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PSYCHOL HEALTH a WELLBEI


OLOGICAL and EING

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Psychological health is a state of well-being in which an individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. World Health Organisation

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PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.


1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY COMMON TYPES Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day.

People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.

Generalised anxiety disorder Anxious and worried on most days for an extended period of time (six or more months)

Specific phobia Fear of particular object or situation (e.g. travelling on planes, needles, spiders)

Obsessive compulsive disorder Unwanted/intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic acts (compulsions) that interfere with daily functioning

Post-traumatic stress disorder Inability to relax, upsetting dreams flashbacks and avoidance as a result of a traumatic event

Panic disorder Recurrent panic attacks (intense feelings of anxiety along with intense fear)

Social phobia Intense fear of criticism, being embarrassed or humiliated, even in everyday situations (e.g. eating in public, public speaking, making small talk)


COMMON CAUSES Some of the causes of an anxiety disorder might be: •

Genetics Or a history of anxiety within your family

Biochemical An imbalance of the chemicals in the brain can alter your thoughts, emotions or behaviour, and result in anxiety.

Events A stressful event or chain of events such as a family break-up, abuse, ongoing bullying at school, sexual abuse, a death, a relationship break up, family conflict.

Personality style Certain personality types are more at risk of anxiety than others.


TURNING THINGS AROUND CATASTROPHISING

POLARISED THINKING

FILTERING

PERSONALISATION

This style of thinking expects disaster and as a result amplifies anxiety. It is characterised by automatically imagining the worst case scenario when faced with a current or future situation or challenge.

Viewing things in terms of only right or wrong, good or bad, leads to unachievable standards and high stress levels when faced with an event or outcome in which you have high hopes or expectations.

Occurs when a person takes a single, unpleasant detail and dwells on it so that their vision of reality becomes distorted

Tendency to relate everything around you to yourself. The error lies in interpreting each experience, each conversation, each look as a clue to your worth and values.

TURN IT AROUND: Recognise when you are doing it, allow yourself to be more hopeful and think about your thoughts as objectively as possible.

TURN IT AROUND: It is important to realise that there are a lot of levels between triumph and tragedy and that falling within these ‘grey’ areas is more common than not.

TURN IT AROUND: Look at the whole picture, and learn to evaluate things clearly and with balance.

TURN IT AROUND: Stop comparing yourself to others around you and realise that peoples opinion of you is formed by an aggregate of their experience with you and not just based on a single point in time.


JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS

OVER GENERALISATION

We assume that we can know what another person is thinking or feeling or why they act the way they do, or that we know the outcome of an event before it happens

When a person sees a single, unpleasant event as a never ending pattern of defeat.

TURN IT AROUND: Unless you are a mind reader or can see in to the future, this style of thinking is not valid. Learn to not assume things… because we all know what happens when you assume!

TURN IT AROUND: Scrap the words ‘always’ and ‘never’ from your vocabulary as they don’t reflect the nature of reality.

STEPS 1.

Be aware “What is going through my mind?”

2.

Challenge your thoughts “Am I being realistic?”

3.

Use the following strategies • What’s the evidence for and against? • Search for alternative explanations • Is there another way of looking at this? • Put thoughts in to perspective

4.

What is the worst that could happen?


SUICIDE If you haven’t been in the situation personally, it is difficult to understand how a person can come to the conclusion that ending their life is the only valid way to overcome the issues that they are facing. But for many, suicide doesn’t really seem like a choice. It is as if they cannot contemplate a point in the future in which they will feel any different than they currently do. Lacking the ability to be able to see the ‘light at the end of the tunnel’, many are forced down the path towards ending their own lives.

Suicide is a permanent solution to a TEMPORARY problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


RESILIENCE Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


STRESS MANAGEMENT Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


SELF-IDENTITY Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


SELF CONFIDENCE Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


SEXUAL IDENTITY Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


GRIEF AND LOSS Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


LEARNING DISABILITIES Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available. If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time. Medical experts rate mental illness amongst the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The disability caused by moderate depression is similar to the impact from relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, or chronic hepatitis

B. The disability caused from sever posttraumatic stress disorder is comparable to the disability from paraplegia. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Ta k i n g p o s i t i ve s t e p s t o a d d r e s s a n important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following sections cover the most common types of these psychological disorders.

1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


Myth: Psychiatric disorders are not true medical illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. People who have a mental illness are just “crazy.” Fact: Brain disorders, like heart disease and diabetes, are legitimate medical illnesses. Research shows there are genetic and biological causes for psychiatric disorders, and they can be treated effectively. Myth: People with a severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, are usually dangerous and violent. Fact: Statistics show that the incidence of violence in people who have a brain disorder is not much higher than it is in the general population. Those suffering from a psychosis such as schizophrenia are more often frightened, confused and despairing than violent.

Psychological disorders (commonly referred to as ‘mental illnesses’) are illnesses that result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture… it might be a chemical imbalance in the brain, genetics, or the influence of your environment. No matter what the cause, it is important to know that mental illness is not a weakness, and that treatment is available.

1 in 5 people in any

given year suffer from a mental health problem.

If you are suffering, something even more helpful is to know that you are not alone! About 1 in 5 people in any given year suffer from a mental health problem. No matter how you are feeling, realise that there is someone else out there feeling the same way at the same time.

Myth: Mental illness is the result of bad parenting. Fact: Most experts agree that a genetic susceptibility, combined with other risk factors, leads to Medical experts rate mental illness amongst a psychiatric disorder. In other words, mental illnesses have a physical cause. the most disabling illnesses (in many cases more disabling than physical ailments). The Myth: Depression results from a personality weakness or character flaw, and people who are disabilityThe disability caused by moderate depressed could just snap out of it if they tried hard enough. depression is similar to the impact from Fact: Depression has nothing to do with being lazy or weak. It results from changes in brain relapsing multiple sclerosis, severe asthma, chemistry or brain function, and medication and/or psychotherapy often help people to recover. or chronic hepatitis B. The disability caused from sever post-traumatic stress disorder Myth: If you have a mental illness, you can will it away. Being treated for a psychiatric disorder i s co m p a ra b l e to t h e d i s a b i l i t y f ro m means an individual has in some way “failed” or is weak. paraplegia. Fact: A serious mental illness cannot be willed away. Ignoring the problem does not make it go away, either. It takes courage to seek professional help. However, even though the level of disability may be comparable, there is a whole deal of stigma attached to being mentally ill which can result in individuals not seeking the treatment they need. People fear that others will view them as ‘weak’ or ‘unstable’ and that they will be told to just ‘toughen up’. What people don’t realise, is that seeking help is a sign of strength in an individual. Taking positive steps to address an important issue in your life is something to be proud of as it shows a great amount of inner strength. The following chapters cover the main types of psychological disorders.


ANXIETY Being anxious or stressed is a normal bodily reaction to certain situations. However, an anxiety disorder is more than just feeling stressed or anxious… it’s a serious condition that can affect a person each and every day. People suffering from an anxiety disorder often describe the sensation of not being able to stop thinking… they liken the activity in their minds to a busy highway, with thoughts zooming past with high speed and frequency, so much so that it inhibits their ability to function normally.


DEPRESSION AND MOOD DISORDERS Most of us have, at some point in our lives, flippantly used the words ‘I’m so depressed’ to refer to some event that has upset us. However, for many people, these feelings subside relatively quickly and easily. Imagine now that you were living your life with that constant negative feeling….living each day feeling as though you are not good enough, that your life is worthless, that you do not enjoy anything that you once found pleasure in. This is what it is like to live with depression.


PSYCHOSIS Psychosis refers to a psychological problem in which a person loses touch with reality in some way, consisting of severe disruptions in thinking, emotion and behaviour. People experiencing psychosis appear to have lost touch with everyone else’s interpretation of what is going on around them. They experience an ‘altered reality’ and this can be very disturbing, but can also be a very special experience.


SUBSTANCE MISUSE People use a range of different substances for the multitude of effects that they can have on the brain. Using substances (alcohol and drugs) itself is not considered a disorder. However, the abuse of and dependence on alcohol and drugs are considered substance use disorders.


EATING DISORDERS Eating disorder is the term used to describe a group of illnesses where someone has a distorted view of body image with a preoccupation over eating, food and weight. There are a number of different eating disorders including Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, and Binge eating disorder. Eating disorders are serious conditions that are about much more than just dieting. Eating disorders are when a person becomes so obsessed with their eating habits and weight concerns that they neglect to care about how they may be harming their body.

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