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OPTIKASCIENCE

OPTIKA S.r.l.

Via Rigla, 30 - 24010 Ponteranica (BG) Tel. +39 035.571.392 - Fax: + 39 035.571.435 www.optikascience.com - www.optikamicroscopes.com info@optikascience.com

SCHOOL SCIENTIFIC

LABORATORY

WWW.OPTIKASCIENCE.COM

Visit the online catalog and discover the wide range of OPTIKA products and services. The new website, completely updated, easily accessible thanks to its search options and exclusive offers on-line proposals every week. The 14 sections of the catalog help rapid consultation; images and descriptions of the items allow rapid approach to educational word. Create a free account to get a quote on-line, to get more information about our products and stay in touch with us.

SCHOOL SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY 2012/2013

PLEASE VISIT OUR WEB SITE

2012/2013

www.optikascience.com


PLEASE VISIT OUR WEB SITE

WWW.OPTIKASCIENCE.COM

Visit the online catalog and discover the wide range of OPTIKA products and services. The new website, completely updated, easily accessible thanks to its search options and exclusive offers on-line proposals every week. The 14 sections of the catalog help rapid consultation; images and descriptions of the items allow rapid approach to educational word. Create a free account to get a quote on-line, to get more information about our products and stay in touch with us.


Optikascience OPTIKA SCIENCE is the result of the merger between M.A.D. Strumentazioni Scientifiche and Optika, a team of 60 people in 3 different European locations, engaged in the development of new models, production, quality control, sales and after-sales service. Optika is already established worldwide as a leading Company for optical microscopes production and distribution, with its almost 40 years of experience in the field of scientific instrumentation. M.A.D., the most important producer of school scientific laboratory equipment in Italy, has been founded in 1971 in Bergamo (Italy). During all these years a team of physicist, chemists, bologists and naturalists has satisfied the requests of the italian market by designing and producing laboratory scientific equipment. Optika, relying on the knowledge and experience of two leader companies, is delivering quality and service at the highest level.

Research and Development Our company is well kown worldwide for the quality and efficiency of its equipment; all thanks to a team of physicists that design and manufacture our products on-site and through a careful quality control process, carried out on each single component and article in and out.

Showroom At our headquarters in Ponteranica (BG), our visitors can take a look at our equipment, perform experiments with the help of our engineers putting into practice the theories of Physics, Chemistry or Biology. It is now also possible to organize real training courses for teachers and users thanks to our technicians. An essential service that our company has decided to offer to help you using our scientific equipment.


technical notes The articles mentioned in this catalogue have the following characteristics: • they are all marked with a code; • they are illustrated by pictures and accompanied by useful information to describe their function; • they are provided with a guide in which the operation mode is described in details in order to facilitate their use; • they are constructed with very resilient materials; • they are compatible with each other; • the articles dedicated to the measurement of physical quantities are calibrated in SI units, except for some types of spring scales, which are calibrated in grams-weight. The products described in this catalogue are designed and constructed in accordance with the Council Directive dated 3rd May 1989 concerning the approximation of Member States legislation to the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EEC 89/336) published by the Official Journal of the European Community No L 139/19 dated 23rd May 1989 and transposed into Italian law by Legislative Decree dated 4th December 1992, n. 476 entitled:

IMPLEMENTATION of EEC Directive 89/336, dated 3rd May 1989 concerning the approximation of Member States legislation as regards electromagnetic compatibility (EEC 89/336) published by the Official Journal of the European Community No L 139/19 dated 23rd May 1989, changed by Directive 92/31 EEC dated 28th April 1992.

CONSULTATION GUIDE Among the goals that science teaching aims to achieve, the most important are the development among young people of cognitive skills , of scientific attitude and ability to combine doing and thinking through practical and perceptive exercises. Such a result is achieved only through constant laboratory practice, thanks to demonstrations done by the teacher and students practical activities. The instruments presented in this catalogue have the following characteristics: - They are designed with particular attention to user safety; - They are shown in different sections in order to meet the requirements of both primary and secondary teaching levels; - Firstly this catalogue presents the most suitable items for school, as they allow the execution of experiments to verify the existence of natural phenomena and evaluate them in qualitative terms; - Secondly the catalogue presents the equipment which permits a quantitative study of the phenomena; - These instruments permit great freedom to teachers in choosing experimental activities according to their didactic program.

Demonstrations from the theacer’s desk

Basic level Intermediate level Advanced level

general sales conditions Materials must be checked and tested within 7 (seven) days from the date of receipt. If there are no complaints, the material will be considered as accepted unconditionally by the customer. If any defects or damaged material should be found, a complaint has to be made immediately to the supplier in order to replace defective or damaged material.

Optika

Looks forward to helping teachers resolve any problem concerning scientific laboratory equipment. Please contact your local distributor or call our head office to talk to our technical dept.


NEWS

PAG. 2

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE

PAG. 5

SECTION 2: physics

PAG. 19

SECTION 3: technique and energy

PAG. 87

SECTION 4: microscopy

PAG. 95

SECTION 5: biology

PAG. 115

SECTION 6: ecology

PAG. 129

SECTION 7: METEOROLOGY

PAG. 137

SECTION 8: ASTRONOMY AND Earth Universe Science

PAG. 141

SECTION 9: chemistry

PAG. 147

SECTION 10: on-line science

PAG. 161

SECTION 11: drawing AND mathematics

PAG. 197

SECTION 12: MULTIMEDIAL SYSTEM

PAG. 203

SECTION 13: MEASURAMENT INSTRUMENTS

PAG. 207

SECTION 14: General-purpose laboratory items and instruments

PAG. 217

Intro - Pag.1


NEWS 1427 DIGITAL TIMER This instrument is a fully autoranging timer able to measure to 1ms, with a range of 9999s. The instrument can be triggered mechanically or electronically by connecting to the sockets marked ‘A’ and ‘B’. Under the count-in is used to display the partial times PAG. 228

5591 MECHANICS BASE LEVEL With this kit you can perform fundamental experiments on static equilibrium of rigid bodies, kinematics and dynamics of linear motion and static liquids. Supplied in a carrying case. PAG. 23

3032 RIPPLE TANK This ripple tank has several advantages: easy installation, ease of performing experience, reliability and repeatability of results and excellent visual resolution of wave fronts. The stroboscopic lamp is realized by a 3W LED with high brightness synchronized with the generator surface waves. The control unit is equipped with a digital display and allows you to set or restrict synchronization of the vibrator with the lamp, the modulation wave amplitude and frequency. The vibrator is of electrodynamic type. Size of tray: 30 x 30cm.

PAG. 45

4203 OPTICAL BENCH BASIC Optical bench 2m long equipped with four stands, LED projector, set of lenses, lens holders and screen. You can perform the basic experiences concerning geometric optics. PAG. 63

Pag.2 - Intro


P-50 LENGTH, SURFACE, VOLUME AND CAPACITY

€ 158,31 + IVA

This collection is intended for primary students and/or first grade secondary students. The purpose is to allow students to fully understand the fundamental concepts of space, matter and dimension through simple and intuitive experiments. Together with personal reflection, the experimental activity allows eliminating erroneous clichés, ambiguity of current definitions and impropriety of language. PAG. 6

P-51 WEIGHT FORCE AND GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

€ 171,16 + IVA

Due to the simplicity of the experiments and importance of the topics, this collection is intended for primary school students and first grade secondary students. Referring to everyday experiences, the experimental project helps understanding the concept of force, its vector nature and measurement. At the end of this experimental project, the gravitational force nature will be clear and you will be able to answer the historical questions on weight and motion of the bodies. PAG. 6

P-52 SPECIFIC WEIGHT AND FLOATING

€ 152,88 + IVA

The purpose of this collection is to introduce the concept of “weight” and “specific weight” into the student’s science program, through experiments. Once these concepts have been understood, simple but effective experiments will help comprehending the behaviour of a body immersed in fluid, ie the principle of Archimedes, its relation with the specific weight and the floating body issue. The simplicity of these experiments makes this collection particularly suitable for primary school students and 1st grade secondary students. PAG. 6

Intro - Pag.3


5253 WIMSHURST MACHINE

€ 182,00 + IVA

“The Wimshurst machine” is an historical electrostatic generator for creating other voltages. Two discs made with insulating material are rotated in the opposite direction. Two metal sectors are glued on the external part of the discs, rotating at high speed, which rub against them charging the condensers (Leyden jar). When these have accumulated a sufficient amount of electric charge, the high potential difference between the machine poles generate a sparkle. When very long sparkles are produced (10-15 cm), it becomes a weak X-ray emitter.” PAG. 66

1428 EINSTEIN’S ELEVATOR

€ 574,90 + IVA

This new OPTIKA SCIENCE apparatus carries out the famous conceptual experiment known as “Einstein’s elevator”, formulated by A. Einstein in 1911 to illustrate the equivalence principle, which is one of the mainstays of the General Theory of Relativity. The apparatus requires using a data acquisition system, whose processing is not complex. PAG. 182

1429 ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS

€ 574,90 + IVA

This new apparatus has been designed and manufactured entirely in the OPTIKA SCIENCE premises. It allows studying in depth the general problem of bodies that move on wheels both under a rigid body mechanical profile and energetic profile. Due to the complexity of the calculation, the apparatus is intended to the last classes of high school or graduate degree programs in Mathematics, Physics and Engineering. PAG. 33

4297 OPTICAL BENCH 200CM + ACCESSORIES

€ 574,90 + IVA

The standard bench is a collective consisting of 2 mt T-section. On request it can be added to a shorter piece of 50cm connected to the junction with the basic bench. With this configuration it’s possible to make optical experiments in which the optical beam, thanks to the effect of reflections or refractions comes out from the main axis of the basic bench. With this optical bench, the teacher has the ability to run a large number of qualitative and quantitative experiments on optical waves, both in terms of geometric wave. It also recommends the use of a green laser code 4151 sold separately. PAG. 190 Pag.4 - Intro


section 1

index Kits “First steps into science” Kits “Scientific paths”

page. 10 page. 15

for pRIMARy and sECONDARy school

The kits “First steps into science” are suitable for the students of primary and secondary school: - the experiments aren’t dangerous for the students; - the materials used to create the components aren’t toxic; - no net tension is needed to use them. The experiments are easy to be performed and they are suitable for students. The experiments have been perfomed in our laboratories by a competent staff, this ensures the good development of them. The aim is to give students the possibility to approach science field observing elementary phenomena, catching their interdisciplinary aspects, as for the series of experiments Sun - Energy – Photosythesis, etc. The steps suggested for each experiment are easy to be checked and stimulate the curiosity of the students towards further questions and elaborations. The experiments are easy but not superficial, they help students to understand subjects which seem to be complicated from a theoretical point of view. The analysis of natural phenomena shouldn’t be only explained by the teacher but it has to be performed directly by the students through several experiments. It is important to say that these kits are cheap but they present a high teaching efficiency. Each experiment is illustrated in the english manual together with a list of items to be used and the specific steps to follow to perform the experiment. The items of each kit are in a box as shown in the picture.

INTRODUctION to SCIENce

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.5


first steps iNto SCIENce P50 LENGTH, SURFACE, VOLUME AND CAPACITY contents 1. Space 2. Matter 3. Bodies 4. The three layers of matter 5. Property of bodies: impenetrability 6. Other properties of bodies 7. What does comparing other bodies mean 8. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons 9. Measured properties - physical quantities 10. Measuring a physical quantity 11. Decimal metric system 12. Length 13. Linear rule: a calibrated system 14. Geometry 15. Euclidean geometry and the real world 16. Straight lines and curve lines 17. Measuring wheel 18. Curvimeter 19. Closed lines 20. Flat shapes - boundary lines and surface 21. Perimeter of a flat shape 22. Area of a flat shape 23. Simple polygons 24. Regular simple polygons SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Ball of string 1 Linear rule 2 Rubber balloons 1 Spring scale 100 gr

Basic level

101,20 €

25. Isoperimetric polygons and equi-extended 31. Volume of liquid bodies polygons 32. Graduated cylinder 26. How to compare two polygons 33. Volume of an irregular solid 27. Rectangles and squares 28. How to measure the area of an irregular polygon 31 EXPERIMENTS 29. Bodies in reality 30. Volume of solid bodies

1 Overflow vessel 1 Magnifying glass 1 PVC cylinder with hook 1 Coated flexible string 1 Funnel with cap

1 Transparent tube 1 Arbitrary unit of measurement system 1 Washable marker 1 Measuring wheel model 1 pair of sheet metal

P51 WEIGHT FORCE AND GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

1 1 litre bottle 1 Pack of decimal arithmetic blocks 1 Cm blackboard 1 Curvimeter 1 Graduated cylinder 250 cc

101,20 €

2 100 cc glasses 2 200 cc glasses 1 5 cc syringe 1 250 cc Erlenmeyer filtering flask 1 Experiment guide

Basic level

22. Weight is also a force at distance contents 1. Meaning of the words 23. Weight does not remain constant 2. Force, a primitive concept. 24. Which one falls first, heavy bodies or light bodies? 3. Some examples on forces 25. Origin of weight – gravitational force 4. Elastic materials and plastic materials 26. Why the moon does not fall to the earth? 5. How to compare forces 6. How to measure the intensity of a force 21 EXPERIMENTS 7. Force is a physical quantity 8. Various types of forces 9. Weight 10. How to compare two weights 11. How to measure weight 12. Weight unit of measurement in the decimal metric system 13. Multiples and sub-multiples of kilogram-weight 14. Weight unit of measurement in the international system 15. Dynamometer 16. Vector representation of the forces 17. When a body falls freely 18. Vector representation of the weight force 19. Centre of gravity 20. Why the leaning tower of pisa does not fall 21. Forces at distance SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Ball of string 1 Rod with hook 1 Trolley 3 Pins

1 Scale plate 1 Metal cylinder with hook 1 Articulated parallelepiped 1 Linear rule 1 Balloon

1 Dynanometer 1 Removable metal rod 1 PVC rod 1 Aluminium foil 1 Magnet

P52 SPECIFIC WEIGHT AND FLOATING CONTENTS 1. Matter and objects 2. Materials 3. A bit of history 4. Technique 5. Property of materials 6. An important physical property of materials: heaviness 7. Weight unit of measurement 8. Volume unit of measurement 9. Dynanometer: an instrument to measure weight 10. How to measure the volume of an object 11. How to compare the heaviness of materials 12. Specific weight 13. Reduction in unit 14. Specific weight of solid material SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Ball of string 1 Rod with hook 1 Scale plate 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle

Pag.6 - Section - Introduction to science

1 Linear rule 1 Dynanometer 100gp 1 Removable metal rod 1 Dropper 1 Distilled water

1 Pair of strips 1 Spiral steel spring 1 Tripod base 1 Pair of sheet metal 1 Lead string

1 Pair of elastics 1 Extension 1 Assembly of 20 washers 1 Apparatus for centrifugal force 1 Latex ball with the hook

1 100 cc glass 1 5 cc syringe 1 Square 1 Didactic guide

101,20 €

15. Specific weight of liquid material 16. Specific weight of a saturated solution 17. Reverse formulas 18. How to vary the weight of an object 19. Weight of an object immersed in a liquid 20. Thrust of Archimede 21. Floating solid bodies 22. An experimental question 23. Sometimes it floats and sometimes it sinks 24. Floating liquid bodies

Basic level

20 EXPERIMENTS

1 Aluminium foil 1 Dye bottle 1 Tripod base 1 Set of 5 different samples 1 Set of 5 samples with equal volume

1 Sample of wax 1 Test-tube supporte 1 Glycerine bottle 1 Bottle of castor oil 1 Graduated cylinder 100cc

1 100 cc glasses 1 200 cc glasses 1 5 cc syringe 1 Teaspoon 1 Glass test tube Ø 20

1 Didactic guide


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p101 AIR PROPERTIES

p101

CONTENTS 1. What is the atmosphere? 2. The air exists 3. The air weighs 4. The atmospheric pressure 5. The barometers 6. The air contains oxygen 7. The air contains carbon dioxide 8. The air contains steam 9. When the air warms up 10. The winds 11. The moving air 12. The air to fly 13. The air pollution 14. The greenhouse effect

Basic level

22 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT

5 Drinking straws 1 Suction cap 1 Plastic tube 1 Rubber ball 5 Elastics 1 Dropper 1 Trasparent tubes with plug 3 Candles 1 Magnification lens 1 Bottle of barite water 1 Bottle of methylene blue 1 Ping pong ball with thread

1 Funnel with plug 1 Compass 1 Plastic bottle,100cc 1 Plastic bag 3 Aluminium discs 1 Thermometer, 0-50°C 1 Fan 1 Bottle of vaseline 1 Beaker,250 ml 1 Test tube, 16x160mm 1 Test tubes, 20×200mm 1 User guide

p102 WATER PROPERTIES

p102

CONTENTS 1. Water: a precious good 2. Water as a liquid 3. How to measure the volume of water 4. How to measure the weight of water 5. Water as a chemical compound 6. The evaporation of the liquids 7. Water evaporation 8. The condensation of steam 9. Water as a solid: the ice 10. The water cycle 11. The specific weight of solid bodies 12. The specific weight of water 13. Archimede’s principle 14. When does a body float in the water? 15. The ice cycle 16. Water pollution 17. Water: a precious good to be saved

Basic level

20 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Rope skein 1 Rod with hook 1 Scale plate 1 Double Archimede’s cylinder 1 Bottle of denatured alcohol 1 Spring scale 1 Metallic rod 1 Dropper 1 Rain gauge

1 Aluminum foil 1 Plasticine 1 Set of 3 samples 5 Filter paper discs 1 Tripod support 1 Universal pH indicator 2 100 ml beakers 1 250 ml beaker 2 Watch glasses 1 Flask, 100 ml 1 User guide

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.7


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p103 THE FORCES

p103 p103

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. The forces 2. Forces in action 3. The weight is a force 4. The elasticity 5. The spring scale 6. Other types of force 7. A strange addition: how to sum the forces 8. The addition of parallel forces 9. The friction forces 10. The centre of gravity 14 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Nylon rope 1 Figure for the centre of gravity 1 Bar with hook 1 Series of ten 50g weights 1 Linear ruler 1 Spring scale 1 Metallic rod 1 PVC roll 1 Protractor 1 Linear magnet 1 Coil spring 1 Bar for levers without a pivot 1 Small PVC rod 2 Threaded pivots 1 Threaded pivot, 2 parts 3 M 4 wing nuts 1 M 3.5 wing nuts 1 Aluminium tripod support 1 Rubber marble 1 User guide

p104 LEVERS, PULLEYS AND  INCLINED PLANE

p104

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. The spring scale 2. How to use smartly our strength 3. The equilibrium of a rod 4. The levers 5. Type I lever 6. Type II lever 7. Type III lever 8. The pulleys 9. The fixed pulley 10. The movable pulley 11. Block and tackle 12. The inclined plane 11 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 2m nylon rope 1 Rod with hook 2 Double terminals for rods 1 Pulley 1 Series of ten 50g weights 1 Roller with hook 1 30cm Ruler 2 Pulleys with hooks 1 Spring scale 1 Metallic rod with two knurls 1 Rod for levers 1 Inclined plane 1 2-side threaded pivot 1 Wing nut M 4 1 Wing nut M 3.5 1 Tripod base 1 User guide

Pag.8 - Section - Introduction to science


p105 THE THREE STATES OF MATTER AND

FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE

THE THERMAL EXPANSION

p105

CONTENTS 1. The alcohol burner 2. The matter 3. The solid state 4. The liquid state 5. The gaseous state 6. State changes 7. Heat and temperature 8. Fusion and Solidification 9. Evaporation 10. Boiling 11. Condensation 12. The thermal expansion of solids 13. The thermal expansion of liquids 14. The thermal expansion of gases

Basic level

12 EXPERIMENTS supplied equipment 1 200 mm glass tube with plug 1 Bent glass tube with plug 1 125 cc alcohol bottle 1 Rubber balloon 1 Burner tripod 5 Elastic band 1 Dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Cubic dilatometer 1 Shaker 1 Small iron cube 1 Funnel 1 Burner net

1 Thermometer -10 +110 째C 1 250 cc beaker 1 100 cc glass flask 1 16 x 160 glass test tube 1 Watch glass 1 User guide

p106 LIGHT, SHADOW & IMAGES CONTENTS 1. The light source 2. Why do we see objects? 3. The light rays 4. The law of enlightment 5. Shadows 6. The reflection of light 7. The images on plane mirrors 8. The refraction of light 9. The lenses 10. The images in the converging lenses 11. The images in the diverging lenses 12. The slide projector

p106

Basic level

15 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Ruler 1 Slide 1 Converging lens 1 Diverging lens 1 Battery holder 1 Light source 1 Sphere with vertical support 1 Condenser lens with support 1 Diaphragm holder 1 Diaphragm with three slots 1 White screen 1 Diaphragm with 1 slot 1 Plane mirror with goniometer 1 Diaphragm with arrow 1 Plane mirror 1 Diaphragm with square hold 1 Clip 1 Lens holder 1 100 ml beaker basin 1 User guide

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.9


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p108 STATIC ELECTRICITY

p108

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. The electrification 2. Protons and electrons 3. The electric forces 4. The electrostatic induction 5. The double electric pendulum 6. Conductors and insulators 7. The wimshurst electrostatic machine 8. Bolts and lightning 9. The power of sharp points 10. The electric whirl 11. The “dance of spheres” 12. The electric plume

12 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Candle 2 Cables with crocodile clips 1 Pair of balls for pendulum 1 Pair of rags 1 Support with hook 1 Wimshurst electrostatic machine 1 Support for electric whirl 1 Conductor with bent tip 1 Device for the “dance of spheres” 1 Electric plume 1 Clip with rope 1 Iron rod 1 Electric whirl 1 Aluminium disc 1 Conical electric board 2 PVC rods 1 Glass rod 1 User guide

p109 ELECTRIC CURRENT

p109

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. To know the electricity 2. The electrification 3. Protons and electrons 4. The moving electricity 5. The batteries 6. The voltaic pile 7. The potential difference 8. The voltmeter 9. The electric circuit 10. Conductors and insulators 11. The intensity of the electric current 12. The ammeter 13. The electrical resistance 14. The electric power 15. The conversion of electric power into heat 16. The domestic electric system 12 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Rope 3 Pins 1 Wooden spheres 1 Linear rod 1 Board with square hole 1 4-slot battery holder 1 Light source 1 Globe with support 1 Board with gnomon 1 Compass 1 Protracto 1 User guide

Pag.10 - Section - Introduction to science


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p110 MAGNETS AND ELECTROMAGNETS

p110

CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 11

The magnets The magnetic poles The materials and the magnets The magnetic needle Earth magnetism The compass Magnetic forces Magnetic levitation Magnetic induction The electric current’s magnetic effect The electromagnet The electric alarm

Basic level

EXPERIMENTS

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Rope 3 Pins 1 Wooden spheres 1 Linear rod 1 Board with square hole 1 4-slot battery holder 1 Light source 1 Globe with support 1 Board with gnomon 1 Compass 1 Protracto 1 User guide

p111 THE PROPER MOTION OF THE SUN

p111

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. Light sources and illuminated bodies 2. The light source provided 3. The shadows 4. The light propagates in a straight line 5. The shadow’s length 6. Geometry 7. When the light source changes height and position 8. How we see the sun moving from the earth 9. How the sun’s height varies during a day 10. The time zones 11. The daylight saving time 12. How the sun’s height varies in different days 13. Solstice and equinox 14. The sun’s motion is only apparent 15. The earth’s revolution around the sun 16. A consequence of the earth’s rotation: day and night 17. A consequence of the polar axis’ inclination 18. The astronomical seasons 19. The earth’s warming 20. The earth’s satellite: the moon 21. The moon phases 22. The lunar eclipse 23. The solar eclipse

14 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Rope 3 Pins 1 Wooden spheres 1 Linear rod 1 Board with square hole

1 4-slot battery holder 1 Light source 1 Globe with support 1 Board with gnomon 1 Compass

1 Protracto 1 User guide

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.11


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p112 THE ENERGY FOR LIFE

p112

CONTENTS

Basic level

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Device for capillaries 1 Dropper 2 Candles 1 Magnifying lens 1 10% solution hydrochloric acid 1 Distilled water 1 Tin foil sheet 1 Ethyl alcohol 1 Osmometer

10 Discs filter paper 1 Clamp 1 Scalpel 1 Paddle with knife 1 Potassium permanganate solution 1 Funnel 2 Petri capsules 80mm diameter 1 Graduated cylinder 100mm

1 Plastic bag 25x35cm 1 Elastic band 2 Plastic bags 12x21cm 1 Small bag with seeds 2 Culture dishes 1 Lugol solution 1 Starch 1 Biuret 1 Vaseline 1 Sudan III reagent

1 Test-tube holder 1 Table of plant and animal cells 1 100mm beaker 1 250mm beaker 1 Trunk section 2 60mm Petri Capsules 7 Test-tubes 1 Aluminium disc 1 User guide

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

The chemical elements The atoms The molecules The cohesion force The cell What is biology? The water The watery solutions The osmosis The mineral salts The roots How roots absorb water and mineral salts from the soil The trunk The capillarity The leaves’ transpiration The living beings and their nutrition The chlorophyll The photosynthesis The cell respiration in the plants The starch: a reserve substance of plants The food chain To eat for living The starch in the food The digestion of starch How fat is recognized The digestion of fat How proteins are recognized The digestion of proteins The energy and the animals’ life The combustion The respiration

24 EXPERIMENTS

p113 A JOURNEY IN THE WORLD OF VISION

p113

CONTENTS

Basic level

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

The light sources and the enlightened bodies The propagation of light Light carries energy The eye: a photoreceptor The lenses The eye as an optical system Eye defects and their correction The resolving power of the eye and the visual acuity The eye-brain system The persistence of the images on the retina Temporal color synthesis Spatial color synthesis Binocular vision The sense of depth Stereoscopic vision Visual field The optical illusions The magnifying lens

25 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Manual Newton disc 1 Stereoscopic glasses 1 Didactic Focometer 1 Magnifying lens 2X – 4X 1 90x90mm Plate with hole for propagation of light 1 Vision tube 1 Set of tables 1 Stereoscopic Figure 1 User guide

Pag.12 - Section - Introduction to science


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p114 THE EAR AND THE HEARING

p114

CONTENTS 1. The harmonic motion 2. Graphical representation of the harmonic motion 3. When we hear a sound 4. Why do we hear sounds? 5. The acoustic waves 6. How the acoustic waves turn into sounds 7. The ear: a receiver of acoustic waves 8. The ear-brain system 9. The audibility limits 10. The sounds’ distinctive features 11. The auditory system’s sensitivity 12. How to improve the auditory sensitivity 13. The stereophonic sound 14. Echo, reverberation and peal 15. Care of the auditory system

Basic level

16 EXPERIMENTS

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Cork 1 Fibreglass linear rod 1 Tuning fork with small hammer 1 Stethoscope 1 Ultrasound whistle 1 Xylophone 1 Steel foil 2 20x20 Anti-acoustic panel 1 Wooden sphere with thread 1 Graduated beaker with PP 250 ml scale 1 User guide

p115 TOUCH, OLFACTION AND TASTE

p115

CONTENTS THE TOUCH 1. The skin 2. The skin’s sensitivity 3. The touch’s stimuli 4. The pressure’s stimuli 5. The pain’s stimuli 6. Temperature and heat 7. The body temperature 8. The thermal stimuli 9. To see with your touch 10. The fingerprints 11. The skin’s hygiene

Basic level

THE OLFACTION 1. How is matter made 2. The matter’s aggregation stages 3. Stage changes 4. The nose: the organ of olfaction 5. How smells are detected 6. How smells are identified 7. The addiction to smells 8. The nose’s hygiene THE TASTE 1. The tongue: the taste’s organ 2. How tastes are detected 3. The four basic tastes 4. Taste and olfaction 5. Taste and eyesight 6. Good and bad tastes 25 EXPERIMENTS

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 4 Dropper with rubber bulb 1 Ink pad 1 Set for smells 1 Set for tastes 1 Set of different objects 1 Set of tables

1 Digital Thermometer 1 Graduated beaker with PP 250 ml scale 3 Plastic spoon 1 Petri dish 4 Set of tables 1 User guide

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.13


FIRST STEPS INTO SCIENCE p116 RENEWABLE ENERGY P116

Basic level

CONTENTS 1. The energetic problem 2. The forces 3. Forces at work 4. The energy and its forms 5. Potential gravitational energy 6. The kinetic energy 7. Heat energy 8. Electricity 9. The electrical energy 10. The Volta’s battery 11. The dynamo 12. The domestic power 13. Hydropower plants 14. Thermal power plants 15. Renewable and non renewable energies 16. Alternative energy sources 17. The largest source of energy: the sun 18. How to transform solar energy into electricity 19. How to transform solar energy into light energy 20. How to transform solar energy into mechanical energy 21. Greenhouse effect 22. Wind power 23. Other forms of alternative energy 19 experiments SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

Cart 2m nylon rope. Rubber ball 27mm diameter Mass 25g with hook 250 ml low-shape beaker Candle Candle holder Breath-enabled energy device Panel with LED Photovoltaic panel with support

Pag.14 - Section - Introduction to science

1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1

Glass flask with narrow neck 100cc Thermometer 0°-50 °C Rubber plug 5.5 with hole Manual motor-dynamo Pair of electrodes per cell DC double-scale voltmeter Connection cable 60 cm Connection cable 30 cm Red crocodile clip Black crocodile clip User Guide


Scientific paths The most effective way to introduce the world of Science to young people is to teach them concepts representing the base for further investigation on the subject; a wider research could take place further on. There are some fields of knowledge regarding our daily life we perceive as a whole; they house several phenomena. For example, the air we breath is not only necessary to life, but it is also the seat of meteorological, sound and electrical phenomena, as well as many others, involving different scientific fields. The same goes for water, energy, light and many other things. The first approach to the study of these subjects must feature a vision of the subject as a whole, through an experimental and interdisciplinary course. This new series of kits has been designed to offer teachers a valid educational instrument to deal with these phenomena in a unitary way, through a series of simple but effective experiments.

5501

5501 THE AIR CONTENTS 1. What’s the atmosphere? 2. The air does exist 3. The air does weigh 4. Atmospheric pressure 5. Barometers 6. Compressed air and rarefied air 7. Air composition 8. Air for life 9. When air warms up 10. Winds 11. Air on the move 12. Air to fly 13. Air and sounds 14. Pollution in the air 15. Greenhouse effect

Intermediate level

30 eXPERIMENTS

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Conical flask 1 Skein of thread 2 Ping-pong balls 1 Pinchers with clamp 1 Cork 5 Drinking straw 1 Suction beaker 1 Plastic tube 1 Rubber stopper with hole

1 Stand with rod 1 Clamp 1 100ml syringe with tap 1 Silicone grease packaging 1 Propeller model 1 Wind indicator 1 Baloon 1 Dropper 1 Thermometer for environement 1 Transparent tube with stopper

1 Diapason with box 6 Candles 3 Candle holders 1 Magnifying glass 1 Barite water bottle 1 Methylene blue 1 Ball with thread 5 Absorbent paper disks 1 Tweezers 1 Funnel

1 Plastic bag 1 Fan 1 Grass seeds packaging 1 Vaseline bottle 1 100ml beaker 1 400ml beaker 2 20x200mm test tubes 1 Experiment Guide 1 Small caseVVV

5502

5502 THE WATER CONTENTS 1. Water: a precious gift 2. Temperature and heat 3. Water in the liquid state 4. Water evaporation 5. Boiling water 6. Steam codensation 7. Water in its solid state: ice 8. Water cycle 9. Water for life 10. Specific weight 11. Water specific weight 12. Archimede’s principle 13. When does a body float on water? 14. Different kinds of water 15. Water pollution 16. Water: a precious gift to be saved

Intermediate level

33 experiments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal rod 1 Rod with hook 1 Rod with clip 1 100 ml flask 1 Skein of thread 1 Glass tube with stopper 1 Curved glass tube with stopper 1 Base for rod 1 Clamp 1 250 ml conical flask

1 Syringe with stopper and tap 1 Scale weighing pan 1 Archimede’s double cylinder 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 2 50g weights 1 Spring scale 6 Small circular rubber bands 1 Dropper 1 Hygroscope 1 Funnel with stopper 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Aluminium foil sheet

1 Terracotta pot 1 Base for pot 1 Plasticine packaging 1 Set of 4 samples 1 Rod with disk 1 Stirring rod 5 Filter-paper disks 1 Fertilizer bottle 1 Rubber stopper with hole 1 Spoon 2 Pots for cultivation 1 Sandbottle

1 Humus bottle 1 Universal pH indicator 1 Thermometer 2 100ml beaker 1 400ml beaker 1 Misuring cylinder 3 Test tubes 2 Whatch glasses 1 Capillary glass tube 1 Experimet Guide 1 Small case

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.15


scientific paths 5503 THE ENERGY

5503

CONTENTS 1. The energetic problem 2. The forces 3. Forces at work 4. The energy 5. The graetest source of energy: the Sun 6. The Food Chain 7. Energy content of foods 8. Heat energy 9. Gravity energy 10. Elastic energy 11. Kinetic energy 12. The electricity 13. The electric circuit 14. Electric energy 15. How to produce electric power 16. House electric system 17. The transformation of energy: the productivity 18. Energy saving

Intermediate level

30 experiments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal rod 1 Rod with hook 1 250 ml conical flask 1 Skein of thread 1 Clip with thread 1 Table clamp 1 Trolley 1 Pulley with rope 1 Clamp

1 Rubber ball 1 Coil spring 1 Small spring cannon 1 50g weight 1 10g weight 1 25g weight 2 Candles 1 Candle holders 1 Plexiglass rod 2 PVC rods

1 6 volt light bulb 3 Electric threads 1 Aluminium foil sheet 1 Tester 1 Switch 1 Lamp socket 1 Alternator model 2 Rags 1 Engine with propeller 1 Solar panel

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1,5V light bulb Copper electrode Zinc electrode Battery holder Acid solution 400ml beaker Experiment Guide Small case

5504 LIGHT, COLOURS AND VISION 5504

CONTENTS 1. Knowing light 2. Light sources and illuminated bodies 3. Light transports energy 4. Do rays of light really exist? 5. Two characteristic of light 6. Lighting 7. Light reflection 8. Light refraction 9. Total reflection 10. Total reflection prisms and optical fibres 11. Physical nature of light 12. Colours 13. White light 14. Light filters 15. The colours of the object 16. Additive colour synthesis 17. Subtractive colour synthesis 18. The colour of the sky and of the sun 19. Lenses 20. Pictures through lenses 21. The eye and the sight 22. Eyes’defects 23. Binocular fusion and dominant eye 24. The sense of depth 25. Optical illusions

Intermediate level

35 experiments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Linear ruler 1 Dropper 1 Transparent slide 1 Diaphragm with square hole 5 Candles 1 Candle holder 1 Flat mirror 1 Pocket-size Spectroscope

Pag.16 - Section - Introduction to science

1 Set of 3 primary colour filters 1 Set of 3 secondary colour filters 1 Laser device 1 Diaphragm with circular hole 1 Optical fibre 1 Optical prism with stand 1 Stereoscopic glasses 1 Colour composition device 2 Small cables

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Solar panel with engine Battery holder Vision tube Optical projector Diaphragm holder White screen Converging lens Diverging lens Sphere with stand

1 Basin 1 100ml beaker 1 Colours chart 1 Stereoscopic figure 1 Experiment Guide 1 Small case


Scientific paths 5505 PHYSICS OF SOUND

Intermediate level

CONTENTS 1. When do we hear a sound? 2. Oscillations 3. Limits of audibility 4. The height of a sound 5. The intensity of a sound 6. Graphic representation of an oscillation 7. Why do we hear sounds 8. Acoustic waves 9. How acoustic waves turn into sounds 10. How to increase the intensity of sounds 11. Acoustic waves reflection 12. Acoustic waves interference 13. Stationary waves 14. The sonometer 15. The resonance 16. String instruments 17. Wind Instruments 18. The tone

5505

26 experiments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal rod 1 Metal rod with hook 1 Cork 1 Clip pinchers 1 Double clamp 1 Glass cylinder 2 Bases for rods 1 Resonance box

1 Sonometer 1 Set of 8 tuning forks 1 Couple of 440 Hz tuning forks 1 Vibrant foil 1 Stethoscope model 1 Stethoscope 1 Electromechanical vibrator 1 Elastic cord 1 Pivot with star knob

1 Cursor flute 1 Power unit 1 Sphere with thread 1 Beaker 1 Experiment Guide 1 Small case

5506 HOW TO MEASURE TIME PASSING BY 5506

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Time in science 3. The movement 4. The speed 5. Cyclical movements 6. The period of the pendulum 7. The phenomenon of elasticity 8. Elastic pendulum 9. A pendulum clock 10. Cyclic motions of nature 11. Earth’s shape 12. Poles, meridians and parallels 13. Latitude and longitude 14. Apparent motion of Sun 15. Motion of revolution of the Earth 16. Sideral day and solar day 17. Time in different parts of the Earth 18. The International Date Line 19. The gnomon 20. The sundial 21. Daylight Saving Time 22. The calendar 23. The Moon, Earth’satellite 24. The Month 25. Moon Phases 26. Moon Eclipse 27 Sun eclipse 28. The age of trees

Intermediate level

30 experiments SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal rod 1 Skein of thread 1 Pendulum stand 1 Double clamp 1 Rubber ball 1 Coil spring diam. 27 mm 1 Linear ruler 6 25 g weights with hook

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Aluminium sphere Wood sphere Base for rod Led projector Laser with power-unit Globe stand Vision tube Straight pivot Sun rays model

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Universal stand Parking disk Arrow with clip Series of 4 cards 23°inclined pivot Arm with the Moon Moon phase disk Couple of pins Sundial model

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Small board with two pawls Laser collimator Digital Timer Globe Coil spring diam.14 mm Trunk, cross section Experiment Guide Small case

Introduction to science - Section 1 - Pag.17


scientific paths 5507 HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AT HOME Intermediate level

5507

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Skein of thread 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 1 Linear ruler 1 2000 ml graduated cylinder 1 Tripod stand 1 Alcohol burner 1 Rain gauge 6 Candles 3 Candle holders 1 Plexiglas rod

2 PVC rods 1 Trestle stand 5 Cables 1 Glass rod 1 Switch 1 Lamp with lamp socket 1 Engine-dynamo-alternatoR 1 Ammeter 1 Voltmeter 2 Rags

1 Calorimeter with thermometer 1 Solar power engine 1 Battery holder 1 Plexiglas plate 1 Aluminium rod 1 Faucet 1 Stand with hook 1 Fire-spreading net 1 Digital timer 1 100 ml graduated cylinder

1 Bottle with tap 1 Plastic bag 1 Fan with stand 1 Thermometer -10 + 110°C 1 100 ml beaker 1 250 ml beaker 1 100 ml flask 1 Experiments Guide 1 Case

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Water, a resource 3. The cycle of water 4. Water volume 5. Precipitations 6. Water counter 7. Water bill 8. Water losses 9. A water drop 10. Surprises come from numbers 11. Faucet losses 12. The toilette 13. Earning through saving 14. Electricity 15. The electrical circuit 16. The electrical instruments 17. The electric energy 18. The electric system in our houses 19. Electric dangers 20. How to obtain electric power 21. The need of saving electric power 22. The greatest energy source: the sun 23. A new energy source: good sense 24. Thermal energy 25. Combustibles 26. Energetic productivity 27. Heat propagation 28. Thermal equilibrium 29. Thermal insulation 30. Thermal system in our houses 30 experiments

5694 LET’S LEARN HOW TO MEASURE CONTENTS 1. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons. 2. Measurable sizes 3. What it means to measure 4. Measuring units system 5. How to measure a lenght using the Direct method 6. Linear ruler 7. Faults in measuring 8. Cursor calliper. 9. The curvimeter 10. The goniometer 11. How to measure a surface. 12. The graduated cylinder 13. How to measure the volume of an irregular solid. 14. The spring scale 15. How to measure the weight of a solid 16. How to measure the weight of a liquid 17. Specific weight 18. How to measure the specific weight of a solid 19. How to measure the specific weight of a liquid 20. The thermometer 21. Air’s temperature 22. Time 23. The hourglass 24. The mechanics clocks

5694

Intermediate level

21 EXPERIMENTS The collection “Let’s learn how to measure” has been designed to give compulsory education students a valid support to learn the concept of measure from direct experience, in a simple and effective way. Starting from practical problems, instruments and exercises have been planned in order to develop into the student a “scientific mentality” , i.e. an attitude and a habit to express himself in an exact way while measuring . The student will be helped to pass from a qualitative kind of comparison, based on intuitive and visual perception, to a quantitative one, through misuring exercises. Then the student will use instruments to measure the main units of measure.

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 100 cm linear ruler 1 Calliper 1 Curvimeter 1 1 dm3 cubic case with 9 square plates , 9 small rulers and 10 units 100 cubes 1 cm3 / 1 g 1 Alluminium solid

Pag.18 - Section - Introduction to science

1 Set of geometric figures 1 Small blackboard 1 100 ml graduated cylinder 1 Sphere 1 400 ml beaker 1 Goniometer 1 Elementary school balance

1 250g spring scale 1 Huorglass 1 Dimostration clock 1 Wall thermometr 1 String 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case


seCTion 2

indeX Complete Physics laboratory page Mechanics kits page Equilibrium page Translational motion page Rotational motion page Oscillatory motion page Gravity- Inertia- Collisions - Two-dimension motion page Liquids page Gases and Vacuum page Waves propagation page Sound Waves page Molecular aspect of the matter page Thermodynamics kits page

20 22 24 30 32 34 36 40 42 44 46 47 48

Temperature and Heat Optics kits Geometrical Optics Wave Optics Optical Benches Electrology kits Static Electricity Electrical conduction Magnetism Electromagnetism Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic waves Atomic Physics

page page page page page page page page page page page page page

49 52 55 58 63 64 66 70 76 80 81 83 84

PHYSICS

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.19


Complete Physics laboratory 5614 SMALL PHYSICS LABORATORY CONTENTS Mechanics 1. Knowing forces 2. Forces in action 3. Weight is a force 4. The spring scale and its calibration 5. Other kinds of forces 6. A strange addition 7. Friction forces 8. The center of gravity 9. Let’s use our force in a wise way 10. The equilibrium of a rod 11. Levers 12. Pulleys 13. Inclined plane

€ 1.360,23 + IVA

96 experiments

Thermodynamics 1. Let’s tell apart heat and temperature 2. Alcohol burner 3. The combustion 4. The thermometer and its calibration 5. Thermal expansion of solids 6. Thermal expansion of liquids 7. Thermal expansion of gases 8. Heat and temperature 9. Heat propagation through conduction 10. Good conductors and bad conductors 11. Propagation of heat into liquids 12. The convention of heat 13. Irradiation 14. Fusion and consolidation 15. Evaporation 16. Boiling 17. Stam condensation 18. Fractional distillation

Optics 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. Eclypses 4. Lighting law 5. Diffusion of light 6. Reflection of light 7. Spherical mirrors 8. Refraction of light 9. Total reflection 10. Decomposition of white light 11. Lenses 12. Immages in flat mirrors 13. Immages in converging lenses 14. Conjugate points 15. The eye and its defects 16. Correction of the eye’s defects 17. Composed microscope 18. Slide projector

electrology 1. Knowing electricity 2. Static electricity 3. Protons and electrons 4. Electric forces 5. Electric induction 6. Conductors and insulants 7. The electroscope 8. Let’s learn how to use an electroscope 9. Flashes and lightings 10. Electricity on the move 11. Batteries 12. The electric circuit 13. Light bulbs in series and in parallel 14. Transformation of electric power into heat 15. Electric conduction in liquids 16. Electrolysis 17. Magnets 18. Magnetic poles 19. Magnetic effect of the electric current. 20. The electromagnet 21. Electric alarm

Basic level 5614

5621 ”active school” set CONTENTS

SIMPLE MACHINES 1. Simple machines 2. The spring scale 3. Equilibrium of a pivoted rod 4. First kind of lever 5. Second kind of lever 6. Third kind of lever 7. Control cards 8. Fixed pulley 9. Mobile pulley 10. Simple block and tackle 11. Inclined plane

6. Measuring the specific weight of a liquid 7. Pressure 8. Atmospheric pressure 9. Pascal’s principle on liquids 10. Pascal’s principle in aeriforms 11. Principle of communicating vessels 12. Capillarity 13. When a body is dipped into water 14. Archimedes’ principle 15. Flotation

85 experiments

9. Fusion and consolidation 10. Evaporation 11. Boiling 12. Consolidation 13. Fractioned distillation

Optics 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. Eclypses 4. Lighting law Thermodynamics 5. Diffusion of light 1. Heat and temperature 6. Reflection of light 2. Alcohol burnerl 7. Spherical mirrors FLUID STATICS 3. Combustion 8. Refraction of light 1. What fluids are 4. The thermometer and its calibration 9. Total reflection 2. The spring scale 5. Linear thermal expansion 10. Decomposition of white light 3. Graduated cylinder 6. Volumetric thermal expansion 11. Lenses 4. Specific weight 12. Immages in flat mirrors 5. Measuring the specific weight of a solid 7. Thermal expansion of liquids 8. Thermal expansion of gases 13. Immages in converging lenses

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Conjugate points The eye and its defects Correction of the eye’s defects Composed microscope Slide projector

electrology 1. Knowing electricity 2. Static electricity 3. Protons and electrons 4. Electric forces 5. Electric induction 6. Conductors and isulators 7. The electroscope 8. How to use the electroscope 9. Flashes and lightnings 10. Electricity on the move 11. Batteries 12. Electric generator 13. Electric circuit

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Light bulbs in series and in parallel Electric power Transformation of electric power into heat Electric conduction in liquids Electrolysis Magnets Magnetic poles Magnetic field Ampére’s theory Magnetic effect of the electric current The electromagnet Sucking power of a coil

Intermediate level 5621

Pag.20 - Section 2 - Physics


Complete Physics laboratory 5597 PHYSICS SET FOR GROUP EXercises 110 experiments

CONTENTS Mechanics 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Measurement of small distances using calibrated instruments 3. Law of the elastic lengthenings 4. Forces 5. Friction forces 6. Equilibrium of the moments 7. The center of gravity 8. Levers 9. Other simple machines 10. The scale 11. Ways of weighing 12. Fluid statics 13. Archimedes’ principle 14. Applications of Archimedes’ principle 15. Periodic motions

Thermodynamics 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Bunsen burner and the thermometer 3. Behaviour of solids when the temperature changes 4. Behaviour of liquids when the temperature changes 5. Behaviour of gases when the temperature changes 6. Calorimetry/specific heat 7. Fusion and consolidation 8. Vaporization 9. Consolidation and fractioned distillation 10. Endothermic and exothermic phenomena

Optics 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Dioptric projector 3. Propagation and diffusion of light 4. Reflection of the light 5. Refraction of the light 6. Refraction of the light through lenses 7. Refraction of the light through a prism/dispersion 8. Measurement of the focal length of a mirror and of a lens with spherometer 9. Images given by mirrors 10. Images given by lenses 11. Optical instruments

electrology 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Simple electrostatic phenomena 3. Electric souces 4. Electric circuit and measuring instruments 5. Use of the universal instrument 6. Ohm’s laws 7. The rehostat and the potentiometer 8. The electric circuit with several charges in series 9. The electric circuit with several charges in parallel 10. Electric nets 11. Some methods for measuring the electric resistance 12. Resistance depending on temperature 13. Thermal effect of the electric current 14. Electric conduction into liquids/the electrolysis 15. Simple magnetostatic phenomena 16. The magnetic effect of the electric current 17. Electromagnetic induction 18. The transformer

Advanced level

5592 group of 6 physics sets for group

5597

5592

exercises

In order to have an effective laboratory practice, all working groups must not be composed of more than 4 - 5 units. Since classes are composed of an average of 24-30 students, Optikascience offers the group of 6 physics sets (code 5597), whose equipments are contained in two metal wardrobes(code 5656). The wardrobes are organized in order to put in evidence rods, metal rods, cables, etc., and are composed of stands and containers for a tidy storage of the whole equipment. Moreover, this group of sets offers the advantage of a price equal to the sum of the 6 sets only, because two metal wardrobe, stands, hooks and containers are supplied freely. The group of 6 physics sets include all the equipment shown here beside, except for 6 timers which can be ordered apart (for the timers, please view section “Measurement instruments”).

5656 2-door Metallic closet

Size: 100x45x200h cm

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.21


Mechanics kits 5670

Basic level

5670 FORCES

22 experiments CONTENTS 1. Knowing forces 2. Forces in action 3. Weight is a force 4. The spring scale and its calibration 5. Other kinds of forces 6. A strange addition SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Bench vise 1 String 1 Centre of gravity object 1 Hooked rod 2 20g mass holder

5602

Intermediate level

1 Spiral spring 1 10g masses 1 Lever rod 1 Metallic roller 1 Spring scale 1 Protractor 2 Disc magnet

4. First kind of lever 5. Second kind of lever 6. Third kind of lever 7. Control cards 8. Fixed pulley

Pag.22 - Section 2 - Physics

What fluids are The spring scale Graduated cylinder Specific weight Measuring the specific weight of a solid Measuring the specific weight of a liquid Pressure

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 250 ml beaker 1 Clamp Ø 13 mm 1 Rod with hook Ø 6 mm 1 100 ml beaker 1 String 1 Base for rod 1 Metal disassemblable rod 70 cm 1 250 ml Graduated cylinder

Magnet

5593

10 Slotted masses10 g 1 Mobile pulley 1 Spring scale 250 g 1 Lever rod 1 Inclined plane with fixed pulley 1 Metal roller 1 Ruler 30 cm 1 Metal rod 50 cm with knurler 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

14 experiments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1 Metal sheet for center of gravity 1 Rod for levers with pivot and hooks 1 Mobile pulleys 1 Wood sphere 6 “S” shaped hooks 1 g 1 Archimedes’ double cylinder 1 Capillary glass tube 1 Measuring rod 80 cm 1 1/20 division caliper 1 Micrometer caliper 1 Scale 1 Weight-holder 1 Double pulley 1 Manometer 1 Metal sphere 1 Rubber tube 1 Glass tube 1 Couple of stands for optical bench 1 Funnel 1 Mohr’s pincer 1 Lead small balls bottle 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 1 Experiment Guide 2 Cases

9. Mobile pulley 10. Simple block and tackle 11. Inclined plane

5603 PRINCIPLES OF FLUID STATICS CONTENTS

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 250 ml beaker 2 Tripod bases 3 Metal rods 50 cm 2 Rods with hook 1 Table clamp 1 Metal rod 75 cm 5 Double clamps 1 Rod with reduced end 1 Square-pivot 1 Rod with clip 1 100 ml beaker 1 Thread 1 250 ml Graduated cylinder 1 Test-tube 1 Steel sample 1 Base for cathetometer 1 Couple of indexes for cathetometer 2 Weight-holders 20 g 1 Trolley with stop pivots 1 Coil spring 2 Fixed pulleys 8 Slotted Masses 10 g 4 Slotted Masses 50 g 1 Protractor with pivot 1 200 g Spring scale

1 M 3.5 Wing nut 1 Inclined plane 1 250 ml beaker 1 Smoll box 1 Experiment

10 experiments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Clamp Ø13 mm 1 Rod with hook Ø 6 mm 1 String 1 Table clamp 1 Pivot with wing nut, for rod 1 Rod with hook Ø 4 mm 2 Weight-holders 20 g 1 Fixed pulley 2 Slotted masses 50 g

Intermediate level

1 Metallic rod 1 Pulley 1 Angle pin 2 Thread pin 1 Double thread pin 1 Thread hook 3 M4 Wing nut

5602 SIMPLE MACHINES CONTENTS 1. Simple machinesi 2. IThe spring scale 3. Equilibrium of a pivoted rod

5603

7. Friction forces 8. The center of gravity 9. Let’s use our force in a wise way 10. The equilibrium of a rod 11. Levers 12. Pulleys 13. Inclined plane

8. Atmospheric pressure 9. Pascal’s principle on liquids 10. Pascal’s principle in aeriforms 11. Principle of communicating vessels 12. Capillarity 13. When a body is dipped into water 14. Archimedes’ principle 15. Flotation

1 Steel sample 1 Aluminium sample 1 Test tube 1 Scale pan 1 Archimende’s double cylinder 1 250 g Spring scale 1 Pascal apparatus with communicating 1 Vessels

1 Funnel 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Small bottle of potassium permanganate 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5593 MECHANICS

36 experiments CONTENTS

1. Theory of the mistakes

2. Measurement of small distances using calibrated instruments 3. Law of the elastic lengthenings 4. Forces 5. Friction forces 6. Equilibrium of the moments 7. The center of gravity

Advanced level

8. Levers 9. Other simple machines 10. The scale 11. Ways of weighing 12. Fluid statics 13. Archimedes’ principle 14. Applications of Archimedes’ principle 15. Periodic motions


Mechanics kits

5591 mechanics BASE

5591

20 experiments CONTENTS

8. Levers 9. Other simple machines 10. The scale 11. Ways of weighing 12. Fluid statics 13. Archimedes’ principle 14. Applications of Archimedes’ principle 15. Periodic motions

1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Measurement of small distances using calibrated instruments 3. Law of the elastic lengthenings 4. Forces 5. Friction forces 6. Equilibrium of moments 7. The center of gravity SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Piano inclinato con carrucola 1 Vasi comunicanti con capillari 1 250 ml beaker 1 Tripod bases 3 Metal rods 50 cm 2 Rods with hook 1 Table clamp 1 Metal rod 75 cm 5 Double clamps 1 Rod with reduced end 1 Square-pivot

1 Rod with clip 1 100 ml beaker 1 Thread 1 250 ml Graduated cylinder 1 Test-tube 1 Steel sample 2 Weight-holders 20 g 1 Trolley with stop pivots 1 Coil spring 2 Fixed pulleys 8 Slotted Masses 10 g 4 Slotted Masses 50 g

1 Protractor with pivot 1 200 g Spring scale 1 Metal sheet for center of gravity 1 Mobile pulleys 1 Wood sphere 6 “S” shaped hooks 1 g 1 Archimedes’ double cylinder 1 Capillary glass tube 1 Measuring rod 100 cm 1 1/20 division caliper 1 Scale

1 Metal sphere 1 Glass tube 1 Lead small balls bottle 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 1 Experiment Guide 1 200 g Spring scale 1 Cases

Demonstration from the teacher’s desk

5640

5640 solid statics

20 experiments CONTENTS

1 . Forces and their effects 2. Elastic lengthenings 3. The spring scale 4. Forces at a distance 5. Composition of concurrent forces 6. Composition of parallel concurrent forces 7. Friction forces

8. Measurement of the grazing friction coefficient 9. Equilibrium of moments 10. The center of gravity 11. Levers 12. Check cards 13. Fixed pulley 14. Mobile pulley 15. Simple block and tackle 16. The inclined plane

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 3 Ø13 mm clamps 2 Rods with hook 1 Thread 2 Tripod bases 1 Stand with rod 1 Pivot with wing nut 2 Disassemblable metal rods 70 cm

1 Clip with thread 1 Coil spring 2 Fixed pulleys 1 Protractor with pivot 1 Plate for center of gravity 1 Mobile pulley 2 “S”hooks 1 Magnet

1 1 1 4 10 1 1 1

Linear ruler 5 N spring scale Rods for levers 50 g slotted masses 50 g masses with hook Metal plate with pivot Friction trolley Wood block

Demonstration from the teacher’s desk

1100 LInear motion

8 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Electronic ticker tape timer 2. 3. 4. 5.

Tic-marks recording Measurement of a time interval Measurement of the average speed Rectilinear uniform motion

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Electronic ticker tape timer with power unit 1 Low friction trolley 1 100 cm linear ruler 1 Metal rod 25 cm 1 Table clamp 1 Double clamp 1 Clamp with pulley 1 Thread 1 Alluminium plate

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Demonstration from the teacher’s desk

CONTENTS

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 250 ml beaker 1 Clamp Ø13 mm 1 Rod with hook 1 100 ml beaker 1 Thread 1 Tripod base 1 Disassemblable metal rod 70 cm 1 Steel sample 1 Aluminium sample 1 250 ml misuring cylinder 1 Scale pan

What fluids are The spring scale The misuring cylinder Specific weight Measurement of the specific weight of a solid Measurement of the specific weight of a liquid The pressure Atmospheric pressure

1100

1 Sponge 10 Hooks 1 g 4 Slotted masses10 g 2 Masses 25 g with hook 2 Slotted masses 50 g 2 Masses 10 g with hook 1 Alligator clip 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

16 experiments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1 Plexiglass rod 2 PVC rods 1 Magnetic needle 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Measurement of the average acceleration Motion on an inclined plane Motion under the action of a constant force Friction forces Free fall of a body

5658 FLUID STATICS

Pascal’s principle in liquids Pascal’s principle in aeriforms Communicating vessels principle The capillarity When a body is dipped into a liquid Archimedes’ principle The flotation Archimede’s principle apllications Constant weight hydrometer

5658

1 Pack of little lead balls 1 Archimede’s double cylinder 1 Spring scale 1 Pascal’s apparatus and communicating vessels 1 Funnel 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Denaturated alcohol 1 Metylene blue bottle 1 Test-tube 1 Dropper 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.23


Mechanics kits 5701

Demonstration from the teacher’s desk

5701 Vacuum and atmospheric pressure

Demonstration from the teacher’s desk

5616

13 experiments

CONTENTS 1. The lift pump 2. The pressure 3. Atmospheric pressure 4. Isotropy of atmospheric pressure 5. Pressure tear device 6. Magdeburg hemispheres 7. Straws and suction caps

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 50 ml Beaker 1 50 ml conical flask 1 Newton’s tube 1 Pneumatic bell-jar 1 Pressure tear device 1 Electric alarm 1 Silicone grease pack 1 Magdeburg hemispheres 1 “U”shaped glass tube

The baloon experiment The flask experiment Water boiling Propagation of the sound waves Newton’s tube The baroscope

1 Suction cap 1 monostage electrical pump 1 Pneumatic bell-jar 1 Plate for bell-jar 1 Rubber tube for vacuum 1 Baroscope 1 Rubber little baloon 1 Test-tube 16x160 mm 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5616 oscillations and the acoustics

8 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Oscillatory horizontal motion 2. Oscillatory vertical motion 3. Period and frequency 4. Acoustic waves

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Double clamp 1 Metal rod 50 cm 1 Rod with hook 1 Thread 1 250 ml Beaker 1 Tripod base 1 Pincer with clip 1 Coil spring 1 Wood sphere

5. 6. 7. 8.

The sonometer The tuning fork The resonance Resonance boxes

6 Weights 25 g with hook 1 Metal sphere 1 Wood sphere with thread 1 Glass cylinder 1 Tuning fork 1 Sonometer 1 Bell on a rod 1 Experience Guide 1 Case

equilibrium 1352

1354

Masses with hooks

1352 Series of 8 masses with 2 hooks: 1mass 1 g; 2 masses 2 g; 1 mass 5 g;1 mass 10 g;

1 mass 20 g; 1 mass 50 g; 1 mass 100 g.

1398 Series of 10 masses weighing 10 g with double hook. 1399 Serie of10 masses weighing 25 g with double hook. 1066 Series of10 masses weighing 50 g with double hook.

1309 1310 1311 1312 1353

1066

Slotted masses

Series of 9 masses weighing 10 g + hanger 10 g. Series of 9 masses 20 g + hanger 20 g. Series of 9 masses 100 g + hanger 100 g. Series of 9 masses 100 g + hanger 100 g. Series of 9 masses weight: 1 g, 2 g(2 pcs), 5 g, 10 g, 20 g, 50 g, 100 g, 200 g + hanger 50 g.

1354 Rod for levers with stand

1310

Pag.24 - Section 2 - Physics

1353

It is supplied with tripod stand, metal rod, pivot and clamp, a series of masses code 1309, and a series of masses code 1310.

Rods for levers

1152 Made of alluminium, with holes and pivot. Length: 38 cm. 1014 Made of alluminium with rings and pivot.


equilibrium

1152 - 1014

1313 Unequal-arms scale For experiments on the equilibrium of a lever. It is supplied with 10 masses

1382 Roman Arch

1227 1160 1266 1228 1127 1009 1157

1058 1059 1060 1061 1064

Sets of 23 assemblable wood blocks. It shows the statics principles of an arch. It can support the weight of a person. Dimension:45x17x5 cm.

Plastic pulleys

Simple pulley ø50 mm. Paralel of two pulleys ø50 mm. Parallel of 3 pulleys ø50 mm. Series of two pulleys ø50 - 40 mm. Series of three pulleys ø50 - 40 - 30 mm. Pulley ø35 mm with perpendicular axes ø6 mm. Pulley ø35 mm with longitudinal axes ø8 mm.

1313

Aluminium pulleys

Simple pulley ø50 mm. Paralel of two pulleys ø50 mm. Paralel of three pulleys ø50 mm. Series of two pulleys ø50 - 40 mm. Series of three pulleys ø50 - 40 - 30 mm.

1227

1160

1266

8153 Reel of thread 50 m

Made of light, twisted nylon, it’s thin and flexible.

1058

1059

1228

1127

8153 1060 1061 1009

1064

1157

1382 1360

1360 Device for experiments on pulley systems Components: 7 Simple pulleys 2 Paralels of 4 pulleys 3 Clamps 8 Stands with hook 15 Slotted masses: 1 Skein of thread

2 Series of 3 pulleys 1 Multiple pulley 1 Plane with 3 rods 7 Mass holders 2 pcs. 10g, 2 pcs. 20 g, 2 pcs. 50g, 4 pcs. 100g, 4 pcs. 200g, 1 pc. 500g. 1 Experiment Guide

1166 Force Table

Components: 4 mobile pulleys 4 Weights100 g 4 Weights 20 g 4 Strings with rings

4 Weight-holders100 g 4 Weights 50 g 4 Weights 10 g 1 Experiment Guide

1166

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.25


equilibrium 1380

1380 Disk of the momenta

Accessory of our code 1166. It allows the study the equilibrium of the momenta.

1032 Forces composition device

It allows the examination of the laws of both concurrent forces composition ( the parallelo gram ‘s law) and paralel forces composition. It is supplied with a protractor, 8 masses of 10 g and 8 masses of 25 g. Dimension 45x17x60 cm.

1341 Levers and pulleys kit

1032

€ 136,28 + IVA

12 experiments

CONTENTS 1. The spring scale 2. How to measure a weight or a force 3. Let’s learn to use our forces in a wise way 4. Equilibrium of a rod pivoted on its center 5. Simple machines Components: 1 Base with rod 1 Rod with hook 1 Clamp 1 Perfored rod with pivot 1 Spring scale 10 Weights 50 g with 2 hook 2 Simple pulleys

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Levers The fixed pulley The mobile pulley The simple block and tackle Couple of pulleys in paralel Couple of pulleys in series

2 Couple of pulleys in parallel 2 Couple of pulleys in series 1 String 3 Lens holders 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

1341

1362

1167

1362 Multiple pulley

It is composed of a group of 4 coaxial and solidal pulleys,whose diameter is Ø 2, Ø4, Ø8 and Ø 12 cm. It is supplied with a support. Rod and clamp are not included.

1167 Momenta Apparatus

Pag.26 - Section 2 - Physics

It is composed of an aluminium disk rotating around a central pivot. Different weights can be attached to the disk in different positions. Since the arm of every weight can be measured directly on the ruler, it is possible to check that the sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the counterclockwise moments. Components: 10 g weights (10 pcs); 25 g weights (10 pcs); 4 strings. Disk’s diameter: Ø 25 cm.


equilibrium 1171 Inclined plane

Components: 1 Metal inclined plane 1 Low friction trolley 1 Spring scale 2 Masses 50 g 4 Masses 10 g 1 Linear ruler 1 Stand 1103 Precision inclined plane This inclined plane is equipped with a spring scale with 0.02N accuracy and a protractor (accuracy 2°) to allow a direct reading of the slope. Components: 1 Spring scale 100 g 1 Low friction trolley 2 Masses 50 g 4 Masses 10 g 1 Inclined plane with protractor Plane dimensions: 95 x 500 mm.

1103

1291 Friction inclined plane

With this device it is possible to do experiments dealing with the equilibrium laws of an inclined plane, with the laws of the grazing friction and to calculate the coefficient of it. Components: 1 Wood plane 1 Masonite plate 1 Wood block 1 Tin foil 1 Low friction trolley 1 Series of 9 masses 20 g +hanger 20 g 4 Slotted masses 50 g 1 Inclination protractor Plane dimensions: 800 x 100mm.

1291

1111 Hooke’s law apparatus

It allows you to verify that, within specific limits, the lengthening of a spring is proportional to the intensity of the applied force. The graduated scale has 1 mm division and the perfectly balanced weight-holder has an index which can rotate so to consent the perfect allignment with the graduated scale. It is suplied with four 50 g masses, four 10g masses and four different springs. Height: 82 cm.

8155 Set of 4 springs and 1 elastic band

Suitable for perform experiments on Hooke’s law and on elastic oscillations. Two of the springs have the same features in order to be used in series or in paralel.

8158 Set of 10 springs

With the same elastic costant and same length. Elasticity constant: K= 6,5 N/m

8179 Set of 5 springs with index:

Features: 1 K= 2,4 N/m; 3 K= 9,8 N/m; 5 K= 39,2 N/m;

carrying capacity: 0,5N carrying capacity: 2N carrying capacity: 5N

1171

2 K= 5 N/m; 4 K= 14,5 N/m;

1111

carrying capacity: 1N carrying capacity: 3N

1102 Device for searching the center of gravity

Using the plumb-line it is possible to find the vertical passing through the suspension point. Repeating the experiment in several points you will find the center of gravity of the 5 figures supplied. Some of the figures are symmetrical, some others are not. Height: 33 cm.

1078 Device for the demonstration of equilibrium states

By moving the two lateral masses, the center of gravity of the system can adopt different position; in this way it is possible to demonstrate how the kind of equilibrium depends on the position of the center of gravity in respect to the basement point. Dimensions: 20x28 cm.

1077 Demonstrator of object stability

It consists of an aluminium framework with flexible corners; in this way it mantains paralel bases as it undergoes deformation. By using the plumb-line it is possible to verify the equilibrium conditions of solid bodies standing on a plane. Dimensions : 10x10x26 cm.

1079 Demonstrator of centre of gravity

8179

As the cylinder goes down along the inclined plane, the double cone goes up, apparently contravening the laws of mechanics. In reality the center of gravity of both moving bodies goes down. Made entirely of wood. Length ofthe inclined plane: 50 cm. Dimensions of the double cone: 35 cm. Dimensions of the cylinder: 35 cm.

8155

8158 1078

1102

1077

1079

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.27


equilibrium 1123

1123 Forces, momenta and machines

Set for experiments on solid statics. 15 experiments CONTENTS 1. Composition of concurrent forces 2. Decomposition of a force 3. Composition of paralel concording forces 4. Composition of paralel discording forces 5. The center of gravity 6. Hooke’s law 7. Equilibrium of a bar 8. Equilibrium of moments 9. Levers 10. Fixed pulley 11. Mobile pulley 12. Simple block and tackle 13. Block and tackle with two couple of pulleys in paralel 14. Block and tackle with two couple of pulleys in series 15. Inclined plane

1123: Inclined plane SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Frame 4 Clamps Ø6mm 3 Fixed pulleys 1 Spring scale 1 Rod for levers with pivot 2 Rods with hook 2 Series of masses10 g 1 Series of masses 20 g 1 Protractor 1 Metal sheet for center of gravity 3 Clamps Ø10mm 1 Mobile pulley 2 “S”shaped hooks

1 Coil with index 1 Moments’ disk 1 Linear ruler 1 Square 1 Inclined plane with protractor 1 Friction trolley 2 Couple of pulleys in series 2 Couple of pulley in paralel 2 Skein of rope 1 Case

1329 Magnetic board with stand

Composition of forces (1328)

With white board surface in order to draw diagrams and write formulas. It can be assembled on a table in vertical position. Dimensions: 90x60 cm.

Ideal complement for the statics kit (code 1328, page 29).

Equilibrium of moments (1328)

Pag.28 - Section 2 - Physics

Inclined plane (1328)


equilibrium 1328 Statics set for magnetic board

For the performance of statics experiments visble at distance, easy and quick to perform on a magnetic blackboard (sold separately).

CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Composition of concurrent forces Composition of paralel forces Decomposition of a force Elastic forces Hooke’s law The center of gravity Equilibrium of a pivoted rod Equilibrium of moments Levers The inclined plane The grazing friction Pulleys Pulleys in paralel Pulleys in series Combinations of simple machines

20 EXPERIMENTS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 4 Magnetic anchors 3 Rods with hook 2 Mobile pulleys 2 Series of weights 10 g with hanger 2 Cylindrical masses 50 g 1 Rod for levers with pivot 1 Spring with index 1 Moments’disk 2 Couples of pulleys in series 1 Wood block 2 Strings

1 “S”shaped hook 1 200 g Spring scale 2 Fixed pulleys 1 Protractor 3600 1 Series of weights 20 g with hanger 1 Metal sheet for center of gravity 2 Triple pulleys in series 1 Linear ruler 1 Spring scale clamp 1 Inclined plane with protractor 1 Friction trolley

2 Couples of pulleys in paralel 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

1328

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.29


Translational Motion Motion of falling bodies

5585 150-cm air-track with falling bodies apparatus

A device for studying the fall of bodies is included !

This set allows you to perform experiments on the kinematic and dynamic aspects of rectilinear motion, and also on the motion of the falling bodies. Because of the simplicity of its functioning and its small size, the track is particularly suitable for group experimentations.

CONTENTS 1. U niform motion 2. U niformly accelerated motion 3. F undamental Law of dynamics 4. I solated systems 5. E lastic collisions 6. P rinciple of energy preservation 7. P rinciple of motion quantity preservation 8. E lastic oscillations 9. Falling bodies

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Track150 cm with stands 1 Iron nucleus and electromagnet’s stand 2 Photogates 1 Limit switch 2 Friction trolleys with trolley-set 1 Air compressor 1 Double digital time-counter 1 Table clamp 1 Fixed pulley with rod 3 Track’s support disks 1 Metal rod 10x1200 mm 2 Double clamps 2 Steel balls 1 Sand collector 2 Coil springs 1 Calibrated weight-holder 5 g 1 Weight 1 g 2 Weights 2 g 1 Weight 5 g

5585

Pag.30 - Section 2 - Physics

1 Protractor 1 String 1 Steel thread for the cleaning of the holes 3 Height difference disks 12 Masses 50 g 1 Spool 1 Electromagnet spacer 1 Electromagnet cable 1 Elastic buffer 2 Bases with rod ø 10 mm 1 Rod 2 Rods with hook 1 Linear ruler 1 Plumb-line 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case


Translational Motion 5598 200-cm air-track with falling bodies apparatus

Motion of falling bodies

€ 1.884,40 + IVA

Questo complesso, è stato studiato per consentire all’insegnante di eseguire a scopo dimostrativo, tutta una serie di esperienze sulla cinematica e sulla dinamica del moto rettilineo e sui sistemi isolati. La rotaia, ha una sezione triangolare e presenta particolari qualità di robustezza, allo scopo di evitare ogni possibile deformazione a causa delle variazioni della temperatura.

CONTENTS 1. Uniform motion 2. Uniformly accellerated motion 3. Fundamental law of dynamics 4. Isolated systems 5. Principle of preservation of the center of gravity 6. Principle of preservation of the motion quantity 7. Elastic collisions 8. Elastic collision against a fixed obstacle 9. Elastic collision among two trolleys 10. Elastic oscillations 11. Principle of energy preservation 12. Falling bodies SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Track 200 cm with stands 1 Iron nucleus and electromagnet stand 1 Electromagnet spacer 1 Electromagnet cable 3 Photogates 1 Mobile photogates 2 Friction trolleys with trolley-set 1 Air compressor 1 Double digital time-counter 1 Clamp 1 Fixed pulley 3 Support disks for track 3 Height-difference disks 1 Metal rod 10x1200 mm 2 Double clamps 2 Steel balls 1 Sand collector 2 Coil springs 1 Calibrated weight-holder 5 g

A device for studying the fall of bodies is included!

5 Disk-weights 5 g 12 Weights 50 g 1 Protractor 1 Spool 1 Elastic buffer 1 Base with rod 1 Steel thread for the cleaning of holes 1 Darkening plate 5 mm 2 Darkening plates40 mm 2 Darkening plates 60 mm 1 Strings 1 Pendolum 1 Linear ruler 1 Plumb-line 1 Track with sphere ø 20 mm 2 Shock-absorbers made of velcro 1 Screwdriver 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5600 Table multilayer folding

Measure: 240x30x2cm

5600

WARNING:

If a laboratory bench at least 240cm long and suited for the application of a table clamp is not available, we recommend the purchase of the table code 5600 5598

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.31


rotational motion 1109

1097

1109 Small manual rotating machine

Metal sheet plane 40x30 cm Equipped with metallic spindle for shafts with 6mm diameter.

1097 Newton’s disk

Divided into coloured parts, it allows you to verify the additive color synthesis by rotating it on a rotary machine.

1093 Watt’s regulator

1093 (base not included)

1135 (base not included)

It represents the model of a centrifugal regulator. During the rotation , two masses move away and, therefore, press the spring. To be used with a rotary machine.

1135 Device for measuring the centrifugal force

It is composed of a track where a low friction cart can run. By rotating the device with the rotary machine code 1099, it is possible to read the value of the centrifugal force on the spring scale placed on the rotation axis. Moreover, it is possible to verify the centrifugal force formula too, knowing the radius.

1081 Device for pointing out the centrifugal force

Applying this device on a rotary machine,the more the number of turns increases, the more the cylinder presses the spring.

1092 Coaxial cylinders

1081 (base not included)

1092 (base not included)

Since the mass of one cylinder is twice the other cylinder’s mass, during the rotation the equilibrium is reached when the distances between each center of gravity and the center of rotation, are inversely proportional to the masses. To be used with any rotary machine.

1095 Foucault’s pendulum

It allows you to perform the classic Foucault experiment in order to prove the unchangeableness of the oscillatory plane of a pendulum. It doesn’t need a rotary machine.

1094 Elastic rings They show that the centrifugal force increases as the distance from the rotation center increases. During the use their shape becomes elliptical.

1095 (base not included)

1094 (base not included)

5617 rotatIONAL motion kit

7 experimants CONTENTS

1. Two masses device 2. Two elastic rings device 3. Centrifuge with inclined test-tubes 4. Centrifuge model 5. Newton’s disk 6. Savart’s siren

supplied equipment 1 Elastic rings apparatus 1 Inclined test-tube apparatus 1 Centrifuge model 1 Coaxial cylinder 1 Newton’s disk

5617

Pag.32 - Section 2 - Physics

1 Hand rotary machine 1 Savart’s siren 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case


rotational motion 8109.1 Device for the study of the rotational motion

8109.1

With this device it is possible to perform experiments on the dynamics of the rotational motion and on the moment of inertia of rotating bodies, by using a timer (not included in this kit) CONTENTS 1. Uniform rotational motion 2. Uniformly accelerated rotational motion 3. Determination of the relationship between angular acceleration and force momentum 4. Dynamic measure of the inertia moment 5. Transformation of potential energy into translational and rotational kinetic energy SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Stand endowed with ball-bearings 1 Metal rod 1 Bar with two sliding masses 1 Aluminium disk (ø 32cm; thickness:4 mm) 1 Weight-holder 1 Blocking device 1 Clamp 1 Linear ruler 2 Pawls

5 Disk weights10 g 5 Disk weights 20 g 1 Rod with low-friction pulley 1 Rod with sphere 1 Rope highly resilient and thin 1 Clamping Key 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

8109.1 : Energetic balance in the rotatory motion

1177 Rotating platform

Made of metal, it is mounted on a couple of conical bearings which assure great resistance toward solicitations and low friction; it is supplied with seat and many components which allow the performance of experiments on non-inertial systems , otherwise impossible to perform. Platform Ø 50 cm. CONTENTS 1. “Action and reaction” principle 2. Preservation of the motion quantity moment 3. Non-inertial systems of uniform rotatory motion 4. A falling body in non-inertial systems 5. Centrifugal force and its effects

6. Measurement of the centrifugal force 7. Centrifugal force depending on the rotation radius. 8. Centrifugal force depending on the angular velocity 9. Corioli’s force 10. Inertia moment

supplied equipment 1 Rotating platform 1 Ring stand for vertical tube 1 Ring stand for falling plane 2 Dumb-bells 5 Kg 1 Bicycle wheel overburdened by a lead tube 1 Metal rod 1200x18 mm 1 Metal stand 800x33 mm 1 Steel sphere ø 10 mm 1 Steel sphere ø 15 mm

1 Steel sphere ø 25 mm 1 Collecting plane with carbon paper 2 Metal pinchers 2 Spring pincers 1 Arm for falling sphere 1 Plane with cannon 1 Inclination protractor 1 Device for measuring the centrifugal force, with spring scale, string, pulley, cart, pincer and rod.

1177

1429 Rotational dynamics

Our apparatus consists in a variable binary gauge: the distance between the two sides of the binary can be varied at its centre by means of a screw activated my an external knob. The binary is made of iron to prevent that the ball weight (a billiard ball) can deform the system geometry and affect the results. A base to be positioned on the binary and a level ensure the perfect horizontal position of the binary. During the motion, the kinetic energy continuously transforms in rotational kinetic energy, creating curious effects, which can be explained with a detailed analysis of the centre of gravity position. CONTENTS 1. Dynamics of roto-translational motion 2. Relationship between gauge and speed of translation 3. Transformation of translational mechanical energy into rotational mechanical energy and vice-versa 4. Research of the point of maximum translational speed

1177

supplied equipment 1 Iron variable gauge guide with supporting pins 2 PVC supporting bases 1 Billiard ball 1 board 1 Level

1429

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.33


Oscillatory motion 1272

1272 Simple pendulum

1104

With this device it is possible to verify the laws of simple oscilations. Moreover it is possible to verify that initial potential energy get preserved regardeless of the trajectory(Galilei’s pendulum).The pendulum is suplied with 3 different spheres and their strings. Height: 70 cm.

1104 Simple pendulums apparatus

Composed of 3 simple pendulums whose length can be changed through specific handwheel and whose masses are different. Thus, you can demonstrate that the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length, but doesn’t depend on the mass. A T-shaped rod able to move along a vertical stand, allow you to release all 3 pendulum at the same time. Height: 100 cm

1306 Set of 5 pendulum spheres

Spheres with hook Ø 25 mm. Material: aluminium, brass, iron, wood, copper.

1080 Maxwell’s pendulum

By winding the wire onto the shaft of the rotating mass, the latter receives an initial potential energy, that - once abandoned - becomes for a small part translation kinetic energy, and for the most part rotational kinetic energy. It allows to determine the moment of inertia of the rotating mass. Dimension: 28x10x42 cm.

1350 Variable inclination pendulum 1306

It allows you to demonstrate that the period of a simple pendulum depends only on its length and on the gravitational acceleration. The latter can be varied from 0 to g, varying the inclination of the oscillation plane. The oscillating disk is placed on a plank with air-bearing which need to be feeded by an air compressor(code 1331) to purchase separately. The measurement of the period can be done with the help of a hand timer or of the photogate (code 1268) linked to the digital timer code 1267 (both item must be purchased separately).

1080

1393 Wilberforce’s pendulum

1350

1393

This device can demonstrate the surprising phenomenum of the pairing of torsional and longitudinal oscillation in a mass-spring system. The surprising effect is that , to a faraway observer( who doesn’t notice the torsional oscilation) it looks like the vertical oscillation first slows down and eventually stops; then, without external interference, it stats growing up again as if it was under the push of an invisible force. It is supplied without table clamp, metal rod and clamp.

1331 Air blower

To use with the variable inclination pendulum. it is particularly silent and, therefore, suitable for desk experiments.

1302 Forced oscillation apparatus

With this apparatus it is possible to study the conditions required to obtain that the frequence of the forcing system gets close to the one of the forced system. The forcing system is a electromagnetic vibrator, the forced system is a mass-spring system.

Supplied equipment: 1 base for rod; 1 system of 2 low friction pulleys; 1 series of weights 20g; 1 graduated cylinder;

For the functioning of the vibrator we suggest to use the funcion generator code 5718 (sold separately).

1 metal rod; 5 springs; 1 clamp; 1 electromagnetic vibrator.

1425 Todd’s Pendulum 1302

1331

This particular device, when placed far away from the equilibrium position, starts to oscillate with a chaotic and unpredictable motion. Repeating the experiment with a slightly different starting angle, the fluctuations evolve in a completely different way than the previous ones. It is useful to understand the importance of initial conditions in the so-called “deterministic chaos”. Interesting conceptual applications to meteorology.

1425 5718

Pag.34 - Section 2 - Physics


oscillatory motion 8111 Apparatus for the study of harmonic oscillations

8111

The study of the oscillations of a system consisting of a mass hanging from a spring allows students to be introduced to the motion features of an harmonic oscillator and to be acquitted on one of the most powerfull model for the physic interpretation of a wide range of phenomena. CONTENTS 1. Hooke’s law 2. The elastics oscillations 3. Oscillation period of an elastic pendulum depending on the mass of the system 4. Oscillation period of an elstic pendulum depending on the elasticity constant of a spring 5. Study of the motion from an energetic viewpoint 6. Simple pendulum 7. Period’s dependence from the length 8. Physical pendulum 9. Period’s independence from the oscillating mass 10. Relation between a physical pendulum’s period and its moment of inertia 11. Torsion pendulum 12. Relation between a torsion pendulum’s period and its moment of inertia 13. Relation between a torsion pendulum’s period and the geometrical and physical sizes which feature the twisted body in torsion. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal stand with rod 1 Complete stand for elastic pendulum, simple pendulum and composed pendulum 1 Elastic pendulum 4 Coil springs with different elasticity constant 2 Spheres with different mass

1 Balance-bar with two cylindrical masses 1 Skein of thin, high-resistance thread. 1 Compound pendulum with two cylindrical masses 1 Tonsion pendulum with 4 metal wires of different length and section 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

8113 Apparatus of the paired pendulums

This apparatus consists of two physic pendulums which are paired through a coil spring sligtly stretched out; the spring allows the energy transfer between the two pendulums. So it is possible to study the phenomena of resonance and of beats. The study becomes quantitative if we use two distance sensors. In this way you can obtain diagrams like those in the picture. The apparatus can be used as optional equipment of the device code 8111, or with the stand code 0209 (sold separately).

8111

8111

0209 Stand for apparatus of the paired pendulums 8113

8113 + 0209

Simple pendulum 8111

Compound pendulum 8111

8113

0209

Vertical elastic pendulum

Torsion pendulum Physics - Section 2 - Pag.35


Gravity- Inertia- Collisions - Two-dimension motion 1113

1320

1113 Newton’s cradle

It is composed of five steel balls of equal mass, lined up and in contact with each other. Raising the first ball and then releasing it, its motion quantity and its energy are trasmitted to the last ball. This phenomenona doesn’t happen if you place a disk of deforming material between the balls.

1320 Motion’s second law apparatus

With this device it is possible to verify that two spheres, thrown at the same moment, one in horizontal and one in vertical direction, touch the ground at the same time. It is supplied with stand and two metal balls.

1321 Inertia apparatus

1321

Releasing the elastic lever, the plate where the sphere stands is launched far away, while the sphere keeps its position because of the inertia. Base Ø: 25 cm. Height: 25 cm

1319 Free falling bodies apparatus

It is composed of a digital timer with a division of 1/1000 of second which can guide an electromagnet in order to start the fall of a metal ball. A switch records the impact istant in order to measure the fall time of the ball. Once you know the fall’s measure and average time, it is possible to deduce the gravity acceleration value g.

1342 Apparatus for verifying the action and reaction principle

1319

1342

As a powerful magnet falls through an alluminium tube, it undergoes an electromagnetic force which is equal to the magnet’s weight but of opposite direction, a force produced by the tube itself. As the well-known principle states, the magnet reacts on the tube with a force wich is equal and opposite; therefore , during the uniformly motioned fall of the magnet, the spring scale measures an intensity force which is equal to the sum of the tube’s weight and of the magnet’s weight. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT

1 Metal rod 1 Table clamp 2 Clamps 1 Rod with hook 1 Spring scale

1 Alluminium tube 50 cm 1 Tube guide 1 Couple of neodymium magnets with stand 1 String 4 Weights 10 g

1394 Conservation of the angular momentum A sphere is spinned around its PVC handle. Pulling a string, the rotary radius decreases and it is possible to observe the increment of the rotary velocity in order to preseve the angular moment. 1396 Vertical accelerometer

It is composed of a mass suspended between two springs inside a plexiglass tube with g graduation. Thus, it si possible to observe the variation of the acceleration, i.e. what we can experience in an elevator.

1397 Horizontal accelerometer

1396

A mass hanging from the center of a protractor creates , through its vertical, an angle which depends on the acceleration along the protractor. It is possible to deduce the acceleration value by measuring the deviation angle.

1394 1397

Pag.36 - Section 2 - Physics


Gravity- Inertia- Collisions - Two-dimension motion 1412 Action and reaction apparatus

Flowing air into the baloon and then releasing it out the baloon, the cart moves in opposite direction. It is supplied with didactic guide.

1412

1412

air

1395 Gyroscope

Metal gyro wheel. By spinning it quikly with the help of a string , it is possible to verify the preservation of the angular moment. If you apply a force perendicular to the rotational axis, it is possible to observe the precession phenomenon, i.e. the giroscopic effect.

1395

1324 Set of two carts

In order to experiment on the principle of motion quantity preservation. On a smooth surface, a spring can expand, launching in opposite direction two friction carts in contact with each other. It is possible to deduce the initial speeds by checking the distances reched by the carts and to compare these speeds with the masses.

1324

1325 Two-dimension collision apparatus

A steel ball rolls down a slide to finally fall freely, leaving a trace on the fall plane thanks to a carbon-paper sheet. It is possible to do calculations on energy preservation and on motion composition by changing the free fall height and by measuring the range. With two balls, it is also possible to verify the preservation of the motion quantity and of the kinetic energy. The item is supplied with 3 steel balls.Dimensions: 400x100x20 mm.

1401 Does it go up or down?

A sphere moves spontaneously along a horizontal variable-gauge rail, and it moves always in the same direction. Which direction? And why? If the rail is inclined, the sphere doesn’t always roll in the same direction. Why? The explanation of these phenomena lies in the study of the position of the sphere’s center of gravity; a good amount of physics with such a simple device.

1325

1401

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.37


Gravity- Inertia- Collisions - Two-dimension motion 1364

speed races

Two apparatus are introduced here after; they enable a teacher to promote the comparison between intuition and a strict scientific reasoning into his students’minds. The pheomena investigated by these apparatuses can appear inconsequential; in reality they lead to reflections on the fundamental principles of mechanics. All items are supplied with their experiment guide. 1364 Downward speed Two balls with the same diameter roll down at the same time, from the same height difference, but following different trajectories. Departing from the same height, which will be the fist ball to reach the finish point?

1364

1365

1365 Rolling marbles and cylinders and strange accelerations

Two marbles (or two cylinders) with different diameter or different masses roll down the same inclined plane: which will be the first one to reach the bottom? A marble rolls down an inclined plane, and another marble, with the same mass and diameter, rolls down a rail with the same inclination of the plane: which will be the first one to reach the bottom?

The answers to these and other questions can be found through the use of the equipment of this kit, which is composed of:

1 Wood plane, dimensions 65x15 cm 1 “U” shaped aluminium bar, dimensions 65x6x3 cm 1 Rubber covered plane, dimensions 40x15 cm 2 Marbles Ø65 mm 1 Marble Ø 58 mm 6 Cylinders of different materials and with different diameters 1 PVC spool 1 Adjustable height stand for inclined plane 1 Case 1 Experiment guide

1419 Marble launcher

1419

1419

Pag.38 - Section 2 - Physics

This simple marble launcher enables you to study in a quantitative way the parabolic motion of the projectiles. The body of the device is made of solid wood and the launch mechanism is made of aluminium Five launch speeds. Maximum range 7.5 mt.


Gravity- Inertia- Collisions - Two-dimension motion 1420 The monkey and the hunter: an historical quest

A spring-powered gun shots ping-pong balls against a monkey model . The monkey is supported by an electromagnet, which is disactivated in the moment the projectile leaves the gun. Thus, it is possible to verify that, provided that the gun aims initially at the monkey, the projectile always hits the monkey regardless of how far away the monkey is. Batterries not included. Didactic guide included.

1420

1420

1420

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.39


liquids 1105 Communicating vessels

1105 - 1062 - 1106

For homogeneus liquids. It is composed of 4 vessels. Height of water columns 11 cm.

1062 Communicating vessels with capillaries

1185

1125

It is composed of 5 vessels; the last two vessels are capillaries. Height of water columns 11 cm.

1106 Capillary vessels

1020

It is composed of 4 vessels. Height of water columns 11 cm.

1185 Pascal’s principle apparatus with stand

Pushing the piston, the water creates concentric circles on the basement plane. The item is made of metal and it is supplied with base and stands. Tube height: 30 cm.

1248 Pascal’s principle apparatus without stand

The previuos item, but without stand.

1125 Cartesian devil

1124

1020 Bucket and cylinder

1170

This small glass object is hollow and has a small hole in its inferior part. If it is immersed in water, it floats. If you press the elestic membrane on the top, the devil fills itself up with water and finally it sinks. It starts floating again the moment the pressure on the membrane ends. It is supplied with glass jar and rubber membrane. Made of plastic material and brass, it is endowed with hooks. Dimensions: 53x55 mm.

1124 Series of 5 samples

1001

Three cylinders have the same volume and different density; three cylinders have the same density but different volume. To demonstrate that Archimedes’ push depends only on the volume of the immersed body.

1170 Archimedes’ principle apparatus

Composed of : stand, spring scale, double cylinder, vase, beaker, graduated cylinder, case.

1001 Apparatus for the study of viscosity

It enables you to do experiments on a sphere falling through a liquid, in order to determine the viscosity coefficient. supplied equipment 1 Base for rod 1 Metal rod75 cm 1 Plexiglass tube 75 cm 2 Double clamps 2 Rods with clip 1 Funnel 1 Glycerine bottle

3 Steel balls 1 Plexiglass ball 3 Elastic rings 2 Rubber stoppers 1 Magnet with handle 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

1182 Pascal’s apparatus with communicating vessels, modular model

1182

1182

It enables you to perform experiments on communicating vessels, on capillary vessels, on Stevin’s principle and on Pascal’s principle.

Components: 1 Base 1 Stand 1 Rubber syringe 1 Case

1 Metal rod 3 Angular glass tubes with rubber stoppers 5 Differently-shaped glass tubes with rubber stoppers

1407 Submarine model

With this simple experiment it is possible to investigate on how a submarine changes its immersion level.

1219 Hare’s apparatus

1407

Pag.40 - Section 2 - Physics

1219

A small depression done with a syringe leads the two liquids to reach different levels if they have different density. If the first liquid is water, it is possible to find the other liquid’s density in relationship to the water’s. The item is supplied with stand, pincers, syringe and glasses. Glass part height 35 cm.


liquids 1042 Stevin’s principle apparatus

1042

It is supplied with base, manometer, tube, manometric probe and jar. Jar height :38 cm.

1132 Specific weight kit

To measure the specific weight of solids and liquids.

Possible experiments: 1. Determination of the specific weight of a solid 2. Bodies with the same weight but different volume. 3. Bodies with the same volume but different weight 4. Determination of a specific weight of a liquid supplied equipment 1 Tripod base 1 Metal rod 70 cm 1 Clamp 1 Rod with hook 1 Spring scale 1 Scale pan 1 100 ml Beaker

1 Dipper 1 Series of 5 samples with the same mass 1 Series of 3 samples with the same volume 1 String 1 Graduated cylinder 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

1132

1368 Set of 6 cylinders with the same mass

They are suitable for investigations on the density - volume relationship. Diameter 15 mm; mass 100 g. Materials: aluminium, copper, brass, zinc, iron and lead.

1369 Set of 6 cylinder with the same volume

In order to do experiments on the density-volume relationship.Diameter 10 mm, height 40 mm. Materials: aluminium, copper, brass, zinc, iron and lead.

1370 Set of 6 cubes with the same volume

1368

They are supplied with hook in order to measure the density of solid bodies. Length of the sides: 32 mm. Materials: aluminium, copper, brass, zinc, iron and lead.

1369

1367 Displacement vessel

In order to measure the volume of solid bodies. Capacity: 600 ml.

1370

1371 Pycnometer

In order to measure the density of liquid bodies. Capacity: 100 ml.

1372 Density sphere

Its weight allows the sphere to float if immersed in room-temperature water (<20°C) and to sink if immersed in hot water. Sphere’s diameter: 75mm.

1366 Capillarity tray

Plexiglass triangular-shaped tray with 5° opening, suitable to prove the effect of capillarity. It shows the shape of the meniscus of those liquids which dampen and of those liquids which don’t dampen.

1381 Pellat’s apparatus

1367

1371

1372

With this item you can prove that the pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a container doesn’t depend on the shape of the container, but it depends on the density and the depth of the liquid.

1316 Heron’s fountain 1316

1426

It is completely made of glass. Fill the water in the upper container and close it with the stopper. Then, pour water in the basin on the top untill the side tubes are full of it. The displaced air transmits pressure to the upper container, creating a fountain which ends when the lower container is full.

1366

1381

1426 Torricelli’s device

After filling the cylinder with water up to a certain level, at which height should a hole be made to obtain the maximum flow? By letting the water flow out through the taps, it can be verified that the maximum flow is obtained when the hole is located at half the level of the liquid in the cylinder.

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.41


Gases and Vacuum 1415

1415 One stage rotatory vacuum pump

1076.1

Range: 13 liters/minutes. Minimun pressure: 10Pa. Engine power: 60W Power supply 230V It is supplied with oil and vacuum tube (1m).

1409 Two stage rotatory vacuum pump

Double-phase; vacuum: 99,7%. Engine power: 0,25 Hp-220/280V. Pumped volume: 2 m3/h. Recycled lubrification, tank, fan, silencer. It is supplied with oil; it is not supplied with tube. Power supply 230V.

1402 Vacuum bell with plate, cheap model

1409

Plate diameter: 20.5 cm Bell height: 19cm. To be used with a pump. It comes with a 1m vacuum hose.

0069 Oil refill for pumps

Packaging: 500ml.

1068 Plate for pneumatic bell Ø 250mm

It is made of perfect sealing grinding metal.

It is made of very thick cast glass. Dimensions: ø external 235mm / internal 185mm; h = 315mm The lower rim is frosted to have a perfect seal. To use with silicone grease code 1068.

1069 Pneumatic bell

1402

1068

1373 Round flask for the measurement of the air density

Flask capacity:500 ml. It must be measured with an electronic scale with a division of at least 0.01 gr

1076.1 High vacuum silicone grease

Tube pack: 50 g.

0090 Rubber tube for vacuum pumps

1069

Dimensions: 7x17x1000 mm.

1373

1374 Pressure’s surprises

Flow different amounts of air in two baloons. When you open the communicating tap between the baloons, you would expect to see the air flowing from the most inflated baloons into the less inflated one. But...

1374 1374

1374

Pag.42 - Section 2 - Physics


Gases and Vacuum 1107 Empty Newton’s tube

1107 - 1070

It is made of glass;It doesn’t have air inside, but a feather and a wood ball. Length: 1 mt

1070 Newton’s tube (to be emptied)

It is made of plexiglass; it has stoppers and tap to link it to a vacuum pump, after having placed small item inside it. Length: 1 mt

1071 Baroscope

It shows the Archimedes’push. In the air, the joke reaches the equilibrium, while in the vacuum the joke tilts on the baloon side, because the Archimedes’push stops working. It can be included in the pneumatic bell code 1069.

1071

1043 - RA1047

1043 Torricelli’s experiment apparatus

It enables you to perform the classic Torricelli’s experiment, thanks to the tube (length 85 cm, Ø 6 mm) with chemically carved millimetric division on the glass all along the interested part. It is supplied with base, basin, stands and funnel. Mercury is sold separately.

1242 Magdeburg’s hemispheres

They are made of metal, with grinding rims, supplied with rubber-holder in order to be linked to a vacuum pump through a rubber tube. Diameter: 80 mm.

1087 Magdeburg’s hemispheres

The item is made of metal, with grinding rims and plane in order to be placed on the plate for bell jars. Diameter: 80 mm.

1242

1075 Magdeburg’s hemispheres

It is made of metal , with grinding rims and plane in order to be placed on the plate for bell jars. Diameter: 100 mm.

1072 Pressure tear device

1075

It is made of grinding and rimmed PVC, with perfect seal.It is supplied with its paper.

1074 Electric bell

To use with pneumatic bell. It is powered by batteries

HS3572 Fire syringe kit

Perfectly sealed plexiglass cylinder with a piston inside and solid wood base. A quick descent of the piston produces an adiabatic air compression which increases the temperature to the point that it cause the combustion of a small cotton wad. It can be used to explain the functioning principle of the cloud chamber too.

1186 Boyle-Mariotte’s law apparatus

With this apparatus it is possible to deduce, with a good approximation, the ratio between volume and pressure of the air at constant temperature. The graduated scale is supplied with decimal vernier scale. Metal base. Dimensions:170x240x800h mm. Mercury is sold separately.

1072 - 1074

1414 Boyle Mariotte’s Law apparatus

A graduated cylinder made of transparent material is linked, at its bottom, to a manometer. Acting on the piston through a screw with hand-wheel, it is possible to reduce the volume of the air inside the cylinder and, at the same time, to read its pressure value on the manometer. The item is supplied with digital thermometer.

1414 HS3572

1186

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.43


Gases and Vacuum 1137

1047

1137 Charles’Law apparatus

With this apparatus it is possible to verify the law that rules the volume variations (at constant pressure) of a gas as its temperature varies. Therefore we can measure the dilatation coefficient (at constant pressure). Burner, tripod and fire-spreading net are sold separately .

1122 Gay-Lussac’s Law apparatus

With this apparatus it is possible to verify the law that rules the pressure variation (at constant volume) of a gas, as its temperature varies. Burner, tripod and fire-spreading net are sold separately

1217 Kit for the verification of the laws of gases

It is composed of two apparatus (code 1137 and code 1122). Saving on the items which are common to both apparatus, the price is slightly lower than the sum of the two prices.

1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052

Free air manometers

Height 20 cm, without tap. Height 30 cm, without tap. Height 40 cm, without tap. Height 20 cm, with tap. Height 30 cm, with tap. Height 40 cm, with tap.

1088 Aneroid vacuum-meter 1050

1122

Mercury: from 0 to 76 cm. To be inserted in series in the vacuum pump in order to measure the depression.

1089 Bennert’s vacuum-meter

To insert in series in the pump, in order to measure the residual pressure up to 100 mm of mercury.

1088

1089

Waves propagation 3011

3025

3011 Set of 3 elastic strings

3006

To visualize the propagation of longitudinal and trasversal impulses and their reflection and consequent creation of stationary waves. Components: 1 elastic string Ø 5 mm; static length : 3 mt ; maximum extension length: 6 m 1 coil spring Ø 10 mm; static length: 50 cm; maximum extension length: 5 mt. 1 coil spring Ø 17 mm; static length: 50 cm; maximum extension length: 12 mt

3025 Set of 2 coil springs

It is usefull to perform experiments on longitudinal and transversal waves’ propagation, on the creation of stationary waves, on reflection and on other wave-related phenomena. First spring dimensions: Ø20x1500 mm. Second spring dimensions: Ø75x150 mm.

3006 Device for the study of the waves

Pag.44 - Section 2 - Physics

With this simple device students can perform experiments on wave propagation and related phenomena. It is composed of an elastic rope with wood sleepers which visualize the vibratory state.


Waves propagation

3032 Ripple tank

3033

This ripple tank presents several advantages: mounting semplicity, facility in execution experiences, reliability and repeteability of results and optimus visive resolution of waves fronts. The stroboscope lamp is realized through a 3 W LED at high brightness synchronized with the surface waves generator. The control unit is supplied also with a digital display and it allows to set up or to prevent the synchronism of vibrator with the lamp and to rule the wave width and its frequence. The vibrator is of electrodymanic type. Little tray dimensions: 30 x 30cm. Basic supplied material: point source to generate circular front wave double point source for the interference study linear hand mixer for linear front waves biconvex refractive corpse biconcave refractive corpse thin layer with parallel plane faces

Accessories for ripple tank 3032

This kit of accessories, that are realized in plexiglass, allows to execute tests for the propagation study, diffraction and interference of surface waves. Material supplied: - Barrier with a slit for the waves diffraction. - Barrier for the reflection on the plane surface. - Barrier for the diffraction from a corner. Refractive prism. Interference from two slits.

3014 Stationary waves apparatus With this item you can perform the phenomenon of longitudinal and transversal stationary waves. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Vibrator 2 Elastic ropes 1 Coil spring 1 Rod 75 cm 1 Rod 4,8 cm with hand wheel

3032

3033

3014

3100

1 Double clamp 1 Base for rod 1 Table clamp with pulley 1 Series of masses 10 gr 1 Rod with hook

We suggest you to power the vibrator through the low frequence signals generator (code 5718, page 228 of the catalogue), which is not supplied with this apparatus.

3014

3014.1 Kit for the study of stationary waves

3014

As for code 3014, but without base, rods and clamp.

3100 Ripple tank

It is particularly suitable for studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; exercises on wave-related phenomea. It is supplied with projector, electric power unit, vibrator, components for the study of reflection, of refraction, of interference and diffraction. You can observe through the hand stroboscope supplied. Tank dimensions: 400x400x30 mm.

3030 Kit for experiments on surface waves in liquids (ripple tank)

This kit is a fundamental instrument for the study of wave phenomena because it visualizes them. The teacher can project the surface waves on a translucent screen, on a wall or on the ceiling. Water surface waves are created through air jets; they create regular, steady waves. The kit is composed of: 1 Double wave generator, supplied with two indipendent air blower, variable frequence guide from 5 to 35 Hz. The phase angle between the generators can vary at intervals of 45°. Moreover, it has a digital display screen with wave generation frequence indicator 1 Built-in Stroboscope, obtained by switching on a lamp with electronic control, in order to see images of still or decelerated waves. Components: 1 Magnetic fixation beater for plane waves 2 Magnetic fixation beaters for circular waves 1 Concave-convex mirror 1 Converging lens and 1 diverging lens. 1 Plate with plane parallel faces. 1 Trapezoidal plate. 3 Obstacles for diffraction and interference phenomena 1 Wash bottle Dim.: 60x60x90 cm.

3030

Component

Example

Type pneumatic

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.45


sound waves 3031

1410

3031 Digital phonometer

This easy-to-read acoustic level meter is suitable for educational experimental applications. Measuring field: from 30 to 130 dB in 4 intervals. Resolution: 0,1 dB. Accurancy: 1,5 dB. Frequence range: from 31,5 to 8500 Hz. AC/DC output for possible pairing with an external voltmeter. The item is powered by batteries

1410 Vacuum bell with buzzer

To show that acoustic waves do not propagate in a vacuum. For use with the pump code1415 or code 1409. Supply voltage 4-6Vdc

3004 One-string sonometer

3004

On the harmonic box there are scales of notes componing the temperated scale, in correspondence to the vibrations’ frequency.

3010 Acoustic resonance apparatus

3010

By acting on the discharge tap of a tube full of water, it is possible to let the air column above the liquid enter in resonance with the tuning fork.

3002 Vibrant bell

3002

The pendulums oscillate when the bell is hitted with the hammer, thus demonstrating that the sound is generated by the bell’s vibrations. Height 40 cm..

3003 Tuning fork

Oscillation frequency: 440 Hz. It is supplied with resonance box and hammer.

3029 Couple of tuning forks

Oscillation frequency:440 Hz. With resonance box, hammer and spare masses for beats

3020 Set of 8 tuning forks

3003

The items are made of chrome steel, with different length and section of 5,5x8,5 mm. Hz frequencies : 261,6 - 293,6 - 329,6 - 349,6 - 392 - 440 - 493,9 - 523,2. Error ±0,2% at a temperature of 20°C. With case and hammer. Suitable for demonstrating the tones-frequencies relationship, and for tuning music nstruments.

3016 Generator of acoustic-frequency sinusoidal oscillations

3029

Frequency field:20 Hz - 20.000 Hz on 3 ranges. Built-in amplificator. Undistorted output power: 2 W. It is supplied with two 60cm long cables.

3017 Loudspeaker 2,5 W

Supplied with two journal boxes for the linking to the oscillation generator code 3016. Impendance: 8 ohm

3021 Loudspeaker 0,5 W

3020

3021

With stand (Ø 10 mm) in order to be housed on a base (code 0010). With two journal boxes at the back to link it to the oscillation generatorcode 3016. Impedance: 8 ohm..

3022 Piezoelectric Microphone

With stand (Ø 10 mm); predisposed to be linked to the amplifier.

3008 Kundt’s tube

3022 + 0010

3016

Pag.46 - Section 2 - Physics

The incident acoustic wave interferes with the reflected one, creating the stationary waves. The lycopodium powder visualizes nodes and bellies, so to make wavelength measurement possible. Now, knowing the frequency, you can measure the acoustic waves’ speed in the air. The item is supplied with tube, stands and bases, piston and lycopodium powder spreader. It must be used with a loudspeaker code 3021 and an oscillation generator code 3016 sold separately.

3017

3008


2110 Gases’ kinetic model

Molecular aspect of the matter 2110

With this model it is possible to simulate the thermal temperature-related movements of gases’ particles. In the vertical cylinder there are very small balls agitated by a piston; the latter is linked to a vibrator with an electric engine (3-6 V) whose speed can be adjusted. It is provided without power supply. It is recommended the purchase of the power supply -code 5011- is recommended.

HS7610

HS7610 Crookes’ radiometer

The radiometer’s whirl starts to spin when exposed to a light source; the greater the intensity of the radiation, is the quicker it spins around. This fact is due to the gas particles inside the radiometer: when they hit the black sides of the whirl’s paddles, which are warmer than the white sides because of a greater light-absorbent power, the particles bounce quicker and, therefore , give an impulse which is greater than the one given to the white sides. Thus the whirl’s rotation is generated.

2096 Air-bearings table for the study of molecular movements This device exploits the same principle of the air-bearing track. In comparison with the old models, this kind of table (35x35cm) features the following improvements: - a greatest visibility; since the table’s plane is transparent , it can be placed on an overhead projector - the collision of the mobile bodies isn’t mechanical, but magnetic; therefore the energy losses are almost void Because of the above-mentioned reasons, this model of air-bearing table is a truthful “window on the microcosm”; It enables you to reproduce a great number of phenomena linked to the following physics processes: 1. Matter’s molecular structure 2. Changes of state 3. Gases’ kinetic theory 4. Statistics aspects 5. Molecular energy and temperature 6. Molecular diffusion 7. Distribution of density 8. Brownian motion 9. Thermal conductivity of solids 10. Electric conductivity of metals 11. Electric conductivity of semi-conductors 12. Rutherford’s atomic model

2096

2048

2096 Item mounted on a overhead projector

50 experiments

2048 Double Radiometer Crookes’

Having the black sides reversed , the two reels rotate in opposite directions.

2112 Device for the study of the Brownian motion

The irregular motion of the tea particles, due to the collisions with the liquid’s molecules, can be highlighted with this equipment.The trace of the Brownian motion can be seen on the screen thanks to laser diffusion By increasing the liquid temperature (e.g. with an hair dryer or by keeping the cuvette in one hand for a few minutes), we can observe the increase of the thermal energy.

2112

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.47


Thermodynamics kits 5671

Basic level

5671 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

CONTENTS 1. Let’s tell apart heat and temperature 2. Alcohol burner 3. The combustion 4. The thermometer and its calibration 5. Thermal expansion of solids 6. Thermal expansion of liquids 7. Thermal expansion of gases 8. Heat and temperature 9. Heat propagation through conduction

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1Glass tube with stopper 1Bent glass tube with stopper 1Bottle of denatured alcohol 1Tripod burner support 6Rubber O-rings 1Medicine dropper 1Sheet of black paper

5604

Intermediate level

23 experiments

1 Alcohol burner 1 Cubic dilatoscope 2 Candles 1 Candle-holder 1 Spring clamps 1 Magnifying lens 1 Aluminium foil 1 Bag of sawdust

10. tors 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Good conductors and bad conducPropagation of heat into liquids The convention of heat Irradiation Fusion and consolidation Evaporation Boiling Stam condensation Fractional distillation

1 Iron bar 1 Flame-spreading net 1 Thermometer, –10°C to +110°C 1 250 ml Beaker 1 Flask 1 Glass stirring rod 1 Test tube

1 Watch glass 1 Instruction guide for experiments

5604 thermal expansion and change of state

16 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Heat and temperature 2. Alcohol burner 3. Combustion 4. The thermometer and its calibration 5. Linear thermal expansion 6. Volumetric thermal expansion SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Metal rod 1 Pincher with clamp 1 Linear glass tube with central stopper 1 Glass tube with stopper at one end. 1 Curved glass tube with stopper 1 Base for rods 1 Clamp 1 Denaturated alcohol 1 Rubber stopper with hole 1 Stand

7. Thermal expansion of liquids 8. Thermal expansion of gases 9. Fusion and consolidation 10. Evaporation 11. Boiling 12. Consolidation 13. Fractioned distillation

1 Flange for cubic expansion apparatus 1 Sphere with chain for cubic expansion apparatus 4 Small round elastic bands 1 Hook with handle forcubic expansion apparatus 1 Dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Linear expansion apparatus 2 Candles 1 Candle holder 1 Dye bottle

1 Thermoscope 1 Fire-spreading net 1 Thermometer 1 250 ml Beaker 1 100 ml flask 1 20x200 mm test-tube 1 Watch glass 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5596 thermal physics

23 experiments supplied equipment 2 Tripod bases 2 Metal rods 50 cm 1 Rod with hooked end 3 Double clamps 1 Rod with reduced end 1 Square-pivot 1 Rod with clip 1 Pincers with clamp 1 100 ml Beaker 1 400 ml Beaker 1 Flask100 ml 1 Filtering flask 100 ml 1 Graduated cylinder 250 ml

1 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 1

Rubber stopper Steel sample Aluminium sample Linear ruler Thermometer -10°+110°C Small round elastic bands Rubber tubes 50 cm Tripod stand Couple of tubes for expansion apparatus 1 Index for expansion apparatus 1 Flange for cubic expansion apparatus 1 Sphere for cubic expansion apparatus

2 Glass tubes with stopper 1 Fire-spreading net 1 Test-tube 2 Rubber stoppers with hole 1 Watch glass ø 60 mm 1 Dropper ther1 Electric calorimeter with thermometer 1 Bunsen burner with rubber tube 1 Denaturated alcohol bottle 1 Expeiment Guide 1 Case

CONTENTS 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Bunsen burner and the thermometer 3. Behaviour of solids when the temperature changes 4. Behaviour of liquids when the temperature changes 5. Behaviour of gases when the temperature changes 6. Calorimetry/specific heat 7. Fusion and consolidation 8. Vaporization 9. Consolidation and fractioned distillation 10. Endothermic and exothermic phenomena

5596 Advanced level

Pag.48 - Section 2 - Physics


Thermodynamics kits

5659 thermal physics

5659

23 experiments

Contents 1. Heat and temperature 2. Alcohol burner 3. The combustion 4. The thermometer and its calibration 5. Thermal expansion of solids 6. Thermal expansion of liquids 7. Thermal expansion of the airforms 8. The connection between heat and temperature SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Double clamp 1 Metal rod 1 Handle with hook 1 Rod with clip 1 Metal pincer with clamp 1 400 ml Beaker 1 Glass tube with central stopper 1 Glass tube with stopper at the end. 1 Curved glass tube with stopper 1 100 ml Flask 1 Tripod base 1 Measuring cylinder 100 ml 1 Rubber tube

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Demonstrations from the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desk

Specific heat and thermal capacity Thermal equilibrium The equivalent in water of a calorimeter Measurement of the specific heat of a solid. Heat propagation Fusion and consolidation Evaporation Boiling Steam condensation Fractioned distillation

1 Tripod stand 1 Flange for cubic expansion apparatus 1 Sphere for cubic expansion apparatus 1 Test-tube 20x200 mm 1 Thread 4 Small round elastic bands 1 Rubber stoper with hole 1 Watch-glass 60 mm 1 Alcohol burner 1 Fire-spreading net 1 Device for heat-conduction 1 Calorimeter with thermometer

1 Candle with candle-holder 1 Aluminium foil sheet 1 Black paper sheet 1 Mohr clamp 1 Wood clamp 1 Thermoscope 1 Steel sample 1 Aluminium sample 1 Denaturated alcohol 1 Potassium permanganate bottle 1 Dropper 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Temperature and Heat 2046 Linear expansion apparatus

2046

To prove the thermal expansion of a bar. It works with cotton wads soaked in denaturated alcohol and it is supplied with three rod made of iron, brass and aluminium. Dimensions: 30x13 cm.

2070

2070 Ball and ring apparatus, with stand In order to prove the volumetric thermal expansion. It can be used with the alcohol (or gas) burner. Height: 30 cm. 2140 Ball and ring apparatus

2140

The previous item, but without stand.

2062 Bi-metallic strip

Two foils fixed together, made of iron and copper, expand in different ways, causing the foil to bend.

4T

Thermoscope

It is suitable for experiments on the thermometer calibration. Length: 30 cm.

2062

2139 Bi-metallic strip with electric circuit

4T

The heat of the burning candle cause the foil to bend and therefore to close the electric circuit. When this happens, the buzzer rings and the led lights up.

2137 Expansion apparatus for liquids and gases 2139 With this simple apparatus it is possible to determine the thermal expansion coefficient of

liquids and of air.

2137

2085

2085 Precision linear expansion apparatus

This apparatus allow to measure with great precision the expansion coefficient of the 3 rods metals (included). It works with the steam produced by the steam generator code 2130. The item is supplied with dial gauge, thermometer and beaker. Dimensions: 70x10 cm.

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.49


Temperature and Heat 2132

6149

2130 Steam generator

To use with linear expansion apparatus. The steam is generated by a gas burner or a heating plate not included ( for all the models of gas burners and heating plates, please see section 14 of this catalogue).

6149 Heating plate

To use with steam generator. Power 800W, power supply 230V/50Hz.

2132 Leslie’s cube 2130

2131

One face of the cube is white, another one is black; one is polished and one is rough. Exposing different faces of the cube to the thermal radiation, the thermometer measures the different absorbent power of the surfaces.

2079 Linear expansion apparatus

It is particularly suitable for student group exercises; it allows a quite reliable measurement of the linear expansion coefficient. It is supplied with thermometer and beaker. To obtain steam, we suggest to use the steam generator code 2130. Dimensions: 70x10 cm.

2131 Thermal conductivity apparatus 2059

It is composed of 5 tubes, of different metals, jutting radially out from a central cylinder. If you heat the cylinder on a flame, the pieces of wax placed at the ends of the tubes melt down at different times.

2059 Ingenhousz’s case

The item can highlights the different thermal conductivity in different materials. Bars must be covered in paraffin and the metal case must be filled in with hot water. It is supplied with two candles.

2030 Specific heat kit

This kit enables you to do experiments on the ratio between the heat and its temperature increase SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Aluminium cylinder 800 g 1 Copper cylinder 800g 1 Brass cylinder 800g 1 Iron cylinder 800g 1 Electric heater 12V

2079

Q given to a body

1 Base 2 Insulated handles 1 Thermometer 1 Case

2099 Water calorimeter 350 ml

This item is suitable for measuring the specific heat of solid and liquid samples. It is supplied with thermometer and stirrer. Plastic material packing. High thermal insulation. Capacity: 350 ml. External dimensions: Ø 130 mm, height 130 mm.

2056 Water calorimeter 1000 ml

It is supplied with thermometer and stirrer and has double aluminium walls insulation from heat. Dimensions: Ø 150 mm. Height: 150 mm.

2030

5283 Electric calorimeter 200 ml

The item is supplied with two stoppers; one stopper has an electric resistor. Maximum voltage: 6V. Supplied with thermometer and stirrer. Aluminium packaging. Capacity 200 ml.

8201 Electric calorimeter 350 ml

2099

It is suitable for the verification of Joule’s law; capacity 350 ml. It is supplied with two resistors you can use alone or in series. Maximum working voltage: 6V. Supplied with stirrer and thermometer.

2036 Set of 4 samples with equal volume

5283

For the measurement of specific heat through water calorimeter up to 350 ml. They are made of iron, brass, aluminium and PVC.

2087 Set of 4 samples with equal mass

2056

Pag.50 - Section 2 - Physics

8201

For the measurement of specific heat through 1000 ml water calorimeter. They are made of iron, brass, aluminium and PVC.

2036

2087


temperature and heat 5711 Joule’s effect apparatus

It is a kind of electrical calorimeter with double transparent walls It is possible to change the resistor without taking off the water. Working voltage:6V D.C. Resistors: 5 ; 10 Capacity: 800ml.

5711

2055

2058 Convection tube Insert water first and then potassium permanganate crystals into the tube through the upper opening. If you heat up the lower part, the salt depositated at the bottom moves upward, colouring the whole water. The burner is sold separately.

2058

2058.1 Convection tube

2055

The previous model but with glass part only.

2055 Apparatus for the measurement of the mechanical equivalent of heat

(Callendar’s machine)

This solid apparatus is composed of a 7 cm long brass calorimetric cylinder with Ø  5 cm and supported by ball bearings. A copper ribbon is rolled around the cylinder and retained by a spring; a 5 kg weight hungs from it. Because of the friction between the ribbon and the cylinder during the rotation the water inside the cylinder warms up. If you measure the work done and the heat produced, it is possible to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat. The apparatus is supplied with clamps and 1/10 degree digital thermometer .

2134

2134 Convection sphere

2052

A glass sphere contains a special mix of liquids. It is enough to hold it in your hand to see amazing convective motions. If you tilt it in a certain way it is possible to observe laminar or turbulent motions.

2052 Radiation apparatus

It is composed of two parabolic reflectors. In the first one there is a 30W light bulb (6V-5A) with its transformer; in the second one there is a thermometer. Both light bulb and thermometer are placed in the focus point of the reflectors.

2031 Apparatus for the study of the absorbent and emitting powers of a

body

It is supplied with 3 aluminium bodies. One body is black-black, another is black-white and the last one is white-white. If you expose them to the energetic flux of the light bulb, you can verify how the absorbent power and the emitting power depend on the features of the surface.

2136

2134

2031

2136 Ruchardt’s apparatus

With this apparatus it is possible to study an adiabatic transformation of a gas. It is composed of a 2000 cm3 conical flask linked hermetically to a glass cylinder with a sealed external piston above it; it can be burdened adding calibrated metal cylinders. Deaden oscillations are generated displacing the piston from its equilibrium position. The T period of these oscillations is linked to the adiabatic constant of the γ gases according to the following ratio:

T= 2π

mV γps2

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.51


optics kits 5672 Basic level

5672 LIGHT AND ITS PHENOMENA

19 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Dioptric projector 2. Why we do see things 3. Do rays of light really exist? 4. The law of illumination 5. Shadow game 6. The eclipse 7. Light reflection 8. Spherical mirrors reflection 9. When light passes from air into a transparent body SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 One-slit diaphragm 1 Four-slit diaphragm 1 Arrow diaphragm 1 Frosted glass 1 Slide 1 Half-circle made of methacrylate 1 Set of 3 lenses

1 Square-pinhole diaphragm 1 Plane mirror 1 Small plane mirror 1 Double mirror arc 1 Optical prism 1 Spring clamps 1 Goniometer

1 Battery-holder 1 Projector 1 Lens-holder with diaphragm-holder 1 Lens-holder 1 Filter-holder 1 White screen 1 Transparent screen

1 Wooden sphere with stem 1 Wooden sphere with string 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Experiment guide

5605 fundamental phemomena of light

5605

Intermediate level

20 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. Eclypses 4. Lighting law 5. Diffusion of light 6. Reflection of light 7. Spherical mirrors 8. Refraction of light 9. Total reflection SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 100ml Beaker 1 Transparent screen 1 Wood sphere with thread 1 Linear ruler 1 Projector 1 Diaphragm holder with diaphragms 1 Projector power unit 1 Base for projector 1 Filter-holder

5607

10. When light passes from a transparent body into the air 11. Total reflection 12. Lenses 13. Decomposition of white light 14. Images in flat mirrors 15. Images through lenses 16. The eye and its defects 17. The composed microscope 18. The slide projector

Intermediate level

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Decomposition of white light Lenses Images in flat mirrors Images in converging lenses Conjugate points The eye and its defects Correction of the eye’s defects Composed microscope Slide projector

1 Red filter 1 Green filter 1 Blue filter 1 Half-transparent screen 1 Slide 1 Plexiglass half-cylinder 1 +10cm lens with lens-holder 1 +20cm lens with lens-holder 1 -10cm lens with lens-holder 3 Bases for lens-holder

1 White screen 1 Wood sphere with thread 1 Screen with squared hole 1 Flat mirror 1 Small flat mirror 1 Double Mirror Arch 1 Equilateral Prism 1 Spring pinchers 1 Paper protractor 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5607 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS KIT WITH LASER RAY BOX With this kit you can easily and quickly perform all basic geometrical optics experiments. The laser ray box is endowed with a switch which allows three different beam configurations (1-3-5) The high-quality optic bodies allow you to observe the trajectory of reflected and refracted beams. Because of its good quality/price ratio and because of the number and quality of possible experiments, this kit represents the best solution for geometrical optics experimentation for primary and secondary school. CONTENTS 1. Reflection in a flat mirror 2. Reflection in a concave mirror. 3. Reflection in a convex mirror. 4. Refraction Law. 5. Measure of the refraction index of a transparent solid. 6. Measure of the refraction index of a transparent liquid. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Laser ray box with power unit 1 Changeable geometry mirror 1 Optic foil 1 Diverging lens 1 Converging lens 1 Half-circular optic body

7. The prism and the total reflection 8. Amici’s prism 9. Converging lenses 10. Diverging lenses 11. System of two lenses 12. Galilei’s thelescope 13. Kepler’s thelescope

1 1 1 1 1 1

Half-circular tray Amici’s prism Isosceles right-angle prism Chart for geometrical optics studies Experiment Guide Case

5609 geometrical optics kit with LASEr version with magnetic board

Pag.52 - Section 2 - Physics

+ IVA


OPTIKS KITS

5594 oPTICS

21 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Theory of the mistakes 2. Dioptric projector 3. Propagation and diffusion of light 4. Reflection of the light 5. Refraction of the light 6. Refraction of the light through lenses 7. Refraction of the light through a prism/dispersion 8. Measurement of the focal length of a mirror and of a lens with spherometer 9. Images given by mirrors 10. Images given by lenses 11. Optical instruments

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT

1 250 ml Beaker 2 Tripod bases 1 Metal rod 50 cm 2 Metal rods 75 cm 1 Rod with hook 3 Double clamps 1 Round base 1 Square-pivot 1 Thread 1 Wood stand 1 Protractor with pivot 1 Wood sphere 1 Linear ruler 1 Diaphragm with 1 slit 1 Diaphragm with 4 slits 1 Diaphragm with arrow-slit 1 White optical screen 1 Dioptric projector

1 Flat mirror 1 Couple of bases for optical bench 1 Couple of stand for optical bench 1 Set of 3 lenses 1 Optic prism 1 Filter holder 1 Red filter 1 Green filter 1 Blue filter 1 Transparency 1 Plexiglass half-circle 1 Spherometer 1 Double spheric mirror 1 Transformer 3 Lens-holders 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Advanced level

5594

5678 geometrical optics

27 experiments

5678

CONTENTS 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. The eclipse 4. Moon phases 5. Law of illuminiation 6. Diffusion of light 7. Reflection of light 8. Reflection of light in spherical mirrors 9. Refraction of light 10. Total reflection 11. Decomposition of white light 12. Lenses 13. Images in flat mirrors 14. Images in spherical mirrors 15. Conjugated points in spherical mirrors 16. Images in converging lenses 17. Conjugated points in converging lenses 18. The eye and its defects 19. Correction of the eye defects 20. The composed microscope 21. Slide light source

SUPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 250 ml Beaker 1 Base for projector 3 Small bases 1 Protractor with pivot 1 Linear ruler 1 Diaphragm holder with 3 diaphragms 1 Dioptric projector 1 Flat mirror with base

1 Filter-holder 1 Red filter 1 Green filter 1 Blue filter 1 Half-transparent slide 1 Transparent slide 1 Transparency 1 Flat mirror 1 Plexiglas half-cylinder

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Lens +10 with lens-holder Lens +20 with lens-holder Lens -10 with lens-holder Concave mirror Convex mirror White optic screen Diaphragm with squared hole Wood sphere 10 mm with rod Wood sphere 30 mm with rod

Demonstrations from the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desk

1 Double mirror arch 1 Equilateral prism 1 Isosceles prism 1 Transformer 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Physics - Section 2 - Pag.53


optics kits 4095

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

4095 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS WITH PENTALASER

VERSION with magnetic board and RED PENTALASER 10 experiments

4215 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS WITH PENTALASER

VERSION with magnetic board and GREEN PENTALASER 10 experiments

These two collections allow very effective demonstrations of geometrical optics. They include a metallic board with back holder, a series of 6 magnetic plastic-coated tables with assembly schemes, a set of 3 mirrors, a series of 10 Plexiglas optical bodies and a red pentalaser, all equipped with a power supply. Since the components are provided with a magnetic base, experiments can be made both horizontally (by students) and vertically (by teachers), taking advantage of the magnetic board.

CONTENTS 1. The reflection and its laws 2. The reflection in the concave spherical mirrors 3. The reflection in the convex spherical mirrors 4. The refraction and its laws 5. The total reflection

4095

MATERIAL SUPPLIED 1 5-ray laser generator with power supply 1 Magnetic board 1 plane mirror 1 concave mirror 1 Convex Mirror 1 plate with parallel sides 1 plane-cylindrical lens, diameter 150 mm 1 plane-cylindrical lens, diameter 90 mm

6. The refraction in the prisms 7. The Refraction in convex lenses 8. The Refraction in concave lenses 9. The eye and its defects 10. The optical instruments

1 Prism 4 biconvex lenses 1 biconcave lens 1 Plane-concave lens 6 Magnetic Boards: A-B-C-D-E-F 1 User Guide

4095

5680

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

5680 WAVE OPTICS

12 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Optic waves 2. Dioptric projector 3. Diode laser 4. Optic waves speed 5. Polychromatic and monochromatic sources 6. Emission spectrum 7. Light diffraction 8. Diffraction through a hole SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 2 Arms out of axis 1 Linear ruler 1 Dioptric projector 1 Cylindical lens 1 Trasformer 2 Filter-holders 3 Coloured filters 1 Optical bench 1 Dark mirror

Pag.54 - Section 2 - Physics

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

9. Diffraction through a slit 10. Measurement of λ 11. Interference of light 12. Interference according to Young 13. Diffraction grating 14. Linear polarization 15. Polarized light 16. Polarization by reflection 17. Brewster’s anlge

Stand for lenses Set of 3 lenses White screen Kit for spectrum analysis Laser with half-conductor Adjustable slit Diaphragm with hole 2 mm Diaphragm with hole 0.4 mm Diaphragm with hole 0.2 mm Diaphragm with slit

1 1 2 1 1 1 1

Diaphragm with double slit Diffraction grating 500 lines/mm Polarizing filters Optic prism Horizontal protractor Experiment Guide Case


geometrical optics 4001 Dioptric light source 6V-5A

With double chamber and cooling wings. Stand Ø 10 mm. The item is supplied with diaphragms: 1 slit, 4 slits and arrow-shaped slit. It must be powered by transformer code 5052. Tripod base not included (code 0018).

4001

4357

5052

4155

4006 Spare light bulb for light sources

6V - 5A. Concentrated filament. Suitable for projector code 4001.

5052 Transformer for light sources

Input: 230V - output: 6V - 5A. The item can power projector code 4001.

4155 LED light source

This projector has a white LED as a light source. It comes with a power supply.

4078 Concave mirror

To use for experiments on images in concave mirror and on light reflection. Stand included. Diameter: 110 mm.

4081 Convex mirror

To use for experiments on images in convex mirror. Stand included. Diameter: 110 mm.

4077 Flat mirror

It shows the simmetry of images. Dimensions: 70x120 mm.

4032 Optic prism

The prism is made of a glass with a high refraction index, in order to show the phenomenon of white light’s decomposition. Stand included. Dimensions: 10x10x20 cm.

4000 Rectilinear propagation of light

4078

This simple apparatus enables you to verify: - the rectilinear propagation of light; - the inversion of the image in the darkroom.

4032

4077

4357 Solar Focometer

This device allows to measure easily and accurately the focal length of converging and diverging lenses, taking advantage of solar radiations.

4030 Mirror-like dihedral

n=

4081

The item proves that the number n of images is determined by the formula:

360 α

-1

where α is the angle created by the mirrors.

4127 Extendible periscope

4000

The item stretches out 15 cm in order to allow the vision beyond an obstacle. It is made of half-transparent plastic that allows students to understand the functioning principle of this optical instrument.

4059 Lens-holder

The item supports lenses and circular mirrors.

4017 Filter-holder

The item supports diaphragms , filters, slides, etc.

4201 Set of 6 glass lenses

The item shows the properties of different types of lenses: bi-convex, plane-convex, meniscus-converging, bi-concave, plane-diverging and meniscus-diverging. Lenses diameter:50 mm.

4127

4030

4133 Set of 11 optical bodies

The set comprehends: 2 Bi-convex lenses, 1 Bi-concave lens, 1 Flat mirror, 1 Spheric mirror, 1 Parabolic mirror, 1 Equilateral prism 60°, 1 Rectangular prism 90°-60°-30°, 1 Isosceles prism 45°-45°-90°, 1 Rectangular body, 1 Half-circular body.

4133

4201 4059 - 4017

Physics - Section 2 - Page 55


geometrical optics 4147

4061

4147 Magic mirror

This item shows the tridimensional virtual image of an object placed inside it.

4061 Concave and convex mirror

4060

Focus+/-10 cm. Diameter 5 cm; to be mounted on lens-holder code 4059.

4060 Set of 3 plexiglass lenses

Focus +6, +10, -10 cm. Diameter 5 cm; to be mounted on lens-holder code 4059.

7035 Operating eye model with light source

7035

With this model it is possible to do experiments on the physical functioning of the eye. It is made of syntetic materials and lies on a wood base. The eye lens is made of flexible material derivating from silicone oil: it is possible to curve it and to change its focal length with the pressure of the water inside a syringe. Since the distance cornea-retina adjustable, it is possible to show the main defects of sight and the ways to correct them through the use of specifc lenses. The item is supplied with corrective lenses, object of vision and projector with its transformer. Base dimensions: 32x10 cm.

7035.1 Operating eye model without light source

The previous item, without projector.

4125 Digital luxmeter

4125

The item can measure the lighting with an accurancy of ±5%. Display screen LCD 3 ½. Power supply: battery 12V. Misure field: from 0 to 50000 lux in four range. Wavelength field: from 400 to 700 nm.

4214 Hartl’s disk with laser ray box Contents: - The Laser ray box - Reflection in spherical mirrors - Absolute refractive index - Refraction through an optic prism - Prisms and the total refraction - Diverging lenses suppliEd items 1 Laser ray box with power-unit 1 Set of magnetic optic bodies 1 Optic disk with stand

4214

4129

Page 56 - Section 2 - Physics

- Reflection’s Law - Refraction’s Law - Refraction through a plate - Total reflection - Converging lenses 1 Basement 1 Case 1 Didactic Guide

4129 Optical ray projector and color mixer This fundamental item for the study of light phenomena, is composed of a rectangular case (175x90x55 mm) containing a lamp with vertical filament (12V - 36W) placed in the upper part. A system of cylindrical converging lenses enables you to obtain converging , diverging or parallel light beams. On the front of the case there are three windows with clasps, whose internal part are mirror-like and endowed with guides for inserting diaphragms and other colour filters. All equipment is contained in a wood case. Power-unit included. Contents: - Law of reflection - Refraction in diverging lenses - Reflection in the mirrors - Refraction in prisms - Laws of refraction - Dispersion of white light - Total reflection - Filters - Refraction in a plate - Primary and secondary colours - Refraction in converging lenses - Colours’ composition

4129


geometrical optics 4095

4095 Geometrical optics kit with red laser ray box

This kit allows very effective dimonstrations of geometrical optics. It comprehends a metal blackboard with back support, a series of 6 magnetic film-packed tables with assembly scheme, a series of 3 mirrors, a series of 10 plexiglass optic bodies and the red laser ray box with its power-unit. Since all components have a magnetic base, it is possible to perform experiments in both horizontal (students)and vertical (teacher)way, exploiting the magnetic blackboard.

4215 Geometrical optics kit with green laser ray box 4328 Red Laser Ray Box

The optic source is composed of 5 parallel laser. Through a smart solution, the light beams from the laser, which have circular section , are turned into linear section rays, i.e. into mono-frequency light blades; these light blades allow the performance of all main geometrical optics experiments. A switch enable you to select different combinations, from 1 to 5 rays,in order to choose the most suitable configuration for the experiment.

4150 Green laser ray box

The item has the same mechanical features of the red laser ray box, but here the laser lights are green. It is supplied with power-unit.

4095

4095

4328

4150

5607 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS KIT WITH LASER RAY BOX

With this kit all main geometrical optics experiments can be easily and quickly performed. The laser ray box is endowed with a switch with three different light-beam configuration (1-3-5). The high-quality optic bodies enables you to see a neat trajectory of both reflected and refracted lightbeam. Because of a very good quality/price ratio and of the great number and quality of possible experiments, this kit represents the ideal solution for geometrical optics research of secondary and high school classes. CONTENTS 1. Reflection in a flat mirror 2. Reflection in a concave mirror 3. Reflection in a convex mirror 4. The law of refraction 5. The measurement of the refractive index of a transparent solid. 6. The measurement of the refractive index of a transparent liquid

7. The prism and the total reflection 8. Amici’s prism 9. Converging lenses 10. Diverging lenses 11. Two lenses system 12. Galilei’s telescope 13. Kepler’s telescope

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 Laser ray box with power-unit 1 Variable geometry mirror 1 Optic plate 1 Diverging lens 1 Converging lens 1 Half-circular optic body

1 Half-circular basin 1 Amici’s prism 1 Right isosceles prism 1 Geometrical optics’ chart 1 Didactic guide 1 Case

5609 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS KIT WITH LASER

5607

+ IVA

VERSION WITH MAGNETIC BOARD 5607 5607

5609

Physics - Section 2 - Page 57


geometricaL OPTICS 4321 geometricaL OPTICS KIT

4321

4321

This item enables you to perform, on an horizontal stand, all phenomena regarding the geometrical aspect of light propagation. The components have been designed to simplify and to speed up the performance. CONTENTS - Light diffusion and the concept of radius - Reflection in a flat mirror - The optic lever - Reflection in a spheric mirror - Concave mirrors’ aberration - Laws of refraction - The optic plate

4321

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 Laser ray box with power-unit 1 Basement 1 Protractor 1 White screen with circular base 1 Plexiglass hollow prism 1 Little square 1 Stand for optic bodies 1 Beaker 250ml 1 Flat mirror 1 Double spheric mirror

4329

- Refraction in a prism - Measurement of the glass’refractive index through the method of the minimal deviation - Measurement of the refractive index of liquids - Total reflection - Prism and total reflection - Refraction of lenses - System of lenses 1 Half-cylinder 1 Plate with flat and parallel faces. 1 Equilateral prism’s section 1 Isosceles prism’s section 1 +6 cm converging lens’ section 1 +10 cm converging lens’ section 1 -10 cm diverging lens’ section 1 Equilateral optic prism 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

4329 Optical fibres kit

This educational model allows the observation of a wave guide’s behaviour and the measurement of the numeric opening of an optical fibre as the refractive index of the mantle varies (air, water, alcohol). SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 Base with protractor and screen 1 Laser diode with turnable stand 1 Plexiglass basin

4329

Optical prism

30x30 mm.

1 Plexiglass panelist 1 Plexiglass curved silhouette 1 Experiment Guide

4016 Plexiglass equilateral prism. 4111 Crown glass prism.

Faces dimensions: 32x32 mm. Angle 90º, nD = 1,55.

4112 Flint glass prism.

4111

4112

4144

Faces Dimensions: 32x32 mm. Angle 60º, nD = 1,67.

4144 Hollow equilateral prism

The item allows the performance of experiments on refractometry of liquids. Sides dimensions and height: 40 mm.

wave optics 4200 Elettric Newton’s disk

4200

The item is linked to an electric engine which is powered by voltage of 4-6 Vcc. It is supplied with 5 disks to show the additive color synthesis.

4048 Hand Newton’s disk

If the cranck handle is spined, the disk looks like white because of the light recombination. Disk diameter: 17 cm.

4510 Benham’s disk

4048

Page 58 - Section 2 - Physics

4510

This simple and original machine shows the effects of different reply times and image persistence times of retina’s photoreceptors. If you light up the disk and make it turn, is it possible to see rings whose colour changes according to the rotatory speed and from person to person. The item is supplied with stand, battery holder and cables, but without battery.


Wave Optics 4135 Transparent coloured spades

4135

Six different colours. Superimposing the spades and exposing them to a light source, it is possible to learn the concept of primary and secondary colours. Didactic guide included.

4015 Colours and vision Kit Item composed of:

- 1 set of 3 primary colour filters; - 1 chart with colour triangle; - 1 pair of stereoscopic spectacles.

- 1 set of 3 secondary colour filters; - 1 chart with 4 stereoscopic figures

4352 Additive colour synthesis apparatus

4015

With this apparatus it is possible to perform the additive colour synthesis of the primary colours : red, green and blue. The apparatus is composed of 3 led projector, whose intensity can be changed with continuity. In this way it is possible to obtain the white colour and all the other colours of the colour triangle

CONTENTS - Binary colour synthesis; example: red + green = yellow - The trichromatic coordinates - Colour reproduction sUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 3 led projector: red, green, blue 1 Stand 1 Power-unit 1 Tripod base

4135

- Complementary colours - Colour triangle

1 White screen 1 Colour triangle chart 1 Case

4352

4353 Subtractive colour synthesis apparatus

The subtractive colour synthesis is the base for colour printing and exploits the method of the chromatic filters in series. This kit enables you to experiment so that, subtracting different chromatic componets from the white light, you can obtain primary colours or their additive synthesis on a white screen. In the printing method, varnishes and inks play the role of the filters.

According to the additive colour synthesis: Red + Green = Yellow Red + Blue= Magenta Green + Blue= Cyan Red + Green + Blue = White

R+G=Y R+B=M G+B=C R + G+ B =W

Consequently, if you place before a white light source: - A yellow filter, you subtract the blue color: - A magenta filter, you subtract the green color - A cyan filter, you subtract the red colour - A yellow filter + a magenta filter + a cyan filter, you subtract blue, green and red colours. supplied items 1 White light projector 1 Projector’s power-unit 3 Filter holders 1 White screen

W-B=G W-G=M W-R=C

4352

4352

W - B - G- R = N.

1 Serie of 3 secondary colour filters 5 Bases 1 Case

4126 Simple Spectroscope

The item can test the emission and the absorption of spectral radiations. Model for direct vision

4353

EMX155 Pocket spectroscope

Semi-professional model with Amici’s prism and adjustable slit. It is supplied with cuvette-holder in order to examine absorption spectrums. An adjustable mirror allows the projection of a referencial spectrum in the eyepiece’s field.

4126

4353

4353

EMX155

Physics - Section 2 - Page 59


wave optics 4116

4116 Disks for Newton’s rings

4115

Couple of glass disks; one has plane, parallel faces; the other has a slightly spherical curve. They are superimposed so to produce Newton interference rings, which are monochromatic if you use laser light and become coloured if you use white light. Disk diameter: 55 mm.

4115 Fresnel’s double prism

4117

Double prism with very small refractive angle, obtained from a whole block of glass. Insert it in a thin light beam and it refracts the beam’s two halves, superimposing them to generate interference fringes.

4117 Polarimetric tube

4110

The item is made of plexiglass, it is closed at its ends and it has an upper opening where you can pour the liquid under examination. It is possible to show the rotatory power of the solutions’ polarizing plane in function of their concentration by using two polarizing filters.

4110 Couple of polarizing filters

Screen dimensions: 100 x100 mm; stem diameter: 6 mm. They are supplied with graduated scale.

4207 Red diode laser device with stand 4207

4207

Continuous emission device with power-unit. Visible up to 35 m; power: < 1 mW; wavelength : 635 nm. It is supplied with a removable lens which is able to turn the circular section of the ray into a linear one. Jointed stand diameter: 10 mm. Base not included.

4354 Red diode laser device with magnetic base and lens

This continuous emission laser device is supplied with lens to obtain a linear ray of light. Moreover base and battery-holder are supplied with magnets in order to be applied to a magnetic blackboard. Wavelength : approx. 635 mm. Power: 1mW.

4151 Green diode laser device with stand

4151 4354

It has a continuous emission; power-unit included. Power: 3mW; wavelength : 532 mm. It is supplied with a lens to obtain a linear trace. Adjustable stand diameter: 10mm. Base not included.

4335 Set of 4 interferencial filters

With a bandwidth of only 10 nm, the measurement precision of the Planck constant increase considerably with the device - code 5409. The passing wavelengths are: Red: 636nm; Orange: 589nm, green: 532nm, Blue: 436nm.

4104 Diaphragm with 1 slit

4105 Diaphragm with 2 slits

4335

4104

On frame 50x50 mm, to be mounted on filter-holder code 4017. Slit’s width: 0,1mm.

4105

4212

On frame 50x50 mm, to be mounted on filter-holder code 4017. Slit’s width: 0,1 mm. Pass 0,1 mm.

Diffraction gratings

On frame50x50 mm, to be mounted on filter-holder 4017.

4106 80 lines/mm 4212 500 lines/mm 4213 1000 lines/mm 4143 Set of 3 diffraction gratings 4028 Kirchoff-Bunsen’s spectroscope

4143

The item is mounted on a circular, metal platform, and it is composed of:1 collector with adjustable slit, 1 collector with eyepiece and cross grating, 1 scale-holder collimator with graduated scale. The collimator’s slit is supplied with a small prism which allows you to compare the spectrum of two different sources. While the collimator, endowed with 28 mm achromatic objective, is fixed to the platform, the collector, which is endowed with the same objective, can spin on a alidade mantaining the central directional axis. The scale-holder, adjustable collimator projects the image of the graduated scale in the collector eyepiece through the reflection on one of the prism faces. The latter is an equilateral prism made of highly dispersive material and it is mounted on a central rotating disk. It is supplied with work charts.

4209 Spectrometer

4028

4209

Page 60 - Section 2 - Physics

This instrument has very good optic and mechanical features which allow the exact measurement of the optical rays’ deviation angles; therefore it can determine the refractive index of solids and liquids and the wavelength of monochromatic sources. Base: made of fire-varnished cast-iron Ø 17,5 cm and divided in 360° with a precision of 1°. It has two diametrically opposite vernier scale which enables a valuation of 1/10°. Telescope: it has achromatic objectives with an 178 mm focal length and an eyepiece 15x. Focusing allows a fine regulation. Collimator: endowed with achromatic objective with 178mm focal length and with a steady adjustable slit up to 6 mm. Plane of the prism: it can be adjusted both vertically and horizontally and it is suplied with clamps for the fixing of the diffraction grarting. Diameter: 80 mm. Equipment: 1 Crown glass equilateral prism 32x32 mm; 1 diffraction grating 500 lines/mm; 1magnifying. Dimensions: 48x33x33h cm. Weight: 12 Kg.


wave optics NEW PRODUCT: The CCD matrix spectrophotometer!

5724

Applications in physics: Analysis of the solar spectrum Analysis of optical filters and interferential film Reflection of light from coloured surfaces Flames analysis

4152

NEW: Optic fibre spectrophotometer. This tool is able to display the emission (or absorption) spectrum of optical radiation sources and to detect the light intensity according to the wavelength. Ideal for the study of spectral and incandescent sources. With this kit you can obtain the Planck curves of a black body source at different temperatures. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The light signal is brought in through a slit with a diameter of 50 microns and then returned and dispersed, through a system of multiple reflective mirrors, on a CCD matrix grid that contains hundreds of small sensors aligned so that each matrix sensor controls a wavelength. The number of photons hitting each sensor is converted into a voltage signal, which in turn is converted into an intensity value on the Y-axis. Analysis of the black body spectrum and the Planck curve Fluorescence and Stokes’ law Analysis of spectral sources (e.g. hydrogen spectrum and Balmer series) Comparison between LED and laser emission

HOW TO USE IT: in the AMADEUS model an optical fibre connector located on the bottom is used for absorbance measurement, and one placed sideways for fluorescence measurements. In the RED TIDE model these measurements are carried out directly by exposure to the light source. For more detailed technical information see page 158 on the catalogue.

4152A

4152B

4152 Spectrophotometer RED TIDE

This model is particularly suited when high accuracy is required. It is powered directly via a USB connection to the PC. For absorbance and transmittance analysis, the cuvette slot is placed directly on the instrument.

4152A Cuvette holder 4152B Optical fibre cable

4153

4153 Spectrophotometer AMADEUS

Model particularly suitable for teaching purposes in Physics. Equipped with separate power supply unit and cuvette holder with two fibre optic connectors. Compared to the RED TIDE, this spectrometer has a lower resolution (approximately 50%) but this feature makes the spectrometric curves “smoother” and therefore allows a more effective approach to teaching. Apart from this, the AMADEUS technical specifications are the same of the RED TIDE model. To perform the spectral analysis of the light source, just get the opening of the optical fibre close to the source. Complete with fibre optic and cuvette holder.

4325

4326

5724 Accessory Kit for Planck curve

With this kit you can use the RED TIDE or AMADEUS spectrophotometer to derive the Planck curves at different temperatures. The black body source is represented by an incandescent lamp located inside a cylinder with reflecting walls. A DC power supply (not included in the kit) supplies the source with progressive voltage increases.

The spectrophotometer optic fibre placed at the radiation exit detects the spectrum for each temperature value. In the picture the spectra obtained for voltage increases from 2 to 2.2 - 2.4 - 2.6 - 2.8 - 3.0 - 3.2 V are shown. Notice how the peak moves towards shorter wavelengths as the light intensity rises (Wien’s displacement law).

Observation of an absorption spectrum

4326 Light source for spectroscope

When the item is placed in front of a tube with graduated scale, it illuminates the scale , thus allowing the operator to read the wavelength of the spectrum rows. The base is sold separately (code 0010).

4325 Emission and absorption spectrum rows kit

The item is composed of a burner where you need to place cotton wads drenched in a saturated solution made of alcohol and sodium chloride(included). If you observe the flame with a spectroscope, you recognize the sodium’s emission row at 589nm; but if you switch on a projector behind the flame, you see a continous spectrum with sodium absorption row.

4035 Spectrum lamps holder with power unit

The item is composed of a lamp-holder with lamp-shade, whose height is adjustable in order to allow a perfect allignement with the collimator of the spectroscope.

4035

Spectrum lamps

To use with container code 4035; they are the most convenient spectroscopy light source:

4051 Cadmium spectrum lamp. 4053 Helium spectrum lamp. 4054 Mercury spectrum lamp. 4056 Sodium spectrum lamp. 4057 Neon spectrum lamp. 4058 Zinc spectrum lamp.

spectrum lamps for 4035

Physics - Section 2 - Page 61


wave optics 4337 Spectrum tubes holder with power unit

4338 ..... 4350 4337

5345

4120

Power-unit able to provide electric high voltage, in order to download all spectrum tubes. Power supply: 220V.

Spectrum tubes for #4337

4338 Oxygen 4340 Air 4342 Water Vapour 4344 Neon 4346 Hydrogen 4348 Mercury 4350 Krypton

4339 Carbon dioxide 4341 Helium 4343 Nitrogen 4345 Argon 4347 Bromine 4349 Iodine

4123 Spectrum tubes kit, with power unit

This kit is composed of the power-unit code 4337 and of 13 spectrum tubes from code 4338 to code 4350.

5345 Stand for spectrum tubes

This item is composed of : a base; a vertical, metal stand; a couple of insulated clamps with rod and ring stand. Clamps are suitable for 4mm plugs. Spectrum tubes not included

4120 Kit for spectral analysis

4322

This set has been designed to allow students to practice the emission spectroscopic analysis. It consists of: 1 Portable spectroscope 10 Needles 1 bottle of sodium chloride 1 bottle of potassium chloride 1 Bottle of strontium chloride 1 Bottle of copper chloride 1 bottle of barium chloride 1 bottle of sodium nitrate 1 Bottle of potassium nitrate 1 bottle of strontium nitrate 1 Bottle of copper nitrate 1 Bottle of barium nitrate.

4322 White light wavelenght measuring apparatus

This apparatus determines the white light wavelength through the diffraction grating formula. It is possible to measure the wavelength of both laser radiation and visible radiation. Contents: - Measurement of the laser wavelength - Spectrum of visible light - Measurement of radiations of the visible light

4322 - Measurement of the extension of the visible spectrum

supplied items 1 Optical bench 4 Riders 1 Optic projector 1 Projector power-unit 1 Diode laser device with power-unit 1 Slit for projector

4327 Diffractionfrom a grating

2 Filter holders 1 Graduated white screen 1 Diffraction grating 3 Coloured filters 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

4327 Wave optics kit

4327

4327 Projection of an hologram

A coherent light source (diode laser divice) is exploited to show the priciples of the wave optics: polarization; interference; diffraction and holografy. Components are endowed with a magnetic base, in order to be placed safely on a magnetic blackboard (included).

CONTENTS - Light’s interference - Michelson’s interferometer - Circular hole diffraction - Diffraction grating - Light polarization

- Interference on a thin plate - Light diffraction - Squared hole diffraction - Holography - Light absorption

4336 Light diffusion kit

4336: Sun setting

If you turn into acid a solution containing a sulphur salt, within 10 minutes the sulphur crystals increase progressively. When their dimension become comparable to the light’s wav length, light diffusion takes place. According to Rayleigh’s explanation,the blue component is deflected much more effectively than the red one, which goes on undisturbed. Thus it is possible to simulate the phenomenon which cause the blue color of the sky and the red-wish color of the Sun and the Moon when they are on the horizon. With the polarizing filter it is also possible to study the polarization of the diffused light. The optic projector must be bought separately. supplied equipment 1 Basin 1 Dropper 1 Polarizing filter

not supplied equipment Whole milk

4336

Page 62 - Section 2 - Physics

1 Glass stirrer 1 Half-transparent screen


Optical Benches 4202 small optical bench

4202

30 experiments CONTENTS 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. Eclipses 4. Moon phases 5. Lighting law 6. Diffusion of light 7. Reflection of light 8. Reflection of light into spherical mirrors 9. Refraction of light 10. Refractive index and the colours of light 11. Total reflection 12. Refraction of light through a prism SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Linear ruler 1 Equilateral prism 1 Red filter 1 Green filter 1 Purple filter 1 Half-transparent glass 1 Slide

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Dispersion of the white light Lenses Images in flat mirrors Images in spherical mirrors Conjugate points of spherical mirrors Images in converging lenses Conjugate points of converging lenses The eye and its defects Correction of the eye defects The compound microscope The slide projector

1 Plexiglass half-cylinder 1 Diaphragm with square hole 1 Flat mirror 1 Small flat mirror 1 Isosceles prism 1 Optical bench 4 Riders 1 Dioptric projector

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Diaphragm with slits Transformer 12V, 2A Converging lens +10 Converging lens +20 Diverging lens –10 Concave mirror +10 Convex mirror -10 White screen

1 Stand for screen 1 Earth-Moon system 1 Filter holder 1 Protractor 1 Transparent slide 1 100 ml beaker 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

4203 BASIC OPTICAL BENCH

9 experiments CONTENTS 1. Dioptric projector 2. Rectilinear propagation of light 3. Reflection of light into spherical mirrors 4. Lenses 5. Images in spherical mirrors 6. Images in converging lenses supplied equipment 1 Optical bench 2 mt 4 Riders 1 PVC optic projector 1 Set of 6 glass lenses 1 White screen

4080

4203

7. Conjugate points of converging lenses 8. The eye and its defects 9. Correction of the eye defects

2 Lens holders 2 Alluminium rods 1 Concave mirror +10 1 Convex mirror -10 1 Small case

wave and geometrical optics bench With this optical bench, the teacher can perform a great number of quantitative and qualitative experiments on both geometrical and ondulating aspect of optic waves. This bench is a necessary educational instrument in order to make a lesson a real moment of union between theory and experimental reality, and this because of the quickness of its assembly and the easyness in performing the experiments. CONTENTS 1. Rectilinear propagation of light and its boundaries 2. Shadow and semidarkness 3. Sun and Moon eclipses 4. Moon phases 5. Irradiation’s law 6. Reflection and refraction - the law 7. Total reflection - limit angle 8. Reflection in the mirrors 9. Refraction of the prism-dispersion 10. Limit angle - minimum deviation 11. Refraction into lenses

12. Images in the mirrors 13. Images into lenses 14. Focal distances and conjugate points 15. The eye and its defects 16. Optic instruments 17. Diffraction 18. The interference according to Young 19. Measurement of l 20. Diffraction grating 21. Transversality of the optic waves 22. Polarization 23. Solutions’rotatory power

supplied equipmEnt 1 Optical bench with stand 1 Dioptric projector 1 Transformer 1 Diaphragm with 1 slit 1 Diaphragm with 4 slits 1 Diaphragm with arrow-shaped slit 2 Lens holders 1 Set of 3 lenses 1 Half-transparent slide 1 Transparent slide 1 Red Filter 1 Green filter 1 Blue Filter 1 Diaphragm with square hole 1 Slide 1 White screen with graduated scale 1 Half-cylindrical lens 1 Isosceles prism 1 Equilateral prism 1 Prism holder 1 Optical prism 2 Protractors (vertical and horizontal)

1 100 ml beaker 1 Double spherical mirror 1 Flat mirror 1 Spherical mirror 1 Half-cylinder 1 Stand with metal base 1 Earth-Moon system 1 Diode laser device 1 Adjustable slit 1 Diaphragm with 1 micrometric slit 1 Diaphragm with 2 micrometric slits 1 Diffraction grating 1 Diaphragm with hole Ø 2 mm 1 Diaphragm with hole Ø 0,4 mm 1 Diaphragm with hole Ø 0,2 mm 2 Slide holders 2 Polarizing filters 1 Polarimetric tube 1 Linear ruler 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

4080

we suggest the use of the green laser code 4151 too, to be purchased separately Physics - Section 2 - Page 63


Electrology kits 5673

Basic level

5673 ELECTRICITY

21 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Knowing electricity 2. Static electricity 3. Protons and electrons 4. Electric forces 5. Electric induction 6. Conductors and insulants 7. The electroscope 8. Let’s learn how to use an electro scope 9. Flashes and lightings 10. Electricity on the move 11. Batteries supplied equipment 1 Bell 3 Leads, 30 cm long 2 Leads, 60 cm long 1 Bottle of copper sulphate 1 Bottle of distilled water 1 Switch 2 Light bulbs with bulb holder 1 Linear magnet 1 Pair of cloths

12. The electric circuit 13. Light bulbs in series and in parallel 14. Transformation of electric power into heat 15. Electric conduction in liquids 16. Electrolysis 17. Magnets 18. Magnetic poles 19. Magnetic effect of the electric current. 20. The electromagnet 21. Electric alarm

1 Iron core 1 Ringing bell 1 Thermometer 1 100 ml Beaker 1 Glass rods 1 Case 1 Experiment guide

1 Battery holder 2 PVC rods 1 Clip with string 1 Support stand with hook 1 Bipolar module 1 Electroscope 1 Metal rod 1 Thermal module 1 Compass 1 Coil

5606 elementary electric physics

5606

Intermediate level

25 experiments

14. 15. 16. heat 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

CONTENTS 1. Knowing electricity 2. Static electricity 3. Protons and electrons 4. Electric forces 5. Electric induction 6. Conductors and isulators 7. The electroscope 8. How to use the electroscope 9. Flashes and lightnings 10. Electricity on the move 11. Batteries 12. Electric generator 13. Electric circuit SUPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Skein of thread 1 Base 1 Clip with thread 1 Insulated support with hook 1 Couple of iron pivots 1 Plexiglas rod 2 PVC rods 1 Electric generator 3 Cables 30 cm 2 Cables 60 cm

Light bulbs in series and in parallel Electric power Transformation of electric power into Electric conduction in liquids Electrolysis Magnets Magnetic poles Magnetic field Ampére’s theory Magnetic effect of the electric current The electromagnet Sucking power of a coil

1 Copper sulphate bottle 1 Thermal module 1 Iron nucleus 1 Coil with 400 turns 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Bipolar module 1 Switch 2 Lamps with lamp-holder 1 Plexiglas plate 1 Magnetic needle 1 Linear magnet

1 Couple of rags 1 Iron filings bottle 1 Elettroscope 1 Iron rod 1 Compass 1 Thermometer 1 Beaker 250 ml 1 Test tube with stopper 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5595 electric physics SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Glass 250 ml 1 Conical Flask 100 ml 1 Thread 1 Couple of pivots 1 Linear ruler 5 Small round elastic bands 1 Dropper 1 Electric calorimeter with thermometer 1 Plexiglass rod 2 PVC rods 1 Trestle stand 1 Switch on base 1 Lamp-holder on base 1 Lamp 4 Cables 30 cm

5595

Page 64 - Section 2 - Physics

3 Cables 60 cm 1 Voltmeter 1 Ammeter 1 Electrode-holder disk 1 Copper electrode 1 Double clamp 1 Rod with hook 1 Metal rod 50 cm 1 Tripod base 2 Brass electrodes with bolts 1 Rod for electroscope 1 Tin foil sheet 1 Linear magnet 1 400 coil spool 1 Magnetic needle with pivot 1 Rehostat 1 Digital multimeter

1 Stabilized power-unit 4 Resistor-holder bases with resistors 1 Aligator clip 2 Rods with insulator 2 Nickel-chrome wires 1 1600 coil spool 1 “U”- shaped nucleus with joke and support rod 1 Funnel 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Copper sulphate solution bottle 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

30 experiments CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Theory of the mistakes Simple electrostatic phenomena Electric sources Electric circuit and measuring instruments Use of the universal instrument Ohm’s laws The rheostat and the potentiometer The electric circuit with several charges in series 9. The electric circuit with several charges in parallel 10. Electric nets

11. Some methods for measuring the electric resistance 12. Resistance depending on temperature 13. Thermal effect of the electric current 14. Electric conduction into liquids/the electrolysis 15. Simple magnetostatic phenomena 16. The magnetic effect of the electric current 17. Electromagnetic induction 18. The transformer

Advanced level


Electrology kits 5620 electrostatics

13 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Electrization 2. Electrostatic induction 3. Leaves electroscope 4. Revelations of the electricity 5. Determination of an electric charge’s sign 6. Wimshurst machine 7. Points power SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Round base 1 Clip with thread 1 Insulated stand with hook 1 Candle with candle- holder 1 Plexiglass rod 2 PVC rods 2 Cables 60 cm 1 Leaves electroscope 2 Alligator clips 1 Wimshurst machine

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Electric whirl Balls’ dance Electric feather Electrostatic engine Electrostatic fall of smokes Damages of smoke

Demonstration for the teacher’s desk

5620

Universal stand Point stand Point conductor Electric whirl Device for balls’dance Balls with thread Electric feather Experiment Guide Case Smokes falling apparatus Electrostatic engine

5611 electrodynamics

15 experiments

Demonstration for the teacher’s desk

CONTENTS 1. The electric circuit 2. Ohm’s 1st law 3. Ohm’s 2nd law 4. Charges in series 5. Charges in parallel 6. Electric nets 7. The rheostat 8. The potentiometer

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Beaker 250 ml 1 Linear ruler 1 Dropper 1 Electric calorimeter with thermometer 1 Light bulb 1 Electric power-unit 2 Cables 30 cm 4 Cables 60 cm 2 Digital multimeters 3 Crocodile clips

9. Measurement of a resistance with V-A 10. Measurement of a resistance with a slide-wire bridge 11. Measurement of a resistance with a tester 12. Resistance depending on temperature 13. Thermal efferct of the electric current 14. Electric conduction into liquids 15. The electrolysis

2 Stands with insulator 2 Nickel-Chrome wires 1 Disk with copper-brass electrodes 1 Switch on base 1 Lamp-holder on a base 3 Resistors on base 1 Rheostat 1 Distilled water bottle 1 Copper sulphate bottle sol. 10% 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Demonstration for the teacher’s desk

5613 electromagnetism

5613

15 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Magnetic actions 2. Earth’s magnetism 3. The magnetic field- spectrum 4. Ampère’s theory about magnetism 5. Magnetic effect of electric current 6. The electromagnet

7. Interaction between currents and magnets 8. Electric engine 9. Electromagnetic induction 10. Neumann’s law 11. Lenz’s law

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Electric power-unit 5 Cables 60 cm 1 Linear magnet 1 Magnetic spectrum device 1 Knife switch 1 Galvanometer 1 Device for electromagnet actions

1 Electric engine 1 Double induction reel 1 Magnetic needle 1 Compass 1 Test-tube with stopper 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

5650 electromagnetic induction

5611

10 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Faraday’s experiments 2. Neumann’s Law 3. Lenz’s Law 4. Alternating currents

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Tripod base 1 Transformer 1 Switch 1 Cable 30 cm 4 Cable 60 cm 1 Linear magnet 1 400 coil spool

Demonstration for the teacher’s desk

5650

5. The alternator 6. The dynamo 7. Direct-current engine 8. The electric transformer 1 1600 coil spool 1 Educational Galvanometer 1 “U” shaped nucleus with yoke and support-rod 1 Digital multimeter 1 Engine-dynamo-alternator 1 Battery holder 1 Experiment Guide 1 Case

Physics - Section 2 - Page 65


Static Electricity 5280

5348

5139 5002 5003 5058

FRICTION rods Hard rubber rod Plexiglass rod PVC rod Glass rod

5348 Set of 5 friction rods

The set is composed of 5 electrifiable rods: plexiglass, nylon, hard rubber, glass, hard rubber-brass. With wool cloth, silk cloth and rod stand.

5280 Electroscope

5321

If you bring an electrified body near the plate of the instrument, the leaf diverges because of the electrostatic repulsion with the rigid stand. With graduated scale. Height: 20 cm.

5321 Set for simple electrostatic experiments Contents 1. The electrification 2. Two electric charges 3. The electroscope 4. The electric forces 5. The electrostatic induction

5090

5068

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 2 Plexiglass rods 2 PVC rods 1 Double electric pendulum with rods stand 2 Rags

1 Electroscope 1 Didactic Guide 1 Case

5090 Double electric pendulum

If you bring an electrified body near the instrument, its two balls diverge because they acquire an electric charge of the same sign, due to the electric induction.

5068 Volta’s Electrophore

5253

The item is composed of a plexiglass base you can electrify by rubbing it; on this base there is an alluminum disk with insulating handle. If you bring the disk near the electrified base several times, and each time you connect its upper face to the ground , it is possible to store big quantities of electricity on it, to the point that you can obtain electric discharges up to 1 cm long.

5085 Wimshurst’s electrostatic machine

The item has two special disks which don’t deform over the course of time. Two Leyda decomposable bottles. Adjustable distributor. Spark: 50-60 mm. Disks diameter: 400 mm.

5253 Wimshurst’s machine

This is an economic, light and handy version. Disc diameter: 30 cm Sparkles 25-30 cm long can be obtained. This generator also allows carrying out the most significant electrostatic experiments.

5408 Electric or hand driven Van de Graaff’s generator

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Power-unit 3-12V 1 Electric whirl

5085 5408

Page 66 - Section 2 - Physics

The item is powered by a low-voltage engine or by hand. It is able to produce a potential difference up to 300.000 V with 10 cm long sparks. Sphere diameter: 27 cm.

1 Sphere with stand 1 Electric feather

5408

2 Cables100 cm 1 Protective spectacles


Static Electricity 5404

5404 Van de Graaff generator’s equipment kit

It is composed of: universal stand; metal sphere with insulating handle; electric whirl; dance of the balls; Faraday’s cage; Faraday’s well; electrostatic engine; articulated discharger; sparkling panel; electric pendulum; blowing point; electric feather; two crocodile clips; two cables.

5051 Set of accessories for electrostatic machines

The set includes: dance of the balls, double electric pendulum, 2 cables, paper plume, blowing point, electric whirl, candle with candle-holder , 2 crocodile clips with stand.

5099 Electric whirl

The item can show the dispersive power of the points thanks to the mechanical effect.

5046 Eletrostatic blower

The item can show the dispersive power of the points.

5204 Point-shaped conductor

Made of nickel-plated brass, it enables you to experiment on charge distribution in insulated conductors. Length: 220 mm. Height: 300 mm.

5092 Articulated discharger

5051

With insulated handle.

5073 Electrostatic bell ring

If you connect the apparatus to an electrostatic machine, the pendulum hits the two bells aternatively because of the electric actions Height: 380 mm.

5091 Spherical conductor

For experiments on electrization (through contact and through induction), on the potential and charge density in conductors. Sphere diameter: 100 mm. Height: 370 mm.

5046

5087 Coulomb’s sphere

5204

5099

For experiments on electrostatic induction (Faraday’s well, for example) It is supplied with electric spoon. Sphere diameter: 100 mm. Height: 370 mm.

5070 Cylindrical conductor

For experiments on electrization (through contact and through induction), on the potential and charge density of conductors. Cylinder length: 220 mm.Height: 320 mm.

5092

5071 Couple of cylindrical conductors

Being a kind of divisible conductor, this apparatus allows the verification of the electric poles during the phenomenon of the electrostatic induction.

5072 Cavendish’s hemispheres and spherical conductor The item can verify that the electric charges in metal conductors are distributed on their surface. If you put the sphere in contact with the hemispheres , the sphere discharges completely. Sphere diameter 100 mm. Height: 370 mm

5073

5091

5087

5140 Faraday’s cage

The item is supplied with double electric pendulum, thus allowing the performance of experiments on the electrostatic screen. Diameter: 120 mm. Height : 260 cm.

5070 5072

5071

5140

Physics - Section 2 - Page 67


Static Electricity 5088

5089

5089 Couple of conductors with electroscope

They have the same function of the previous couple of conductors code 5071, with the advantage of being connected to two leaf electroscope.

5351 Device for showing the flux lines of the electric field

5351

The item is composed of a tray made of transparent material, to be placed on an overhead projector, and of electrodes to be fixed along the rim of the tray. The latter is filled with castor oil ;semolina seeds float on the oil surface. If you connect two electrodes to the poles of the high-voltage generator (code 5324) or to an electrostatic machine, the behaviour of the flux lines of the electric field becomes visible. The item is supplied with 250 ml of castor oil and a bottle of semolina.

5088 Leyda’s bottle

Cylindrical condenser for experiments on the electric capacity. It is supplied with insulated handle to extract the inner framework when the condenser is charged. Glass height: 130 mm. Diameter: 60 mm.

5324 Generator 5kVdc

5324

This generator is a necessary instrument to perform quantitative experiments on electrostatics and to feed vacuum tubes. Its use isn’t dangerous for the operator because, even in case of a short circuit, the maximum current reachs only 2 mA because of a great output resistance. it is supplied with two highly insulating security cables. The output voltage is adjustable with continuity up to 5 kVcc. Built-in digital voltmeter with 3 digits Fix output 6,3Vca/3A. Dimensions: 285x220x140 mm.

8502 Set of 10 capacitors

Composed of: 1 ceramic capacitor 2,2 μF; 1 ceramic capacitor 4,7 μF; 1 ceramic caacitor10 μF; 1 electrolytic capacitor 470 μF; 2 electrolytic capacitors 1.000 μF ; 2 electrolytic capacitors 2.200 μF; 1 electrolytic capacitor 4.700 μF; 1 electrolytic capacitor 10.000 μF.

To be used with bases code 5056, sold separately (see page 71), in order to constitute batteries in series and in parallel. Maximum voltage: 25V.

5093 Epino’s capacitor 8502

5093

It is a capacitor which allows you to prove that the electric capacity depends on the distance from the framework and on the dielectric material. It can be used to show the flux lines of a uniform electric field too.

5703 Electrostatic smoke precipitator The smokes and powders coming out of the chimneys of those mills where toxic substances are used, contribute greatly to air pollution. With this apparatus you can show how to obtain their elimination. Using a rubber tube, a lighted-up sigarette is put in communication with the inside of the flask. If you suck out the air using the pump, the flask fills up with smoke. The internal electrode, which is pointed, and the external plate must be connected to an electrostatic machine (we suggest the code 5085). Switching on the machine, you will notice that , at first, the smoke spins around and then it disappears. If you repeat this operation several times , the walls become black. Cleaning the flask with a bit of white spirit, the tar contained in the cigarette’s smoke melts down, allowing the teacher to show the damage caused to the airways . Instruction guide included.

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Flask with stopper 1 Metal disk 1 Pointed electrodes 1 Rubber tube 1 Transparent tube

5703 Suction of the smoke 5703

Page 68 - Section 2 - Physics

1 Suction pump 2 Cables 1 Mohr’s pincers 1 white spirit bottle


Static Electricity 5714 Electrostatic cell

5714

An hermetically sealed acrylic case, containing polystyrene tiny balls. When the upper part is rubbed for a long time with a cloth, the electrostaic charge generated makes the balls move, demonstrating the action among charges. Dimensions: 18x9,5x2cm.

5045 Electrometer

The item is able to measure electrostatic potentials up to 5kV. The metal stand has a hole for the grounding. It is supplied with disk condenser, Faraday’s well and electric spoon

5380 Coulombmeter with accessories

This instrument, equipped with a digital display, allows the measurement of an electric body’s charge. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Coulombmeter with display 1 Conducting sphere on isolating support 1 Glass rod 1 Ebonite rod 1 Leyden jar 1 Glove 1 Rag

5045

5721 Coulombmeter

For detection and measurement of loads. Useful for a wide range of experiments, such as charging by induction, Faraday’s dry ice, Coulomb’s law and the capacity of an isolated sphere. Supplied with plate for charging, battery and instructions. Leakage current: IPA (10pA max). Storage Charge: Battery 9V PP3 Overall size 130x60x90mm - Weight 0.20kg

5381 Electrostatic engine

Linking the terminals to an electrostatic machine, the sphere made of insulating material, starts to spin quickly. Instruction guide included.

5380

5381

5380 5703 Suction of the smoke

5721

5380

Physics - Section 2 - Page 69


Electrical conduction 5422 Elementary circuits kit

5422

This kit enables beginners of the study of the electrical physics, to do experiments on the simplest electric circuits. CONTENTS 1. Lamp with switch 2. Lamps in series 3. Lamps in parallel SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 2 Lamps with lamp holder 2 Switches

5147

5164

1 Battery holder 6 Cables

5147 Knife switch

Max. voltage: 12V. Max. current: 5A.

5164 Lamp E10 6V/5W 5271 Lamp E10 6V/5W

Suitable for lamp-holder code 5164.

Connection cables

Diameter: 3 mm. Max. current: 8A. Max. voltage: 24V. Piston pins with transversal hole.

5012 Length: 30 cm. 5013 Length: 60 cm. 5082 Length: 100 cm.

5012 - 5191 - 5076

5191 10 cables with crocodile clips

Length 50 cm. Max. current: 5 A.

5076 Nickel-chrome wire

5160

5325

Length 100 cm. It has terminal piston pins to make test on the Ohmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s laws.

Safety cables

Diameter: 4 mm. Max. current: 8A. Max. voltage: 1000V. Metal part with protective retractable sheath in order to avoid accidental contacts. Piston pin with axial hole. Complying with CEI standard 1010-1.

5160 Length: 25 cm. 5161 Length: 50 cm. 5162 Length: 100 cm. 5325 Rack for cables

24 spaces, it can be fixed to the wall.

5010 Lamp E12 6V-2W

5010

To be used with lamp-holder code 5009.

5063 Connection bushing for cables 5075 Rod with insulator

Height: 10 cm. Foot diameter: 6 mm.

5062 Crocodile clip

With double socket for cables.

5192 Crocodile clip

With insulation, with button.

5357 Batteries connection kit

5063 - 5271 - 5075 - 5062 - 5192

5357

Page 70 - Section 2 - Physics

This kit allows the electrical connection to 1 torch battery. You can also connect two batteries in series and two batteries in parallel.


Electrical conduction 5009 Lamp holder E12 on base

5008 Switch on base

5136 Deflector on base

5132 Rheostat 22 ohm on base

5137 Inverter on base

Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm. Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm.

Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm. Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm.

5056 Resistor-holder and condenser-holder base

5009 - 5008 - 5136

To be used with lamps code 5010. Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm.

Dimensions: 100x50x25 mm.

5132 - 5137 - 5056

5156 Set of 6 nickel-chrome conductors

The conductors are mounted on a plastic base(125x75 mm) and protected by a plexiglass plate. 1 Resistor 18Ω with Ni-Cr wire; 2 Resistors 18Ω with Ni-Cr wire; 1 Resistor 5Ω with Ni-Cr wire; 2 Resistors 13Ω with Ni-Cr wire.

5156

For experiments on the properties of resistors in series and in parallel. Max. current: 1A.

8503 Set of 4 metal wire,10 m, Ø 0,3 mm Components: Nickel 0,88 Ohm/m Costantan 6,98 Ohm/m Nickel-Chrome 15,14 Ohm/m Kantal 18,00 Ohm/m

8503

5176

5176 Series of 10 resistors

Ohm values: 10 - 12 - 15 - 18 - 22 - 56 - 68 - 100 - 120 - 150. Power: 5W. To be used with bases code 5056 (sold separately) in order to produce batteries in series and in parallel.

8504 Ohm laws’ table

To be used with the set of wires code 8503 (see above) in order to take test on Ohm laws. Dimensions: 500x60 mm. It is supplied with short-circuit bridge.

8504

5098 Series of conductors

For the verification of Ohm’s laws. Composed of:

1 nickel-chrome wire, Ø 1,5 mm; 2 nickel-chrome wire, Ø 0,75 mm; 1 copper wire, Ø 1,5 mm; 1 bridge.

Dimensions: 1000 x 100 mm.

5098

5101 Slide-wire bridge

With graduated scale and cursor. Wire length 100 cm.

5101

Physics - Section 2 - Page 71


Electrical conduction 5130 Set for experimets on the electric circuits

5130

To be used with an electric, low-voltage power unit ,which can be adjusted from 0 to 12V. Supplied with experiment guide. Structure made of varnished metal. Panel dimensions: 57x33 cm.

Contents 1. The electric circuit 3. Current measurement with the ammeter 5. Verification of Ohm’s first law 7. Charges in parallel supplied equipment 1 Panel with two instruments 10 Bridges with short-circuit 2 Bridges with switch 2 Bridges with lamp

2. The insertion of the switch 4. Voltage measurement with the Voltmeter 6. Charges in series 8. Electrical nets

5 4 2 1

Bridges with resistor Cables 30 cm Cables 60 cm Experiment Guide

5400 Wheatstone’s bridge

5270

5400

With the help of the galvanometer code 5158, this small Wheastone bridge enables you to measure a resistance in a simple and quick way. It is supplied with three resistors of comparison with 1% tolerance, which are mounted on three small bridge and with three unknown-value resistors for the trials. Base dimensions: 130x130 mm. Max. voltage: 2V.

5270 Resistances box

With five decade boxes. Percentual mistake 0,1%. Plastic case. Measurement range: from 0 to 9999,9 Ohm with 1 Ohm step.

Linear armoured rheostats 160 W

5094

They are made of mechanically solid , non-inflammable materials. The cane which supports the winding is made of special refractory material featuring a high mechanical and heat resistance, the winding is made of oxidized, cooked constantan. Dimensions: 270x92x163h mm. Weight 4,8 Kg. RESISTANCE (Ω) MAX. CURRENT (A) 1 13 10 4 100 1,25 1000 0,22

5094 5095 5096 5097

5233

5218

Linear rheostats

For voltage up to 24V. RESISTANCE (Ω) MAX. CURRENT (A) 10 2 50 1,5 200 1

5218 5219 5220

5233 Graetz’s bridge

The item is mounted on base 100x100 mm. It can strighten up two half-waves, visualizing the conduction state of the diode through the use of LEDS.

5146 Silica diode on base

The item is mounted on a varnished aluminium base 100x50x25 mm. It can strighten up a half-wave.

5144 Thermistor NTC on base

The item is mounted on a varnished aluminum base 100x50x25 mm. Its resistance varies with a negative temperature.

5389 Thermistor PTC on base

5146

5389

5144

5133

Page 72 - Section 2 - Physics

The item varies its resistance with a positive temperature.

5133 Photoresistor on base

The item is mounted on a varnished aluminium base 100x50x25 mm. It varies its resistance in function of the light received.


Electrical conduction 5712 Board for simple electric citrcuits

5712

This apparatus enables you to create connections in series and parallel between different electrical dipole, such as light bulbs, resistors, condensers, leds, etc. simply through the use of spring connectors. It includes a small space to store all different components and a battery-holder to insert two AA type batteries.

5712

5332 Modular set for the study of the electric circuits

This modular set enables the performance of many experiments on electrical conduction, reducing to a minimum the use of connecting cables. In this way, besides simplifying the operative production of circuits, their schemes are highlighted. Assembly table dimensions: 45x33 cm. 15 experiments

Contents 1. Lamp with a sole control. 2. The protective fuse 3. Lamps in series with a sole control 4. Lamps in parallel with a sole control 5. Lamps in parallel with deflector 6. Lamps with double control by means of deflector 7. Lamp with double control with power relay 8. Use of the voltmeter 9. Use of the ammeter 10. Ohm’s first law 11. Ohm’s second law 12. The rheostat 13. The potentiometer 14. Circuits in series 15. Circuits in parallel SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Battery holder 1 Assembly table 6 flexible cables 10 Bridges 4 linear conductors 1 “T” shaped conductor 2 “L” shaped conductor 4 Insulators

2 lamp holder with lamps 2 Deflectors 2 Resistors 1 Fuse-holder 10 Fuses 4 Universal connector 1 Rheostat 1 Power relay

Lighting of 2 lamps controlled by a deflector

1 Spool of kantal wire 1 Spool of Nickel-chrome wire 1 Voltmeter 1 Ammeter 1 Didactic Guide 1 Case

5333 Lectern-like stand for assembly table

For a better view of the circuits assembled on the table. The above described modular set is not supplied; it must be bought separately.

5332 5333

Physics - Section 2 - Page 73


Electrical conduction SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Battery holder 1 Assembly table 6 Flexible cables 16 Bridges 5 Linear conductors 2 “T”shaped conductors 1 “L”shaped conductor 6 Universal connectors 2 Testers 1 Deflector 1 Lamp-holder

1 Cross conductor 1 Light bulb 1 Inductor 5 Condensers 5 Resistors 1 Potentiometer 4 Silica diodes 1 Photoresistor 1 NTC 1 Transistor 1 Didactic Guide 1 Case

5334 Modular set for the study of basic electronics

Graetz’s bridge

This modular set allows the performance of several experiments on electronical principles: from reactive components to semiconductors. The main advantage lies in the minimum use of the connecting cables. In this way, besides simplifying the operative production of circuits, their schemes are highlighted. Assembly table dimensions: 45x33 cm.

18 experiments Contents 1. Direct-current condenser 2. Voltage and effective current 3. Alternating-current condenser 4. The capacitive reactance 5. The inductive reactance 6. The RCL circuit-the impendance 7. The low-passing filter 8. The high-passing filter 9. Conductivity of metals and of semiconductors 10. The p-n junction, the diode and the LED 11. The half-wave rectifier 12. The double half-wave rectifier 13. The filtered rectifier 14. The transistor 15. The transistor as switch 16. The transistor as amplifier

5334

notice: for the alternating current experiments, it is necessary the use of the functions generator code 5718, to be purchased separately 5333

5718

5718 Low-frequency signals generator

5333 Stand for assembly table

For a better view of the circuits assembled on the table. The above described modular set is not supplied; it must be bought separately.

Page 74 - Section 2 - Physics

It is a generator of precision signals, amplified in power. It can generate sine , square and triangular waves. The frequency of the main generator varies from 0.1 Hz to 100 KHz. The maximum output power is 4.5 W. Equipped with LED display mentioning the frequency and the output amplitude level. This instrument is particularly suitable for teaching and for scientific research. Technical features - 4 ohm output. - Auxiliary input for the amplifier stage. - Frequency range: 0.001 Hz - 100 kHz with 0.01% accuracy. - Wave shape: sine, square and triangular. - Output power: 4 , 5W on the whole range of frequencies. - Output width: 17V peak to peak (600ohm output), 8.8 V peak to peak (4ohm output) - Output attenuator 1x / 0,1X / 0,01X (on the 600ohm output)


Electrical conduction 5124 Volta’s battery, column type

5167

It is made of copper and zinc parts, separated by felt disks soaked in an acid solution. It is supplied with a bottle of acid solution.

5167 Volta’s battery, cups type

It is composed of 4 voltmeters in series. It is supplied with copper and zinc electrodes, acid solution, cables and a LED assembled on a panel.

5287 Human battery

Placing your hand on two of the four metal plates (zinc, lead, aluminium and copper), you create a potential difference between the plates because of the electrical conduction properties of the human body. This potential difference can be measured through the use of a millimetric voltmeter (not included) Trying all possible combinations between metals, it is possible to guess the existence of the electrochemical series. Plates dimensions: 15x23 cm. Board dimensions: 23x65 cm.

5287

5113 Apparatus for the electrical conductivity of liquids

Comprised of 4 bulbs in parallel. The electrolytic liquids must be poured into the four glasses, in which the electrodes are immersed. With this simple device, the electrolytes solutions can be recognized and the variation of conductivity as a function of the concentration can be studied.

5415 Electrolytic cell

Components: 1 Beaker 1 Sulphuric acid 10% bottle 1 Iron Electrode 1 Electrode-holder stand 2 Zinc Electrodes 2 Copper Electrodes 2 Lead Electrodes 2 Cables 2 Carbon Electrodes 1 Copper sulfate solution bottle

CONTENTS

Replacements for electrolytic cell

- Electrical conductivity of liquids - Electrical storage batteries

5415.1 Electrode replacements kit for code 5415. 5043.1 Couple of brass electrodes. 5043.2 Couple of lead electrodes. 5043.3 Couple of copper and zinc electrodes.

5113

- The Volta’s battery - The electroplating.

5415

Hofmann’s voltameter

For verifying Faraday’s law. With graduated tubes and their metal stands. Height: 70 cm Altezza: 70cm.

5102 With carbon electrodes.

100 ml total capacity.

Replacements for Hofmann’s voltameter

5103 With platinum electrodes.

5102.1 Glass part only. 5165 Carbon electrodes(couple). 5166 Platinum electrodes (couple).

5102

5251 Demonstrative voltameter

5251

Non-graduated tubes, closed with latex small tubes and Mohr’s pincers. Supplied with stand and carbon electrodes. Glass part heigth: 35 cm. Total capacity: 60 ml

5124

Physics - Section 2 - Page 75


magnetism 5279 - 5281 - 5206

steel magnets

Dimensions: 170x20x10 mm.

Dimensions: 55x10x14 mm.

Dimensions: 75x16x40 mm.

Dimensions: 200x75x45 mm.

al-ni-co ALLOY MAGNETS

Made of cobalt and nickel alloy, these magnets are able to create magnetic fields much more intense than those created by steel magnets. Moreover, their magnetization lasts for decades.

5279 Linear rectangular magnet 5281 U-shaped magnet 5286 U-shaped magnet 5173 U-shaped magnet

5173

5206 Horseshoe-like magnet

5238 5024 5169 5170

5238 - 5024 - 5169 - 5170

Linear magnets with round section

Dimensions: 60x6 mm circular, single. Dimensions: 100x10 mm circular, single. Dimensions: 150x12 mm circular, single. Dimensions: 150x12 mm circular, couple.

U-shaped magnets with stand Dimension in mm

5077 A=19; B=14; 5141 A=29; B=22;

5182

8516

5382

C=8; C=11;

D=19; gambo Ă&#x2DC; 6mm. D=29; gambo Ă&#x2DC; 6mm.

U-shaped magnets without stand

5382 80x52,7x21mm. 5383 130x80,5x30mm.

5182 Disk magnet

5183

8517

5105

5383

5174

Made of SINTEROX/F. alloy Diameter: 18 mm. Thickness: 5 mm.

5183 Ring magnet

Made of SINTEROX/D alloy External diameter: 51 mm. Internal diameter: 24 mm. Thickness: 9 mm.

NEODYMIUM MAGNETS

Made of Neodymium- Iron-Boron alloy, these magnets produce an exceptionally intense magnetic field (about 1 Tesla).

8516 Disk magnet

Diameter 25mm, height 10 mm.

8517 Ring magnet

5296

5358

External diameter: 25mm. Internal diameter:10mm Height: 10 mm.

MAGNETIC NEEDLES

5105 Magnetic needle It is mounted on a rod 120 mm and base. Needle length: 75 mm. 5174 Magnetic needle with protractor It is mounted on rod 100 mm and base. Needle length: 60 mm. 5296 Set of 10 magnetic needles

Needle length 30 mm; the neddles allow you to draw the flux lines of a magnetic field.

5359

5358 Set of 10 magnetic in-box needles

Diameter 20 mm height 8 mm.

5359 Set of 12 compasses

Diameter 25 mm height 6 mm.

5225 Couple of magnetic needle The item can show the interaction between magnetic poles Needle length: 140 mm. Height: 120 mm. 5225

Page 76 - Section 2 - Physics

5141


magnetism 5250 Rotating stand for magnets

It consists of a stand ,rotating on a point, so to highlight the actions between magnetic poles.

5125

5250+5169

5259

5125 Magnetic forces apparatus

This item allows you to visualize the remote action of magnetic forces. With two ring magnets.

5259 Magnetic forces apparatus

This item allows you to visualize the remote action of magnetic forces. With two bar magnets.

6154 Iron filings bottle 25 c.c.

5027

5027 Apparatus for visualizing the magnetic spectrum

Components:

1 “U”shaped magnet 1 Plexiglass plate

1 Circular base 1 Iron filings bottle

5293 Magnetoscopes

Part 1 It is composed of a transparent cube (80x80x80mm) containing a silicon oil solution with iron filings in suspension into it. Inserting the supplied linear magnet in the central hole, the wire- like iron particles line up to the space flux-lines of the field generated by the linear magnet. Part 2 It is based on the same principle of the previous apparatus; it enables a bidimensional representation of the flux lines both of a linear and”U”-shaped magnet, both supplied as apparatus’equipment. Dimensions 120x60 mm.

5293

5414 Magnetism kit

The item can show, in an elementary way, the properties of magnets. It can also discover which substances are not subject to the magnetic force.

5202 Magnetic probe

It consists of a small magnet in cardanic suspension, which enables you to outline the behaviour of the flux lines of a magnetic field.

5414

5202

5405+5024

5420

5405 Magnetoscope

98 small iron bars, protected by a case, are free to move randomly. Under the action of an external magnetic field (for example, inserting the magnet model in the extendible solenoid code 5178) the bars line up like the magnetic moments of the ferromagnetic bodies’ molecule. With magnets code 5024 or code 5286, it can be used to visualize the force lines of a magnetic field. Dimensions 75x150 mm.

5420 Magnetoscope with needles

This item is like code 5405, but with 117 magnetic needles which can orient themselves. Dimension: 150x150mm

5541 ”Play and learn” kit

You can learn the properties of magnetic bodies enjoying yourself. It is composed of:

1 1 10 50 24 1 1

Magnetic spade Horseshoe magnet Magnetic balls Magnetic clips Coloured magnetic tokens Didactic guide Magnets stand

5541

5322 Set of accessories for experiments on magnetism

Possible experiments 1. The magnet 2. Two magnetic poles 3. The compass 4. Magnetic forces 5. Magnetic induction 6. The magnetic spectrum SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 2 Magnetic needles 2 Linear alloy-made magnets 1 “U”-shaped steel magnet with stand 1 Plexiglass plate 1 Rotating stand

1 Iron filings bottle 1 Compass 1 Experiment guide 1 Case

5322

Physics - Section 2 - Page 77


magnetism 5411 Unimag

5411

With this set of magnets and balls you can build objects and geometrical figures useful to stimulate the creativity of the students.

Diameter: 100 mm. With wind rose.

5231 Precision compass 5135 Big didactic compass

Thanks to its dimensions it can be seen from far away Diameter: 200 mm.

18/E Simple compass

Diameter: 45 mm.

5171 Walk compass

It has aligning sight and magnifying glass. Case made of shock-proof, synthetic material. Suspended dial with phosphoric indications. Dial diameter: 55 mm.

5307 Magnetometer 5231

5135

It can measure , with great precision, the intensity of a magnetic field in a determined point, knowing the value of the component Ht of Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s magnetic field. Diameter: 100 mm.

5118 Inclination and declination needle

It is usefull to study the properties of the magnetic field in every part of the world. With latitude indicator. Dimensions: 170x170x220h mm.

5369 One-stage magnetic cannon

18/E

5171

The magnetic field of a permanet magnet decreases quickly as distance increases. The sphere in the charger, is located in the field of a powerful neodymium magnet; therefore it is abtracted by a force which increases quickly as the sphereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distance from the magnet decreases. Once delivered, its potential energy turns into kinetic energy. During the collision against the magnet, the collision wave passes through the magnet and the first sphere on its left, reaching the second or the third sphere( the bullet). The latter, being far away, is weakly abtracted by the magnet, and therefore, gains a speed greater than the one of the colliding sphere. From the energetic point of view, the work done for resetting the system for the following test, produces the energy released during every collision. Cannon length: 40 cm.

5370 Three-stage magnetic cannon

With 3 magnets and 10 spheres. Track length: 100 cm.

Magnetic spectrum apparatus

5307

5118

They are made of an aluminium wire resistant to currents from 5-10 A. Spreading the stringy iron filings on the plate of the apparatus , it is possible to visualize the flux lines of the magnetic field. Dimensions: 180 x 120 x 100h mm.

5106 Rectilinear conductor 5107 Circular coil 5108 Solenoid 5368 Kit of three devices for the magnetic spectra

The three units 5106 - 5107 - 5108 can be purchased in a single kit.

5369

5368

5106 5107

5108

Coupling of magnetic cannon 5369

Page 78 - Section 2 - Physics

5370


magnetism 5356 Apparatus for visualizing the field of an electromagnet

It consists of a plastic material plate and of an electromagnet (composed of an inductor and a metal nucleus) which must be placed under the plate. The item is supplied with a bottle of iron filings and an allen screw to assemble the electromagnet. Maximum voltage: 6 V.

5356

5356

5026 400 coil reel, 1A 5078 1600 coil reel, 1A 5185 2 Ohm resistance

Whenever the use of current of high intensity current necessary, we suggest the use of the power-unit code 5230. If you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have it, it is possible to use an average low-voltage Dc source, for example a cell or a battery, provided that you insert a resistance in series which is able to lessen the current intensity.

5026 - 5078

6154 Iron filings bottle 25 cc 8510 Inductor

Features in alternating current 1 kHz: L=0,22 H, R= 56 Ohm between two extreme poles; L= 58 mH, R= 24 Ohm between an extremity and the intermediate pole Features in direct current: R= 0,6 Ohm between two extreme poles , R= 0,3 Ohm between an extremity and the intermediate pole.

5110 Linear Oersted apparatus

The item can show the magnetic effect of electric current flowing in a linear conductor. With magnetic needle.

5185 - 6154

8510

5109 Circular Oersted apparatus

The item can show the magnetic effect of the electric current flowing in a circular conductor. With magnetic needle

5122 Oersted apparatus with two needle

The item can show the magnetic effect of the electric current flowing in a circular conductor through the use of 2 magnetic needles.

5274 Horseshoe-shaped electromagnet

With anchor and stand. Voltage: 6 - 12 Vcc o ca. Height: 30 cm.

5110 - 5109 - 5122

5186 Electric alarm model

It can show the functioning principle of an electric alarm. Panel dimensions: 20x22 cm. Voltage: 4 - 6 Vcc.

5178 Extensible solenoid

This item allows the study of the magnetic field generated by a solenoid, because it is possible to vary the coil number per length measure unit. Once the magnetic needle has been positioned toward the earthly field and the solenoid has been positioned in a perpendicular direction, the tangent of the needleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deviation angle is proportional to the intensity of the magnetic field and, therefore, to the intensity of the electric current and to the number of coil per length measure unit. To be used with generator code 5230 or to be powered through a battery in series with resistance code 5185. Dimensions: 63x15x20h cm.

5274

5178

5186

5178

Physics - Section 2 - Page 79


eleCtromagnetism 5252 Teslameter

5252

Equipped with a sensor for measuring magnetic fields on three axes and digital 3.5 LCD data logger with three ranges:

0-20 microtesla 0-200 microtesla 0-2000 microtesla Replaceable sensor head. 9V DC power supply Axis-selection keys X, Y, Z; HOLD button to hold the measure.

5184 Electromagnetic actions kit

5184

5184

With this apparatus it is possible to experiment on currents-magnets and currents - currents interactions.

Components: 1 Frame 1 Rectangular reel 1 Linear magnet 1 “U”shaped magnet

2 Cables 60 cm 1 “U”conductor 1 Magnetic needle

5177 Apparatus for the verification of Ampère’s law

It consists of two metal tracks where a cylindrical aluminium bar can roll while positioned in order to be immersed in the field of a permanent magnet. Allowing the current to flow in the aluminium bar through the use of generator (code 5230) or of a battery in series to the resistance (code 5185), the bar is solicited by a force whose direction is determined through the rule of “the left hand”, Tracks length: circa 50 cm.

5179 Electromagnetic scale

5177

5179

One of the two arms of the scale ends with a rectangular alluminum coil whose base measures 4 cm, immersed in the field of a powerfull permanent magnet. The other arm has two sliding masses , which allow the item to obtain the equilibrium at rest. Allowing the current to flow through the use of apparatus code 5230, or through the use of a battery in series with resistance code 5185 a force F appears between the magnetic field B and the electric current I, whose value is given by Ampere law: F = B • l • i • sin α where l is the length of the conductor and α is the angle created between the conductor and the magnetic field. So it is possible to verify that the intensity of that force reaches its maximum when α=900° and it is void when α=0°. Using the apparatus code 5127, the value I of the electric current can be read directly on the built-in ammeter and, therefore, it is possible to deduce the permanent magnet’s induction value B. The experiment can be repeated replacing the permanent magnet with the solenoid, whose data sheets are included in this item.In this way it is possible to verify the ratio which gives the value of the magnetic field inside a solenoid. Scale sensibility: 10 mg. Dimensions: 45x17x22 cm.

Components: 1 Scale 1 Solenoid

5179

5288

Page 80 - Section 2 - Physics

1 Permanent magnet 1 Weight box 200 g with gram’s fractions

5288 Apparatus for the electrodynamic actions

This apparatus consists of a solenoid containing a linear conductor positioned perpendicularly to the flux lines .Being possible to balance the electrodynamic interaction force, it is possible to perform quantitative experiments too.

Dimensions: 200x90x90 mm. Internal diameter: 38 mm.


eleCtromagnetism 5121 Apparatus for the interaction between magnets and currents

5121

If you allow the current to flow in the reel, it is possible to highlight the force working between the magnet and the reel. With deflector.

5308

5308 Tangents’compass

Classic instrument for the measurement of the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a solenoid. If you know the coils number, you can deduce the intensity of the circulating current. Three reels with 2, 50 and 500 coils, diameter 185 mm.

Electrical conduction 5128 Faraday’s experiments kit With this kit it is possible to perform the fundamental experiments on electromagnetic induction. Components:

supplied equipment 1 Battery 1 Switch 1 Galvanometer 1 Magnet linear 1 Double spool

5128

2Cables 60cm 3 Cables 30 cm 2 Alligator clips 1 Experiment guide 1 Small box

5119 Double reel for induced currents

This item enables you to perform the most important experiments of Faraday on electromagnetic induction. The closure or the opening of the primary solenoid , its movement or that of its iron nucleus, produce induced currents in the secondary solenoid; these currents can be highlighted with the galvanometer code 5047. Primary number of coils: 200. Secondary number of coils: 500x2. Work voltage: 6 - 10V. Dimensions: Ø85x230h mm.

5119

5273

5120

5285

5273 Double reel for induced currents

This item is like the previous one, but smaller. Primary number of coils: 200. Work voltage: 6 - 10V.

Secondary number of coils: 500. Dimensions: 65x65 mm

5120 Waltenhofen pendulum

If you allow two aluminium sectors, one whole and the other cut, to oscillate with the excited magnet, you can see that the oscillation slows down more quickly in the first instance, because of the parasitic currents.

5285 Apparatus for the verification of Lenz’s law

This simple apparatus allows the verification of Lenz law in a simple way. If you insert a linear magnet into the non-interrupted ring, the ring is rejected , while it is attracted during the extraction of the magnet; this fact proves that the induced currents’ direction is always opposite to the one of what has generated them. The same thing doesn’t happen with the interrupted ring.

5207 Ruhmkorff’s reel

For 80 mm long sparks; power supply :6-12Vcc. It is supplied with automatic switch.

5803 Alternator-motor model

This item can prove the possible transformations of energy: from electric energy into mechanical one; from mechanical into electric and from electric into luminous energy. Work voltage: 4 - 9Vcc. Dimensions: 230 x 150 mm.

5207

5393 Couple of hand-functioning dynamos

They are contained into a transparent case, in order to let you see how electromagnetic induction can be exploited to produce electric energy. Moreover it is possible to verify the dynamo’s principle of reversibility.

5393.1 Manually operated dynamo

Part of item 5393, which can be purchased separately

5393

5803

Physics - Section 2 - Page 81


electrical conduction 5419

5713

5419 Alternator-engine model

By turning the handle, the magnet rotates inside the coil, inducing an electric current which turns on the LEDs. Dimension: 205x125x25mm.

5713 Apparatus for the verification of the electromagnetic induction’s laws

If you keep the magnet at a stand, the LEDs remain turned off. When the magnet is brought near or moved away, the LEDs turn on, showing that the reel is housing an induced current. Leaving the magnet in the reel, you can see the magnet oscillating because of the interaction between the magnet’s magnetic field and the induced current’s magnetic field, following Lenz law. Dimensions: 120x95x105 mm

5114 Modular transformer

5114

It consists of a nucleus made of laminated ferromagnetic material which can be divided in two parts (one is “U” shaped, the other linear) in order to replace the reels. Max. applied voltage: 6Vca. CONTENTS 1. The electromagnetic induction 2. Verification of Neumann’s law 3. Verification of Lenz’s law 4. Transformation of the alternating voltages SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Tripod base 1 “U”shaped nucleus made of laminated iron 1 Closure joke 1 Support rod 1 Reel with 1600 coils

1342

5424

5. Transformation of the alternating currents 6. The auto - transformer 7. Thomson’s ring 8. The induction oven

1 1 1 1

Reel with 400 coils Reel 50 coils Aluminium ring Melting pot with handle

1342 Apparatus for the verification of the electromagnetic induction’s law

and of the principle of action-reaction

Inside the aluminium tube, a magnet falls with uniform motion and the motion’s speed depends on the magnet’s weight.The explanation is the following: during the fall of the magnet, the aluminum tube is linked to a variable magnetic flux and therefore it house induced currents whose directions, according to Lenz’s law, are opposite to what has generated them, i.e. the magnet’s motion, in this case. The consequence is that the latter , in the beginning phase, falls with uniformly accelerated motion because it’s moved by a vertical force whose intensity is equal to the difference between its weight P and the electromagnetic force F. This force is proportional and opposed to the speed of the fall, i.e. it is a viscous force: F = - kv. The moment the magnet reaches the sped v0 so that P - kv0 = 0, its motion becomes uniform with speed v0. Thanks to the principle of action and reaction, the magnet reacts on the tube with an equal and opposite force and, therefore, during the fall with uniform motion of the magnet, the spring scale measures a force with an intensity equal to the sum of the tube’s and the magnet’s weights. supplied equipment 1 Metal rod 1 Table clamp 2 Clamps 1 Rod with hook 1 Spring scale

1 Aluminium tube 50 cm 1 Tube’s guide 1 Couple of neodymium magnets with stand 1 Rope 4 Weights 10 g

5424 Electromagnetic Fall

A free-falling magnet going through coils produces an induced voltage that lets the LEDs turn on. The production of light energy is obtained at the expense of the kinetic energy of the magnet, which slows down when passing through the coils. If you make a dynamic comparison with an identical magnet, falling down simultaneously along a tube without coils, it can be seen that the latter always comes down first. SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Alluminium plank 600x80 mm 1 Plastic laminate plank 600x80 mm 1 Wood block 100x50x25 mm

1 Low-friction trolley supplied with two powerfull neodymium magnets 4 Weights 20 g

5327 Uniform motion trolley

5327

Page 82 - Section 2 - Physics

Along the inclined plane made of plastic laminate, the motion of the trolley is uniformly accelerated; along the aluminium inclined plane, the motion is uniform because of the electromagnetic brake previously described.


Electromagnetic waves 5263 Set for the study of electromagnetic waves

By performing these experiments within the microwave spectrum, whose wavelength is 2.7 cm, it becomes easier for students to understand the analogy with the light waves theory.

5263

CONTENTS 1. The reflection 2. The refraction 3. The prism deviation 4. The diffraction 5. The stationary waves 6. The polarization 7. The absorption and the refractive index

Absorption Characteristics of the microwave transmitter Frequency range: 11±1.1GHz Output power: ≥10mW Modulation input signal: 1KHz off-on music Modulation output signal: ≥ 1Vpp Power: 220 ± 22V 50Hz

characteristics of the receiver WITH AMPLIFIER Amplifier Gain: ≥ 60dB Power: 220 ± 22V 50Hz Power consumption: ≤ 5W

Reflection

material provided 1 Microwave transmitter 1 Microwave receiver with amplifier 1 Receiver - dipole antenna 1 Connecting cable receiver 5 Metal Screens 1 Paraffin prism 1 Alignment system equipped with a goniometer 1 Vaschetta in plexiglass 1 Polystyrene panel 1 Linear rule 1 Goniometr with pin 1 Plate holder straddle clip

Diffraction from a slit

5354 Electromagnetic field meter

With this instrument, the field generated by high or medium voltage lines, by transformers, by industrial devices or by household appliances, can be measured in Gauss or Tesla measure units.

Range: Sensitivity: Band broadness: Precision: Power supply: Dimensions:

5354

5367

200 milligauss or 20 microtesla 0,1 milligauss or 0,01 microtesla from 30 to 300hz ± 4% at net frequency 9V battery 131x70x25 mm

5367 Plasma sphere Glass sphere Ø 20 cm, containing a rarefacted gas mixture. The central electrode has an alternating voltage of 10.000 volt; for this reason it creates electric discharges which spread toward the outside. If you move your finger close to the surface, the discharges concentrate in proximity of your finger because of the conductivity of the human body. So the sphere can be used to distiguish conducting objects from insulating objects. It can be used to prove the existence and the nature of electromagnetic waves, too. In fact, a neon tube moving close to the sphere lights up because of the energy carried by the electromagnetic waves. If you interpose a paper sheet, the phenomenon goes on ,because the waves pass through it. But if you interpose a sheet of conducting metal, such as aluminium, the waves are screened and the phenomenon stops. Physics - Section 2 - Page 83


Atomic Physics 5304 Apparatus for the measurement of the e/m ratio

5304

The main part cosists of a hot cathode Thomson’s tube, whose filament must be feeded with a voltage of 6,3Vac and whose anode must be fed with a voltage of 1500-5000Vdc. The beam of electrons produced is deflected by an electric field produced by a generator of medium voltage and by magnetic field created by two Helmholtz reels.The measure of the electron specific charge can be determined with a percent mistake of 5% . possible experiments 1. Nature of the cathode rays 2. Electric and magnetic deflection 3. Evaluation of the ratio e/m with a grom percentage less than 5%

For the power supply of the apparatus, it is necessary to purchase the following (or similar) generators:

5292 Medium voltage power-unit

5304 powered

0 - 250 Vdc with output 0 - 30 Vdc (see page 228).

5324 High voltage generator

100-5KV Vcc with output da 6,3 Vca (see page. 228).

5222 Cathode ray tube for the magnetic deflection

In this tube a white, fluorescent screen, opportunely inclined, allows you to visualize the deflection of a beam of electrons produced by a magnet. We suggest the use of the “U” shaped magnet code 5173.

5223 Cathode ray tube with whirl

5292

5324

This tube enables you to show the mechanical effects of the cathode rays. In fact a small, fluorescent whirl , which can rotate with little friction, starts spinning the moment the cathode ray beam hits it.

5224 Malta cross tube

With this tube it is possible to prove that the cathode rays spread in a straight line. A Malta cross- like metal screen can be placed so as to intercept the cathode ray beam, producing a shadow zone on the screen which satisfies the laws of rectilinear propagation.

5222

5223

5224

NOTE

The tubes - code 5222-5223-5224 - can be powered by the Ruhmkorff coil (code 5207) or by the 5kVcc generator (code 5324)

Page 84 - Section 2 - Physics


Atomic Physics 5409

5409 Apparatus for the measurement of Planck’s constant

The item has 5 narrow-band filters. Digital instruments. Power unit: 230Vac. Dimensions: 500x150x240 mm.

With this apparatus, the determination of the fundamental constant of quantum physics, h, is obtained using Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect. When an electromagnetic radiation hits on certain metal surfaces, such as the photoelectric cell’s apparatus cathode, some electrons are emitted. They are endowed with a kinetic energy K and, therefore, they are able to reach the cell’s anode and to produce a feeble current. According to Einstein equation, the value of this kinetic energy is:

K = h f - Le

where h is Planck’s constant, f is the frequency of the incident light and Le is the extraction work that, as the name indicates, represents the minimal energy applied to the electron in order to extract it from the metal. If now we apply a voltage with proper polarity to the cell, the voltage creates an electric field that slows down the electrons. When the current running into the circuit is close to zero, it means that the electrons that reach the anode are only those with maximum kinetic energy , barely enough to pass the potential barrier, K = e Vai In this condition, the voltage applied to the cell stops all electrons, and this is why it is called interdicting potential Vai. In other words, the kinetic energy obtained from the electrons through the photoelectric effect, is perfectly balanced by the energy of the applied electric field.

5410

In this limit case, the equivalence between the two previous expressions is valid: hence

h f - Le = e Vai h=

e Vai + Le f

Thus it is enough to have some voltage values in correspondence of different optic filters (five filters in this apparatus) to obtain the straight line pictured beside, whose slope represents h/e. 5410 Kit for the measurement of Planck’s constant The measurement of Plack’s constant can be obtained also exploiting the quantum properties of the LED diodes. If a LED diode is directly polarized, it starts emitting light the moment the potential energy eVs, produced by the electrons, is enough to make them pass from the conduction band to the valence band (Energy gap). As consequence of this energy gap , every electron emits one photon of energy.

5410

5196

hf = eVs

If you know the potential Vs in correspondence of which the LED starts emitting a weak light , it is possible to go back to the value of h.3 LED are supplied, red green and blue, in order to verify that the higher the energy gap is, the more intense the emitted light frequency becomes.

5392 Kit for the measurement of the wavelength of a LED light.

The light emitted by a LED, is not monochromatic; it covers a small frequency band. If you want to measure Planck’s constant with a LED , it is necessary to know this band’s medium frequency, which is easy to measure with this kit that exploits the diffraction grating.

supplied equipment 1 Linear ruler 1 LED projector with power unit 1 Lens +10 with lens holder 1 Filter holder 1 Diffraction grating 500l/mm

WARNING

5392

1 Tripod base 3 Bases 1 White screen 1 Case 1 Didactic guide

In the order, please specify the LED colour of required.

5392 - Performance of the experiment

Physics - Section 2 - Page 85


Atomic Physics CARBON atom 5716

5716 Atom model

This model helps students to understand the atom, since it allows them to build different atoms, using coloured marbles representing protons, neutrons and electrons. The hollows on the table are placed so to correspond to the energetic layers of the orbits s, p, d. So, it is possible to understand the chemical bonds, the isotopes, the emission spectrums and other atom-related concepts. Dimensions: 475x475 mm.

5716

5413 Set for the study of solid state PHYSICS

5413

Since when, in 1948, the American physicists H. Brattain, J.Bardeen and W. Shockley discovered the transistor effect, the electronic technology has seen an amazing development. The technology world is everyday more and more dominated by semiconductors, and the energetic future of mankind is tightly linked to them. But the functioning of the devices which employ the semiconductors is based on the principles of quantum physics, whose fundamental notions are normally included in the educational curriculum of high schools. This set has been designed to make easier for students to grasp concepts which are not that intuitive. It consists of a series of explanation charts to be applied on a magnetic blackboard and of magnetic tokens representing ions, electrons and gaps. The interactive feature of the set allows the teacher to simulate some processes of interaction between photons and matter, showing the passages from a situation to the following one.

CONTENTS 5413 - n-doped Silica

5413 - p-n junction

5413 - p - doped silica

1. Atomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energetic levels 2. The crystal lattice in the metals 3. The energy bands 4. Bands allowed and blocked 5. Insulators, conductors and semiconductors 6. The ohm conductor 7. The PTC thermistor 8. The NTC thermistor 9. The photo resistor 10. Doped semiconductors Equipment supplied 1 PTC Thermistor on a base 1 NTC Thermistor on abase 1 Photoresistor on a base 1 Silicon diode on a base 1 Red LED on a base 1 Green LED on a base 2 Digital multimeters 1 Red Filter 1 Green Filter 1 Blue Filter

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The junction diode The LED Measurement of Planck constant LED reversibility The photovoltaic cell The solar panels

Photovoltaic panel Resistor-holder base 10W 7W resistor 1 KW 1/2 W resistor 100W 1/2W resistor Set of 11 tables Set of magnetic tokens equipment Case tables Case Experiments guide

NOTICE It is necessary to use a low-voltage regulated power supply in order to perform the experiments. We recommend the instrument code 5360. Page 86 - Section 2 - Physics


section 3

index Renewable energies

page 88

Energy conversions

page 92

the energetic matter

Over the last few years, the energetic matter has become a very important issue. The need of replacing the traditional energetic sources with alternative sources arises. This section of the catalogue present items that allows to test the different ways of converting energy.

technique and energy

Technique and energy - Section 3 - Page 87


Renewable energies

Power House - GREEN ESSENTIALS 5394

5394 Power House

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 Wooden dowel pole 1 Wooden skewers 1 Bottle of wood glue 1 Light emitting diode (LED) 1 Solar cell 1 Battery holder 1 Electric motor/generator 1 Bag with 5 rubber bands 1 Bag with 8 connector clips 1 Rotor, 2 blades

Page 88 - Section 3 - Technique and energy

1 Bag of wires: 4 Red 340 mm, 4 Black 340 mm, 1 Red 300mm, 1 Black 300 mm, 1 Red 160 mm, 1 Black 160 mm, 3 Red 100 mm, 3 Black 100 mm. 1 Fan propeller, 4 blades 1 Plastic wheel 1 Black plastic bottle with cap (solar collector tank)

To live in a sustainable way, we must use the Earth resources at a rate at which they can be restored, so as to allow future generations to live the way we did. With this kit you can learn the alternative and sustainable energy forms by carrying out some experiments and building energy-related models. Thirty among the most significant experiments and the ten most important construction projects of the Power House kit are presented in this new Green Essentials edition. The ten building projects include: the energy home itself, a greenhouse, a solar cells set, a passive solar collector, a solar oven, an air conditioner, a refrigerating cell, an hydrometer, a battery with lemon and a wind power generator. Experiment with the heating, cooling and insulation of house and greenhouse. Test methods on passive solar collection by a solar collector. Fit a set of solar panels to explore actively the solar energy with the photovoltaic. Build a model of refrigerating cell and air conditioner to learn the heat transfer. Experiment with a battery with lemon to find out the storage energy. Set up a wind turbine to generate electricity from the wind. By performing the experiments, you will read the diary of a group of young explorers who learn to live a sustainable life on an island. To survive, they must implement real versions of the projects that you are doing with the kit. Suited for an age of 10 or more.

1 Thermometer (-10 a + 110째C) 1 Measuring beaker 1 Sand paper 1 Bag of zinc washers 1 Copper wire 1 Set of 9 styrofoamhause parts: Base plate, 4 Outer walls, inner wall 2 Roof pieces and a circular cover for the refrigerator Transparent plastic greenhouse sheet Set of die-cut cardboard pieces 1 Piece of black paper 1 Iron core


Renewable energies CONTENTS

THE HEAT TRAP

How to capture the sun heat our homes Building project n°1: The power house Experiment n°1: Heating the house with the sun Experiment n°2: The greenhouse in lamp light Experiment n°3: The house in the sun with windows closed Experiment n°4: The house in the sun with windows open Experiment n°5: The house with the covered roof Experiment n°6: The house with the covered greenhouse

The solar collector

How to collect the sun’s rays to heat water Experiment n°7: How hot is it outside in the shade? Building project n° 2: Solar collector Experiment n°8: Heating water in the greenhouse Experiment n°9: Doubling the amount of water lowers the temperature Experiment n°10: How hot is it in the solar collector box? Experiment n°11: How hot is it in the solar collector tank?

How to collect the sun’s rays for cooking food Experiment n °12: The focal length of a magnifying glass Experiment n°13: Checking the focal point with the thermometer Experiment n°14: How hot can the magnified sun get? Experiment n°15: How is light refracted? Experiment n°16: Steam from a thimble Building project n°3: Solar oven Experiment n°17: Where is the hottest spot in the solar oven Experiment n°18: Finding the solar oven’s burner Experiment n°19: The solar oven heat test Building project n°4: Rice cooker

the sun burner

the heat absorber

How the heat of evaporation provides cooling Experiment n°22: Produce air with a fan Building project n°6: Air conditioning and refrigeration Experiment n°23: Cool things in our house Esperimento n°24: Dense air: experiment in a humid environment Building project n°7: Hygrometer Experiment n°25: Test the refrigerator

energy converters

How to extract current from sunlight Building project n°8: Solar power station Experiment n°26: Lighting the LED with solar power Experiment n°27: Running the fan with solar panel Building project n°9: Lemon batteries Experiment n°28; Lemon battery one Experiment n°29: Lemon battery two: hold the lemon Experiment n°30: Lemon battery two: the LED lights up Experiment n°31: Lemon battery two: half stack Experiment n°32: Galvanize a nail Experiment n°33: Splitting water

wind power

How rotors and wings transform wind energy Experiment n°34: Flow test - concave shape Experiment n°35: Flow test - flat plate Experiment n°36: Flow test - convex shape Experiment n°37: Flow test - teardrop shape Experiment n°38: Flow test - wing Building project n°10: wind power plant Experiment n°39: The wind power comes on Experiment n°40: Testing the two rotors

The water vampire

How to make drinking water, and grow and preserve food Building project n°5: Thumbtack scale Experiment n°20: Desalinating water to obtain salt Experiment n°21: Growing food in your greenhouse

WIND POWER

SOLAR ENERGY

Technique and energy - Section 3 - Page 89


Renewable energies INTRODUCTION In this section we present several equipments, easy to use and highly effective, related to the issue of renewable energies. How to get energy from the sun through solar cells or from hydrogen thanks to PEM cells, or simply from the wind. These energy resources are destined to replace the traditional ones such as coal and oil. These devices can easily be assembled and allow to understand the physical and chemical principles upon which the production of renewable energy is based.

HZ11

HZ11 H2Go Delux

Hydrogen cars with fuel station powered by solar panel and remotely controlled.

HZ03 H-Racer Hydrogen cars with fuel station powered by solar panel.

HZ06 H-Racer 2.0

Versione radiocomandata del modello H-Racer.

HZ04 Hydrocar

Car kit with reversible cell and autonomous motion, displacement sensor and flashing LEDs.

HZ12 Ecoracer - Solar racer

Didactic set with remotely controlled micro car, powered by electric energy produced by taking advantage of solar energy. The Solar Ecoracer set includes a small photovoltaic panel which provides the generated energy directly to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;fuel stationâ&#x20AC;? especially designed for recharging the small Ecoracer electric car. Remote control with forward, reverse, left and right motion, which can be used to recharge the car by connecting it by cable to the station in case of lack of sufficient light.

HZ13 Ecoracer - Wind racer

HZ04

As the Ecoracer - Solar racer model, with the difference that the energy required is produced by a wind turbine. Remote control with forward, reverse, left and right motion, which can be used to recharge the car by connecting it by cable to the station in case of lack of sufficient wind.

HZ03

HZ13

HZ12

Page 90 - Section 3 - Technique and energy


Renewable energies HZ14 Ecoracer - Water racer

HZ14

As the Ecoracer - Solar racer model, with the difference that the energy required is produced by a fuel cell powered by hydrogen obtained from water. The fuel cell can work both as an electrolyzer and as an energy generator. The set comes with the same remote control of the other Ecoracer models.

HZ02 Solar Hydrogen generation Kit

The ideal set for demonstrations and to begin to approach, having fun, the world of hydrogen and clean energy.

HZ09 Renewable Energy Education Set

The most complete set for the study of renewable energy. It allows to understand how you can get clean energy from the sun, the wind and the water, all in one kit equipped with all the necessary components for experiments.

HZ05 Bio Energy Discovery Kit

Energy from ethanol. The more compact demonstration kit on the market. It generates electricity using ethanol without noise and combustion. It can work for days, showing the power of the new generation of fuel cells..

HZ08 Hydro-Wind Kit

Capture the wind power! With this kit you can use the energy produced by a wind generator to power a fuel and hydrogen cell.

HZ02

HZ01 Fuel Cell Car Science Kit

This set uses a reversible fuel cell that combines electrolysis and energy production in a single device. Look at the hydrogen and oxygen forming in two transparent containers containing water. The car moves autonomously and automatically changes direction when meeting an obstacle.

HZ10 WindPitch Education Kit

Miniature wind turbine designed to assess how different quantities, sizes and blade angles influence the amount of energy produced. This kit contains 4 different models of blades, a special 3-phase AC alternator and a small device equipped with a LED voltmeter and a module for the reproduction of musical sounds.

HZ07 Renewable Energy Monitor

Monitoring device with LCD display, designed to detect via a PC the performances of all fuel cells and demonstration kits. Possibility to evaluate real-time voltage, current, power, resistance and even kit rotation speed with miniature wind turbines. The tool also works with battery power, can be used with or without a PC and away from electric energy sources.

HZ08

5423 Wind device

Blowing on the blades, a LED turns on to show that wind power has transformed into electric energy.

HZ05

HZ09

HZ07

HZ01

5423

HZ10

Technique and energy - Section 3 - Page 91


energy conversions 5314

mechanic

eleCtricaL

5314 Hydraulic turbine

5011

This model of hydraulic turbine permits to demonstrate the conversion of potential hydraulic power in electrical power, without using water sources. It is fitted with an immersion pump which takes the water from the small basin and throws it against the turbine blades generating a continuous cycle. A voltmeter measures the voltage at the clamps of the dynamo and the electrical power produced can switch on a LED or make a small electric motor fitted with blade rotate. The pump needs a continuous 12 V voltage. The use of power supply cod. 5011 (not supplied with the instrument) is suggested.

5315 Wind turbine model

5315

5316

Used to demonstrate the conversion of wind kinetic energy into electrical power. Exposing the turbine to the wind, the movement power is transmitted to a small generator that transfoms it in electric power. Size: 25x25x30 cm.

5417 Wind turbine model with air generator

Turning the crank handle the fan begins to turn making the wind turbine rotate and the electric power switch on the LED.

5316 Air generator

Thanks to this generator it is possible to make work the wind turbine even in the absence of wind.

5320 Dynamo model

This simple model allows you to demonstrate how to convert mechanical power in electrical power. Size: 25x25x23 cm.

5320

5276

5276 Small electrical motor Supplied in an assembly kit. Working with 3-6 Vdc voltage. Suitable to develop practical capacities of students and make them understand how works an electrical motor. Size: 12x7x10 cm.

5803 Alternator-motor model

To demonstrate the possible conversions of energy: from electrical into mechanical;from mechanical into electrical and from electrical into luminous. Working voltage: 4-9 Vcc. Size: 230x150 mm.

5419 Alternator-motor model

5417

5803

Page 92 - Section 3 - Technique and energy

As the previous model, but in this one it is the magnet inside the bobbin which turns and works as an inductor.

5419


energy conversions

thermal

Mechanical

2133

2071

2101

2102

5350

5374

2133 Stirling motor (hot air) Stirling cycle motor, designed to work using a thermal gap lower than 20°C. It has to be exposed to the Sun or to a 100W lamp to make it work. At steady state the rotation speed is 30-60 turns a minute. This item can be used to understand how a completely ecological motor: in fact it uses only light power and air power. The maximum possible rendering is equal to Carnot rendering.

2071 Two-stroke engine perating section of a two-stroke engine with carburettor. Turn the crank handle, the spark of O the candle coincides with the switch on of a light bulb powered by a 4,5 volt battery. Size: 180x120x300 hmm.

2101 Four-stroke engine perating section of a four-stroke internal combustion engine made from aluminium alloy. O In evidence: the carburettor, the valves, the candles, the piston and the connecting rod. Acting on the crank handle, the switch on of the light bulb simulates the spark of the candle. Size: 180x120x300h mm.

2102 Diesel engine

Operating section of a Diesel four-stroke internal combustion engine, in aluminium alloy. In evidence: injection device, pump, piston and connecting rod. Size: 180x120x300h mm.

Electrical

thermal

5350 Thermoelectric generator T he sensitive part of this item consists of a Peltier cell. It is in contact on one side with a small aluminium wing to be immersed in hot water, on the other side with a small basin to be filled with ice and cold water. Due to the Seebeck effect, the difference in temperature produces a difference in potential that is noticeable at the terminals, this difference can make a small electric motor work: applying a difference in potential to the terminals (max 12V), due to Peltier effect, a great difference in temperature is set between the two faces of the ceramic block.

5374 Peltierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cell I t consists of 144 doped silicon bars, serial-connected and close in a ceramic block. Maximum applicable: 12V.

RAdIANT

thermal

2000 Solar water heater

It is a model of the domestic use devices. Thanks to this item you can heat water by means of sun radiant power. An immersion pump, working at 12 Vcc, make the water circulate in the heating coil of the solar panel. After a few minutes it is possible to notice an increase in temperature. It is supplied with a transformer.

Radiant

electrical

2000

mechanical

5319 Model of solar vehicle

This model gets the electric power from the solar panel. When it is exposed to the sun it starts to move autonomously.

5318 Photovoltaic panel

Exposing the panel to the sun you will get the transformation of solar power into electrical power thanks to which the motor starts to rotate, or a light bulb switches on. Supplied with experiments guide. Size: 25x25x20 cm.

5395 Model for demonstrating the transformation of

5319

5318

5395

solar energy into mechanical energy

By exposing the photovoltaic cell to the sun, the small motor on whose axis a fan is applied starts rotating.

Technique and energy - Section 3 - Page 93


energy conversions 5317

5386 - 5387 - 5388

Radiant

electrical

mechanical

5317 Solar energy motor

Exposing the item to the sun, the panels convert solar energy into electrical power which can be used to make the disk rotating. Size: 100x120 mm.

Photovoltaic panels

5311

5386 Size: 13x10 cm. 5387 Size: 6x6 cm. 5388 Size: 4x6 cm. 5311 Photovoltaic panel with base

Suitable for rendering measurements. Panel size: 10x6,5 cm.

Electrical energy at home 5628 Electricity at home 5628

Feasable circuits 1. Light system driven by a unique switch. 2. Light system with two serial lamps driven by a unique switch. 3. Light system driven by a unique switch and socket. 4. Light system with two parallel lamps driven by a commutator. 5. Light system driven from two switches with diverters. 6. Light system driven by two switches with interruption power relay. 7. Light system driven by three switches. 8. Alarm system with two switches supplied items 1 Aluminium panel fitted with clamps for power supply 2 Metallic supports for panel, fitted with screws and wing nuts 1 Switch 2 Diverters 1 Inverters 2 Buttons 1 Socket

1 Commutator 2 Lamp-holder 2 Lamps 1 Power interruption relay 1 Alarm 1 Screwdriver 1 Electrician scissors 1 Set of devices to fix wires 6 Screws M3 30 mm

4 20m 20m 20m 20m 2m 10 1 1

Screws M3 20 mm Blue cable Ø 0,75 mm Brown cable Ø 0,75mm Black cable Ø 0,75 mm Red cable Ø 0,75 mm Yellow-green cable Wing nuts M3 Plastic holder Experiments guide

5412 Fuel cell with separable devices

5412

This item permits to do measurements concerning conversion of light power into electrical energy. The light energy produced by a 75 W lamp(similar to solar energy) is converted into electrical power by a photovoltaic panel. This electrical energy is used to separate, thanks to a PEM electrolytic cell, (Proton Exchange Membrane) water molecules in the constituent components (with an increase in chemical potential energy contained in hydrogen and oxygen gases). The two gases are mixed again through a PEM fuel cell, producing water and electric energy again, which is used to operate a fan (mechanical energy) by a small electric motor. The two PEM cells are identical and are both used as electro-chemical converters, once in a direction and then in the opposite. supplied items 1 Barrel base 1 Projector 1 220V - 75W lamps 1 Solar panel 1 PEM electrolytic cell with tanks

5412

Page 94 - Section 3 - Technique and energy

1 PEM fuel cell 1 Small motor with fan 2 Bases for distribution 8 Cables 1 Syringue

2 Taps 4 Adaptors 1 Distil water bottle 2 Tubes 2 Plugs


seCTION 4 indeX On-field microscopy kits

page 96

Biological microscopes

page 97

Stereomicroscopes

page 102

Tablet PC with camera

page 104

Photo/videomicroscopy

page 107

Digital microscopes

page 107

Microscopy accessories

page 108

Optical magnifiers

page 109

Prepared slides for microscopy

page 110

Microscopy courses

page 114

MICROSCOPY

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 95


ON-field microscopy KITs These kits have been designed for an outdoor use. With them it is possible to collect samples of waters, grounds and insects and then to analyze them with a biological microscope or a stereo microscope. Both kits are supplied with all instruments necessary to work on the field, and the supplied microscopes have a revolutionary illumination system. Both instruments are able to keep working for the whole day with the rechargeable batteries they are endowed with, thanks to the use of low-consumption LED light sources. They are ideal for an open air class; the kits are stored in two useful compartment-case and, therefore, they are easy to be carried around.

flm-1

ON-FIELD STEREOMICROSCOPY KIT This kit is suitable for the research of insects and small animals living in lawns , in the ground, etc. It contains the equipment for animal dissection.

supplied items 1 On-field stereomicroscope with LED illumination. Power supply:rechargeable batteries. Battery charger included in the kit. Binocular head inclined at 45째. Objective: 2x-4x per 20/40 magnifications. Eyepieces: WF10x.

flm-2

3 Petri dishes 1 Pincers with magnifying glass 1 Dissection table 1 Centimeter-graduated insect magnifier 2 insect nets 1 Insect trap (collector)

ON-FIELD MICROSCOPY KIT This kit is suitable for the research of micro-organisms living in the water of rivers, creeks and ponds.

supplied items 1 On-field microscope with LED illumination. Power supply: rechargeable batteries. Battery charger included in the kit. Rotating monocular head inclined at 45째. Achromatic objective: 4x, 10x, 40x. Eyepiece: WF10x. 3 Petri dishes 1 Water sampler 1 Pack of object-holder slides 1 Pack of obect-cover slides 2 Dropper-pipettes 1 Magnifying glass

FLM-1

Pag.96 - Sezione 4 - La microscopia

FLM-2


Biological microscopes

ECOVISION SERIES

SFC-3A

SFC-3AF

SFC-3A Monocular biological microscope

Monocular biological microscope with 400x magnification. WF10x/18 wide field eyepiece, triple nosepiece revolver rotating in both directions with click locking at the objectives positions. 4x, 10x and 40x (telescopic) achromatic objectives. Coarse focusing system using a pair of knobs located on both sides of the stand. 100x90 mm specimen table complete with slide clamps. Stand made entirely of metal and stove enamelled with epoxy powders. Lighting by means of a concave/convex mirror located in the base.

SFC-3AF Monocular biological microscope

Same as SFC-3A but with exceptions of: -DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (telescopic) -Achromatic objectives -Coarse and fine focusing system using two pairs of knobs -120x110 mm specimen table.

B-20

Monocular biological microscope

Monocular biological microscope with 400x magnification which can be increased to 960x with the help of the additional 16x eyepiece and 60x objective. Head with eyepiece tube inclined at 45°, rotating through 360°. WF10x/18 wide field eyepiece, triple nosepiece revolver rotating in both directions with click locking at the objectives positions. DIN 4x, 10x and 40x (telescopic) achromatic objectives. Coaxial macro and micrometric focusing knobs located on both sides of the stand. The micrometric focusing controls are graduated. Specimen table complete with slide clamps. N.A. 0.65 condenser with rotating disc diaphragm. Incorporated illuminator with 230V/20W bulb and condensing lens above.

B-20

B-20 SOLAR

B-50

M-100FL

B-20 Solar Monocular biological microscope

Monocular biological microscope with 400x magnification for field use. Same technical features of B-20. It is powered by a solar panel.

B-50

Biological Monocular Microscope

400x magnification which can be increased to 640x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 40x objective. Head: 45° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, triple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives 4x, 10x and 40x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 120 mm x 110 mm stage with sample clips. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency. Special condenser with built-in illuminator. Light source: high intensity cold white LED, with adjustment knob.

M-100FL Monocular biological microscope

Monocular biological microscope with 400x magnification which can be increased to 1600x with the help of the additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head with eyepiece tube inclined at 45° rotating through 360°. WF10x/18 wide field eyepiece, triple nosepiece revolver rotating in both directions with click locking at the objectives positions. DIN 4x, 10x and 40x (telescopic) achromatic objectives. Macro and micrometric focusing knobs located on both sides of the stand. The micrometric focusing controls are graduated. Specimen table complete with slide clamps. N.A. 0.65 condenser, iris diaphragm and filter holder. Incorporated illuminator with 230V/20W bulb and condensing lens above.

M-100FL-H Monocular biological microscope

Same as M-100FL, but with built-in 12V/10W halogen illuminator with dichroic bulb. External transformer included.

M-100FLed Monocular biological microscope

M-100FLed Monocular microscope with the same technical specifications as model M-100FL, with exception of the illumination. Built-in 3-LED (white) illuminator with 3 rechargeable batteries . The illuminator can be used for 24 hours continuosly without any recharge; also, it can be normally used during the recharging operation. External recharger included.

Optional accessories

M-001 M-002.1 M-003 M-004 M-131 M-132 M-134 M-136 M-031 M-040 M-099 M-110 VC-01

H5x eyepiece (for SFC-3AF and M-100FL/FLH/FLed/B-50). Eyepiece WF10x/18mm (for B-50). WF16x/12mm eyepiece (for SFC-3AF and M-100FL/FLH/FLed/B-50). WF10x/18mm Micrometer eyepiece (for SFC-3AF and M-100FL/FLH/FLed/B-50). 4x achromatic objective (for B-50). 10x achromatic objective (for B-50). 40x achromatic objective (for B-50). 100x achromatic objective (for M-100FL/FLH/FLed/B-50). Dust cover, type 3 (for B-50). Attachable mechanical stage (for M-100FL/FLH/FLed). Polarising set (filters and rotating table) (for M-100FL/FLH/FLed). 20W/230V attachable illuminator for SFC-3AF. Videomicroscopy system composed by a colour CCD TV camera [VC02], complete with Bio & Stereo Microscope adapter tube, integrated power supply unit, cables and manuals.

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 97


Biological microscopes B-150 Series

B-151

B-151

Biological Monocular Microscope

B-153

Biological Monocular Microscope

Page 98 - Section 4 - Microscopy

400x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. Stage fitted with sample clips. A.N. 0,65 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

600x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded) and 60x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

B-155

Biological Monocular Microscope 1000x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded) and 100x (oil, spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

B-157

Biological Binocular Microscope 600x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded) and 60x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

B-159

Biological Binocular Microscope 1000x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded) and 100x (oil, spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

B-159

B-150POL-M

The B-150 Series has been designed to fulfill all requirements of educational laboratories. The available models allow a pleasant and effective approach to the world of microscopy. The quality of the optics, the reliability of the mechanical parts and the excellent price/ quality ratio rank these instruments at the top of their category.


BIOLOGICAL MICROSCOPES B-150POL-M Polarizing Monocular Microscope 400x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30째 inclined and 360째 rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. Rotatable stage fitted with sample clips. Rotatable swing-out polarizer and slide in/out analyzer. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

B-150POL-B

B-150POL-B Polarizing Binocular Microscope 400x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30째 inclined and 360째 rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. Rotatable stage fitted with sample clips. Rotatable swing-out polarizer and slide in/out analyzer. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator.

MODEL COMPARISON TABLE Model

Head

Eyepiece(s)

Objectives

Stage

Condenser

Focusing system

Illuminator

Plain stage, 125x120mm with sample clips

0.65 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply.

B-151

Monocular

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x

B-153

Monocular

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x, 60x

Double layer mechanical stage 125x116mm. X-Y movement range 76x30mm

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply

B-155

Monocular

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x (oil)

Double layer mechanical stage 125x116mm. X-Y movement range 76x30mm

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply.

B-157

Binocular

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x, 60x

Double layer mechanical stage 125x116mm. X-Y movement range 76x30mm

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply.

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x (oil)

Double layer mechanical stage 125x116mm. X-Y movement range 76x30mm

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x

Rotatable stage, 120mm diameter

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply. Swing-out rotating polarizer, analyzer mobile.

WF10x/18mm

Achromatic DIN 4x, 10x, 40x

Rotatable stage, 120mm diameter

1.2 N.A. with diaphragm

B-159

Binocular

B-150POL-M

B-150POL-B

Monocular

Binocular

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES FOR the B-150 SERIEs

M-001 M-002.1 M-003 M-004 M-137 M-138 M-139 M-141

Eyepiece H5x. Eyepiece WF10x/18mm. Eyepiece WF16x/12mm eyepiece. Micrometer eyepiece WF10x/18mm. Achromatic objective 4x/0.10. Achromatic objective 10x/0.25. Achromatic objective 20x/0.40. Achromatic objective 40x/0.65.

M-142 M-143 M-040 M-155 M-031 M-069

Coaxial coarse and fine focusing mechanism with limit stop

LED 1W, with external power supply. Swing-out rotating polarizer, analyzer mobile.

Achromatic objective 4x/0.10. Achromatic objective 100x/1.25 (oil). Attachable mechanical stage. Polarizing set (filters only). Dust cover, type 3. Solar battery pack.

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 99


BIOLOGICal MICROSCOpes

B-191

B-191

B-192

biological microscopes X-LEDTM

X-LEDTM - The future of lighting

OPTIKA Microscopes is proud to introduce a powerful and revolutionary LED lighting system. This system has been developed by our R&D department and consists of a new combination of LEDs and optical technology. A new single-chip high-efficiency LED works along with a special optical lens that doubles the intensity generated by a normal LED. The result is comparable to the light produced by a 30W halogen bulb but with a colour temperature of 6300K. This means a white light instead of the yellow one generated by an incandescent lamp. The power consumption (only 3.6W) confirms the high efficiency of this system: the same light intensity with a consumption of only 10% of an ordinary 30W halogen lamp. In addition, a LED’s life is 50,000 hours instead of 1,500 for an ordinary halogen lamp!

Biological Monocular Microscope 1000x magnification which can be increased up to 1600x with the addition of a 16x eyepiece and a 100x objective. 360° rotating head with a 30° eyepiece tube. WF10x/18 mm wide-field eyepiece, quadruple revolver rotating in both directions with click locking at the objectives’ positions DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (telescopic), 100x (telescopic, oil) achromatic objectives. Coaxial macro and micrometric focusing through a pair of knobs located on both sides of the stand. Specimen table (125x115mm) equipped with graduated translation mechanism, with coaxial vertical motion driven by knobs placed on the right side. A.N. 1.25 Abbe condenser with adjustable height. Built-in high-brightness X-LED light, with adjustable intensity and condensing lens Biological Binocular Microscope

Binocular version of the model B-191.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

M-003 M-004 M-190

WF16x/12 mm eyepiece. WF10x/18 mm micrometric eyepiece. Polarising set (filters only).

B-192

LED Standard

X-LED

Frog, blood smear. Real picture taken from B-192 with 100x objective without immersion oil Page 100 - Section 4 - Microscopy


BIOLOGICal MICROSCOPes biological microscopes X-LEDTM

B-352A

B-352A Binocular biological microscope

1000x magnification. Head: 30째 inclined and 360째 rotating. WF10x/20 mm eyepieces, quadruple revolver rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives: DIN 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x (immersion). Coaxial coarse focusing by a knob located on a side; fine focusing by knobs located on both sides of the stand. Graduated fine focusing controls. Mechanical sliding stage(160x142mm). Abbe A.N. 1,25 condenser with adjustable height and centering system. LED illumination with brightness control and collecting lens.

B-353A Trinocular biological microscope

Trinocular version of the model B-352A.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

M-302 M-303 M-362 M-363 M-365

WF16x/12 mm eyepiece. EWF10x/20 mm micrometer eyepiece Polarising set (filters only). Rotating table for polarising set. Photo tube adapter for SRL cameras (for B-353A).

B-353A

LED Standard

X-LED

Frog, blood smear. Real picture taken from B-353PLi with 100x objective without immersion oil Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 101


stereomicroscopeS MS-2

S-10-P

STX

stereo series

MS-2

20x Monoscope Small monoscope for observation of opaque bodies such as minerals, small insects, small objects, etc. Online common stereomicroscopes, it uses only one eyepiece: it is possible to obtain high quality image, even without the stereoscopic effect. 20x magnification with WF10x eyepiece and 2x objective. Metal stand with clamps and 360째rotating head.

STX

Stereomicroscope 20x magnifications Simple stereomicroscope model with a pair of WF10x eyepieces and a 2x non- interchangeable objective. This leads to a total magnification of 20. Made of plastic material, it is equipped with a lamp for incident light, operated by 1.5 V AA batteries

S-10-P

20x Stereomicroscope Small stereomicroscope fitted with a pair of WF10x eyepieces and a 2x objective that can be replaced by optional objectives. It is possible to reach 20x magnification (up to 80x with optional eyepieces and objectives). Made of metal, good optical and mechanical quality. Suitable for schools.

S-10-L

20x Stereomicroscope with illuminator

S-10-L

As the model S-10-P, but fitted with low voltage incident illuminator with 10W lamp.

ST-30-2LR 20-40x Stereomicroscope with double illuminator

ST-30-2LR

ST-30-2LF

Stereomicroscope fitted with high quality optics and designed for the observation of semitransparent samples. A pair of WF10x eyepieces and a 2x-4x dual magnification objective are supplied. The change of magnification is obtained by the rotation of the revolver. It is possible to obtain 20x and 40x magnification with the standard version and a 80x magnification thanks to optional eyepieces. The stand is made of metal with a binocular 45째inclined head. An integrated dual illuminator with two 10W low-voltage lamps for incident and transmitted light. Stage with clamps.

ST-30-2LF 20-40x Stereomicroscope with double illuminator

Same version of the model ST-30-2LR but with frontal inclined head.

ST-30-2Led Stereomicroscope with 20x-40x magnification and double LED illumination and rechargeable batteries

As the model ST-30-2LF, but with LED lights and rechargeable integrated batteries. 12-hour continuous running time. The normal use of the instrument is possible even while charging it.

ST-40-2L 20-40x Stereomicroscope with double illuminator

Same features than the model ST-30-2L but equipped with 360O rotating head which facilitates the discussion between teacher and student on the observation of the sample.

ST-45-2L Stereomicroscope with 20x-40x magnifications and double lighting Same features as the ST-40-2L, but equipped with two halogen lights with adjustable brightness.

ST-40-2L

VC-01 SU ST-30-2LR

Page 102 - Section 4 - Microscopy

ST-45-2L

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

ST-001 ST-003 ST-004 ST-020 ST-021 ST-022

WF5x pair of eyepieces. WF15x pair of eyepieces. WF20x pair of eyepieces. 1x objective (only for S-10-P/L). 3x objective (only for S-10-P/L). 4x objective (only for S-10-P/L).

VC-01

Video microscopy system which consists of high resolution color camera, optical adapter for biological and stereo microscopes, connection cables, SCART adapter, instructions manual.


stereomicroscopes

LAB AND SZM SERIES

LAB 10

20-40x Stereomicroscope with double illuminator Stereomicroscope for laboratory. Standard accessories: WF10x pair of eyepieces, adjustment of the interpupillary distance (55-75 mm), adjustment of the dioptric compensation on the left eyepiece tube, 2x-4x dual magnification objective, 40x maximum magnification with standard configuration, 80x magnification with additional lens and eyepieces, illuminators for incident and emitted light with LED lamps, stage fitted with a pair of clasps.

LAB 20

Stereomicroscope with zoom objective and double illuminator

Like LAB 10 model but fitted with zoom objective which permits to select the magnification from 1x to 4x. Standard configuration: 40x and 120 x with additional lens and eyepieces.

LAB 10

Optional accessories for LAB 10 and LAB 20

ST-402 ST-403 ST-410 ST-411 VC-01

WF15x eyepieces (pair). WF20x eyepieces (pair). 0.5x Additional lens. 1.5x Additional lens. Video microscopy system which consists of high resolution color camera, optical adapter for biological and stereo microscopes, connection cables, SCART adapter, instructions manual.

SZM-2Led PROFESSIONAL Stereomicroscope with zoom objective,

ST-082 ST-083 ST-084 ST-085 ST-086 ST-087 ST-040 ST-088 ST-041 ST-089 VC-01

double LED light and trinocular head.

This model offers superior performance, resulting from the use of a special zoom objective that allows to select continuously the magnification factor. Equipment: A pair of WF10x eyepieces suitable also for users wearing eyeglass; interpupillary distance adjustment between 55 and 75 mm, dioptric compensation adjustment available on both eyepiece tubes, special 0.7x...45x zoom objective; max 45x magnification in standard configuration, up to 180x magnification with additional lens and eyepieces. High-intensity LEDs for incident and transmitted light, independent adjustable brightness for each light, specimen stage equipped with a pair of clamps, translucent disk and black/white disk. This model is equipped with a trinocular head with a third tube for photo/video applications.

LAB 20

Optional accessories for the SZM-2

WF15x eyepieces (pair). WF20x eyepieces (pair). WF10x/20mm micrometric eyepiece. 0.5x Additional lens. 1.5x Additional lens. 2x Additional lens. Dark-field condenser. Set for polarising light. Specimen-holding clamps. Adapter for SLR camera. Video-microscopy system consisting of a high-resolution colour camera, an optical adapter for stereo and biological microscopes, connection cables, SCART adapter, instructions manual.

SZM-2Led

Optional accessories

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 103


Tablet PC with Integrated Camera Tablet PC with Integrated Camera

Finally, something new in digital microscopy ! A Tablet PC with 10” LCD touch screen, in combination with a 2Mp C-mount camera: a universal system wich can be installed on every trinocular microscope. Ideal for use with the B-353A microscope to which it can be connected through the M-366 adapter.

TB-2L TB-2W

Tablet PC with Integrated Camera, LINUX Tablet PC with Integrated Camera, WINDOWS C-mount camera adapter

M-366

Tablet PC Specification

PCU Display Hard Disk RAM Graphic card LAN USB 2.0 VGA output W-LAN Bluetooth SD card reader OS Image analysis software

(Used for connection to the B-353A microscope). TB-2L

TB-2W Intel Atom 1.6GHz 10” Touch 160 GB 1GB (Max 2GB) GMA950 Ethernet port 2 port Yes Wi-Fi Yes Yes Linux Ubuntu Windows 7 Home Premium 32 Bit Image J Optika Vision Lite / Optika MIPro

USB camera specifications Sensor Resolution Max resolution Frame Rate VGA resolution Frame Rate S/N Dynamic range Sensibility Calibration glass

Page 104 - Section 4 - Microscopy

CMOS 1/3” 1600 x 1200 pixels (2 M pixels) 10fps 25fps 56 dB 60 dB 1,0V/lux-second Yes


Photo/video microscopY VC01

Video system for microscopy For the observation of samples (with biological microscopes) and of opaque bodies (with stereomicroscopes) on a monitor or a color tv. This item permits a wide study of microscopy with only one microscope for a whole class of students.

VC01

It consists of: - ccd color camera, high-definition . - adapter for microscope and stereomicroscope. - SCART connection cable to the monitor or color tv. - installation and instructions manual. The monitor/tv is not included. Adaptable to all OPTIKA microscopes through specific adapters. The system has been designed to be used with all the monocular, binocular and trinocular microscopes mentioned in this catalogue.

Educam camerAS Educam cameras are especially designed to satisfy the multiple requirements of the teaching field. Connected to a professional monitor or a tv, the Educam have multiple functions. They can be used as follows: as an episcope, for the replication of texts, documents, pictures, etc. - as a magnifier, for the enlargement of small objects, insects, minerals, etc. - as a video microscopy system which can be connected both to biological and stereo microscopes - as an overhead projector, for the projection of transparent sheets - as a camera for teleconference, for pc and internet connection - as a camera for videoconference, for conferences, assemblies, conventions, etc. - as a camera for the production of films, thanks to a videorecorder. These cameras permit neat even in conditions of scarce illumination, thanks to the sensibility of their electronic circuits. The special objective permits a focusing from 0,76 mm to an infinite distance. In the base there is high sensibility microphone (only in multimedia models) which, through the tv or through an autonomous amplification device, allows the reproduction of the teacher’s voice during the lesson, or the record of sounds and noises of the surrounding environment. The audio circuit can be disconnected through a dual function switch. The special flexible arm measuring 50 cm or 65 cm, and the weight of the base (approximately 2,7 kg), make the Educam versatile, sturdy and stable instruments. The microcamera at the top of the flexible arm can be positioned in different ways. A special coupling allows the rotation of the head avoiding the break of the connectors in the flexible arm. All the models are equipped with external power unit and with double adapter for video microscopy (for biological and stereo microscopes). The following five models of Educam cameras are available.

Description of the models and technical features on page 206.

4083 4083.1 4083.2 4083.3 4083.4 4083.5

“Multimedia” educam “Multimedia Pro” educam “Student” educam “Student Pro” educam “USB” educam “Microscopy” educam

VC01

EDUCAM

Conv-Usb Video converter for PC

Video converter for computer. To be used to connect the EDUCAM cameras or to connect the VC01 video microscopy system to a personal computer through USB port.

EDUCAM

CONV-USB EDUCAM

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 105


Photo/video microscopY

4083.B05

USB Digital cameras PC USE The OPTIKAM digital videocameras allow to view microscopic slides on a PC through some simple operations. Equipped with a USB cable, adapters for biological and stereomicroscopes and software for measurements, area definition and editing of saved images. Thanks to dedicated drivers, a quick installation and configuration with Windows operating systems is achieved. Through the software supplied (available in Italian, English, Spanish, French, German, Swedish and Polish), several functions are feasible, namely: - Acquisition of images or video - Measurement of distances - Addition of comments inside the image - Creation of reports with notes and PDF files

4083.B1

4083.B05 Digital camera OPTIKAM B0.5, 0.48Mpixels 4083.B1 Digital camera OPTIKAM B1, 1.3Mpixels 4083.B3 Digital camera OPTIKAM B3, 3.14Mpixels 4083.B3

OPTIKAM B05

OPTIKAM B1

OPTIKAM B3

Sensor Risolution

CMOS 1/4” 800x600 pixels (0,48 Mpixels)

CMOS 1/3” 1280 x 1024 pixels (1,3 Mpixels)

CMOS 1/2” 2048 x 1536 pixels (3,14 Mpixels)

Frame Rate at full resolution Frame Rate at VGA resolution Optical format Aspect ratio S/N Ratio Dynamic range Sensibility “C” mount Optical adapter Stereomicroscopes adapter

25 frames/sec 30 frames/sec 1/4” 4:3 52 dB 60 dB 2,0 V/Lux-second No 0,5x (not dismantled) 30,0mm dia., 30,5mm dia.

15 frames/sec 30 frames/sec 1/3” 4:3 44 dB 71 dB 1,0 V/Lux-second Yes 0,5x (dismantled) 30,0mm dia., 30,5mm dia.

8 frames/sec 30 frames/sec 1/2” 4:3 44 dB 71 dB 1,0 V/Lux-second Yes 0,5x (dismantled. 30,0mm dia., 30,5mm dia.

Calibration slide System requirements

None Windows / XP / Vista / Seven, 32-64 Bit, USB port Optika Vision Lite / Optika MIPro Continuous auto white balance, continuous auto exposure

76x24mm micrometric calibration slide Windows / XP / Vista / Seven, 32-64 Bit, USB port Optika Vision Lite / Optika View Continuous auto white balance, continuous auto exposure

76x24mm micrometric calibration slide Windows / XP / Vista / Seven, 32-64 Bit, USB port Optika Vision Lite / Optika View Continuous auto white balance, continuous auto exposure

USB cable 1.8 m, carton box.

USB cable 1.8 m, carton box.

USB cable 1.8 m, carton box

Software Capture features Incluted with the camera

Page 106 - Section 4 - Microscopy


Digital Microscopes This series of microscopes is equipped with integrated digital cameras which permit the observation and transfer of the samples’ pictures on the pc. Thanks to these cameras it is possible to record short films. REQUISITIons: os - 233 MHz processor - Windows 98SE/ME/2000/XP - 32Mb memory RAM (XP: 128Mb) - 110Mb on the disc - USB 1.0 (USB 2.0 for DM-15) - Drive CD-Rom - Monitor resolution, 800x600 pixels

DM-5

DM-5

SOFTWARE INCLuded

Digital monocular biological microscope 400x magnification. Head: 45° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/16 mm eyepiece, triple revolver rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. 4x, 10x, 40x achromatic objectives. Coarse and fine focusing through a pair of knobs on both sides of the satnd. The knobs of the micrometric focusing are graduated. Stage: 90° rotating with the possibility of 5mm translation in both the directions. Integrated LED illuminator, high brightness with intensity adjustment and collecting lens. Camera resolution: 480.000 pixel (800x600).

B-150DB

B-150DM Digital monocular biological microscope

400x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 45° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator. Camera resolution: 1.3MP.

B-150DB Digital binocular biological microscope

1000x magnification which can be increased to 1600x thanks to additional 16x eyepiece and 100x objective. Head: 30° inclined and 360° rotating. WF10x/18 mm eyepiece, quadruple revolving nosepiece rotating in both directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives DIN 4x, 10x, 40x (spring loaded), 100x (oil, spring loaded). Coaxial coarse and fine focusing knobs on both sides of the stand. 2-Layer mechanical stage with coaxial controls. A.N. 1,2 condenser with iris diaphragm. Integrated high-efficiency 1W white LED illuminator. Camera resolution: 3.2MP.

DM-15

DM-15 Digital binocular biological microscope

1000x magnification. Head: 30° inclined, 360° rotating. WF10x/20 mm eyepieces, quadruple revolver rotating in both the directions with click locking for each objective. Achromatic objectives, DIN 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x (oil immersion). Coarse and fine focusing by a pair of knobs located on both the sides of the stand. The knobs for fine focusing are graduated. Sliding stage (160x142 mm) adjustable by coaxial knobs located on the right side of the stand. Abbe A.N. 1,25 condenser with adjustable height and centering system. Integrated LED illuminator with adjustable intensity of the brightness and collecting lens. Camera resolution: 2MP (1600x1200).

DM-25

Digital binocular biological microscope

Like model DM-15 but equipped with 3,14MP camera with 2,5” LCD screen (rotating and reclining). The camera has an additional analogical video signal (S-video and composite video) output which permits the connection to a tv. 16MB of internal memory with additional slot for flash memory card (up to 3GB). Video capture function up to 640x480 pixels resolution.

DM-25

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 107


ACCESSORIes for microscopy V685

V757

K540

Microscope slides

V685 V757 V758 V759 K540

Pack of 50 object-holder slides. Object-holding slide with 1 hollow. Object-holding slide with 2 hollows. Object-holding slide with 3 hollows. Object-holding slide distributor. The slides come out one at a time when the knobs are turned.

V689.1 V689

V689.1

F340

F344

F329

K354

Slide-staining box. 20 spaces to be immersed into a basin code K353 Basin for slide-staining. Dimension: 100 x 80 x70(h) mm

Equipment for the preparation of slides

F340 F344 F329 F327 F361 F364 F950 F760 F322 F323 SM2713

Straight points twizzers. 120 mm, stainless steel. Curved points twizzers. 120 mm, stainless steel. Round points twizzers. 120 mm, stainless steel. Flat points twizzers. 105 mm, stainless steel. Potbellied blade scalpel. Stainless steel. Potbellied blade scalpel. Plastic handle. Scissors for microscopy. Double flexible spatula . 120x6 mm, stainless steel. Needle with handle. 130 mm. Lance needle with handle. 130 mm. Drum microtome with hand razor.

15050

Set of microscopy accessories The set is composed of: ruler, thin point scissors, laboratory scissors, straight point twizzers, round point twizzers, interchangeable blade scalpel, 1 blade for scalpel and two needles with handle.

15001

Microscopy toolbox Toolbox containing: scalpel, scissors, spatula, needle with scissors, round point twizzers, curved point twizzers, magnifying glass, 6 bottles of fundamental dyes , 3 glass bottles, 2 droppers, 2 watch glasses, 1 bottle of Canada balsam,1 bottle of xylene, 1 bottle of ethyl alcohol, 50 object-holding slides, 200 object-covering slides, 1 microscopy experiment guide, 1 dissection guide.

STAINS and reagents for microscopy

15002

6 fundamental stains in bottles of 10 ml

F327

F364

F361

F950

F760

15006 15007 15008 F323

F322

Equipment for cleaning and maintenance of microscopes

15050

Page 108 - Section 4 - Microscopy

15102

Kit for cleaning and maintenance of microscopes.

It contains air brush with cap, pack of optical cards, liquid for lenses cleansing, cleanser liquid, antistatic cloth 20x20 cm, plastic case 15102 Compressed air spray. Suitable for cleaning objective and eyepieces,it has a small tube to reach the hidden parts, too. Pack of 400 ml.

15001

15101

Metylene blue, eosin, gentian violet, nigrosine, neutral red, Lugol solution. Ethyl alcohol 20 ml. Canada Balsam 10 ml. Oil for immersion eyepieces (10 ml).

15101

SM2713

Equipment for slide-STAINING

K353

K353

Pack of 200 object-covering slides 18x18 mm. Pack of 1000 object-covering slides 18x18 mm.

K354

Capacity: 50 slides.


optical magnifiers 4986

Two-lens magnifier It is composed of two lenses whose diameter is 22 mm . First lens magnification: 4x; second lens magnification: 6x; total magnification: 10x.

4987

Magnifier with millimetric scale 8x magnifier with front opening and millimetric ruler for measurement. Measure interval: 0,1 mm. Endowed with focusing adjustment. Dimensions: 42x42x45h mm.

4090

Counting glass with millimetric scale 5x counting glass with double millimetric ruler for measurement. Measurement interval :1 mm. Dimensions: 40x52x52h mm.

4088

7x magnifier

4984

Lens with support pincer

4086

100x pocket microscope Magnification from 60x to 100x; it is supplied with zoom and focus adjustment. Built-in light bulb powered by batteries.

4091

3x magnifier

4985

6x magnifier

4980

2x-4x magnifying glass Double magnification lens: inside the 2x lens (diam. 70 mm) there is a lunette with 4x magnification (diam. 16 mm).

4981

Giant magnifying glass

4982

Diameter: 66 mm. Height: 55 mm.

Diameter: 145 mm, long-distance functioning. Magnification :2x.

4985

Magnifying lens with handle-stand endowed with built-in light bulb

2x-4x double magnification lens. With double-function handle: stand (open) and light bulb (batteries-powered).

8x magnifying glass with built-in light bulb

4980 - 4981

It has rulers with millimetric graduation. Lens diameter: 110 mm. Dimensions: 160x130x180h mm.

Lens diameter 25 mm. It is endowed with front opening and battery-powered light bulb.

Centimeter-graduated magnifier for insects

4087

With ventilation holes in order to observe alive insects. With double 2x - 4x lens. Chamber dimensions: Ă&#x2DC; 70 mm, height 75 mm.

4093

Two-side viewer Simple viewer to observe the life of the insects and of the grubs. Separable into 3 parts. Magnification: 6x. Dimensions: 70x130x90 mm.

4988

Big model of Two-sides viewer Simple viewer to observe the life of the insects and of the grubs. Separable into 3 parts. Magnification: 6x. Dimension: 190x130x130h mm.

4091

Endowed with front opening. Dimensions: 47x59x56h mm.

4092 4026

4086

6x magnifying lens with pincer for samples.

2x giant magnifier

4984

4088

The item is suitable for the observation of small insects.

4087

4986 - 4987 - 4090

4092

4026

4982

4093

4988

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 109


prepared slides for microscopy MZ1000 GENERAL BIOLOGY - BASIC KIT

MZ4000 ZOOLOGY - VERTEBRATES AND INSECTS

1. Unicellular animal (Ameba or other) 2. Paramecium, whole body 3. Hydra, whole body 4. Daphnia, whole body 5. Lumbricus (earthworm), cross section 6. House fly, mouth part, whole body 7. Honey bee, mouth part, whole part 8. Honey bee, hind leg 9. Three type of bacteria, smear 10. Simple flat epitelium, whole body 11. Skeletal muscle, longitudinal section and cross section 12. Human blood smear 13. Frog blood smear 14. Lung section 15. Artery and vein, cross section 16. Human skin section through hair follicle 17. Spirogyra conjugation, whole body 18. Volvox, whole body 19. Moss, whole body 20. Mitosis, onion root tip cell, section 21. Monocot and dicot, roots , cross sec. 22. Monocot and dicot shafts , cross sec. 23. Tilia (linden tree), 1 year old stem, cross sec. 24. Tilia (linden tree), 3 years old stem, cross sec. 25. Monocot and dicot leaves, cross sec.

1. Unicellular animal (Ameba or other) 2. Paramecium, whole body 3. Hydra, whole body 4. Hydra, sperm gland, cross sec. 5. Mitosis, horse mite’s egg 6. male nematode, cross section (ASCARIS MEGALO CEPHALA) 7. female nematode, cross section (ASCARIS MEGA LOCEPHALA) 8. egg mitosis of a horse’s nematode (ASCARIS MEGA LOCEPHALA) 9. Female mosquito, mouth parts, whole body 10. Butterfly, mouth parts, whole body 11. Honey bee, mouth parts, whole body 12. Testis of migratory locust, section 13. Insect’s composed eye, section. 14. House fly, whole body 15. Female mosquito, whole body 16. Drosophila (fruit fly), whole body 17. Insect, legs for digging, whole body 18. Insect, legs for walking, whole body 19. Insect, legs for swimming, whole body 20. Insect, legs for jumping, whole body 21. Insect, leg for pollinating, whole body

MZ2000 FRESHWATER PLANTS (CRYPTOGAMS)

MZ5000 ZOOLOGY - VERTEBRATES AND MAMMALS

1. Three types of bacteria, smear 2. Rhizopus nigricans (breadmold), whole body 3. Penicillium, whole body 4. Aspergilus,whole body 5. Yeast, whole body 6. Lichen, sec. 7. Volvox, whole body 8. Spirogyra conjugation, whole body 9. Porphyra (sea lettuce), whole body 11. Marchantia thallus, sec. 12. Moss, protonema, whole body 13. Moss, antheridium, cross sec. 14. Fern prothallus, young sporophyte, whole body

MZ3000 PHANEROGAMS 1. Pine tree, leaf , cross sec. 2. Pine tree, 1 year old stem, cross sec. 3. Pine tree, 10 years old stem, cross sec. 4. Pine tree, spherical male fruit, longitudinal sec. 5. Pine tree, spherical female fruit, longitudinal sec. 6. Pine tree, pollen, whole body 7. Buttercup, root, cross sec. 8. Corn (mais), root, cross sec. 9. Mitosis, onion tips, section 10. Geranium stem, cross sec. 11. Marchantia antheridiophore, longitudinal section 12. Marchantia archegoniophore, longitudinal section 13. Sunflower, young stem, cross sec. 14. Tilia (linden tree), 1 year old stem, cross sec. 15. Tilia (linden tree), 3 years old stem, cross sec. 16. Lily, leaf, cross sec. 17. Fig tree , leaf with foveolate stomata, cross sec. 18. Three types of leaves, cross sec. 19. Lily pollen, whole body 20. Lily anther, cross sec. 21. Lily ovary, cross sec. 22. Meiosis, cross section of lily anther at different phases 23. Capsella, young embryo, section 24. Capsella, medium embryo, section 25. Capsella, old embryo, section

Page 110 - Section 4 - Microscopy

1. Frog skin, cross sec. 2. Frog small intestine, cross sec. 3. Frog blood smear 4. Frog testis, section 5. Frog liver, section 6. Frog, heart, sect. 7. Rabbit liver, sec. 8. Rabbit testis, sec. 9. Rabbit vertebral column, cross sec. 10. Rabbit, motor nerve endings, whole body 11. Rabbit ovary, section 12. Compact bone tissue 13. Stomach walls, section 14. Small intestine, cross section (mamal) 15. Large intestine, cross sec. (mammal) 16. Pancreas (mammal) 17. Spleen, sec. (mammal) 18. Gall bladder, sec. (mammal) 19. Lung, sec. (mammal) 20. Artery and vein, cross sec. (mammal) 21. Kidney, longitudinal sec. (mammal) 22. Human sperm, smear 23. Human skin, sec. through sweat gland 24. Eye ball, longitudinal sec.(mammal) 25. Human Chromosome in blood, male and female


prepared slides for microscopy

PREPARED SLIDES - SINGLE SLIDE

MZ2057 MZ1021 MZ1020 MZ1002 MZ3167 MZ1031 MZ1037 MZ2057 MZ3004 MZ4028 MZ2077 MZ3177 MZ3178 MZ3179 MZ2052 MZ2031 MZ2027 MZ4047 MZ2062 MZ4051 MZ4063 MZ1009 MZ1067 MZ2001 MZ1032 MZ3137 MZ4003 MZ3109 MZ4002 MZ1007 MZ3144 MZ3086 MZ2046 MZ3100 MZ3099 MZ3071 MZ1003 MZ1073 MZ1070 MZ1071 MZ1072 MZ1069 MZ3008 MZ3007 MZ1025 MZ3019 MZ3018 MZ4005 MZ4005 MZ2050 MZ3067 MZ1023 MZ4001 MZ1064 MZ1030 MZ3023 MZ3021 MZ3022 MZ2025 MZ1042 MZ1008 MZ3173 MZ2049 MZ1001 MZ2038 MZ1045 MZ2080 MZ2079 MZ3003 MZ1047 MZ2041 MZ3037 MZ3043 MZ3042 MZ3038 MZ3039 MZ3044 MZ3165

Artery and vein, cross sec. (mammal) Female mite, cross sec. Male mite, cross sec. Unicellular Animal (Ameba or other) Lily anther, cross sec. Honey bee, mouth parts, whole body Honey bee, hind leg Arteria e vena, sezione trasversale (mammal) Aspergilus, whole body Mussel gill, cross sec. Eyeball, longitudinal sect. (mammal) Capsella, young embryo, section Capsella, medium embryo, sect. Capsella, old embryo, sect. Gall bladder, sec. (mammal) Rabbit, motor nerve endings, whole body Rabbit, vertebral column, cross sec. Rabbit liver sec. Rabbit ovary sec. Rabbit testicle, sec. Human chromosomes in blood, male and female Daphnia, whole body Drosophila (fruit fly), whole body Epithelium, whole body Butterfly, mouth parts, whole body Fig tree , leaf with foveolate stomata, cross sec. Monocot and dicot, leaves, cross sec. Geranium stem, cross sect. Monocot and dicot, stem , cross sec. Hydra sperm gland, cross sec. Lily, leaf, cross sec. Sunflower, young stem, cross sec. Large intestine, cross sec. (mammal) Corn (mais), stem, longitudinal sect. Corn (mais), stem, cross sect. Corn (mais), root, cross sect. Hydra, whole body Insect, leg for pollinating, whole body Insect, legs for walking, whole body Insect, legs for swimming, whole body Insect, legs for jumping, whole body Insect, legs for digging, whole body Lichen, sect. Yeast, whole body Lumbricus (earthworm), cross section Marchantia, female genital organ, longitudinal sec. Marchantia, male genital organ, longitudinal sec. Meiosi, sezione trasversale di antera di giglio in diversi stadi Meiosis, cross section of lily anther at different phases Spleen sec. (mammal) Mitosis, onion tips, sec. Mitosis, horse miteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s egg Monocot and dicot, roots , cross sec. House fly, whole body House fly, mouth parts, whole body Moss, antheridium, cross sec. Moss, whole body Moss, protonema, whole body Skeletal muscle, longitudinaland cross sections Insectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s composed eye, sec. Hydra ovary, cross sect Lily ovary, cross sec. Pancreas (mammal) Paramecium, whole body Stomach wall, sec Frog skin, cross section Human skin section through hair follicle Human skin, sect. through sweat gland Penicillium, whole body Frog small intestine, cross sect. Small intestine, cross sec. (mammal) Pine tree, leaf, cross sec. Pine tree, spherical female fruit, longitudinal sec. Pine tree, spherical male fruit, longitudinal sec. Pine tree, 1year old stem, cross sec. Pine tree, 10 years old stem, cross sec. Pine tree, pollen, whole body Lily pollen, whole body

MZ2053 MZ3015 MZ3032 MZ4060 MZ4057 MZ4054 MZ3050 MZ2058 MZ3002 MZ2065 MZ3013 MZ2016 MZ2015 MZ3016 MZ2013 MZ1040 MZ3091 MZ3093 MZ1077 MZ3136 MZ4024 MZ3011 MZ1065 MZ1029 MZ1028

Lung sec. (mammal) Porphyra (sea lettuce), whole body Fern prothallus, young sporophyte, whole body Frog hearth sect. Frog liver section Frog testicle, sec. Buttercup, root, cross sec. Kidney, longitudinal sec. (mammal) Rhizopus nigricans (breadmold), whole body Human sperm, smear Spirogyra conjugation, whole body Frog blood smear Human blood smear Marchantia thallus, sec. Compact bone tissue Testicle of migratory locust, sec. Tilia ( linden tree), 1 year old stem, cross sec. Tilia (linden tree), 3 year old stem, cross sec. Three types of bacteria, smear Three types of leaves , cross sec. Tubellaria, injected intestinal tube, whole body Volvox, whole body Female mosquito, whole body Female mosquito, mouth parts, whole body Male mosquito, mouth parts, whole body

EMPTY PLASTIC CASES FOR SLIDES MZ6010 MZ6015 MZ6025 MZ6050 MZ6100

Plastic case for 10 slides Plastic case for 15 slides Plastic case for 25 slides Plastic case for 50 slides Plastic case for 100 slides

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 111


Prepared slides for microscopy 15900

15901

Bacteria and yeasts (12 slides)

Tartar - saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer’s yeast) - coccobacillus yoghurt bacteria - acetobacter - staphyilobacillus - Hansen’s bacillus (leprosy) - staphylococcus - streptobacillus (lactic bacillus) - bacilla - candida albicanis candidiasis

Weeds (12 slides)

Spirogyra - fitoplancton diatomee - brown alga ovary, t.s.Posidonia Oceanica leaf, t.s. - peacock feather, t.s. - Laminaria’s thallus, t.s. corallina officinalis - halopteris scoparia - nostoc - ulva (sea lettuce), t. s. coadieum variegata, t.s. - alga rhizoma.

15902 Mushrooms, lichens, musks (12 slides)

Bread mould - basidiomycet champignon mushroom- gasteromycete of truffle - ascomycetes - polyporaceae (bracket fungi) - fruit mould Xantophyceae’s lichen, t.s. - paramelia lichen, t.s. - Mushroom stem Lichen apothecium- musk’s sporangium - musk leaf.

15903

Morphology of cells(12 slides)

15904

Silica cells (diatomeae) - stone cells (dissociated sclereids) - adipose cells (cut of coffee seed) - scale cells (vegetal hairs of ulive leaf) - secretory cells (fennel thallus) - fibrous cells (thrinax fibres) - spheric cells (equisetum spores) - concretioned cells (orange tree bark) - elongated cells (coconut flesh) polygonal cells (Ceterach Officinarum exfoliated epidermis) - elliptical cells (Lilium pollen) - cylindrical cells (asphodelus, t.s.).

Cell structure (12 slides)

Tannins (carob thallus) - starch (corn seed by-products) - druse (lilium styles) raphides (thallus, cat nail) - nuclei (mixed plants) - aleuron (seeds, wheat bran) - calcium crystals (onion endothelium) - proteins (seeds) - globoids (castor proteins) - chloroplasts (leaves of fig tree and vine) - potato flour(section of potato) - pelargonin (geranium petal).

Page 112 - Section 4 - Microscopy

15905

Vegetable histology 1 (12 slides)

Tracheids of linden tree - collenchyma - lysigenous holes - sclerenchyma fibresepidermis with styles - air pores - cork - xylem, t.s.- xylem, l. s. marrow parenchyma - ringed vessels - chlorophyl parenchyma.

15906

Vegetable histology 2 (12 slides) Cypress pollen - Equisetum thallus- Male pine fower - Monocotyledon roots ulive leaf - Monocotyledon thallus - Female pine leaves Dicotyledon thallus, secondary structure - petiole - pine fresh thallus - pine leaf Monocotyledon’s leaf.

15907

Vegetable histology 3 (12 slides) Dicotyledon roots - Dicotyledon thallus, prime secondary structure - stigma rootstock - eucalyptus leaf - Dicotyledon leaf - Fern leaf Primary dicotyledon root - ovary - flower - bud - style, t. s.

15908

Pollens and spores (12 slides) Gladiolus pollen - Polypody spores - Chanterelle spores - Corn pollen Equisetum spores - pine pollen - passion flower pollen - Llycopodium spores Coprinus mushroom spores - Mimosa pollen- fern spores - Platanus pollen.

15909

Zoology (12 slides) Chromatophores - Copepods - bird feather - dog hair - cycloid scale ctenoid scale - butterfly wing - hydroids- sponge section - nucleated blood holothuroidea spicules - radula.


prepared slides for microscopy

Insects (12 slides) Fly wing -fly leg - bee head - fly head - winged ant wing - bee wing - ant head - mosquito head - butterfly wing - bee sting - diptera larva insect windpipe (thrachea)

15911

Parasitology (12 slides)

15910

Liver with parasites - Lung with parasites - triquina - tapeworm, t.s. - flea birdsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; louse - Mite - zoocecidium - Ascaris, t.s. - fasciola hepatica(liver fluke), t.s.opalina - coenurus. Animal histology 1 (12 slides) Skeletal muscle - Smooth muscle - spongy bone - compact bone diaphanous cartilage - elastic cartilage - mammal blood - adipose tissue (fat) prismatic epithelium - sebaceous gland - multilayered epithelium subjunctive released in the umbilical cord.

15913

Animal histology 2 (12 slides)

15914

Animal histology 3 (12 slides)

15912

Mammal tongue - tooth, t.s. - oesophagus - stomach - reticulum - omasum abomasum - small intestine - large intestine - pancreas - liver - gall bladder. Nose cavity - windpipe - mammal lung -kidney - urethra - urinary bladder - testis - epididymis - ovary - uterine tube - uterus - udder.

15915

Animal histilogy 4 (12 slides)

15916

Petrography (10 slides)

Mammal skin - hair, t.s.. - lynphatic ganglion - heart - artery - vein - marrow cerebellum(little brain) - brain - adrenal glands- thymus gland -spleen.

Skeletal muscle - small intestine - diaphanus cartilage - elastic cartilage compact bone - mammal tongue - mammal stomach - lung - yoghurt bacteria - starch - iris ovary- raphides - dicotyledon thallus - stone cells - pollen ascomycota - butterfly wing - fly leg - sponge spicule - hydroides - bird blood - mammal hair - ctenoid scale - bee wing - spider leg.

15918 Structure and morphology of cells (25 slides)

15919

15921

15600

Silica cells - adipose cells - spheric cells - elongated cells - elliptical cells stone cells - scale cells - fibre cells - concrectioned cells - cylindrical cells polygonal cells - dotted cells - cork-like cells - druse - starch - nuclei calcium crystals- globoids- tannins - raphes - proteins - aleurons - chloroplasts pelargonin - potato flour.

Genaral zoology (25 slides)

Cromatophores - holothuroidea spicules - arachnidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leg - sea crustacean - copepods - winged ant wing - sponge, t. s. - mammal hair - bird blood cycloid scale - wool fibres - head of mosquito - ctenoid scale - radula hydroids - bird feather - diptera wing - diptera larva - fly leg - butterfly wing head of ant - head of fly - bee wing - bee sting - insect windpipe.

General animal histology 1 (25 slides) Skeletal muscle - smooth muscle - compact bone - spongy bone diaphanous cartilage - elastic cartilage - mammal tongue - large intestine small intestine - oesophagus - omasum- reticulum- abomasum -liver - pancreas - gall bladder - bird tongue- frog tongue - nose cavity - windpipe (thrachea) mammal lung - mammal skin - bird lung - pelle di muranca - hair , t.s.

General animal histology 2 (25 slides)

Mammal kidney - urethra - urinary bladder - uterus - uterine tube - testis epidydimis - udder - lymphatic ganglium - adrenal glands - spinal cord - brain - small brain - artery - vein - heart - blood - thymus gland - spleen- ovary bird kidney - fish gonad - lung with parasites - fasciola hepatica(liver fluke), t.s. oesophagus and windpipe of bird.

Fishes, frogs and other amphibians (10 slides)

Dogfish (scyllum) vertebral column t.s. -Fresh water fish, region of gills t.s. Fresh water fish, region of tails t.s. - Fish scales, various types w.m. Tadpole frog, larva t.s. through body - Frog (Rana) blood smear Frog (Rana) tongue t.s. - Frog (Rana) intestine t.s. - Frog (Rana) lung t.s. - Salamander skin, t.s. with poison glands.

15601

Lizard, snakes and bird (10 slides)

Granite - gabbro - gneiss - quartzite - sandstone - aragonite - trachyte - bauxite - syenite - basalt - mica schist - marble -fossil limestone - peridot - diabase - diorite.

15917 General biology (25 slides)

15920

Lizard (Lacerta)wide surface lung t.s. - Lizard (Lacerta) kidney - Adder (Elaphe) muscles of snake t.s. - Adder (Elaphe) stomach with acid glands of snake Goose (Anser) plume feather w.m. - Duck (Anas) gizzard with thicklining t.s.Turkey (Meleagris) wing feather w.m. - Chicken (Gallus) cockscomb, secondary sexual characteristic t.s. - Chicken (Gallus) ovary t.s. - Chicken (Gallus) blood smear.

15602 Bacteria, simple organisms (10 slides)

15603

15604

Hay bacilli (Bacillus subtilis) - Milk souring bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) Putrefaction bacteria (Proteus vulgaris) - Intestinal bacteria (Escherichia coli) - Paratyphoid bacteria (Salmonella paratyphi) Bacillary dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae) - Pus bacteria (Staphylococcus pyogenes) - Bacteria from human mouth - Bacteria from cheese - Bacteria from leaven.

Tropical plants (10 slides)

Epiphytic fern (Platycerium) t.s. - Date palm (Phoenix) t.s. through leaflet. Coconut (Coccus) fibre cells w.m. - Cactus, stem with reduced leaves t.s. Epiphytic orchid t.s. of aerial root. - Lousiana moss, absorbent hairs w.m. (Tillandsia) - Indian rubber tree leaf with crystals t.s. - Coelus t.s. of a square stem. - Begonia, shadow plant - Pineapple (Ananas) tropical fruit t.s

Plant reproduction and propagation (10 slides)

Bacteria rod-shaped bacilli in fission - Seaweed, Focus thallus t.s. Cornsmut Ustilago spore w.m. - Pine (Pinus), male cone with pollen t.s. Pine pollen grains with air bag w.m. - Chive, flower with anthers, ovaries t.s. Lily anthers development of pollen t.s. - Tulip (Tulipa) t.s. ovary with ovules Iris t.s. seed and embryo - Tomato (Solanum) young fruit t.s.

Microscopy - Section 4 - Page 113


Prepared slides for microscopy 15605

Structure of a vegetable cell (10 slides)

15626

Cell reproduction (10 slides)

Mitotic stages in red bone marrow of a mammal Mitotic stages in testis of mouse t.s. (meiosis) Development of sea-urchin egg, cleavage stage Growing egg in ovary of bird t.s. - Plant mitosis, l.s. of onion root tips Plant mitosis, angular vision of onion root tips Growing tissue in asparagus stem apex l.s. Growing pine leaf tissue in shoot apex t.s. The world of a drop of water (10 slides) Plant meiosis, t.s. young Lilium anthers - Mature pollen grains of Lilium w.m. Diatoms, many different forms - Euglena, green flagellate weed Paramecium, ciliates from hay-infusion - Daphnia, water flea 15627 Human pathological tissues 1 (10 slides) Cyclops, a copepod w.m. - Desmids, mixed (Desmidiaceae) Tubercolosis of the lung with bacteria breeding grounds t.s. Mixed plankton from fresh water - Hydra t.s. of the body Cirrhosis of liver with parenchyma isles and connective tissues t.s. Planaria t.s. of body of a flatworm - Bacteria from putrid water. Leukemia of spleen with leukocytes and young cells t.s. Sleeping diease, blood smear with protozoa - Inflammation of the lung, breeding The human tissues 1 (10 slides) grounds arond blood vessels - Malaria, melanemia of spleen t.s. Human blood smear with red and white cells - Human mouth, epithelial cells Scar tissue of skin t.s. - Eberthella typhi (typhoid fever) Human striate muscle l.s. - Human cerebrum t.s. Chronic nephritis: inflamed renal tubules t.s. - Pus bacteria smear with cocci. Human tonsil with lymph nodules, t.s. - Human lung t.s. - Human skin l.s. Human stomach t.s. - Human red bone marrow, blood cell in development 15628 Human pathological tissues 2 (10 slides) Human testis t.s. Miliary tuberculosis of liver - Anthracosis of lung - Malaria parasites in blood Infarct of lung t.s. - Cancer of testis t.s. - Amyloid degeneration of liver The human tissues 2 (10 slides) Influenzal pneumonia - Struma of thyroid gland - Chronic inflammation of colon Human skin, section t.s. of hairs - Human salivary gland t.s. - Human cerebellum t.s. - Metastatic carcinoma of liver. - Bacteria from human intestine - Human spermatozoa, smear Human heart muscle, t.s. and l.s. - Human bone t.s. - Human liver tissue t.s. 15629 The cell and the animal tissues (25 slides) Human intestinal wall t.s. - Human kidney, t.s. of a cortical zone. Squamous epithelium of amphibian - Squamous stratified epithelium - Cuboidal Epithelium - Simple columnar epithelium - Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Animal and human parasites (10 slides) - Ciliated epithelium - Transitional epithelium - Fibrous connective tissue of a Tapeworm (Taenia) t.s. proglottids - Tapeworm (Taenia) eggs w.m. mouse’s tail - Reticular connective tissue - Fat Connective tissue Trichinella t.s. muscle with larvae - Trypanosoma in blood smear Hyaline Cartilage - Elastic Cartilage - Fibrous Cartilage - Human bone tissue Plasmodium, cause of malaria, in blood s.m. - Liver of rabbit, with coccidiosis t.s. - Growing bone and joint cartilage of a fetus’ finger - Fish Blood - Bird blood - Big liver fluke (Fascicola) t.s. - Schistosoma t.s. of male and female (sparrow) - Human blood - Striated muscle, dissociated with whole fibres, nuclei, Hydatide cyst of Echinococcus t.s. - Roundworm of man and pig (Ascaris) t.s. fibrils and striations - Smooth involuntary muscle, dissociated - Cardiac muscle, dissociated with ramified cells, striations and intercalated discs - Muscle and Life in the ground (10 slides) tendon, lateral section - Nerve cells, spinal cord section, Golgi’s method - Nerve, Soil bacteria - Hyphae of root fungi t.s. - Fruiting body of mushroom (Psalliota) cross and lateral section, hematoxylin and eosin stain - Intercostal muscles’ - Horsetail Equisetum - Moss leaf, surface view w.m. - Needle of pine (Pinus) t.s. neuromuscular synapse, auric impregnation. - Venation of a deciduous leaf - Decomposing leaf, formation of humus Mite from forest soil w.m. - Earthworm (Lumbricus) t.s. midbody.

15613

Inhabitants of polluted water (10 slides)

15614

Set for science teaching (10 slides)

15615

Set for biology teaching 1 (10 slides)

15607

15608

15609

15610

15612

Cells with crystals from cactus t.s. - Edelberry, Sambucus stem t.s. Mullein, Verbascum branched leaf hairs - Glandular cells in rosemary leaf t.s. Sunflower leaf with hairs t.s. - Water lily Nymphaea stem, stellate hairs. Dead nettle Lamium stem t.s. - Potato cells with starch grains t.s. Pollen grains, mixed species - Isolated vessels from plant stem.

Spirillum bacteria of highly polluted water Sphaerotilus, bacteria from putrid water Wasserbluthe, blue-green weed of polluted water (Microcystis) Clamydomonas, green alga of euthrophic waters Spirogyra, filamentous green alga of waters rich in organic material Cladophora, branching green alga of clean waters - Rotifers (Rotatoria) Carchesium, bellshaped staked ciliate of not so polluted waters Diatoms mixed algae of not so polluted waters Water hyacinth, eichornia, rhizome t.s. of almost clean waters. Leg of house fly, Musca domestica - Bird feather w.m. - Wing scales of butterfly - Human blood smear - Intestine of rabbit t.s. - Lung of cat t.s. Mixed zoological and botanical plankton - Pollen grains of different plants Foliate leaf with netted venation - Large cells, marrow of edelberry.

Filamentous green alga of freshwater with chloroplasts Mould from bread with mycelium and spoor - Sunflower root t.s. Privet, t.s. of leaf (Ligustrum) with palisade and spongy parenchyma Tulip, t.s. of ovary with ovules - Paramecium ciliates Earthworm t.s. through midbody - House fly, wing w.m. - Frog, blood smear - Chick, skin of a bird l.s. with feathers.

15616

Set for biology teaching 2 (10 slides)

15624

Animal reproduction (10 slides) Tapeworm of sheep, mature proglottid with eggs t.s. Honey bee ovaries of queen t.s. - Fish, testis with spermatozoa t.s. Sperm smear of bull - Testis of bull, spermatogenesis t.s. Ovary of rabbit, ovogenesis t.s. - Fallopian tube of guinea pig t.s. Uterus of pig, resting stage t.s. - Uterus of rat with embryo t.s. Placenta of cat or pig t.s.

Bacteria from sour milk, smear - Moss, leaves t.s. with cloroplasts Yew, young stems t.s. - Hyacinth seed t.s. - Euglena, green flagellate Ascaris, intestine worm t.s. through midbody Honey bee (Apis), antenna with smell organs w.m. - Carp (Cyprinus) t.s. of gills - Liver of rabbit t.s. - Skin of cat l.s. with glands and hairs.

Page 114 - Section 4 - Microscopy


section 5

index Kits

page 116

Botany

page 118

Zoology

page 120

Experiments on human beings

page 121

Human anatomy

page 124

DNA models

page 128

biology

Biology - Section 5 - Page 115


kits supplied items 1 250 ml beaker 1 Test-tubes holder 1 Capillary tube 1 Pencil dropper 1 Enlarger, 7x 1 Aluminum foil 2 Filter paper sheets 1 Pincers 1 Scalpel 1 Scissors 2 Graduated cylinders, 100 ml 1 Glass tube 1 Sachet of seeds 1 Plugs-piercer 1 Funnel 1 Spatula 2 Jars for crops 1 Rubber plug with hook 2 A4 thin cardboards

10 1 5 1 2 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Peat discs Mortar and pestle Plastic bags Section of stem Petri dishes Test-tubes with plug Jars with plug Plastic bag Elastic Bottle of mixture for chromatography Bottle of vaseline Bottle of Lugol’s solution Bottle of fertilizer Bottle of sand Bottle potassium permanganate Bottle of distilled water Bottle of denatured alcohol Experiments guide Small case

5674 DISCOVERING THE PLANT KINGDOM 20 experiments CONTENTS

1. The roots: osmosis 2. The roots: roots-hair 3. The roots orientate 4. The stem: morphology 5. Underground stems 6. The stem: the capillarity 7. The leaf: the chlorophyll 8. The leaf: the photosynthesis

5674

supplied items 1 250 ml beaker 1 Test-tubes holder 1 Pencil dropper 1 Magnification lens, 3x 1 Capsule Ø 60 mm 1 Pincers 1 Scalpel 1 Scissors 1 Teaspoon 1 Set of three shells and two insects 1 Black paper sheet 1 Funnel 1 Gauze 1 Rubber teat 1 Basin 1 PH indicator, 1-10 1 Humidifier 1 Stickers sheet 5 Petri dishes

9. The leaf: the perspiration 10. The leaf: the starch 11. The flower: morphology 12. The seed: morphology 13. The seed: germination 14. The fruit: the pulp 15. Carbon dioxide development 16. Construction of an herbarium

Basic and intermediate level

1 10 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Straw Test-tubes with plug Jars with plug Bottle of calcium sulphate Bottle of distil water Bottle of denatured alcohol Bottle of Lugol’s soluion Bottle of starch Bottle of ammonia Bottle of sand Bottle of dehydrated albumin Bottle of hydrochloric acid Bottle of hydrogen peroxide Bottle of water lime Bottle of biuret Baking soda’s bottle Experiments guide Small case

5675 DISCOVERING THE ANIMAL KINGDOM

20 experiments CONTENTS

1. The annelids 2. Molluscs 3. Molluscs’ shells 4. Insects 5. Insects’ development 6. Mammals’ traces 7. Digestion of starch

8. Digestion of fats 9. Digestion of proteins 10. Enzymes 11. Taste buds 12. Breathing 13. PH and organic reaction

To perform the experiments on digestion of fats and proteins it is necessary to buy pepsin and pancreatin in a pharmacy.

5675

Page 116 - Section 5 - Biology

Basic and intermediate level


kits 5630 the plants

33 experiments

CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Roots classification The roots: osmosis The roots: roots-hair Roots orientate Stem’s classification The stem: morphology Underground stems The stem: capillarity The leaf: chlorophyll The leaf: photosynthesis The leaf: perspiration The leaf: starch

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

The flower: morphology The flower: reproductive organs The weeds Ferns - musks - lichens Fungus - moulds - yeats Morphology of the seed Seed’s classification Fruits’ classification The fruits: pulp Carbon dioxide’s development Vegetables’ stored substances Vegetables’ classification

supplied items 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Beaker, 400 ml 1 Beaker, 600 ml 1 Graduated cylinder, 250 ml 6 Test-tubes, 16x160 mm 5 Solid plugs for test-tubes 1 Test-tubes holder 1 Capillary glass tube 1 Ruler 1 Tripod support 1 Glass tube 6 Test-tubes,20x200 mm 2 Clock glasses, Ø 60 mm 1 Pencil dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scattered grid 1 Portable microscope 1 Enlarger, 7x 1 Aluminum sheet 1 Endosmometer 1 Wooden pincer 6 Colourings for microscopy 5 Plastic bags 3 Filter paper sheets 1 Handle needle

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 30 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 10 2 9 3 3

Pincer Scalpel Scissors Funnel Pipette Graduated cylinder, 100 ml Teaspoon Glass tube Sachets of seeds Jars for culture Plugs-piercer Ground and seeds container Peat discs Pack of sample-holder slides Pack of sample-cover slides Mortar and pestle Rubber plug with hook Drying frame Humidifier Steel pivots Punctured plexiglas disc Plastic bags Stickers sheets Dried plants Stem sample, vertical section Stem sample, horizontal section

10 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Petri dishes Jars with plug Bottle of soluble starch Bottle of Fehling A Bottle of Fehling B Bottle of biuret Bottle of distil water Bottle of denatured water Bottle of Sudan III Bottle of sodium chloride Bottle of methylene blue Bottle of nutrient agar Bottle of rose bengal agar Bottle of fertilizer solution Bottle of mixture for chromatography Bottle of sand Bottle of Lugol’s solution Bottle of Vaseline Experiments guide Small cases

5630

Advanced level

5631 Animals and humans

35 experiments

CONTENTS

1. The protozoa 2. The annelids 3. The shellfishes 4. The molluscs 5. Molluscs’ shells 6. The insects 7. Insects’ development 8. The anthill 9. Anatomy of the fish 10. Habitat e life conditions 11. Animal cells 12. Glandular tissues

To perform experiments on digestion of fats and proteins, it is necessary to buy pepsin and pancreatin in a pharmacy.

13. Muscle tissues 14. Digestion of starch 15. Digestion of fats 16. Digestion of proteins 17. Enzymes 18. Blood 19. Osmotic pressure 20. Respiration 21. Skeleton 22. Skin appendages: fishes and reptiles 23. Thermal insulation: birds and mammals 24. The pH and the organic reactions

supplied items 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Beaker, 400 ml 1 Beaker 600 ml 12 Test-tubes,16x160 mm 4 Plugs for test-tubes 1 Test-tubes holder 1 Thermometer, -10 +110OC 1 Tripod support 3 Pencil dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scattering grid 1 Pocket microscope 60-100x 1 Magnification lens 3x 1 Funnel 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Spoon with spatule 1 Agitator 25 Paper filter discs 1 Insect collector 6 Colourings for microscopy 1 Pincer 1 Scalpel 1 Scissors

1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 2 10 3 1 1

Aquarium - ground container with cover Basin for dissection Pipettes Aereator with tube Pack of slides for samples Black paper sheets Shells collection Insects’ collection Set of slides, coats , plumes, flakes Gauze Rubber teat Punctured plexiglas disc PH indicator, 1-10 Peat discs Pack of sample-holder slides Pack of sample-cover slides Slide with hollow Humidifier Stickers sheets Petri dishes Jars with plug Trasparent tube in PVC Bottle of Lugol’s solution

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Bottle of starch Bottle of ammonia Bottle of distil water Bottle of sodium hydrate Bottle of denatured alcohol Bottle of methylene blue Bottles of sand Bottle of dried albumin Bottle of hydrochloric acid Bottle of hydrogen peroxide Bottle of water lime Bottle of sodium carbonate Bottle of biuret Bottle of NaCl, 0,9 % Bottle of NaCl, 6 % Bottle of bicarbonate of soda Experiments guide Small cases

Advanced level

Biology - Section 5 - Page 117


botany 5661

5667

5661 Set for the demonstration of plants’ respiration

To demonstrate that, during cellular respiration, the plants absorb oxygen

5663 Set for the demonstration of germinating seeds breathing

To demonstrate how seeds absorb oxygen during the germination period.

5664 Set for the demonstration of CO2 emission and heat

production in germinating seeds

For the study of two other phenomenon of the germination phase of seeds.

5665 Set for the demonstration of plants’ traspiration

To demonstrate that, during the cellular respiration, the plants absorb oxygen and for the quantification of the phenomenon in different environmental conditions with different plants.

5666 Set for the demonstration of radical pressure 5663

5665

To demonstrate the existence of the radical pressure’s phenomena.

5667 Set for the demonstration of aquatic plants’ respiration

To show how during the phenomena of photosynthesis, the plants emit molecular oxygen.

5668 Dutrochet’s endosmometer for the demonstration

of osmotic pressure

To show how plants absorb water through the osmosisi phenomenona

5669 Set for the demonstration of mineral salts absorption in plants

To demonstrate the difference in the development between plants fed with mineral salts and plants which are not fed.

7235 Kit of seeds and green plants

This kit includes everything necessary to allow the student to make plants sprouting and to record the changes during a specific period of time. An english teaching guide is included..

HS2840 Root, stem and leaf’s section

5664

It is a model in relief in which the main parts of the root, stem and leaf are highlighted. Fitted with english teaching guide and coloured transparent sheets. Size: 46x62 cm.

HS2830 Section of flower

5666

It is a model in relief in which the main parts are highlighted: stem, petals, styles, and pistils. Fitted with english teaching guide and coloured transparent sheets. Size: 46x62 cm.

5668 HS2830

5669

Page 118 - Section 5 - Biology

7235

HS2840


botany 5660 Plant Physiology

10 experiments

supplied items

This kit includes all the items previously described. Repeated items have been eliminated in order to reduce total cost. CONTENTS 1. Introduction: atmospheric pressure 2. Respiration in germinating seeds1 3. Heat production in germinating seeds 4. Respiration in germinating seeds 2 5. Absorption of oxygen in plants 1 6. Absorption of oxygen in plants 2

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Production of oxygen in aquatic plants Dutrochet’s endosmometer Radical pressure Water rise in plants due to transpiration Absorption of minerals in plants

1 Test-tube, 30x3 mm 1 Three-necked Woulff’s flask, 500 ml 2 Glass tubes with tap and plug 1 Funnel 1 Round-bottomed flask, 500 ml 1 Thermometer with plug 1 Three-necked glass tube with plug 1 Capillary tube, 300 mm with white plate and plug 1 Glass tube 1 Endosmometer 1 Metallic bar 2 Pincers with clamp 1 Suction pump 2 Bottles of distilled water

5660

7212

7212 Potometer

1 Bottle of water barite 1 Beaker, 600 ml 1 Aluminum tripod support 1 Test-tube, 16x160 mm 1 Clamp, Ø 13 mm 2 Flasks, 250 ml 1 Ring support 1 Bar, 25 cm 1 Pair of tubes with tap 2 Blower 1 Bottle of caustic potash 1 Bottle of sodium chloride 2 Bottles of coloured liquids 2 Bottles of fertilizers 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

Item for measuring the plants’ water absorption speed. It consists of a bottle for water, a glass support for plants and a graduated tube for measuring.

HS2850 Model of germination

On this model in relief the germination of monocots and dicots plants is shown. The students can notice the similarities and the differences in seed’s development according to both cases. Fitted with english teaching guide and coloured transparent sheets. Size: 62x46 cm.

MBT004 Peach blossom

HS2850

This model shows the basic structure of the peach blossom: the receptacle, the calyx, the corolla, the stalk and the pistil. The ovary can be opened, showing the two pendulum ovules and the placenta. Diameter: 35 cm.

T21019 Modular cherry blossom with fruit

This model shows the cherry blossom (decomposable in 3 parts) enlarged 7 times and the fruit enlarged 3 times. The wrapper which contains the seeds can be extracted. Height: 32,5 cm..

T21016 Apple blossom

This model shows the features of a typical apple blossom, enlarged 5 times. Height: 46 cm.

MBT006 Root

This model shows the morphology of a root’s cross and longitudinal sections, its internal structure included. Size: 60x20x17 cm.

MBT004

T21019

T21016

MBT006

Biology - Section 5 - Page 119


botany - zoology MBT005

MBT005 Dicotyledon’s stem

MBT022

This model shows the histological structures of a dicotyledon’s stem in the cross and longitudinal section. Size: 48x20x10 cm.

MBT022 Pollination process

Model of angiosperm flower which shows the process of its dual pollination. Size: 33x26x3 cm.

MBT007 Leaf

This model shows the vessels and the internal and external structure of a leaf. Cross and longitudinal sections. Size: 46x29x16 cm.

TE07 pH meter for soil

MBT007

To measure soil’s acidity degree.

TE08 Igrometer for soil

To measure soil’s humidity degree. With buil-in light meter to check if plants are correctly exposed to light.

TE04 Germination fay

Made of plastic with plexiglas transparent cover with two boles. Size: 35x23x20h cm.

H20

Transparent plastic basin

Size: 18x11x14 cm, with cover.

7007 Landing net

TE08 - TE07

TE04

Suitable for collection of small fishes and insects. Length: 32 cm.

7008 Dissection table

It consists of a metallic plane covered by a washable layer. Size: 28x20 cm.

7006 Insects collector

H20

It consists of a transparent plastic container with cover, equipped with two transparent small flexible tubes.

7217 Berlese’s selector

Item for the extraction of microartropodes from soil’s samples. The lamp progressively dries up the soil and there are the animals move to the bottom, they go through the support net and fall in the alcohol solution that fix them. For the observation of this fauna, the stereomicroscopes mentioned on pages 150-151 are particularly indicated.

HS2057 Animal and plant cell with activity set

7007

7008

These are two decomposable models which permit to explore the structure and the functions of the animal and plant cells. It is fitted with coloured transparent sheets and with an english teaching guide. Models’ diameter: 20,5 cm.

HS2055 Animal Cell

Model of cell that allows to explore the structure and functions of the animal cell.

HS2056 Plant Cell

7006

HS2055

Model of cell that allows to explore the structure and functions of the plant cell.

HS2057

7217

HS2056

Page 120 - Section 5 - Biology


Experiments on Human being 7016

7016 Kit for experiments on digestion

Particularly suited to primary school.

Contents 1. Digestive system 2. Proteins digestion 3. Fats digestion 4. Food route supplied items 1 Beaker, 100 ml 1 Agitator 2 Test-tubes with plug

1 Dropper 1 Bottle of chloride acid 1 Experiments guide

7023

To perform the experiments on fats and proteins digestion it is necessary to buy pepsin and pancreatin in a pharmacy.

7023 Kit for experiments on digestion

7 experiments

Suitable for secondary school. Contents: 1. Digestion of starches 3. Digestion of proteins supplied itEms 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Beaker, 100 ml 1 Test-tubes holder 1 Pencil dropper 1 Agitator 25 Filter paper discs 1 Alcohol burner 1 Tripod support 1 Flame-scattering grid 1 Spoon

2. Digestion of fats 4. Enzymes 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Test-tubes with plug Bottle of dentured alcohol Bottle of Lugolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s solution Bottle of starch Bottle of albumin Bottle of chloride acid, 10% solution Bottle of biuret Experiments guide Small case

7017

To perform the experiments on fats and proteins digestion it is necessary to buy pepsin and pancreatin in a pharmacy..

7017 Kit for experiments on breathing

This kit allows yuo to simulate the functioning of lungs during the two phases of breathing and to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air. supplied items 1 Pulmonary model 1 Breathed for carbon dioxide 1 Vacuum pipette 1 Bottle of water lime

1 Tripod support 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

7035 Model of eye with light source

7035

Basic level

Thanks to this model it is possible to test the physical functioning of the eye. It is made of synthetic material and it has a wooden stage. The crystalline lens is made of flexible matter containing silicone oil: Through the water pressure held in a syringle it is possible to bend it in order to vary the focal length since. The distance cornea-retina is adjustable, it is possible to highlight the main defects of the sight and find the way to correct them by suitable lenses. The item is fitted with corrective lenses, with vision object and projector with transformer. Size of the stage: 32x10 cm.

7035.1 Model of eye without light source

Like the previous one but without projector.

7200 Kit on the consequecences of smoking

This kit has been designed to show to the students the smoking effects on our organism and to convince them to avoid smoking. It consists of: 25 filters with support, vacuum pump e comparision sheet for the determination of the quantity of tar in cigarettes. The kit allows to perform 5 different didactic activities. The cigarettes are not supplied.

Intermediate and advanced level

7200

7201 Set of spare filters for the kit on smoking effects

Set of 25 spare filters.

7223 Pulmonary capacity meter

Blowing the lung air into the cylinder through a straw, the piston raises. Thus it is possible to evaluate the volume of the inhaled air. With teaching guide.

3104 Stetoscope model

This model of stetoscope is very similar to the one used by doctors to auscultate.

7223 3104

Biology - Section 5 - Page 121


Experiments on Human beings 5719 EXPLORING OUR SENSES

The sense organs are the instruments through which the body can receive and process the stimuli coming from outside. With the material provided in this collection teachers can enrich their lessons through the exhibition of sense organs’ models and conducting meaningful experiments, on physical and chemical stimuli. Even the students, divided into six working groups, can perform simple experiments through which: - they acquire the knowledge that every sensation contributes to the perception of the outside world; - they learn to distinguish the information coming from each sense; - they learn the potentialities and limits of their sense organs and the hygienic standards for their correct use; - they understand the importance of the connection between the sense organs and the brain in perception.

supplied items 1 Linear ruler 6 Droppers 1 Tuning fork with case and small hammer 1 Vibrating plate 1 Stetoscope 1 Ultrasonic whistle 1 Xylophone 1 Electrical Newton disc 6 Stereoscopic glasses 2 Binoculars 6 Magnification lenses

1 1 2 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1

Solar energy motor Batteries-holder Connection cables Plastic tubes Kit for the study of eyes and its defects Ink pad Kit of different items Anti-acoustic pannels Kit of different substances Tastes’ kit Punctured aluminum plate Small sphere with wire

notice

To perform the experiments on eye and its defects, it is necessary to have a magnetic blackboard because the pentalaser and the five lenses are magnetized. the purchase of the blackboard code 1329 is suggested, it can be hung on a wall or placed on a table .

1 1 1 1 1 1 6 3 6 6 6 1

Digital thermometer Model of eye Model of ear Model of skin Model of tongue Model of nose Petri dishes 250cc beakers Teaspoons Tables on eye’s strucure Tables on resolving power of the eye Snellen chart

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 1

Tables on eye blind spot Tables on images’ persistence Tables on spatial synthesis of colours Tables on visual axis convergence Tables on geometrical optical illusions Tables on chromatic optical illusions Tables with Braille’s alphabet Sheet Stereoscopic figures Small case Experiments guide

5719

Intermediate and avanced level

Page 122 - Section 5 - Biology


Experiments on Human being CONTENTS TOUCH

1° The skin 2° Skin’s sensibility 3° Touch’s stimuli 4° Pressure’s stimuli 5° Pain’s stimuli 6° Temperature & heat 7° Thermal stimuli 8° Hot and cold receptors 9° To see through the touch 10° THE FINGERPRINTS 11° THE SKIN’S HYGIENE

SIGHT

1° Light sources and illuminated bodies 2° Light propagation 3° light transports energy 4° The eye: a light’s receiver 5° Lenses 6° The eye as an optical system 7° Eyes’ defects and their correction 8° Resolving power of the eye and visual acuity

9° The eye-brain system 10° The persistence of images on the retina 11° Temporal synthesis of colors 12° Spatial synthesis of colors 13° Binocular vision 14° Sense of depth 15° Stereoscopic vision 16° Field of view 17° Optical illusions 18° How to help the sighT

OLFACTION 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8°

WHAT’S THE MATTER LIKE THE MATTER’S AGGREGATION STAGES CHANGES OF STATE THE NOSE: The Organ of smell HOW SMELLS ARE DETECTED HOW SMELLS ARE IDENTIFIED HOW WE GET USED TO SMELLS The NOSE’S HYGIENE

TASTE

1° The tongue and the taste buds 2° How we feel different tastes

3° 4° 5° 6°

The four main tastes Taste and olfaction The taste and the sight Good and bad smell

HEARING

1° The oscillating motion 2° Graphical representation of the oscillating motion 3° When we hear a sound 4° Why we hear the sounds 5° Acoustic waves 6° How the acoustic waves turn into sounds 7° The ear: a receiver of acoustic waves 8° The ear-brain system 9° The limits of audibility 10° The distinctive features of sound 11° The sensibility of auditory apparatus 12° How to reinforce the auditory sensibility 13° The stereo phonics 14° Echo, reverberation and boom 15° Cure of auditory apparatus

70 EXPERIMENTS

Biology - Section 5 - Page 123


Human anatomy The sets mentioned in this section include a plastic table in relief, some transparent sheets for overhead projector and a teaching guide which consists of: a general introduction, an explanation on how to use the model, some questions to ask the students and their answer and in the end a legend-glossary.

HS2671

SET OF TEACHING ACTIVITIES

HS2671 Circulatory apparatus

Protruding model of circulatory system which gives a sectional view of the internal structure of heart, of kidney, of an artery and of the blood vessels that go through the human body. It is fitted with english teaching guide and transparent sheets. Size: 62x46 cm.

HS2672 Breathing apparatus

Protruding model of breathing system which gives a sectional view of the skull and of the human torso, of the bronchial tube and of the pulmonary alveolus. It is fitted with three transparent sheets which clearly show the connection between breathing and anatomical adjacent structures, and an english teaching guide. Size: 46x62 cm.

HS2673 Digestive system

Protruding model of the digestive system that gives a sectional view of the mouth, of the salivary glands, of the oesophagus, of the stomach, of the pancreas and of the intestine. It is fitted with transparent sheets and with an english teaching guide. Size: 46x62 cm.

HS2674 Nervous apparatus HS2672

HS2673

Protruding model of nervous system which gives a sectional view of the brain, of the spinal cord and of the spinal nerves with dendrites and synapses. It is fitted with transparent sheets and english teaching guide. Size: 62x46 cm.

HS2675 Urinary tract

Protruding model of urinary tract in which the kidney is shown in details, illustrating an enlarged nephron. Other highlighted elements are the bark, the pyramid, the calyx and the papilla. It is fitted with transparent sheets and english teaching guide. Size: 62x46 cm..

HS2667 Mitosis

Protruding model that illustrates the somatic cell division, carefully describing the 5 phases of mitosis. Some important structures are highlighted, such as cytoplasm nucleus, nucleolus, chromatic wires, etc. It is fitted with transparent coloured sheets and with an english teaching guide. Size: 46x62 cm. . HS2668 Meiosis Protruding model illustrating the meiotic cell division. Students can study the trasmission of parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; specific features and observe the enlargement of chromosomes, cytoplasm and chromatic and polar bodies. It is fitted with transparent coloured sheets and english teaching guide. Size: 46x62 cm.

HS2674

HS2675

Page 124 - Section 5 - Biology

HS2667

HS2668


human anatomy

ANATOMICAL MODELS

GD0101

GD0101 Human skeleton, 170 cm

Human skeleton made of unbreakable plastic, standard model. Natural modelling of an high quality male skeleton. All the apertures, the openings and the anatomic details are carefully reproduced. The skull can be decomposed into three parts: cranial vault, cranial base and jaw. Skull, arms and legs are jointed. Model mounted on a movable tripod with small wheels. Height:170 cm.

GD0111 GD0141

GD0111 Human mini-skeleton, 85 cm

Human mini-skeleton made of unbreakable plastic, standard model. Natural modelling of an high quality male skeleton. All the apertures, the openings and the anatomic details are carefully reproduced. Model mounted on a fixed steel tripod. Height: 85 cm.

GD0102 Human skull

Life-size modelling of an high quality human skull. All the anatomic details, apertures and openings are carefully reproduced. Thanks to a specific manufacturing process, the denture is reproduced with great care as regards the position of teeth and the interdental system. The skull is decomposable in three parts: calotte, cranial base and jaw.

GD0141 Vertebral column

Flexible, with pelvis, occipital bone, nerve endings, vertebral artery and herniated disc spine lateral between the third and the fourth lumbar vertebra..

GD0206 Mini-torso with removable head

Approximately the life size. The mini-torso is a small model that corresponds to the bigger anatomic models as regards the implementation and the details. It is decomposable into 11 parts and it is mounted on a plastic stage. Height: 45 cm.

GD0102

GD0202 Human torso masculine - feminine

Human torso, life size, decomposable into 38 parts. All the details, the colours and the openings are made of high quality plastic and are carefully reproduced. The model includes the masculine and feminine genital organs. Height: 85 cm.

GD0203 High Quality Model of sexless human body, with open back

Natural-size human body, which can be dismantled into 17 parts. This model is characterized by the very high quality of the details and the superior colour reproduction. In addition, the type of plastics used contributes further to make this model particularly realistic. Height: 85 cm.

GD0501 Muscular system

Model of the human masculine muscular system. Removable pectoral muscles. It is possible to remove the internal organs. Model mounted on a rectangular stage. Height: 85 cm.

GD0203

GD0304 Brain

Human brain model, decomposable into 8 parts. The arteries are carefully reproduced and the model is mounted on a plastic stage. Natural size.

GD0501

GD0304

GD0202

GD0206

Biology - Section 5 - Page 125


HUMan anatomY GD0307 Eye

GD0314

GD0307

Enlarged 5 times, decomposable into 6 parts: sclera with cornea and muscle listings, vascular tunic with retina and iris, vitreous humor and crystalline lens. Mounted on rectangular plastic stage. Size: 13x14x21 cm.

GD0309 Ear

Enlarged approximately 3 times, decomposable into 4 parts. The external auditory meatus, the middle and inner ear, the eardrum with the hammer and the removable incus are visible. Mounted on a rectangular plastic stage. Size: 34x16x19 cm.

GD0314 Larynx

GD0309

Model enlarged approximately 2 times and a half. Epiglottis, vocal cords, movable arytenoid cartilage, not decomposable. Mounted on a rectangular plastic stage. Size: 14x14x28 cm.

GD0311 Teeth set

These anatomic models of 3 different human teeth show the morphological differences between the bucktooth, the canine tooth and the premolar tooth. The dissection of the canine and premolar teeth shows their internal structure. Models enlarged approximately 12 times.

GD0313 Jaw

GD0313

D15

D15

Enlarged model of young manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s half jaw, decomposable into two parts. The teeth, their roots, the nerve endings, the boold vessels and the gum are stressed. Two teeth are removable and decomposable. Model enlarged approximately 3 times.

Decayed tooth Upper molar with three roots, enlarged approximately 15 times, decomposable into to 6 parts: longitudinal section of the crown and two roots, the pulp and three interchangeable components showing the progressive stages of decays formation. Mounted on support. Size: 18x18x24 cm.

GD0312 Model for dental hygiene

Enlarged approximately 6 times, the model shows the denture and the palate of an adult and it is suitable to demonstrate the dental hygiene. It is fitted with a big size toothbrush. Size: 18x23x12 cm..

GD0322 Heart

Model of human heart, natural-size, decomposable into two parts. Vision of the atriums, of the ventricles and of the cardiac valves. Mounted on a rectangular plastic stage.

GD0321 Heart

GD0312

GD0322

Model of human heart enlarged approximately 6 times, decomposable into 6 parts. Thanks to the openings of the front part, it is possible to see the ventricles and the under valvular apparatus. The right auricular appendix which includes the roots of the big vessels and the pulmonary valve, is removable so that the atrium right of the heart become visible. The left atrium of the heart become visible detaching another part. The aortic valve is removable. Mounted on a plastic rectangular stage.

GD0331 Skin section

Table model, enlarged approximately 40 times. On every half you can see the 3 layers of the scalp and of the skin without hair, with hair roots, sweat glands, etc. Size: 24x3,5x15 cm.

GD0321

GD0311

Page 126 - Section 5 - Biology

GD0331


human anatomy G300 Circulatory system

G300

Protruding model, approximately half of the life-size. Schematic representation of the human bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vascular system. Size: 45x20x3 cm.

GD0319

GD0319 Lungs

This model shows the segments of the right lung and left lung, the bronchial tube and the windpipe. The lungs are shown in blacklight. Mounted on a plastic stage, Natural-size

GD0320 Pulmonary alveolus

This model shows the distribution of the terminal bronchioles in the lung ad its relation with the pulmonary alveolus. Mounted on plastic stage. Size: 20x15x14 cm.

GD0326 Stomach

Model of enlarged stomach, decomposable into two parts. The internal and external walls of the stomach are represented, with a part of the oesophagus and duodenum. Mounted on a rectangular plastic stage. Size: 19x12x25 cm.

K20

Digestive system

Natural-size. The model shows the digestive tract from the oral cavity to the rectum. The tract head-oesophagus-stomach-intestine (detachable transverse colon) and the bottom part of the liver with the gall bladder are represented.

GD0320

GD0324 Liver

Model of liver, natural-size, not decomposable. The four liver lobes, the gall bladder and the vessels are represented. Mounted on a rectangular plastic stage. Size: 18x12x18 cm.

GD0325 Pancreas

Model of pancreas, natural-size, not decomposable. It can be mounted on the stand of the liver model code GD0324 together with it, as shown in the picture.

GD0327 Kidney

Enlarged model of kidney, section. Mounted on a rectangular plastic base.

GD0327

GD0328 Male urogenital system

This model shows the external features and the structure of the male urogenital system, including kidneys, the urinary bladder, the penis and the testicles; mounted on a circular plastic stage. Size: 20x20x50 cm.

GD0326

GD0329 Female Urogenital System

Feminine version of the model GD0328.

GD1501 Simulator of vertebral discopathies

This innovative model illustrates the damaged mechanism of a spinal disc herniation. The simulator demonstrates how the intervertebral disc prolapses when flexing the vertebrae, reproducing what actually happens when bending or twisting the trunk. Given the diffusion of vertebral damages, therapists may find this model very useful to teach patients the proper spinal columnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behaviours and motions. This model is of great help in medicine, physiotherapy, surgeries, prevention of risks in working places, ergonomics, physical education and other fields. The model is composed of two vertebrae with an elastic intervertebral disc, spinal cord and spinal nerves. Size: 12x11, 5x9 cm, weight: 0.6 kg.

GD1501

GD1501

GD0324

K20

GD0325

GD0328

Biology - Section 5 - Page 127


Human anatomy AND Model of DNA TA2001

TA2002

TA2003

TA2005

WALL TABLES

TA2001 Human skeleton: Front view, 84x200 cm. TA2002 Human skeleton: Rear view, 84x200 cm. TA2003 Human musculature: Front view, 84x200 cm. TA2005 Human musculature: Rear view, 84x200 cm. TA2004 Circulatory system: 84x200 cm. TA2037 Nervous system: Front view, 84x200 cm. TA2038 Nervous system: Rear view, 84x200 cm. TA2008 Torso: 84x118 cm. TA2036 Breathing organs: 84x118 cm.

MKS122/2

TA2043 Digestive system: 84x118 cm. TA2018 Flow of blood: 84x118 cm. TA2027 Human cell structure: 84x118 cm. TA2031 Blood: composition: 84x118 cm. TA2049 Cell division: mitosis: 84x118 cm. TA2051 Cell division: meiosis: 84x118 cm. TA2020 Male genital organs: 84x118 cm. TA2021 Female genital organs: 84x118 cm. W19204 Kit for models of nucleic acids

7300

W19205

It consists of colored units (phosphoric group, purine and pyrimidine) that enable the creation of DNA molecules and of various types of RNA. It can also be used to explain the self-duplication and reproduction.

MKS-122/2 Kit for DNA model This kit for educational activities includes carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen atoms of different colours, with different holes, and the respective connections to create the molecular structures of the nucleotides which compose theDNA helix. It is fitted with a pedestal which support the different models. It is fitted with an instructions guide for assembly. Height: 12 cm.

7300 DNA Double Helix Model (cheap model)

Simple but complete DNA model, dismountable. Ideal for students. Height: 60 cm.

W19205 DNA Double Helix Model

It consists of three DNA double helix made of nucleic acids to demonstrate the possible pairing between nitrogen bases. On the top there is a RNA filament to show the principles of DNA transcription. It is fitted with stage. Height: 31 cm.

7237 How to use DNA in police investigations

One of the methods used by the police to solve a murder is to examine the DNA of the fingerprint found on the criminal scene. The students study the bases of DNA through the fingerprints and learn the extraction and the structure of DNA. Fitted with teaching guide.

7237 W19204

Page 128 - Section 5 - Biology


section 6

index Kits

page 130

Kit for environmental analysis

page 131

Items for samples collection

page 134

Digital instruments

page 134

Stations for the detection of air pollution

page 136

ECOLOGy

Ecology - Section 6 - Page 129


KiTS supplied itEms 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Bended tube with plug 1 Flask, 100 ml 1 Pencil dropper 1 Tripod support 2 Candles with candles-holder 1 Funnel 1 Agitator 20 Paper discs 1 Plexiglas plate with stem 1 Plastic bag 1 Spoon 3 Samples with known pH 1 Cylinder, 100 ml 1 Seeds sachet 3 Small vases for culture 1 Syringe with tube 1 pH indicator, 1-10 3 Petri dishes

3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Test-tubes with plug Jars with plug Alcohol burner Flame-scattering grid Bottle of denatured alcohol Bottle of clay Bottle of water lime Bottle of chloride acid, 10% sol. Bottle of sodium chloride Bottle of sodium hydrate Bottle of gravel Bottle of sand Bottle of chloroform Bottle of barium chloride, 10% solution Bottle of methylene blue Bottle of Griess reagent Bottle of Nessler reagent Bottle of humus Experiments guide Case

5676 Man and environment

23 experiments

Contents 1. The soil - Mineral and organic fraction 2. Porosity of the soil 3. Acidity of the soil 4. The carbonates in the soil 5. The agricultural soil 6. Water cycle

7. Drinking water 8. Water pollution 9. Search for pollutants 10. Atmosphere 11. Air pollutants 12. Acid rain 13. Greenhouse effect

5676

Basic and intermediate level

supplied items 1 Beaker, 100 ml 1 Beaker, 400 ml 1 Thermometer, -10 +110OC 1 Tripod support 1 Flask, 250 ml 1 Pencil dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scattering grid 3 Candles with candles-holder 1 Pocket microscope, 60x-100x 1 Glass bended tube with tap 10 Filter paper discs 1 Plexiglas plate with stem 1 Water collector 1 Agitator 1 Funnel 1 Breathed 1 Aquarium 1 Plastic bag 1 Spoon 1 Seeds sachets 3 Small vases for cultures 1 Enlarger, 7x 1 Fan with support 1 Aereator with tube 2 Syringes with tube 1 Gauze 1 pH Indicator, 1-10

5632

Page 130 - Section 6 - Ecology

3 1 1 1 1 10 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Samples of known pH pH-meter for soil Graduated cylinder, 500 ml Pack of samples-holder slides Pack of samples-cover slides Petri dishes Test-tubes with plug Jars with plug Test-tubes holder Vacuum pipettes Bottle with plug Bottle of clay Bottle of gravel Bottle of water lime Bottle of sodium chloride Bottle of denatured alcohol Bottle of chloride acid, 10%sol. Bottle of methylene blue Bottle of sodium hydrate Bottle of Griess reagent Bottle of Nessler reagent Bottle of Chloroform Bottle of barium chloride, 10% sol. Bottle of sand Bottle of humus Experiments guide Small cases A scale not included in the kit is necessary.

5632 ecology 30 experiments CONTENTS 1. The soil - mineral and organic fraction 2. Soil porosity 3. Soil acidity 4. Soil carbonates 5. Agricultural soil 6. The habitat - life in the soil 7. Water cycle 8. The habitat - life in the water 9. Drinking water and its distribution

Advanced level

10. Water pollution 11. Research of the main pollutants 12. Biological indicators 13. The atmosphere 14. Air pollutants 15. Acid rains 16. Greenhouse effect 17. Atmospheric dust 18. Smog and thermal inversion


kit for environmental analysis 7021 water analysis KIT

7021

11 experiments CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Water cycle; rain and rain gauge Drinking water and its distribution; water pollution Biodegradable waste The detection of ammonia The detection of nitrites The detection of sulfates The detection of surfactants Biological indicators Water acidity Use of the universal indicator Use of the pH meter Acid rain

supplied items 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Pencil dropper 1 Enlarger, 7x 1 Funnel 1 Agitator 1 Water collector 1 Graduated cylinder 100 ml 2 Syringes with tube 1 pH indicator, 1-10 3 Solution of known pH 1 pH meter for soil

5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Petri dishes Test-tubes with plug Bottle of methylene blue Bottle of sodium hydrate Bottle of Griess reagent Bottle of Nessler reagent Bottle chloride acid, 10% sol. Bottle of chloroform Bottle of barium chloride, 10% sol. Experiments guide Small case

7022 soil analysis KIT

7022

13 analysis CONTENTS

1. The soil 2. Mineral and organical fraction 3. Soil porosity 4. Soil permeability 5. Soil acidity 6. Soil carbonates 7. Soil ammonia 8. Soil nitrites 9. Soil sulphates 10. Soil surfactants 11. Biodegradability supplied items 1 Beaker, 250 ml 1 Pencil dropper 1 Funnel 1 Agitator 1 Graduated cylinder, 100 ml 1 Spoon 3 Solutions of known pH 2 Syringes with tube 1 pH indicator, 1-10 1 pH meter for soil 5 Petri dishes 1 Pack of 30 filter paper discs

5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Test-tubes with plug Jars with plug Bottle of sodium hydrate Bottle of methylene blue Bottle of Griess reagent Bottle of Nessler reagent Bottle of chloride acidacido, 10% sol. Bottle of barium chloride, 10% sol. Bottle of chloroform Experiments guide Small case

HI4831

colorimetric test

These kits allow the quick and easy determination of the presence of specific ions by means of an high precision comparison scale.

HI4829 Ammonia kit

It uses Nessler method. Range: from 0 to 2,5 ml/l of NH3-N.

When the chlorine is absent, the kit measures bromine through the DPD method. Scale: from 0 to 3,0 mg/l di Br2. . Chlorine kit It measures the values of free and total chlorine by the DPD method. Range: from 0 to 2,5 mg/l of Cl2. Iodine kit By the dpd method it is possible to determine the values of iodine in the absence of chlorine. Range: from 0 to 2,5 mg/l of I2. Phosphates kit Thanks to this kit it is possible to determine the values of the orthophosphates. Range: from 0 to 5 mg/l of PO43-. Iron kit Thanks to this test it is possible to determine the quantity of iron in the solution. Range: from 0 to 5 mg/l of Fe2+ and Fe3+..

HI4830 Bromine kit HI4831

HI4832

HI4833

HI4834

HI4832

Ecology - Section 6 - Page 131


kit for environmental analysis

HI4833

The most accurate method to determine the ion concentration in a solution is the titration that consists in making a known quantity of sample react with a quantity of reagent untill reaching a complete neutralization. This situation can be expressed by the relation:

Cx=

C2 x V2 V1

Where: Cx = concentration of the sample V1 = volume of the sample C2 = standard concentration V2 = standard concentration (determined by titration)

test for titration

HI4810 Dissolved oxygen kit

HI4810

The Winkler method is used to determine the dissolved oxygen. Range: from 0 to 10 ppm of O2. Sample: 5 ml and 10 ml.

HI4812 Hardness kit

A complexometric titration with EDTA is used to determine the values of total hardness in the solution.

Range:

from 0 to 30,0 mg/l of CaCO3. from 0 to 300 mg/l of CaCO3. Sample: 5 ml and 50 ml

HI4815 Chlorides kit

By the mercurimetric method it is possible to get the chlorides values. Range: from 0 to 100 mg/l of Cl-. from 0 to 1000 mg/l of Cl-. Sample: 5 ml and 50 ml.

HI4820 Acidity kit

All kits present the same features.

For titration of sodium hydroxideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standardized solutions, the acidity and the phenolftalein acid.

Range: Sample:

da 0 a 100 ml/l di CaCO3. da 0 a 500 ml/l di CaCO3. 5 ml and 25 ml..

HI4822 Sulphites kit

HI4819

Using a iodometric method it is possible to determine the sulphites levels.

Range: Sample:

from 0 to 20,0 mg/l of Na2SO3. from 0 to 200,0 mg/l of Na2SO3. 5 ml and 50 ml

HI4839 Hydroxide kit

It permits to evaluate the hydroxide concentration in watery solution.

Range: Sample:

from 0 to 1 g/l of OH-. from 0 to 10 g/l of OH-. 5 ml and 50 ml.

combinED test

It is possible to find all the advantages of colorimetric tests and titration in these combinations

HI4819 Acidity, pH, alkalinity and iron kit HI4814 Acidity, alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved

oxygen, hardness and pH kit

HI4817 Alkalinity, chlorides, hardness, sulphites,

Every combined kit includes an electronic pH-meter for a thorough pH measurement. Easy to use, inexperienced users can handle it too.

Page 132 - Section 6 - Ecology

iron and pH kit


kit for environmental analysis 7204 Laboratory for soil analysis

Kit with elements for the determination of: - soil structure - nitrates; - phosphates; - potassium; - pH.

All the materials, chemical reagents and accessories are neatly kept in a small case with shaped internal part. The instructions guide describes in details the possible experiments in order to perfom them in a correct way.

7204

7205 Laboratory for microbiological researches

This kit allows the performance of a wide range of microbiological analysis related to water and soil. It has been designed as a field laboratory in order to use it even in sampling sites. It is possible to perform the following reseaches and analysis: - presence of microorganisms in water; - presence of microorganisms in the soil; - antibioticsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effects; - presence of yeasts in nature; - formation of gas during the alcoholic fermentation; - development and growth of bacterial colonies at different temperatures. Included items: Equipment for filtration under pressure; filtration valve with 3 ports; plastic adapters for filtration; pincers for filters; handle for inoculation; culture soil in sterile test-tubes; culture soil in Petri dishes; discs with sterile filters, cellulose nitrate filters, glass filters. Instructions manual.

7205

7219 Small portable laboratory

It is a portable laboratory for water and soil analysis. Easy and practical to transport in its light and elegant case.

Executable analysis:

There are no disposal issue with these reagents, (both in the concentrated or diluted form) which belong to the zero danger class for water.

pH value of water (from 3 to 9) Nitric acid in water (from 10 to 80 mg/l) Ammonium in water ( from 0,05 to 10 mg/l) Phosphate in water ( from 0,5 to 6 mg/l) Nitrite in water (from 0,02 to 1,0 mg/l) General hardness of water: 1 drop =1 degree (german hardness degree) pH of soil (from 3 to 9) Nitric acid of soil (form 10 to 80 mg/l) Phosphate in the soil (da 0,05 a 6 mg/l) Ammonium in the soil (from 0,05 to 10 mg/l)

Supplied items:

1 Colors table 1 Filter support 1 Enlarger 1 Pincer for the observation of small animals 1 Waterproof mattress DIN A4 for biological test 3 Packs of filter paper for the preparation of soil extractionsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; solution 1 Funnel 1 Bottle, 100 ml 1 Bottle, 250 ml 1 Dispenser for pipettes 6 Plastic test-tubes 2 Droppers Various reagents

Instructions manual.

7219

Ecology - Section 6 - Page 133


sample collection 7206

7208

7207

7206 Sampler for probing

7152

7000

Sturdy tool made of steel which permits to perform ,in an easy and quick way, the probing necessary for soil samples collection. The probing system is particularly useful because it permits to collect soil samples to a depth of about 30 cm. This feature permits to study soil composition, its features and the elements which are present in it, even in depth. The use of the tool is very easy thanks to a transversal bar to support the thrust foot.

7207 Telescopic arm for probing

Arm that can be extended, made of fibreglass. Minimum length, 145 cm, it can be extended up to 275 cm. Suitable for the support of samplers when the distance between user and the sampler is too big

7208 Net for soil probing

Special metallic net, suitable for soil collection and soil sieving. Thanks to it, it is possible to separate materials and small animals from soil. To be used with the telescopic arm code 7207

7209 Multipurpose support pincer

7209

To support bottles for water samples collection. To be used with telescopic arm code 7207.

This sturdy net, made of nylon, permit to collect solid elements which are present in the water or floating on the surface. To be used with telescopic arm code 7207. Diameter 200 mm, depth 310 mm.

7210 Net for water probing

7207

7211 Net for plankton

K325 7210

7207

Special net with dense texture suitable for planktons collection. At the bottom part of the net there is a collection vase(100 ml). Net diameter, 200 mm. To be used with telescopic arm code 7207.

7207 7152 Deep water sampler

7211

This item can be used to take samples of water, from a pond, from a stream, from a pool or from other basin at a measurable depths.

7000 Secchi’s disk

This item permits to perform a qualitative evaluation of turbidity considering water of ponds, pools etc, according to their depth.

digital instruments 7252

7252

Carbon monoxide meter

With this tool you can monitor the level of CO pollution in various environments and check, thanks to warning lights/sounds, when it exceeds the warning threshold. The data can be downloaded on a PC.

FEATURES Two functions: CO (carbon monoxide), Temperature - CO Range: 0 to 1000 ppm Temperature: 0 to 50 °C, ° C / ° F - CO measurement with fast response time - High accuracy and high repeatability Stand-alone device, easy to carry and use - with a CO alarm setting function Large LCD display, high contrast, easy to read - Memory function to hold the display value - Record the Max and Min reading - RS-232 PC and USB interface - Sturdy structure with hard case - Battery powered or with 9Vdc adapter. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Display: 52 mm X 38 mm LCD, dual function. °C / °F selection Alarm Setting: only for CO measurements Data hold: holds the reading on the display Display refresh time: approximately 1 second Auto power off to save battery life or manual through button Zero button to set the zero reading Data output: RS-232/USB Interface * Connect the optional RS-232 cable UPCB-02 * Connect the optional USB cable USB-01 Operating temperature 0 to 50 ° C Operating Humidity: less than 85% RH 1.5 V Power Battery (UM4, AAA) X 6 pieces Weight 336g Size 210 X 68 X 42 mm Accessories Included: Instruction Manual Carrying Case Optional Accessories RS-232-02 Cable UPCB USB cable USB-01 SW-U801-WIN Acquisition software ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (23 ± 5 ° C) CO (carbon monoxide) Range 0 to 1000 ppm 1 ppm resolution Temperature ange 0 ° C - 50 ° C Resolution 0.1 ° C Page 134 - Section 6 - Ecology


digital INSTRUMENTS

This pulse oximeter is equipped with a polarographic probe with built-in temperature sensor that allows a precise measurement of dissolved oxygen. Applications: aquariums, medical laboratories, agriculture, water conditioning, fish farming, mining, education, quality control.

Display: DO measurement range: Resolution: Accuracy: Compensation Temperature Sensor: Control panel knobs: Battery: Operating Temperature: Operating Humidity: Size: Instrument: Probe: Length of sensor cable: Weight:

13mm LCD, 3 1/2 digits 0 - 20.0 mg/l 0.1 mg/l ± 0.4 mg/l (after calibration within 23 ± 5 ° C) Automatic from 0 to 40 ° C ZERO and CAL knob DC 9V 006P 0 ° C - 50 ° C Less than 80% RH 131 x 70 x 25 mm 190 mm x 28 mm diameter 4m 390g (with probe)

Accessories included:

oxygen probe (09N-OXPB Operator’s Manual Spare Probe with diaphragm set, OXHD-04 Electrolyte for OXEL-03 probe

1pcs 1pcs 2 pcs 1pcs

CHT-1

PH-2 Pocket pH-meter

DIST-1 - DIST-3

7253

7253 Oximeter - for measurement of dissolved oxygen

Suitable for measuring the pH of water and soil. Immerse the electrode in the sample in order to perform the measurement. Scale: da 0,00 pH a 14,00 pH. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Precision: ±0,2 pH. Size: 66x50x25 mm probe not included.

HI98128 Portable pH-meter with thermometer

Suitable for measuring the pH of water. Immerse the electrode in the sample in order to perform the measurement. It is supplied with two buffer solutions with pH 4,01 and 7,01 pH for the calibration at 25OC. Continuous functioning: 3000 hours. Range: from 0,00 pH to 14,00 pH. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Precision: ±0,2 pH. Thermometer included with the instrument. Measuring range: from 0,0ºC to 60,0ºC. Resolution 0,1OC. Size: 163x40x26 mm.

HI774P Calibration solutions for pH-meters

2 sachets of 20 ml containing a buffer solution with pH = 4,01 and a buffer solution with pH = 7,01 of potassium acid phthalate. Calibration temperature 25OC.

HI7061M Solution for the cleaning of pH-meters’ electrodes

One 230 ml bottle to clean the electrodes’ junction at least once a week to avoid stopping and keep the precision.

CHT

Digital electronic thermometer

HYG PH-2

HI98128 CHT

With stainless steel penetration probe. Suitable for measuring the temperature in the air, in the liquids and in the soil. Continuous functioning: 3000 hours. Range: from - 50,0OC to + 150,0OC. Resolution: 0,1OC. Precision: ±0,3OC full scale. Size: 66x50x25 mm.

CHT-1 Digital electronic thermometer with cable

The penetration probe is connected with a long cable (1 meter) to the item which has a support to keep its vertical position . Same features of the item code CHT. Size: 106x58x19 mm.

HYG

Hygrometer

It is a small item for measuring environmental relative humidity. Continuous functioning: 100 hours. Range: from 10,0% to 90,0% of R.H. Resolution: 0,1% U.R. Precision: ±3% full scale. Size: 180x30x15 mm.

DIST-1 Meter for dissolved solids

Once immersed in the water under examination, this item endowed with automatic compensation of the temperature gives the concentration of lCaCO3 and MgCO3 in mg/l, that is in ppm (parts per milion). From this measure it is possible to evaluate the hardness of the sample water according to the table reported to the right. It is supplied with calibration solution. Continuous functioning: 150 hours. Range: from 0 mg/l to 1990 mg/l. Resolution: 10 mg/l. Precision: ±2 mg/l full scale. Size: 150x30x24 mm.

DIST-3 Conductivy meter

This item with automatic compensation of temperature gives the measure of the conductivity in µS/cm of sample water. From this measure it is possible to evaluate the hardness of analyzed water. It is supplied with calibration water. Continuous functioning: 150 hours. Range: from 0 µS/cm to 1990 µS/cm. Resolution: 10 µS/cm. Precision: ±2 µS/cm full scale. Size: 150x30x24 mm.

HI7032P Calibration solution for dissolved solids’meters

One bottle of 30 ml containing a solution of potassium chloride standardized with 1382 ppm (mg/l) at a temperature of 25OC.

HI7030P Calibration solution for conductivy meter

One bottle of 30 ml containing a solution with a conductivity of 12,880 µS/cm at a temperature of 25OC.

CONDUCTIVITY TABLE

Pure water 0,055 µS/cm Distilled water 0,5 µS/cm Mountain water 1,0 µS/cm Water for domestic use 500-800 µS/cm

Drinking water Seawater Brackish water

1,055 µS/cm 56 mS/cm 100 mS/cm

WATER’S HARDNESS

Using meters for dissolved solids or conductivy meter it is possible to evaluate, even in french degrees (°f), the hardness of water which depends on the concentration of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Considering that 1 mg/l = 1 ppm corresponds to 2 µS/cm and 1°f corresponds to 10 ppm of CaCO3,we obtain the following

water hardness table µS/cm 0 - 140 140 - 300 300 - 500 500 - 640 640 - 840 more than 840

ppm 0 - 70 70 - 150 150 - 250 250 - 320 320 - 420 more than 420

°f 0 - 7 7 - 15 15 - 25 25 - 32 32 - 42 more than 42

hardness very fresh fresh not very hard medium hardness hard very hard Ecology - Section 6 - Page 135


instruments digital WTT Water test

WTT

This practical and light item is a real portable laboratory to obtain quick and reliable measurements of the four main variables of water:

- temperature - conductivity

- pH - redox potential

Automatic compensation of the temperature from 5°C to 50°C. After having performed the calibration in pH and conductivity thanks to the supplied solutions, fill the chamber situated in the base of the instrument with the water to be analyzed, switch on the instrument and select the desired parameter using the “RANGE” key. Continuous functioning: 200 hours. Size: 150x30x24 mm. Range: Resolution: Precision: Calibration:

TEMPERATURE PH 0.0 - 60.0OC 0.0 - 14.0 pH 0.1°C 0.1 pH ±1°C ±0.2 pH - 2 points

CONDUCTIVITY RP 0 - 1999 µS/cm ±1000 mV 1 µS/cm 1 mV 2% full scale ±5mV 1 point -

LF2400 Photometer for water analysis

LF2400

Specific ions meter designed for an educational use, without compromising the accuracy of measurement. This instrument can measure 50 different parameters to test chemically the quality of water and analyze the presence of several substances and elements with the accuracy of a chemical laboratory. Microprocessor functioning. The RS-232 port permits the connection to the PC and the software permits the configuration of the instrument, the storage of multiple calibration points, the storage of data and their processing.

Supplied items: 1 power unit 2 test-tubes 1 bottle brush 1 USB key 2 5ml syringes. Instructions guide.

1 Pyramidal cover 10 test-tubes 1 USB key 1 funnel

For the purchase of the reagents required to perform the tests with the photometer lf2400, see the guide on PAGE 155

STAtions for THE detection of air pollution 7012 Wall station

7012

Wall application

7014

The station code 7012 has been designed for a first quantitative study of air quality. It can be installed against the wall or on a tripod and it measures the temperature, the humidity and the concentration of carbon monoxide typical of pollution caused by traffic. It is possible to set an alarm that sounds when the CO level exceeds a specific threshold. The supplied sensors are powered by lithium batteries (replaceable) that permit the unit to operate continuosly up to three months. At the end of the measurement, the data are transferred on a pc and seen on a graph. Range: temperature: from -35 to +80OC. Relative humidity: from 0% to 100% RH. CO: from 0 to 200 ppm CO. (Values greater than 800 ppm can damage the sensor)

7014 Station on tripod

Couple of USB sensor

Page 136 - Section 6 - Ecology

As the previous one but on a tripod.


section 7

index Kit

page 138

Instruments

page 139

Wireless meteorological station

page 140

METEROLOGy

Meteorology - Section 7 - Page 137


kit 5654

supplied eqipment 1 Beaker 250 ml 1 Pincers with clamp 1 Erlenmeyer flask 100 ml 1 Stand with rod 1 Test tube 16x160 mm 1 Rubber baloon 1 Tripod stand 1 Alcohol burner 1 Fire-spreading net 1 Max/min thermometer 1 Barometer 1 Psychrometer 1 Transparent tube with stopper 1 Hair hygrometer 1 Complete app. for the study of the Sun 1 Environment thermometer 6 Candles with 3 candle-holders

2080

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Funnel with stopper Anemometer Curved glass tube with stopper Graduated cylinder 250 ml Plastic bag Jar with stopper Fan with stand Plexiglas plate with support Protractor with needle Methylene blue bottle Lime water bottle Denaturated alcohol bottle Didactic guide Cases

2029

2033

5654 METEOROLOGY

25 experiments CONTENTS

1. What is meteorology? 2. Solar radiations 3. Solar irradiation 4. The Greenhouse effect 5. Sun’s apparent motion 6. The seasons 7. The atmosphere 8. The air’s components 9. The air’s temperature 10. The thermometer and the environment. 11. The max-min thermometer

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23.

The air weights The atmospheric pressure The barometer When the air heats up The movements of the air - winds The anemometer The water cycle The rain - the rain gauge Steam in the air Relative humidity-the hygrometer Atmospheric precipitations Weather forecast Le previsioni del tempo

instruments

2080 Wall thermometer

Graduation: -30OC +50OC. Wood stand, white scale.

2038 Indoor and outdoor max-min thermometer

The item is mounted on plastic base and endowed with a small shelter for outdoor usage.

2029 Three-scale thermometer

It is mounted on a wood base.

2033 Psychrometer

2142 2041

2038

Page 138 - Section 7 - Meteorology

It is mounted on plastic base and endowed with two thermometers and respective calculation charts. Dimensions:32x16 cm.

2041 August’s psychrometer It is mounted on metal base and endowed with two thermometers and respective calculation chart. Dimensions: 27x7 cm. 2142 Digital Anemometer This digital anemometer is equipped with a sensor connected to a portable data logger that detects several anemometric parameters simultaneously. • Air speed in different units: Knots, mph, km/h, m/s, ft/min, Bft • Temperature in ° C or ° F • Temperature and wind chill (a measure of the heat lost by the human body because of the wind) • Storing the maximum value • Overload flow indicator • Battery level indicator • Automatic switch-off Specifications: Air speed range: from 0.4 to 30 m / s - 3% speed accuracy - Speed resolution ​​ 0.1 m / s - Temperature: 0 to 50 °C (NTC sensor) - 1% Accuracy Temperature - Temperature resolution 0.1 ° C - 9V battery - Data Logger size 160x74x34mm, weight 34g.


instruments 1055 Wall siphon barometer

It works with mercury and is mounted on metal plank with mobile ruler and short scale. It is supplied with centigrade thermometer

1054

1055

2081

1054 Wall metal barometer

Instrument diameter: 10 cm. Base diameter: 13 cm.

2081 Synthetic hair hygrometer

Diameter: 130 mm.

2109

2109 Rain gauge

For general use.

2060

2098 Rain gauge It is suitable to be driven into the ground and is made of plastic.

2060 Professional rain gauge

This instrument is suitable to measure the precipitations. It is constituted by a stainless steel cylinder with conical mouth, a glass container and a graduated cylinder.

2120 Didactic anemometer

It is easy to be used ; it points out both direction and intensity of the wind.

2083 Meteorological station

Metal structure with shelter for outdoor usage. With: 1 Max-min thermometer -50 +37OC and -30 +50OC. 1 Barometer 940 - 1040 mbar. 1 Hygrometer 0 - 100% Dimensions: 465x125 mm.

2069 Meteorological station

Metal structure with: 1 Thermometer -30 +50OC. 1 Barometer 980 - 1040 mbar. 1 Hygrometer 0 - 100%. Dimensions: 390x173 mm.

2098 2120

2082 Meteorological station

Metal structure. It is endowed with two small shelters for outdoor usage : they allow the station to be positioned both horizontally and vertically. With: 1 Thermometer -20 +60OC. 1 Barometer 920 - 1050 mbar. 1 Hygrometer 0 - 100%. Dimensions: 340x150 mm.

2083

1406 Tornado model

The tornado is a violent air vortex which originates at the base of a cumulonimbus cloud and reaches the ground. The most common cause of a tornado is the whirling turbolence originated by a strong pressure difference between the air next to the ground and the air close to the cumulonimbus cloud. In this apparatus the pressure difference is created by an electric lift pump (we suggest the use of code 1415).

1406

1406

2082

2069

To the lift pump

Meteorology - Section 7 - Page 139


instruments AND METEOROLOGICAL STATION HS2510

Lamp for simulating solar energy

cloud model transparent cover

ice slot

river mountains

2084

stand

water

HS2510 Water cycle model

2084 on 2061

It enables you to visualize the evaporation, the condensation and the precipitation of water thanks to the use of a common table lamp. Didactic guide included. 2084 Meteorological shelter station Forex structure, suitable for outdoor usage. Metal parts made of stainless material. With: 1 Rain gauge 1 Max/min thermometer 1 Barometer 1 Hygrometer 1 Windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s direction indicator with wind rose Dimensions: 33x48x58 cm.

2061 Stand for meteorological shelter station

Made of fire-glazed metal. Dimensions: 35x50x100 cm.

8255 Wireless meteorological station

8255 WIRELESS METEOROLOGICAL STATION

This station, endowed with stand, tripod, guy ropes and wall hold, allows you to monitor from a distance the most important meteorological parameters thanks to its sensors. Every sensor transmits the data in real time to a remote junction box, and it is possible to download the data on the PC. The junction box has a display to visualize the data in real time and to store them.The software is included. Checked data:

- Temperature and heat index; - Relative humidity and dew point; - Windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speed and direction; - UV rays irradiation index; - Atmospheric pressure; - Daily and cumulated precipitations - Weather forecast; - Meteo alarms for each checked measure; - Graphic representation of the data trend in relation to the weather during the last 24 hours; - Visualization of hour, calendar and moon phases.

Page 140 - Section 7 - Meteorology


section 8

index Rocks, fossils and minerals

page 142

Geological models

page 143

Kit

page 144

The Earth and the solar system

page 145

Astronomy and Earth Science - Section 8 - Page 141


Rocks, fossils and minerals 7037

rocks

7037 Collection of 24 rocks

Various origin.

HS2215 Collection of 15 rocks

Various origin.

HS2221 Collection of 15 rocks

Magmatic origin.

HS2226 Collection of 15 rocks

HS2215

Metamorphic origin.

Sedimentary origin.

HS2231 Collection of 15 rocks

minerals

7038 Collection of 50 minerals and rocks

Various origin.

7030 Collection of 9 minerals

Scale of hardness. Without diamond.

HS2358 Collection of 10 minerals

Scale of hardness. Diamond included

HS2310 Collection of 15 gem minerals 7038

Rare minerals considered gemstones: beryl, topaz, rose quartz, turquoise, olivine, corundum, garnet, tourmaline, etc...

HS2305 Collection of 15 natural crystals

These minerals, under specific conditions, have developed a crystal form. The collection includes samples from the six crystallographic systems.

HS2330 Collection of 15 colored minerals

The collection shows the relation between the color of minerals and the chemical compounds inside them.

HS2335 Double refraction, fluorescence, thermal expansion, conductivity, etc.

Double refraction, fluorescence, thermal expansion, conductivity, etc...

HS2251 Collection of 15 ores of common metals 7030

HS2375 Collection of 15 fluorescent minerals

The fluorescence is visible with a short- or long-wave wood lamp.

7010 Collection of 5 minerals .

For stereoscopy.

fossils

7032 Collection of 15 fossils

Different geological eras.

HS3110 Collection of 15 fossils

Paleozoic era.

HS3115 Collection of 15 fossils 7157

Mesozoic era.

HS3120 Collection of 15 fossils

Cenozoic era.

7157 Volcan model

Page 142 - Section 8 - Astronomy and Earth Science

Dimensions: 41x41x21h cm.


GEOLOGICAL MODELS HS501 Set of 4 geological models

HS501

Coasts

Faults

Volcano

Alps’ glacial period

Mountain landscape

Mountain folds

Continental glacial period

Continental glacial period

These models describe in details the surface structures and the cross sections of the four following geological configurations: - the coasts - the faults

- the volcano - the Alps’ glacial period

Every model is tridimensional and can be used both on a table and hanging from a wall. Experiment guide included. Dimensions of each model: 38x31 cm.

HS502 Series of 4 geological models Just like the previous item, but with the following geological configuration: - the mountain landscape - the continental glacial age

- the mountain folds - the coast planes

7046 Sismograph

Simple electrical model (220V), reproducing how a modern sismograph works. It is supplied with a pen and a paper roll. Rotation speed: 1 turns/min. Dimensions: 36x18x15h cm.

HS502

HS555 Geological process kit

With this kit it is possible to perform more than 20 activities aiming at a wider knowledge of the volcano action, of the faults’creation, of the folds and of many other geological processes. It is composed of: a basin, three pieces of flexible foam rubber, three simulated rock structures, an erupting volcano. Experiment guide included.

HS570 Model of the history of the Earth

This tridimensional model links the rock layers with the geological eras. It contains 20 couples of fossils the students have to match with the right layers. Experiment guide included

HS610 Physiographic relief globe

It puts in evidence the cross section of the inner of Earth; it describes the earth crust, the mantle, the inner and outer core. Air density, distances and atmospheric layers are quoted. Experiment guide included.

7046

7148 Ground sieves

Set of four different sieves made of stainless steel. Net links dimension: respectively 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm e 4 mm. They can be piled up and are completed by a collecting tray. Diameter: 120 mm, height: 50 mm.

HS570

HS555

HS610 7148

Astronomy and Earth Science - Section 8 - Page 143


kit Basic and intermediate level

5655

Sun eclipse

Moon phases

5655 THE SUN, THE EARTH AND THE MOON

25 experments

CONTENTS 1. The solar system 2. Solar light’s decmposition 3. Earth’s shape, the horizon 4. Meridians and parallels 5. The Earth’s magnetisms 6. The orientation 7. The Earth’s motions 8. The Sun’s apparent motion 9. The day and the night 10. The height of Sun at the horizon during the daytime 11. The measure of time

12. The time zones 13. The sundial 14. If the Earth’s axis wasn’t inclined 15. Consequences of the inclination of the Earth’s axis 16. Solar irradiation on the terrestrial surface 17. The seasons 18. Earth’s satellite - the Moon 19. The moon phases 20. The eclipses

SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT 1 Map of the Solar system 1 Complete app. for the study of the Sun 1 Stand for the Earth-Moon system 1 Vision tube 1 Horizon disk 1 Linear steel pivot 1 Sun rays model with stand 1 Sphere with linear magnet 1 Compass 1 Metal rod ø 10 mm 1 Arrow with clip

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

Series of 4 cards Time disk Optic projector Steel pivot with an inclinaton of 23O Protractor with needle Sundial model Arm with clip and Moon Moon phases disk with duoble-inclination pivot Clamp Ø 13 mm Push pin Stylus with needle

7227

7227 THE SUN, THE EARTH AND THE MOON

Basic level Page 144 - Section 8 - Astronomy and Earth Science

With the equipment of this kit , students can understand some astronomical phenomena such as: - Sun rising - Sun setting; - The seasons; - The day and the night; - The moon phases. Supplied with english didactic guide


the earth and the solar system HS200 Solar system model

Every planet can rotate individually around the Sun; therefore it is possible to place each of them in the real position they reach on a certain date. Experiment guide included. Sun diameter: 13 cm.

NR1

Electric orbiter

HS200

The item has two switches: the first one turns on the lamp; the second one turns on the engine responsible for the following motion: - Earth revolving on its axis; - Moon rotating around the Earth; - Moon shifting position in respect to the elliptics plane; - Earth-Moon system rotating around the Sun; Experiment guide included.

HS151 Hand orbiter

The item can simulate phenomena of the day and the night,of the seasons, of the moon phases and of the eclipses. Electric lighting of the Sun. Experiment guide included. Total length: 55 cm.

NR1

2074 Apparatus for the study of the solar radiation

This instrument can: - measure the height of the Sun at the horizon; - decompose the sunlight; - verify that the solar irradiation changes according to the latitude and to the season. Experiment guide included.

HS300 Celestial star globe

This item is a transparent sphere Ø 30 cm with the most important constellations on it. Globe, Sun, celestial meridian and celestial equator are all included. Experiment guide included.

HS310 Celestial globe

It is a cheaper version of the celestial globe code HS300. It has the same diameter of the previous item, but no celestial meridian and equator on it.

HS151

HS3010 Dimensions of the Earth Kit

With this kit it is possible to measure the Earth’s sizes and to solve simple problems of astronomical geography. The kit is composed of:

- a globe Ø 20 cm. - a sphere made of transparent material Ø 21 cm. - an inner section of the Earth. - a flexible kilometric scale - a protractor. - support material. - experiment guide.

2074

HS3010

2074

HS300

2074

HS310

Astronomy and Earth Science - Section 8 - Page 145


the earth and the solar system NR13

2075

NR13 Inflatable globe

Diameter: 40 cm.

2075 Magnetic globe

NR4

NR4

The item is a globe with a diameter of 13 cm and a bar-magnet inside it, so to simulate the magnetic field of the Earth. The compass, included in the equipment, allows you to perform experiment on the basic concepts of orienteering.

The geographical globe “Elite 2001” Globe showing physical cartography when its inner lamp is switched off, and physical-political cartography when the lamp is on. Diameter: 30 cm.

4336 Light diffusion Kit

4336

If a solution containing a sulphur salt becomes acid, within 10 minutes sulphur crystals will start to grow progressively. When their dimension becomes comparable with the light wavelength, the light diffusion takes place. According to Rayleigh’s explanation, the blue component is deviated in a much more effective way than the red one, which goes on undisturbed. So it is possible to simulate the phenomenon which cause the sky to be blue and the reddish color of the Sun and of the Moon when they are on the horizon line. With the help of a polarizing filter it is also possible to study the polarization of diffuse light. Optical projector code 4007 is sold separately. supplied equipment: - Basin - Dropper - Glass stirrer

- Half-transparent screen - Polarizing filter

supplied items not included: - Whole milk - Dioptric projector - Transformer to supply power to the projector

- Tripod bases for the projector and translucid screen

7218 Solar system map

4336: the sun setting

Solar system plastic poster;it is updated to the most recent astronomical discovers. There are pictures of the planets, taken from the space probes, whose dimensions are proportional to each other. A line with one mark for every planet’s position is drawn apart to illustrate the distances’ scale. The chart contains the most important physical/chemical data: distance, dimensions, mass, rotation period, revolution period, maximum and minimum temperatures, atmosphere’s components and many other data. The principal features of the planets are reported, enriched by historical notes. The less important elements of the solar system aren’t forgotten as well: asteroids and comets have a full description, with scale map of both asteroid belts. Dimensions 70x100 cm, support rods included.

7218

Solar system map Page 146 - Section 8 - Astronomy and Earth Science


seCTion 9 indeX Kits

page

148

Chromatography

page

152

Periodic table of element

page

152

Molecular models and atomic models

page

153

PH-meters

page

156

Refractometry

page

156

Polarimetry

page

157

Spectroscopy

page

157

Gas laws

page

159

Molecular aspect of matter

page

160

Electrochemistry

page

160

chEMISTRY

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 147


kits SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 Metallic bar 1 Tripod base 1 250 ml beaker 1 Double clamp, Ø13 mm 1 Bar with clip 1 Bent tube with plug 1 100 ml erlenmeyer flask 1 Rubber balloon 1 Thermometer -10+110°C 2 Watch glasses, Ø 60 mm 1 Pencil dropper 2 Candles with candle-holders 1 Tripod support 1 Magnifying glass 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Wooden pincer 1 Magnet 1 Funnel 1 Mohr pincer 1 Bar with ring 1 Strirrer 20 Filter paper disks

30 Centicubes 1 Latex tube 1 Iron cube 1 Sawdust bag 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scatter net 1 Teaspoon 1 Universal pH indicator (1-10) 5 Test-tubes with plug 1 Sulphur bottle 1 Iron filings bottle 1 Sodium chloride bottle 1 Sodium carbonate bottle 1 Copper sulphate bottle 1 Calcium sulphate bottle 1 Iron powder bottle 1 Methylated spirits bottle 1 Hydrochloric acid bottle 1 Potassium sulphate bottle 1 Methylene blue bottle 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

5677 discovering chemistry

22 experiments CONTENTS

1. Alcohol burner 2. Matter 3. Chemical phenomena 4. Compounds and elements 5. The three layers of matter 6. Fusion and consolidation 7. Vaporization and condensation 8. Mixtures: solid in solid

9. Mixtures: solid in liquid 10. Mixtures: liquid in liquid 11. Solutions 12. Crystals 13. Chemical reactions 14. Oxidation 15. Combustion 16. Indicators 17. Acidity analysis

5677

Basic level

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 250 ml beaker 1 Double clamp ø 13 mm 1 Metallic bar 1 Bar with clip 1 400 ml beaker 1 Bent glass tube with plug 1 100 ml erlenmeyer flask 1 Tripod base 2 Rubber plugs 1 Rubber ballons 1 Thermometer -10+110°C° 1 Tripod support 5 20x200 mm test-tubes 2 Watch glasses, Ø 60 mm 1 Pencil dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scatter net 2 Candles with candles-holder 1 Magnifying glass 1 Magnet 1 Funnel 1 Mohr pincer 1 Capsule 60 mm 1 Wooden pincer 1 Bar with ring 1 Stirrer

5627

Page 148 - Section 9 - Chemistry

25 Paper filter disks 1 Electrical kit with battery 30 Centicubes 1 Latex small tube 2 Metallic cubes 1 Sawdust bag 1 Plexiglas plate 1 Sieve 1 Spoon 1 Universal pH indicator (1-10) 1 25 ml cylinder 1 Potassium sulphate bottle 1 Methylene blue bottle 1 Hydrochloric acid solution bottle 1 Copper sulphate solution bottle 1 Methylated spirits bottle 1 Sulphur powder bottle 1 Iron filings bottle 1 Sodium chloride bottle 1 Sodium carbonate bottle 1 Copper sulphate powder bottle 1 Calcium sulphate bottle 1 Iron powder bottle 1 Oleic acid bottle 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

5627 chemical phenomena

26 experiments CONTENTS

1. Alcohol burner 2. Matter 3. How to measure a molecule’s diameter 4. Chemical phenomena 5. Elements and compounds 6. The three layers of matter 7. Fusion and consolidation 8. Vaporization and condensation 9. Mixtures: solid in solid 10. Mixtures: solid in liquid

11. Mixtures: liquid in liquid 12. Solutions 13. Crystals 14. Water cycle 15. Metals and non-metals 16. Chemical reactions 17. Oxidation 18. Combustion 19. Indicators 20. Acidity analysis

Intermediate level


kits 5629 CHEMISTRY

25 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Alcohol burner 2. Mass measures 3. Volume measures 4. Density measures 5. Fusion 6. Consolidation 7. Evaporation 8. Condensation 9. Fractioned distillation 10. Sublimation

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Heterogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtures Solutions Crystallization Synthesis reactions Single replacement reactions Double replacement reactions Decompositions reactions Combustion Organic substances

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 250 ml beaker 1 Double clamp Ø 13 mm 1 Metallic bar 1 Pincer with clamp 1 100 ml beaker 1 Bent glass tube with plug 1 100 ml erlenmeyer flask 1 Tripod base 1 Nozzle glass tube 1 100 ml graduated cylinder 1 100 g scales 1 Thermometer, -10+110OC 1 Tripod support 1 Trasparent rubber tube 3 20x200 mm test-tubes 2 Rubber plugs with opening 1 Watch glass, Ø 60 mm 1 Pencil dropper 1 Alcohol burner 1 Flame-scatter net 1 Candles with candles-holder 1 Funnel

1 Mohr pincer 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Bar with ring 1 Teaspoon with con spatula 1 Stirrer 1 Magnet 10 Filter paper disks 1 Bottle of hydrochloric acid 10% sol. 1 Distil water bottle 1 Sulphure powder bottle 1 Anthracite bottle 1 Iron powder bottle 1 Ammonium chloride bottle 1 Sodium chloride bottle 1 Barium sulphate bottle 1 Copper sulphate bottle 1 Ammonium carbonate bottle 1 Fuel bottle 1 Barium sulphate water bottle 1 Mothball water 1 Methylated spirits 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

5629

Advanced Level

5516 chEMISTRY SET

The four kits mentioned below:

5510 Physical and chemical phenomena 5513 Electrochemistry

5511 General chemistry basis 5515 Organic chemistry

They can be bought separately or as a unique set with a lower cost than the global cost of the four kits because some parts that are repeated in the 4 kits are eliminated when buying the set. The contents and the possible experiments of the set correspond to the sum of those contained in each kit. The kits permit to do experiments related to topics that are part of Chemistry lessons plan in senior high schools. Two main features that make the set particularly efficient: - quick assembly of the different parts and ease of use. These features meet user safety and lack of time; - Contents clearly and unambiguously explained. Each kit is fitted with there us a teaching guide in which every practical experiment is explained in detail. At the end of every experiment a series of questions about the observed phenomena. These kits are an essential aid for teachers and can also be useful for students collective experiments on specific subjects.

5516

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 149


kits SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 250 ml beaker 1 Ø 13 mm clamp 1 Metallic bar 1 Pincer with clamp 1 100 ml beaker 1 Glass tube with plug 1 Tripod base 1 100 ml flask for filtration 6 Test-tubes, 16x160 mm 2 Rubber tubes, 100 cm 1 Tripod support 1 Watch glass, Ø 60 mm 1 Gas burner 1 Flame-scatter net 1 Magnet 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Ni-Cr wire on glass

1 1 1 1 30 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Wooden pincer Bar with ring Test-tubes cleaner Stirrer Filter paper disks Coolant with joint Double flexible spatula 100 ml sprayer Funnel Empty bottle Potassium chloride bottle Fructose bottle Ammonium chloride bottle Sodium sulphate bottle 30% solution of ammonium hydroxide 1 Barium chloride bottle

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Distil water bottle Copper sulphate (hydrate) bottle Iron powder bottle Sulphur powder bottle Methylene blue bottle Ferric chloride bottle Experiments guide Small case

5510 Physical and chemical phenomena

10 experiments

CONTENTS 1. Comparision between two kinds of phenomena 2. Sublimation 3. Filtration 4. Distillation 5. Crystallization 6. Mixtures and compounds 7. Chemical reactions examples 8. Flame tests

5510

SUPPLIED ITEMS 1 250 ml beaker 1 Ø 13 mm clamp 1 Pincer with clamp 1 100 ml beaker 1 Tripod base 1 Funnel 1 Metallic bar 6 Test-tubes, 16x160 mm 1 Rubber tube, 100 cm 4 Rubber plugs 1 Thermometer -10+110OC 1 Tripod support 4 Test-tubes, 20x200 mm 1 Watch glass, Ø 60 mm 1 Pencil dropper 1 Gas burner 1 Flame-scatter net 1 Magnet 1 Mohr princer 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Wooden pincer 1 Test-tubes cleaner 1 Stirrer 1 Ni-Cr wire on glass 1 Test-tubes support

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

1 Asymmetric “U” glass tube with plugs 1 Graduated pipette with joint 1 Steel wool flock 1 Double fexible spatula 1 50 ml graduated cylinder 1 Neutral litmus paper 2 Empty bottles 1 Fructose bottles 1 10% sulphuric acid solution 1 Barium chloride bottles 1 Iron powder bottle 1 Sulphur powder bottle 1 Lithium chloride bottle 1 Sodium chloride bottle 1 Potassium chloride bottle 1 Calcium chloride bottle 1 Strontium chloride bottle 1 Copper chloride bottle 1 Chloroform bottle 1 Magnesium chips bottle 1 Distil water bottle 1 Potassium dichromate bottle 1 1% phenolphtaleine solution bottle

5511

Page 150 - Section 9 - Chemistry

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Sodium hydroxide bottle Calcium carbonate bottle Barium hydroxide bottle Potassium permanganate bottle Potassium iodide bottle Ferric sulphate bottle Lead nitrate bottle Ferric chloride powder bottle 10% chloride acid solution bottle Experiments guide Small case

5511 organic chemistry

11 experiments

CONTENTS

1 . Lavoisier law 2. Proust law 3. Flame tests 4. Acid or basic compounds 5. Precipitation reactions 6. Formation of an aeriform compound 7. Redox reactions

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk


kits 5513 electrochemistry

SUPPLIED ITEMS 4 250 ml beaker 1 Metallic bar 1 Tripod base 1 Pencil dropper 2 Cables, 60 cm 2 Electrodes-holder disks 1 Copper electrode 2 Brass electrodes with fixing bolts 1 Zinc electrode 2 Aligator clips 1 Funnel 2 Mohr pincers 1 Stirrer

9 experiments CONTENTS

1 . Electrolytes conductibility 2. Comparision of electropositivity 3. Daniell battery 4. The electrolysis of a solution 5. The electrolysis of water 6. Electroplating

1 Steel wool flock 1 Cotton flock 2 Batteries 2 Zinc foils 2 Copper foils 1 Symmetric “U” glass tube with plugs 1 Analogical multimeter 1 Voltmeter, joints and electrodes 2 Voltmeter supports 1 Double flexible spatula 1 100 ml sprayer 3 Bottles with plug 1 Sodium hydroxide bottle

1 10% sulphuric acid solution bottle 1 Potassium chloride bottle 1 Distil water bottle 1 Copper sulphate bottle 1 Silver nitrate bottle 1 Zinc Sulphate bottle 1 Sodium nitrate bottle 1 Potassium iodide bottle 1 Chloroform bottle 1 1% phenophtaleine solution bottle 1 Sodium sulphate bottle 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

5513

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

5515 organic chemistry

8 experiments CONTENTS

1 . Carbon and hydrogen in organic substances 2. Search for nitrogen in organic compounds 3. Acetic aldehyde preparation 4. Ethyl acetate preparation 5. Amino acids in proteic substances 6. Test of Fehling on some carbohydrates 7. Identification of a polysaccharide 8. Preparation of bakelite (polycondensation)

Demonstrations from the teacher’s desk

supplied items 2 250 ml beaker 1 Pincer with clamp 1 100 ml beaker 1 100 ml erlenmeyer flask 5 Test-tubes 16x160 mm 1 Thermometer -10+110OC 1 Tripod-stand 5 Test-tubes 20x200 mm 1 Burner with tube 1 Metallic bar 1 Tripod base 1 Flame-scatter net 1 Capsule, Ø 60 mm 1 Wooden pincer 1 Test-tubes cleaner 1 Pencil dropper 1 Stirrer 1 Ni-Cr wire on glass 1 Red litmus paper 1 Symmetric “U” tube with plugs 1 Water bath support 1 Double flexible spatula 1 25 ml graduated cylinder

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Sawdust bag Copper oxyde bottle Barium hydroxyde bottle Sodium hydroxide bottle 95% ethyl alcohol bottle Potassium dichromate bottle 1N sulphuric acid bottle, 10% solution Fehling A reagent bottle 1N chloride acid solution, 10% solution 1% ninidrine alcoholic solution Fehling B reagent bottle Fructose bottle Glucose bottle Lactose bottle Starch bottle Potato flour bottle Bisublimate iodine bottle Potassium iodide bottle Distil water bottle Phenol bottle Ant aldehyde bottle Experiments guide Small case

5515

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 151


chromatography 5517

supplied items 1 250 ml beaker 1 100 ml beaker 1 100 ml erlenmeyer flask 1 Filter paper sheet 1 Chromatography tray 10 Plates for chromatography 1 Funnel 1 Mortar 1 Scissors 1 Pipette 1 100 ml sprayer 4 Test-tubes with plug

1 Glass test-tube 30 Filter paper disks 1 Pencil dropper 1 Acetone bottle 1 Ether oil bottle 1 Ethyl alcohol bottle 1 Alumina bottle 1 Chloride acid bottle, 10 % solution 1 Solution 1% of ninidrine 3 Coloured inks bottle 1 Experiments guide 1 Small case

5517 Chromatography

contents 1. Chromatography on common filter paper 2. Division of pigments contained in green leaves through chromatography on paper 3. Division of some amino acids deriving from protein thanks to chromatography 4. Division of colorings in an ink 5. Separation of a colouring mixture using column division chromatography

6237

5 possible experiments

6237 Replacement plates for chromatography on thin layer

Pack of 10 plates, 100x100 mm.

6261

Paper for chromatography

Pack of 100 pieces. 110x140 mm sheets

Periodic table of elementS 6300

6300 Periodic table

Updated periodic table, laminated and fitted with support bars. The main physical and chemical features of every element are mentioned, essential for every laboratory. A graphic illustrates the energetic level of the orbitals which determines the sequence of the periodic tableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s blocks. It is very interesting to notice the mathematically correct represantation of the orbitals s, p, d and f. Even the recent chemical elements are present. The numerical data are updated according to the 2001 IUPAC recommendations. Size 100x70 cm.

6301 Periodic table for students

Page 152 - Section 9 - Chemistry

Periodic table, graphically the same as code 6300, but with A3 (42x29,7 cm) format. This model is not fitted with support bars.


Molecular models and atomic models 5716 Atomic model

This model helps the students to understand the atom, because it permits to create different atoms using coloured spheres which represent the protons, the neutrons and the electrons. The holes on the plate are ordered according to the different energetic levels of the orbit. In this way it is possible to understand the chemical links, the isotopes, the emission spectra and other matters concerning the atom. Size:475x475 mm. Fitted with english instruction guide.

5716

MM003 Organic chemistry (teachers)

In order to compose organic compunds’ structures such as alcohols esters, alkalis, amino acids, sugars, etc. The pack constis of: 40 hydrogen atoms, 24 carbon atoms, 12 oxygen atoms, 4 nitrogen atoms, 8 halogen atoms, 8 sulphur atoms, 4 metal atoms, 55 bridges for simple connection, 25 bridges for double and triple connection, 60 caps for connections

MM051 Organic chemistry (students)

Suitable for groups of students. The pack consists of: 28 hydrogen atoms, 4 carbon atoms, 4 nitrogen atoms, 6 oxygen atoms, 8 chlorine atoms, 2 bromine atoms, 2 iodine atoms, 2 metal atoms, 40 bridges for simple connection, 50 bridges for double and triple connection.

MM003

MM004 Organic and inorganic chemistry

Fitted with organic and inorganic molecules, complex ions and covalent hydrogen. The package consists of: 14 metal atoms, 14 hydrogen atoms, 8 halogen atoms, 22 oxygen atoms, 13 sulphur atoms, 10 nitrogen atoms, 12 carbon, 7 phosphorus, 38 medium bridges, 50 bridges for simple connection, 38 bridges for double and triple connection

7041 Organic and inorganic chemistry

The different components of this set permit to create a wide range of inorganic and organic compounds’ molecules and crystalline structures. The size of the components permits both the teacher to use them for desk demonstration and the students to perform group practical experiments.

The components contained in a wooden box are as follows:

MM051

CONNECTIONS

ATOMI N. Descrip. Connections Angles (mm) Colour

N. Shape Length. Colour

(mm)

50 Carbon

4

109°

30

Black

100 Linear

40

Green

48

Carbon

5

120°,90°

30

Black

75 Linear

50

Yellow

40

Hydrogen

1

23

Orange

40 Linear

25

Yellow

14 Sodium

6

90°

23

Grey

10 Linear

120

White

13 Chlorine 4 Oxygen

6 2

90° 105°

30 30

Green Sky-blu

10 Curve

80

2 Nitrogen

4

109°

30

Blue

2 Chloride 1

30

Green

1 Sulphur

30

Yellow

2

90°

Red

7041

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 153


Page 154 - Section 9 - Chemistry


Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 155


pHmeters PH-3

8083 Spare solution for the preservation of pH sensor probe

Packaging of 500ml.

PH-2 Pocket pH meter

Measuring range: 0-14 pH. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Built-in electrode.

PH-3 Portable pH meter

Measuring range: 0-14 pH. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Electrode included.

HI98128 Portable pH meter with thermometer

Measuring range: 0-14 pH. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Temperature: 0,0°C - 60,0°C. Built-in electrode included

PH-4 Portable pHmeter-thermometer with measuring

PH-2

device for redox potential (ORP) Measuring range: pH: 0-14. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Temperature: 0-100°C. Resolution: 0,1°C. ORP: from -1999 to 1999 mV. Resolution: 1mV. Supplied with: pH/mV electrode, temperature probe and 2 single-dose sachets with buffer solutions for pH 4,01 and 7,01 calibrations.

HI98128

PH-5

PH-5 Bench pHmeter-thermometer

Measuring range: pH: 2-16. Resolution: 0,01 pH. Temperature: 20-120°C. Resolution 0,1°C. ORP: from -1999 to 1999 mV. Resolution 1mV. Supplied with: pH/mV electrode and temperature probe Holder for electrodes. Adapter and calibration solution

Buffer solutions for calibration of pH meters

HI7004L Buffer solution: pH 4,01, 500 ml. HI7007L Buffer solution: pH 7,01, 500 ml. HI7010L Buffer solution: pH 10,01, 500 ml. HI8033

PH-4

HI8033 Portable conductivity meter

Very practical item for measuring by using three different scales of conductivity: from 0,0 to 199,9 µS/cm; from 0 to1999 µS/cm and from 0,00 to 19,99 mS/cm. It is fitted with TDS scale (Total Dissolved Solids), from 0 to 19990 mg/l CaCO3. Fitted with conductivity probe.

Solutions for the calibration of the conductivity meter

HI7030M 12,880 µS/cm; 230 ml. HI7035M 111,800 µS/cm; 230 ml. HI7061M Cleaning solution for pH meters’ electrodes

hr-120

hr-150

A 230 ml bottle for the cleaning of electrodes’ joint, at least once a week, in order to prevent stoppings and preserve the precision.

Refractometry

2WAJ

The operation mode of refractometers is based on the principle that the refractive index of a solution is proportional to the concentration of a solute. Thanks few drops of the sample it is easy to define the concentration of the substances. This simple and accurate method is usually used to measure the concentration of sugar solutions (Brix). The refractometers are also used in food field for products such as maramalades, fruit juices, syrups, wine, honey and so on.

HR-120 Portable refractometer

0-32% Brix, precision ±0,2%, division 0,2%.

HR-150 Portable refractometer

0-50% / 50-80% precision ±1%, division 1%.

2WAJ Abbe bench refractometer

Page 156 - Section 9 - Chemistry

Main prism: horizontal. Secondary prism: hinge mounted. Refraction index range: nD 1,300 - 1,700. Precision: nD ±0,0003. Division: nD 0,0005. Sugar range: 0-95% da nD 1,300 - 1,530. Precision: 0-50% = 0,2%; 51-95% = 0,1%. Division: 0,25%. Weight: 4 Kg. Size: 140x100x235 mm.


refractometry - polarimetry POLARIMETry

POL-1

POL-1 Bench polarimeter

Used for measuring the concentration of optically active substances(for example sugars) in a solution. With monochromatic light source (sodium lamp, 589,3 nm). Measuring range: ±180°. Precision: 0,05%. Division: 1°. Magnification: 3x. Eyepiece: with time focusing. Stabilization time: approximately 5 min. Polarimetric tubes: 100 mm and 200 mm. Size: 510x135x380 mm. Power supply: 220/240V 50Hz, 30W.

spectroscopy CL45240 Bench spectrophotometer

Universal item which permits, through a physical analysis, to check the presence and concentration of the ions in a solution. Knowing the radiation wavelength of an element and selecting the instrument according to this value you can obtain the measurement of the intensity of the radiation absorbed and transmitted by the own element in correspondence to the wavelength. Depending on this measurement, the instrument is able to offer the ions’ concentration directly. Supplied with: experiments teaching guide with charts mentioning the wavelength of elements’ radiation.

Technical features: Possible measures: absorbance (A), transmittance (%T), concentration (C). Bandwidth: 20 nm. Accuracy: -2,5...+2,5 nm. Wavelength measuring range: from 340 to 900 nm. Reproducibility: 1 nm. Photometric linearity: 1 nm. Photometric range: 0-100%T, 0-1,999A, 0-199C. Photometric stability: 1%T/hour.

CL45240

4126 Pocket spectroscope

Used to analyse the emission and the absorption of spectral radiation. Model with direct vision of the spectrum’s image

EMX155 Didactic spectroscope

4126

EMX155

Semiprofessional model with Amici prism, with adjustable opening. Fitted with cuvettes-holder for the analysis of absorption spectra. An adjustable mirror allows to project a reference spectrum in the eyepiece’s field.

4028 Kirchhoff-Bunsen spectroscope

Mounted on a circular metallic base, it consits of: 1 collector with adjustable opening, 1 collector with eyepiece e cross grid, 1 collimator with graduated scale. The opening of the collimator is fitted with a small prism that permits to compare the spectra of two different sources. While the collimator, fitted with achromatic objective (28 mm) is fixed on the base, the collector fitted with the same objective can rotate on an alidade keeping its direction axis in the middle. The collimator is orientable too and it projects the image of the graduated scale in the eyepiece of the collector through the reflection on a face of the prism. The latter is an equilateral prism made from highly dispersive material and mounted on a central rotating disc. Fitted with operation sheets.

4028

4209 Spectrometer

Very good quality instrument both for the optics and for the mechanics. It permits to measure precisely the deviation angles of the optical rays, it allows to define the refraction index of solid and liquid substances and the wavelength of monochromatic sources. Base: made of fire -painted cast iron, Ø 17,5 cm and divided in 360° with precision: 1°. Equipped with two vernier which are diametrically opposed and permit to value 1/10O. Telescope: fitted with achromatic objective with focal length of 178 mm and with a 15x ey piece. Fitted with fine focusing. Collimator: fitted with achromatic objective with focal length of 178 mm and adjustable opening with continuity up to 6 mm. Plane of the prism: Vertically and horizontally adjustable, equipped with small clamps for fixing the grid diffraction. Diameter: 80 mm. Supplied accessories: 1 Flint equilateral glass prism: 30x30 mm; 1 diffraction grid: 500 lines/mm; 1 magnification lens. Size: 48x33x33h cm. Weight: 12 Kg.

4209

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 157


spectroscopy

NEW PRODUCT: The CCD matrix spectrophotometer! A truly innovative tool for spectroscopic analysis which can perform, with the same accuracy and reliability, all the operations made by traditional and sophisticated bench spectrophotometers, but with a much superior speed, simplicity and efficiency. In fact, with the AMADEUS or RED TIDE spectrophotometer, you can immediately see the entire spectrum of the absorbance or transmittance curve, without having to manually set the individual wavelengths. A refined software allows to obtain the coordinates (intensity - wavelength) for each point of the curve, with a resolution between two consecutive peaks of only 2 nm! The standard mode measures the intensity; on the Y-axis the photons that affect the pixels of the CCD matrix are counted during the exposure time of each pixel to the light (100 ms). OPERATING PRINCIPLE The light signal is brought in through a slit with a diameter of 50 microns and then returned and dispersed, through a system of multiple reflective mirrors, on a CCD matrix grid that contains hundreds of small sensors aligned so that each matrix sensor controls a wavelength. The number of photons hitting each sensor is converted into a voltage signal, which in turn is converted into an intensity value on the Y-axis. VERSATILITY The device is suited for a variety of applications both in physics and in chemistry and is very useful in ecology for the recognition and quantification of dissolved substances. The software allows, among other applications, to fill the space beneath the curve with the corresponding colours of the visible spectrum between 380 and 780 nm, and to detect the presence of particular substances at the transmittance and/or absorption peaks. HOW TO USE IT: in the AMADEUS model an optical fibre connector located on the bottom is used for absorbance measurement, and one placed sideways for fluorescence measurements. In the RED TIDE model these measurements are carried out directly by exposure to the light source.

Applications in physics: Analysis of the solar spectrum Analysis of the black body spectrum and the Planck curve Analysis of optical filters and interferential film Fluorescence and Stokes’ law Reflection of light from coloured surfaces Analysis of spectral sources (e.g. hydrogen spectrum and Balmer series) Flames analysis Comparison between LED and laser emission

APPLICATIONS IN CHEMISTRY - BIOLOGY - ECOLOGY: Recognition of substances Experiments with the flame Absorbance and transmittance curves Beer’s law by means of potassium permanganate Measurement of the acid dissociation constant (pKa) Spectrophotometric analysis of aspirin Determination of the equilibrium constant Tests on air quality

4152 Spectrophotometer RED TIDE

This model is particularly suited when high accuracy is required. It is powered directly via a USB connection to the PC. For absorbance and transmittance analysis, the cuvette slot is placed directly on the instrument. RED TIDE Specifications Size (mm) 89,1 x 63,3 x 34,4 Weight 190g SENSOR Type CCD linear silicon Pixel 650 pixel enabled Pixel size 14 um x 200 um Pixel capacity ~ 62,500 Sensitivity 75 photons/count @ 400nm OPTICAL BENCH Type f/4 Czerny-Turner asymmetric crossed Focal length 42mm inlet, 68mm outlet Inlet opening 25um microns slit Fibre optic connector SMA 905 Wavelengths Range 350-1000nm USB-650 USB-650-VIS-NIR USB-650-UV-VIS Optical resolution ~2.0nm FWHM Signal-Noise Ratio 250:1 (at full intensity) Resolution A/D 12bit Dark noise 3,2 counts RMS Dynamic interval 2 x 10^8; 1300:1 for a single acquisition Integration time from 3ms to 65s (15s typical) Stray light < 0,05% @ 600nm; <0,10% @ 435nm Linearity Correction > 99,8% Computer Operative systems Windows 98/Me/2000/XP, Mac OS X and Linux with USB port Software Spectroscopy Software SpectraSuite

4152A Cuvette holder unit 4152B Optical fibre cable 4153 Spectrophotometer AMADEUS

Model particularly suitable for teaching purposes in Physics. Equipped with separate power supply unit and cuvette holder with two optical fibre optic connectors. Compared to the RED TIDE, this spectrometer has a lower resolution (approximately 50%) but this feature makes the spectrometric curves “smoother” and therefore allows a more effective approach to teaching. Apart from this, the AMADEUS technical specifications are the same of the RED TIDE model.

Page 158 - Section 9 - Chemistry

4152 4152A

4152

4152B

4153


spectroscopy 4326 Light source for spectroscope

If this item is placed in front of the tube with graduated scale it will illuminate it permitting the user to read the wavelength of the spectral lines. Barrel base (cod. 0010) not included. To be used with a power supplier , 6V (cod. 5011).

4326

4325

4325 Kit for observation of emission and absorption spectral lines

It consists of a small burner in to which to place cotton wool soaked in a saturated solution of alcohol and sodium chloride (included). Observing the flame with a spectroscope it is possible to identify the emission line of the sodium at 589 nm. If a projector (cod. 4007, not included) is switched on behind the flame, it is possible to see a continuous spectrum with the absorption line of sodium.

Kit for tests to flame

4120

This set has been designed to allow students to practice the emission spectroscopic analysis. It consists of:

4123

4035

1 Portable spectroscope 1 Bottle of sodium chloride 1 Bottle of strontium chloride 1 Bottle of barium chloride 1 Bottle of potassium nitrate 1 Bottle of copper nitrate

10 Needles 1 Bottle of potassium chloride 1 Bottle of copper chloride 1 Bottle of sodium nitrate 1 Bottle of strontium nitrate 1 Bottle of barium nitrate.

Kit of spectral tubes with power unit This kit consists of a power unit capable to supply necessary high voltage for the discharge in the 13 analysis tubes which contain the following gases: argo, carbonium dioxide, helium, hydrogen, mercury steam, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, air, water steam, bromine vapours, iodine steam, krypton. See on page 78. Spectral lamps holder with power unit

4035

4120

It consists of a lamp-holder fitted with two hoods, it is adjustable in height in order to obtain a perfect alignement with the collimator of the spectroscope or of the spectrogoniometer. The tranformer is supplied.

4051 4053 4054 4056 4057 4058

Observation of an absorption spectrum

Spectral lamps

To be used with the support cod. 4035. They represent the most suitable light source for spectroscopy.

Cadmium spectral lamp. Helium spectral lamp. Mercury spectral lamp. Sodium spectral lamp. Neon spectral lamp. Zinc spectral lamp.

Spectral lamps 4035

6107 Nickel-Chrome wire for flame tests Glass handle.

6107

Gas laws 1414 Boyle’s law apparatus

1414

A trasparent graduated cylinder is linked with a manometer. Acting on the piston by a screw fitted with knob, it is possible to reduce the volume of the air contained in the cylinder and in the meantime to read the value of its pressure on the manometer. Fitted with digital thermometer.

1137 Charles’ law apparatus

Thanks to this item it is possible to check the law that regulate the variations of a gas ‘volume (at costant pressure) , when its temperature varies. In this way you can measure the dilatation coefficient (at a costant pressure). Burner, tripod and flame-scattered grid are not included.

1137

1122

1122 Gay-Lussac’s law apparatus

Thanks to this item it is possible to verify the law that regulate the variations of a gas’ pressure (at a costant volume), when its temperature varies. Burner, tripod and flame-scattered grid are not included.

1217 Gas’ laws apparatus

It consists of items cod. 1137 and cod. 1122. Its cost is lower than the sum of their two costs, because of the common parts elimination.

Chemistry - Section 9 - Page 159


molecular aspect of the matter 2110

2110 Gas kinetic model

HS7610

Thanks to this model it is possible to simulate thermal agitation of gas’ molecules according to the temperature. In the vertical cylinder there are small spheres which are agitated by a piston linked to a vibrator that works thanks to a small electric motor (3-6 V) characterized by adjustable speed.

HS7610 Radiometer

When the swirl is exposed to a light sources it begins to turn. If the radiation is more intense the speed is greater. This because when the gas’ molecules in the cruet are in touch with the black faces of the small paddles, which are warmer of the white ones due to their higher absorption power, they rebound in a quicker way and they give an higher impulse than the one given by white faces. . This is the reason of the swirl rotation.

2096 Air cushion table for the study of molecular motions

2096 on video projector

The functioning of this item is based on the same principle of the cushion rail. This model of the table (35x35 cm) presents the following advantages: - an increased visibility due to its transparent plate. It can be placed on an overhead projector; - the shocks of moving bodies are not mechanical but magnetic, thus the energy is very low. This air cushion table permits to reproduce many phenomena regarding the following physical processes: 1. Molecular structure of the matter 3. Gases’ kinetic theory 5. Molecular energy and temperature 7. Density distribution 9. Thermal conductivity of solids 11. Electrical conductivity in semiconductors

5167

2. Changes of state 4. Statitical aspects 6. Molecular diffusion 8. Browniam motion 10. Electrical conductivity in metals 12. Rutherford’s atomic model

Didactic guide includes 50 POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS

electrochemistry 5124 Volta’s battery, column type

It consists of zinc and copper parts, divided by small felt discs soaked in an acid solution. Fitted with a bottle of acid solution.

5167 Volta’s battery, cups type

5287

5124

It consists of four serial voltmeters. It is supplied with copper and zinc electrodes, acid solution, cables and a LED mounted on a panel.

5287 Human battery

5102

5113 Apparatus for electrical conductivity in liquids

5113

Putting the hands on two of the four metallic plates (zinc, lead, aluminum und copper), will generate a difference of potential between the plates due to electrical conductivity of human body. This difference in potential can be measured by a millivoltmeter (not supplied). Trying the different combinations among metals, it is possible to perceive the existence of the electrochemical series. Plates size: 15x23 cm. Table size: 23x65 cm.

It consists of 4 parallel bulbs. Electrolytic liquids are to be poured in the four glass beakers, in which the electrodes are located. Thanks to this simple item it is possible to recognize the solutions of electrolytes and study the variations depending on concentration.

5415 Electrolytic cell

COMPONENTS: 1 Small stage with electrodes-holder support 1 Glass beaker, (400 ml, with stage) 1 Iron electrode 2 Copper electrodes 2 Zinc electrodes 1 Sulphuric acid bottle, 10% solution

2 coal electrodes 2 cables 2 lead electrodes 1 Bottle of copper sulphate’s solution

POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS: - Electrical conductivity in liquids - Electricity accumulator

- Volta’s battery - Electroplating

5415 5251

5415.1 Kit of spare electrodes for cod. 5415

Hofmann’s voltameters For checking of Faraday’s laws. With graduated tubes and fitted with metallic support. Height: 70 cm.

5102 With coal electrodes.

Total capacity: 100 ml

5103 With platinum electrodes.

Spare parts for Hofmann’s voltameter 5102.1 Only glass made part. 5165 Carbon electrodes (pair). 5166 Platinum electrodes (pair).

5251 Voltameter for demonstration

Page 160 - Section 9 - Chemistry

Not graduated tubes, closed with rubbber plugs and Mohr pincers. Fitted with support ed coal electrodes. Height of the glass part: 35 cm. Total capaity: 60 ml


section 10 index Software page 162 Interfaces ­­­­­­­­­­ page 163 Sensors kits page 164 Sensors ­­­­­­­­­­page 166 USB sensors page 172 Creative use of the sensors page 174 Mechanics - Translational motion page 176 Mechanics - Rotatory motion page 180 Mechanics - Galileo’s relativity page 182 Mechanics - Oscillatory motion page 183 Fluids’ mechanics page 185 Thermodynamics - Calorimetry page 186 Thermodynamics - Laws of gases page 189 Optics page 190 Electromagnetism page 192 Chemistry-Earth sciences-Biology page 194 Biology kit page 195 Meteorology page 196

ON-LINE science For some years now, a new experimental data detection technique has been introduced in laboratory practice, synthetically defined on-line. This technique uses a system essentially composed of: • Item to perform the phenomenon. • One or more sensors which allow the monitoring of data related to the phenomenon. • An interface which acquires the experimental data trasmitted by the sensors and send them to the pc . • A software for the monitoring of experimental data. • A PC to see the phenomenon and for the analytical management of data . Even if this innovative methodology involves the use of PC, everything which is observed is a real phenomenon (physical, chemical , biological…) in its temporal development. The innovation is in the way of acquiring the experimental data and in their monitoring. The great advantage of this methodology in comparision to the traditional one is the possibility to observe the phenomenon in a graph, to analyzed it simply and quickly in order to obtain a formal representation (modeling) and to define new data combining those obtained during the experiment. Among the numerous options offered by the systems: • Possibility to see the same experiment at different speeds. • To compare in a graphic two experiments related to the same phenomenon but whose initial conditions have been modified. • Possibility to do on-line data collection, even out of school (water , soil, meteorological analysis, etc...) and then analyse them in a laboratory. OPTIKA Company offers to the teachers its technical and didactic consulting both for on-line scientific laboratories and for demonstration at school.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 161


SOFTWARE Simple logger

all the softwares are grouped together in one cd-rom and are supplied free of charges with both the models of interfaces For further informations:www.sciencecube.com

Simple Logger: middle school students Simple Logger teaches while amusing. Born to be used directly by junior high school students, Simple Logger is a measurement program, for data collection and for simple charting.

SC Logger: JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL’S TEACHER Sc logger

ScienceCube SC Logger is a program for data collection to be used for teaching in junior high school. It permits the teacher to illustrates the experiments on the pc or on an overhead projector.

ScienceCube Studio - II: High school ScienceCube Studio - II is a complete program for data collection with possibility of analysis It has been designed for high school, where instruments for a more accurate analysis of data functioning in real time are needed.

ScienceCube Studio

Capture in ExcelTM Now it is possible to capture data directly from MicrosoftTM Excel TM. This additional program, easy to install, allows to create data charts and graphs in real time, to perform units conversions and statistical analysis, to share the data among students.

Sound Wave: sounds analy Excel import data

Sound Wave is an easy program to explore sounds’world. It permits to generate sounds, to simulate a piano’s keyboard, to analyze the waveforms and the spectrum of recorded sounds or of sounds heard through a microphone (not included).

VCA (Video Contents Analyzer): short VIDEO analysis As Pc-cameras availability in creases, thanks to the VCA it is possible to record short videos related to simple experiments and analyze their content extracting position and movement data.

Sound Wave

VCA

Page 162 - Section 10 - On-line science

The program is born for students passionate for pc and it illustrates the different possibilities of image’s analysis.


all the softwares are grouped together in one cd-rom and are supplied free of charges with both the models of interfaces For further informations:www.sciencecube.com

9001 ScienceCube Pro

interfaces 9001

Technical features 1. Size: 160x90x25 mm. 2. Display: monochrome screen 128x64 pixel. 3. Memory: 1 Mb. 4. Data capture: memorization up to 50.000 points and 16 experiments. 5. Battery: rechargeable, lithium polymer ions(1250 mAh), recharged through the USB port of the pc - it permits 48-hours measurements and the memorization of data for at least 3 months. 6. Applicable sensors: up to 3 simultaneously. 7. Sampling time (in real time): 0.05 sec / 3 channels; 0.005 sec / 1 channel. 8. Sampling time (Disconnected from PC): 0.0001 sec / 1 channel. 9. Resolution: 12 bit. 10. Digital input/output: 1 channel. Output: sine wave, triangular, square, serrate, PWM. 11. Communication port: USB, serial. 12. Built-in keyboard: 7 keys. Features 1. Light and portable. 2. It can work even disconnected from the pc (which is needed to recharge the batteries). 3. Ease of use: all the commands are accessible from the menu. 4. No need of special cards or adapters. All the sensors are automatically identified. 5. The wide memory of 1Mb can contain more than 50.000 data. 6. The high-efficiency lithium polymer battery is quick to recharge and lasts for a long time. 7. The data can be captured on field, memorized, and then transmitted to pc. 8. All operations are guided by simple menus. 9. All the experimental results can be turned into graphs.. 10. There are several languages (Italian, English, French, Spanish, , Japanese, Arabic, Thai, etc.) 11. New sensors are continuously developped, the interface can be updated to recognize and use them automatically. 12. Up to 3 sensors can be used simultaneously. 13. The serial port allows the connection to pc without USB port.

9002 ScienceCube Lite II

9002

Technical features 1. Applicable sensors: up to 3 simultaneously. 2. Sampling time: real time mode: - 0.05 sec / 3 channels; - 0.005 sec / 1 channel. High speed mode: - 0.0001 sec / 1 channel. 3. Resolution: 12 bit. 4. Digital input/output: 1 channel. 5. Memory: 1 Mb. 6. Port: USB. 7. Auto identification of the sensors. 8. Automatic update of the firmware. 9. Automatic strobe timing. Features 1. 2.

ScienceCube Lite II has to be connected to a pc. There are 3 screw connectors which permit the use of sensors developped by the user.

Differences between SCIENCE CUBE PRO(9001) and SCIENCE LITE II (9002) - Monitor: included only with 9001 model - Portable: only 9001 model - Graphics display in real time: only 9001 model

- Input channel - 9001: 4 channels, 9002: 3 channels - Powered by Battery: only 9001 model

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 163


sensors kits 9003 Kit for junior high school

9003 - 9004

(With interface ScienceCube Lite II)

(With interface ScienceCube Pro)

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform physics, chemistry, biology and ecologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experiments at junior high school level. Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, maintenance and with suggestion on possible experiments.

9004 Kit for junior high school

1. Interface 2. Manual and software 3. Differential voltage probe 4. Current probe 5. Platinum temperature probe (2 pcs) 6. Thermocouple 7. Differential pressure probe (type B) 8. Photodiode brightness sensor

9005 - 9006

9. Magnetic field sensor 10. Microphone 11. Movement sensor II 12. pH sensor 13. Relative humidity sensor 14. Force sensor II 15. Camera for computer

9005 Kit For senior high schools

(With interface ScienceCube Lite II)

(With interface ScienceCube Pro)

9006 Kit For senior high schools

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to physics, chemistry, biology and ecology at a senior high school level. Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, maintenance and with

9007 - 9008

1. Interface 2. Manual and software 3. Differential voltage probe 4. Current probe 5. Galvanometer 6. Platinum temperature probe (2 pcs) 7. Thermocouple 8. Differential pressure probe (type B) 9. Photodiode brightness sensor

10. Magnetic field sensor 11. Microphone 12. Movement sensor II 13. pH sensor 14. Relative humidity sensor 15. Optical barrier 16. Force sensor II 17. Camera for computer

9007 Physics kit (With interface ScienceCube Lite II) 9008 Physics kit (With interface ScienceCube Pro)

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to mechanics, thermology, optics and electric-physics. Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, mainntenance and with suggestions on possible experiments.

Interface Manual and software Differential voltage probe (3 pcs) Current sensor (3 pcs) Galvanometric sensor Platinum temperature sensor (2 pcs) Differential pressure sensor (type A)

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Photodiode brightness sensor Magnetic field sensor Microphone Movement sensor II Optical barrier (2 pcs) Force sensor II Camera for computer

9009 chemistry kit (With interface ScienceCube Lite II) 9010 chemistry kit (With interface ScienceCube Pro)

9009 - 9010

Page 164 - Section 10 - On-line science

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to diferents chemical matters: gasesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; laws; state changements; exothermic and endothermic reactions, specific colours, acid and bases titration, etc.. Each sensor is supplied with use and maintenance instruction guide, and with suggestions on possible experiments. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Interface Manual and software Differential voltage sensor Galvanometric sensor Platinum temperature sensor (2 pcs) Thermocouple Differential pressure sensor (type B) pH sensor

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

CO2 - Gas sensor Oxygen - Gas sensor Radiation monitor Colorimeter II ORP sensor Conductivity sensor Camera for computer


SENSORs kits 9011 Kit on water analysis

(With interface ScienceCube Lite II) 9012 Kit on water analysis (With interface ScienceCube Pro)

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to water properties: measurement of temperature; of acidity; of turbidity; of dissolved oxygenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quantity; of chromaticity, etc.. Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, maintenance and with suggestion on possible experiments. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Interface Manual and software Differential voltage probe Platinum temperature probe pH sensor

6. 7. 8. 9.

Dissolved oxygen sensor Colorimeter II Turbidity sensor Conductivity sensor

9013 Kit on earth sciences

(With interface ScienceCube Lite II) 9014 Kit on earth sciences (With interface ScienceCube Pro)

9011 - 9012

9013 - 9014

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to earth sciences: convection currents and global warming; CO2 concentration in the atmosphere; concentration of oxygen as an ecosystem parameter; brightness of stars etc... Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, maintenance and with suggestion on possible experiments.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Interface Manual and software Platinum temperature probe Photodiode brightness sensor Microphone pH sensor

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

CO2 - Gas sensor Dissolved oxygen sensor Relative humidity sensor Oxygen - Gas sensor Colorimeter II Camera for computer

9015 - 9016

9015 biology kit (With interface ScienceCube Lite II) 9016 biology kit (With interface ScienceCube Pro)

Thanks to this kit it is possible to perform experiments related to biology: the temperature compatible with life; pressure and CO2; photosynthesis; yeasts; stimuli and responses; etc. Each sensor is fitted with an instruction manual for use, maintenance and with suggestion on possible experiments. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Interface Manual and software Platinum temperatur sensor (2 pcs) Differential pressure sensor (type B) pH sensor CO2 - Gas sensor Dissolved oxygen sensor

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Relative humidity sensor Oxygen sensor ECG sensor Colorimeter II ORP sensor Conductivity sensor Camera for computer

9017 - 9018

9017 Complete kit for general use

(With interface ScienceCube Lite II)

(With interface ScienceCube Lite Pro)

9018 complet kit for general use

1 Interface 2 Manual and software 3 Differential voltage sensor 4 Current sensor 5 Galvanometric sensor 6 Platinum temperature sensor (2 pcs)  7 Thermocouple 8 Differential pressure sensor (type A) 9 Differential pressure sensor (type B) (2 pcs) 10 Photodiode brightness sensor 11 Magnetic field sensor 12 Microphone 13 Movement sensor II 14 pH sensor

15 CO2 - Gas sensor  16 Dissolved oxygen sensor 17 Relative humidity sensor 18 Optical barrier (2 pcs) 19 Oxygen - gas sensor 20 Force II sensor 21 Electrical outlets controlled by interface 22 ECG sensor 23 Radiation monitor 24 Colorimeter II 25 Turbidity meter 26 ORP sensor 27 Conductivity sensor 28 Camera for computer

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 165


sensors 9041

9041 Distance sensor II

9041

Distance sensor II determines the position of objects through the reflection of an ultrasonic signal. It is possible to use the distance sensor in all the experiments where the measurement of objects’ position (pendulum, friction-trolleys and masses motion) is required.

Range: 0 ,16 ~ 6 m (Max. 10m) Resolution: ±1,5 mm Measurement principle: Sonar Field of view: Conical, approximately 15° Sampling frequency: Max. 100 measures/s

4014

Applications: Distance measurement without contact. Channels: the sensor can be used only with the channel A of ScienceCube.

4014 Small support stage for distance sensor

To hold the distance sensor in whatever position.

9019 Accelerometer 5 g

Motion of a bouncing ball 9019

The accelerometer 5 g can be used to measure accelerations both indoors and outdoors. The acceleration is measured along the axis indicated by an arrow situated on the sensor, in units m/s2 or g. The accelerometer is sensitive to the gravity acceleration which can be used both to calibrate the sensor and to use the sensor as an inclinometer.

Complete range: -47 m/s2 ~ +47 m/s2 Linearity range: -19,6 m/s2 ~ +19,6 m/s2 Resolution : 0,038 m/s2 Frequency response : 0~100 Hz

9020 Accelerometer 25 g

The accelerometer 25 g has a larger range than the accelerometer 5 g, thus it is of better use for the study of collisions or for the analysis of the motion with high accelerations such as quick rotatory motions.

Complete range: -245 m/s2 ~ +245 m/s2 Linearity range: -98 m/s2 ~ +98 m/s2 Resolution: 0,2 m/s2 Frequency response: 0~100 Hz

OPTICAL BARRIER AND ACCESSORIES 9046 Photo-Gate

9020

The optical barrier of ScienceCube is a switch which is started by an infrared signal. The infrared trasmitter and receiver are mounted and aligned in a plastic fork. The switch signals the exact moment in which the fork is crossed permitting exact mesurements of times and positions. A second external receiver allows you to use the fork even with an external light source, like the laser, to realize large optical barrier.

Fork Response time: approx. 0,004 ms. External sensor Response time: approx. 0,01 ms.

9047 Pulley for photogate 9048 Red laser pointer 9047

9046

9092 Green laser pointer 9049 Target with sectors for carts 9050 Target with sectors

9046+9047

The target with sectors allows the generation, through the optical barrier, of a series of pulses with a period which is proportional to the speed of the target itself.

9048 9049

Page 166 - Section 10 - On-line science

9050


sensorS 8048 Analog rotation sensor

8048

With analogical output. The shaft fitted with ball bearing rotates at very low friction, allowing experiments on rotary motion conservation laws. The sensor can be mounted with the supplied bar in axial or transverse position. It is fitted with an adapter which permits its use with any interface.

Technical features Transmission pulley ø: 10 mm, 29 mm, 48 mm. Analogical output 0-5 V. Intrinsic resolution of 1°. Three measurement ranges selectable through a diverter: - ± 1 turn (± 360°) with resolution of 1°; - ± 5 turns (± 1800°) with resolution of 3,6°; - ± 10 turns (± 3600°) with resolution of 7,2°.

8048

9032 Force sensor II

The force sensor II measures forces of ±10N and ±80N, with range selectable by the user. It can be used in a fixed position, for the study of oscillations, of weights, or as a simple spring scale, or mounted on a friction-trolley for the study of collisions.

Range: Resolution: ± Type of sensor:

9032

±10N ~ ±80N ±0,0056 ~ ±0,056 extensometric

GAS PRESSURE SENSORS

9033 Differential pressure sensor - type A

The differential gas pressure sensor type A can be used for the study of gases’ general properties, as Boyle’s Law.

Range: -1000 ~ 3000 hPa Resolution: 1,3 hPa Protection range: -1000 ~ 3050 hPa Measurement:differential pressure (relative) Response time: 0,2 ms

9033

9034 Differential pressure sensor - type B

The differential pressure sensor type B is suited for measurements that need an higher precision, even if the dynamics decreases, like the biology experiments related to yeasts’ activity.

9033

Range: ±650 hPa Resolution: ±0,335 hPa Protection range: ±700 hPa Measure : differential pressure (relative) Medium response time: 0,2 ms

9021 Barometric sensor

The atmospheric pressure sensor II (Barometric Sensor) has been especially designed for the study of meteorology. It measures both quick and slow pressure variations.

Range: 0 ~ 2,2068 hPa

Resolution: ±0,6 hPa

Boyle’s law

Fermentation pressure

9021

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 167


SENSORS 9060 Platinum temperature sensor

9060

The platinum temperature sensor allows the measurement of temperatures included between -50°C and +180°C. In comparision with the other sensors, the platinum sensor is sturdier and more stable, it can support for more than 10 minutes the immersion in a solution 1M of HCl. Range: -50°C ~ +180°C Resolution: ±0,06°C

9061 Stainless steel temperature sensor

9061

Range: -25OC ~ +125OC Resolution: ± 0,1OC Type of sensor: Thermistore Protected by stainless steel Response time: 10s (90%) Chemical resistance: 15 minutes (1M HCl)

9062 Thermocouple

9062

The thermocouple is used to measure very high and very low temperatures, such as those of a flame or of dry ice. It has a quick response and an high sturdiness.

Range: -200°C ~ +1200°C Resolution: ± 0,6°C Type of sensor: Termistore Thermocouple type K Protected by stainless steel Linearity: 0 ~ 400°C(±3°C), -200 OC ~ 0°C (±2°C) Chemical resistance: 15 minutes (1M HCl)

9042 Microphone

An example of temperature trend

9042

The microphone can be connected to a computer to observe the waveform, the width, the frequency, the period, the spectrum of the sounds, in the exploration of the sounds’ world related to the music , to everyday life, to the voice and to all the other sources of sound of educational interest.

Range: 20 Hz ~ 20000 Hz; -50 ~ 20 dbVrm

9065 Sound level meter

This sound level meter can be connected to a computer through an interface code 9001 or code 9002, in order to manage the data acquired. Resolution: ± 1,5 dB; Range: 35~ 130 dB

Wave form of the sound of a tuning fork

9065

9052 Photodiode light sensor

The photodiode brightness sensor is used for the measurement of the brightness intensity, for example to determine the relationship between lighting and distance, or for the analysis of photosynthesis processes.

Range: 0 ~15000 Lux Resolution: Depending on sensivity Sensitivity: Low: 0 ~ 15000 Lux Averge: 0 ~ 6000 Lux High: 0 ~ 600 Lux Spectrum range: Wavelength at the maximum sensitivity:

3300Å(330nm) ~ 7200Å(720nm) 5800Å(580nm)

9027 Current sensor

The current sensor can be used to study the principles of electric circuits. It can be used to measure direct or alternating currents included in a Range of ±0,6A. It can be combined to the differential voltage sensor (cod. 9029) to study Ohm’s Laws , the phase relationships in oscillator circuits and so on.

Range: DC -1,0 ~ +1,0 A Resolution: ± 0,6 mA (12bit) Special features: the sensor is galvanically insulated from the ground Maximum power dissipation: Max. 5W

9052

9028 Brightness intensity depending on the distance

9027

Page 168 - Section 10 - On-line science

9028

Galvanometric sensor

Through the galvanometric sensor it is possible to measure currents lower than ±12,5 mA, with a range selectable by the user. It is useful for all the experiments which measure weak currents.

Range: DC ±12,5 mA, ±1,25 mA, ±0,125 mA Resolution : ± 0,06 µA

Special features: the sensor is galvanically insulated from the ground


SENSORS 9029 Differential voltage sensor

9029

Input range: ± 12,0 V Protection range: ±14,5 V Input impedance (forward mass): 10 MΩ Linearity: 0,01% Resolution (on 12 bit): 3,1 mV Supply voltage: 5V DC Supply current (typical): 9 mA Output voltage: 0 ~ 5 VV

9084

The differential voltage sensor can be used to study the principles of electric circuits.It can be used to measure direct and alternating voltages included in a range of ±6,0V. It can be combined to the current sensor (code 9027) to study Ohm’s Laws, the phase relationships in oscillatory circuits and so on. By using more than one differential voltage sensor it is possible to demonstrate the characteristics of circuits in series and parallel

9084 Electric field meter

It permits to measure the electric field generated by electric items to evaluate the compatibility. It can be connected to a computer through an interface code 9001 or code 9002. Resolution: ± 1dB Range: 1 ~ 1,999 V/m. Frequency range : 15Hz ~ 2KHz.

9039 Magnetic field sensor

The magnetic field sensor can be used to explain Lorentz’s Law, Fleming’s Rule, or a variety of experiments on the effects of magnetic fields.

Range: -50 ~ +50 G Resolution: 0,024 G (12 bit) Size: 5,0 mm Type of sensor: radiometric, with linear Hall effect Strobe timing: programmable (Max. 0,1 ms)

9091 Magnetic field sensor fitted with linear ruler

This sensor has the same features of sensor code 9039, but it is also fitted with a linear ruler that allows you to measure the magnetic field in a solenoid.

9039

9091

9083 Magnetic field sensor

It allows you to measure the magnetic field generated by electric items to evaluate the compatibility. It can be connected to a computer through the interface code 9001 or code 9002.

Resolution: ± 1dB Range: 0,1 ~ 199,9 mG. Frequency range : 30Hz ~ 2KHz.

9055 Radiation monitor

The radiation monitor allows you to observe alpha, beta and gamma, radiation, exploring the sources of radiations which are usually present in the environment.

9083

Range: 0 ~ 20 mR/hr (0 ~ 20,000 CPM) Resolution: 1 CPM Operating temperature: 0°C ~ 50°C°

9038 Relative humidity sensor

The relative humidity sensor can be used as part of a meteorology station, of a greenhouse for measurements on plants, or in a terrarium. Range: 0 ~ 100%

Resolution: 0,1%

9055

9038

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 169


SENSORs 9057

9025

9057 Turbidity sensor

Turbidity sensor measures the turbidity of a watery solution. It is useful for an easy and immediate valutation of water, of watercourses or of other natural sources. It’s a compact instrument, easy to use. The calibration is carried out in less than one minute. The turbidity is indicated in NTU, unit used by the main organizations for the analysis of water It needs a high quality glass cell (cuvettes) which is supplied. Range: 0 ~ 200 NTU Resolution: 0,25 NTU

9025 Colorimeter II

9026

The colorimeter II has been designed to study the features of a solution by analysing its colour. It is useful experiments of earth science, water analysis and chemistry. The colorimeter measures the optical transmission of the sample at different wavelengths, selectable by the user. It has to be used with transparent measuring cells (cuvettes). 10 cuvettes are supplied.

Range: Resolution: Wavelength :

0 ~ 100% T 0,035% T 430 nm, 470 nm, 565 nm, 635 nm

9026 Square cuvettes

9023

These cuvettes are suitable for the colorimeter II. Size: 45 X 12,5 X 12,5 mm Material: Optic quality plastic Quantity: 10 pcs per set.

9023 Conductivity sensor

The conductivity sensor can be used to measure both the conductivity and the total ion concentration (TDS) in watery solutions.The measure of the conductivity is one of the most useful teaching experiments for the study of water and environmental impact.

Range: Low concentrations: 0 - 200 µS/cm (0 -100 mg/L TDS) Medium concentrations: 0 - 2000 µS/cm (0 - 1000 mg/L TDS) High concentrations: 0 - 20000 µS/cm (0 - 10000 mg/L TDS)

9044

9030

Resolution: Low concentrations: 0,025 µS/cm (0,05 mg/L TDS) Medium concentrations: 0,25 µS/cm (0,5 mg/L TDS) High concentrations: 2,5 µS/cm (5 mg/L TDS)

9044 Oxygen - Gas sensor

9022

This sensor measures the concentration of oxygen in a range included between 0 and 27%. It uses an electrochemical cell. The anode and the cathode are immersed in an electrolyte. The oxygen that goes in the cell is reduced to the cathode. The electrochemical reaction generates a current proportional to the partial pression of oxygen. The current is sent to a resistance generating a small voltage which is measured.

Range: 0 ~ 27% O2 Output voltage: 0 ~ 4 V in air at 25°C, at mean sea level. Resolution: 0,03% (12 bit)

9030 Dissolved oxygen sensor

The dissolved oxygen sensor is used to determine the quantity of oxygen in the water. It is useful for the study of the features of biological systems in the water.

Range: 0 ~ 15 mg/L (or ppm) Precision: ±0,2 mg/L Resolution: 0,007 mg/L Response time: 95% in 30 seconds, 98% in 45 seconds Temperature compensation: automatic between 5 and 35°C

9022

9022 CO2 - Gas sensor

This item is used to point out the quantity of gassy CO2 in several experiments of Biology and chemistry. It measures CO2 at concentrations included between 0 and 5000 ppm analysing the quantity of infrared radiation absorbed by the gas analysed.

Range: 0 ~ 5000 ppm (0 ~ 0,5%) Resolution: 2,44 ppm (using a converter 12 bit on 5V) Precisione (alla pressione standard di 1 atm): ± 100 ppm (0 ~ 1000 ppm) Example of a photosynthesis experiment ± 10% (1000 ~ 5000 ppm)

9089

9089 High concentration CO2- GAS sensor

Suitable to check the level of carbon dioxide in gaseous state in different experiments of biology and chemistry, such as respiration and photosynthesis.

Range: 0~100.000 ppm(0~10%) Resolution: 30ppm Accuracy (at standard 1atm pressure): 0ppm ~ 10.000 ppm. Page 170 - Section 10 - On-line science


SENSORs 9045 CO2- O2 T-joint The T Joint allows the simultaneous measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide, for example during breathing. Note: sensor and bottle not included.

9045

9053 pH sensor

For the measurement of pH in a solution, for example during a titration Range: pH 0 ~ 14 Resolution: ±0,0036 pH

8083 Spare solution for the preservation of pH sensor probe

Packaging of 500ml.

9043 ORP sensor

The ORP sensor measures the redox potential of a solution. It is essential for the quantitative analysis of experiments of chemistry and for the study of environment.

9053

ORP electrode Type: sealed, epoxy body gel filler, Reference battery Ag(AgCl) Preservation solution: pH-4/KCl (10g KCl in 100mL of buffer solution with pH 4) Working temperature: 0 ~ 60°C Impedance: ~20 MΩ a 25°C Electrode amplifier Input range: -450 mV ~ 1100 mV Output range: 0 - 5 V Response bend: V (mV) = 466,875 * Vout (V) - 559,793 Resolution: 0,5 mV

9043

9090 Salinity probe

This sensor measures the total concentration of salts in p.p.t. (mg/t). For example, seawater has an average saltiness of 35 p.p.t.

Sensors dedicated to human physiology

9056 Stetoscope

Connected to a computer, the stetoscope allows you to observe the heartbeat in an easy, direct and safe way.

9090

Complete range: -245 m/s2 ~ +245 m/s2 Useful range: -98 m/s2 ~ +98 m/s2 Resolution: 0,2 m/s2 Frequency response: 0 ~ 100 Hz

9031 Electrocardiographic kit

The electrocardiographic sensor allows the electric measurement of hearthbeat. ScienceCube offers a kit which consists of the electrocardiographic sensor and of an electrodes’ set. It can be used to observe the heartbeat during several activities, and to study waveforms P, Q, R, S and T.

Range: 0 ~ 5 mV Resolution: 5 µV Cardio frequency: 47 ~ 250 BPM Frequency resolution: 1 BPM

9056

9037 Cardio-frequency meter

The frequency meter measures the frequency of the heartbeat. For this measure, this sensor uses the electrocardiographic signal, measured thanks to a band weared by the student and radio-transmitted back to ScienceCube. It can be used in different experiments related to heart frequency rate during activities, such as sleeping, during the meals, drinking a coffee etc.

Range: 0 ~ 250 BPM Resolution: 1 BPM.

9031

ADDITIONAL ACCESSORIES

9058 Adapter

The adapter allows you to connect sensors produced by other brands to ScienceCube.

9058 9037

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 171


usb SENSOR Series of USB sensors to be used without an interface ScienceCube produces sensors with USB connection which can be connected directly to the computer. The sensors donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need any connection interface and can be used directly through ScienceCube software which is supplied free of charges with each sensor. The USB sensors are easy to use and permit to record the conditions of any experiment. ScienceCube is already developping the next series of USB sensors. Their connection is showned in the picture 2, on the following page

NOTICE The technical features of USB sensors are identical to the features of the corresponding interfaceable sensors.

9066

9066

9075

USB distance sensor as model 9041

9075

9068

USB force sensor

9085

as model 9032

9069

USB pressure differential sensor - type B USB as model 9034

9086

9087

9087

USB temperature sensor

as model 9061

9086

9069

as model 9046

9085

9068

USB photogate

USB humidity sensor as model 9038

9072

USB Sound level meter Range: 35~130 dB Resolution: Âą 1 dB

Page 172 - Section 10 - On-line science

9072

USB light sensor as model 9052


usb sensor Fig.1: Connection of a sensor through an interface

Fig.2: Connection of an usb sensor to a computer

9073

9073

9074

USB current sensor

9074

as model 9027

9067

as model 9029

9071

9067

USB differential voltage probe

USB magnetic field sensor

9071

as model 9039

USB pH sensor as model 9053

9088

9088

USB oxygen-gas sensor as model 9044

Notice In the packaging of each USB sensor, the software that allows also the simultaneous management of two sensors is included.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 173


Creative use of the sensors USEFUL AND ENTERTAINING ONLINE EXPERIMENTS

9001

In this page we present some of the various experiments that can be performed with sensors, even outside of the school laboratory. We chose a few applications that are common in everyday activities.

9001 ScienceCube Pro

LCD DISPLAY INTERFACE FOR INDOOR AND OUTDOOR USE Technical features 1. Size: 160x90x25 mm. 2. Display: monochrome screen 128x64 pixel. 3. Memory: 1 Mb. 4. Data capture: memorization up to 50.000 points and 16 experiments. 5. Battery: rechargeable, lithium polymer ions(1250 mAh), recharged through the USB port of the pc - it permits 48-hours measurements and the memorization of data for at least 3 months. 6. Applicable sensors: up to 3 simultaneously. 7. Sampling time (in real time): 0.05 sec / 3 channels; 0.005 sec / 1 channel. 8. Sampling time (Disconnected from PC): 0.0001 sec / 1 channel. 9. Resolution: 12 bit. 10. Digital input/output: 1 channel. Output: sine, triangular, square, serrate, PWM wave. 11. Port: USB, serial. 12. Integrated keyboard: 7 keys.

9037

FEATURES 1. Light and portable. 2. It can work even disconnected from the pc (which is needed to recharge the batteries). 3. Ease of use: all the commands are accessible from the menu. 4. No need of special cards or adapters. All the sensors are automatically identified. 5. The wide memory of 1Mb can contain more than 50.000 d 6. The high-efficiency lithium polymer battery is quick to recharge and lasts for a long time. 7. The data can be captured on field, memorized, and then transmitted to pc. 8. All operations are guided by simple menus. 9. All the experimental results can be turned into graphs. 10. There are several languages (Italian, English, French, Spanish, , Japanese, Arabic, Thai, etc.) 11. New sensors are continuously developped, the interface can be updated to recognize and use them automatically. 12. Up to 3 sensors can be used simultaneously. 13. The serial port allows the connection to pc without USB port.

9037 Cardio-frequency meter The frequency meter measures the frequency of the heartbeat. For this measure, this sensor uses the electrocardiographic signal, measured thanks to a band weared by the student and radio-transmitted back to ScienceCube. It can be used in different experiments related to heart frequency rate during activities , such as sleeping, during the meals, drinking a coffee, etc. Range: 0 ~ 250 BPM Resolution: 1 BPM.

9041 DISTANce sensor II

Distance sensor II determines the position of objects through the reflection of an ultrasonic signal. It is possible to use the distance sensor in all the experiments where the measurement of objects’ position (pendulum, friction-trolleys and masses motion) is required. Range: 0 ,16 ~ 6 m (Max. 10m) Resolution: ±1,5 mm Measurement principle: Sonar Field of view: Conical, approximately 15° Sampling frequency: Max. 100 measures/s Applications: Distance measurement without contact. Channels: the sensor can be used only with the channel A of ScienceCube.

1 - Sleep phase

USING THE SENSOR AS A HEART RATE MONITOR

We show you how to use the heart rate sensor in three different circumstances

1) Sleep phase

The heart rate at rest has a wide natural variability. Standard values are between ​​ 46 and 93 hearttbeats per minute in men and between 51 and 95 in women. In addition, during the night sleep an average reduction of 24 heartbeats per minute in young adults and about 14 per minute in men over eighty is physiological.

2) consumption of coffee

Caffeine is a stimulant of the central nervous system and is used both in the medical field and in the normal daily activities to fight sleepiness. It is important to note that caffeine should be used only occasionally and doses of caffeine can not replace sleep. Its consumption results in increased levels of epinephrine (adrenaline) and noradrenaline The adrenaline stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and thus leads to an increase of the heart rate. Page 174 - Section 10 - On-line science

2 - Consumption of coffee

9041


Creative use of the sensors 3) PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UNDER STRESS

This application is particularly useful during physical education classes, as it allows to check the rhythm of the heartbeat under stress in different subjects. The importance of the maximum heart rate (HR max) has been enhanced by the use of heart rate monitors. Very often, when training with a heart rate monitor, the values are expressed as a percentage of the maximum heart rate. However, the performance (and therefore also the training) is partially independent the HR max. For instance letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consider two individuals with the same amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat (say, 140 ml) and the same amount of hemoglobin in the blood. The first individual has a frequency of 65 bpm at rest and a HR max of 180 bpm, while the second has a heart rate of 45 bpm at rest and a HR max of 180 bpm (the same). The second individual has a higher (135 against 115) heart rate reserve (HR max - rate at rest). This means that, when going from a condition of rest to one of maximum effort, more blood can be pumped into the arteries (140 ml X 20 bpm, nearly 3 litres!). Thus there is an advantage in bringing oxygen to the muscles. To calculate the maximum heart rate, the Karvonen formula has been used for over 35 years : 220 - age of the subject.

USING THE DISTANCE (AND MOTION) SENSOR

We show you how to use the distance (and motion) sensor in two different circumstances.

1) USE OF THE DISTANCE SENSOR IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITES

The distance sensor (code 9041) in autonomous acquisition mode (i.e. using the interface memory, code 9001) can be employed to study the various phases of an athleteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motion during the run (sprint - acceleration - average speed - deceleration - stop) . The distance sensor + interface system is pointed toward the athlete to record data during the race. The acquired data is then downloaded to a computer for the analytical study of the equations of motion. Interesting comparisons between the performance of different athletes can thus be made.

3 - Using the distance sensor in physical activities

2) THEORY OF ERRORS : GAUSS CURVE WITH THE DISTANCE SENSOR

The theory of errors is a crucial, preliminary issue for the execution of laboratory measurements. To obtain the experimental Gauss curve, we suggest to use a motion sensor directed towards a fixed and rigid obstacle (for example, the ceiling of the classroom). Just let it move slightly by hand while it is capturing data. In this way we obtain a small difference between the data (at least a thousand). Data processing allows to create the classic bell-shaped curve whose width (deviation from the mean value indicated by the peak) is an indication of the measurement precision.

Physical activities under stress Theory of errors: Gauss curve with the motion sensor

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 175


Translational motion

mechanics 8101

Uniform rectilinear motion

8101 Motion plane

The motion plane together with the two “punctiform” friction-trolleys and with the “non-punctiform” trolley allows you to perform several experiments on motion using RTL (Real Time Laboratory) techniques. The didactic interest of the executable experiments with this item is multiple infact, the student: - familiarizes with the magnitudes characterizing the motion; - learns how to correlate the distance-time graph with the speed-time and acceleration-time graphs; - can measure the intensity of frictional forces and the gravity acceleration; - can study how potential and kinetic energies vary according to time and distance experiments: Rectilinear uniform motion; - Uniformly accelerated motion; - Basic Law of the dynamics F = m a; - The inclined plane; - Rolling (with the kit code 8105); - The principle of energy’s conservation; - Friction forces; - The elastic collision against a wall. Supplied items: 1 Plane, length:100 cm and width:25 cm, graduated in mm, sturdy and perfectly linear, one of the surfaces made of plastic laminate and the other made of anodized aluminum; 1 Device for tilting the plane; 1 Rigid shore for elastic collision; 1 Soft shore to absorb the collision; 1 Screen for the distance sensor; 1 Linear ruler; 1 Table clamp with telescopic bar and low-friction pulley with and brief inertia inactivity moment; 1 Weight-holder plate which reflects ultrasounds emitted by distance sensor; 1 Reel made of fine and resistant wire; 5 Weights of 10 g 1 Punctiform friction-trolley 1 Magnetic punctiform friction-trolley 1 Support for sensors 4 Weights of 20 g 1 Experiments guide.

Inclined plane

Page 176 - Section 10 - On-line science

Required material not supplied: 1 Distance sensor cod. 9041+ interface, or 1 distance sensor code 9066.


Translational motion

mechanics 8119

8119 Low friction rail Anodized aluminum rail, length: 120cm, on which two friction-trolleys, fitted with two wheels mounted on low-friction bearing can scroll. experiments: - Uniform motion; - Accelerated motion; - Motion on an inclined plane; - Pulse theorem; - Elastic collisions in isolated systems; - Inelastic collisions; - Harmonic oscillations of a mass - spring system; - Conservation of mechanical energy.

Motion on an inclined plane SUPPLIED ITEMS: 1 Rail, length: 120 cm 1 Stand with one support 1 Stand with double support 1 End run shore 1 End run with pulley 2 Photocell supports 2 stands with bar 1 Additional mass, 500g 1 Series of 9 weights of 10g with weights-holder 2 Pivots for springs 1 Linear ruler 2 Coil springs 1 Central pivot 2 Side pivots 1 Rope 1 Elevator for inclined plane 1 Friction-trolley with buffer 1 Friction trolley without buffer 2 Reflectors 8 Magnets 1 Allen wrench 1 USB cable extension 1 Small case 1 Experiment guide REQUIRED MATERIAL NOT SUPPLIED : 2 Distance sensor 1 Force sensor or 2 Distance sensor 1 Force sensor

Pulse theorem

cod. 9041 cod. 9032 + interface cod. 9066 cod. 9068

Oscillations of a mass-spring system

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 177


mechanics

Translational motion

8116

WARNING:

If the school is not equipped with a laboratory table (length: AT Least 240cm) with a cantilever edge for the installation of the table clamp, the purchase of the table code 5600 is suggested

8116 Air track

It is essential to minimize the friction in order to study some phenomena related to motion. Otherwise, it wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be possible to study the uniform rectilinear motion and the conservation of motion quantity in the collisions. The air cushion rail is the only item which can minimize the friction to low levels. This model has a triangular section and is very sturdy in order to prevent deformations due to temperature changes. The analysis of data is performed through RTL techniques which are an innovation compared to older techniques, as the photocell terminals. The use of RTL allows: - to perform the experiments in a small space, even directly in the classroom, and quickly. The graphs are made in real time; - to analyse immediatly the data measured according to the time; - to adapt a model to experimental data, finding the curves that better round the graphs up; - to see the evolution of quantities not directly measurable, such as the potential energy, the kinetic energy and the quantityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s variation of motion and pulse forces. EXPERIMENTS: - Uniform rectilinear motion; - Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion; - Inclined plane; - Pulse theorem; - Isolated systems; - Conservation principle of motion quantity; - Conservation principle of energy; - Elastic collision between moving trolley and still trolley (with equal masses); - Elastic collision between moving trolley and still trolley (with different masses); - Elastic collision between moving trolleys; - Inelastic collision between trolleys; - Oscillation of the mass - spring system.

supplied items 1 Metallic bar 470 x 10 mm 1 Table clamp 1 Tripod base 5 Hooks of 0.8 g 3 Double clamps 1 Linear ruler 1 Compressor 1 Metallic bar 750 x 10 mm 2 Neodymium magnets 3 Support disks 4 Gradient disks 2 Spring buffers 10 Short fixing godrons 2 Long fixing godrons 6 Masses of 50 g 1 Couple of coil spring

Required material not supplied: 2 Distance sensor 1 Force sensor or 2 Distance sensor 1 Force sensor

Page 178 - Section 10 - On-line science

1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

Pulley with bar Rope skein U fixings with hook Steel wires for cleaning Friction-trolleys Elastic buffer Weights holder, 5g Series of 4 weights of 5g U fixings with velcro Screwdriver Rail, 200 cm Reflectors for sonar U fixings for magnets Stopping plate Square pivot Box Experiments guide

cod. 9041 cod. 9032 + interface cod. 9066 cod. 9068


translational motion

mechanics

8106 Atwood machine

With this item it is possible to perform experiments on kinematics and bodies’ dynamics in translational motion and to measure carefully gravity acceleration. Using the item code 8107 it is possible to study also.

EXPERIMENT WITH THE ATWOOD MACHINE

Experiments: - Uniform rectilinear motion; - Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion; - The second Law of dynamic; - Measurement of the gravity acceleration; - Principle of energy’s conservation. The uniform motion is feasable through Atwood machine using two opposite equal masses. It is easier and more visible to perform it trough the item code 8107.

Supplied items: 1 System composed by two pulleys at low friction and with negligible inertia moment 2 Weight-holder plates 4 Mass of 10 g 1 Thin resistant rope’s skein 1 Set of small, lead balls, 0,25g 1 Experiments guide Required material not supplied: 1 Table clamp 1 Metallic bar 12x1200 1 Double clamp 1 Distance sensor

cod. 1155 cod. 0171 cod. F292 cod. 9041 + interface or distance sensor code 9066.

8106 8106

UNIFORM MOTION WITH THE ATWOOD MACHINE

8107 Apparatus for uniform motion

This item is composed by a couple of neodymium magnets which are let fall in an aluminum tube. During their fall, the tube is the center of induced forces which, due to Lenz Law, oppose to magnets’ motion. The couple of magnets is submitted to a force F = - k v, which is propr tional and opposed to the speed; therefore after a brief transitional accelerated phase the motion of the two magnets becomes uniform thanks to this force. Connecting trolleys or other objects to the magnets through a rope, it is possible to obtain the uniform motion of these objects.

Experiments: - Uniform rectilinear motion of a trolley (with the item code 8102); - Uniform motion of the Atwood machine (with the item code 8106); - Dynamic verification of the action-reaction principle.

This last experiment is performed knowing that during their uniform motion fall, the magnets are submitted to a force which is equal and opposed to their weight. According to the third principle of dynamics, the magnets react on the tube with a force which is equal and opposed, measurable with the spring scale, or with a force’s sensor from which the tube is hanging. supplied items: 1 Aluminum tube with cap, 800x30x26mm 1 Kit of 2 neodymium-iron-boron magnets with support 4 Weights of 10 1 Tripod support with bar 2 Clamps for the tube 2 Clamps 1 Bar with ring 1 Bar with hook 1 Spring scale 1 Skein made of thin and resistant rope 1 Experiments guide

Required material not supplied: 1 Distance sensor code 9041 + interface or 1 distance sensor code 9066.

8107

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 179


rotatIONAL motion

mechanics

8109 Study of rotational motion apparatus

8109

It’s rare to find in a physics laboratory the equipment for a complete study of the rotational motion laws. This argument, in fact, is usually overshadowed by the study of the linear motion. This item allows the study of both rotatory and rectilinear motion uniformly accelerated. The application fields of the experiments available with this device are various, such as: - gets acquainted with the angular sizes characterizing the rotary motion; - learns to correlate the distance-time graphs with the speed-time and acceleration-time graphs; - learns to recognize the formal similarities between the Laws of rectilinear and rotatory motion; - learns to measure the inertia moment of the bodies or of a masse’ distribution; - verifies the conservation principle of energy. EXPERIMENTS: - Origin of the harmonic motion; - Uniformly accelerated rotatory motion; - Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion; - Newton’s second Law of dynamics; - Determination of the relation between angular acceleration and moment of the force; - Dynamic measurement of the inertia moment; - Conversion of the potential energy into kinetic energy of translation and rotation.

Rotation of a disk

supplied items: 1 Tripod support with bar and fixing device 1 Chuck mounted on a double ball bearing. 1 Bar with ball 1 Balancer with two sliding masses 1 Aluminum disc, diameter: 320mm 1 Aluminum disc, diameter: 220mm 1 Weights-holder plate 5 Disc weights of 10 g 5 Disc weights of da 20 g 1 Table clamp 1 Clamp 1 Bar with pulley. 1 Metallic bar, 10x500 mm 1 Rope skein 1 Experiments guide

Material required not supplied: 1 Distance sensor code 9041 + interface or distance sensor code 9066.

In absence of losses, the variation of the plate’s potential energy has to be equal, in each moment, to the sum of the plate’s translational kinetic energy plus the rotational kinetic energy of the disc or of the handle:

1 mgh= 1 p 2 2

mp v 2 + I0 ω 2

I0 is the mass-centered inertia moment and ω is the angular speed The graph below shows the potential energy variation in green, the rotational kinetic energy in blue, the translational kinetic energy in magenta and the total energy in red. The translation energy is insignificant due to the small mass and to the low speed. In addition the total energy is not constant, but it is subject to a slow decay caused by inevitable friction.

Page 180 - Section 10 - On-line science


rotatIONAL motion 8120 Kit for the study of translational rotational an oscillatory motion

This kit has been designed to permit the students to perform experiments on translational, rotary and oscillatory motion in real time, using a distance sensor. Experiments:

mechanics 8120

- Uniform rectilinear motion - Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion - Newtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Laws - Kinetic energy - Potential energy - Conservation of energy - Kinematics of rotary motion - Dynamics of rotary motion - Inertia moment - Harmonic oscillations - Simple pendulum - Compound pendulum

Supplied items: 1 Tripod support 1 Metallic bar, 75 cm 1 Double clamp 1 Table calmp with pulley 1 Support for chuck 1 Chuck for balancer 1 Balancer with two masses 1 Metallic disc 1 Simple pendulum 1 Compound pendulum 1 Support for Atwood disc 1 Atwood disc 1 weights-holder 1 Masses-holder plate 2 Masses,10g 1 Linear ruler Lead balls Rope

STUDY OF OSCILLATORY MOTION

Material required not supplied: 1 distance sensor code 9041 + interface code 9001 or 1 USB distance sensor code 9066

STUDY OF THE ROTATIONAL MOTION

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 181


mechanics

galileo’s relativity 8123 Galileo’s cart

8123

Thanks to this cart it is possible to perform experiments on reference systems in translational motion. It is fitted with an electromagnet which holds a steel sphere at a level of 25 cm over the cart’s plane. The release of the sphere is controlled by a photocell which can be activated through a simple torch. The falling point of the sphere is imprinted on a strip of carbon paper, permitting to check the Galileo’s relativity principle for the systems in uniform and accelerated motion both on an horizontal and on an inclined plane. supplied items: 1 low friction cart 2 steel spheres 5 carbon paper rolls 1 torch 1 support for torch 2 neodymium magnets 1 9V battery

HOW TO USE GALILEO’S CART WHIT THE MOTION PLANE

Material required not supplied: 1 motion plane code 8101 1 distance sensor code 9041 1 callipers code 1027

1 Data acquisition system

8105 Kit for the study of rolling motion

The motion of bodies which roll on a plane is roto-translational because they translate while they roll. Their rolling motion doesn’t occur around the axis which goes through the gravity center but around the axis that goes through the points of contact with the rolling plane. A rolling body generates two types of energy: translational kinetic energy Et and rotational kinetic energy Er expressed in the following way: E t = 1 m v 2 Er = 1 I0 ω 2 2 2 I0 is the inertia moment as regards the axis of the gravity center, which has a great importance in the energy balances because the way the total kinetic energy distibutes into the two forms depends on its value.

8105

It is easy and instructive to perform experiments on rolling bodies’ dynamics, particularly using RTL techniques and this kit. supplied items: 3 Solid cylinders with different diameters and masses; 3 Cylindrical shells with different diameters and masses; 3 Spheres with different diameters and masses 2 Rails with different gauge; 1 Rubber plane 1 Spool 1 Rulers 1 Experiment guide Material required not supplied: 1 Motion plane 1 Distance sensor 1 Distance sensor

ROLLING MOTION OF A CYLINDER ALONG AN INCLINED PLANE

cod. 8101 cod. 9041 + interface or code 9066

The energy balance, not considering the losses due to friction is expressed 1 1 mgh= mv2+ I ω2 2 2 0 and being I0 = 2 m r 2 5 POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS: - Rolling motion of a sphere on a plane; - Rolling motion of a cylinder on a plane; - Rolling motion of a cylindrical shell on a plane; - Rolling motion of a sphere on wide-gauge rail; - Rolling motion of a sphere on a thin gauge rail; - Friction that accelerates; - Rolling motion of a reel; - Energetic balances; - Speed races.

you obtain

1428

e

ω2=v2/r2 gh=

7 v2 10

and so v = 10/7 g h i.e. the final speed is independent from the mass and radius.

1428 Einstein’s elevator

Our “elevator” consists in a pair of aluminium discs fastened on the same pin, which can slide freely inside the plexiglass tube. The elevator can be initially anchored to the upper end of the tube by using an electromagnet. By de-energizing the electromagnet, the elevator free-falls along the tube down to the bottom end. A wire retrieves the elevator to bring it high again.

EXPERIMENTS: Verification of Einstein’s equivalence principle supplied items: 1 110 cm long plexiglass cylinder, equipped with PVC caps 1 Electromagnet (coil + core) 1 Table clamp 1 Electromagnet power supply 1 Suitcase

Material required not supplied: Force sensor (cod. 9032) Interface (cod.9001) or USB force sensor cod. 9068

Page 182 - Section 10 - On-line science

1 Elevator consisting in two aluminium discs fastened to the same pin 1 12 mm diam. rod, L 120 cm 1 PVC ring with rod 1 Wire 2 Double clamps


oscillatory motion

mechanics

8111 Study of harmonic oscillations apparatus

8111

This item is the same one mentioned on page 55 of the catalogue. Here below it is possible to see how this item is used to perform experiments on oscillatory motion in real time. This topic can be treated using a distance sensor and a RTL system. The software allows you to define and see physical quantities deriving from measured quantities. In this way it is possible to analyze the trend of quantities which can not be measured through a sensor: the energies related to the development of the phenomena. The following graph, obtained thanks to the computer, shows on the top the elongation of a mass-spring oscillator, on the bottom its speed. Between the two graphs it’s possible to see the trend of the elastic potential energy (in green) and of the kinetic energy (in violet). As it is shown, the energies have a double frequency compared to associated sizes, and their sum (in red) is almost constant.

elongation, SPEED and forces of a mass-spring.

EXPERIMENTS: - Hooke’s Law; - Elastic oscillations; - Dependence of an elastic pendulum’s oscillation period on the mass of the system and on the elasticty costant; - Study of the motion in terms of energy; - Simple pendulum; - Dependence of the period on the length; - Period’s independence from the oscillatory mass; - Physical pendulum; - Relation between the period of a physical pendulum and its moment of inertia; - Torsion pendulum; - Relation between the period of a torsion pendulum and its moment of inertia; - Relation between the period of a torsion pendulum and the physical sizes which characterize the twisting body; - The damped oscillations.

TORSION PENDULUM

MASS-SPRING SYSTEM

8113

8113

Material required not supplied: 1 Distance sensor code 9041 + interface 1 Force sensor code 9032 1 Support for sensors code 4014

8113 Coupled pendulums apparatus

This item consists of two physical pendulums coupled by a coil spring slightly tense. With two distance sensors it is possible to study the phenomenon of forced oscillations and of beats. It can be used with the item code 8111 or with any other support.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 183


mechanics 8117

oscillatory motion 8117 Variable slope pendulum

This is a slightly modified version of pendulum code 1350, page 54. The modification allows the use of the item with a distance sensor for the real time measurement of the oscillation period and permits to check its dependence on the gravity acceleration. The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum depends only on its length and on the gravity acceleration. It is easy to perform experiments varying the length while it is more difficult to vary the slope, that is the acceleration of gravity acting on a pendulum. The oscillanting disc leans on a air cushion table; varying the slope of the oscillating plane the gravity force acting on the pendulum varies. The use of the sensor allows the study of the simple pendulum in all its aspects, also in quantitative terms. Experiments: - Dependence of the period on the pendulum’s length; - Period’s independence from the pendulum’s mass; - Period’s dependence on the pendulum’s slope; - Kinematic and dynamic study of the pendular motion; - Study of pendular motion in terms of energy. Supplied items: 1 Inclined plane 1 Chuck 1 PVC disc 2 Metallic bars 5 Masses of 10 g 1 Polystyrene ball Material required not supplied: 1 Air compressor 1 Rotation sensor

Starting from the vertical position, the pendulum is made oscillate and simultaneously its slope is reduced. The period noticeably increases according to the increase of the inclination angle compared to the vertical.

code 1331 cod. 8048 + interface

8118 Maxwell’s pendulum

8118 Study of the Maxwell pendulum with PC

Supplied items: 1 Support 1 Wheel with pivot 1 Rope Material required not supplied: 1 Distance sensor code 9041 + interface, or 1 distance sensor code 9066

Page 184 - Section 10 - On-line science

Maxwell’s pendulum consists of a wheel hanging thanks to two wires which are winded in the same direction on an axis passing through its center of gravity. Once released, the wheel comes down under the action of its weight , but it is forced to rotate in order to unwind the two wires. It slowly comes down (low kinetic translation energy) but it rotates rapidly (high kinetic rotary energy). At the end of the fall the total kinetic energy, not considering the losses, has to be equal to the gravitational energy supplied at the beginning.

After that the wires have been unwinded, the wheel goes on rotating rewinding the wires on its axis and coming back up. If there were no friction, it would go up to the initial level of its fall. The falling and coming up motion is repeated more than once with a period that depends on the initial height difference h, on the gravity acceleration g and on the relationship between the radius of the wheel and the radius of its pivot.

Through the position sensor it possible to evaluate at which speed the wheel gets to the end run point and to perform accurate measurements.

The graph mentioned above is related to the distance of the wheel from the pendulum’s base. The inevitable friction makes that the quota reached after each cycle is inferior to the quota reached during the previous cycle.


mechanics OF FLUIDS 8121 Vessel for hydrostatic and hydrodynamics experiments

Thanks to this item and to a pressure sensor it is possible to check that the pressure on each surface element immersed in a liquid is independent from the surface’s orientation and its value is equal to the weight of a liquid’s column having the considered surface element as a base and as the height the height difference between the center of this surface and the free surface of the liquid.

It is also possible to experiment with the outflow’s speed of a liquid under the gravity’s effect and with the thrust that a solid body receives when it is immersed in a liquid(Archimede’ principle).

mechanics 8121

8122

EXPERIMENTS: - Experimental verification of Stevino’s Law; - Experimental verification of Toricelli’s Law; - Experimental verification of Archimede’s principle.

supplied items: 1 Beaker cylinder with pedestal, plug and tap 2 Transparent rubber tubes 1 Plastic jug, 1 liter 1 Aluminum cylinder 1 PVC cylinder Material required not supplied: 1 Pressure sensor code 9034 + interface 1 Force sensor code 9032

8121.1 Spare glass part for code 8121

Water balance

Verification of Stevin’s Law 8122

Vessel for experiment on hydrostatic-equilibrium

When two vases containing the same liquid at different levels are connected, a flow of liquid occurs from the vase in which the level is higher to the vase in which the level is lower. The flow goes on untill the height difference is cancelled. During the transitory phase the higher level decreases over the time following an exponentially decreasing Law. It is possible to check this phenomenon connecting the vase code 8121 with the vase code 8122, thanks to two pressure sensors.

8121 - 8122

Experiments: - Water balance with two vases having the same capacity; - Water balance with two vases having different capacity.

Supplied items: 1 Beaker cylinder with pedestal, plug, tap and rubber holder 2 Transparent rubber tubes 1 PVC rod with spacers Material required not supplied: 2 Pressure sensors cod. 9034 + 1 interface 1 Force sensor code 9032

8122.1 Glass spare part for code 8122 8115 Kit for hydrostatic and hydrodynamics experiments

It consits of two items code 8121 and 8122, it allows you to study the trends of the pressure in the liquids (Stevin’s Law), Archimede’s principle, the outflow’s speed from a tank according to different parameters and the water balance.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 185


thermodynamics

calorimetry 8202 Kit for the study of the processes of achievement of

8202

thermal equilibrium

Through the use of two temperature sensors (code 9061), this item allows you to study how occurs the transfer of heat between two bodies, solids or liquids, with different initial temperature. As in each balance phenomenon, the warmer body submits heat to the colder body untill the cancellation of thermal difference. The Law ,according to which the temperature of the warmer body varies over the time is exponentially decreasing, while the Law according to which the temperature of the colder body increases is exponentially increasing. It is possible to establish an analogy with the water balance phenomenon and the electric balance. EXPERIMENTS: - Thermal balance between two bodies with the same thermal capacity; - Thermal balance between two bodies with different thermal capacity. supplied items: 1 Thermostatic container, capacity: 350 ml 1 Alcohol thermometer 1 Hollow aluminum cylinder wire, mass 400 g 1 Aluminum cylinder to be inserted in the previous one , mass 400 g 1 Brass cylinder to be inserted in the hollow cylinder, mass: 1000 g 1 Pvc hose 1 Experiments guide

Material required not supplied: 1 Heating plate 2 Temperature sensors

code 6150 code 9061 + 1 interface

8203 Device for the study of thermal conductivity in solids

If two bodies have different thermal capacity, the temperature of balance is the average of the initial temperatures weighed with the thermal capacities.

8203

Thermal conductivity of three materials

The propagation of heat in solids occurs by conduction. The speed at which the heat spreads varies according to the substance. As regards metal the speed is high while in other substances such as glass or plastic, it is very low. For this reason the metals have been defined good conductors of heat. Thermal conductivity can be studied thanks to this kit using three temperature sensors (code 9061). An aluminum rod, a brass rod and a PVC rod, with a temperature sensor connected to each of them, are immersed simultaneously in a glass containing warm water. It is possible to observe the difference of heat propagationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speed in each rod.

EXPERIMENTS: - Comparison concerning thermal conductivity of three different materials, both for heating and cooling; - Comparison between thermal sensations and actual measurements of temperature.

supplied items: 1 Beaker, 400 ml, with support 1 Pvc disc with three holes 1 Aluminum rod 1 Brass rod 1 Pvc rod 1 Experiments guide Material required not supplied: 3 Temperature sensors 1 Heating plate

The 3 rods are in contact with the water at an high temperature. From the analysis of the temperature graph according to the time it is possible to see the different thermal conductivity of aluminum (red), of brass (blue) and of the PVC (green).

Page 186 - Section 10 - On-line science

code 9061 + 1 interface code 6150


calorimetry 8206 Kit for the study of heat dissipation

With this kit and two tempearture sensors, it is possible to compare the different speed at which two bodies with the same mass and the same initial temperature dissipate heat outside The dissipation is quicker when the exposed surface is bigger and it is decelarated if the body is protected by an heat-insulating material.

thermodynamics 8206

EXPERIMENTS: - Study of a body cooling according to its thermal capacity; - Study of a body cooling according to its surface; - Study of a body cooling according to the difference of temperature compared to the environment; - Study of a body cooling according to the interaction with the surrounding air supplied items: 1 Brass cylinder with hook 2 Aluminum cylinders with hook 1 Aluminum thermal radiator 1 Insulating-material tube 1 Handle 1 Hardboard support plate 1 Experiments guide Material required not supplied: 1 Heating plate cod. 6150 2 Temperature sensors cod. 9061 + 1 Interface

8205 Apparatus for the study of the irradiation

At a constant radiant flux, the heating of a body when it is exposed to electromagnetic radiations depends on its surface, its mass and its absorption power. Exposing two discs with different features to a flux of radiations emitted by the same source, (the sun, or simply a 100W lamp), it is possible to observe the different trend of the temperature.

EXPERIMENTS: - Comparison between the absorption power of a disc with two polished faces and that of a disc with a polished face and a blackened face; - Comparison between the absorption power of a disc with two polished faces and that of a disc with two balckened faces; - Comparison between the absorption power of a disc with two balcken faces and that of a disc with a polished face and a blackened face; - Verification of the irradiation Law in fuction of to the distance.

Cooling bend of two cylinders with the same size but made of different material: brass (red) and aluminum (green).

8205

Supplied items: 1 Stage with two adjustable supports; 1 Aluminum disc with two polished faces; 1 Aluminum disc with two balckened faces; 1 Aluminum disc with a polished face and a blackened one 1 Experiments guide

Material required not supplied: 2 Temperature sensors code 9061 + 1 interface 1 Lamp, 100W

How to use apparatus 8205

Two identical aluminum discs, a black-painted one and a polished one, are exposed to the light of a 100W lamp. A temperature sensor located on the discs demonstrates that the absorption coefficient of the black disc (green) is higher than the coefficient of the polished disc (red). On-line science - Section 10 - Page 187


thermodynamics

calorimetry

8212

8212 Thermology kit

Thanks to these items it is possible to perform some experiments related to thermal phenomena. For the data collection and representation, 3 temperature sensors are enough. The real time data-collection system allows you to obtain the temperature’s graph according to the time in several thermal phenomena which are essential in Physics’ program of secondary schools as for example, thermal balance, heat’s propagation, state’s changes, etc.

Experiments: - Relation between heat and temperature; - Conversion of electric power into heat; - Measurement of specific heat; - Thermal balance among solids; - Heat conduction in solids; - Cooling; - State changes; - Greenhouse effect.

Two temperature sensors are submitted to a light-darkness cycle. One of the sensor is immersed in a conical flask which creates a “greenhouse effect”. The phenomenon is highlighted in the cooling curve of the two sensors.

Material required not supplied: 3 Temperature sensors 1 Heating plate 1 Scale

code 9061 + 1 Interface code 6150

supplied items: 1 Electrical calorimeter 4 Metal samples 1 Thermal equilibrium kit 1 Conductivity kit 1 Cooling kit 1 Beaker conical flask 250 ml 1 Rubber plug with hole for conical flask 1 Tripod base 1 Metal rod 1 Pincers with clamp 1 Denatured alcohol bottle 1 Glass test-tube 1 Rubber plug with hole for test-tube 2 Electrical cables 1 Beaker 400 ml 1 Thermometer -10° + 110°c 1 Experiment guide

2136 Ruchardt’s device

2136 9066

With this item it is possible to study the adiabatic transformation of a gas. This item consits of a 2000 cm flask, tightly linked to a glass cylinder dominated by an outer piston which can be weighed down thanks to the addition of calibrated metallic cylinders. Moving the piston form its balance position, damped oscillations are started. The period T of these oscillations is linked to the adiabatic constant of gases γ, from the relation:

T= 2π

F718

Page 188 - Section 10 - On-line science

2136

mV γps2


Laws OF GASES 8209 Gas thermometer

In a gas thermometer, temperature readings are practically independent from the aeriform contained in the volume in which an isochoric process transformation(the variation in pressure and temperature at a constant volume), is produced if pressure and temperature conditions allows you to consider the aeriform used to be perfect. The kit consists of an aluminum container, with a capacity of about 330 cc, immersed in a glass container. A pressure and a temperature sensors allow you to characterize the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evolution when it is heated or cooled. The straight line p = f (T) defined by the experimental data is the calibration bend of the air thermometer. The temperatureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s value which is obtained extracting the graph up to the value p = 0, indicates that there is a temperature minimum value which is physically meaningful. The item is supplied with an experiments guide.

thermodynamics 8209 (sensors not included)

Experiments: - Verifications of the Gay-Lussac Law; - The gas thermometer; - Absolute zero. supllied items: 1 Rubber tube 1 Beaker, 1000 ml 1 Support stage 1 Aluminum container with plug 1 Cover supporting the sensors 1 Experiments guide Material required not supplied: 1 Temperature sensor 1 Pressure sensor 1 Heating plate

cod. 9061 + 1 Interface cod. 9034 cod. 6150

8216 Device for the study of Boyleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law

Thanks to this item it is possible to study quantitatively the isothermal conversions of gases. A transparent graduated cylinder is linked to a pressure sensor through a dual tap. Acting on the control knob the piston moves varying the volume of the air contained in the cylinder. Connecting the sensor to a real time data acquisition system it is possible to obtain the pressure Vs volume chart at a constant temperature. Supplied with teaching guide. Heating slowly the gas contained in the close container, at a constant volume, the pressure increases. The pressure graph according to the temperature is a straight line (Gay-Lussac law). Extracting the straight line at a void volume, it is possible to find a value to the temperature corresponding to absolute zero.

8216 (sensor not included)

Pressure graph according to the volume, obtained point by point thanks to data acquisition system based on PC. The interpolating curve approximates with precision the equation p V = cost.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 189


introduction

optics

Performing effective laboratory experiments in a classroom is not an easy matter for a physics teacher due to several organizational problems, the main is lack of time. For this reason, usually the teacher prefers the theoretical lesson rather than the practical one. A solution to this problem is to bring the laboratory to the students using a portable data acquisition system. If we add to these problems the need to observe, for example, a phenomenon of wave optics through an eyepiece, one student at a time, it is easy to realize that a teacher may prefer to give up and limit the classes to a theoretical presentation. A solution to the problem? If it is difficult to bring students to the lab, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bring the lab to the students instead, using a portable data acquisition system.

8405

8405 Optical bench for the study of illuminance, with sensor

This item allows you to obtain the graph which shows how the illuminance on a surface depends on the distance of the source. With the supplied items it is possible to perform experiments on the distribution of radiant energy using a lens, and determine the focal distance by photometric way. supplied items: 1 Optical bench 1 White LED light source with support 1 Power supply for LED

1 Intensity dimmer 1 Brightness sensor with support 4 Supports

2 Lens-holder 3 Lenses 1 Ruler 1 Small case

4297 Optical bench 200cm with accessories

The bend obtained with the item 8405 clearly shows that the illuminance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

4362

The standard bench is a collective consisting of 2 mt T-section. On request it can be added to a shorter piece of 50cm connected to the junction with the basic bench. With this configuration itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possible to make optical experiments in which the optical beam, thanks to the effect of reflections or refractions comes out from the main axis of the basic bench. With this optical bench, the teacher has the ability to run a large number of qualitative and quantitative experiments on optical waves, both in terms of geometric wave. It also recommends the use of a green laser code 4151 sold separately. supplied equipment: 1 Base optical bench accessories required not supplied: 4361 Led projector 4362 Optical bench extension 4363 Lens holder with rod 4365 Plaxiglass white screen 250x190x4mm 4366 White screen with scale 4367 Screen support 4368 Optical bench laser 4370 Pair of polarisers 4372 Set of optically active substances

4297

Page 190 - Section 10 - On-line science

4373 4374 4375 4376 4377 4380 4381 4382 4383

Prism support Optical bench lux meter Iris diaphragm Punctiform lamp Earth-Moon system Adjustable slit. Set of 4 plexiglass lens and two mirrors Set of 4 glass lans + 2 mirrors and container Horizontal goniometer

Experiencias realizables: 1. Rectilinear propagation of light and its limits 2. shadow and penumbra 3. Eclipses of the Sun and Moon 4. The phases of the moon 5. The law of radiation 6. Reflection and refraction - the laws 7. Total reflection - limit angle 8. Reflection in mirrors 9. Refraction in the prism - dispersion 10. Limit angle - minimum deviation 11. Refraction in lenses 12. Images in the mirrors 13. Images in the lenses 14. Focal distances and conjugate points 15. The eye and its defects 16. Optical instruments 17. Diffraction 18. The interference according to Young 19. Measurement of l 20. Diffraction grating 21. Transversality of optical waves 22. Polarisation 23. Rotatory power of solutions


oPtICS 8403

8403 Optical bench for the study of diffraction

SUPPLIED items: 1 Optical bench fitted with brightness sensor, linear position sensor and screens 1 High quality diode sensor 1 Power unit for diode laser with adjustable intensity and cables 1 Laser support 2 Splitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; set 1 Splits support 1 White screen 1 White screen support 1 Cable for the brightness sensor 1 Cable for the position sensor 1 Experiments guide

The optical bench allows you to study qualitatively and quantitatively the phenomena of diffraction. A beam of laser light is directed on a revolving support where some splits, holes and openings are applied. The diffraction figures which are formed are collected by a light sensor which is supportive with the linear position sensor. Moving the sensor horizontally through an handle you will get a voltage which is proportional to the light intensity related to the position of the light sensor.

Connecting the outputs of the two sensors to a data acquisition system it is possible to obtain the curves that show how the light intensity varies according to the position. Knowing the geometrical features of the openings and holes and evaluating the distance between the diaphragm and the light sensor, it is possible to quantitative verification these phenomena.

Material required not supplied: 1 InterfacE cod. 9001 1 Adapter cod. 9058

Experiments: - Diffraction phenomena; - Interference phenomena; - Polarization phenomena (with the item code 8404).

The graph illustrated above was obtained directing the laser ray on a opening, width = 0,04 mm located at a distance L = 700 mm from the sensor. Knowing that the wavelength of the laser is Îť = 635 nm, it is possible to verify the relation that provides the minimums distance from the centerpoint Îť Xm = L n for n = 1,2,3,.... a

The graph illustrated above was obtained directing the laser ray on a dual opening. It clearly shows the overlap of two wave phenomena: the Young interference produced by the two openings and the diffraction generated by each opening. Also in this case it is possible to check the relation which provides the distance from the center of the secondary maximums and minimums.

It is also possible to check that the relation between the intensity of the first secondary maximum and the intensity of center maximum is I1 I0

= 0,045 On-line science - Section 10 - Page 191


Electromagnetic field

electromagnetism

8519 Extensible solenoid

8519

It allows the study of the magnetic field generated by a solenoid, varying the number of coils for length unit. Experiments: - Flow lines of the magnetic field in the solenoid; - Flow lines of the magnetic fiel out of the solenoid; - Dependence of the magnetic field on the current intensity; - Dependence of the magnetic field on the number of coils per length unit. Supplied items: 1 Extensible solenoid 1 Base with two binding posts clamps 1 Resistor of 4,7 Ď&#x2030;, 5 w Material required not supplied: 1 Adjustable power unit, 0-5a 1 Sensors support 1 Magnetic field support 4 Cables 1 Current sensor 1 Interface

Study of the magnetif field in a solenoid

code 5248 code 4014 code 9091 code 5013 code 9027

Dependence of the magnetic field intensity on the number of coils per meter

al PC 8515 Electromagnetic pendulum 8515

Electromagnetic resonance

Essential item to study the electromagnetic interactions. It consists of a linear magnet hanging from a spring and which is located in a spool. Starting the magnet motion, an electromotive force is induced in the spool which is measurable at the resistorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ends. Similarly, making circulate a/c in the spool, the magnet starts its motion. Experiments: - Electromagnetic induction; - A/c production; - Electromagnetic resonance.

Functions generator Included items: 1 Spool with 1600 coils fitted with support and plexiglas tube 1 Linear magnet, diam. 10 Mm with support 2 Coil spring 1 Magnetic weights-holder 2 10 g masses 2 20 g masses 2 Cables, 120 cm 1 Rectangular base with bar, 10x800 mm 2 Clamps 1 Bar with hook 1 Base with two bonding posts clamps 2 Resistors

Electromagnetic resonance

Page 192 - Section 10 - On-line science

Material required not supplied: 1 Tension sensor 1 Distance sensor 1 Functions sensor

code 9029 + 1 Interface code 9041 code 5718


Electomagnetic feild

electromagnetism 8514

8514 Electromagnetism kit

Laboratory experiments on electrical circuits are difficult due to the use of cables to connect the different parts. It becomes difficult to vary the typology of circuit without risking wrong or damaging connections. In addition we risk to lose sight of the structure of the circuit.

This kit is based on modules which can be quickly assembled on a table. In this way, the type of circuit is immediately recognizable and the replacement of a part or the change of the circuit become simple and quick operations. Experiments: - Ohm’ Laws; - Adjustment in series/parallel; - Charging and discharging of the condenser; - Autoinduction; - The reactive components in a/c; - Magnetic field in a solenoid; - Electromagnetic induction; - Tranformer; - Oscillator circuits; - Resonance. - Rectifier circuit; Ohm’s law

Voltage in the primary (in red) and in the secondary (in green) of a transformer

Included items: 1 Assembling plate 14 U bolts 1 Set of 10 resistors 1 Set of 4 nonlinear dipoles 1 Set of 10 condensers 10 Cables 2 “T” conductors 4 Linear conductors 2 “L” conductors 1 Switch/diverter 4 Universal connectors

Material required not supplied: 2 Voltage sensors 2 Current sensors 1 Generator of law frequency signals 1 Power unit 0-5A 1 Exensible solenoid

4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Insulators Kantal wire Alligator clips Potentiometer, 22 ohm Lamp holder Bulb Bar magnet Modular transformer Experiments guide

code 9029 + 1 Interfaccia code 9027 code 5718 code 5248 code 8519

Charging and discharging of a condenser

Resonance of a RCL circuit

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 193


chemistry - Earth sciences - biology 9035

9035 Earth Sciences Experimental chamber

The Earth Sciences experimental chamber has been designed for the study of biological phenomena. The students can explore, in a close and conditioned system, biological, physical and chemical phenomena. The item is fitted with a pressure control system, and with several connections for ScienceCube sensors.

Applications: Creation of artificial clouds; Study of Archimede’s push; Variation of the boiling point through pressure;

Adiabatic cycles; Study of relative humidity; Boyle’s Law.

supplied items: 1 Experimental chamber 1 Temperature sensor 1 Gas pressure sensor 1 Relative humidity sensor 1 Microphone 1 Compressore / vacuum pump 1 Valves and piping

Material required not supplied: ScienceCube Pro Interface code 9001 Dissolved oxygen sensor code 9030

9040 Kit for experiments on photosynthesis

9040

The kit for experiments on photosynthesis allows the study of earth and water plants, observing their breathing or seeds’ germination and measuring quantitatively what occurs. Supplied items: 1 Cell for photosynthesis 1 CO2 sensor 1 Platinum temperature sensor Material required not supplied: ScienceCube Pro Interface code 9001 Dissolved oxygen sensor code 9030

Page 194 - Section 10 - On-line science


biology Kit 8613 Plant and animal life

8613 (sensors not included)

How does a plant breath ? How does the process of photosynthesis occur? What happens if we try to change some significant parameters while we study a vegetable’s activity? Do the eye and the skin breath? The answer to these questions is in the biology books, without the support of an adequate experimentation. Thanks to the on-line items mentioned in this section the teacher can observe “ live” the behaviour of biological organisms, and then analyze the experimental data to establish relations between parameters and try to represent them mathematically.

Experiments: - CO2 emission in human breath; - Human breath function (inhaling and exhalation); - Skin breath; - Eye breath; - Animal breath; - Plants’ CO2 absorption during daytime ; - Plants’ O2 emission during daytime; - Plants’ O2 absorption during the night; - Plants’ CO2 emission during the night; - Germinating seeds’ breath; - The dependence of biological functions on temperature; - Dependence of the chlorophyll function on the light’s lengthwave; - CO2 production in the fermentation of must; - CO2 production in the fermentation of yeast.

supplied items: 1 Bunchner flask, 1000 ml 1 Glass flask, 100 ml with plug 1 Glass beaker, 600 ml 1 Rubber plug for O2 1 Rubber plug for CO2 1 T junction for breath 1 junction with suction cap 1 Glasses suited for sensor 1 Compressed air cylinder 1 Mouthpiece for breath 1 Support for chlorophyll function 1 Pincer 1 Foil 1 Green filter 1 Experiments guide 1 Case

Material required not supplied: 1 O2 sensor 1 CO2 sensor 1 Interface

code 9044 code 9089 code 9001

Human breath: inhaling and exhaling.

Even the skin absorbs oxygen from the air.

On-line science - Section 10 - Page 195


METEOROLOGy 8255 Wireless Weather Station

8255 Wireless Weather Station

This station with support, tripod, ropes and wall attachment , allows the remote monitoring of the main meteorological parameters, through sensors. Each sensor transmits realtime data to a remote switchboard and it is possible to donwnload the data on the pc. The switchboard is fitted with a screen for the display and the record of realtime data. The software is included. data: - Temperature and heat index; - Relative humidity and dew point; - Speed and direction of the wind; - Irradiation index of UV rays; - Atmospheric pressure; - Daily and accumulated rainfall; - Weather forecast; - Weather alarm for each size measured; - Chart representation of the sizes trend according to the time, specifically the last 24 hours; - Display of time, calendar and moon phases.

Page 196 - Section 10 - On-line science


seCTION 11

indEX Drawing

page 198

Enumeration

page 198

Logics

page 199

Statistics and probability calculus

page 199

Fractions and percentages

page 199

Geometry

page 200

Mathematics on magnetic blackboard

page 202

DRAWING AND MATHEMATICS

Drawing and Mathematics - Section 11 - Page 197


DRAWING ACCESSORIES OF BOARDS

AL/10

AL/25

AL/10 AL/11 AL/15 AL/25 AL/30

Accessories of boards

Rule 100 cm. Set square 45 (50 cm). Set square 60 (50 cm). Pair of flexible compasses (50 cm). Protractor (40 cm).

7124 Caliper universal

AL/11

The item has a clamp where pencils, felt-tip pens and cutter can be applied.

7158 Set of accessories for boards AL/15 7124 - 7099

AL/30

Collection of the item codes AL/10, AL/11, AL/15, AL/25, AL/30.

7099 Reflector

This instrument, made of acrylic transparent material, has a special reflecting surface, which enables students to learn the concept of simmetry, transformation and congruence. Dimensions: 160x105 mm.

1329 Magnetic board with stand

With white surface in order to draw diagrams and write formula with a MDT drawing pens. It can hang from the wall or be table-mounted in vertical position. Dimensions: 60x90 cm.

White magnetic boards with MDT drawing pens, to be hung on walls

1329

7136

BLV/253 Dimensions: 45x60 cm. BLV/254 Dimensions: 60x90 cm. BLV/256 Dimensions: 90x120 cm. BLV/257 Dimensions: 100x150 cm.

Green magnetic boards, to use with chalks, to be hung on walls

LM/154-V Dimensions: 60x90 cm. LM/156-V Dimensions: 90x120 cm. LM/157-V Dimensions: 100x150 cm. 7136 Magnetic board set

Components: 1 plastic circle Ă&#x2DC; 50 cm 1 plastic circle Ă&#x2DC; 40 cm 3 erasable drawing pens (red, black and blue)

ENUMERATION ID053

ID054

ID053 Colored rulers

Made of crushproof plastic material, of different colors; the rulers dimensions are all multiples of the units and allow verifications and comparisons on mathematical concepts. 200 pcs.

ID054 Abacus

Made of plastic material, with didactic guide. Dimensions: 190x170 mm.

7081 Multibasis abacus

7081

7083

Made of solid plastic. It is composed of: - 5 Bases with 5 holes. - 5 four-basis rods. - 5 six-basis rod. - 5 ten-basis rod. - 45 little cylinders.

7083 Column numerator

Made of solid plastic. Composed of: - 1 numbered basis. - 5 numbered rods. - 100 little cylinders. In couple with another numerator, it can be used to visuazile the data collected to be represented in a graph.

7082 Scalar abacus

7082

Page 198 - Section 11 - Drawing and Mathematics

Made of solid plastic. Composed of: - 2 numbered bases with 5 holes each. - 10 scalar rods. - 60 little cylinders. It enables the comprehension of the concept of variable quantity.


LOGICs ID058

LOGICAL PATTERNS

They have different thickness, different dimensions and are of three different colors. They are particularly indicated for performing operations on the set theory and for learning the basic concepts of geometry

ID057

ID057 Made of plastic materials.

They are 48 small pieces. (circle Ø: 6 cm).

They are 48 big pieces. (circle Ø: 11 cm).

ID058 Made of wood

7086

7086 Grouping circles

This item is composed of three flexible circles of different colors enabling the perfor mance of logic activities through the use of items code 7085, ID057 or ID058. Made of plastic, shockproof material; circles diameter: 50 cm.

statistics and probability calculus 7149

7149 Binostat

Pascal’s triangle made of plastic material. 150 balls fall, hitting the pivots at random. At the bottom of the instrument they pile up so to represent the typical binomial distribution histogram. The shape of the latter can be changed varying the fall conditions.

fractions and percentages 7087 7087 Fraction table

The item, made of plastic, consists of 51 pieces thanks to which it is possible to make comparisons and to do operations with fractions Experiment guide included. Dimensions: 24x30 cm.

7088 Square’s fractions

Made of shockproof, brightly colored plastic , this teaching aid is composed of 51pieces: the first one is a square whose side measures 10 cm, and the other pieces are fractions , from 1/2 to 1/12. All pieces are stored in a transpatrent, plastic case with lid.

7089 Circle’s fractions

Made of shockproof, brightly colored plastic , this teaching aid is composed of 51pieces: the first one is a circle whose diameter measure