullions are recessed into the ceiling, floor and walls, giving the glazing a frameless appearance when viewed from the outside. Deep disk- shaped sun-breaker elements filter incoming sunlight. The Museum will be surrounded by a 1.2 million square foot landscaped park that interprets a Qatari desert landscape.

The National Museum of Qatar

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Periscope

The interlocking disc design by Jean Nouvel is inspired by the desert rose. The space is designed as a thriving hub for the public, students, and museum professionals. It will redefine the role of a cultural institution, fostering a spirit of participation and providing the conditions for discovery to thrive. Beyond galleries, it will provide:

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• 220-seat auditorium • Two retail outlets, two restaurants and a café • A dedicated food forum, preserving culinary traditions • research centre and laboratories • a park filled with indigenous plants • The museum is built around Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al-Thani’s original palace • His family home and seat of the government for 25 years.

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Viewpoint

Julian Bailey (left) & Michael Turrini,

White & Case LLP (Doha)

Industry prepares for new procurement law In June of this year, the State of Qatar implemented a new public procurement law. The new law further aligns Qatar’s public procurement laws with international best practice and should streamline public procurement in Qatar. 16 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


Viewpoint Highlights

Q

atar Law No. 24 of 2015 on Regulation of Tenders and Auctions (the “New Procurement Law”) took effect on 13 June 2016, superseding Law No. 26 of 2005. The New Procurement Law is broader in scope, applying to numerous government entities. The overarching theme of the New Procurement Law is to promote greater efficiency in public procurement. Some of the ways in which the New Procurement Law seeks to do this include: Abolishing the Central Tenders Committee, and decentralising the tendering process. Streamlining disputes over tenders through establishing Committees for Dispute Resolution. Permitting the use of two-stage tendering. Exempting SMEs from being required to provide performance bonds and payment guarantees. Overview of key changes in Qatari Public Procurement Law Decentralisation of tendering procedures The previous public procurement laws in Qatar required the Central Tenders Committee and the Local Tenders Committee to oversee all public tenders in the country (subject to monetary thresholds). By contrast, the New Procurement Law permits each regulated government entity to create its own tender committee, whose members must include representatives from the Ministry of Finance and the Diwan Audit Bureau. This decentralisation of the tendering process has the potential benefit of allowing each government entity to exercise greater control over its procurements. This can be particularly

important where the type of procurement concerns a specialist subject matter with which the entity is primarily concerned, where the government entity may be best placed to adjudge which tender offers best overall value for money. BEFORE The previous public procurement laws in Qatar required the Central Tenders Committee and the Local Tenders Committee to oversee all public tenders in the country (subject to monetary thresholds).

NOW The New Procurement Law’s contemplated decentralisation of dispute resolution may add value by ensuring that what are often specialist disputes over matters of technical compliance are resolved by a committee with the requisite technical know-how.

Committees for dispute resolution In order to resolve procurement disputes in an effective and speedy manner, the New Procurement Law allows the Ministry of Finance to set up as many committees as may be needed to decide disputes, with each committee presided over by a judge. Just as adjudging the qualitative features of tenders may be a specialist matter, resolving disputes over the assessment of tenders may require specialist knowledge. The New Procurement Law’s contemplated decentralisation of dispute resolution may therefore add value by ensuring that what are often specialist disputes over matters of technical compliance are resolved by a committee with the requisite technical know-how.

T

Two-stage tendering process wo-stage tendering is an innovation of modern procurement, and the New Procurement Law permits government entities to apply it. In brief, two-stage tendering involves a procuring entity seeking tenders from contractors / suppliers based on an initial scope of work that remains to be more fully defined. Once the procuring entity has received initial tenders, and has selected a preferred bidder by “awarding” the contract to it, the entity will then engage the successful bidder to perform certain pre-commencement services as a more detailed scope of works and the contractor’s / supplier’s full tender are worked up. Once this occurs, a contract will be entered into for the particular CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Viewpoint procurement.

Perceived benefits of adopting this process are: by involving the contractor / supplier from an early stage in the procurement process, the contractor / supplier is better able to understand its scope of works / supply and therefore to refine its tender for the benefit of the project; and

Highlights

The New Procurement Law aims at aligning Qatar’s procurement laws with international best practices, such as those set out in the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement.

the contractor / supplier is also able to make an early start on its works / supply, i.e., before the full, detailed scope of its supply has been defined. Performance bond waiver for SMEs The cost of providing performance bonds and guarantees for public procurements is sometimes considerable for SMEs, and can put them at a competitive disadvantage. Recognising this, the New Procurement Law provides SMEs with the option to seek an exemption (either full or partial) from submitting performance bonds upon providing financial assurances made available for SMEs through Qatar Development Bank. Aligning with international best practice he New Procurement Law aims at aligning Qatar’s procurement laws with international best practices, such as those set out in the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement. By adopting these new measures, it is envisaged that savings can be achieved in public procurements – savings which are increasingly important during the current period of depressed energy prices.

T

Implications for businesses operating in Qatar The New Procurement Law should be seen as a positive step for businesses tendering for government contracts in the State of Qatar. There are at least two reasons for this.  First, the decentralisation of decision-making contemplated by the New Procurement Law should ensure that assessments of tenders are conducted by persons with the greatest technical knowledge of the bid.  Accordingly, there is even greater capacity for bids to be treated on their technical merits.  Secondly, the advent of two-stage tendering will allow for greater innovation and refinement in bids for projects, which in turn is likely to lead to a closer matching of client and contractor expectations for any given project. 18 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


Perspective

By Sasa Zuzmahowsky

Sailing through the storm Dwindling oil prices coupled with geopolitical instability in the wider Middle-Eastern environment and increased pressure on local governments’ budgets have created ever more challenging construction/real estate market conditions, which may lead to a perfect storm.

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Perspective

S

o far, real estate and construction played one of the key roles in GCC’s impressive economic growth, supporting the infrastructural expansion and providing a springboard for its tourism sector. Consequently, Gulf real estate developers directly supported the more than 5% annual resident population growth in the region. Construction projects have turned GCC capitals into open-air museums, offering some of the most daring and spectacular architectural achievements in the world. Various reports indicate that $2 trillion of real estate projects were in the GCC pipeline, accounting for almost 70% of all construction in 2016 and 2017. While famous real estate developers’ mantra – that real estate provides the highest returns, the greatest values and the least risk - is still relevant, it does not offer a solution to an oversupplied market. According to the consultancy firm A.T. Kearney, the Gulf construction and real estate sector could soon face such a problem of plenty if the region’s economies do not start to recover quickly. While the global events such as Dubai Expo 2020 and Qatar FIFA World Cup 2022 are likely to provide a boost to the organizers’ tourism and real estate industry in the future, this could not be said for the wider region. Overcapacity concerns “We believe the GCC’s real estate sector has entered a perfect storm of trends that could imperil its success,” says an A.T. Kearney study. According to it, “overcapacity looms on an unprecedented scale.” Moreover, the value of projects already in the construction stage as of March 2016 is four times the value of all projects completed in the previous 10 years, and another 10 years’ worth of projects is in the pipeline at earlier stages of development, says the study. But these impressive

“There have been numerous announcements over the past couple of months of large mixeduse developments. It’s important to know that a lot of these projects don’t end up being developed, or they are redesigned into something a lot more feasible and sustainable.” Dana Salbak Associate Partner and Head of Middle East Research at Dubai’s office of Knight Frank

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Perspective

Highlights

figures are not supported by optimistic macroeconomic reality, what may be a cause for alarm. According to the World Bank, the average GDP growth of a modest 3.2% is expected through 2020 (which is far off from an 8% growth before 2008). In addition, population growth is also expected to slide to just a third of pre-crisis levels, reaching 2.9% over the next five years, according to the Economic Intelligence Unit, which is another cause for overcapacity concerns.

Project delays can have a huge impact on return rates

But despite current unfavourable conditions and budget cuts, it is believed that some critical projects will be carried on (including power, water, hospitals, schools, defence and security projects).

While Dubai and Qatari developers may still hope that the storm will just flick by, what about their colleagues in the region? Should they be nervous about the future and could overcapacity perhaps lead to a real estate price slump? Dana Salbak, Associate Partner and Head of Middle East Research at Dubai’s office of Knight Frank, explained that “while there have been numerous announcements over the past couple of months of large mixed-use developments, it’s important to know that a lot of these projects don’t end up being developed, or they are redesigned into something a lot more feasible and sustainable.” As a matter of fact, last year’s report from ​​​​JLL, the world’s leading real estate investment and advisory firm, notes that over the past five years the materialisation rate of proposed projects in the GCC has been relatively low, with only 30% of proposed residential projects and 45% of proposed office space completed on schedule. “So looking at the development pipeline, yes there are a lot of projects, but we are cautious about the delivery of those within the stated timeline. As long as supply is controlled and phased out in line with demand, prices should not plunge to 2008/2009 levels,” Salbak told Construction Today. In other words, the trend of low materialisation rate, which is expected to continue, will somewhat reduce the risk of oversupply. 22 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

Project delays will be attributed to a number of reasons, including financing issues, contractual disputes, construction delays and licensing/approval delays, while some developers will deliberately hold back completions to avoid flooding the market. However, project delays may have significant impact on the return rates.

In Qatar’s case the government is expected to continue spending on the capital projects.

In Qatar’s case the government is expected to continue spending on the capital projects (although certain projects integral to the World Cup have been prioritized with increased efficiency), which should keep the market stable for a significant period, and hence would not bring any sudden impact on the real estate sector, according to KPMG experts. According to Salbak, the market is a lot more consolidated than it used to be. Contrary to pre-2008/2009 when a number of smaller developers and contracting companies announced projects and then fled during the crisis, the landscape now is dominated by larger developers who have large land banks and stronger financial statements and therefore the risk is highly mitigated. Also,


Highlights

developers have been announcing projects in a much more phased approach, ensuring they secure funding from pre-sales before they launch other phases of the same project. Financial constraints Beside overcapacity concerns, GCC real estate developers will have ever more difficulties with financing their ambitious projects. A prolonged period of low oil prices has put increased pressure on government spending, leading to a fiscal restructuring of GCC hydrocarbondependent economies, including governmental subsidy cuts. Lower national revenues from oil and gas and general tightening of liquidity have already caused much disturbance in Gulf economies and as the governments continue the fiscal tightening, the construction industry is expected to face difficult times ahead. Estimates based on Fitch Ratings Agency show that growth in the banking loans in the Gulf over the next three years will drop by a third, while direct investment in the region has already slowed by 30%. The pressing need to adjust budgets might have a negative impact on the projects market resulting in slower tender processes, slower decisions and payment procedures, says Deloitte’s paper “GCC Power of Construction 2016.” But while some of the real estate/construction companies will certainly fight for survival, Salbak notes that government spending is slowing down in some parts of the GCC more than in others. In Dubai, spending on infrastructure and entertainment projects geared towards the Expo 2020 is still going ahead, which is boosting confidence. “Also, the market is more diversified than its GCC peers’ so while it is likely to see a slowdown in growth, this is nothing drastic. In terms of occupiers and job growth, Dubai is made up of large international occupiers who, despite having paused their expansion plans, are committed to the region and committed to serving it from Dubai as an HQ base and therefore we don’t expect the job market

GCC project Values, by project stage March 2016

166 Concept

153 Design

106

procurement

1,653 construction

326 on hold

413

complete

753 cancelled

Perspective

to get impacted heavily. This is contrary to Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia, for example, where the economies are heavily reliant on oil revenues. Also, corporate activity is dominated by large government institutions and related entities that have cut back on jobs and have consolidated operations.” Finding a new path With these challenges ahead, Gulf developers will have to reset their project strategy and carefully choose their next steps. According to the A.T. Kearney study, value can be captured by having better understanding of costumers’ preferences and, as the company’s president Mr Mariscotti points out: “Advanced analytics enables an understanding of which features to customize and the trade-offs customers are willing to make and how much they will pay for them. This alone can improve the internal rate of return on investment by 10-25%, and create a pipeline of affordable housing projects.” As for Salbak: “There is a lack of affordable housing in the GCC which definitely needs to be addressed. But for this to happen, there needs to be clear collaboration between the public – private sectors.” In Qatar, for example, the main focus has been on luxury and upscale properties which represent only 20% of the Qatari market, while the housing needs of the other 80% of the population have been neglected. This is evident in the emergence of the recently launched PPP framework as one of the models for infrastructure developments across the region, with the UAE, Kuwait and Qatar all having announced their respective PPP laws in recent times. But as Salbak concludes: “The largest determinant of a project’s value is the land cost. And in the GCC land is expensive and is usually held by private developers and landowners for speculative trading. When this happens, it becomes difficult to develop an affordable project”. CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Sustainable

EMBRACING THE GREEN LIFE

By Ayswarya Murthy

Green or smart buildings offer much more than savings in water and electricity. They represent a whole new way of living, according to Eng. Meshal Al Shamari, Director of Qatar Green Building Council, who spoke to Construction Today ahead of the second annual Green Building Conference in Doha.

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Sustainable

W

ith power and water prices in Qatar one of the lowest in the world, private developers and building owners may not feel too incentivised to invest in green buildings; returns on savings are too small and too far ahead into the future to justify the costs of going green. Some may do it for prestige and others, only if they are mandated to do so. But Eng. Meshal Al Shamari, Director of Qatar Green Building Council (QGBC), is hoping to create awareness around a whole other concept, an evolved line of thinking – the green life. “We started a few years back to focus on different kinds of benefits of green building, beyond savings. The World Green Building Council published a report in 2013 that cover elements related to the quality of life that are affected by green buildings — comfortable indoor climate, health of the occupants, etc. This is what we are trying to promote among developers and owners. In an office building, the benefits of increasing the performance of employees and reducing absenteeism will have more value than savings on utility bill,” he says. “We published a survey about those factors and did a case study at one of the local hotels to study the comforts of guests, noise levels, air quality, affect of architecture, etc. It definitely has an impact. Green buildings have been proven to provide better working, learning and living environments and that should be valued and considered in any development. For example, a school that is built with green concepts in mind, will invariably affect the quality of learning of our students. These is a very high-level objective that we should strive to achieve,” according to Eng. Al Shamari. Green Life is the next stage of green buildings or any kind of development, he says. Not just providing a place to live but actually taking care of the users of the building.

FACT SHEET Green buildings have been proven to provide better working, learning and living environments and that should be valued and considered in any development.

The conference has been designed to be relatable to all sectors involved in sustainability. The themes of green life, green businesses and future sustainable cities are meant to draw the attention of those apart from the professionals and academics in the related sectors – Consultants, contractors, investors, bankers.

“In two years, we have trained 2,000 LEED professionals and have expanded to other disciplines like interior design, facility management, carbon calculation and social responsibility”

Ramping up advocacy Eng Al Shamari hopes that concepts like these will leave a lasting impact on the attendees of the second annual Green Building Conference. “Last year, our conference was focussed mainly on the vision for the sustainability sector and we felt we needed to focus on some technical elements like engineering, carbon footprint, sustainable cities and the overall elements of sustainability, mainly targeted at industry experts. This year, we are going beyond the professionals. The conference has been designed to be relatable to all sectors involved in sustainability. The themes of green life, green businesses and future sustainable cities are meant to draw the attention of those apart from the professionals and academics in the related sectors – Consultants, contractors, investors, bankers. We want to create a platform that includes a wider range of sectors related to the field. Green life has so many different stakeholders – at homes, in schools, in offices – we want to communicate with everyone involved in those areas,” he says. While Future Sustainable Cities is a bit more technical topic involving urban planning, ecology, engineering, etc., Eng Al Shamari says it has generated a lot of interest. “In the next 15 years, 75% of the world’s population will be living in cities. Urban centres are expanding at the greater pace than we expected and doing this sustainably is very important element.” The main goal is to create awareness. “At the last year conference, we had over 500 attendees. This year we expect more. Not all of them work in the sustainability sector. But they get to know about these concepts and convey the message to their organisations. First we build the culture and everything follows from that.” Concurrently, QGBC has also been diversifying their training programmes, to cover everything from the design to the construction and the operations of such CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Sustainable

Images from the 2nd Qatar Green Building Conference 2016

“When the Qatar Construction Specifications were launched in 2010, it had some references to green buildings. When it was revised in 2014, there was a whole chapter on sustainability.”

it might have big financial impacts for the companies. Also the market has to be ready for it. When the Qatar Construction Specifications were launched in 2010, it had some references to green buildings. When it was revised in 2014 , there was a whole chapter on sustainability. This is how we prepare the market. Take the example of the enforcement of regulations for HVAC systems or LED lights, these have been in the making for several years. Initially, they weren’t mandatory, but when the government saw that the market was mature, the rules were enforced.” For green building concepts too, this time is coming, Eng Al Shamari says. “We now have sufficient number of professionals in the field and consultancy firms already preparing for this.” And it is to encourage these initiatives that the first Qatar Sustainability Awards were initiated this year at the conference. Announced in October of this year, the awards received more than 100 nominations in six categories from various organisations across Qatar’s public and private sectors. “From government buildings to private projects and research to consultancy, we wanted to cover the full spectrum of initiatives that exemplify the values of green building concepts,” he says. In another first, QGBC also launched the Qatar Sustainability Week to coincide with

buildings. “In two years, we have trained 2,000 LEED professionals and have expanded to other disciplines like interior design, facility management, carbon calculation and social responsibility,” he says. Recognising green efforts In the State of Qatar, the government has already taken the first crucial step in making green buildings the norm. “Most of Ashghal’s buildings are green as are the Ministry of Municipality’s, Qatar Foundation, Lusail, etc. For these government projects, green certifications are mandatory. And it won’t be long before the private sector catches up.” But the private sectors can’t and shouldn’t be forced with mandates without preparing the market for it. “It’s complicated because 26 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

the conference. With 70 events organised around the city focused on community engagement in sustainability aspects, Eng Al Shamari hopes to spread the green message among the public and get them to become part of the process.


Innovation

By Udayan Nag

Three-way lifting venture

Manitowoc, renowned for supplying cranes all over the world, and Samson, in the rope business since the 19th century, got together with Consolidated Contractors Company for a testing exercise in Qatar earlier this year. What was unusual about it and where do things go from here?

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Innovation

A

historic tie-up. A company in the crane business since 1925; the other creating ropes since 1878. Manitowoc and Samson joined hands in July to test the K-100 hoist rope on the Grove RT800E crane in Qatar. While the Grove has been present in the region for decades, with Mannai Trading representing Manitowoc since the 1980s, it was Samson’s maiden entry in the Middle East. Consolidated Contractors Company (CCC), the third arm of the joint exercise, plans to do its own testing and if all goes well then the Grove RT800E (fitted with the K-100 rope) will be used for one of CCC’s oil and gas projects in Qatar. The rope designed specially for mobile cranes is supposedly unique for a number of reasons. “This synthetic rope is 80% lighter than wire rope and has a torque-neutral construction that eliminates load spin and cabling,” says Yannick Richaud, director of Manitowoc Cranes in the Middle East. “The new hoist material also makes for easy handling, reeving and installation as it reduces kinking, bird caging and damage from other types of spooling issues. It is also easier to maintain; unlike the wire rope, there is no need for lubrication. These properties generate substantial user benefits, e.g., load chart improvements and speed and flexibility.” Richaud further said that, apart from fitting the rope into a Grove RT880E, the exercise also included training on how to utilise the rope. However, Manitowoc has been hit by the drop in oil prices, which has affected the demand for its rough-terrain cranes from customers in the energy sector. So, it’s a little ironical that CCC plans to use the Grove RT800E for its oil and gas projects after testing. What about the construction work in Qatar related to the 2022 World Cup? What, if any, are Manitowoc’s plans for targeting those types of projects? “We are convinced that the oil and gas industry will benefit enormously from this synthetic wire rope technology, mainly for environmental and safety reasons,” says Richaud. 28 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

“It was the first time a synthetic rope was fitted on one of our cranes in Qatar.” Yannick Richaud Director of Manitowoc Cranes in the Middle East

FACT SHEET

Advantages of the new synthetic rope

80%

lighter than wire rope Easier to maintain

Torque-neutral construction that eliminates load spin and cabling Makes for easy handling, reeving and installation as it reduces kinking, bird caging and damage from other types of spooling issues

“As a highly regulated industry, this sector requires an additional effort for us to explain and convince the end users that our K-100 solution is the equivalent of and even better than the traditional steel wire rope. As soon as the oil and gas industry adopts this rope, we are confident that other sectors will follow suit. Growth continues in the Middle East despite the decline in demand for cranes in this industry due to the reduction of oil prices. The construction industry is also one of the biggest consumers of oil and gas, and more projects are due to commence as a result of the 2022 World Cup. CCC will bid for some of those contracts and will probably win a lot of them.” Richaud, however, adds that the K-100 has presently only been authorised for use on rough-terrain cranes, but that it has passed all technical tests for Manitowoc’s all-terrain cranes. “Due to the fact that the GMK product is a road-going crane, we are in the process of securing an agreement with the relevant road and transport authorities (globally) in order for this rope to be fitted on these cranes. We have not yet reached the stage where the rope can be used for crawlers or tower cranes.” Richaud is hopeful that Manitowoc’s crane brands will play a key role in the country’s infrastructure; and the next step is to develop the K-100 for sale in Qatar. As far as the reason behind Samson tying up with Manitowoc for the Qatar chapter is concerned, Dennis Sherman, Technical Sales Manager - Europe, Middle East, Africa (Samson), cites the history between the two companies and goes into greater detail about the K-100. “Manitowoc and Samson have worked together since 2012 to develop the use of synthetics on mobile cranes in an effort to reduce weight, increase safety and optimise performance.” “We are currently evaluating the K-100 performance in Qatar and will bring the rope back, at a specific time, for documentation of residual strength, UV resistance and effects of ambient temperature in Qatar.” Sherman adds that this would be carried out by mounting temperature sensors at various locations on the boom (a long, telescopic, or fixed, arm of the crane that is used


Innovation mend continuous ambient temperatures below 60º C. During manufacturing of the rope, we apply a proprietary coating to it which contains UV inhibitors for protection. We then monitor the heat as stated earlier. The rope will be returned to Samson for testing to confirm the appropriate inspection and retirement programme for the region.” “The K-100 is easy to visually inspect externally and internally and the coating applied has a very low coefficient of friction (CoF ) which helps with surface and internal abrasion. Particle entry to the rope structure while in use is not expected due to the compaction while under tension. The

to move objects) and the winch (mechanical device of the crane that’s used to adjust the tension of a rope). The K-100 has a reputation of being much lighter than steel wires as “it’s primarily comprised of the Dyneema fiber utilizing a proprietary coating. These high molecular weight products have similar elongation and tensile properties to steel wire rope at 1/7th the weight”. Grease is not required to lubricate the K-100, which, according to Sherman, has its own benefits. “A massive effort is required to remove the lube from the soil if it falls to the ground. This cleaning effort could require shutting down operations for at least a day. Removal of the lubrication process will save CCC valuable time and money. The K-100 will also not corrode or oxidize like steel wire.” One of the biggest challenges for Samson was of course to make the K-100 withstand the harsh weather conditions of the region, the primary concern being UV radiation, high ambient temperature and sand ingress. “For optimal life (of the rope), we recom-

"A massive effort is required to remove the lube from the soil if it falls to the ground. This cleaning effort could require shutting down operations for at least a day. Removal of the lubrication process will save CCC valuable time and money. The K-100 will also not corrode or oxidize like steel wire.”

synthetic rope is non-corroding and hydrophobic, so it can be easily rinsed with fresh water to wash away any residual ingress or debris with no detrimental effect to the rope.” Things now come down to CCC’s opinion of this hoist rope. They in fact have tested it and crane specialist John Neary had mixed views about it. “We inspected the Samson K-100 after 1,200 hours of use and found that the rope has worked in temperatures that have reached 60º C. Although it was in good condition with no significant wear and tear, we were concerned that the rope had become infused with dust. We are worried that this could be abrasive and degrade the rope fibers internally when in use.” CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Innovation

“BABY STEPS KEY TO BIM SUCCESS” John Allison, Project Manager at Gulf Contracting, talks about the “latest buzzword” in the world of construction. By Udayan Nag

30 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


Highlights Slowly but surely Building Information Modelling (BIM) is being embraced as an integral part of the construction industry the world over. The UK government, in fact, made the use of BIM mandatory for all government projects from April this year. BIM is also being used for some of the ongoing projects in Qatar, most notably the National Museum.

Innovation what you’re trying to give them is what they actually want.”

“We’ve done a few controlled experiments using BIM and now we’re looking to scale them up.”

John Allison, a project manager with Gulf Contracting, starts by talking about the importance of controlled experiments when stepping onto the untrodden path.

As far as clash detection is concerned, Navisworks is emerging as one of the leading software packages. Allison explains: “In Navisworks, you can bring the different disciplines of a construction project together and set a tolerance to see if anything is within 200 mm of something else. Once the clashes are detected, you will be digitally taken to where each clash is. You can then change the

“We had invested in BIM technology and selected a design-and-build project of a warehouse to develop our understanding. We developed a 3D model in Revit from our consultants’ 2D designs, and used Asta Powerproject BIM, which is an alternative to Primavera P6. Primavera is normally specified in contracts but the client on this occasion was open to an alternative once we explained the benefits.” Allison further explains the working of the software and how it can be harnessed to achieve 4D BIM. “In Asta Powerproject you have a split screen. On its left there is a Gantt chart (a chart which shows the production that has been completed at certain periods of time) and on the right there is the 3D model of the design of the building. You can simply click and drag an object, for example, door, wall, floor or ceiling, and link it to an activity. That activity is then forever linked with the object. As you plan your job, the software allows you to easily create a 3D animation of how you’re going to sequence the work.” According to Allison, unlike in a 2D drawing, BIM can go a long way in explaining the finer points of a project to a client. “It is possible to use virtual reality technology to show the client their proposed building. You can render it with the paint colour, the ceiling type, colour of the carpet, etc. Sometimes the clients know what they want but don’t understand that’s what they are getting when they look at a 2D drawing. When you put it in 3D and render it to a high degree, they can associate and visualise what you’re designing. They then realise that

Asta Powerproject has a split screen. On its left there is a Gantt chart (a chart which shows the production that has been completed at certain periods of time). On the right there is the 3D model of the design of the building. By clicking and dragging an object, the software allows you to easily create a 3D animation of how you're going to sequence the work.

structural, architectural or MEP model to resolve the conflicts by, for example, raising the ceiling, making a bulkhead or changing the position of the wall. All these clashes get resolved and when you eventually get to construction you’re not going to have any surprises. That has clear advantages, especially with complicated buildings.” He also feels that Virtual Digital Construction (VDC) is a concept that has great advantages for contractors. “In essence, the project is built digitally, column by column, block by block, within the software before actually constructing it on-site. Access and egress, crane positions, plant movements, etc., can all be reviewed in this process.” Allison laments the negative mindset of companies with regard to BIM, and adds that the process has been a slow one in Qatar. “We take on some design-and-build CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Innovation jobs but it’s very seldom that we receive a design in BIM as a 3D model. BIM has been around for years but its understanding has only developed in the last 3-5 years.” He feels that other countries need to take initiatives similar to the one taken in his home country. “It’s quite a bold move by the UK government. Mandating the use of BIM has for the first time forced contractors to adopt it. It’s not necessarily something that companies are going to do off their own backs. The process is still a new one and anything that’s new is uncertain. There’s a perception that upfront costs of adopting BIM are high, but that’s a misconception.” In Allison’s opinion, the combination of Lean, a set of processes developed by Toyota for the manufacturing industry, and BIM is the ideal scenario for the construction industry.

“Lean and BIM complement each other very well. The former has gained traction in the construction industry in the last 10 years. The most important principle of Lean is that everyone should be customer-focused. The processes should be aligned to create value for the client. One of the fundamentals of Lean is identifying and then striving to eliminate waste. Creating flow is another crucial characteristic of Lean. Coming 32 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

“One of the difficulties with BIM is compatibility between different software packages.” John Allison Project Manager Gulf Contracting

from Toyota, flow is about an assembly line (a succession of identical items that is progressively assembled) and collaborative planning. The way we look at flow from a construction perspective is you want a subcontractor to start and ‘flow’ through the site uninterrupted so that there’s nothing in his way.” Going into more depth about the collaborative planning tools associated with Lean, Allison says that it’s hard to beat the Last Planner technique. He agrees that it’s a bit like clash detection; the difference being that instead of objects, the ‘clashes’ involve people. “The Last Planner technique, or pull planning, is a collaborative approach to preparing programmes. Every month, we


Innovation hold a three-month planning workshop which is attended by all trade supervisors and subcontractors’ agents. Sticky notes are used to populate a time and locationbased wall chart. Everyone is encouraged to place their sticky notes, which represent their activities, onto the wall chart. As the wall chart is populated, conversation is stimulated, scheduling conflicts emerge and solutions are developed by moving the sticky notes around until everyone is happy with where their notes are. We can then, sometimes within the workshop, update the programme and generate an animated sequence of work to visualise what was agreed upon.” Allison also explains that BIM is more than just 3D design, and that it’s a set of processes to improve data exchange. According to him, it’s a database of information. The Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie), developed by the US Army, is an example of a standard used for the BIM process. “In COBie, there are ‘drops’ of information like room data sheets, space requirements, cost information and contact details of people on the job. It’s essentially a giant excel spreadsheet. So, rather than e-mail this model around, the concerned people can simply populate or access it whenever they want, perhaps using cloud storage. True BIM is not just about 3D modelling and clash detection. They are just some useful elements of it. In a nutshell, BIM is the process of defining what information is needed at certain phases of the project.” Prefabrication is another area of construction where BIM has its uses and Allison explains how this was used on a current project of his. “The model allowed us to better visualise areas where prefabrication was possible. We prefabricated sections of pipe, duct and cable tray arrangements in an off-site workshop. We were able to wheel them in on castors and lift them directly into position.”

There are also significant health and safety benefits because the risks can be identified earlier and mitigating measures put in place.”

FACT SHEET “Early contractor involvement is something that will help BIM become successful.”

Allison thus concludes that BIM is the “latest buzzword” in the world of construction and that it will be “ubiquitous” in a few years. “It’s how quickly people adopt it and use it to their advantage. It’s clearly a technology and a set of processes that helps all members of the construction and project team – client, architect, engineer, project manager, contractor, and the end user.”

Allison also explains that BIM is more than just 3D design, and that it’s a set of processes to improve data exchange. It is a database of information. The Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie), developed by the US Army, is an example of a standard used for the BIM process.

He also points out the advantages that BIM has in the designing of temporary structures. “One can visualise the sequence of work, so you end up saving time as well as money. CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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By Udayan Nag

Picture for representational purpose only (Shutterstock(

Discussion

Guarding against flare-ups Some of the country’s major projects which are under construction continue to feel the heat in summer months. But is it just the time of the year that’s causing these fires?

34 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


Discussion

T

wo of Qatar’s major projects currently in the construction phase, Mall of Qatar (MOQ) and Tawar Mall, were sizzling more than usual in April and July, respectively. There was, in fact, a second fire at MOQ in October. Things also heated up at an underconstruction building in Bin Mahmoud earlier this year. Last year, outbreaks of fire were reported from The Pearl-Qatar and the Place Vendome project at Lusail. In the first instance, the fire broke out in December 2015 at Isola Dana – a group of nine private islands which are part of The Pearl-Qatar. So it seems that the weather is not the sole cause of these untoward occurrences. Are necessary steps being taken at various levels to keep such incidents to a minimum? While most of the construction companies were averse to talk about their firefighting arrangements, Atelier Ten, providing fire engineering services all over the world including Qatar, the World Safety Organization National Office for Qatar, and Jascon Engineering were willing to give their side of the story. David Wilson, Principal Fire Engineer at Atelier Ten, stresses the importance of “engineering the right solution”. According to him, designers of fire safety systems and fire engineers are constantly monitoring incidents to improve and develop better, more reliable systems and strategies.

can be more effective when selected by understanding the building, the type of occupation and the anticipated fire characteristics within the space.

“Engaging the project fire engineer to undertake inspections during construction mitigates the risk of the fire strategy being misinterpreted.” David Wilson Principal Fire Engineer Atelier Ten

“Simple systems with fewer number of electromechanical devices which could go wrong can provide a more reliable system. Sometimes a well-designed, naturally vented system utilising ventilation shafts and automatic vents can provide a far better solution. Careful modelling of spaces and incorporating passive systems can also be more cost-effective.” The fire engineer, according to Wilson, should be involved from the conceptual design stage to the completion of the building, providing regular inputs at each stage of design and construction. In his opinion, providing advice at each stage of the project ensures that the requirements of the fire strategy are integrated into the building’s design and carried through to construction. “A stage of the project often limited in or omitted from a fire engineer’s scope of works is the construction phase and final inspection upon completion of the building for occupation. The reason for this generally revolves around the

“Understanding the building and the key risk areas at the onset of a project enables the designers to develop a fire strategy that becomes the cornerstone of the design,” says Wilson. “Heavy reliance on the regulations may not necessarily provide the best solutions. We tend to study a problem from first principles and develop a strategy that is most befitting the development concerned. Codes and regulations should be used as recommendations.” Wilson also talks about guarding against “over engineering”, saying that systems

Image showing fire progression in a section of a building. CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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Discussion legislation, whereby this element of the project is often left to the local authority to inspect and approve during construction. Given that the local authority inspectors have a multitude of items to inspect in order to satisfy the building regulations, inspecting items required as part of a performance-based design may not be a high priority or may even be overlooked as part of this process.” “Engaging the project fire engineer, who is familiar with the system design and its operational requirements, to undertake inspections during construction mitigates the risk of the fire strategy being misinterpreted or important fire safety items being installed incorrectly. This allows the local authorities to focus on inspecting general fire safety items relating to compliance with the local building regulations,” says Wilson further. Cedric Almonte, Director, World Safety Organization National Office for Qatar (WSO-NOQ), cites poor management

The below image shows results of the CFD studies conducted in a carpark for determining the most effective means of extracting smoke.

36 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

Highlights

FIRE INCIDENTS REPORTED

2016 Mall of Qatar, Tawar Mall and an under-construction building in Bin Mahmoud (IN THE YEAR 2016)

In 2015, outbreaks of fire were reported from The Pearl-Qatar and the Place Vendome project at Lusail.

as the main reason for fires at underconstruction buildings. According to him, having discarded materials near combustibles, and cutting and welding activities near ignitable objects also lead to fires. WSO-NOQ was founded in 1975 and is affiliated with the United Nations. Almonte dwells upon the dangers associated with improper storage of hazardous materials. “Segregation of construction waste materials is crucial. The flammable materials cannot be combined with the non-flammable ones. There also has to be a separate room where a certain temperature has to be maintained to avoid ignition of flammable materials.” “There is always a procedure which has to be communicated to all workers, supervisors and engineers. If the procedures are not communicated properly from top to bottom, they are useless.”


Discussion The lack of training and the “language barrier” are also major hindrances, according to Almonte. “LPG cylinders, acetylene and oxygen are highly flammable materials. The gas cylinder’s nozzle is like a missile.” He says that if the procedures are provided only in English, the workers who are mainly from India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka are caught on the wrong foot. He suggests translation of the procedure into different languages.

occupied building. Jascon Engineering’s CEO Zahid Iqbal Khan explains that firefighting systems delay the damage caused by fire and that they don’t actually prevent it. “If you apply a three-hour rating to steel, it means that you have that much time to control the fire. The repair work on the building starts after that, so nothing happens to the structure.”

Almonte further says that the method statement, which provides a stepby-step account of the various tasks associated with a project, goes a long way in addressing the safety issue. “A permit has to be issued for activities like welding, cutting and grinding. The safety officer will check the concerned area before it’s granted. The do’s and don’ts with regard to the safety procedures are clearly mentioned on the permit. One also needs to provide a method statement followed by risk assessment. These are the best procedures available on-site. We don’t approve any activity without method statement and risk assessment.” Almonte adds that the on-site contractor needs to submit a fire risk assessment which has to be approved by the consultant or project manager. It also has to include the mitigation measures. “The fire risk assessment has to be reviewed every three months. If there is an accident, the method statement is scrutinised because the chances are that there were some loopholes in the method statement or risk assessment.” Almonte adds: “It comes down to the Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS) 2014. They have to be met. It’s the law, not guidelines.” What happens when despite all efforts, a fire breaks out at an under construction or

“There is always a procedure which has to be communicated to all workers, supervisors and engineers. If the procedures are not communicated properly from top to bottom, they are useless.” Cedric Almonte Director, World Safety Organization National Office for Qatar

“Fire does not kill people, the smoke does. The product that we are using is totally non-combustible and prevents the fire from creating excess smoke. We have a very different product, provided by LAF in Australia. It is totally non-combustible and prevents the fire from creating more smoke.” Khan analyses Jascon’s fire coatings and the advantages they have over the company’s rigid board system. “There are two types of coatings. One is intumescent, which is a very thin coat but has aesthetic properties. If you apply it to steel or concrete then it will look like paint. Its effect lasts up to three hours after the fire breaks out. And the other one is cementitious fireproofing, which is really thick and gives the impression of a plaster. Later on you have to put boards for aesthetic purposes. These are the two major firefighting materials that are used worldwide.” “On the other hand, the application and cutting involved with the rigid board makes it a tough proposition. There is a problem in the way it’s used in tunnels because it sucks water, leaving marks behind.” Khan, however, points out that the rigid board has sustainable qualities – it can be recycled and has a guarantee of 20 years. “After 20 years, it can either be removed or recycled. If the thickness is 18 mm and its aesthetics are not good, then you can scrape off 5-8 mm and do a new application on top of it. It’s a totally natural material.” CONSTRUCTION TODAY

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“ WE NEED MORE GREEN SPACES”

Bricks & Memories By Sindhu Nair

38 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


AHMAD JASSIM JOLO REMEMBERS AN ERA WHEN DOHA HAD MORE ROUNDABOUTS , WITH MONUMENTS AND GREEN SPACES AROUND BUILDINGS. AL

JOLO,

CHAIRMAN

OF

THE

QATAR SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS, IS A FAMILIAR FIGURE IN QATAR AT

CONSTRUCTION-RELATED

SEMINARS

AND

EVENTS.

ROLE

THE

“GODFATHER”

OF

AS

THE

SECTOR

IS

HIS

WIDELY

ACKNOWLEDGED.

CONSTRUCTION TODAY MET UP WITH AL JOLO TO TALK ABOUT HIS

THE CHANGES THAT THE COUNTRY HAS GONE THROUGH. MEMORIES OF DOHA, AND

CONSTRUCTION TODAY

39


reflects Al Jolo. “The ambition is high in Qatar and the leadership supports these ambitions, which is a great combination,” he says. “There have been so many changes in the last decade. Huge transformation in a short period of time. When you compare the happenings in the country with those in other countries, what happened in other parts of the world over centuries took place in Qatar in a decade or two. There have been unprecedented changes that the country has witnessed in the last ten years or so,” he says. “In the ’60s, we had Qatari houses and few other buildings; then in the ’70s, after oil was discovered and when oil was at $35 to $40, we started seeing real construction projects happening here in Doha,” says Al Jolo, “We saw a boom in the oil price in the ’90s and later on when oil was at $150, a lot of construction projects were signed on, and then came the oil decline…” The curve of economics has affected business throughout the world and Qatar is no exception, though through pragmatic and forward-thinking values, the country is assessing projects and making sure that there is no excess in any sectors. “The monumental changes happened in the ’60s and multibillion-dollar mega projects were started in the country. No one expected this huge jump in construction activities,”

Bricks & Memories

40 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

He has mostly been positive about the changes that the sector has faced, and about all the technological and social media innovations. “We have to go with the times, even if we don’t like it,” he says. Al Jolo also believes that the construction industry is more traditional. “Sectors like banking, IT and publishing are more open to innovation, while in the construction sector the risks are higher and hence it takes longer for new technology to be adopted. This sector


is cautious because of the huge risks involved.”

“EUROPE

But there are changes, he says, though they are slow to be adopted; “from construction methodsAND to planning and time management tools being used.”

HAS

THEY

BECOME

ARE

STAGNANT

BECOMING

MORE

CONSERVATIVE IN THEIR DESIGNS. THE US

Qatar is also the harbinger for construction or architectural marvels. He says that Europe is HAS ALSO STOPPED CONSTRUCTING HIGH stagnant and there is not much happening in the building sector there, while the best and most -RISE BUILDINGS,” HE SAYS. “SUSTAINABLE beautiful architectural works are all happening in the Middle East.

BUILDING

IS

BECOMING

POPULAR.

BUILDERS HAVE FINALLY REALISED THAT MUCH MORE ENERGY IS CONSUMED TO GO VERTICAL THAN HORIZONTAL. THIS RECOGNITION IS YET TO REACH THE

THE NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS

MIDDLE EAST BUT THEY DO CONSIDER SUSTAINABLE DESIGNS WHILE PLANNING AND IN CONSTRUCTION METHODS. THAT IS THE WAY TO MOVE FORWARD. WE ARE IN AN ERA WHERE ENERGY CONSERVATION IS TO BE PRACTISED IN ALL WAYS OF LIFE. THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IS ALSO FINALLY FOLLOWING SUIT WITH INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS, SMART CITIES AND GREEN BUILDINGS. WE ALSO HAVE OUR OWN RATING SYSTEM, QSAS.”

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MONUMENTS AND ROUNDABOUTS AL JOLO WAS THE SITE ENGINEER IN CHARGE OF LANDSCAPES AND ROUNDABOUTS IN DOHA BEFORE TAKING UP HIS POSITION AT QATAR SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS, AND HE WAS ALSO IN CHARGE OF MONUMENTS AT THE ROUNDABOUTS. THIS MEMORY IRKS AL JOLO. “THIS IS WHAT WE MISS NOWADAYS – THE GARDENS AND THE GREEN SPACES BETWEEN BUILDINGS AND IN ROUNDABOUTS. BUILDINGS HAVE BECOME HEAT ISLANDS.” WHAT WE NOW LACK, ACCORDING TO AL JOLO, IS EXTENSIVE PARKS AND GREEN SPACES.

Bricks & Memories

42 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


“These buildings are complex structural projects and they need to be maintained to preserve their authenticity and structural supremacy. The QPost building sadly has not been well maintained and is losing some of its shine and grandeur.” There has to be preventive and regular maintenance for the building to last long.

The building that still makes Al Jolo remember the old era with nostalgia is the Sheraton Grand Doha Resort and Convention Hotel. “The Sheraton is a monument, built in 1983, and a reminder of the traditional ways of construction put to use in complex structures. It is a steel structure with the core having all its facilities. The building also throws light on the fact that buildings that are well maintained will outlast most modern buildings. The renovated Sheraton looks as or even more beautiful than the rest of the glass structures in West Bay.”

The one project that Al Jolo is waiting with bated breath to see is the completion of the Qatar Rail project, “to see how the technology works here, to see the innovations and also whether it is being used by the citizens and how it will help reduce the traffic snarls on the roads in the coming years.” But for all this he hopes the country will “be friendlier for businesses to come and start their operations here,” and he also hopes for a sustainable construction industry.

He remembers the Hamad General Hospital building which was opened in the 1980s and comments that the building is in need of maintenance. “The Ramallah Hospital,” he says, “is one of the oldest buildings in Doha in the large institutional buildings category.” He also remembers the QPost building which was built close to this era.

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Advertorial

Logistic Villages and Warehouses

Ahmed Abedlaal, General Manager, Building System Integration (BSI) gives us an account of the projects in Manateq that was completed through the involvement of BSI and future plans of this integral construction company. 44 CONSTRUCTION TODAY


Advertorial

W

ith 2030 Strategic Vision of the State of Qatar, there has been a massive investment from the Qatar during the past few years in developing Logistic Villages. Additional investments are being finalised to achieve more logistic villages through Manateq as we speak.

FACT SHEET

SAFWA Contracting, one of BSI’s strong ally were able to successfully complete the main development of Package One (45,000 Sq.m) dedicated to Gulf Warehousing Company. The package included the variety of storage facilities, between dry units, air conditioned and frozen units for cold stores.

BSI received appreciation from the contractor and the BSI jointly with consultant for being able to Since BSI was the first Pre provide exceptional turnaround partner Gulf Engineered Metal Buildings Company in the State of Qatar, Panel successfully documents and deliverable time for the materials. we were able to engage our completed all many cases BSI was able to provide a industrial expertise through steel fabrication For work shop at site as needed, to insure that the original development and erection in there was client satisfaction and to ensure stages of such category. that quality work is in place. Our clients realized that having a certified national/local steel factory will guarantee the monitoring of the fabrication process and it will be possible to apply all necessary quality inspections and also guarantee a smooth and fast turnaround for all original submittals and modifications that usually take place for coordinating the architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical aspect of the project. Initial period During the period of time between 2012 and 2014, BSI was part of the development and successful completion of a total of 130,000SQ for Gulf Warehousing Logistic Village (Consolidating 4 phases of construction) with Al Badr Contracting Company. The village is located in Al Wukair. Second Phase During the period from 2014 to 2106, AL

Manateq Logistic The current year Village at Bu Fsila BSI was the major steel structural developer for all Manateq projects at early stages of (Um Shahrain) for planning. As of to date, BSI jointly with Man Enterprise our partner Gulf Panel are near successful completion of all steel fabrication and Contracting. Erection of the Manateq Logistic Village at Project area is Bu Fsila (Um Shahrain) for Man Enterprise Contracting. Project area is expected to reach expected to (120,000 Sq.m - 150,000 Sq.m) including all reach 120,000 projected expansions. Sq.m - 150,000 Future Plans Sq.m including BSI is currently engaged in multiple medium size warehousing for local investors and also all projected for the Manateq projects. expansions. BSI will participate in the

construction of 170,000 Sq.m for Manateq during the first two quarter of 2017. It will be only grow from thereon. CONSTRUCTION TODAY

45


CONSTRUCTION TODAY

The Riyal Estate

QR1.2 billion investment by UDC at The Pearl-Qatar Three contracts worth QR716 million to construct Al Mutahidah Towers and develop Giardino Village infrastructure and ten villas in this same precinct, through investments worth 1.2 billion riyals, was signed recently.


The Riyal Estate

Highlights

Mixed fortunes for DAMAC Properties Dubai

News Update

During the first nine months of 2016, DAMAC recorded revenues of AED

5.12 57%

billion. Gross profit margin stood at

Luxury real estate company DAMAC Properties Dubai Co. announced its financial results earlier this month. During the first nine months of 2016, DAMAC recorded revenues of AED 5.12 billion. Gross profit margin stood at 57%. Net profit for the reporting period stood at AED 2.84 billion, a drop of 23% compared to 9M 2015. Total assets increased to AED 24.34 billion at 30 September 2016 compared to AED 23.45 billion at 31 December 2015. With an accelerated delivery momentum in its Dubai core market, the company reported the delivery of over 800 units in 3Q 2016 in AKOYA by DAMAC development, bringing the total deliveries for 9M 2016 to over 1,300 units. Although some international projects are facing unforeseen delays, the management still expects to meet the lower end of the guidance range of 2,700 to 3,000 units from incremental deliveries in Dubai.

Sloanes showcases properties from UK, Saudi 48 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

Net profit for the reporting period stood at AED

2.84 23% billion, a drop of

QIA, RMZ plan second joint venture

compared to 9M 2015.

Total assets increased to AED

24.34

billion in 30 September 2016 compared to AED 23.45 billion in 31 December 2015.

Properties from various developments in the UK, Turkey and Saudi Arabia were promoted by Qatar-based Sloanes Real Estate Brokers last month at West Bay’s Tornado Tower. The launch of Bayat Plaza, a residential project in Jeddah, was one of the major attractions during the Sloanes International Property Open Day. While one tower will be dedicated to hotel and commercial use, GCC nationals will be able to make purchases for residential purposes from the other two towers. Villas, apartments, studios and student accommodation represented the wide range of properties on offer. Sloanes Qatar is a part of the Sabban Group of Companies.


The Riyal Estate

Short Bytes

“Our partnership with QIA is doing extremely, well” said Raj Menda, corporate chairman at RMZ Corp, referring to future investment plans between the two companies. According to a source close to RMZ, the two partners will look to acquire commercial spaces of over 5,00,000 square feet across Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, NCR and Pune. “The earlier platform with QIA was in investment assets while the new one will deploy money in developmental assets,” added Menda.

China’s Greenland Group to build London’s tallest tower Shanghai’s biggest property developer, Greenland Group, has been assigned to build the tallest tower in London, which will also be Western Europe’s highest residential skyscraper.

Spire London will be 235 metres high and it will be built on a site close to Canary Wharf in London Docklands. It promises “five-star lifestyle amenities” including a 35th-floor club and an infinity pool. Greenland Group said that the tower would be completed in 2020. The group is developing four of the ten tallest buildings in the world. “This important launch reflects the confidence that Greenland Group continues to have in both the London economy and the London property market,” said Wenhao Qian, Greenland Group general manager.

Demonetisation hits India’s real estate market; home prices crash but white money insufficient Trump tries to postpone lawsuits against his defunct real estate university

In Europe’s largest real estate deal of 2016, Singapore’s GIC buys P3 for

$2.7

billion

Middle-Eastern investors pumped $6.5 billion into NYC real estate

In order to buy development assets across top cities in India, Qatar Investment Authority (QIA) and RMZ Corp, a real estate developer from Bengaluru, are set for their second major joint venture. The move will see QIA more than double its investment made through RMZ. Earlier, QIA had invested $300 million in 2013.

Dubai property sector witnesses investments worth

Qatar residential rents up to

$15.5 billion

10%

less than in 2015: DTZ

Qatar cabinet approves draft law for regulating work of real estate brokers Riyadh REIT: First real estate investment traded fund in Saudi capital market CONSTRUCTION TODAY

49


The Riyal Estate

By Keertana Koduru

The Real Scenario

For over 10 years, since the 2006 Asian Games, residents in Qatar have been traumatised by the year-on-year increase in residential rents. With the decline in oil and gas prices and recession hitting hard, the situation has brought in an economic turmoil of sorts. Construction Today speaks to real estate experts, DTZ, to find out how the oil price decline has affected the real estate market.

T

by the Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics (MDPS) in June, shows that the deficit is expected to remain constant in 2017, but fall to 4.2% of GDP in 2018. The government has stated that any deficit will be fully financed through debt rather than drawing on the national reserve or by the sale of state assets.

The Qatar Economic Outlook, published

The reasons for this increase in supply and decline in demand could be many. The starting point could be the fall in oil prices that has a trickle-down effect on all the industries that depend on it. With regard

o understand microeconomics with regard to the law of demand and supply, one need only focus on the current real estate paradox in Qatar. The increasing supply of residential and official complexes has been on a rise in gearing up to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, whereas the demand for the plush housing and offices with built-in cooling systems has reduced. Could anyone have forecasted this situation? Yes. Could anyone ever imagine the dearth? No.

50 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

Ed Brookes DTZ General Manager, DTZ


The Riyal Estate

to the oil price decline, Ed Brookes, DTZ General Manager, says, “In terms of oil price itself, what we are seeing now is a small recovery since January and it’s all about the cost of producing oil. Within 24 months, we estimate that the price of producing oil will be about $58 per barrel. By 2018, there’ll be a significant uplift effect; given the oil price recovery and the budget returning to surplus, the real estate market will come around to develop at a faster rate.” The other challenges facing developers today are availability of credit from lending sources, sellers looking at land in terms of trading prices, developers looking at the residual land value and the time it takes to get plans approved by Civil Defence. “Trying to adopt international standards, gaining skilled workers and rewriting rule books as and when incidents occur are some of the factors that influence the process of the Civil Defence approvals. Lack of resources, guidelines and the implementation process itself are other major issues in this area,” say the team from DTZ. Dependence and Divergence “Qatar is always going to be reliant on the petrochemical industry, but they have started their diversion into education, hospitality and tourism and community through Qatar Foundation’s initiatives leading the way. The government has made great strides in the recent years. When 98% Qataris work only for the government organisations which are solely focused on the hydrocarbon sector, it is quite difficult to put a definitive timeline to when the diversion will be seen on a larger scale. It will take a couple of generations for the general attitude to change, making locals entrepreneurs diversify their interests into other fields.

“There are a lot of family-owned businesses but most of them are relying on the government agencies which are completely owned and funded by the government or semigovernment entities. The National Vision 2030 timeline is the initial step towards the diversification process.” Bashar Bessisso Business Development Manager, DTZ Expert

Redundancy and Decline There is always an imbalance between the demand and supply in mid-range residential and office areas. In the residential areas, there is downward pressure on the rents in most areas of the city but DTZ’s focus has been on areas such as The Pearl-Qatar and Lusail, as the repercussions of the downsizing have been felt by the high-net-worth individuals that reside here. The series of redundancies both in the public and private sectors has seen a significant reduction in the number of white-collar workers in Qatar, and has started to impact the demand for residential accommodation, particularly in prime areas. “There is lower demand for mid-range costing apartments. We expect a further downward trend in the next three to six months as there is more supply and lesser demand as a result of the recession in Qatar.” With the influx of blue-collar jobs for the various infrastructure projects, Qatar must be ready to accommodate these individuals as well. “We’ve been involved in the lease of labour accommodation schemes in the recent past. The issue is people who make the decisions of where the workers will stay, base their decisions on the standards that are to be maintained and parameters set by officials and committees that don’t live there themselves. To them, cost is still a priority. The new scheme of labour accommodation is asking for the cost to be about QR 600 per

Bashar Bessisso, another DTZ expert, says “There are a lot of family owned businesses but most of them are relying on the government agencies which are completely owned and funded by the government or semi-government entities. The National Vision 2030 timeline is the initial step towards the diversification process.” CONSTRUCTION TODAY

51


The Riyal Estate month per worker. Contracting companies that actually bring the labour are not willing to pay anything more than QR 400 per worker per month. A lot of private companies have said that we own our own accommodation and ask why they should move elsewhere, which is a logical reason,” say the experts. Most companies have their own accommodation as compared to the accommodation provided by government entities like Qatar Foundation or Ashgal. “There must be government interference on how this gap can be bridged. Government interference to the point of making all the construction companies accountable for housing solutions is extremely necessary. There are labour accommodations that are available but no company is willing to pay the extra cost. Anyone working on the FIFAWorld Cup 2022 infrastructure projects must be made to live in the government-made accommodations.” Workspace Oversupply There has been an overall drop in the demand for office space since early 2015, largely due to government cutbacks. Recent company downsizing, as well as the completion of a number of new office towers in West Bay has resulted in a noticeable increase in available office accommodation throughout the city. In 2014, availability rates for office accommodation in West Bay dropped to below 10%; however, the recent reversal in market trends has seen availability increase to approximately 15%. Since the start of 2016, DTZ estimates that average quoted rents for prime offices have reduced by between 10% and 15%. There has been an increase in activity in the second quarter as the more favourable lease terms of offer have provided opportunities for tenants to either renegotiate more favourable terms with their existing landlord on renewal, or to secure new accommodation at reduced rents. Grade A offices in West Bay currently command between QR 130 and QR 240 per sq m per month depending on the size of units and quality of the building. The higher rents are usually only achievable for small units in prime buildings. More typically, rents of between QR 140 and QR 170 per sq m are 52 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

While the population of Qatar increased by some

9%

over the past 12 months, the vast majority of new arrivals have been made up of construction workers.

Since the start of 2016, DTZ estimates that average quoted rents for prime offices have reduced by between

10% 15% and

being quoted for larger office floorplates. Rents in areas such as Old Salata, Al Sadd, Airport Road, and C/D Ring Roads typically command between QR 110 and QR 170 per sq m per month, depending on the age of the building and the standard of internal finishing. Occupier’s Heaven While the population of Qatar increased by some 9% over the past 12 months, the vast majority of new arrivals have been made up of construction workers. While this has kept the tertiary sector buoyant, demand for prime and mid-range residential accommodation has fallen. Commenting on the findings of DTZ’s latest report, Mark Proudley, Director, Consultancy and Research, DTZ, stated: “The current rental softening reflects market-driven supply and demand and provides some relief to occupiers from rents which have been rising year on year since 2010. The longterm trajectory for Qatar remains good with the government’s significant infrastructure investment, valued at QR 261bn ($71.68 billion), providing welcome and fundamental support to the wider RE economy. Furthermore, for the hospitality sector, the Qatar National Tourism Sector Strategy Plan 2030 has earmarked $45billion for tourism projects over the coming 15 years and as FIFA 2022 gets closer I am confident that Qatar’s real estate market will start to feel some of the positive effects of this spending.”


In Focus

By Udayan Nag

“Despite losses, construction insurance remains profitable” Kamal Nagi, Chief Strategy and Business Development Officer, Qatar Financial Centre (QFC), talks about how the reinsurance markets will react to the construction activities in the country in the next 12 months.

A

s a result of a series of major insured losses and the subsequent retrenchment of some leading market participants, the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) reinsurance markets are expected to harden over the next 12 months, according to the 2016 MENA Reinsurance Barometer, which was published by the Qatar Financial Centre (QFC) in October. For the first time since the launch of the annual survey in 2013, a majority of polled executives believe that average reinsurance rates in the region will increase. Does this indicate a change in fortune for the construction industry in Qatar? “According to our Barometer research, the hardening in the commercial insurance

space will be most pronounced in property insurance as a result of a spate of fire losses. There is less pressure for rate increases in the construction field where underlying levels of profitability remain more adequate from a (re) insurance point of view,” says Kamal Nagi, Chief Strategy and Business Development Officer, QFC.

“Given its significant and resilient projects pipeline, Qatar will remain a highly attractive market for both domestic insurers and their predominantly foreign reinsurers.”

Talking of fires, the one at Dubai’s Address Hotel in December 2015 changed a lot of scenarios. Fires have also been reported from some major projects in Qatar, currently in the construction phase, over the last few years. Going forward, how will the reinsurance market react to such incidents? “To cover complex projects during the construction phase requires a lot of expertise from insurers and reinsurers. As such, barriers CONSTRUCTION TODAY

53


Highlights

In Focus

to entry are higher as compared with property insurance, i.e., coverage after completion. The latter is much more competitive as barriers to entry are lower and property insurance is more akin to a mere ‘commodity’. The Address Hotel fire in Dubai has affected the property line of business and led to higher rates and tighter terms and conditions imposed by local insurers and their reinsurers.” Nagi, however, adds: “Construction insurance on the other hand, despite a number of recent losses, remains relatively profitable. Safety standards are quite high in the GCC in comparison with other high-growth markets, but, of course, (re)insurers will monitor loss trends very carefully and tighten the terms of coverage if required.”

T

he 2016 MENA Reinsurance Barometer further mentions that infrastructure and construction spending, along with compulsory insurance schemes, continue to be the most powerful drivers of insurance and reinsurance demand in the region. As of April 2016, about $1.46 trillion worth of projects were under way in the Gulf region alone. UAE, with $575 billion worth of projects, is the leader of the pack among the GCC countries, followed by Saudi Arabia ($492 billion) and Qatar ($168 billion). The construction projects, at 63%, dominate the portfolio of activities; transport (15%) is a distant second. The survey also points out that among the factors responsible for the “region’s robust insurance market growth”, the pipeline of infrastructure and construction projects, a long-standing key strength, has lost a bit of its impact in 2016. This has been attributed to slowing construction activities except for event-linked projects, e.g., preparations for the Dubai World Expo 2020 and the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar. As far as the fastestgrowing lines of businesses are concerned, liability insurance ranks third, replacing construction and engineering business as the construction boom loses traction and rates continue to erode. Medical and motor insurance are first and second on the list, respectively. So, if one is to go by the facts mentioned above, how will Qatar’s insurance and (re)insurance sectors react to the construction activities in 54 CONSTRUCTION TODAY

FACT SHEET Construction projects dominate the portfolio of activities with a share of almost two-thirds.

Construction and engineering down to fourth in the business chart of fastest-growing lines.

Infrastructure and construction spending, along with compulsory insurance schemes, continue to be the most powerful drivers of insurance and reinsurance demand in the region.

the country in the next 12 months? “Given its significant and resilient projects pipeline, Qatar will remain a highly attractive market for both domestic insurers and their predominantly foreign reinsurers.”

“Qatar’s national insurers rely heavily on reinsurance in the construction line of business given the size, complexity and volatility of construction risks. In view of the capital glut in global reinsurance markets, construction insurance in Qatar will continue to be a buyer’s market.” Commenting on what impact the current trend would have on other GCC countries, Nagi, without referring to any particular nation, says: “There are no fundamental differences as far as the competitive situation is concerned. However, the pressure on (re)insurers and the clout of buyers should be even more pronounced in those GCC countries where construction activities have recorded a particularly sharp decline and where foreign (re)insurers have direct access to local construction risks, i.e., without the need to write this business through national insurers.” And as far as the Qatar Construction Specifications 2014, which binds companies to follow its guidelines, is concerned, Nagi says: “Higher safety standards imposed on construction companies are generally welcomed by insurers and reinsurers. They tend to reduce loss ratios and add to a market’s attractiveness.”


‫االبتكــار‬ ‫أجهزة استشعار لدرجة الحرارة يف مواضع مختلفة‬ ‫من ذراع الرافعة الطويل الذي يستخدم لنقل‬ ‫األجسام وعىل الجهاز امليكانييك الذي تستخدمه‬ ‫الرافعة لتعديل توتر الحبل‪.‬‬ ‫ويتميز الحبل ‪ K-100‬بأنه أخف وزنا بكثري من‬ ‫أسالك الصلب‪ .‬وعلل شريمان ذلك بقوله‪:‬‬ ‫«يتكون هذا الحبل من ألياف من مادة الداينيما‬ ‫‪ Dyneema‬املطلية بطالء خاص‪ .‬وتتميز هذه‬ ‫املنتجات بوزنها الجزيئي املرتفع الذي يجعلها تتمتع‬ ‫بخصائص استطالة وشد مماثلة لسلك الصلب‬ ‫لكن بوزن أقل منه بنسبة ‪.»1/7‬‬ ‫وال يحتاج الحبل ‪ K-100‬إىل التشحيم‪ ،‬ولذلك‬ ‫فوائد عديدة إذ يقول شريمان‪« :‬يف حال وقوع‬ ‫الحبل السليك عىل األرض فإن إزالة الرتاب عن‬ ‫الشحم يتطلب جهدا هائال قد يقتيض إيقاف‬

‫حاملا يعتمد قطاع صناعة النفط والغاز هذا الحبل‪،‬‬ ‫ونحن واثقون من أن القطاعات األخرى ستحذو‬ ‫حذوه‪ .‬فقد استمر النمو يف منطقة الشرق األوسط‬ ‫عىل الرغم من االنخفاض يف الطلب عىل الرافعات‬ ‫يف هذا القطاع نتيجة لتدهور أسعار النفط‪.‬‬

‫العمليات ملدة يوم واحد عىل األقل‪ .‬لذا فإن عدم‬ ‫الحاجة إىل التشحيم يف حالة ‪ K-100‬يوفر عىل‬ ‫شركة اتحاد املقاولني الوقت واملال‪ .‬إضافة إىل ذلك‬ ‫فإن الحبل‪ K-100‬ال يتآكل أو يتأكسد كأسالك‬ ‫الفوالذ»‪.‬‬ ‫ومن أكرب التحديات التي واجهتها شركة سامسون‬ ‫كانت بالطبع جعل الحبل ‪ K-100‬يتحمل الظروف‬ ‫املناخية القاسية يف املنطقة ومن أهمها املعدالت‬ ‫املرتفعة لألشعة فوق البنفسجية‪ ،‬وارتفاع درجة‬ ‫حرارة الجو‪ ،‬وإمكانية دخول حبات الرمال بني‬ ‫ألياف الحبل‪ .‬وعن ذلك يقول شريمان‪“ :‬لزيادة‬ ‫عمر الحبل‪ ،‬نويص بأن تكون درجة الحرارة املحيطة‬ ‫أقل من ‪ 60‬درجة مئوية بصورة مستمرة‪ .‬ونقوم‬ ‫أثناء تصنيع الحبل بطالئه بطالء خاص يحتوي‬ ‫‪55‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫عىل مثبطات لألشعة فوق البنفسجية لحمايته‪.‬‬ ‫وبعد االختبار‪ ،‬سوف يعاد الحبل إىل سامسون‬ ‫لفحصه وتأكيد النتائج التي تخص املنطقة‪ .‬ومن‬ ‫السهل أن يتم فحص ‪ K-100‬بصريا خارجيا‬ ‫وداخليا‪ ،‬فقد تم طالؤه بمادة تتسم بمعامل‬ ‫احتكاك منخفض جدا يساعد يف التقليل من‬ ‫التآكل السطحي والداخيل‪ .‬ومن غري املتوقع أن‬ ‫تدخل الجسيمات إىل بنية الحبل عند استخدامه‬ ‫وذلك بسبب الضغط الذي يتعرض له عند‬ ‫االستخدام‪ .‬والحبل ال يتآكل ومقاوم للماء لذا‬ ‫يمكن أن يتم شطفه بسهولة باملياه العذبة إلزالة‬ ‫أية أجسام أو أوساخ قد تكون دخلت إليه دون أن‬ ‫يتأثر بذلك سلبا»‪.‬‬ ‫وقد قامت شركة اتحاد املقاولني باختبار هذا‬ ‫النوع من الحبال‪ .‬غري أن الختصايص الرافعات‪،‬‬ ‫جون نريي‪ ،‬وجهة نظر مغايرة حول هذا املوضوع‬ ‫إذ يقول‪« :‬لقد تفحصنا الحبل ‪ K-100‬بعد‬ ‫استخدامه ملدة ‪ 1200‬ساعة ووجدنا أنه قد عمل‬ ‫يف درجات حرارة وصلت إىل ‪ 60‬درجة مئوية‪ .‬وعىل‬ ‫الرغم من أنه قد كان يف حالة جيدة ولم نجد فيه‬ ‫أي بىل كبري إال أننا قلقون بسبب امتالء الحبل‬ ‫بالغبار وذلك ألن الغبار يمكن أن يتسبب بتآكل‬ ‫ألياف الحبل داخليا عند االستعمال»‪.‬‬


‫االبتكــار‬

‫أ‬

‫نه حدث تاريخي أن تتعاون شركة‬ ‫مانيتووك التي تعمل يف مجال الرافعات‬ ‫منذ العام ‪ ،1925‬مع شركة سامسون‬ ‫املتخصصة يف صناعة الحبال منذ العام‬ ‫‪ .1878‬فقد اتفقت الشركتان يف يوليو من‬ ‫هذا العام عىل القيام باختبار للحبل من‬ ‫النوع ‪ K-100‬يف رافعة غروف ‪RT800E‬‬ ‫يف قطر‪ .‬وعىل الرغم من أن العالمة‬ ‫التجارية غروف موجودة يف املنطقة منذ‬ ‫عقود من خالل شركة املناعي التجارية‬ ‫التي تمثل مانيتووك منذ الثمانينيات من القرن‬ ‫املايض‪ ،‬إال أن هذا التعاون الجديد يشكل أول‬ ‫دخول لشركة سامسون يف منطقة الشرق األوسط‪.‬‬ ‫وتعتزم شركة اتحاد املقاولني‪ ،‬وهي الطرف الثالث‬ ‫يف هذه الشراكة‪ ،‬أن تقوم باختباراتها الخاصة‬ ‫عىل حبل الرفع ‪ ، K-100‬وإذا ما كانت نتيجة‬ ‫االختبارات مشجعة فإن الشركة سوف تستخدم‬ ‫الرافعة غروف ‪ RT800E‬املزودة بالحبل ‪K-100‬‬ ‫يف بعض مشاريعها يف مجال النفط والغاز يف قطر‪.‬‬ ‫وهذا الحبل مصمم خصيصا للرافعات املتحركة‬ ‫وهو يتميز بخصائص فريدة لعدة أسباب إذ يقول‬ ‫يانيك ريتشود‪ ،‬مدير شركة رافعات مانيتووك يف‬ ‫الشرق األوسط‪“ :‬يتسم هذا الحبل االصطناعي‬ ‫بأنه أخف وزنا بنسبة ‪ ٪ 80‬من الحبل السليك‪،‬‬ ‫وهو ال يتمتع بعزم دوران‪ ،‬لذا فإنه ال يتسبب‬ ‫بدوران األحمال‪ ،‬إضافة إىل سهولة التعامل معه‪،‬‬ ‫وسهولة تخزينه ولفه وتثبيته‪ ،‬كما أنه ال يتجعد‪،‬‬ ‫وسهل الصيانة‪ ،‬وذلك خالفا للحبال السلكية‪،‬‬ ‫وال يحتاج للتشحيم‪ .‬ومن شأن هذه الخصائص أن‬ ‫تحقق فوائد كبرية للمستخدم‪ ،‬من قبيل التحسني‬ ‫يف سرعة ومرونة التحميل»‪.‬‬ ‫وأضاف ريتشود أن االختبار سوف لن يقتصر عىل‬ ‫تركيب الحبل يف الرافعة ‪ RT880E‬وإنما سيتضمن‬ ‫أيضا التدريب عىل كيفية استخدام هذا الحبل‪.‬‬ ‫غري أن مانيتووك قد عانت من انخفاض أسعار‬ ‫النفط الذي تسبب بضعف الطلب عىل رافعات‬ ‫التضاريس الصعبة من قبل العمالء يف قطاع‬ ‫الطاقة‪ .‬لذا قد يكون من املفارقة أن تخطط شركة‬ ‫اتحاد املقاولني الستخدام الرافعة ‪ RT800E‬يف‬ ‫مشاريع النفط والغاز بعد نجاح هذا االختبار‪ .‬لكن‬ ‫ماذا عن أعمال البناء يف قطر التي تخص كأس‬ ‫العالم ‪2022‬؟ وما هي خطط مانيتووك الستهداف‬ ‫هذا النوع من املشاريع؟‬ ‫يجيب ريتشود‪“ :‬نحن مقتنعون بأن صناعة النفط‬ ‫والغاز سوف تستفيد كثريا من تكنولوجيا حبال‬ ‫األسالك االصطناعية‪ ،‬وذلك ألسباب تتعلق بالبيئة‬

‫“لن يقتصر االختبار على‬ ‫تركيب الحبل في‬ ‫الرافعة ‪ ،RT880E‬وإنما‬ ‫سيتضمن أيضا التدريب‬ ‫على كيفية استخدام‬ ‫هذا الحبل”‪.‬‬ ‫يانيك ريتشود‬

‫مدير شركة رافعات مانيتووك في‬ ‫الشرق األوسط‬

‫والسالمة أساسا‪ .‬ونظرا لكون هذا القطاع عايل‬ ‫التنظيم‪ ،‬فهو يتطلب جهدا إضافيا بالنسبة لنا‬ ‫إلقناع املستخدمني النهائيني بأن حبالنا من النوع‬ ‫‪ K-100‬تعادل بل وحتى هي أفضل من حبل‬ ‫األسالك الفوالذية التقليدي‪ .‬وحاملا يعتمد قطاع‬ ‫صناعة النفط والغاز هذا الحبل‪ ،‬نحن واثقون من‬ ‫أن القطاعات األخرى ستحذو حذوه‪ .‬فقد استمر‬ ‫النمو يف منطقة الشرق األوسط عىل الرغم من‬ ‫االنخفاض يف الطلب عىل الرافعات يف هذا القطاع‬ ‫نتيجة لتدهور أسعار النفط‪ .‬لكن من املقرر أن يبدأ‬ ‫العمل عىل املزيد من املشاريع يف إطار التحضريات‬ ‫لكأس العالم ‪ .2022‬لذا‪ ،‬سوف تقدم شركة اتحاد‬ ‫املقاولني مناقصات لبعض من تلك العقود وقد‬ ‫تفوز بالعديد منها»‪.‬‬ ‫وكشف ريتشود أنه لم يتم ترخيص الحبل ‪K-100‬‬ ‫حتى اآلن‪ ،‬إال الستخدامه يف الرافعات التي تعمل‬ ‫يف التضاريس الوعرة‪ ،‬إال أن الحبل قد اجتاز جميع‬ ‫االختبارات الفنية لرافعات مانيتووك التي تعمل‬ ‫يف جميع التضاريس‪ ،‬مضيفا‪« :‬نظرا لكون الرافعة‬ ‫‪ GMK‬تعمل عىل الطرق فإننا نعمل حاليا عىل‬ ‫إبرام اتفاق مع سلطات الطرق والنقل ذات الصلة‬ ‫(عىل مستوى العالم) من أجل تركيب هذا النوع‬ ‫من الحبال عىل تلك الرافعات‪ .‬لكننا لم نصل بعد‬ ‫إىل املرحلة التي يمكن فيها استخدام هذا الحبل يف‬ ‫الرافعات الزاحفة أو الرافعات الربجية»‪.‬‬ ‫ويأمل ريتشود أن تلعب رافعات مانيتووك دورا‬ ‫رئيسيا يف البنية التحتية للبالد‪ .‬والخطوة التالية‬ ‫للشركة هي تطوير الحبل ‪ K-100‬من أجل بيعه‬ ‫يف قطر‪.‬‬ ‫وبالنسبة للسبب الذي جعل سامسون تقيم‬ ‫شراكة مع مانيتووك للقيام بالعمليات يف قطر‪،‬‬ ‫استشهد دينيس شريمان‪ ،‬مدير املبيعات التقنية‬ ‫لشركة سامسون يف أوروبا والشرق األوسط‬ ‫وإفريقيا‪ ،‬بالتعاون الكبري بني الشركتني عىل‬ ‫مدى سنوات طويلة قائال‪“ :‬عملت مانيتووك‬ ‫وسامسون معا منذ العام ‪ 2012‬لتطوير استخدام‬ ‫املواد الرتكيبية يف الرافعات املتنقلة يف محاولة‬ ‫لخفض الوزن‪ ،‬وزيادة السالمة‪ ،‬وتحسني األداء‪.‬‬ ‫ونعمل حاليا عىل تقييم أداء الحبل ‪ K-100‬يف‬ ‫قطر‪ ،‬وسوف نقوم بتوثيق خصائص هذا الحبل‬ ‫مثل معدل القوة املتبقية‪ ،‬ومقاومته لألشعة فوق‬ ‫البنفسجية‪ ،‬وتأثري ارتفاع الحرارة يف قطر عىل‬ ‫أدائه”‪.‬‬ ‫وأضاف شريمان أن ذلك سيتم من خالل تركيب‬ ‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫‪56‬‬


‫االبتكــار‬

‫ش ــراكة ثالثية‬ ‫الختبار حبل‬ ‫رافع ـ ـ ــات‬

‫أقامت شركة مانيتووك التي تشتهر يف مجال توريد الرافعات يف جميع أنحاء العالم‪ ،‬وسامسون التي‬ ‫تعمل يف مجال صناعة الحبال منذ القرن التاسع عشر‪ ،‬شراكة مع شركة اتحاد املقاولني يف وقت سابق‬ ‫من هذا العام الختبار نوع جديد من الحبال التي تستخدم يف الرافعات يف قطر‪ .‬فما هي أبرز النقاط يف‬ ‫هذا التعاون وما هي آخر تطوراته؟‬ ‫‪57‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫بقلم أوداين ناغ‬


‫تحت الضوء‬

‫عن ألواح الوقاية من الحريق قائال‪“ :‬إذا قمنا‬ ‫بتغطية الصلب بمواد ذات تصنيف الثالث‬ ‫ساعات‪ ،‬فهذا يعني أنه يصبح لدينا ثالث‬ ‫ساعات للسيطرة عىل الحريق‪ .‬وبعد ذلك‬ ‫تبدأ أعمال الرتميم يف املبنى‪ ،‬لذا فإن بنية‬ ‫املبنى تبقى سليمة‪ .‬لكن النار ال تقتل الناس‪،‬‬ ‫وإنما الدخان هو الذي يقتلهم‪ .‬واملنتج الذي‬ ‫نستخدمه غري قابل لالحرتاق‪ ،‬كما أنه يمنع‬ ‫النار من إصدار الكثري من الدخان‪ .‬ولدينا منتج‬ ‫مختلف للغاية من إنتاج شركة إل إيه إف‬ ‫‪ LAF‬األسرتالية‪ .‬وهو غري قابل لالحرتاق عىل‬ ‫اإلطالق‪ ،‬ويمنع النار من التسبب بمزيد من‬ ‫الدخان”‪.‬‬ ‫تحدث خان عن أنواع الطالء املضاد‬ ‫للنار التي توفرها شركة جاسكون‬ ‫قائال‪« :‬هنالك نوعان من الطالء‪،‬‬ ‫أحدهما ينتفخ عندما ترتفع حرارته‬ ‫فيحمي بذلك السطح املوجود تحته‪،‬‬ ‫ويستمر تأثريه ملدة تصل إىل ثالث ساعات بعد‬ ‫نشوب الحريق‪ .‬ويشكل هذا النوع من الطالء‬ ‫طبقة رقيقة جدا ذات خصائص جمالية‪ ،‬لكن‬

‫تم التبليغ عن حوادث‬ ‫حريق من مول قطر‪،‬‬ ‫طوار مول‪ ،‬وبناية‬ ‫تحت اإلنشاء يف بن‬ ‫محمود هذا العام ‪.‬‬

‫يف العام ‪ ٢٠١٥‬تم‬ ‫اإلبالغ عن اندالع‬ ‫الحريق يف اللؤلؤة‪-‬‬ ‫قطر‪ ،‬ومشروع بالس‬ ‫فينوم يف لوسيل‬

‫تحت الضوء‬

‫إذا تم استخدامه عىل الصلب أو الخرسانة فإنه‬ ‫سوف يبدو وكأنه دهان‪ .‬وأما النوع اآلخر فهو‬ ‫طالء أسمنتي سميك حقا يعطي انطباعا كما‬ ‫لو كان من الجص‪ ،‬لكنه يتطلب وضع لوحات‬ ‫فوقه يف وقت الحق ألغراض جمالية‪ .‬وهذان‬ ‫النوعان من الطالء هما من أهم الطالءات‬ ‫املستخدمة يف مكافحة الحرائق الكربى يف‬ ‫جميع أنحاء العالم»‪.‬‬ ‫ومىض قائال‪« :‬غري أن استخدام األلواح املضادة‬ ‫للنار ليس باألمر اليسري ألنها تتطلب تقطيعا‬ ‫وطالءً ‪ .‬وهنالك أيضا مشكلة يف طريقة‬ ‫استخدامها يف األنفاق ألنها تمتص املاء‪ ،‬وترتك‬ ‫عالمات وراءها»‪.‬‬ ‫لكن خان أكد أن لهذه األلواح خصائص‬ ‫مستدامة إذ يمكن أن يتم إعادة تدويرها بعد‬ ‫استخدامها يف األنفاق‪ ،‬وهي مضمونة ملدة ‪20‬‬ ‫عاما إذ يقول‪« :‬بعد ‪ 20‬عاما‪ ،‬يمكن أن يتم إما‬ ‫إزالة تلك األلواح أو إعادة تدويرها‪ .‬فإذا كان‬ ‫سمكها ‪ 18‬ملم وكانت قد فقدت جماليتها‬ ‫فإنه يمكن إزالة حوايل ‪ 8 -5‬ملم منها ومن ثم‬ ‫طالؤها مجددا‪ .‬إنها مادة طبيعية تماما»‪.‬‬ ‫الصورة يف األسفل تظهر نتائج دراسات يس اف دي التي‬ ‫اجريت يف موقف للسيارات لتحديد أكرث الوسائل فعالية‬ ‫الستخراج الدخان‪.‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫‪58‬‬


‫تحت الضوء‬

‫املوافقات أثناء البناء‪ .‬ونظرا إىل أنه يكون لدى‬ ‫مفتيش السلطة املحلية العديد من النقاط‬ ‫والنواحي التي ينبغي أن يتحققوا منها للتحقق‬ ‫من تلبية املبنى ألنظمة البناء‪ ،‬فإن فحص‬ ‫النواحي املطلوبة لتحسني أداء التصميم قد‬ ‫ال يشكل أولوية كبرية لديهم أو حتى قد يتم‬ ‫التغايض عنها»‪.‬‬ ‫ومن شأن إشراك مهندس مكافحة الحرائق يف‬ ‫املشروع‪ ،‬الذي هو عىل دراية بتصميم النظام‬ ‫ومتطلباته التشغيلية‪ ،‬يف إجراء عمليات‬ ‫التفتيش خالل مرحلة البناء أن يخفف من‬ ‫احتمال عدم فهم إسرتاتيجية الحرائق أو‬ ‫احتمال تركيب األجزاء املهمة من نظام السالمة‬ ‫من الحريق بشكل غري صحيح‪ ،‬وهذا ما يتيح‬ ‫للسلطات املحلية الرتكيز عىل تفقد عناصر‬ ‫السالمة من الحرائق املتعلقة باالمتثال للوائح‬ ‫البناء املحلية‪.‬‬ ‫كشف سيدريك أملونت‪ ،‬مدير املكتب‬ ‫القطري ملنظمة السالمة العاملية‬ ‫التابعة لألمم املتحدة الذي تأسس‬ ‫يف العام ‪ ،1975‬أن سوء اإلدارة هو‬ ‫السبب الرئييس للحرائق يف املباين‬ ‫قيد اإلنشاء‪ ،‬معربا عن اعتقاده‬ ‫بأن إهمال وجود مواد قابلة لالشتعال قرب‬ ‫الوقود‪ ،‬أو القيام بعمليات اللحام قرب املواد‬ ‫القابلة لالشتعال‪ ،‬يمكن أن يؤدي إىل نشوب‬ ‫حرائق‪.‬‬ ‫وأوضح أملونت املخاطر املرتبطة بالتخزين غري‬ ‫السليم للمواد الخطرة قائال‪“ :‬إن الفصل‬ ‫بني مختلف أنواع نفايات البناء هو أمر بالغ‬ ‫األهمية إذ ال يمكن الجمع بني املواد القابلة‬ ‫لالشتعال واملواد غري القابلة لالشتعال‪ .‬وينبغي‬ ‫أيضا أن تكون هنالك غرفة منفصلة يتم اإلبقاء‬ ‫فيها عىل درجة حرارة معينة لتجنب اندالع‬ ‫النار يف املواد القابلة لالشتعال‪ .‬وهنالك دائما‬ ‫إجراءات سالمة معينة ينبغي تعريف جميع‬ ‫العاملني واملشرفني واملهندسني بها‪ .‬فإذا لم‬ ‫يتم التعريف بهذه اإلجراءات بالشكل الصحيح‬ ‫من املستوى اإلداري األعىل إىل األسفل فإنها‬ ‫تصبح عديمة الجدوى»‪.‬‬ ‫وبرأي أملونت فإن من العوائق الرئيسية أيضا‬ ‫انعدام التدريب و«حاجز اللغة» إذ يقول‪:‬‬ ‫‪59‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫«إن اسطوانات غاز البرتول املسال واألسيتيلني‬ ‫واألكسجني قابلة لالشتعال بصورة كبرية‪.‬‬ ‫وكذلك األمر فإن فوهة اسطوانة الغاز خطرية‬ ‫كالصاروخ‪ .‬لكن ال يتم التعريف بإجراءات‬ ‫السالمة إال باللغة اإلنجليزية فحسب‪ ،‬مما‬ ‫يجعلها عصية الفهم عىل العمال الذين‬ ‫هم أساسا من الهند وبنغالديش ونيبال‬ ‫وسريالنكا‪ ،‬لذا ينبغي أن تتم ترجمة هذه‬ ‫اإلجراءات إىل عدة لغات مختلفة»‪.‬‬

‫“دائما هنالك‬ ‫إجراءات سالمة‬ ‫معينة ينبغي‬ ‫تعريف جميع‬ ‫العاملين والمشرفين‬ ‫والمهندسين‬ ‫بها‪ .‬فإذا لم يتم‬ ‫التعريف بهذه‬ ‫اإلجراءات بالشكل‬ ‫الصحيح من‬ ‫المستوى اإلداري‬ ‫األعلى إلى األسفل‬ ‫فإنها تصبح عديمة‬ ‫الجدوى”‬ ‫سيدريك ألمونت‬

‫مدير المكتب القطري لمنظمة‬ ‫السالمة العالمية التابعة لألمم‬ ‫المتحدة‬

‫ويؤكد أملونت أيضا أن من شأن تقديم بيان‬ ‫لإلجراءات يشرح خطوة فخطوة مختلف املهام‬ ‫املرتبطة باملشروع أن يجعلنا نقطع شوطا طويال‬ ‫يف معالجة مسألة السالمة‪ ،‬مضيفا‪“ :‬ينبغي‬ ‫أن يتم إصدار تصاريح من أجل بعض األنشطة‬ ‫الخطرة مثل اللحام والقطع والطحن‪ ،‬وينبغي‬ ‫عىل مسؤول السالمة أن يقوم بفحص املنطقة‬ ‫املعنية قبل منح تلك التصاريح‪ ،‬مع إيراد الئحة‬ ‫باملسموحات واملحظورات بصورة واضحة يف‬ ‫التصاريح‪ .‬هذه هي أفضل اإلجراءات املتاحة يف‬ ‫املوقع‪ ،‬ونحن ال نوافق عىل أي نشاط دون بيان‬ ‫اإلجراءات وتقييم للمخاطر»‪.‬‬ ‫ولفت أملونت إىل أن املقاول يف املوقع يحتاج‬ ‫إىل تقديم تقرير يق ّيم فيه مخاطر الحريق‬ ‫وتدابري الحد من هذه املخاطر يك يوافق عليه‬ ‫االستشاري أو مدير املشروع‪ .‬ومىض قائال‪:‬‬ ‫“ينبغي أن تتم مراجعة تقييم املخاطر كل ثالثة‬ ‫أشهر‪ .‬ويف حال وقوع حادث‪ ،‬ينبغي أن يتم‬ ‫التدقيق يف بيان إجراءات السالمة ألنه ثمة‬ ‫احتمال بأن تكون هنالك بعض الثغرات يف هذا‬ ‫البيان أو يف تقرير تقييم املخاطر»‪.‬‬ ‫وأضاف‪« :‬إن كل يشء مرتبط بمواصفات البناء‬ ‫القطرية ‪ 2014‬التي ينبغي أن يتم االلتزام بها‪،‬‬ ‫فهي قانون وليست مبادئ توجيهية»‪.‬‬ ‫لكن ترى ما الذي يمكن أن يحدث عندما‬ ‫يندلع حريق يف مبنى قيد اإلنشاء أو مشغول‬ ‫بالساكنني؟ يجيب الرئيس التنفيذي لشركة‬ ‫جاسكون للهندسة‪ ،‬زاهد إقبال خان‪ ،‬أن‬ ‫أنظمة العزل الحراري تؤخر األضرار الناجمة‬ ‫عن الحريق لكنها ال تمنعها فعال‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدث خان عن مواد الطالء املضاد للحرائق‬ ‫التي تقدمها شركة جاسكون وما تتميز به‬


‫تحت الضوء‬

‫ا‬

‫ندلع حريقان يف مشروعني من أكرب‬ ‫املشاريع الجارية يف قطر وهما مول قطر‬ ‫وطوار مول يف شهري أبريل ويوليو عىل‬ ‫التوايل‪ .‬وكذلك األمر فقد شب حريق‬ ‫آخر يف مبنى قيد اإلنشاء يف منطقة بن‬ ‫محمود يف وقت سابق من هذا العام‪.‬‬ ‫ويف العام املايض‪ ،‬نشب حريق يف مشروع‬ ‫مركز بالس فندوم التجاري يف مدينة لوسيل‪.‬‬ ‫ويف ديسمرب ‪ 2015‬اندلع حريق يف جزر إيزوال‬ ‫دانا‪ ،‬وهي سلسلة من تسع جزر من مشروع‬ ‫اللؤلؤة‪-‬قطر‪.‬‬ ‫لكن ترى هل الظروف الجوية هي املتسبب‬ ‫الوحيد لهذه الحرائق؟ وهل ينبغي اتخاذ‬ ‫خطوات معينة عىل مختلف املستويات لتفادي‬ ‫وقوع مثل هذه الحوادث إىل أقىص حد ممكن؟‬

‫عىل الرغم من أن معظم شركات املقاوالت‬ ‫قد فضلت عدم التحدث إلينا عن إجراءاتها‬ ‫يف مجال الوقاية من الحرائق‪ ،‬إال أن شركة‬ ‫أتيليه تن ‪ Atelier Ten‬التي تقدم الخدمات‬ ‫الهندسية يف مجال مكافحة الحرائق يف جميع‬ ‫أنحاء العالم بما يف ذلك قطر‪ ،‬واملكتب القطري‬ ‫ملنظمة السالمة العاملية‪ ،‬وشركة جاسكون‬ ‫للهندسة‪ ،‬وافقوا عىل أن يرووا جانبهم من‬ ‫القصة‪.‬‬ ‫يؤكد ديفيد ويلسون‪ ،‬كبري مهنديس الحرائق‬ ‫يف أتيليه تن‪ ،‬عىل أهمية وجود “حل هنديس‬ ‫مناسب”‪ .‬وهو يرى أن مصممي أنظمة السالمة‬ ‫من الحريق ومهنديس النار يدرسون باستمرار‬ ‫حوادث الحرائق من أجل تحسني األنظمة‬ ‫وتطوير إسرتاتيجيات أفضل وأكرث موثوقية‪.‬‬

‫“ينبغي لمهندس‬ ‫الحرائق أن يشارك في‬ ‫كل مراحل البناء‪ ،‬وأن‬ ‫يقدم آراءه بصورة‬ ‫منتظمة في كل مرحلة‬ ‫من مراحل التصميم‬ ‫والبناء‪ ،‬وأن يقدم‬ ‫المشورة في كل مرحلة‬ ‫من مراحل المشروع‬ ‫لضمان دمج متطلبات‬ ‫إستراتيجية الحرائق في‬ ‫تصميم المبنى”‪.‬‬ ‫ديفيد ويلسون‬

‫كبير مهندسي الحرائق‬ ‫في أتيليه تن‬

‫املبنى وطريقة استخدامه وخصائص الحرائق‬ ‫املتوقعة داخل فضائه‪ ،‬مضيفا‪“ :‬يمكن ألنظمة‬ ‫بسيطة تحوي عددا أقل من األجهزة امليكانيكية‬ ‫والكهربائية القابلة للتعطل أن توفر نظاما أكرث‬ ‫موثوقية‪ .‬ويمكن أحيانا لنظام مصمم بشكل‬ ‫جيد وذي تهوية طبيعية باستخدام فتحات‬ ‫تهوية يدوية وآلية أن يوفر حال أفضل بكثري‪.‬‬ ‫ومن شأن النمذجة الدقيقة للمساحات أيضا‬ ‫أن تكون أكرث فعالية من حيث التكلفة»‪.‬‬ ‫ويرى ويلسون أنه ينبغي ملهندس الحرائق أن‬ ‫يشارك ابتداء من مرحلة تصميم املفهوم وحتى‬ ‫االنتهاء من البناء‪ ،‬وأن يقدم آراءه بصورة‬ ‫منتظمة يف كل مرحلة من مراحل التصميم‬ ‫والبناء‪ ،‬مؤكدا أن تقديم املشورة يف كل مرحلة‬ ‫من مراحل املشروع يضمن دمج متطلبات‬ ‫إسرتاتيجية الحرائق يف تصميم املبنى‪.‬‬ ‫استطرد قائال‪« :‬غالبا ما يُلغى من‬ ‫نطاق عمل مهندس الوقاية من‬ ‫الحرائق مرحلة البناء ومرحلة‬ ‫الفحص النهايئ للمبنى عند‬ ‫استكماله‪ .‬ويرجع ذلك بشكل عام‬ ‫إىل القوانني ألن هذا العنصر من‬ ‫املشروع يُرتك يف كثري من األحيان للسلطات‬ ‫املحلية يك تتوىل عملية الفحص وإصدار‬ ‫صورة تظهر احتدام النريان يف أحد جوانب مبنى‬

‫ومىض قائال‪“ :‬إن من شأن فهم املبنى واملناطق‬ ‫الرئيسية املعرضة لخطر الحريق يف بداية‬ ‫املشروع أن يتيح للمصممني وضع إسرتاتيجية‬ ‫للحريق تصبح حجر الزاوية يف التصميم‪ .‬فقد‬ ‫ال يوفر االعتماد الشديد عىل اللوائح والقوانني‬ ‫بالضرورة أفضل الحلول‪ .‬لذا نحن نميل إىل‬ ‫دراسة املشكلة وفقا للمبادئ األوىل يك نضع‬ ‫إسرتاتيجية مالئمة للمشروع‪ .‬لذا ينبغي أن يتم‬ ‫استخدام الرموز والقوانني كتوصيات فحسب»‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدث ويلسون أيضا عن املبالغة يف الحماية‬ ‫من الحرائق معتربا أن األنظمة تكون أكرث‬ ‫فعالية عندما يتم اختيارها من خالل فهم‬ ‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

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‫تحت الضوء‬

‫الحرائق أثناء‬ ‫عمليات البناء‬

‫اندلعت أثناء أشهر الصيف عدة حرائق يف بعض املشاريع الكربى التي ما تزال قيد اإلنشاء يف قطر‪ .‬لكن‪ ،‬هل‬ ‫يمكن أن يكون سبب هذه الحرائق هو فقط حرارة الصيف املرتفعة يف البالد؟‬ ‫‪61‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫بقلم أوداين ناغ‬


‫تحت الضوء‬

‫االضطراب يف اقتصادات الخليج‪ .‬ومع مواصلة‬ ‫الحكومات إلجراءات التقشف‪ ،‬من املتوقع‬ ‫لقطاع البناء والتشييد أن يواجه أوقات صعبة‪.‬‬ ‫وبحسب تقديرات وكالة فيتش‪ ،‬من املتوقع‬ ‫أن ينخفض النمو يف القروض املصرفية يف‬ ‫الخليج عىل مدى السنوات الثالث املقبلة بمقدار‬ ‫الثلث‪ ،‬يف الوقت الذي تباطأ فيه االستثمار‬ ‫املباشر يف املنطقة بنسبة ‪ .% 30‬ووفقا لتقرير‬ ‫لشركة ديلويت‪ ،‬قد ترتك الحاجة امللحة لضبط‬ ‫املوازنات تأثريا سلبيا عىل مشاريع السوق مما‬ ‫يتسبب ببطء عمليات طرح املناقصات واتخاذ‬ ‫القرارات بشأنها وإجراءات الدفع املتعلقة‬ ‫بها‪ .‬لكن دانا ترى أنه عىل الرغم من أن بعض‬

‫شركات العقارات واملقاوالت سوف تكافح من‬ ‫أجل البقاء‪ ،‬إال أن اإلنفاق الحكومي قد تباطأ‬ ‫يف بعض دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي أكرث‬ ‫من غريها‪ .‬ففي دبي مثال‪ ،‬ما يزال اإلنفاق عىل‬ ‫مشاريع البنية التحتية والرتفيه متواصال عىل‬ ‫قدم وساق يف إطار التحضريات ملؤتمر ‪،2020‬‬ ‫مما عزز الثقة يف السوق‪ .‬ومضت قائلة‪« :‬إن‬ ‫سوق دبي هي أكرث تنوعا من أسواق أقرانها‬ ‫من دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي‪ ،‬لذا فعىل‬ ‫الرغم من أنها من املرجح أن تشهد تباطؤا‬ ‫يف النمو‪ ،‬إال أنه لن يكون تباطؤا كبريا‪ .‬وأما‬ ‫بالنسبة لشاغيل العقارات ونمو فرص العمل يف‬ ‫دبي‪ ،‬فإن دبي تضم الكثري من الشركات الدولية‬ ‫التي عىل الرغم من توقف خططها التوسعية‪،‬‬ ‫إال أنها ما تزال ملتزمة باملنطقة وهي تقوم‬ ‫بخدمتها انطالقا من دبي كقاعدة لها‪ ،‬وبالتايل‬ ‫فإننا ال نتوقع أن تتأثر سوق العمل بصورة‬

‫أثر كبري لتأخري‬ ‫املشاريع عىل‬ ‫معدالتالعائد‬

‫وجهة نظر‬ ‫كبرية‪ ،‬وذلك عىل عكس أبو ظبي واململكة‬ ‫العربية السعودية مثال التي تعتمد اقتصاداتها‬ ‫اعتمادا كبريا عىل عائدات النفط‪ .‬كذلك األمر‬ ‫فإن نشاط الشركات تهيمن عليه املؤسسات‬ ‫والكيانات الحكومية الكبرية التي قد تخفض‬ ‫فرص العمل وتقلص عملياتها»‪.‬‬ ‫إيجاد مسار جديد‬ ‫مع هذه التحديات املقبلة‪ ،‬سوف يضطر‬ ‫مطورو العقارات يف الخليج إىل إعادة رسم‬ ‫إسرتاتيجيات مشاريعهم واختيار خطواتهم‬ ‫املقبلة بعناية‪ .‬وبحسب دراسة إيه يت كريين‪،‬‬ ‫يمكن للشركات أن تزيد من عائداتها من‬ ‫خالل فهمها ملا يفضله العميل بصورة‬ ‫أفضل‪ .‬وعن ذلك يقول نائب رئيس إيه يت‬ ‫كريين ‪ ‬فيديركو‪ ‬ماريسكويت‪« :‬تتيح التحليالت‬ ‫املتقدمة فهم العميل وما هو عىل استعداد‬ ‫يحسن‬ ‫لدفع ثمنه‪ .‬وهذا وحده من شأنه أن‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫معدل العائد الداخيل عىل االستثمار بنسبة‬ ‫ترتاوح ما بني ‪ ٪ 25 - 10‬وأن يخلق املزيد من‬ ‫مشاريع اإلسكان بأسعار معقولة»‪.‬‬ ‫ومن جهتها‪ ،‬قالت دانا‪« :‬هنالك نقص يف‬ ‫املساكن ذات األسعار املعقولة يف دول مجلس‬ ‫التعاون الخليجي‪ ،‬وهذا يشء يحتاج بالتأكيد‬ ‫إىل معالجة‪ .‬لكن إذا أردنا لذلك أن يحدث‪،‬‬ ‫فإنه ينبغي أن يكون هناك تعاون واضح بني‬ ‫الجمهور والقطاع الخاص»‪ .‬ففي قطر‪ ،‬عىل‬ ‫سبيل املثال‪ ،‬كان الرتكيز الرئييس عىل العقارات‬ ‫الفاخرة التي ال يمثل مستهلكوها سوى ‪٪ 20‬‬ ‫من السوق القطرية‪ ،‬يف الوقت الذي أهملت‬ ‫االحتياجات السكنية للنسبة املتبقية من‬ ‫السكان والبالغة ‪ .٪ 80‬ويتضح ذلك يف إطالق‬ ‫إطار للشراكة بني القطاعني العام والخاص‬ ‫الذي أُطلق مؤخرا كأحد نماذج مشاريع البنية‬ ‫التحتية يف جميع أنحاء املنطقة مع إعالن كل‬ ‫من اإلمارات والكويت وقطر يف اآلونة األخرية‬ ‫عن قوانينها املتعلقة بالشراكة بني القطاعني‬ ‫العام والخاص‪ .‬وختمت دانا حديثها قائلة‪« :‬إن‬ ‫من أهم العوامل التي تحدد قيمة املشروع هو‬ ‫تكلفة األرض‪ .‬واألرايض يف دول مجلس التعاون‬ ‫الخليجي مكلفة للغاية وغالبا ما يستحوذ‬ ‫عليها املطورون ومالك األرايض من القطاع‬ ‫الخاص للمضاربة‪ .‬لكن عندما يحدث ذلك‪،‬‬ ‫يصبح من الصعب تطوير مشروع تكون أسعار‬ ‫يف متناول الجميع»‪.‬‬ ‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫‪62‬‬


‫وجهة نظر‬ ‫املثرية ال يدعمها واقع االقتصاد الكيل‪ ،‬بل‬ ‫حتى إنها قد تكون مدعاة للقلق‪ ،‬فوفقا للبنك‬ ‫الدويل‪ ،‬من املتوقع أن يبلغ متوسط ​​نمو الناتج‬ ‫املحيل اإلجمايل قيمة متواضعة تصل إىل ‪٪ 3.2‬‬ ‫خالل العام ‪( 2020‬وهو رقم بعيد كل البعد‬ ‫عن معدل النمو ‪ ٪ 8‬خالل ما قبل العام‬ ‫‪ .)2008‬وباإلضافة إىل ذلك‪ ،‬وبحسب وحدة‬ ‫االستخبارات االقتصادية‪ ،‬م ن املتوقع لنمو‬ ‫السكان أيضا أن ينخفض إ ىل ثلث مستوياته‬ ‫فيما قبل األزمة‪ ،‬ليصل إىل ‪ ٪ 2.9‬عىل مدى‬ ‫السنوات الخمس املقبلة ‪ ،‬وهو سبب آخر‬ ‫للمخاوف من زيادة املعروض‪.‬‬ ‫وعىل الرغم من أن املطورين يف دبي وقطر‬ ‫ما يزالون يأملون بأن تنقيض هذه العاصفة‬ ‫قريبا‪ ،‬لكن ترى ماذا عن زمالئهم يف املنطقة؟‬ ‫هل ينبغي أن يشعروا بالقلق بشأن املستقبل‬ ‫والزيادة املفرطة يف املعروض التي تؤدي إىل‬ ‫هبوط أسعار العقارات؟‬ ‫تقول دانا سلبك‪ ،‬الشريك املشارك ورئيس‬ ‫قسم بحوث الشرق األوسط يف مكتب نايت‬ ‫فرانك بدبي‪« :‬عىل الرغم من إعالن املطورين‬ ‫العقاريني عىل مدى الشهرين املاضيني عن‬ ‫خططهم لتطوير العديد من املشاريع الضخمة‬ ‫متعددة االستخدامات‪ ،‬إال أنه من املهم أن‬ ‫ندرك أن الكثري من هذه املشاريع ال يتم تطويرها‬ ‫يف خاتمة املطاف أو حتى قد يتم إعادة تصميمها‬ ‫وتحويلها إىل عقارات أكرث جدوى واستدامة»‪.‬‬ ‫وبحسب تقرير صدر يف العام املايض عن شركة‬ ‫االستشارات واالستثمار العقاري يف العالم‪،‬‬ ‫جيه إل إل ‪ ،JLL‬كان معدل تنفيذ املشاريع‬ ‫املقرتحة يف دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي عىل‬ ‫مدى السنوات الخمس املاضية منخفضا نسبيا‬ ‫حيث لم يتم استكمال سوى ‪ ٪ 30‬من املشاريع‬ ‫السكنية املقرتحة و‪ ٪ 45‬من املساحات املكتبية‬ ‫املقرتحة يف املوعد املحدد لها‪.‬‬ ‫وأضافت دانا‪“ :‬لذا‪ ،‬إذا نظرنا إىل املشاريع‬ ‫قيد التطوير فإننا سرنى أنه يوجد الكثري من‬ ‫املشاريع‪ ،‬لكننا حذرون بشأن تسليم تلك‬ ‫املشاريع ضمن الفرتة املحددة لها‪ .‬لكن مادام‬ ‫هنالك تحكم بالعرض بما يتماىش مع الطلب‪،‬‬ ‫فإن األسعار لن تهبط إىل مستوياتها يف الفرتة‬ ‫‪.»2009 - 2008‬‬ ‫وبعبارة أخرى‪ ،‬فإن من شأن انخفاض معدل‬ ‫تنفيذ املشاريع‪ ،‬والذي من املتوقع أن يتواصل‪،‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫تحت الضوء‬ ‫المشاريع الخليجية حسب‬ ‫مرحلة كل مشروع‬ ‫في مارس ‪2016‬‬

‫‪166‬‬ ‫األفكار‬

‫‪153‬‬ ‫التصميم‬

‫‪106‬‬ ‫التمويل‬

‫‪1,653‬‬ ‫اإلنشاء‬

‫‪326‬‬ ‫مؤجلة‬

‫‪413‬‬ ‫مكتملة‬

‫‪753‬‬ ‫ملغية‬

‫أن يحد نوعا ما من خطر زيادة املعروض‪.‬‬ ‫ويمكن أن يعزى تأخر املشاريع لعدد من‬ ‫األسباب‪ ،‬من أهمها قضايا التمويل‪ ،‬والنزاعات‬ ‫التعاقدية‪ ،‬والتأخري يف البناء‪ ،‬وتأخر الحصول‬ ‫عىل الرتاخيص أو املوافقات‪ ،‬كما أن بعض‬ ‫املطورين قد يؤخرون عمدا إكمال مشاريع‬ ‫لتجنب إغراق السوق‪ .‬لكن قد يكون لتأخر‬ ‫املشاريع تأثري كبري عىل العوائد‪.‬‬ ‫غري أنه عىل الرغم من الظروف غري املواتية‬ ‫والتخفيضات الحالية يف املوازنات‪ ،‬من املتوقع‬ ‫أال يتأثر تنفيذ بعض املشاريع الهامة (مثل‬ ‫مشاريع الكهرباء واملياه واملستشفيات واملدارس‬ ‫والدفاع واألمن)‪ .‬ففي حالة قطر‪ ،‬يتوقع خرباء‬ ‫كيه بي إم جي أن يستمر اإلنفاق عىل املشاريع‬ ‫الرأسمالية (عىل الرغم من إعطاء األولوية‬ ‫لبعض املشاريع األساسية بالنسبة لكأس‬ ‫العالم)‪ ،‬مما سيحافظ عىل استقرار السوق‬ ‫لفرتة طويلة‪ ،‬وبالتايل فإنه لن يتسبب بأي تأثري‬ ‫مفاجئ عىل القطاع العقاري‪.‬‬ ‫وكشفت دانا أن السوق قد باتت أكرث اتحادا‬ ‫مما كانت عليه من قبل‪ ،‬وذلك عىل عكس ما‬ ‫كانت عليه يف الفرتة ما قبل ‪ 2009 -2008‬التي‬ ‫أعلن فيها عدد من صغار املطورين وشركات‬ ‫املقاوالت عن الكثري من املشاريع لكنهم سرعان‬ ‫ما فروا خالل األزمة‪ .‬لذا فاملشهد اآلن يهيمن‬ ‫عليه كبار املطورين الذين لديهم إمكانيات مالية‬ ‫أقوى‪ ،‬وبالتايل فإن الخطر اآلن بات أخف كثريا‪.‬‬ ‫وصار املطورون أيضا يعلنون عن مشاريعهم‬ ‫الجديدة عىل مراحل لضمان حصولهم عىل‬ ‫التمويل يف مرحلة ما قبل البيع قبل أن يطلقوا‬ ‫املراحل الالحقة من املشروع نفسه‪.‬‬ ‫القيود املالية‬ ‫إضافة إىل املخاوف من الزيادة املفرطة يف‬ ‫املعروض‪ ،‬بات اآلن مطورو العقارات يف دول‬ ‫مجلس التعاون الخليجي يعانون أكرث من أي‬ ‫وقت مىض من صعوبات يف تمويل مشاريعهم‬ ‫الطموحة‪ .‬فقد أدى انخفاض أسعار النفط‬ ‫لفرتة طويلة إىل زيادة الضغط عىل اإلنفاق‬ ‫الحكومي‪ ،‬مما دفع الحكومات يف الخليج إىل‬ ‫إعادة الهيكلة املالية القتصاداتها التي تعتمد‬ ‫عىل النفط‪ ،‬بما يف ذلك خفض الدعم الحكومي‪.‬‬ ‫وقد تسبب انخفاض اإليرادات الوطنية من‬ ‫النفط والغاز وضعف السيولة بالكثري من‬


‫وجهة نظر‬

‫ل‬

‫عب قطاع العقارات والبناء‬ ‫حتى اآلن دورا رئيسيا يف النمو‬ ‫االقتصادي الهائل لدول مجلس‬ ‫التعاون الخليجي‪ ،‬وقدم دعما‬ ‫كبريا للتوسع يف بنيتها التحتية‪،‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫وشكل نقطة انطالق لقطاعها‬ ‫السياحي‪ .‬ونتيجة لذلك‪ ،‬دعم‬ ‫مطورو العقارات يف الخليج نمو السكان يف‬ ‫املنطقة الذي يزيد عن ‪ ٪ 5‬سنويا بصورة غري‬ ‫مباشرة‪.‬‬

‫وبفضل مشاريع البناء‪ ،‬تحولت عواصم دول‬ ‫مجلس التعاون الخليجي إىل ما يشبه املتاحف‬ ‫يف الهواء الطلق‪ ،‬وقدمت بعض اإلنجازات‬ ‫املعمارية األكرث جرأة وإثارة يف العالم‪ .‬وتقدر‬ ‫بعض التقارير قيمة املشاريع العقارية التي‬ ‫يجري التخطيط إلنجازها يف دول مجلس‬ ‫التعاون الخليجي املختلفة بحوايل ‪ 2‬تريليون‬ ‫دوالر‪ ،‬وهو ما يمثل تقريبا ‪ ٪ 70‬من جميع‬ ‫أعمال البناء يف العامني ‪ 2016‬و‪.2017‬‬ ‫وعىل الرغم من أن املبدأ القائل بأن العقارات‬ ‫توفر أعىل العوائد وأفضل قيمة وأقل قدراً من‬ ‫املخاطر ال يزال صحيحا‪ ،‬إال أنه ال يقدم الحل‬ ‫للوفرة يف املعروض يف السوق‪ .‬فبحسب شركة‬ ‫االستشارات إيه يت كريين فإن قطاع البناء‬ ‫والعقارات الخليجي قد يواجه قريبا مشكلة‬ ‫الفائض يف املعروض إن لم تبدأ اقتصادات‬ ‫املنطقة بالتعايف بسرعة‪.‬‬ ‫وعىل الرغم من أنه من املرجح أن توفر بعض‬ ‫األحداث العاملية مثل معرض إكسبو ‪ 2020‬يف‬ ‫دبي ونهائيات كأس العالم لكرة القدم ‪ 2022‬يف‬ ‫قطر دفعة كبرية للشركات السياحية وصناعة‬ ‫العقارات يف املستقبل‪ ،‬إال أن ذلك قد ال ينطبق‬ ‫عىل املنطقة برمتها‪.‬‬ ‫الفائض يف املعروض‬ ‫قالت شركة إيه يت كريين يف دراسة لها‪« :‬نعتقد‬ ‫أن القطاع العقاري يف دول مجلس التعاون‬ ‫الخليجي قد دخل يف عاصفة يمكن أن تهدد‬ ‫نجاحه‪ .‬لذا فإن مشكلة الفائض يف العقارات قد‬ ‫تلوح يف األفق عىل نطاق غري مسبوق»‪.‬‬ ‫وعالوة عىل ذلك‪ ،‬فإن قيمة املشاريع التي يف‬ ‫مرحلة البناء قد بلغت يف مارس ‪ 2016‬أربعة‬ ‫أضعاف قيمة جميع املشاريع املنجزة خالل‬ ‫السنوات ال ‪ 10‬املاضية»‪ .‬لكن هذه األرقام‬

‫«على الرغم من إعالن المطورين العقاريين‬ ‫على مدى الشهرين الماضيين عن خططهم‬ ‫لتطوير العديد من المشاريع الضخمة متعددة‬ ‫االستخدامات إال أنه من المهم أن ندرك أن‬ ‫الكثير من هذه المشاريع ال يتم تطويرها‬ ‫في خاتمة المطاف أو حتى قد يتم إعادة‬ ‫تصميمها وتحويلها إلى عقارات أكثر جدوى‬ ‫واستدامة»‪.‬‬ ‫دانا سلبك‬

‫الشريك المشارك ورئيس قسم بحوث الشرق األوسط‬ ‫في مكتب نايت فرانك بدبي‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫‪64‬‬


‫وجهة نظر‬

‫اإلبحار‬ ‫من خالل العاصفة‬

‫أدى انخفاض أسعار النفط إىل جانب عدم االستقرار الجيوسيايس يف الشرق األوسط وزيادة‬ ‫الضغوط عىل موازنات الحكومات املحلية إىل صعوبات عديدة يف سوق البناء والعقارات يف املنطقة‪.‬‬

‫‪65‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫بقلم ساسا زوزماهاوسيك‬


‫ب‬

‫دأ يف ‪ 13‬يونيو ‪2016‬‬ ‫العمل بالقانون القطري‬ ‫رقم ‪ 24‬لسنة ‪2015‬‬ ‫بشأن تنظيم املناقصات‬ ‫واملزايدات («قانون املشرتيات الجديد»)‪،‬‬ ‫ليحل محل القانون رقم ‪ 26‬لسنة ‪.2005‬‬ ‫وقانون املشرتيات الجديد هو أوسع نطاقا‪،‬‬ ‫وتسري أحكامه عىل العديد من الجهات‬ ‫الحكومية‪.‬‬ ‫والهدف الرئييس من قانون املشرتيات‬ ‫الجديد هو تحقيق قدر أكرب من الكفاءة‬ ‫يف مجال املشرتيات الحكومية من خالل ما‬ ‫ييل‪:‬‬ ‫إلغاء لجنة املناقصات املركزية‪ ،‬وتحقيق‬ ‫الالمركزية يف عملية إرساء املناقصات‪.‬‬ ‫تسريع فض منازعات املناقصات من‬ ‫خالل إنشاء لجان لتسوية املنازعات‪.‬‬ ‫التعاقد عن طريق املناقصة عىل‬ ‫مرحلتني‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ‬إعفاء الشركات الصغرية واملتوسطة‪،‬‬ ‫كليا أو جزئيا‪ ،‬من تقديم التأمني املؤقت‬ ‫والنهايئ وضمان الدفعة املقدمة‪.‬‬ ‫نظرة عامة عىل أهم التغيريات يف قانون‬ ‫املشرتيات الحكومية الالمركزية يف طرح‬ ‫املناقصات‬ ‫كانت القوانني السابقة للمشرتيات‬ ‫الحكومية يف قطر تقتيض وجود لجنة‬ ‫مناقصات مركزية ولجنة مناقصات محلية‬ ‫لإلشراف عىل جميع املناقصات الحكومية يف‬ ‫البالد (وذلك حسب قيمة تلك املناقصات)‪.‬‬ ‫لكن قانون املشرتيات الجديد يتيح لكل‬ ‫جهة حكومية أن تنئش لجنة مناقصات‬ ‫خاصة بها تشمل ممثلني عن وزارة املالية‬ ‫وديوان املحاسبة‪.‬‬ ‫وتتيح هذه الالمركزية يف عملية طرح‬ ‫املناقصات لكل جهة حكومية ممارسة أكرب‬ ‫قدر من التحكم بمشرتياتها‪ .‬ويكتسب‬ ‫ذلك أهمية خاصة عندما تكون املشرتيات‬ ‫شديدة التخصص‪ ،‬مما يجعل تلك الجهة‬ ‫الحكومية أفضل جهة يمكنها أن تقرر أي‬ ‫العطاءات األفضل من حيث القيمة مقابل‬

‫تحت الضوء‬ ‫املال املدفوع‪.‬‬ ‫لجان تسوية املنازعات‬ ‫من أجل حل منازعات املشرتيات بطريقة‬ ‫فعالة وسريعة‪ ،‬يسمح قانون املشرتيات‬ ‫الجديد لوزارة املالية إنشاء لجنة أو أكرث‬ ‫قاض بدرجة رئيس‬ ‫لفض املنازعات برئاسة‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫باملحكمة االبتدائية‪.‬‬ ‫وملا كان إرساء املناقصات قد يتطلب خرباء‬ ‫متخصصني فإن حل املنازعات املتعلقة‬ ‫بتقييم العطاءات قد يتطلب معرفة‬ ‫متخصصة‪ .‬لذا اعتمد قانون املشرتيات‬ ‫الجديد الالمركزية يف تسوية املنازعات‪،‬‬ ‫مما قد يضيف قيمة من خالل ضمان‬ ‫حل املنازعات املتخصصة املتعلقة بمسائل‬ ‫االمتثال التقني من قبل لجنة تتمتع‬ ‫بالدراية التقنية املطلوبة‪.‬‬ ‫املناقصة عىل مرحلتني‬ ‫ُتعترب املناقصة عىل مرحلتني ابتكارا حديثا‬ ‫يف عالم املشرتيات‪ ،‬ويتيح القانون الجديد‬ ‫للجهات الحكومية االستفادة من ذلك‪.‬‬ ‫ففي املرحلة األوىل من املناقصة‪ ،‬تطلب‬ ‫الجهة اإلدارية املعنية من املوردين أو‬ ‫املقاولني الذين وُجهت لهم الدعوة تقديم‬ ‫عطاءات فنية فقط تتضمن الخصائص‬ ‫الفنية والنوعية والحلول املناسبة لألشياء‬ ‫املطلوب شراؤها أو األعمال املطلوب‬ ‫إنجازها‪ ،‬ومن خالل التفاوض يف هذه‬ ‫املرحلة تخرج الجهة اإلدارية املعنية‬ ‫باملواصفات والشروط النهائية املوحدة‬ ‫املناسبة للمشروع موضوع الشراء التي‬ ‫تعممها بدورها عىل أصحاب العطاءات‬ ‫املقبولة‪ .‬ويف املرحلة الثانية‪ ،‬تطلب الجهة‬ ‫اإلدارية املعنية من أصحاب العطاءات‬ ‫املقبولة فنيا تقديم عطاءاتهم النهائية بما‬ ‫فيها السعر‪.‬‬ ‫الفوائد املرجوة من هذه العملية هي‪:‬‬ ‫ إشراك املقاول أو املورد يف مرحلة مبكرة‬ ‫من عملية الشراء‪ ،‬مما يجعله أقدر عىل‬ ‫فهم املواد املطلوب توريدها أو األعمال‬ ‫املطلوب تنفيذها وبالتايل فإنه يتمكن من‬ ‫تحسني عطائه لصالح املشروع‪.‬‬ ‫ يصبح املقاول أو املورد أيضا أقدر عىل‬ ‫البدء بتنفيذ ما هو مطلوب منه بصورة‬

‫مبكرة‪ ،‬أي قبل أن يتم تحديد املواصفات‬ ‫والشروط النهائية‪.‬‬ ‫إعفاء الشركات الصغرية واملتوسطة من‬ ‫تقديم التأمني املؤقت‬ ‫يمكن أن تكون تكلفة تقديم التأمني‬ ‫املؤقت والنهايئ والضمانات مرتفعة‬ ‫بالنسبة للشركات الصغرية واملتوسطة‪،‬‬ ‫مما يجعل هذه الشركات يف وضع تنافيس‬ ‫غري مالئم‪.‬‬ ‫لذا فإن قانون املشرتيات الجديد يتيح‬ ‫للشركات الصغرية واملتوسطة أن تطلب‬ ‫إعفاءها (إما بصورة كاملة أو جزئية) من‬ ‫تقديم التأمني املؤقت والنهايئ والضمانات‬ ‫املالية والتأمينات النهائية بناء عىل تعهد‬ ‫من بنك قطر للتنمية‪.‬‬ ‫التوافق مع أفضل املمارسات الدولية‬ ‫يهدف قانون املشرتيات الجديد إىل‬ ‫مواءمة قوانني املشرتيات الحكومية‬ ‫القطرية مع أفضل املمارسات الدولية‪،‬‬ ‫مثل قانون األونسيرتال النموذجي‬ ‫‪ UNCITRAL Model Law‬بخصوص‬ ‫املشرتيات العامة‪ .‬ومن خالل اعتماد هذا‬ ‫القانون الجديد‪ ،‬من املتوقع أن تحقق‬ ‫الحكومة توفريا كبريا من خالل الصفقات‬ ‫الحكومية‪ ،‬وهو توفري يكتسب أهمية‬ ‫متزايدة خالل هذه الفرتة التي تتسم‬ ‫بانخفاض أسعار الطاقة‪.‬‬ ‫آثار القانون عىل الشركات العاملة يف‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يجب أن يُنظر إىل قانون املشرتيات الجديد‬ ‫كخطوة إيجابية للشركات التي تقدم‬ ‫العطاءات للفوز بعقود حكومية يف دولة‬ ‫قطر لسببني عىل األقل‪ .‬أوال‪ ،‬من شأن‬ ‫ما جاء يف قانون املشرتيات جديد من‬ ‫الالمركزية يف اتخاذ القرار أن يضمن أن‬ ‫يتم طرح املناقصات من قبل أشخاص‬ ‫يتمتعون بمعرفة وخربات تقنية عالية‪.‬‬ ‫لذا يصبح من البديهي أن تتم معاملة‬ ‫العطاءات وفقا ملزاياها التقنية‪ .‬وثانيا‪:‬‬ ‫تتيح املناقصة عىل مرحلتني املزيد من‬ ‫االبتكار والتحسني يف عطاءات املشاريع‪،‬‬ ‫مما يمكن أن يفيض إىل التقريب فيما بني‬ ‫توقعات العميل واملقاول بشأن أي مشروع‬ ‫يتم تنفيذه‪.‬‬ ‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬

‫‪66‬‬


‫تحت الضوء‬

‫بقلم جوليان بييل (يمني )‬ ‫ومايكل توريني‬

‫من شركة وايت آند كيس‬ ‫إل إل بي (الدوحة)‬

‫الصناعة تستعد لقانون‬ ‫المشتريات الجديد‬ ‫دخل القانون الجديد للمشرتيات الحكومية حيز التنفيذ يف قطر شهر يونيو من هذا‬ ‫العام‪ .‬وينسجم هذا القانون الجديد مع أفضل املمارسات الدولية يف هذا املجال‪ ،‬وهو‬ ‫يهدف إىل تبسيط املشرتيات الحكومية يف قطر‪.‬‬ ‫‪67‬‬

‫اإلنشاءات اليوم‬


Project Updates

DOHA PORT TO UNDERGO RENOVATION WORK

Doha Metro

Tunnelling work completed After 111 km of drilling for the first phase of the Doha Metro, the tunnelling work of Qatar’s public transport system was finally completed in September. Qatar Rail completed the task using 21 tunnel boring machines, a feat published in the Guinness Book of Records. The Metro is expected to be open to the public sometime in early 2020.

Development activity, including widespread dredging, worth QR2 billion will be carried out at Doha Port in the second quarter of 2017. Canal deepening work as well as maintenance of facilities, part of the expansion plans of the port, will be done in two phases from April. The move is aimed at ensuring the smooth arrival of ships in order to receive more tourists.

World Cup

Al Rayyan Stadium In a move which put the Al Rayyan Stadium five weeks ahead of schedule, construction workers began pouring concrete into its stands in October after finishing excavation. The stadium, which is expected to be completed by 2019, is supposed to host the quarterfinal fixtures of the 2022 World Cup in Qatar. Apart from Al Rayyan, work is currently in progress at the Khalifa International, Qatar Foundation, Al Wakrah and Al Bayt stadiums for the quadrennial event.

IZGHAWA INTERCHANGE OPEN TO TRAFFIC

The Izghawa Interchange and a bridge linking Al Huwaila Road with North Road were opened to traffic in October by Ashghal. The former consists of three graded levels, ranging from single to four lanes in each direction, apart from a traffic signal, and will alleviate traffic congestion on the northern side of Doha and also provide better access to local roads.

WORK ON RAWDAT RASHED ROAD UNDER WAY

The first two phases of the Rawdat Rashed Road Development Project, worth $107 million (QR 390 million), has been completed, according to Ashghal. The public works authority further added that both phases were completed under the supervision of AECOM Middle East. Once finished, the project will link Salwa Road and Dukhan Highway.


Construction today 2nd issue  
Construction today 2nd issue  

Snapshot of Qatar's Most Happening Sector

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