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AND MORE… Jose Pablo Cortes Santiago Gonzalez Marcelo Ordóñez Luis Fernando Garza

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INDEX 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

THE SKIN The skeletal muscle system Crossword Did you know… Research in smokers health

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THE SKIN What is the skin? Why do we need our skin? The skin is the major part of the integumentary system; wich also includes the nails and the hair. The skin is the largest organ in the body: 12-15% of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters. The skin has two main layers, the dermis and the epidermis. The basic cell type of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which contain keratin, a fibrous protein. Basal cells are the innermost layer of the epidermis. In the dermis there is a connective tissue layer under the epidermis, and contains nerve endings, sensory receptors, capillaries, and elastic fibers. Why do we need our skin? Our skin is very important and it has a lot of uses. For example, your skin protects your inside organs while keeping 1, Febrero, 2012.

infections out and prevents you from getting sick. Also we use skin as a temperature stabilizer that lets us be at a normal temperature. It also is a very important organ that lets us have the sense of touch

How can you keep a healthy skin? One of the most important ways to take care of your skin is to protect it from the sun. A way to do so is buying sun protection products and not overexposes you to the sun. Also you should try not to smoke; smoking makes your skin look older and contributes to wrinkles. Smoking narrows the tiny blood vessels in the outermost

layers of skin, which decreases blood flow. This depletes the skin of oxygen and nutrients that are important to skin health. What are some Risks for your skin? The main risk is skin cancer. Anyone can develop skin cancer, but risk factors include skin type, having moles and freckles, sun exposure and solarium use. Protecting your skin can help reduce your risk of skin cancer. A healthy amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is important for vitamin D, but too much UV can cause sunburn, skin and eye damage. Family history and hereditary factors also play an important part in your risk of developing skin cancer, so if your family tends to have skin cancer casualties you should be careful.

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The Skeletal-Muscular System The Skeletal Muscular System is an organ system that helps us in many ways. This system consists of the skeletal muscles which help us in a lot of ways. The skeletal system makes a lot of vital functions like giving us movement; it gives protection to the organs, etc. To make this system have a good function you have to do trainings and exercises like cardiovascular exercise, resistance training, flexibility training, etc. All of these exercises make us have a better physic and have a better health. The cardiovascular exercise or aerobic exercise is a low intensity activity that increases the oxygen that we take and the heartbeat; this exercise benefits us in many ways. The benefits of the cardiovascular exercise are that it helps us lose some weight, sleep better, have a longer life, have a better physical resistance, increases the maximum consumption of oxygen by the body, helps us have a stronger immune system, lowers heart rate and heart pressure, it helps us be less stressed and reduce the risk of contracting diseases, etc. Although cardiovascular exercise is good for your health it should have a moderate 1, Febrero, 2012.

intensity for 30 minutes, for 5 days a week or at a high intensity for 20 minutes, for 3 days a week and also lift weights for 2 to 3 time a week.

Another exercise is the resistance training, which has two types of training the first one is any training that uses resistance to make muscular contractions (also called strength training); and the other one is the hydraulic resistance which means any hydraulic or elastic tension that provides resistance. This type of exercise should be taken by your own pace because the most important things to have a better resistance is to have a good intensity but also sufficient recovery after a resistance training.

The flexibility exercise is also another important exercise for the skeletal muscular system; flexibility means the range of movement in a joint or series of joints that are attainable in a momentary effort. Flexibility exercises are really important for the body because it gives our body some benefits like being more flexible, prevents having back aches, have a better movement, gives us the ability to stretch more our joints and our body, makes us feel more relaxed, helps us have less risk of having an injury, makes us have less stress, etc. Flexibility exercises don’t require having a frequency or duration but it’s good to stretch once in a while and also before doing an athletic activity. In conclusion exercises are really important to have a good skeletal muscular system and to have a healthy body. Doing exercises and trainings help us have a better life and help us have a better health but not only physically, it can also help us have a better mental health. Also it’s really important to do all of this exercises not only one but do them with variety.

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1. Wird verwendet, um laufen.

5. Sie kommen von der Hüfte bis Fuß

2. Es ist der erste Finger einer Hand.

6. Sie sind die Finger des Fußes

3. Sind in der Mitte der Beine.

7. Sie sind die Spitze der Hand

4. Es hat fünf Finger, und wir haben zwei, eins am Ende eines jeden Armes.

8. Es verbindet die Schulter mit der Hand

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DID YOU KNOW…  Vesalius made the first valid description of the human sphenoid  Andras Vesalius published his book in seven volumes “De

 Blaise Pascal (1623–1662)

invented the mechanical calculator in 1642.

 "Paracelsus", meaning "equal to

or greater than Celsus", refers to the Roman encyclopedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus from the 14st

humani corporis fabrica” (On

century, known for his tract on

the structure of the human body),

medicine. He is also credited for

one of the most influential books and an innovative work of the human body.  Van Leeuwenhoek is credited with having invented the microscope in the 17th century. He was able to see microscopic organisms and drew them.

giving ZINCits name, calling it

zincum, and is regarded as the first systematic botanist.

 Paracelsus, the German-Swiss physician and alchemist

established the role of chemistry

in medicine and he published Der grossen Wundartzney (Great Surgery Book) in 1536.

 The Dutch naturalist and microscopist Anton van Leeuwenhoek using simple microscopes of his own making, discovered bacteria, protozoa, spermatozoa and others!  In 1672, Otto von Guericke was the first human on record to

knowingly generate electricity using a machine 1, Febrero, 2012.

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What is muscle fatigue?

Our hypothesis was right, the Smoker started pretty good and then began loosing it’s rhythm and decreased very low, but on the other hand, the Non-Smoker Started excellent and keep it’s rhythm almost till the end.

- A condition of the muscle in which its capacity to produce maximum voluntary action, or to perform a series of repetitive actions, is reduced. It results when muscle activity exceeds tissue substrate and oxygenation capacity.


Introduction On this experiment we are trying to show and let the people know that smokers looses their condition after years of smoking. As you will see on the next page the average push ups that are being compared between a smoker and a nonsmoker.

Santiago ( Non-smoker)

Our hypothesis is that after some trials the smoker's number of repetitions will decrease

Juan Pablo ( Smoker)



12 10

10 8



6 4 2 0


2 0 0








Trial Trial

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REFERENCES "Muscle Fatigue - Definition from" Life Science Reference - Biology Online. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. <>.

"Push Ups." Google. Web. < h+up&pbx=1&oq=push&aq=0&aqi=g10&aql=1&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=12471l13109l0l14556l7l7l0l0l0l0l2 93l1535l0.3.4l7l0&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=cfc15cb281e8d959&biw=1280&bih=608>.

Google. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. <>. Kenneth, Cooper. "Aerobic Exercise." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc., 28 Jan. 2012. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <>. "The 20 Benefits of Aerobic Exercise" Manage Your Life Better with, 13 Jan. 2009. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <>. Queen, Elizabeth. "Basic Strength Training Principles." Sports Medicine, Sports Performance, Sports Injury - Information About Sports Injuries and Workouts for Athletes., 3 Oct. 2007. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <>. "Flexibility - Flexibility Exercises & Stretching Exercises for Flexibility Train." Weight Training & Weight Lifting Tips, Exercises,Workouts, Programs. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <>.

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