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IMPACT OF LIVE HIGH – TRAIN MIDDLE/LOW TRAINING METHOD ON EPO – SERUM IN ATHLETES J. Vodičar1*, M. Vodičar2, J. Osredkar3 1

Faculty of Sport, Institute of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Gortanova 22, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2 University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Orthopaedic clinic, Zaloška cesta 9, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 3 University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Zaloška cesta 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia INTRODUCTION Many authors have dealt with the effect of high altitude training on athletes' performance. (1) While the results of the studies remain somewhat controversial the current protocol of choice in hypoxic training is live high-train low (2). Question either artificial or natural hypoxia should be the mainstay has also been raised. Artificial hypoxia exerts no atmospheric influences that could lead to different results (3). Our study investigates the impact of a live high – train middle to low training protocol on serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels. We used artificial hypoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS We compared serum concentrations in a group of Slovene cross-country skiers. Upon the protocol they were divided in two groups, first (G2400) slept on the high attitude – 2400 m above see level, while the second group (G1600) slept on 1600 m above see level. Both groups performed the same training protocol of heightened character. Results have been obtained between 8th June 2010 and 6th August 2010. In the G2400 there were 5 competitors with average age 22.0 years; SD=2.35, while in the G1600 group there were 6 competitors aged 20.8; SD=3.19. Determination of serum EPO was performed with ELISA method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION We show a change of EPO levels for seven training sessions for both groups. Comparably, the EPO levels in the group G2400 were higher than in the group G1600 throughout all seven sessions of the training period. In the group G1600 the EPO concentrations have even decreased throughout the training period. in all seven training sessions but statistically different only in the training period 3 (p = 0.027) kaj pa je bilo primerjano? G16 00 com p. 1 com p. 2 com p. 3 com p. 4 com p. 5 com p. 6 aver age

traini ng 1

traini ng 2

traini ng 3

traini ng 4

traini ng 5

traini ng 6

traini ng 7

23,8

15,2

14,5

20,5

17,7

13,3

12,2

24,7

16,9

13,5

17,6

14,1

25,4

19,8

14,2

16,3

9,2

20,1

13,5

18,3

14,5

17,9

14,1

11,4

15,9

11,8

26,4

17,7

20,5

20,9

14,4

15,0

16,3

30,2

24,5

22,3

28,6

17,6

22,3

15,4

24,8

19,4

17,7

19,0

14,6

16,8

13,8

min

18,3

14,5

14,2

13,5

9,2

13,3

11,8

max

30,2

24,7

22,3

28,6

17,7

22,3

16,3

STD

4,3

4,4

3,2

5,6

3,7

3,6

2,0

Table 1: EPO serum concentrations in the training period for group G2400


G24 00 com p. 1 com p. 2 com p. 3 com p. 4 com p. 5 aver age

traini ng 1

traini ng 2

traini ng 3

traini ng 4

traini ng 5

traini ng 6

traini ng 7

22,7

34,3

23,3

16,0

9,7

17,1

15,0

34,0

35,3

26,3

27,1

13,7

27,8

24,6

18,3

11,4

32,6

12,9

4,8

17,7

9,5

4,4

10,6

12,8

16,2

11,3

24,1

25,7

23,4

29,3

30,4

23,7

18,2

23,1

26,7

24,7

19,0

12,6

19,8

16,4

min

16,2

11,4

17,7

9,5

4,4

10,6

11,3

max

34,0

35,3

32,6

29,3

30,4

27,8

24,6

STD

6,9

11,1

5,4

8,8

10,7

7,6

5,3

Table 2: EPO serum concentrations in the training period for group G1600

Fig. 1: EPO serum concentrations in the training period for group G2400

Fig. 2: EPO serum concentrations in the training period for group G1600

Fig. 3: Comparison of average EPO serum concentrations between the two groups

CONCLUSIONS EPO concentrations rose at the beginning of training and later by increasing the intensity of training and time of training gradually declined. All measured values were higher in the group G2400 than in the group G1600. The increments of EPO serum concentration are very individual. These conclusions lead toward a need for more detailed protocols on different altitudes and individualization of protocols to be athletes' fit. REFERENCES 1. de Paula P, Niebauer J, Effects of high altitude training on exercise capacity: fact or myth, Sleep Breath. 2010 Nov 26. 2. Stray-Gundersen J, Chapman RF, Levine BD, "Living hightraining low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners, J Appl Physiol, 2001 Sep;91(3):1113-20. 3. Levine BD, Stray-Gundersen J, Dose-response of altitude training: how much altitude is enough?, Adv Exp Med Biol, 2006;588:233-47.


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