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School year 2021-22
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DE USO ¿CÓMO SACAR EL MÁXIMO PROVECHO A NUESTROS TEMAS? OPOCOACH te ofrece unos temas: - Con una bibliografía actualizada. - También te proporcionaremos en la app un anexo con una extensa bibliografía común y útil para todos ellos. - Introducciones y conclusiones originales que no pasarán desapercibidas al tribunal (marcadas en color y encuadradas). - Añadiremos citas en cada conclusión que hagan que destaques - Conceptos marcados en mayúscula y su definición. - No pueden faltar los autores, que junto a definiciones, puntos importantes y normativa presentan simbología visual propia. - Un guión al comienzo de cada tema para que puedas ver claramente la estructura. - Una estructura similar en cada tema para que te resulte más sencillo su estudio. - Una extensión (entre 9-14 folios) que se ajusta al tiempo que tendrás en la prueba. - Normativa nacional marcada en gris y encuadrada - Cuando estudies cada tema te retamos a que contestes a sus preguntas en la app. Quizás al principio no las respondas todas correctamente pero es cuestión de estudio y de esfuerzo, lo conseguirás. - Te marcamos lo más importante de cada tema, aquello que no puede faltar en tu repaso
Prepárate para que OPOCOACH te abra la mente, prepárate para que OPOCOCAH, te abra las puertas de la plaza.
- Cada tema viene acompañado de su esquema, esto te ayudará a recoger de un solo vistazo el contenido de cada uno de ellos. Los esquemas que te proporcionamos puedes ampliarlos, modificarlos o dejarlos tal cual. El objetivo es que recojan lo más importante del tema. - Además, hemos divido los 25 temas en 5 bloques para facilitarte el trabajo: Block 1: Language and Communicative Skills (topics 1, 2, 3, 7 & 8) Block 2: Language Aspects (Topics 9, 10, 11 & 12) Block 3: Language Teaching and Learning (topics 6, 13, 14 & 25) Block 4: Curriculum and Lesson Planning (topics 20, 21, 22, 23 & 24) Block 5: Resources and Culture (topics 4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 18 & 19) Como ves nuestros temas están listos para que los estudies, solo faltaría que los personalices si quieres brillar en esta prueba, ¿cómo hacerlo? Tienes a tu disposición espacios distribuidos tras los principales puntos para que complementes un tema ya de por sí muy fuerte con aquellos apuntes anteriores que te gustaría seguir manteniendo. Con esto vas a conseguir un tema INTEGRADO, diferencial y motivador para ti y para el tribunal. Nosotros te proporcionamos normativa nacional pero con ayuda de nuestros esquemas (leer normativas en la app) añade la normativa de tu Comunidad Autónoma más relacionada con ese punto, es importante que te familiarices con tu normativa y esta es una muy buena manera de llevarlo a cabo. Te recomendamos, no obstante para mejorar tu estudio, que los temas terminen escritos a mano, es muy útil para llevar a cabo un aprendizaje significativo. Y AHORA SÍ ¡ADÉNTRATE EN UN TEMARIO QUE TE VA A ENTRAR POR LOS OJOS Y VA A SALIR PARA DARTE LA PLAZA!
"Didáctica en el siglo XXI" SEILLANO GARCÍA, M. L (2007) Editorial McGraw-Hill.
“The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language", CRYSTAL, D. (1997).
Editorial Cambridge University Press.
"500 Activities for the Primary Classroom", READ, C. (2008). Editorial Macmillan Books for Teachers.
"Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning" GIBBSON, P. (2002) Editorial Heinemann
"The Practice of English Language Teaching" HARMER, J. (2001) Editorial Longman
BLOCK I: LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS
TOPIC 1 A T IO N . IC N U M M O AS C T IO N S . C N U F LANGUAGE D N A E F IN IT IO N S D E G A U G N LA ENCE. T E P M O C E A T IV C O M M U N IC UAGE. G N A L N E T D W R IT SPOKEN AN T T IT U D E S . A L A IC R O T H IS GUAGE. N A L N E T IT H D WR AND SPEEC G SPOKEN AN IN IT R W BETWEEN U A T IO N . S E IT C S N E E IV R T E A F D IF C O M M U N IC A G IN IN F E FACTORS D
TOPIC 1 La lengua como comunicación: lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito. Factores que definen una situación comunicativa: emisor, receptor, funcionalidad y contexto. Language as Communication: spoken and written language. Factors defining a communicative situation: sender, receiver, functionality and context. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 1.1. Legal framework 2. Language as communication. 2.1. Language definitions. 2.2. Language functions. 2.3. Communicative competence. 3. Spoken and written language. 3.1. Historical attitudes. 3.2. Spoken language. 3.3. Written language. 3.4. Differences between writing and speech. 4. Factors defining a communicative situation. 5. Importance of the application of ICTs in the Foreign Language area. 6. The key competences in the Foreign Language area. 7. Conclusion. 8. Bibliography.
1. Introduction. This essay aims to study language and its functions, seeing that communication is one of them. In order to do so, and after having set up the legal framework, we will see that learning a language is not only a grammatical and lexical process, but also a social one. I will also analyse the differences between oral and written discourse, and finally, I will discuss the most important communication key factors.
In traditional approaches the focus was on learning the language, but not using it in real situations. And, although many of us learnt a language that way, research and experience have shown that this process does not appeal to everyone. In order to acquire a language, we have to become involved in it as an experience.
As we are in a European context and there are a high number of different languages, the Council of Europe saw the necessity of having a common way of grading the knowledge a student has in a foreign language. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) describes what a learner is able to do at each level in speaking, reading, writing and listening. These descriptions can be applied to any language as it is an international standard. There are six levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2; A refers to basic speaker; B to independent speaker; and, C, to proficient speaker. Due to globalization English has become a worldwide tool in order to communicate with other people. This is why in our current law of education, LOE 2/ 2006 3rd May, modified by LOMLOE 3/2020 29th December, the acquisition of a second language has become a vital point. So, in Royal Decree 126/2014 28th February, it is established that by the end of Primary Education our students should have acquired basic communicative competence (level A1) in, at least, one foreign language. Moreover, LOMLOE establishes as a general objective in Primary Education ‘’to acquire, in at least one foreign language, a basic communicative competence to express and understand messages and handle in daily-life situations’’.
Specific legal framework of your Autonomous Community.
2. Language as communication. Traditional Foreign Language Teaching concentrated on getting students consciously to learn items of language in isolation. These bits of information would be mainly used to read texts and occasionally for oral communication. In KRASHEN’s terms, it could be said that people got to know about language ,(LEARNING) but could not use it in a real context (ACQUISITION) since the focus was not on communication, but on a piece of language. We can say that the purpose of language is communication, so we will start by providing different definitions of language that defend the idea that languages are means of communication. 2.1. Language definitions. The word language has prompted some definitions. For example, SAPIR (1921) said that “language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols”. On the other hand, TRAGER (1949) stated that “a language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which the members of a society interact in terms of their total culture”. Because of the innumerable definitions, it is difficult to precise the properties of language. However, HOCKETT defined a set of features that characterize human language: ● Communicative versus informative: Informative signals are those that are given unintentionally, whereas communicative signals are considered to be intentionally communicating something. ● Displacement: Human language users can refer to past and future time and to other locations. ● Arbitrariness: There is no natural connection between a linguistic form (word) and its meaning. ● Productivity: Novel utterances are continually being created. It is infinite.
● Cultural transmission: A process by which languages are passed on from one generation to the next. ● Discreteness: Sounds used in language are distinct. For example, the difference between a b sound and a p sound is not very great, but when these sounds are used in language, they are used in such a way that the occurrence is meaningful. ● The use of the vocal-auditory channel is a feature of human speech. Human linguistic communication is generated via vocal organs and perceived via the ear.
2.2. Language functions. The word function can be thought of as a synonym for the word “use”, so when we talk about functions of language, we may mean the way people use their language. The most widely known classification of LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS is proposed by ROMAN JAKOBSON: ● Referential function: communication focuses on the contents of the language contained in a message. ● Emotive function: the speaker sends a message which expresses his own feelings. ● Conative function: the speaker emits a message to alter the listener's behaviour, call his attention, etc... using imperatives. For example, advertisements. ● Phatic function: to guarantee that the receiver is attentive. It can be achieved through dialogs. ● Metalinguistic function: the language is used to speak about the language itself. ● Poetic function: the addresser highlights the form of the message.
HALLIDAY grouped these functions into 3 METAFUNCTIONS: ● Ideational function: to organise the speaker’s or writer’s experience of the world. ● Interpersonal function: to indicate, establish or maintain social relationships between people. ● Textual function: to create written or spoken texts which cohere between themselves and fit the situation in which they are used. 2.3. Communicative competence. HARMER said that every human being communicates with a purpose and that the
listener is interested in that communicative purpose. When teaching a foreign language, we cannot only focus on grammar competence (HYMES), this is why we, and our laws and decrees, talk about communicative competence as the final aim of teaching a foreign language. According to CANALE AND SWAIN, the communicative competence is divided into four sub-competences: ● Linguistic competence is the ability of using vocabulary and the rules of the language. ● Discourse competence is the ability of using longer structures depending on the context using coherence and cohesion. ● Sociolinguistic competence is the ability to adapt oneself to different contexts and listeners. ● Strategic competence is the ability to repair the breakdowns in communication. We could add a fifth sub-competence, the sociocultural competence, which implies the ability to understand the cultural value of words.
3. Spoken and written language. 3.1. Historical attitudes. Historically speaking, WRITTEN language was considered to be superior to SPOKEN language for many centuries. It was the medium of literature, and literature was considered a source of linguistic excellence. Moreover, rules of grammar were illustrated exclusively in written texts. On the other hand, spoken language was ignored and considered an object unworthy of study and it was said to have no rules.
However, LEONARD BLOOMFLIED insisted that “writing is not language but a way of recording language by means of visible marks”. This approach points out that speech is many centuries older than writing and that develops naturally in children. Nowadays, there is no sense in the view that 1 medium of communication is better than the other. Writing cannot substitute speech, not speech for writing, without disservice being done. The functions of speech and writing are said to complement each other. We do not write to each other when we have the opportunity to speak and vice versa. 3.2. Spoken language. Speech is the universal material of human language. Human language was transmitted and developed as spoken means. The DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION of speech sounds is the main aim of phonetics. Sounds may be identified with reference to their production, transmission or reception. And there are 3 fields of phonetics:
Oral language is the expression of thoughts, emotions or ideas by means of spoken words. The elements that are essential in oral language are stress, pitch prominence, intonation and rhythm. -
Stress: in English is not graphic but tonic. In a sentence, the stress can change the meaning. Pitch prominence: is used by speakers to mark new information or emphasize something. Intonation: is the rise and fall in pitch. It expresses contrasts in meaning. Rhythm: is the “beat” of the language which gives it an organization in time.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORAL LANGUAGE: ♦ It usually contains a good deal of information that is redundant. ♦ The listener is helped by prosodic features such as stress, rhythm, intonation, facial expressions or body movements. ♦ Speech is characterized ungrammatical utterances.
3.3. Written language. It now seems that writing systems develop independently of each other at different times in several parts of the world. There is nothing to support a theory of common origin. In addition, 2 types of written systems can be described: ● NON-PHONOLOGICAL systems: do not show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds. They include pictographic, ideographic, cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphic. ● PHONOLOGICAL systems: show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds. There are syllabic systems (a grapheme corresponds to a spoken syllable) and alphabetic systems (a direct correspondence between graphemes and phonemes). The main aim of written communication is to express ideas and experiences or exchange meaning between individuals with a. particular system of codes. The encoder of the message is the writer, and the decoder and interpreter is the reader. Five skill areas are important for written expression:
It’s the writer’s ability to form letters, words and sentences that are legible (writer’s handwriting).
Number of words, sentences and paragraphs that a writer is able to generate. Rules of capitalization, punctuation and spelling.
Ability to use varied vocabulary and correct grammar and syntax.
It refers to the organizational aspect. It has to do with cohesion, coherence and logic.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE: Writing is static and permanent. Written language demands more correction than spoken language. There is no interaction between the writer and the reader. It is formal. It has unique graphic features (spelling, punctuation). 7
3.4. Differences between writing and speech. Writing and speech contrast in physical form. Speech uses phonic substance (in the form of air-pressure movements) and writing uses graphic substance (in the form of marks on a surface). HOLTGRAVES (2002) proposed spoken mode features: ● Grammatical features: tendency to ellipsis, abbreviation of verbs, coordinated clauses, the use of “and” as a contribution marker, active verb forms. ● Lexical features: low lexical density, less abstract and simpler vocabulary, use of terms that depend on the context of production for their understanding. ● Discourse features: discourse produced by more than 1 participant, interpersonal dynamics’ markers, repetition and echoing. Regarding the written mode, HOLTGRAVES proposed: ● Grammatical features: full phrases with little abbreviation, less ellipsis, standard grammar, longer and complex clauses. ● Lexical features: high lexical density, complex voc, variety in voc, lower repetition. ● Discourse features: presentation of ideas to a non-presence audience, few markers of interpersonal discourse, text organisation. After having examined what language is and the two main forms in which language can be used, we will now discuss the elements that interact in any communicative situation.
4. Factors defining a communicative situation. This concept has been defined as the exchange of meaning between individuals through a common system of symbols. According to SAVIGNON (1997), “communication takes place in an infinite variety of situations, and success in a particular role depends on one’s understanding of the context and on prior experience of a similar kind. Success requires making appropriate choices of register and style in terms of the situation and the other participants”. 8
In the late 1940s, CLAUDE SHANNON, a research mathematician at Bell Telephone Laboratories, invented a mathematical theory of communication that gave the first structure to design telephone systems. The main objective was to design telephone systems to carry the maximum amount of information and how to correct the distortions on the lines. His approach introduced the CHANNEL. Shannon’s communication channel consisted of a sender (a source of information), a transmission medium (with noise and distortion), and a receiver (whose goal is to reconstruct the sender’s messages). In theory, then, communication takes place if the information received is the same as that sent. In the practice, though, we have to pay close attention to all the intervening factors described by JAKOBSON: -
Sender: the person that starts the communication process. They encode the message and select the channel. Message: the information passed from the sender to the receiver. Code: the system of symbols used to produce a message. Channel: the medium used to send the message. Receiver: the person for whom the communication is intended. They decode the message and provide feedback. Feedback: the transfer of information from the receiver back to the sender to ensure mutual understanding. Noise: anything that interferes with the communication.
One of the factors that condition any communicative situation is the CONTEXT. This concept is defined by the Collins English Dictionary as “the parts of a piece of writing, speech, etc, that precede and follow a word or passage and contribute to its full meaning” as well as “the conditions and circumstances that are relevant to an event, fact, etc.” The first definition covers the linguistic context. This definition refers both to the linguistic context (what the sender is talking/writing about) and to the situational context (the place where both the sender and the receiver are) which makes reference to the outside world. COMMUNICATION depends on the outline of each interlocutor; the way we interpret the information provided. This is what is called CAPACITY (inference, practical reasoning, negotiation of meaning, problem solving…).
This capacity applies to two different dimensions: One refers to the kind of outline that is being imposed (the information).
And the other to the kind of communicative situation that has to be negotiated; that is, the way in which this information is understood.
There are occasions in which we need to make the context of the information (frame of reference) clearer; or we need to use rhetorical routines (clarifying sentences) to explain what we are talking about. Other procedures that the receiver can use are INTERPRETATIVE. For example, when saying “I’ve got an exam tomorrow”, we understand that this person cannot go because she has an exam. On some occasions, however, negotiation is too long or difficult because the outlines from the ender and the receiver are very different. HYMES and HALLIDAY categorize the communicative situation in terms of 3 components: ● Field of discourse refers to what is happening. What is it that the participants are engaged in? ● Tenor of discourse refers to who is taking part, their statuses and roles. ● Mode of discourse refers to what it is that the participants are expecting the language to do form them in that situation.
5. Importance of the application of ICTs in the Foreign Language area. After having developed the topic, I am going to explain the importance of education of ICTs in the foreign language classroom. The different laws and decrees that I have listed in the introduction support this application for several reasons: first, it is a great way to personalize the education; second, it enhances the teacher’s methodology; third, Order ECD describes the Digital Competence. And, finally, I think it is important to use ICTs because our students are “digital natives” and, as so, they are surrounded by technology, and they are extremely keen on it, which is translated into a higher motivation in the class.
The application of ICTs gives more opportunities for communication among learners, enabling them to practice their speaking and writing skills. They can exchange information orally or by writing through apps such as Skype, emails or, even and depending on their age, WhatsApp. Indeed, through these mentioned applications, the factors defining a communicative situation (sender, receiver, functionality and context) are also present.
6. The key competences in the Foreign Language area. I do not want to finish this essay without explaining the importance of the key competences in the English area and providing some ideas to boost them. LOMLOE and RD126 describe the key competences as the application of different abilities or skills to efficiently solve complex problems and to carry out activities correctly. RD126 establishes seven key competences.
If we take into consideration the aim of this essay, we must highlight the importance of key competence number 1 (linguistic competence), as it is related to the acquisition of the basic abilities in both oral and written language to handle daily-life situations. Acquisition of this competence involves a command of oral and written language in a variety of contexts, always bearing in mind the factors of that situation such as the sender or the receiver.
7. Conclusion. To conclude I will highlight the importance of acquiring new systems of communication, that is, new languages, which permit us and our students to interact with the world around and improve our knowledge about it. In order to do that, the communication process needs to be complete, taking into account both sender and addressee, who negotiate the meaning of what is being transmitted. As Brian Tracy once pointed out: “communication is a skill that you can learn. It’s like
riding a bicycle or typing. If you’re willing to work at it, you can rapidly improve the quality of every part of your life”.
8. Bibliography. Widdowson, H. (1978): “Teaching Language as Communication”. Halliday, M.A.K. (1978): “Language as social semiotics”.