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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO:

AIR

Semester 1 2014 Ornella Romina Altobelli 587754


Tutorial Group 3. 4:15-7:15 Tutors: Phillip & Has


Table of Contents Introduction

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Part A: Conceptualization A.01 Design Futuring: LAGI

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A.01 Design Futuring: Energy Technology

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A.02 Design Computation: Computers in design

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A.02 Design Computation: Precedent projects

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A.03 Generative Design: Composition/Generation

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A.03 Generative Design: Precedent projects

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A.04 Conclusion

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A.05 Learning Outcomes

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Part A References

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Part A Citations

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Part B: Criteria Design B.01 Research Field

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B.02 Case Study 1.0

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B.03 Case Study 2.0

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B.04 Technique: Development

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B.05 Technique: Prototypes

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B.06 Technique: Proposal

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B.07 Learning Objectives and Outcomes Part B References Part B Citations

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Part C: Detailed Design C.01 Design Concept

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C.02 Tectonic Elements

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C.03 Final Model

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C.04 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements

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C.05 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

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Part C Citations

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INTRODUCTION

PROFILE & PREVIOUS WORK ORNELLA ROMINA ALTOBELLI My name is Ornella Romina Altobelli and I am 20 years old. As a third Year Architecture Major in the Bachelor of Environments I am excited to commence this unit in order to broaden my design skills. My passion for Architecture is very much derived from my travels and my appreciation for history. I have also been fortunate enough to be surrounded by the construction industry for much of my life, with family pursuits in architecture, structural engineering, construction management and property. These factors were an essential driving force in my decision to pursue studies in architecture. Computational design is an area that is only recently gaining attention within architectural practice. I believe that the skill set that this subject aims to introduce will be a vital skill moving towards our professional careers. I posses a limited knowledge of parametric design with my experience limited to that which was introduced in Virtual Environment, as a first year student. This subject therefore presents the opportunity to explore the potential and to develop on this basic existing knowledge. Parametric design offers a great potential for designers to rethink the parameters of design generation and production. As a passionate architectural history student I am intrigued by the ability of architecture to reflect the society and culture of the time of its production. Architecture has the power to be an agent for social and cultural change. The opportunity therefore presented through computation and parametric design to redefine architectural possibilities presents us with a great responsibility as the designers of the future.

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VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

I undertook Virtual Environments during my first semester of the Environments degree. The subject provided an opportunity to delve into the virtual sphere of design. The subject brief asked us to produce a wearable lantern which was informed by a natural process. The design process was a confronting introduction to computation. We were required to utilize the computer for design conception and realization, fabrication and documentation. This project was a great introduction to software in design, although a considerable amount of time was spent overcoming difficulties with the use of the software. Nevertheless, I believe that my design was hindered through my reservation with regard to the feasibility of fabrication. It was, however, evident to me during this process that computation enables a flexibility of design outcomes and the versatility that is achievable through form making.

DESIGN STUDIO: WATER

The design brief for this studio was to replicate the design principles of a Master Architect. My design was informed by the principles which informed and were generated through the work of Mies Van Der Rohe. I used this assignment to step beyond my comfort zone and experimented with the basic 3D SketchUp software. Although quite a basic software I increased my awareness of the power of computers to assist the design process. This assignment generated a greater desire to explore the available software to assist in design.

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PART A: CONCEPTUALIZATION “Conceptualization begins to determine WHAT is to be built […] and HOW it will be built.”

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[Image 1: Interior of Scene Sensor, LAGI First Place Award Winner. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/]

[Image 2: Exterior of Scene Sensor, LAGI First Place Award Winner. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/]

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A.01 DESIGN FUTURING

PRECEDENT PROJECT: LAGI FIRST PLACE AWARD WINNER 2012 Scene-Sensor Crossing Social and Ecological Flows The 2012 First Place Award Winner in the LAGI competition, Scene-Sensor, is situated at the intersection of flows, and works by collecting the energy these flows generate through piezoelectric wiring. Firstly the channel screen, composed of reflective metallic mesh, transforms the mechanical forces of bending and motion, induced by wind patterns, into electrical currents.[1] The composition of the form is established through a grid of panels, independent of each others movement and bending motion in response to the wind. Nevertheless, the ‘pixels’ reveal larger scale flows ‘as a field’. Essentially the proposal performs as a ‘wind mapping screen,’ representing the current wind flows and directionality. This visual portrayal of the wind flows also acts as an indication of the screen’s energy collection. This entry is successful in developing a sculptural form which generates energy through the ecologically specific environmental flow. This direct consideration of the sites attributes highlights the relevance of the proposal as a valuable response to the design brief in capturing energy from nature. The vantage points aspect of the design works by embedding the pedestrian flows within an ecological scene. The Bridge, as the sole transportation across the water, electronically collects the mechanical forces required by cars, bikes and pedestrians. The bridge, which is perpendicular to the channel screen element of the design, acts as a vantage point to observe the visual depiction of the localized wind flow. [2]The project ensures the users are challenged and forced to contemplate through the visual depiction of the energy collection of the ecological system. The confronting visual display produced in this sculpture represents the wind system in which the energy is generated. This is a powerful feature of the design which commands reflection upon this natural process.

of the wind and of human displacement. Thus, the form of the design and the features which define it establish a thorough consideration of the human interaction within the space and the portrayal of themes of ecological systems, energy generation and consumption and finally human development. The success of this proposal is revealed within the ambitious use of experimental forms of energy technologies and the direct consideration of the proposed site and its future use. The design presents an opportunity for future developments in energy collection technology. The development of piezoelectricity, as the major generator within the project, introduces the idea of the creation of electrical charge/current through mechanical forces.[3] The energy generation enables the users to experience a form which induces a phenomenological experience of the senses. The visual depiction of the landscape and the surrounding environment reflected upon the metallic panels allows the individuals to appreciate the context of the site. Furthermore, the noise generated by the movement of the panel induced by the wind enhances the users appreciation of this form of energy production. The interaction within the main body of the structure is successful in allowing the user to appreciate the mechanisms at work in the generation of energy and the importance of the ecological system in this process.

The mirror-window feature of the design proposal is an interesting feature which visually depicts the surrounding landscape with the interruption or rather distortion produced by the independent reflective panels or pixels. By creating this visual display the sculpture both integrates naturally within the landscape whilst its distortion represents the ephemeral qualities

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[Image 3] Paris Marathon collecting kinetic energy produced by participants through energy-harvesting tiles, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-paris-marathon-runners/ [Image 4]Windstalk Concept, Kinetic energy generated by wind forces, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/

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A.01 DESIGN FUTURING ENERGY TECHNOLOGY KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic energy is contained by a mass or body as a product of its motion. Thus, the mechanical force of an object is converted into electrical energy. In this way kinetic energy is entirely driven by motion. Kinetic energy can be harvested from sources such as wind, heat, temperatures, and finally human activity. The collection of energy generated through kinetic sources requires a physical network in order to capture this generated energy as well a an electromechanical transducer to convert it to electricity.[4]

is stored, and how this can be incorporated in the overall composition of the design. It would be interesting to experiment with methods of storage which enhance the space.

Another form of kinetic energy is thermoelectrics which is the use of devices to harness the heat energy generated by the sun. A thermoelectric module contains a thermoelectric material that outputs usable energy. This system of energy generation requires a material which is capable of withstanding large temperature gradients. Depending on the form of kinetic energy which is being Furthermore, this form of energy generation requires harvested there are a variety of transducer materials both positive and negatively charged materials thereby which are used to produce the electricity. The LAGI case establishing a continuous circuit allowing a current to run study, Scene-Sensor, introduced the development of the which results in the production of power.[6] This form of piezoelectric generation of electricity through mechanical energy production requires a large temperature gradient strain as a form of kinetic energy. The case study looked which proves technically challenging in everyday scenarios. at how wind pressure was harvested through piezoelectric Nevertheless, this production method generates electricity wiring. This project assists in the conceptualization of the from otherwise wasted heat. potential with kinetic energy, and the ability that exists to experiment with a variety of producers of motion and The implementation of a kinetic energy generator system forms of transducers. at the proposed site offers an opportunity to increase the usability of the area through an interactive installation The Windstalk project (pictured bottom left, and bottom of piece, but also potentially through a visual representation page) is an experimental project which is looking to harvest of energy generation. wind generated kinetic energy. The poles are designed as carbon fiber-reinforced resin poles, which contain piezoelectric discs and electrodes that generate currents. [5] The design includes two storage chambers which serve to collect and distribute the collected electricity. This project highlights the ability for kinetic energy and its development as an experimental energy technology. The project also introduce the idea of how this energy

[Image 5]Windstalk Concept, Kinetic energy generated by wind forces, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/

[Image 6] Thermoelectric diagram, http://www. nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1. html

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[Image 7] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects


A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION COMPUTERS IN DESIGN

Computers are now, more than ever, a dominant part of the modern world; we are undoubtedly within the digital age. But where does computerisation fit with respect to the field of architecture? What place, if any, do computers have in architectural design processes? What impact do computers hold on the design process? What impact does computation have upon the role of the designer? Many would argue that computation allows the designer to extend their abilities to generate complex form, order and structure within their design. I would support the opinion that computation augments the ability of the designer and provides a framework to generate solutions for diverse complex problems[7]. However, our success with computation is limited to our appreciation of and understanding of parametric design. Design generation is thereby limited to ones knowledge of computational methods. This theme is one that registers with myself with regards to our design brief; our design process and generation is limited to the understanding we have of algorithmic processes. The recent appreciation of computational methods has led the charge for a movement away from cubic forms towards more fluid and organic shapes. Computers allow us to consider the performative nature of design, increasing material and tectonic awareness; Thereby assisting the realization of these organic forms. It is evident that recent innovative technologies of computational methods for design are generating the possibilities for tectonic and material creativity[8]. Nevertheless, we must question whether computation is fast developing design which exceed our current fabrication abilities. I believe that computation design is generating more responsive designs, which ensure performance through simulation consideration and analysis of materials, tectonics and parameters of production of construction methods[9]. The success of digital design will be achieved with the combination of “form generation and performative form finding” in order to generate form which is derived by a firm consideration of performance ability[10]. Computation is developing into an essential element of construction, as expressed by Mouzhan Majidi, computation “hasn’t simply transformed what we design- it’s had a huge

impact on how we build”[11]. Computation presents the exciting opportunity to generate more complex possibilities within the design process. Furthermore, the algorithmic, parametric approach allows for the generation of otherwise inconceivable forms. This potential reveals a movement towards greater complexity of forms as generated by computation. However, why is complexity favoured in contemporary architectural forms? Recent experimentation indicate the desire to mimic the complex systems and behaviors as derived by nature. Programming aims to replicate the rules as governed by nature in order to generate these complex geometries. Computation has undoubtedly expanded the field of architecture. The architect is now the ‘master builder’[12]; their role has be redefined with the input of computers providing an “informational continuum from design to construction”[13]. The input of computation, therefore, enables performative and constructible consideration in the design approach. Moving forward this semester it is essential to gain a comprehensible understanding of algorithmic design in order to develop a considered design which addresses performance and material tectonics and fulfills the design requirements as set by LAGI. In order to achieve this it is necessary to examine some precedent project which undertook computational methods of design, which will inform the process I take in approaching the design brief.

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES NEX ARCHITECTURE TIMES EUREKA PAVILION The times Eureka pavilion was developed for the Times eureka Garden entry in the 2011 Chelsea Flower Show. The Garden design was to be inspired by science in focus of the Times monthly science edition. NEX Architecture was appointed with the task of designing a pavilion which represented the benefits attained by society from plants. The design investigated the cellular structure of plants and aimed to mimic this pattern of natural growth through computer algorithms. The pavilion was to stand as a visual representation of the biomimicry of leaf capillaries. The pavilion is constructed with recycled timber, for the structural framework for the cells, and recycled plastic manipulated to resemble leaf cells. The final composition was generated through the use of computer algorithms which mimicked the natural growth of the leaf. Through this pavilion the benefits of computational

design are made apparent; this form of production allows the precedents for design to be realized more fully through the input of data. The pavilion highlights the progression in design and the opportunities that now exist, thanks to computation, to realize accurate reproductions of the laws of nature. As stated by Oxman “This is the age of the emergence of research by design.”[14]. This Pavilion is a realization of the claim put forth by Oxman that “It is in the computational modeling of natural principles of performative design of material systems, that we can potentially create a second nature, or a sounder architecture with respect to material ecology”[15]. This concept is one that provides an opportunity for experimentation in my own computational research and design process. The potential to take the principles generated by nature in formation of a structural form.

[Image 8] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

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[Image 10] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/ti


[Image 9] http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

imes-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES KACI INTERNATIONAL & SHIGERU BAN ARCHITECTS: HAESLEY NINE BRIDGES GOLF CLUBHOUSE The Haesley Nine Golf Clubhouse contains an atrium space which is composed of timber columns which mimic the form of a tree. These elements span three stories. The use of computational techniques exploited the engineering possibilities of glulam timbers with the creation of a hexagonal grid shell. [16] The computational input in this design realized the opportunity for efficient production of the optimal structural form with minimized time spent with assembly and fabrication and the reduction of the quantity of material used; due to a computational understanding of the materials limits during the design process. Through this example of computational design it is evident that this method of design enables logical production of tectonic and material creativity[17]. Form generation informed by performative design, tectonic models and digital materialities are emerging as integrated processes in digital design[18].

variety and versatility in the form production. The project also interests me in its consideration of material capacity and limits. The design introduces the ability with computational design in factoring in the materials ultimate strength and manipulating this in the generation of form and design. This ability to approach a design with a focus upon materiality and fabrication is a valuable outcome of the advancements in the generation of digital architecture; this represents a change in the way the shape and tectonic elements of the building is defined, and the means to which material solutions are considered. This approach is a morphogenetic approach that ensures the examination of morphological complexity and performative capacities of materials without disconnecting the formation and materialization processes. Thus, computation has led to an invaluable progression in design potential through the development of a more wholistic approach.

This precedent project looks at the investigation of the rules that govern the trees growth rather than desire to emulate the visual representation of the tree. This project is an interesting take on the approach to taking from the rules of nature. I am interested in this approach which relies on the rules which govern the principles of growth but enable a

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[Image 11] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-BanArchitects


[Image 12] http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-BanArchitects

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A.02 DESIGN COMPUTATION

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: USING COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2011 The pavilion was constructed for a biological research collaboration between the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE)[19]. The design was developed through computational technology with inspiration generated by the modular system of polygonal plates which are generated by the skeletal morphology of the sand dollar (sea urchin).[20] The pavilion project investigates the architectural adaptation, through computational simulation techniques, of the biological principles which generate the skeletal morphology present in the sand dollar sea urchins. A plywood construction was enlisted for this computer generated form. The use of computer within this design generation allowed the students to investigate different biologically generated forms, as well as manipulation of these forms through biological principles. One example of this is the investigation and realization of heterogeneity within the pavilion; this enabled the variation of cell sizes in relation to the apparent curvature within the pavilion.[21]

of the principles of nature and the imitation of these in design in order to generate solutions, to be an exciting advancement in the way we approach design consideration. This approach indicates the innovation in design as inspired by nature. The exciting thing for me with regard to bio-mimicry is that in taking the principles governed by nature we have an ecological standard which is supported by billions of years of research and development. Therefore through computational methods we are given the opportunity and a method to discover and realize the principles and rule governed by nature in the development of geometrical forms. I find it interesting and exciting that bio-mimicry is not the direct representation and emulation of nature and natural forms but the adaptation of the principles that governs the form. This precedent project is an interesting take on bio-mimicry and presents the opportunity to emulate the principles of form governed by nature. This approach is one that I am interested in exploring in the approach to the design response to LAGI competition.

[Image 14] h

Through the pavilion we see the commencement of a new style of architecture whereby the performance capacity of biological structures are manipulated in architectural productions in order to generate form of greater structural capacities and ease of fabrication. Personally I find Bio-mimicry, the study

[Image 13] http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

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[Image 15] h the-univers


http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at- [Image 16] http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilionat-the-university-of-stuttgart/ sity-of-stuttgart/ 18


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[Image 17] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083


A.03 GENERATIVE DESIGN COMPOSITION/GENERATION

Generative design is defined as the practice of designing the process which gives rise to structural form. The development of the form is therefore an outcome of a system that enables the method and philosophy to view the world in terms of dynamic processes and their outcomes.[22] This form of design represents the shift in the role and agenda of the architect, moving away from generation of static forms, in the way of design which considers the interaction of components, systems and processes.[23] Generative design allows for complexity within design and enables design solutions which are unimaginable through compositional design. This virtual production of form allows for the broadening of the design practice and philosophy through operating systems which have the potential to inspire alternative approaches more generally to the design process.[24] Generative systems therefore have the potential to simulate new possibilities, unimaginable through compositional techniques.

which surrounds this area of design. As stated in AD Magazine: “when architects have sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.”[26] Algorithmic thinking requires an understanding of the results generated through coding, and the knowledge required to modify code to produces desired design options. Nevertheless, once this barrier is overcome generative design will enable the performance driven designs of the future.[27] Furthermore, this method of design allows designers to borrow principles governed by nature and natural processes in order to establish something new and responsive, this theme is explored further through the Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems precedent project explored on page 21.

The reaction to the shift from compositional design techniques to generative design methods are largely divided within The shift in design, that has been driven by computational the architectural world. The generative design techniques, methods, has seen an adaptation to the role of the architect. specifically algorithmic thinking and scripting, take away from Compositional design enables the designer to seek solutions the designers ability to realize a desired compositional form. within the design space, which establishes a direct relationship Rather the designer is required to establish a form realized between the designer and the designed form. The design is through parameters and designed systems. Furthermore the therefore a reflection of the designers intention. In contrast computerisation of the field has demanded greater expectations to this Generative design methods “are about the modeling of of architects to become ‘master builders’, requiring them to be initial conditions of an object (its ‘genetics’) instead of modeling involved within all elements of the realization of design including the final form” [Paola Fontana]. Therefore the final form is design, production and construction.[28] Kolaverick supports the autonomously generated through the designers production argument that it is necessary to engage with and understand and modification of interacting rules or systems. Through digital technologies in order to reaffirm the position as ‘Master this method the designer has no direct control of the final builders’. He therefore supports the use of computers in design product, but rather the methods taken to achieve this form, to lead the way for design innovation. Nevertheless, Kolaverick thereby detracting from his/her ability to directly reveal a does address that computerisation has demanded a change design vision. The role of the designer therefore remains, as in the way architects work regarding this as an ‘obstacle’ to with compositional design, essential to the design generation, the potential rewarding outcomes.[29] Celistion Soddu is an however their role is modified to that of the editor of advocate for generative design whom states that generative constraints opposed to form. design is a “human creative act rendered explicit and realized as an unpredictable, amazing and endless expansion of human Generative design enables the definition and consideration of creativity. Computers are simply the tools for its storage parameters in the generation of form. This parametric approach in memory and execution.”[30] Thus, it is supported that to generative design allows for the movement away from generative design enable the production of the unknown. The designing static solutions to that of specific solutions defined “approach works in imitation of Nature, performing ideas as by the parameters in place.[25] These formal possibilities and codes, able to generate endless variations”. [31] design potential are generated through the use of algorithmic and computational techniques. Here we see the advancement in Simply, generative design is a more wholistic approach to the design as informed by generative and computational methods to design process; enabling the consideration of parameters such respond to the complex contextualized parameters constraining as material systems, tectonics, environmental constraints and the design process with a greater level of accuracy than that constructability. This form of design enables the appreciation generated by compositional design methods. This will be further and application of natures principles to realize design solutions elaborated upon in the precedent project: Hygroscope (pictured as generated through algorithmic coding. This computational left) as an example of factoring in material qualities or systems approach enables the development of these complex and in the design of a sculptural form. diverse solutions to design paradigms which would otherwise be unimaginable with compositional design techniques. The limitations of generative design is the lack of knowledge

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems The Fibre Composite Adaptive System is a Thesis project by Maria Mingallon, Sakthivel Ramaswamy and Konstantinos Karatzas at the Architectural Association in London. [32] “The thesis developed a material system capable of emulating self-organization processes in nature which is then extended into an architectural application”.[33] The development of a fibre composite that can “sense, actuate and hence efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions”[34] allows for the emulation of this self organizing process as undertaken by nature. This choice of material within the design enabled the possibility for multiple parameters of adaptive functions across the system. Through this design we see the application of the principles governed by nature in order to produce an unimaginable forms; this design represents this shift in architectural productions through generative principles.

to factors such as the inhabitants, functionality and environmental conditions; representing a wholistic design consideration. The research team aimed to replicate the process of ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ through a system of “sensors, actuators, computational and control firmware embedded in a fibre composite skin”.[36] The pavilion structure registers the parameters of strain and temperature through the fibre optics which simultaneously register these inputs. These inputs also have a control over the typology of the structure.

This precedent project is a wonderful example of the growing trend of bio-mimicy in design; the project as a generative design has designed a technical and well informed system of codes in the development of this form and its material nature. The design implemented the use of Rhino and Grasshopper in order to generate this algorithmically “‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ refers to the changes in shape, computed design. The overall structural composition of the structure and material properties of biological organisms pavilion is generated through two algorithmic scripts. Firstly that are produced in response to transient changes in the dynamic relaxation algorithm deduces the form through environmental conditions.”[35] This change or adaptation a form finding process for the shell structure as a response of structure is a result of the material properties ascribed to the applied loads. The second algorithm simulates the to ‘fibre composite tissue’. This generative design approach growth of the fibres mapping the principle stresses and to the structure aims to implement these natural systems thereby generating an extension of the form. Finally the of self-organization and ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ in order panels which compose the surface of the structure are to develop an architectural structure with a system which produced through algorithmic parameters for the size of the enables it to react to environmental stimulus. apertures, the overall curvature and finally the height of the undulating pattern/structural depth. As discussed earlier computation has provided the means to generate complex design which generate highly This project indicates the potential for generative design. performative capacities. This design proposal aims to The design emulates the principles of natural processes alter the way the building generates spaces in response and essentially input this data to generate the final form.

[Image 18] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

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[Image 19] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

The process of design is through the process of generating a system rather than a form, essentially providing infinite opportunities for variation. The derived form replicates the sustainable qualities of natural processes and represents the requirement for architects to respond to design considerations with an approach that is governed by natures principles to minimise human imposition on our environment; a method which is guaranteed through the generative systems of production.

This project reveals the computational methods of generative deign as a move towards ‘natural design’ in order to produce natural forms. Essentially the design supports Oxman’s understanding of natural design as “more than imitating the appearance of the organic. It is learning from natural principles of design how to produce form in response to the conditions of the environmental context”. [37] This piece is therefore an informative piece as to how digitally produced design can replicate nature as Oxaman describes as a “second nature”.[38]

[Image 20] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: HYGROSCOPE- METEOROSENSITIVE MORPHOLOGY The HygroScope project was designed by Achim Menges in collaboration with Steffen Reichert in 2012. The project was designed to reflect the inherent qualities and behavior of the materiality of the design in combination with computational morphogenesis in order to produce a statement of “responsive architecture”. “The dimensional instability of wood in relation to moisture content is employed to construct a climate responsive architectural morphology.”[39] The design therefore utilized computational methods in order to generate a form whereby the material quality was the machine for change in the design; a theme borrowed from natural biological systems. The material form within the design reflects the environmental conditions and fluctuations which govern its configuration. The sculptural form sits in a glass case which generates climate conditions, for the microenvironment, in which manifest themselves in the form of the model. The design reflects the intensive material research which was incorporated into the computation of a structural form. The materials responds physically to the adsorption and desorption of moisture.[40] The presence of absence of water molecules in the timber alters the dimensionality of the form; therefore the control of humidity within the microenvironment of the glass case generates a responsive physical reaction. This design precedent reveals the value of computational design to enable the consideration and

design parameters desired by the design team. This project utilized computation in order to realize the potential and determine the dynamics of the materiality. Here we see a shift in the materiality of design through generative methods; designers are able to integrate material qualities and function through parametric modelling, thereby enabling a more complex approach to design. The responsiveness of the material system is generated through material computation. Material and environmental data is inputted in order to unfold the systems morphology. An algorithm is used to “iteratively scans various fields of environmental intensities within the simulated environment of the glass case and provides the input data for a custom scripted process of computational morphogenesis“.[41] Computation is therefore used to mimic the dynamic natural behavioral properties of the material Through this precedent project the progress of establishing a new architectural discourse is illustrated. The project represents the development of complex geometry which is reflected through the complex behavioral principles which are governed through parametric design principles. The ability to reflect such complexity within design is uniquely related to the computational technologies that are beginning to dominate architectural discourse.

“The changing surface literally embodies the capacity to sense, actuate and react, all within the material itself [void of sensory equipment].” [42]

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[Image 21] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083.

[Image 22] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083.

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A.03

PRECEDENT PROJECTS: PARAMETRIC PAVILION: be inspired 2013 award finalist- innovation in Generative Design

[Image 23] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

“As part of this emerging of a digital materiality in design there have developed new linkages between conception and production through computer assisted fabrication techniques” [43]

This Pavilion designed by Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab was designed as a barrier to environmental flows. The overall geometric composition is generated through three B-spline surfaces. [44] A software called GenerativeComponents was integrated into the design process in order to refine the geometric structure to assist in structural integrity and fabrication. All elements of the structure were tagged and optimize constructability Therefore Generative techniques assisted in the reduction of material usage in the generation of a constructible geometry fabricated through CNC cutting. Through this example of Generative Deign we see the use of the virtual design space in order to seek design and construction solutions through

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designing the rules which govern the system; therefore representing the shift in architectural practice towards the idea of the ‘master builder’. This project also highlights the movement in generative design to design with consideration of material properties to generate complex geometries. This competition entry represents the shift in architectural discourse as inspired and informed through ‘parametricism’. Architectural form through computation is defining a new expression of architecture, moving away from the designing of details, towards a design of the overall composition. In this new wave of architectural discovery and discourse we must therefore generate a new way of appreciating and interacting with these forms.


[Image 24] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

[Image 25] http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

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A.04 CONCLUSION PART A

Computation has given rise to a new form of architectural production and approach. This form of design enables the innovation of ideas and the complex consideration of design parameters. The Land Art Generator Initiative provides a platform to implement these design innovations to generate a unique and innovative final form. Through precedent projects we acknowledge that generative design approaches remain largely experimental and the forms generated are primarily sculptural, temporary structures. Computational approaches have revealed the potential to generate complex and largely unprecedented forms, acknowledging and addressing a greater number of variables, which are able to be materialized through parametric modeling. Through this method a integrated link is established between conceptual design to construction phases of the design. Nevertheless, our success in computational design is limited to our comprehension of programming languages; innovation through these methods is restricted to how well versed we are with the techniques and code. In the development of a design response to the Land Art Generator Initiative I will incorporate the methods of generative computational techniques and parametric modeling. In approaching the design process it is my ambition to undertake some further research into biomimicry and natural processes in the generation of a form in which greater environmental consideration is undertaken. I believe that this is the approach which informed much of the designs investigated in the precedents through Part A, highlighting the innovative movement within architecture towards a ‘second nature’ through architectural production. As designers it is important to consider the impact of designed form upon the surrounding environment and the shift to design which exists harmoniously within its surroundings. The benefits of designed form to replicate properties ascribed from nature enables the creation of built forms which create harmonious relationships between human interaction and the surrounding environment; therefore enhancing the level of engagement between the users and the site.

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“Form generation informed by performative design, tectonic models and digital materiality are emerging as integrated processes in digital design.” [45]


A.05 LEARNING OUTCOMES PART A

At the commencement of the Design Studio I was unaware to the present evolution of design occurring in architectural practice in the way of parametric design. Current discourse on ‘parametricism’ as included in the course readings reveals a growing appreciation for the design potential enhanced through computation. Thus we see the beginning of discourse regarding parametricism as an architectural style establishing an architectural language for contemporary design. Through the exploration and research undertaken in Part A I have gained a greater understanding and appreciation for computational methods and techniques. Through various precedent projects the development and application of computational design in architectural practice has revealed the potential for complexity and innovation through these methods. Furthermore, the potential for generative design to implement the principles governed by nature in order to develop forms, which replicate these natural structures, provides an opportunity to take a sustainable approach to the design generation. This understanding has further been supported through my exploration and experimentation with the Rhino and Grasshopper algorithmic design activities. Nevertheless, though I am taking a lot from my grasshopper experimentation I am slightly off put by the limited time frame we have in order to master these techniques and build up a database of knowledge regarding computational methods. This concern is primarily due to the limited time within the course to generate a design proposal for the LAGI competition. My final design outcome can only be as great as the product of my knowledge of

computational design. The progressive research and activities have led to the formation of a layered knowledge base of both theoretical and a growing practical knowledge into applying algorithmic design and parametric modeling in order to generate form. This research has enabled me to appreciate the potential for approaching the LAGI competition design entry and I am intrigued as to how energy generation can be incorporated and realized through this method. I do, however, remain reluctant to see how the group dynamics evolve though the subject and I am particularly interested as to how each member of the group will be able to input something to the final outcome. Having a mixed experience with group work throughout my university career I am weary moving forward in the subject. This initial acquired knowledge could have assisted in the development of previous design assignments in a variety of ways. First of all this computational understanding could have been applied to the virtual design lantern assignment, whereby an algorithmic approach could have assisted my development and realization of reptile skin formation which was my natural design precedent. This could have enabled a form generation outside my initial and developed design intent. The use of these computational techniques could have also furthered design approaches for both Studio Earth and Water; whereby environmental considerations, material tectonics and physical use could have been parameters in the design generation.

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References Part A: Conceptualization IMAGES

[Cover page] Design Playground, “Responsive Morphologies [GH3D].” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 10,2014. http:// designplaygrounds.com/projects/responsive-morphologies-gh3d/. [Image 1 & 2] Murray, James. Land Art Generator Initiative, “Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/. [Image 3] Zimmer, Lori. Inhabitat, “Kinetic Energy-Harvesting Tiles Generate Power from Paris Marathon Runners.” Last modified April 10, 2013. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-parismarathon-runners/. [Image 4 & 5] Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. [Image 6] Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html . [Image 8, 9 & 10] Arch Daily, “Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture .” Last modified June 12, 2011. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/. [Image 7, 11 & 12] DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-ShigeruBan-Architects. [Image 13, 14, 15 & 16] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [Image 17] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [Image 18, 19 & 20] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http:// www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [Images 21 & 22] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [Images 23, 24 & 25] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/ User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm.

ENERGY TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES

-Albhabet Energy, “How Thermoelectrics Work .” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.alphabetenergy. com/how-thermoelectrics-work/. -Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71 -Kornbluh, Roy. SPIE, “Solar & Alternative Energy: A scalable solution to harvest kinetic energy .” Last modified July 18, 2011. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://spie.org/x48868.xml. -Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. - Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http:// www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html .

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PRECEDENTS

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-Arch Daily, “Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture .” Last modified June 12, 2011. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www. archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/. -DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects. -de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. -Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 -Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 -Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15


References Cont. Part A: Conceptualization GENERATIVE DESIGN PRECEDENTS

-Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. -Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 1-42 -Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-75 - MacDonald, S. “Generative Design Patterns.” Edmonton. (2002): 1-19. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.14 . 08.449&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed March 20, 2014). -McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1-8 -Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. -Mingallon, Maria. LinkedIn Corporation, “Associative Modelling Of Multiscale Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems Low Res.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/maria_mingallon/associative-modelling-of-multiscale-fibrecomposite-adaptive-systems-low-res-3609266 -Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 -Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

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Citations [1], [2], [3]: Murray, James. Land Art Generator Initiative, “Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 10, 2014. http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/. [4] Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 62 [5] Schwartz, Ariel. Inhabitat, “Fields of Windstalks Harvest Kinetic Energy From the Wind.” Last modified August 18, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-windstalk-field-harvests-energy-from-the-breeze/. [6] Snyder, Jeffrey. Nature Materials, “Complex thermoelectric materials.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http:// www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v7/n2/box/nmat2090_BX1.html. [7] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 10 [8] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 3 [9] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 13 [10] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 7 [11] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 14 [12] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 59 [13] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 59 [14] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 4 [15] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6 [16] DesignersParty, “Haesley nine bridges golf clubhouse : Kyeong Sik Yoon, Shigeru Ban.” Last modified 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.designersparty.com/entry/Haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-KyeongSik-Yoon-Shigeru-Ban-Architects. [17] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 3 [18] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6 [19] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [20] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [21] de zeen Magazine , “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.” Last modified October 31, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/. [22] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1 [23] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 1 [24] McCormack, J., Dorin, A. and Innocent, T. (2004) ‘Generative Design: a paradigm for design research’ in Redmond, J. et. al. (eds) Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne. pp. 2 [25] MacDonald, S. “Generative Design Patterns.” Edmonton. (2002): 1-19. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1. 1.408.449&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed March 20, 2014). pp.3 [26] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 12 [27] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 7 [28] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 65 [29] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 62 [30] Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 7

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[31] Celestino Soddu, Generative Art, visionary Variations, Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong, 2002 pp. 39 [32] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [33] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [34] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [35] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [36] Evolo, “Fibre Composite Adaptive Systems .” Last modified June 12, 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/. [37] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 8 [38] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 8 [39] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [40] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [41] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [42] Menges, Achim. achimmenges.net, “Achim Menges, Morphogenetic Design Experiment.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 18, 2014. http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083. [43] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. [44] Bently Systems Incorporated, “Parametric Pavilion - Jawor Design Studio and LabDigiFab.” Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2014. http://www.bentley.com/ar-AE/Engineering Architecture Construction Software Resources/User Stories/Be Inspired Project Portfolios/Poland/Parametric Pavilion.htm. [45] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 6

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PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN “During Criteria Design “major options are evaluated, tested and selected.” [46]

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[Image 26] http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083.

[Image 27] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/fibre-composite-adaptive-systems/

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B.01 RESEARCH FIELD BIOMIMICRY MATERIAL SYSTEM

Biomimicry is providing an opportunity for digital design techniques to be implemented through the framework of ‘biologically inspired processes’.[47] This wave of design strategy applies the principles governed by nature which are supported by billions of years of evidence. The design process is not simply the emulation of form, but rather the investigation and adaptation of the system and processes. Therefore, Biomicry provides the opportunity to employ tools and ideas otherwise unavailable to the designer. This discipline enables the application and imitation of natures design resolutions and ideas in an attempt to resolve human problems in the movement towards ‘conditions conductive to life. [48] As explored by the National Geographic Magazine, much of the complexity, strength, toughness and sophistication generated by nature are made from simple materials (ie. Keratin, Calcium carbonate and silica).[49] In this way nature provides an opportunity to generate forms which consider and manipulate materiality enabling fabrication of forms which emulate a sustainable system. Furthermore, the conscious replication of natural systems represents the requirement for our world to function more like the natural world in order to move to a sustainable enduring future.

Natural ecosystems contain complex biological systems, they have the ability to recycle, induce formative and performance adaptations and are proficient in their abient energy usage. Built environments, by contrast, lack this versatility and complexity, and are inefficient in their energy consumption. In applying the principles and systems which govern ecological systems the potential arises to generate form and structure which adequately interact with the environment. Furthermore, biomimicry enables the opportunity to revolutionise the construction process; enabling the opportunity for reduction in material costs and the minimisation of construction energy. This design technique, as an evolution of the potential generated through computational design, highlights the ability for complexity and emergent architectural form and properties to arises rapidly. Computers in essences have enabled this exploration and design technique to evolve and inform design through scientific explanation. An unimaginable number of permutations can be generated through the generative approach to a natural system representing the shift in architectural exploration to that of a genetic language.

As explored in earlier precedent projects, such as the The HygroScope project designed by Achim Menges and The Fibre “Looking at pretty structures in nature is not sufficient,” says Composite Adaptive System, the exists an exiting potential to Cohen. “What I want to know is, Can we actually transform produced adaptive systems through bio-mimicry in conjunction these structures into an embodiment with true utility in the with computational methods. Nevertheless, both these real world?”[50]. The philosophy of biomicry is the borrowing of projects revealed the intensive material research required in the ‘fundamental formative processes and information systems order to incorporate (material) adaptability through the design of nature’ in the search for solutions to the environmental and process, as inspired by natural systems. This proves relevant human problems which govern our designs.[51] What must be in the consideration of the progression of the LAGI design explored is the potential for this design technique to enable response which must adapt an energy technology into the a holistic approach to design through the understanding and overall design composition. appreciation of the complex structure of nature.

“Looking at pretty structures in nature is not sufficient,” says Cohen. “What I want to know is, Can we actually transform these structures into an embodiment with true utility in the real world?” [50].

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[Image 28] http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visual-artists/

“Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature. It introduces an era based not on what we can extract from the natural world, but what we can learn from it.� [52]

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B.01 RESEARCH FIELD

BIOMIMICRY MATERIAL SYSTEM Canopy, United Visual Artists, Toronto, 2010

The Canopy installation piece by United Visual Artists represents the opportunity through computational biomimicry to ensure an accurate and feasible representation of the form and the system borrowed from nature. The ninety meter installation looks to mimic the sensorial experience of passing through a forest with the light apertures. The compositional form was produced through the geometric abstraction of the structure of leaf cells; the overall pattern was generated through the input of a non-repeating growth pattern.[53] This installation project effectively reproduces the behavioral activities which occur within the leaf cells. The project does this through the apertures which compose part of the modules within the overall structure. These apertures are designed in order to filter the natural light through the daytime; with the onset of night the structure generates ‘particles of artificial light’ which travel through the grid of modules, eventually dying with the depletion of energy passing through the structure.[54] Through the Canopy installation the opportunity to generate natural forms, but more importantly natural

[Image 29] http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-byby-united-visual-artists/

systems is revealed. The project was assisted through computational techniques which enabled the reconstruction and manipulation of a complex structural composition, in order to generate an constructible form. The light structure also reveals the ability to generate interactive responsive forms through the use of biomimcry as a design technique. The design therefore represents the opportunity to produce a ‘live’ architectural installation with the assistance of computational methods for the generation of forms and systems through a constructible perspective. This feature is one which can, and should be explored further through our response to the LAGI design project. The project reveals a desire through biomimicry to explore the potential for application of natural systems within built design, in order to comprehend the systems at play, and how they can assist in the generation of sustainable architecture.

[Image 30] http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-byby-united-visual-artists/

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[Image 31] http://www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts

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[Image 32] http://www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku. php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts

[Image 33] http://www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku. php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts


B.01 RESEARCH FIELD BIOMIMICRY MATERIAL SYSTEM Victorian College of the Arts

The Centre for Ideas is a building within the Victorian College of the Arts. This design embodies the potential for generative design methods to give rise to geometrically complex and abstracted forms in the shift in contemporary design processes. Furthermore, the design emulates the ability for computational design to be realized through materialisation and fabrication. The complexity here is generated ‘from an algorithm for establishing the voronoi tessellation of a plane’; a structural formation which derived from the exploration of natural growth processes.[55] The voronoi component provides a different approach to spatial arrangement in contrast to a stereotypical grid Cartesian composition. The component determines domains closest to individual structures in relation to those adjacent (see diagram below).[56] In this way biomimicry has informed the consideration of spatial configuration and therefore spatial interaction. The designs structural realization from the virtual to the physical world highlights the progression in computational design in order to realize the complexity of natural forms and systems. Nevertheless, The Centre for Ideas remains a purely structural representation of a natural principle, although providing an integrated and unorthodox spatial configuration, the project lacks the complexity in the design that would an can be achieved through the exploration and generation of natural systems. Biomimicry as a technique for computational design provides the opportunity to generated unimaginable complexities of form and further enables the constructability of these forms.

[Image 34] http://cs.nyu.edu/~ajsecord/npar2002/html/stipples-node2.html

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[Image 34] http://materia.nl/article/homeostatic-facade-system/

[Image 35] http://materia.nl/article/homeostatic-facade-system/

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[Image 36] http://materia.nl/article/hom


B.01 RESEARCH FIELD

BIOMIMICRY MATERIAL SYSTEM Homeostatic Facade System, Decker Yeadon, 2011 The Homeostatic Facade System designed by Decker Yeadon is an unconventional take on a double skinned glass facade system. The project models a regulating shading system off the mechanical working of the muscular system.[57] The natural process of ‘Homeostasis’ defines the self regulating technique undertaken by animal and plant organisms with regard to their internal conditions. [58] This project reveals the potential to apply natural systems and phenomena to architectural production in the creation of intelligent responsive design solution. The project is designed to automatically respond to environmental conditions at a localized scale. The strips that form the design are each composed of an ‘actuator’ or as described by the designers “an artificial muscle” which consists of “a dielectric elastomer wrapped over a flexible polymer core.”[59] The deformation and bending of the strips is caused through the electrical charges generated by the silver coating across the

meostatic-facade-system/

elastomer, Therefore bending is determined upon the distribution of sunlight across the structure, allowing for unimaginable variation in the facade appearance. This project engineered a form guided by the principles of muscular contractions to mimic or re-articulate the phenomenon of homeostasis. In this way the project reveals the potential to manifest several natural systems in our design exploration as well as the potential to explore the potential within materiality and fabrication. This project reveal the ability for natural processes to solve modern day design problems. The increasing modern influence of transparent design through vast glazing of structures demands a solution to the questions of sustainable approaches to this composition. The Homeostatic Facade System is just one example of how knowledge of natural processes can be applied to modern design structures in order to generate sustainable forms.

[Image 37] http://materia.nl/article/homeostatic-facade-system/

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B.02 CASE STUDY 1.0 SPANISH PAVILION Foreign Office Architects

The Spanish Pavilion, designed by FOA, was constructed in accordance with the Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan. The composition of the facade in accordance with the layout of the building are intended to reflect the synthesis of the crucial dualism of culture within the Spanish context. Uniquely the building aims to reflect the synthesis of Islamic and Christian cultures evident in Spain.[60] The geometrical surface patterning is generated by the architects through a consideration of several symbolic references of religious merit. “A geometrical pattern arises from the aggregation of [these]regular figures that form a uniform design in variable

scale. The challenge met by FOA was to find an irregular design that would create a fluid pattern without being repetitive”.[61] The generation of a unique hexagonal tile surface is enabled through a non-repeating growth pattern which enables the fluidity of the surface. Although the project does not provide a direct representation of natural processes being ‘mimicked’ through design, it is an expression of Bio-mimicry as it highlights the potential to explore the systems which generate patterning, such as natural growth and self-organization processes.

[Image 38]http://another29.exblog.jp/iv/detail/index. asp?s=6662562&i=200712/01/51/d0079151_2050481.jpg

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[Image 39]http://an asp?s=6662562&i=


The six unique hexagonal tile compositions which compose the facade are colored with colors which are internationally associated with Span.[62] In this way the facade surface, which is composed of these forms (pictured right) inherently symbolise the duality of Spanish culture within a distinctively Spanish composition.

nother29.exblog.jp/iv/detail/index. =200712/01/51/d0079151_2050481.jpg

[Image 41] http://architecture-library.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/ spanish-pavilion-expo-2005-haiki-aichi.html

[Image 40] http://architecture-library.blogspot.com. au/2013/12/spanish-pavilion-expo-2005-haiki-aichi. html

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B.02 CASE STUDY 1.0 MATRIX

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ITERATION 5: Offset value for Pattern Cull Slider set to 0.14 ITERATION 6: Offset value for Pattern Cull Slider set to 0.70 ITERATION 7: Vertical Cell Array Y-cell and Radius expression squared n*(1.5*S)^2 ITERATION 8: X-Cell array expression squared X*(Y-1)^2

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B.02 CASE STUDY 1.0

SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS & SELECTION CRITERIA

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Increasing perforations Verticality - extrusion Abstracted form Horizontal expression - Defining the axis 50


B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

SYNAESTHETIC FILTER Stefan Rutzinger & Kristina Schinegger

[Image 41] http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-sc

The Synaesthetic Filter designed by Stefan Rutzinger and Kristina Schinegger was a competition entry for “Ohrenstrand mobil 2008.”[63] The pavilion, designed for experimental music, aims to induce experiential discovery through bodily and sensory perceptions. The composition of the structure is manipulated through “rotating acoustic elements” in order to generate the desired acoustic qualities.[64] The maneuvering of each independent pivot-able element enables the progressive transition of the pattern across the pavilions surface. The pavilion therefore expresses a direct and integrated relationship between visual, spatial and acoustic qualities of the space during musical performances.[65] The acoustic panels, which are supported and pivoted through tension cables, are “arrayed across the surface following its normal tangents.”[66] The rotation of these focal elements is enabled through the use of ‘servo-motors’ which synchronically rotate the panels through the tension cables to generate variation in the surface patterning and to enable desired acoustic properties. The composition of these patterns was generated through parametric pattern study as depicted below (image 43). As discussed by Moussavi et al in “The Function of

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Ornament,” Design is rapidly taking on the consideration of culture and relaying these ideas through creating structures which induce experiential discovery[67]; This design project highlights this shift in designed forms. The success in the project lies in its responsiveness to the surrounding environment through the establishment of a direct relationship between elements to induce physical and sensory responses. The Synaesthetic Filter is successful in achieving a versatile form which possesses a flickering presence rather than a physical visible structure. The success of the project lies in its creation of an immersible synaesthetic experience rather than a physical enclosure. The composition of the structure is nevertheless hindered by the complexity of the rational behind the form. The reliance on suspension cables, single curved wire frames and a servo motors in order to distribute and control the manipulation of orientation of the linear panels restricts the creative expression of the surface pattern and composition. When considering this project as a precedent to approaching the LAGI brief many features can be applied to the design process. The structure highlights how design can not only


chinegger/

[Image 42] http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/

create a physical form but can induce an experiential form for discovery. This theme is one that was further supported through the winner of the 2012 LAGI competition, The Scene Sensor. The project therefore reveals the need to consider the design process beyond the development of a structural form in the way of experiential discovery through composition. This search for complexity in visual appearance, spatial quality and sensory responses enables the development of a complex design response.

[Image 43] Parametric Pattern Generation, http://www.crispandfuzzy.com/?p=25

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B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

SYNAESTHETIC FILTER Stefan Rutzinger & Kristina Schinegger

The diagrams bellow indicate the consideration of spatial flow through the development of flexibility in plan. The three points of contact which create the vertical pavilion enables the movement through the space and the variation in the surface pattern. This movement is highlighted through the flow diagram illustrated in image 45 with a direct consideration of the panel configuration and orientation. In this way the diagraming represents the design intent to establish a responsive relationship between all interacting variables. These diagrams represent the underlying themes which define the designers intent; structure and expression. There exists an evident interplay between control and variation, order and deviation.

[Image 44] Surface and deducted pattern of normals, http://www.crispandfuzzy.com/?p=25

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[Image 45] Flexibility of use, http://


/www.crispandfuzzy.com/?p=25

[Image 46] Three points of contact enable flexibility of use, http:// www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/

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B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

RE-ENGINEERING THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER

EXPERIMENT A Experimentation with extruding box geometry form surface points. The desired outcome was to generate a paneling system for the pavilion. 55


EXPERIMENT B Creating interpolated curves from point charges using field objects. This experimentation intended to create a system to guide the directionality of the panels. 56


B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

RE-ENGINEERING THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER PROCESS A

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1

Curves plotted and manipulated in Rhino

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Multiple curves set in Grasshopper and lofted

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Contours created in X and Y direction at even spacing

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Tight contouring, small distance input

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Uniform contouring, average distance input

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Loose contouring, large distance input

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Tight contouring with rectangular box geometry in the Z direction

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Uniform contouring with rectangular box geometry in the Z direction, wide rectangles

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Uniform contouring with rectangular box geometry in the Z direction, narrow rectangles


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B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

RE-ENGINEERING THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER PROCES B

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1

Curves plotted and manipulated in Rhino

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Multiple curves set in Grasshopper and lofted

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Contours created in X and Y direction at even spacing

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Divide surface, project points at 30 degrees from original points. Field line created with projected points using point charge off original surface divide.

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Field lines divided into 4 segments

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Curves translated in the Z-axis using a graph mapper to create interpolated curves

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Offset interpolated curves at a distance of 0.3

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Curves piped at a radius of 0.2

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Ruled surfaces created between interpolated curves and offset curves


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B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

RE-ENGINEERING THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER

OUTCOME OF PROCESS A

OUTCOME OF PROCESS B

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FINAL OUTCOME 62


B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

RE-ENGINEERING THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER FINAL OUTCOME

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The combined outcome of our experimentation has enabled a final definition, creating a successful reproduction of the Synaesthetic Filter project by Stefan Rutzinger and Kristina Schinegger.

components. The grid configuration and the distribution of panels varies slightly from the original project. Similarly, the rectangular box geometry is not a direct representation of the projects surface panels.

The outcome replicates the rib structure employed by the designers to create the pavilion shell. Projected from the rib structure, the box geometry mimics the panels distributed across the original surface. The original pavilion project explores the orientation of the panels through the use of a cable system to produce variation in surface treatment. This idea was explored in our definition through the use of field charges and point distribution using graph mapper components. The manipulation of these elements within our definition enables the exploration of a variety of compositional forms. The original project enables variations of panel orientation, whereas our definition limits us to a single specified directionality for these

Nevertheless, our definition produces a relatively successful imitation of the Synaesthetic Filter pavilion project. Moving forward in the design process, the form generated by this definition provides an opportunity to respond to or reflect variables and conditions that are present within LAGI site. The non-static nature of the Synaesthetic Filter project enables the opportunity to harness methods of kinetic energy production through panelling techniques. The orientation of the panels could optimise the forms response to wind conditions likewise, the rotation of these panels could, in themselves, generate kinetic energy.

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[Image 47] http://www.crispandfuzzy.com/?p=25

[Image

Base curves generated according to spatial mapping as displayed in image?

Regulated grid projected across base surface.

Grid pipped to create structural form.

Field generated according to intended panels. Interpolated curves produced

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B.03 CASE STUDY 2.0

DIAGRAMING THE DIGITAL PROCESS FOR THE SYNAESTHETIC FILTER

48] http://www.crispandfuzzy.com/?p=25

d directionality of through he field

Box geometry projected along generated field. 66


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B.04 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

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ITERATION DEVELOPMENT MATRIX KEY

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Using the Biothing Serrourssi Pavilion Grasshopper definition as a starting point. Projecting the pipe and rectangular box geometry from the base curves. Pipes take directionality determined by graph mapper from

The Box Rectangle output from the original definition is input into the box corners input from the Voxelizator Project definition (co-ed-it.com).

Using the Panels dispatch Project (co-ed-it.com) definition and surface as a starting point. Surface is populated using the box geometry from original definition.

Using the Panels dispatch Project (co-ed-it.com) definition as a starting point the original curves were inputted. Point Surface grid is culled through the random sorting through number sliders.

Curves of the reverse engineered definition were plugged into the second series of Office dA’s Banq Restaurant definition. Translate planes in x axis and loft between to create panels.

The box geometry is projected off the Biothing base curves using original definition directionality.

The Voxel size is reduced to 3.

Distribution of panels is reduced through number sliders.

Panels are distributed through original surface subdivision.

Cull pattern placed on translation vecotr of surface points.Perpendicular frames rotated in XZ plane.

Pipe geometry projected using Biothing base curves and graph mapper.

The Voxel size is reduced to 1.

Surface grid is culled through the random sorting through number sliders.

All faces are culled through the number slider (set to 0) of the random sorting components.

Change input surface to an organic shape built from curves.

The box geometry is projected off the Biothing base curves manipulating original graph mapper.

Surface CP and Inside Brep is grafted. Divide Length is input into the one list length and out put into 3 series components.

Panel distribution is generated through the original divide surface grid generated by the Panels Dispatch Project.

Panels are distributed through original surface subdivision.

Cull pattern to points, increased multiplication of movement, changed angle of rotation of perpendicular frames, increased surface points and reduced number of frames.

Pipe and box geometry input into Biothing definition but not projected into the Z direction.

List length is grafted which rotates the rectangular geometry.

Graft the Brep input for the Brep area component.

Graft the Brep input for the Brep area component.

Changed rotation of perpendicular frames, further increased number of surface points.


SELECTED OUTCOMES SELECTED OUTCOMES

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Plugged new surface points into Skylar Tibbet’s VoltDom definition.

Cone subsurface divided into points. Delaunay mesh and Delaunay edges applied to the points.

Increased cone radius, increased cone height.

Cull faces removes mesh faces according to rule True False False.

Cull Pattern applied to grid

Increase input surface points, Increased cone surface division.

Cone height inverted. Cone radius and opening increased.

Increase input surface divisions to 32 x 27.

Increase in cone radius and height in the negative plane

Decrease input surface divisions.

Where series 1-4 explored varied initial alterations to the original definition, series 5-7 depict an ongoing development of form as a result of the sequence of definition changes. The following selection reflects the successful outcomes of the development process. Reflecting on the potential of the iteration to satisfy the brief, produce desired architectural qualities and energy technologies, the success of the iteration will be reviewed. The potential inputs and fabrication possibilities will also be considered preceding the next prototyping phase.

In developing our reverse- engineered definition, iterations were produced from several different starting points. This approach allowed us to explore the extent of our definition when existing component sequences were applied to it from available definitions. Using surface points and fields to experiment with mapping geometry, Kalay’s ‘Breadth 1st’ approach was undertaken where a number of options were explored before a narrowed selection will be developed further (2004, pp. 19.)

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SELECTION CRITERIA SELECTED OUTCOMES

2D

1D

DESIGN: The box components on 1D could be distributed across a site or structure in a meaningful way, allowing the design to be adaptable.

INPUTS: Wind patterns and program use of the design could influence the dustribution and overall form of the design.

QUALITIES: The design is non-static, thus the play of light and motion could be harnessed in further development.

FABRICATION: A base structure/ surface will need to be developed to fix the components to in order to maintain structure.

ENERGY: The potential for movement within the form could produce a form of kinetic energy.

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DESIGN: The stepped form of 2D creates potential for both a built landform on the surface and a shelter beneath, increasing possibility for user engagement.

INPUTS: User movement patterns in the site, access to/potential for views as well as wind collection patterns and technologies could influence the form of the design.

QUALITIES: Giving the illusion of an undulating land surface, the design could respond to the topography of the site.

FABRICATION: The merged surfaces of the box geometry will be unrolled and fabricated to then be constructed, loads and movement forces may require an underlying structural system.

ENERGY: The surfaces potential for user engagement could harness piezoelectricity and the distributed geometry could store or harness forms of energy.


5D

4E

DESIGN: The grid form provides opportunity for application of technologies upon or within the grid structure. QUALITIES: Light and shadow as well as surface tactility/movement could create desired non-static qualities. ENERGY: The cavity between grid lines could house energy creating/ storing components.

INPUTS: Relation of the created surface to the ground plane and program as well as view-finding opportunites could determine further development.

DESIGN: 5D provides an opportunity for the creation of an interactive collection of surfaces or protrusions that are adaptable to site use and conditions.

FABRICATION: An interlocking system of ribs could create the grid form. Further structural support may be provided by structural members or triangulation.

QUALITIES: Depending on the user’s position within the design,a sense of expanse and enclosure, viewfinding elements and the play of light could be harnessed.

INPUTS: Wind patterns, site access and views to surroundings and intended user engagement could inform the design development. FABRICATION: Protrusions could be unrolled and fabricated then arranged to the intended spacing.

ENERGY: The spacing and directionality of the protrusions could harness wind patterns and the wall structure could contain Vaneless Ion technology to create and store electricity.

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

MOTION MODELING STUDIES

Two panelling system ideas were tested in this prototyping stage. Prototype 1 consists of a series of folded plastic rectangles that spin around the wire when wind pressure is applied. Prototype 2 employed a system of metallic discs threaded along a wire that create a reflective pattern when wind movement is applied. Both technologies were explored as possible wind collection systems where the rotations/motion of the panels hung from piezoelectric cables would generate energy

3

that could be stored within the wall envelope or directed to the main city power grid. The motion created by these panels allows the design to engage with the user by establishing a dynamic experience of movement and the play of light and shadow as is visible in figure 3 and 6. These ideas could be developed more once the design is applied to harness the specific site qualities. A video of these prototypes under testing can be viewed at: https://vimeo.com/92838194.

Figure 1, 2, 3: Views of prototype one, folded square panels Figure 4, 5, 6: Views of Prototype 2, metallic, reflective circular, rotating discs

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Stop Motion of Prototype One, Folded Square Panels

Stop Motion of Prototype Two, Metallic, Reflective Circular Disc Panels

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES MOTION MODELING STUDIES: STOP MOTION

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

TENSION MODELING STUDIES Selected outcome 1D of B4 employed a series of protruding box geometries. This system reflects upon the tension cable system of the Synaesthetic Filter where the directionality of the members was controlled by a cable system. Here a piece of fishing wire was threaded through the top of each balsa wood member connected to a wire cable at its base. As the fishing wire was tensioned from different points, a number of bending and twisting configurations were achieved. This could be employed to create the structure for a design, and could generate energy by implementing Vaneless Ion technology to pass water particles through the ‘fence’ which create electricity as they change from positive to negative charges. These structural qualities and formations may be employed, depending on the chosen outcome.

Figure 1 to 5: Twisting and Bending Formations generated through tensioning of fishing wire cables. Experiments reveal potential structural formations and panel orientation.

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

FLUID MAPPING STUDIES Mapping of wind flow across the site was explored in an experimental dye mapping study. Dye was placed into a pool of water which was blown across the rectangular piece of paper using a number of hairdryers. This experiment aimed to simulate the wind direction and it’s path across the site in order to inform the directionality and spacing of the designed panels in order to maximise wind collection. The outcome gives some indication of this phenomenon but was found to be quite subjective to the specific conditions to which the experiment was undertaken. Further investigation into the wind patterning in the LAGI site will be undertaken to inform these qualities.

Figure 1: Water is poured onto a flat surface to emulate the site Figure 2: Experiment materials Figure 3: Fluid Mapping trial experiment one Figure 4: Fluid Mapping trial experiment two Figure 5: Fluid Mapping trial experiment three

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[Im

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

Through our matrix exploration we as a group decided to further explore the concept of contouring as a method to develop our design response. In order to explore this design method we looked to the Grasshopper definition of BanQ Restaurant by Office dA Architects.

mage 49]Banq Restaurant, Photographs by John Horner, Arch Daily, 2009.

ALGORITHMIC TECHNIQUE BANQ Restaurant: Office dA Architects

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1

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5 Figure 1: Curves plotted in rhino Figure 2:Line lofted in Grasshopper Figure 3: Surface populated with points. Points culled Figure 4: Create parallel frames Figure 5: Rotate plane of parallel frames Figure 6: Section and Project points- loft between Figure 7: Offset loft, join and loft between them.

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B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES Through the exploration of the BanQ Restaurant we further looked at the methods taken to distribute panels across a surface using the parallel frames component. The geometry of these frames is generated by a base surface which has the potential to be reconfigured to optimize site attributes. These methods will be further explored in the response to the site.

4

7

ALGORITHMIC PROCESS

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DESIGN: This design provides an interactive collection of surfaces or protrusions that are adaptable to site use and conditions.

SUCCESS: This collection of panels needs to be adapted to the site context and developed to incorporate the desired functions.

QUALITIES: The play of light and motion could be harnessed along with the creation of views and spatial experiences as the user moves between and over the forms.

IMPROVEMENTS: Panels will need to be thickened and the geometry and slope reassessed in order to adapt to become traversable surfaces.

ENERGY: The spacing and directionality of the panels could harness wind energy using an oscillating panelling system and energy storage embedded into the panel envelope.

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DESIGN: The surfaces create an artificial landscap further linking the idea of t relationship between huma and the environment which design seeks to challenge.

QUALITIES: Along with light and motion, the raised pan areas may become a viewi platform that overlooks th surrounding city, allowing u to connect more deeply wi the environment in which t inhabit.

ENERGY: Along with wind harnessing panel systems, top surface of the form co be embedded with piezoele systems to heighten the interaction and engagemen with users.


pe, the ans h our

t nel ing he users ith they

the ould ectric

B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES DIGITAL PROTOTYPING

SUCCESS: Across the large site, this distribution of panels is more suitable. IMPROVEMENTS: The panel slope will need to be further developed to be made suitable for a walking surface.

DESIGN: The surfaces create an artificial landscape, further linking the idea of the relationship between humans and the environment which our design seeks to challenge. QUALITIES: Varied distribution of panels could create a variation of sensory experiences, from enclosure to expanse. ENERGY: Along with wind harnessing panel systems, the top surface of the form could be embedded with piezoelectric systems to heighten the interaction and engagement with users.

SUCCESS: Panels are reduced in distribution and widened in thickness, creating a larger wall envelope to house energy technology. IMPROVEMENTS: The panel slope will need to be further developed to be made suitable for a walking surface and the design must be adapted to the site context, addressing specific views, and the suitable heights to obtain them.

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1

2

DESIGN: Panels are heightened and no longer engage below the ground plane, creating a truly artificial landscape, contributing to the challenge of humanenvironement relationships, as the site is situated on human reclaimed land. QUALITIES: Contrasting senses of expanse and enclosure as a user moves between high and low points in the form. ENERGY: The spacing and directionality of the protrusions could harness wind patterns driving the oscillating panel wall system along with piezoelectric walking surfaces.

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SUCCESS: The heights of the panels are too high in relation to their distribution. Spatially, this would appear to be a ‘forest’ of wind tunnels. IMPROVEMENTS: The panel slope will need to be further developed to be made suitable for a walking surface and the design must be adapted to the site context, addressing specific views, and the suitable heights to obtain them.


B.05 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES DIGITAL PROTOTYPING

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Figure 1: Panels given thickness in order to provide the opportunity to house energy systems and establish a traversable structure. Figure 2: Manipulation of panel height through base surface. Figure 3: Combination of panel thickness and height control. The design still requires an exploration into below ground interaction.

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B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

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CULTURE/ HISTORY

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MOVEMENT

INDUSTRY

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For users to understand more fully the city they inhabit new viewing perspectives must be created. Our desire is to utilise the vertical height of the form to achieve this goal. The variation in panel height creates a diversity of observation points where users can reflect upon their relationship with the city through environmental engagement. The site is located across the river from sites of cultural and historical significance and is approachable and viewable from water transport. Our design aims to extend the cultural precinct across the river, This extension creates a cultural landmark which signifies the importance of environmental awareness to Copenhagen.

LANDMARKS

Refshaleøen, Copenhagen 5

6

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At a localized scale the site lacks social and cultural significance as a predominately industrial centre. Nevertheless, as highlighted, the site does sit across the water from sites of significance to Copenhagen. As well as the opportunity to extend this precinct there lies the potential to develop a piece of land art which can be observed from these tourist sites, such as ‘The Little Mermaid’. The response to the brief, therefore, has the potential to alter the way the Refshaleøen site is viewed from both sides of the water.

VIEWS Refshaleøen, Copenhagen

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WIND ACCESS

DOMINANT WIND DIRECTION

DOMINANT WIND DIRECTION

EXISTING ACCESS POINT

POTENTIAL ACCESS POINT

EXISTING ACCESS POINT

EXISTING STRUCTURE

POTENTIAL ACCESS POINT EXISTING STRUCTURE

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ACCESS

The dominant presence of wind at the edge of the site is further enhanced by the unobstructed surroundings. The open plane requires analyses in order to adequately consider the optimal placement of the form to maximise the energy conversion.

SITE ATTRIBUTES Refshaleøen, Copenhagen

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N

21:58 SUMMER 17.5 hours of daylight

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WINTER 7 hours of daylight

58o sunrise sunset

15:38 12o S

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JUN 21

4:25 MAR 21 SEP 21

E

DEC 21

With such a large discrepancy in daylight across the year the design response must accommodate users in the winter months. There exists the potential to channel the energy production into a lighting system. The ability to reflect the energy being generated visually in this way enables the users to acknowledge the system employed.

8:37

SUN PATH Refshaleøen, Copenhagen

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B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING

Panel dispersal

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Above and below ground interaction

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Formation of an artificial landscape

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Distribution of panels governed by wind mapping studies

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Height gradient

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B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL PROPOSED ENERGY GENERATION TECHNIQUES

The distribution of the form as governed by wind movement aims to harvest wind energy generated by the oscillating movements of a distributed panel system attached to piezoelectric cables. The energy harvested by this system will be transported to on site storage within the envelope of selected panels. A quantifiable visual representation of the energy generation will be achieved through lighting display along the piezoelectric cables. This lighting will vary depending on the energy collection and will represent the movement of energy through the system. The potential exists to apply piezoelectric surfaces to selected pathways across the form to harness the energy generated through the tactile human engagement with the design. In this way the relationship between the users and the creation of renewable energy is further strengthened.

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WIND VISUAL & CULTURAL CONNECTION

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In order to optimize the collection of energy through wind flow the distribution of panels will reflect the movement of wind across the site as explored in our wind mapping studies. The orientation of these panels will also be adapted to the intended uses within the site, where some spaces will serve purposes other than wind collection.

B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL SITE APPLICATION

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Our conceptual approach to the LAGI brief was to create a land art form which both enable users to engage with the site whilst raising awareness for renewable energy. The purpose of the form is to solidify the relationship between the users and the city by providing an alternative viewing perspective of the city. As a reclaimed piece of land the Refshaleøen site represents human intervention into the formation of natural landforms. Our proposed design aims to develop upon this symbolic relationship between humans and the land by generating a form which acts as an artificial landscape.

B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL SITE APPLICATION

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ENGAGEMENT

ENCLOSURE

ARTIFICIAL LANDSCAPE Reclaimed land as a symbol of man’s intervention with the environment. The energy-generating artificial landscape symbolic of a human solution to a man-made problem.

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B.06 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL As traversable structures users can observe and reflect upon their relationship with the city and the natural environment from the heights of these panels.

CREATION OF VIEWS EXPANSE

As our design engages with the spaces above ground, so too does it engage with the spaces below the ground plain. Manipulating the spacing between panels enables the creation of spaces which demand engagement and recognition by the user. Where the design extends below the ground plain the user is immersed within the ambience created by the renewable energy technology. There will exist a variety of both expansive and contractive spaces contrasting the spectrum of relations between humans and the environment, both on an immediate personal and a collectively unified level.

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B.07 LEARNING OUTCOMES PART B

Moving into part C the direction that the group has decided to take is one that relies upon wind generated energy in a form which replicates an artificial landscape as a statement of the reclamation of the LAGI site. In order to develop a more responsive design with respect to the design brief the form must be reevaluated with respect to quantifiable wind data in order to maximise the wind generated energy collected. Further research into the proposed Kinetic energy system and the optimal conditions and constraints will ensure the form maximizes its potential. The aim is to enable the form to take on the natural wind patterns of the site whilst developing a form which is both interactive and informative. The Penalization of the form must also be reconsidered to optimize the spatial quality of the form and the optimal configuration for energy production. The theoretical research tasks that have composed part of the design process have provided vital knowledge to both the potential processes available in computational design and the unimaginable outcomes that are possible. The research process has also presented the opportunity to work with systems in the algorithmic design, primarily the potential to develop material systems into the design process to allow the optimization of the compositional form. The ability exists through computation to apply complex knowledge to the design process and to produce adaptable, responsive systems. Nevertheless the research tasks, though highlighting the development

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of architectural approaches, have also revealed the limitations of computation in design. Physical production of computational design suggests there remains a discrepancy in translation of design into physical production. Despite the extensive resources provided to develop parametric design there still exists an inconsistent knowledge base to develop design. Ideas are difficult to realize and develop upon using parametric techniques as there is a need for knowledge. Nevertheless, through experimentation development can be achieved and a versatility of outcomes produced. Although at this level manipulation of the design is arbitrary.


B.07 LEARNING OBJECTIVES PART B

Objective 1. “Interrogating a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies; The necessity to respond to a design brief is intrinsic to the success of a potential design. Through our site and context analysis studies and mapping we have strongly considered the context of the LAGI site. Through our technology system research we have chosen a technology we feel will maximise the energy collection harvested from the site, in response to the design brief. The consideration of the experiential qualities that may be harnessed within the form of the land art also represents the desire to fulfill the brief requirements. Objective 2. Developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration; Through a variety of matrix exploration a variety of outcomes and techniques have been acquired. This ability to develop on design to generate an expanse of outcomes represents the benefits of computation in design exploration. Objective 3. Developing “skills in various threedimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication; Through algorithmic sketchbook tasks, video tutorials and design tasks a basic knowledge base and technique is beginning to develop which will assist in further design exploration and production. Personally I enjoy the potential to explore the techniques and methods introduced each week, however, time and knowledge do prove a hinderance in the production of successful iterations Objective 4. Developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere; I remain unsure of the intention of this outcome and seek to further comprehend its intention moving forward. We Have strongly considered the placement of our form within the context of the site

in order to strengthen the symbolic significance to the greater Copenhagen Objective 5. Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse. I believe that our groups supporting argument for our technique proposal was quite promising. It was multi faceted and presented a strong design response. Nevertheless, moving into part C there exists the potential to develop our proposal further and to gain quantifiable supporting evidence. Through the development of depth within the design the presented argument becomes more persuasive. Objective 6. Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects; Through the vast number of precedent case studies under analysis through this part of the subject the ability to critically approach a design has been supported through an acquired foundation of knowledge. Objective 7. Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming; Through extra tasks such as the algorithmic sketchbook and readings a variety of knowledge has been gained which can be applied into the development of the design process. Furthermore the reverse engineering activities have enabled me to comprehend the process required to generate specific geometries. The manipulation of the reverse engineering definition also presented an example of the limitless possibilities within computation to generate a variety of structures. Objective 8. Begin developing a personalized repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application. Through the sketchbook activities a personalized technique and style is slowly evolving. Nevertheless, The time limitations reduce the benefits these extra tasks have on the knowledge base and on the potential level of personal experimentation.

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References

Part B: Criteria Design & Image References AA Vistiting School, . suckerPUNCH, “Fallen Star @ AA DLAB.” Last modified 8 16, 2012. Accessed April 6, 2014. http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/08/16/fallen-star-aa-dlab/. Architecture Libary, “Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005 - Haiki, Aichi, Japan. .” Last modified December 7, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://architecture-library.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/spanish-pavilion-expo2005-haiki-aichi.html. Biomimetic Architecture, Last modified 2014. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/. Biomimicry Institute, “What Do You Mean by the Term Biomimicry? .” Last modified 2007. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-do-you-mean-by-the-term-biomimicry.html. Biomimetic Architecture, “Decker Yeadon’s Homeostatic Facade System.” Last modified Janurary 10, 2011. Accessed April 20, 2014. http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/2011/decker-yeadons-homeostaticfacade-system/. Computational Design Italy, “Grasshopper Code.” Last modified 2014. Accessed April 23, 2014. http://www. co-de-it.com/wordpress/code/grasshopper-code. De zeen Magazine, “Synaesthetic Filter by Stefan Rutzinger And Kristina Schineggar.” Last modified January 18, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/. Designplay Grounds, “Canopy by United Visual Artists.” Last modified 2014. Accessed April 01, 2014. http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visual-artists/. Dimitrie, Stefanescu. Design Playground, “CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION.” Last modified 2014. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/clj02-za11-pavilion/. Frazer, John. An Evolutionary Architecture. Cambridge University: Architectural Association Publications, 1995. http://www.aaschool.ac.uk/publications/ea/intro.html (accessed April 16, 2014). National Geographic Magazine, “Biomimetics.” Last modified April 2008. Accessed April 16, 2014. http:// ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/04/biomimetics/tom-mueller-text. Minifie van Schaik Architects, “Centre for Ideas .” Last modified 2001. Accessed April 15, 2014. http:// www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts. Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Functions of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar) pp. 7

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Citations

[46] Cf. AIA National and AIA California Council, Integrated Project Delivery: A Guide (AIA, 2007 [cited 2 April 2014]); available from http://www.aia.org/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab083423.pdf. [47] Biomimicry Institute, “What Do You Mean by the Term Biomimicry? .” Last modified 2007. Accessed April 16, 2014. http:// www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-do-you-mean-by-the-term-biomimicry.html. [48] Biomimicry Institute, “What Do You Mean by the Term Biomimicry? .” Last modified 2007. Accessed April 16, 2014. http:// www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-do-you-mean-by-the-term-biomimicry.html. [49] National Geographic Magazine, “Biomimetics.” Last modified April 2008. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/04/biomimetics/tom-mueller-text. [50] National Geographic Magazine, “Biomimetics.” Last modified April 2008. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/04/biomimetics/tom-mueller-text. [51] Frazer, John. An Evolutionary Architecture. Cambridge University: Architectural Association Publications, 1995. http://www. aaschool.ac.uk/publications/ea/intro.html,, pp. 11 [52] Biomimicry Institute, “What Do You Mean by the Term Biomimicry? .” Last modified 2007. Accessed April 16, 2014. http:// www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-do-you-mean-by-the-term-biomimicry.html. [53] Designplay Grounds, “Canopy by United Visual Artists.” Last modified 2014. Accessed April 01, 2014. http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visual-artists/. [54] Designplay Grounds, “Canopy by United Visual Artists.” Last modified 2014. Accessed April 01, 2014. http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visual-artists/. [55] Minifie van Schaik Architects, “Centre for Ideas .” Last modified 2001. Accessed April 15, 2014. http://www.mvsarchitects. com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts. [56] Minifie van Schaik Architects, “Centre for Ideas .” Last modified 2001. Accessed April 15, 2014. http://www.mvsarchitects. com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_arts. [57] Biomimetic Architecture, “Decker Yeadon’s Homeostatic Facade System.” Last modified Janurary 10, 2011. Accessed April 20, 2014. http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/2011/decker-yeadons-homeostatic-facade-system/. [58] Biomimetic Architecture, “Decker Yeadon’s Homeostatic Facade System.” Last modified Janurary 10, 2011. Accessed April 20, 2014. http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/2011/decker-yeadons-homeostatic-facade-system/. [59] Biomimetic Architecture, “Decker Yeadon’s Homeostatic Facade System.” Last modified Janurary 10, 2011. Accessed April 20, 2014. http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/2011/decker-yeadons-homeostatic-facade-system/. [60] Architecture Libary, “Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005 - Haiki, Aichi, Japan. .” Last modified December 7, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://architecture-library.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/spanish-pavilion-expo-2005-haiki-aichi.html. [61] Architecture Libary, “Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005 - Haiki, Aichi, Japan. .” Last modified December 7, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://architecture-library.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/spanish-pavilion-expo-2005-haiki-aichi.html. [62] Architecture Libary, “Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005 - Haiki, Aichi, Japan. .” Last modified December 7, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2014. http://architecture-library.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/spanish-pavilion-expo-2005-haiki-aichi.html. [63] de zeen Magazine, “Synaesthetic Filter by Stefan Rutzinger And Kristina Schineggar.” Last modified January 18, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/. [64] de zeen Magazine, “Synaesthetic Filter by Stefan Rutzinger And Kristina Schineggar.” Last modified January 18, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/. [65] de zeen Magazine, “Synaesthetic Filter by Stefan Rutzinger And Kristina Schineggar.” Last modified January 18, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/. [66] de zeen Magazine, “Synaesthetic Filter by Stefan Rutzinger And Kristina Schineggar.” Last modified January 18, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2014. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/01/18/synaesthetic-filter-by-stefan-rutzinger-kristina-schinegger/. [67]Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Functions of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar) pp. 7

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PART C: DETAILED DESIGN

“The Detailed Design phase concludes the WHAT phase of the project. During this phase, all key design decisions are finalized.”

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

In reflection of the technique proposal presentation we were faced with several development requirements. A greater understanding of the wind presence at the site was required to adapt the form and establish a more resolved design proposal. Through wind studies and investigation a more resolved orientation and configuration can be achieved. The height of the form and the variation within it must be reevaluated in order to maximise the wind collection and in order to optimize views both from the site and to the site. In order to ensure the land art form poses a dominant presence amongst the landscape, from across the harbour, a combination of scale and form must be employed.

experiential quality within the spaces that we create the configuration and structure of the paneling system must be developed within our definition. The experience that the panels create needs to be resolved, we must determine whether individuals move amongst them, through them, under them or observe them from afar. Further definition of the functions in which we desire to be ascribed to each rib form is required. Our initial desire was to integrate energy generation, observation experiences, shelter and experiential spaces. In order to realize these intentions we must develop upon our definition.

In order to develop a more refined 130


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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT WIND ROSE EXPLORATION

Through an investigation of relevant documentation we have derived a Wind Rose diagram which reveals the potential wind directionality and force present at the Refshaleøen site as determined by the Varløse wind turbine farm. Through further investigation we have determined that the presence of factories to the North and North-East of the reclaimed piece of land will have an influence on the projected Wind Rose diagram; our expectation is that the West to SouthWest wind presence will be minimized..

The expected affected areas have been represented in red in the wind rose diagram to the left. Through an understanding of this diagrammatic representation of wind presence at the site it is possible to apply this information to the orientation and configuration of the land art form. In this way the design proposal will be founded upon resolved quantifiable research and therefore maximise our potential energy generation

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5 Figure 1: Curves plotted in rhino Figure 2:Line lofted in Grasshopper Figure 3: Surface populated with points. Points culled Figure 4: Create parallel frames Figure 5: Rotate plane of parallel frames Figure 6: Section and Project points- loft between Figure 7: Offset loft, join and loft between them.

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In order to attain a structure whereby our ribs can be constructed and panels can be dispersed we must apply a system to our derived form. It is our intention to apply a structure which is derived from biomimicry for structural and aesthetic purposes. Through this techniques a resolved tectonic

6

system can be d on the construct nature. Panels sh within this syste Furthermore, in t of our form we analysis of the w our form in orde energy generatio


developed relying ts determined by hould be integrated em. the development aim to apply our wind rose diagram to er to optimize wind on.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

INITIAL TECHNIQUE 134


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The aim is to have the design sectioned into various spaces of differing spatial and emotional qualities. The desire to section the land art form is demonstrated in the accompanying diagram. The desired sectioning includes visual corridors or linkages to greater Copenhagen, a dominant wind corridor and finally a green space. The variance within the experiential qualities of the site is essential to developing a complex landform which enables interaction at different levels and scales.

C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

SPATIAL MAPPING 136


“Ambient energy exist within nature, we have the opportunity to exploit this energy source.”

ENERGY SOURCE

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PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER

MECHANICS


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

ENERGY HARVESTING: ambient energy

Energy Harvesting is the process of obtaining usable energy from natural sources. Ambient energy which exists in nature is available for collection. The technologies to achieve this are rapidly revolutionizing revealing the potential for future energy generation methods.

MECHANICAL ENERGY

Mechanical energy is the addition of energy in a mechanical system. The energy is both kinetic energy, the energy of motion, and the potential energy within the system. Kinetic energy is generated through motion, including vibrational, mechanical stresses and strains. The movement of an object that is generated through vibration or rotational effect results in the production of mechanical energy.

PIEZOELECTRICITY: kinetic energy conversion

Kinetic energy has the potential to be converted into electrical energy through piezoelectric methods. Piezoelectricity is the production of electricity through pressure. Piezoelectric elements have the potential to convert the produced kinetic energy from motion into electrical charges. Piezoelectric conversion requires the conversion of the energy form; for example kinetic energy into electrical energy. Piezoelectric transducer are used in order to convert this input energy into output energy. The transducer is generally a ceramic or quartz crystals which generate an electric voltage when forces are applied to them, for example kinetic energy sources. The transportation of the generated energy is possible through piezoelectric wires which when placed under stress or strain conducts a charge relative to this pressure. This energy then travels through the cable network to a storage system which is ready for consumption.

[Image ##] Piezoelectric cable, http://www.imagesco.com/piezoelectric/index.html

ENERGY MANAGEMENT

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

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“Rotational wind driven energy converted into electricity through wind turbines.� [Image ##] Wind Turbine Composition. http://p21decision.com/ the-new-power-plant/new-power-generation-technology/

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[Images ##] http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/149870-COFFICE-luisa-saracino-Francesco-Colarossi-Giovanna-Saracino-Solar-Wind


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

Parco Solare Sud Competition COFFICE - SOLAR WIND DESIGN CONCEPT

The Solar Wind design concept was a competition entry to the Parco Solare Sud in Reggio Calabria, Italy. The design is composed of large wind turbines which in-fill the surface within the pillars that compose the structure of the bridge. The vast open terrain and the high altitude provide the optimal setting for wind energy generation. The designers estimated that their design proposal has the potential to generate 40 million kWh per year. [68]

technologies in order to optimize the energy collected. The blades of the wind turbines, as designed, collect the wind driven kinetic energy; The movement of the blades drives a spinning momentum of a shaft that leads from the hub of the rotor to a generator.[69] It is through the generator that the rotational energy is converted into electricity. Similar to the Piezoelectric energy harvesting, wind turbines generate electricity through the conversion of one energy form to another.

This Project reveals the potential to panel our proposed design with alternative energy

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The wind Smoke study investigated the passage of wind over an air foil. When the airfoil is orientated at appropriate angles the progression of air across the surface deflects at the opposite direction. This aerodynamic force is controlled by the angle of the airfoil. The opportunity to collect energy from the passage of wind over the surface of the panels through a spinning of fluttering motion is revealed through this progressional movement of wind. The angles which compose the wall system will enable a variety of wind deflections.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

WIND SMOKE STUDIES

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The surface that was developed in Part B, though controlling frame heights and dispersal, contained little response to the site conditions, wind passage and dominance. The design achieved the height required to maximise wind energy collection, however the response was arbitrarily placed with no consideration of the potential to maximise energy generation.

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This manipulation of the surface achieved a panel distribution which more subtly morphed into the site landscape. The distance between frames however was so wide that much of the flow of air through the structure would be loosed through these channels.


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT SITE RELATIONSHIP

The surface was manipulated further in response to more analytical wind rose investigation. We determined the main wind corridor as extending from the North-West to the South-East. Through this study and an understanding of the wind foil theory we began to develop the frames in a more angular and curved form to manipulate the path and deflection of the wind through this dominant axis.

In addition to this manipulation of the frames we further developed the height of the structure in order to maximise on the collection of the wind energy. This analysis of wind theory and the sites dominant wind features led to the final proposal.

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DESIGN PROCESS: Space truss was used from the lunchbox plugin. The generated lines were piped. The trussed lines were divided into points and culled, circles were then projected onto these points. QUALITIES: The design integrates a rigid structure and a panel distribution method. However, the distribution is random and remains an intangible structure. SUCCESS: The design reveals the potential to develop a trussed structural system. Taking from this design there exists the potential to integrate the paneling system further into the structural composition.

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DESIGN PROCESS: Triangle panels used from lunchbox plug-in in ord to achieve a trussed network ac the wall surface.

QUALITIES: The design provides t framework to develop a structur system which integrates a poten panelling composition. However, t composition lacks a distinct visua aesthetic.

SUCCESS: The design potentially can be developed to create a structural network with a integr panelling system. Developing on t composition there is the need to consider aesthetic more fully.


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT PANELIZATION

s der cross

DESIGN PROCESS: Diamond Panels used from lunchbox plug-in in order to achieve a Diamond network across the surface.

the ral ntial the al

QUALITIES: The design provides the framework to develop a structural system which integrates a potential panelling composition. The design also achieves a more aesthetically wholistic composition.

rated this o

SUCCESS: The design integrates both structure and paneling within the one composition. Moreover the design achieves a aesthetic fluidity which naturally follows the curvature of the wall. The structure also allows for the variation of panel size in direct relationship to the configuration and natural tapering of the wall.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT PANELIZATION

Attractor points used to define the size and distribution of panels. The point was set in response to the wind rose study which defined the largest wind flow across the site. Larger panels orientated at the entry of the funnel and tapering along the curves. In this way the larger panels are subject to the direct wind force and therefore the greatest deflection. The weight of the larger panels means the greatest strain will be placed on the piezoelectric cables.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT PANELIZATION

The panels have the opportunity to be manipulated in form to maximise the rotatory capacity. Through the flexibility of the material the potential to develop a curvature to create a propeller like motion. The natural curvature of the wall means the natural angle of the panels would enable the deflection as driven by the wind force. The wind would not catch the surface of the panels but rather the edges creating a spinning motion.

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This proposal lacked conviction both visually and from its proposed performance level. With the dominant winds obstructed by the layering of the frames the progression of the wind flow is greatly hindered. Visually from the prime position of the Little Mermaid, the structure blurs into an unattractive assembly of frames.

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Though increasing the total surface area of the form this response lacks a consideration of the progression of wind through the structure with dominant winds sectioned within the design proposal, as is displayed in the wind rose investigation. Furthermore the visual assembly of this composition lacks the conviction and hierarchy required to establish the land art as a dominant feature from the Little Mermaid.


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT ORIENTATION

Similar to previous iterations this proposal lacks the coverage and orientation required to maximise the collection of wind energy. Frames obstruct the natural progression of the wind flow and limit the overall coverage. In this way energy collection is hampered.

This proposal responds more naturally to the existing wind conditions. Slight reconsideration of the angle of the structure in response to the wind foil theory can optimize the wind deflection and therefore wind generated piezoelectric energy conversion. The proposal also possesses a stronger visual dominance from the Little Mermaid, with a strong hierarchy established from the evident consideration of distribution. 152


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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT PROPOSED ORIENTATION

The Final proposal was chosen based on both an aesthetic and performative scale. The response which covers one third of the site with a footprint of 11,700m^2 responds to the wind qualities of the site as well as the responds to the concept of wind flow and the concept of wind deflection. The independent curvature of the frames allows a progression of air to sweep the form. So too this final composition was chosen for its visual qualities. Aesthetically the design holds a strong visual hierarchy of form which enables its presence on the waters edge to dominate

the landscape. The aim of the form is to visually link the reclaimed side of the city to the greater cultural precincts which composes much of the surrounds. The composition was considered digitally through analysis of wind dominance, with attractor points determining the curvature in relation to the wind dominance. This analysis is visually dominant in the final composition with the greatest curvature present in the main central corridor. This curvature was determined as optimal for the greatest deflection within the form.

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Figure 1: design proposal on site defining the placement of the two points of energy storage. Figure 2: Lines defining the storage points and the pathways created from the linkage of the panels and these points.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF ENERGY FLOW AND STORAGE

The desire is to construct visual expressions of energy collection and movement through lighting displays. By defining 2 points of storage and having the wires running from the panels to these points a visual significance is ascribed to the energy collection and the storage is defined in the context of the site. The lighting would stand as visual continuation of the wall frames.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT SITE SPATIAL MAPPING

The sectioning of the site was ascribed to the land art composition in order to inform spatial uses should people venture from across the water to interact with the monumental piece of renewable land art. The design therefore enables a versatility in both its use and its ability to inform users and people viewing the monument of the process of energy production and the pressing need to search for renewable energy forms in attaining carbon neutral sustainable cities. The regions defined in this aerial map specify a. Green intimate and reflective space, denoted by the green, b. Immersive wind corridor whereby the process of energy collection is most dominant, denoted by the blue, and c. Visual linkages to greater Copenhagen denoted by the orange.

Green space Wind Corridor Visual Linkage 158


Our design proposal stated that through our infrastructure land art piece we as a group desired to produce an artificial landscape which drew on the history of the site as a reclaimed piece of land. In this way we wished to represents mans intervention in nature in the search for a resolution to man made problems. In order to achieve this we remodeled the existing topography in order to play on this idea of site reclamation. It was also our intention through this to assist in the wind passage and deflection through the site, creating a two fold manipulation of wind directionality and progression in both the horizontal and vertical directions. 159

The placement of the frames in re to these contours enabled the form to develop as a dominant landform Furthermore, the strategic manipu the site topography in relation to t height and orientation is intended t a versatile progression of wind mo enabling a highly experiential move through the space.


elation m m. ulation of the panel to create ovement ement

C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT SITE SPATIAL MAPPING

The wind rose was an essential element that aided in the placement and configuration of the site. The diagram is specific to this Refshaleøen site and provides the most accurate information regarding the sites wind presence.

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

SITE SPATIAL MAPPING: WIND ROSE ANALYSIS

The final proposal considers the surrounding built environment and its impact on wind movement through the site. The built forms provide a wind force shield and therefore limit the movement of wind at the level of the design proposal from the North-East to Easterly direction. The proposal contains two dominant access points which are also defined by the landscaped pathways which are illuminated to show the energy flow. These points also double as storage points for the energy before being connected to the city grid.

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2 The panels were engineered to be larger at the wind front and tapper across the frame, reducing the panels overall weight enabling their motion to require less ambient energy. The remodeling of the landscape further assisted in the desired wind effect through the structure with the angle establishing a deflection in the direction of the panels.

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The frames which run below the artificial ground level are composed of smaller panels largely of plastic materiality to enable the form to maximise its energy collection in less wind dominant spaces. The below ground level regions of the design enables a space more conducive to interaction. Conversely the large wind collecting frames will be located within


C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

FRAME SECTIONS

the central wind axis which as a result of the angled nature of the form and landscape will generate a variety of deflections and wind currents.

Figure 1: Section of dominant wind corridor frame representing the tapering of panel size in response to wind movement Figure 2: Section of below ground level frame representing the variety of performance responses and consideration throughout the design

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Figure 1: Curves plotted in rhino Figure 2:Line lofted in Grasshopper Figure 3: Surface populated with points. Points culled Figure 4: Create parallel frames Figure 5: Rotate plane of parallel frames Figure 6: Section and Project pointsloft between Figure 7: Offset loft, join and loft between them. Figure 8: Base surface points manipulated to desired form and quantity of frames reduced

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

ALGORITHMIC PROCESS

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Figure 9: Diamond tri-panels applied to surfaces Figure 10: Offset of Diamonds set by the bounds of the domain Figure 11: Inside curves created with scaled diamonds, outside curves created from tri-panel output Figure 12: Flatten tree, graft tree and outputs lofted Figure 13 & 14: Deconstruct scaled brep, rotate geometry using vectors from the centre points

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

ALGORITHMIC PROCESS

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

ALGORITHMIC PROCESS

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Figure 15: Landscape surface developed through point manipulation in rhino. Figure 16: Frames siting on landscape surface Figure 17: Landscape surface used to trim wall frames. Figure 18: Final panel determined by profile of landscape

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Reclaiming the landscape through a artificial remodelling of the landscape

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

ENVISAGED CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

Assembly of plywood panels, assembled in strips.

Double skin walls assembled separately, partially prefabricated system.

Double skin fixed through the use of blocking pieces that run horizontally between walls

Blocking pieces fixed through bolted cleat plates.

Piezoelectric wires run through blocking pieces with the wall cavity.

Piezoelectric wires run through wall cavities and are attached to the panels through the transducer rings

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C.01 DESIGN CONCEPT

ENVISAGED CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

The wall frames will be structurally supported through a pile network which will reach foundations of adequate bearing capacity to support the structure. The piezoelectric wires will run along this network and reach out towards the storage chambers which connect up to the city grid.

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Figure 1: Panel and rod system employed to connect panels to piezo cables Figure 2: Piezo wires running through blocking pieces Figure 3: Panels sit between the two wall skins Figure 4: Piezo wires run beyond the base of the frames and extend to the storage points Figure 5: Variety of material finishes which compose the panels Figure 6: Plywood frames, plywood and Perspex/plastic panels

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C.02 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

CORE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT: DETAIL MODEL

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Plywood stock motion

Perspex/Plastic stock motion

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C.02 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

CORE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT: DETAIL MODEL

In an effort to develop a computational data visualization we considered material qualities and how a variety of materials could benefit the performance of our proposal. In investigation of material qualities we determined that plastic and plywood materiality for the panels would generate a greater quantity of energy but also met our aesthetic desires for the form. We applied an analysis of the materials to our frames and controlled the distribution as determined by a proximity equation. We determined that the plastic/Perspex panels due to their heavier innate weight would maximise the energy conversion from the frames beyond the dominant wind axis. The dispersal of the panels was then computed in relation to this proximity to the central axis. The plywood panels were chosen for their slightly lighter weight which would assist in the constant movement of these components even under lighter wind conditions. Our analysis of the panels was also examined under modeling conditions, a link to our video experiments can be found here: https://vimeo. com/97506300 The video demonstrates our experimentation with different materials and fixing systems to apply rotating panels into our wall cavity. The performance of each of these materials under testing was recorded and informed further research into expected material performance in the energy production

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C.02 TECTONIC ELEMENTS PANLES: MATERIAL SELECTIONS

Kinetic energy is directly proportional to the square of its speed KE= 1/2 x m x v^2

Marine Plywood

Perspex

25 mm marine plywood panels Panel weight = 16.319 x 0.454 = 7.4 kg

25mm Perspex panels Panel weight = 0.7 x 0.7 x 25 x 1.19 = 14.57 kgs

@27 m/s = 2697.3 joules Each wall has an average of 672 panels = 1, 812, 585 joules per wall Multiplied by 12 walls = 6.04 kWh = 516,057.6 kW per year

@27 m/s = 5310.8 joules 300 Perspex panels = 1, 593,240 = 0.44 kWh = 38,544 kW per year

@4.6 m/s = 78.292 joules = 360.14 joules per wall Multiplied by 12 walls = 0.0012 kWh = 102.528 kW per year

@4.6 m/s = 154.15 joules 300 Perspex panels = 46245 = 0.01284 kWh = 562.392 kW per year

Avg panel size = 1.3 x 0.7m = 0.454 m^2

Avg panel size = 0.7 x 0.7 = 14.57 kgs

Accumulated yearly energy collection derived by material performance: @27m/s =554,601.6 kWh @4.6 m/s = 664.92 kWh

Marine plywood and Perspex were chosen because of both their aesthetic potential and because of their performance through physical prototyping. Furthermore, through data analysis of their performance under ascribed wind patterns they proved to be the most effective choices. Finally the weight of the 25mm thickness proved most successful under testing at generating greater strain whilst maintaining motion.

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Rotating motion of panels along piezoelectric cables


C.02 TECTONIC ELEMENTS CORE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT: DETAIL

The diamond frames which compose the wall panels will be fixed with steel plates which are bolted to the plywood structure. These frames are fixed in strips and assembled on site. The potential to assemble components of the overall form prior to site delivery enables the complex and large design to be assembled rapidly. The quantity of plates used to fix the panels will vary depending on the size of the structure. The panels which sit within this wall cavity are attached to a piezoelectric cable through ring transducers.

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C.03 FINAL MODEL 1:500 SCALED SITE MODEL

The 1:500 site model was fabricated from laser cut 3mm box boards. The model represents the developed site topography. The wall frames were fabricated using ivory card which was card cut. The model represents the overall site composition and the interaction between the wall panels and the landscaped site. The illuminated pathways were represented in a section of the model to highlight their use in defining access and storage locations on the site. Due to the scale, the representation of the placement of the wall frames on the site lacks the ability to express the composition accurately. This ideal is more appropriately displayed through the 1:100 section model.

Figure 1: 1:500 site model Figure 2: Aerial of 1:500 site model Figure 3: 1:500 wall frames with the landscaped pathways which are a continuation of the wall line and run towards the storage and access points Figure 4: 1:500 site model with wall frame resting on remodelled landscape

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The wall composition looks to play on the ideals of light and shadow, enabling new vistas of the city of Copenhagen. Lighting networks which will run through the cavity symbolizing the energy generation will enable the effects of light and shadow to evolve through both day and night, an ever changing perspective of the design will be determined by the wind flow. The compositional and visual variations of the design enhance the monumentality of the project, whilst providing a unique perspective of the surrounding city of Copenhagen.

Figure 1: 1:100 wall frame Figure 2: 1:100 wall frame on contour model Figure 3: 1:100 site contour model of panel length Figure 4: Shadows produced by wall composition Figure 5: Panel curvature Figure 6: Diamond plywood composition

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C.03 FINAL MODEL

1:100 SCALED SECTION MODEL

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C.03 FINAL MODEL

1:100 SCALED SECTION MODEL CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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The ability to traverse through the structure enables a visual awareness of the process of energy collection. There exists the potential both to move within the wall structure amongst the panels. Similarly, the potential to move within the wall cavity at ground level. Each of these passages would be lined with panels that are fixed or pinned at each point through piezoelectric cables this enables a variety of panel types which are generating energy differently within the wall frame. These variations in the wall paneling enable a variety of visual displays and unique spatial and experiential qualities. The fixed nature of these panels therefore respond in fluttering motions which create strain upon the piezoelectric cables through the piezoelectric transducers. The configuration therefore has the ability to create a unique atmosphere, within the wall structure and throughout the site, which enables the land art form to develop in complexity. 187


C.03 FURTHER DESIGN DEVELOPMENT:

TRAVERSABLE STRUCTURE

Figure 1: Pathway structure run through the body of the frame allowing interaction with the energy generating composition Figure 2: Red panels highlighting the pinned panels which enable unobstructed movement through the wall structure whilst generating energy

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C.03 FURTHER DESIGN DEVELOPMENT:

TRAVERSABLE STRUCTURE

The progression through selected wall panels provides a unique outlook on the city and provides a reflection on the process of energy generation and a consideration of renewable energy creation. The scale of the wall frames provide an immersive space which provide an opportunity for reflection upon renewable clean energy within the context of Copenhagen which is viewed through the portals of the plywood wall frames.

Figure 1: Pathway structure running through the body of the frame allowing interaction with the energy generating composition as well as providing an alternative view of greater Copenhagen Figure 2: Plan view of one of the traversable wall frames, representing the panels at the centre of the wall.

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3

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C.03 FURTHER DESIGN DEVELOPMENT:

PANEL DISTRIBUTION

In advancing the design we desired to utilizes a method derived from data to manipulate the distribution of panels to optimize the energy generation through the structure. Should we as a group had more time we would have liked to distribute these panels according to assumed wind patterning supported by data. It would have been interesting to further investigate the theory explored through the wind smoke studies examining the eddies that form in a movement contrary to the direction of the main air current. The desire was to correlate this theory computationally within the design to maximise energy generation. Nevertheless our attempts to arbitrarily represent this desire of distribution and patterning through experimentation with grasshopper reveals our intention. The Sift Pattern component was used to sift the patterning of the un-scaled diamond faces which was then fed into the scaled faces. This component enabled a variety of outcomes that would have been interesting to further test with regard to their energy generating capacity.

It was our assumption that greater unpaneled wall surfaces would increase the flow of wind through and across the wall. The unpaneled frames would enable the movement of wind through the wall layers of the of the land art form. This ideal would be particularly significant in periods of low wind activity. Similarly the un-paneled surfaces of the wall frames would enable light to filter the wall cavity. The outcomes achieved in figure 1, 2 and 3 each posses individual aesthetic qualities. Through visual analysis iteration 3 appears to be the most aesthetically dominant compositions and also visually appears to enable penetration through the wall structure whilst also maximizing panel rotations and therefore energy generation. Iterations 1 & 2 appear to be too penetrable that the benefits of wind movement through the cavities and through the composition would minimise the energy output.

Figure 1: Sift pattern integers set to 0, 1, 0, 3 Figure 2: Sift pattern integers set to 0, 0, 5, 1 Figure 3: Sift pattern integers set to 0, 0, 5, 1 using both sets of outputs

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Primary entry point from land.

WINDSCAPE 194


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Primary entry point from water.

WINDSCAPE 196


The Windscape design proposal for the 2014 European Green Capitol, Copenhagen, successfully proposes a renewable energy infrastructure art monument. The project, as suggested by its name, harnesses wind driven ambient energy through piezoelectric transducers. The intention through the proposal was to add to this culturally and historically significant location within Copenhagen in the form of an artistic monument dedicated to clean energy. This environmental landmark is dedicated to the acquisition of a carbon neutral city. The design intention through Windscape was to play on the history of the site. As a reclaimed 197

piece of land we desired to represent the human intervention in nature through our design proposal. This ideal inspired our manipulation and reformation of the site topography. Furthermore, the design evolved from the idea of forming an artificial landscape as a gesture towards human intervention in the development of clean energy. The significance of the proposal is predominately its presence on the city scape, providing a evocative reminder of Copenhagen environmental awareness. The visual representation of energy generation serves as an evocative testament to the cities search for renewable coexistence.


View from the Little Mermaid.

C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS WINDSCAPE: DESIGN CONCEPT

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Dominant wind corridors with altered topography.

The design proposal varies throughout the form. Wall frames vary in scale composition and materiality. The variations a partially derived from the site sectioning as well as performative analysis. Panels of lighter weight materials were designed for the wall frames furthest from the dominant wind passages, enabling the same visual affect and ensuring energy is harnessed even in low wind conditions. Larger plywood panels were ascribed for the dominant wind corridors to produce more energy and provide an exciting visual display. The variations within the design proposal enable different atmospheres for interaction. The dominant

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wind pathways are built up on an artificial landscape and enable the users to be immersed within the energy production process. Conversely The excavated regions of the proposal are partially sheltered from the existing panels and develop a space which is more conducive to interaction at a more intimate scale. The materiality choices ensure that the design has a monumental expression both at an intimate scale and from afar. The design nevertheless, whether observed from the little mermaid or as a traversable landscape provides the opportunity to instill awareness of renewable and sustainable energy production.


Perspex panels which are used in the excavated regions of the design.

C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS WINDSCAPE: DESIGN CONCEPT

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS WINDSCAPE: ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

The Piezoelectric wires run down the vertical length of the wall frames with each diamond panel fixed through piezoelectric transducer rings. The wires run into the ground and extend out to the two storage locations on the site. This passage of energy is highlighted through illuminated pathways which are a landscaping continuation of the wall frames. These point also serve as the two main entry points to the site. The movement of energy in this way therefore stands as a visual

representation of energy collection occurring across the site. This visual display is both visible, from different angles on the site, but also visible more dominantly and harmoniously from across the water from the cultural precincts which surround the site. In this way we aim for the developed artificial remodeling and land art to become a monument within the landscape. Which is visually dominant in the city scape, both as a physical form and as a visual display of energy collection which is determined by the energy collected.

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS WINDSCAPE: ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

The energy technology that we has incorporated within our land art piece is piezoelectricity. The panels that we have developed are fixed to a cable network system through Piezoelectric transducers which transmit the strain placed on it into electric charges. The charges then run through the cable network towards the storage points were they are then converted into energy. Aesthetic desires have influenced the quantity of potential energy created through the design. Our decision to use larger panels to line the walls of our proposal reduces the potential strain placed upon the transducers. Should we have had more time and more resources at our disposal we would have liked to have tested the potential energy generation of differently sized panels. Nevertheless, the desire to select larger panels derived from our intention to represent the wind behavior and its localized variations. We believed that from the dominant view from the little mermaid the representation of wind flows would be articulated both at an individual scale and at a wholistic scale. The motions of the panels would therefore reveal the shifting wind patterns, and fluctuations in the designs energy collection.

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS WINDSCAPE: ESTIMATED ENERGY GENERATION Energy per area per time of wind Watts M^2

= 0.6 v^3

AVAILABLE AMBIENT ENERGY AT SITE Site Dimensions 255 x 150 = 38,250 m^2 Watts = 0.6(4.6)^3 38250 = 58. 4016 = 58. 4016 x 38,250 = 2,233,861.2 Watts = 2233.86 kW

Design Footprint 130 x 90 = 11700 m^2 Watts = 0.6(4.6)^3 11700 = 58. 4016

= 0.6(27)^3 = 11809 = 11809x 38250 = 451, 694,250 Watts = 451, 694.25 kW

Watts = 0.6(27)^3 11700 = 11809

= 58. 4016 x 11700

= 11809 x 11700

= 683,298.72

= 138, 174, 660 Watts

= 683.29872 kW

= 138174.66 kW

*Average wind speed = 4.6 m/s

Site Attributes: Average wind speed = 4.6 m/s Max wind speed = 27 m/s

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Watts 38250

*Max wind speed = 27 m/s


PROPOSALS ESTIMATED ENERGY GENERATION Panels total surface area 0.454m^2 x 672 x 12 = 3,661.056 m^2 *Average wind speed = 4.6 m/s Watts 3,661.056

= 0.6(4.6)^3

*Max wind speed = 27 m/s

Watts 3,661.056

= 0.6(27)^3

= 58. 4016

= 11809

=58. 4016 x 3,661.056

= 11809 x 3,661.056

= 213,811.52 Watts

= 43,233, 410.304 Watts

= 213.81152 kWh

= 43 233.4103 kWh

= 5,131.47 kW per day

= 1,037,601.8472 kW per day

= 1,872,988.9152 kW per anum

= 378,724,674.228 kW per anum

Potential to power 57,235 homes per anum

Potential to power 283 homes per anum *Average annual electricity usage = 6617 kWh

The potential energy generation estimate derived from calculations are represented above with total workings. The proposal has the potential to power 283 homes with an average energy use of 6617 kWh. The annual average energy collection derived from these figures was 405, 462, 440 kWh annually. As explored on page 179 the material choices for the design proposal were derived from material testing and calculations. Marine plywood and Perspex were chosen because of both their aesthetic potential and because of their performance through physical prototyping. Furthermore, through data analysis of their

performance under ascribed wind patterns they proved to be the most effective choices. Finally the weight of the 25mm thickness proved most successful under testing at generating greater strain whilst maintaining motion. The panel sizes vary throughout the proposal, however the largest panels composed of Marine plywood are 1.3m x 0.7m and the largest panels of Perspex finish being 0.7m x 0.7m. Additional material used within the design as explored within the C.2 Tectonic exploration included steel plates and bolts, piezoelectric cables, concrete reinforced piles, and plywood blocking pieces.

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

Windscape stands as a monumental testament to the human intentions to seek environmentally sustainable cities through the development and implementation of clean energy schemes. The proposal seeks to instill an awareness of both the generation of clean energy and the power of human intervention. The proposal transforms the industrial side of the harbour instilling a social pretext for environmental awareness and actions. The monumentality of the design informs the large scale of the proposal and one may argue that the benefit of energy generation are outweighed by the labour and embodied energy required to assemble the infrastructure art piece. Nevertheless the projects capacity to inform change and embody the ideals of a renewable energy future arguably is reason enough for the compromise in energy collection. Windscape finds a healthy medium between harnessing clean energy and becoming a symbol and a monument towards clean energy futures. One must argue that the value in a project not only derives from a quantifiable value but also in immeasurable social impact and levels of social change as derived by the presence of such a installation. Essentially, it is through widespread involvement and environmental awareness that the greatest impact can be had on society.

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS

WINDSCAPE: NIGHT AERIAL PERSPECTIVE

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View of the proposal at night, enabling viewers from Copenhagen city to reflect on renewable energy creation

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C.04 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS

WINDSCAPE: NIGHT PERSPECTIVE 212


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C.05 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES Design Studio Air has enabled me to develop new design techniques, methods, and skills. The subject has challenged my understanding of design processes and has introduced the principles of generative design. Personally, developing a parametric language to work with was a challenging experience and the struggle to obtain desired affects were hurdles that were new within a design studio. Nevertheless, the opportunity to design something unconceivable through these techniques was an exciting and unconventional process. The resources of online forums, video tutorial and algorithmic tasks enabled evolution of ideas as well as a developed and growing technique. The design competition provided a great frame work to implement the ideals of computational design. The design competition also drove the development of the proposal. Ideas allowed us to drive the design process whilst evolving the conceptual layers of the project. The use of computation within the design enabled versatile fabrication techniques to be ascribed to complex compositions. This process was also greatly simplified through the power of computation. Unfortunately through the subject we were unable to employ computation in order to optimize our proposal according to numeric data. This inability to utilise parametric’s in this way stemmed from our lack of parametric vocabulary and a lack of tools to assist in this process. Furthermore as a group of two our ability to achieve these aspects was also hindered. It is disappointing that we were unable to develop the skill in order to develop this component of our design. Nevertheless, I have found Design Studio Air to be a stimulating and challenging design subject, I have been forced to develop skill that otherwise would have been unavailable to me through the resources provided by the subject.

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Citations: [68] http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/149870-COFFICE-luisa-saracino-Francesco-ColarossiGiovanna-Saracino-Solar-Wind [69] http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power.htm

References

http://piceramic.com/applications/piezo-energy-harvesting.html http://www.universetoday.com/73598/what-is-mechanical-energy/#ixzz31BVwydwF http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/ambient-energy-scavenging http://www.csiro.au/Outcomes/Energy/Renewables-and-Smart-Systems/energy-harvesting.aspx https://www.americanpiezo.com/piezo-theory/whats-a-transducer.html

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Ornella Altobelli 587754 AIR Final Journal