»With junior ambassadors against doping«
Organizacija Zdru!enih narodov za izobra!evanje, znanost in kulturo United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Slovenska nacionalna komisija za UNESCO Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO
Introduction Project »With junior ambassadors against doping« is an educational project in the field of fight against doping, especially targeting adolescents who are looking to take their sports careers to competitive and professional level. The project also indirectly addresses all other stakeholders that create and shape the environment for young athletes, as well as all recreational athletes and participants in mass sporting events in Slovenia. It is a comprehensive project the objective of which is to create conditions for doping‐free sport in a longer period of time. The project should be implemented so as to affect the young in educational institutions on the one hand, and those in sporting organizations where sports activities are performed on the other. It should also affect the young through various means of raising awareness and informing, through public media and modern social networks. » With junior ambassadors against doping« is a project that is developing and shaping a new network of young athletes that believe in a sound mind in a healthy body and reject any thought of using doping substances to enhance their athletic prowess. The project is a model of creating a network of sports enthusiasts. Through peer‐to‐peer network, they are directly and indirectly building a network in which sport and its values are something worth sacrificing one's free time for. It is a network of enthusiasts that fight for ethical and moral values of honest and fair participation in sports. The great value of the project is its apparent simplicity that enables a low‐budget implementation on the one hand, and promotes voluntary participation of young in a healthy teamwork environment on the other. Educational teams are being established that help reach the project objectives with the help of examples of good practice. The next objective of the project is its upgrade and application in other fields where the awareness of the young needs to be raised (e.g. illegal drugs, etc.). The upgraded project could also be offered to neighbouring countries in the region and perhaps even wider.
Project structure and its management
The project management is based on anti‐doping regulations of the World Anti‐Doping Agency, on knowledge and experience gained within SLOADO (Slovenian Anti‐Doping Organization), on examples of good practice obtained through the past work of anti‐doping junior ambassadors (EADIn project), and on their models and techniques used during the first year and now serving as the guideline for the project.
1. STARTING POINTS The vision of project »With junior ambassadors against doping« is to create a generation of young athletes competing in a doping‐free sporting environment. This vision will be implemented with the help of junior ambassadors. Being an ambassador of the anti‐doping generation means acting and contributing to the development and facilitation of movement for doping‐free sport. The fundamental mission of the project is to create a network within which the ambassadors directly support and facilitate the awareness‐raising campaign among peers in sporting organizations in their own sports. The awareness and understanding of dangers of prohibited substances and methods among the young in sports is very poor. The finding is based on the fact that most sporting organizations in the country do not implement programmes through which young athletes could be familiarized and informed of the dangers of doping. Moreover, the anti‐doping topics are not incorporated in public education in schools and university programmes. Together with SLOADO campaign »Doping defines you. For everlife!«, the project has the potential to affect each and every sports enthusiast in Slovenia, regardless of the level of their involvement in sports. Namely, doping has long been an issue not only in professional sport, but also in recreational sport and among adolescents who are concerned with their physical appearance.
1.1 SWOT ANALYSIS The current state in Slovenia can be presented with the following SWOT analysis:
In order to successfully implement the project, the following strategies will have to be taken into consideration: ‐ advantage should be taken of the good structure of sporting organizations and past experience of ambassadors to build an efficient network of ambassadors, raising awareness among young athletes in sports clubs and national sports federations; ‐ advantage should also be taken of the favourable public climate regarding the harmful effects of doping and its unacceptability in the sporting public when it comes to development of clean sport; ‐ a training model for new junior ambassadors coming from national sports federations and being responsible for their own fields should be developed; ‐ models for raising awareness within sports communities should also be established; ‐ health of athletes should be protected against the aggressive market communication activities of suspicious manufacturers of food supplements.
1.2 STAKEHOLDERS ANALYSIS The project is directly targeting an anti‐doping organization that selects and trains junior ambassadors, thus acquiring new professional staff in the field of fight against doping. The project indirectly involves athletes ‐ students of secondary schools and gymnasiums with sport departments, members of junior national teams, club members of individual national sports federations, athletes' entourage, and participants in big sporting events. These are the ones the ambassadors will share their knowledge with. The implementation and participation in the project will have a positive effect on the organization implementing the project, on the entire community, and especially on the sports sector, which will benefit from new personnel (ambassadors) with anti‐doping knowledge, and from higher awareness of all sports stakeholders at recreational and professional level. The organization managing the project will acquire invaluable experience in the field of training. It will meet the set objectives and educate a group of lecturers (anti‐doping junior ambassadors) that will continue to be active in the field of anti‐doping education and awareness‐raising, thus increasing the number of athletes who are aware of the harmful effects of doping. The lecturers will also play a major role in the sports sector. The implementation of such a project in a community reinforces its social structure, facilitates sustainable development, supports integration and actively involves a greater number of (young) people. Positive effects on the sports sector will be evident in higher awareness among young athletes and their entourage, resulting in less frequent abuse of doping in the long run, revitalization of sport values, voluntary work and empowerment of young. Moreover, awareness‐raising programmes in big sporting events raise awareness of the entire sporting public, especially of the recreational athletes the number of which has significantly increased in Slovenia in the last years (e.g. more than 20.000 recreational athletes participated in the Ljubljana marathon). In view of the analysis of the EADIn project, conducted in Slovenia in 2011 and beginning of 2012, it can be concluded that a total of 1437 athletes aged between 14 and 18, and coming from different sports were included in the educational and awareness‐raising programme, implemented at 20 different sporting and educational institutions. In addition to that, two WADA Outreach Programmes were conducted, namely at the World Rowing Championship in Bled in 2011, and European Athletic Meeting in Velenje in 2012. A total of 389 athletes and their entourage from 53 countries participated in the programmes. Since project "With junior ambassadors against doping" is an upgrade of the EADIn project, it can be anticipated to affect even a greater number of athletes and institutions.
CHART 1: Analysis of athletes included in the EADIn project
The analysis of athletes included in the EADIn project shows that the majority of athletes were students of secondary schools and gymnasiums with sport departments. EYOF and YOG participants were also involved in the project. The programme also included junior teams of the Ski Association of Slovenia ‐ SAS (Alpine skiing), of the Football Association of Slovenia ‐ NZS (U17 and U19 Slovenia women's national football team) and of the Basketball Federation of Slovenia ‐ KZS (U17 and U18 Slovenia men's national basketball team). A high number of athletes and their entourage were included in the Outreach Programmes at the World Rowing Championship in Bled, and European Athletic Meeting in Velenje. CHART 2: Analysis of sporting and educational institutions included in the EADIn project
The analysis of institutions involved in the EADIn project shows that 14 out of 17 secondary schools and gymnasiums with sport departments participated in the project. Moreover, lectures were held for all junior national teams within NOC (EYOF and YOG). However, the focus of project »With junior ambassadors against doping« should be placed especially on national sports federations and sports clubs, which is something that has not been fully achieved within the EADIn project.
1.3 PROBLEM ANALYSIS 1.3.1 Problem analysis in public education
Problem analysis in public education shows a lack of anti‐doping contents on all levels of public education. Lack of anti‐doping contents in secondary school education directly results in poor understanding of doping among the young when they are most sensitive. In order to achieve better results and improve their physical appearance, the young often turn to use and abuse of prohibited substances and various food supplements, which has been confirmed by numerous researches, in the USA in particular. In the USA, the issue has been addressed with a programme of biological sample testing in secondary schools, which is not yet possible in Slovenia. However, the awareness‐raising programmes may reduce the use of prohibited substances among secondary school students to some extent. Lack of anti‐doping contents in higher education programmes, especially at the Faculty of Sport, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Pharmacy, indirectly affects the athletes, since graduates of respective faculties act as their trainers, general practitioners and entourage. They come into contact with athletes at different times throughout their sporting careers. Their poor knowledge of the issue has been clearly presented in study Auersperger, I., Topič, M.D., Maver, P., Pušnik, V.K., Osredkar, J., Lainščak, M.: Doping awareness, views, and experience: a comparison between general practitioners and pharmacists. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2011 Oct.28; 124(1‐2):32–8, in which it has been established that 47.3% of Slovenian general practitioners lack proper understanding of doping, while only 2.3% possess very good knowledge of the issue. A total of 645 general practitioners and 330 pharmacists participated in the study. The percentage of pharmacists with very poor knowledge of the issue was slightly lower (35.2%), while the percentage of those with very good knowledge was slightly higher (5.6%) than with general practitioners.
1.3.2 Problem analysis in sports sector
Lack of awareness‐raising programmes in sports clubs and national sports federations is a result of the lack of anti‐doping topics in the training programmes for professional personnel in sports. The awareness of the threat doping presents to athletes is thus too low among professional staff in sports. Absence of programmes may also be attributed to limited financial resources, since sports clubs and national sports federations use their resources for training processes rather than for awareness‐raising programmes.
1.3.3 Consequences of inadequate knowledge of doping ATHLETES: Their lack of knowledge about doping is seen in their unfamiliarity with prohibited substances and methods, in their "inadvertent" doping through food supplements, abuse of over‐ the‐counter medication and excessive use of food supplements. ENTOURAGE: Their lack of knowledge about doping results in poor counsel provided to athletes regarding food supplements and medicines. At worst, it may result in intentional doping of athletes. RECREATIONAL ATHLETES AND THE ENTIRE SPORTING PUBLIC: Low awareness among recreational athletes may lead to inappropriate use of food supplements and abuse of prohibited substances with the purpose of achieving better results at recreational sporting events. The substances may be abused to improve one's self‐image and physical appearance (losing weight, bodybuilding).
1.4 CHALLENGES It is anticipated that two bigger challenges will arise within the project. The first challenge will undoubtedly be the selection of ambassadors whose future duties will be of utmost importance. Therefore, it is important that ambassadors are sports enthusiasts, if not athletes themselves, who are ambitious, willing to work (even voluntarily), reject any thought of using prohibited
substances, and have enough free time to conduct educational and awareness‐raising programmes. In our opinion and based on experience in the EADIn project, the second challenge will be communication with national sports federations and their motivation to participate in the implementation of educational and awareness‐raising programmes (only a few national sports federations participated in the EADIn project). Another challenge will be motivating national sports federations to implement, together with the qualified ambassadors, awareness‐raising programmes in their member sports clubs.
One of the challenges will be the upgrading of the project and its use as a model for raising awareness among the young, offered to countries in the region.
2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES a) GENERAL OBJECTIVES The general objective of the project is to shape and create a “play true” generation of young athletes over a longer period of time. The objective could be reached with the help of anti‐doping ambassadors. This would be a generation of athletes that believe in a sound mind in a healthy body and reject any thought of using doping to enhance their athletic prowess. The project is a model of creating a network of anti‐doping junior ambassadors. Through peer‐to‐ peer network and educational as well as awareness‐raising programmes, they are directly and indirectly building a network in which sports and its values are something worth sacrificing one's free time for. It is a network of enthusiasts that fight for ethical and moral values of honest and fair participation in sports. Through awareness‐raising programmes conducted at major sporting events in Slovenia (Ljubljana marathon, Marathon Franja, etc.), the sporting public could be familiarized with dangers and consequences of doping. b) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The specific objective of the project is to select and train a group of junior ambassadors, who will widen the network of athletes in national sports federations, secondary schools and gymnasiums, who are increasingly aware of the dangers of doping. In order to meet this objective, several intermediate objectives need to be set: ‐ selection of ambassadors (in cooperation with national sports federations); ‐ preparation of the contents and material required for the training of ambassadors, and the training implementation; ‐ preparation of the contents and material (presentations, informative material) that ambassadors will hand out to athletes; ‐ organization of awareness‐raising programmes at major sporting events.
3 JUNIOR AMBASSADOR TRAINING MODEL Junior ambassadors are the fundamental group of the project that will undergo a training programme and become qualified to implement programmes in sports clubs and national sports federations. The selection of ambassadors is conducted through publication of positions in cooperation with national sports federations. Prior to the publication, a meeting is held with representatives of national sports federations and other future project partners, at which the project and criteria for selection of ambassadors are presented. Candidates for junior ambassadors have to meet the following criteria: ‐ they are members of sports clubs and can join the project through national sports federations; ‐ they are aged between 18 and 22; ‐ they were active athletes (past or present athletes); ‐ they are former athletes who are focusing on pedagogical or coaching work in their club or national sports federation; ‐ they have excellent communication skills; ‐ they have an understanding of work management and teamwork; ‐ they are willing to work voluntarily.
30 ambassadors need to be selected for the purpose of project implementation (in addition to 14 who worked within the EADIn project and will now assume the role of tutors to new ambassadors), half of them female, half male. It is desirable that federations with more members or those at greater risk of doping, propose a greater number of ambassadors, which would make the work at later stages of the project much easier (e.g. there are 4 ambassadors (2 pairs) at the Basketball Federation of Slovenia, who are responsible for education and awareness‐raising in all clubs, members of KZS).
The selection of candidates is conducted on the basis of individual interviews with candidates, and their references.
4 METHODS OF WORK
4.1 PROJECT TEAM There are two teams cooperating within the project: ‐ educational team, consisting of SLOADO legal, medical and sport experts who will devise the programme and train the selected junior ambassadors. Name and Surname Reference Jani Dvoršak Head of Anti‐Doping Department Prof. Joško Osredkar, PhD UMC Ljubljana, Chairman of TUEC Nina Makuc, PhD SLOADO ‐ Coordinator for ADAMS and Education Lovro Žiberna, PhD Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana Asst. Prof. Tadej Malovrh, Institute of Microbiology and Parasitology, Veterinary Faculty, PhD University of Ljubljana Klemen Žiberna, MD UMC Ljubljana Jana Frank, PhD International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Trieste Klemen Španinger, PhD Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana Rok Košir, PhD Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana Maja Benedičič Competed in Turin 2006 Winter Olympic Games Tadeja Brankovič Likozar Competed in Olympic Games between 1998 and 2010 ‐ a team of junior ambassadors ‐ tutors, who finished the EADIn programme (within the EADIn project, they underwent a training programme in Heidelberg and attended the final conference in Innsbruck) and, last year, conducted the awareness‐raising programme in sport departments of Slovenian secondary schools and in junior EYOF, YOG teams. This team of ambassadors will provide counsel, coordination and help in the induction of new ambassadors. Name and Surname Reference Karmen Gec Professor of Sports Education Tadej Jug Student of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, basketball coach Blaž Jug Student of the Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana Veronika Dvoršak Student of the Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, former athlete Maruša Končar Student of the Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, former athlete Danej Navrboc Student of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, member of national luge team Nina Miloševič Student of the Faculty of Education, University of Maribor, member of national judo team, European junior champion Tjaša Hojnik Student of the Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, national champion in pole vault Tjaša Logar Handball player Jan Družina Student of the Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, ski jumping coach Matej Drinovec Member of the national team in Nordic combined. Luka Pirec Student of the Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Maribor, water polo coach Ana Stošič Student of the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, athlete Sebastian Bauman Student of the Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, cycling coach
4.2 ORGANIZATION On the basis of the ambassador selection model (Chapter 3), a training programme in the form of a 3‐day educational camp should be organized for selected ambassadors. The camp is organized by SLOADO. The camp takes place in one of the sports centres in Slovenia. The aim of the camp is to disseminate knowledge about the fight against doping among junior ambassadors, and to improve and consolidate their communication skills. The programme incorporates theoretical lectures and practical workshops. Former top athletes share their experience with participants. The educational team will prepare the material, presentations and workshops for junior ambassadors. A handbook for ambassadors and equipment required for project implementation will also be made available. Programme contents: ‐ the biggest doping scandals in the world (GDR and Armstrong); ‐ national fight against doping in Slovenia and world anti‐doping programme; ‐ national and international anti‐doping regulations; ‐ international standards ‐ list of prohibited substances and methods, and Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE); ‐ doping control; ‐ effects of doping on the health of athletes; ‐ dangers of food supplements; ‐ healthy diet; ‐ experience of former top athletes. Practical workshops will incorporate anti‐doping topics and a variety of skills the ambassadors will be using in their work. These are communication, management, group management skills, etc. The educational team shall also prepare the contents, presentations, workshops and informative material the ambassadors will hand out to athletes. The contents include all the basics of the fight against doping, while workshops are intended for active involvement of participants by presenting their arguments for or against doping. The workshops represent practical situations in which the participants may find themselves. Their objective is to prepare athletes for real‐life situations. Informative material shall contain general information on the fight against doping (organization, doping control, therapeutic use exemptions, dangers of doping, etc.). It will be received by all project participants. In addition to informative material, Dangers of Doping poster (as designed by WADA) shall be designed and displayed in visible locations in every school so that other students of the respective school see it as well.
4.3 COMMUNICATION AND PROMOTION Purpose of communication channel use: • Project presentation • Provision of news regarding the project • Project promotion • Raising awareness of the fight against doping among target groups The most important objectives of communication and promotion: • Raising awareness of the dangers of doping among young athletes • Raising awareness of the issue of doping among young athletes
Raising awareness among sporting public (recreational athletes, visitors to sporting events, etc.) Raising awareness among general public
Communication during project implementation: • Internal communication • External communication • Communication with target groups o is aimed at project promotion.
Means/method of communication: Different communication means Adapted to different target and age groups Directed at the project's main message Television Radio Printed media Websites www.sloado.si Websites of project partners Social networks www.facebook.com/sloado Twitter SLOADO‐anti doping You Tube SLOADO European Athletics – UNESCO Young Leaders Community Promotional World Rowing Championship, Bled 2011 activities at International EA Meeting, Velenje 2012 sporting events Printed material Brochures, leaflets Handbook for ambassadors Danger of Doping poster Advertising campaign »Doping defines you« • • •
4.4 PROJECT PARTNERS The following partners participate in the project: ‐ national sports federations ‐ in ambassador selection ‐ communication regarding the implementation, and the implementation of educational programmes and programmes for raising awareness among junior national teams ‐ implementation of awareness‐raising programmes in sports clubs that are members of individual national sports federation ‐ OCS ‐ communication regarding the implementation, and the implementation of educational programmes and programmes for raising awareness among EYOF and YOG national teams ‐ Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport ‐ provision of support for the awareness‐raising programme in secondary schools and gymnasiums ‐ SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND GYMNASIUMS WITH SPORT DEPARTMENTS ‐ communication regarding the implementation, and the implementation of awareness‐ raising programme in sport departments ‐ ORGANIZERS OF MAJOR SPORTING EVENTS ‐ implementation of WADA OutReach Programme in cooperation with organizers All project partners are asked to promote the project on their websites and social networks.
4.5 CONTROL Control is conducted at all stages of the project and begins in its first stage, i.e. during the selection and training of ambassadors. Successful implementation of the project namely depends on a properly trained team. In the initial stage of the project, a meeting is held with national sports federations. They are given questionnaires in which they are asked about their opinion on the project, their participation, approximate number of ambassadors they will propose, and the number of clubs that could be included in the project.
On the one hand, the questionnaire will enable easier planning of subsequent stages of the project (selection and training of ambassadors, coordination with national sports federations), while, on the other hand, it will enable better control over the response of national sports federations and their opinion about the project. During the performance of duties, control will be conducted with the purpose of acting in accordance with set objectives, of simultaneous problem‐solving and programme adaptation. SLOADO supervises the work of project coordinators in individual national sports federations and monitors whether the educational and awareness‐raising programmes in sports clubs are implemented in accordance with the set objectives. To make the control more efficient, SLOADO shall obtain an attendance list for all performed activities (Annex 1 ‐ Attendance list), enabling control over the number of participants in the project, their age and type of sport.
5 APPLICATION IN PRACTICE Anti‐doping junior ambassadors that will be trained within the framework of this project will continue to be committed to implementing educational and awareness‐raising programmes for the following target groups: ‐ ATHLETES ‐ STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND GYMNASIUMS WITH SPORT DEPARTMENTS With the support of the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport, short (2 school periods per year) awareness‐raising programmes would be implemented for all students of sport departments. In the first year of project implementation, the programme would be conducted for students of all years, while in the following years, the programme would be intended only for first‐year students. There are 17 schools with sport departments in Slovenia (first years: 23 departments, about 600 students‐athletes). ‐ MEMBERS OF JUNIOR NATIONAL TEAMS OF NATIONAL SPORTS FEDERATIONS AND THEIR ENTOURAGE Educational programmes for members of junior national teams and their entourage would be implemented in cooperation with national sports federations. They would be conducted within the framework of preparations for important competitions or prior to their departure to these competitions (junior world and European championships). In cooperation with OCS, educational programmes would also be implemented for EYOF and YOG participants. There are 34 national sports federations in Slovenia that are members of international sports federations included in the Olympic Games programme. That means approximately 70 junior national teams and about 1000 athletes (aged between 14 and 18), as well as 150 members of their entourage. ‐ SPORTS CLUB MEMBERS On the initiative of national sports federations, educational programmes would be conducted for sports clubs that are members of individual national sports federations. The number of clubs and athletes depends on each individual national sports federation. Nevertheless, the target group are athletes aged between 14 and 18, and their coaches. ‐ PARTICIPANTS IN MAJOR SPORTING EVENTS In cooperation with organizers of big sporting events, awareness‐raising programmes (WADA Outreach Programme) could be implemented for participants in these events and consequently for the entire sporting public. There is a large number of sporting events organized in Slovenia each year (for professional and recreational athletes). The awareness‐raising programmes would be conducted at 5 events per year. The target group are the participants of all age categories. It would be unrealistic to expect that during the first year of the implementation of project »With junior ambassadors against doping« all young athletes will be included (e.g. students‐athletes are often absent from school due to training, competitions, disease or injuries). However, it can be claimed that the project will have an important long‐term effect on the majority of young athletes. It can be expected that the knowledge of Slovenian athletes and their entourage about the dangers of doping will be much better than now. Moreover, the awareness of the entire sports sector will increase.
6 WORKFLOW AND FINANCIAL PLAN
The implementation of the project will begin in May by presenting the project to all future project partners, especially national sports federations, that will help select the ambassadors. Successful ambassador selection will be followed by the preparation of the training programme (three‐day camp) for ambassadors, and preparation of required material. This shall be performed in June and July. The training of ambassadors will be performed at the end of August or beginning of September. Simultaneously with the selection and training of ambassadors, the educational team prepares the contents and material the ambassadors will hand out to athletes and other stakeholders through educational and awareness‐raising programmes. The second stage of the project shall begin in September. This stage will include the educational and awareness‐raising programmes in schools, national sports federations, clubs and major sporting events, taking place by the end of June of the following year.
6.2 FINANCIAL PLAN Provisional financial plan of project »With junior ambassadors against doping«. ITEM
Lecturers in training programmes
TRAVEL DOCUMENT PRODUCTION
Travel expenses of lecturers to the training camp Brochures, posters
RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT OR FURNITURE
Computer, projector, loudspeakers
RENTAL OF MEETING OR CONFERENCE ROOMS HOSPITALITY
Accommodation for ambassadors and lecturers Clothes for ambassadors (T‐shirts, hoodies)
Costs of up to USD 20,000 will be covered by UNESCO, while SLOADO shall take care of the remaining costs. Costs of project are somewhat higher in the first stage due to the organization of the three‐day training programme (accommodation, lecturers, etc.). During the stage of implementation of educational and awareness‐raising programmes, the costs are significantly lower, since the ambassadors mostly perform their work voluntarily.