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“The autonomous society –the way I conceive it- is a society that very well knows that there is no transcendence, that there is no afterlife. It is a society whose members know that whatever there is to be done, they have to do it themselves and to offer this to themselves and the community. It is a society that knows that itself creates its institutions and laws. And this very fact allows it, to exist as autonomous society, in the same way as it allows its members to exist as autonomous individuals within society�. - Cornelius Castoriadis


SUMMARY _____

ABSTRACT & _____ 5

The following project is a Spatial Design Thesis for the MArch course at Plymouth University School of Architecture, Design and Environment. The document is a continuation of the “Backyard Revolution” Urban strategy for the city of Słupsk (economical, political, social and environmental strategy). The principles of the strategy are applied to a specific site based within an urban block in the area Długa close to the city’s centre. The project demonstrates how the urban strategy can work in the scale of a building through a sequence of spatial analysis, material flow studies, spatial design and technical details. In addition the document inlcudes architectural research and a series of precedents that support and demonstrate existing examples that have been developed in solidarity to these ideas. Finally the theoretical analysis is distilled into a visual expression of the our design that is communicated through a series of diagrams, drawings, texts, models, and photos. This project would not have been possible without the feedback of the tutors: Simon Bradbury, Alex Aurigi, Andrew Humphreys, Kasia Nawratek and Alona Martinez Perez. A special acknowledgment to Robert Biedroń, Beata Samborska, Beata Maciejewska, Piotr Daczkowski, Tomasz Maciejewski, and members of Centrum Inicjatyw Obywatelskich in Słupsk for their contribution to this project. Thank you for your support.


OUR PRACTICE Our architectural practice is deeply rooted in the idea of commons. To us commons are: the shared spaces, resources and, in extend, experiences that affect a community as a whole; things that are neither public nor private. There are many examples of commoning that have emerged in Europe after 2008 but usually the main syllogism behind them is similar: can something that does not belong or relate to anyone start belonging to everyone? Can it be redefined through a collective identity? The way our cities are organised today we cannot really take ownership of things that we share. Urban space is primarily built by governments, companies and developers, not the citizens or the even the architects themselves. The privatisation of services and public goods, the intensity of gentrification and inequality in our cities as well as the legal structure in which we live in are increasingly hostile to the idea of commoning; and unfortunately the contemporary society often reflects that. Our interest lies in identifying existing and creating new ways and instruments to protect and facilitate urban commoning. Architecturally this involves the identification of spatial and material resources, the development of construction methods and materials as well as the co-operation with existing communities and the analysis of their characteristics. We intend to break the barrier between architect and dweller and attempt to facilitate radical participation in all stages of project development. Every architectural problem has a number of possible solutions; to us, the job of the architect is not in restraining his knowledge and providing a finalised product but rather in the exchange or transmission of knowledge to the client and in the co-creation of a solution that can then be replicated, adapted and evolve. In this sense, the skill of the profession is compacted in the ability to co-operate with different communities, generations, resources, environmental or social conditions and be able to provide effective solutions; the uniqueness or multiplication of the solutions however could be decided collectively through participatory processes. The architect, as a co-creator, is simply the one who initiates and guides the process. In this way we believe that the bonds between the community are strengthened and maybe a sense of collective future could be born through this process. We believe in working across many scales to fulfil different needs of the communities and the project by connecting processes in synergy with one another, taking advantage of waste resources and identifying new typologies for participatory architecture to occur. Our later projects are based on common living, co-operative production and urban sustainability as a few of the aspects of the architecture of the commons. By utilising the principles of industrial synergies, self-build processes and taking advantage of the readily available resources (i.e. waste) architects can create innovative designs that counter the modern neoliberal practices, the gentrification and social inequality that is often reflected in our urban spaces.


MANIFESTO: WHAT IS OUR PROJECT? The main problems identified in Słupsk were the following: unemployment, vacant housing stock and open spaces within urban blocks, urban sprawl, marginalization of poor communities and a high coal dependency for domestic heating. This proposal suggests a sequence of direct actions that will utilize existing resources (material, social and cultural) as well as participatory processes to solve these material and socio-political issues that exist in the area. This strategy does not only aim to solve this issues based on their existing condition but rather to generate the social capital that is necessary to form a resilient community that can resolve and adapt to future problems that may arise. Our project is focusing on generating civic engagement and promoting inclusivity through the creation of multi-functional urban space networks that complement and support the existing built environment. The urban spaces created are grounded through a city-wide urban strategy that aims to resolve existing material and socio-economic issues as a vision for a sustainable urban future. As an architectural project the building revolves around 4 different types of spaces: Continuous productive landscapes: Coherent introduction of interlinked productive landscapes (urban farms, food produce, hemp cultivations and processing facilities etc) into cities as an essential element of sustainable urban infrastructure. There are three primary environmental benefits from organic urban agriculture for the urban food system: preserving bio-diversity; closing material/waste cycles and reducing the amount of energy used to produce and distribute food. Recycling facilities: Plugging into local material flows and exploring existing resources that could assist in solving material issues such as poor housing conditions, lack of community infrastructure and poverty. Explore different material technologies, construction material manufacturing, recycling and retrofitting through participatory processes. Sustainable energy generation: Utilising organic waste from local households, the existing municipal waste management service and the proposed urban agriculture sites to sustainably generate energy through multiple forms of organic waste processing such as biogas, wood pellets and biodiesel. The various forms of fuel produced aim to rapidly answer the city’s fuel poverty issue but simultaneously allow for a gradual transition to more effective energy systems. Residential & community spaces: Experimenting with different models of housing and setting up a platform for social dialogue and commoning to take place. Fundamental parts of the proposal are: - Creating community infrastructure within and around the building (i.e. community workshops, urban farms, refurbishing workshops) as part of a strategy that aims to create permeable urban blocks that have the spatial and infrastructural capacity to generate community value. Distributing biogas, biofuels and pellets for heating, and slowly establishing an independent heating network that will utilize - organic waste to solve the current coal dependency. Create a network of spaces of exchange as an opportunity for the citizens of Słupsk to engage and experiment with the - principles of a circular economy. This project does not only aim to resolve existing issues but rather to promote and test alternative models of coexistence, assembly and collective action; for communities to meet, share knowledge and evolve in opposition to the current neoliberal model.


0.1

CONTENTS _____ BACKYARD REVOLUTION _____ 8

0 INTRODUCTION

Summary: What is this booklet you’re about to read? Our practice Manifesto Contents

1.0 CONTEXT

1.1 Political Trajectory 1.2 Słupsk 1.3 Cultural context DIY Tradition & Precedents Allotments & Urban agriculture 1.4 Local Economy Spaces of exchange Solidarity & Locality Precedent: Commonsfest, Greece 1.5 Długa Fuel poverty and coal dependency Poor housing conditions 1.6 Organic waste and fuel poverty

2.0 ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION

2.1 Cultural animation What is cultural animation? Cultural animation & community architecture Basurama (precedent study) 2.2 Commons On the commons The urban commons Recetas Urbanas (precedent study)

2.3 Productive landscape The C.P.U.L. city concept The environmental case for productive urban landscape (by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen) The ‘behaviour change’ potential change of urban (by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen) agriculture R-Urban (precedent study)

3.0 URBAN STRATEGY

3.1 Visiting Długa area 3.2 Problems & Opportunities 3.3 Production in the city 3.4 Backyards & Secondary routes 3.5 Spaces of exchange 3.6 Community workshops 3.7 Urban farming 3.8 Retrofitting the housing stock 3.9 Circular economy 3.10 Strategy 3.11 Actors involved in the project

4.0 SITE ANALYSIS

4.1 Domestic waste, industry & Urban agriculture 4.2 Gaps in the city & Collective identity 4.3 Spontaneous use & Ownership 4.4 Secondary paths & Pedestrian circulation 4.5 Green spaces & Buildings for demolition 4.6 The site


CONTENTS _____ BACKYARD REVOLUTION _____ 9

5.0 PROGRAMME

6.0 TECHNOLOGY

Urban Farming 5.3 Industrial Hemp & Hemp in Poland 5.4 Hemp processing 5.5 Beekeeping & Urban beekeeping 5.6 Honey processing 5.7 Urban food systems

Straw-bale 6.5 Straw-bale wall technology 6.6 Straw-bale section details 1:20 & U-Values

5.1 Building programme plan 5.2 Access and circulation

Energy 5.8 Waste management 5.9 Energy processes 5.9 Anaerobic digester 5.10 Hemp biofuels 5.11 How to make biodiesel Recycling 5.12 Recyclable waste managment 5.13 Recyclables processing Design 5.14 Internal Cycles 5.15 Building plans 5.16 Siteplan 5.17 Perspectives

Hempcrete 6.1 Hempcrete wall technology 6.2 How to make hempcrete (backyard DIY) 6.3 Hempcrete 1:5 model 6.4 Hempcrete section details 1:20 & U-Values

Recycled plastic 6.7 Recycled plastic wall technology 6.8 Recycled plastic section details 1:20 --6.9 Walls strategy 6.10 Timber frame arrangement 6.11 Timber frame construction sequence 6.12 Hempcrete building construction sequence 6.13 Fire protection strategy 6.14 Building section light analysis 6.15 Building section thermal analysis 6.16 Building section ventilation analysis 6.17 Section details 1:20 & U-Values

0.1


CONTEXT _____ 1.0

EXISTING CONDITIONS POLAND/SŁUPSK/DŁUGA CULTURE/ECONOMY/POLITICS _____ 11

1.0 CONTEXT 1.1 Political Trajectory 1.2 Słupsk Urban environment sociopolitical context Special economic zones, green infrastructure, land use 1.3 Cultural context DIY Tradition & Precedents Allotments & Urban agriculture 1.4 Local Economy Spaces of exchange Solidarity & Locality Precedent: Commonsfest, Greece 1.5 Długa Fuel poverty and coal dependency Poor housing conditions 1.6 Organic waste and fuel poverty


1.1 5. CONTEXT PROGRAMME _____

POLITICAL SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS TRAJECTORY _____ 12

NEOLIBERAL TRANSITION-LOW CIVIC ENGAGEMENT-NGOs Despite being considered a winner of post-Communist transition, “Poland has experienced very uneven development; vast amounts of wasted human capacity, social dislocation, and poverty coexist with pockets of wealth and success”. Meanwhile, the transition has produced a middleclass minority and a much larger class far behind, causing many young Poles to emigrate in search of something better — the largest single emigration in recent European history. After the events of 1989,”Poland’s capitalist transformation has been marked by a relatively unbroken sequence of reforms — carried out by everyone from ex-Communist apparatchiks to Catholic arch-conservatives — that have ushered in not only capitalism but its harsh neoliberal variant. The country’s initial transformation began with a heavy dose of “shock therapy” in the early 1990s, while the past two decades have brought a more measured pace of reform that is slowly completing the neoliberal revolution”1. In this 25 year period, the level of civic engagement has dropped low; groups and communities that have the capacity for commoning were increasingly regulated through legislation. Typically the Constitution provides for the establishment of a civil society but in reality, activist/support type organizations have had a difficult time affecting social change because important figures involved in Poland’s social dialogue are reluctant to adopt progressive stances. Moreover, a “combination of mobilization burnout from the communist period, dull outreach of political parties, and distrust of politicians have contributed to an under-representation of voices in Poland’s social dialogue. The non-profit sector, whether in culture, advocacy, or service provision, is a client of the state rather than a partner”. Non- governmental projects led by individuals, collectives or NGOs depend heavily on state funds because the government has not promoted the concept of private sponsorship as a viable source of funding6. As a result, all these actors have to ‘compete’ with one another -for the little money that is available for fresh projects- in a context where the more a project is likely to promote a positive face. 1 ‘Poland’s iron consensus’, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/11/poland-october-elections-kaczynski-law-justice-party/


PROGRAMME CONTEXT 1.1 5. _____

SYMBIOSIS POLITICAL COLLECTIVE TRAJECTORY CONSIOUS _____ 13 This electoral experience facilitated the launch, in 2011, of an informal coalition – the Urban Movements Congress (Kongres Ruchów Miejskich) – comprising urban activist groups from all over Poland. The congress was tasked with formulating a programme to provide a common foundation around which urban activists would build their campaigns in local communities.

“We are the first generation that is not associating public space with oppression, but rather with freedom and the public sphere,” says 30 year-old sociologist and urban activist Joanna Erbel, “our generation had to find some new focus because topics like state democracy were already taken up by the older generation; so we turned to cities as the subject of our political activity. Finally, people started going abroad and getting ideas. Erasmus probably did more for biking in Poland than any public policy!” The programme was focused on three main pillars: policies to stem and reverse the growth of socio-economic inequalities and exclusion; sustainable environment-conscious urban development in the interest of all residents; and promotion of direct democracy practices such as social consultations, participatory budgeting and referendums. On the national level, the congress managed to pressure the Ministry of Regional Development to include some of its policies in its 2012 National Urban Policy (NUP) programme. On the local level, urban activists also managed to reap a number of victories. In 2011 the mayor of Sopot agreed to implement participatory budgeting in the city. Residents now can decide how to spend 5 million złotys (about 1.2 million euros), or one percent of the municipal budget. Other mayors soon followed suit. In Łódź, residents decide on how to spend 40 million złotys (about 10 million euros). The mayor of Łódź also invited local activists to advise the city council’s Revitalisation Bureau on specific policies for the socio-economic development of the city. The reason that Łódź became more accepting of the urban movement’s demands was because its previous mayor, Jerzy Kropiwnicki, was removed in a popular referendum in January 2010. The mayors of Częstochowa, Olsztyn, Elbląg, Bytom and Ostróda were also removed in the same manner for introducing policies regarding privatisation and commercial development that went against the will of their electorates.

• We, the Citizens: the rise of the Polish urban movements, Author: Igor Stokfiszewski • Poland’s Left is up for grabs: A new generation is ready to leave behind the materialism promoted since the fall of communism, Author: Claudia Ciobanu


1.2 5. CONTEXT PROGRAMME _____

URBAN ENVIRONMENT SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS SOCIOPOLITICAL CONTEXT _____ 14 The project is based in Słupsk, Poland, a city of around 100,000 residents that began as a settlement in 1780 and did not grow until 1926 when the industrial revolution was spread to the Polish countryside and large populations migrated from the big urban centres in the south-east of the country to utilise rural land in Słupsk. As if this migration followed by the turmoil that World War II brought to this region were not enough the rapid reforms in the socio-political and economic frameworks of the country applied over Poland’s post-soviet transition in 1989 contributed even further to the identity crisis of the city. Today Słupsk is under the threat of social decay as a great number of young inhabitants are abandoning the city and the families that dwell it are gradually moving out to the suburbs in search of a better, more private life, away of the city’s problems; an also prestigious gesture that implies a higher class status. Poor communities are marginalized in the social housing districts around the city’s centre and are heavily suffering from fuel poverty, unemployment and poor housing conditions. However, the build quality of the decaying housing stock is high and as successful paradigms of larger Polish cities have shown it can be easily retrofitted. On the positive side, the abandonment was a cause for poorer parts of the community to develop their own culture of solidarity through second-hand markets, home grown vegetable bazars and independent community infrastructure like places where children can be looked after while the parents are working and more11. PROBLEMS • Decaying empty housing stock in central areas • Lack of civic engagement and distrust of local authorities • Tension between different groups claiming rights for the future of the city centre • Urban spawl: people abandoning the city centre for the suburbs • Exclusivity of allotments and means of production • Coal dependency resulting in high levels of fuel poverty • Emmigration: young population abandoning the city • Production is limited to the special economic zones in the suburbs. OPPORTUNITIES • Low cost of living • Centrally allocated productive landscapes: allotments & green infrastructure • Current authority’s positive attitude towards radical change • Human and social capital: 25% young people unemployed • Empty housing stock • Large areas of publicly owned land in the city centre


PROGRAMME CONTEXT 1.2 5. _____

SPECIAL ECONOMIC SYMBIOSIS ZONES GREEN COLLECTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE CONSIOUS LAND _____ USE 15

City borders Local plan border

Green infrastructure Cemeteries Allotments Forest areas Parkings and garages Technical infrastructure Public roads: primary and secondary Local roads Areas excluded from planning process Closed areas

Local plan project border Line sepparating different uses Land ownership borders Residential: Low density (i.e. detached) Residential: High density Services Educational facilities Administration facilities Healthcare facilities Sports & Recreation facilities Retail > 2000sqm Industry: production & storage Agriculture


1.3 6. CONTEXT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ DIY SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS ALLOTMENTS _____ 16

DIY CULTURE - [Culture of kombinowac’] Polish tradition of kombinować – an untranslatable term that encompasses ‘making do with what’s available’ and ‘finding a way around the official regulations.’ An ability to kombinować used to be a prerequisite to survive both in communist regime as in today transformation ruthless period of free market reality. It is to see how laws are made and can be over-passed, how to make connections, use ones social capital, how to be flexible. Some who is good at it is called a kombinator. However this term might also have a mixture of both negative and positive connotations. Today polish people maintained some of these traditions of kombinowac’ in the field of home repairs, however it is related to the financial situation, rather than a rigid political system. The current situation around the derelict housing makes people find ways of repairing it with what can be found in the backyards, from the neighbors or around the city.


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS CONTEXT 1.3 6. _____

[POWIŚLE DIY] – Warsaw, Poland “POWIŚLE DIY is a project of self built skate park located in an old building abandoned for twenty years near the center of Warsaw. Construction was started by three people and then quickly more people joined to work and to raise more money for the materials. The spot is totally illegal but the project had a tacit approval from the city and the police, so it can be expanded.

DIY PRECEDENT: SYMBIOSIS Poland POWIŚLE COLLECTIVE DIY – Warsaw, CONSIOUS _____ 17

“The

whole idea was crazy but we knew the place is right. It’s really far from any residential areas close to the train station in a building which was abandoned many years ago with many unsettled law cases, so we felt like that was the perfect place to start building.”

HOW IT USED TO BE

WORK IN PROGRESS

“...We

are pretty sure that we impressed a lot of people with our work, and the whole idea, so that nobody even thought to protest about that illegal construction.”

OUTCOME

http://www.confuzine.com/2013/12/19/ powisle-diy-warsaw-poland/


1.3 6. CONTEXT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ CULTURAL SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS CONTEXT _____ 18

ALOTMENTS & URBAN AGRICULTURE There are zones in every Polish town and city where time has stood still, sectors screened by hedges and rusty gates where you can easily believe it’s still 1954. These are Poland’s garden allotments (ogród działkowy) – over one million plots of land nationwide set aside for the health and wellbeing of the urban masses. There are several aspects of Poland’s ogród działkowy that irresistibly evoke the days of the People’s Republic. There is the hodgepodge of styles and building materials used to construct the shed-garden-retreat, without which no allotment is complete. Some of them are brick-built twostorey constructions, some are timber build, others are the severed remnants of buses, but all are there to keep the spades and the barbecue and the inevitable jars of homemade kompot out of the weather. It would be hard to find a more perfect illustration of the Polish tradition of kombinować – an untranslatable term that encompasses ‘making do with what’s available’ and ‘finding a way around the official regulations.’ And officialdom is the other source of that nostalgic whiff. Every collection of allotments has a ‘community house,’ painted in institutional green and tan and pinned with laboriously complex rules and regs subdivided into countless paragraphs. Allotments feel like old fashioned, monolithic state institutions. In fact, the Polish Union of Allotments (Polski Związek Działkowców, PZD), the umbrella body responsible for the management of Poland’s 45,000 hectares of ogród działkowy, was created in the Communist era, in 1981. While the tradition of allotments started over a century ago, they flourished particularly during the Communist period. Communist authorities wanted to indulge rural folk who flooded into the cities for work after World War II and to forestall food shortages. At a time when private property did not exist, the gardens offered a desirable substitute, owners grew vegetables to make up for the shortages of food in the shops. Meanwhile, the gardens have become more of a pleasure than a necessity for most users. Today the PZD that finds itself in the spotlight following the Constitutional Court’s decision. The court’s primary objection to the law as it stood was that PZD had the monopolistic right to manage the land under its control in perpetuity. The majority of this land belongs to local authorities, some to the nation, and a smaller fraction to private landowners. As the law stood, none of these groups would ever have the right to dispose of or profit from this land. Many of those who benefit from the use of an allotment regard this as an admirable idea, but it cannot be legally reconciled with property rights enshrined in Poland’s more recent constitution.


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS CONTEXT 1.3 6. _____ SYMBIOSIS CULTURAL COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS CONTEXT _____ 19


1.4 6. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS CONTEXT _____ LOCAL SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE ECONOMY CONSIOUS _____ 20

SPACES OF EXCHANGE The open air markets(rynki), in polish culture have a great importance. Ever since the times of the shortage economy with a centralized economy people were finding ways of trading goods that were not available in the stores. After 1989, markets have become a hotbed of Polish capitalism. Amongst other independent market places Słupsk has a historical market square Stary Rynek(“Old Market”), which used to be the heart of the city, however has lost its prominence and function, mainly due to the presence of the large chain supermarket in the square. Spatially markets constitute some of the main activity nodes in the city; places where people will be able to buy locally produced products at a lower price, find out information about ongoing initiatives and programmes and get involved in the city life. These markets have potential to become open platforms for re-energizing forms of cooperation, social solidarity and self-provisioning.


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS CONTEXT 1.4 6. _____

LOCALITY AND SOLIDARITY Urban market places are currently the most direct manifestation of local agricultural traditions and production chain. The culture of the communities that are supporting these spaces is based on social bonds, self-sufficiency and solidarity. As micro-systems within Polish capitalism these communities are functioning efficiently and with resourcefulness; utilising waste materials, occupying derelict spaces, identifying material needs when they emerge and providing solutions accessible by pretty much everyone. Very often the level of locality that these groups operate becomes much more specific that the scale of the region. Specifically in SĹ‚upsk because of the strong allotment culture that spreads all the way to the centre of the city, it is very common to run into small scale stands -usually in the parking lots of large supermarkets or along busy streetswith residents selling their weekly produce. At the moment the younger generations in SĹ‚upsk remain fairly disconnected from these processes; however, examples around europe have shown that young people can not only take part in this process of commoning and solidarity but also take it to the next level. PRECEDENT: COMMONSFEST, GREECE CommonsFest is an annual event that happens in different cities of Greece to promote freedom of knowledge (or free knowledge) and peer-to-peer collaboration for the creation and management of the commons. A philosophy that has spread through free software communities and extends to many aspects of our daily lives, such as the arts, governance, construction of machinery, tools and other goods. Through an exhibition, talks, screenings and workshops, the aim of the festival is to promote the achievements of this philosophy to the public and become a motive for further adoption.

SOLIDARITY &SYMBIOSIS LOCALITY PRECEDENT: COLLECTIVE COMMONSFEST CONSIOUS _____ 21


1.5 6. CONTEXT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS DŁUGA _____ 22

Poland bases its energy policy mostly on non-renewable energy sources. Coal produces around 93% of Poland’s electricity and the industry employs more than 100,000 people. It’s a cheap way to produce energy but it provides an enormous headache for any government trying to maintain economic growth and also meet ever-stricter EU greenhouse gas emission targets. Much of that power - around one-fifth of the country’s electricity - is produced from just one plant, Elektrownia Belchatow, in central Poland. The name Długa was given to the area from the homonymous street in its centre. Długa is a residential area with little to minimal commercial use or community facilities; the majority of the housing was build in the mid 1900s intentionally for residential use. The majority of the housing is now labeled as social housing and is under the ownership of the municipality; however, close to 50% of the flats in the area remain empty. FUEL POVERTY & COAL DEPENDENCY IN DŁUGA One of the biggest issues expressed by most actors that have contributed information for this project was fuel poverty. The vast majority of housing in the area still runs with an out dated system of services. Coal is the primary source of heat for the residents.; here it is worth mentioning that almost 20 percent of the buildings in the area are one storey high backyard sheds that are used for coal storage until today. Furthermore, a while the aging domestic burners are designed to burn coal the conditions of poverty in the area and the cold polish winters force inhabitants to burn all sorts of materials (i.e. plastic bottles, paper, rubbers etc). As a result: 1. There is a high number of accidents, health problems and even deaths beacuse of the fumes that are produced by burning plastics; something that people concsiously ignore as the low temperatures are unbearable. 2. Further damage is caused to the heating systems and chimneys of the housing that then demand professional repairs, a process that is dangerous and takes a lot of time and effort to resolve the matter. The municipality is aware of these problems and is continuously making efforts to educate and supply the local population with the necessary materials and information, however, solutions always appear to be temporary.


DĹ UGA 1.5

POOR HOUSING CONDITIONS Despite the fact that it is under state ownership the housing stock has sustained continuous damage due to the lack of proper maintenance that were instead replaced by small repair works that the residents could provide with their knowledge and skill set. The majority of the buildings is of high quality construction ( i.e. brickwork, stone) but secondary issues like heat leaks and inefficient coal burning heating systems drop the living conditions in the area.

____ DĹ UGA _____ 23


1.6 6. CONTEXT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ MATERIAL SYMBIOSIS COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS FLOWS _____ 24

ORGANIC WASTE & FUEL POVERTY Despite the fact that the local municipallity has invested a lot in the treatment of recyclable waste there is not much being done yet about the large amount of organic waste that the city generates. The allotments and urban gardens, the housing as well as the large agricultural facilities surrounding the city produce a substantial amount of waste that could potentially be turned into biogas (or biomass, compost etc) to contribute in resolving the city’s fuel poverty problem. It is a matter of making creating the necessary infrastructure to make the connection and successfully linking the various actors.

RECYCLABLES: SOURCES AND MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANT Despite the solid waste that are generated by every day household use like plastic or carton packaging, the local industries -big or small- are another source of recyclable waste. In addition, considering that Słupsk is a developing city, there is a high amount of construction waste -often as high as 20% of total solid waste according to national statistics- that can be re-appropriated and re-used. Currently waste in Słupsk are fully under municipal management; they are collected and treated in the waste management plant in Bierkowie (photos taken within the plant bellow).


ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION _____ 2.0 CULTURAL ANIMATION COMMONS PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPES _____ 27

2.0 ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION 2.1 Cultural animation What is cultural animation? Cultural animation & community architecture Basurama (precedent study) 2.2 Commons On the commons The urban commons Recetas Urbanas (precedent study) 2.3 Productive landscape The C.P.U.L. city concept The environmental case for productive urban landscape (by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen) The ‘behaviour change’ potential change of urban agriculture (by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen)

R-Urban (precedent study)


DISCUSSION 2.1 6. ARCHITECTURAL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ SYMBIOSIS CULTURAL COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS ANIMATION _____ 28

(i)

WHAT IS CULTURAL ANIMATION? Cultural animation was originally coined by Polish cultural theorist, Grzegorz Godlewski, as “identification, activation, dynamisation of particular sphere of cultural experience”1. It arose in Western Europe (particularly France) as an aspect of 1960s counterculture as a method of enabling people’s capacity to participate in social action and public life and so cultural animation became “a practice and philosophy that uses psycho-social methods to expand the capacities of people,” and that promotes “the abilities of people and groups to participate in and to manage the social and political reality in which they live”2. Walter Lorenz (1994) notes that the movement’s fundamental expressions originate from community theatre, but for our purposes this text examines how its practice can play an important role in the socio-political establishment of progressive urban initiatives in order to for them to thrive in an otherwise conservative and austere context. Brendan James Daniel, writing about the lack of civic engagement in Polish society particularly after the capitalist transition of 1989, refers to the issue as a cultural and participatory void that is there because of the lack of civic education for people and especially the youth, due to the weak civil sector3. In his text, “What surrounds us now: cultural animation and the participatory and cultural voids in Poland”, he suggests that cultural animation can be used to cover these cultural and participatory voids that exist in Polish society and challenge the status quo.

(ii)

“THE AUTONOMOUS SOCIETY –THE WAY I CONCEIVE IT- IS A SOCIETY THAT VERY WELL KNOWS THAT THERE IS NO TRANSCENDENCE, THAT THERE IS NO AFTERLIFE. IT IS A SOCIETY WHOSE MEMBERS KNOW THAT WHATEVER THERE IS TO BE DONE, THEY HAVE TO DO IT THEMSELVES AND TO OFFER THIS TO THEMSELVES AND THE COMMUNITY. IT IS A SOCIETY THAT KNOWS THAT ITSELF CREATES ITS INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. AND THIS VERY FACT ALLOWS IT, TO EXIST AS AUTONOMOUS SOCIETY, IN THE SAME WAY AS IT ALLOWS ITS MEMBERS TO EXIST AS AUTONOMOUS INDIVIDUALS WITHIN SOCIETY”. 4

- CORNELIUS CASTORIADIS (iii) 1 Culture animation: looking back and forward, Grzegorz Godlewski, Instytut Kultury Polskiej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2002. 2 The Two Sides of Innovation: Creation and Destruction in the Evolution of Capitalist Economies, Walter Lorenz, Springer Publications, 1994, p.101 3 What surrounds us now: cultural animation and the participatory and cultural voids in Poland, Brendan James Daniel, Creative Commons Attribution Publications, 2013, Bucharest, Romania, p.35 4 https://greekleftreview.wordpress.com/2016/01/30/towards-the-collective-city/ i) http://www.agriokyknoi.gr/217/ ii) http://www.montgomerynews.com/articles/2009/11/20/entertainment/doc4b04376d4568e994227328.txt iii) http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/emp-cul.htm


CULTURAL ANIMATION & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE Our intention with this project is to apply the methodology of cultural animation materially in the form of a participatory community based project. This approach is focused in the 3 stages of the definition of cultural animation by Godlewski: Identification, Dynamisation and Activation of cultural experience. Identification: Understanding the reality that the local community experiences. Record and analyse social tendencies, cultural elements, shared issues, skill sets and characteristics. Even more important is to allow people to freely express this information on their own. Because of the material nature of architecture, shared material issues are of great importance; in the case of DĹ‚uga fuel poverty and the poor housing conditions are two evident examples. Dynamisation: The accumulation of information through the identification of shared cultural experiences is setting the base for the project. The architect now has to disconnect from the traditional role and work together with the community through participatory processes. By incorporating existing skill sets, tendencies and cultural elements (i.e the existing DIY culture, knowledge of shortage economies, existing locally closed economies and material flows) that have the capacity to generate a solution to existing material issues, the architect in co-operation with the community manifests a solution that empowers/dynamises these elements. Through this process a particular sphere of cultural experience begins to awaken. Activation: Through the practical materialisation of the project people have the chance to experiment -as individuals and as a group- with the cultural experiences that have been stimulated and re-evaluate their importance practically. Through the knowledge and insight in construction and technical details the architect simply guides the process and allows the community to reach a higher potential. Considering that this architecture is deeply rooted in answering collective needs and problems the end result ould or would be a building that maintains this sphere of cultural experience active and allows it to evolve. It is a different kind of architecture that is inspired through this process; that of the commons.

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2.1 6.


DISCUSSION 2.1 6. ARCHITECTURAL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ SYMBIOSIS CULTURAL COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS ANIMATION _____ 30

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(ii)

WHAT IS BASURAMA1 [Trash-o-rama]? Basurama was initially born in the Madrid School of Architecture in 2001, and started as a group dedicated to research cultural and environmental production whose practice revolves around the reflection of trash, waste and reuse in all possible formats. Today that starting group has grown massively by occupying two more offices, in Bilbao (Spain) and Sao Paulo (Brazil); they have transformed into an artist collective, as they prefer to describe themselves, and have created over 100 successful projects around the world. Instead of attempting to offer a single manifest to be used as a manual, Basurama has compiled a variable series of opinions and projects, not necessarily resembling each other, which explore different areas related to trash. Besides the visual arts in all its formats Basurama compiles all kind of workshops, talks, concerts, projections and publications. As mass production has taken over, not only the factory space but our dinner tables, buildings and cities, Basurama are studying the mechanics of production of material and virtual trash in the consumer society; finding gaps in these processes of production and consumption that not only raise questions about the way we manage our resources but also about the way we think, we work, we perceive material reality. Among many other projects -that vary from design of public space and urban installations to written research, curatorship and videos- the practice is Basurama’s practice has been centered on workshops: planning ahead, doing research, design and construction. In that short period of time, “Basuramas’s team connects with local agents to understand their needs and develop a site specific project. Local materials and techniques are used to enable the appropriation of the project by local actors and allow its replication”2. The proliferation of industrial waste, like car tires or pallets, allows the reproduction of these techniques across countries and certain reuse methods have been developed; a very important element of their work as almost all the construction manuals for their projects are freely sourced online to whoever desires to access them through their website. 1 http://basurama.org/en/

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“Basurama is an artist collective dedicated to research, cultural and environmental creation and production whose practice revolves around the reflection of trash, waste and reuse in all its formats and possible meanings. It was born in the Madrid School of Architecture (ETSAM) in the year 2001 and, since then, it has evolved and acquired new shapes. Our aim is to study those phenomena inherent in the massive production of real and virtual trash in the consumer society, providing different points of view on the subject that might generate new thoughts and attitudes. We find gaps in these processes of production and consumption that not only raise questions about the way we manage our resources but also about the way we think, we work, we perceive reality.” 2 Basurama: a framework for designing collectively with waste, Pablo Rey Mazón, Basurama, Cambridge, MA, USA and Madrid, Spain, p. 9 i) https://publiclab.org/wiki/revisions/touch-collect-display-order-measure-map-inflate-and-build-with-waste ii) http://sostenibilidad.us.es/index.php?id=998 iii) http://basurama.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/2009032819_04_374231-586x349.jpg iv) http://franzmagazine.com/2015/04/02/la-banda-dei-bandi-bicinecleta-workshop-mit-basurama/


ARCHITECTURAL TECHNICALDISCUSSION ANALYSIS _____ SYMBIOSIS CULTURAL COLLECTIVEANIMATION CONSIOUS _____ 31

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DISCUSSION 2.2 ARCHITECTURAL _____ COMMONS _____ 32

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‘Commonfest’ in Athens 2015

ON THE COMMONS “A democracy of the multitude is imaginable and possible only because we all share and participate in the common. By “the common” we mean, first of all, the common wealth of the material world — the air, the water, the fruits of the soil, and all nature’s bounty — which in classic European political texts is often claimed to be the inheritance of humanity as a whole, to be shared together. We consider the common also and more significantly those results of social production that are necessary for social interaction and further production, such as knowledge, languages, codes, information, affects, and so forth. This notion of the common does not position humanity separately from nature, as either its exploiter or its custodian, but focuses rather on the practices of interaction, care, and cohabitation in a common world, promoting the beneficial and limiting the detrimental forms of the common. In the era of globalization, issues such as maintenance, production, and distribution of the common in both these senses and in both ecological and socioeconomic frameworks become increasingly central” 1 The term common was first related to land enclosures during pre- or early capitalism in England; The process of ‘enclosure’ in England had taken place during the period of sixteenth to eighteenth century. It was the enclosure of the common land by the landed nobility in order to use the land for wool production. The commons, in these times, were an essential source for the livelihood of communities. They were a fundamental basis for the communities not only for Britain but for all the rest of the world. People would gather timber from the forest, which was crucial for a variety of everyday facilities and also had access to common grassland to graze their own livestock. The process of enclosure meant fencing off those areas to prevent people from having access to these common resources. This resulted in mass poverty of the commoners, mass migration and mass criminalization as a consequence. Marx defined as “primitive accumulation” the process of enclosure which separated people from their means of production and it was considered the precondition of the capitalist development. However, the primitive accumulation or what David Harvey calls “accumulation by dispossession-deportation” is an “ongoing feature of capitalism rather than simply a pre-capitalist phenomenon”.2 Several examples of this procedure of the “new enclosures” are the wars for resources, the control of waters, the green energy, the privatization of public land, the creation of special economic zones, the attack to the public services, the transformation of popular neighbourhoods to ‘hip neighbourhoods’ (gentrification), the replacement of the areas where there is biodiversity with monocultures, etc. Holloway refers to capitalism as a fencing movement that converts everything that is common into private property. The capital seeks the unlimited expansion and therefore it always needs new dimensions of life to transform them into commodities. Since the social conflicts exist in the heart of the capitalist process – this means that people reconstitute anew the commons and they do this all the time. 1 Michael Hardt, and Antonio Negri, ‘Commonwealth’, U , Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011, ISBN-10: 0674060288, p. viii 2 Alex Vasudevan, Colin McFarlane, and Alex Jeffrey, ‘Spaces of Enclosure’, U , Geoforum 39, 2008, p. 1642 i) http://www.thelandmagazine.org.uk/articles/short-history-enclosure-britain


ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION _____

THE URBAN COMMONS “Urban commoning neither simply “happens” in urban space, nor does it simply produce urban space as a commodity to be distributed. Urban commoning treats and establishes urban space as a medium through which institutions of commoning take shape”1 The city on its own should arguably be treated as a common since it is a collective social and cultural creation. Commons contribute to rebuild social cohesion which is threaten by the previous phases of commercialization and at the same time they potentially provide new ground for the next phase of fencing. In the context of the ciry, public space is rapidly being ‘fenced’ by private ownership or managed by a public body to serve public interests. Squares and streets are only seen as products that can increase the local land andn propety value as well as the business rates. This leads to commercial public spaces with no collective character, that does not contribute anything to the social capital. This whole modern fencing process resulted to the total loss of community value of the urban public space. “It is important to emphasize not only that enclosures happen all the time, but also that there is constant commoning. People again and again try to create and access the resources in a way that is different from the modalities of the market, which is the standard way for capital to access resources”.2 Examples of these actions are community gardens, neighbourhood assemblies, solidarity networks, social clinics and pharmacies, free food distribution networks, social groceries, collective kitchens and direct exchange of products, supporting courses, time banking, local currencies, collaborative forms of economical solidarity, legal support groups, squats, the peer to peer production in the cyberspace (file exchange), the activities happening in the social centers or simply the participation in common struggles. An old concept, that of common ownership, seems to be more current than ever in a culture and an economy based on competition and perpetual growth in a natural world with finite sources and on the artificial rarity in the intellectual field of production which is infinite. “There is, in effect, a social practice of commoning… At the heart of the practice of commoning lies the principle that the relation between the social group and that aspect of the environment being treated as a common shall be collective and non-commodified – off-limits to the logic of market exchange and market valuations”3 .

1 Stavros Stavrides, “On Urban Commoning: The City Shapes Institutions of Sharing,” in Make_Shift City: Renegotiating the Urban Commons (Berlin: Jovis, 2014), 83–85. 2 An Architektur, ‘On the Commons: A Public Inter iew with Massimo e Angelis and Stavros Stavrides’, 2010 3 David Harvey, ‘Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Re olution’, Verso Books, 2012, ISBN-10: 1844678822, p. 73 i) https://parkingparko.espivblogs.net/files/2011/02/parko_12_05_0111-1024x682.jpg ii) https://i0.wp.com/prinzessinnengarten.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/pg_luft_G0020592-Kopie1024x793.jpg

2.2

COMMONS _____ 33

Navarinou Park - transformation of a parking space to a collectivley owned park (i)

Prinzessinnengarten in Berlin (ii)


DISCUSSION 2.2 ARCHITECTURAL _____ COMMONS _____ 34 (i)

RECETAS URBANAS, SANTIAGO CIRUGEDA While Spain is suffering from a heavy housing crisis with thousands of developments left empty or incomplete and the state withdrawn, Santiago Cirugeda, has stepped in to transform abandoned sites in Seville and other Spanish cities into collective assembly paces that are inspiring a new breed of architectural practice.

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“I get a kick out of the confrontations with technocrats and politicians,” he says, “but most of all I like building my own projects … in Seville, the crisis affects us all, we are in a desperate situation and there’s a lot of injustice in the way things are being done. What about all these empty houses and unused land? There are lots of situations that interest me - as an architect and as a citizen”1. After 7 years of individual work, in 2003 Santiago Cirugeda created the Recetas Urbanas architectural studio continuing the development of subversive projects in different areas of the urban reality that would help to cope with the complicated social life of it. From systematic occupations of the public spaces made with containers to the construction of prosthetic facades, backyards, roofs and empty lots. All of these done, through a negotiation process between the legality and illegality, as a way to remember the enormous control we are subjected to2. Besides flirting with the law Recetas Urbanas are stressing the fact that in our contemporary cities there is a tremendous amount of unutilised architectural resources: construction waste; from inox screws to tectonic metal beams to entire industrial sites that lie abandoned, waiting to be repurposed. And by being driven by necessity and creativity rather than profit they present a truly viable alternative to architectural practice. Material and spatial issues cease to appear problematic and they are accessed as opportunities through a spontaneous action sequence that is rather guided, than led, by the architect and carried out collectively. This spontaneity in design and even in the tectonics of some of the projects produced by Recetas Urbanas has received a lot of negative critique; the main points made are the absence of design and...”ugliness”. Despite the debatable built quality of the final product one thing is for sure, that a successful combination of cultural animation and architectural practice has been made in practice and that is not small. 1 http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/aug/18/santiago-cirugeda-guerrilla-architect-spain-seville-financial-crisis 2 http://www.recetasurbanas.net/v3/index.php/en/contactar

i) https://greenmagazine.com.au/spanish-influencers-join-speaker-line-up-for-2016-national-architecture-conference/ ii) http://www.gibca.se/index.php/en/press/images


ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION _____ COMMONS _____ 35

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DISCUSSION 2.3 ARCHITECTURAL _____ PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE _____ 36

Urban farming in Cuba (i)

Cuban urban crops (i)

THE C.P.U.L. CITY CONCEPT by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen “The Edible City: Envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL)”,

‘Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL) is a design concept advocating the coherent introduction of interlinked productive landscapes into cities as an essential element of sustainable urban infrastructure’.1 The concept was a product of design research exploring the role of urban agriculture within urban design and was originally conceived in 1998 for Bohn&Viljoen Architects and then redefined in 20052. The main idea of the CPUL concept is the creation of multi-functional open urban space networks that enchance and support the urban context. ‘It describes the vision for a sustainable urban future based on the planned physical and societal introduction of continuous productive urban landscape (CPUL) into existing or emerging cities’.3 ‘Key features of CPUL space include urban agriculture, outdoor spaces for people (leisure and commercial), natural habitats, ecological corridors and circulation routes for non-vehicular traffic. Its network connects existing open urban spaces, maintaining and, in some cases, modifying their current uses. Within the CPUL concept, urban agriculture primarily refers to fruit and vegetable production, as this provides the highest yields per square metre urban ground’.4 Although this is not limiting; The urban agriculture practice covers a spectrum between small-scale food production to highyield, commercial gardening. With a similar concept we approach our design strategy in Słupsk in city scale, and in Długa area in our design proposal. In the urban block scale there are many under used green areas and in the same time a huge need of people to be able to sustain themselves. With the necessary knowledge and infrastructure these spaces could be transformed into urban agricultural production. By using the existing (allotments) and by building new facilities (community gardens, seedbanks, beehives, experimental gardens) locals will be able to participate and produce collectively. By providing the tools and help from experts, local residents are producing and in the same time learning about the urban agriculture practice. This way slowly the urban context transforms to an alive and productive landscape, raising the community value and leading to a local self sufficiency. “Food is a sustaining and enduring necessity. Yet among the basic essentials for life — air, water, shelter, and food — only food has been absent over the years as a focus of serious professional planning interest.”5 1 Renata Tyszczuk, Stephen Walker (ed), Ecology field: volume 4, ISSN: 1755-068, issue 1 (December 2010), 149 2 André Viljoen (ed.), Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes CPULs: designing urban agriculture for sustainable cities. (Archi-

Prinzessinnengarten in Berlin (ii)

tectural Press: Oxford, 2005)33. 3 Renata Tyszczuk, Stephen Walker (ed), Ecology field: volume 4, ISSN: 1755-068, issue 1 (December 2010), 150 4 Renata Tyszczuk, Stephen Walker (ed), Ecology field: volume 4, ISSN: 1755-068, issue 1 (December 2010), 150 5 American Planning Association. ‘Policy Guide on Community and Regional Food Planning,’ (2007) at http://www.planning.org/ i) http://www.archdaily.com/514669/farming-cuba-urban-agriculture-from-the-ground-up ii) http://www.dawinmeckel.de/portfolio/editorial/moritzplatz/


THE ENVIRONMENTAL CASE FOR PRODUCTIVE URBAN LANDSCAPES

by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen “The Edible City: Envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL)”,

There are three primary environmental benefits from organic urban agriculture for the urban food system: preserving bio-diversity; closing material/waste cycles and reducing the amount of energy used to produce and distribute food. “One of the most effective ways of assessing the environmental impact of a particular process or product is to find out how much embodied energy (the total amount of non-renewable energy used in production) is required. Embodied energy can be thought of as shorthand for assessing the climate change potential of a process. The energy (mainly non-renewable) currently used for conventional industrialised food production in Europe, for example, exceeds by far the energy received in return from consuming the produced food. This unlimited, daily energy usage contributes significantly to global resource depletion and global warming. Apart from its conventional production, food is being transported further than ever before, often by air between countries on opposite sides of the world, whilst local crop varieties are replaced by a few commercial types popular with supermarkets1. This pattern of growing ‘food miles’ is far from sustainable, its by-product being increasing air pollution, notably of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, increasing road congestion and noise and increasing stress. One might argue that concentrating on the energy consumed by current remote food production does not allow for the future development of environmentally clean energy technologies. But such a position fails to recognise that the inequitable distribution and consumption of resources extends beyond energy usage, i.e. to raw materials, desirable land, water and food. Reducing the energy requirements of goods and processes shrinks the divide between those who have access to abundant energy supplies and those who do not, without limiting the availability of final products. Productive Urban Landscapes containing urban agriculture and supplying local outlets with the produce would offer an alternative to this environmentally dangerous situation. Our studies have shown that a city like London could produce about 30% of all fruit and vegetable requirements of its population from within the city boundary. It could achieve this by only using currently abandoned, leftover space. However, issues related to food security and food supply and the potential ways of improving our current modi operandi, are still only just starting to be discussed internationally:

**Disclaimer: This chapter is part of the “The Edible City: Envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL)”, by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen. 1 Cook, H and Rogers, A ‘Community Food Security’, Pesticide Campaigner, 6 (3) (1996): 7-11

ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION _____ PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE _____ 37

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DISCUSSION 2.3 ARCHITECTURAL _____ PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE _____ 38

THE ‘BEHAVIOUR CHANGE’ POTENTIAL OF URBAN AGRICULTURE by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen “The Edible City: Envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL)”

Mark Redwood, in his publication, “Agriculture in Urban Planning”1 concludes that architects and planners require further “awareness of and sensitivity to “green” and agricultural features into the design process”. The research of Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen suggests that this shift in perception is equally necessary for local residents, even in those urban areas where urban agriculture is not only present, but also essential for people’s survival2. However, at another scale, that of the individual non-commercial grower, evidence is emerging for a behaviour change related to food growing. In the UK, the allotment has shown itself to be a catalyst for changes related to diet and health. Surveys undertaken within Cambridge and Middlesbrough reveal the allotment’s continuing influence across all socioeconomic ranges. Most notable are a substantial increase in the quality and quantity of food being consumed by allotment gardeners during the growing-season, and decreased dependency on grocery stores as a source for fresh produce: 70% in growing-seasons and 24% during the off-season. Changes in ‘food-miles’ reduced personal carbon emissions by an average of 950 kg CO2/year, even while still predominantly utilizing grocery stores during off-season months and maintaining an overall dependence on fossil fuelled transport year round. Allotment tenants also surpass the recommended 30 minutes/day of daily activity, through time spent within the allotment itself and through active-commuting related to food procurement. Furthermore allotment holders, who ate less than the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables before they had an allotment, increased their fruit and vegetable intake once they started growing food, and this increase was reflected in an increased proportion of fruit and vegetables purchased thought the year3. If this trend is validated in further research, it will indicate the significant behaviour change impact that may be attributed to even relatively modest urban agriculture interventions.

**Disclaimer: This chapter is part of the “The Edible City: Envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL)”, by Katrin Bohn and André Viljoen. 1 Mark Redwood, Agriculture in Urban Planning: Generating Livelihoods and Food, (London: Earthscan and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC); 2009). 2 André Viljoen and Katrin Bohn, ‘CPUL: Essential Infrastructure and Edible Ornament in: Designing Edible Landscapes’ Open House International 34(2). Urban International Press (2009). 3 André Viljoen, Katrin Bohn, Mikey Tomkins and G. Denny, ‘Places For People, Places For Plants’ keynote paper presented at the Second International Conference on Landscape and Urban Horticulture (June, University of Bologna, Italy, 2009)


ARCHITECTURAL DISCUSSION _____

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DISCUSSION 2.3 ARCHITECTURAL _____ PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE _____ 40

WHAT IS R-URBAN? “To overcome the current crises (climate, resources, economic, demographic), we must, as philosopher Andre Gorz says, ‘produce what we consume and consume what we produce’. This balance between production and consumption through local sustainable sourcing cannot occur without changes in the living and working lifestyles of citizens who must be involved in these changes through collaborative practices supporting each other through local networks. Flows, networks and circuits of production-consumption will be formed through these activities, with an emphasis on sustainability”1 – R-Urban network2, “About us”

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R-Urban was initiated by Atelier d’Architecture Autogeree (AAA) that now is acting like a coordinator between the numerous partners that have emerged. Despite the fact that the project is materialised in Colombes (France) and is functional for the last 3 years, R-Urban is defined rather as a “bottom-up strategy that explores the possibilities of collectively increasing urban resilience by introducing a network of resident-run facilities to create synergies between key fields of activity (economy, housing, urban agriculture, culture). This adaptive strategy is dedicated to initiate locally closed ecological cycles that will support the emergence of alternative models of living, producing and consuming between the urban and the rural”3. In addition, R-Urban provides tools and resources to facilitate civic engagement through the network’s projects, as well as to support accompanying projects that emerge locally or in regional levels and are working to meet the same ends. The project in Colombes is consisted of 3 prototype units:

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• AgroCité: Civic agriculture, Culture and Pedagogy - a unit of urban agriculture consisting of a micro- experimental vegetable farm, community gardens, cultural and educational spaces and facilities for energy production, composting and rainwater collection. Almost 20 new sustainable job positions were created only through this unit4.

1 http://r-urban.net/en/sample-page/ 2 “URBAN is supported by the EU Life + Programme of environmental governance. The project partners are AAA (coordinator)

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and the City of Colombes (for the three pilot units) and Public Works, London (for a mobile unit). A network of partners is being formed for the dissemination of the R-URBAN strategy on larger scale by including partners from Belgium, Spain, Romania, Germany, etc”. 3 http://r-urban-wick.net/ 4 http://www.uncubemagazine.com/blog/7865563 i) http://www.takepart.com/article/2015/09/12/parking-lot-paradise ii) http://r-urban.net/en/


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2.3

• RecyLab: Recycling and Eco-construction – a recycling and green building constructed around a series of facilities for the recycling and re-appropriation of urban waste into environmental construction materials. It is notable that research and experimentation in this instance has extended to alternative ways of self- management through service exchanges, mutual aid and a local time bank that play an important role in the unit’s social life.5 • ECoHab: Ecological Cooperative Housing – a co-operative residential unit that is in part self-build and consists of a number of experimental facilities and community spaces. Civic engagement is deeply incorporated in the projects mechanic as these 3 spaces with complimentary functions aim to culturally engage with the local population through production, research and recycling processes as well as workshops that are dedicated to training the people involved. At the moment several hundred local users regularly develop and run resilienceoriented activities (urban farming, bee keeping, cultivating, up-cycling, environmental design, organic waste processing, etc.). Amongst them, dozens of people have been working on the project or have launched their own jobs. The ecological balance promoted by these initiatives is exceptionally impressive: “6 time reduction of CO2 emission/year for the Agrocité users, 24 tons/ year organic waste recycling, 50 tons/year water reduction, 3 tons/year organic vegetable production”.6 However, due to the increasingly radical practice of the initiative there has been a lot of friction with local authorities. Eventually, land ownership matters that were sank in confusion gave the local authorities the first step to engage against R-Urban; suddenly, after the municipal elections in March 2014 and the change of the local authorities, the Municipality has asked in June 2014 that Agrocité leave its location without any reason given and with no proposal for relocation Today, the co-operative continues to spread outwards and explore alternatives to safeguard Agrocité as the problem of land ownership is an increasingly occurring vulnerability of productive groups and initiatives that are developing cooperative projects.

5 http://www.uncubemagazine.com/blog/7865563 6 https://www.change.org/p/yes-to-preserve-r-urban-in-colombes-no-to-the-temporary-car-park-that-is-planed-to-replace-

it-saverurban?utm_content=buffer6bb88&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer i) http://r-urban.net/en/gallery/ ii) http://r-urban.net/blog/resources/

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URBAN STRATEGY _____ 3.0 EXISTING & PROPOSED STRATEGY ACTORS INVOLVED _____ 43

3.0 URBAN STRATEGY 3.1 Visiting DÅ‚uga area 3.2 Problems & Opportunities 3.3 Production in the city 3.4 Backyards & Secondary routes 3.5 Spaces of exchange 3.6 Community workshops 3.7 Urban farming 3.8 Retrofitting the housing stock 3.9 Circular economy 3.10 Strategy 3.11 Actors involved in the project


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URBAN STRATEGY 3.1 _____ VISITING DŁUGA AREA _____ 45

Visit around the Długa street area with Tomasz Maciejewskicity conservator/restorer, that brought us on a tour through the backyards of the city center and provided some historical facts of the city development.

Visit around the Długa street area with Tomasz Maciejewskicity conservator/restorer, that brought us on a tour through the backyards of the city center and provided some historical facts of the city development.


3.2 URBAN STRATEGY _____ PROBLEMS & OPPORTUNITIES _____ 46


URBAN STRATEGY 3.2 _____ PROBLEMS & OPPORTUNITIES _____ 47


3.3 URBAN STRATEGY _____ PRODUCTION IN THE CITY _____ 48

POST-INDUSTRIAL CITIES

Currently, urban manufacturing businesses often occupy locations that are far from ‘conspicuous’. While advanced ‘reshored’ manufacturing may return to urban rather than rural areas, it will most likely occupy sheds in segregated industrial zones. Artisan manufacturing may be similarly hidden, using low-cost spaces in dilapidated remnants of nineteenth century industrial buildings. Against this invisibility, a built environment that explicitly prioritises public connections to industry can bring benefits in raising awareness of production processes, enabling social engagement between producers and the public and enriching everyday experiences of being in the public spaces of the city. Industry that is publicly visible supports a range of connections between consumers and producers of manufactured goods. For example, a furniture maker with its production process open to a busy street, or even a car factory with manufacturing visible to passing motorists, can connect passers-by to the processes of manufacturing. This visual presence of production can prompt understanding of the human labour, mechanical processes and energy required to produce the often taken-for-granted material goods of our industrial society. Eco-localists refer to the IMBY (in my back yard) effect of local production in establishing an everyday awareness of the human and environmental costs of production,11 and the possibility of more considered consumption behaviours.

SOCIAL/ECONOMIC ENGAGEMENT

Beyond establishing a visual awareness of production processes among urban consumers, some forms of industry can also allow for social engagement through economic exchanges between makers and buyers. The direct connections with makers can strengthen local economies by orienting consumer spending toward local manufacturers rather than multinational corporations.

RICH AND DISTINCTIVE URBAN EXPERIENCES

The visibility and presence of industrial activities in the spaces of everyday life can provide rich and distinctive experiences for city dwellers. Stronger connections between productive processes and public space can contribute to a fuller sensory experience of urban life that counters the “erosion of the perceptual sphere” accompanying too much ‘sanitised’ urban re- development.14 The activity of industry, including the noise, smells and rhythms of human and mechanical production can be celebrated for the diversity and interest that they bring to city streets. A re- industrialisation that celebrates what Jane Jacobs termed the ‘jumble’ of the diverse and truly mixed-use street,15 can contribute to more distinctive and intriguing urban experiences. Visible forms of urban industry can further make everyday experiences of being in the city more meaningful by connecting public life with the activities going on ‘behind the scenes’ of building frontages. “Conspicuous production: valuing the visibility of industry in urban re-industrialisation strategies”, Karl Baker


URBAN STRATEGY 3.3 _____

Bringing production back to the center, specifically to the empty lots in the backyards is one of the most important aspects of our project. Industry in the city will create a multi-structure society which is able to sustain its living and stabilize materially. The proposed model is associated with the idea of ​​re-industrialisation – understood not as a return of factories into the cities, but as a socio-economic project, inspired by the ideas of industrial ecology, comprehensive use of waste, optimised consumption and synergistic cooperation between different economic actors.

PRODUCTION IN THE CITY _____ 49

CURRENT SITUATION: - Vacant spaces around the city centre - Unemployed, unskilled residents - Municipality provides subsidies and economic advantages for the companies in the Special Economic Zone

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT

PROPOSAL: - Mixed use development in the city centre - Occupying vacant areas in the existing buildings - Employing local people - Professionals upskilling local residents through collaborative workshops - Collaboration with the Technological Inkubator to involve innovative startups

Industry & Manufactural facilities Existing buildings


3.4 URBAN STRATEGY _____ BACKYARDS & SECONDARY ROUTES _____ 50

This project proposes revitalization of the urban block’s backyards in the city center of Słupsk. This will be done by opening them up the rest of the city by a network of secondary informal routes cutting through the backyards. This will also facilitate the connections between the important social nodes in the city.

CURRENT SITUATION:

-BACKYARDS/MOVEMENT Backyards are used only by the residents of IN THE CITY BACKYARDS/MOVEMENT the block (uninviting to the rest of the city) IN THE CITY - Backyards are mainly occupied by the car parking, private storages, garages - Lack of activites and social infrastructure

PRIVATE PRIVATE

PRIVATE PRIVATE

CURRENT SITUATION CURRENT SITUATION - Backyards by resithe resi- Backyards are are usedused onlyonly by the dents of the block (uninviting torest the rest dents of the block (uninviting to the of the of the city)city)

PRIVATE PRIVATE

- Backyards mainly occupied by the - Backyards are are mainly occupied by the parking, private storages, garages carcar parking, private storages, garages

PROPOSAL:

- Lack of activites social infrastruc- Lack of activites andand social infrastructureture

- Creating more permeable urban blocks - Inviting people to participate in the community activities - Faciltating connections between urban blocks

OUR PROPOSAL OUR PROPOSAL PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

- Creating more permeable urban blocks - Creating more permeable urban blocks

Backyard spaces

- Inviting people to participate in the com- Inviting people to participate in the comExisting buildings munity activities Do-It-Together munity activities Secondary routes - Faciltating connections between urban - Faciltating connections between urban blocks blocks


URBAN STRATEGY 3.5 _____ SPACES OF EXCHANGE _____ 51

Markets will constitute the main exchange areas and activity nodes in the city. The places where people will be able to buy locally produced products at a lower price, find out information about ongoing initiatives and programmes and get involved in the city life. These markets should become open platforms for re-energizing forms of cooperation, social solidarity and self-provisioning.

CURRENT SITUATION: - City is dominated by the chain supermarkets - Fragmented city -Small stores are not able to keep up with the competition - Gaps in the city centre that can be filled for the needs of people

CURRENT SITUATION

- City is dominated by the ch permarkets - Fragmented city

-Small stores are not able to with the competition

- Gaps in the city centre that CURRENT filled for the needs ofSITUA people

- City is dominated permarkets - Fragmented city

PROPOSAL:

-Small stores are no with the competitio

PROPOSAL - Promote locally grown and madeOUR products - Gaps in the city ce -Network or small scale markets around the filled for the needs Promote locally grown and city products -Building resilient local economy, moving -Network or small scale ma towards self-sufficiency at the localaround levelthe city

-Building resilient local econ moving towards self-sufficie the local level

OUR PROPOSAL

Existing spaces of exchange Existing buildings

Areas designated for the new markets

- Promote locally gr products -Network or small s around the city -Building resilient lo moving towards sel the local level


3.6 URBAN STRATEGY _____ COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS _____ 52

CURRENT SITUATION: - Lack of public participation - Fragmented city - Lack of quality spaces for community creative practices - Gaps in the city centre that can be filled for the needs of people

Some of the community workshops will include: experimental urban farming, repair and recycling workshops, aquaponics and other programs that could bring resident participation and provide economical benefits.

CURRENT SITUATION - Lack of public participation - Fragmented city - Lack of quality spaces for community creative practices - Gaps in the city centre that can be filled for the needs of people

PROPOSAL:

CURRENT SITUATION - Lack of public participation

- Creating social infrastructures and OUR - Fragmented city PROPOSAL necessary facilities for the workshops- Lack of quality spaces for community - creative Creatingpractices social infrastructures and neces- Involve eduational institututions and - Gaps in thefor city centre that can be filled sary facilities the workshops startups to create professional synergies for the eduational needs of people - Involve institututions and - Use of the strategic empty aeas around startups to create professional synergies the city centre and in the backyards, -which Use of the strategic empty aeas around will allow the natural surveilance andthe city centre and in the backyards, which will allow the natural surveilance and resiresident involvement. dent involvement.

OUR PROPOSAL - Creating social infrastructures and necessary facilities for the workshops - Involve eduational institututions and startups to create professional synergies - Use of the strategic empty aeas around Proposed community workshop areas the city centre and in the backyards, which will allow the natural surveilance and resiExisting buildings dent involvement.


URBAN PROGRAMME STRATEGY 3.7 5. _____

SYMBIOSIS URBAN COLLECTIVE CONSIOUS FARMING _____ 53 CURRENT SITUATION:

- Good amount of existing large urban parks and allotments - Lack of infastructure or activities present in the parks - Allotments are isolated to the citizens that don’t own allotments -Allotments, because of their central location are threatened to be redeveloped because of the high price of the land on the market

PROPOSAL:

Renovated existing allotments Proposed community gardens/urban allotments Experimental farms/aquaponic farms/food production spaces Recreational pocket parks/community spaces Existing buildings

- Open up and renovate the existing allotments for its wider use of the public - Design new productive agricultural areas in the existing gaps around the city - Create a network of pocket parks inside the urban blocks for commoning and recreational use - Use some of the community gardens for educational use: experimental farming, aquaponic farms, urban beekeeping, cooking classes.


3.8 URBAN STRATEGY _____

RETROFITTING THE HOUSING STOCK _____ 54 of the first initiatives that should One take place in Slupsk is

house refurbishment. The retrofit of the buildings willthat should take place in Słupsk is house refurbishment. The retrofit of the first initiatives Oneexisting allow residents to remain living in the of central area of buildings the city, will allow residents to remain living in the central area of the city, the existing close to their work. Retrofitting will also improve efficlose to theirenergy work. Retrofitting will also improve energy efficiency that will cut the costs of CURRENT ciencySITUATION: that will cut the costs of the heating. Use ofUse recycling ma- materials for refurbishments will reduce environmental impact the heating. of recycling - Good amount of existing under occupied as well as the costs. terials for refurbishments will reduce enviromental impact as dwellings well as the costs. -Municipalities funds provide house One oflack the firsttoinitiatives that should take place in Slupsk is refurbishment house refurbishment. The retrofit of the existing buildings will - Residents individually arrange for small allow residents to remain living in the central area of the city, repair works close to their work. Retrofitting will also improve energy efficiency that will cut the costs of the heating. Use of recycling materials for refurbishments will CURRENT reduce enviromental SITUATION impact as well as the costs. - Good amount of existing under occupied dwellings -Municipalities lack funds to provide house refurbishment

PROPOSAL:

-CURRENT Residents individually arrange for SITUATION small repair works - Good amount of existing under occupied dwellings

- Use of recycling materials for house refurbishment -Municipalities lack funds to provide - Encourage existing DIY culture through house refurbishment creation of the community workshops and OUR PROPOSAL recycling labs - Residents individually arrange for Use ofrepair recycling materials for house - Provide vacant spaces in the buildings to -small works refurbishment the professionals that would contribute to the resident’s upskilling - Encourage existing DIY culture through creation of the community workshops and recycling labs

OUR PROPOSAL

- Provide vacant spaces in the buildings toof the professionals thatfor would - Use recycling materials house contribute to the resident’s upskilling refurbishment

Empty, - Encourage existing DIY cultureDerelict & seriously undermined housing stock through creation of theExisting community buildings workshops and recycling labs - Provide vacant spaces in the build-


URBAN STRATEGY 3.8 _____ RETROFITTING THE HOUSING STOCK _____ 55


3.9 URBAN STRATEGY _____ CIRCULAR ECONOMY _____ 56

(i)


URBAN STRATEGY 3.9 _____ CIRCULAR ECONOMY _____ 57

The main principles of circular economy The basic assumption of circular economy is that products needed to be designed in a way to flow in optimised cycles of use and dissassembly. That process set them apart from being disposed or recycled in short term. Waste in that sense does not exist, since can be turned into resource. Materials are kept in flow, thus the residual waste is close to zero (European Comission, 2014). Circularity defines strict difference between non-toxic biological commodities that are consumable compared to the durable technological nutrients i.e. electronics or machinery. The energy required to maintain the cycles is from a renewable source. Circular economy replaces the idea of consumer by the notion of a user who can establish closer relation with industries, and through that improve (extend) the life cycle of a product. The major focus points of circular economy (minimazing the use of resources and energy) are archieved through four principles: 1) Inner cycle: minimalisation of the material usage. 2) Cycling longer: products are meant to be reused, re-manufactured or recycled more times and longer 3) Cascade use: The components of products can be reused in a different way any time the initial product is worn out. 4) Pure cycles: respecting uncontamination of material flow. The core point of circularity is design. Through standarisation and modularisation, products could avoid being damp in landfill, being moved between industries. The proper design of products accelerate chain of positive changes. Industries can gain profits from cross-chain collaboration. Eliminating waste and downsizing pollution will affect positively the environment.

From Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2014

i) http://talesoftheenterprise.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/nclimate1842-f1.jpg


3.10 URBAN STRATEGY _____ STRATEGY _____ 58 1.

RECLAIM EMPTY HOUSING STOCK

2.

PROFESSIONALS ARE INVITED TO MOVE IN

Professionals with necessary knowledge and skillset are invited to occupy the empty housing stock in exchange for their services to the local community through the following series of projects. Equity of these spaces can be gained gradually in stages through this process.

Changes in the existing regulations are necessary in order to gain access to the derelict housing stock. The local authorities in co-operation with local citizens will initiate this process.

3.

OPENING SECONDARY ROUTES THROUGH BLOCKS

4.

REC

Professionals and local residents with the permission of the authorities start appropriating the secondary routes through the blocks. This process will be carried out through participatory design practices and can have the character of a self-build project as any help is welcome. Local institutions such as schools, businesses and community groups can also participate.

Creating the 3 scale:

1. Recycle Lab allotments etc

2. Retrofit Wo retrofit the exi infrastructure.

3. Urban Farm produce that c community pro


UTES

URBAN STRATEGY 3.10 _____ STRATEGY _____ 59 4.

RECYCLE LABS / RETROFIT WORKSHOPS / URBAN FARMS

5.

COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS + PRODUCTION SPACES

6.

COLLE OF BAC

sion of the es through through have the welcome. sses and

Creating the 3 spaces that will generate the starting energy for change to happen in a larger scale: 1. Recycle Lab: A laboratory where waste materials (i.e. domestic, commercial, hemp produced in the allotments etc) will be processed into construction materials. 2. Retrofit Workshop: A workshop where waste or recycled construction materials are utilised to retrofit the existing housing stock, spaces of exchange and public parks and create new innovative infrastructure. 3. Urban Farms: Productive landscapes that will generate organic waste for heating and also local produce that can be sold in spaces of exchange in order to generate capital that can be utilised in community projects.

Community workshops and production spaces for collectives are built in the backyards as well as in gaps in the urban fabric. These spaces play an important role in the generation of social capital as well as in sharing the skillset and knowledge that has been developed through time across the community.

After the recycle workshops have b been tested and sh residents can start design of the com daily needs.


ces for ps in the e in the ing the veloped

3.10 URBAN STRATEGY _____ STRATEGY _____ 60 6.

COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF BACKYARD SPACES

After the recycled material flows and community workshops have been established as well as skills have been tested and shared across the community the local residents can start experimenting on their own with the design of the common spaces in otder to fulfill their daily needs.

7.

BIOGAS PLANT + DISTRICT HEATING

By this stage a great part of the allotments is already utilised by the local population collectively. In parallel, there is a great number of urban farms developed in backyard spaces. All these green infrastructure, combined with organic waste from households are able to heat enough households sustainably in order to justify the creation of decentralised Biogas plants where possible. District heating systems will be installed wherever necessary and connected to the biogas plants.

8.

BIOGAS PLANT + DISTRICT HEATING

Through the spatial experimentation that took place in the previous stages, the social capital generated and the synergies that have been established now the people can participate in designing central public spaces of the city: parks, parking lots, event spaces and even primary traffic arteries.


URBAN STRATEGY 3.10 _____ STRATEGY EXAMPLE IN BLOCK _____ 61


STRATEGY 3.11 URBAN _____ ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT _____ 62

NGOs and active initiatives Existing initiatives and NGOs that are looking for actual interventions and alternative proposals in the city. In addition, for the youth movements that are fighting for their right to Education, jobs and housing. Unemployed, Untrained & Young ones For the unemployed and untrained to acquire the skills and in parallel the work experience. For students that are interested in alternative education and employment and Activists that need a space to assembly and organize. Professionals( manufacturers, engineers, architects, environmentalists, IT specialists) This project is seeking to bring the manufactures and production back to the city. The unoccupied spaces in the city centers could contain offices, the backyards will accommodate production spaces. Beyond establishing a visual awareness of production processes among urban consumers, some forms of industry can also allow for social engagement through economic exchanges between makers and buyers. The visibility and presence of industrial activities in the spaces of everyday life can provide rich and distinctive experiences for city dwellers, as well as strengthen local economies by orienting consumer spending toward local manufacturers rather than multinational corporations. Local Authorities Through workshops, events and participatory activities that follow the principles of cultural animation collectives are promoting active participation of the locals to the commons of the city. Local authorities support the initiatives through funding and accomodating events. Polish Association of Allotments Currently the allotments community is very exclusive and closed. By introducing new urban farms and allotments in the city, the community will grow, claiming a more important role in the city life, opening them to the public whilst the character of the allotment culture is kept intact. Educational institutions The educational institutions, specially Technikums(Technical upper-secondary schools) are invited to collaborate with communities and professional manufacturers based in the backyards through collaborative projects and practical internships for the students.


URBAN STRATEGY 3.11 _____ ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT _____ 63


SITE ANALYSIS _____ 4.0

INDUSTRY, WASTE & AGRICULTURE MOVEMENT, OWNERSHIP, TYPOLOGY & USE SITE LOCATION _____ 65

4.0 Site Analysis 4.1 Domestic waste, industry & Urban agriculture 4.2 Gaps in the city & Collective identity 4.3 Spontaneous use & Ownership 4.4 Secondary paths & Pedestrian circulation 4.5 Green spaces & Buildings for demolition 4.6 The site


DOMESTIC WASTE, INDUSTRY & URBAN AGRICULTURE Długa is an area with great diversity of uses; housing, productive allotments, small scale industries, commercial spaces of all kinds and sizes and a drift towards urban agriculture amongst the local residents. The material inputs and outputs of all these actors can be connected to create locally closed economical circles. This is a result of the analysis of local material flows.

SITE ANALYSIS 4.1 _____

DOMESTIC WASTE INDUSTRY & URBAN AGRICULTURE _____ _____ 67

PROJECT SITE

AREA MARGINS: DŁUGA

HOUSING

EXISTING ALLOTMENTS

AREAS WITH THE CAPACITY FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE

INDUSTRY

COMMERCIAL

MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS


ANALYSIS 4.2 SITE _____

GAPS IN THE CITY & COLLECTIVE IDENTITY _____ 68

GAPS IN THE CITY & COLLECTIVE IDENTITY What differentiates Długa from the rest of the city is its block typology. Despite its central location to the city the area is full of gaps between buildings: green “patches”, narrow alleys, informal public parking spaces and even bigger green areas in the centre of the blocks that are used for pedestrian movement, as playgrounds for the children of the area or even for gardening by the residents. These uses are not evident nor evolved to the point where one can analyse them, simply because these spaces are under state ownership and people are reluctant to invest in them or openly relate to them. However the fact that these troubled spaces have been abandoned and left unregulated allows people to spontaneously occupy them. Through this process of co-existence shared needs are expressed, community bonds are strengthened and a collective identity begins to form.

MAP SIGNS BORDER LINE PLOT BORDERS MUNICIPAL PROPERTY PROPERTY OF CITY COUNCIL PUBLIC GROUND LEASE: PERPETUAL USUFRUCT STATE PROPERTY IN PERPETUAL USUFRUCT "Energa s.a." IN PERPETUAL USUFRUCT "PZU s.a." PRIVATE PROPERTY JOINT OWNERSHIP: MUNICIPAL & PRIVATE


SITE ANALYSIS 4.3 _____

SPONTANEOUS USE & OWNERSHIP An overlap of the property map (see p.17) and a diagram of the spaces that the locals are spontaneously using for pedestrian circulation, parking, socialising, playing etc. marked with the striped green pattern.

SPONTANEOUS USE & OWNERSHIP _____ 69


4.4 SITE ANALYSIS _____

SECONDARY PATHS & PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION _____ 70

SECONDARY PATHS & PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION In contrast to the use of sidewalks and paved pathways the residents of DÅ‚uga have gradually created a network of secondary paths through the block. While these paths were developed spontaneously and were initially of secondary importance they have now reached a level of complexity and efficiency that is inspiring for the collective planning of the area.

1 4

2 3

3 2 BUILDINGS

4

AREAS THAT ARE BEING TRANSFORMED AND USED BY LOCALS COLLECTIVELY SECONDARY PATHS

1


SITE ANALYSIS 4.5 _____

GREEN SPACES & BUILDINGS FOR DEMOLITION In our block there are several underused green areas that are part of public paths or private courtyards. These spaces have the potential to be developed into urban farms or public green spaces for local residents to use. We also propose a demolition of certain buildings of minor importance (primarily one storey storage spaces) that will allow us to open up the space for our collective proposals of the area.

GREEN SPACES & BUILDINGS FOR DEMOLITION _____ 71


4.6 SITE ANALYSIS _____ THE SITE _____ 72

The project site is located on the corner of an urban block around Długa st. occupying a mixture of private and municipal property. It is located on a entrance/ exit point to the block’s interior through the network of secondary circulation paths that was covered earlier.

A D Ł U G

Being located on the edge of the block looking in, the project site borders with street, domestic housing and semi-public backyard spaces. More importantly the site is located right opposite the central allotment’s of Słupsk; a natural actor that plays a very important role in the greater urban strategy that defines this projects agenda.

S T .

PROJECT SITE & IMMEDIATE CONTEXT

4 ALLOTMENTS

1 BUILDINGS

5

3 2

SECONDARY PATHS

6


SITE ANALYSIS 4.6 _____ THE SITE _____ 73

1

2

3

5

4

6


PROGRAMME 5.0 _____

PROGRAMME URBAN FARMING/ ENERGY/ RECYCLING & DESIGN _____ 75

5.0 Programme 5.1 Building programme plan 5.2 Access and circulation

Urban Farming 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

Industrial Hemp & Hemp in Poland Hemp processing Beekeeping & Urban beekeeping Honey processing Urban food systems

Energy 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12

Organic waste management Energy processes Anaerobic digester Hemp biofuels How to make biodiesel

Recycling

5.13 Recyclable waste management 5.14 Recyclables processing

Design

5.15 Internal Cycles 5.16 Building plans 5.17 Siteplan 5.18 Perspectives


5.1 PROGRAMME _____ BUILDING PROGRAMME PLAN _____ 76

AGRICULTURAL: Beehives, small scale cultivations, Honey processing area, Honey By-products manufacturing space. STORAGE SPACES: Private and Public storage spaces. RESIDENTIAL: Residential units for the accommodation of workers volunteers and visitors. ENERGY: Anaerobic gas digester, Bio-diesel, Pellet production, District heating boiler. RECYCLABLE WASTE PROCESSING: Collection space, Processing area: sorting and shredding, Recyclable waste workshop for manufacturing construction materials. HEMP PROCESSING: Hemp processing area, Hemp by products manufacture station, Hemp workshop for manufacturing construction materials. COMMUNITY SPACES: Assembly space, Information hub, Projection theatre, Community workshop space, Shared living room, Shared utility spaces. SPACES OF EXCHANGE: Open market, Cafe - Restaurant.


PROGRAMME 5.1 _____ BUILDING PROGRAMME PLAN _____ 77

AGRICULTURAL: Beehives, small scale cultivations, Honey processing area, Honey By-products manufacturing space. STORAGE SPACES: Private and Public storage spaces. RESIDENTIAL: Residential units for the accommodation of workers volunteers and visitors. ENERGY: Anaerobic gas digester, Bio-diesel, Pellet production, District heating boiler. RECYCLABLE WASTE PROCESSING: Collection space, Processing area: sorting and shredding, Recyclable waste workshop for manufacturing construction materials. HEMP PROCESSING: Hemp processing area, Hemp by products manufacture station, Hemp workshop for manufacturing construction materials. COMMUNITY SPACES: Assembly space, Information hub, Projection theatre, Community workshop space, Shared living room, Shared utility spaces. SPACES OF EXCHANGE: Open market, Cafe - Restaurant.


5.1 PROGRAMME _____ BUILDING PROGRAMME PLAN _____ 78

AGRICULTURAL: Beehives, small scale cultivations, Honey processing area, Honey By-products manufacturing space. STORAGE SPACES: Private and Public storage spaces. RESIDENTIAL: Residential units for the accommodation of workers volunteers and visitors. ENERGY: Anaerobic gas digester, Bio-diesel, Pellet production, District heating boiler. RECYCLABLE WASTE PROCESSING: Collection space, Processing area: sorting and shredding, Recyclable waste workshop for manufacturing construction materials. HEMP PROCESSING: Hemp processing area, Hemp by products manufacture station, Hemp workshop for manufacturing construction materials. COMMUNITY SPACES: Assembly space, Information hub, Projection theatre, Community workshop space, Shared living room, Shared utility spaces. SPACES OF EXCHANGE: Open market, Cafe - Restaurant.


PROGRAMME 5.2 _____ ACCESS & CIRCULATION _____ 79

ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 PRIMARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION SECONDARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION PRIVATE CIRCULATION

VISITOR -Access to Zone 1 -Access to all public routes and staircases. -Access to consumption -Access to community facilities APPRENTICE -Access to Zone 1 and Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces RESIDENT -Access to Zone 1, Zone 2 and in some cases Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces -Access to residential units


5.2 PROGRAMME _____ ACCESS & CIRCULATION _____ 80 ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 PRIMARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION SECONDARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION PRIVATE CIRCULATION

VISITOR -Access to Zone 1 -Access to all public routes and staircases. -Access to consumption -Access to community facilities APPRENTICE -Access to Zone 1 and Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces RESIDENT -Access to Zone 1, Zone 2 and in some cases Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces -Access to residential units


PROGRAMME 5.2 _____ ACCESS & CIRCULATION _____ 81

ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 PRIMARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION SECONDARY PUBLIC CIRCULATION PRIVATE CIRCULATION

VISITOR -Access to Zone 1 -Access to all public routes and staircases. -Access to consumption -Access to community facilities APPRENTICE -Access to Zone 1 and Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces RESIDENT -Access to Zone 1, Zone 2 and in some cases Zone 3 -Access to all production spaces -Access to residential units


5.3 PROGRAMME _____

INDUSTRIAL HEMP & HEMP IN POLAND _____ 82

INDUSTRIAL HEMP (Cannabis sativa), an agricultural crop native to Central Asia, is now widespread throughout tropical and temperate climates. It adapts to the local climate and soil type and is ‘reported to tolerate disease, drought, fungus, high pH, insects, laterite, low pH, mycobacterium, poor soil, slope and weeds’(1). Although the plant does readily adapt to most soil types, it ‘thrives in rich, fertile, neutral to slightly alkaline, well-drained silt or clay loams with moisture retentive subsoil’(2). It is a fast growing, hardy plant, producing an annual harvest with stalks reaching up to 4m high.1 Hemp is grown for many uses, but is most widely cultivated for the bast (phloem) fibre in the stem. The stem has ‘two constituent parts: a fibre sheath around a woody core called shiv, shive or hurd’. The fibre is highly valued due to its length, strength and durability with a particular resistance to decay and has been heavily used for ropes, nets, sails and paper. HEMP IN POLAND Cannabis hemp, or “Konopie”, is a long-standing traditional crop in Poland, remaining legal throughout North American prohibition. It is deeply entrenched in peasant folklore, and its uses are probably as old as the Slavic tribes who first settled down to work the land. There were over 50,000 hectares of hemp fields sown annually in Poland before the 1950s. Polish hemp cultivation has been in general decline for decades, suffering from the advent of synthetic fibres and cheap Asian jute fibre imports. This has been more severe since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Poland’s former main client. The cultivated area has plummeted to an alltime low of less than 3000 hectares in 1995. However, it appears that this trend is about to be reversed, as a great deal of new interest is being directed at cannabis, and new applications have been found. Poland has jumped into the front ranks of European industrial hemp growing, with about 1,400 hectares (about 3,700 acres) under cultivation this year, according to official agriculture documents, a massive increase over 2014 when just 107 hectares were planted in hemp. Meanwhile, Polish farmland designated for hemp by the agriculture ministry is set at 4,800 ha in light of projected demand. If all those fields went under hemp, it would rank Poland second in Europe to France, which grew about 10,000 hectares in 2014, and ahead of the Netherlands, which grew about 3,000 ha last year.2

1 http://www.hemparchitecture.com/hemp-plant/ 2 Hemp in Poland http://www.cannabisculture.com/content/1996/07/20/1125


PROGRAMME 5.3 _____

INDUSTRIAL HEMP & HEMP IN POLAND _____ 83

https://www.realhemp.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/hemp-chart.png


5.4 PROGRAMME _____ HEMP PROCESSING _____ 84

CULTIVATING CONDITIONS Hemp is an annual plant that grows from seed. It grows in a range of soils, but tends to grow best on land that produces high yields of corn. The soil must be well drained, rich in nitrogen, and non-acidic. Hemp prefers a mild climate, humid atmosphere, and a rainfall of at least 6476 cm per year. Soil temperatures must reach a minimum of 5.5-7.7°C before seeds can be planted. In Polish context the recommended date of sowing would be mid-spring and the date of harvest mid-August. HEMP PROCESSING1 1. HARVESTING The crop is ready for harvesting high quality fiber when the plants reach full biological maturity and begin to shed pollen. Harvesting for seed occurs four to six weeks later. Fiber hemp is normally ready to harvest in 70-90 days after seeding

Hemp harvesting (i)

2. RETTING Once the crop is cut, the stalks are allowed to rett (removal of the pectin [binder] by natural exposure to the environment) in the field for four to six weeks—depending on the weather—to loosen the fibers. While the stalks lay in the field, most of the nutrients extracted by the plant are returned to the soil as the leaves decompose. 3. GRAIN PROCESSING Hemp seeds must be properly cleaned and dried before storing. Extraction of oil usually takes place using a mechanical expeller press under a nitrogen atmosphere, otherwise known as mechanical cold pressing. The oil is mainly used to make bioDiese.l 4. DEHULLING This process removes the crunchy skin from the seed using a crushing machine, may be required. Modifications to existing equipment may be required to adequately clean the seeds of hull residues.

Fibre processing (ii)

5. FIBRE PROCESSING To separate the woody core from the bast fiber, a sequence of rollers (breakers) or a hammermill are used. The bast fiber is then cleaned and carded to the desired core content and fineness, sometimes followed by cutting to size and baling. 6. BYPRODUCTS/WASTE During fiber processing, the core fiber is saved and usually used to make paper, or construction materials. The dust can be pressed into pellets used for fuel. The dirt and small chips of core are also used as a high nutrient soil additive.

Cleaned hemp seeds, ground, and hemp oil (iii)

1 ‘Industrial Hemp’ http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Industrial-Hemp.html i) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-xx7nMKAVju0/UzFkQtCcxiI/AAAAAAAAJas/JaLzzpRox1Q/s1600/IMG_7544.jpg ii) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ML7lDH6Ril4/U4PGrLh3MAI/AAAAAAAAEH4/V_p6tzkoGio/s1600/FASH_ENV-TEXTILES-FUNFACTS_LA.jpg iii) http://globalmana.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/iStock_000078050077_Full.jpg


PROGRAMME 5.4 _____ HEMP PROCESSING _____ 85

HEMP

Locally grown Urban allotments Private cultivations

Drop Off

Hemp By-products

Dehulling

Oil Extraction Insulation Seperation

Hempcrete Mixing

Decorticator

Molding Panel Construction Assembly & Community workshops

Retrofitting existing houses

N


5.5 PROGRAMME _____

BEEKEEPING & URBAN BEEKEEPING _____ 86

Beehives on the roofs of East London

BEEKEEPING Many species of bees collect nectar which they convert in to honey and store as a food source. However, only bees which live together in large colonies store appreciable quantities of honey. These are bees of the genus Apis and some of the Meliponinae (stingless bees). Bees prepare honey mainly from the nectar of flowers, but other plant saps and honeydew are also used. As each bee sucks the liquid up through its proboscis and into the honey sac, a small amount of enzymes are added and water is evaporated. The enzymes convert sugars in the nectar into different types of sugars - honeys always contain a wide range of sugars, varying according to the nectar source. After the liquid has been placed in the cell of honeycomb, bees continue to process it. The temperature of the hive is usually around 35°C and this temperature together with ventilation produced by fanning bees, causes further evaporation of water from the honey. When the water content is less than 20% the bees seal the cell with a wax capping: the honey is now considered 'ripe' and will not ferment. Honey consists of a mixture of sugars, mostly glucose and fructose. In addition to water (usually 17-20%) it also contains very small amounts of other substances, including minerals, vitamins, proteins and amino acids. A very minor, but important component of most honey is pollen. URBAN BEEKEEPING Is the practice of keeping bee colonies in the context of urban areas even in big cities like New York, Chicago, Vancouver, and London. In the period between 1999 and 2012 beekeeping in the urban area of London has been increased by 220% with an estimation of 3200 apiaries. Beekeeping provides the area with both environmental and productive benefits, allowing the local residents to produce honey and and byproducts for the community. BEEKEEPING IN POLAND In the recent years economical conditions of Polish beekeeping changed significantly. The reason behind it was mainly caused by the entry of Poland to the European Union in 2004. When Poland became a member of the EU, beekeeping received a lot of support from the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. According to data obtained from the register of the Veterinary Inspection there were 49.432 beekeepers, owning 1.246.633 bee colonies in Poland in 2011. The percentage of small and medium apiaries in Poland (up to 80 colonies) was very high - 97.46%. Apiaries of this size do not need to be registered as a special branch of agricultural production. The percentage of the rest of apiaries (over 80 colonies) was only 2.54%. The number of colonies kept in those apiaries made only 14.43% of the total number of bee colonies in Poland.1

Beehive assembly

1 http://www.inhort.pl/files/program_wieloletni/wykaz_publikacji/obszar3/Beekeeping%20in%20Poland%20-%20the%20current%20stage.pdf


PROGRAMME 5.6 _____ HONEY PROCESSING _____ 87

HONEY PROCESSING Honey should be processed as soon as possible after removal from the hive. Honey processing is a sticky operation, in which time and patience are required to achieve the best results. Careful protection against contamination by ants and flying insects is needed at all stages of processing. There are two different ways to prepare the honey. Cut-comb honey Collect pieces of comb consisting only of sealed and undamaged honeycomb, cut them into neat portions and package them carefully for sale. Since the honey in the comb is untouched and is readily seen to be pure, honey presented in this way fetches a high price. Honey which has not been open to the air has a finer flavour than honey which has been subjected to processing in any way. Strained honey Remove the wax cappings from the honeycombs with a long sharp knife which has been standing in warm water. Figure 1. Start cutting at the bottom of the frame and cut off the thin layer of wax capping and allow it to fall into the dish below the frame. Turn the frame around and cut off the capping on the other side and then place the frame in an extractor Wax Of course the remaining pieces of the comb (wax) are not thrown away but are cleaned and stored for future use in the workshops. Chemically, beeswax consists mainly of esters of fatty acids and various long-chain alcohols. It is used in skin care and cosmetic products, candle making, polishing and many more.

Figure 1 Remove the wax cappings from the honeycomb

PROCESSING FACILITIES Honey extractor Preheating tank Honey filtering Vacuum pump Packaging Storage Concentrator

Cut-comb honey

Beeswax candles

figure 2 Honey extractor


5.7 PROGRAMME _____ URBAN FOOD SYSTEM _____ 88

URBAN FOOD SYSTEM Infrastructural, as well as individual food-productive projects need parallel top-down and bottom-up initiatives, design and planning. Through public workshops people interested in Agriculture (i.e. local residents with an interest in gardening and/or the open space, ecologists, small entrepreneurs and students) start to investigate ways of integrating their food production into the local food system.

FACILITIES The buildings include prototypes of organic intensive farming and a range of equipment and knowhow covering: a seed library, honey processing, hemp processing, a vegetable market selling grown on site or locally agricultural products, a collective Kitchen and CafĂŠ and a collective bread oven

COLLECTIVE KITCHEN Vegetables grown in the allotments, on site urban farms, and from local farms are processed in the building facilities through communal workshops. Hemp by-products with high nutritional value suh as seeds and oil are used for cooking. Even waste of this process such as seed shells are used to make hemp flour. Honey produced on-site in raw form or processed and packed is sold in the market.


PROGRAMME 5.7 _____ URBAN FOOD SYSTEM _____ 89

Drop Off

Hemp By-products

FOOD & LOCAL PRODUCE Locally grown Allotment grown Produced on site

Food processing

Restaurant Cafe

Market

N


5.8 PROGRAMME _____

ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT _____ 90 AGRICULTURAL WASTE Currently, the agricultural organic ‘waste’ that are produced in the allotments which are remains after the processing of crops (e.g. maize stalks, rice husks,foliage, etc.) are partly used as fertiliser but mainly it is burned in the field. Allotment users can bring his waste to the drop-off point where it’s going to be processed by an anaerobic digester. In a similar way, agricultural waste from hemp cultivations and the urban farm will be also processed by an anaerobic digester providing us with bio-gas used to heat our building but also with a compost used for fertiliser where part of it can go back to the allotment users.

Burning agricultural waste

DOMESTIC AND MUNICIPALITY WASTE Currently most of the household and municipality waste goes into landfill sites where the organic waste component of landfill is broken down by micro-organisms to form a liquid ‘leachate’ which contains bacteria, rotting matter and maybe chemical contaminants from the landfill. As an alternative, local residents can gather their household’s organic waste such as food scraps and garden waste and drop them on site to be processed by the anaerobic digester. Working together with the municipality, organic waste (waste from local vegetable markets, leafs etc.) can be delivered by municipality trucks to the drop-off point on site to be processed by the anaerobic digester.

Landfill site in Poland Wood pellet stove

TRANSITION Currently, residents of Słupsk as it was mentioned before are based on coal burning for heating up their homes. Our aim is to set up a plan that will slowly make Słupsk independent from coal and base their heating on alternative systems. In the first years local residents will be able to replace some of their coal with wood pellets manufuctured in our building to use in their wood burners. This will continue happening until there is a collective awareness of the aim. Slowly the heating system of our building will start to expand into a district heating network using boilers that are burning bio-mass, bio-gas and bio fuels, providing the neighborhood with cheap and controlled heat.


PROGRAMME 5.9 _____ ENERGY

Bio-Gas

Domestic organic waste Municipality organic waste Allotments organic waste

HEMP

Drop Off

Bio-Diesel

Anaerobic Digester

ENERGY PROCESSES _____ 91

Pellet

Grinding

Locally grown Urban allotments Private cultivations

Oil Extraction

FOOD & LOCAL PRODUCE Locally grown Allotment grown Produced on site

Food processing

Market

N


5.10 PROGRAMME _____ ANAEROBIC DIGESTER _____ 92

PROCESS -The mixing or collecting tank is used to collect and homogenize the liquid substrates, such as liquid manure and silage effluent. -The dosing unit is used to introduce solid substrates, such as renewable primary products and solid manure, into the biogas plant (solid organic waste). -The digestion of the substrates takes place in the digester. The digester can be heatable, insulated, equipped with weatherproof cladding, can accommodate several agitators and has a double membrane roof for gas storage. -The fermentation residue storage tank is a tank for storing the outgassed or depleted digestate. -Electricity or biomethane: Various upgrading concepts are available for the biogas produced. Generating electricity from a combined heat and power plant driven by a gas-Otto-engine enables to use, besides the electric energy, also the engine’s thermal energy in local and district heating systems. Alternatively, biogas can be fed into the natural gas network after appropriate upgrading to biomethane and can be used in various ways – even as fuel for cars, trucks and buses.

Anaerobic Digester section / Digestion process

Large scale anaerobic digester unit


PROGRAMME 5.10 _____ ANAEROBIC DIGESTER _____ 93

DOMESTIC ORGANIC WASTE

AGRICULTURAL WASTE

FEEDER

MACERATOR BIOGAS FERMENTER

HEAT RECYCLED TO FERMENTER

BIOGAS GOES TO:

OR

BIOGAS GOES TO:

CPH UNIT BIOMETHANE UPGRADING PLANT

HEAT SUPPLY

ELECTRICITY

FOR VEHICLES

COOKING & HATING

DIGESTATE SEPARATED TO:

FIBROUS DIGESTATE

LIQUIDDIGESTATE


5.11 PROGRAMME _____ HEMP BIO-FUELS _____ 94

HEMP FUELS Hemp can provide two types of fuel. 1. Hemp biodiesel – made from the oil of the (pressed) hemp seed. 2. Hemp ethanol/methanol – made from the fermented stalk. HOW TO MAKE HEMP BIO-FUEL NATURAL GAS CANNABIS BIOMASS

METHANOL

FUEL - OIL

TAR & CHARCOAL DIY BioDiesel processor

WHAT IS HEMP BIODIESEL Hemp biodiesel is the name for a variety of ester based oxygenated fuels made from hemp oil. The concept of using vegetable oil as an engine fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel. Hemp biodiesel come from the pressing of the hemp seeds to extract the oil. Through a process explained here , WHY HEMP BIODIESEL - Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine. - It can be stored anywhere that petroleum diesel fuel is stored. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 52°C Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, and over 20 years of use in Europe. - When burned in a diesel engine, biodiesel replaces the exhaust odor of petroleum diesel with the pleasant smell of hemp, - Biodiesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur. - The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by biodiesel.1 1 http://www.hemp.com/hemp-education/uses-of-hemp/hemp-fuel/


PROGRAMME 5.12 _____

HOW TO MAKE BIODIESEL (titration method)1

MEASURE FREE FATTY ACID content of your oil: Mix 1 ml oil with 10 ml Isopropyl alcohol = 2 drops phenolthalian solution. Dropwise add 0.1% lye solution ( 1 gm lye in one liter water ) until the solution stays pink for 10 seconds. (20 drops = 1 ml) Record the milliliters of 0.1% lye solution used. METHANOL You will need 200 ml of methanol per liter of Hemp Seed oil. Avoid hardware store methanol (wood alcohol) as it mat contain excessive water content. SODIUM METHOXIDE For each liter of hemp seed oil you need one gram of granular solid lye for each ml of 0.1% lye solution used in titration of free fatty acids plus 3.5 grams. Completely dissolve the proper amount of Lye in the methanol. This combined mixture makes sodium methoxide. MIXER The type of mixer depends on the size of the batch. An electric drill and paint mixer on an extended shaft works well in a 20 L bucket. TRANSESTERFICATION Once the lye catalyst is dissolved completely so that there is no sediment, then the oil may be added to the methanol lye mixture while mixing continuously. At first the mixture becomes thicker, then thinner as the reaction proceeds. The Mixture will separate into a light top layer of bio diesel and a darker bottom layer of glycerin, soap and catalyst. Continued mixing 30 – 60 minutes until the yield remains constant. Then stop mixing. After some time it will have settled into two distinct layers. Let the mixture settle for at least 8 hours. Pour off and save the bio diesel top layer into another container. A clear funnel bottomed container is helpful.

1 http://www.hemp.com/hemp-education/uses-of-hemp/hemp-fuel/making-hemp-biodiesel/

HOW TO MAKE BIODIESEL _____ 95


5.13 PROGRAMME _____

RECYCLABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT _____ 96

RECYCLABLE PLASTICS: • polyethylene terephthalate (PET) • high density polyethylene (HDPE) • low density polyethylene (LDPE) • polypropylene (PP) • polyvinyl chloride (PVC) • polystyrene • ABS (a copolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene) polymers

Plastic regrind

DOMESTIC WASTE: polyethylene bin liners and carrier bags • plastic bottles • • plastic buckets • plastic milk cartons • paint trays • fibre filling for sleeping bags and duvets

CONSTRUTION WASTE: • pipework Insulation boards • • wall coverings and flooring • interior fittings • window frames • scaffolding boards • kerbstones

Mixed colour plastic regrind

PROCESS The recyclable plastics are dropped on site by local residents or collected by trucks and gathered in the drop off point. First they are going through an automatic sink&float system were plastics are separated in different categories by their density. In the same time they are washed from any residues and then manually cleaned. The plastics will be then mixed and shredded to a mixed colour plastic regrind. This mix will then be heated and placed into special molds shaping in to desired shapes such as bricks and panels that will then be used for retrofitting existing houses as cladding or construction material. Recycled plastic cubes prototypes


PROGRAMME 5.14 _____

RECYCLABLE WASTE PROCESSES _____ 97

RECYCLABLES

Domestic waste Industrial waste Construction waste

Drop Off

Recyclables

Construction waste

Sorting

Cleaning Mixing Shredding

Molding

Assembly & Community workshops Retrofitting existing houses

N


5.15 PROGRAMME _____ INTERNAL CYCLES _____ 98

SOLAR PANELS

PELLETS TO PLACE COAL FOR THE HEATING OF LOCAL FAMILIES

BIODIESEL TO PLACE CO THE HEATING OF LOCAL

HEATING

RETROFITTED CONSTRUCTION WASTE IN USE

COMPRESSED RECYCLED WASTE WALL

COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS & PARTICIPATORY ARCHITECTURE

HYDROPONICS

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

PROCESSING RECYCLABLES

HEMP PROCESSING

PELLET PRODUCTION

BIO-DIESEL TANK

DOMESTIC WASTE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS TO RETROFIT LOCAL HOUSING

RECYCLABLE WASTE

HEMP

+

MUNICIPA


PROGRAMME 5.15 _____ INTERNAL CYCLES _____ 99

HONEY PRODUCTION SOLAR PANELS

BIODIESEL TO PLACE COAL FOR THE HEATING OF LOCAL FAMILIES

SEDUM ROOF WITH HERBS & AROMATIC PLANTS

DIESEL TANK

VEGETABLE RECYCLING

GREY WATER FOR USE IN TOILETS

STIC WASTE

+

MUNICIPAL WASTE

+

INTERNAL CYCLE WASTE

RAINWATER COLLECTION


5.16 PROGRAMME _____ BUILDING PLANS _____ 100

Energy 1) Drop-in Station 2) Anaerobic Digester 3) Fuel storage 4) District Heating Boiler 5) Bio-Diesel & Pellet production Hemp 6) Seed dehulling, oil press 7) Hemp Processing 8) Workshop Storage 9) Hempcrete Workshop Recycling 10) Workshop Storage 11) Construction Workshop Social Spaces 12) Collective kitchen / CafĂŠ 13) Restaurant sitting area 14) Market 15) Information Hub Community 16) Shared Laundry Facilities 17) Residential storage 18) Office 19) Projection room 20) Community Library 21) Aromatic garden, Bee Hives 22) Honey Processing 23) 5 Bedroom Apartment 24) 3 Bedroom Apartment 25) Bee Hives


PROGRAMME 5.16 _____ BUILDING PLANS _____ 101

Energy 1) Drop-in Station 2) Anaerobic Digester 3) Fuel storage 4) District Heating Boiler 5) Bio-Diesel & Pellet production Hemp 6) Seed dehulling, oil press 7) Hemp Processing 8) Workshop Storage 9) Hempcrete Workshop Recycling 10) Workshop Storage 11) Construction Workshop Social Spaces 12) Collective kitchen / CafĂŠ 13) Restaurant sitting area 14) Market 15) Information Hub Community 16) Shared Laundry Facilities 17) Residential storage 18) Office 19) Projection room 20) Community Library 21) Aromatic garden, Bee Hives 22) Honey Processing 23) 5 Bedroom Apartment 24) 3 Bedroom Apartment 25) Bee Hives


5.16 PROGRAMME _____ BUILDING PLANS _____ 102

Energy 1) Drop-in Station 2) Anaerobic Digester 3) Fuel storage 4) District Heating Boiler 5) Bio-Diesel & Pellet production Hemp 6) Seed dehulling, oil press 7) Hemp Processing 8) Workshop Storage 9) Hempcrete Workshop Recycling 10) Workshop Storage 11) Construction Workshop Social Spaces 12) Collective kitchen / CafĂŠ 13) Restaurant sitting area 14) Market 15) Information Hub Community 16) Shared Laundry Facilities 17) Residential storage 18) Office 19) Projection room 20) Community Library 21) Aromatic garden, Bee Hives 22) Honey Processing 23) 5 Bedroom Apartment 24) 3 Bedroom Apartment 25) Bee Hives


5.17 PROGRAMME _____ SITEPLAN _____ 104

- Drop off and collection point

- Cedum roof with bee-friendly plants - Bee-hives - Solar panels

- Hydroponics farm - Resident/user sitting area

- Allotments area - Main hemp cultivations

- Parking spaces


PROGRAMME 5.17 _____ SITEPLAN _____ 105

- Shared garden for residents of the neighbourhood - Greenhouse for plants and seedlings

- Experimental urban agricultural farm - Educational garden

- Main square - Outdoor market

- Park - Playground - Sitting area

SITE PLAN (not in scale)


5.18 PROGRAMME _____ PERSPECTIVES _____ 106


PROGRAMME 5.18 _____ PERSPECTIVES _____ 107


5.18 PROGRAMME _____ PERSPECTIVES _____ 108


PROGRAMME 5.18 _____ PERSPECTIVES _____ 109


TECHNOLOGY 6.0 _____

HEMPCRETE/STRAWBALE & RECYCLBLES TECHNICAL & STRUCTURAL STUDIES _____ 111

6.0 Technology Hempcrete 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Hempcrete wall technology How to make hempcrete (backyard DIY) Hempcrete wall 1:5 model Hempcrete section details 1:20 & U-Values

Straw-bale

6.5 Straw-bale wall technology 6.6 Straw-bale section details 1:20 & U-Values

Recycled plastic

6.7 Recycled plastic wall technology 6.8 Recycled plastic section details 1:20

---

6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17

Material system arrangement Timber frame arrangement Timber frame construction sequence Hempcrete building construction sequence Fire protection strategy Building section light study Building section thermal study Building section ventilation study Section details 1:20 & U-Values


6.1 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ HEMPCRETE WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 112

WHY TO USE HEMPCRETE: • Thermal Mass Insulation • Negative Carbon • Low Density • Clean Air • High Thermal Resistance • High Thermal Inertia • Vapor Permeable (breathable) • Design Flexibility (adjustable thickness) • Fire and Pest Resistant • Significantly Reduce Co2 Emissions • Inherently Airtight • Simple building skills suited to self-build and community projects • No Mould • No Termites • No Dry Rot • Natural Substrates for Plasters and Ren ders • Low Air Infiltration • ZERO LAND FILL

HEMPCRETE Hempcrete is a bio-composite made of the inner woody core of the hemp plant mixed with a lime-based binder. The hemp core or “Shiv” has a high silica content which allows it to bind well with lime. This property is unique to hemp among all natural fibers. The result is a lightweight cementitious insulating material weighing about a seventh or an eighth of the weight of concrete. Created by simply combining water, hemp aggregate and a lime-based binder it produces a building product with excellent thermal insulating and acoustic properties. The insulation forms the entire wall with the load bearing timber frame fully encased. Hempcrete is not just an insulator - it buffers temperature and humidity, prevents damp and mould growth, making the building a comfortable healthy environment. The most common ingredient is natural hydraulic lime (NHL) as the basis for the binder and the average drying time for a 400mm thick wall is about 2 weeks. After the drying period, the wall will be rendered with a lime based render. It is important to mention that the render must be breathable to work with the properties of Hempcrete. A hempcrete wall can be constructed by cast hempcrete in the frame or be assembled by pre-fabricated bricks or panels. RECIPE: 1 kilogram of chopped hemp shiv (also known as hurd) • 1.5 kilogram of powdered binder (Natural Hydraulic Lime or Hydrated Lime or Metaka • olin) Approximately 1.5 kilograms of water •

PROPERTIES: Density 275kg/m3 Flexural Strength 0.3-0.4 N/mm2 Thermal conductivity x=0.06W/m.K Heat Capacity 1500-1700 J/kg Mean Acoustic Absorption Coefficient 0.69 NRC Air Permeability 0.75 gm/m2/mm hg 24.2 gm/m2/mm hg Vapour permeability 4.84 μ Vapour Diffusion Resistance Fire Rating 1 hr BS EN 1365-1:1999 Carbon capture 130kg CO2/m3 Airtightness <2m3/m2.hr@50pa Hempcrete brick


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.1 _____ HEMPCRETE WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 113

42X100mm GLULAM BATTEN 200X200mm GLULAM POST 20mm LIME PLASTER INTERRIOR

20mm LIME PLASTER EXTERIOR

400mm HEMPCRETE INFILL

800x600mm CONCRETE FOUNDATION


6.2 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ HEMPCRETE BACKYARD (DIY) _____ 114

HOW TO MAKE HEMPCRETE BRICKS (BACKYARD DIY)

1

2

HEMPCRETE: 2 parts of HEMP SHIV, 1.5 parts of NHL 3.5, 1part of WATER,WE MIX TOGETHER ALL THE DRY MATERIALS (HEMP SHIVE, AND LIME) and SAND

3

WE ADD WATER TO THE MIX AND START STIRING UNTIL OUR HEMPCRETE IS HOMEGENISED AND MOIS ENOUGH TO HOLD TOGETHER

4

WE DIVIDE THE MIX IN TWO CONTAINERS AND WE ADD ONE PART OF SAND TO ONE OF THE MIXES


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.2 _____ HEMPCETE BACKYARD (DIY) _____ 115

5

6

WE FILL THE MOULDS WITH OUR MIX AND THEN TAMP IT TO REMOVE ANY AIR

WE LET THE BRICKS DRY FOR 5 DAYS

7

Hemp 50% Water 15% Lime 35%

Hemp 40% Water 15% Lime 45%

Hemp 40% Water 15% Lime 35% Sand 10%

Hemp 40% Water 15% Lime 30% Sand 15%


6.3 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ HEMPCRETE WALL 1:5 MODEL _____ 116

Timber studwork 35x10mm

Alkali Resistant Mesh 2mm

Internal lime render 5mm

External lime render 5mm Hempcrete 80mm

External hempcrete wall section detail scale 1:5

External hempcrete wall section detail scale 1:5 (side view)


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.3 _____ HEMPCRETE WALL 1:5 MODEL _____ 117

External natural hydraulic lime plaster finish (breathable)

Internal natural hydraulic lime plaster finish (breathable


6.4 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ HEMPCRETE SECTION DETAIL 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 118

U­Value Calculator Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference  

Dluga

Building Type

External Wall

Element Type:

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.28 W/m2K

 Area (m2): 

Perimeter (m):

Footing hempcrete wall technical detail section 1:20 Material

P/A = N/A

Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

0.06 0.72 0.72 0.18

100 90 90 100

380 10 10 10

6.3333 0.0125 0.0125 0.18

Internal Surface ( Rsi )

0.1300

Hempcrete External NHL Render Internal NHL Render Wide Alkali Resistant Mesh

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

     

0.0400

408.0 6.708

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse = U =  1/RT =

0.149

W/m2K

0.149

W/m2K

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.4 _____ HEMPCRETE SECTION DETAIL 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 119

U­Value Calculator

Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference

Dluga

Building Type

Element Type:

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.22 W/m2K

Intermediate Floor   Area (m2): 

Perimeter (m):

P/A = N/A

Sedum roof hempcrete detail section 1:20 Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

Material

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

Internal Surface ( Rsi )

0.1700

Plasterboard Hemp Insulation Cavity Fibreboard Polyurethane board Soil (dry)

0.25 0.039 0.18 0.10 0.025 0.7

100 100 100 100 100 100

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

17 100 150 20 27 100

0.0680 2.5641 0.18 0.2000 1.0800 0.1429

         

0.1200

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse =

414.0 4.525

U =  1/RT =

0.221

W/m2K

0.221

W/m2K

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


6.5 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ STRAW-BALE WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 120

Strawbale wall assembly

Strawbale wall assembly

STRAW-BALE Straw is from harvested grain stalks (never use bales of grass). These need to remain dry, less than 20% moisture content, and tightly bound to prevent moist air (including fog) getting in before plastering. These typically use an engineered timber framework that is filled with straw bales and covered by either lime render or timber screens off site. To build the wall, you start by sharpening some staves (inch thick willow stems) and then securing them vertically in the wood or concrete base. Straw bales can also be used for lightly loaded structural walls (up to two storey high). While compressive strength is very low (governed by displacement rather than material failure), 450 mm-thick bale walls are capable of supporting 0.8–1.0 tonnes/m length, sufficient for domestic-scale buildings and loadings. The render plays a significant structural role, increasing resistance and improving stiffness (limiting movement) as well as protecting the straw from decay and enhancing fire resistance.

WHY TO USE STRAW: • Avoids thermal bridging and provides good airtightness with simple detailing Good insulation qualities • • Lightweight material with simple construction details and processes • Light weight reduces load on foundations, reducing the need for materials with high embodied energy (eg concrete) • Low-cost renewable material, widely available from local sources, that stores carbon throughout its life • Simple building skills suited to self-build and community projects • Suitable for in situ and prefabricated approaches • Vapour-permeable construction envelope

PROPERTIES: • Minimum recommended bale dry density: 110–130 kg/m3 Thermal conductivity: 0.055–0.065 W/mK (density 110–130 kg/m3 ) • Recommended initial moisture content: 10–16% • Recommended maximum in-service moisture content: normally not to exceed 20–25% •


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.5 _____ STRAW-BALE WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 121

42X100mm GLULAM BATTEN 200X200mm GLULAM POST 20mm LIME PLASTER INTERRIOR

30mm RECYCLED PLASTIC SHEET CLADDING

400mm STRAWBALE INFILL 30mm RECYCLED PLASTIC SHEET CLADDING TRANSPARENT

800x600mm CONCRETE FOUNDATION


6.6 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ STRAW-BALE SECTION DETAIL 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 122

U­Value Calculator

Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference

Dluga

Building Type

Element Type:

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.28 W/m2K

External Wall

2): Perimeter (m):   Area (m 2nd floor strawbale technical detail section 1:20

Material

P/A = N/A

Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

0.065 0.5 0.72

100 100 90

370 20 10

5.6923 0.0400 0.0125

Internal Surface ( Rsi ) Strawbale Recycled Plastic Board Internal NHL Render

0.1300

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

   

0.0400

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse =

399.0 5.915

U =  1/RT =

0.169

W/m2K

0.169

W/m2K

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.6 _____ STRAW-BALE SECTION DETAIL 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 123

U­Value Calculator

Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference

Dluga

Building Type

Element Type:

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.22 W/m2K

Intermediate Floor

2): Sedum roofPerimeter (m): strawbale section detail 1:20   Area (m

P/A = N/A

Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

Material

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

Internal Surface ( Rsi )

0.1700

Plasterboard Hemp Insulation Cavity Fibreboard Polyurethane board Soil (dry)

0.25 0.039 0.18 0.10 0.025 0.7

100 100 100 100 100 100

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

17 100 150 20 27 100

0.0680 2.5641 0.18 0.2000 1.0800 0.1429

         

0.1200

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse =

414.0 4.525

U =  1/

0.221

W/m2K

0.221

W/m2K

RT =

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


6.7 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ RECYCLED PLASTIC WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 124

RECYCLED PLASTIC PANELS The collected plastics are first going through a sorting process and then are cleaned. After drying, they are mixed and shredded in to flakes. Then the mix is put into a mold, is melted and then pelletised. The wall is made by recycled plastic panels (1000x800x300) stack on top of each other and assembled in between a timber frame. The main structural element of the wall is the timber frame, although the plastic sheets offer an additional structural support to the construction. Recycled plastic prototype

A similar system is used by a Mexico-based startup, Eco Domum (“eco house”), that is recovering much of that plastic trash and recycling it into building materials, which are then used to create affordable housing for some of the country’s low-income families. Since 2013 Eco Domum has already constructed over 500 recycled plastic homes throughout Mexico, and the company has partnered with local trash collectors to ensure a constant supply of raw materials. Recycled plastic panel

Shaping the plastic panel


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.7 _____ RECYCLED PLASTIC WALL TECHNOLOGY _____ 125

42X100mm GLULAM BATTEN 200X200mm GLULAM POST

1000x800x300mm RECYCLED PLASTIC BRICKS

800x600mm CONCRETE FOUNDATION


6.8 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ RECYCLED PLASTIC SECTION DETAIL 1:20 _____ 126

1st floor recycled plastic technical detail section 1:20


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.9 _____ MATERIAL SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT _____ 127

HEMPCRETE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm Internal Walls 150mm STRAWBALE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm COMPRESSED PLASTIC WALL: Exterior Walls 800mm


6.9 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ MATERIAL SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT _____ 128

HEMPCRETE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm Internal Walls 150mm STRAWBALE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm COMPRESSED PLASTIC WALL: Exterior Walls 800mm


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.9 _____ MATERIAL SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT _____ 129

HEMPCRETE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm Internal Walls 150mm STRAWBALE WALL: Exterior Walls 400mm COMPRESSED PLASTIC WALL: Exterior Walls 800mm


6.10 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ TIMBER FRAME ARRANGEMENT _____ 130

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: BEAM SIZE: POST SIZE: 200x200mm GRID: 6000x6000mm

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: The span varies around 6 meters and in never exceeding 8 meters


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.10 _____ TIMBER FRAME ARRANGEMENT _____ 131

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: BEAM SIZE: POST SIZE: 200x200mm GRID: 6000x6000mm

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: The span varies around 6 meters and in never exceeding 8 meters


6.10 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ TIMBER FRAME ARRANGEMENT _____ 132

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: BEAM SIZE: POST SIZE: 200x200mm GRID: 6000x6000mm

GLULAM TIMBER FRAME: The span varies around 6 meters and in never exceeding 8 meters


6.11 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____

TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE _____ 134

1 Concrete is poured into trenches to form the foundation. Ground floor posts are placed on both continuous and isolated footings. A continuous footing is a reinforced concrete footing extended to support a row of columns. Isolated footings are the individual spread footings supporting freestanding columns and piers.

2 Glulam beams are placed to form the base where the composite timber floor will be placed. The floor will filled with with strawbale and hemp fibers for high sound insulation; finally it will be covered with prefabricated concrete blocks for the external spaces where for internal spaces it will be cladded with recycled plastic blocks.

3 After the 1st floor frame is constructed the posts and beams for the 2nd floor are placed. In a similar way, the 2nd floor will be composite timber filled with straw and covered with a timber cladding.


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.11 _____

TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE _____ 135


6.12 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____

HEMPCRETE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE _____ 136

1

CONCRETE FOUNDATION

4

PRIMARY TIMBER STRUCTURE IS CONSTRUCTED

2

CONCRETE FOOTINGS ARE CONSTRUCTED

5

TIMBER STUDWORK

3

COLUMNS ARE BROUGHT ON SITE

6

FULL TIMBER FRAME IS CONSTRUCTED


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.12 _____

HEMPCRETE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE _____ 137

7

HEMPCRETE IS TAMPED INBETWEEN THE FRAME

10

WINDOW OPENING ON THE HEMPCRETE WALL

8

SERVICES THROUGH THE HEMPCRETE WALL

11

SERVICES THROUGH THE HEMPCRETE WALL

9

DRIED HEMPCRETE IS REVEALED

12

HEMPCRETE WALLS ARE PLASTERED


6.13 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ FIRE PROTECTION STRATEGY _____ 138

ENERGY PRODUCTION (1) High risk due to Biofuel, pellets production and boiler. We reduce the risk by installing fire suppression sprinklers above the hazardous areas. The spaces is very close to a secured corridor managing to minimize the travel distance to 10 meters. COLLECTIVE KITCHEN (2) Medium risk due to cooking facilities. We reduce the risk by installing smoke vents and natural ventilation. Maximum travel distance 18 meters but shorter window access. RECYCLING WORKSHOP (3) Medium risk due to high temperatures for moulding facilities. We reduce the risk by installing smoke vents and by providing enclosed moulding units. Maximum travel distance 15 meters.

1

10m

11m 16m 15m 12m

3

2

SECURED CORRIDOR Providing a fire protected corridor in order to shorten the travel distance for users that use high fire risk spaces. Hypoxic air technology (also in storage spaces) and fire suppression sprinklers are used to prevent and extinguish fire.

18m

14m


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.13 _____ FIRE PROTECTION STRATEGY _____ 139

• Stairways, corridors and areas near the fire exits should be kept clear of obstructions and material which can catch fire.

• Full evacuation fire drills are held every six months to guarantee experienced users in case of fire.

• Staff and frequent users of the building are trained for fire situations.

• In premises used by the public or large numbers of people, Doors with push (panic) bars or push pads are installed.


6.14 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ BUILDING SECTION LIGHT STUDY _____ 140

Skylight allowing natural light in the corridors of the residential units

West


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.14 _____ BUILDING SECTION LIGHT STUDY _____ 141

Bedrooms with balconys facing East

Skylights allowing natural light in the workshop spaces

East


6.15 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ BUILDING SECTION THERMAL STUDY _____ 142

A combined boiler using biogas and biodiesel supplies the floor heating system that is installed in the building with hot water.

19 °C

25 °C In the 1st and 2nd floor heating levels are dropped as the heat produced on the lower floors is raising to the upper parts of the building.

19 °C

25 °C Lower floor heating temperature is supplied in the workshop spaces since mechanic processes raise the overall temperature of the ground floor.

20 °C

21 °C


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.15 _____ BUILDING SECTION THERMAL STUDY _____ 143

C

C

C

C

19 °C

C

C

21 °C


6.16 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ BUILDING SECTION VENTILATION STUDY _____ 144

Reclining system skylights that allow natural ventilation of the corridor of the residential units

Mechanical ventilation system is installed in the workshop spaces of the ground floor Natural ventilation in addition to the mechanical ventilation in the plastic recycling workshop


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.16 _____ BUILDING SECTION VENTILATION STUDY _____ 145

Mechanical ventilation system is installed in the hempcrete workshop

Reclining system skylights that allow natural ventilation in the hempcrete workshop of the ground floor


6.17 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ SECTION DETAILS 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 146

parke

U­Value Calculator

Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference

Dluga

Building Type

Element Type:

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.22 W/m2K

Intermediate Floor

2): Perimeter (m):   Area (m 1st floor hempcrete and straw joint detail section 1:20

P/A = N/A

Hempcrete + Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

Material

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

Internal Surface ( Rsi )

0.1700

Plasterboard Hemp Insulation Cavity Fibreboard Tile Backer Board Plastic tiles

0.25 0.039 0.18 0.10 0.027 0.20

100 100 100 100 100 100

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

17 100 150 20 20 16

0.0680 2.5641 0.18 0.2000 0.7407 0.0800

         

0.1200

323.0 4.123

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse = U =  1/

0.243

W/m2K

0.243

W/m2K

RT =

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 6.17 _____ SECTION DETAILS 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 147

1st floor structural detail section 1:20

Footing structural detail section 1:20


6.17 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS _____ SECTION DETAILS 1:20 & U-VALUES _____ 148

U­Value Calculator

Thermal transmittance (U­value) according to BS EN ISO 6946 2007

Project

Reference

Dluga

Building Type

Element Type: 1st floor hempcrete section technical detal section 1:20 Intermediate Floor   Area (m2): 

Perimeter (m):

Max U­Value  U = 1/RT =  0.22 W/m2K P/A = N/A

Thermal Cond. (W/m2K)

Material

%

Thickness (mm)

Resistance (m2K/W)

Internal Surface ( Rsi )

0.1700

Plasterboard Hemp Insulation Cavity Concrete block medium weight

0.25 0.039 0.18 0.57

100 100 100 100

External Surface  ( Rse )

Total thickness: Total resistance: U­Value (uncorrected): Total ΔU: U­Value (corrected):

17 100 150 80

0.0680 2.5641 0.18 0.1404

     

0.1200

mm

RT = Rsi+R+Rse =

347.0 3.243

U =  1/RT =

0.308

W/m2K

0.308

W/m2K

m2K/W

0.000 U =  1/RT+ ΔU =

Disclaimer: We hope to provide an accurate and useful service, but any reliance you place on the information provided on this site is strictly at your


7.0 REFERENCES _____ IMAGES _____ 150

Image references Hempcrete construction sequence http://icdn8.digitaltrends.com/image/hempcrete-house-640x0.jpg http://thelaststraw.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/DSCF2081.jpg http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/4534.jpg Recycled plastics http://static.wixstatic.com/media/2abc79_0519b1a838e44db38cfe7bd0b7fa176e.jpg/v1/fill/w_511,h_418,al_ c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01/2abc79_0519b1a838e44db38cfe7bd0b7fa176e.jpg http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2015/12/Blocks-3.jpg http://youtradeweb.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/panelloEcoDomum.jpg http://www.stphipsscrap.com/abs-regrind.html http://www.ck-group.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CK-Plastics-recycling-0628.jpg Strawbale http://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Straw-Bale-House http://glassford.com.au/main/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/easter-ws-4.jpg Energy https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Anaerobic_digesters_overhead_view.jpg https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/86/5d/ed/865ded5004545585c7452acf9a580bf5.jpg https://photos.smugmug.com/Graphics/Graphics/i-DQHzTF6/1/L/district%20Heating%20System-L.jpg http://www.oekobit-biogas.com/uploads/pics/biogasanl_funktion_EN_01.png http://www.pcfd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/legalburnpile.jpg http://img.bhs4.com/fd/9/fd96cf236afd081266b64e385bb61d905c5658a5_large.jpg Food http://www.rhyzom.net/2014/04/19/img_0453-800x600.jpg https://ediblegardencity.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/bee-15_1435326i.jpg?w=545&h=351 https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/27/2a/bf/272abf6ea02b486940a9ebe8c212f9d7.jpg http://nalacare.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/beeswax_4-300x200.jpg http://www.heathmonthoney.com.au/images/products/Candles/row-of-beeswax-candles.jpg Hemp http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ML7lDH6Ril4/U4PGrLh3MAI/AAAAAAAAEH4/V_p6tzkoGio/s1600/FASH_ ENV-TEXTILES-FUNFACTS_LA.jpg http://globalmana.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/iStock_000078050077_Full.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-xx7nMKAVju0/UzFkQtCcxiI/AAAAAAAAJas/JaLzzpRox1Q/s1600/IMG_7544.jpg


REFERENCES 7.0 _____

Bibliography Context • Michal Rozworski, ‘Poland’s Iron Consensus’, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/11/poland-october-elections-kaczynski-law-justice-party/ • Igor Stokfiszewski, ‘We, the Citizens: the rise of the Polish urban movements’ • Claudia Ciobanu, ‘Poland’s Left is up for grabs: A new generation is ready to leave behind the materialism promoted since the fall of communism’ • http://www.confuzine.com/2013/12/19/powisle-diy-warsaw-poland/ Architectural discussion • Grzegorz Godlewski, ‘Culture animation: looking back and forward’, Instytut Kultury Polskiej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2002. • Walter Lorenz, ‘The Two Sides of Innovation: Creation and Destruction in the Evolution of Capitalist Economies’,Springer Publications, 1994, p.101 • What surrounds us now: cultural animation and the participatory and cultural voids in Poland, Brendan James Daniel, Creative Commons Attribution Publications, 2013, Bucharest, Romania, p.35 • https://greekleftreview.wordpress.com/2016/01/30/towards-the-collective-city/ • http://basurama.org/en/ • Basurama: a framework for designing collectively with waste, Pablo Rey Mazón, Basurama, Cambridge, MA, USA and Madrid, Spain, p. 9 • Michael Hardt, and Antonio Negri, ‘Commonwealth’, U , Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011, ISBN-10: 0674060288, p. viii Alex Vasudevan, Colin McFarlane, and Alex Jeffrey, ‘Spaces of Enclosure’, U , Geoforum 39, 2008, p. 1642 • • Stavros Stavrides, “On Urban Commoning: The City Shapes Institutions of Sharing,” in Make_Shift City: Renegotiating the Urban Commons (Berlin: Jovis, 2014), 83–85. • An Architektur, ‘On the Commons: A Public Inter iew with Massimo e Angelis and Stavros Stavrides’, 2010 • David Harvey, ‘Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Re olution’, Verso Books, 2012, ISBN-10: 1844678822, p. 73 • http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/aug/18/santiago-cirugeda-guerrilla-architect-spain-seville-financial-crisis • http://www.recetasurbanas.net/v3/index.php/en/contactar • Renata Tyszczuk, Stephen Walker (ed), Ecology field: volume 4, ISSN: 1755-068, issue 1 (December 2010), 149 • André Viljoen (ed.), Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes CPULs: designing urban agriculture for sustainable cities. (Architectural Press: Oxford, 2005)33. • Renata Tyszczuk, Stephen Walker (ed), Ecology field: volume 4, ISSN: 1755-068, issue 1 (December 2010), 150 • Cook, H and Rogers, A ‘Community Food Security’, Pesticide Campaigner, 6 (3) (1996): 7-11 • Mark Redwood, Agriculture in Urban Planning: Generating Livelihoods and Food, (London: Earthscan and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC); 2009). • André Viljoen and Katrin Bohn, ‘CPUL: Essential Infrastructure and Edible Ornament in: Designing Edible Landscapes’ Open House International 34(2). Urban International Press (2009). • André Viljoen, Katrin Bohn, Mikey Tomkins and G. Denny, ‘Places For People, Places For Plants’ keynote paper presented at the Second International Conference on Landscape and Urban Horticulture (June, University of Bologna, Italy, 2009) • http://www.uncubemagazine.com/blog/7865563

PRECEDENTS RESEARCH READS _____ 151


7.0 REFERENCES _____ PRECEDENTS RESEARCH READS _____ 152

Urban Strategy • Ellen MacArthur Foundation, ‘Towards the circular economy, Economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition’, 2014 Programme • http://www.hemparchitecture.com/hemp-plant/ Hemp in Poland http://www.cannabisculture.com/content/1996/07/20/1125 • ‘Industrial Hemp’, http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Industrial-Hemp.html • • Beekeeping in Poland – The current state, http://www.inhort.pl/files/program_wieloletni/wykaz_publikacji/ obszar3/Beekeeping%20in%20Poland%20-%20the%20current%20stage.pdf • http://www.hemp.com/hemp-education/uses-of-hemp/hemp-fuel/ Technology • http://www.americanlimetechnology.com/what-is-hempcrete/ • http://houzbuzz.com/straw-bale-house-construction-details-closer-to-nature/ • http://inhabitat.com/eco-domum-recycles-tons-of-plastic-waste-from-mexico-into-low-income-homes/ U-Value calculator, http://www.changeplan.co.uk/u_value_calculator.php •

Backyard Revolution: Detailed Design Booklet [Słupsk, 2015]  

The following project is a Spatial Design Thesis for the MArch course at Plymouth University School of Architecture, Design and Environment....

Backyard Revolution: Detailed Design Booklet [Słupsk, 2015]  

The following project is a Spatial Design Thesis for the MArch course at Plymouth University School of Architecture, Design and Environment....

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