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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO:

AIR

Semester 1 2014 Ornella Romina Altobelli 587754


Tutorial Group 3. 4:15-7:15 Tutors: Phillip & Has


Table of Contents Introduction

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Part A: Conceptualization A.01 Design Futuring: LAGI

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A.01 Design Futuring: Energy Technology

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A.02 Design Computation: Computers in design

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A.02 Design Computation: Precedent projects

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A.03 Generative Design: Composition/Generation

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A.03 Generative Design: Precedent projects

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A.04 Conclusion

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A.05 Learning Outcomes

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Part A References

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Part A Citations

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INTRODUCTION

PROFILE & PREVIOUS WORK ORNELLA ROMINA ALTOBELLI My name is Ornella Romina Altobelli and I am 20 years old. As a third Year Architecture Major in the Bachelor of Environments I am excited to commence this unit in order to broaden my design skills. My passion for Architecture is very much derived from my travels and my appreciation for history. I have also been fortunate enough to be surrounded by the construction industry for much of my life, with family pursuits in architecture, structural engineering, construction management and property. These factors were an essential driving force in my decision to pursue studies in architecture. Computational design is an area that is only recently gaining attention within architectural practice. I believe that the skill set that this subject aims to introduce will be a vital skill moving towards our professional careers. I posses a limited knowledge of parametric design with my experience limited to that which was introduced in Virtual Environment, as a first year student. This subject therefore presents the opportunity to explore the potential and to develop on this basic existing knowledge. Parametric design offers a great potential for designers to rethink the parameters of design generation and production. As a passionate architectural history student I am intrigued by the ability of architecture to reflect the society and culture of the time of its production. Architecture has the power to be an agent for social and cultural change. The opportunity therefore presented through computation and parametric design to redefine architectural possibilities presents us with a great responsibility as the designers of the future.

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VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

I undertook Virtual Environments during my first semester of the Environments degree. The subject provided an opportunity to delve into the virtual sphere of design. The subject brief asked us to produce a wearable lantern which was informed by a natural process. The design process was a confronting introduction to computation. We were required to utilize the computer for design conception and realization, fabrication and documentation. This project was a great introduction to software in design, although a considerable amount of time was spent overcoming difficulties with the use of the software. Nevertheless, I believe that my design was hindered through my reservation with regard to the feasibility of fabrication. It was, however, evident to me during this process that computation enables a flexibility of design outcomes and the versatility that is achievable through form making.

DESIGN STUDIO: WATER

The design brief for this studio was to replicate the design principles of a Master Architect. My design was informed by the principles which informed and were generated through the work of Mies Van Der Rohe. I used this assignment to step beyond my comfort zone and experimented with the basic 3D SketchUp software. Although quite a basic software I increased my awareness of the power of computers to assist the design process. This assignment generated a greater desire to explore the available software to assist in design.

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PART A: CONCEPTUALIZATION “Conceptualization begins to determine WHAT is to be built […] and HOW it will be built.”

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[Image 1: Interior of Scene Sensor, LAGI First Place Award Winner. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/]

[Image 2: Exterior of Scene Sensor, LAGI First Place Award Winner. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/]

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A.01 DESIGN FUTURING

PRECEDENT PROJECT: LAGI FIRST PLACE AWARD WINNER 2012 Scene-Sensor Crossing Social and Ecological Flows The 2012 First Place Award Winner in the LAGI competition, Scene-Sensor, is situated at the intersection of flows, and works by collecting the energy these flows generate through piezoelectric wiring. Firstly the channel screen, composed of reflective metallic mesh, transforms the mechanical forces of bending and motion, induced by wind patterns, into electrical currents.[1] The composition of the form is established through a grid of panels, independent of each others movement and bending motion in response to the wind. Nevertheless, the ‘pixels’ reveal larger scale flows ‘as a field’. Essentially the proposal performs as a ‘wind mapping screen,’ representing the current wind flows and directionality. This visual portrayal of the wind flows also acts as an indication of the screen’s energy collection. This entry is successful in developing a sculptural form which generates energy through the ecologically specific environmental flow. This direct consideration of the sites attributes highlights the relevance of the proposal as a valuable response to the design brief in capturing energy from nature. The vantage points aspect of the design works by embedding the pedestrian flows within an ecological scene. The Bridge, as the sole transportation across the water, electronically collects the mechanical forces required by cars, bikes and pedestrians. The bridge, which is perpendicular to the channel screen element of the design, acts as a vantage point to observe the visual depiction of the localized wind flow. [2]The project ensures the users are challenged and forced to contemplate through the visual depiction of the energy collection of the ecological system. The confronting visual display produced in this sculpture represents the wind system in which the energy is generated. This is a powerful feature of the design which commands reflection upon this natural process.

of the wind and of human displacement. Thus, the form of the design and the features which define it establish a thorough consideration of the human interaction within the space and the portrayal of themes of ecological systems, energy generation and consumption and finally human development. The success of this proposal is revealed within the ambitious use of experimental forms of energy technologies and the direct consideration of the proposed site and its future use. The design presents an opportunity for future developments in energy collection technology. The development of piezoelectricity, as the major generator within the project, introduces the idea of the creation of electrical charge/current through mechanical forces.[3] The energy generation enables the users to experience a form which induces a phenomenological experience of the senses. The visual depiction of the landscape and the surrounding environment reflected upon the metallic panels allows the individuals to appreciate the context of the site. Furthermore, the noise generated by the movement of the panel induced by the wind enhances the users appreciation of this form of energy production. The interaction within the main body of the structure is successful in allowing the user to appreciate the mechanisms at work in the generation of energy and the importance of the ecological system in this process.

The mirror-window feature of the design proposal is an interesting feature which visually depicts the surrounding landscape with the interruption or rather distortion produced by the independent reflective panels or pixels. By creating this visual display the sculpture both integrates naturally within the landscape whilst its distortion represents the ephemeral qualities

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[Image 3] Paris Marathon collecting kinetic energy produced by participants through energy-harvesting tiles, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-paris-marathon-runners/ [Image 4]Windstalk Concept, Kinetic energy generated by wind forces, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-ener-

gy-from-the-breeze/

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A.01 DESIGN FUTURING ENERGY TECHNOLOGY KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic energy is contained by a mass or body as a product of its motion. Thus, the mechanical force of an object is converted into electrical energy. In this way kinetic energy is entirely driven by motion. Kinetic energy can be harvested from sources such as wind, heat, temperatures, and finally human activity. The collection of energy generated through kinetic sources requires a physical network in order to capture this generated energy as well a an electromechanical transducer to convert it to electricity.[4]

is stored, and how this can be incorporated in the overall composition of the design. It would be interesting to experiment with methods of storage which enhance the space.

Another form of kinetic energy is thermoelectrics which is the use of devices to harness the heat energy generated by the sun. A thermoelectric module contains a thermoelectric material that outputs usable energy. This system of energy generation requires a material which is capable of withstanding large temperature gradients. Depending on the form of kinetic energy which is being Furthermore, this form of energy generation requires harvested there are a variety of transducer materials both positive and negatively charged materials thereby which are used to produce the electricity. The LAGI case establishing a continuous circuit allowing a current to run study, Scene-Sensor, introduced the development of the which results in the production of power.[6] This form of piezoelectric generation of electricity through mechanical energy production requires a large temperature gradient strain as a form of kinetic energy. The case study looked which proves technically challenging in everyday scenarios. at how wind pressure was harvested through piezoelectric Nevertheless, this production method generates electricity wiring. This project assists in the conceptualization of the from otherwise wasted heat. potential with kinetic energy, and the ability that exists to experiment with a variety of producers of motion and The implementation of a kinetic energy generator system forms of transducers. at the proposed site offers an opportunity to increase the usability of the area through an interactive installation The Windstalk project (pictured bottom left, and bottom of piece, but also potentially through a visual representation page) is an experimental project which is looking to harvest of energy generation. wind generated kinetic energy. The poles are designed as carbon fiber-reinforced resin poles, which contain piezoelectric discs and electrodes that generate currents. [5] The design includes two storage chambers which serve to collect and distribute the collected electricity. This project highlights the ability for kinetic energy and its development as an experimental energy technology. The project also introduce the idea of how this energy

[Image 5]Windstalk Concept, Kinetic energy generated by wind forces, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/

[Image 6] Thermoelectric diagram, http://www. nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1. html

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[Image 7] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects


A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION COMPUTERS IN DESIGN

Computers are now, more than ever, a dominant part of the modern world; we are undoubtedly within the digital age. But where does computerisation fit with respect to the field of architecture? What place, if any, do computers have in architectural design processes? What impact do computers hold on the design process? What impact does computation have upon the role of the designer? Many would argue that computation allows the designer to extend their abilities to generate complex form, order and structure within their design. I would support the opinion that computation augments the ability of the designer and provides a framework to generate solutions for diverse complex problems[7]. However, our success with computation is limited to our appreciation of and understanding of parametric design. Design generation is thereby limited to ones knowledge of computational methods. This theme is one that registers with myself with regards to our design brief; our design process and generation is limited to the understanding we have of algorithmic processes. The recent appreciation of computational methods has led the charge for a movement away from cubic forms towards more fluid and organic shapes. Computers allow us to consider the performative nature of design, increasing material and tectonic awareness; Thereby assisting the realization of these organic forms. It is evident that recent innovative technologies of computational methods for design are generating the possibilities for tectonic and material creativity[8]. Nevertheless, we must question whether computation is fast developing design which exceed our current fabrication abilities. I believe that computation design is generating more responsive designs, which ensure performance through simulation consideration and analysis of materials, tectonics and parameters of production of construction methods[9]. The success of digital design will be achieved with the combination of “form generation and performative form finding” in order to generate form which is derived by a firm consideration of performance ability[10]. Computation is developing into an essential element of construction, as expressed by Mouzhan Majidi, computation “hasn’t simply transformed what we design- it’s had a huge

impact on how we build”[11]. Computation presents the exciting opportunity to generate more complex possibilities within the design process. Furthermore, the algorithmic, parametric approach allows for the generation of otherwise inconceivable forms. This potential reveals a movement towards greater complexity of forms as generated by computation. However, why is complexity favoured in contemporary architectural forms? Recent experimentation indicate the desire to mimic the complex systems and behaviors as derived by nature. Programming aims to replicate the rules as governed by nature in order to generate these complex geometries. Computation has undoubtedly expanded the field of architecture. The architect is now the ‘master builder’[12]; their role has be redefined with the input of computers providing an “informational continuum from design to construction”[13]. The input of computation, therefore, enables performative and constructible consideration in the design approach. Moving forward this semester it is essential to gain a comprehensible understanding of algorithmic design in order to develop a considered design which addresses performance and material tectonics and fulfills the design requirements as set by LAGI. In order to achieve this it is necessary to examine some precedent project which undertook computational methods of design, which will inform the process I take in approaching the design brief.

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES NEX ARCHITECTURE TIMES EUREKA PAVILION The times Eureka pavilion was developed for the Times eureka Garden entry in the 2011 Chelsea Flower Show. The Garden design was to be inspired by science in focus of the Times monthly science edition. NEX Architecture was appointed with the task of designing a pavilion which represented the benefits attained by society from plants. The design investigated the cellular structure of plants and aimed to mimic this pattern of natural growth through computer algorithms. The pavilion was to stand as a visual representation of the biomimicry of leaf capillaries. The pavilion is constructed with recycled timber, for the structural framework for the cells, and recycled plastic manipulated to resemble leaf cells. The final composition was generated through the use of computer algorithms which mimicked the natural growth of the leaf. Through this pavilion the benefits of computational

design are made apparent; this form of production allows the precedents for design to be realized more fully through the input of data. The pavilion highlights the progression in design and the opportunities that now exist, thanks to computation, to realize accurate reproductions of the laws of nature. As stated by Oxman “This is the age of the emergence of research by design.”[14]. This Pavilion is a realization of the claim put forth by Oxman that “It is in the computational modeling of natural principles of performative design of material systems, that we can potentially create a second nature, or a sounder architecture with respect to material ecology”[15]. This concept is one that provides an opportunity for experimentation in my own computational research and design process. The potential to take the principles generated by nature in formation of a structural form.

[Image 8] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

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[Image 10] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/ti


[Image 9] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

imes-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES KACI INTERNATIONAL & SHIGERU BAN ARCHITECTS: HAESLEY NINE BRIDGES GOLF CLUBHOUSE The Haesley Nine Golf Clubhouse contains an atrium space which is composed of timber columns which mimic the form of a tree. These elements span three stories. The use of computational techniques exploited the engineering possibilities of glulam timbers with the creation of a hexagonal grid shell. [16] The computational input in this design realized the opportunity for efficient production of the optimal structural form with minimized time spent with assembly and fabrication and the reduction of the quantity of material used; due to a computational understanding of the materials limits during the design process. Through this example of computational design it is evident that this method of design enables logical production of tectonic and material creativity[17]. Form generation informed by performative design, tectonic models and digital materialities are emerging as integrated processes in digital design[18].

variety and versatility in the form production. The project also interests me in its consideration of material capacity and limits. The design introduces the ability with computational design in factoring in the materials ultimate strength and manipulating this in the generation of form and design. This ability to approach a design with a focus upon materiality and fabrication is a valuable outcome of the advancements in the generation of digital architecture; this represents a change in the way the shape and tectonic elements of the building is defined, and the means to which material solutions are considered. This approach is a morphogenetic approach that ensures the examination of morphological complexity and performative capacities of materials without disconnecting the formation and materialization processes. Thus, computation has led to an invaluable progression in design potential through the development of a more wholistic approach.

This precedent project looks at the investigation of the rules that govern the trees growth rather than desire to emulate the visual representation of the tree. This project is an interesting take on the approach to taking from the rules of nature. I am interested in this approach which relies on the rules which govern the principles of growth but enable a

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[Image 11] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-BanArchitects


[Image 12] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-BanArchitects

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2011 The pavilion was constructed for a biological research collaboration between the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE)[19]. The design was developed through computational technology with inspiration generated by the modular system of polygonal plates which are generated by the skeletal morphology of the sand dollar (sea urchin).[20] The pavilion project investigates the architectural adaptation, through computational simulation techniques, of the biological principles which generate the skeletal morphology present in the sand dollar sea urchins. A plywood construction was enlisted for this computer generated form. The use of computer within this design generation allowed the students to investigate different biologically generated forms, as well as manipulation of these forms through biological principles. One example of this is the investigation and realization of heterogeneity within the pavilion; this enabled the variation of cell sizes in relation to the apparent curvature within the pavilion.[21]

of the principles of nature and the imitation of these in design in order to generate solutions, to be an exciting advancement in the way we approach design consideration. This approach indicates the innovation in design as inspired by nature. The exciting thing for me with regard to bio-mimicry is that in taking the principles governed by nature we have an ecological standard which is supported by billions of years of research and development. Therefore through computational methods we are given the opportunity and a method to discover and realize the principles and rule governed by nature in the development of geometrical forms. I find it interesting and exciting that bio-mimicry is not the direct representation and emulation of nature and natural forms but the adaptation of the principles that governs the form. This precedent project is an interesting take on bio-mimicry and presents the opportunity to emulate the principles of form governed by nature. This approach is one that I am interested in exploring in the approach to the design response to LAGI competition.

[Image 14] h

Through the pavilion we see the commencement of a new style of architecture whereby the performance capacity of biological structures are manipulated in architectural productions in order to generate form of greater structural capacities and ease of fabrication. Personally I find Bio-mimicry, the study

[Image 13] http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

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[Image 15] h the-univers


http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at- [Image 16] http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilionat-the-university-of-stuttgart/ sity-of-stuttgart/ 18


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[Image 17] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083


A.03 GENERATIVE DESIGN COMPOSITION/GENERATION

Generative design is defined as the practice of designing the process which gives rise to structural form. The development of the form is therefore an outcome of a system that enables the method and philosophy to view the world in terms of dynamic processes and their outcomes.[22] This form of design represents the shift in the role and agenda of the architect, moving away from generation of static forms, in the way of design which considers the interaction of components, systems and processes.[23] Generative design allows for complexity within design and enables design solutions which are unimaginable through compositional design. This virtual production of form allows for the broadening of the design practice and philosophy through operating systems which have the potential to inspire alternative approaches more generally to the design process.[24] Generative systems therefore have the potential to simulate new possibilities, unimaginable through compositional techniques.

which surrounds this area of design. As stated in AD Magazine: “when architects have sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.”[26] Algorithmic thinking requires an understanding of the results generated through coding, and the knowledge required to modify code to produces desired design options. Nevertheless, once this barrier is overcome generative design will enable the performance driven designs of the future.[27] Furthermore, this method of design allows designers to borrow principles governed by nature and natural processes in order to establish something new and responsive, this theme is explored further through the Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems precedent project explored on page 21.

The reaction to the shift from compositional design techniques to generative design methods are largely divided within The shift in design, that has been driven by computational the architectural world. The generative design techniques, methods, has seen an adaptation to the role of the architect. specifically algorithmic thinking and scripting, take away from Compositional design enables the designer to seek solutions the designers ability to realize a desired compositional form. within the design space, which establishes a direct relationship Rather the designer is required to establish a form realized between the designer and the designed form. The design is through parameters and designed systems. Furthermore the therefore a reflection of the designers intention. In contrast computerisation of the field has demanded greater expectations to this Generative design methods “are about the modeling of of architects to become ‘master builders’, requiring them to be initial conditions of an object (its ‘genetics’) instead of modeling involved within all elements of the realization of design including the final form” [Paola Fontana]. Therefore the final form is design, production and construction.[28] Kolaverick supports the autonomously generated through the designers production argument that it is necessary to engage with and understand and modification of interacting rules or systems. Through digital technologies in order to reaffirm the position as ‘Master this method the designer has no direct control of the final builders’. He therefore supports the use of computers in design product, but rather the methods taken to achieve this form, to lead the way for design innovation. Nevertheless, Kolaverick thereby detracting from his/her ability to directly reveal a does address that computerisation has demanded a change design vision. The role of the designer therefore remains, as in the way architects work regarding this as an ‘obstacle’ to with compositional design, essential to the design generation, the potential rewarding outcomes.[29] Celistion Soddu is an however their role is modified to that of the editor of advocate for generative design whom states that generative constraints opposed to form. design is a “human creative act rendered explicit and realized as an unpredictable, amazing and endless expansion of human Generative design enables the definition and consideration of creativity. Computers are simply the tools for its storage parameters in the generation of form. This parametric approach in memory and execution.”[30] Thus, it is supported that to generative design allows for the movement away from generative design enable the production of the unknown. The designing static solutions to that of specific solutions defined “approach works in imitation of Nature, performing ideas as by the parameters in place.[25] These formal possibilities and codes, able to generate endless variations”. [31] design potential are generated through the use of algorithmic and computational techniques. Here we see the advancement in Simply, generative design is a more wholistic approach to the design as informed by generative and computational methods to design process; enabling the consideration of parameters such respond to the complex contextualized parameters constraining as material systems, tectonics, environmental constraints and the design process with a greater level of accuracy than that constructability. This form of design enables the appreciation generated by compositional design methods. This will be further and application of natures principles to realize design solutions elaborated upon in the precedent project: Hygroscope (pictured as generated through algorithmic coding. This computational left) as an example of factoring in material qualities or systems approach enables the development of these complex and in the design of a sculptural form. diverse solutions to design paradigms which would otherwise be unimaginable with compositional design techniques. The limitations of generative design is the lack of knowledge

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems The Fibre Composite Adaptive System is a Thesis project by Maria Mingallon, Sakthivel Ramaswamy and Konstantinos Karatzas at the Architectural Association in London. [32] “The thesis developed a material system capable of emulating self-organization processes in nature which is then extended into an architectural application”.[33] The development of a fibre composite that can “sense, actuate and hence efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions”[34] allows for the emulation of this self organizing process as undertaken by nature. This choice of material within the design enabled the possibility for multiple parameters of adaptive functions across the system. Through this design we see the application of the principles governed by nature in order to produce an unimaginable forms; this design represents this shift in architectural productions through generative principles.

to factors such as the inhabitants, functionality and environmental conditions; representing a wholistic design consideration. The research team aimed to replicate the process of ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ through a system of “sensors, actuators, computational and control firmware embedded in a fibre composite skin”.[36] The pavilion structure registers the parameters of strain and temperature through the fibre optics which simultaneously register these inputs. These inputs also have a control over the typology of the structure.

This precedent project is a wonderful example of the growing trend of bio-mimicy in design; the project as a generative design has designed a technical and well informed system of codes in the development of this form and its material nature. The design implemented the use of Rhino and Grasshopper in order to generate this algorithmically “‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ refers to the changes in shape, computed design. The overall structural composition of the structure and material properties of biological organisms pavilion is generated through two algorithmic scripts. Firstly that are produced in response to transient changes in the dynamic relaxation algorithm deduces the form through environmental conditions.”[35] This change or adaptation a form finding process for the shell structure as a response of structure is a result of the material properties ascribed to the applied loads. The second algorithm simulates the to ‘fibre composite tissue’. This generative design approach growth of the fibres mapping the principle stresses and to the structure aims to implement these natural systems thereby generating an extension of the form. Finally the of self-organization and ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ in order panels which compose the surface of the structure are to develop an architectural structure with a system which produced through algorithmic parameters for the size of the enables it to react to environmental stimulus. apertures, the overall curvature and finally the height of the undulating pattern/structural depth. As discussed earlier computation has provided the means to generate complex design which generate highly This project indicates the potential for generative design. performative capacities. This design proposal aims to The design emulates the principles of natural processes alter the way the building generates spaces in response and essentially input this data to generate the final form.

[Image 18] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

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[Image 19] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

The process of design is through the process of generating a system rather than a form, essentially providing infinite opportunities for variation. The derived form replicates the sustainable qualities of natural processes and represents the requirement for architects to respond to design considerations with an approach that is governed by natures principles to minimise human imposition on our environment; a method which is guaranteed through the generative systems of production.

This project reveals the computational methods of generative deign as a move towards ‘natural design’ in order to produce natural forms. Essentially the design supports Oxman’s understanding of natural design as “more than imitating the appearance of the organic. It is learning from natural principles of design how to produce form in response to the conditions of the environmental context”. [37] This piece is therefore an informative piece as to how digitally produced design can replicate nature as Oxaman describes as a “second nature”.[38]

[Image 20] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: HYGROSCOPE- METEOROSENSITIVE MORPHOLOGY The HygroScope project was designed by Achim Menges in collaboration with Steffen Reichert in 2012. The project was designed to reflect the inherent qualities and behavior of the materiality of the design in combination with computational morphogenesis in order to produce a statement of “responsive architecture”. “The dimensional instability of wood in relation to moisture content is employed to construct a climate responsive architectural morphology.”[39] The design therefore utilized computational methods in order to generate a form whereby the material quality was the machine for change in the design; a theme borrowed from natural biological systems. The material form within the design reflects the environmental conditions and fluctuations which govern its configuration. The sculptural form sits in a glass case which generates climate conditions, for the microenvironment, in which manifest themselves in the form of the model. The design reflects the intensive material research which was incorporated into the computation of a structural form. The materials responds physically to the adsorption and desorption of moisture.[40] The presence of absence of water molecules in the timber alters the dimensionality of the form; therefore the control of humidity within the microenvironment of the glass case generates a responsive physical reaction. This design precedent reveals the value of computational design to enable the consideration and

design parameters desired by the design team. This project utilized computation in order to realize the potential and determine the dynamics of the materiality. Here we see a shift in the materiality of design through generative methods; designers are able to integrate material qualities and function through parametric modelling, thereby enabling a more complex approach to design. The responsiveness of the material system is generated through material computation. Material and environmental data is inputted in order to unfold the systems morphology. An algorithm is used to “iteratively scans various fields of environmental intensities within the simulated environment of the glass case and provides the input data for a custom scripted process of computational morphogenesis“.[41] Computation is therefore used to mimic the dynamic natural behavioral properties of the material Through this precedent project the progress of establishing a new architectural discourse is illustrated. The project represents the development of complex geometry which is reflected through the complex behavioral principles which are governed through parametric design principles. The ability to reflect such complexity within design is uniquely related to the computational technologies that are beginning to dominate architectural discourse.

“The changing surface literally embodies the capacity to sense, actuate and react, all within the material itself [void of sensory equipment].” [42]

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[Image 21] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083.

[Image 22] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083.

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: PARAMETRIC PAVILION: be inspired 2013 award finalist- innovation in Generative Design

[Image 23] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

“As part of this emerging of a digital materiality in design there have developed new linkages between conception and production through computer assisted fabrication techniques” [43]

This Pavilion designed by Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab was designed as a barrier to environmental flows. The overall geometric composition is generated through three B-spline surfaces. [44] A software called GenerativeComponents was integrated into the design process in order to refine the geometric structure to assist in structural integrity and fabrication. All elements of the structure were tagged and optimize contractibility Therefore Generative techniques assisted in the reduction of material usage in the generation of a constructible geometry fabricated through CNC cutting. Through this example of Generative Deign we see the use of the virtual design space in order to seek design and construction solutions through

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designing the rules which govern the system; therefore representing the shift in architectural practice towards the idea of the ‘master builder’. This project also highlights the movement in generative design to design with consideration of material properties to generate complex geometries. This competition entry represents the shift in architectural discourse as inspired and informed through ‘parametricism’. Architectural form through computation is defining a new expression of architecture, moving away from the designing of details, towards a design of the overall composition. In this new wave of architectural discovery and discourse we must therefore generate a new way of appreciating and interacting with these forms.


[Image 24] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

[Image 25] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

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A.04 CONCLUSION PART A

Computation has given rise to a new form of architectural production and approach. This form of design enables the innovation of ideas and the complex consideration of design parameters. The Land Art Generator Initiative provides a platform to implement these design innovations to generate a unique and innovative final form. Through precedent projects we acknowledge that generative design approaches remain largely experimental and the forms generated are primarily sculptural, temporary structures. Computational approaches have revealed the potential to generate complex and largely unprecedented forms, acknowledging and addressing a greater number of variables, which are able to be materialized through parametric modeling. Through this method a integrated link is established between conceptual design to construction phases of the design. Nevertheless, our success in computational design is limited to our comprehension of programming languages; innovation through these methods is restricted to how well versed we are with the techniques and code. In the development of a design response to the Land Art Generator Initiative I will incorporate the methods of generative computational techniques and parametric modeling. In approaching the design process it is my ambition to undertake some further research into biomimicry and natural processes in the generation of a form in which greater environmental consideration is undertaken. I believe that this is the approach which informed much of the designs investigated in the precedents through Part A, highlighting the innovative movement within architecture towards a ‘second nature’ through architectural production. As designers it is important to consider the impact of designed form upon the surrounding environment and the shift to design which exists harmoniously within its surroundings. The benefits of designed form to replicate properties ascribed from nature enables the creation of built forms which create harmonious relationships between human interaction and the surrounding environment; therefore enhancing the level of engagement between the users and the site.

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“Form generation informed by performative design, tectonic models and digital materiality are emerging as integrated processes in digital design.” [45]


A.05 LEARNING OUTCOMES PART A

At the commencement of the Design Studio I was unaware to the present evolution of design occurring in architectural practice in the way of parametric design. Current discourse on ‘parametricism’ as included in the course readings reveals a growing appreciation for the design potential enhanced through computation. Thus we see the beginning of discourse regarding parametricism as an architectural style establishing an architectural language for contemporary design. Through the exploration and research undertaken in Part A I have gained a greater understanding and appreciation for computational methods and techniques. Through various precedent projects the development and application of computational design in architectural practice has revealed the potential for complexity and innovation through these methods. Furthermore, the potential for generative design to implement the principles governed by nature in order to develop forms, which replicate these natural structures, provides an opportunity to take a sustainable approach to the design generation. This understanding has further been supported through my exploration and experimentation with the Rhino and Grasshopper algorithmic design activities. Nevertheless, though I am taking a lot from my grasshopper experimentation I am slightly off put by the limited time frame we have in order to master these techniques and build up a database of knowledge regarding computational methods. This concern is primarily due to the limited time within the course to generate a design proposal for the LAGI competition. My final design outcome can only be as great as the product of my knowledge of

computational design. The progressive research and activities have led to the formation of a layered knowledge base of both theoretical and a growing practical knowledge into applying algorithmic design and parametric modeling in order to generate form. This research has enabled me to appreciate the potential for approaching the LAGI competition design entry and I am intrigued as to how energy generation can be incorporated and realized through this method. I do, however, remain reluctant to see how the group dynamics evolve though the subject and I am particularly interested as to how each member of the group will be able to input something to the final outcome. Having a mixed experience with group work throughout my university career I am weary moving forward in the subject. This initial acquired knowledge could have assisted in the development of previous design assignments in a variety of ways. First of all this computational understanding could have been applied to the virtual design lantern assignment, whereby an algorithmic approach could have assisted my development and realization of reptile skin formation which was my natural design precedent. This could have enabled a form generation outside my initial and developed design intent. The use of these computational techniques could have also furthered design approaches for both Studio Earth and Water; whereby environmental considerations, material tectonics and physical use could have been parameters in the design generation.

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References Part A: Conceptualization IMAGES

[Cover page] Design Playground, “Responsive Morphologies [GH3D].” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 10,2014. http:// designplaygrounds.com/projects/responsive-morphologies-gh3d/. [Image 1 & 2] Murray, James. Land Art Generator Initiative, “Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/. [Image 3] Zimmer, Lori. Inhabitat, “Kinetic Energy-Harvesting Tiles Generate Power from Paris Marathon Runners.” Last modified April 10, 2013. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-parismarathon-runners/. [Image 4 & 5] Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. [Image 6] Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html . [Image 8, 9 & 10] Arch Daily, “Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture .” Last modified June 12, 2011. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/. [Image 7, 11 & 12] DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-ShigeruBan-Architects. [Image 13, 14, 15 & 16] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [Image 17] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [Image 18, 19 & 20] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http:// www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [Images 21 & 22] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [Images 23, 24 & 25] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/ User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

ENERGY TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES

-Albhabet Energy, “How Thermoelectrics Work .” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.alphabetenergy. com/how-thermoelectrics-work/. -Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71 -Kornbluh, Roy. SPIE, “Solar & Alternative Energy: A scalable solution to harvest kinetic energy .” Last modified July 18, 2011. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://spie.org/x48868.xml. -Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. - Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http:// www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html .

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PRECEDENTS

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-Arch Daily, “Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture .” Last modified June 12, 2011. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www. archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/. -DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects. -de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. -Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 -Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 -Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15


References Cont. Part A: Conceptualization GENERATIVE DESIGN PRECEDENTS

-Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. -Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 1-42 -Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-75 - MacDonald, S. “Generative Design Patterns.” Edmonton. (2002): 1-19. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.14 . 08.449&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed March 20, 2014). -McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1-8 -Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. -Mingallon, Maria. LinkedIn Corporation, “Associative Modelling Of Multiscale Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems Low Res.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/maria_mingallon/associative-modelling-of-multiscale-fibrecomposite-adaptive-systems-low-res-3609266 -Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 -Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

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Citations [1], [2], [3]: Murray, James. Land Art Generator Initiative, “Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/. [4] Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 62 [5] Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. [6] Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http:// www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html. [7] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 10 [8] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 3 [9] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 13 [10] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 7 [11] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 14 [12] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 59 [13] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 59 [14] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 4 [15] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6 [16] DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects. [17] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 3 [18] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6 [19] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [20] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [21] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [22] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1 [23] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1 [24] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 2 [25] MacDonald, S. “Generative Design Patterns.” Edmonton. (2002): 1-19. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1. 1.408.449&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed March 20, 2014). pp.3 [26] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 12 [27] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 7 [28] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 65 [29] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 62 [30] Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 7

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[31] Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 39 [32] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [33] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [34] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [35] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [36] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [37] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 8 [38] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 8 [39] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [40] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [41] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [42] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [43] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. [44] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. [45] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6

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