Page 1



For I received lrom the lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord

Today the accomplishment of the

Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and

ancient and true counsel is, in fact

when he had given thanla, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is

and deed, gloriously manifested to the world.

Today, withour


of the

for you. Do this in remembrance of

cup and blood is not such as is

me." In the same way he took the cup

But because r}re intoxication

covering, and with unveiled face, we


see, as in a miror,

the glory of the

the intoxication of the world's wine,

also,after supper,saying,"This cup is

All the angels were standing around

lnrd, and the majesry of *re divine

the new covenant in my blood. Do

the *rrone and around the elders and

ark itself. Today, the most holy

since the Holy Spirit said in the Psalm, ''Thy inebriating cup." He

the four living creaures. They fell

assembly,bearing upon its shoulders

added, "how excellent it is," because

remembrance of me." For as often as


rve for

riis. as often as you drink it, in

doubdess rhe l-ord's cup so inebriates

you ear this bread and drink this cup,

them rhat drink, that it makes *rem

vou proclaim the l-ord's death until

sober; that it restorestheir minds to

he comes. 'Vhoever, therefore, eats

down on their faces before the rhrone


and worshiped God, saying: "Amen! Praise and glory and wisdom and

generations expected, imparts rt to the race of man. "Old things are

thants and honor and power and

passed awaf'-things

strength be to our God forever and

forth into flowers, and such as fade

recor.ers from

of the

l-ord in an unwonhy manner will be

ever.Amenl" Then one of the elders

not away. No longer does the stern

world to the understanding of God;

answerablefor *re body and blood of

asked me, "These in white robes-

decree of the law bear sway, but the

and in the sarne way, that by that

the l-ord. Examine yourselves, and

who are they and where did they

grace of the Lord reigneth, drawing

corunon wine the mind is dissolved,

only then eat of the bread and drink



new burst



that each one

that flavour

the bread or drinla

the cup of the

come from?" I answered, "Sir, you

all men to irself by saving long-

and dre soul relaxed, and al1sadnessis

of the cup. For a.ll who eat and drink

know." And he said, "These are they

suffering. No second time is an

laid aside, so, when the blood of the

without discerning the body, eat and

who have come our of rhe great

Uzziah invisibly punished, for daring

Lord and rhe cup of salvation have

drink judgment against themselves.

tribulation; they have washed their

to touch what may not be touched;

been drunk, rhe memory of the old

For this reason many ofyou are weak

robes and made them white in the blood of d-reLamb. Therefore, "rhev

for God Himself invites, and who

man is laid aside, and drere arisesan

and ill, and some have died. But ifwe

are before the throne of God and serve him

day and night

in his

temple; and he who sits on rhe throne will spread his tent over rhem. Never again will they hunger; never again will they thirst. The sun will not

beat upon




scorching heat. For the lamb at the center of the throne will be their shepherd; he will

lead them


springs of living water, And God will u4pe away every tear from their eyes." Saint Johr K?Ueufion,/:Ii-1,/

wiil stand hesitating with fear? He



judged ourselves, we would not be

says: "Come unto Me, all 1'e that '\X4ro, labor and are heary laden."

conversation, and *re sorrowd.rl and

judged. But when we are judged by

sad breastwhich before was oppressed

the hrd,

then, will not run to Him?

by tormenting sins is easedby *ie joy

we may not be condemned along

of the divine mercy; becausethat only

with the world.

Saint Methodius Oration ConcerningSimeon and Anna On the Day That They Met in the Temple




is able to rejoice him who drink

we are disciplined so tiat


*re Church, which, when it is drunk,

Saint Paul

retains the lnrd's truth.

1 Cointhians 1I: 2j-32

Saint Clprim Epistlt IXII To Caecilius



:l ) o


Dear Fr. Frank, I greet you, the stafi the editors, rhe contriburors, and the readersof Praxiswith the love of JesusChrist our Lord. This focus on HolyTiadition, the theme of this year'svolume of Praxis, directs our affention as preachers, teachers, and srudents of the faith to the bountifirl resourcesgiven to us by God to equip the saintsfor the work of ministry for building up the body of Christ (Ephesians4:i2). This endeavorallrms the vital role of HolyTladition in our faifi and acknowledges that we must make frril use of this sacred heritage in our task of religious education. lVithin this rich .inheritanceis included both the writings and sa,indylives of great teachers and theologiansof the Church. Emphasisis added here, sincein an examination ofTheology within the Holy Tiadition of our Church, the focus of this issue,we are unable to separate the profound teachings and inspired theological treatisesfrom the lives that experienced deep communion wi*r God. Theology is much more than a body of knowledge that is passed down through the ages.It is first and foremost a living encounter with Cod, the one who revealstruth and guides us in affirming that truth within the communiry of faith. The necessiryof communion with God is the recepdon and recognition of our Lord: But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable,gende, open to reason,fi:ll ofmerry and good fruits, without uncertainty or insincerity (James 3:17). This text not only lists the attributes of divine *ird66-e111 knowledge of God-but it also indicates the transformation that such wisdom actualizesin a life lived in communion with God. In this relationship truth is known and experienced,and spiritual growth occurs not simply from the acquisition of a basic knowledge of "theolog'," but through the presenceof God, the purifiing and illuminating source of divine wisdom. May this understanding and experience be the foundation ofour preaching and teaching,ar-rdofall ofour labors,so that the fountain of wisdom and truth is recognized in both the SacredTi'adition of our Holy Onhodox Church and in the manifestation of divine grace in our hearts, minds, and deeds. In this manner Theology is taught and known in love, and we are able to grow up in every way inco him who is the head, into Christ (Ephesians3:16).

\With paternal iove,

/*u^+'--)*.-*I DEMETRIOS

Archbishop ofAmerica



/\ \



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Dear Reader:

"I exltortyou, brethrm, by the nameof our LordJestnchrict that all of you agreeand that tberebe no dissmsions arnonglow but that you be unitedin thesamemind and thesamejudgment." (I Corinthians 1:10) The issueof Holy tadidon is one of the most misunderstoodtheological conceprsof the Onhodox Church' Many commonly think of tradition as somethinghanded dol*r, to u, f.or.r the past. Holy Tiadition, however,is much more. Holy tadition ha, to Jo with the Faith that our lord itp".t.d to the Apostles. SinceApostolic times, this Holy Deposit of our Church has been handed down fiom generationto generation. Holy Tiadition is the Charismaticelementof the Church in that it is the continualwork of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Body of christr As you will observefrom the articlesin this issueof PRAXIS, HolyTiadition, firsr and foremosr,hasto do with a common understanding,an acceptedway of int rpr.ting and dealing with the Faith. The importance of this uniry is seen clearly in the Scriptural p:lssage-quored aboie. The Apostle paul passionatelyappealsto the Christiansat Corinth fo. .o--on and.uniry of judjment. He "g-*.-.n, continuesby insistingthat all churchleaders"hold firm to the sure-word astaught,,o tlr"t'h. iray be able to give instruction in sound doctrineand alsoto confutethosewho contradict-it" (Titus l:9). Consequendy,from the time of the Apostles,Church leaderswere given to preserving and building on HolyTiadition. The ApostlePaulexclaims,'ttand firm and hold to tie tradidons which you weretaught by us, eitherby word of mouth or by letter" (II Thess.2:15). Understoodasthe charismaticelementthat unitesand Preserves theologicalharmonyin the Church, HolyTladition is the very mind of the Church. SaintAthanasiusenloyagls us to dwelop sucha world-viewty "looking at that very tradition, teaching, and faith of the Catholic Church from the very beginning,which the Lord gave,the Apostlespreached, and the Fatherspresewed.Upon this," Athanasiusinsists,.,thechurch is founded.,, It is the ferventprayerof the PRAXISEditorial Staffthat this issuewill provide an opportunicyto deepen our understandingof the apostolic,patristicand ecclesiastical doctrineof uoty t I can drink of "jilo.r. no more important issuefor the contemporaryChrisdaneducatorto both understand and teachthan the doctrineof HolyTiadition in the life of the Orthodox Church. It is rhe sourceof Holy Scriptureand the inspirationof our ryclesof prayerand worship. It is our living connectionwith the fi.rllness of the Church experience'It is the sourceof our ascetical,ethicaland environmentalresponsibilities. It is the roml life of the Church transferredfrom place to placeand from generationto generationas it is inspiredand guidedby the Holy Spirit.

In Chrisr.

, /,ur4x 1u FatherFrank

The Divine Liturry


H"lpi"g Our Children Grow in Faith PhyllisOnest


Building the Parish'Website PhiliplaurmceandCaroll-anes


RememberingSaint Ephrem Pres.Sharon Pelphrey

Menopolian M*h odiw ofAnzon


The Steualdship of theVne Reu.Dr F,ranh Marangos


The Serâ‚ŹnEcumerricalC.ouncils Reu.Dr Emmanual Mantmuris


The Poetry ofTheolory Reu.Dn Coruuntine Neuman


The Eucharisc Part2 Reu.Euangoras Consnntinides


SomeMosaicsin theArt of Prqrcr Reu.Georye Mcozisin


The Unfolding ofTime Ra)Dr. MithaelMassouh


Drirren byR"dd , ndrewAnthony






In Orthodox rheology,the Eucharistis not just one of the seven or more mysreries,but lather the expressionof the totai mystery of Christ, which sanctifiesthe world and guides

with Christ. This unin' is realized when rve receive the Eucharistic Bread and the Wine, changedinto the Body and Blood of Christ by the operation of the Holy Spirit, \Vhom the

the members of the Body of Christ in the life of the Holy Tiiniry. It is not a sacrarnent parallei to others, but the recapitulation ofthe

Christian Community invokes through the bishop or his priest. The term shows the uniry of rhe Body of rhe Christian communiry. a

whole mystery of Christ.

uniry perfected by communion with Christ, \Who is its Head. It also indicates the special task of the Body, which is to offer itself as a

Saint Maximos defines rhe Eucharist as the mystery of the Church. The Eucharist presupposesa synaxis,a gathering ofthe saints "in one place." \Widrout this gathering of the Christian





members of the Body headed by Christ-the Body cannot be offered.The Eucharist cLnnot be celebrated. The Holy Eucharist for Orthodox Christians is t}re Liturg'. This term signifies not simply the s1'nfi.tit and the order and the sequence of prayers, hymns, and symbolic acdons, but the integral nature of the reasonablesacrifice which the Christian communiry offers to God as a thanksgiving for the gospel of salvation, for the complete revelation of God through Jesus Christ, and for all the known and unknown humanity.

blessings given

b,v God


Oun Tnsrc As in its pre-Christian meaning, the term liturg indicares the common task of the Christian peopie, which is the communion of each with others in faith and love and uniry

sacrificeof God for the life and the salvationof the world. In the Didache of the Twelue Apostlrs, a document written between the first century and the beginning of the second, we find a dramatic description of the eschatological aspect of the Christian communiry in the experienceof the offering of the Holy Liturry at an appropriate time and localiry when the promrsedpar"ousiaandthe Kingdom of Christ is realized. Like grain scattered on the mountains and the fields of the physical world being gathered up into the uniry of the Eucharistic loaf, the Bread of the Eucharist signifies the being of the Church of God, which is formed by the gathering of the Children of the Kingdom from the ends of the earth (Didache9,4 and I0,5).

MLnrynDoM "These people, being Christian haue held an assemblyfor the Euchaist, contraty to the ediA of the EmperorsDiocbtian and Marimian."


from the Body of Christ. An early

So also reads the charge made by the magistratesof Abitina in North Africa before the court of the Roman proconsul in Carthage on the twelfth day of February,N) 304.

Church manual puts the matter thusly: "Since you are members of Christ, do not scatteryourselvesfiom the Church by not assembling.For, since you have Christ for l'our Head, as he promised, do not be neglectfi.rlof yourselvesnor deprive the Saviour of his members, not end and scatter His Bodl' (D idarcalia Ap ostob rum XIII).

'What is your ranb'? inquired the proconsul,Anulinus, of thefrst pisoner presentedto him. 'l am a senarot'',repliedDaiuus. 'Wereyou presentin the assembly?

It is especiallyin the Eucharist that the oneness of fellowship in Christ is exhibited in all its fullness. The Eucharist is the common action of all

'l am a Chixian, and I waspresentin the assembly'. Stratghtway theproconsu/ ordzredhim to be suspendetlon t/ie rach and his body torn by barbed hookl Then Satutninus anaignedfor combat. The proconsul asked, 'Did you, contraty to the ordersofthe emperors,anangefor thesepersonsto hoU an assembly'? Satuminus rqlied, 'Certainly We cebbmted the Eucharist'. '\Yfui?askedAnulinu, 'Becausethe Euchaist cannot be abandnned', respondedSanmintu. soonashe said this, theproconsul orderedhim '4s to beput immediately on the rack with Datiuus. Then Felix, a son of Satuminus and a rcader in the Church, came forward t0 the czntest. iYhereupontheproconsul inquired ofhim, 'I am not asking you if you are a Christian. You can hold your peaceabout that. But wereyou one of the assembly;and d.oyou possess any copiesof the Scriptures'? 'h

tf o Christian could exist without the Euchaist, or the Eucharist be celebratedwithout a Chistian', arcwered Fe/ix. 'DonT you knota that a Chistian is constituted by the Eucharbt, and the Eucharisr by a Chistian? Neither auaik without the other We always conuene at the Euchaistfor the reading ofthe Lord's Suiptura'.

Enraged by the confession,Anuliruu ordered Felix to be beaten with clubs\Patrologia Latina,

\TrI 688). Such, in part, is dre actual record of the confession made by a congregation of fortlnine Christians who had met together in the home of their priest to fuIfill their obligation to celebratethe Eucharist. It is this very same Eucharist that we contemporary Christians celebratein our parishes.It is this very act of corporate worship that prompted Christians in Nonhern Africa to risk life and properry in order to participate in it. This compelling urgenry toward corporateworship aroseout of the very nature of the Christian faith itself The graceof the New Covenant establishedby God! redeemingwork in Christ was imparted to humans not as isolated individuals, but as very members incorporate in the Mystical Body of Christ, Himsell In our modern Western culture, with its prevailing philosophy of individualism, there is a widespreadnotion that a man who absents himself from the corporate worship of the Church harms no one. Such a conception is exactly the reverse of early Christian beliel Separationl'rom Fellowshipmeanr separarion

the redeemed children of God who offer and present themselvesas a living sacrifice, unired with our Lord's sacrifice on Calvary. Only fius cou.ld the early Christians realize that which they were called to be rhrough baptism, ie, members one of another in JesusChrist. The early Christian wouid risk his very life in order to give witness to the fact that, as a Christian, he could not possibly worship God without others.

THr J r wr s uRo o r Lirurry means an act performed for the good of a communiry Literall1',it means *re 'work of the people" in their common life of prayer. In the Orthodox church, the word is a technical tide used solely to denote the rite of the Eucharist. There are two influences upon the Christian Liturgy rvhich have rieir roots in Judaism. One is that of the Sr'nagogue,with emphasis upon the study of Scripture; the other is the concept of SacredMeal among the Jews. The Licurgv oF the Carechumens-rhat part of our Liturgy which precedes the Great f,n11a11ss-i5 composed of psalms, hymns, iitanies, and the Episde and Cospel readings. It is for the purpose ofpetition and instruction


that the first part of the Liturgy is so composed'The priestbeginsthe Liturgy with the exclamadon,"Blessedis the KingJom of the Father,Son, *d Hoty Spi.i,, now and alwaysard unro the â‚Ź.r .i"#;;;.; il; "u.; Jewish Sacredu.rl i*"y, ||1. ;. blessing "Blessedbe Thou, o"c"a Fathers...."Sinceth.l.*Jilii;}."j}] "i "r, alwaysa religiousoccasion, it embodiedafr-red ,it.,i, a*r:y, observed*rr." rri."a, ,''J neighborsmet; which .ot pt".. ;; ",-.1'. Supper.

thosechosenfor the Eucharisticsacrificeinto demonstratingtheir love and showing their the sanctuar;r mutual fbrgiveness for offenses committed.In .rr outward manne! they prepared 'neGreatEntranceisthatveryprocessionof this themselves to receivethe Body and Blood of the gifts.The priest t"k , into ,h. r"n.,u"ry o* from anger and division' '*4ren our gifts of breadand wine, which are to be flt:t "Let usloveoneanotherthat chanm offeredto God asa symbolof our veryiives:-l:rpt"" in. connectionwith christs offering of Xll"*mindwemayconfesstheFather,the the Holy Spirit"' rememberthat the - ^'mseli of His very life. fuai.r tr ::::*d to you is christ Himself,'{4rom emphasison Gods Kingdo-, J'r,t corporare l,::::" "*t to embracein unitv nation of thosePeopleJrcoa.:-:ti.l ;: f:;Hj,ll*'enough ilrq a His way'The priestprays."May rheLordGod

This, the mosr sacredof meals for the Christian, beginswith a blessingsimilar

Co x sE CRAT Io N

to that of ancient Judaism-a blessing to God's kingdom, which is witnessed to by God the Father, Son, and Holy

The most solemn moment of the Liturg, follows. It is the time when the specific elements of the Last Supper are remembered and repeated by Christians in union with Christ.

Spirit and by God's people present in corporateworship. The Liturgz unfolds in this manner: The blessing of God's

The ritual of the Last Supper was at first simple. The Didache records earlv liturgical practice: "Then at table, the meal was blessed by the

Kingdom; petitions for peaceJ salvation, love, ard harmony; and a Doxology, ascribingglory to God. This formula is exactly the Judaic rite of SacredMeal. The Jew blessedGod, as witnessed to in the kingdom and

initial Blessing and Breaking of the Bread." The Supper followed. Alier the Supper, the meal concluded with

nation of Israel,the people of God. He enumerated the gifts of God, ascribing glory to God. An example of such a prayer is, "Blessed an Thou, O Lord

the blessingand partaking of the cup of wine which bore the distinctive Jewish name of the "Crp of Blessing."

God, Eternal King, who feedest the whole world with Thy goodness and mercy, who givest food to all flesh, for Thy loving-kindness endureth forever, for great is Thy Name. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, for all rhis we thank Thee. Blessed and glorified be Thy Name forever.Amen."

O u n G rrr The early Christians brought their gifu of bread and wine as an ofi,ceringfor liturgical use. The bishop or priest appointed by him would choose the besr among them for use in the Eucharistic offering. Aiter the Liturgy of the Catechumens was over, the catechumens were dismissed.Only the faithful, or those initiated into the Body of Christt Kingdom through baptism, remained. Then, in procesrion, the gifts were brought to fie clergy, who took


remember us all in His Kingdom, now and forever." Then the last part of the Hyrnn of the Angels, who surround God continuously in majesry is sung by the people: "That we may receivethe King of all, invisibly escortedby the Angelic Hosts, Alleiuial" After

this, another ser of petirions, remembering human needs, is offered. The priest reminds us all that we should love one ano*rer. In liturgieswir_hrwo or more priesr, they embrace each other with the Kiss of Peace. In the early Church, everyone in the congregation embraced, thus ourwardly

In time, historic iiturgical pracrice concerned itself only with the consecrationof the Eucharistic Bread and Cup by a single prayer of thani<sgiving. The prayers used are the traditional blessings of dranksgivingsof theJudaic meal. The prayers began with the thanlsgiving, "We give thanl<sto Thee and blessThee for Thy mercy.', In the Orthodox Liturgy, immediately after thehymn Agios,Agiu, Agiu Igios Sabaorh,or Holy Holy Holy Lord Sabaoth, the priest inaudibiy offers a prayer which contains those early elements of *re Sacred Meal ritual. It begins by giving glory to God. Ir enumerares the reasons for God's giving humans the priceless gift of His Only Begotten Son. It temembers &e night of His Passion and sacrificeand repeatsthe very words of Christ: "Take-Eat-This is my Body-TakeDrink-This

is my Blood."

H IE R A ' , RCr ir HS: : . "r , ,

Then the Holy Spirit is invoked,and the priest prays that God ..."Send down Thy Holy Spirit upon us and upon the gifts here presentedand make this bread the Body of Thy Christ and that in this chalice,the Blood of Thy Christ, changingthem by Thy Holy Spirit. Amen." The gifu of the peoplearenow unitedinto Christ'sBody andBlood.\7e, too, are changed.Thus, to receivethe Body and Blood of Christ at Liturgy is essential for our final and ultimate uniry with God and with oneanother.

Rr n l Pn TSE N C E After the consecration, we witness the final growth of humankind: God is present in our midst in a real manner. A-ftercommemorating the whole Church, t}le living and dead, the saints, and prophem; after uni$'ing ,loo"gh history the story of Redemption, the priest Ieads all to recite the prayer taught by Jesus Christ Himself, the "Our Father." This prayer was introduced into *re Licurgy very early in rime. It conrains the very elements of prayer expressiveof the Christian life. It was at first used in the baptismal rite. l,ater it became a common form of prayer of Christians on all occasions. From the l,ordt Prayer, Communion is the next logical step. The priest invites all to receiveHoly Communion by saying, "Let us pay attention. The Holy gifts for the holy people of God." Only God is holy, yet he freely gives Himself to humans, even though humans do not merit God" eift of Himself *rough

their own works.

\7ith Holy Communion, the taking and assimilating of Christt very Being into humans', the liturgical experience reaches its climax. The very brief dismissal form that follows demonstrates how the Christian Church always considered the reception of Communion as the goal of the Liturgy itself After a few petitions and the final blessing bringing to rnind Christ's resuffection and relationship to fie Church of the saints, the people are dismissed in order to continue their experience on uniry and love by the manner in which they live and relate to one another.

In the earlyChurch, the Agapemealfoliowed Liturgy. A festiveoccasionwasthe celebration of Gods work among humans.Therefore, those gifts left over from the Eucharist banquet were distributed for the love meal that followed. For this reason,Orthodox distribute the breadleft over to the faitlrfirl as a token of the joy that should accompanyall Chrisdans always, in celebration of their lnrdt day.






"On the third day there wAs a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the motlter ofJesuswas there.Jesusand his discipleshad also been inuited to the uedding. When the uine gaae out, tlte mother ofJesus said to Him, 'They haue no uine"\John2:l-3). "They have no wine" (John 2:3). These are rhe words of our Lord's Mother spoken during a wedding reception that occurred in a small insignificant vi.llage in Galilee located about three hours journey from Nazareth. These

the Son of God. These signshelp to createtle underlying presuppositions of the Cospel of John. The miracles performed by Jesussignal His identiry as the Christ of God who brings the promise of eschatologicaisalvation.

words mark the introduction of Jesus'public ministry and what Saint John the Evangelist refersto as "the first of His signs" (John 2: i 1). \Vhile at first reticent ro acceDr the tacit

The New TestamentTheological kxicon sets out tle basic meaning of the Greek word for sign (semeion) as something by which one

directive of His morher, Jesus urilizes Lhe depletion ofwine asan opportuniry to disclose the mystery of His identiry. The founh gospelpresentsthose who srudy it with two levels of application. There is a simple surface story that can be easily retold and understood that has a deeper theologieJ interpretation for those who eagerly search with the eye of faith. This pericope (the text appointed for teaching) concerning the marriage at Cana is rich with both historical information and deeper theological trutls. This ardcle will examine both levelsof exegesis and suggest a framework for an Orthodox model of curriculum design.

The miracle of Cana is one of sevensigns or miracles that magni$' the identiry of Jesus as

recognizes a palticular person or thing-a confirmatory corroborative, authenticating mark or token. In general,it denotesa miracle worked by the divine. Its reference is to disclosureas the indispensablepresupposition of all knowledge without the requirement of expianation or interpretation. Through these signsJesusrevealsHis glory. \X4rat is significant is that the miracles as signs have the power of revelation only for those whose eyes God Himself opens. At best, the unenlightened approach Christ with curiosiry. By contrast, those who reject Christ reacr to His signs with

unbelief, resentment, and

anger. Accordingly, the testimony of Jesr.s' signs in the fourth gospel is to the glory of the Vord made flesh (John 1:14). It is a testimony that manywere unwilling to accept(John 3:11). As we shall see,the first sign signalsdre mastery of

H ] E R A R CH S

the nerv over the old. Finallr', the miracle at Cana is a pou'erful testimonv of Godt love and po\\ret a blending of the sacredwith the secula! of the r'vater of purification with the fragr.rnr wine of the Kingdom. The miracie (John -2through 3:21) marks the beginning of a processthrough u,hich Jesuscompletes, purifies, and redefinesthree inre rco nn ecred rerlp l* : , a' of r he hom e r Cana, . r [ r r o f r , i o r s h i p [erusalem), and (c) of the individLral(Nicodemus). Our catecherical initiatives rvould benefir fiom :r structure thar q'ould follorv such a schemebv placing the glon' of God squarelf in the center of each.

Tnr SnnN SrcNs The n'edding ir.r Cana is the setring for the fLrsr of the seven signs (miracles)performed by Jesusir.rthe Gospel of Saint John. These are: (a) chanqing \ ater into wine, (b) curing the nobleman's son, (c) healing rhe paralrtic, (d) feeding the multitude, (e) walking on the nater, (l) giving sight to the blind man, and (g) raising Lazarusfrom the grar.e.The sevensignsof the Gospel ofJohn point to somerhing beyond themselres,nameh., the mvsten. of the Incarnate God at n'ork in His mighry and savingacts,the Kingdom of God inaugurated bvJesus.The signsare a meansby which Jesus'disciplesand others come ro recognize His Glory His divine porver rer.ealsthat He comes from the Father. ConsequentlH the signs lirrther strengthen faith in Him. Accordingto Sdnr Crril oFNex.rndriaand Sainr Ephrem ihe Slrrar. the u'ine symbolizesthe supreme revelation given bv God to humanin: The water become wine is a powerful sign given b1.Jesus,the Logos, that manifests His superioriry While good, the revelation communicated through the Old Testament prophets and the larl'' is inferior to the testimonv given bv Jesus(John 1: I 7). The setting of this miracle is significant becausein the Old Testament marriage svmbolizes the union of God with His Bride, Israel. It is interesting to note that Moses' first sign before Pharoah was turning rhe rvater of the Nile into blood. Jesus,on the other hand, begins His ministn'by tuming u'atel into rvine,a svmbol of salvation(Isaiah25:6) and an indication of the jov of His Kingdom being spreadro all of rhe rvorld. 81' this sign, Jesus liker.visedeclaresmarriage to be holv and honorable (Hebreu.s 13:4). This pericope is read at the Orthodox sacrarnentof Holy Marriage; it is also read on the Monday after the

Sundav of Saint Thomas, a seasorlof mrstaeogicalinstruction in the Earlv Church fbr Christiars u.ho u'ere baptized and cl.rrismateddurilrg Pascha.Its selecrionin the iater cxe is due to the sron"s litureical and rich sacramentaiteaching. The direcrive spoken ro Jesusbv His mother indicatesthat she u'as interestedin averting a calan-ric'.According to Jex.ishcustom. it u'as the responsibilin'of the couple sed to nr.rke the necessarv arrangements to accommodate the r-reedsof their invired gr.rests properly. Since rnost marriage festivitieslasted for manv days, the need for preciselogisticsrvasimportant. l'he wine mav have been depleted bv the unexpectedlv large group of guests,perhaps even bv tl.rearrival of Jesusand His fir.edisciples.The problem mav havebeen compounded bv the modest circumstances of the bride :Lndgroom. In Palestine,rvedding feastsoften lastedsevento fourteen da1.s(Genesis 29:27; Judges 14:15). The marriage feast to which Jesusrvas ir.l'ited might have beer.r going on for some time. This would explain exhaustion of the supplv of l'ine. It is significant and commonh' ..- - - ^.- l .1... .L- ,..1... .l and His companv arrived at the --., -rat Jesus rvedding feast rvas the seventh dav and thus corresporrdedri.ith the solemnu'eek of Passover flohn 2:13). 'Wine is an essentialelement at aJervishfeast."Vithout wine," rvrite the rabbis, "there is no jor." Since hospitaliry in the East was a sacreddury, alv failure to extend an ample supplr. of pror.isions especiallv at a r.r'eddingfeast ri.ould be a terrible humiliation for rhe bride ard the bridegroom. The best wine rvas customarily provided to guestsrvhen their senseswere at their keenest.V4ren the ciimax of the gathering had past, rhen the weaker,poorer, and lessfragrart wine was produced. \ilater, on the other hand, rvould have been used at the rvedding recepdon for purposes. According to ceremonial law', nater u'as used (a) to clean the feet olr entry into ahouse, and (b) forrvashing hands. Strict Jewish custom required hand-rvashing before as rvell as benveen each course of a meal. It was for this foot-rvashing and handwashing that stone jarsrverefound in the house.In an effort to maintain cleanliness,water pots \\'ere usuallv made of stone to protecr ritual puriw according to Rabbinical teaching. In Jewishtradition, sevenis a number that s,vmbolizescompletenessand pefection. On the other hand, si-r is a number that symbolizes


somedling unfinished or imperfect. The slx water pots used bv Jesusto perform His first sign therefore s,vmbolizethe imperfections of the Jeu.ishlaw The number of water pots is often interpreted in terms of Levitica.lLaw (seeespecia.llyLeviticus 11:29-38). The number sk is one less than the number seven which rypifies perfection and thus s,vmbolizestie old dispensation of the law. The new dispensation of Crace, inaugurated by Jesus, is s,vrnbolized b.v the water being transformed into wine. \X4rile the Levitical Larv was partial. incomplete, and imperfect, the abundanceof wine is symbolic of the abundant grace and truth in Christ. ln order to complere and perfbct this larv Jesus manifests the "new wine" of His grace.The transformation of such a large quantiry of water ir.rto wine teils us that Christ's grace is perfect, limidess, and sufficient for every need. It is extremely possible that *re five disciples who accompanied Jesus and His mother to tie wedding feast were themselvestle unnamed servants who were instructed to fill these six water pots with water. Significandy John did not designate their identiry as formal servanrs (eperaito) or house-slaves(d,oul.ol.The Greek word empioved refersto them as deacons (diakono).In ail likelihood, therefore, the disciplesas deacons(ministers) and "stewardsof the mysteries" (1 Corinthians 4:1) were the ones to whom Mary directed her advice to do "whatever he tells you." At Jesus'command, therefore, the five newly-called disciples filled and then provided the chief steward of the feasrwith a cup of warer now urned wine. The "master of *re table" was more *ran a qpicai wine steward. He was the chief steward, the symposiarchwho presided over the arrangementsof the enrire feasr.The large number of water pors of considerablemagnitude suggesrsin pan a large number of guestsand the great aftention given to ceremonial puriry. The alabasterjugs may have been differenr in shape according to rheir panicular ceremonial purpose. The transformation of water into wine provided much more than a supply of drink it was also ampie doww for the wedding couple. The ninth Proverb of Solomon unites wisdom, marriage and wine. "tWisdom has built her house, She has hewn out her sevenpillars; she haspreparedher food, shehas mixed her wine; Shehas alsosether tabie;

She has sent out her maidens, she calls From the tops of the heights of the ciw: '\X4roever is naive, let him turn in here.'To him who iacla understanding she says,'Come, eat of my food and drink of the wine I havemi-xed' (Proverbs9:1-5). The Church Fathers followed a similar pattern by interpreting the miraculous transformation ofwater into wine at Cana asan andcipation of the transformation of the bread and wine into Christt Body and Blood at the Eucharist. For them, the Eucharistic gathering was in fact the marriage Feast of Tiue Visdom. Characteristic of this understanding, Clement of Alexandria suggeststhat "Christ turned water into wine at the marriage of Cana in order to "infuse life into the water of a lukewarm heart." He continues by assertingthat through fiis sign Jesuswas 'pouring the blood of the vine into fie whole world and thereby supplying piew within a drink of tuth,

a mixture of the Old

l^aw and *re NewWorld, until the fi.rlfillment of time." Every ageof the Church, every period ofour experiencehas enjoyed a degreeofGodt Grace. In other words, the very best r4ntageis realizedin Christ and in the Church tiat he has inaugurated for this present age. He is the choicest'S7ine.As such, the enlargement of our experienceof Him will progressivelyimpart more gracein the individual. Understood in this fashion, the miracle of Cana is not a miracle of hxury. It is, rather, a miracle of enlightenment, of wisdom. It is a mystagogical miracle, a divine sign that provides a pattern that every stewardresponsiblefor the disclosureof the economy ofsalvation would do well to emulate.

The precious words spoken by our Lord's Mother should not be consideredasmerely historicai context for her son'sfirst miracle. For the Orthodox religious educator, the contemporary s1'mposiarch, Her words should form the invocation of our catecheticalministry namely, the stewardship of vine. The educationd gatherings that take place in many contemporary parishesmay easilt'be compared to the marriage at Cana. \Mhile many religious educators may desire to quench *re


spiritua.lthirst of their students,our techniquesand mefiods hare often left them wanting. -While the Bridegroomk guesrshave come desiring to taste of the very best from the Churchs educational vine, many depart wi*r rhe indecorous conclusion, "They have no wine." The miracle of Cana provides catechis$ wirh welcome news. If we provide opportunities for our l-ord to be at the center of our teaching/learning environments, a new quajiry will characterizeour pedagogicalinitiatives. It will be like turning water into wine. Vithout Christ as our primary focus, means, and end, our teaching will remain dull, stale, and flat, \X{hen we properiy integrate the Grace that resides in all of the Churchs Sacredtadition, our teaching will most ceftainly be transformed from drab and thrillless eventsinto the most vivid and aromadc of experiences. For the most part, the practice of Onhodox religiouseducation hasbeen preoccupied with cognitive objectives.Adult as well as Sunday School educators have structured their course of study around the dissemination of measurablefacts.\7hile such subject-cenreredreaching methods are important and usefi.rl,they are nonethelessincapable of producing faith. Such classroom centered teaching is merely an extension of how out-dated curriculum models that stressteacher-tostudent, one-way pedagogy have diverted attention from our experientially-basedliturgical uadition to that of repedtion, rote, and overly rationalistic learning. The unfortunate consequenceof such a medrodologt is an inferior, watered-down version of Orthodoxy. The miracle of Cana may be further used ro iilustrare how our educational resources are slender and soon exhausted when offered without the transformative presenceof Christ. As symposiarch of the Vine of SacredTiadition, it is important that our pedagogicaimerhods follow the processimplicit in Jesus'first sign. Today, the Church like Mary continues to direct our a[ention to the commands of her son. Divine manifestadon is always associatedwith serving needs in love. Effective teachers are servants who understand their ministry as primariiy the stewardship of the vine. They are sefl/anm thar hearken to the direction of Mary and obediendy do whaterer the Lord commands. Obedient to our Lord's Word as expressedthrough SacredTtadition,

religious educators should employ every effon to provide catechetical oppoftunities for the Holy Spirit to extend wisdom, illumination, and most importantly, love. The most valuable gift that was offered to the couple at Cana was the One provided by the Theotokos. By contributing the Gift of her Son, Mary provides fie Sacred Marriage-Feastof the Church tlle greatest Dowry one could ever receive.Jesusis the '$Vlne of Life that every symposiarch of Sacred Tiadition, every teacher throughout history should strive to offer the guestsof the Bridegroom. This, in the final analysis, is the sacredtrust of every teacher.As such, if we truly desire to honor the guestswho are invited to attend the contemporary marriage feast of the Church dre contemporary religious educator would do well to make ceftain that he/she provides the "good wine first." It is common in Jewish Tiadition to say that wine and life were in the mouth of the teacher (rabbi). It is, therefore, interesdng to observethe method employed by our lord to provide both wine and Iife at the marriage. The miracle of Cana, therefore, has a rwofold purpose. It not only provides an ample provision of wine, but likewise, manifests the Source of Life (Jesu$. As a direct result of such a sign, we are toid by SaintJohn that Jesus'disciples"believedin Him' (John 2:11).

The C,ANA Curriculum Design Model Design refersto a pedagogical model of religious education that is basedon the account ofJesus' first miracle. As we have observed,the incident took place at a wedding in a small, obscure town called Cana. Apparently, the wine at the wedding had run out. As a result,Jesuswas askedby his mother to find a solution for the newlpveds' problem. Although initially reluctant, Jesus nonetheless complies with his mother's request and utilizes the opportuniry to produce His first sign (miracies). The CANA (Catechetical, Affective, and Noetic Assets) Curriculum Design Model includes six interrelated components: (a) Catechist, (b) Child, (c) Content, (d) Context, (e) Communiry and (0 Corroboration. Related to the six stone water-pots of Cana, the



six Cs of the CANA Curriculum Design Model provide interrelared catechetical, affective and noetic resourcesfor the teaching/learning process.\ihile it is not necessaryto utilize rhem in a linear fashion, the components function best when employed in a cohesiveway. Each of the six components includes resourcesand instructional assetsthat correspond to its respectivefocus. (a) Catechist The first component includes instructional resourcesfor the catechist. As stewardsof SacredTiadition, fie catechistis in fact the symposiarch oftie learning context. Such a context should alwaysbe understood in terms of a marriage feast wherein parricipanrs are the invited guests of Christ, the Eternal Bridegroom. According to Saint John Chrysostom, Jesusdid not intend for the sign that he performed at the marriage at Cana to have an affect on everyonepresent but to those "who are best able to understand what was done, reservingclearerknowledge of it for a future time." Catechists are responsible for imparting knowledge to learners. As Chrysostom suggests,drey should make certain that their students are prepared to receive knowledge. Such pedagogical stewardship involves adherenceand obedienceto the will of Chrisr. Such being the case,the first component of the CANA Design will provide curriculum assetsfor the catechiston (a) teaching merhods and rechniques, (b) pedagogical models and theories, (c) illustrations and stories, and (d) personal development and assessmenr rools. In this fashion, teacherswill be in a position to make well-informed pedagogicalchoices.

(b)child The second componenr concenffares on the child learner and will include resources concerning (a) learning sryles, (b) developmental stages,and (c) psychologicaland physiological information. According to Chrlzsostom,"Jesusstill continues bo*r then and now ro make water into wine in order to change our weak and unstablewills." "lrt

us," he exhorts, "bring those of such disposition to the lord that He may change their will to the qualiry of wine, so thar they no longer are tossed about, but have a solid foundation, and be the cause of gladnessin themselvesand orhers." As previously mendoned, the learner is here understood as the invited guest of Christ. Knowledge of learner needs, problems, and potential crisesform the thirst, the teachable momenrs! to which the Church must respond intelligibly. "V4ro are thesecold ones?"Chrysostom asks. "They are those who give their minds to fleeting things of this presenr life, who despisenot the worldt luxury and are lovers of glory and dominion." If our teaching methods are to be successfi.rl,then it is imperative that we understand the disposition of these "cold ones" so that we may in turn warm rheir hearts with the warm wine of Christ's Iove. By providing informadon and resourcesconcerning the learner, our catecheticalinitiatives will have a berer chance of succeedine.

(c) Context The rlird componenr wili emphasize the context of learning. The context for Jesus' first sign was a marriage recepdon. This lirurgical context is further identified as the occasion of a potential crisis. The need for wine provided Jesusthe opportuniry to expressHis love and simultaneously display His $ory duough the work of a sign (water changedto wine). Consequently,the instructional assetsin this category inciude information concerning (a) social issues, (b) contemporary experience,and (c) music, literature and fiIm. (d) Content The fourth component of the CANA Curriculum Design Model will provide the content for the teaching/learning experience.The Sacred Tiadition of Orthodory will be the hallmark of this important water pot and will include material on: (a) Iiturgical life, (b) patristics, (c) Church history (d) ethics, (e) Scripture/Holy Tiadition, and (0 theology, doctrine and dogma. This element involves the expressionof the Holy Tladition of the Church and is best understood as the liturgical water with which the disciplesfilled the warer-porsof Cana to the brim. (e) Communiry The fifth component is the communiry. The marriage feast of Cana included guests from t}re surrounding territory of Galilee. The large quanury of wine miraculously supplied by Jesusindicates the degreeof His providence. As such, the CANA Curriculum Design Model includes the responsible involvement and pardcipation of the entire communiry or parish in the teaching/learning process.As the primary agent of the encu.lruration of its youth, rhe entire communiry is simultaneously the surrogate as well as the beneficiary of Christt choicestwine. Communiry participation will be a primary focus of the CANA Curriculum Design Model. Assets will include resources and information on the processof enculturation for (a) clerry, 6) parenrs, (c) godparents,and (d) parish membership. (f) Corroboration The sixth and final component is the corroboration of learning. In his Probgue on the founh gospel, Saint Jerome implies that Saint John the Evangelistwas himself-the bridegroom at the Cana marriage. Guided by the revelationreceivedthrough his persona.lexperienceofour Lordt first sign, Saint Jerome suggeststhat Saint John Ieft all and followed Jesus, the Eternal Bridegroom. The result ofJesus'first sign is the expansionof His disciples' relationship with their new-found Teacher. Saint John assâ&#x201A;Źnsthat becauseof the sign and glory demonstrated byJesus at the marriage of Cana, fie disciples "believed in Hirn' (John 2:11). According to Chrysostom, "only the servants (disciples), the symposiarch,and t}re bridegroom knew what had happened.They took heed to what was done, becausethey had the right disposition and their minds were alreadywell affected towards Him."


\While confirmation that learning has taken place is an illusive element to measure,the CANA Curriculum Design Model includes assessment tools arrd resourcesfor the effectivecorroboration of le;unrng ourcomes. All signs have a purpose: to direct or redirect cognition, affection, arid moral behavior.Consequentiy,the verification of personalcommirment is an important

component in the CANA design. Pedagogical effectivenesswill be evaluated through acdviries such as: (a) serwice learning, (b) stewardship,(c) environmenral awareness,and (d) personal arrd moral responsibiliry Al1 curricu-lahave limitations. They are merely sysremsof water pots into which we fiIl our affective and noetic assers.In rhe end, it is the Lord that perfects all our catechetical initiatives. \X4rile it is our responsibiliry to fill them to the brim,faithfiilly, He is the One who ultimately transforms the educational experienceinto power{Li and lifecharging signs of His glory. The choice wine is the progressivequaliry of our experienceof God in our lives. It is the refinement of Grace, the best vintase of Christ.

A closereview of our Lordt first miracle disclosesthe fact that there were three newly married couplesar Cana: (a) the bride and groom, (b) water and wine, and (c) Jesusand His newly called disciples.As previously mentioned, the transformation of water inro wine symbolizes rhe blending of the Old and the New Covenants. While the union of the bride and groom representthe marriage of Christ with His Church, the newly establishedrelationship of Jesuswith his disciples inaugurates a potentially powerFil marriage between those called to be ministers of SacredTiuth with the Source of Tiurh Himseli There is a hymn that is read at the Holy Lamentation worship service ofGreat Friday evening that unites the celebrationofour Lordt Passion and Resurrection with the miracle He performed at the wedding in Cana. "V/here are vou going, my Child?" asks Mary. "\W4ry are you running so swiftly? Is there another wedding in Cana? Are you hastening there to turn the water into wine? Shall I go wifi ,you my 'Word. Child or shall I wait for You? Speaksome word to me, O Do not passme by in silence."The questionsposed by the Theotokos to her son are asked in such a way as to unite the first sign of her Sont life (ie, Cana) with the final one (za Golgotha). The messageof both is the same:Jesushas come to provide us with transfigured life, to transform sorrow into joy, darknessinto light, water into wine. In Him death itself is transformed into the \Wine of Lifc. This, in the end, is the destination aswell as the sourceof all Tiuth. It is the very ministry of all catechists, ail spnposiarch who consider themselves servanrs of the Eternal Bridegroom ard engagedwith the Stewardshipof the Mne. Reu. Dr Frank Marangos is Director of the Department of Relzgious Education of the Greek Orthodox Archd.ioceseofAmerica andAdjunct Professor of Religious Education at Holy Cross Greeh Onhodax School of Theology, Broohline, Massachusetts. He can be reaclted at







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In the bst issueof PRAXIS,Fr. Mantzouris examinedthefr* four ecumenical the councib,which krgelt createdtheobgicaldefnitions.In this issue,he disauses remainingthreeecumeniralcouncik,uhich contributedstgntfcantlyn Orthodox liturgicalpractice.

T In

remembering the Ecumenical Councils through the brief synopses,we are reminded that the Faith we hold dear today was bought with blood and was handed to us so that we too might preserveit with honor. Funhermore, the councils reveal that we do not have the right to believe in Christ and His Church accordingto our own opinions. Ecumenical does not mean a tactical compromise or politically correct q'rnbiosis of heresy and trutl in the Church. The declarations of these councils prove to us tiat the Tiuth is not to be tampered with or taken lightly. People lost their lives in order that we might be able to worship the I-ord freely and venerate His saints. Endless volumes were wriften and rules were developed to give strucrure and real meaning to our Faith as it applies to our everyday lives, as clergy and lairy. These writings are not ancient history and empry rules, but t}re story of peoplet lives, the link between the aposdes and the contemporary Church. The Church is called to reflect on these events and declarations often. asweli as the lives of those who handed us this Tiuth. This reflection is eood becauseit helps us to have a senseofwhat the Church endured in order that we might have a Church today. t{/e get a real sensethat our Faith was very orecious and dear to them and to us. During these pre-apocryphal days, the last days before our lord returns to claim what is His, we should also remember tiat these holy fathers showed us the cost of true faithirlness. \7e need not be ashamed, discouraged, or despair of our struggles, but be faitl-rfirl through our daily arena until the Lord returns, so that we calr continue to be a link of faith for coming generations, and finally spend an eternity in the company of the Lord and all the saints who came before us and are yet to come.




The Fifth Ecumenical Council took place in t}le ciq' of Constantinople in the year 553.It wx convened by Emperor Justinian I, who is credited with having buiit Hagia Sophia, the Church of the Holy tff4sdom, in Constantinople. In a very famous icon, Justinian is seen on one side offering the church to t}re Enthroned Theotokos and Child, while Saint Constantine is seen on the other side offering the cicy of Constantinople. Justinian was very concerned for the uniry of the Church. Deeply grieved by the Monophysites, Justinian wanted to win back the followers of monophysitism. [For more on the Monophysites, seeFourtlt Ecumenical Counci/,last issue.] One hundred sixry-five bishops attended t}re Fifth Ecumenical Council, which convened primarily becauseof three writings called the Three Chapters.These were writings byTheodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus, and Ibas of Edessa.The essenceof these three writings clearly is Nestorian, that is, monophysite, and thus heretical. By official decree of the emperor aswell asby the decisions of the Council, these writings were condemned. The Fifth Ecumenicai Council clearly defined the doctrine concerning the hypostatic union of our lord's divine and human natures. The Holy Fathers reaffirmed the Fourth Ecumenical Councilt repudiation of the heresiesofNestorius and Eftychios, stating very clearly and precisely thatJesus was firlly God and fi-rllv man. one Person with two natures that were distinct, unconfused, and not divided. Unfortunateh Theodore of Mopsuestia was condemned along witl his works becausehe died unrepentant. The other cwo works, those of Theodoret of Cyrus and Ibas of Edessa,were also condemned. Theodoret and Ibas themselves, however, repented and were pardoned. They died in peacewith the Church.. Along with the firm and concise doctrines against heresies came liturgical dwelopment. Emperor Justinian I is also remembered for the hymn O Only-Begoxen Son and Word of God, $at is chanted before the Small Entrance during the Divine Lirurgy. Thus as in the caseof *ris hymn, these teachings are woven into our liturgical services.

During the sixth century liturgical developmentsflourished. Many Judeo-Christian practicesweresynthesizedwith the practicesof the Church in Constantinopleand the Church in the hoiy ciry of Jerusalem.AIso, the rule of prayer then developingin the monasteriesfound its way into parish life. It was during the sixth centurl that the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts was dweloped by Saint Gregory the Great, Bishop of Rome, and was celebrated on weekdays during Great knt. Eq"rlly significant is the fact that formal Entrances were added to the Liturgy, along with the public reciting of the Creed. The chanting of t}te Tlisagion, rhe " Thice-holy hymni' was also added to the liturgy, just before the readings. The Church in Constantinople was slowly becoming the model for liturgical practice in the other churches. In rhe minds of many people, Constantinople was quickly becoming the "ecumenical sed' of Christianiry, among the five churches that formed the 'five sensesof the universe," nam+ Jerusalem,Andoch, Rome, Constantinople, andAlexandria.






Vell into the seventhcentury under Emperor Constantine M the Sixth Ecumenical Council was convened in the ciry of Constantinople. In the year 680, one hundred sevenrybishops gathered to deal with the heresy known as monotlelitism. Monothelites accepted that Jesus had mo natures, but they ascribed to Him only one will, which is what the word monothelidsm means. Political pressure was waged against the Church to accepr monothelitism; howwer Saint Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, Martin Pope of Rome, and a pious monk fiom Constantinople now known as Saint Maximos the Confessor firmly defended the Faith against the heresy of monothelitism. Saint Maximos and Saint Martin suffered tomrre and mutilation for their staunch defenseof the Faith. The council condemned the heresy of monothelitism by stating very clearly that in rhe Person of Jesusthere exist tlvo naues and two wills. The human will of Chrisr is not opposed to His divine will, but rather His human will is submissive to t}le divine will. During the seventh century many imponant people and their writings affected the order and liturgical development of the Church. Saint John, the abbot of St. Katlerinet Monastery in Sinai, wrote the Laddzr ofDiuine,*cent Nso, we seeintroduced the Canon of Saint Andrew of Crete, which today is read during the period of Great lrnt. Canon law became more formalized with the Sixth Ecumenical Council and with subsequent local councils. Strict discipline for members of the clergy was made necessary in regards to marriage before ordination, and clergy were stricdy excluded {iom pardcipation in military, political, and economic affairs of the world. At a council convened in Tiullo, also called the "Fifth-Sixth' Council, or Quintsext Synod, the canons of the various councils were gathered together to form rhe "Nomocanon," or the "Rudder." In Greek, it is called the Ile 6a),Loy becauseit acts as a rudder ro sreerthe Ship of Christ, the Church. In time, the canons of the Swenth Ecumenical Council would be added to the Rudder as well. The Council of Tiullo stated very clearly that fie fast prior to Paschashould be forry days, and *rat during Great knt there should be no regular liturgical celebrations, except for the Liturgy of the PresanctifiedGifu. Herein, we also seethe canon for not kneeling on Sundaysin honor of our lord's Resurrecdon. It contains very strong language and punishment for anyone involved in an abordon. It also calls for the excommunication of anyone having unexcused absencesfrom church for "three consecutive Sundays."




This C.oundl was convened to deal with the issue of icons. The Seventh Ecumenical Council met in the year 787. Emperors Ixolll (717-741) and Constantine V (741-775) had ried ro subject the Church to their rule. They especidly atacked the pious monks and lairy in the Empire. Some authors claim that Emperor ko III was tryrng to bring the Muslims into Christianiry. In Islam, images of humans are not allowed. Therefore, the focus of attack was the holy icons, which were destroyed and desecratedthroughout the Empire. They were removed from public places, homes, and even in the churches. A prior council was held in 753 which condemned the veneration of icons, calling for dreir removal from churches, from homes, and from public places.The reason for this decision was both theological and political. It was an internal conflict, because there were cerain overhpious individuals whose veneration of the holy icons appeared idolatrous. Funhermore, this controversy was political in nature becausethe Islam religion was fanatical against religious images. Even still, there were the Ten Commandments in the ancient covenant, wherein we hear the teaching against graven images. The issueof the destruction of the holy icons is called the "iconoclastic controversy," and it had been raging in the Church for more than sixry years prior to the Seventh Ecumenical Council, which was convened by Empress Irene (780-802), and is consideredby the Onhodox Christian Church to be the last Ecumenical Council, The see of Rome, on the other hand, recognizes more than tlventy councils as Ecumenical, but these include the councils that were convened after the split in 1063. The Seventh Ecumenical Council was convened in Nicaea and three hundred sixry-seven Fathers of the Church anended. One of the very important people who atended the Council and defended the holy icons was SaintJohn of Damascus. Originally, John was a high-ranking Islamic official who converted to Christianity and became a monk at the infamous Monastery of Saint Savasin Jerusalem. Saint John is credited with many liturgical as well as hyrnnological worls, such as the funeral seryice, t]re eight tones of Blzantine music, and many of the Paschalhymns. Saint Johnt defense of the holy icons was crucial. He clearly stated *re difference between worship \orpe to and veneration npoonpvqoLo. tVorship is for God, and only God. Veneration is given to the icons, the holy places,fie sacredScriptures, the hand of the clerry, the relics of saints, and sacredvessels.Specifically, in reference to the holy icons, the honor given by the person venerating the icon is passedon to the saint depicted. \7e worship God, and we venerate His saints as vesselsof His grace. The bishops were under tremendous politicd pressure to adhere to and suppon the decree condemning the icons. \7hen the official proclamation went out, many people continued the

wereinitiatedtlat lastedfor morethan ten years.Therewas practiceofveneratingicons.Persecutions tremendousfighting and bloodshed.This period of time, becween762-775 is often refenedto asthe 'decadeof blood." The Church recognizesmany marq.rsfor the holy iconsfrom that period. The SeventhEcumenical Council adheredto the theolory expressedby SaintJohn of Damascus,and the decisions rendered in 787 rested heavily on his application of Scripture to the sacred images, as well as his definitions of veneration and worship, The Council reaffirmed that sacred images can and should be made to honor Christ, dre saints, and various feast days. Since the Son of God put on Flesh (was "incarnate") and became visible for our


salvation, it is proper for the Church to expressHer faith and love for Christ and the saints by creating sacred images to raise the mind of the faithful to the remembrance of the persons depicted. If the Son of God put on flesh and becametangible and visible for us, rhen we can and should createsacredimagesto raiseour minds to Christ and the saina. The honor given to tle icons, rhrough veneration, kissing, and embellishing with flowers, is passed on to the persons depicted. Furthermore, as in rhe case of miracle-working icons, such as those painted by Saint Luke in the first century, tle grace of God is made available to His people. In Jesus, God has become visible to His people (John l4:8). Icons are considered to be the "fifth Gospel," teaching those who cannot read, or those who are not satiated by the written text. Even after the decisions of *re Seventh Ecumenical Council were rendered, the iconoclastic controversy and persecutionscontinued until the yeat 843. EmpressTheodora convened a local council in 843, and the holy icons were brought formally back into the churches.In thanlagiving for the Churcht endurance in pursuit of the truth despite bloodshed and the trials, there was a procession of the icons back inro the church building. This celebration became an annual rirual designated for the first Sunday in Great knt. Together with hymns and petitions, this rirual recallsthe image of God is in all of us (GenesisI:26,27),and assermthe proper honor to be given to the sacred icons of Christ and His saints tlut embellish His Church and our homes. As parr of the rirual, the diprychs are opened and the Church prays for those who uphold the Faith. Funhermore, heresiesand false teachings are anatlematized, reminding us that the purpose of the Ecumenical Councils was to abolish false teachings and practices, and to adhere only to those teachings and practices thar were and true (onhodox). The foilowing hymn was written for the reentry of the icons into the church and is still chanted on rlis day:

Weuennak Tlrypure image,O GoodOne, beseechingforgiueness of our sins,O Chist our God. OfYour owngoodwill Youacenfud the Crossin theFlzsh,that Youmight dzliuerthose whomYouhadfashionedfom bondageto the enemJ. Werefore,weoy abud with thanksgtuing for Youhaueflbd all thingswith joy, O our Sauiot; \Vhodid comeinto the world?" Wo is sogreata Godasour God; Youareour Godthe only God Whocreates wondzrs.

Rn Dr. EmmanuelMantmuis sen,es at St Basil Greekorthodnx church in Tioy New york.


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Onb begotten Sonand Wordof God existingimmortal stoopingdoun

for our saluationhauingtakenonflesh by the Theonkosand euer-uirgin Mary without changehauing become/tuman,

crucifed, no, C/trist God,hauing destroyeddeath by death being

Oneof theHob Trinity and beingglortfed togethertaith the

Fatherand theHoly Sprit, saueus.

Despite its deceptively straighforward appearance, t}re beautifi.rl hymn 'O Movopvqq Troq expressesprofound theological insights supponed by intricare verbal and grammarical interplay. Early scholars saw a paraphraseof rhe early Nicene Creed. I believebv examining the hymn as part of the sixth century theology of Emperor Justinian's reign and the subsequent decisions of the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, we can appreciateit on its own merits. In 551, Justinian issuedan edict, the so-called Confessio RectaeFidzi.Its language depans from the credal language in using the dde 'ever-virgin' (cetnopOevou) for *re Theotokos. Mendon of the Incarnation of the l,ogos in fie first pan of the hymn parallels another passageof Justinian's edict, as does identification of the incarnate JesusChrist as one of the Holy Tiinity. Finally, emphasis on a member of the Holy Tiiniry suffering in the flesh summarizespassages in rhe edict. Thus the meaning of dre hymn can only become cleapgrinst t}re sixth-cenrury baclground. Juraposition, subde use of participles and differing temporal perspecrivesalso expresspoetically the imperia_lOrthodoxy which became rhe official posirion of the Church ar the Fifth Ecumenical Council. The kernel of rhe hymn is the prayer, "Christ God, saveus" (Xprore 6 @eog, orooov npdg). But why is this direcr addressto Christ delayed so long? The answer is, rhe displacement naturally draws our artention and gives more force. The samecan be said of beginning with pardcipial phrases, which raisesthe expectation of a simple narrarion. The following shift to direct address calls immediate artenrion ro itself Thus we can conclude rhat the direct address musr have more imDorrance in its context than simply to invoke Christ. Once this technique becomes clear, the cenrer of the hyrnn revolves around the double tide. Jesusis both Xproc6 (tide of che Messiah, rhe anointed one of God, therefore a man) and He is @eoq(God). Only in this dual nature qrn we invoke Him to saveus. The delay of the address to the God-Man until after t}re paniciples stressesrhis poinr.



It is theseparticiples which revealthe hymn's real depth. The first pair "existing and having stooped down' (unagXoJv Kcxl Kctrqbeqc4râ&#x201A;Źvog)

abolish death becauseHe is one of the Holy Tiiniry. Thus, rlie idea of 'existing immortally'' returns ar the end as the causeitself of the fruits

is subordinate (evovOgorutloog

of tAe Incarnation, destroying death by death.

the second "becoming man/crucified" ordopoeerq re). By using the conjunction te instead of fie normal Kq,r, the hymn has juxtaposed rwo important elements of the Incarnation: taking on human nature and crucifixion/death. Thus, the Incarnation and Passion of Christ are brought into direct connecrion with the doctrine of His rwo narures. This doctrine alone givesmeaning to those participles.To complete the poetic "crisscross"(technically known aschiasmus),this line beginswith "without change" (arpâ&#x201A;Źnrog), which balances the sentence-final "God" (@e6g), enclosing the paniciples and the tide "Christ", thus reaffirming in the very srructure of the hymn Christ's single hlpostasis, which was the divine \Word. ro

The first participles also reinforce this identification: As one scholar has noticed, utttiplrov indicates a timeless (present) perspecrive:He is for all time the Immonal God. Tndplcov was also used primarily of the Logos to indicate His eternal exisrence,firough which all other things come into being. The paniciple alone, then, would have su-fficedto indicate fie immonality of the logos. By adding the adjectival phrase "by death overcoming death' (Ocxvti'uo Odvo'uov), the hymn brings the eternal existence of the Logos and His power as susrainer of the universe into direct relationship with His saivific activiry in creation. This verbal relationship indicates that the later sratement has its efficacy from the former: the logos is able to defeat death because He is by nature immonal. The second participle, "having stooped down' (rata6e(otrrevog), shifa from the present to the completed-but-otherwise-indeterminate Greek aorist tense. This shift does not indicate a progression into a secondtime perspective,for it is connected to the preceding rtn<!pXc,:v by Kol; and so is part of the original time frame. Instead, this participle also shows the originaliry of the hymn. In the Creed, the narration of the Incarnation follows the affirmation of the eternal preexistenceof the Logos. In this hymn, the idea of the ]ncarnation and the Passion is transferred from the "second time perspective"we seein the Creed to the "first time perspective,"when the Logos, while still enjoying His eternal life in the bosom of the Father, decided for and acceptedall the ramifications of His Passionand Death. This "aorist" aspect of the Greek paniciple (especially since it is connected to the present participle unoplrrlv) indicates the singleness of the decision, rhe senseof 'bnce for all": His acceptanceof our human narure directly leads to, and is grammatically dependent on, the principles which revealcwo results,made flesh and crucified. The end of the hyrnn reverts ro the present aspect of the participles. These wo participles, howwer, have different relationshipsto the body of the hymn. The first tDv returns the narration to the erernal realm of the divine. This participle also functions as a grammatical closure for the hymn, completing the chiasmus (the literary "crisscross"):although the logos is forever immortal, he decided out of Iove for humaniry to take on the mortal nature; as the result of this Incarnation, Christ is able to


The eternal time perspective (oncipXcrtv / iDv) which forms the bac\ground ofthe evenc ofsalvation is not divorced from those events. By immediately following the aorist time perspectiveofline 9 (Osvcitrrt @clvs'uov nolaico;q) with the eternal rime perspectiveof (erg tirv tqg oyioq

Tprcl6oq), the h)'mn reflectswvo of the important principles of Justinian's Confessio and of the Council of Constantinople: that one of the Holy Tiiniry suffered in the flesh and tlat the Incarnation of Christ became an unconfused composite of nvo natures united by the Person of the Divine Logos. The juxtaposition of lines 8 and 9 also shows *rat the rwo rime perspectivesdo not simply exist on separateplanes as baclground and foreground. Rather, the hymn is also to be read from heaven and immonaliry to earth with its suffering, death and resurrecrion;and rhen back to heaven in the original glory of the Holy Tiiniry. However, a changehas taken place.The eternal Logos of God had aken on human nature by the Incarnation and has returned to His place in the glory of the Tiiniry together with His assumed human nature. By stressing Christ's part in theTiiniry the hymn emphasizesthe synthesisproduced by fie lncarnation, which maintaining the single, unifying hl.postasisof the Logos. The triumphant victory of Christ over death in His rr,vo natures culminates in the eschatologicalvision of *re Holy Tiinity, equal in has rhis escharologicalsense glory. The paniciple (ouv6o(cl(6pevo$ that the fi.rll realization of Christ's victory over death will only come at the end of the world; the participle andcipatesfinal glory; it also has the continuing sensewhich the other present participles of the hymn have, fiat the glory rendered by the redeemed to the Holy Tiinity is the tapestry beforewhich the mystery of the Incarnation played out in time. The reason the ot-lv6o(a(6pevog is brought into direct connection with the imperative prayer, Save us! (o6oov r1pd4): we glori$' the Tiinity by recognizing our sinful state and humbly begging to become participants in the act of Redemption, tir-s completing t}re hymn's sweepfrom heavento eanh and back again. By this close analysis of the text, we see that ttris hymn is meant to encapsulatepoetically the spirit of the theological conclusion of t}re six*r century as expressedin Justinian's Confessio Rectae Fidei and the decreesof the Second Council of Constantinople. It stressesthe Ewo natures of Christ united by the single hypostasisof the Logos, and its importance in the whole scheme of the Incarnation and the Redemption. This beautifirl and profound hymn united the heights of rheological speculationwith the awestruckpiery of the redeemedsinner in carefirlly chosen, yet simple words *hich can be easily internalized through song. Reu.Dr. Constantine Newman is Adjunct Profesor of Clasics at Hellenic College, Brookline, MA and is pastor of the Annunciation Church in



Tns EucHARfsT

P a r t 2 : Pr e p a r a tio n fo r th e Divin e L itu r g y R EV .EV AGOR A C S ON S TA N TIN ID E S

Church canolu guidz Orthodox Christians to commune at the Diuine Liturgl and so to prepare continuous[t. In the /ast issue,Reu.Constantinidzsaddressedczmmln concernsabout the norrnal practicesfor preparation. fequent communion, In this issue,he discusses




Participation in the Eucharist-and belief in the real physical presence of our Lord in the chaiice as essentialfood and nourishment for our spiritual lives-must make us, the faithfirl, long to unite with our lord. To this effect, the priest prays: You ltaue smiwn me witb yaruing O Christ, andwith your diuine bae [?Jyou haue changed me; hut do bum auay uith Eiinulfire my siru and mahe me wortlty n befllzd utitb your joy, so that, njoiti"s I ma1 Tnagntfr lour tuo presences [ic, the First and Second Comingl, O Good One.

It is truly unfom:nate that so many have limited their communion because of misunderstanding about fasting, Fasting is very beneficial for the soul and central to Onhodox praxis. Some fasts are more strict fian others, and your priest is the best guide for you individually.

SELF"EXAMINATION Belore mking Holy Communion, we must examine ourselvesas Saint Paul instructs: Examine yourselues, and only then eat ofthe bread and drinh oftbe cup. For all uho eat and drinh utithout discerning the body, eat and dinh jufument against themselues. For this reason man! of you are weak and ill and sorne haae died But fuejudged ourselues, we uould not be judged (1 Corinthians I 1:28-31).

for -J7ewili now look at the true preparation panaking in the precious Body and Blood of our lord that makes is desire and cherish it.

YOURBOUNry FASTING 'We have seen that

there is no compulsory futing before Holy Communion. The Church offersfastingasa personaldiscipline, following the example of Scripture, Holy Tiadition, and the saints.Most '!?'ednesdays and Fridays, the four Lenten periods, including Christmas, Easteq the Holy Aposdes,and Dormition of the \4rgin Mary, and fie daysofTheophany (January5 for our church), Dormition (August 29), and the Exaltationof the Holy Cross(September14) for all Orthodox to fast. aredmesdesignated Those who follow the Old Calendarobserve the feastsand faststhimeendayslaterthan this.





be careful that



examination we do not exhibit over-sensitiviry or under-sensitivity. If the examination reveals minor unwonhiness, then proceed to the Eucharist with a contrite heart. If the examination reveals serious violations. carnal, moral, or ethical, then proceed to confession.

rovE Eucharist is the highlight of the Divine Drama, the ultimate act of love in the union beween humans and God:


Ii we rea.llyhad such awe. \\'e would nor see disorder, noise, shouting, pushing, arguing' and even fighting in churcheseven to this day' Saint John Chrysostom was horrified by this:

"For God so lnued the world that he gaue his only Son' so that euetYone who belieuesin him may not perish but may haue etental life. Indzed"r God did not satd the Son into tbe world to condetnn tbe tt orld, butin order that tbe world be saued through him" might (rhe words ofJesw in John 3:16-17)'

lYhat is this sin uhich is being openly committed? Coming to Communion not with awe but biching and s*ihing of anger shouting, abusing, full pwhing the nearby, f"ll of agitation

The best u'av to shorv love for God is to love neighbor as self.

...Tell me, u,lry so much noise? V4ry such a rtuh? Tltese are callzd and are sacrlments, and uhere tltere are sacraments there shou/d be nothing but silarce. Therefore, with much siltnce

Ve loue becatue hefir* loued us, Those taho say, "I loue God," and hate rheir brothers and sistas, are liars; for those taho do not louea brother or sista'whom thqt haue seen, cAnnot Inue God' uhom

and murh ordcr and tuith the ProPet reuerence, u,e should aPProach tbis sacred sacrifce' so that we may gain much fauor from God and cleanseour souk and gain the eternal blessings.

they haue not seen. The commandment ue hauefrom ltim is this: Thoseu'ho bue God must hue their brothas and sistas also" (1 John 4:19-21). And ir.rthe Gospel of Saint Matthew, we read



There is no greater source of strength and Dower on earth for the Christian than the partaking of the Lordt Body and Blood regularli'. This is something that we must realizeand take seriouslyby overcoming all the prejudices arld superstitionswhich have crept

"So whm you are offaing yot'u' gif at the ahar, if you remnnber that your brothet' or sista' has something against yo6 lzaaeyour girt there b{ore the abar and go; frst be reconcilzd to )/our brother or sistet and then come and ofer your gif" (Matthetu 5:23-24). And Saint John Chrysostom protests that no one who has enemies and hates them can approach the Holy Thble:

preparation produces. The state of mind in which we approach the Holy Gifts is very important in the entire process of salvation. lrue prayer and devotional reading produce this proper state of mind.

BehoA, I dzclzre ltnd prctest, and shout with a bttd uoice: No otrc who has an enemy can approach the Holy Tabb and accEt the Body of the Lord, and none of thosetaho comefonaard shouU hauean enem)/.Do you hauean enemy? Do not approach. Do you aant to approachi Reconcileand then comeforward and touch the

The final station in preparation for Holy Communion is maintaining reverenceand godlv fear. Many people disiike the word fear


with reason,for Scripture teaches:



There is no fear in lnue, but pafect loue casts out fear; for fear has to do with punishment, and uhoner fears has not reachedperfection in laue (l John 4:18).

Alter communing, we must immediate start preparing in prayer fbr the following time as rvell aswith devotiona.lreading from the Bible and the communion prayers.Not enough can

The fear we are talking about here, howevet is not so much "being afraid" as it is awe which springs forth fiom realization ofour sinfirlness

be said about the sreat benef.its that such

as the greatnessof God touches us.

into our fai*t and :re stifling our spirirual growtn.



T In


my office I used to have a poster which my wife gave me. Under the sketch of a perplexed face were these words: "Now that I have learned all the answers to lifet problems, they have changed all the questions," I sometimes feel that phrase best summarizes our understanding of prayer. Just when we think we understand prayer-how to make it work-it seemssomething elsecomes along to confuse us, disorient us, and put us right back to Square One againl I know this was the casein my younger years.


If this has been the casefor you, too, I would like to invite you to do some spadework with me in the art of prayer. I mr,rst share with you, at the outset, that I do not have a file of tried and tested Dos and Donts'for successfrrlprayer.


Think of prayer as a large sphere with immeasurable value and unlimited powers. kt's make a small incision in this large sphere and explore a few bis and pieces together and seewhere they lead us. Lett go to Scripture. In the Book of Isaiah in *re Old Testa-rnent,the prophet says:



In the year that King Uz,ziab dicd I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and hfty; and the hem of his robefillcd the temple. Snaphs were in attendance aboae hitn; each had six uings; with nao tltey couaed theirfaces, and with nao tbey coueredtbeirfe+ and urith tuo tbeyfleu. And one callzd n another and sa'id: *Holy,

holy, holy is the Inrd of bosts; the tphole earth isfull of bit ghry" 6:l-3)

The prophet Isaiah gives us some successive,interrelated ideas on prayer in this and following verses.I have picked this passagebecauseseveral hyrnns and prayer phrases found in our Divine Liturry are taken direcdy from them. In verseone, Isaiah is praying to God and simultaneously seesa vision of God. The first mosaic of prayer is that prayer is never a solo; it is always a symphonic experience.\7e are never alone in prayer. \7e are in the company of angels, mafiyrs, and saints. This hymn sung by our choir in our behalf, "Aghious, Aghious, Aghious," reminds us that we join our Prayers with the heavenly angels.


Isaiah continues: "Woe is me! I am lost,for I am a man of unchan lips, and. I liue among a peoplc of unclean lips, yet my qresbaue seenthe King the l-ord of hosts" (6:5). There is an insighrfirl mosaic here drat, if we do not ingest and digest, might just slip by us unnoticed: "...I am a man of unclean lips," saysIsaiah, "and I live among a people of unclean lips." Isaiah recognizeshis sinfi.rlness;that is obvious, but it is the way he recognizeshis sinfulness


that is imponant. til&ile introspecdon is parr of the process,Isaiah gives us an endrely new and torally different approach. It is not self-analysis, but divine revelation which gives meaning and purpose to his prayer,"...yer my eyeshave seenthe tnrd of hosts.,' In the Cherubic Hymn of the Divine Lirurg.,r, we are invired to represenrthe cherubim-angels hovering around the throne of God: who mysdcallv represenrd-reCherubim and sing the Thrice_Holy $ Hymn...kt us pur away all worldly care so tlat we may receiverhe King ofAll. Prayeris greeting the King! prayer is receivingthe Kingl But greeting the King and receiving the King have their ramifications; the more clean warer we drink, the more disrastefi,lpolluted warer is to us; the more we exposeourselvesto God's teachings,the more we open tle windows of our souls and minds ro God,s gr"..; *r. more we allow tle Holy Spirir to let us feel the power and e"p.rierrce. rhe majesryof God,s glory the more incongruous sinfi.rlnessbecomes.The more in touch with God we become, the lesswe find ourselvesdeceirfrrl, maricious. vengefirl,and vindicrive. Then onc of tbe seraphs fzw to me, holding a liue coal that had been ahenfom the alwr witb apair ofnngs. The seraph nuched m! mouth with it and saiA ',Nozathat tltis has touthidyur lips, your guib has dqarted and your sin is blotted out" (6:6_2. After the priesr receivesHoly Communion, he recitesthesesame words: This hCI touched my lips and my iniquiry is taken away from me and my sin is cleansed." Dear friends, recite this prayer after each communion and seewhat it does for youl In the closing words of d-reSermon on tle Mount, Jesussays: "Is there anyone amonglou who, ifyour chitd ashsfor bread" will giue a stone?Or if the child ashs a for, taill giue a mahe? Ifyoa then, who are euil bnow how n giue good gifts to lour children, hout much more will your Father in heaui giue good things to o those u.,hoasks bim!'iMattheu, 7: 9-I I). Only the person who has experienced the forgiveness of a sin can understand that senseof relief that feeling of burden having ".-h."oy been lifted. God forgiva us, but we,u. ourselvesalso. euiti -*, o., ,o1,. Isaiah reminds often God has lifted the sin, but we hold ,r, ih"r, ,h-"gh prayer,we ask Godt forgiveness;and God, through o* p."y.r, forglves us and removes our guilt. Vith rhe forgiveness of sin and the removal of guih comes newness of lifel Then Isaiah continues: Then I heard the aoice of the Lord, ,,Whom shall I send and uho uill go for us?,'And I said, ;,Here am I; send me,,


\7e must thinl of prayer asa recommirment, not just once or twice, not occasionally, but over and over arld overl Every time I ascendthe pulpit, I ask the tord God to send me as His

messenge! to speak through my unworthiness, ro use me) ro use my humble afiempc at preaching His word. Each of us has a personal calling fiom rhe lord, according to the gifts we are given; however, if our gifts are to be tised in d're lord's work, we must sal, iike Isaiah, "Here I aml Send me, Lordl" \7e must offer ourselvesro God so that He can act, .reacr,and interact through us. In Isaiah'svision, God saysro him: "Go and sa1 to this peopb... " (6:10). Prayerwith God must alwavsbe a rerurn to the people-a return ro our homes, family, work, school, social life, political life, communiry life, civil life. Prayer is a lifetime project. prayer requires time, atrention, discipline, patience,and persistence.Televisionhas exposedus to instant snl6nainrnsnl-prayer is not instant, nor or the resultsinstant. Lett gather our mosaicsard seeif thev form a picture for us. 1. Isaiah prayed to tle Living God, not some abstract, philosophical figment of his imagination. He is a God \W4rolives,loves,cares,and calls us to Him. 2. Prayer is never a solo flight. Prayer is a symphonic experience.Not only are the angels,marryrs, and saints there with the ioving God, but so ale our departed loved ones, too. 3. \x'Aile self-analysis,introspection, and self-examinarionare necessary, theseremain but negativeapproachesto God in prayer.T*o peopl. may have occasionalmomen* when they must reevaluatetheir rove for.".i, odrer, but it is not rle processof reeva.luationthat sustainstheir love: it is the promise of commitment, it is the confidence in that promise, and it is the fulfillment of tiat promise which bears fruit and results in dividends' These, in turn, morivare desire and initiate the pursuit of continuing and perperuaring *re love beween them. 4.'i7.hen we allow our prayer to revealGodt presence,experience God,s love, and taste of God's eternal life here on eanh, tlese will have fu greaterimpact and in_fluencein helping us emergefrom the muck of sin and the uglinessof what is the opposire of Godand godliness. 5. Finally, we have the mosaic of prayer in what we relinquish. There are times in our lives that, uy aswe mal, we cannor fatiom what we cannot undersrand.rVe simply have to relinquish this to God. He will help us cope. He will help us deal with it. He will help us undersrand. He will help us in our decision-making. These are some of the things I have found helpfirl in my own personal prayer life and in the personal prayer life of personswith whom I have come in conracr over the years.I hope with this small wedge exracted from the great sphere of prayer, some mosaics of prayer might have fallen your way Think abour them. Try rhem. My prayerfirl *isf, is that these mosaics of prayer may help you as they have h.ip.d -..

N1t1";tnuasformerlyDbectorof theDepattmmtof Rekgiou, !.eorS, Education ofrheGreeh orthodnxArchd.ioto ofA-i;to y-* t"ezs-iszz. Now retired, he liuesin St.Louis, Missoui. ',f

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I n t he D i v i n e L i r u r g v . r i m e i s b r o u g h r together, the beginning of rime, the fullness of time, and the end of rime. We stand in an experiential domain where the normal, everyday concepts vanish, and the divine presenceawakens us to the realiry of God's f-tr us. There is - "- ^. : . . ; . . . ^ - r yesterday,today, and tomorro\'v all at once, becauseJesusChrist is the same yesterday and today and forever (Hebre*'s 13:8). V/e obtain a glimpse of eternity, rve join the heav enly h o s r s i n s i n g i n g r h e T r i u m p h a l Hy m n: H o l y , H o l v . H o l y ( l s a i a h 6 : 3 ) . \What goes on in our worship is more than we mortals sitting and standing, making the sign of the Cross, and saying the Lord's

Like the monks who are askedto keep their deaths foremost in their minds each day (not in a morbid, but in a realisticway), rve are asked to do the same. \Tithout a sense of where we are going, how are we to live our lives in Christ? How are v/e to know the purpose of our lives?How can we grow in communion with God if we do not keep our eventual meeting with Him alive in our consciousness?Samuel Johnson expressed the sarrle idea humorously when he once commented) "Depend upon it, Sir, when a man knows he is ro be hanged in a fortnight, it concentrates his mind wonderfully" (quoted in James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson).


Prayer and Creed: it is engagementwith all t he heav e n l v h o s r s . i n c l u d i n g r h e F a r h e r , Son. and Holy Spirit. As rve sing. we mystically represent the cherubim, and we


partake of the all-Holy Blood and Body of Our Lord and God and Savior, Jesus Christ, unto remission of sins and life

Time then for us Orthodox is not the same as for the secular world. It is sanctified. Each morning, starting at Orthros through the Hours and on into Vespers and Compline, we pause to note the times of day when Christ experienced the stagesof His passion, and when the evening and the


day are beginning and are complete,

By participating in the Divine Liturgv we transport ourselvesto a different plane of reality. lVe experience the beginning of time when God created the world, the fullness of time when Christ came to dwell among us, and the end of time, the

At each Divine Liturgy in singing the Cherubimic Hymn and Particularly during the Anaphora where we acknowledge that every righteous spirit made perfect in

eschaton,rvhen Christ will come with glory to judge the living and the dead-clearly, a "divine," an interactive, and not a "mortal" leiturgia.

faith- especiaily our all-holy, most Pure, most blessedand glorious Lady Theotokos and ever-virgin Mary-is worshipping with us. So we celebrate the eschaton, participating in the last times at each Divine Liturgl Amazing, isnt it?




If time is sanctified for us, for scientistsit is merely a dime nsion of the universe. However, with recent scientific discoveries, scientists are beginning ro carch up with the theologians. For much of sciencet history rime was an independent concept. Events happened in sequence;there was a before and an after. Using the right formulas, one could predict when a future event would take place. Thke calculating the next new moon, for example: on the basis of previous new moons and knowing the equation, one could predict the new moon for the next month or for the next six months, or indeed for the next thousand years.It is just this sort of calculation that was indispensable to the Church for knowing when Paschawould occur over rhe years. In Newtonian physics,space,like time, was considered independent. Beginning in the nineteenth century, however, time became less independent, and by the beginning of the twentierh century with Einstein's relativiry theories, time was connected with space. With modern developments in sciencewe speak today about a space-time continuum, meaning space and rime are depend on each other and do not exist separarely. In this strange world events do not always happen in sequence.[n some instancesan

or will fire before, in Newtons view, it should have. In the surreal world of quantum mechanics, one can never be sure what will happen next; things sometimes happen at the same time, much like in the Divine Liturgy. As scientistscontinue to try to make sense of the physical world, time remains important. \7as there a beginning to time and will there be an end? These are critical questions. In the scientific world, scientists once speculated that the universe always there; therefore, for them there was no place for a Creator God. However, the idea of a beginning to time is now gaining credence as more and more evidence strongly suggâ&#x201A;Źstsoccurrence ofa Big Bang, when all we know of the universe began. In other words, scientist now acknowledge that rhe universehad a beginning.

we know that Christ defeated death and that those who follow Him in baptism and death will follow Him and rise with Him in the last days. How wonderful, how joyful, how exhilarating, how hopeful, how great! During the Divine Liturgy then, time 'We stands stiil. experience a divine presence; we enter the divine realm. lve go from normal Newtonian time to divine time, where we are nourished in body and soul and then we depart in peaceto re-enter normal time so that we can transform the world as Christ calls us to do. The Reu. Dr. Michael Massouh has taught Science and Religion at Hellenic College / Holy Cross and is a regular con*ibutor to Praxis.

Christians have always recognized rhar from the time of Christ onwards God in the beginning created the world. For us Orthodox, there was a beginning to time when God by His measurelesspower made all things, and in the multitude of His mercies brought all things from nothing into being (words from the priestt silent prayer following the Lord's Prayer). \7e Orthodox also know that at the eschaton, the world and time will end. \7e prepare ourselves for the eschaton ioyfully because

electron will arrive before it seemsto depart



BY R0c K?

DFA kllN6 {0tJTi18ACK (] TH LI T UR6{



tr lVlusic hasaveryspecial andimporrantpan in creation. It affectsthe hearr, soul, mind, and spirit in a way that words alone cimnot. Even around the throne of God, music and song are heard. Music poses a potential biessing or possiblethreat in our modern age,and it is the impact and effect of music on us asa people of faith that we will be concerned with. From teenâ&#x201A;Źers I hear "lirurgical music is dull and lifeless." They dont know that it is really their spirits that are growing dull and lifeless.

years and attended St. Spyridon fellowship, where I first staned sharing Christian songsI'd written. I deveioped a close relationship with the Church and was asked to sing at all major events, including several performances at the Sydney Opera House and at the rally for Macedonia, attended by over 80,000. After a concert tour aslead singer for a Christian band I moved to the United States.

The Fathers of the Church realized that music

I have been working within the professional music industry for some wvenqr years of recording and performing. For the last fifteen

and melody are powerfirl tools that can shape our sense of realiry and effect our

years I have been using my talenm primarily within Orthodox circles. I have performed all

sanctification. Accordingly, my belief about Church music is a fairly simple one: I hold to what the Fathers teach and rhat teachings

over the United States at YAL, GOYA, and parish events, the Clergy-Lairy Conference, and FDF in California. I have also led many

accords with the Greek Orthodox tradidon: sacred Blzantine music should be wholly vocal, monophonic in narure, and make no use of instruments. This allows us to concentrate on the message of the h)nnns, which is the gospel. If we are subject to multipart harmonies and instruments, we create a technical exercise rather than a participatory one.

workshops on the influencesof contemporary music and panicularly the presence of evil in today's music. My last great adventure was traveling to Diocese youth camps and recording liturgical hymns sung by our be to GodOnhodox youth that-thanls are now available on CD and cassettethroueh the national youth office,

I was born in Sydney, Austraiia, and grew up in a fami-ly who loved classicai music and opera; I aiso loved to sing along with popuiar music on the radio. In my eariy teens my

melodies, and words, which to an unequalled extent put orII mental and spiritual defenses on standby. A typical recorded song contains literally thousands of pieces of information, rhough being the limited beings that we are,

father encouraged me to take up piano, and I studied classicalmusic for a period of six years. During that time, I joined a contemporary rock band and began writing songs.I studied classicalvoice production for a period of four

\7e derive much enjoyment from music tones,

we usually concentrateon one ofthree drings, the beat, the melody, or the words. Listening to our favorite songs eievates us to an almost hlonotic state where the caresand woes of this


world are washed away-if only briefly-into a seaof sounds and emotions where realiry for a dme can take second place. This happy and unguarded state that we experiencecreatesan opportuniry for spiritual forces to infiltrate our senses and logic, making music a very powerful tool of influence. Thus music, as all things, can be used by spiritual forces for the glorification of God or for the pursuit of worldliness and ungodliness.Spiritua.lforcesdo not stop at the music alone. The whole subculture that surrounds the music industry is a magner rhar young people find "simply irresistible." Outside the family, music is perhaps the stronges[ single influence in the lives of our young PeoPre. In this contemporary age where music is intimately entlvined with visual imagery we are constandy bombarded by a multibilliondollar, high-tech industry thar is making sure they have the amention of the record-buying public. For our purposes this includes the hearts, minds, and sadly,sometimes the souls of our Orthodox youth. People are often concerned about the kind of messagesthat can be heard when music is piayed backwards,but i tell you, it is not these messâ&#x201A;Źes that we should be concerned about. It's the messagesthat are coming out forward that we shou.ld turn our attendon to. The violence, adultery fornication, Satanism, and worldliness in music is at an all time high, and under the mask of music, thesemessages reach oul young people and shape their perception ofkey issuesin their lives. It's not just the music. V4ren our children listen to their favorite bands, they begin to identify with the character and personaliry of these musicians. A we have seen on many occasions,these rock srarsare not rhe kind of icons fiat we would like to see our children idolizing. Furthermore, when our youth amend rock concefts they are immersed in a value system that is very different from our church's. Sex, drugs, and rock-and-roll don't reflect a cool mlth, but a sad realiry. Before we criticize rhe kind of music our children listen to, we should first take a look at our own collection and try and remember

back to how our parents responded to the music fads of our generation. V/hat we carl safelysayis that music ouride the Church has degenerated,both in structure and lyrics. Even within contemporary Christian music circles, the cross has been replaced by cross-over songs, ie, songs that will cross over into the mainstream market. The dollar dictates. If we take a look at the CD covers of our children's music, for the most part tiey look harmless.The boys or girls on the cover seem wholesome enough. \7e must look a linle further to seefie truth, though. We must pick up the CDs, Iook at the lyria, and watch the latest video clips of the same bands. Most songs deal with relationships that we as Orthodox hoid as inappropriate. Vioience is affirmed and endorsed by many popular music artists and a general feeling of rebellion is presentin most alternarivemusic. It is safeto say that our teensdaydream about their pop stars. They imagrne many vain things about them, and what is most alarming is t}re degree to which they wili defend fieir idols q'hen a Christian light is shined in tieir direction. I have seen placid, faith-fi.rlteens turn into disrespectfi.rlangry teens even to the point of badgeringpriestsand storming out of buildings. Needless to say, pop music has a profound effect on our youth. By contrast, however, I find that a great percentageof our ,vouth have little or no interest in our liturgical tradition, which leadsme to beliwe that they have little or no relationship with Christ and His Church. The pop music batdeground proves most dimcdt to addressu'ith :,:::::**e If music is drawing our children away from Christ, then love dictates that we should endeavorto bring them back, even if it means using the same kind of music. This is why I am having to some degree a great successwith my music ministry. Only a small handlll of Onhodox Chrisdans like me are giving our young t|e kind of music that they relate to. Please do not misunderstand me I am not advocatingthe use oFcontemporarymusic in the Church itself It can, though, serve as a tool for ministry to assist t}re priests in the

dilficult job of reaching teens. In some my musichasbeenthe catalystthat instances hasbought our youth to the EucharisticcuP, and that, after all, should be the ultimate aim of ministryin the Church. Andrew Anthony is YouthDirector and Lay ,Assistantat St. Demetrios Greeh Orthodnx Church,Baltimore,Maryhnd, wherehe liues uith his wife Christina and their dzughters, Euangeliaand Harisa Vabntia. If you are interested in hisminisny,hauemraicaltalcntyou would like to usefor the church,or want to or CDs of his recordings, pltase obtain cassettes contacthim at 410/569-5252.



65lbhiHre Grow in Foith PHYL L IS ON E S T




When our daughters were toddlers, Jim and I decided that it was important for us


to do ail that we could to help Michelle and Maria learn to behave in church and how to worship. There was also certain behavior we would not tolerate. To guide us in our parenting, I had read Burton \White's The First Three Years, Parents magazine, and avaiiable articles in Orthodox newspapers and books. I wishJohn Rosemond, a family psychologist and syndicated columnist, had been writing thenl tVe had wanted the girls to know how an Orthodox Christian enters the Church (ie, lighting candles, crossing themselves, venerating icons), to be able to sit quietly in church for blocks of time. ro sing various hymns, and to behave in a manner that would not distract others praying around

\7e would bring a "church bag" filled with paper and colored pencils, Bible story books, The Guardian Angel prayer book, and quiet toys. They were directed to draw pictures related to church, some of which I cherish yet today.

Three rules guided us. Our friend Dr. Nick Gerassimakis,a psychologist, advised us to pick our battles and win them. Dr. James Dobson of Focus on the Family advised parents not to allow church, restaurants and the like to become the "sanctuary for misbehavior." In other words, if children misbehaved in such locales, they would indeed suffer the consequence. -We agreed not be embarrassedto do so. Spanking was to be reserved for situations that could result in harm, such as walking into the street after being told not to do so. There were Sundays that we came home shaking our heads, wondering why we attended Liturgy that day. But we kept on going. Surely God would help us if we were persistent! There were a few occasions that required extreme measures that the girls still remember. On one occasion, when they repeatedly misbehaved after several reminders, they were not permitted to receive the Eucharist. I don't think I received that day either! On another occasion when Michelle at age four or five was misbehaving, Jim came from the choir in the front of the church,

\7e sat in the second row so that the girls whisked her away as she cried out, "Daddy, could seewhat was going on. i would point don't hit mel" Since she had been spanked out different things such as the changes in once before she had turned the thermostat the lirurgical colors.the icons,processions. to 90 degrees. Michelle saw the look on and remind them to make the sign of the face and realized that she had gone too Jirns cross.V{hen Maria was roo young to do so, farl Just removing her from church and I would make the sign of rhe cross on her talking sternly to her was enough to get and then on me. Michelle in line. After that all that Jim had



to do was give her a stern look. Maria, who is three years younger, learned from her sister'smistakes. By the time Michelle was six and Maria three, parishioners would comment on how well behaved they were. Each Sunday Maria would go down the center aisle kissing the crossesengraved on the end of the pews. \flhen Lent came and it was time to make prostrations, the girls quickly Iearned to move to the aisleand drop to the floor. Sometimes parents look back on their parenting and regrer some aspecr of what they had done. This is one areathat worked out well; the jury is out on others. Now when the girls, ages 21 and 18, observe a child misbehaving in church, they turn to me and say,"lf we had done that when we

first rwo fingers together, signi$'ing the three persons of the Tiiniry the remaining fingers touching the palm, signifying the nrvo natures of Christl human and divine' Puzziesthat have pegs on each piece require grabbing the pegs in this same manner. When showing a child how to make the sign of the cross, consider looking in a mirror and doing it together. Touch the forehead, the chest, the right shoulder, then the left shoulder while you sai., "In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit." If you don't have accessto a mirror and the child is facing you, you cross from left to right, and the child will follow crossing from right to left.


were young, we would have been toastl" or "\7hy do the parents let that child get away

Since it does not take much for children to be able to identify their favorite Sesame

wirh that?" They know whar has ro be done and have told me that they plan to do the same with their children.

Street or Disney characters, with a little effort they can learn to point out Jesus,

During my years as our parish's Church School Director I encouraged parents of young children. V4ren I would see them after Liturgy, exasperated, I would encourage them to conrinue bringing them, relating that Jim and I had felt the sameway at times. I also rook note of those parents who seemed to be "succeeding" in their parenting and would compliment them, and passon the techniques that I had observed to those asking for suggesrions.I finally compiled these tips and distributed them at parent-teacher meerings with the hope ofequipping parents in their task, and continue to do so at workshops that I lead. Each secrionbuilds on the previousone. so behavior that is begun in the early years

Mary, and various saints, especially the patron of the parish. Review this each time you enter church. Make sure that y.our children have icons in their rooms and in your home to which you can refer.

E NT E RI NG T HECHU R C H Little ones easily understand lighting candles-Jesus is the "Light of the \7orld"-and venerating icons-kissing Jesus, His mother and His friends-and the cross. Each time you entet remind the children that the church is God's house, someplace very special. We behave in a certain way in God's house: we sit and stand quietly; we walk rather than run; we speak softiy using what I call our "church voices."

should be reinforced as our children ger older.


PRE S C H O OLERS T HESIGNOF TH EC R O S S By age three the preschooler's iittle hands can be guided to the correct position for making the sign of the Cross: thumb and

Pray "Holy God" and begin saying the "Lordk Prayer"togetherdaily. !7'ork on the prayer at meals.Getting children to fold their handsand bow their headswhile you recitea prayeris a start."O Christ our God, blessthe food and drink of Your servants,



forYou areholy, now and everand unro agesof ages.Amen." pray beforethe icons.Prayar bedrime.



Children in the primary grades should be able to make rhe sign of the Cross easily but scill need to be reminded when to do it during Liturgy. Besides identifying the icons of Jesus, Virgin Mary/Theotokos, and their patron saints, primary students can

I suspectthat mosr familieshave a childrent library of secular books.My girls havekepr rheir favorirechildhoodbooksand now read them to their godsisterKatie and other children who visit. Today there are many Christian and Orthodox books that we can add.Thereareevenpreschoolers' and toddlers'BibleslThesemake great bedtime reading on Saturday eveningsas we prepare for SundayLiturgy,plus,they aregreatfor our churchbags.

KINDERGARTNERS Continue to work on the "Lord's Prayer" and orher prayers that the church school classesare learning. A child this age can begin fasting before communion. At the least, rhe Kindergarcner should ear jusr a little. In our own home, since the adults receive frequently, no breakfast was prepared. By the time the girls were three or four, juice and toast was all that was offered. As far as I can remember, we did not bring food to church. If we did, it was with the understanding that it would be eaten after Liturgy.

begin learning some of the aposrles,sainrs,and feastdays. Correctly entering the church should be routine for them ifyou have kept ar it. They will still need to be reminded that the church is Godt house and that we behave in a certain way. Continue to add age-appropriate books of che saints, storybooks, and videos to your home library. There are many fine videos such as the Hanna-Barbara "GreatestAdvenrure," the "McGee and Me," and the "Veggie Tlle" series available for rental and purchase from Christian bookstores. Check with your church school director or parish priest for suggestions. The church schooi program should be encouraging the children to work on the Lord's Prayer and other prayers that are being worked on in class.Third and fourth graders can work on learning the Creed. Add the prayers before icons, continue with prayers at bedtime and at meals, and work on fasting before communion. Continue sitting close to the front so that the chiidren can seeand are less distracted. The older a child sers, the more he/she should be standing.

PRESCHOOI/ KI N DERGARTEN DU RI NG LI TUR G Y Sitting close ro the front so thar the children can see also offers fewer discractions.Our children should stand at least at "Blessedis the Kingdom," during the Small and Great Entrances, the Gospel reading, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and whenever the priest/deacon censesthe icons and the congregation. Standing or kneeling for the consecration extends from the Epiclesis ("Thine own of Thine own...") until the Hymn to the Theotokos. Children can be reminded to make the sign of the cross whenever the Holy Tliniry is named. Some people also make the sign of the Cross when the Theotokos or a saint is named or when praying for a particuiar person during one of the petitions. I found it unrealistic to expect preschoolersand kindergartners to be in the nave ofthe church throughout the Liturgy. Besidesgoing to the bathroom, they need a change of scenery or to stretch their legs. I used the petitions and sermon as built-in break times. If seated in the nave, permit children to look at reiigious books or icon "albums," or draw quietly. Bring only "quiet" toys to church. Begin to teach the children that we do not enter or exit the nave during an Entrance, the Epistle or Gospel readings,the Creed, the Consecration of the Gifts, or the Lord's Praver.It is best to enter or exit during the petitions.


Since by this age children are reading, it is good to provide them with age-appropriateLiturgy books. Ifyour parish does not provide them in the pews for the children, there are several available through the Department of Religious Education of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Check your parish bookstore or with your parish priest or church school director. In the early primary grades,children may not be able to be in the nave ofthe church throughout the entire Liturgy without a break. Encourage them to go to the bathroom before Liturgy. Ifthey need a change of scenery or to stretch their legs, use the petitions and sermon as built-in times to walk to the narthex. By this age, students should be exposed to Vespers,Presanctified Liturgy, Akathist, Holy \7eek services,as well as the weekly Liturgy. I encourage parents to make sure that they bring their children to as many of the servicesof Great Lent and Hoiy \feek as possible. The selection should grow as the children get older. Also, seeing their parents in church makes an important point. There is a rhythm in the services of the Orthodox church that will continue throughout onet lifetime. It appearsto me that the more we participate in this rhythm from an early age, the more it becomes an integral part of our lives. \7e begin to seewhat it means to be Orthodox Christians. For their lessonson worship to make sense,it is important for children to participate in the servicesas often as possible. This also serves to reinforce our understanding that Orthodox Christianiry is a life-sryle,not just a Sunday religion.

l07'O RLD

Encouragingthem to havechurch friends and to be part of the parishyouth group are vital' These and church schoolclasses situations ofFer a safe place for our teens where they know it's okay to be an Orthodox Christian and they can talk 'We can also freely about their concerns. encouragethem to servein the altar,sing in the choir, and attend diocesanretreatsand summe! camp. \Tithout these ties and friends,they are much more easilypulled away from the church. Given all the distractionsof the secularworld, we parents need to keep them attachedto the Church in asmany waysaswe can. Reprinted with permissionfom Orthodox FamilyLife, VoL3, IssutI, Fall 1997. Ph/iss MeshelOnestM. Diu., is theDirectorof RcligtousEducationfor the Greeh Orthodox Dioceseof Pittsburgh.

GRADES5 AND 6 Continue to add identifying icons of different apostles, saints, and feast days. The Creed should be learned during these years, and children can be using their prayer books to prepare for both confession and communion. During Liturgy this age group should be able to listen to the sermon and be able to talk about it on the way home from church. By this age children can have private confession at ieast four times a year, but this presupposes rhat parents not only bring their children to confession, but also receive confession themselves. Fr. Peter Giilquist has written that if we want our children to stay in the church, then (1) we

should bring them to confessionbefore they needit, and (2) they needto seeus go to confession!

JUNIORAND SENIORHIGH Having taught at this level for over twenry years, and being the mother of a teenager and young adult, I know they are capable of participating in the iiturgical life of the Church. Sometimes peer pressure and our children's struggle to separate themselves from us get in the way! V4ren they question why they must attend church, respond with, "This is what our family does," and exDectthem to affend.




Ir f

lVlost parishes in our archdioceseproduce a bulletin, mainly to keep parishioners informed of upcoming events. Over the past few decades,the bulletin has become an essential



part of the life of the local church. Today, the Internet provides one of the best means ro communicate informadon and more importantly to stimulate participation in the church. Over 100 websitesof parishesin our fuchdiocese now flourish on the Internet. A review of thesesires provides a good measureofhow an effective presenceon the Inrernet can draw us closer ro our church and to Christ. The first questionsabout building a parish website might be, How is that done?Who will do it? Finding local expertisewithin the parish has obvious advantages.If no one can help locally, the ArchdioceseDepartment of Internet Ministries (hmp:// some free Internet servicesincluding web hosdng and web calendar sofnvare.One of the more important issuesis assemblinga 'team" of devoted faithful to provide the material that will populate the site and keep it updated.


arv vvqaN \7hen you staft out building the parish site, begin with a good plan. An oudine for a website plan is provided at hnp:// After review of rhe sites mentioned Iater in rlis article, develop a list of required elements.These might include che foilowing: 1. Directions and map ro the church 2. Address and contact information including phone and email 3. Serviceschedule/calendarofservices and events 4. Organinrion and ministries secrion 5. \What we believe/church mission starement 6. On-line mon*rl1'bulletin 7. Lini{s to other sites Once you have the basics,the remainder of the site can be developed around them. Remember that a successfirlsite is both functional and visuaily appealing. Interactive sites are some of the most successful,including messâ&#x201A;Źe boards, audio and video clips, virtual tours. Once your site is up and running, periodically poll parishionersabout the site; feedbackis an essentialpart of tie process.Above all. keep the sireupdated!



YU"r HV<-C0N^? VKA{l0qi9 \{hen building a site, you should alwaysknow your audience.V4'rat do they want or need to kno* about the local parish, our church, and our faith? Especialiykeep in mind our youti; you may even want to devote a section of the site specifically for youth to play, create, interact, and contribute to the site.Externally, a section ofthe site could be developed for the non-Orthodox who have questions about our faiti. Finaily, incorporate the best qualities of the websitesyouve visited. The site should have appeal, be easyto navigate, and not take long to load pagesand images (since many still use standard modems to accesstlte internet!). A )'o,r. site grows, you shou-ldadd a searchengine to enable quicker accessto pertinent information. Good implementation of these techniques will ensure that your site is often visited and that you are getting the most out of the Internet

ft ?AK\2H,tfv,

"vww The following parish websites,randornl)' ordered, are arnong the best designedand most fi-rnctionai.The official parish web directory can be found at the archdiocese site,, in the parish directory section. A condensedversion ofthe parish web directory can also be found at

4) Arurunciation Church, Modesto, CA http :/i www. Large site, up-to-date, searchengine: Easy to navigate side bar; Life of the church (sacramentand serviceinformation); 'ffihat is the Orthodox church?; Questions about our faith; discussionboard.

5) AscensionChurch,Oakland,CA h rtp:// Icons on main home page for the current month and beyond. Click on icons to read the text of feastday hymns and description of the feast.

6) SS.Constantine& Helen Church, Boise,ID http :// l,arge site wifi searchengine; area to leave prayer requesm;lives of some saints; some writings and commentaries on Orthodoxy; spiritual nourishment section (sermons).

7) Saint Sophia Church, Elgin, IL hnp :// (--^ll:-^ rLruuurS

rlLYvD. ----."

8) St.VasiliosChurch, Peabody,MA 1) St. John The BaptistChurch,Anaheirn,CA hmp:// One of the best, including a religious education section; detailed calendar and schedule on the home page; bulletins online; priests' biographies;liturgy and readingson.line;organizations;and church tour. Not a lot of muldmedia but enough images,color, and featuresto keep it interesting. 2) Holy Cross Church, Belmont, CA hmp://

http :// Up-to-date and one of the best exampiesof multimedia at a site. 9) St. Barbara Church, Toms River, NJ Information about the parish, its history patron saint, and ioca.tion;the ministries, programs and calendarof events;digital photos of fie annual festivaland other events;generalinformation about Onhodory; and the parish's newsletter, The Echo, in its entirety. The site's format is easy to read and usefirl in directing readersto each secdon ofthe site.

Easy to navigate side bar; current and archived issues of parish publications (including youth publications); Orthodox chatroom link; guest book (inviting all visitors to make contact); srudiesin the faith.

10) St. George Church, Trenton, NJ

3) St. Paul GreekOrthodox Church, Irvine, CA

Fairly up-to-date and one of the best examplesof multimedia at a site.


hnp :// 11) Saint Sophia Church, Albany, NY

Includesbiographiesof the priests;the featuredarticleof the month; hnp:// muniries/stsophia.hrm generalinformation,history monrhly calendarand highlightedevents of the parish;information about and websitelints for iconography; Good site, nice sacramentssection and photo tour of church, has 1 t S Onhodox educationalmateria.l;and a usefi.rlsearchengine,Thereis a own messageboard and charroom area. Thbleof Contentslistingthat facilitatesnavigationwithin the site.


12) Holy Trinity - St. Nicholas Church, Cincinnati, OH

A ?V W V X A M?' rV ?:

hmp://www.holytrinirycinti. org Good site,Has a kids corner,youth acdvirypage.

bw^v rAv ?AKtrH Effective Sunday School teachersuse many resourcesto develop, add to or improve the lessonsthey teach.Not too long ago, teachershad to find information via articles, books, or magazines.Now tlis information is availabie at fie touch of a bumon. The following websites offer wonderful tools and linla that an educator c:rn use to enhance Sunday School lessons.

TNVO'AAV 9Y9TVM' INTFKNVTCVNTVK Some good links are: Theologic http://wwwtheologic,com, who

Systems Internet Center, are software developers

designing for Orthodox Christian churches. This site offers important Orthodox Christian râ&#x201A;Źsource links, such as Orthodox Family Life, which has many articles for review, the Theologic Resource links,, and the On-Line Library,, which hosts a wealth of spiritual advice from the Elder Paisios.

Rruz?0x cvl?t{rAN TVACHVT?KV'A)KCV WVVATV Phyllis Onest's Home Page,, is noteworthy. It recommends many resources,including websites,books and materials, Orthodox and non-Orthodox. The website is compiled in sections, which include packets of resource informadon; lints to Onhodox Family Life via Theologict webpage [cited above] at;

the Yellow Pages of Religious Education Resources,hnp://home.neo.rr,com./pmonest/yp2000.htm,

which is updated yeariy; sourcesfor such items as plays; Idea Cornert sharing of crafts and tips; and articles wricen by Ms. Onest for the Greek Orthodox Diocese of Pimburgh's newspaper,The llluminator. Phyilis Meshel Onest, M. Div., has developed this web site to help clergy, Sunday School Directors, and teachersto find usefirl material. She is a graduate of Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theolog, and now serves as Director of Religious Education for the Greek 'West Onhodox Diocese of Pimsburgh. She travels to Ohio, Virginia, and Pennsylvania parishes to conduct worlshops for teachers and directors, helping them establish ald improve their Sunday School curriculum. In summary, dris web site is overflowing with ffirmation widrin the site itseif or through links to other web sites. Ms. Onest should be commended for providing such an extensiveand detailed library of dara ro church schooleducarors.




salnt t phrem BOOK RECOM M END AT ION

Borron is a town for baseball, asanyoneliving tlere knows. Hot dogs,heat, suddenroarsof the crowd, theseinfectiousjoys blend there with childhoodt innocentimpulseto believe the wildly improbable-that Babe Ruth's dark cursestill hangsover fieir home team, the Red Sox. Could it be rue? \7ell, who knows?Rememberhow Ruth pointed to that right field wall in 'W'rigleyField before he slammeda homer exacdytherein rhe 1932 \ford Series?Remember the jeering crowd who turned ecstatic in an instant? Unforgemable. This isnt a story-itt a legend. And suchlegendshavemadelovefor the Babe part ofour nationalpsyche. As American Onhodox, we shouid recdl that this is exacdy the kind of admiration arld adoration Christian saints have receivedin other dmes and places.Saint Ephrem, the Syrian, for example, is such a spirituai superstar. We all should know of Saint Ephrem: tluoughout Great knt, we repeathis prayer together while prostrating ourselvesthree times: O Lord and Master of ry hft, giue me not a spiit of sbth, uain ariosity hutfor power and idlz alk, but giueto me Thy servanta spirit of soberneslhumility,patience,and bue, O Lord and King grant meto seemy ownfaultsand not to condemnmy brother:for bbssedart Thou n the agesof ages.Amen. O God, cbanseme a sxnner.

B Y P R E S , S H A R ON


Ironically, in the end, such prayer could have helped Babe RutI. But who was this Saint Ephrem? How many prostrating





acnully sit down this moment and write fifty meaningful words about the deacon ofwhom Sozomen the fifth-century church historian says: "Ephrem the Syrian was endded to the


highest honors and was the greatest ornarnent of the catholic Church'? These words compare him Saints favorably with Athanasius, Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the


Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and the Nicene


Fathers. Quite a role of honor, but Saint Ephrem deserves to be included. He taught, he


sculpted boundaries of Christian ascedcism and holiness, he founded hospitals and cared for refugees, and he wrote prolificaily. At one time his hlrnns were sung during the Divine Liturgr immediately after the Gospel reading. Apparently he encouraged Christian woman to enjoy the same freedom in worship as men and

so composed hymns

Arguably, his dlnamic



poetic vision of the

presence of Paradise and the Abps, entirely drawn fiom Scripture, eclipses Dante's linear, history-bound path, a ciassicalmotifborrowed from the Roman poetMrgil, who borowed it, in turn, himself Until

recently, language has been a great

barrier between the English-speaking world and this ouatanding theologian, poet, and



philanthropist, who wrote in Syriac. Ti:anslationsnow make Saint Ephnem'sworks more easilyaccessible, and his admirersaregrowing in number. For Orthodox parish oducators,Oxford scholar SebastianBrock's translation and introduction of Saint Ephrem's Hymns on Paradise (Crestwood,New Yorlc St. Madimir's SeminaryPress,1990) will be a deligh&l first choice.The sanzasand refrainscanbe readresponsively, and the vivid imagesof Paradiselend themselves to art projects:Paradise is round like the halo of the moon, eterndly separatedby the ongoing Great Flood on which the children of God dance.Here God's sacred time and spacâ&#x201A;Źaresweptcleanof noxiousfumesby the freshwinds of incense.Here the portal of entry embracesthe enterer,and angelswith flaming swordsstill drive awaythe unworrhy. Most compelling of all, readerstake their standbesideSaint Ephrem himselfi halfwaybewveen awe and longing; for as with the Psdms and various canons, the responsivepoetry iaelf drawsspirit and mind towardsthis very aweand longing. For thosewho want a bemerunderstandingof what all this means,Dr. Brock'sinuoduction to SaintEphrems theologicalmethod and vision, The Lurninous Eye (KaIamazno,Michigan: Cistercian Publications, 1992), will be rewarding,,ho"gh probably a challenge.As Dr. Brock arguesl"To Ephrem, theologicaldefinitions are not only potentially radically dangerous,but they can also be blasphemous....Ephrem's different approachis by way of paradoxand symbolism....[d *ill provide a seriesof paradoxicalpairs of opposites,placing them at oppositepoints aroundthe circumferenceof the circle;the centralpoint is left undefined,but somethingof its nature and whereaboutscan be infered by joining up the variousoppositepoints." illustrateshis point: The following passage Yourmother'swornbhasreuenedthe rohs: TheBtablisher ofall mtered in His riclmess, bat camefortbpoor; the Exalted Orc mtercd her, but carneforth mceb;the Spmd'rousOne mtercd her, bar carneforth bating put on a bwly hue Q,{niuity ll:7). Thus this discussionrevealspoeuy, and by implication Onhodox hymnody in general,not as a mere liturgical ornatnent' but as a theologicalmethod. God's own waysof revealingHimselfnecessary *ooWh symbol and type in Scriptureand Nature, tlrough naming, and through the Incarnation-properly result in worship arid love rather than itt "pryitg invesdgation."

This point is more than timely. Expressingour profoundestteachings liurgically preservesreverence.Cut off from this, doctrine withers under the skepticismand scholarlydenids which today mire much Europeanand American theologicalmethod. Suchis the sruffof SaintEphrem,the Syrian.\7e Onhodox shouldkeep cheering,maybe evenlouder. "Did you seethat! Can you believeit!" Time shouldn't diminish our wonder or that innocent, childhood fascinationand belief Admittedly, many Americanstoday feel far more real enthusiasmat a 'W'e'reworn out with words. Howwer, baseballgamethan in Liturry. just wait. After that final slidefor home plate,when yov gazeup at the Great Umpire'\7ho callsyou Safeor thumbs you Out, Saint Ephremt son of poetic cheeringwill make incrediblesense.Count on it.


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