Page 1

TtoM TfrE fXrrrERs Never separateyourselffrom the Church. For nothing is stronger than the Church. Your hope is the church alone;your salvationis insidethe church only, your refugeis the Church. Sheis higher than the heavens,and wider than the whole earth. She never grows old, but is


alwaysfull of vigor and vitaliry. Holy scripture (which would not evenexistwere it not for the Church), when pointing to her strength and

Sinceyou get angry with others when they

stabiliry calls her an unshakablemountain. -St. John Chrysostom

speakevil againstyou, get angrywith yourself when you speakevil againstsomeoneelse. -St. Augustine

The absoluteevil is sin, and it is sin which really deservesthe name of evil. A11sin derives from our free choice; it is in our power to abstain from wickedness,or to be evil.. .. Do not

\What responsibilirythe Church has, to be Christ's"body," Showinghim to thosewho are

on any account supposeGod responsiblefor the existenceof evil; and do not imagine that evil has any substantiveexistenceof its own. '$Tickedness does not exist as if it were a kind

unwilling or unableto seehim in providence, or in creation!Through the \7ord of God lived out in the Body of Christ they can come to the

of living creature:we cannot produce its es- Father,and themselvesbe made again "in the sencein real subsistence.For evil is the pri-

likenessof God."

on vation of good... as blindnesssupervenes

-St Athanasius

destructionof the eyes,so evil, having no inupon mutiladependentexistence,supervenes

If salvationis by grace,someonewill say,"'$Vhy

tions of the soul

you did -St. Basilthe Great is it that we arenot all saved?"Because not will it. For grace,eventhough it be grace, My friends, you should be made aware of this fact: the bishop is in the church, and the Church is in the bishop; and if anyone is not with the bishop, then he is not in the

saves(only) the willing, not thosewho are not willing, not thosewho arenot willing and turn awayfrom it and constantlyfight againstit and opposethemselvesro it.

Church. -St. Cyprian of Carthage

-St. Iohn Chrysostom


page I


june 2005 Dear belovedin the Lord, This issueof PRAXISis dedicated to the important theme of leadership. Our earnestexplorati()n of this theme is a worthrvhile exercise,particularly as our ministries expand acrossthe wide array of parishes, institutions, and Holy Metropolises of our Archdioceseof America. \fhen we have a healthy and proper understanding of leadership within the Church, our effectivenessat announcing the Good News of salvation to peoples from all walks of life is significantly enhanced. A healthy understandingof leadershipin the Church beginswith our affirmation of love and serviceasoverarching principles that guide our actions and relationshipswith others. A leader that is committed to the principle c-f love is naturally and principaily motivared to serveothers. Such a leader empioys a model of what is appropriately termed "serving leadership." 'Ihis model rvas perfectly embodied by the Lord JesusChrist, who washed the feet of His Apostles as a powerful demonstration of the kind of servicethat we ourselvesare cailed by Him to offer unto others ( J ohn 13' l3- I 7 ). In the Orthodox Church all persons ar:ecalled to positions of leadership; all are charged with the sacred task of serving others and spiritually edifving one another. In this regard, Orthodox Christian leadershipis more than a model of sen'ing leadership;it is a model of collaborative leadership. It is a shared labor berween the clergy and the laiq', rvho are mutually responsibleand accountable to one another as members of the same Body of Christ. Leadership in our Orthodox Church is not a static concept; it is a dynamic principle that fosters love berw.eenall gl oryofC i od' speopl e.Iti sapri nciplet hat per s ons anden c o u ra g e s th e fa i th fu i to u ti l i zethei rtal entsandgi ftsforthe ordinary communities into extraordinarl' cultures of philanthropy. transfigr.rres Each of the articles that follow in this issue of PRAXIS provides insights into how this glori$.ing act of transfigtrration might be more efFectivelr.realizedin the lives of our parishes,our ecclesiasticalinstitutions, and our yonr lives in the context of Holy Metropolises. I invite you to read these articleswith the prayerftrl goal of assessing the leadershipand sen'icethat you offer in your o$'n communities. Finally, this issueof PRAXIS is particularly special as it offers tribute to the life and leadershipof our departed hierarch of blessedmemory Me tropolitan Anthony of San Francisco. His final encyelicalof December 22, 2004, is reproduced in this issuein its entirety. The encyclicaioffers in itself a concise,personal reflection on the topic of leadershipmade manifest in and through service. I pray that our gracious God may keep each of you in His divine protection and grace,and that He may grant you every encouragementas you lead others through love and serviceto the saving knorvledgeof His truth.



t DEMETRIOS Archbishop ofAmerica



q;o*,@)n/-* Reflecting the washbowl and towel

The term servant-leadership was first

leadership model of our Lord JesusChrist,

used in a 1970 essayby Robert K. Gieenleaf

Dwight L. Moody once said that the measure

(1904 - 1990). Greenleafdistilledhis 4)-year

of a man is not how many servantshe has,

career in the field of management research,

but how many individuals he serves.\While

development and education at AT6cT with

numerous business consultants (Drucker,

a seriesof books and essayson the theme of

Rhinesmith, Rost, Ashkenas) debate over

servantasleader" Greenleaf'sobjectivewas to

what leadershipin the Twenty-First Century

stimulate thought for buiiding a better and

should look like, they are, nonetheless,in

more caring sociery. According to Greenleaf

total agreement that the future leader will

servicerather than power is the fundamental

most certainly not resemble what we have

authority of ieadership. Authentic service,he

experiencedto date. Leadership,they insist,

suggests,is experiencedwhen four elements

will not be the domain of the few but the

come together, namely: (1) overcoming

responsibiliry of everyone. The continuing

personal ego through a balance of power,

shift from vertical power-centeredhierarchy

(2) a primary commitment to the larger

to virtual and lateral interactiviry they argue,


will fundamentally change the globe and the

by each person for defining the culture of

notion of leadership to one of service. In

the organization, and (4) a, balanced and

many ways, it seemsthat socieryis beginning

equitable distribution of rewards.

You call me Teacher and LorC,and you say well, for so I am, lf I then, your Lord and Teacherhave washed your feet, you also ought to wash another s feef. For I have given you ln d n ex dilt lJ t e,

lA L tl d-l L -v o u

should do as I have r''lnna

fr ,



ttnv v .r t

(3) cooperative responsibiliry

to accept the scriptural notion that true

John 13:1315 leadershipis embodied in servanthood.

It is my pr^yer that our Lord wili inspire all of us to affirm the truth that Christian

This issue of PRAXIS is an introductory c o n v e rs a ri o n concerni ng


leadership springs from a set of beliefs that

cri ri cal veriSra leader'schoice for serviceover pursuit

issues surrounding the topic of Christian

of power and self-interest.

leadership. \7hat are the personal qualities

may we all heed our Lord's admonition to

and professionalcompetenciesthat Orthodox

wash one anothert feet, for servant leaders

Christian leadersneed to effectivelyperform

serve best through partnership, rather than




emerging global

philosophies of

society? \X4rat


leadership appropriately

buttressa local parishs administratir.evision? \X/hile moderniry stmggles to answer these and other important leadership questions the essaysand articles printed in this issue of PRAXIS seek to reaffirm a theology of

Father Frank,

^il,^K* 1u ExecutiveEditor

servant-leadership that emerges from our O rth o d o x Ap o s r ol i cheri rage.

Summer 2005



'l't, A publication of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Ame ica., PRAXIS

magazine is

publishedrwice a year.The subscriptionrate is $15 for two years.Checks,payableto the Department of Religious Education, should be sent to: GRLI:K C){Tl lolx)X ARCHDIOCESE,IANIERICA

PRAXIS Circulation 50 GoddardAvenue Brookline, MA02445


SUBMISSIONGUIDELINES Submissionsshould be 1,000-2,000 words in length and directly discusseducation in the theology and tradition of the Orthodox Christian churches. Lesson aids or graphic enhancementsmay accompany the articles submitted. \7e also encouragethe submission of photographs relevant to parish life (praxis). Pleasealso provide a biographical sketch ofthe author not exceedingfifry words. Material previously published or under consideration for publicarion elsewherewill not be considered without prior consent of the editor. W'ereservethe right to edit for usage and sryle; all accepted manuscripts are sub.jectto editorial modification. Articles sent by mail should be accompanied by an electronic version on CD-ROM in Microsoft Word for'Windows or for Macintosh. Articles in MicrosoFt W'ord may also be emailed as an attachment to Address submissions to: Rev. Dr. Frank Maransos and/or Elizabeth Borch.

CREDITS Executive Editor: Design and Layout: Creative/Tech. Production: Cover Photo: Inside Cover:

InsideBack Back Covel

Reu.Dr. Frank Marangos Elizabeth Borch Tina Millsaps Brad Borch Thelate Metropolitan Anthonl of TheMetropolis of San Francisco, and his mother ElefiheriaGergiannahis ZheSeuenEcumenicalCouncils, Hofi Tiansfguration Monastery,Broohline,MA TheMeeting of the TwelueApostles, Holy Tiansfguration Monastery,Broohline,MA Christ the GoodShepherd, HolT Tiini4t Orthodox Church, Lewiston,Maine Atlantic Graphic Seruices,Inc., Clinton, MA

We eratefullv acknowledee Holy Tiansfiguration Monastery in Brookline, MA for iconi reproduced in PRAXIS. Viiit their #ebsite at: http://htmadmin.phpwebhosting. com. Cove r "snapshots" are of The Monastery of the Holy Theotokos of the Life Giving Spring ' in Dunlap, California, courtesy of Chiist J. Kamales, the monasteryt archirect.' tVe thank the Orthodox Observer for graciously allowing us to use the photograph of His All Holiness Patriarch Bartholome-w and rhe late Poie Tohn Paul II', in rh-earticle on page 3 1.


alsolike to thank Mr. David Elferingfor someof the photosappearingin

this \We would like to thank Fr. Paul Schroederand Ms. Natalie Schrick of the San FranciscoMetropolis for their assistancein our rribute to Metropolitan Anthony of blessedmemorv.^ The phorographson page13 from the article, "The Mantle of Elijah," areprovided by rhe Sr. Niclolas webiite" "Leadershipand the Dynamicsof Innovation"by Mr. Iim Maroosis;Copyriehr @ 2001 Leadbrto Leader:Reprintedwith permissionoFJohnViley & Sons,fric.' ScripturequotationstakenfromTHE HOLY BIBLE CONTAININGTHE OLD AND NE\r TESTAMENTS \NTH THE APOCRYPT{AL/DEUTEROCANONICAT BOOKS, NE\r KING ]AMES VERSION, The views expressed in this magazineare not necessarilythe views of the Department of RelisiousEducation. @2005, Department of ReligiousEducation of the Greek Orthodox Archdioceseof America.ISSN 1530-0595. Summer2005

@"fietcJ Fatheq



Dear Fr. Frank.

I am learning Byzantine music in Greek here It was very nice meeting you all and all the in the UK. I have been struggling becausemy members of the Oratorical Festival Committee 'W'e all enjoyed the wonderful Greek is not brilliant. But I found y-ourlectures in Michigan. on ISOS, and they have taught mb:so much. hospitaliryofour ne* friendsfrom Sourhgate, Thank you Father for your knowledge and Michigan and appreciated all the efforts made teaching. to enhance our visit. The participants will always have very special memories of their \7e are many years behind you here in the visit ro Michigan, making new Friends,and UK, and everything is in Greek. But more rheir participation in the National Oratorical Festival. importantly we are instinctive in our faith in that we are Orthodox becausewe were born The Oratorical Festival is a wonderful venue Orthodox, not becausewe understandwhat it is to be Orthodox. The youth in England are to enable our y,outh to iearn rnore about their yearningtolearnaboutwhatit isto beOrthodox, Orrhodox Fairh and share their knowledge but unfortunately,there are few if any, Greek with their peers, feilow parishioners, and Orthodox schools,etc. that will teach us, and fellow Orthodox Christians, both locally arrd none of them in English. Howeverwe do have throughout the country. It is a vital, essential your help on the net and I hope that you keep and uorrhwhile endeavor.We applaud your efforts, aswell asthoseofFr. John and Presvytera up the good work. The next step would be to provide an interactiveon-line coursewhere we Margaret in providing this opportuniry for our can even sit for examsand obtain a theological youth eachyear. accreditationwhich is backed by the Church This year, I noticed that many seniorsin high and Patriarch. Something on the GOARCH websitethat I could useto improve my musical school did not participarein the festivalat the knowledge in Byzantine Greek, but described variouslevels(the Parish,District, Metropolis, or Archdiocesanlevels). I learnedthat this was in Englishwould be wonderful too. due to the fact that many high school seniors Thank you once again, graduate the first week in June and thus are unable to attend the National Festivalin early Andrew Kaponi June.Also,many high schoolstudentshavetheir final examsduring the secondweek in June and being away the weekend before 6nal examswas Dear Fr. Frank, extremelydifficult. Therefore,I would ask the Great work on the Byzantine music teaching Members of the Oratorical FestivalCommittee system!I wasworking with it and I am inspired consider changing the early June weekend date at how easyit is to use and work with. There lor the National Festivalin the upcoming years are a few little mistakeswith isonsand oligons to either mid to late May or Mid to lateJune. I believe this would encourageand enable more gerting mixed up in the greek-woman'spart of students to participate in the Festival. Thank the score, but overall I am quite happy with you for your consideration. the package. Thanks for a great new tool, Dimos US Army ResearchLaboratory



<r r m m cr l

Sharhrayneand Michael Litchfield

Dear FarherMarangos,

(For more information regarclingthe Byzantine Chant program, pleaserefer to the ad in the rear of thispublication.)

I received the most recent edition of Praxis magazine, and I thank you. Your efforts to produce a high qualiry publication featuring the work of the Religious Education department have resulted in a very useful'and appealing journal. Having read the articiesin the'Winter 2004 issue, it is clear to me that we have many bright and erudite individuals in our Archdiocesewith a sincerelove for our Lord

and a thirst for ongoing theologicaldiscussion and education. The Editor's nore on page 16 of the recent issue has puzzled me. In it the statement is made "The Orthodox faith itself carriesits own 'traditions'that should not be confusedwith its doctrine."It has been mv understanding that our traditions- including major practicessuch as those that are liturgical, as well as the pious traditions of our faithful and even the folk traditions - maintain, express,and transmit our dogmas ald our doctrine, or at least are not conrrary ro them. I am hopeful that the faithful will not misconstrue this nore and assume that our Orthodox practices and traditions are irrelevant,different, orr worse,that they reflect an inaccuraru e n d e r s r a n d i nofr g he lairh. 'With Love in Christ, Metropolitan Isaiahof Denver

Editort Note: Fr. Tsichlis' criticism of the film focused Iargely on its inclusion of elementsthat were not scriptural, but had been acceptedas part of the traditions thar inform and expressrhe Koman \,arnollc ralrn rrom which Mr. Gibson speaks. Similarly, the origins of significant parts of our Orthodox faith-including such feasts as che Elevacion of the Cross and the Presenrationof rhe Theotokos-are Fromnonscriptural sources. If an Orthodox Christian had produced The Passion,it would likely have contained non-scriptural elements from our Orrhodox rradition. Our intent was to point out the importance and necessity of tradidons in expressing and enculturating our faith, while being careful to recognizethar some tradirionscarry more "weighi' than others. fu Orthodox Chrisrians. we must understand and take into consideration the distinctions among the various levels of authority each of our traditions hofdsHoly Scriprures,rhe reachingsof the farhers. apocryphal and extra-canonicalbooks, folidore, cultural customs, and so on. Metropolitan Isaiah also wrote a review of the film, which was published in 7he Sword, and is availableby calling, 1 -414-354-9451.



PMXISPRAXISVolume5, lssue7; leodership

Tse MnnrlEoF E LTJA H:

L rn o e n s n rpT:s r B rc F r v e

A PnsronnlErucvclrcnl

ViceAdmiral Michael Kalleres

His EminenceMetropolitan Anthony

7 Tencxtttcgv ExRIvlpLe (Eve)Tibbs Paraskevd

15 Le n orRsnrp FoRTHE21sr Ceruru n v Rev.Fr.Frank Marangos,D.Min.,Ed.D.

17 GneexWono Sruov IreneAlexandrou

22 Tnxrruc Lenotnsnrp: Corvrrurrrmerur nruoMovrr'rcFoRwRRo A.C.Macris

32 DesuNrxrrrc rne DnVnrctCooe Rev.Fr.Steven TsichIis

36 Cn re c x e sTrsn Ro u c u Wonsrrp Rev.Dr.William C.Mills

41 DYNnrtltcs or | ruruovnrroru Jim Maroosis

46 Eoucnrroru & Pn:ncnrnc AccoRorr,rc ro Sr. Joxr.rCsnysosroM ChristopherLockwood


23 MrNrsrnv Pnrsot't ORrxoooxCxRrsrrnru Rev. Fr.Emmanuel E.Mantzouris

26 Ronanru Reurrorus Cnrsolrc-ORTHoDox Rev.Fr.Miltiades Efthimiou, Ph.D




AonptnarLrryANDrne Gooo Srepneno GeorgeParsenios



To the Reverend Clergy, Monastics, Archons, Archdioceseand Metropoiis Council Members, ParishCounciis,PhiloptochosSocieties, Ministries, Choirs,Youth Organizations,and All the Faithful of the Metropolisof SanFrancisco: Whentheyhad uossedthe RiuerJordan,Elijah said to Elisha,"Tellmewhat I maydofor you, b{ore I am tabenfom you," Elisha said, "Pleaselet me inherir "You a doubleportion of your spirit." He responded, haueasheda hard thing;yet, if you seeme as I am beingtakenfrom J/ou,it will begrantedyou; if not, it will not." As theycontinuedwalhingand talhing, a chariot of fre and borsesof fre separatedthe two

of them, and Elijah ascendedin a whirlwind into heauen.Elisha kept watching and crying out, "Father father! 7he cbariots of krael and its horsemen!"But when he could no longer seehim, he graspedhis own clothesand tore them in ttul pieces. He piched up the mantle of Elijah that had fallen jiom him, and went back and.stoodon the bank of the Jordan. He tooh the mantle of Eliiah that badfallen fom him, and strucle the water, saying, "\X/hereis the Lord, the God of Ekjah?" Wben be had struck the water, tbe wrtter wasparted to the one side and to the other and Elislta uent ouer.

I Kings2:8-14

My DearlyBelouedCbildrenin theLord, s your bishop for more than twenty-five years,I am writing Recently, the account of Elijah's ascenr into heaven has to you this final encyclical of my minisrry, not knowing come frequently to my mind, and without the usual constraints how much longer the Lord may grant me to remain upon of my hectic schedule, I have had time to contemplate rhe this earth. For some time now, I have desired to prepare my meaning of this story, at once mysterious yet familiar. It is a apologia, an accounting of my ministry and service to the story abour departure, and about what is left behind when we Church, an attempt to define the trajectory which I together are gone. The mantle of Elijah was all that remained after he with many others have sought to establish,in order that those ascendedfrom this earth. The mande represenrshis ministry, who come after may have a clear understanding of what we his prophetic witness, the cumulative effect of his service in set out to accomplish. \Therher I succeededin the tasks I Israel. It representsthe "double porrion" of his spirit for which was given, I do not know; God knows. But at the very least, Elisha so earnesdyyearned, the continuation and extension of it seemsfitting to describe these tasks as I saw them, so that his presenceamong the people. In a sense,this encyclicalis my others may have some criteria by which to judge my humble attempt to identify the mantle that I am ieaving behind, in the efforts in the future. hopes that my spiritual chiidren will take up this mande, not



f > D A l rrc


only carrying on the work that I have begun, but expanding and amplifying it, thus proving themselvestrue recipients of a "double portion'of my spirit and vision. T HE WOR D MA D E F L E SH And the Word becameflesh, and dwelt among us.. . Tohnl: 14 Since the very beginning of my ministry, I have never been content to allow theology to remain at the level of the abstract "word," of ideas and propositions requiring merely mental acquiescence.Perhapsthis is a vestigeof my humble beginnings among simple people, for whom God was not an intellectual or philosophical construct, but a reality everipresent in the rhy"thmof seedtimeand harvest,in the changing of the seasons, in birth and death. Tiue theology must be enfleshed,must become incarnate in time and space,in order to remain faithful to its ultimate task. As my compatriot Nikos Kazantzakishas written, "\Tithin me, even the most metaphysical problem takes on a warm physical body which smells of sea,soil, and human sweat. The \ford, in order to touch me, must become fesh. Only then do I understand: when I can smell, see,and touch." It is for this reason that I have always insisted on an incarnational way of doing theology that reflectsthis constant movement from "word" to "flesh," from the abstract to the concrete,from the intangible to the human touch. I have been known at times to be impatient with visionaries and idealists. \7hen people come to me and want to share their ideas, I have often said, "Show me your good ideas by putting them into action." Yet this is really not so different from the words of St. Iakovos, "I will show you my faith by what I do" (Jas.2:18), or for that matter St. Maximos the Confessor, who writes, "Spiritual knowledge not put into practice does not differ in any way from illusion, lacking such practice to give it real substance." Our faith is incarnated and acquiresreal substancein programs that elevateand inspire our people, in ministries that carry on the work of the Church, in concrete actions that demonstrate our love for others and our commitment to carrying out the work of the Gospel. For in the final analysis,it is not our words, but our deeds that constitute the ultimate criterion of our faith, as Christ Himself taught us: "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, lord,' will enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but only those who do the will of my Father" (Mau.7:21). A great deal of my ministry has been identified with building and construction projects. For over fwenry-five years I have been the "building bishop," constandy urging our communities to acquire land, to develop plans, to break



ground and to build. Since I came to this Metropolis in 1979, we have constructed and consecrated no less than rwenfyfive new churches, essentially one new church every year, and nearly every community has taken on some major building or renovation project during my tenure. The soaring lines of a Byzantine church are a mode of expressionof the theology of the Church, as are the simpler elements of a well-designed parish hall or a well-furnished kitchen (where I am often to be found before a meal is served, stirring and sampling and making suggestions). AII are placesof philoxenia, sacred spaces where the hospitaliry by which God becomes presenr in our midst is offered, as the icon of the "Hospitalirv of Abraham" reminds us.

TREASURES NEWAND OLD Therefore euerysribe who has beentrainedfor the kingdnm of heauenis lihe a householder who bringszut 0f his treasurewhat is new and what is old, Matt. 13:52 \X4-renI was enthroned as the Bishop of San Francisco on June 7, 1979,1 stated in my enthronement speech, "The challenge of serving our Holy Church in the western United Statesawakensin me the call ofthe frontiet where development and expansion are possible, where the human resourcesare limitless, and where spiritual and intellectual growth are nor only possible, but attainable." From the very beginning, I have felt my episcopalministry to be a calling to stand at the frontier of faith, refusing to retreat into the well-trodden paths of religious convention and formalism. In a certain sense,one

fast to the Hellenic heritage and identiry through programs such as the Metropolis Folk Dance and Choral Festival. \We "Our task ls not merely have led the way in Church music with beautiful new compositions and boldly innovative approaches, without losing to imltate what was done the ethos,the inward essenceof our rich musical Iegacy. \7e have been among the most engagedin terms of ecumenical hv f he s,aintsof nrevtous and interfaith dialogue, culminating in the historic "Ecumenical Pilgrimage" to eras, but somehow to Canterbury, Rome, and Constantinople I can think of no better image of in 2003, while at the same time firmly ar,nrr,r,ri.afa af .a mUCh this aspect of my ministry, no better retaining the distinctiveness of our illustration of this attempt to bring Orthodox theologicaltradition. In short, together the old and the new than the we have endeavored always to embrace u/-J^^^^, tla,,al e v e t LrAa eepet t t e ,^Wa y "r,.*," Katholihon, the magnificent church the opportunities inherent in the edificeof the Monastery of the Theotokos without surrenderingwhat is of enduring in which they engage value in the "old." As Solomon the wise the Life-Giving Spring. Anyone with even the most basic understanding of remarks, we must "take hold of the one, Byzantine architecture will immediately without letting go of the other, for the their own hlstorlcal recognizethe proportions and symmetry one who fearsGod will succeedin both" of the Blzantine heritage, the classical (Ec c l .7 : 18). environ ment, seekrng to Iineaments of the so-called "churches T H E YOU TH A N D TH E C H R IS TIA N of Mystras." Yet upon entering, one is FAMILY rcsnon(i ac fhpv v,rculd immediately struck by the fact that this

might be so bold as to say that I and this Metropolis were made for each other, since we both share this "spirit of the frontier." My service to the Church has been defined by a progressivecontour, a willingness to encounter the surrounding culture with the same creativity and fexibility demonstrated by the great Fathersof the Church, while at the same time holding fast to what is essentialand irreducible in our theological tradition.

sacredspaceis not defined solely in terms of bygone history. The icons, especially the breathtaking iconography of the central dome, offer a fresh vision of the meaning and scope of Christ's salvation, representing an approach that is at once firmly rooted in tradition yet not slavishly devoted to reproducing the past. Our task is not merely to imitate what was done by the saints of previous eras, but somehow to appropriate at a much deeper level the way in which they engagedtheir own historical environment, seeking to respond as they would have responded had they lived in our day. For over twenty-five years, the Metropolis of San Francisco has stood at the frontier offaith, the threshold between the old and the new, with a pioneering spirit that does not shy from controversy or confrontation. \7e have been among the most progressive in the Archdiocese in the use of the English language in our parishes, while at the same time holding

Whoeuerdoes not receiuethe Kingdom of God like a little child will neuer enter it. Luke l8:17

have responded had they lived in our day."

In July of 1979, just a few weeks after my enthronement as Bishop of San Francisco,I traveledto St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church in San Joseto baptize the infant son of one of our priests. I am certain that both the clergy and the laypeople who attended were watching carefully for some sign, some indication of what their new bishop was like. At the conclusion of the baptism, I lifted up the child and said, "ln this child, and countless others like him, lies the hope and future ofour Church. What spiritual inheritance will we leave behind for them and generationsto come?" Then, while people were still smiling at me and the child, I said something that seemingly caught them off guard: "By the grace of God, I am looking for someone to give me a million dollars, or its equivalent



in properry so rhar I can build a camp and retrear cenrer where this child can somedaygo to learn about his Orthodox faith and Hellenic heritage."

lifet work and vision. Dance Festivalwas a means to abolishing In my enrhronement speech, I laid the "myth of rhe disrance,"gathering noi out rwo major priorities that would only the youth of our Metropolis, but come ro define the heart of my ministry: the Orthodox family as well, a means the youth and the Christian family. St. to bringing people together. In fact, That event in many ways serthe rone Nicholas Ranch was one way in which if I had to identify one of the primary for my future ministry. For while many we sought to fulfill this mandate. But achievements of my ministry, it would be undoubtedly left the baptism shaking there were many orher ways. In the this: I have brought people together. their heads over rhe foibles of the new early 1980s, we began a seriesof youth bishop, that announcemenr soon led to conferences, garhering thousands THEFLOWERING of OF a meeting arranged by Fr. John Bakas young people in placeslike Anaheim and MONASTICISM berween myself and Mr. Nicholas SantaClara, and culminating in the great Kossaras,who afterward donated 185 youth rally that was held in conjunction Abba Anthony said, "Let us eat at the ninth acres of land in the Sequoia-Nevada bour and then let usgo outfor a wa/h and fo o rh ills near Dunl a p , C a i i fo rn i a , th a r explorethe country." So they went out into "l was never became St. Nicholas Ranch Conference the desert and thelt walhed until sunset. and Retreat Center. I was never afraid ThenAbba Anthoqt said, "Let uspray and to ask big, knowing thar I was asking pknt the crossltere, s0 that thosewho wish afrald to ask biq. not for myself; but for the Church, to build a new mznastery)maJ/do so here." and especially for the youth and the -From the Sayings of the Desert Fathers knowlng that I was succeeding generarions. St. Nicholas Ranch thus became symbolic, not only I gravitate to the above story of of my parrhsiua or5oldness in asking, but St. Anthony, my namesake, because asklng not for myself, also of my abiding commitmenr ro rhe it offers us a glimpse of a side of his youth. Over the years,we have expanded personality that is not often recognized not only the physical boundaries of but for the Church." or appreciared. \7e are accusromed to the Ranch by acquiring more properry associare St. Anthony, the "Father of (today almost 300 acres), we have with the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1982. Monasticism," with solitude and silence. expanded its mission as well. \fe have Those events were in many ways what But here we see a man with his eyeson attained the original vision of creating energizedthe "youth movement" in our the horizon, slightly resdess,St. Anthony a haven for our yourh and a spiritual Archdiocese at that time. And they also the explorer, the founder of monasreries. center to host our Merropolis programs gave momentum to the dozen or so folk And this makes me identiS' all the more and conferences. And we have recently dance groups rhat grew into the annual with my parron saint, knowing him to fulfilled a long-cherished dream with Folk Dance and Choral Festival, one have been not only a man of prayer, but the completion and dedication of the of the most powerful and far-reaching a man of action. magnificent Monastery of the Theotokos ministries of our Metropolis. From the the Life-Giving Spring. But I envision time I was a child myself, I have loved to The great revival of Greek Orthodox much more still to come, a "St. Nicholas dance, and have always regarded dance as monasricism in America may be said Center," an integratedcampusof facilities a kind of spiritual activity. As with prayer, to have begun in the Metropolis of that will include a Hellenic Heritage it is also through music and dancethat we San Francisco wirh the coming of Center housing a library with thousands seekto expressthe deepesryearnings and Geronta Ephraim to this MetrJpolis of volumes containing the history of highest aspirations of the human spirit. by i nvi rari on i n 1989. Ar r hat ^y the Greek Orthodox community on the To quote Nikos Kazanrr"ki, on.e time, I shared with Fr. Ephraim mv west coast, a museum, and an archival 'Anyone who cannot sing cannot-or., pray. vision of a mona.ti. ...rt., Si. center safeguarding the archives of the Angels have mouths, but lack the power Nicholas Ranch. For years, ever"tsince Metropolis and all its parishes. One day, of speech:rhey sing to God by dancing." the youth of our Metropolis planted this complex may even becomethe kernel The Metropolis of San Francisco Folk the cross on a hilltop overlooking the for a theological preparatory school for Dance and Choral Festival has become Ranch (in an acrion reminiscent of seminariansstudying for the priesthood. the largest exhibition of authentic Greek St. Anthonyt), we had prayed for the It remains for my successorsto "take up folk dance, cosrume, and music in the emergenceof a monastic community on the mantle" and fulfill this asoectof mv world. Like St. Nicholas Ranch, the Folk the premises, in order to enhance and


ST. NICH oLAS R A N C H & R I T R E A T C T NTER deepen the spiritual foundations of the Ranch environmenr and experience. Fr. Ephraim subsequently arranged for the coming of two wonderful nuns from Greece, Sister Markella and Sister Fevronia, in 1993, and thus originated the Monastery of the Theotokos the Life-Giving Spring. From this small beginning, the monastic community has grown to fifteen nuns. In 1995, we broke ground for the Katholikon, the monastic church edifice, our "jewel of the mountains." With its exquisite marble floor, intricare woodcarving, and stunningly beautiful iconography, the Katbolikaz is without a doubt the most breathtaking Greek Orthodox church to be found anyr,vherein America. In 2000, we began work on rhe Kellia or monastic residences,and in 2003 we held the Thyranoixia service, dedicating both these magnificent structures to the glory of God, and officially installing Sister Markella as the first Abbess of the Monastery.

Efpraxia, SisterParthenia,and SisrerAgne from Greece. In just a few short years, this monastery has grown to sixteen sisrers, becoming one of the largest woment monasric foundations in the Archdiocese. The monasterieshold fast to traditional practice, thus fulfilling their mandate to be the "conscience of the Church." Ard the amazing growth of these monasric communities offers a compelling witness to the tremendous vitaliry of monasricismin rhis counrry.

F RI E NDS O F T HEP O O R Let us loue one anotlter, not in word or speech,but in truth and action. IJohn 3:IB

As Orthodox Christians, we recognize the ultimate goal of the Christian life to be theosis or divinization-becoming Iike God as much as is possible for human beings. Yet this processof theosisis not a matter of a discarnatespirituality that The establishment of the Monastery of the Life-Giving Spring was followed within a few years by the founding of St. retreatsfrom human need and suffering. The journey towards Anthony Monastery in Fiorence, Arizona,in 1995, by Abbot theosis is rather expressedthrough concrete acts of love and Paisiosand five other brothers from Mount Athos in Greece. mercy in imitation of God, who is love. As St. Gregory the Theologian writes, "Prove yourself a god to the unfortunate, With the explosive growth of its monasric community, which has now grown to over forry monks, and the extraordinarily imitating the mercy of God. There is nothing so godly in rapid expansion of its facilities, St. Anthony became the great human beings as ro do good works." And this love in action "miracle in the desert,"the fagship, so ro speak,of all the other is epitomized, I believe, by the ministry of our Metropolis Greek Orthodox monasteries in America. The Monastery Philoptochos Society. \fhen I consider the ministry of of St. John the Forerunner in Goldendale, 'Washington, also Philoptochos, I am reminded of the women who ministered began in 1995 with a generous donation of property by to the body of our Savior after the Crucifixion. Just as these Dr. Cerald Timmer, and the subsequent coming of Abbess women cared for the wounded and broken bodv of the Lord.

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so also the women of Philoptochos are called to minister to the Body of Christ; that is, the Church. And just as the myrrh-bearing women who came to the tomb were sent forth by the angels to announcethe Resurrectionof Christ, so also the women of Philoptochos have received a commission to proclaim the fusen Lord, not with mere words, but with tangible acrions of love and service that proclaim the Gospel more loudly than words could ever do. To quore St. Francis of Assisi, for whom the seat of our Metropolis is named, we are ro 'preach the Gospel, and if absolutely necessary, usewords."

a-half million dollars. \7hen I was a student at the Ecclesiastical School of Chania in Crete, and at the great Theological School of Halki of the "There is an urgent Ecumenical Patriarchate, my education was completely underwritten by the Church (except for one unfortunate need for our parishes period when I lost my scholarship because I did not keep my grades up, and had to work rc pay my tuition-a iah4.annA Lf a v o= rvat\ , l u t rt ir a v a- Ih ^te tl]t lL e t te q lesson I have never forgottenl). It has always been my goal that all students from this Metropolis who are studying sense of responslbrltty for the priesthood or for some other form of full-time service to the Church should have their education similarly to the local community, paid for by the Church. No one should Among rhe grearest accomplish- ever be denied the opportunity to study menrs of our Philoptochos in this re- for the priesthood becauseof a lack of ministerlng to the needs gard is the "Kids 'n' Cancer/Camp funds. Agape" program. This amazing ministry began at St. Nicholas Ranch, and has Despite all that has been accompof the hungry and the expanded to Portland and Seattle, with lished, however, much more remains to new programs under development in be done. There is an urgenr need for our San Diego and Phoenix. Every year, parishesto acquire a heightened senseof homeless, the slck and hundreds of children with cancer, responsibiliry to the local communiry many from disadvantagedhomes, have ministering to the needsof the hungry and the opportunity together with their the homeless, the sick and the needl', the the needy, the lonely anC families to participate in a summer Ionely and abandoned. Years ago,we had camp program free of charge, with envisioned the creation of a permanent all expenses paid by Philoptochos, position at the Metropolis level occupied abandoned.". The goal of the program is to provide by a trained social worker, who would as normative a camp experience as coordinate parish programs of social possible, including games, barbecues, ministry and outreach. Unfortunately, campfires, sing-alongs,and the like. Yet our plans did not come ro fruition at that the program is also specifically attuned time; this initiative remains for others to to the unique physical and emotional carry out in the future. I am convinced needs of these children, as well as that the time has come for our churches providing the parents with supporr to take a more integrated and systematic and an opportuniry for networking. approach ro issues of poverry hunger, Another tremendous example of this and homelessness. The miracle of the "love in acrion" is the "Bishop Anthony Incarnation, of the word become flesh, Student Aid Endowment Fund," of is extended and perpetuated in us, who which Philoptochos has become the through the descent of the Holy Spirit champion and steward. This fund at baptism have become "members of provides scholarships to students from Christt body, of His very fleshand bones" our Metropolis attending Hellenic (Eph. 5:30). And this constirutesa sacred College or Holy Cross School of obligation for us to minister in Christ's Theology. Through the annual Student name to our neighbor; that is, to every Aid Endowment Holiday Luncheon, person in need whom we encounter (cf, this fund has grown ro over one-and- Luke 10:25-37).

A SACRED INVITATION Cometo me, allyou that are wearyand are carrying heauyburdens, and I willgiue lou rett. Matt. ll:28

In concluding this section on missions, it seems appropriate to emphasize the pressing need for strengthened relations and more effective communication among the InJuly of 2002, the Metropolis of San Franciscohosted the canonical Orthodox jurisdictions in America. At present, 36'h Biennial Clergy-Lairy Congress of the Archdiocese, wirh our many separate and uncoordinated activities not only the theme "Offering our Orthodox Faith to Contemporary result in much duplication of effort, but also frequently lead America." The theme of the Congress was particularly to a diffusion and dispersion of our energies,constiruring a appropriatein view of the fact that our Metropolis haslong been principle of spiritual ..r.ropy. If Orthodox'y in this .o.r,r,ri i, at the forefront of missions and evangelism in the Archdiocese. to succeedin its missionary vocarion, if it is truly to realizeits In 1982, the Diocese Philoptochos inaugurated the "Pennies catholic identity, then we musr work towards a more unified and Prayers"program in order to raise funds for home missions presenrarion of the Orthodox faith in this land. The mantle projects,aswell as increasingawarenessof missionsthroughout that Elijah passedon to Elisha held the power to divide, to the diocese. Soon afterwards, the "HOME Foundation" was "part the warers ro rhe one side and to the other." But perhaps born in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1984. The HOME Foundation it may be that the mantle that we bequeath to our successors was instrumental in the creation of three new "daughter" may become an insrrumenr of union, bringing togerher rhar parishesin the Phoenix metropoliran areawithout significant which was once separatedlike the parted waters, so that they diminution of the "mother" church, Holy tiniry Cathedral. reunite to form a seamlessand indivisible whole. This was a model that was to be repeated throughour rhe Metropolis, in Sacramento, Portland, Seatrle, and elsewhere, I HAVELAIDA FOUNDATION by the successorro rhe HOME Foundation, the Committee on Orthodox Missions and Evangelism (COME). COME By the grace of God giuen t0 me, As a wise master builder I haue utilizes surveys,demographic studies, and careful planning to laid a foundation... I Cor.3:10 createand sustain viable eucharistic communities in the areas that need them most. Thken together, HOME and COME, In the above-referencedpassage,St. Paul writes that by his represent the first systematic approach to church planting in apostolic ministry among the Corinthians he has laid a firm our Archdiocese. and immovable foundadon of faith and sound doctrine. And yet Paul also clearly recognizesthat he did not do so alone, My tenure has witnessed the founding of over rwenty new but with the assistanceof many others, who by their labors parishesand missionsin this Metropolis, many of which have became "fellow-workers" both with God and with himself gone on to acquire land and build, establishing themselves (cf. I Cor. 3:9). In the same vein, I wouid be deeply remiss as durable fixtures of the ecclesiallandscape. These young if I did not acknowledge my enormous indebtednessro rhose parishes represent the newness of Orthodoxy in this land, who labored with me to make possible everyrhing that has with predominantly English worship, numerous converts, been previously recounted. My profound appreciation is due and an abundance of young families with children, often to my co-workers and concelebranrs,the priests and deacons representing the third and fourth generarions from the old of this Metropolis, without whom even the bestJaid plans country. They represent rhe openness of our Church to would never have come ro fruition. I am also deeply g.ateful embrace its true catholic identity, to become "all things to all to the many laypeople whose assistancehas been vital to the people." But our work in missions has not been limited to realization of these endeavors. I am especially thankful to acriviries within our Metropolis. In 1985, we raised seventy- His Grace Bishop Anrhimos For his longsrandingfriendship five thousand dollars in aid for starving children in Ethiopia. and invaluable assistancewithin the Metropolis. I thank His And in 1992, COME sponsored the ''Russia Challenge," an Eminence Archbishop Demetrios and the for-e. Archbishops inter-Orthodox relief effort that senr a ream of missionaries of America under whom I have served, as well as my fellow together with desperately-neededfood, medicine, and other Metropolitans of the Holy Eparchial Synod, for their love and supplies to the Ukraine after the collapseof the Soviet Union. support throughout my ministry. And I offer my sincererespecr Russia Challenge culminated in the great "Easrer Airlift," in and deep gratitude to His All-Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch which thousands of boxes of supplies were shipped to Russia. Bartholomew, who has wisely overseenthe Church in both my In conjunction with this effort, I traveled to Russia togerher native and adopted homelands. Finally, I give thanks to God, with an ecumenical delegation, where I had the opportunity who saw fit in my unworthiness to permit me to serve Him, to participate in the first truly free celebration of Holy Pascha first as alayman, and then as a deacon, a priest, and a bishop. in Moscow in over sevenw vears. And I echo rhe words of the Gospel, "\7hen you have done

Summer 2005




all that is commanded you, say, '\7e are unprofitable servants. -We have only done what was our dury"' (Luke 17:10).

all conception and being, be glory and might and dominion and thanksgiving and honor and worship, now and forever, and to the endlessages. Amen.

As I come to the end of my ministry, I am struck more and more by this fact: \With Paternal Love and Blessings, that for someone who is passionately engagedin a vocation, someone who is deeply committed to a life's mission and task, there is never an interval at which to make a clean break, never a good *Metropolitan Anthony of San Francisco time to make an end. Rather, the end of every endeavor becomes the beginning of a new task. I am reminded of the December22,2004 conclusion of one of Kazantzakis'works, in which he describes rhe crucifixion of Chrisu at the very end, after Christ has triumphantly cried, "It is finished," as if to say, "Everything is now beginning." Every end has within it the seed of a beginning. Elijahs departure marked the beginning of Elisha's ministry, the herald of yet greater miraculous events, the opening of a new chapter in the prophetic history of Israel. To truly complete anything is more than we can hope for in this life. All we can do is to lay a foundation, and trust that those who come after will build upon it with the same careful consideration, the same diligent industry, and the same loving purpose. It is not for us to determine what shall be built upon this foundation. That is left to the wisdom of future generations,who will take up the mantle like Elisha, carrying on the task that we have begun in ways that we cannot possibly imagine or foresee.


And now to God ineffable, indescribable, unfathomable abyss of wisdom, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Creator of all things; to God the Only-Begotten Son, the Incarnate, Crucified, and Risen Lord, who has reconciled us in one Body by His Precious Cross; to God the AllHoly, Good, and Life-Giving Spirit, who proceeds from the Father and rests in the Son, Renewer and Sustainerof all things, to the All-Holy Tlinity beyond







(Eve)Traas PennsrevE

he sceneis a familiar one. The Divine Liturgy is in progress.An infant in the congregationis growing increasinglymore fussy.His mother nervouslybegins to gather up the baby things in order to slip out with the child before the congregantsaround them - and more importantly, before their bishop, who is visiting the parish - becomes disturbed by the noise. But what follows this sceneis nor so familiar - exceptfor thosewithin the San FranciscoMetropolis during the last twenty years or so: As the mother just makes it to the side aisleand begins to walk toward the Narthex with baby in tow, the booming voice of the hierarch is heard from the Solea: "Excuse me. Dont leave. A little noise is okay. The baby belongsin here with us." And as the startled mother makes her way back to her seat,the Divine Liturgy resumes.

Liturgy was the place where children should be - from their earliestdays forward. His attitude clearly made an impact on me as a young mother and impacted my own children for the better, as well.

The trend at the time His Eminence was enthroned as our bishop in 1979 was for children's religious education, or "Sunday School" to take place during the Divine Liturgy, usually fully excluding children from the Eucharistic worship of the Church. Very soon after he became our bishop, he met Over the courseofover twenty-five yearswith Metropolitan with our parish leadership. My husband and I were Directors Anthony as our bishop, and in a variety of liturgical settings, of the Church School at Saint Sophia Cathedral, Los Angeles, within different churches, I saw this scene play our more at that time. (Then) Bishop Anthony encouragedhis parishes than a few times. Later during his homily and remarks, he to pursue alternative Church School formats that would would invariably speak a few words about his beloved mother, reversethe Protestant textbook/classroom model and return Eleftheria in Crete, who, as it turned out, would pre-decease to the more Orthodox model - for children to be with their him by only a very short time. I can recall him saying that parents,grandparents,and Godparents, and to be nurtured by his mother always brought him to church, even as an infant. the Holy Spirit in the Divine Liturgy. He would say that she nursed him during the Liturgy and the divine hymns were his lullabies. The smell of the incense He also suggested (more like insisted) that teachers became one of his earliest childhood memories. The Divine gather regularly to be taught by experts and to share ideas. Liturgy was not only comfortable, it was home. It becamepart He establishedan administrative role for Religious Education of him. If there was one thing we knew about Metropolitan in the San FranciscoDiocesein 1985, under the direction of Anthonv. it was that he believed ferventlv that the Divine PresvyteraSophroniaTomaras,Ph.D., apostwhich sheheld and




of fourth and fifth generation Greek decent who have never heard a Greek word spoken in their homes. He challenged us to be realistic in our religious approach - both catechetical 'We and liturgical - while still honoring our Greek heritage. need not over-emphasizethe importance of Greek language, nor should we deny it as an important part of our ethnic and religious heritage. The key was that we simply should not put any language ahead of the most effective way to live out and proclaim the Gospel in our various communities. It just made so much sense. I felt blessedto be able to spend a bit of quality time with him here and there, and it was alwaysstimulating. His energy was infectious. I'll not soon forget his smile nor, I think, his voice. After all, as Saint John tells us, the sheep know their shepherd'svoice. He was a gift whose impact will continue to be treasured. M"y our Lord grant his soul repose,and may his memory be eternal!

Parasheai (Eae) Tibbs is Director of ReligiousEducationfor as the GreekOrthodoxMetropolisof San Francisco,and serues the Church SchoolDirector of Saint Pauli Greek Orthodox Church,Iruine, California. Mrs. Tibbs is a doctoralcandidate in EasternOrthodox Theologtat Fuller Theological Seminaryin Pasadena, where she is also an professor. She California, adjunct lVith developedfor over twelve years under Bishop Anthony. is a the Aduisory Board of the Orthodox member of Studies Group his support, shewas instrumental in bringing to fruition several theAmericanAcademyof Religion. initiatives that are still bearing fruit, such as the movement of toward religious instruction separatefrom the Divine Liturgy, and regular teacher training seminars. At these seminars she would often speak of our "Pentecostalbirthright" to hear the Gospel proclaimed in a language we could understand. This was an idea that Metropolitan Anthony not only supported but promoted, even noting on one occasion,that he had been criticized for this view in his early years as a parish priest in Canada. As much as he possessedenormous pride in his Cretan heritage and a fervent love of Greek language and thought, dance, and Greek culture in general,he realized that the faithful would not be spiritually nourished nor educatedif they could not understand what was being said. At the San Francisco Metropolis Clergy Laity Meeting in 2003,I was struck by the passionwith which he spoke of his dream of a Greek cultural heritage museum on the grounds of Saint Nicholas Ranch in Dunlap, CA. He was able to articulate very coherently that on the one hand, we must strive to preserve the Greek language and our praiseworthy Greek culture at all costs; while on the other hand, he took clear exception with regard to religious education and worship. He spoke of the reality that many of our youth (and even many adults) are now



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with relational and administrative problems?,S,hquldOrthodox leadersadminister their parishessolely on the,adviceof secular modeis or does the wisdom of Hoiy Scriptuie,rprovide,,a more appropriate paradigm?

According to Exodus, Moses *", ,.rpo.rib1e,,,{brixistlng individuals,r,iq,enter into the "promised land.ll With Moses B a re l y magazi ne is a c r is is i n l e a d e rs h i p to d a y . a Jrh e re as their leader,able men as his assistantsand,arr angel'astheir guide, (Ex. 23:20) the forry chapters of ExoduS.chionicle rhe leadership.The "secularcirv" seemsto be crying our For an .tu*erous episodesof a 401yea1rolouttr. Whe$,Isiaiiwis about to enrer the land of Canaan, Moses transferredihii leadersh;p awakening,a revivaloFd.p"ndrble, responsibl. "nitrur*orthy responsi bi l i ri es t im por t anrr t toJoshua(Joshual :7-17). \X 7hais l e a d e rs. . . indiv idual srh a t c a n l e a du s i n to th e 2 1 s t centuryl observeis rhe manner in which |oshua is diRcted to dewise,his Wher e will our le a d e rsc o m e fro m ? A n d w h at qual i ri es leadershlp. He is strongly advised by More!,,to always remain will characterizetheir leadershiptenure? \X4rat phiiosophy obedientl to,,the Word of God. From that i$rneni in,:giblical i . t a1-1 | | I I t t o f l e a d er s hipwill but tre s sth e i r a d mi n i s rra ri v ev i s i on? \X fti l e hlstory successlulLhnstran leaclershrphas always requrred mo d e r nir y ir r r - , gglesto a n s \v e r rh e s e i mp o rta n t questi ons, knowledge of the principles and adherenceto rhe leadership rhe Orrhodox Church should seek ro reaffirm a theolog' of quai i ti esfound i n H o[y S cri prure. leadership rhar emergesfrom its Aposrolic heritage. ftu. l e a d e rs hipwill nor o ri g i n a te fro m ma n -ma d e i nsti tuti ons .i...,,.,ii..Society.,,ls ]n seaich,of leaderswho can e$ectiveh lead it we are in search of a "promisedl' land ,or a n d capir alis t icphilos o p h i e sb u t ra th e r fro m th e w i sdom and ro..Paradise.,,,N(Jiether opponunities of the future, we ail desire tirel,lllipiornisesllr,,and i n sp i rat ionoF G od' sH o l y Wo rd l happi ness, success and eternalbl i ss. U nfortunat ely,while r he :,:,,:,,,, specific ingredients may vary according ro the lifesry'leand oF PARAD,sEll.l,l,. N SEARCH 'l.ll.lllll.l..i..ii..lli.ll.iil, oiiupationl,o{evary:in41";6ual, the "promises'l of,the future,aie: 'll.,, generallyunderstood as a "place" of spirirual, vocarionaland rel ati onalbl i ss . . . a paradi seof physi cal .as well as f inancial

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securitv. "If onlv we could find the p.rfe.i mate. If only we could afford the house with the white picket fence, etc. then," we tell ourselves,"we would be in paradisel" Tragically, life does not always order itself according to our own agendas.The leaderswe have often worked so hard to follow and support do not alwaysprovide us with lasting satisfaction. And so, we frequently squanderour time and energy changing and re-changing everphing from our priest to our spouse in search for what appears to always elude our grasp . . . someoneor something that can lead us to Paradise! As we have briefy seen, the Book of Exodus is a wonderful source of information concerning spiritual leadership. \X4rlle the book is primarily concerned with Israel's historic escape from Egypt and their ensuing multi-year desert search for the "oromised land," Exodus provides a wonierful paradigm for defining the primary responsibiliry of the contemporary Orthodox leader. Like Moses, the responsibiliry of the Christian leader is to helo lead God's flock into the promiset of Godl Our Lord was emphatic concerning this spiritual perspective. "Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you" (Matthew 6:33). As such, the righteousnessof the Kingdom and not the financial troohies of the "Secular Ciw" is the goal of spiritual leadership for the 21st Century!

a heavy blow at the root of those who would support a distinction between the businessand ministry policies of parish administration. Leadershio that is Christian must be consistently applied to all aspectsof communiry life. 'Whether a parish is concernedwith its communiry's religious Philoptochos, program, education Youth, or the up-coming Greek Festival, its leadershioshould basetheir decisions firmly on Biblical principles. This theology of Orthodox leadershipmust be equally applied to all parishorganizations. As such, Christian leadersshould avoid the temptation of creating a distinction berween business policies and ministry principlesl Such a distinction would only serve to ignore the transcendent nature of God's sovereignry

"Paradlsebeglns wlth ourselves . . . lt begins by yearntng for a right relatlonship with Chrlst and with each other."

THE PARADISE OF BIBLICAL LEADERSHIP There are many similarities between the Jewish people described in the Old Testament and our contemporury Orthodox communities. Both have been chosenby the Almighry to be His people and to travel as spiritual pilgrims in this temporal life. Although we might not be traveling through a physical desertwe, nonetheless,still seekanother destination. \X/hile we might not be preparing to enter a new land, we are, nonetheless, poised to enter a new millennium of opportunities! Like the people of Israel, our oroblems mav therefore be the result of oL. inability io disce.., the blessings that the Lord has orovided for us within our respectiveparishsituations. Although we may have been given so much in the way of community programs, devoted clergymen, dedicated parish council members and so on, our memberships are quite often characteristically unappreciativeand critical.

This is not to say, however, that we should not desire to excel in all our endeavors,and that there is no room for constructive advice within our critical reflection. On the contrary! Together with their respective talents and limitations, we should first and foremost Biblical principles should underlie accept and wholeheartedly support the and direct the actions of secular as well spiritual leadersthat the Lord has given as Christian organizational systems, us. Second,we need to remind ourselves This is the second presupposition that that the Holy Spirit has provided a undergirds an integrationist approach to variery of spiritual gifts and that no one Orthodox leadership.It is fascinatinghere clergyman or parish council member to observehow secularleadershipauthors may embody them alll Only when we are currently expounding the virtues arrive at such an understanding can we ATHEOLOGYOF LEADERSHIP of integrating religious administrative begin to properly assessand challenge principles such as servanthood, our mutual productivity! Orthodox A theology of community building, and accountabiliry leadership might consider adopting Every Orthodox Priest should an integrationist approach whose with the most effectivebusinesspractices. Tragically, while multi-national and his assume shareof oarishadministration. administrative principles are based on the integration of professional trans-global corporations are adopting \X/hile some are more attentive to this organizationalsystemsand sound biblical an integrationist paradigm of leadership responsibility than others, a clergymant inregrarionist for the 21st century based on Biblical oastoral successis often related to his presuppositions. The approach is supported by two major principles, many Orthodox parishes desire and ability to faithfully oversee biblical presuppositions. First, a continue to addresstheir needsaccording and administrate the minisries of his Christian integrationist approach to to the outmoded administrative models respectiveparish. This is a responsibility leadership would argue that scripture that the business world has already of his Holy Ordination which charges him to overseeand protect the deposit is normative for onet behavior in all iettisonedl entrusted to his care. \7hile certain aspectsof life. This component strikes


2005 Summer

clergvmen may have the abiliry to successfullyrelare to the youth, others find it easierto minister to the elderlv In both cases,however, administrative talent provides the context for pastoral effectiveness.

THS: '


\fhat should we do, however, when a clergvman has not been blessedwith administrativeability? In theseinstanceswe should avoid the temptation of looking for a new younger,or betterqualifiedpriest (asifthe perfectpriest existsand it is jusr a matter of time before the parish searchcommittee can locate him). Rather, we need to develop an attitude of syn-diakonia, love, and spiritual maturity. Starting with their respective pastors, the time has come for every Orthodox community to diligently search for and cultivate the God-given talents, abilities and charisma of its enrire membershio. No matter how limited we may at first appear to be, when we are united and ofrer ourselvesin humble obedience to the Lord we will discover that we can produce excellencein ministrl' that wiil far exceedour wildestlmasinations! This, in essence,is paradise. It is not a geographical location or the parish with the largestmembershiproster and most extravagantbudget. It cannot be re-constructed by any one clergyman or parish council. It cannot be legislatedby By-laws or by Clergy-Laiw Congresses. Paradisebegins with ourselves . . It begins by yearning for a right relationship with Christ and with each other. It begins with following the wisdom of Christ, the collectivewitnessof the Holy Fathers, Saintsand Martyrs. It is sustainedby adhering to the directives and spiritual methods of His Holy Church. It is the result of faithfully working together for the glory of God and not for the advancement of our own arroganr and often secular agendas. Only in rhis fashion can we begin to become a spiritual family living an ever-expandingexperienceof paradise!

l";". 1.rI\

From what has been briefly discussedro this point it is thereforeinconceivablethat we still considerthe multi-ohased responsibilityof parish ministry the obligations of one man! Since the time of Moses, the great spiritual leaderof the Old Testament,ministry remains a dilficult task. Although the contemporary Orthodox clergyman might, in fact, sharethis frustrationwith selectmembersof his communitr', most reject the ideaof solicitingthe laitll5 assistance.Perhapsthis is where we often make our initial mistakel

By constrr-rctingsuch a non-scriptural view of ministry which is basedon secularratherthar-rScripturalpreceptsabout the sanctiw of ministry, we haveunintentionally truncatedthe Lord's work inro rn'o distinct componenrs:(1) u'hat the priest is "paid" to do, ar-rd(2) rvhat the laity is "elected" ro oversee! Such an attitllde of church administration can onlv foster an atmosphereof misunderstanding,and will r-rndoubtedlv fatigue our searchfor a spiritual Paradise. Syn-diakonia,is rhe only In the past, C)rthodox parish leaders were not always antidote for such a perversionof leadership! Bv culrivating a associatedn-ith actr-ralministry. Consequently, parish council loving atmospherewhere leadershipis understood as mutual members adopted the secular paradigm which understood servanrhood,otrr parisheswill make ministry instead of the financial administrationas the primary issueof their concern. " bottom l i ne" rhei rpri mal v i nteresr. In so doing, they rragically overlooked other areasof diakonia which are as important, if not more sol \Xrhile discussion THEQUALITIES OF SPIRITUAL LEADERS concerningthe budgetand other financialmattersdominatethe majoriry of meeting time, substantivediscussionsconcerning What, then, are the qualities of spiritual leaders?Although how the choir, youth, senior citizen and religious education Scripture detailsthe spiritual qualifications for selectingChurch programs can be offered more efrectively are often neglected! leaders,most parish council elections are basedon popularity, The result is that money matters prevail over ministry. politics and pocketbook. In his first letter to Timothy, Saint

S ummer2 005

page 19


Paul provides a checklist for selectingoverseers,deacons,and Church leaders(1 Timothy 3:I7; B:13). The characteristicsof a Church leader include digniry honesry sobriery conviction, and temperance. Leaders should also be individuals who have been "first tested," that is, have shown themselvesresponsible in previous tasks. As such, we should make certain that the right individuals become the members and officers of our parish councilsl \We should choose leaderswho are faithful, loving, gende and dedicated to serving Christ and not their own ego! Our failure to do so will infuence the very fabric of our Christian institutions.

Saint Gregory the Theologian wrote an insightful treatise on the priesthood. According to Saint Gregory, the priest is a shepherd whose ministry is rhe "art of arts and science of sciences."For Gregory, the successof such leadershipdepends on the degree of a priest's attachment to the Chief Shepherd and Pastor,JesusChrist.

Our Lord preferred to describe His ministry in terms of the Old Testament analogy of the shepherd. Through the exodus of the desert waste-land of Sinai towards rhe more fertile and richer lands of Canaan, God, like a shepherd,went ahead to guide, feed, and protect his chosen sheep. Psalm 77 Saint Paul understood very well that the caliber of Church underscoresthis relationship, "You (God) led your people leadership infuences the caliber of the Church as a whole. like a fock by the hand of Moses and Aaron." \While in the Ail too often, our parish leaders are the last to attend worship Old Testament only God could shepherd in such a fashion, servicesand to frequent the Holy Chalice. Quite often they do the paradox is that now God enrrusts this "dynamis" (power) not make up the membership of the parish religious education and "exousia" (authority) to Christ, and consequently to rhe programs, attend bible study groups or participate in seasonal Apostles and their successorsl retreats. Instead of selecting men and women who have first been tested with smaller administrative responsibilities, In his book, Priest, Parish and Renewal (1994), parishes often elect individuals who have not displayed their Metropolitan Emilianos Timiadis spends a great deal of time Christian commitment prior to their nomination. The sad theologically refecting on the image of the shepherd-servanr truth is that while parish councils are made up of members as the scriptural metaphor for the spiritual leadership of the with good intentions, many include individuals whose sole contemporary Orthodox priest. According to Metropolitan purpose is to "grind a particular ax" against their priest, Emilianos, "we live in a society that is more and more bishop or archdiocese. Instead of focusing on ministry, these demanding of its pastors." He insists thar "the Gospel, must, individuals distract and tire the spiritual activity of the group. therefore, penetrate all of a priestt responsibilities through a As such, insteadof "equipping the saints,"that is, nurturing the strong and thorough apostolate." As such, like Saint Gregory God-given talents of their fellow parishioners,and, in this way, the Theologian, Emilianos suggeststhat "doctrine, dogma and leading towards paradise through humble servanthood, such principles of faith should not remain isolated on a rheorerical individuals hinder if not detour the very ministry of Christ! plane, but allowed to penetrate, to move the whole being, to transform and infuence human life and action." Having critiqued the leadership model of the lairy let us take a moment to briefly examine the pastoral leadership Emilianos insiststhat parish ministry should not be allowed responsibilitiesof the contemporary Orthodox priest as well. to remain "petrified in its methods and projects." Rather, it \X/lrile clergymen of all denominations may at times confess should be "constantly evolving and restructured . . it must their frustration with the unqualified and often secularconcerns be open, free, and not chained to heavy monolithic forms of individual members of their respectiveparish councils, we and rules." By shepherding his fock in such an ongoing holy should likewise periodically examine our own faithfulness to fashion, Emilianos insists that the contemporary Orthodox the ministry of Christ in the light of Saint Paul'sFirst Letter to priest should "theologizeeverything: time, history and culture." Timothy. The characteristicsof an "overseer"should include Such a leader is therefore "a living sacramenrof Christ." temperance,sobriery humiliry and kindness . . ." (1 Timothy )iL-/ t. Since it denotes Christological as well as eschatological overtones, the Orthodox Church here in America should There is a great danger inherent in the contemporary return to the scriptural image of the shepherdas the metaphor ministry scheduleof a parish priest.'il4ren saddledwith so many for spiritual leadership in the 21st Century, An Orthodox responsibilities,clergyman are often victims of procrastination priest should understand his ministry, therefore, as essenrially and/or burn-out. All of this requires the priestly leader to the continuation of the "shepherding" of Christ. He should, be a prayerful individual. He should strive to be spiritually consequently, focus his energy on protecting the weak and discerning,faithful and honest in all his relationships. All in all, abandoned from spiritual wolves who seek to feece the the responsibilitiesof the contemporary Orthodox clergyman unsuspectingwith the sharpfangsof relativismand hopelessness! ooised to lead his communiw into the "oromises" of the 21st Such shepherdingrequiresgreat spiritual insight and wisdom . ^C.n,rry is a difficult onel Perhaps,this is the reasonwhy our . . a holinessthat feeds,protects and leadsthe fock towards the Lord sent out his disciples"rwo bv two"! promised land of fertile spiritual pasrures. page20 |


CONCLUS ION The ills that plague government, business,as well as the Church will begin to heal when leaders return to the eternal "...the time has come principles and wisdom of Holy Scripture. \X&ile the OId Testament witness atteststo a divinely establishedhierarchical organizational structure of life (Gen. 1:28), the appearanceof for ctrcrv Orfhnr'lox .t r vv vt vt J sin perverted this God-created paradigm. Sin, therefore, is the root causeofdistrust, fear, greed,ego, selfishnessand the abuse of power and authority that often rock the very fabric of many Orthodox parishes. Such leadershipcharacteristicsdestroy the com m u n ity to d iIigent ly foundation of a healthy relationship between God and man, priest and parish council, employer and employee,government search for and and citizen. Leadership development through religious education is an important key to uniting sound businesspractices with solid biblical principles. The result of teaching a servant-centered leadership paradigm that unites sound organizational system theories and scriptural principles to future parish leaders is obvious. For one, it would undoubtedly help sustain a healthier relationship benveen the Orthodox clergyman and his parish administrative partners.This integrationist paradigm would not only produce excellencein ministry and encourage accountabilitF among Church leadersbut alsoproduce the icon of a "Holy People" being led towards the "promised land" of God's Eternal Kingdom!

cultivate the God-given talents, abilities and charisma of rts enttre membership."

Only when we desire to accept and organize ourselves according to the scriptural principles of servanthood, community building and accountabiliry will we begin to reestablishthe divine hierarchical relationship and thus reafirm true Christian leadership. Such leadership is the linchpin of Orthodox ministry...the only leadership that can effectively lead us into the 21st century!

Rea, Dn Franh Marangos is the Director of the Department of ReligiousEducation of the Greeh Ortbodox Archdioceseof of ReligiousEducation America and Adjunct AssistantProfessor and Homileticsat Hob CrossGreekOrthodoxSchoolofTVteology. He can The Series,"The Sacramentaliryof the Family'' will resumein the next issueofPR{X1S.

Pfu XIS:-

G R . FE K

Wo R D STtJDY continue our study of Greek w'ordsr'vith f n this issue,we " i s h o pt. l - th e , uor d " epis k op o stb 'A bishop then tnast be blameless,tbe husbandof one wife, uigilant, sober,afgaod behauior giuen to hospitality, ttpt t0 tedch;" Tira.3:2

A bishop is generally responsible for leading all the rvi thi n a l argegeographi carea. Thi s ar eais calleda chr-rrches dioceseor episcopi. An arcbbishop is a bishop of an arcbdiocese or archiepiscopl,rvhich is a presrigious diocese carrl-ing an are also metropolitanbishops. honorific title. Some archbishops A metropolitan bishop is an archbishop in charge of an or episcopes. ecclesiasticalprovince or a group of dioceses

"For jte were lts sheepgoing tlttftty; but are now returned unto the

and bishopofS'oursouls." shepherd


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Irene Alexarcdrou liues in Boca Raton, Floric{a wbere s/te serues l'Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the fiock, aspresideur of rhe Helleuic SocicryPaitleia of South Florida. She (Jniuersity, and over whieh the Holy Ghost hath made you overseer, to feed a/sa teachesModevn Greek st Florida Atlantic the church of God. rvhich he hath purchased rvirh his orvr-r directsattd feachesat the afernoon Greek Sc/,oolof her parish, St.Marh. b l o o d. " ( A c Ls20: 28) ' "l

The Theword bishop comesfrom the Creekrvord epis/eopos. or watchman. skopQsmeartsobserver prefix rpl merrl. ou.r, "*d A bishop is a guardian; an elder,'air-overseâ&#x201A;Źr-a rrian charged with rhe dury of seeingthat things are done right. In the New Testament, bishop. ovas uied as a descliprive tide for elder., In th e O nhodox t r ad i d o n a b i s h o p i s a p p o i n re dto overseea g ro u p of pr ies t sand rh e i r c o n g re g a ti o rrsT. h e b i s hop' srol e i s literJly dei;crlbed in rhe Greek rvord, which means to auevsee'; The bishop s statedduries entail administration; asseâ&#x201A;Źnin Titus . s s rrre c il n Ti cus l :9l :7 -"st ewar d o{ - Cod ." a n d te a c h i n g a "h o l d las t r he f ait hF u lrv o rd . rs h e l -trrhb e e n ra u g ht. thar he ma y b e ableby s oundd o c tri n eb o rh ro e x h o rra n d t o convi nce the gainsavers."In the Acis of the Apostles 20:28,bishops are d.s.rib.d *q shepherds,relerring to the image of bishop as the shepherd of his "flock ." Bishop,shepl,erd.and elr{etare oFten ,..n i n t . r . hr nged. I n rh e O rrh o d o x C h u rc h (a srv el las i n rhe Ea srer nRit e lir ur gica l tra d i ri o n ). a p ri e s r ma y c e l ebratethe Di vi n e Lir ur gy or r li w i th th e b l e s s i n go F a b i s h o p .

Summer2005 .,,111.r,1,pagqi,:22

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A.C.Mncnrs n this seriesoFarticleswe areexploring I how to nurture and developsuccessful I I leadershipwithin our Holy Orthodox church. Previous installments appeared in the May and December 2004 issuesof Praxis magazine.

Now that we have set rhe theoretical foundation of a new way of thinking and approaching leadership,we need ro go a step further and explore the mechanisms available for affecting leadership in our Orthodox communiry while at the same time preservingour Orthodox tradition. \7e need to lead, and leadership is perhaps more imporranr now than ever before in the history of our faith.

The first article introduced the notion that, in responseto the times we live in, we must adopt a new paradigm. We are nzt suggestingthat the traditional hierarchy of the church is at risk. Nevertheless,in The realiry is that we live in a secular this rapidly changing world, we need to society. Hopefully, as we live our lives in ask how we, as Orthodox Christians, this secularculture, we can maintain our can develop, improve and leverage Orthodox beliefs and traditions. I truly leadership to enhance and strengthen believe this is what makes Orthodox our Orthodox communiry. In the second Christians special.As we are challenged article, we establisheda new framework by a secular world, we hope and pray for leadership.That framework included that our lives will be fulfilled in rhe spirit five key areas: of our Lord and saviorJesusChrist. o a a a a

Commitment Education Enlightenment Teamwork Role Models

At this point you are probably thinking, "what isltour point?" My point is to keep what is good and right with Orthodoxy in a world that bombards us daily with challenges ro our Orthodox




beliefs.It is about using our talents,abilities, and the experience gained in the secular world to help our churches acrossthe Archdiocese survive in a fast paced, technological world that feels more and more detached from the spiritual world. Our Orthodox traditions guide us, but the reality is that the world we all face daily, does threaten our beliefs and traditions. Some feel there is a confict between the traditions of the church and enlightened leadership.\X/ewould argue that enlightenedleadershipis not a threat to the traditional hierarchy or teachingsof the Orthodox Church. Enlightened leadership is zal subversive.Enlightened leadership entails applying our competencies,experienceand attributes appropriately for the context of todays secularworld. This is critical becausethe first of the five key areasor our new frameworkis Commitment. As I stated at my Clergy-Lairy presentation in July 2004, without the highestlevel of commitment, the processof moving forward will become very difficult, change will occur much more slowly, and resultswill not be as meanineful or dramatic. So what is next? There are five activities that are required to move forward: . Find the believers . Canvas the clergy and laity . Scheduleand hold retreats . Scheduleand hold workshops . Communicatesuccesses

they accidentally stumble onto the right problem. \X{hen we speak of broad, sweeping initiatives, we need to consider the issuesand challengespeople face in many differenr conrexrs. By canvassingthe clergy and laity, we gain insights into these issues and challenges.\7e formulate common themes that people can rally around, recognizing that their concerns are being addressed.\7e establish a system in which tangible, measurableoutcomes will clearly demonstratesuccess.I cannot stressenough the importance of the insights that are gained by canvassingthose who comprise our Orthodox communiry.

SCHEDULE AND HOLD RETREATS Small steps are the key to success.Experience has shown that when grandiose plans are announced with fanfare and ceremony, the stage is set for disappointment. It is better to achievesmall successes that are tangible and recognizable.Build on those successes to enlist more "believers"and continue the process.This is why I believe retreatsare the best way to move forward. During a retreat, attendees have the opportunity to consider and discussissuesin some depth. They can face challenging ideas without being threatened. There are no conclusions or resolutions, just an opportuniry to consider and discuss different options and opinions. The rerrear is a forum for introspection and establishing the basis for future discussions.One of the most effective first steos is to hold a seriesof leadershioretreats.

SCHEDULE AND HOLDWORKSHOPS FINDTHEBELIEVERS At the appropriate time in the future, (and I can predict The strategybeginswith a solid foundation. There aremany that time at this writing), we will begin holding leadership who already recognize the benefits of embracing enlightened workshops. The primary difference between retreats and leadership with a broad base across the Archdiocese. One workshopsis that a workshophasspecifc objectiues.People gather possibility I suggestedat my Clergy-Lairy presentation was an together with a specific agendaand certain issuesthey choose Orthodox Leadership Institute. Severalattendeesapproached to addressand complete. A workshop is more structured; thus, me after the presentation and offered their assistance.These objectives are more likely to be realized. Finally, a workshop are the people I call "believers." They belieuethe benefits of associatesa number of benchmarks with each objective, including tangible and specific outcomes, action items, topics this goal, and will work to ensure the health of our Orthodox church. They form the core; they carry the message;they are to explore and things to do. The implementation of workshops the role models, This core then reaches out and brings in is critical at the point when there is a consensuson rhe problems others. \7e have been blessedwith talented, amazing people that need solutions. The issueshave alreadybeen pondered and throughout our Archdiocese. We must find them, gain their discussed,ideas have been placed on the table and validated, and there is a broad level ofacceotance. support, and ask them to contribute their abilities.

CANVASTHECLERGY AND LAITY It is a natural human tendency to desireto solveproblems. However, this predisposition to action is helpful only if the right problem is being addressed.Otherwise, those who were motivated to action will be frustrated in their efforts until




COMMUNICATE SUCCESSES Successbegetssuccess. A bold, comprehensiveand effective communication strategyis essentialto affecting successfuland sustaining change. This is how we expand the core, develop believers,and multiply the effectsof those positive things that




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h"p@. Ifwe focuson the and the likeand if other than the participants, \7e have an obligation to makes the work at hand lasting positive outcomes.

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hand-1s11sats, workshops, rts go unnoticed by anyone rve.**led on another front. ifood news. This ultimately improves the potential for


My vision is for an Orthodox Leadership o rg a niz at ionwould be :

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and honestly identi$, and discuss issues o h, as they pertain to operational and spiritual A "coaching center" where future leaders of our Archdiocese can gain insights into how they might better help their churches, A "think-tank" where the best minds can meer ro candidly address the challenges facing our parishes and religious communities, and A "marketplace" where clergy and laity can exchange ideas, experiences and lessons learned, so the Archdioceseas a whole benefits.


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A. C. (Dean) Macris is theprincipal ofA.C. Manis Consuhants,a practice thatfocuseson organizational and managementconsuhing. He attends St. Sophiaparish in New London, Connecticut where he chairs the St. John Chrysostont Oratorical Festiual. IItr. '$-_ ?1,7 -a'

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very year,on the Sunday of Meatfare, we read the parable of the Sheep and Goats from the Gospel of Saint Matthew. From one perspective, it is obvious that the Lord takeskindness and negligence very personally. Each time I read this parable-feed the hungry, give drink to those who are thirsty, visit those who are sick or in prison, and welcome thosewho arestrangers-I feel personally challenged. I recall the words of Bishop Kallistos \7are resonating in my ears, "Christ is looking at us through the eyes of every personwe meet." There is a sense of responsibility that is re-awakenedeach time I read this parable, and there is also an opportunity to servethe Lord through the "least of My brethren." In the past fourteen years, I have been blessed to meet a few brother priests who have "given flesh" to prison ministry while serving in their church communities. Some havemade visitation to correctional facilities bringing the


Summer 2005

Holy Sacraments and giving pastoral consolation to the men and women incarceratedin the seventystate facilities of the New York State Deoartment of Correctional Services. I should like to highlight one brother priest in particular, Fr. Nick Lassios,of blessedmemory, who as an unmercenary went into correctional facilities. He celebrated the Divine Liturgy, preached the \ford, and even wenr so far as to begin a correspondence course for the Orthodox Christians who wanted to continue with their spiritual growth through ongoing catechism. Fr. Nick was able to bring Orthodox Christian literature into the libraries of several facilities. It was his purpose to "bring the love of Christ to our brothers and sisters in prison." He engaged parishioners to accompany him to the facilities. I recall con-celebrations of the Divine Liturgy with Father Nick and how he engaged the inmates on a pastoral level that was

genuinely paternal. I think that the ministry of Fr. Nick was as fulfilling for him as it was for the inmates who anxiously looked forward to his visit each monrh. There are other priestsand lay people who have given a portion of their time to prison ministry. A few of our church communities have adopted a Lenten program to have their church school students create cards for the inmates. These cards contain simple drawings, prayers, stickers, Bible verses,and good thoughts for the brothers and sisters in prison to receive with joy. They are received with the same joy with which they are created. The Lord blessesthose who create the cards and those who receivethe cards. There is much more to be done, and there is much more that we should do. I can recall many the visitations I made over the past 14 years to inmates and to their families. Some of my work has been with the Orthodox Chrisdans in prison, and on other occasionsI have spent time with the general population. I have spent hundreds of hours sitting i n o n A A and NA m e e ti n g s ,rry i n g ro encourage a room full of male inmates to speak openly about their addictions, their shame, and the consequencesof criminal thinking. In private, we explore the bits and pieces of the toxic shame that fueled their downward spiral. One inmate, who had been in the Alcohol and SubstanceAbuse fieatment program for years, gave me a real gem to think about. He said, "I am just starting to see that GOOD minus GOD is 0! Take the word GOOD. Remove GOD. \X4rat is left?" A simple math problem summed up the spiritual basisfor his recoveryand renewed perspective of life. "I have to change the way I think," he said. "Same old thinkingbreeds the sameold behavior. The same old behavior breeds the same old resultsl My problem is that I keep making myself believe that I can think

the same old thoughts but end up with good results! Thatt the insanity of my addictionl I am learning that whatever adjective I put in front of thinking applies to behavior and results as well, ... and the word G-O-D doesnot stand for good old days! \With a corrupt mind, there is nothing good about the good old daysl But God is good." For him and for me, this was an amazing reafHrmation of the obvious. I wish you could remember the gleam in his eyesas I do.

"ln the begtnntng, I thought I was the one who would humbly walk into the prlson settlng and bring the

his CED while in prison, and cooked rice and beans and plantains better than the Latin American restaurant down the street. In the beginning, I thought I was the one who would humbly walk into the prison setting and bring the Presence of Christ to the inmates. I never realized that the Presenceof Christ was already there, and I would have to openly deal with my own fears, look deeply at the qualiry of my own life, my complaints, treasuresome very specialmemories, and have these men and women make an irreversibleimpact on my life. In 1990, I humbly embraced the lofry ideal that I was called to bring Christ to the inmates. But I neglected a much loftier ideal - and that was that Christ was reaching out to me through tnem.

Presence of Chrlst to

To some, prison ministry sounds like a task to be done out of compulsion. the lnmates." Even to the heart that is wholly inclined to do Godt will, serviceto the Lord will I have served the Divine Liturgy on sometimes feel like compulsion. I dont a school desk. I have had the privilege see that as a refection on the Lord so of placing the Body and Blood of Christ much asit is a symptom of my own fallen in the mouth of a man who had twenry nature. But now I know that Christ yearsearlier in a drunken ragecommitted is waiting for us in the eyes of these murder. In previousvisits, I wasprivileged brothers and sisters. This perspective to walk with him through his repentance is very inviting. Where I once felt very and confession. I have to say that his challengedby prison ministry now I also personal inventory was more exhaustive feel cherished. than my own. I have had the privilege to meet privately and sharedinner with drug As Orthodox Christians, we learn users,drug dealers,and gang members. I very early in life that Christt real have befriended men and women who Presenceis waiting for us in the wine and are HIV positive. I have shed tears over bread of the Holy Eucharist. His grace the relic of a man who had struggled is poured out freely in the oil of Chrism with the shame of a failed marriage after and Unction. There is an abundance of four incarcerations,admitted to stealing His sancti$'ing and cleansing grace in money from family members to feed his the water of Baptism. His blessing is in addiction, and admitted to having been the sacredcrowns that are placed on our violated sexually by a close relative when heads and in the rings that we wear on he was a young boy. The only priest he our right hand; in the sacredright hand ^r -L ^ LrcrB ^l ^-_-/) ... ever knew was a prison Chaplain. He ur Lrrs was also an incredible artist, had earned



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My point is that there is a sacramentaldimension to prison ministry "\What you did for the least of My brethren, you did for me." This means very simply that Christ awaits us in the person of the person of the inmate resident. The Lord Himself is waiting to reaffirm in us a servanrt heart and ultimately grant us a place at His right hand. The parable of the sheep and goats is really a parable filled with paradoxes as well as a clear straightforward admonition. There is great joy there. Most of all, the Lord is inviting us to Himself through the imprisoned, the thirsry the hungry, the stranger,and those who need to be clothed. \fe have cerrain images in our mindt eye concerning prisons based on what we have seen in the newspaper, television, and the movies. Theseimages can crearecertain fears. Are we to be hostageto our fears? Does cultivating a servantt heart motivare us or do we seethis parable as simply a call to obedience and a strong admonition to help our brothers and sistersin the fesh? The Lord is actually reaching out to you and I through the less fortunate and the imprisoned. "IW4ratyou did for the least of my brethren, you did to me," saysthe Lord. If we truly believe that we are the sheep of the Good Shepherd, rhen our greatesr joy is to behold His face and hear His words. The Lord makes His face known to us in the imprisoned and less fortunate. Therefore, we should never neglect such an opportuniry to embrace His face and hear His words. Here are some helpful ways to mahe prison minis*y integral part of your clturch community.



\fhen you hear about a parishioner who is in trouble with the law, make sure they are nor alone in their plight. Covering up the truth will not help them, neither will any fagade that vainly masks the real issue;


Pri.rt, and parishionersneed to work together to give moral supporr ro inmates and their families. Even in prison, they are "in the body'';


M"k. sure your parish priest knows about the situation;

+ Pray for inmates and their families at the Prothesisand in your private prayers;


Correspond with our brothers and sistersin prison, sending them paper icons and prayersthat help suppoft their spirit and their identiry as Orthodox Christians;


fdt about decisions and consequencesfrom the pulpit, youth retreats, church school, adult education classes, church bulletins, etc. Flood our people with information;


f you do not have a clergy representarive doing Prrson ministry in your state, do your best to start rhe Process immediatelvl

* an arricle about prison ministry in your church bulletin often. Hopefully, this will increaseawarenessin your local church communiqt and reach out ro anyone that is in prison and needsatrention;

Pleasepray for me. My consolation is in your conrinued prayers. Feel free ro contacr me for information on orison ministry in New York State, or to offer pastoral assistanceto someonewho is in prison.

Reu Fn Emrnanuel E. Mantzouris monitors the presenceand mouement of Orthodox Christians in the 70 New yorh State facilities. He is also the pastor of St.Basil Greeh Orthodox Church in Troy,New Yorh.He can be contactedby email atfremantz@aol. c0m.








Rev.Dn. MrlrrnoesB. Errurylou PRoropReseyrER oF THE EcuNrNtcnl PntRtRRcunrE

n the days following Pope John Paul II's death there was f considerablespeculation regarding who would be elected I I the nexr Pope.This is ofsome imporrance to the Orthodox Church, for although rhere were Orrhodox hierarchs not only present but prominent at the funeral, represâ&#x201A;Źntarivesof certain Orthodox jurisdictions were noticeable in their absence. Although there is an ongoing dialogue between East and \fest, the theological dialogue has recently become strained, and in many respectsrhe relations have cooled, especiallysince 1990. This cooling can be traced to rensions between the rwo Churches in the former Communist staresof Europe regarding two issues:ownership of church property and proselytizing. In the early 1990s, this writer chaired a committee on inter-

faith marriage berween Roman Catholics and Orthodox constituents, and concluded that while much progress had been accomplishedin this areaof concern, there was still much to be done in order to resolve many of the ecclesiological disagreementsthat were impeding our discussions. ]A S TTE N S ION S In a good-will gesture,PopeJohn Paul iI recently returned the relicsof St. Gregory the theologian and St.John Chrysostom to their rightful place in the Ecumenical Patriarchate at the Phanar in Constantinople (Istanbul). Nevertheless, tensions persist benveen many of the other Patriarchatesand autocephalousChurches of the East and the Latin Church of



the \fest. \[hat are the origins of these tensions? The late Pope visited Greece and the Jerusalem Patriarchate, and attempted to visit Russiaand the Ukraine before he died. Is there any reason to believe that these gestures toward uniry are anything but an atrempr by Rome to bring the "recalcitrant" Orthodox back into the fold? \fas all this a veiled attempt toward proselytism? The answer to thesequestionscan be traced back rc 1054 when "anarhemas" were exchanged berween the Pope of Rome, Leo IX, and the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularios. At this time there were two primary issues that separatedthe Latin'West and Greek East: disagreementsover the "Filioque" clause,a unilateral addition to the Nicene creed, and the primacy of the Bishop of Rome (the pope). Although these issues were the theological basis of the rift, they were overshadowed by political considerations rhar only increased the separation as rime passed. Among the numerous atrempts at reconciliation, there was the infamous Council of Florence of 7439, at which a false union document was signed and subsequently repudiated. The absolute authoriry of the Pope of Rome and papal claims of universal jurisdiction culminating in papal "infallibiliry" proclaimed at Vatican I in 1853, was rhe "straw that broke the camel'sback' and cemented the rift. Sincethat day,numerous arremptsto coercevastpopulations ofEastern Europe and Russia ro accepr Romet authoriry merely exacerbated the tensions. In the 16'h century for example, shifting political boundaries caused forced conversionsof the Orthodox by Roman Catholics, especiallyJesuits, legitimized by the Council of Brest-Litovsk in 1596, which proclaimed the "union" of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches within the Polish-Lithuanian State. In order to facilitate the "uniting" of Orthodox Christians with the Se. lf

Rome, the Orthodox were allowed to retain the Eastern(Byzantine)Rite and all the aspectsof Orthodox worship: icons, iconostasis, vestments, the liturgical servicesof St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil, with the only difference being the commemorarion of the Pope instead of the Patriarch. These Churches came ro be known as "L-Iniate"Churches, a term Eastern Catholics find offensive. Today, there is a sharp division between members of these Churches and the Orthodox over church properry, and accusationsof proselytism on both sides. It was over this sensitive point of "Uniatism" thar the last wish tf Poo. John Paul [I to visit Russiaand p.rson"ily return a venerated miraculous icon of the Virgin Mary met with resistance from Aleksei II, Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. In one of his last written statements, the Pope expressed his deep disappointment that he was nor able to visit Russia, as he had to almost every other country in the world.

"Has a brother been the occaslon of some trral for you and hasyour resentment led you to hatred? Do not let yourself be overcome by thls hatred, but conquer it

with love."

TENSIONSTODAY Theologians involved in Catholic/ Orthodox dialogues today generally accept that "Uniatism" is inconsistent with both Roman Catholicand Orthodox ecclesiology.\(hen such dialogues break down, it is usually over rhis sensitive issue. Although Uniates are described as Eastern Orthodox or Greek Catholic Churches, they remain, in fact, simply an eastern or oriental rite within the Roman Catholic Church. The Orthodox insist that if the Roman Catholic Church wishesto be consisrentin its ecclesiology, it must srarecaregoricallyand openly that Uniate Churches are a part of the Roman Catholic Church and nor seDarare Easternor Oriental Churches. The recenr meerings of Pope John Paul II and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew have brought the fi^/o Churches closer ro this understanding

-St. Maxlmos the Confessor

by confirming that "the effort which aims to bring about the unity of the Church by separatingfrom the Orthodox faithful without taking into account that, according to ecclesiology, the Orthodox Church is a sister Church, which itself offers the means of graceand salvation" (Freising Conference, 1990). Both at Freising and at the Balamand Conference (1993), the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church unanimously declared that: "\7e reject Uniatism as a method of unity opposed to the common tradition of our Churches." lJnfortunately, this attempt of reconciliation has broken down repeatedly. Cardinal Ratzinger, the most powerful cleric in the Vatican after the Pope, wrote "to the Bishops of the Catholic Church of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith," to the regret of the Orthodox Churches of the East, that unity should be ecclesiologicallythought of as a return to a papacentric understanding of the Church and to the old model of unity meant as submission to a central power claiming universaljurisdiction. Although this concept has since been repudiated by some Roman Catholic theologians,it was a major blow to Orthodox/Roman Catholic rapprochement and relations, and, in fact, confirmed the suspicionsin the minds of some that the Roman Catholic Church is not sincere in its dealineswith the Orthodox.

ISTHERE HOPEFORRECONCILIATION? Many ask, especially now that the Roman Church is on the threshold of electing a new Pope: "Do Roman Catholics and Orthodox have anything in common?" They do, and although 16 centuries have come and gone since the eruption of Christological and ecclesiologicalcontroversies,the desire for ecclesial accord still burns in the hearts of all Christian believers."...and for the union of all let us pray to the Lord," is a fervent petition in the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. This alone encompassesthe "oneness"to which Christ calls all Christians. But after assessingour activities over the past centuries,all theologiansofevery persuasionagreethat ecclesialaccord must be basedon a true understanding of the nature and mission of Christ's Church. Reconciliation will be a failure if its roots are in different ecclesiologies-as history has shown. In summary conversationsbetween Orthodox and Roman Catholics must deal with three basic tooics:

1. The question of authority in the Church. 2. The relationship between Church and the Faithful. The ecclesiologicalbasisof a common Christian witness.

Is there hope for reconciliation? There is, but such

reconciliation must be approached in a way described by Maximos the Confessor in the early centuries of Christianity: "Has a brother been the occasion of some trial for you and has your resentment led you to hatred? Do not let yourself be overcome by this hatred, but conquer it with love. You will succeedin this reconciliation by praying to God for your brother and by accepting his apology...and by patiently waiting until the cloud has passed."

Reu. Dn Mihiades B. Efthirniou is theformer executiueDirector for Inter-church Relationsfor the Greek Orthodox Archdioceseof North and South America and former Ecumenica/ Officer for the Standing Conferenceof Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas, (SCOBA). He has representedthe Orthodox Church at World Council of Churcbesgatherings, and is the author of two boobsand numerous articles. He is now retired and residesin New York. His email ac/dressis


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,:*t,, VrcpAovruL MlcunelKnlnnrs 7bepower to lead and command it not a licenseto be mysterious. do; that is why you need me to adviseyou." Anytime I felt as if So let me end the mystâ&#x201A;Źry:. ',,.,,' ': one of my "brilliant" ideaswas not well thought out, I sought the wise counsel of someone who was directlv affected bv mv ,,:,,,,,,, a ma r Greek Ortl thod Lnrlsttafi; a nusDarnd, father, and "brilliance." Finally, he emphasized that our na\y ...* kn.* the differenceberween a "boss" and a "ieader."This meant rhat grand granc ifather; tired Vi,ceAdmiral with 33 years of servi ratner; ar reti they had to feel that I knew what needed to be done, and that Vational rhe lINationr the >naltDi)irector of Emergency Dfisas I would not desert rhem in the face of danser or adversitv.In for The Salvatior ISalvati< nAr|Imy nd a trainei and rtion yet the fourth century B.C. the Greek historian"Xenophon *ro,., \wa "' I am rrior." rrior.' arr am nl her he:re b because of my famil n sDtte "\(illing obedience is always superior to forced obedience," and "a leader must be ready to suffer more hardships than o ftth M y wi hem.. My .I a ndI wifee an, wifi ."lt"rJly t\Wt he, asks of his soldiers." I leirned this asain in combat from witlthh 3 8 years of mar rrriar lage haveitwo Ie. Vietnam to Desert Storm and in businesi when our company thrrle grandchildrren. fiiied bankrUptcy despite our rising suecesses.


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In the dictionary, "leadership" is defined:1,4q leading." This definition exactly fits what I had and practiced all of my life. "Arr' implies talenr, study and learning from the masrers. Lastlu an arrist is defined i one who professesand practicesart, It may sound simple, but it took me 10 yearsof study and learning from the "grear ones" and more than 30 yearsof practice to get here.

OL"y, you now know,ihe "id,ri.. a Nary Chief gave me now here is the advicemy soiritual advisor l,-"asa lieutenant in the Nar,y, finally started to #i get serirousabout being a practicing Orthodox Christian. In 1964 Father Nicholas tivelas told me, "There is no decision or act that you make or do rhat God does nor see;so you might as well check in with the Master before you decide or acr." Instead of the dictionary,l wenr to the Holy Bible to define my path.

Before I left for the US Nary, my mother, Tirla, gave me some superb advice regarding success.She said, "The only way: And Jabez called on the God of Israel saying, "Oh, that You you can prove to me and God that you are a leader is to caiâ&#x201A;Źl would blessme indeed, and enlargemy territory, that Your hand about people and then do the right thing. Never worry abouf would be with me, and that You would keep mefrom euil, that I being promoted, God takes care of that. You do your job and ma! not cause pain!" So God granted him what he requested. d o i t well. " I Chrinicles 4:10 V4ren I first joined the US Navy in 1962, a senior chief You are the light of the world. A ciry that is set on a hill petry officer told me that in order to be a leader I had to cdnnot be hidden. Nor do they light a lamp and put it under a Iearn everything about my job-and everything about my basbet, but on a lampstand, and it giues/igbt to al/ who are in people-and then innovate when needed.Then he gaveme the the house. Let your light so shine beforemen, t/tat they may see best advice-advice that I carried for the rest of my life, and your good worksand glorifi,your Father ," brorff;rrhew probably the reason I became an Admiral. He said, "The best 5:14-16 way to foul up an officer is to do exactly what he tells you to


These two scriDtures have been a part of my prayers for 40 years. I credit my leadership successes to wise counsel, spiritual bravery, and prayer. I became a successful Fleet commander and corporate CEO because of my family's prayers and from the challenges and support I received from my heavenly Father. I frequently hear from people. "It must be easyto be an Admiral-all you have to do is give orders!" Growing up in the Navy I learned that Admirals dont just give orders to their people, they give courage,hope, and the will to go where they would never go themselves. Lord Nelson wrote, "The measure of a leader is that one instills in others the will and conviction to carry on." Although there are many points that I could list regarding a leader, the following are the "Big 5" principles that I felt defined my leadership.











RELATIONSHIPS It is all about your people: In the N"uy, "shipmates are forever." \When you join a ship or air squadron, your life starts a new fresh page; you and those in that command instantly become "Shipmates," joined forever in time. You write a history together, good or bad, heroic or cowardly, useful or useless. tVhen a soldier is in danger or crisis he can look to his left or right and know a shipmate is there for him. Shipmatescan never be divorced. They pass through time in memory and deed.

As a Fleet commander, I once attended a new ship commissioning ceremony as the principal speaker.The ship was being named for a previous ship of the same name that was sunk by Japanesetorpedoes in \flS7 II. These gentlemen were in their 80s and they were looking for "Junior." "Junior" was in fact a 17 year old crew member who swam through shark infested waters on a fateful night years before, saving the older crew members by putting them on floating piecesof wood blown free of the sinking ship. In their eyes,this nearly 70year old veteran was still "Junior," vthe kid who savedthem-he was a Shipmate. I askedhim what he was thinking and he said he was praying, "Lord if I forget you today pleasedont forget me!" My pruyer was similar while I went about saving my employees as our company faced the "sharks" of bankruptcy. \We survived and succeeded,not becauseof me, but of the will and conviction of my people to succeed. As a practicing Orthodox Christian I finally realizedthat God is my soul mate, that we are forever linked in time, and that He is taking me where I would never go myself. My relationship to fellow Christians is also forever linked, as is my relationship to the homeless, helpless, haplessin my Salvation Army work. But I have to walk the talk. Sound familiar? "Homologous," as the Greeks say,which is aligning our will with God. A leader must be a trusted agent. A leader must be one whose word is trusted and one who practices in a way that strengthensthat trust.

INTEGRITY In the Nary, sailors can detect a liar, a fool, and a cheat in an instant. They must be able to, for their lives depend on trust and teamwork. So I invoked, "The power to lead and command is not a license to be mysterious." I told them what the olan was and how i would be there for ihem-and then I lived up to itl Integriry is God-given, and only you can give it away. Once you give it away, it is impossible to regain it without Godt

help. It requires trust and conviction. Sound familiar? Integriry needs to be Dracticed in our service and church work. If not, there is no integriry, there is no service,and the practice of faith is untrue.

'As manv of us have learned ln llfe, if you stand upright for prrnciplesand standards,vour answersare shorter," As many of us have learned in life , if you tell the truth and stand upright for principles and standards, your answers are shorter! Changing your answer so people will believeyou is not the mark of a leader.However, ifyou practice integrity your work will be more enjoyable and successful.

FOCUS(AND F|RE) Leadership requires defining the "main thing" and sticking to it. In Desert Storm, daily,weeldy,we spenr importanr time to ensure we all knew where we were going, how we were doing it, and how far along we were regarding our success.-Wealso knew that once timing, intelligence, capabiliry and ability came together it was time to focus and fire. The art of leadership will not achieve successunless we focus on the mission. Sidetracks and diversions from the right path lead to disaster and loss of troops. During Desert Storm, the Atlantic feet forces we trained and lead lost only one pilot and thirry other "shipmates" out of a force of 250,000-casualty rates oreviously unheard of in twentiethaantt'rr-,warfare.



| page33

In our faith we often suffer a loss of million in three years.This was a people focus' There is a story of the Angel and driven success. $le maintained. our focus the poor farmer. An--Angel encounters and executed with excellence.\7e were a poor farmer and offers to give him a subsequentlyboughrbyapubricrytraded donkey if he can recite the entire Lord's .o-p"rry, which"adopred our business ---r Prayer without stopping. The farmer mod.l. 'mounted the donkey and started, ,,Our father who art in heaven," and then said, "Does this come with a saddle?" Zap!

No angelor donkey!Often, we loie tocus of our mission; to bring Christ to our parish; rrear our neighborswith compassion and Christian love; grow

the falth; and passit on to ou. lelacy, our children. Maintaining focus iJnot about refereeing envy, foigi"i"g lack of stewardship, and making the rich folks


"We mUSt go beyond

the potnt


ask ourselves, "What's

EXCELLENCE So now we are armed with peoole. Integrity and Focus, You have heard the expression, 'Anything worth doing is worth doing well." Such an attitud-e is mandatory for a leader. If your goal is not to attain excellence,then you cannot bring others to higher and higher levels ot pertormance. Seek personal, professional, and spiritual excellence. \We don'r sain much by lowering our standards.Th. N^avy foundered with high percentages of drug abuse during ih.- 70t afier Viernam, until our new CNO (Chief of Naval Operations) set the goal to Zero. Everyone understood Zero.-performance and productiviry improved and our people decided that "stay in and work smarr was rhe *"y ao go. Never miss a chance to find a worthy act to praise.Always raisethe bar, because it is the only way to learn excellence.yes, excellence is learned-ask any Olympic athlete. I applied these principl., "ft., joining a company in the D.C. area, and I was larer promoted to CEO. The f i rst.rh i ng.I did- was e n s u re rh a t e v e ry employee had meaningful "direct" work. This meant that e'ne.t1hesecrerarieswe had were graphic designerson conrract to. government agencies, ensuring that a]l shared in the merit bonus systeir. \fe improved salesfrom $J million ro $26

page34 |



what you have prepared for yourselp," This thought popped into my head *\fhere in my wallet is the coupon from Cod that sraresrhe date my death-the date by which I should be spirituallv ready, the date I will be yudged?"Thatt when I decided to practicJ the art of leadership in my faith. I volunteered for the Archdiocesan Council, rhe Parish consecrarioncommittee, and the stewardship committee. The more time I spent, the more time God granted me. In subsequenr years I also ioined the OCMC, Salvation Army and various committees here at St. John the Divine in Jacksonville,FL. Recently,I heard this statement from a minister on the radio, "We do not just come ro Chrisr and our church to get Fire insurance from Hell.',

\7e must go beyond the point where we ask ourselves"lVhats in it for me?" In the Nayy we have a saying for each Commanding officer, "From-day one, Excellence in our faith is also train your successor." This is not said imperative. \We cannor be forever becausethe officer expected to fail, but practicing Orthodoxy "101" as Fr. Niko by doing this the officer continues the Craffsaid a fewweeks ago. Learn the faith, succession of excellence and, thereby, practice it with gusto, come on time, and leavesa legacy. assistin ministry by sharing your talents. Statistics tell us that lessthan 30o/o of LEGACY all Orthodox parish members do most of the work of the church and actually When I was younq and asked mv rithel Coing ro church i, not .nolrgh; "yiayia" whar I could d"o to b. f"-orri. it takes sweat, "soul work," evangelis*m, I had in mind becoming Superman or and teaching. I have used every.*I,rr.,o Batman-but that is noi *hat she told m^issand expendedevery effort just shorr me. She said to me, "Stick your finger of real help (I call this the "yeah Buts,,). in the glass of water quickly. AII ylu "Pleaseattend church regularly"-,.yeah do is make a big splash, your fi.,g., is kids, my sleep,my golf. ',please magnified Fq.', in. the glass and looks- big; -y commirtees"-"yeah But" my help with but whar is left when you pull ir oui? iob, my TV, my rime. I have used them Nothing!" No mark equals^no legacy! all and then ended the sentencewirh ,As This from a woman with less thlr,'" soon as (kids, job, game, erc) are grown. third-grade education, d o n e , o v e r,erc.,then I' l l be there."In rhe meantime who does the work? Can you make a difilerence? Make a mark? Get the job done well? Brine I finally woke up spiritually when I _ along? C_anyou set the e*"mpl.i Pl?pl. observed rhe e*ampie i *a, siuine "Sl.:: the loop" with your p.op[.. Ti.y children. The late Birhop trhin F."rh.ri -u should know what was done and why. Ceorge Papaioannou gave us a very Do not be mysterio,r.. Al*"y, t."in spirired discussionof the parable oF the your successor.Bring the next soul on rich fool in Luke 12. \X4ren he sot to line. Severa.lof my il.nrorc raughr me verse 20, "But God said to himi ,you the same rhing; the secrer of superior fooll This. very night your life will be performance and leadershipis superior demanded from you. Then who will eet serviceand servanthood.

ln lt for me?"

According to our Lord, "servanrhood"is the most honorable profession.You have to be an Ensign before you become a Vice Admiral or a CEO. For this reason I found ways to give of my time, talent, and treasure as a personal example to my Navy crews, civilian employeesand fellow parishioners. Our teams in the Naly, in my company, and our churches have mentored in inner ciry schools, cooked food and served the homeless, and manned and worked with the Salvation Army Emergency Disaster Service canreens.Eventually this legacy "sruff' catches on. Lastly, for all this to come togerher one musr have a strategic _ plan. Your people musr know where they are on a timeline, what they have to do and how far they have yer ro go, V4ren each one of us makes a difference, each leader makis a mark on history to be recorded in rwo places,heaven and earth. Be of consequence.Be of substance.Make yiayia, mom and dad proud. Make God smile!

Can you make a difference? Make a mark? Get the job done well? Bring people along? Can you set the example?

Vi ce Adtnira I Mic b ae I Ka I leres i s reti red f om 3 3 y ea rs of ser ui ce in the US Nauy. He was Fleet Commander for the IJS Atlantic Naual & IUATO Naual Forcesduring Deserr Stor*. rX/hileashore, h.eseruedtwice as Chief Financial Oficer of the uS Nary, with a budget of $100 billion annually. In addition to his military leadership, he is a graduate of Purdue Uniuersi4tand receiuedhis MS in Public and International policy fro m George Wash ingto n (In iu ersity. He abo seruedasArchdiocesechair of the administratiue committee for tbe Archons. Currently, he serrrs as chairman of the National Aduisory Board for Emergency Disaster Seruices foi the Saluation Army and is on the executiue board of the Orthodox Christian Mission Center. He has earned ,r*irou, military decorations, personalciuic ltonors and awards.






CODE Rev.Fn.SrEveN Tsrcur-rs

ln fact, there ts

he Da Wnci Code is a murder mystery shrouded in a conspiracy theory, a novelistic thriller, an airplane book, the kind of book you read when you want to waste time, an easyread that combines a fast narrative pacewith short chapters.


so much that is historlcally false ln this book that lt's hard to know where to begin

Many people are reading author Dan Brown's latest novel, a work of fiction, as if it accuratelyportrayed the facts about Christ, the New Testament, the Church and Christian history. But sadly,like one of my sont roommates at Boston College, many people reading 7heDa Vinci Codecome away from the book with their faith in Christ and the Church shakerr. The definition of fiction according rc the American Heritage Dictionary: 1. An imaginative pretense. 2 . A\i e. 3. A literary work, such asa novel, whose content is produced by the imaginarion and is not necessarilybasedon fact. The confusion about this book beginson the opening pagewhere the author, prior to actually beginning his story, statesthat: "All descriptions of arrwork, architecture, documents and secret rituals in this novel are accurate." Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, there is so much that is historically false in this book that irt hard to know where to besin. One of the main characters in the book

Summer 2005

i shman nam ed Sir Leigh

Teabing who is actually the bad guy, the mysterious "Teacher" responsiblefor ordering the murder of the curator of the Louvre with which the book opens. But Mr. Brown never lets the fast paced action of the book stand in the way of a good lecture and beginning with chapter 55, that's exacdywhat the Teabing characterdelivers.

Great but Athanasius the Great, the bishop and patriarch of Alexandria in Egypt, in a circular letter to all the Churches in Egypt written in 367 AD, 42 years after rhe 1" Ecumenical Council. It was not Constantine who determined the canon of the New Testament as parr of a political power play, but the Church, in the personsof its bishops and teachers.

Let's begin by looking at some of the things that are said there about the Bible and the 1" Ecumenical Council.

SBcoNo:\WewouldagreethattheNewTesramenr"didnot arrive by fax from heaven." The books of the New Testament were written by the apostles in order to get the story about Jesusstraight. This is made clear, for example, in the opening versesof the Gospel of Luke 1.:l-4, where Luke, a friend and discipleof the apostlePaul,statesthat he wrote his gospelas"an



"The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven' deciaresTeabing. "The Bible is a product of man, my dear. Not of God. The Bible did not magically fall from the clouds. The Bible, aswe know it today, was collatedby the pagan Roman emperor Constantine the Great. In 325 AD, he decided to unif' Rome under a single religion: Christianity. Constantine needed to strengthen the new Christian tradition and held a famous gathering known as the Council of Nicea. Until that moment in history, Jesuswas viewed by his followers as a mortal prophet....a great and powerful man, but a man nonetheless.A mortal. Jesus'establishmentas the Son of God was officially proposed and voted on by the Council of Nicea. A relatively close vote at that. Nonetheless, establishing Christ's diviniry was critical to the further unification of the Roman Empire and to the newVaticanpowerbase. Constantinecommissioned and financed a new Bible, which omitted those gospels that spoke of Christ's human traits and embellished those gospelsthat made him -godlike: The earlier gospelswere outlawed, gathered up and burned'"

il3TJ,:l:::::#'[]f;ff:]TL^:],:;,9;]::ffi;J "eyewitnesses."Virtually all scholars agree that Luke's gospel was written sometime berween g0 and 90 AD at the latest. Some scholarstheorize that his gospelwas written even earlier. Marks gospelwas certainlywritten e"rli.r, no later than 65 AD, probabiy in Rom., within only a few years of the execurion of p.,... and paul durine rhe persecutionof Christians under Nero. All of the Gospelr"pro.l"i- thatJesus wasnot*a mortal prophet" and the disciples understood that Jesuswas far more ,1f{ho it a man. \fhen the disciplesare askedby Jesus, "r, ;,rr, ,,you do you say that I am?,' the apostle peter responds: are the Christ, the Son of the living Godl,, (Matthew 16:16). Nathaniel, anorher one of the Ii apos;es, declaresto Jesus, "Rabbi, you are the Son of Godl you are the King of Israell" (yohn 1:29). AfterJesus calms a srorm and walks on warer, rhe ,,exclaimed: Gospel of Matthew recordsthat the disciples Tiuly you are the Son of God!" (Matthew 14:33). In fact, Jesusis ,,the called Son of God', more than fifty times in the books of the New Testamentl It would certainly be a surprise to the apostles (including paul) to learn that they did not proclaim J.r,r, to be the Son of God and that this had to wait until the 1,,Ecumenical Council. It is thereforeutterly falseto assertthat "Jesuswas viewed by his followers asa mortal prophet.. ..a grear and powerful man, but a man nonerheless"prio. ao the Council of Nicea. Just the opposite is true: the l" Ecumenical Council

,.rhe Frnsr: it today Bibre asweknow was . ;illl*#::f"T"ii*'jJ::i;;ff::ilH,:i:ljili"f:i

Constantine the Great [who] commissionedand financed a new Bible." This leavesthe impression that Constantine determined which bookswould constitute the NewTestament.This is totally and completely false. As a matter of historical fact, although there was a greatdeal of consensusamong the Churches as to what constituted the New Testament well before the Council of Nicea, the 6rst person to list the 27 books that all Christians today accept as the New Testament was not Constantine the

an Egyptian man named Arius, a pr1.rt *ho taught rhat Jesus was more than a man but lessthan iod _ a kind o6.,rp.r arrg.l. Athanasius, the future patriarch of Alexandria, attended the 1., Ecumenical Council as a young deacon. And, by the way, ,,relatively the vote was nor close" ar all. Of the 3ig bishops who attended, all but 2 sided with the New Testam.nt and th. aDostlesand not Arius.

Summer 2005


Turno: In the 4'h century, during the reign of Constantine, there was no such thing as "the new Vatican power base." This is little more than an anti-Roman Catholic slur, one of many contained throughout the book. In fact, there was no such thing as the Vatican as we understand it today. For Mr. Brown, the author of TheDaVinci Code,the only Church is the Roman Catholic Church and he reads back into the 4'h cenrury the medieval rise and development of the papacy in the \7est. This is anachronistic.The Vatican, as we understand it today, is the result of the fall of the Roman Empire in western Europe in the 5'h and 6'h centuries, the increasingcivil responsibilities of the paPacyduring the early Middle Ages, the emergence of the papal statesand a number of other historical processes stretching over many centuries,long after Constantine'sdeath. And finally, the modern Vatican state is a creation of the l9'h century and the rise of Italian nationalism.


other things - some of the oldesr known manuscripts of the Old Testament.Ironically, the Dead SeaScrollswere produced by a communiry of maleJewish celibates,preciselythe kind of people Langdon asserrscouldn't have existedwithin Judaism at the time ofJesus. Second, 6oth Tlte Gospelof Philip and 7he Gospelof Mary Magdalene are commonly called "gnostic" gospels by New Testamenrscholarsandhistorianstoday. Theyarepseudonymous works nororiously unreliable as historicai documents and in fact contain no historical outline of eventsin the life of Christ whatsoever,in stark contrasr ro rhe canonical New Testament Gospelsof Mattherv, Mark, Luke and John that clearly speakin historical terms of the birth, baptism, ministry, crucifixion and resurrecrionof Christ. Cnosticism is an umbrelia.term that modern scholarsuse to describe a number of religious movements in the ancient Roman world, many of which were not ar all related to Christianiry all of which had several common themes: that membersof the various gnosric sectshad a secretknowledge not availableto others; that there were a seriesof lessermediating divinities sometimes called Archons, sometimes called Aeons: and a dualistic outlook, an antithesisbenveenmarrer and spirit, body and soul and a hatred of the physicalworld that was often believed to have been created not by God but by a lesser,evil demigod to imprison the souls of human beings.None of these beliefsis Christian.

Perhapsthe most outrageousand ludicrous asserrionmade in this novel is the character of Sir Leigh Teabingt statement that "the marriage of Jesusand Mary Magdalene is part of the historical record." Two reasonsare rhen given for this amazing assertion.First, according to Robert Langdon, the novelt main character, "BecauseJesuswas a Jew and the social decorum during that time virtually forbid a Jewish man to be unmarried. According to Jewishcusrom, celibacywas condemned." Second, Teabing insiststhat the marriage ofJesus and Mary Magdalene is mentioned specificallyin rwo ancienr documenrs, TlteGospel of Philip and 7he Gospelof Mary Magdalene, which he calls, To take only one example from The Da Vinci Code, 7he together with the Dead Sea Scrolls, "the earliest Chrisrian Gospelof Philip cited by Teabing as proof that Jesusand Mary records." Magdalene were married, was produced at the end of the 3'd century AD, almost rwo hundred years afier the Gospel of There is not one shred ofevidence acceptedby any credible John, the Iast of the four New Testamentgospelsto be written. historian stating that Jesuswas married to Mary Magdalene. Hardly part of "the earliest Christian records." Scholarstoday First, while it is true that "Jewish custom" encouraged agreethat it was produced within circlesfaithful to the teaching marriage, it was not at all unheard of for Jews ro practice of a man named Valentinus. He was an Egyptian gnostic celibacy.Perhapsthe rwo mosr famous casesare Jeremiah, rhe teacher who taught in Rome between 135 and 168 AD and Old Testament prophet of the 7'h cenrury B.C. who abstained who is one of the few gnostic teacherswhose theological views from marriage as a sign to the Jewish people that the end of and subsequentdisciples,i.e. Ptolemaeusand Markus, that we the kingdom of Judah was near (Jeremiah 16:1-9); and the know anything about. Their Christian contemporaries in the Qumran community, a proro-monasric secr within Judaism ancient world, Iike St. Irenaeus,(the bishop of the city of Lyons) at the time of Jesusresponsible for producing and probably wrote a seriesof books refuting the teachings of Valentinus, preservingthe Dead SeaScrolls so often menrioned in 7heDa his disciples and other gnosdc teachers,as well. These books, Wnci Codeas part of the "earliestChristian records."Actually, like The Gospelof Philip, have survived to this day and I, as a the Dead Sea Scrolls, initially discoveredin 7947, conrain no seminarian,had to read both theseGnostic documents and the "Christian records" whatsoever becausethey are the products responsero rhese documents by various bishopsand teachersof of an ancientJewish communiry. Rather, they contain - among the Church like Irenaeusand Clement ofAlexandria.




berween 30,000 to 50,000. Modern scholars suggesrthat perhaps 100,000 "Even Christianiryt weekly holy day such trials were held between 1450 and was stolen from the pagans,"the Gabing 1750, with somewhere between 30,000 characterdeclares."Originally," Langdon to 50,000 executions, of which 25o/o adds, "Chrisdaniry honored the Jewish 7,500 to 12,500 - were men. It is also Sabbath of Saturday, but Constantine clear that despite the involvement of shifted it to coincide with the pagan's of Preparation for the Sabbath; Salwaro, Church authoiities, the vast maiority veneration of the sun. To this day, most the Sabbath day; and Kyriake, the Lord's of those condemned as witches were in churchgoers attend serviceson Sunday fact condemned by local secular courts. morning with no idea that they are there Day. After the Lordt Day, the days of the Of course,here, as throughout the book, on account of the pagan sun god'sweekly week are merely numbered: Deutera, the Second Day (Monday'; Tlete, the Third whenever Mr. Brown uses the word tribute - Sunday." "church" he is always referring to the Day (Tiresday)and so on. In the Greek of Roman Cathoiic Church and this book Nothing could be further from the the New Testament as well as in modern contains a clear anti-Roman Catholic truth. As a matter ofpure and simple fact, Greek to this day, there is no confusion bias. But it is a simple fact that many the New Testament records quite clearly regarding the Judeo-Christian origins of witch-hunts took place in Protestant that Christians gathered for worship on the names for the days of the week. countries like England and her colonies the day of Christ's resurrection from the (for example, one need only recall the YHWH dead, the day afier the Sabbath (Mark infamous witch trials in Salem, MA). 16:2) or the Lordt Day ("Kyriake" in Interestingly enough, in the Orthodox "The Jewish tetragramaton YH\X&{ the original Greek) as it is described in Church, there never developedan Office Re ve l ar ion l: 10. T h i s a n c i e n r p ra c ri c e - the sacredname of God - derived from of the Inquisition as in the Roman is also referred to in Acts 20:7 and Jehovah,an androgynous physical union Catholic Church; nor were there ever 1 Corinthians l6:2. Furthermore, a between the masculine Jah and the preany witch-hunts or trials. number of post-New Testament writers Hebraic name for Havah." like St. Ignatius of Antioch (executed A CONSPIRACY? This is completely falsel As any in 115 AD) and St. Justin the Marryr (executed in 155 AD) to name only first year seminary student can tell "Everyone lovesa conspiracy,"thinks two, confirm the practice of Christians you, Jehovah is actually a 16'h century Langdon and indeed, this is perhaps one gathering for worship on Sunday. rendering for the King JamesVersion of reason why TheDa Wnci Code fascinates Constantine 'thifted" nothing. All that the Hebrew YH\WTI using the vowels for so many people and still dominates 7he Constantine did in the year 321AD was the word 'Adonai" or "Lord," the word New Yorh Times bestseller list. Brown's which was read by devout Jewswhenever grant legal status as a holiday within conspirators in this two millennia long the Empire to a centuries-old apostolic they came acrossGod's name in the text cover-up include the Roman Catholic of the Old Testament becausethey felt practice of the Church. Church, the Knights Templar, Opus Dei the actual name of God was too awesome (a Roman Catholic organization that But we also need to look ar rhe to be pronounced by human lips. in fact does not have monks nor do its question of language, It is true, as the members wear a monastic habit of any WITCH HUNTS Langdon characterasserts)that Sunday is kind, much less go around murdering indeed the "Day of the Sun" in English. "During 300 yearsof witch hunts people) the Masons, Interpol and a secret And Saturday, 6y the way, is "Saturnt the Church burned at the stake an society known as the Priory of Sion, D"l' and not the Jewish Sabbath. astounding5,000,000women' Langdon, (that is an actual organization officially Thursday is "Thort Day." It is true that the Harvard professor,saysro his French registered with the French governmenr the names for the days of the week in love interest, Sophie. In fact, even non- in 1956 that most likely originated after modern English have all been adapted Christian historians now agree that V W II and first came to public notice from ancient my'thologies.But in Greek, the number of people - both men and in 1962). So much for being a "secrer" things are very different. Only three days women - executedberween 1400-1800 sociery! \fith the exceprion of French have names in Greek: Paraskevi.the Dav for suspectedwitchcraft was somewhere film maker Jean Cocteau, its illustrious

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list of Grand Masters as presented in the novel - Leonardo, IsaacNewton and Victor Hugo - is simply nor credible and no historian takessuch claims seriously.

THERELICS OF MARYMAGDALENE But perhapsthe most fantastic claim of all is that the Holy Grail of Arthurian legend and popular movies like Indiana Jonesand the Last Crusadeis not the chalice that Christ drank from at the Last Supper but Mary Magdaiene herself and a tomb that contains her remains. The main character in the novel, Robert Langdon, cracksthe mysterious code left behind by Sauniere,the murdered curator of the Louvre and discovers that the bones of Mary Magdalene are buried in the Louvre. 'Where are the relics of Mary Magdalene today? Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians know that they are certainly not buried in the Louvrel According to the historical tradition of the Church, Mary Magdalene died in the ciry of Ephesus and was buried there. Her body, an object of veneration by Christians, was transferredto Constantinople in the 9'l' century by the Byzantine emperor Leo the \(/ise, an event that is still commemorated on our liturgical calendar each year on May 4'h. Following the sack of Constantinople by the Crusadersin 1204, most of her relics were carried back to Rome and placed under the altar in the Lateran Palace(the papal chapel). Some of her relics are located in Vezelay,a small rown near Marseilles in France,and are housed in St. Maximin's Basilica.Her arm is kept at the Monastery of Simonos Perraon Mt. Athos. The Da Wnci Code is a fast paced but poorly written murder mystery full of ridiculous errors of fact. Ir is, after all, a work of fiction. \X4rateverthe claims concerning his researchin preparation for writing this novel, the simple fact is that aurhor Dan Brown knows little abour Leonardo, little about art and virtually nothing about Jesus,the Bible and Christian history.

Reu Fn Steaen T!;ichlis is thepastor of St.Paul GreehOrthodox Churchin lruine, California.



ii:l:ii : ailii: , , , : a: , , , : , , : , , , , : , . . ,

the content i docrrine. Furthermore, this article proposesthat rhe liturgy also helps to spiritually form and transform irs members into disciplesof the disciples th. Kingdom. fi.,gdo*.

process,rhe imporrance of liturgical worship. Ir is assumed that carechumenswill attend weekly worship and participare various services in rhe rhe various servicesthroughout throughout r'h. r'h. y.^r. y.^r. it i, i, u.ry u.ry porribl. porribl.

"Jr cannot be forgonen that the ar worship is not _ _Church only presentto God; Farmore significandy,the living God is presenrro the Church." I

bur it is ar",othe,thing ro acrually b. .ng"g.d in " the worshipping .*pJri.n..: e*periencel Through Thiough lirurgical irship *orship we encounrer rhe crucified and risen Lord, partake of holy communion, and aresenrback into the world as missionaries of INTRODUCTION the good news of rhe Kingdom. Thus, through theseliturgical encoLlnterswe learn abour our common faith in Christ,,"are .r ! . r .. the following scenario:.A visitor comes to the shapedand formed inro n hhis b-di ihe Church,l!qdi.aia,1; body-the t Church, and are called ledt;1;t1t;;; .colt'd"r ^. Divine Lirurgy on Sunday morning' He or she remains after to ,rrrrrfor,n rhe world throueh lovins our neiehbor. The the serviceand ioins the congregarionin the coffeefellowship. following week we rerurn ba& io th. Diuin. Lit.rr:gyin order Soon after the visitor enrollsina formal.catechumenclasswith to and reaffirm o,r, ai*, ir. Coa, ,"a ,f",*r," endre "ffir,', the goal of becoming," the onhodox Church. process begins again. r :.-b.r.of The classmeets regularly For a period of a few weeks to a Few

I ?lVl( ** 4l Summer2005 |I| Paseal PaEErr (rrmmar



Specifically, this essaylooks to the writings of the late Orthodox theologianAlexander Schmemann (1921-1981) as a way for both clergy and lairy to return to the richness of the Iiturgy as a means for catecheticaleducation, formation, and transformation. Very often we attend the weekly Divine Liturgy without giving much thought asto the numerous ways that the liturgy conveys the realiry of the Kingdom through the vast array of prayers, blessings,sacraments,symbols, hymns, and liturgical cyclesof feastsand fastsand how liturgical worship is a sourcefor learning about our Orthodox faith.

line I ever wrote, the question addressedby liturgical theology to liturgy and to the entire liturgical Tradition is not about liturgy but about "theology," i.e. about the faith of the Church as expressed,communicated and preserved by the liturgy. Here liturgy is viewed as the locus theologicus par excellencebecauseit is its very function, its leitourgia in the original meaning of that word, to manifest and to fulfill the Churcht faith and to manifest it not partially, not "discursively,"but as a living totality and catholic experience..a

ALEXANDER SCHMEMANN: EDUCATION WORSHIPAS Much can be said about Alexander Schmemann' s life and Iegacy. He was an internationally known Orthodox priest, pastor, professor,seminary dean, theologian, and author. His life was devoted to the liturgical renewal and revival within Eastern Orthodox Church, especially the Orthodox Church in America. His books, articles,essays,and sermonsare known world-wide and translated into numerous languages, have been referencedby theologians in the East and the \fest, all the while serving as a general introduction to the Orthodox Christian faith.2 Perhaps, Schmemannt most important contribution to the Orthodox Church is his focus on the centrality of worship in the life and practice of the Church. His writings refect his passionfor liturgical worship not only as an academic subject for study and refection, but the formative factor for theological inquiry; according to Schmemann, the scriptures, doctrine, faith, practices, and prayers of the Church are expressedand fully realizedin liturgy, specifically,in the eucharist.One can see his life-long interest in the eucharist throughout his writings, especiallyin his recently-publishedmemoirs, his sermonsfrom Radio Liberry and his magnum opus TheEucharist.3 In his essay,"Liturgical Theology, Theology of Liturgy, and Liturgical Reform," Schmemann provides his vision of liturgical theology: theology-and I cannot But then liturgical overemphasizethis-is not the that part of theology, that "discipline,"which dealswith liturgy"initself," has liturgy as its specific "objecr," but first of all and above everlthing else, the attempt to grasp the 'theology" as revealedin and through liturgy. There is, I maintain, a radical and indeed irreducible difference between these fwo approachesto liturgical theology whose task then obviously depends whether one opts for the one or the other. In the approach which I advocate by every

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Schmemann emphasizesthat liturgy is a sourcefor theologv and as a source it is consideredprime theology, or what Aidan Kavanagh has called, theologia prima. -When the Church gathers for worship it enters into an encounter with the one true living God who revealshis holy will to the communiry of faith through the public reading of scripture and affirmed through the common prayers and affirmed in the breaking of bread. Thus, the communiry of faith is engagedin true living theology which is both redemptive and salvific. For Schmemann, liturgical worship is central to the Christian life since it is through worship where we enter into the realiry of the Kingdom-the banquet of immortaliry. This intimate connection between liturgical worship and life is seen in the opening pagesof Liturgy and Life:

It is my conviction that the Orthodox faith has its most adequate expressionin worship and that truly Christian life is the fulfillment of the grace, vision, teaching, inspiration and power that we receive in worship. Therefore it is in the organic connection beween the liturgical life of the Church and her educational effort that we find the uniquely Orthodox principle of religiouseducation.\7e arestill far from the full application and implementation of this principle; however,if this book reminds those responsiblefor the religious education of our children that this is their most important and urgent task it will have fulfilled its purpose.5 Central to Schmemann's liturgical vision of religious education was the eucharisticliturgy. The eucharistwas the lens through which Schmemann envisioned parochial education and became the conduit for spiritual formation. It is through the prayers, blessings,and hymns of the liturgical celebration where the Church reveals its true nature as the Kingdom of God. For centuriesOrthodox Christians havegatheredtogether for the Divine Liturgy as a way to sharethe joy and celebration with one another, but also as a way to offer their thanksgiving to God. It is this serviceof thanksgiving which is offered "for the life of the world and its salvation."

biessed commandments, that trampling down all carnal desires,we may enter upon a spiritual manner of living, both thinking and doing such things as are well-pleasingto thee. For thou art the illumination of our souls and bodies O Christ our God, and unto thee we ascribeglory, together with they Fatherwho is from everlasting,and Thine all-holy, good, and life-creating Spirit, now and ever and unto agesof ages.Amen.6 The proclamation of the gospelreminds the faithful of their baptismal pledge to follow Christ, keep his commandments, and to love their neighbor as the prayer reminds us, "that we may enter upon a spiritual manner of living, both thinking and doing such things as are well-pleasing unto thee." This gospel also comforts, encourages,edifies, instructs, reproves,leads to repentance, and ultimately to salvation. In other words, the proclamation of the good news provides us with both the content and context of the faith and informs our understanding of our vocation to praiseand worship the Lord. Ultimately it is this'Word which leadsus to salvation, as the Apostle Paul tells Timothy, "Thke heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will saveboth yourself and those who hear you' (I Tim.4:f5).

\7e are intimately connected to this \flord through the preachingofthe sermon. The sermon providesa bridge between FORMATION God's \ford and our unique situation in a particular culture, WORSHIPAS time, and space.Through the proclamation of the gospel and The liturgy is a communal gathering. It is within the sermon people learn about repentance,love, sacrifice,humiliry context of the Divine Liturgy where the faithful gather self-denial, and obedience.The priest invites us to accept the together to celebrateJesus'death and resurrection (I Cor. 1 1). living \Word of God, which both forms and transforms us into Furthermore, the word "liturgy" (litourgta) literally means the his disciples.This \ford also leadsus to a deeperknowledge of "work of the people." The typical Orthodox liturgy requiresthe doing Godt will in our life. \fhile eachweek a different gospel participation ofthe entire congregation.The priest and deacon lessonis proclaimed we are still hearing the entire Word of God lead the congregationin prayer asthe choir or chanter responds in its fullnessweek after week and seasonafter season. with "Lord have mercy'' or "Grant it O Lord." Often the entire Furthermore, one cannot underestimate this repetitive congregation will join the choir in singing the responses.The liturgy also involves altar servers who assist the priest and nature of liturgy. Each week we hear the same prayers, readerswho chant the epistle reading. Thus the Divine Liturgy hymns, and responses.The repetition of the prayers, hymns, and responses,provides the communiry with a familiariry is the work of all the people of God, both clergy and lairy which then allows the faithful to join in the common prayer young and old, adults and children. of the communiry. It is beautiful when the entire congregation Likewise our common work involves hearing the joins in chanting the Lordt Prayer or the Creed as the priest proclaimed \Word of God, which has a preeminent place in the invites the congregation to "lift up their hearts unto the Lord." Divine Liturgy. The prayer before the gospel reading revealsthe Schmemann comments on the repetitive nature of worship importance of receiving the good news: as he reflects on the annual celebration of Holy Week and Pascha: Illumine our hearts, O master who loves mankind, with the pure light of thy divine knowledge. Open Lazarus Saturday, Palm Sunday. Enthusiasm, joy, the eyes of our mind to the understanding of thy connection, communion with the only thing needed. gospel teachings. Implant also in us the fear of thy As a special grace, an exceptional radiance, sunshine,




light of these two days, blooming trees. Paschaland joyful yellow forsythias. On Saturday, after the Liturgy, we went to the cemetery. Lazarus Saturday more than any other day is made for the cemetery because it is 'the assuranceof the universal resurrection.'... Expectation and Fulfillment. It seâ&#x201A;Źmsthat Lent will never end, these endless forty days will never get moving... then, LazarusSaturday.It seemsthat Pascha will never happen, but then it always comes and finds you unaware. Really: "Behold, the Bridegroom comes at midnight." I have the feeling that I am not prepared, I did not expect it; I am hopelesslyout of "the Chamber." ...Holy Thursday does not come to us; we come back to it, we again immerse ourselves in it. Holy Thursday is again a gift to us... the whole 'liturgy'of the Church is there; it makesthe return, the immersion possible. Spiritual life is to be there, not only to touch it once in a while symbolically.T

journey to Jerusalem,to his beuayal, trial, and crucifixion and thus we are formed as his disciples aswe follow him on the road to Jerusalemas well as in the upper room on Pentecost.

PASTRANSFORMATION WORSHI Schmemann's critics have questioned his approach to liturgy and have pointed out that he emphasized liturgical worship over everything else in the church, including service to the poor and needy,aswell as the importance of ones personal spiritual journey within the larger context of the worshipping communiry. However, when reading Schmemann's theological corpus in toto, one actually sees an intimate connection between liturgy and life. According to Schmemann, liturgy is meant to be missionary in that liturgy is always a proclamation of the gospel to the world around us. As mission, the liturgy is called to transform both the worshipping community and the culture and society in which we live. This missionary and transformative nature of the eucharistic liturgy was the topic for refection in Schmemann s iournal entry in earlv 1973: The Eucharist revealsthe Church as community-love for Christ, Iove in Christ-as a mission to turn each and all to Christ. The Church has no other purpose, no 'religious life' separatefrom the world. Otherwise the Church would become an idol. The Church is the home each of us leavesto go to work and to which on returns with joy in order to find life, happinessand joy, to which everyone brings back the fruits of his labor and where everything is transformed into a feast,into freedom and fulfillment, the presence,the experience of this "home" -already out of time, unchanging, filled with eternitS revealing eternity. Only this presencecan give meaning and value to everything in life, can refer everything to that experience and make it full. "The image of this world is passing away." But only by passing away does the world finally become the "\forld" : a gift of God, a happinessthat comes from being in communion with the content, the form, the image of that "\forld." 8

Thus, Schmemann dismissesany notion of a separation between the world and the Church. The liturgy then becomes a mission to the world as the faithful are called to bring the of the Kingdom to the world, love, joy, peace,and blessedness Holy \Week commemorates the last events of Jesus' life; his disciples,"Go therefore and the risen Lord commanded as LazarusSaturdayand Palm Sunday recall the raising ofLazarus them in the name the nations, baptizing make of all disciples from the dead and Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching Holy Friday and Holy Saturday the Church remembers Jesus' them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, crucifixion and resurrection. Jesus'final days are not celebrated I am with you always, even to the end of the age." (Matthew asmere historical eventsbut are celebrated everyyear asa realiry 28:19-20). Following our Lord' s injunction to continue his in which we enter into. Each year we again follow Christ on his



teaching ministry, the church of God is called to continue this proclamation of the good news of salvation to whomever has earsto hear.

servicesare a wonderful resourcefrom which both clergy and laity can draw upon in educating the entire congregation in the essentialsof Orthodox faith and teaching.

Likewise, congregationsoften overlook the importance of Ultimately, the Eucharistic liturgy transforms the realiqy of daily existence,providing the transformation of our life to worship as a means for disciple making and faith formation. be the presenceof God's Kingdom as seen in the following \yu4rileSchmemann was known for his numerous aqademic writings, lectures,and sermons,one of his most important commentary by the Orthodox theologian Michael Plekon: contributions to liturgical renewal was reminding us that The whole of the day, the night, the year, all of time worship is primary. Thus, it would also be helpful to re-read is sanctified in the liturgy. All of human activiry is his sermons and writings as a way to once again learn the to be transformed: work, play, eating, sleeping.Every importance of worship and its role in catechesisand faith point in human life is a moment of God's saving and formation. bringing us back: from our burial and resurrectionin Baptism, to Chrismation, or confirmation, to Christian marriage, the anointing of the sick, and the burial of the Christian. Through the Churcht liturgy and ordained ministry all ofhuman life, especiallymaterial things-bread, wine, oil, water, words, touch-are directed back to what they were createdto be-good in God's sight and, in the caseof humankind, his very image and likeness. The consequenceof this life of God and with God in liturgy is made explicit. Time becomesthe very "sacramentof the world to come," the eschatologicalicon of God's savingand reclaiming of his fallen creation & Father Schmemann constantly emphasizedthe paschalor resurrectionalnature of the Church, the liturgy, and Christian iiving, an intense realization within the Eastern Churchs experience, exemplified by numerous holy women and men even n in our own era.

Reu Dn rililliam C. Mills seruesat lVatiuity of the Holy Wrgin Orthodox Church in Charlotte, North Carolina. Reu. Mills also teachesas an adjunct professorof religious studiesat Queens L/niuersityin Charlotte, North Carolind. Rea.Mills earned dual degrees from St. Wadimir's TlteologicalOrthodox seminary,and a Doctorate in Pastoral Theologyfom The Uniuersity of Cincinatti, Ohio. He recently releasedthe book, "From Paschato Pentâ&#x201A;Źcztt: Reflectionsof tbe GospelofJohn." (Notes) lAidan Kavanagh.On LiturgicalTheologli(Collegeville, M N : P u e b l o .l c ) q 2 ) . 8 . 2 Seehis For the Life of the Vorld. (Cresrwood,NY St. Vladimir's SeminaryPress,1979);OfWaterand theSpirt. (Cresrwood,NY St' Vladimirt SeminaryPress,1979);JulianaSchmemann(trans.).The 1973-1983.(Cresrwood, Journakof FatherAlexanderSchmemann Press, 2000). Vladimirt Seminary NY St.

In many ways the real liturgy begins when we leave on Sunday morning to go back into the world and shareour life with our family, friends, neighbors,and co-workers.The liturgy challenges us to become missionariesof the good news to the entire world. In other words, we are called to incarnate the love, peace,and joy of the Kingdom in our daily relationships with friends and family. Thus, when we are educated,formed, and transformed into disciplesof Christ, so too, we are called

3 TheEucharisttrans.Paul Kachur. (Cresrwood, NY: St. Valdimir's

to sharethis faith with the entire cosmos.

6 7heDiuine Liturgt Accordingto St. John Chrysostom.

CONCLUS ION Every year new and improved educational materials are published to assistwith catecheticalinstruction. However, I advocatethat we take a step back and return to the basicsof worship asa meansofeducation, formation, and transformation of persons and entire communities. The scripture readings, prayers, hymns, blessings, and symbols of the liturgical

Press, 1987). Seminary aA. Schmemann"LiturgicalTheology,Theologyof Liturgy,and . LiturgicalReform' in Liturgy andTraditioneditedby ThomasFisch (NY SVSPress,1990), p.39-40 5Lhurgl and Ltfe:ChristianDeueiopmentThroughLiturgical Experi' NY Departmentof ReligiousEducation,1974),5. ence.(Syosset,

7 Journals,I95. 8 Ibid.,40. e Michael P\ekon.Liuing Icons:Persons of Faith in theEasternChurch. (Notre Dame,IN: Universiqyof Notre Dame Press,2002),190.





JrvMnnoosrs Media visionarvMarshallMcLuhan spenta lifetime probing eadershipis a function of discoveringand learning ro follow emergingpatterns.Innovative leadersrespondto and exploring the dvnamics of innovation, examining rhe changesthat have alreadyoccurred-using their insights unexpectedway one innovation leadsro another. For example, to developnew products,malkets,or organizationalprocesses. rvelearnedto flv br'first learningto ride a bike! Bio'cling taught us the art of balancing (the larvs of aerodynarnics),which the Innovations are not simplr. new inventions,technologies, Wright Brothers took to new heights a bicr..clewith or ways of doing things. They changewho we are by changing wings that could balance itself while moving through the air. the structure of our relationshipsto ourselvesand to others. Mcluhan was interestedin the surprisingreciprociriescreated The things we make remakeus. Think about printing, radio, betweenour inventions and us. \7e invented washing machines refrigerators,and computers. to savethe time spent scrubbing clothes.This createda desire for spotlessclothing and the needto wash clothescontir-ruor-isl1. The leader'sjob is to perceivethese changes,to seewhat just to keep up. Fulfilling this need becamethe purpose of a otherscannot ol will nor see. whole nerv ir-rdustrl'. The challenge in todal;s environment of nonstop innovation and radical organizational change is to be arbleto identif. quickh' which innovations are most likelv to affect your operations,product lines, markets,and even viability as an organization. The first step,and it is a disconcertingone, is to understand that no single technology pertainsto onll' one industrl'. On the contrary, all technologiesare capableof influencing, indeed likely to influence, many organizationsand industries. For example,the car was important to the transporrationindustry. But it radicallyinfluenced all of sociervand culture, creating new industries (oil, tires, saferyglass)and transfbrming others (roads,towns, shoppingcenters). Luckily, the patterns that innovations make as they change the world around them havea predictablestructure.This means that, although it may be impossibleto predict an innovation, it is possibleto understandsomething of its likely ramificarions once it has been identified.


The kev is to recognizethat the meaning or impact of any innovation be it a product, an idea, or a llew operating procedureis alwavsthe ellect it has on existingoperations. 'Ihe wheel gave us the need to build roads. Tivo wheels in tandem gave us bicyclesand the need for smoother roads, paving the way for cars and asphalt highways (new industries with neu'n-rarkets). Likewise,bicyclesled to airplanes.Airplanes changed the place of roads, railways,and ships in our lives, opening up the "friendlv skies"and changingirrevocablywhat it means to "travel" by train or ship. People used to "travel" to Eulope. Now we flr' there. \7hen we are in a hurrv, we do not travel. \(/e.just "go" from one place to another. \7e travel when we are on vacation (when we are "going" nowhere). You could saythat the airplanemade the older meaning of rravela means of transportation obsolete.Now trdue/ means being there, not gettingthere.At the samerime, rhe plane createda new marker for traveling in the old wa% as a form of relaxation. We buy S W s or go backpacki ngto travelaround.

Knowing this in advancecould make you rich. Not knowing it could lead to disaster. According to Mcluhan, all " l a w s " i n n o va r ions obey f ou r a s rh e y remake the world we live in. (1) They make some new things possible and (2)

Answering these questions reveals the underiying and controlling parterns of change that may be affecting your organizationt services, practices, and processes. These changes are simultaneously threatening the way you d o b u s i nessand creati ngopporruni ri es you can use to succeedin the future.

As Mcluhan wrote, "Simply knowing in advancewhich transformationsro expect, knowing how and where to look, lets you predict the effects of any new device or technique before they actually appear in time and experience."

Using these four iaws, you can learn to anticipate markets or recognizewhen As you think about these questions, an outside innovation is affecting you. your attention will be called to evenrsas If you find yourself being obsolesced, they are unfolding in real time. This puts enhanced, rerri eved.or f ipped, t hese you where smart leadâ&#x201A;Źrswant to be with four questions will help you reposition the curve, not ahead of it or behind it. yourself in new markets you might A great danger is alwaysmaking business otherwise have overlooked. The best way decisionsbased on speculation:"If we to learn is to practice.A good way to begin The way to discover an innovation's invest now and if the technology takes is to look at some obvious examples. impact on your businessis to ask these off, then we'll be out in front." Thar's a four questions: lot of if's. Mcluhan's quesrions let you AUTOMATED INFORMATION perceivethe actual effectsof innovations DELIVERY 1. \X4rat does the innovation exrend, asthey are happening so you can be ready SYSTEMS enhance,or make possible?For example, rvith the right product at the right time the car enhances mobility and creates to meet the needs of today's customers. 1. What doesit enhance? Ability to receivecalls and process suburbia and shopping malls. The cell This can happen only if the organization requesrs. phone enhancesour availabiliry. Putting becomessensitiveto emerging parterns. a cell phone in a car turns it into a mobile Once you can recognize the new 2. \Mhat does it obsolesce? phone booth. services and "disservices" created by Customer servicerepresenrarives. new technologies, it is a simple step to 2. 'What does it make obsolete? The imagining how these changes might 3. What does it retrieve? car pushes aside the horse and brggy. become potentiai markets that may Self-serviceenvironmenrs. and the world of blacksmiths. The cell revealnew customersl 4. What does it fip into? phone obsolesces wires and offices. tVhen people take cell phones to lunch, Overload, confusing and tiresome protocols, cusromer dissatisfaction. they lose the community feeling of an The emperor has no clothes: the uninterrupted meal. In a car, cell phones new system revealsinefficienciesand eliminate insecuriry. unreliabiliry of products, brands, and so on. 3. 'W4rat does it retrieve? tW4'ratolder, previously obsolescentground is brought This means that . Companies with huge customer bases back and develops in the new form? The car retrieves the countryside, and the can cut costsby replacingemployees with machines. ability to go "on the road"; the cell phone, . A well designed human machine serviceon demand, along with the abiliry In the businessworld, this approach information system could make to micromanage things and the securiry of reveals hidden opportunities that all the difference when it comes ro being in touch. always emerge from innovations that customer retention. come from either inside or outside 4. At the extreme, what do its original your organization. Teaching them to But characteristicsflip into? Cars flip into uaffic your whole organization will help you . The customer is never right. There jams and tedious hunts for parking space, to create an ultraresponsive corporate is only one right way ro make an while cell phonesfip into voice mail, traffic culture capable of quickiy spotting and order and it is often nor rhe way the accidents,and the feelingof being trapped. reactingto new opportunities and threats. customerchooses. some old things unnecessaryor obsolete. (3) They make some artifacts, processes, or attitudes from the past relevant ro contemporary society in a fresh way. (4) lWhen pushed ro an extreme,rhcy cause the opposite of what they were inrended to create.

"Smart leaCers

want to be with the curve."

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. This retrievesthe need for courteous and efficient salesrepresentatives. But . \fhen self servicefips into poor or no service,the corporate emperors rudely discover that high-tech systems drive sales and brand identificariondown, not upl

THEGENOMEPROJECT l. Enhancesreading without interpretation. 2. Obsolesces old sciencemodels of quantification. 3. Retrieuesmedieval notion of the book ofnature.

E.LEARNING L Enbancesonet ability to learn on the job. 2. Obsoleces the need for offsite training programs. 3. Retrieues(from the pasr, in a new form) work as a craft by creating electronic modes of apprenticeship and mentoring relationship. 4. Reuerses itselfat the exrreme as a means to learn one'sjob, eJearning flips into learning being onet job. W'hat this means to . Ofiite training companies: diversi$' . Managersplanningfor a company's training needs: shift to e-learning, pay amention to balance between working and learning. . Executiuecoacltes:may find a growing demand for their services. AII should consider the usefulnessof apprenticeshipsand mentoring. But . In a knowledge economy, the knowledge worker knows his or her job better than any rrainer or manager, so e-learning fips into learning organizations,and earning a living becomes learning a living. The danger is forgetting that the job is to applylearning, not learning per se.

4. Flips into genetic engineering (application of the genome).

G E NE T I C E NG I NE E RI NG l. Enhancesour abiliry ro cure cancer and birth deFects. 2. Obsolesces genetic limitations, family trees,birth defects. 3. Retrieuesutopian thinking specifically, the alchemists' dream of rewriting narure and turning lead into gold. 4. Flips into people playing GodFrankenstein! This means . A society with fewer ill people. . Peoplecould buy good health. . Great athletesand geniusesare made not born. . A test of fairness:who gets to "play God"? lVith so much abiliry to choose our own destinies,will some people hunger for predestination? Mcluhant Laws can help you anticipate and capitalize on new markets that have come into being but have not yet had an economic impact, have not yet resulted in new industries. Products create markets as much as markets create products. Applying these laws will allow you to do both. For example:

1. \X/hat market docs this new product or servicecreate? 2. \X/harolder producr or service reemergesin this new market? 3. How does the obsolescedproduct open up a new market for itself by serving a different function or customer?Horses dont oull stagecoaches anymore, but rhey do pull buggiesthrough the park. 4. \Mhat new markers will emeree as rhis product is being pusheJro its limit? How and when can you start marketing this reversal?Can you include it as part of the current product line? The company thar learns how to use today's innovations on todayt terms is the company that will capture the markets that are emerging in todays world. Mcluhant Laws teach us how to anticipare and capitalize on change by helping us distinguish danger from opportunity. They are a profound source of startling insights.

James Maroosis is a winner of the Innouations in American Gouernment Award from Haruard's JFK Schoolof Gouernment and 7be Ford Foundation. He has a Pb.D. in philosophy and teachesleadership seminars on innouation, creatiui4t,and responsibility at Fordham's Graduate School of BusinessAdministration.

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The premler Chrlstlan ECucator ls the prlest, and St. John Chrysostom's work on the Holy Prlesthood has been a ciassic to thls Cay. The goal of thls artlcle ls to explore Sl John's vlslon of the prlest as a Chrrstran Educator and a man of Classlcal eCucation




good news and truth of the Gospel? e ra rhar eni oyed a fl ow eri ng oF \fhat is the motivation for the Christian patristicthought. Some of the most Educator to study and equip himselfwith important Orthodox Christian thinkers the secularknowledge and methodology in the Church's mo thousand yearhistory of the world? Oddly enough Chrysostom lived in this period. They were men of dealt and wrote about these very issues, a classical upbringing, well versed in issuesthat were pressingeven in his time. ancient philosophy, rhetoric and poetry. This article will thus be a description and Among thesegiants of Church tradition, analysisof his suggestedmethod, with an perhaps none is celebrated more than approach to implementing this method St. John Chrysostom. Chrysostom's into the contexr of the conremporary treatiseon the priesthood is a standard to Christian Educator. this day, required reading for all young THE EDUCATOR ASTACTICIAN men intending to entei seminary in the Orthodox Church. V4'rat, then. does Christians are engaged in a war. Chrysostom have to say to these young men concerning education? How ought All around us, spiritual powers and the Christian Educator balance secular principalities rage invisibly for the Iearning and rhetorical arts with the salvation or condemnation of our souls. rrl




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This war becomes most apparent on the level of philosophies, of ideologies, of concepts. People are dragged about from one school of thought to another; heretics seek to distort and mutilate the body of Christ by introducing foreign conceptionsof God and Christ into it. Education is the battlefield on which this spiritual warfare for men'ssoulstakes place."For we do not wrestleagainstfesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rules of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places" (Ephesians6.\2). Chrysostom's vision of this warfareis not limited to a solitary Christian warrior struggling for salvation. On the contrary, it is played o u t i n t he m odel oF th e p ri e s ra s ma s te r tactician. "Anyone who undertakes to fight fthe enemies of the Church] must know the arts of all. He must be at the same time slingeq cavaky officer and infantry officer, private soldier and general, foot-soldier and hussar,marine and engineer" (Chrysostom, 2002, p. 116). No doubt Chrysostomhasin mind both competent master and humble servanthere when he says'private soldier and general,' while the other titles are being used to demonstrateflexibiliry and variery in teaching and knowledge. The priest must fill all of theseshoesbecause, "the devil knows how to introduce his agentsat a singleneglectedspot and so to plunder the flock" (Chrysostom,2002, p. 116). Expanding on the vulnerabiliw of the Church in holding with his analogy of warfare Chrysostom tells us that: 'As long as a city is encircled with walls all round, it mocks its besiegers and remains in perfect safery.But once a breach is made in the wali, no larger than a gate, the circuit is no more use to it, though all the rest stand safe. So it is with the City of God. As long as the




Summer 2005

nimble wits and the wisdom of the shepherd encompassit like a wall all round, all the enemy's devices end in his own shame and ridicule and the inhabitants remained unharmed; but when someone manages to break down a part of this defense,even though he fails ro desrroyit all, from that moment practically the whole city is ruined through that one part" (Chrysostom,

2002,p. 116). Cleariy Chrysostom demands that the priest master every variery of ideological and spiritual attack. The priest ought to be a master teachet scholar and historian. The priest ought to be a classicalman, possessinga wellrounded education with competence in all areas of academics-not for his own edification but rather for the flock entrusted to his protection. He should therefore strive to be a prolific writer and speaker, and yet still manifest the humility befitting a servant of God. This should demonstrate the necessity for the priest not only to be highly educated in the modern sense,but also in the classicalsense.Classicaleducation, which is what St. John has in mind here, was holistic and aimed at nourishing the development of the entire human being in all areasof art as well as the analytic disciplines. Chrysostom contends that for the priest to be an effective defender of the flock and encompassit all around he must be a classicalman of arts and letters. Returning then to the theme of education as warfare: what then does this enemy seek to accomplish by this warfare? \X4rat else but to corrupt and destroy the soul, just as enemies of the state seek to destroy the bodies of those who oppose them. In this way, Chrysostom likens this warfare, and the Christian Educators who wage it, to skilled surgeons ready to remove the

slightest blemish or the greatest tumor without unnecessarydamageto the good tissue. For who among the sheep has remained unscathedby the fiery darts of the evil one? And what constitutes the instrument of this surgeon?"\)7hen all is said and done, there is only one means and only one method of treatment available,and that is teaching by word of mouth" (C hrysostom,2002, p. 1i5) . The mouth of the teacher is like the knife of the surgeon; he must chooseevery word more carefully than the finest incision, especiallywhen applying these words to the hope ofhealing an infected man. "The priest, therefore,must... examine them all [his flock] with care and apply all his remedies appropriately, for fear his care should be in vain" (Chrysostom, 2002, p. 58). -W4retherthe analogy of general or doctor is made, the point is the same: Christian educators, and particularly priests, must be "wise as serpents and harmlessas doves"(Matthew 10.16). The priest must therefore be ready and capable of battling not only the enemies from outside the flock trying to penetrate and wreak havoc within, he must also be prepared to deal prudently and meticulously with those within the flock who have been unfortunately infected with the diseasedweapons of the enemy. But this is not all-rhe priest must know to what degree he ought to apply his remedies, since different souls in various conditions require different applications of treatment. Just as the amount of anesthesiaapplied to a horse if applied to a mouse would kill the creature, or brain surgery for a common headachewould be overkill, so too with spiritual remedies. The priest must apply remedies correctly as the situation dictates and with awareness towards the disposition and state of the patients. 'As there are plenry of people who are puffed up into arrogance and then fall into heedlessness of their own salvation because they cannot stand bitter medicines;so there are others who,

becausethey do not pay a proportionate penalty for their sins, and misled into negligence and become far worse.. . " (Chrysostom,2002, p. 58). The priest must also guard himself againstdespondency;when his pupils and parishioners are led away by those who would plunder the flock, he must not lose heart. "He needs,therefore,a heroic spirit, not to grow despondent or neglect the salvationof the wanderers,but to keep on thinking and saying: 'Peradventure

personwithin the Christian communiry and if he should fail to do this, his words will be as "sounding brassor a clanging cymbal" (I Corinthians 13.1). Any man who speaksa messagedifferent from the actions he exhibits is a hypocrite. Thus, the priest must take specialcare to make sure that his actions conform to the messagehe is preaching. Martyrdom to Christ entails not merely preaching the message;it involves living it as well.

Chrysostom emphasizes both the God may give them the knowledge of capacity to teach and the capacity to exhibit the truth and they may be freed from the and liue for the messageas parallels that snareof the devil"'( Chrysostom, 2002, musr nor be separatedif the teaching is p. 58). Thus the Christian educator to have any eificacy: must not become irritated or impatient "For this is the ultimate aim when ignored or despised but must bear everything with patience and love of their teaching: to lead their befitting the man of God. An image of di sci pl es,both by w hat they do this ideal educator should be called up in and w hac they say,i nro the w ay our mind by the General who, againstall of that blessedlife which Christ odds, never loses hope, but inspires his commanded. Example alone is soldiers to 6ght even more courageously not sufficient instruction. And as the battle intensifies.Thus in spiritual this statementis not mine, but 666[x1-ne less than in physical-the the Saviour'sown. For He says, '\X{hosoevershall do and teach, best commander is that man who is he shall be called great.' Now preparedfor all situations and conditions and risesto the challengeof the enemy in if to do were the same as to order to bring the army together into a teach, the second word would cohesiveeffectivewhole. be superfuous" (Chrysostom,

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2 0 0 2p, . 1 2 5 ). THEACTIVITY OF PREACHING In combat, a general who would inspire his troops must command with competence and knowledge, leading from the front ranks. So it is with the Christian educator, who must not only possess remarkable tact and strategy, knowing beforehand the method and position of the enemy, but must also be willing to fling himself headlong into death for the sake of victory. Although even in Chrysostom's day such martFrdom of the priest rarely took the form of physical death, such marryrdom must be offered on a daily basis. The priest must fulfill the divine imperative to follow Christ more than any other

Chrysostomt point is that a 'great' educator is not one who only instructs, nor is it the man who only leads by example, but the man who combines both for a potent combination that will penetrate into the souls of the flock entrusted to his care. According to Chrysostom, it is not enough for a priest to merely be holy if he is to lead; he must also teach effectively. Otherwise, he is not feeding Christ's sheep,but living the life of a monastic and merely struggling for his own salvation. The relationship of holiness to education is most clearly seenin the use of miraclesasteaching tools. Chrysostom


page5 |


argues that miracles would be an even grearerdemonstration of the gospeltruth than reaching by the word. However, because Chrysostom seems to believe that miracles rarely occur in his day, he advisesteaching by word of mouth. Thus, in Chrysostom's view, the educator and the solemn activiry thar he pracrices are second only to the miracle worker.

rhe one Chrysostom considereda master of the Scriptures.

In Christian education, there must be continuiry with the teachings of the Apostles and ultimately Christ. This is essential; and because of this it is imperative that every teacher diligendy study the Scriptures as well as the other writings of the holy Fathers. As in the \X{ho then, does St. John give us as caseof Bishop Honorius of Rome, a slip the archetypical Christian Educator, a of the tongue from a priest may result man exhibiting the dual gifts of practice in a new heresy. Chrysostom rakes the and preaching? None other than the importance for this temperare attitude blessed Apostle Paul: "If the men of from the Apostle; for in Pault instruction today were all to join forces, they could to the bishopshe statesthat every bishop not with any quantiry of prayers and must be well versedin the teachings and tears do as much as the handkerchiefs scriptures delivered to rhem, in order to of Paul once did" (Chrysostom, 2002, correcr those who contradict the faith. p. 120). Chrysostom attributes the mass conversions and glorious reputarion of Paul nor ro his miracles (though he was blessedwith the abilirv to perform them) but to his speaking abiiity and his conrinuous expounding of the scriptures.The ablliry of Paul that priests should emulate is his skill in handling the arguments, disputations and public speechesthat confounded his opponenrs and strengthened the flock of Christ, both in numbers and in fervor. Thus, the activiry of Christian

"Martyrdom must

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on a dally basis."

teaching must inregrate holiness, form, Chrysostom admired not only paul's contenr, and knowledge. Chrysostom actions,but his writings aswell; indeed,he combines all of these in the definitive viewed the entire body of Holy Scripture preacherand teacher:the blessed apostle as being important for education. "For Paul. who manifests rhem clearly ro by the use of them even today the others who would be teachers of the precedents educate and train the pure faith. Virgin whom Paul himself espousedto Christ, and lead her on to spiritual beauw. DIFFICULTI ESOFTEACHING By them they also ward off the diseases which attack her, and preservethe good Beyond the demanding abilities health she enjoys" (Chrysostom, 2002, required of the Christian educator, p. I23). As the Apostle himself puts it: further troubles await those who are 'hll Scripture is given by inspiration of called to be teachers in the Church. A God, and is profitable for doctrine, for point touched on earlier was the manner reproof, for correction, for instruction in which the priest relays the message. in righteousness,rhat the man of God Form is just as importanr as content, as may be complete, thoroughly equipped Chrysostom states:"\Zhen anyone uses for every good work" (2 Tim. 3.16-7). authoriry to silence people who pursue This passagewas, of course, written by [vain and incomprehensible doctrines],

he gets a reputation for arrogance and ignorance" (Chrysostom, 2002, p. 1 I 9). The pastor oughr rherefore be aware of his audience and their sensibilities; he ought not urrer things that the congregation is unprepared to digest, and he ought not use his position as a teacherasa pedagogical"sledgehammer" to beat his point by force into his pupils but ought rarher persuade with love and gentleness."For this reason a lot of tact is needed, so thar the sick may be persuadedof their own accord to submit to rhe rrearment of the priests, and not only that, but be grateful to them for their cure" (Chrysostom, 2002, p. 56). Chrysostom understands rhe role of the Christian educator as being modeled after a shepherd who seeksio lead by persuasibnand love and not by coercion or force. The application ofcorrecive teachinq involves not only knowing *h"t to .ayi but also how to say it. The teacher not only be skilled and versedin all subjects,; he musr match this knowledee with a delivery that is sensitirreto volu"me, bodv language,vocabulary, length of address, and all the other marks of presenration that exceptional orators employ. "The pow er of el oquence...i s m oie r equisir e in a church rhan when prof.rsois a.. made ro contend with each other" (C hrysostom,2002, p. I 27) . St . John arguesthat this is so becausemost of the laity come to hear a preacher speak not for edification bur for entertainment; thus rhey sit in judgment over the pastor as judges ofsecular rhetorical bouts. The Educator, in this case the pastor, needs to be very caurious about employing the words of other men which the audLnce will be quick to pick up and deride. He is also under constanr pressureto outperform himselfl imprlving on every previous performance. This is becauseif the pasror.gers a reputation for teaching, many will come to see him and if tlre audience is not moved by what he says, they will stand in judgment over him.

All of this leads to the greatesttemptation and difficulry for the teacher in Chrysostomt mind: that of love of praise and pride. If the preacher managesto achieve some capaciry for eloquenceand is not very cautious,he will be subject to the fattery of the people and made proud by their praise.This is so dangerousto St. John becausea man subject to this temptation will do anything to secure the approval of his audience, and will thus become a slaveto the whim of the people. "The priest should treat those whom he rules as a father treats very young children. \7e are not disturbed by children'sinsuits or blows or tears; nor do we think much of their laughter and approval" (Chrysostom,2002, p. 129).In this way Chrysostom envisions the priest to be as far above the ordinary man as a rational man is above senseless beasts(Chrysostom,2002, p. 54). The teacher should not be haughty or condescending,but should surpass and excel all others with respect to his virtue and charactet speaking the truth with indifference to applauseor censuregiven out of season." . . .The man who has acceptedthe task of teaching should pay no attention to the commendation of outsiders, any more than he should let them cause him dejection. \X4ren he has composed his sermons to please Go d .. . " ( Chr y s os t o m2, 0 0 2 , p . \3 3 ).

and messageof a teacher?For this reason the paradigm of St. John ought to be followed even more and we ought to seekto emulate this high ideal of the Christian Educator, following and imitating the model of spirituality and eloquencethar St. John paints for us.

Cbristopher Locbuood is a student at Holy Cross Greek OrthodoxSchoolof7heolog7. Thisarticlewasorigrnallysubmitted asa requirementfortheReligiousEducationCourseat Holy Cross GreehOrthodoxSchoolof Theology. REFERENCES . St. John Chrysostom.(2002). On the Priesthood. (Graham Neville, Tians.). New York St. Vladimir's SeminaryPress. A1l Scripturalquotationswere cited from the NE\7 KING JAMES VERSION unlessincludedin a quotationfrom the primarysource.

The goal the competent Christian educator is a careful balance of competent oration, and indifference to praise in favor of an unwavering love for the people of God. If he lacks eloquence he will seek to penetrate the hard exterior of his listenersand will not benefit them; if he is subject to praisehe will be enslavedto it and be dominated by this at the expense of the truth.

CONCLUSION St.Johnt vision ofthe Christian Educator is awell-rounded, saintly man, classicallyeducated,yet abovethe temptations that would drag down men not endowed with God's grace.Such a teachermust devote himself to preparation, both in study and in prayer; he must have the knowledge and the life, theoria andpraxis to use the Greek terms familiar to St. John himself. The learned St. John Chrysostom has set a high bar, a goal that every priest as Christian educator must strive to attain. The need for this holistic Christian Educator is all the more pressing in our own day, as we are faced with the rapid expansion of knowledge, and accessto education is the norm. In Chrysostorns day the people would largely be unlettered and unaware of profound theological debates,yet the model St. John offers is still one of excellencein teaching. How much more are we obligated to fulfill this model in an.agewhere the internet, television and local universities equip the common people with the abiliry to ffuly criticize and judge the words

2005 Summer






PnnsEruros Rrv.Fn.Gsc-,nce c, rcad rhe Gl,spel of John is ti: staie intc, a i<aleicioscopfl arc often rccastso in rvhich rhe samciinagcsarrd p,hrases that, rvhen seen it-t a nerv context, they look somehow tiie sanre--arid yet very diff;ieiit. fr:sustells his disciples,for example,that he is the Good Shepherd,and that the Shepl-,crd errtersrhe sheepfoldthratighthe gate (10:2). Brrr r.ritli a turn of the kaieidoscope,although he is still speakingabout shepherds i saysthat he enters through anri sheepand a gate,Jesustio lor-rge "l the gace,but insteadinsists, AI\4 the gate" 110:7). Jhar rhe irrrager"yof the Good Shepherd is sc, clastic and adaptable is what I would like to consider here, not foi' what this tells us al'ror-n the Gospel of'John, but for what it suggestsabout the adaptabilityrequiredof anv Good Shepherd.

.shaiplir Beyc,nd our particr-tlar lrehavior r]e!:dsta bi: .,r"irl--eC persririaiities,policical or sot--ialcalculationscan also impede frank speech.Srein selerity is easywirh peopiex'e do not like, just as kind ;-ornpassioncoincs efiirrtlesslywith those we do. But irr such cases,ltanli speechand adaptabiliry have become s,rnrethirig less noble ar,d less trairsformative. 'lfre Sayingsof rhe Desertr;uthersprovidc helpful models for the prc'per use of adaptabilitl- in a Cl'risriarr setting. I would like to hold up rwo tf,rr,gsa. cspc" i ai l ri nsrructi vc.

The first is silence. K.norving horv to talk begins with i<iiowing havr not to talk. The school of silence instructs us irr the art of speaking. But here, silencedoes not simply mean the absenceof conversations,which producesonly a superficial It is preciselythis adaptabiliti' that St. John Chri'sosto'n silence. \What is needed is silenceas a preparation for speech. praises in St. Paul. Chrysr-rsiom writes that Paul "varies Abba Poemen notes that 'A person may seem to be silent, but his discourseaccording to the need of his discipies." in his if his heart is conder'rning others he is babbling ceaselessly. But cornrientarv on the Epistle to the Galaiians, Chrysostorn there may be another who talks fi"om morning till night and yet evaluatesPauit impassioriedand disapproving tone by noting, he is truly silent; rhat is, he urters nothing unprofitable."t "AJwaysto speak to one's disciples witli mildness, evetr when they need severiry is not the characterof a teacher,but it wtli-rld Priests and other parish leaders are in ihe business of be the characterof a corlLlpter and enem1,'" Clrrysostom adds peaking. It is impossible not to speak in parish leadershrp. that, like a careful physician, Paul l<nowsu,hen to prescribeto Br,rt,as Clhristians,lve mus. terrrpe[ our u'ords, with a view to his patientssoothing balrnsand medicines,and when to apply how they affect others, and how they make us appear,especialiy surgery. Paul, then, is the the krrife in painful, but ttecassar.y, when rve feel compelled to correct someoneby saying,whatever adaptableand elasticGood Shepherd. the topic, "|.lo, it isnt So and So, but So and So."2In evensuch small rnarters,if u.e pauseto reflect on the rnotives behind our For us, as for the a.ncients,such adaptabilig,'it tto, easyt(r speaking,we will have begtrn to cultivate the spirit of silence, achieve,partly becauseour responsesare often habitual and where we no longer speak in order to assertourselvesupon instinctive, so that some of us might react aggressivelyto every others, but have tregun ro discern when it will hurt to speak, crisis- evenwhen somethingmiidei is required. Or, we rnight and rviren it might help. aiwaysmeet problen-rswith a passiveresponse,evenwherr awfill


Summei 20U5

)D S HEPHE R D To do this requiresfreedom from fear: fear that you will not be seenas the smartestperson in the room; fear that someone will "get away" with making you look foolish and that you won't be able to "get them back" in the next conversation.3 Rebukesare necessary, but not always. Correcrion is necessary, but not ahvays. Discerning when and how to speak begins with the discipline of knowing how not to speak. In this way, paradoxicaliy,silencebreedsfrank and bold speech. The secondsourceof franknessis similarly a paradox. For, we might think rhat bold speechoriginates out of a prophett righteous indignarion or that people who speak frankly are those who do not suffer fools gladly. But, in the desert frank speechwas cultivated from the seedsof mercy and from the sameimpulse that might lead one to clothe the naked and fbed the hungry. Three young brothers went to Abba Achilles and asked him to help them in making fishing nets. He refused the first rvvo, becausehe was busy, but the third had a very bad reputation among the monks. \X/ith him Achiiles agreed to work. \X4ren the others whom he had refused asked for an explanation, Achilles responded, "If I had not made one for him, he would have said, 'The old man has heard about my sin, and that is why he does not want to make me anything." This would have disheartenedthe brother, and separatedhim from Achilles. "But noq" Achilles adds, "I have arousedhis soul."a Not only, then, does silence teach one how to speak. Mercy teachesone how to correct.

moorings, pastoraladaptabiliti, can become a mockery of Pault warrant to become all things to all people, and the Shepherd can become so eiastic as to lose a firm identity. Theology mattâ&#x201A;Źrs. In the Good Shepherddiscourse,Jesusinsists,"I know my own and my own know me" (10:14). A1l pastoral adaptabiliry and all frank speechare intended to provide a more fertile field for this knowing to increase. (Notes) 1Poemen 27, PG 65:3)9A. Tianslation from Douglas Burton-Christie, The'Word in the f)esert: Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism (Oxford: Oxfbrd University Press)144. I For the image, see Tito Colliander, The tVay of rhe Ascetics (Tiansl. Katherine Ferr6; St. Vladimir's Seminary Press,Repr. 1994) 26. 3 ParaphrasingBurtorChristie, a Achilles 1 PG 65I248C. , i n the D esert, 284.

\(ord in the Desert, 283.

Tianslation fron'r Burton-Christie, \X/ord

Reu. Fn George Parsenios isAssistantProfessorof New Testament at Princeton TbeologicalSeminary. He earned his M.Diu. from Holy Cross Greek Ortbodox School of Tlteologyand completed hh Ph.D. at Yale Uniuersity. He recetttly releasedhis frst book, "Departure and Consolation," which is a study of a portion of the GospelofJohn.

It would be wrong, however, ro suggestthat cultivating the demeanor of the Good Shepherd is entirely rnoral or psychological. Theology matters. lVithout theoiogical

Summer 2005



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Father,and themselvesbe made again "in the -St. Iohn Chrysostom when you speakevil againstsomeoneelse. If salvationis by grace,someonewill s...