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Orit Theuer

ATLAS OF NO-MAN’S-LAND

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Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Š 2013 Orit Theuer Theuer, Marie-Orit, 1984 -


Orit Theuer

ATLAS OF NO-MAN’S-LAND


No-Man’s-Land(lat. terra nullius)

• Land under dispute by two opposing parties, especially the field of battle between the lines of two opposing entrenched armies. • An area of uncertainty or ambiguity. • An unclaimed or unowned piece of land. (1) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (2013)


Contents

Table of contents

Introduction 6

Borders of Canaan

8

Why Green Line?

12

Cartography - Tools and Precision

14

Mental Maps

16

Visibility and Accessibility of the Green Line

18

Overview

19

Key

22

Maps

192

Glossary

194

Sources

196

Index

Atlas

Appendix

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Borders of Canaan

Over history the borders of all Palestine have been shifted by all kinds of events and powers. By each ruling empire another name was given to the region today known as Israel, Palestine and Jordan names Canaan, Palestine, Cisjordan (arabic Falastin), Erez Israel, Terra Sancta and South Syria describe almost the same area. The latest internationally recognizes border of the region is the Green Line that separates Israel from the occupied Palestinian West Bank. Established as a cease fire line in 1949, meant to be temporary at first, it is the line that is considered as the permanent border between Israel and the Palestinian Territories. This course of the border is not acknowledged by Israel, as it claims that the demarcation line would not be a defendable border to protect its territory. In a region where the borders had been redrawn numerous times by colonial empires also the Green Line had been redrawn and re-negotiated between Israel and Jordan. The Atlas shows the aberration between the intention to set the border during the 1949 Armistice Agreement, and the document that contained this drawing, its correction in 1955 by the Armistice Commission, as well as the ongoing intentional shift by territorial control and the Separation Barrier of 2003.

Fig. 1 Shoshan: Atlas of the Conflict Israel-Palestine, Border Dynamics 1040 BC-2010

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Lebanon

Syria

West Bank

Gaza Strip

Israel

Jordan

Egypt

Saudi Arabia

500 km

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Borders of Canaan airyS

nonabeL

knaB tseW

nadroJ

Over history the borders of all Palestine have been shifted by all kinds of events and powers. By each ruling empire another name was given to the region today known as Israel, Palestine and Jordan names Canaan, Palestine, Cisjordan (arabic Falastin), Erez Israel, Terra Sancta and South Syria describe almost the same area. The latest internationally recognizes border of the region is the Green Line that separates Israel from the occupied azaWest G Bank. Established as Palestinian pirtline S in 1949, meant to be a cease fire temporary at first, it is the line that is considered as the permanent border between Israel and the Palestinian learsI Territories. This course of the border is not acknowledged by Israel, as it claims that the demarcation line would not be a defendable border to protect its territory. In a region where the borders had been redrawn numerous times by colonial empires also the Green Line had been redrawn and re-negotiated between Israel and Jordan. The Atlas shows the aberration between the intention to set the border tpyAgreement, gE during the 1949 Armistice and the document that contained this drawing, its correction in 1955 by the Armistice Commission, as well as the ongoing intentional shift by territorial control and the Separation Barrier of 2003.

aibarA iduaS

Fig. 1 Shoshan: Atlas of the Conflict Israel-Palestine, Border Dynamics 1040 BC-2010 mk 005

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Why Green Line?

The Green Line refers to the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank and Gaza and runs through heavily populated regions. After the first Arab-Israeli war that followed the proclamation of the State of Israel a cease fire line was set in the 1949 Armistice Agreement in Rhodes between Israel and Jordan, which was based on the green and red line drawn in 1948 on a map by two Military Commanders of divided Jerusalem Moshe Dayan and Abdullah al Tal. Expecting another war soon, they didn’t take too many precautions about the precision of the line.

Fig. 2 Green Grease Pencil

Drawn on the floor of the UN headquarters, according to the Israeli political scientist Meron Benvenisti, on the bonnet of a military jeep according to Eyal Weizman, with grease pencils on a map in scale 1:20.000 the lines of three to four millimeters width encompassing a sort of No-Man’s-Land of sixty to eighty meters in reality, which then caused further un clarity of who owned the area of the line. Also in some parts the line was interrupted where the pencil skipped a part when it came over an edge of the uneven underground the map was lying on. The Dayan-al-Tal map on which the 1949 Armistice Agreements were closed remained also to be the only binding document for the determination of the demarcation lines within Jerusalem. Six additional maps were affixed in the Rhodes Agreement, but these exemplars differed both from the Dayan-al-Tal map and from one another. In areas of the open desert the problem was rather manageable. But in the dense built up areas of divided Jerusalem entire blocks were located within the width of the line. According to Meron Benvenisti at least 125 buildings were lying within the lines.

Fig. 3 Palestine Remembered: Detail Map Of Palestine Before al-Nakba

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Fig. 4 Moshe Dayan and Abdullah al-Tal reach cease fire agreement, Jerusalem, 30 November 1948

“The Israelis and Jordanians did not become aware of this confusion caused by the Dayan-al-Tal map until 1950, since until then the demarcation lines had not been marked by fences but by isolated military positions. But early in 1950, an Israeli soldier was killed south of the Mandelbaum Gate (the only crossing between the two parts of the city) while walking down a street that the Israelis considered to be theirs. When the incident was discussed by the Mixed Armistice Commission, it suddenly became clear that the Jordanians, the Israelis and the United Nations each had a different interpretation of the map accompanying the ‘sincere cease-fire’ agreement, The difference were not about trivial matters, but concerned entire streets.” (2) Benvenisti (1996), City of Stone, p. 58

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Cartography Tools and Precision

Digital Cartography have made it possible to define a border as an one dimensional line set between points of coordinates, a vector, without any width or thickness. A line in analogue cartography however never can be one dimensional but always comprises an area. The Atlas tries to demonstrate the ambiguity of the border caused by the dimension and quality of the original drawn cease fire line and to resolve it by digitalizing the line with all its characteristics. It shows the translation of analogue cartography into digital media and the friction between a drawn border and the built reality. After the Armistice Agreement was signed, the difficulty was not only to define where was the actual border but also where was the edge of the stroke as the colour of the pencils blurred out at the edges. Depending on the side the blur could mean a gain of territory. The drawings show the ‘cartographic monstrosity’ (Benvenisti) running through cities and country sides, as well as the final result of the negotiations in relation to the nature around. The ambiguity of the sources that tell about the Green Line’s becoming are documented. According to Meron Benvenisti the map on which the cease fire line was sketched was is scale 1:20.000 and the pencil lines of three to four millimeters width were in reality 60 to 80 meters wide and several hundred kilometers long, which is 35 square kilometers, the size of Ramallah and half of Tel Aviv.

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However the map available for the public is in scale 1:250.000. The pencil strokes vary from one to four millimeters, which in reality encompass areas of 200 meters to more than 700 meters width and a total surface of around 160 square kilometers, an area more than twice the size of Tel Aviv and larger than Jerusalem Did Benvenisti had another map or was it a scale error?

80m


Introduction

The Area of the Green Line equals the Area of:

Tel Aviv-Yafo 52 km² 402,600 Inhabitants

Ramallah, al-Bireh 25,4 km² 65,700 Inhabitants

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Mental Maps Salomon and Larissa Fleishman conducted a study on the Green Line with about 500 students for Bar Ilan and Hebrew University. It can be assumed that students are more familiar with the Green Line than other, less educated groups. Moreover, this population group while growing up was exposed to important political events including the Lebanon war, the Oslo Accords and the Intifada. “The researchers presented the students with maps of Greater Israel and asked them to draw the Green Line. Ten percent of the students delineated the West Bank as circles, usually around Palestinian cities. Only 37 percent of HU students and 26.5 percent at Bar-Ilan could sketch the West Bank on the map. No more than one-third of the students from Jerusalem and 26 of those from Tel Aviv knew which countries controlled the territories before the Six-Day War. However, the vast majority of those asked knew the Green Line relates to the borders of the state.” (4) Eldar (2006), Putting back the Green Line - once we find it, Haaretz

Textbooks “Only 4% of maps in Palestinian textbooks show the Green Line, which separates Palestinian territory from Israel, or label the area west of it as ‘Israel’. Almost six out of 10 maps depict no borders, and another third include the Green Line but make no reference to Israel. In Israeli textbooks, 76% of maps show no boundaries between Palestinian territories and Israel, and Palestinian areas are not labelled. Since these maps are generally presented as maps of Israel, the absence of borders between Israel and Palestine can be seen as implying that the Palestinian areas are part of the state of Israel, says the report, Victims of Our Own Narratives? Portrayal of the ‘Other’ in Israeli and Palestinian School Books.” (3) Sherwood (2013), Israeli and Palestinian textbooks omit borders, The Guardian, Fig. 5

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Introduction

Two thirds of Jewish Israeli students don’t know where the Green Line is!

Jerusalem

Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv

10% confuse the Territories around major Palestinian Cities with the Green Line (fig. 6)

37% were able to enter the West Bank in the

26% were able to enter the West Bank in the

blank map

blank map

33% vote rightwing parties

72% vote rightwing parties

total number of polled students from

total number of polled students

Hebrew University: 269

from Bar-Ilan University: 219

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Drawings of the Students, showing where they believe the route of the Green Line to be.

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Visibility and Accessibility of the Green Line

This map tracks the route I took when I travelled the Green Line in July 2013. The map shows, while there a many possibilities to cross, there very rare opportunities to drive along the Green Line. Many of the photographs accompanying the satellite images of the Atlas of No-Man’sLand were taken at the intersection points of the Green Line and the roads I travelled.

Fig. 8

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Green Line Red Line My Route Jordanian Border

0km

10km 17


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

"A good map tells a multitude of little white lies; it suppresses truth to help the user see what needs to be seen. Reality is three-dimensional, rich in detail and far too factual to allow a complete yet uncluttered two dimensional graphic scale model. Indeed, a map that did not generalize would be useless. But the value of a map depends on how well its generalized geometry and content reflect a chosen aspect of reality." (5) Monmonier (1991), How to Lie with Maps, p. 25

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ATLAS OF NO-MAN’S-LAND

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

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Jordan Valley

Israel

Jordan

West Bank

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

yellaV nadroJ

learsI

nadroJ

knaB tseW

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Bazaq Crossing, Route 90 Northern Jordan Valley Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Vehicles, Trade Transfer of commodities from Israel to Jordan Valley and passage of Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

Route 90 is with 480 kilometers length the longest road in Israel. It runs all the way from Metulla near the Lebanese Border to Eilat in the very south of Israel, through the West Bank and crossing the Green Line twice. Route 90 is entirely under Israeli control. It follows the Jordan Valley, passing by the Lake of Galilee, Jericho and the Dead Sea.

Fig. 9 Service area at the Checkpoint

The northern checkpoint is located near the Moshav Sdei Trumot, the southern near Ein Gedi next to the Dead Sea. This checkpoint is highly frequented by tourists on their way from the Dead Sea to the lake of Galilee, which are provided for in motorway service area. The restaurant, parking lot and gas station make the checkpoint appear like a regular border crossing. On the satellite image the checkpoint is not existing.

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Fig. 9

Bazaq Crossing Route 90

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Bazaq Crossing, Route 90 Northern Jordan Valley Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Vehicles, Trade Transfer of commodities from Israel to Jordan Valley and passage of Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

Route 90 is with 480 kilometers length the longest road in Israel. It runs all the way from Metulla near the Lebanese Border to Eilat in the very south of Israel, through the West Bank and crossing the Green Line twice. Route 90 is entirely under Israeli control. It follows the Jordan Valley, passing by the Lake of Galilee, Jericho and the Dead Sea.

Fig. 10 Service area at the Checkpoint 9 .giF

The northern checkpoint is located near the Moshav Sdei Trumot, the southern near Ein gnissorC qazaB Gedi to the Dead Sea. 09 etunext oR This checkpoint is highly frequented by tourists on their way from the Dead Sea to the lake of Galilee, which are provided for in motorway service area. The restaurant, parking lot and gas station make the checkpoint appear like a regular border crossing. On the satellite image the checkpoint is not existing.

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Fig. 11

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Fig. 10

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01 .giF

Fig. 12

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Jalbun, Area B

Meirav, Kibbutz

District of Jenin Area: 33,959 dunams Population: 2,563 (2007) Foundation: no data

Valley of Springs Regional Council Area: no data Population: 548 Foundation: 1987

Fig. 13

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Jalbun

Fig. 11

Meirav

Mount Gilboa

Malkishu’a

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Jalbun, Area B

Meirav, Kibbutz

District of Jenin Area: 33,959 dunams Population: 2,563 (2007) Foundation: no data

Valley of Springs Regional Council Area: no data Population: 548 Foundation: 1987

nublaJ

11 .giF

varieM

Fig. 14

aobliG tnuoM

a’uhsiklaM

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Faqu’a, Area B District of Jenin Area: 30,179 dunams Population: 3,588 (2007) Foundation: no data

“The village of Faqu’a is located 11 kilometers north east of Jenin adjacent to the Green Line. Area: the village original land area is estimated at 36000 dunams, from which 28000 dunams were confiscated in 1948. Since the start of the construction of the apartheid Separation Wall, 245 dunams have been seized. Once the wall has been completed it is expected that the total of 450 dunams would have been seized or separated.” (6) The Land Research Center (2003), Impact of the Segregation Wall on the Palestinian communities - The village of Faqu’a strangled by the Wall, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories

Fig. 15

The seized land is classified as followed: • 18 % cultivated with trees ( 45 dunams cultivated with 900 olive trees) • 24 % cultivated with field crops ( 60 dunams ) • 8 % cultivated with almond and other types of fruitful trees ( 20 dunams ) • 48 % graze land and state land ( 120 dunams). Social and psychological impacts of the Separation Wall on the village: • An increase in psychological disorders and social problems resulting from chronic distress, depression and stress; • An increase in the level of fear and tension among residents due to constant presence of Israeli army patrols in the vicinity of houses and fields close to the Separation Wall.

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Fig. 12

Faqu’a Fig. 13

Ma’ale Gilboa

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Faqu’a, Area B District of Jenin Area: 30,179 dunams Population: 3,588 (2007) Foundation: no data

“The village of Faqu’a is located 11 kilometers north east of Jenin adjacent to the Green Line. Area: the village original land area is estimated at 36000 dunams, from which 28000 dunams were confiscated in 1948. Since the start of the construction of the apartheid Separation Wall, 245 dunams have been seized. Once the wall has been completed it is expected that the total of 450 dunams would have been seized or separated.” (7) The Land Research Center (2003), Impact of the Segregation Wall on the Palestinian communities - The village of Faqu’a strangled by the Wall, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories

21 .giF

a’uqaF 31 .giF

Fig. 16

The seized land is classified as followed: • 18 % cultivated with trees ( 45 dunams cultivated with 900 olive trees) • 24 % cultivated with field crops ( 60 dunams ) • 8 % cultivated with almond and other types of fruitful trees ( 20 dunams ) • 48 % graze land and state land ( 120 dunams). Social and psychological impacts of the Separation Wall on the village: • An increase in psychological disorders and social problems resulting from chronic distress, depression and stress; • An increase in the level of fear and tension among residents due to constant presence of Israeli army patrols in the vicinity of houses and fields close to the Separation Wall.

aobliG ela’aM

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(continuation)

Fig. 17 on p. 35

Economic impact of the Separation Wall on the village: • The deprivation of more than 400 workers from reaching their work places inside Israel which, in effect, has raised unemployment to un-precedent levels. • The uprooting of 350 olive trees and the separation of another 2000 olive trees behind the wall as well as the bulldozing of dozens of dunams cultivated with clover and carob trees. • Inflicting heavy losses to cow, sheep and poultry breeders in the village after destroying animal fodder, separating pastor land and preventing breeders from marketing their products.

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Faqu’a


Arabuna

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Faqu’a

(continuation) anubarA

Fig. 18 on p. 35

Economic impact of the Separation Wall on the village: • The deprivation of more than 400 workers from reaching their work places inside Israel which, in effect, has raised unemployment to un-precedent levels. • The uprooting of 350 olive trees and the separation of another 2000 olive trees behind the wall as well as the bulldozing of dozens of dunams cultivated with clover and carob trees. • Inflicting heavy losses to cow, sheep and poultry breeders in the village after destroying animal fodder, separating pastor land and preventing breeders from marketing their products.

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Mount Gilboa

Fig. 19 on p. 41, View over the Valley

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Gan Ner

Gilboa Mountains

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Mount Gilboa

reN naG

sniatnuoM aobliG

Fig. 20 on p. 41, View over the Valley

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Gilboa-Jalame Crossing, Highway 60 North of Jenin Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Vehicles, Trade Target population of Crossing: Palestinians and Israeli Arabs Opening Days and Hours Monday-Thursday 05:00-22:00 Friday 05:00-14:00 Saturday 22:00

Highway 60 is an intercity road that goes from Nazareth in the North to Be’er Sheva in the South. Important Cities along or near the road are Nazareth, Afula, Jenin, Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gush Etzion, Hebron and Be’er Sheva. It is also known as ‘Way of the Patriarchs’ after the path of the ancient road that runs along the length of the central watershed, and on which the Biblical Patriarchs Abraham and his sons travelled. Like Route 90 it is a road passing through the Palestinian Territories, which is under Israeli control. Access to it is restricted for Palestinians, who have to swerve to smaller roads with numerous checkpoints. On Route 60 it takes only 35 minutes to get from Ramallah to Bethlehem. Since the wall was built in 2003 most Palestinians are not allowed to drive on the Highway and have to swerve to byroads, which prolongs the way up to several hours. Except for transients who chose a direct way from Nazareth to Be’er Sheva, the Highway mostly caters to Jewish settlers living inside the Occupied Territories.

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Fig. 14

Sandala

Magen Sha’ul

Gilboa-Jalame Crossing Highway 60

Jalame

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Gilboa-Jalame Crossing, Highway 60 North of Jenin Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Vehicles, Trade Target population of Crossing: Palestinians and Israeli Arabs Opening Days and Hours Monday-Thursday 05:00-22:00 Friday 05:00-14:00 Saturday 22:00

41 .giF

Highway 60 is an intercity road that goes from Nazareth in the North to Be’er Sheva in the South. Important Cities along or near the road are Nazareth, Afula, Jenin, Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gush Etzion, Hebron and Be’er Sheva. It is also known as ‘Way of the Patriarchs’ after the path of the ancient road that runs along the length of the central watershed, and on which the Biblical Patriarchs Abraham and his sons travelled.aladnaS Like Route 90 it is a road passing through the Palestinian Territories, which is under Israeli control. Access to it is restricted for Palestinians, who have to swerve to smaller roads lu’ahS negaM with numerous checkpoints. On Route 60 it takes only 35 minutes to get from Ramallah to Bethlehem. Since the wall was built in 2003 most Palestinians are not allowed to drive on the Highway and have to swerve to byroads, which prolongs the way up to several hours. Except for transients who chose a direct way from Nazareth to Be’er Sheva, the Highway mostly caters to Jewish settlers living inside the Occupied Territories.

gnissorC emalaJ-aobliG 06 yawhgiH

emalaJ

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Muqeibila Gilboa Regional Council Area: 7,128 dunams Population: 3,299 (2007) Foundation: no data

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Jezreel Valley (Emek Israel)

Muqueibila

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yellaV leerzeJ )learsI kemE(

Muqeibila Gilboa Regional Council Area: 7,128 dunams Population: 3,299 (2007) Foundation: no data

alibieuquM

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Ram-On, Moshav Gilboa Regional Council Area: no data Population: 925 Foundation: 1960

Fig. 21

Fig. 22

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Barak

Ram On

Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 15

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land karaB

Ram-On, Moshav Gilboa Regional Council Area: no data Population: 925 Foundation: 1960

nO maR

Fig. 23 61 .giF 71 .giF 81 .giF 51 .giF

Fig. 24

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Zububa, Area C District of Jenin Area: 13,843 dunams Population: 2,183 (2007) Foundation: no data

Fig. 25 to p. 45

Fig. 26 on p. 45

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Mele’a

Merkaz Omen

Gadish

Zububa

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nemO zakreM

a’eleM

Zububa, Area C hsidaG

District of Jenin Area: 13,843 dunams Population: 2,183 (2007) Foundation: no data

abubuZ

Fig. 27 to p. 45

Fig. 28 on p. 45

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Ta’anakh junction, Highway 66 North-West of Jenin no data

Fig. 29

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Salem

Ta’anakh Junction Highway 66

Fig. 19

Fig. 20

Rumana

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Ta’anakh junction, Highway 66 North-West of Jenin no data

noitcnuJ hkana’aT 66 yawhgiH

melaS

91 .giF

02 .giF

Fig. 30

anamuR

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Fig. 31 on p. 49

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Khirbat Al-Taibe

Anin

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ebiaT-lA tabrihK

Fig. 32 on p. 49

ninA

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Umm al-Fahm Haifa District Area: 22,253 dunams Population: 43,300 Foundation: 1265

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Umm al-Fahm

Mei Ami

Umm Al Rihan Tal Menashe

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Ummmhal-Fahm aF-la mmU Haifa District Area: 22,253 dunams Population: 43,300 Foundation: 1265

imA ieM

nahiR lA mmU ehsaneM laT

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Fig. 33 on p. 57

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Barta’a


Ain Al Sahila

Katzir-Harish

Nahal Narb

eta

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Barta’a

alihaS lA niA

hsiraH-riztaK

Fig. 34 on p. 57

haN

atebraN la

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Barta’a

Barta’a, Area B Haifa District/ District of Jenin Area: 4,320 dunams Population: 8,300 Foundation: ca. 1850

Barta’a is an Arabic village in the Wadi Ara region, also called ‘little Triangle’ or ‘Arabic Triangle’. It was founded most likely in the late 19th century by the Kabha Clan, a wide extended Arabic family, from which most of the today’s 8300 inhabitants of Barta’a descend.

Fig. 35

Fig. 36

The village was built on the two slopes of the ravine around Nahal Narbeta, a mostly dried out riverbed, which in winter sometimes carries water to the Hadera River. “What begins as a deep ravine peters out to a ditch running diagonally through the village. With the stroke of the green grease pencil, that ravine cum ditch became a divide between the State of Israel and the Jordanian annexed West Bank. The Muslim residents, members of the same family, ended up in two different countries, bestowed with different citizenship and possibly the harshest situation of all being that those two countries continue to be at war with each other.” (8) Aisenberg, On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine

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Fig. 21

Barta’a

Fig. 23 Fig. 22

Fig. 24

arb

lN

a ah

eta

N

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Barta’a

Barta’a, Area B Haifa District/ District of Jenin Area: 4,320 dunams Population: 8,300 Foundation: ca. 1850

Barta’a is an Arabic village in the Wadi Ara region, also called ‘little Triangle’ or ‘Arabic Triangle’. It was founded most likely in the late 19th century by the Kabha Clan, a wide extended 12 .giF Arabic family, from which most of the today’s 8300 inhabitants of Barta’a descend. a’atraB

32 .giF 22 .giF

42 .giF

ate

bra

Nl

ah

aN

Fig. 37

Fig. 38

The village was built on the two slopes of the ravine around Nahal Narbeta, a mostly dried out riverbed, which in winter sometimes carries water to the Hadera River. “What begins as a deep ravine peters out to a ditch running diagonally through the village. With the stroke of the green grease pencil, that ravine cum ditch became a divide between the State of Israel and the Jordanian annexed West Bank. The Muslim residents, members of the same family, ended up in two different countries, bestowed with different citizenship and possibly the harshest situation of all being that those two countries continue to be at war with each other.” (9) Aisenberg, On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine

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Barta’a

(continuation)

After Israel annexed the West Bank in 1967 the Green Line lost the characteristics of the border, became somehow non-existent. Barta’a was reunited. Until 1987, with the outburst of the first Palestinian uprising – known as Intifada- the village faced the whole momentousness of belonging to two different countries. “The people of East Barta’a were participating in the uprising whilst their Israeli citizenship holding West Barta’a relatives were caught in the middle, emotionally torn bystanders, as Israeli soldiers fought with members of their immediate family on the other side of the rubbish filled ditch running through the middle of the village, a not-sogreen line and former border between – as the local population phrase it – ‘over here and over there’. ” (10) Aisenberg, On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine

Until 1997 there was a checkpoint on the Western entrance to the village. During a crisis it would be easier to control the traffic crossing the Green Line, not regarding that also West Barta’a would be cut off when the checkpoint closed. Most of the times however, the checkpoint remained open.

Fig. 39 on p. 57

With Israel’s plan to build the Wall after the second Intifada, came the realization that customers from Israel wouldn’t go to the cheaper West Bank to do their shopping anymore. As a consequence, Palestinian shopkeepers, businessmen and workers, who were no longer allowed to cross the Green Line, seeked new locations as close as possible to the former border, on the Western side of the new Separation Barrier within the so called ‘Seam Zone’. Since the outbreak of the second Intifada East Barta’a has become a 'boomtown' (Aisenberg)for shoppers with ‘over 600 businesses and industrial concerns where Palestinians manufacture garments and bed linen for export and a multitude of other merchandise for sale to the bartering Israeli customers. Many of the workers in East Barta’a are Palestinian women from villages in the West Bank on the other side of the Separation Barrier. They have permission to pass through the Reichan checkpoint behind Barta’a on a daily basis to work in Area B – but not to cross over the Green Line. As in Barta’a the Green Line runs through the middle of the Market Street, no one controls weather someone is allowed to cross or not.

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Little Triangle (“Arabic Triangle”)

Qafin

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Barta’a

(continuation)

After Israel annexed the West Bank in 1967 the Green Line lost the characteristics of the border, became somehow non-existent. Barta’a was reunited. Until 1987, with the outburst of the first Palestinian uprising – known as Intifada- the village faced the whole momentousness of belonging to two different countries. “The people of East Barta’a were participating in the uprising whilst their Israeli citizenship holding West Barta’a relatives were caught in the middle, emotionally torn elgnairT elttiL bystanders, as Israeli soldiers fought with members of their immediate family on the )”elgnairT cibarA“( other side of the rubbish filled ditch running through the middle of the village, a not-sogreen line and former border between – as the local population phrase it – ‘over here and over there’. ” (11) Aisenberg, On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine

Until 1997 there was a checkpoint on the Western entrance to the village. During a crisis it would be easier to control the traffic crossing the Green Line, not regarding that also West Barta’a would be cut off when the checkpoint closed. Most of the times however, the checkpoint remained open.

nfiaQ

Fig. 40 on p. 57

With Israel’s plan to build the Wall after the second Intifada, came the realization that customers from Israel wouldn’t go to the cheaper West Bank to do their shopping anymore. As a consequence, Palestinian shopkeepers, businessmen and workers, who were no longer allowed to cross the Green Line, seeked new locations as close as possible to the former border, on the Western side of the new Separation Barrier within the so called ‘Seam Zone’. Since the outbreak of the second Intifada East Barta’a has become a 'boomtown' (Aisenberg)for shoppers with ‘over 600 businesses and industrial concerns where Palestinians manufacture garments and bed linen for export and a multitude of other merchandise for sale to the bartering Israeli customers. Many of the workers in East Barta’a are Palestinian women from villages in the West Bank on the other side of the Separation Barrier. They have permission to pass through the Reichan checkpoint behind Barta’a on a daily basis to work in Area B – but not to cross over the Green Line. As in Barta’a the Green Line runs through the middle of the Market Street, no one controls weather someone is allowed to cross or not.

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Baqa-Jatt Haifa District Area: 16,392 dunams Population: 32,400 Foundation: 2003

Baqa-Jatt is located in the ‘little Triangle’, an region in northern Israel with a high density of Arab villages adjacent to the Green Line. It is part of the eastern Sharon plain among the Samarian foothills and is the easternmost boundaries of both the Center District and Haifa District. Other cities in the ‘Triangle’ are Umm al-Fahm, Tayibe, Kafr Qasim, Tira, Barta’a etc... Baqa-Jatt was founded in 2003 when the cities Baqa al-Gharbiyye (West Baqa) and Jatt were merged. Once Baqa al-Gharbiyye and Baqa ash-Sharqiyya (Eastern Baqa) formed one village. Through the course of the 1949 Armistice Agreements the Green Line was drawn between the two parts of the village, splitting them apart, each side all of a sudden in a different country. The larger part Baqa al-Gharbiyye became Israeli, and only in 1996 declared as an independent city.

96


Baqa al-Gharbiyye

Nazlat ‘Isa Baqa ash-Sharqiyya

Baqa-Jatt

Jatt

Zeita

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Baqa-Jatt

eyyibrahG-la aqaB

Haifa District Area: 16,392 dunams Population: 32,400 Foundation: 2003

ayyiqrahS-hsa aqaB

asI‘ talzaN in the ‘little Triangle’, an region in northern Israel with a high density Baqa-Jatt is located of Arab villages adjacent to the Green Line. It is part of the eastern Sharon plain among the Samarian foothills and is the easternmost boundaries of both the Center District and Haifa District. Other cities in the ‘Triangle’ are Umm al-Fahm, Tayibe, Kafr Qasim, Tira, Barta’a etc... Baqa-Jatt was founded in 2003 when the cities Baqa al-Gharbiyye (West Baqa) and Jatt were merged. Once Baqa al-Gharbiyye and Baqa ash-Sharqiyya (Eastern Baqa) formed one village. Through the course of the 1949 Armistice Agreements the Green Line was drawn between the two parts of the village, splitting them apart, each side all of a sudden in a different country. The larger part Baqa al-Gharbiyye became Israeli, and only in 1996 declared as an independent city.

ttaJ-aqaB

ttaJ

atieZ

98


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100


Ibthan

101


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

nahtbI

102


103


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Bat Hefer, communal settlement Hefer Valley Regional Council Area: 782 dunams Population: 5,400 Foundation: 1996

Fig. 41

104


Sharon plain

Bat Hefer Fig. 25

Yad Hana

105


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Bat Hefer, communal settlement Hefer Valley Regional Council Area: 782 dunams Population: 5,400 Foundation: 1996

nialp norahS

refeH taB 52 .giF

Fig. 42

106

anaH daY


107


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Ephraim Gate Crossing

Tulkarm, Area A

West of Tulkarm Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense)

Tulkarm Governorate Area: 28,793 dunams Population: 61,941 Foundation: 1187

Pedestrians Palestinian laborers and commodities Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 07:30-17:00 Friday: 08:00-14:00

108


Tulkarm

Nizanei Oz

Irtah

Ephraim Gate Crossing

Far’un

Tayibe 109


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

mrakluT

Ephraim Gate Crossing

Tulkarm, Area A

West of Tulkarm Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense)

Tulkarm Governorate Area: 28,793 dunams Population: 61,941 Foundation: 1187

Pedestrians Palestinian laborers and commodities Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 07:30-17:00 Friday: 08:00-14:00

hatrI

gnissorC etaG miarhpE

nu’raF

ebiyaT 110

zO ienaziN


111


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Tayibe Central District Area: 18,662 dunams Population: 38,575 Foundation: 1265

112


Tayibe

Tsur Natan

113


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Tayibe Central District Area: 18,662 dunams Population: 38,575 Foundation: 1265

ebiyaT

nataN rusT

114


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Kokhav Ya’ir Central District Area: 3,072 dunams Population: 9,200 (2011) Foundation: 1981/2003

“Kochav Ya’ir was established in 1981 by 15 families living in temporary quarters. Two years later, work began on infrastructure for a permanent town. In 1986, 550 families moved into permanent housing and the town was officially founded. Tzur Yigal was founded in 1991, with the first families moving into permanent homes in the summer of 1994. Kokhav Ya’ir and the neighboring town of Tzur Yigal merged in November 2003.” (12) Wikipedia (2013), Kokhav Ya’ir

116


Tzur Yitzhak

Tzur Natan

Kokhav Ya’ir

Falame

117


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

nataN ruzT

kahztiY ruzT

Kokhav Ya’ir Central District Area: 3,072 dunams Population: 9,200 (2011) Foundation: 1981/2003

“Kochav Ya’ir was established in 1981 by 15 families living in temporary quarters. Two years later, work began on infrastructure for a permanent town. In 1986, 550 families moved into permanent housing and the town was officially founded. Tzur Yigal was founded in 1991, with the first families moving into permanent homes in the summer of 1994. Kokhav Ya’ir and the neighboring town of Tzur Yigal merged in November 2003.” (13) Wikipedia (2013), Kokhav Ya’ir

ri’aY vahkoK

emalaF

118


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Eyal Crossing

Qalqiliya, Area A

North of Qalqiliya Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense)

Qalqiliya Governorate Area: 25,637 dunams Population: 41,000 (2007) Foundation: before 1596

Pedestrians and Commodities Palestinian laborers and commodities Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 04:00-19:00 Friday: 04:00-14:00

Fig. 43

Fig. 44 on p. 77

120


Kokhav Ya’ir

Eyal

Fig. 26

Eyal Crossing

Qalqiliya 121


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Eyal Crossing

Qalqiliya, Area A

North of Qalqiliya Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense)

Qalqiliya Governorate Area: 25,637 dunams Population: 41,000 (2007) Foundation: before 1596

Pedestrians and Commodities Palestinian laborers and commodities

ri’aY vahkoK

Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 04:00-19:00 Friday: 04:00-14:00

layE

62 .giF

Fig. 45

gnissorC layE

Fig. 46 on p. 77

ayiliqlaQ 122


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(continuation)

The city is almost entirely surrounded by the wall. Only a narrow corridor to the east, that is controlled by the Israeli army - and a tunnel connecting to Hableh allow the passage way through and into the West Bank. Thereby Qalqiliya is nearly cut off from parts of its own agricultural land and its neighboring villages. Qalqiliya was built on the slope of a hill. The wall, which surrounds the city at the foot of the hill blocks the rain water run-off during the rain periods. Since its construction in 2003 Qalqiliya regularly faces floods.

Fig. 47

Fig. 48 on p. 77, Barrier between Matan and Hableh

124

Qalqiliya


Nir Eliyahu

Fig. 27

Qalqiliya

Fig. 28

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Qalqiliya

(continuation)

The city is almost entirely surrounded by the wall. Only a narrow corridor to the east, that is controlled by the Israeli army - and a tunnel connecting to Hableh allow the uhayilE riN passage way through and into the West Bank. Thereby Qalqiliya is nearly cut off from parts of its own agricultural land and its neighboring villages. Qalqiliya was built on the slope of a hill. The wall, which surrounds the city at the foot of the hill blocks the rain water run-off during the rain periods. Since its construction in 2003 Qalqiliya regularly faces floods. 72 .giF

ayiliqlaQ

Fig. 49

82 .giF

Fig. 50 on p. 77, Barrier between Matan and Hableh

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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Matan,

Hableh,

Nirit,

Central District Area: 798 dunams Population: 3,555 (2011) Foundation: 1995

Qalqiliya Governorate Area: 10,900 dunams Population: 6,150 (2006) Foundation: before 1596

Central District Area: 421 dunams Population: 1,173 Foundation: 1982

Communal Settlement

Area B

Communal Settlement

Matan and Hableh are two villages opposite of each other on both sides of the Green Line. With the Separation Barrier crossing right between them contact between Jews and Arabs is impossible. The smallest distance between buildings of both villages is approximately 70 meters.

Fig. 51 Barrier between Matan and Hableh

Fig. 52

Nirit is a smaller Communal Settlement originally built on the Israeli side of the Green Line. In 2005 a new neighborhood named Nof Hasharon was built adjacent to Nirit. This neighborhood located just outside the Green Line actually belongs to the settlement Alfei Menashe, but in reality merged with Nirit. 128


Hableh Fig. 30

Matan

Fig. 29

Yarhiv

Fig. 31

Nirit

Fig. 32

Horshim

Kafr Bara

Oranit

129


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

helbaH 03 .giF

Matan,

Hableh,

Nirit,

Central District Area: 798 dunams Population: 3,555 (2011) Foundation: 1995

Qalqiliya Governorate Area: 10,900 dunams Population: 6,150 (2006) Foundation: before 1596

Central District Area: 421 dunams Population: 1,173 92 .giF Foundation: 1982

Communal Settlement

Area B

Communal Settlement nataM

Matan and Hableh are two villages opposite of each other on both sides of the Green Line. With the Separation Barrier crossing right between them contact between Jews and Arabs is impossible. The smallest distance between buildings of both villages is approximately 70 meters.

vihraY

13 .giF

tiriN

23 .giF

Fig. 53 Barrier between Matan and Hableh

mihsroH

Fig. 54

Nirit is a smaller Communal Settlement originally built on the Israeli side of the Green tinarO Line. In 2005 a new neighborhood named Nof Hasharon was built adjacent to Nirit. This neighborhood located just outside the Green Line actually belongs to the settlement Alfei Menashe, but in reality merged with Nirit. 130

araB rfaK


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Kafr Qasim Central District Area: 9,154 dunams Population: 20,027 Foundation: no data

“From 1949 till late 1966 the Israeli government decided to consider all its Palestinians citizens a ‘hostile population ‘. All major Arab population centers were governed by military administrations and divided into four districts. Seven Arab villages, including Kafr Qasim, all along the Green Line, were considered as high infiltration threat.

Fig. 55 on p. 77

The villages were patrolled regularly by border police (Magav) under the command of Israeli army brigade commander Colonel Issachar Shadmi. Those villages, containing some 40, 000 villagers, were called the Central District. October 29, 1956 On the day of the massacre, the Israeli army decided to place all seven villages along the Green Line under a curfew called the War Time Curfew, from 5 in the evening until 6 the following morning. Israeli soldiers were instructed to shoot and kill any villager violating the curfew. Even though the border police troops were given the order by their commander at 3:30 in the afternoon, they only informed the mayor of Kafr Qasim about an hour later, leaving a window of 30 minutes for the 400 villagers working in the fields or outside the village to come back home. According to Israeli investigation committee records, from 5:00 pm until 6:30 on October 29, 1956, border police shot and killed 49 villagers from Kafr Qasim as they tried to return home. Among those killed were 23 children and one pregnant woman.” (14) Occupied Palestine (2010), Remembering The Israeli Massacre In Kafr Qasim – Oct 29, 1956

132


Kafr Qasim

Rosh HaAyin Neve Afek

133


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Kafr Qasim Central District Area: 9,154 dunams Population: 20,027 Foundation: no data

“From 1949 till late 1966 the Israeli government decided to consider all its Palestinians citizens a ‘hostile population ‘. All major Arab population centers were governed by military administrations and divided into four districts. Seven Arab villages, including Kafr Qasim, all along the Green Line, were considered as high infiltration threat. misaQ rfaK

Fig. 56 on p. 77

The villages were patrolled regularly by border police (Magav) under the command of Israeli army brigade commander Colonel Issachar Shadmi. Those villages, containing some 40, 000 villagers, were called the Central District. October 29, 1956 On the day of the massacre, the Israeli army decided to place all seven villages along the Green Line under a curfew called the War Time Curfew, from 5 in the evening until 6 the following morning. Israeli soldiers were instructed to shoot and kill any villager violating the curfew. Even though the border police troops were given the order by their commander at 3:30 in the afternoon, they only informed the mayor of Kafr Qasim about an hour later, leaving a window of 30 minutes for the 400 villagers working in the fields or outside the village to come back home. According to Israeli investigation committee records, from 5:00 pm until 6:30 on October 29, 1956, border police shot and killed 49 villagers from Kafr Qasim as they tried to return home. Among those killed were 23 children and one pregnant woman.” (15) Occupied Palestine (2010), Remembering The Israeli Massacre In Kafr Qasim – Oct 29, 1956

134

niyAaH hsoR kefA eveN


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136


137


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

138


139


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

no data

Fig. 57

140


no data

Fig. 33

141


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

no data atad on

33 .giF

Fig. 58

142


143


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Qibya, Area B Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Area: no data Population: 5,761 Foundation: no data

144


Qibya

145


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Qibya, Area B Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Area: no data Population: 5,761 Foundation: no data

aybiQ

146


147


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Budrus, Area B Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Area: no data Population: 1,644 Foundation: before 1596

148


Budrus

149


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Budrus, Area B Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Area: no data surduB Population: 1,644 Foundation: before 1596

150


151


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut Central District Area: 50,176 dunams Population: 80,218 Foundation: 1985 (Maccabim),1987 (Re’ut), 1993 (Modi’in), 2003 (merger)

Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut emerged through the consolidation of Modi’in, Maccabim and Re’ut. The neighborhood Maccabim is entirely located within the No-Man’s Land from 1949 and not inside Israeli territory. The no-man’s land refers to the strip of land between Israel and the West Bank, about 1 to 3 kilometers wide, whose sovereignty was unclear after the 1948 War of Independence.

Fig. 59

In 2012 the municipality of Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut appeared for the first time on the European Union’s published list of settlements which exported products will not be considered as made in Israel, and thus will not be eligible for tax breaks when imported to EU member countries. “In 1995, Israel and the European Union signed a trade agreement, which came into effect under the EU-Israel Association Agreement in June 2000. Under the agreement, in bilateral trade deals, most goods made in Israel or Europe received preferential tax breaks from the importing country. During the past decade, Israel and the EU reached an arrangement whereby products must be labeled with their place of manufacture and that those items made in the areas settled by Israel since 1967 will not be eligible for tax breaks, referring to the 1967 Six-Day War.” (16) Coren (2012), European Union: Parts of Modi’in do not belong to Israel, Haaretz,

Israel disputes this, since according to some parties perception, Modi’in is located entirely within the Green Line, since the line in the West of the No-Man’s Land was drawn with the Jordanian red pencil.

152


al-Midya

Fig. 34

Modi’in

153


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut Central District Area: 50,176 dunams Population: 80,218 Foundation: 1985 (Maccabim),1987 (Re’ut), 1993 (Modi’in), 2003 (merger)

Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut emerged through the consolidation of Modi’in, Maccabim and Re’ut. The neighborhood Maccabim is entirely located within the No-Man’s Land from 1949 and not inside Israeli territory. The no-man’s land refers to the strip of land between Israel and the West Bank, about 1 ato 3 kilometers wide, whose sovereignty was unclear ydiM-la after the 1948 War of Independence.

43 .giF

Fig. 60

In 2012 the municipality of Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut appeared for the first time on the European Union’s published list of settlements which exported products will not be considered as made in Israel, and thus will not be eligible for tax breaks when imported to EU member countries. “In 1995, Israel and the European Union signed a trade agreement, which came into effect under the EU-Israel Association Agreement in June 2000. Under the agreement, in bilateral trade deals, most goods made in Israel or Europe received preferential tax breaks from the importing country. During the past decade, Israel and the EU reached an arrangement whereby products must be labeled with their place of manufacture and that those items made in the areas settled by Israel since 1967 will not be eligible for tax breaks, referring to the 1967 Six-Day War.” (17) Coren (2012), European Union: Parts of Modi’in do not belong to Israel, Haaretz,

ni’idoM

Israel disputes this, since according to some parties perception, Modi’in is located entirely within the Green Line, since the line in the West of the No-Man’s Land was drawn with the Jordanian red pencil.

154


155


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Maccabim Crossing, Route 443

Modi’in Illit, Settlement

Near Maccabim-Re’ut’ Overland Crossings Authority and IDF

Modi’in & Center Area: 4,746 dunams Population: 52,060 Foundation: 1996

Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers and Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

Fig. 61

Modi’in Illit is the biggest Israeli settlement in the West Bank. It is located between the Green Line and the Separation Barrier. “Modi’in ‘Illit was designated a Local Council in 1996 and in March 2008 it was declared as municipality along with Matityahu and Hashmona’im settlements. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of August 2007, the 3 settlements’ cluster had a total population of some 40,000 Israeli settlers; making them one of the largest Israeli settlements’ cluster in the West Bank in terms of population. The settlement occupy an area of 6,000 dunams (6 km²) and was established on lands originally owned by Palestinians from Ni’lin, Deir Qiddies, Al Midya, Bil’in and Khirbet Al Misbah villages located within the governorate of Ramallah. On June 16, 2002, the Israeli Government started constructing the Segregation Wall in the West Bank. The Wall, came to enfold and annex vast Palestinian lands and as many Israeli settlements to Israel’s proper rather than to provide security for citizens of Israeli as claimed by the Israeli Government. Valuable Palestinian agricultural lands and groundwater resources within the West Bank Territory, east of the 1949 Armistice Line (Green Line) were lost for that purpose.” (18) The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (2008), While debating about settlements; “Israel declared the settlement of Modi’in ‘Illit as the third Jewish city in the occupied West Bank”, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories

156


Hashmonaim

Modi’in Illit Matityahu

Ganei Modi’in

Kiryat Sefer (“Town of Books”)

Kfar HaOranim

Kfar Rut

Fig. 35

Maccabim Crossing

157


mianomhsaH

Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

tillI ni’idoM uhaytitaM

Maccabim Crossing, Route 443

Modi’in Illit, Settlement

Near Maccabim-Re’ut’ Overland Crossings Authority and IDF

Modi’in & Center Area: 4,746 dunams Population: 52,060 Foundation: 1996

refeS tayriK )”skooB fo nwoT “(

Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers and Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

minarOaH rafK

tuR rafK Fig. 62

Modi’in Illit is the biggest Israeli settlement in the West Bank. It is located between the Green Line and the Separation Barrier. “Modi’in ‘Illit was designated a Local Council in 1996 and in March 2008 it was declared as municipality along with Matityahu and Hashmona’im settlements. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of August 2007, the 3 settlements’ cluster had a total population of some 40,000 Israeli settlers; making them one of the largest Israeli settlements’ cluster in the West Bank in terms of population. The settlement occupy an area of 6,000 dunams (6 km²) and was established on lands originally owned by Palestinians from Ni’lin, Deir Qiddies, Al Midya, Bil’in and Khirbet Al Misbah villages located within the governorate of Ramallah. On June 16, 2002, the Israeli Government started constructing the Segregation Wall in the West Bank. The Wall, came to enfold and annex vast Palestinian lands and as many Israeli settlements to Israel’s proper rather than to provide security for citizens of Israeli as claimed by the Israeli Government. Valuable Palestinian agricultural lands and groundwater resources within the West Bank Territory, east of the 1949 Armistice Line (Green Line) were lost for that purpose.” (19) The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (2008), While debating about settlements; “Israel declared the settlement of Modi’in ‘Illit as the

53 .giF third Jewish city in the occupied West Bank”, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories

gnissorC mibaccaM

158

ni’idoM ienaG


159


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Bayt Sira, Area B Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Area: 3,120 dunams Population: 3,231 Foundation: no data

Fig. 63

160


Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut

Maccabim-Re’ut

Maccabim

Fig. 36

Bayt Sira

Valley of Ayalon “Emek Ayalon”

161


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Bayt Sira, Area B ariS tyaB

tu’eR-mibaccaM-ni’idoM

Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate 63 .giF mibaccaM Area: 3,120 dunams Population: 3,231 Foundation: no data

tu’eR-mibaccaM

Fig. 64

nolayA fo yellaV ”nolayA kemE“

162


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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

164


Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut

Nof Ayalon

Valley of Ayalon “Emek Ayalon”

165


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

tu’eR-mibaccaM-ni’idoM

nolayA foN

nolayA fo yellaV ”nolayA kemE“

166


167


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Nof Ayalon, Communal Settlement Central District Area: no data Population: 2,208 Foundation: 1994

168


Nof Ayalon

169


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Nof Ayalon, Communal Settlement Central District Area: no data Population: 2,208 Foundation: 1994

nolayA foN

170


171


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Nahshon Central District Area: no data Population: 519 Foundation: 1950

“The village was established in 1950 by immigrant members of Hashomer Hatzair. It was named after Operation Nachshon, which opened up the Jerusalem road during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.” (20) Wikipedia (2013), Nahshon

172


Mini Israel

Nahshon

173


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Nahshon Central District Area: no data Population: 519 Foundation: 1950

“The village was established in 1950 by immigrant members of Hashomer Hatzair. It was named after Operation Nachshon, which opened up the Jerusalem road during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.” (21) Wikipedia (2013), Nahshon

learsI iniM

nohshaN

174


175


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Neve Shalom/ Wahat al-Salām Central District Area: no data Population: 236 Foundation: 1970

Neve Shalom/Wahat al-Salam was founded in 1970 by the Dominican brother Bruno Hussar (1911-1996). His intention was to create a place where the people of this land would live together despite national and religious differences and would conduct educational work for peace. The land, on which Neve Shalom was built was later given to it by the adjacent Monastery of Latrun.

Fig. 65 View over Modi’in

The 52 families that settle in the village live every day as an example for coexistence between Jews and Palestinians by building a community based on mutual acceptance, respect and cooperation. Projects & Outreach • The School for Peace • Children’s Educational System • Pluralistic Spiritual Centre • A Youth Club provides extracurricular activities for the community’s children • When funding permits, the community conducts humanitarian aid projects including, in recent years, summer camps for children from the West Bank.

176

Neve Schalom


Latrun Monastery

Fig. 38 Fig. 37

Neve Shalom Wahat al-Salト[

177


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Neve Schalom

Neve Shalom/ Wahat al-Salām Central District Area: no data Population: 236 Foundation: 1970

Neve Shalom/Wahat al-Salam was founded in 1970 by the Dominican brother Bruno Hussar (1911-1996). His intention was to create a place where the people of this land would live together despite national and religious differences and would conduct educational work for peace. The land, on which Neve Shalom was built was later given to it by the adjacent Monastery of Latrun. yretsanoM nurtaL

Fig. 66 View over Modi’in

The 52 families that settle in the village live every day as an example for coexistence between Jews83 .and Palestinians by building a community based on mutual acceptance, giF 73 .giF respect and cooperation. molahS eveN mālaS-la tahaW

Projects & Outreach • The School for Peace • Children’s Educational System • Pluralistic Spiritual Centre • A Youth Club provides extracurricular activities for the community’s children • When funding permits, the community conducts humanitarian aid projects including, in recent years, summer camps for children from the West Bank.

178


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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Neve Schalom

(continuation)

“Eitan Kramer vs. The State of Israel; The Land without Law” “The small kibbutz-village used to employ many Palestinian workers from the neighboring villages, who sometimes stayed the night in a simple house on the premises. Although the workers, according to Israeli law, required permits to work there, some had them and others did not. The kibbutz is situated in the No-Man’s Land, where in 1949 people and soldiers were prevented from entering. One of these lines, the red one, crosses right through Neve Shalom, past an ancient olive tree. In 2003, at the end of the second intifada, Eitan Kramer, a member of Neve Shalom was arrested by the Israeli Border Police and accused of transporting a Palestinian worker from the West Bank through the kibbutz. He of course did this regularly, taking workers, with or without permit, through the village and the surrounding areas. Although the Palestinian worker was released after a few hours, Eitan was taken for a lengthy interrogation and eventually arrested. He was accused of violating the Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (2003) by hosting and transporting a Palestinian worker, allowing him to travel to Israeli coastal cities where the majority of the Palestinian ‘illegal’ workers find temporary employment on the black market. A few months later, Eitan was called to appear in the District Court of Bet Shemesh to face the accusations of the state prosecutor. He was advised by his lawyer, who was employed by the kibbutz, to confess to the presumed crime for a plea bargain that would reduce the fine and waive the prison sentence. But Eitan decided not to follow this advice as he realized that Neve Shalom was situated in a territory with a very special status within the Israeli territorial regime. He devised his own legal strategy, which resulted in the most improbable of arguments. Instead of negotiating within the framework of the law, he argued for the inapplicability of the law, referring to the legal void created by the two lines marked out in 1949. Using this apparently absurd argument, Eitan Kramer was finally acquitted.” (22) Weizman, Notes on extraterritoriality, Decolonizing Architecture Art Residency

Fig. 67 on p. 101, View over Latrun Monastery

180


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Neve Schalom

(continuation)

“Eitan Kramer vs. The State of Israel; The Land without Law” “The small kibbutz-village used to employ many Palestinian workers from the neighboring villages, who sometimes stayed the night in a simple house on the premises. Although the workers, according to Israeli law, required permits to work there, some had them and others did not. The kibbutz is situated in the No-Man’s Land, where in 1949 people and soldiers were prevented from entering. One of these lines, the red one, crosses right through Neve Shalom, past an ancient olive tree. In 2003, at the end of the second intifada, Eitan Kramer, a member of Neve Shalom was arrested by the Israeli Border Police and accused of transporting a Palestinian worker from the West Bank through the kibbutz. He of course did this regularly, taking workers, with or without permit, through the village and the surrounding areas. Although the Palestinian worker was released after a few hours, Eitan was taken for a lengthy interrogation and eventually arrested. He was accused of violating the Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (2003) by hosting and transporting a Palestinian worker, allowing him to travel to Israeli coastal cities where the majority of the Palestinian ‘illegal’ workers find temporary employment on the black market. A few months later, Eitan was called to appear in the District Court of Bet Shemesh to face the accusations of the state prosecutor. He was advised by his lawyer, who was employed by the kibbutz, to confess to the presumed crime for a plea bargain that would reduce the fine and waive the prison sentence. But Eitan decided not to follow this advice as he realized that Neve Shalom was situated in a territory with a very special status within the Israeli territorial regime. He devised his own legal strategy, which resulted in the most improbable of arguments. Instead of negotiating within the framework of the law, he argued for the inapplicability of the law, referring to the legal void created by the two lines marked out in 1949. Using this apparently absurd argument, Eitan Kramer was finally acquitted.” (23) Weizman, Notes on extraterritoriality, Decolonizing Architecture Art Residency

Fig. 68 on p. 101, View over Latrun Monastery

182


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Mevo Horon, Moshav Mateh Binyamin Regional Council Area: no data Population: 1,929 Foundation: 1970

Mevo Horon is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank near Latrun. The village was established in 1970 by members of the Ezra youth movement, and was the first village in the Mateh Binyamin council area. It moved to present site in 1974. (24) Wikipedia (2013), Mevo Horon

The moshav is located in the bottleneck of the loop, described by the two lines describe of the Latrun area.

184


Mevo Horon

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Mevo Horon, Moshav noroH oveM

Mateh Binyamin Regional Council Area: no data Population: 1,929 Foundation: 1970

Mevo Horon is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank near Latrun. The village was established in 1970 by members of the Ezra youth movement, and was the first village in the Mateh Binyamin council area. It moved to present site in 1974. (25) Wikipedia (2013), Mevo Horon

The moshav is located in the bottleneck of the loop, described by the two lines describe of the Latrun area.

186


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Nataf Mateh Yehuda Regional Council Area: no data Population: 325 Foundation: 1982

Fig. 69

188


Fig. 39

Nataf

189


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Nataf Mateh Yehuda Regional Council Area: no data Population: 325 Foundation: 1982

Fig. 70

93 .giF

fataN

190


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192


Qatane

193


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enataQ

194


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Abu Gosh

Har Adar, Settlement

District of Jerusalem Area: 2,500 dunams Population: 6,270 Foundation: no data

Har Adar Local Council Area: 994 dunams Population: 3,622 Foundation: 1986

Abu Gosh is located 10 kilometers west of Jerusalem on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway. It is situated 610–720 meters above sea level. In 2010, it set the Guinness World Record for largest dish of humus. The village is also called ‘Kingdom of Humus’. It is also famous for its music festivals.

Fig. 71

Abu Gosh originates from on one of the oldest agglomerations in Israel but the name Abu Gosh finds its first mentioning during the Ottoman era. It was the name of a ruling family that settled on the site in the 16th century. The family controlled the pilgrimage route from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and imposed tolls on all pilgrims passing through.

196


Har Adar

Fig. 40

Ma’ale HaHamisha

Kiryat Anavim (“City of Grapes”)

Abu Gosh

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Abu Gosh

Har Adar, Settlement

District of Jerusalem Area: 2,500 dunams Population: 6,270 Foundation: no data

Har Adar Local Council Area: 994 dunams Population: 3,622 Foundation: 1986

Abu Gosh is located 10 kilometers west of Jerusalem on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway. It is situated 610–720 meters above sea level. In 2010, it set the Guinness World Record for largest dish of humus. The village is also called ‘Kingdom of Humus’. It is also famous for its music festivals.

radA raH

04 .giF

ahsimaHaH ela’aM

Fig. 72

Abu Gosh originates from on one of the oldest agglomerations in Israel but the name Abu Gosh finds its first mentioning during the Ottoman era. It was the name of a ruling family that settled on the site in the 16th century. The family controlled the pilgrimage route from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and imposed tolls on all pilgrims passing through.

mivanA tayriK )”separG fo ytiC“(

hsoG ubA

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Bayt Surik, Area B

Mevaseret Zion

Jerusalem Governorate Area: no data Population: 4,306 Foundation: before 1596

District of Jerusalem Area: 6,390 dunams Population: 25,305 Foundation: 1951

Fig. 73

Fig. 74

200


Bidu

Bayt Surik

Fig. 41

Fig. 42

Mevaseret Zion

201


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udiB

Bayt Surik, Area B

Mevaseret Zion

Jerusalem Governorate Area: no data Population: 4,306 Foundation: before 1596

District of Jerusalem Area: 6,390 dunams Population: 25,305 Foundation: 1951

kiruS tyaB

Fig. 75

14 .giF

24 .giF

noiZ teresaveM

Fig. 76

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Bayt Iksa, Area B

Ramot

Jerusalem Governorate Area: 7,734 dunams Population: 2,099 Foundation: before 1596

East Jerusalem Area: no data Population: 50,000 Foundation: 1974

“In June 1967, following the 1967 War, Israel annexed 70 square kilometers to the municipal boundaries of West Jerusalem, and imposed Israeli law there. These annexed territories included not only the part of Jerusalem that had been under Jordanian rule, but also an additional 64 square kilometers, most of which had belonged to 28 villages in the West Bank, and part of which belonged to the municipalities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala. Following their annexation, the area of West Jerusalem tripled, and Jerusalem became the largest city in Israel. In setting the borders, the committee’s objective was to strengthen Israeli sovereignty over the city by creating a Jewish majority. In order to ensure that, the primary consideration was to prevent the inclusion of heavily-populated Palestinian areas within Jerusalem. Whereas several Palestinian villages were placed outside the city, some of their lands were included within the city’s new borders, examples being Beit Iksa and Beit Hanina in the north, and detached areas lying in the municipalities of Bethlehem and Beit Sahur in the south. “ (26) B’Tselem(2013), Legal Status of East Jerusalem and its Residents

On the expropriated grounds Israel built the eight ‘Ring Neighborhoods’, forming a half circle around central Jerusalem/ al-Quds. This fragmented the Palestinian parts of the city into smaller, controllable areas, enclosing them from one another and from their Hinterland. Ramot Polin is part of the Jewish settlement Ramot in Northern East Jerusalem and one of the Ring Neighborhoods. When it was established in 1974, the population was 70% secular. Since 2000, Ramot Alef, Gimel and Daled have become Haredi, and the percentage of Orthodox Jews in whole Ramot Alon has risen to 75%. The first neighborhoods built after 1967 were Ramot, French Hill, Neve Yaakov, Pisgat Ze’ev, East Talpiot, and Gilo. In the 1990s, Ramat Shlomo in the North and Har Homa in the South followed. After the annexation, Israel conducted a census in the areas, which were mainly populated by Palestinians and granted permanent residency status to those who were present in the annexed area at the time the census was taken. Persons not present in the city for whatever reason forever lost their right to reside in Jerusalem. But also residency statuses have been revoked, when a person is not able to prove its center of life being in Jerusalem. Approximately 14,000 East Jerusalem Palestinians had their residency revoked between 1967 and mid 2010 (not including dependent children). Until 2003 it was possible for Palestinians from other places in the Occupied Territories to gain a permanent residency through marriage. Although the permanent residency was not automatically transferred, the spouses could apply for family unification. The application process for family reunification has become virtually impossible since 2003, when Israel introduced the Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order). Since then Palestinians from other places than Jerusalem/ al-Quds are entirely prohibited from residing in Jerusalem. If a Palestinian Jerusalemite leaves Jerusalem to reside with his family in the West Bank he automatically loses his Permanent Residency and all attending privileges, such as the right to live, travel, work and study in Israel. 204


Har Shmu’el

Ramot Polin

East Jerusalem

Bayt Iksa

Jerusalem Giv’at Sha’ul Cemetery

West Jerusalem 205


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

le’umhS raH

Bayt Iksa, Area B

Ramot

Jerusalem Governorate Area: 7,734 dunams Population: 2,099 Foundation: before 1596

East Jerusalem Area: no data Population: 50,000 Foundation: 1974

“In June 1967, following the 1967 War, Israel annexed 70 square kilometers to the municipal boundaries of West Jerusalem, and imposed Israeli law there. These annexed territories included not only the part of Jerusalem that had been under Jordanian rule, but also an additional 64 square kilometers, most of which had belonged to 28 villages in the West Bank, and part of which belonged to the municipalities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala. Following their annexation, the area of West Jerusalem tripled, and Jerusalem became the largest city in Israel. In setting the borders, the committee’s objective was to strengthen Israeli sovereignty over the city by creating a Jewish majority. In order to ensure that, the primary consideration was to prevent the inclusion of heavily-populated Palestinian areas within Jerusalem. Whereas several Palestinian villages were placed outside the city, niloP tomaR some of their lands were included within the city’s new borders, examples being Beit melasureJ tsIksa aE and Beit Hanina in the north, and detached areas lying in the municipalities of Bethlehem and Beit Sahur in the south. “ (27) B’Tselem(2013), Legal Status of East Jerusalem and its Residents

askI tyaB

On the expropriated grounds Israel built the eight ‘Ring Neighborhoods’, forming a half circle around central Jerusalem/ al-Quds. This fragmented the Palestinian parts of the city into smaller, controllable areas, enclosing them from one another and from their Hinterland. Ramot Polin is part of the Jewish settlement Ramot in Northern East Jerusalem and one of the Ring Neighborhoods. When it was established in 1974, the population was 70% secular. Since 2000, Ramot Alef, Gimel and Daled have become Haredi, and the percentage of Orthodox Jews in whole Ramot Alon has risen to 75%. The first neighborhoods built after 1967 were Ramot, French Hill, Neve Yaakov, Pisgat Ze’ev, East Talpiot, and Gilo. In the 1990s, Ramat Shlomo in the North and Har Homa in the South followed. After the annexation, Israel conducted a census in the areas, which were mainly populated by Palestinians and granted permanent residency status to those who were present in the annexed area at the time the census was taken. Persons not present in the city for whatever reason forever lost their right to reside in Jerusalem. But also residency statuses have been revoked, when a person is not able to prove its center of life being in Jerusalem. Approximately 14,000 East Jerusalem Palestinians had their residency revoked between 1967 and mid 2010 (not including dependent children). Until 2003 it was possible for Palestinians from other places in the Occupied Territories to gain a permanent residency through marriage. Although the permanent residency was not automatically transferred, the spouses could apply for family unification. The application process for family reunification has become virtually impossible since 2003, when Israel introduced the Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order). Since then Palestinians from other places than Jerusalem/ al-Quds are entirely prohibited from residing in Jerusalem. If a Palestinian Jerusalemite leaves Jerusalem to reside with his family in the West Bank he automatically loses his Permanent Residency temeC lu’ahS ta’viG melasureJ and all attending privileges, such as theyreright to live, travel, work and study in Israel.

melasureJ tseW

206


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Jerusalem/ al-Quds Jerusalem Area: 126,000 dunams Population: 804.355 (2013) Foundation: 19th cent. BC

According to the Jerusalem municipality the first known mention of Jerusalem is to be found in Egyptian texts from the nineteenth century BC.

Fig. 77 on p. 119, View from Museum on the Seam

In the aftermath of the first Arab-Israeli war, Israel proclaimed Jerusalem, the holiest site for the Jews, as its capital. After the occupation of East Jerusalem by the Israeli army in 1967 the government of Prime Ministers Levi Eshkol annexed 70 square kilometers of land and included 69,000 Palestinians to the western part of Jerusalem. The new municipal area was supposed to unite the Israeli city of West Jerusalem, the Old City former administrated by Jordan, other former Jordanian districts, some Arab villages, their fields and desert spots to a ‘holy, eternal and indivisible Jewish capital’. (28) Weizman (2007), Hollow Land (Jerusalem: Petrifying the Holy City)

The majority of the international community however has never acknowledged Jerusalem as the Israeli capital. Most diplomatic representations are therefore located in Tel Aviv. Also the Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Dome of the Rocks/ Haram al-Sharif, the third holiest site in Islam, as their capital. Yassir Arafat established the PLO West Bank headquarters in Ramallah. Although considered an interim solution, Ramallah assumed the role, marked out for East Jerusalem in the Palestinians’ statehood plans, hosting almost all governmental headquarters.

208


Beit Hanina

Shuafat

Ramot

Ramat Shlomo (“Solomon’s Heights)

East Jerusalem

Ramat Eshkol

West Jerusalem 209


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land aninaH tieB

Jerusalem/ al-Quds Jerusalem Area: 126,000 dunams Population: 804.355 (2013) Foundation: 19th cent. BC

According to the Jerusalem municipality the first known mention of Jerusalem is to be found in Egyptian texts from the nineteenth century BC.

tafauhS

tomaR

omolhS tamaR )sthgieH s’nomoloS“(

melasureJ tsaE

Fig. 78 on p. 119, View from Museum on the Seam

In the aftermath of the first Arab-Israeli war, Israel proclaimed Jerusalem, the holiest site for the Jews, as its capital. After the occupation of East Jerusalem by the Israeli army in 1967 the government of Prime Ministers Levi Eshkol annexed 70 square kilometers of land and included 69,000 Palestinians to the western part of Jerusalem. The new municipal area was supposed to unite the Israeli city of West Jerusalem, the Old City former administrated by Jordan, other former Jordanian districts, some Arab villages, their fields and desert spots to a ‘holy, eternal and indivisible Jewish capital’. (29) Weizman (2007), Hollow Land (Jerusalem: Petrifying the Holy City)

The majority of the international community however has never acknowledged Jerusalem as the Israeli capital. Most diplomatic representations are therefore located in Tel Aviv.

lokhsE tamaR

Also the Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Dome of the Rocks/ Haram al-Sharif, the third holiest site in Islam, as their capital. Yassir Arafat established the PLO West Bank headquarters in Ramallah. Although considered an interim solution, Ramallah assumed the role, marked out for East Jerusalem in the Palestinians’ statehood plans, hosting almost all governmental headquarters.

melasureJ tseW 210


211


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

No-Man’s-Land of Jerusalem “Between the two lines lies a fuzzy space, a buffer zone in which both communities fear to implement radical change. If they did it might start a riot, because it would shift the imagined lines of control.” (30) Sorkin, Khosla (2002), The next Jerusalem (The new Canaanites), p. 79

The No-Man’s-Land, originally one area from where today is Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut until south of Jerusalem is described as the area between the Green Line and the Red Line. In April 1949 Armistice Agreements new alterations divided the No-Man’sLand into two parts. In the area of Abu Gosh the No-Man’s-Land got almost equally divided among Jordan and Israel and replaced by one demarcation line. In Jerusalem it remained.

Fig. 79 View from Damascus Gate

The contested No-Man’s-Land, to which neither side was permitted access lay between the lines stretched through all of the city. The only crossing was at the Mandelbaum Gate, next to the square, which today is called Mandelbaum Square. Entire streets including the buildings on it appeared within the stroke of the grease pencils. One street in the Musrara neighborhood was inside the Israeli line, but the Jordanians held, that the border ran through the middle of the street. “In another case, when a photograph of the building called Steinitz House, near the Mandelbaum Gate, was magnified, it turned out, that its eastern side was within the Jordanian area, its western side in the Israeli zone, and its southern terrace in the No-Man’s-Land. The problem was complicated by the fact that there was a Jordanian fortified position inside the house.” (31) Benvenisti (1996), City of Stone, p 59

Only in February 1955 the international Armistice Commission agreed, that the width of the line would not be included into the No-Man’s-Land, but should belong to the country bordering it, which meant for Jordan to seize all of Jerusalem’s old city walls. 212


French Hill (Giv’at Shapira)

Giv’at HaMivtar

Ramat Eshkol (“Eshkol Heights”)

Ammunition Hill (Giv’at HaTahmoshet)

Mount Scopus (Har Ha Tsofim)

East Jerusalem

West Jerusalem

Hebrew University, Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design

Mandelbaum Square

Fig. 43 Me’a Sche’arim (“hundred gates”)

HaTsanhanim

Russian Compound (Migraš ha-Rusim)

Fig. 46 Fig. 45 Fig. 44

Old City

213


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

No-Man’s-Land of Jerusalem “Between the two lines lies a fuzzy space, a buffer zone in which both communities fear to implement radical change. If they did it might start a riot, because it would shift the imagined lines of control.” (32) Sorkin, Khosla (2002), The next Jerusalem (The new Canaanites), p. 79

The No-Man’s-Land, originally one area from where today is Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut until south of Jerusalem is described as the area between the Green Line and the Red Line. In April 1949 Armistice Agreements new alterations divided the No-Man’sLand into two parts. In the area of Abu Gosh the No-Man’s-Land got almost equally divided among Jordan and Israel and replaced by one demarcation line. In Jerusalem it remained.

lliH hcnerF )aripahS ta’ viG(

ratviMaH ta’viG

lokhsE tamaR )”sthgieH lokhsE“(

lliH noitinummA )tehsomhaTaH ta’viG(

supocS tnuoM )mfiosT aH raH(

Fig. 80 View from Damascus Gate

,ytisrevinU werbeH strA fo ymedacA lelazeB ngiseD dna

The contested No-Man’s-Land, to which neither side was permitted access lay between the lines stretched through all of the city. The only crossing was at the Mandelbaum Gate, next to the square, which today is called Mandelbaum Square. Entire streets melasureJ tsaE melasureJ tseW including the buildings on it appeared within the stroke of the grease pencils. One street in the Musrara neighborhood was inside the Israeli line, but the Jordanians held, that the border ran through the middle of the street. erauqS muablednaM “In another case, when a photograph of the building called Steinitz House, near the Mandelbaum Gate, was magnified, it turned out, that its eastern side was within the Jordanian area, its western side in the Israeli zone, and its34southern terrace in the .giF mira’ehcS a’eM No-Man’s-Land. The problem was complicated by the fact that there was a Jordanian )”setag derdnuh“( fortified position inside the house.”

minahnasTaH

(33) Benvenisti (1996), City of Stone, p 59

Only in February 1955 the international Armistice Commission agreed, that the width of the line would not be included into the No-Man’s-Land, but should belong to the country bordering it, which meant for Jordan to seize all of Jerusalem’s old city walls. 214

ytiC dlO

64 .giF 54 .giF 44 .giF

dnuopmoC naissuR )misuR-ah šargiM(


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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

(continuation)

The Damascus Gate is the northern entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem. It is located in the width of the line on the former Jordanian side and adjacent to the No-Man’s-Land. The Old City attracts a lot of different kinds of people: religious Muslims, Jews and tourists. On Fridays when streams of Muslims pour through the gate after Friday Prayer and the same time Jews try to get to the Wailing Wall for their Shabbat Prayer there is high potential for escalations. Large squads of IDF soldiers and policemen are positioned around the Damascus Gate ready to interfere in case of disturbances, occasionally with tear gas.

Fig. 81 on p. 119, IDF Squad on Shabbat at Damascus Gate

The triangular square north of the Old City is one of the few still empty parts of the NoMan’s-Land in Jerusalem. It serves as a parking lot and a bus station for the south bound Palestinian bus lines. One major and yet controversial construction-project however, that got implemented in the area of the Jerusalemite No-Man’s-Land is the Light-rail line 1. The tracks leave West Jerusalem and enter the No-Man’s-Land at the end of Yaffa Street. It follows the demarcation lines for a couple of hundred meters, continues into East Jerusalem and ends at the Jewish settlement Pisgat Ze’ev. HaTsanhanim is the inner-city part of Highway 60, that runs from Nazareth, over Jenin, Ramallah, through Jerusalem further to Hebron and Be’er Sheva.

216


Kidron Valley

Church of holy Sepulchre

Old City

Mount of Olives

Temple Mount

Fig. 47 Mamilla

Yemin Moshe Sultan’s Pool Silwan

Kidron Valley

East Jerusalem

Abu Tor

217


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land sevilO fo tnuoM

yellaV nordiK

(continuation)

erhclupeS yloh fo hcruhC

tnuoM elpmeT

ytiC dlO

The Damascus Gate is the northern entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem. It is located 74 .giFin allimaM the width of the line on the former Jordanian side and adjacent to the No-Man’s-Land. The Old City attracts a lot of different kinds of people: religious Muslims, Jews and tourists. On Fridays when streams of Muslims pour through the gate after Friday Prayer and the same time Jews try to get to the Wailing Wall for their Shabbat Prayer there is high potential for escalations. Large squads of IDF soldiers and policemen are positioned ehsoM nimeY around the Damascus Gate ready to interfere in case of disturbances, occasionally with tear gas. looP s’natluS nawliS

yellaV nordiK

melasureJ tsaE

roT ubA

Fig. 82 on p. 119, IDF Squad on Shabbat at Damascus Gate

The triangular square north of the Old City is one of the few still empty parts of the NoMan’s-Land in Jerusalem. It serves as a parking lot and a bus station for the south bound Palestinian bus lines. One major and yet controversial construction-project however, that got implemented in the area of the Jerusalemite No-Man’s-Land is the Light-rail line 1. The tracks leave West Jerusalem and enter the No-Man’s-Land at the end of Yaffa Street. It follows the demarcation lines for a couple of hundred meters, continues into East Jerusalem and ends at the Jewish settlement Pisgat Ze’ev. HaTsanhanim is the inner-city part of Highway 60, that runs from Nazareth, over Jenin, Ramallah, through Jerusalem further to Hebron and Be’er Sheva.

218


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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Fig. 84 on p. 119

Fig. 83 on p. 121

220


German Colony (HaMoshava HaGermanit)

Talpiyot

East Talpiyot

Ramat Rachel

Sur Baher

Homat Shmuel (former: Har Homa)

221


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

ynoloC namreG )tinamreGaH avahsoMaH(

toyiplaT

toyiplaT tsaE

Fig. 85 on p. 119

lehcaR tamaR

rehaB ruS

Fig. 86 on p. 121

leumhS tamoH )amoH raH :remrof(

222


223


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Beit Safafa Southern Jerusalem Area: 1,577 dunams Population: 5,463 (2010) Foundation: before 1596

In 1949, Beit Safafa was divided in two parts by the Green Line. The southern third of the village was in the Jordanian-occupied West Bank, while the northern part, originally lay in No-Man’s-Land. After the annexation of the West Bank through Israel, Beit Safafa was integrated into Greater Jerusalem, the fences were taken down, and the two parts were reunited. Residents of southern Beit Safafa hold Jerusalem ID cards, while residents of the northern part hold Israeli citizenship.

Fig. 87

Fig. 88

224


Baka (Geulim)

Gonen

West Jerusalem

Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 48 Sharfat

Beit Zafafa

Giv’at Hamatos

East Jerusalem Gilo

225


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Beit Safafa akaB )milueG(

Southern Jerusalem Area: 1,577 dunams Population: 5,463 (2010) Foundation: before 1596 nenoG

melasureJ tseW

In 1949, Beit Safafa was divided in two parts by the Green Line. The southern third of the village was in the Jordanian-occupied West Bank, while the northern part, originally lay in No-Man’s-Land. After the annexation of the West Bank through Israel, Beit Safafa was integrated into Greater Jerusalem, the fences were taken down, and the two parts were reunited. Residents of southern Beit Safafa hold Jerusalem ID cards, while residents of the northern part hold Israeli citizenship.

94 .giF 05 .giF 84 .giF tafrahS

afafaZ tieB

sotamaH ta’ viG

Fig. 89

melasureJ tsaE oliG

Fig. 90

226


227


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

(continuation)

Beit Safafa is located between West Jerusalem and the ‘Ring Settlements’ Gilo and Har Homa. The village’s relations to Bethlehem, Beit Jala and Beit Sahour are thereby disrupted. With the new highway Route 4 being built through the village, the social and economic situation of the village will most likely deteriorate. “In the same way that this highway slices through the daily life of its Palestinian residents, it facilitates life for Jerusalem’s Jewish - and surrounding Jewish settlements - population. If the road is completed, it will connect the Gush Etzion settlement cluster south of the city to the Giv’at Ze’ev cluster in the north. Ultimately, it would Route 60 which connects Gush Etzion to Jerusalem - to Route 443, which connects several settler roads to Tel Aviv, facilitating easy access between settlers, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, further fulfilling a vision of a ‘Greater Jerusalem’ - a vision of the city as the undisputed ‘Jews-only’ capital of Israel.“ (34) Germaine (2013), Beit Safafa to be sliced by settler only highway, Palestine Monitor

Fig. 91 on p. 125, Bridge of new Highway in Beit Safafa

Fig. 92 Railway to Jerusalem

228


West Jerusalem

Biblical Zoo Fig. 51

Gilo

Alwalaja

229


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

(continuation)

Beit Safafa is located between West Jerusalem and the ‘Ring Settlements’ Gilo and Har Homa. The village’s relations to Bethlehem, Beit Jala and Beit Sahour are thereby disrupted. With the new highway Route 4 being built through the village, the social and economic situation of the village will most likely deteriorate. “In the same way that this highway slices through the daily life of its Palestinian residents, it facilitates life for Jerusalem’s Jewish - and surrounding Jewish settlements - population. If the road is completed, it will connect the Gush Etzion settlement cluster south of the city to the Giv’at Ze’ev cluster in the would Route 60 mnorth. elasUltimately, ureJ tseitW which connects Gush Etzion to Jerusalem - to Route 443, which connects several settler roads to Tel Aviv, facilitating easy access between settlers, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, further fulfilling a vision of a ‘Greater Jerusalem’ - a vision of the city as the undisputed ‘Jews-only’ capital of Israel.“ (35) Germaine (2013), Beit Safafa to be sliced by settler only highway, Palestine Monitor

ooZ lacilbiB 15 .giF

Fig. 93 on p. 125, Bridge of new Highway in Beit Safafa

oliG

ajalawlA

Fig. 94 Railway to Jerusalem

230


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Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Battir, Zone B Bethlehem Governorate Area: 8,028 dunams Population: 4,613 Foundation: before 1596

Fig. 95 View over Battir, Palestine Remembered

232


Fig. 52

Battir

233


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Battir, Zone B Bethlehem Governorate Area: 8,028 dunams Population: 4,613 Foundation: before 1596

25 .giF

Fig. 96 View over Battir, Palestine Remembered

rittaB

234


235


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

236


Battir

237


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

rittaB

238


239


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Rachel Crossing, Route 375 Near Bethlehem and Jerusalem IDF Police Corps Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers and tourist buses to Bethlehem Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

Tzur Hadassah

Wadi Fukin

Betar Illit

District of Jerusalem Area: no data Population: 6,517 Foundation: 1960

Bethlehem Governorate Area: 4,347 dunams Population: 1,358 Foundation: before 1596

Area: 4,188 dunams Population: 39,710 Foundation: 1985

Communal Settlement

Fig. 97

240

Zone C

Jewish Settlement


Mevo Beitar

Tzur Hadassah Rachel Crossing

Fig. 53

Wadi Fukin

Beitar Illit

241


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Rachel Crossing, Route 375 Near Bethlehem and Jerusalem IDF Police Corps Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers and tourist buses to Bethlehem Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day

Tzur Hadassah

Wadi Fukin

Betar Illit

District of Jerusalem Area: no data Population: 6,517 Foundation: 1960

Bethlehem Governorate Area: 4,347 dunams Population: 1,358 Foundation: before 1596

Area: 4,188 dunams Population: 39,710 Foundation: 1985

Communal Settlement

ratieB oveM

Zone C

Jewish Settlement

hassadaH ruzT gnissorC lehcaR

35 .giF

Fig. 98

nikuF idaW

tillI ratieB

242


243


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Jaba’a, Area B Bethlehem Governorate Area: 10,099 dunams Population: 1,042 Foundation: before 1596

244


Jaba’a

245


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Jaba’a, Area B Bethlehem Governorate Area: 10,099 dunams Population: 1,042 Foundation: before 1596

a’abaJ

246


247


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Surif, Area B Hebron Governorate Area: 15,034 dunams Population: 16,035 (2013) Foundation: no data

248


Surif

249


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Surif, Area B Hebron Governorate Area: 15,034 dunams Population: 16,035 (2013) Foundation: no data

firuS

250


251


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Neve Michael, Moshav Mateh Yehuda Regional Area: no data Population: 502 Foundation: 1958

252


Aviezer

Neve Michael

Al Dayr

253


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

rezeivA

Neve Michael, Moshav Mateh Yehuda Regional Area: no data Population: 502 Foundation: 1958

leahciM eveN

ryaD lA

254


255


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Aderet, Moshav Mateh Yehuda Regional Area: no data Population: 694 (2011) Foundation: 1960

256


Aderet

257


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

teredA

Aderet, Moshav Mateh Yehuda Regional Area: no data Population: 694 (2011) Foundation: 1960

258


259


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Tarqumiya Crossing, Route 35 to Hebron Near Tarqumiya in the Beit Guvrin region Operated by a Civilian Company Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers, commodities and Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Motor Vehicles: Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day Pedestrians: Monday-Thursday: 03:45-19:00 Friday: 03:45-19:00

Fig. 99

Fig. 100 Tarqumiya Crossing, Route 35 to Hebron

260


Fig. 54

Fig. 55

Tarqumiya Crossing

261


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Tarqumiya Crossing, Route 35 to Hebron Near Tarqumiya in the Beit Guvrin region Operated by a Civilian Company Pedestrians, Motor Vehicles Palestinian laborers, commodities and Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Motor Vehicles: Sunday-Saturday: 24 hours a day Pedestrians: Monday-Thursday: 03:45-19:00 Friday: 03:45-19:00

45 .giF

Fig. 101

55 .giF

gnissorC ayimuqraT

Fig. 102 Tarqumiya Crossing, Route 35 to Hebron

262


263


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

264


265


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

266


267


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shekef, Moshav Lakhish Regional Council Area: no data Population: 300 (2006) Foundation: 1981

Fig. 103

268


Fig. 56

Shekef

269


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shekef, Moshav Lakhish Regional Council Area: no data Population: 300 (2006) Foundation: 1981

Fig. 104

65 .giF

fekehS

270


271


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Beit Awwa, Zone B Hebron Governorate Area: 470 dunams Population: 9,675 (2013) Foundation: no data

Fig. 105

Fig. 106

272


Beit Awwa

Fig. 57

Sika

Fig. 58

Majd

Dayr al-’Asal al-Tahta

273


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

awwA tieB

Beit Awwa, Zone B Hebron Governorate Area: 470 dunams Population: 9,675 (2013) Foundation: no data

75 .giF

akiS

85 .giF

Fig. 107

djaM

Fig. 108

lasA’-la ryaD athaT-la

274


275


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Bayt al-Rosh al-Fawqa, Zone B Hebron Governorate Area: no data Population: 1,175 (2013) Foundation: no data

Fig. 109

276


Fig. 59

Bayt Mirsim

Bayt al-Rosh al-Fawqa

Burj

277


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Bayt al-Rosh al-Fawqa, Zone B Hebron Governorate Area: no data Population: 1,175 (2013) Foundation: no data

95 .giF

Fig. 110

misriM tyaB

hsoR-la tyaB aqwaF-la

jruB

278


279


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shomeriyya Southern District Area: no data Population: 672 (2011) Foundation: 1984

280


Shomeriyya

281


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shomeriyya Southern District Area: no data Population: 672 (2011) Foundation: 1984

ayyiremohS

282


283


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

284


285


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

286


287


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Sansana, Communal Settlement Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 244 (2006) Foundation: 1997

288


Ramadin

Har Sansana (Mount Sansana)

Sansana

289


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Sansana, Communal Settlement nidamaR Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 244 (2006) Foundation: 1997

anasnaS raH )anasnaS tnuoM(

anasnaS

290


291


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Meitar Crossing, Route 60 to Hebron South Hebron Mountains Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Aggregates Palestinians, Building materials, Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 04:00-20:00 Friday: 04:00-16:00

This is the southern crossing of the road. It passes by various smaller settlements before it arrives at the Settlement Kiryat Arba in the outskirts of Hebron.

Fig. 111 Meitar Crossing

292


Meitar Crossing

Fig. 60

Kramim

293


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Meitar Crossing, Route 60 to Hebron South Hebron Mountains Overland Crossings Authority (Ministry of Defense) Pedestrians, Aggregates Palestinians, Building materials, Israeli vehicles Opening Days and Hours Sunday-Thursday: 04:00-20:00 Friday: 04:00-16:00

This is the southern crossing of the road. It passes by various smaller settlements before it arrives at the Settlement Kiryat Arba in the outskirts of Hebron.

gnissorC ratieM

Fig. 112 Meitar Crossing

06 .giF

mimarK

294


295


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

The Northern Negev

296


Negev

297


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

The Northern Negev

vegeN

298


299


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Yatir Forest Foundation: 1965

All of the Israeli forests like the Yatir Forest are the result of major afforestation campaigns by the Jewish National Fund. Yatir forest is named after the eponymous ancient Levite city, which was located within the forest’s territory. It is located in the arid landscape of the northern Negev on the heights northeast of Be’er Sheva. The first trees were planted in 1965. Over four million trees have been planted, mostly coniferous trees - like Aleppo Pine, but also many broad leafed trees such as, Olive, Fig, Eucalyptus as well as vineyards. Many of the forests along the Green Line were planted to work as barriers. Parts of the forests were planted on sites of abandoned Arabic villages, to erase the traces of the non-Jewish presence from before 1948, especially in the ‘Green Belt’ around Jerusalem. The plantations kept the former owners from returning, and the adjacent villages from expanding. At the same time they serve as place holders for future Jewish settlements. The use of pine trees has mainly two reasons: they grow fast, and their needles overacidify the ground, which prevents new plants or animals from recurring. The forests were planted to make the ground useless for shepherds and their animals. However the plantations have a large ecological impact. Yatir Forest has proven to halt the desertification. All over Israel more than 240 million trees were planted. With that Israel is one of only two countries in the world that increased the number of trees during the 20th century. In many places Palestinians reacted with the same method on the other side of the Green Line, using olive trees as an attempt to keep settlers or the IDF from capturing Palestinian land.

300


301


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Yatir Forest Foundation: 1965

All of the Israeli forests like the Yatir Forest are the result of major afforestation campaigns by the Jewish National Fund. Yatir forest is named after the eponymous ancient Levite city, which was located within the forest’s territory. It is located in the arid landscape of the northern Negev on the heights northeast of Be’er Sheva. The first trees were planted in 1965. Over four million trees have been planted, mostly coniferous trees - like Aleppo Pine, but also many broad leafed trees such as, Olive, Fig, Eucalyptus as well as vineyards. Many of the forests along the Green Line were planted to work as barriers. Parts of the forests were planted on sites of abandoned Arabic villages, to erase the traces of the non-Jewish presence from before 1948, especially in the ‘Green Belt’ around Jerusalem. The plantations kept the former owners from returning, and the adjacent villages from expanding. At the same time they serve as place holders for future Jewish settlements. The use of pine trees has mainly two reasons: they grow fast, and their needles overacidify the ground, which prevents new plants or animals from recurring. The forests were planted to make the ground useless for shepherds and their animals. However the plantations have a large ecological impact. Yatir Forest has proven to halt the desertification. All over Israel more than 240 million trees were planted. With that Israel is one of only two countries in the world that increased the number of trees during the 20th century. In many places Palestinians reacted with the same method on the other side of the Green Line, using olive trees as an attempt to keep settlers or the IDF from capturing Palestinian land.

302


303


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

304


Yatir Forest

305


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

tseroF ritaY

306


307


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

308


Lev Yatir (“Yatir’s Heart”)

Yatir Forest

309


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

ritaY veL )”traeH s’ritaY“(

tseroF ritaY

310


311


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shani, Communal Settlement Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 442 (2011) Foundation: 1989

Fig. 113

Fig. 114

312


Fig. 61

Fig. 62

Shani

Fig. 63

Yatir Forest

313


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Shani, Communal Settlement Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 442 (2011) Foundation: 1989

inahS

36 .giF

Fig. 115

tseroF ritaY

Fig. 116

314

26 .giF

16 .giF


315


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Metsadot Yehuda/ Beit Yatir, Communal Israeli Settlement Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 399 (2011) Foundation: 1989

Fig. 117 Yatir Forest

316


Metsadot Yehuda

Fig. 64

Har Amasa

Fig. 65

317


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Metsadot Yehuda/ Beit Yatir, Communal Israeli Settlement Har Hevron Regional Council (Hebron) Area: no data Population: 399 (2011) Foundation: 1989

aduheY todasteM

Fig. 118 Yatir Forest

46 .giF

asamA raH

56 .giF

318


319


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Fig. 119 Road to Arad

Fig. 120 Road to Arad

320


321


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Fig. 121 Road to Arad

Fig. 122 Road to Arad

322


323


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

324


325


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

326


327


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

328


Negev

329


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

vegeN

330


331


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

332


Negev

333


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

vegeN

334


335


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

336


337


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

338


339


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

340


341


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

342


343


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

344


345


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

346


347


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

348


349


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

350


351


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Ein Gedi, Kibbutz Tamar Regional Council Area: no data Population: 527(2011) Foundation: 1953

The Kibbutz Ein Gedi is named after an Oasis adjacent to it. ‘Ein’ means spring and ‘gdi’ means goat-kid. The Oasis is fed by the spring Nahal David, which is famous for its waterfalls and pools.

352


Nahal Arugot Waterfalls

Ein Gedi (“Spring of the young goat”)

353


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Ein Gedi, Kibbutz Tamar Regional Council Area: no data Population: 527(2011) Foundation: 1953

The Kibbutz Ein Gedi is named after an Oasis adjacent to it. ‘Ein’ means spring and ‘gdi’ means goat-kid. The Oasis is fed by the spring Nahal David, which is famous for its waterfalls and pools.

togurA lahaN sllafretaW

ideG niE eht fo gnirpS“( )”taog gnuoy

354


355


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Fig. 123 Dead Sea

356


Dead Sea

Fig. 66

Nahal David Waterfalls

357


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

aeS daeD

66 .giF

Fig. 124 Dead Sea

divaD lahaN sllafretaW

358


359


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Overview 49

47 45

51 55

57

41

43

39

53

37 35

Umm al-Fahm

33

Barta‘a

59

31 61 63 65

Tulkarm

67 69 71 73 75

Qalqiliya 77 79

Rosh HaAyin

81 83 85 87 89

97

95

91 93

Modi’inMaccabim-Re’ut

107 99 109 105 101 103 111 113 115 117 119

131129

121 127 125 123

Jerusalem

133 135

Beitar Illit

139 137 141 143 145 147 149

191 189

151 185

153

183 181

155 157

360

159 161163 165 167 169 171 173

175 177

179

187

29

27

25

23


Atlas

Key Recognized Red Line including 80 m width

Countries Capitals

Recognized Green Line including 80 m width

City >100.000 inhabitants

No-man’s-land

Town <100.000 inhabitants

Separation Barrier 2003

Small Town <20.000 inhabitants Villages <5.000 inhabitants

The colour band is the digital interpretation of the original pencil stroke.

Rivers

Checkpoints

Moshe Dayan

Neighborhoods

Special Sites

The photographs show the intersections of the Green Line and the different physical realities. They mark the spots where the Green is regularly accessible. The green band projected onto the landscapes refers to the Benvenistiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 80 meters.

Abdullah al-Tal

Lines continue this way Scale 1:15.000

0m

500 m

361


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

yeK

Overview 49

47 45

51

seirtnuoC59

55

57

41

43

39

53

37 35

Umm al-Fahm

eniL deR dezingoceR htdiw m 08 gnidulcni

33

Barta‘a

slatipa61C

31

stnatibahni 000.001> yt63iC

29

27

e25 niL neerG dezingoceR htd23iw m 08 gnidulcni dnal-s’nam-oN

65

stnatibahni 000.001< nwoT Tulkarm stnatibahni 000.02< nwo67 T llam S

3002 reirraB noitarapeS

69

stnatibahni 000.5< segalliV

latigid eht si dnab ruoloc ehT lanigiro eht fo noitaterpretni .ekorts licnep

71 73

sreviR

75

Qalqiliya

stniopkcehC

77

nayaD ehsoM

79sdoohrobhgieN

Rosh HaAyin

81

setiS laicepS

83

fo snoitcesretni eht wohs shpargot85ohp ehT lacisyhp tnereffid eht dna eniL neerG eht eht erehw stops eht kram yehT87.seitilaer .elbissecca ylraluger s89i neerG -dnal eht otno detcejorp dnab neerg91ehT .sretem 08 s’itsinevneB eht ot srefer sepacs 97

95

93

laT-la halludbA

Modi’inMaccabim-Re’ut

107 99 109 105 101 103 111 113 115 117 119

131129

yaw siht eunitnoc seniL

121 m 005 127 125 123

Jerusalem m0

133 135

Beitar Illit

139 137 141 143 145 147 149

191 189

151 185

153

183 181

155 157

362

159 161163 165 167 169 171 173

175 177

179

187

000.51:1 elacS


Atlas

363


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Sources (1) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company, Updated in 2009, Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 10/09/2013 (2) Meron Benvenisti (1996) City of Stone, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, University of California Press (3) Harriet Sherwood (2013), Israeli and Palestinian textbooks omit borders, The Guardian,

Reading: • Moshe Dayan (1976) Story of My Life, German Edition, Ulm, Molden-TaschenbuchVerlag • Markus Schroer (2006 ) Räume, Orte, Grenzen , fourth Edition (2012), Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp • Israeli Street Atlas, Hebrew 2013 • AVIS Israel Touring Map

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/feb/04/israeli-palestinian-textbooksborders, 12/09/2013 (4) Akiva Eldar (2006), Putting back the Green Line - once we find it, Haaretz, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/putting-back-the-green-lineonce-we-find-it-1.206551, 12/09/2013 (5) Mark Monmonier (1991) How to Lie with Maps, second Edition (1996), USA,

Numbers and facts on Cities: • The Central Bureau of Statistics Israel, http://www.cbs.gov.il/ishuvim/ishuv2011/bycode.xls, 18/08/2013 • Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, www.pcbs.gov.ps, 18/08/2013 • Palestine Remembered, http://www.palestineremembered.com, 18/08/2013

The University of Chicago Press (6) The Land Research Center (2003), Impact of the Segregation Wall on the Palestinian communities - The village of Faqu’a strangled by the Wall, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories,

Numbers and facts on Crossings: • Coordination of Government Activities in the Territories, http://www.cogat.idf.il, 12/09/2013

http://www.poica.org/editor/case_studies/view.php?recordID=313, 12/09/2013 (7) Lydia Aisenberg (no data), On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine, http://esra-magazine.com/blog/post/either-side-divide, 25/08/2013 (8) Lydia Aisenberg (no data), On Either Side of the Divide, ESRA Magazine, http://esra-magazine.com/blog/post/either-side-divide, 25/08/2013 (9) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2013), Kokhav Ya’ir, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokhav_Ya%27ir, 12/09/2013 (10) Occupied Palestine (2010), Remembering The Israeli Massacre In Kafr Qasim – Oct 29, 1956, http://occupiedpalestine.wordpress.

• Open Directory Project, http://www.dmoz.org/Regional/Middle East/Israel/ Localities/ • United Nations Relief and Works Agency, http://www.unrwa.org • Website of Jerusalem Municipality, https://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_main/ defaultnew.asp?lng=2 • Google Maps, https://maps.google.at/maps?hl=de&tab=wl • Jewish National Fund, http://www.jnf.org/

com/2010/10/29/remembering-the-54th-anniversary-of-the-israeli-massacre-

• Giv’at Haviva, http://www.givat-haviva.de

in-kafr-qasim/ 12/09/2013

• Isabel Frey (2013), Weit und breit kein Stacheldraht, Der Standard,

(11)Ora Coren (2012), European Union: Parts of Modi’in do not belong to Israel, Haaretz, http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/european-unionparts-of-modi-in-do-not-belong-to-israel-1.458222, 30/08/2013 (12) The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (2008), While debating about settlements; “Israel declared the settlement of Modi’in ‘Illit as the third Jewish city in the occupied West Bank”, Monitoring Israeli Colonizing activities in the Palestinian Territories, http://www.poica.org/editor/case_studies/view. php?recordID=1367, 19/08/2013 (13) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2013), Nahshon, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Nahshon, 19/08/2013 (14) Eyal Weizman (no data), Notes on extraterritoriality, Decolonizing Architecture Art Residency, http://www.decolonizing.ps/site/notes-on-extraterritoriality/, 12/09/2013 (15) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2013), Mevo Horon, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mevo_Horon, 19/08/2013 (16) Legal Status of East Jerusalem and its Residents (2013), B’Tselem - The Israeli

Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories

http://www.btselem.org/jerusalem/legal_status, 12/09/2013 (17) Eyal Weizman (2007) Hollow Land. Israel’s Architecture of Occupation (Jerusalem: Petrifying the Holy City), London/New York, Verso (18) Michael Sorkin, Romi Khosla (2002), The next Jerusalem: Sharing the divided city (The new Canaanites), USA, The Monacelli Press, Inc. (19) Meron Benvenisti (1996), City of Stone (The Mute Hills), Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, University of California Press (20) Anna Germaine (2013), Beit Safafa to be sliced by settler only highway, Palestine Monitor, http://palestinemonitor.org/details. php?id=7uxsuja3140ytm2qw1oe4, 12/09/2013

364

www:

http://derstandard.at/1371169957692/Weit-und-breit-kein-Stacheldraht, 19/06/2013 • Tali Heruti-Sover (2012), Arab town, both Israeli and Palestinian, divided by shopping, Haaretz, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/arab-town-bothisraeli-and-palestinian-divided-by-shopping-1.410313, 12/09/2013 • David Grossman (1988), The Yellow Wind (The other Barta’a), USA, Farrar, Straus and Giroux • ARTE Journal (2012), Nahost: In der Grenzstadt Barta’a floriert der Handel, ARTE TV http://www.arte.tv/de/nahost-in-der-grenzstadt-barta-a-floriert-derhandel/ 6533076,CmC=6533116.html, 12/09/2013


Appendix

Figures Fig. 1: Maklit Shoshan, 2010, Atlas of the Conflict Israel-Palestine, Border Dynamics, edited by Marie-Orit Theuer, Aug. 2013 Fig. 2: Marie-Orit Theuer, 2013, Green Grease Pencil Fig. 3: Palestine Remembered, 2011, Detail Map Of Palestine Before al-Nakba, http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story582.html, Aug 2013 Fig. 4: WIKIPEDIA,Moshe Dayan, 1976, Story of My Life, ISBN 0 688 03076 9 Moshe Dayan and Abdullah al Tal reach cease fire agreement, Jerusalem. 30 November 1948. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dayan_and_el_Tell.jpg, Aug. 2013 Fig. 5: Templebuilders, Map of Israel with road system http://www.templebuilders.com/maps/maphtm.htm, Jun. 2013 edited by Marie-Orit Theuer, Aug. 2013 Fig. 6: Hillel Wahrman, 2012, Thinking about Good Education http://www.hillelwahrman.com/2012/02/06/mental-maps/ Jun. 2013 Fig. 7: Hillel Wahrman, 2012, Thinking about Good Education http://www.hillelwahrman.com/2012/02/06/mental-maps/ Jun. 2013 Fig. 8-51: Marie-Orit Theuer, 2013 Fig. 52: View over Battir, Palestine Remembered, 2007, Battir-General view, http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/ Battir_839, Aug. 2013 Fig. 53-66: Marie-Orit Theuer, 2013

365


Atlas of No-Man’s-Land

Index

366

Abu Gosh 111

Homat Shmuel 123

Neve Michael 139

Abu Tor 121

Horshim 77

Neve Shalom 101

Aderet 141

Ibthan 63

Nir Eliyahu 75

Ain Al Sahila 55

Irtah 67

Nirit 77

Al Dayr 139

Israel 7

Nizanei Oz 67

al-Midya 89

Jaba’a 153

Nof Ayalon 95, 97

Alwalaja 127

Jalame 41

Old City 119, 121

Ammunition Hill 119

Jalbun 33

Oranit 77

Anin 51

Jatt 61

Qafin 59

Aviezer 139

Jerusalem 115 - 127

Qalqiliya 73, 75

Baka 125

Jordan 7

Qatane 109

Baqa al-Gharbiyye 61

Kafr Bara 77

Qibya 85

Baqa ash-Sharqiyya 61

Kafr Qasim 79

Rachel Crossing 132

Baqa-Jatt 61

Katzir-Harish 55

Ram On 45

Barak 45

Kfar HaOranim 91

Ramadin 157

Barta’a 57

Kfar Rut 91

Ramat Eshkol 117, 119

Bat Hefer 65

Khirbat Al-Taibe 51

Ramat Rachel 123

Battir 129, 131

Kidron Valley 121

Ramat Shlomo 117

Bayt al-Rosh al-Fawqa 151

Kiryat Anavim 111

Ramot 117

Bayt Iksa 115

Kiryat Sefer 91

Ramot Polin 115

Bayt Mirsim 151

Kokhav Ya’ir 71, 73

Rosh HaAyin 79

Bayt Sira 93

Kramim 159

Rumana 49

Bayt Surik 113

Latrun Monastery 101

Russian Compound 119

Bazaq Crossing 26

Lebanon 7

Salem 49

Beit Awwa 149

Lev Yatir 167

Sandala 41

Beit Hanina 117

Little Triangle 59

Sansana 157

Beit Zafafa 125

Ma’ale Gilboa 35

Saudi Arabia 7

Beitar Illit 133

Ma’ale HaHamisha 111

Shani 169

Biblical Zoo 127

Maccabim 93

Sharfat 125

Bidu 113

Maccabim Crossing 90

Sharon plain 65

Budrus 87

Maccabim-Re’ut 93

Shekef 147

Burj 151

Magen Sha’ul 41

Shomeriyya 153

Church of holy Sepulchre 121

Majd 149

Shuafat 117

Dayr al-’Asal 149

Malkishu’a 33

Sika 149

Dead Sea 191

Mamilla 121

Silwan 121

East Talpiyot 123

Matan 77

Sur Baher 123

Efrayim Taibe Checkpoint 67

Matityahu 91

Surif 137

Ein Gedi 189

Me’a Sche’arim 119

Syria 7

Ephraim Gate Crossing 66

Mei Ami 53

Ta’anakh Junction 49

Eyal 73

Meirav 33

Ta’anakh junction 48

Eyal Crossing 72

Meitar Crossing 158

Tal Menashe 53

Falame 71

Mele’a 47

Talpiyot 123

Faqu’a 35

Merkaz Omen 47

Tarqumiya Checkpoint 143

Far’un 67

Metsadot Yehuda 171

Tarqumiyah Crossing 142

French Hill 119

Mevaseret Zion 113

Tayibe 67, 68

Gadish 47

Mevo Beitar 133

Temple Mount 121

Gan Ner 39

Mevo Horon 105

Tsur Natan 69, 71

Ganei Modi’in 91

Mini Israel 99

Tulkarm 67

Gaza Strip 7

Modi’in 89

Tzur Hadassah 133

German Colony 123

Modi’in Illit 91

Tzur Yitzhak 71

Gilboa-Jalame Crossing 40

Modi’in-Maccabim-Re’ut 93, 95

Umm Al Fahm 53

Gilo 125, 127

Mount Gilboa 33

Umm Al Rihan 53

Giv’at Hamatos 125

Mount of Olives 121

Valley of Ayalon 93, 95

Giv’at Sha’ul Cemetary 115

Mount Scopus 119

Wadi Fukin 133

Givat HaMivtar 119

Muqueibila 43

West Bank 7

Gonen 125

Nahal David 191

Yad Hana 65

Hableh 77

Nahal Narbeta 55

Yarhiv 77

Har Adar 111

Nahshon 99

Yatir Forest 165, 167, 169

Har Amasa 171

Nataf 107

Yatir Forest 162

Har Sansana 157

Nazlat ‘Isa 61

Yemin Moshe 121

Har Shmu’el 115

Negev 159, 161,163, 165,…

Zeita 61

Hashmonaim 91

Neve Afek 79

Zububa 47


Appendix

Glossary 1 metric dunam: Unit to measure land in countries that once belonged to the Ottoman Empire. 1 dunam equals 1000m²

Community Settlement Type of town in Israel, where the residents are organized in a cooperative, and decide collectively who may or may

Palestinian Authority: In 1993 the Interim Self Government Arrangements, otherwise known as the Oslo I agreement, was signed by Yassir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin and determined the division of the West Bank territory into three separate administration zones.

not join the village. By this selection process, residents of a community

Area A : Under control of the Palestinian Authority. Encompasses around

settlement usually have a particular shared ideology, religious perspective,

18 percent of the West Bank including most major Palestinian cities like

or desired lifestyle which they wish to perpetuate by accepting only like-

Jenin, Nablus, Tulkarm, Ramallah and Hebron. Israeli civilians are not allowed

minded individuals. They are rural and exurban, consist mostly of single-

to enter Area A.

family homes and not apartment buildings, and are small, with only a few

Area B: Under Palestinian administrative and Israeli military control. 22

hundreds of residents. Communal settlements are gated

percent of the West Bank and comprises most Palestinian rural communities.

communities and almost entirely Jewish. Some community settlements

Area C: Under complete Israeli administrative and military control.

openly require applicants to be Jews.

Comprises with 60% the largest part of the West Bank. Area C comprises

Foundation: before 1596: Villages first documented in Ottoman tax registers 1596

Kibbutz (pl. Kibbutzim): Israeli kind of rural settlement, usually an

Israeli settlements, including roads, buffer zones, and other infrastructure, and Israeli military training areas. Less than five percent of the Palestinian population of the West Bank lives here. East Jerusalem and the entire Jordan

agricultural village, based on a collective and cooperative community. It has

Valley are located in Area C. Around 500.000 Jewish settlers live in Area C

democratic management and is responsible for the welfare of all members.

including East Jerusalem.

The ownership is shared of its means of production and consumption. The

Area A and B are subdivided into numerous disconnected cantons with no

first kibbutz, Degania, was founded by a small group of young pioneers in

territorial continuity and are surrounded by area C. Area C on the other hand

1910, on the banks of the Sea of Galilee. Since then kibbutzim have spread

is territorially contiguous and contains a vast majority of the West Bankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

across the country. The majority of kibbutzim were founded by members

natural recourses, like the aquifer and arable land.

of the Zionist Youth Movement. The land was often bought by the Jewish

In most of Area C Palestinians are denied any opportunity to build or

National Found.

develop. Since 1967 only 6 percent of the entire area C has been allocated

Moshav (pl. Moshavim): Type of cooperative agricultural community.

to Palestinians by the Civil Administration, while more than 60 percent has

The first moshav Nahalal was established in the Jezreel Valley in 1921.

been allocated to Zionist Organisations, Settlement Authorities, and the

Moshavim Ovdim rely on cooperative purchasing of supplies and marketing

Military.

of produce; the family or household is, however, the basic unit of production and consumption. Moshav Shitufi form is closer to the collectivity of the kibbutz: Although consumption is family-or household-based, production and marketing are collective. Unlike the Moshavim Ovdim, land is not allotted to households or individuals, but is collectively worked.

Nahal Settlement: a Settlement founded my Nahal Soldiers, which belong to an IDF program that combines military service with the establishment of new agricultural communities.

367


Atlas of No-Manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s-Land

Notes

368

Atlas of No-Man's-Land by Orit Theuer  

The name No-Man’s-Land refers to the territory in between the Green and the Red Line, between Israel and Palestine. Over history the bord...

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