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Oregon’s Outcomes and Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

OregonASK STATEWIDE

AFTERSCHOOL NETWORK

Revised 2012


Oregon’s Outcomes and Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs Self-Assessment Tool and Handbook Revised 2012


Acknowledgements We would like to express sincere appreciation to the countless people who’ve contributed to this project. Your involvement, whether it be in a committee meeting providing feedback; by contributing to a specific portion of the standards or compentencies as an expert in your field; or diligently reading drafts; we value your time and thank you for it. A special acknowledgement goes to the Oregon Afterschool for Kids Steering Commitee and Stakeholders organizations for their participation. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Alliance of Y’s Boys and Girls Club of America Center for Career Development City of Salem Department of Employment – Child Care Division Education Northwest Fight Crime Invest in Kids FIRST Robotics Inclusive Child Care Mad Science of Portland & Vancouver Metropolitan Family Services Multnomah County – Schools Uniting Neighborhoods Oregon Child Care Resource and Referral State Office Oregon Department of Education - USDA Oregon Department of Education – 21st Century Community Learning Centers Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Oregon Department of Human Services - TANF Oregon Department of Human Services - Employment Related Day Care Oregon PTA Oregon Recreation and Park Association Oregon School Board Association Oregon State Library Oregon State University - 4-H Oregon University System Oregon Volunteers Partners for a Hunger Free Oregon Portland Impact Portland Jewish Academy Salem Keizer Education Foundation Saturday Academy Willamalane Park and Recreation District Woodburn AfterSchool Club

We would not have been able to complete this revision process without your expertise and assistance. Thank you. Beth Unverzagt, Oregon Afterschool for Kids, Executive Director

A Publication of Oregon Afterschool for Kids Development and editing by Tammy Marino Design by Lynn Kneeland www.oregonask.org


Activities, Curriculum & Environment Diversity & Inclusion Families, Communities & Schools Health, Safety & Nutrition Highly Skilled Personnel Program Management Youth Development & Engagement


Oregon’s Outcomes and Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs Welcome! This is the first edition of the Oregon Program and Youth Outcomes Inventory for Afterschool and Summer programs. To ensure that the children and youth in Oregon thrive and have positive experiences, we need well designed and intentional programs that promote a diverse range of high quality, relevant and engaging activities. The Outcomes Inventory provides a tool to use in assessing and articulating the impact these programs have on children and youth. Regardless of program setting, philosophy, or focus, all Afterschool and Summer Programs seek to ensure that youth are safe and have positive experiences that assist them in growing and learning. We hope this tool will assist professionals in being as effective as possible in their mission.

What are Youth Outcomes? Youth Outcomes are an effect of a program on the attitude, knowledge, and/or behavior of a young person – or how is this youth going to be different after attending your program? (PASE, 2010).

The goals for Program and Youth Outcomes and why they are critical for the field: • • • • •

Provide examples of outcomes in a clear and accessible language. Serve as a foundation for decisions and practices in all settings and programs. Initiate or extend the measurement of effectiveness and assist in program evaluation efforts. Utilize the latest research. Provide an ongoing framework to advance the field and increase the quality of programs offered.

Who are Program and Youth Outcomes for? Program and Youth Outcomes apply to programs that work with children and youth in afterschool and summer settings. Some examples are 21st Century Community Learning Centers, Youth Development Programs, Childcare programs and Recreation.

Interpreting and Utilizing the Inventory Afterschool and Summer Programs vary on the scope, focus, and philosophy of activities and services offered. This inventory does not seek to capture the wealth of outcomes that can be covered in each of these settings. Instead, this inventory offers outcomes for each of the seven domains that can commonly occur across settings. Each outcome is followed by indicators and sub indicators as well as potential assessment tools. The list is not definitive and programs can achieve the same outcomes and use different indicators. Programs may envision other ways to demonstrate each outcome. It is our hope this inventory will prompt thoughtful reflection and intentional program planning as a means for improving youth outcomes.


Activities, Curriculum & Environment


Activities, Curriculum & Environment Outcome:

“Play keeps us vital and alive. It gives us an enthusiasm for life that is irreplaceable. Without it, life just doesn’t taste good.” - Lucia Capocchione

Increased participant engagement in and ownership of program

Indicators Increased ability to make developmentally appropriate choices in program activities. Number of appropriate activities that are self-selected Number of activities that are developmentally appropriate Increased attendance. Number of days attended Length of time for each session attended Increased action on specific issues that impact the program. Ability to recognize issues that impact the program Level of interest in taking action regarding issues affecting participants and/or program Level of involvement in suggesting activities

Outcome:

Increased engagement in learning

Indicators Improved study skills. Hours spent studying each week Ability to work independently Frequency of on-time homework completion Improved initiative of personal learning. Level of willingness to pursue personal interests Amount of reading done for pleasure 1 ­ Activities, Curriculum & Environment

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Activities, Curriculum & Environment Outcome:

Increased academic achievement

Indicators Increased test scores. Standardized test scores In-class test scores Improved grades. Grades

Outcome:

Increased participation/engagement of English Language Learners

Indicators Increased attendance. Number of days attended Length of time for each session attended Increased ability to make developmentally appropriate choices in program activities. Number of appropriate activities that are self-selected Number of activities that are developmentally appropriate Increased ability to effectively communicate with program participants and staff. Ability to communicate needs and wants Ability to navigate social situations

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­ 2


Activities, Curriculum & Environment Outcome:

“You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him discover it in himself.” - Galileo (1564-1642)

Increased participant confidence in their ability to transition from school to college or career

Indicators Understands available choices. Level of awareness of choice process Level of awareness of options Intentional program or career selection. Enrollment in program Interview or other career contact

Outcome:

Effective demonstration of critical thinking and problem solving skills

Indicators Increased innovation and creativity. Level of interest in pursuing creative activities Ability to brainstorm Capacity to complete complex assignments Improved ability to manage multiple choices/options. Level of interest in engaging in activities Ability to understand available choices Ability to ask questions Increased ability to understand all aspects of a specific issue or challenge. Ability to describe various views Ability to ask questions Ability to listen respectively 3 ­ Activities, Curriculum & Environment

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Basic Reading Inventory (BRI) This inventory for preK–12 students assigns a grade-level reading designation.

www.kendallhunt.com/bri/

Youth read specific word lists and text passages and then respond to comprehension questions that follow. Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge Questionnaire The instrument measures youth’s computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge. It is organized into four sections: demographic characteristics, computer use and experience, computer attitudes and confidence, and perceived computer knowledge.

Levine, T., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis.Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 125–146.

Sample items in the attitudes and confidence section include “I feel comfortable working with computers” and “boys usually do better than girls in computer courses,” and are rated on scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA-2) These assessments for K–8 students help teachers identify students’ strengths and reading abilities. Tests assess reading abilities through a series of progressively challenging stories based on accuracy in reading aloud, retelling, and answering questions about the stories.

www.pearsonschool.com /redirect.cfm?programId= 23661&acornSiteId=41

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test This norm-referenced test measures reading skills of kindergarten through adult readers. It covers both vocabulary and comprehension. Items assess literacy concepts, oral language concepts, letters and letter-sound correspondences, listening (story) comprehension, basic story words, word decoding, comprehension, and word knowledge. Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

www.riverpub.com/products /gmrt/ index.html and www.riverpub.com/products / gmrtOnline/index.html (online version)

Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­ 4


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) This standardized reading test is composed of a series of graded word lists and passages used to determine decoding and comprehension skills. Five types of comprehension questions follow each reading passage: topic, fact, inference, evaluation, and vocabulary. Youth read specific word lists and reading passages and then respond to questions that follow.

Johns, J. L. (1996). Using Informal Reading Inventories in classroom and clinic. In L. R. Putnam (Ed.), How to become a better reading teacher: Strategies for assessment and intervention (pp. 113–122). Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Mock Report Card: Academic Grades This measure standardizes information about students’ academic performance across districts that use different grading systems. The scale is completed by teachers and measures performance in reading and oral/written language, math, science, and social studies.

Pierce, K. M., Hamm, J. V., & Vandell, D. L. (1999). Experiences in after-school programs and children’s adjustment in first-grade class classrooms. Child Development, 70, 756–767.

Teachers rate students’ performance in school subjects using a scale from 1 (failing) to 5 (excellent). Puzzle Tanks Test This test measures whether problem-solving skills learned in game-based settings carry over into problem-solving skills more generally.

www.pearsonschool.com /redirect.cfm?programId= 23661&acornSiteId=41

Youth are shown a diagram consisting of one unlimited supply tank, two tanks of set sizes that can be filled from the unlimited tank or from the set size other tank, and a truck at the bottom. Youth are asked to measure some amount of “Wonder Juice” into the truck below. The required amount does not match the size of the limited tanks, so the youth must pour between the tanks to fill the truck.

5  Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT) This norm-referenced tool measures a child’s receptive vocabulary and allows for a comparison of growth in vocabulary relative to growth among similar youth nationally. It is available in English and Spanish.

Where You Can Find It http://oerl.sri.com /instruments/tech/studsurv /instr141/instr141.html

Youth rate statements such as “I am good at using the computer to do presentations for school” on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (never/rarely true) to 4 (almost always true). Youth self-assess skills including “operation of a zip drive” and “create a table” on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (I don’t know what this means) to 5 (I can teach someone how to do this. I am an expert.). Students as Agents of Change This instrument measures youth’s perceived computer skills and use through 39 closed-ended and 5 open-ended items Sample items in the attitudes and confidence section include “I feel comfortable working with computers” and “boys usually do better than girls in computer courses,” and are rated on scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

Levine, T., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis.Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 125–146.

Word Problem Comprehension Test (WPCT) This 12-item test measures students’ comprehension of arithmetic word problems. The following is a sample question from the test: Which numbers are needed to do this problem?: A package of 3 toys costs 88 cents. Richie bought 2 packages. How many toys did he buy? a. 3, 88, 2 b. 3, 88 c. 88, 2 d. 3, 2 Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

www.psych.ucsb.edu/~mayer / fifth_dim_website/HTML/wpct / wpct_home.html

Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­ 6


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Academic Perceptions Inventory (API) This instrument, for students in kindergarten through college, measures perceived ability in reading and arithmetic. Youth use a very sad to very happy scale to express ability. Elementary Reading Attitude Survey This assessment measures youth’s recreational reading and academic reading attitudes. Questions include “How do you feel about reading in class?” and “How do you feel about reading for fun at home?” Youth respond using a 4-point Likert scale with pictorial anchors of Garfield showing various emotions. Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children/ Adolescents This scale measures youth’s perceived competence in academics and other areas (e.g., athletics), and their general sense of self-worth. It is intended for children over age 8, and has also been adapted specifically for adolescents Youth read two statements and choose the description that is more like them; for example, youth are asked to choose either “Some kids often forget what they learn” or “Other kids can remember things easily.” Youth then choose whether the description is really true or sort of true of themselves.

Soares, L. M., & Soares, A. T. (2000). Academic perceptions inventory: Test manual/Advanced level.Trumbull, CT: Castle Consultants.

http://www.professorgarfield.org /parents_teachers/printables /reading.html

Harter, S. (1985). The SelfPerception Profile for Children: Revision of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Denver, CO: University of Denver; and Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the Adolescent Self-Perception Profile. Denver, CO: Author.

Perception of Ability Scale for Students This scale includes 70 items measuring school-related selfconcept for children in Grades 3–6. Youth report yes or no to statements such as “I am good at arithmetic” and “I find spelling hard.”

7  Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­

Boersma, F. J., & Chapman, J. W. (1992). Perception of ability scale for students. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale —2nd edition This 60-item self-reported scale assesses general self-esteem in children aged 7–18, and has six subscales: behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction.

http://portal.wpspublish.com /portal/page?_pageid=53, 112628&_dad=portal& _schema=PORTAL

Items are simple descriptive statements written at a second grade reading level. Youth indicate whether each item applies to them by selecting a yes or no response. (A Spanish Test Booklet is available for children who read Spanish only.) Student Survey for Girls in Science and Technology This 48-item instrument measures girls’ attitudes and beliefs about scientists and scientific careers.

http://oerl.sri.com/instruments /up/studsurv/instr127.html

Girls indicate their belief in statements such as “When I think about a scientist, I think of a person who sits in a laboratory all day” and “Scientists are good for society because they help find cures,” using a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree tostrongly disagree. Teacher Expectancy of Academic Performance Scale (TEAPS) This scale assesses teachers’ expectations of students’ academic potential. Teachers rate students on a series of 7-point Likert scales ranging from 1 (far below average) to 7 (far above average).

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Gerard, H. B., & Miller, N. (1975). School desegregation: A long term study. New York: Plenum Press.

Activities, Curriculum & Environment ­ 8


Diversity & Inclusion


Diversity & Inclusion Outcome:

“Don’t be afraid to be amazing.” - Andy Offutt Irwin

Families receive effective, understandable, and respectful services that are provided in a manner compatible with their cultural beliefs and practices, preferred language, ability and gender

Indicators Increased family satisfaction in program. Documented use of evidence-based, or best practices, (when known) for different client populations Staff receive training in cultural or inclusive training Increase in participation of families from diverse backgrounds. Communications are offered in the participant families’ home languages Staff represent the cultural diversity of the community in which the program operates Proportion of participants in programs is similar with the ethnic/cultural and special group demographics of community. Communications are offered in the participant families’ home languages Staff represent the cultural diversity of the community the program operates in

Outcome:

Program has participatory, collaborative partnerships with communities and works with these partners to increase level of cultural/inclusive competency standards

Indicators Program has active partnerships with school and other agencies and organizations within the community. Program meets with school representatives on a consistent basis Documentation of representations from all cultural and special populations of the community actively participating in organization’s advisory committees and workgroups Program accesses community and state resources to increase level of cultural/inclusive competency standards. Program staff conducts self-assessments on cultural and inclusive standards Program includes cultural and inclusive training in staff development plans 11 ­ Diversity & Inclusion

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Diversity & Inclusion Outcome:

Increase in participants’ abilities to respond to differences among groups and individuals of diverse backgrounds, interests and traditions

Indicators Effective expression of thoughts and feelings. Frequency of feeling understood Ability to speak in public Increased ability to navigate diverse social situations. Ability to resist peer pressure Ability to implement negotiation skills

Outcome:

Increase in staff members who are reflective of the cultures and community population served in the program

Indicators Organization ensures that staff received ongoing education and training in culturally, linguistically and gender appropriate service delivery. Percentage of staff who receive training Improvement in self-assessment results

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Diversity & Inclusion ­ 12


Diversity & Inclusion Outcome:

“Everybody laughs the same in every language because laughter is a universal connection.” - Yakov Smirnoff

Participants can recognize perspectives and effectively communicate ideas

Indicators Ability to explain how interactions across cultures and between individuals with different perspectives can influences events. Level of ability to articulate cultural similarities and differences Number of cross-cultural peer relationships Ability to identify factors that influence their own and others’ perspectives, such as their own personal experiences, or other cultural influences. Capacity to articulate personal feelings, attitudes, etc. Frequency of use of reflection

13 ­ Diversity & Inclusion

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

A Checklist for the Examination of Cultural Competence in Social Service Agencies To measure cultural competence at the agency/ organizational level. The checklist of cultural competence provides a tool for selfassessment of cultural competence at the agency level. This checklist can be used in preparation for training staff and administrators as well as for recruiting of staff. The checklist has 34 items subdivided in five clusters: 1) culturally competent practices as evidenced in staff selection, agency policy, and attitudes (8 items), 2) available services (15 items), 3) relationship to the ethnic community (7 items), 4) training (2 items), and 5) evaluation (2 items).

Dana R. H., Behn, J. D., & Gonwa, T. (1992). Research on Social Work Practice, 2(2), 220-233.

Cultural Competency Revised: The California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale To measure cultural competence at the agency/clinical level. Designed as a single instrument from several multicultural competency measurements and was developed for training programs. The scale contains 21 items subdivided in 4 subscales: cultural knowledge (5 items), cultural sensitivity (3 items), cultural awareness (6 items), and nonethnic skill (7 items). Items used a four point Likert scale. Cultural Competence Self-Assessment Questionnaire: A Manual for Users These assessments for K–8 students help teachers identify students’ strengths and reading abilities. Designed to assist service agencies working with children with disabilities and their families in self-evaluation of their cross-cultural competence. This measure is based on the Child & Adolescent Service System Program Cultural Competence Model, which describes cultural competency in four dimensions: attitude, practice, policy, and structure. It utilizes six subscales. Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Gamst, G., Dana, R., Der-Karabetian, A., Aragon, M., Arellano, L., Morrow, G., & Martenson, L. (2004). Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 37, 163-183.

Mason, J. L. (1995). Portland State University, Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children’s Mental Health.

Diversity & Inclusion ­ 14


Families, Communities & Schools


Families, Communities & Schools Outcome:

“Each of us has a spark of life inside us, and we must set off that spark in one another. - Kenny Ausubel

Increased family, staff and child knowledge of community resources

Indicators Effective expression of resources available. Ability to speak with others regarding community resources Ability to ask questions about community resources

Increased dialogue on community resources. Frequency of dialogue regarding community resources Rate of initiation of community resource conversations

Outcome:

Increased levels of student engagement in community

Indicators Improved ability and interest to lead others or activities. Number of leadership positions held Level of interest in providing leadership for groups Ability to speak in public Increased awareness of issues that impact life and community. Number of life and community issues of which one is aware Ability to recognize issues that impact life and community Increased action on issues affecting life and community. Number of issues-based projects participated in Level of interest in taking action regarding issues affecting life and community 17 ­ Families, Communities

& Schools

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Families, Communities & Schools Outcome:

Improved staff knowledge of the values, diversity and needs of program participants and families

Indicators Effective communication of individual program participant and family characteristics. Ability to speak with others regarding program participants and families Increased interest level Increased ability to differentiate program activities to meet individual participant needs. Level of willingness to adapt activities Ability to adapt activities as they are implemented Number of activities that are differentiated

Outcome:

Increased family engagement in program

Indicators Increased participation in program activities. Frequency of participation Level of interest in program activities Increased participation in program governance. Frequency of participation Level of comfort in expressing concerns and sharing ideas Ability to accept and consider other’s perspectives and ideas More positive interactions with program staff. Level of comfort in expressing concerns and sharing ideas Ability to accept and consider other’s perspectives and ideas Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Families, Communities & Schools ­ 18


Families, Communities & Schools Outcome:

“If every parent spent just 30 minutes a day being involved in their children’s learning, it would revolutionize education in America.” - Richard Riley

Increased communication with schools and other community organizations

Indicators Increased ability to advocate for services and supports. Level of comfort in expressing personal needs Ability to accept and comprehend other’s ideas and perspectives Enhanced relationships with teachers and school staff. Ability to articulate specific ideas and concepts Ability to accept and comprehend other’s ideas and perspectives Ability to interact in a respectful manner

Outcome:

Increased family engagement in community

Indicators Increased interest in accessing community resources. Level of comfort in accessing community resources Frequency of outreach to community resources Number of community resources utilized Increased awareness of issues that impact life and community. Number of life and community issues of which one is aware Ability to recognize issues that impact life and community Increased action on issues that impact life and community. Number of issues-based projects participated in Level of interest in taking action regarding issues affecting life and community 19 ­ Families, Communities

& Schools

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Families, Communities & Schools Outcome:

Increased feeling of security

Indicators More positive interactions with others. Level of comfort when interacting with others Ability to accept and consider other’s perspectives and ideas Ability to regulate emotions Increased ability to engage in positive activities and learning. Frequency of activities attempted Expressed level of willingness to learn Number of activities successfully completed

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Families, Communities & Schools ­ 20


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Child Adjustment Scale This parent-completed scale includes 35 items measuring a child’s socio-emotional adjustment, which includes scales of work habits, peer relations, and compliance.

www.gse.uci.edu/childcare/pdf/ questionnaire_interview/Child%20 Adjustment%20Scale.pdf

Parents rate youth on items include “listens when others are talking,” “takes turns,” “hits other kids,” and “wants to do well in school” using a 4-point scale from 1 (hardly ever) to 4 (almost always).

Child Behavior Checklist This checklist contains measures of youth’s behavior problems and various competencies as reported by parents or other caregivers who know the child well. A teacherreported form has also been developed.

www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ PHDCN/descriptions/cbcl-w1-w2w3.jsp

Adults rate various behaviors of youth (e.g., “argues a lot,” “demands a lot of attention”) as either 0 (not true), 1 (somewhat true), or 2 (very true).

Child Behavior Scale This teacher-reported scale measures students’ aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors. Teachers rate such items as, “compromises in conflict with classmates,” and “annoys or irritates classmates,” using a 3-point scale: 0 (not true), 1 (sometime true), and 2 (often true).

21  ­ Families, Communities

& Schools

Ladd, G. W., & Profilet, S. M. (1996). The Child Behavior Scale: A teacher-report measure of young children’s aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32(6), 1008–1024.

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Children’s Attitude to Computer Questionnaire This 11-item tool measures primary school-aged children’s attitudes toward computers using three subscales: usefulness, fun, and ease of use. Children rate statements such as “I like using computers in my free time” and “It is hard to learn how to use a computer,” on a 5-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children/ Adolescents This scale measures youth’s perceived competence in academics and other areas (e.g., athletics), and their general sense of self-worth. It is intended for children over age 8, and has also been adapted specifically for adolescents. Youth read two statements and choose the description that is more like them; for example, youth are asked to choose either “Some kids often forget what they learn” or “Other kids can remember things easily.” Youth then choose whether the description is really true or sort of true of themselves.

Todman, J., & Dick, G. (1993). Primary children and teachers’ attitudes to computers. Computers and Education, 20, 199–203.

Harter, S. (1985). The Self-Perception Profile for Children: Revision of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Denver, CO: University of Denver; and Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the Adolescent SelfPerception Profile. Denver, CO: Author. Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 87–97.

Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale -2nd edition This 60-item self-reported scale assesses general selfesteem in children aged 7–18, and has six subscales: behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction. Items are simple descriptive statements written at a second grade reading level. Youth indicate whether each item applies to them by selecting a yes or no response. (A Spanish Test Booklet is available for children who read Spanish only.) Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

http://portal.wpspublish.com/portal/page?_pageid=53,112628&_ dad=portal& _schema=PORT

Families, Communities & Schools ­ 22


Potential Assessment Tools Name of Resource

Where You Can Find It

Daily Hassles Questionnaire Designed for older youth, this set of scales measures the presence and intensity of youth’s experiences of hassles in their daily lives. Youth indicate whether an event or situation happened during the past month and, if so, the extent to which it was a hassle on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all a hassle) to 4 (a very big hassle). Events and situations include “no good place at home to do school work,” “pressure or expectations from parents,” and “having to take care of brothers or sisters.”

Rowlison, R. T., & Felner, R. D. (1988). Major life events, hassles, and adaptation in adolescence: Confounding in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress and adjustment revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(3), 432–444.

EZ–Yale Personality Questionnaire (EZPQ) This 37-item questionnaire measures five motivational factors identified in previous research with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: expectancy of success, outer-directedness, effectance motivation, positive reaction tendency, and negative reaction tendency. Teachers rate youth on such items as “child works earnestly, doesn’t take it lightly,” “child is easily discouraged” and “child carries out requests responsibly,” on a scale of 1 (very much untrue of the child) to 5 (very much true of the child).

Zigler, E., Bennett-Gates, D., & Hodapp, R. (1999). Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardations. In E. Zigler & D. Bennett-Gates (Eds.), Personality development in individuals with mental retardation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Life Events Checklist This checklist measures stressful life events. It consists of 46 life event items, with space for additional listings and ratings of life events. It measures both positive and negative life events over the past 12 months. Events include “I got a bad mark on a test,” “I got sent to the principal,” and “Someone threatened me.” Teens answer yes or no as to whether or not each event listed occurred in their lives.

23  ­ Families, Communities

& Schools

Pryor-Brown, L., & Cowen, E. L. (1989). Stressful life events, support, and children’s school adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18(3), 214– 220.

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Health, Safety & Nutrition


Health, Safety & Nutrition Outcome:

“If you want happiness for a lifetime - help the next generation.” - Chinese proverb

High level of participant knowledge of nutrition

Indicators Increased knowledge of healthy foods and portions. Level of awareness of nutrition and healthy food options Increased demonstration of healthy food choices. Frequency of selection of healthy snack options Reported overall levels of selection of healthy food options

Outcome:

High level of participant knowledge of general health and fitness practices

Indicators Increased physical activity and fitness practices. Hours spent being physically active Level of knowledge of fitness Use of active forms of transportation Body mass index Increased or continued demonstration of managing one’s own health and hygiene. Reported application of good dental practices Frequency in hand washing Frequency of complications from pre-existing conditions such as asthma

25 ­ Health, Safety & Nutrition

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Health, Safety & Nutrition

Outcome:

Program environment is safe and secure for all participants, staff and families

Indicators Increased knowledge of emergency procedures and safety practices. Staff is orientated about safety and emergency practices Level of reported awareness Record of drills and discussions Level of reported feelings of safety Increased knowledge of healthy practices. Decreased number of children and/or staff out with illness Level of reported awareness Frequency of hand washing Increased feeling of security. Level of reported feelings of security Number of staff interactions with participants

Outcome:

Reduced usage and/or avoidance of drugs and alcohol

Indicators Increased knowledge of negative effects of drugs and alcohol. Level of awareness of negative effects of drugs and alcohol Reduced or no usage of drugs and alcohol. Number of incidence of drug usage in a time period Change in number of incidence of drug usage in a time period Number of incidence of alcohol usage in a time period Change in number of incidence of alcohol usage in a time period Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Health, Safety & Nutrition ­ 26


Potential Assessment Tools Name Nameof ofResource Resource

Where Where You You Can Can Find Find It It

Pediatric Symptoms Checklist The PSC and the Y -PSC are 35 item psychosocial screening instruments to facilitate the recognition of emotional, behavioral and cognitive difficulties in youth aged 4-16 years. Parents and youth complete a one page questionnaire that is nearly identical and includes a broad range of children’s emotional and behavioral problems. Cut off scores that correspond to clinical ranges have been derived. Positive scores on the PSC or the YPSC indicate that further evaluation by a qualified health or mental health professional is recommended.The instrument is free and can be downloaded from the website.

http://www2.massgeneral.org/ allpsych/psc/psc_forms.htm

CRAFFT Developed at the Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse Research, Children’s Hospital, Boston, the CRAFFT is a very brief, self-administered screening test for adolescents to determine whether alcohol or drug problems exist. Consists of 6 yes/no questions that address alcohol and drug related issues such as whether the informant has ever gotten into trouble (the “T” in CRAFFT) while using alcohol or drugs. A score of 2 or higher out of a possible 6, is optimal to identify youth who may have alcohol or drug problems. Permission for use is required, but there is no fee to use the instrument.

http://www.ceasar-boston.org/ clinicians/crafft.php

Youth Risk Behavior Survey Developed by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion to monitor health-risk behaviors. The survey measures six categories of healthrisk behaviors among youth: behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity, plus obesity and asthma.

27 ­ Health, Safety & Nutrition

www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/ pdf/yrbs_conducting_your_own.pdf

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name Nameof ofResource Resource Dining Decisions Online assessment of healthy food choices. Developed as part of youth website BAM! (Body and Mind) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services. Active Lifestyle Activity Log Template for record physical activity and track progress for 60 minutes a day/ 5 days a week for six weeks. Developed as part of activities and information for national Let’s Move! initiative.

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Where Where You You Can Can Find Find It It http://www.bam.gov/sub_foodnutrition/diningdecisions.html

http://www.ceasar-boston.org/ clinicians/crafft.php

Health, Safety & Nutrition ­ 28


Highly Skilled Personnel


Highly Skilled Personnel Outcome:

“Friendship, love, health, energy, enthusiasm and joy are the things that make life worth living and exploring.” - Denise Austin,

Program staff are highly engaged in the delivery of quality program elements

Indicators Increased staff retention. Percent of annual turnover Reported levels of staff satisfaction Positive working environment. Reported levels of staff satisfaction Number of staff meetings, trainings, team building events Number of hours of planning and preparation

Outcome:

Children and youth experience positive outcomes because professionals reflect quality, competency and leadership in the field of afterschool

Indicators Increased participant engagement. Frequency of attendance Reported levels of engagement Advancement of staff competencies. Number of staff on the registry Number of staff with credentials Number of hours of professional development and/or education Increased positive youth outcomes. Reported levels on self-assessment

31 ­Highly Skilled Personnel

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Highly Skilled Personnel Outcome:

Program staff take a leadership role within the afterschool community

Indicators Increased number of staff engaged in leadership or other personal development endeavors. Frequency of leadership activities Increased ability and interest to lead others. Number of leadership positions held Increased awareness of issues that impact the program. Ability to recognize issues Increased staff engagement in program leadership. Number of projects participated in

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Highly Skilled Personnel ­ 32


Program Management


Program Management Outcome:

“It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.” - Albert Einstein

Sustainability of program

Indicators Fiscally responsible practices. Developed budget Number of staff engaged in budget planning and responsibilities Number and duration of funding streams Increased ability to link outcomes and activities to funding streams. Number of activities linked to outcomes Number of outcomes linked to funding streams Reported ability to speak about linkages

Outcome:

Increased engagement of staff, participants, families and community stakeholders

Indicators Community infrastructure is in place, i.e., schools, etc., that meets the needs of the program and enhances quality. Communication systems Access to community partners Families participate in the development, implementation and evaluation of program. Family advisory committee Number of families engaged in each phase Level of comfort of families to engage in process Staff participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of program. Family advisory committee Number of families engaged in each phase 35 ­Program Management

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Program Management Outcome:

Effective program implementation

Indicators High frequency of intentional planning of program activities. Number of hours of program planning Level of rigor in activities and curriculum in regards to developmentally appropriate practices Program activities reflect the needs of participants Program delivery is frequently smooth with few unexpected incidents. Number of transitions Low levels of chaos High levels of flexibility and responsiveness

Outcome:

Increased linkage between program mission and goals and program outcomes

Indicators Increased awareness of program mission and goals. Ability to speak about mission and goals Increased awareness of program outcomes. Ability to share the program outcomes with others Increased action on linking activities to outcomes. Ability to articulate activities and relationship to outcomes Number of activities specifically linked to outcomes Increased action on representing the mission of the program. Ability to speak about mission of the program to others Ability to recognize opportunities to share mission of the program Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Program Management ­36


Youth Development & Engagement


Youth Development & Engagement Outcome:

“Enthusiasm is the mother of effort, and without it nothing great was ever achieved.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson

Improved communication skills

Indicators Ability to effectively express thoughts and feelings. Frequency of feeling understood Ability to speak in public Increased assertiveness within social settings. Rate of participation in group discussions and activities Ability to resist negative peer pressure Ability to implement negotiation skills

39  ­ Youth Development & Engagement

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Youth Development & Engagement Outcome:

Improved life skills

Indicators Increased ability to plan, manage time and set realistic goals. Ability to plan and complete a project Ability to regularly be on time and adhere to a schedule Ability to review and assess progress and revise and adapt plans Ability to effectively use resources Increased accountability and/or sense of personal responsibility. Ability to tend to one’s own space and property Level of financial literacy Ability to follow rules Ability to take responsibility for one’s own actions Improved resilience. Ability to accept and apply constructive criticism Frequency of demonstration of using multiple strategies to achieve a goal Ability to demonstrate good sportsmanship and accept defeat when necessary Interest in seeking help with challenges Increased sense of purpose and self-direction. Ability to stay on task Ability to understand one’s own values Ability to recognize one’s own strengths and weaknesses Increased awareness of others and sense of accountability. Number of behavior referrals Number of emotional outbursts Ability to appropriately express disappointment or disagreement Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

Youth Development & Engagement ­ 40


Youth Development & Engagement Outcome:

“Don’t wish it were easier, wish you were better. Don’t wish for fewer problems, wish for more skills. Don’t wish for less challenges, wish for more wisdom.” - Earl Shoaf

Improved ability to recognize and regulate personal emotions

Indicators Ability to regulate and manage emotions. Number of behavior referrals Number of emotional outbursts Ability to appropriately express disappointment or disagreement Ability to understand the impact their emotions have on others. Number of behavior referrals Number of emotional outbursts Ability to appropriately express disappointment or disagreement Ability to understand personal emotions. Ability to name emotional state Ability to express emotional needs Aware of own personality and individuality. Ability to articulate likes and dislikes Ability to make decisions in one’s own interest Ability to be accountable for actions and choices

41  ­ Youth Development & Engagement

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs


Potential Assessment Tools Name Nameof ofResource Resource

Where Where You You Can Can Find Find It It

California Health Kids Survey: Module B (Resilience and Youth Development) Comprehensive youth health, risk and resiliency survey sponsored by the California Department of Education; cost of $1.50 per survey; youth fill out scales that include: Caring Relationships; High Expectations; Opportunities for Meaningful Participation; Peer Group Cooperation and Communication; Empathy; Problem Solving; Self efficacy; Self Awareness; Goals and Aspirations

www.wested.org/hks

Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 Designed for middle and high school youth that participate in out-of-school time activities; no cost for use; youth fill out scales that include: Identity Work; Initiative; Emotional Regulation; Teamwork & Social Skills; Positive Relationships; Adult Networks & Social Capital; Stress; Inappropriate Adult Behavior; Negative Influence; Social Exclusion; Negative Group Dynamics

www.web.aces.uiuc.edu/youthdev/ yesinstrument.htm

The Colorado Trust’s Toolkit for Evaluating Positive Youth Development Includes 8 scales for youth to report on: Academic Success; Arts & Recreation; Community Involvement; Cultural Competency; Life Skills; Positive Life Choices; Positive Core Values and Sense of Self

www.coloradotrust.org

Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) Distributed by the Search Institute to assess the youths’ assets that are linked to resiliency. Available for cost; Youth report on the following scales: External: Support; Empowerment; Boundaries and Expectations; Constructive Use of Time. Internal: Commitment to Learning; Positive Values; Social Competencies; Positive Identity

Outcomes & Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs

www.search-institute.org/surveys

Youth Development & Engagement ­ 42


www.oregonask.org

Oregon's Outcomes and Indicators for Afterschool and Summer Programs