Global Coworking Survey Lukas De Pellegrin | Carsten Foertsch
Global Coworking Survey 2011 Who are the poeple working in the Coworking Spaces and which kind of needs do they have? How should the places, in which they work look like? For the sake of a better understanding of the new work form of Coworking, we made two anonymous surveys with the Coworkers and the people interested in Coworking. The first survey was done in summer of 2010 in five Coworking Spaces in Berlin. About 50 Coworkers responded to the survey, which means about 10 percent of the Coworkers of Berlin. Because at the time there were only few studies about Coworking, the survey was cited multiple times. For example, one citation was made in the Coworking Europe 2010 Survey.1 Because of the large response to the Berlin Coworking Survey, we decided to build a similar, but a lot larger survey, which would be done online on global scale during the winter of 2010 and 2011. Most of the surveys dedicated to Coworking at that time were made on regional or national scale and this survey should have been the first one asking all the Coworkers around the world. 1 2
Enterprise Globale - „Coworking Europe 2010 Survey“, Seite 7: http://www.entrepriseglobale.biz/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/CoworkingEUropeSurveyFinal.pdf - 20.02.2011
Because of the scale of the project, the survey was done in cooperation with the Coworking magazine Deskmag and the following national and international Coworking organisations: • • • • • • • • • • • •
The Global Coworking Group Coworking Labs, Coworking Research USA Enterprise Globale, Coworking Europe Hallenprojekt, German Coworking Network Cowo, Coworking Network Italy Movebla, Brazilian Coworking Magazine Working Space, Coworking Spain Silicon Sentier, La Cantine Paris Coworking JP, Coworking Blog Japan Moboff, Japanese Coworking Network Deskwanted, Global Cospace Directory Coworking Sweden, Coworking Blog
In total, there have been 661 people from 24 countries responding to the survey. The results of the Global Coworking Survey will be shown on the following pages and compared to some of the data from the Berlin Coworking Survey, too.
on i t a is n a rg O s g e n c i t a p or S p g p u in S k r 2 o 1 w ts o n C a p 130 artici P s 661 untrie o C 4 2
Preface: Coworking worldwide and in Germany
Central and South America
Australia und Oceania
Global spreading of Coworking Spaces
At the moment there are 703 Coworking Spaces on the whole planet with about 25.000 Members. Even tough Coworking is a wolrdwide phenomenon, most of the Spaces are to be found in North America and Europe. In Europe, the mst Coworking Spaces are situated in Germany, with a number of 58. 600%
The trend is skyrocketing all over the world. Europe for example had an increase of 20 percent in the last six months. In South America most of the Spaces are situated in Brazil, the asian Spaces are to be found mostly in Japan.2
The growing interest for Coworking can also be seen on Google Trends. The search queries for the term “Coworking” have been increasing by 600 percent in two years.3
All data from Deskmag: http://www.deskmag.com/en/number-ofcoworking-spaces-worldwide-700 - 28.02.2010 Google Trends: http://www.google.com/trends?q=coworking&ctab=0& geo=all&geor=all&date=all&sort=0 - 24.01.2011
Google Trends: search queries for “Coworking“
Cities with more than 15 Coworking Spaces San Francisco New York London Berlin Cities with 5 to 15 Coworking Spaces Los Angeles Austin Chicago MontrĂŠal SĂŁo Paolo Madrid Paris Hamburg Leipzig Prague Vienna Melbourne 6
Global Coworking Cities
As of 2011, there are four cities with more than 15 Coworking Spaces: San Francisco, where the movement started in 2005, New York, London and Berlin. The numbers for New York and London can be explained with the large population (8.2 and 7.5 million inhabitants). Berlin has a large concentration of Spaces even though it has a smaller population (3.4 million inhabitants). The growing Coworking scene in Berlin can probably be explained with the large number of empty buildings, the low office rents and the very high rate of freelancers inthe city. The same can be said about other cities in Germany like Hamburg or Leipzig. Other global Coworking Centers with five to fifteen Coworking Spaces are Los Angeles, Austin, Chicago, Montréal, São Paolo, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Vienna und Melbourne.4
Coworking Spaces in Germany 4
All data from the Coworking Space Directory Deskwanted: http://deskwanted.com/search/desk_plans - 28.02.2011 7
32 In welchem Land befindet sich dein Coworking Space?
Participating nations and cities
Germany 5.0% France 2.3% Greece 0.4% United Kingdom 5.3% Italy 3.1% Netherlands 0.8% Austria 6.9% Poland 0.4% Portugal 3.4% Spain 7.6% Sweden 0.4% Switzerland 1.9% Czech Republic 0.4% Ucraine 0.4%
In wich country is your Coworking Space situated? 8
33 Wie viele Einwohner hat der Ort, in dem sich dein Cowor
People from every continent except Africa participated to the Global Coworking Survey. the biggest part of responses came from the USA, where the phenomenon started some years ago and where there are the most Coworking Spaces worldwide. Many responses came from Canada and Brazil, too. Some other responding nations outside of Europe are Australia, Japan, China and India. In Europe there were responses from Spain, Austria, the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal, Italy, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Ucraine.
Most of the responses came from cities with more than one million inhabitants. By adding the responses from cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants, one coult argue that the responses from large cities have been about 80 percent. these numbers show that Coworking still is mostly a metropolitan phenomenon. For the sake of comparing the results form big and small cities, some statistics have been added up in the same way: on the following pages, all those cities over 100.000 inhabitants will be summed up as big cities and all those cities wih less than 100.000 inhabitants will be called small cities. More than 1 million inhabitants 53.1% 20.000 to 50.000 inhabitants 4.6%
5.000 to 20.000 inhabitants 2.7%
50.000 to 100.000 inhabitants 6.5% 100.000 to 1 million inhabitants 33.1%
How many inhabitants has the city in which your Coworking Spaces is situated? 9
30 bis 39 years old 61.9%
20 bis 29 years old 38.1%
30 to 39 years old 40.0%
More than 60 years old 0.0%
50-59 years old 0.0%
40-49 years old 0.0%
50 to 59 years old 5.4%
Overr 60 years old 0.7%
Less than 19 years old 0.0%
Under 19 years old 2.2%
40 to 49 years old 17.4%
20 to 29 years old 34.2%23
5.000 - 19.999 inhabitants
20.000 - 49.999 inhabitants
50.000 - 99.999 inhabitants
100.000 - 999.999 inhabitants
More than 1 Million inhabitants
How old are you? [Berlin] How old are you? [Global] Average age compared to the city size
45 Wie alt bist du? 45 Wie alt bist du? Wie alt bist du?
Coworking is an ideal workform for people in their twenties or thirties to start or strengthen their working career. On the global scale about a fifth of the Coworkers are over 40 years old, in Berlin there are much less people of that age, which shows that the trend is still very new in Germany. Comparing the data form big and small cities, one can see that older Coworkers are working mainly in smaller cities. In Berlin about 60 percent of the Coworkers are male. On the global scale about 70 percent are men, which is about the same ratio in freelancers in the western world.
44 Was ist dein Geschlecht?
44 Was ist dein Geschlecht?
46 Was ist dein hรถchster Bildungsabschluss?
Bachelor / Master 70.8%
About 20 percent of the Coworkers have a College diploma, but the greatest part of them have some kind of academic degree. About five percent of the Coworkers have a higher education like a Ph.D. These numbers are much higher than the average the average in the population, where there are about 25 to 30 percent of people with an academic degree.
High School 7.0% Middle School 0.3%
PhD or higher 4.5% No academic grade 0.5%
What academic degree do you have?
47 Wie hoch liegt dein Einkommen im Vergleich zu den Lebenshaltungskosten in deinem Land?
Comparison between big and small cities
Very high 2.0% High 26.0%
Very low 2.0%
Very high 8.0%
High 31.0% Small cities
Very low 3.5%
Very high 3.3%
How high is your income compared to the average in your country?
Average 50.0% Very low 5.0%
About half of the Coworkers responded that their income is about the average of the population in their country. Avout 25 percent have a higher income then the average and about 15 percent earns less than the average. Comparing these numbers with the size of the city, one can argue that there are more people earning more than the average in smaller cities and more people eraning less in big cities.
PR & Marketing 9.2%
Journalist / Author 5.0%
Artist / Photographer 2.6% Higher Management 5.3%
Graphic Web Designer 11.8%
Coworking Space Owner 2.4%
Other 3.0% Unemployed 3.0%
Web Developer / Coder / Other IT 33.7% Scientist 0.8%
Enterpreneur with employees 16.1%
Non-Profit Business 1.6% Translator 0.8% Coach 1.3%
What is your profession? [Global]
What is your professional status? [Global]
Most of the people working in the Coworking Spaces are either in the creative or in the IT business. Those are probably the ones who have started the telecommuting trend at first, too. The Berlin survey shows about the same numbers in this field.
43 Als 42 Waswas ist dein arbeitest Berufsstatus? du?
Business consultant 5.0% Project manager 5.0%
Most of the Coworkers on the global scale and in Berlin are freelancers. Some are employed or have a business with one ore more employees. Most of the businesses that are growing inside of a Coworking Space are getting out of the shared environment and look for their own office space as soon as they have established themselves in some way.
Web Developer / Coder / Other IT 26.0%
Graphic Web Designer 16.0%
Jornalist / Author 5.0%
Information designer 5.0%
What is your profession? [Berlin]
What is your professional status? [Berlin]
Working in a Coworking Space
Arbeitest du in einem Coworking Space? 72.2% 27.8%
Of the 661 responding perople about 70 percent are working in a Cowokring Space. the other 30 percent are people interested in Coworking. These people have been asked some different questions. The results form these questions will be shown further down in the evaluation.
Are you working in a Coworking Space right now?
11 Wann hast du zum ersten Mal in einem Coworking Space
92.5% Maximally 2 years ago
71.5% Maximally 2 years ago
> 49 months ago 3.7%
37-48 months ago 0.0%
25-36 months ago 3.7%
13-24 months ago 29.7%
6-12 months ago 22.2%
When did you work in a Coworking Space for the first time? [Global]
More than 2 years ago 1-5 months ago 40.7%
37-48 months ago 6.6%
25-36 months ago 13.7%
13-24 months ago 25.8%
6-12 months ago 22.3%
More than 49 months ago 8.2%
More than 2 years ago
1-5 months ago 23.4%
Over 90 percent of the Coworkers in Berlin have not worked in a Coworking Space for the first time before two years ago. On the global scale, about a third of the Coworkers have already been working in a Coworking Space for more than two years. This again shows that the Cworking phenomenon is still very young in Germany.
When did you work in a Coworking Space for the first time? [Berlin] 17
Wie häufig arbeitest du generell in einem Coworking Space? Täglich 3-4 Mal pro Woche 1-2 Mal pro Woche 1-4 Mal pro Monat Weniger als 1 Mal pro Monat 13 In wie vielen Coworking Spaces hast du bereits gearbeitet?
41.2% 18.5% 16% 15.2% 9.1%
60 percent of the Coworkers have only worked in one Coworking Space yet. This number shows, that Coworking Spaces are seen as long-term workspaces, too. On the other side there is a large amount of changing of workspaces, too. About 20 percent of the Coworkers have been working in two Spaces already and another 20 percent have been working in three or more Coworking Spaces. Most of the Coworkers are working in their Spaces everyday. About 20 percent of them are working three to four times a week.
In how many Coworking Spaces have you already been working?
Less than once a month 9.1%
1-2 times a week 16.0%
3-4 times a week 18.5%%
1-4 times a month 15.2%
How often do you work in your Coworking Space?
The advantages of working in a shared environment are shown by the following data. Nine out of ten Coworkers state that their social interaction with others has greatly improved. The same can be said about motivation and productivity. About 60 percent of the Coworkers have a better organized workspace now than before, work more in teams an are able to relax better when at home. About 40 percent state that their income has increased since they have been working in a sheared environment. There are only a few negative effects to be recognized.
14 Wie sehr hat sich deine Arbeitsweise ver채ndert, seit du in einem Coworking space arbeitest? -1.2%
Relax better at home
Motivation and productivity
How has your workstyle changed since you started working in a Coworking Space? 19
18 Wie viele Tage arbeitest du Durchschnittlich an einem Projekt? 19 Wieviel Zeit davon verbringst du im Coworking Space?
Most of the Coworkerâ€™s projects take a time of about two to four weeks (26 percent). Another quarter of the projects is done in about a week. About ten percent of the projects take up to two months and another ten percent take up to three months. The last 15 percent of the projects take more than three months. 15-30 days 26.5%
of that is spent in the Coworking Space
More than 365 days 1.8%
181-365 days 4.9%
91-180 days 8.6%
61-90 days 8.9%
8-14 days 12.3%
31-60 days 13.5%
1-7 days 23.4%
How much time do you spend on one project? How much of that time are you working in your Coworking Space? 20
The Coworkers work about half of the time spent on a project in their Coworking Spaces. About a third of the Coworkers state that they work on their projects exclusively in their Coworking Space. Another third is only rarely working on their projects in their Space.
20 Wo arbeitest du sonst noch?
At home 39.8% Other 14.4%
Those Coworkers who sometimes work outside of their Spaces are mostly working at home. About 20 percent of them own a separate office which they use for their work. About 13 percent of the Coworkers also work in CafĂŠs.
Shared Office 10.3% Own office 18.5%
Where else do you work?
Spacial and infrastructural requirements to a Coworking Space When asked about the spacial configuration, about 40 percent of the Coworkers state that the space they want to work in should be configured as “a mix of open and closed rooms”. This 17 In welcher Umgebung arbeitest du am liebsten? In Coworking Spaces mit... 17 Wie viele Coworker sollten in einem Space arbeiten damit du dich wohl fühlst? shows one of the main problems in Coworking: how do you solve the conﬂict between open, transparent and collaborative work on the one side and private, concentrated and silent work on the other? Other 0.9%
I don’t care 6.5%
Open and transparent 21.6%
More than100 1.2% Less than 20 53.8%
50-99 1.8% Open and closed 43.2%
Open and private 27.8%
Which spacial configuration do you prefer working in? 22
About a third of the respondents wishes for an open configuration with separated areas for the sometimes needed private work time. About 20 percent wish for absolutely transparent and open Coworking Spaces.
I don’t care 21.8%
How many Coworkers should work in a Space for you to feel comfortable?
In welcher Arbeitsumgebung arbeitest du am liebsten? In Coworking Spaces mit...
The ideal size the coworkers wish for their work places is not more than 20 people per room. Half of the Coworkers responded with this number. About 20 percent of the Coworkers wish for rooms with 20 to 50 people working in it. More than 50 people per room are apparently not wanted at all. About 20 percent of the Coworkers stated that they do not care about the size of the environment they work within. When compared to the city size, one can see that people in big cities wish for larger workspaces more than people in smaller cities.
50 - 99 people 2.0% Less than 20 people 49.0% Big cities
20 - 49 people 26.0%
I donâ€™t care 21.0%
More than 100 people 2.0%
20 - 49 people 2.0% Less than 20 people 64.0% Small cities
Comparison between big and small cities
I donâ€™t care 31.0% 50 - 99 people 2.0%
27 Wie viele Personen kĂśnnen in deinem aktuellen Coworking Space arbeiten und wie viele davon sind schĂ¤tzungsweise anwesend, wenn du arbeitest?
38.9 17.2 44.2% Average size
How many people can work in your Coworking Space? How many of those are working there right now? 24
The Coworkers have been asked to estimate the number of working desks in their Coworking Space. By these numbers, the average Coworking Space offers 39 desks. Another number the Coworkers were asked to reckon was how many other Coworkers were working in the Space at the same time. By dividing the two numbers one can see that on average a little less than half of the offered desks are used at the same time.
Wie viele Arbeitspl채tze hat dein Coworking Space?
5.000 - 19.999 inhabitants
20.000 - 49.999 inhabitants
50.000 - 99.999 inhabitants
100.000 - 999.999 Inhabitants
More than 1 million inhabitants
When compared to the city size, the size of the Coworking Spaces increases with the number of inhabitants of the cities. In cities with more than a million inhabitants the average Coworking Spaces offers about 50 desks. In smaller cities the number of offered desks in shared workspaces is around 20.
Size of the Coworking Spaces compared to the city size 25
22 Was ist f端r deine Arbeit besonders wichtig?
Easily interchangeable workspace 44.6%
Basic office infrastructure 69.7%
Social interaction 85.4%
Interdisciplinary workstyle 59.8%
Low costs 71.6%
Quiet, privateness 42.3%
Flexible work times 85.5%
Knowledge sharing 82.6%
Possibility to work in groups 61.8%
What factors are especially important for your work? 26
When asked about what factors are important for their work, the Coworkers responded that social interaction, sharing of knowledge and serendipity are the three most important (all of them over 80 percent). Interdisciplinary workstyles organized infrastructure and low costs are also very important. Factors that can also be found in classic office workspaces are quite important too, but a lot less than those things that only a shared working environment can offer.
21 In welcher Form arbitest du am meisten?
Fixed Teams 21.6%
Ad-Hoc Teams 17.8%
Changing Teams 27.1%
How do you mostly work?
About 40 percent of the Coworkers mostly work alone. About a third of the respondents stated that they are mostly working in changing teams. Roughly 20 percent of the Coworkers work in predefined and fixed teams. Another 20 percent of the Coworkers are working alone, but also in spontaneous teams.
39 Welche Infrastruktur nutzt du in deinem Coworking Space? Rarely
Parking lots 51.8%
Projector room 12.1%
48.8% Meeting room 26.1%
Recreational areas 30.1%
What infrastructure do you use in your Coworking Space? [Global]
Almost all of the Coworkers use Internet and the standard office infrastructure such as desks, printers and shelves. The kitchen as the social center of the shared working environments is also a very important piece of infrastructure. The global numbers and the data from Berlin are very similar here.
39 Welche Infrastruktur nutzt du in deinem Coworking Space? Rarely
Parking lots 65.4%
Projector room 40.8%
33.3% Meeting room 25.9%
Recreational areas 44.4%
Recreation areas and meeting rooms are a little less important to the Coworkers, even though they are a lot more important than a library or a projector room inside the Space. A big difference between the global Coworkers and the Berlin ones can be seen in the importance of parking space. This probably has to do with the distance of the Coworking Spaces to the homes of the Coworkers, a question which will be evaulated futher down.
46.4% Photocopier 67.9%
Kitchen 78.6% Desk 92.9%
3.6% | 3.5%
What infrastructure do you use in your Coworking Space? [Berlin]
34 An welchem Tischtyp arbeitest du?
What kind of desk are you working at?
The Coworkers were asked about the type of desk they are currently working on. About 47 percent of the respondents works at a Flexdesk (or Hotdesk), which is the more ďŹ‚exible type of workplace because the desk can be occupied by anyone on every new day. This type of desk fosters dynamism and the mixture of people and ideas in the Coworking Spaces. About 40 percent of the Coworkers work at a Fixdesk, which is rented out permanently to the same person or team. These desks bring stability and experiece to the community inside the shared work environment.
35 Zu welchen Zeiten hast du Zugang zu deinem Coworking Space?
Office hours (9 to 5) 31.0%
Limited days 13.2%
24 / 7 55.0%
What kind of access do you have to your Coworking Space?
Most of the Coworkers have their own key to the Coworking Space and are able to work there whenever they like to. most of those Coworkers are also working at a Fixdesk. About a third of the Coworkers can access their Space at the classic office worktimes (9AM to 5PM). These Coworkers do not own a key and are dependent on the doorman. Most of these Coworkers are working at a Flexdesk. About ten percent of the Coworkers have only access to their Spaces on some days of the week or are on a part-time working schedule.
15 Zu welchen Menschen ermĂśglicht dir Coworking ein besseres VerhĂ¤ltnis?
Test users 18.6%
An important question is the one about who the Coworkers are networking with. About half of the respondents states that they have been able to connect to experts outside of their own working field since they have been working in a Coworking Space. A similar number of Coworkers connected to experts of their own working field. Also, about 45 percent of the Coworkers managed to connect better with normal people who are not working in the Coworking Space. A smaller number of the Coworkers also connected with customers and test users of their products.
Normal people, outsiders 46.5%
Outside experts 54.1% Experts from the same work field 45.6%
Which people has Coworking improved your connection to?
28 Wie viele neue Bekanntschaften hast du in deinem Coworking Space in den letzten beiden Monaten gemacht, die deine Arbeit positiv beeinflusst haben?
① 43.0% ② 21.7%
Four out of ten Coworkers stated that in the last two months they have met one new acquaintance that has had positive effects on theis own work. About 20 percent of the respondents has met two new acquaintances and another 20 percent has met three or more new people that positively affected their work.
How many acquaintances have you met within a maximum of the last two months who have had a positive effect on your projects in any way? 33
30 Wer trifft in deinem Coworking Space die wichtigen Entscheidungen? 30 Wer trifft in deinem Coworking Space die wichtigen Entscheidungen?
Most of the important decisions in Coworking Spaces are taken by the management together with the Coworkers. The numbers of the global survey are similar to the numbers of the Berlin survey on this point: more than half of the respondents think that way.
Management and Coworkers 63.0%
About a third of the Coworkers think that most of the decisions are taken solely by the management. Apparently, the size of the Coworking Spaces is an important factor for their organization The smaller a Space is, the more desicions are taken by the management. the bigger it is, the more decisions are taken togehter with the Coworkers.
Management and Coworkers 58.3%
Management 25.0% Management 31.9%
Who makes the important decisions in your Coworking Space? [Global] 34
Who makes the important decisions in your Coworking Space? [Berlin]
29 Wie stark identifiziert du dich mit deinem Coworking Space?
31 In welchen Bereichen w端nschst du dir mehr Mitspracherecht?
Workspace layout 26.9%
Office infrastructure 17.0%
Recreation areas 17.0%
Very strongly 39.0%
The attachment to the own work environment is a very important issue when it comes to building a good community. Almost nine out of ten Coworkers feel very attached to their Coworking Space.
About a quarter of the Coworkers would like to have to be asked about decisions concerning the configuration of the workspaces. A little less than 20 percent of the respondents would like to have more say on the configuration of recreation areas and office infrastruture. The Coworkers are less interested in questions about the configuration of the kitchen an on security issues.
Not at all 0.8%
In which areas would you like to have more say?
How attached do you feel to your Coworking Space? 35
36 Was nutzt du in der Nachbarschaft des Coworking Spaces? 38 Wie groß 37 gelangst ist die du Entfernung am häufigsten zwischen zu deinem deiner Coworking WohnungSpace? und dem Coworking Space?
Outside of the Coworking Space
The infrastructural offerings in the neighbourhood of a Coworking Space are often a very important for the success of such a place. Most of the Coworkers think the most important service in the Space’s area is the gastronomy. Almost equally important as bars an restaurants in the area are some kind of supermarkets for the sake of buying food to cook in the Coworking Space’s kitchens.
9.15km Average distance
Special shops 12.7%
By foot 22.4%
By car 32.3%
By bike 13.8%
What services do you use in the surrouning area of your Coworking Space? [Global] 36
Public transportation 31.5%
What is the distance between your home and your workplace? How do you get to work? [Global]
36 Was nutzt du in der Nachbarschaft des Coworking 38Spaces? 37 Wie groĂ&#x; gelangst ist die du Entfernung am hĂ¤ufigsten zwischen zu deinem deiner Coworking WohnungSpace? und dem C
A very big difference between the numbers of the Global Coworking Survey and the Berlin Survey can be found in the distance between the place where the Coworkers live and the Coworking Space they work in. On the global scale this distance is on average about nine kilometers, which clearly is the reason for many people to use their car to get to the workplace. In Berlin the distance between home and workplace is much smaller (about three kilometers), even though the city is very wide spread (the diameter from west to east is about 45 kilometers and the whole metropolitan area sums up to almost 900 square kilometers). This probably is the reason why in Berlin most of the Coworkers get to work by bike or even by foot. Only about 15 percent of the Coworkers in Berlin use their car to get to work compared to the 33 percent of the global community.
By foot 30.8%
Public transportation 25.6%
Special shops 13.6%
By bike 41.9%
By car 14.0%
What services do you use in the surrouning area of your Coworking Space? [Berlin]
What is the distance between your home and your workplace? How do you get to work? [Berlin] 37