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Teacher: ______________________________

Dear Student,

This “Remembering Sir. Lynden Commemorative Composition Notebook is our gift to you, a precious jewel in the crown of our country’s future, on the occasion of the 40th Independence Anniversary Celebration. As you continue on your academic journey, let it serve as a reminder that the government of The Bahamas is always by your side. Have a wonderful year! Yours truly,

Jerome Fitzgerald Minister The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology






Period Subject



















In the event of an emergency please contact ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

The Pindling Era - The Evolution of Bahamian Democracy


“Leaders, we must not forget, do not make themselves. They are made instead by the people they lead, by the people who believe in them and by the people who are prepared to follow them not out of fear, or because it may be the inthing to do, or because of some hypnotic spell, but because deep down there is a faith that moves them to lift us up to a height above their own in the hope that, from the lofty perch to which they have raised us, we can see what they cannot and, that having seen, we, as their leaders, can point the way forward into the tomorrows that await us all.”

Sir Lynden Oscar Pindling Prime Minister The Commonwealth of The Bahamas 1967 – 1992

The Ingraham Era - The Evolution of Bahamian Democracy



The Right Honourable Hubert Alexander Ingraham was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister of The Bahamas by His Excellency the Hon. Arthur D. Hanna Governor-General on May 4, 2007, following the May 02 general election in which the Free National Movement (FNM) party triumphed over the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP). Mr. Ingraham was also swornin as Minister of Finance. After his Government lost the 2012 General Elections, Mr. Ingraham announced his resignation as FNM leader and as an MP. Members of the FNM elected Dr. Hubert Minnis to succeed Mr. Ingraham as Leader of the Party and of the Opposition in the House of Assembly. Mr. Ingraham previously served as Prime Minister when the FNM ousted a PLP administration in August 1992. That election victory ended 25 years of governance by the PLP which was led by the late Rt. Hon. Sir Lynden Pindling. In the May 02, 2007 election, the FNM won 23 of 41 seats in the House of Assembly defeating the PLP under the lead-

ership of the Rt. Hon. Perry Gladstone Christie. Hubert Ingraham was born in Pine Ridge, Grand Bahama, on August 4, 1947. He grew up in Abaco and attended Cooper’s Town Public School, Cooper’s Town. He later attended the Southern Senior School and the Government High School Evening Institute, in Nassau. Following brief periods of employment in the accounting departments of Owens-Illinois Sugar Mill Company in Abaco, The Bahamas Telecommunications Corporation (BTC) and the Chase Manhattan Bank in Nassau, Mr. Ingraham became an articled law clerk and was called to The Bahamas Bar in December, 1972. He entered private practice and became the senior partner in the firm of Christie, Ingraham & Co. An active member and officer in the Nassau and Bahamas Jaycees, he entered front-line politics in 1975 when he was elected to the National General Council of the PLP. He became party chairman in 1976.

Mr. Ingraham was first elected to the House of Assembly in 1977 as the representative for his hometown constituency of Cooper’s Town, North Abaco. He was re-elected on six consecutive occasions as the representative for that constituency.

fundamental tenet of his new party and energized its various factions to pull off a stunning victory over the ruling party in a byelection in the Marco City constituency in Grand Bahama in June, 1990.

He has served as a member of the House Standing Committee on Privilege and Public Accounts, as chairman of a Select Committee on Influence Peddling and Political Contributions and as chairman of The Bahamas Mortgage Corporation. He has also served as a member of the Air Transport Licensing Authority and chairman of the Real Property Tax Tribunal.

A child of working-class parents, Mr. Ingraham has a strong social conscience, which influenced the policies of his party and government. However, he is a pragmatic politician and, notwithstanding his strong identification with and ties to the grassroots of society, he has cultivated important relationships with the business community of The Bahamas.

In 1982, Mr. Ingraham was appointed Minister responsible for Housing and National Insurance. He held the post for only two years. His public criticism of the then government’s inaction in the face of damaging revelations of corruption in high places by the 1984 Commission of Inquiry resulted in his dismissal from the Cabinet and in 1986, his expulsion from the PLP.

His first term in government was marked by a deliberate reduction in the size of government, reducing government’s direct intervention in the economy and promoting fresh private investment, both domestic and international. He and his government have been credited with the revitalization of The Bahamas' economy since 1992, most particularly of its tourism sector, which has enjoyed massive international capital infusions, and its financial services sector, which restored confidence in The Bahamas as a clean financial jurisdiction and spurred increased international banking and trust businesses in recent years.

His strong personal political support in his constituency permitted him to continue to speak out against corruption in the government and to call for radical changes in the political culture of patronage and nepotism. His re-election to Parliament as an Independent in 1987 made him a political force to be reckoned with. Mr. Ingraham, joined the then Official Opposition Party, the Free National Movement, in 1990. In May of the same year he was elected leader of the party and appointed Leader of the Official Opposition. He imprinted his style on the FNM. He made his belief in and calls for honest, open transparent and accountable government, a

In 1993, he was made a member of Her Majesty’s most honorable Privy Council. On March 03, 2000, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Buckingham, England. He is married to the former Delores Miller of Long Island, a public high school principal. The couple has five children.

The Christie Administration - The Evolution of Bahamian Democracy




he Rt. Hon. Perry Gladstone Christie was born in Nassau on August 21st, 1943 to Gladstone L. Christie, a taxi driver and Naomi Christie nee Allen, a nurse. He grew up and was raised in the area of New Providence known as The Valley. He attended the Government High School but was later expelled, a critical turning point in his development as he committed himself to academic excellence, studying under the care of D. W. Davis. He went on to read law at the University of London. The Right Honorable Perry Gladstone Christie was sworn in as the fifth Prime Minister of an independent Bahamas on May 8th, 2012 following the Progressive Liberal’s Party (PLP) victory in the general elections of May 7, 2012. He is also the Minister of Finance with responsibility for the Office of the Prime Minister, Department of Lands and Surveys, Department of Statistics and the Ministry of Finance.

His present portfolio includes the following: Coordination of ministries, Government and Parliamentary business, disaster preparedness and emergency management, the official Gazette, Hansard, Government Publications, Printing and Stationery, relations with the Clifton Heritage, Bahamas Information Services, relations with The Bahamas Telecommunications Company, relations with multilateral Financial Institutions, Administration of Tax Information Exchange Agreements, national statistics among others. He became the 3rd Prime Minister of The Bahamas on May 3rd, 2002 with the Progressive Liberal Party’s triumph over the Free National Movement in a general election a day earlier. Official returns gave the former Opposition Leader’s party 29 of the 40 House of Assembly seats that were at stake. The FNM, which had governed The Bahamas for nearly a decade under Prime Minister Hubert A. Ingraham, won six seats.

Mr. Christie is believed to have been the youngest Bahamian ever appointed to the Senate. Named Senator by Prime Minister the Rt. Hon. Sir Lynden Pindling in November, 1974, Mr. Christie served in that capacity until June, 1977. In January of the latter year he was appointed chairman of the Gaming Board, which regulates casinos in The Bahamas. Receiving the PLP’s nomination for the Centreville constituency in the 1977 general election, Mr. Christie was elected Member of Parliament for that constituency, and shortly after appointed Minister of Health and National Insurance. During the June, 1982, general election, he was re-elected Member of Parliament for Centreville, and was once again appointed to the Prime Minister’s Cabinet, but as Minister of Tourism. A dynamic Minister, Mr. Christie moved tourism in The Bahamas to new heights. In 1984, however, he was dismissed from the Cabinet, and during the 1987 general election ran as an independent candidate. He retained his seat in the Centreville constituency. Three years later – in March, 1990 – Mr. Christie returned to the fold of the Progressive Liberal Party, and was appointed Minister of Agriculture, Trade and Industry by the Prime Minister. Mr. Christie’s ministerial responsibilities included the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade and Industry; mining, geological surveys, petroleum, fuel, oils and petrochemicals, industries encouragement, manufacturing, relations with The Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corporation, relations with The Bahamas National Trust, Andros reef and blue holes, and the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Co-operatives.

In January, 1993, following the PLP’s defeat in the August, 1992, general election, Mr. Christie was elected Co-deputy leader of the PLP with responsibility for party activities outside parliament. Victorious in the newly created Farm Road constituency in the general election, he was appointed Leader of the Opposition by the Governor-General on April 07, 1997. He had been elected leader of the PLP at a special convention on April 05. Mr. Christie thus succeeded the late Rt. Hon. Sir Lynden Pindling, M.P., who had led the PLP since 1956 as both Leader of the Opposition and leader of the party. Education: He attended the Eastern Senior School in New Providence, the University Tutorial College, London, Inner Temple and Birmingham University, from which he graduated with honors in 1969. Civics/Social: He is a founding member of the Valley Boys, an organization noted for its entries in the annual Junkanoo parades, and of the Pioneers Sporting Club.
 Mr. Christie’s athletic skills developed as a member of the Pioneers, and led to his representing The Bahamas at the 1960 West Indies Federation Games in Kingston, Jamaica, and at the Central American and Caribbean Games in Kingston in 1962, when he won a bronze medal in the triple jump. Professional/Career: Mr. Christie is an Attorney-At-Law.

The Christie Administration - The Evolution of Bahamian Democracy



Jerome Fitzgerald was born on the April 3rd, 1966 on New Providence Island, Nassau, Bahamas. He is married to Zaria Fitzgerald and they have three children together Edward, Jared and Zahra.

Mr. Fitzgerald was sworn in as Minister of Education, Science and Technology on May 10, 2012 and his Ministerial portfolio includes: Education Scholarships, Education Loans, Distance Learning, Relations with the College of The Bahamas, Bahamas Technical and Vocational Institute, Relations with Church-operated and other private schools, Public Libraries and Reading Centers, Retired Public Record and Historical Archives, Relations with the Antiquities, Monuments and Museums, Culinary and Hospitality Management Institute, Technical Cadet Corps, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education pre-schools, Relations with School Boards, Special Education, Development and Promotion of Facilities for Scientific and Technological Education, Research and Innovation, and Promotion of Scientific Exhibitions.

Mr. Fitzgerald was appointed to the Senate by the Leader of the Opposition the Rt. Hon. Perry G. Christie on the 21st of May 2007. At the 2009 National PLP Convention Mr. Fitzgerald vied for the Deputy Leadership position of the Party.

He received his early education at Queen’s College Primary School, graduating from St. Andrew’s School in New Providence. He received his tertiary education at Essex University of London and the University Business School, London, where he studied law, graduating with an LL.B, LL.M, and MSc. He has achieved additional professional certifications, including the Certificate of Proficiency, The Chartered Insurance Institute London England, Licensed ‘Life and Other than Life’ Insurance Salesman, Bahamas.

Mr. Fitzgerald has served in many civic and corporate organisations. He is a member of the Boulle and Young Presidents Organization.

Prior to being appointed to the Cabinet, Mr. Fitzgerald was the managing partner of Chancery Law Associates and his other work experience included positions at Global Custom Brokers and Trucking, Elliot B. Lockhart & Co., Higgs & Johnson, RND Cinemas/RND Holdings and Chancery Law Associates.

Over 700 reasons to fall in love with “home�

Project 43 - Black Edition  

Project 43 - Black Edition