TEACHING learning beyond
MUSEUMS Libraries & Archives
as ‘cool’ places
of education and controversy Also inside this issue —
+ People’s History Museum study / page 12 + lgbt perspectives on rights / page 20 + British Muslim veterans’ voices / page 24 + Youth political engagement / page 32 + Reviews, resources and more… On the cover: The Rosetta Vase (2011) by Grayson Perry © The British Museum
Issue No 32 Spring 2012
Journal of the Association for Citizenship Teaching www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
© Clive Coote
‘Amnesty’s delightful book we Are All Born Free explains the importance of human rights through truly beautiful illustrations. it is clear, simple and uplifting and makes it very easy to raise difficult subjects, even with young children. it is a wonderful educational tool and i strongly believe that every school should own a copy.’ Emma Thompson
Free books For schools to mark National Children’s Book Week Primary schools across the UK can now request a free copy of Amnesty International’s award-winning book We Are All Born Free, in a special project funded by Emma Thompson and other Amnesty supporters. We Are All Born Free is a superb collection of 30 beautiful illustrations that interpret our human rights, suitable for ages 5+. Top illustrators who contributed pictures include Axel Scheffler (of Gruffalo fame), Korky Paul and John Burningham. Schools will also receive a free copy of Amnesty’s excellent primary schools resource Learning About Human Rights in the Classroom, which is full of innovative lesson plans. Simply go to www.amnesty.org.uk/primary to place your order. This is a free offer, but we ask schools to pay a total of £4.50 towards postage and packing (which includes both the book and the primary resource). Local education authorities can save postage costs by placing a bulk order on behalf of primary schools. For more information, please contact email@example.com or telephone 0845 458 9910. Secondary schools will find many free, exciting resources on human rights education at www.amnesty.org.uk/education
English AssociAtion spEciAl AwArd 2008 winnEr UsBBY oUtstAnding intErnAtionAl Book rEAd ME BEst Books 2009 BEst non Fiction titlE oF thE YEAr
Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives 04 Editorial Museums as ‘cool’ places by Gavin Baldwin & Alison Bodley 08 Inspirational citizenship Alison Bodley on museums’ learning opportunities 12 People’s History Museum Case study by Catherine O’Donnell 13 The National Centre for Citizenship & the Law Case study by Polly Shorthouse 14 Museums of citizenship in action 09 Gavin Baldwin on identity through museums 17 Museums of citizenship: Comments for debate Colleagues respond to Gavin Baldwin’s article 18 Persuading history to tell the truth Jan Pimblett uses archives to explore LGBT identity 23 Out, Loud & Proud Youth group case study by Nikki Parkhill 21 24 We Also Served Steve Irwin’s British Muslim veterans case study Lesson Plans 20 LGBT perspectives on rights Jan Pimblett’s resources from the archives Features & Research 26 Developing an integrated assessment system Lorellie Canning’s approach builds on connections in the curriculum 30 Creating citizenship communities (part two) Ian Davies on how young people take part in society 32 Back on the agenda and off the curriculum? Matt Henn & Nick Foard’s research on education 24 and young people’s political engagement Reviews, Resources & Regulars 25 Diary of a debate debutante by Trisha Manktelow 36 Remembrance in schools by Lorellie Canning 36 The Complete Citizenship Resource File by Hugo Goodson 37 Countryside Investigators / Persona Dolls by Denise Howe 38 ACTually... enough about student voice – what about teacher listening? asks Lee Jerome Published by the Association for Citizenship Teaching, 63 Gee Street, London ec1v 3rs Email firstname.lastname@example.org | Telephone +44 (0)20 7253 0051 (note new number!) © 2012 Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT) ISSN 1474-9335 No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied
or transmitted in any form or by any means without the permission of the publisher. Teaching Citizenship is the official journal of ACT.
Editorial notes 2012 looks set to be an important year for citizenship, as the curriculum review rolls on to its conclusion. The interim report made it clear that we have not yet convinced the review panel that citizenship is popular or necessary in a high quality curriculum, but act will continue to make the argument that quality citizenship education is valued by young people, adds to their experience of school and is an essential part of a healthy democratic society. If you want to make your voice heard, and haven’t yet signed up as a supporter, see www.democraticlife.org.uk to join the campaign. In the meantime I hope the journal continues to provide you with food for thought for improving your own practice. And for seeking to do just that I would like to thank this edition’s guest editors, Gavin Baldwin and Ali Bodley, who have coordinated a fascinating series of articles which explore the role of museums, libraries and archives in citizenship education. Lee Jerome, Editor email@example.com
Design notes Many thanks to all those who offered feedback on the redesigned Teaching Citizenship. In a reader survey, 84% of you rated it either ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’. Some comments include: “More up-to-date looking” “Clear useful information” “It’s always been good, but the new look is excellent.” “Very well produced – I really like the look of the publication. This is important to make it accessible.” Lionel Openshaw, Design & Production Editor firstname.lastname@example.org The views expressed in signed articles do not necessarily represent those of ACT, and we cannot accept responsibility for any products
or services advertised within the magazine. Printed by Premier Print Group: www.premierprint group.com.
www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 3
Gavin Baldwin is Programme Leader for the PGCE Citizenship at Middlesex University. Alison Bodley is an experienced heritage consultant, specialising in museum education.
Museums as ‘cool’ places of education and controversy This edition celebrates museums and archives as rich and varied places to pursue citizenship education, as outlined by guest editors Gavin Baldwin and Alison Bodley. At the British Museum there is currently an exhibition of Grayson Perry’s wonderful decorated vases and some of the artifacts that inspired them. The Tomb of the Unknown Craftsmen – as the exhibition is entitled – raises a number of questions about museums and their role in society. The Rosetta Vase (2011), pictured below, features texts such as ‘Education’, ‘Non Traditional Backgrounds’, ‘Dry Academe Education’, ‘Museums as Cathedrals’, ‘Nice Day Out’, ‘Titillation’, ‘Dwindling Attention Spans’ and ‘Moozeems are cool’. Another vase You Are Here (2011) records responses to visiting museums: ‘It’s in my A level syllabus, my tutor told me to come’, ‘I am outraged’, ‘It’s almost a spiritual experience’ and ‘This is way cool.’ So museums are presented
as places of education and which is developing resources controversy, complex and difor schools to consider lgbt verse. In short ‘cool’ places for experience in the Holocaust. citizenship to be explored. The experience of war and We have pursued some identity is taken up by Steve of these issues in this edition. Irwin in his article on a project We start from the museums’ called We Also Served. The projperspective with an introducect was led by young people tion to using museums and who set out to investigate the archives by Alison Bodley, Muslim soldiers who fought for followed by two examples of the allies in World War 2, but citizenship work in The Peowhose history has been absent ple’s History Museum and The in most schools. Galleries of Justice Museum. We have a simple mes We then turn to a consider- sage to convey. Museums are ation of citizenship education excellent places for citizenship in museums. Gavin Baldwin education. There is a huge varibegins by considering identity ety of ways in which this can be exploration through critical pursued from national projects engagement with museums like Campaign! Make an Impact which both present a to local explorations of what it record of citizenship in means to ‘belong’ to your local action and sites of acarea and how citizens in the tive citizenship. The past have worked through their theme of identity active citizenship to improve is then pursued their own communities. by Jan Pim Dr Anne Looney, Chief Exblett who ecutive of National Council for discusses Curriculum and Assessment lgbt identity Ireland, suggested at the recent exploration Five Nations Network Conferin archives. ence that teachers should see Jan has also themselves as ‘curators’, helpprovided us ing students to bring their own with images interpretations to citizenship and questions issues. So take up the challenge for discussing – use museums to ‘curate’ citilgbt identity in zenship for your school. the classroom. Museums are an inspiraThis is then tion to us all and museum proillustrated by fessionals are enthusiastic to Nikki Parkhill’s work with citizenship teachers presentation of a – get in touch, make your plans youth project in Surrey and get exploring. ▪
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“Museums are excellent places for citizenship education. There is a huge variety of ways in which this can be pursued from national projects ... to explorations of what it means to ‘belong’ to your local area”
‘Rights & Responsibilities’ National Citizenship Education Conference 2012 Tuesday 3 July 2012 9.30 am – 4.00 pm University of London Union Malet Street, London WC1 To find out more and book your place, see: www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk/events or www.eventbrite.co.uk/event/1922308677
Your passport to success With your teaching experience and knowledge of Citizenship, you could become an Edexcel examiner for Pearson, the UK’s largest awarding body. You would receive a host of benefits, as well as being paid and receiving training for the role. You will gain valuable knowledge about the examination process, which can be taken back to the classroom. As the world’s leading learning company, Pearson are proud to be investing in the future of the next generation of teachers.
Visit www.edexcel.com/aa-recruitment to apply.
Events & News
ACT Summer Conference & AGM Act’s 2012 conference will be at University of London Union, Malet Street, in central London, on 3rd July with an overall theme of ‘Rights and Responsibilities’. This is the event for Citizenship teachers and others delivering Citizenship education in school and beyond. The conference is a cpd opportunity both for experienced teachers and those new to Citizenship. You will have the space to meet other teachers, talk to the experts, learn about what’s happening with the curriculum review and examine your own practice. Details will be emailed to all act members this term and you can book your place at: www.eventbrite.co.uk/ event/1922308677.
MLA transferred to Arts Council From 1st October 2011 Arts Council England took on the responsibilities previously undertaken by Museums, Libraries & Archives (mla). Their strategic archive functions have now moved to the National Archives. The
Compiled by Sheila Clark on behalf of ACT Council. Share info and news about forthcoming events – email: email@example.com.
Arts Council will continue the drive towards delivering long term change in museums in England “enabling people to experience them in new and innovative ways… The ultimate aim is a fully integrated cultural offer that inspires more people to get involved with the arts, museums and libraries”. For more info, see: www.artscouncil.org.uk/about-us/ museums-and-libraries. Across the country, there are 2,500 museums! It’s a good idea to check out your local museums and libraries to see what’s available since they’re a great resource for visits, events and ‘hands–on’ experiences. Campaigns from the past can be explored and bring topical issues to life, helping your students to plan their own campaigns. Good starting points might include connecting the historical slave trade to modern day slavery in the uk, conflict across the world and ethical issues around trade. For up-to-date information see: www.culture24.org.uk, where there’s a special section for teachers.
See the results for Schools Q&A Searching out opportunities for young people to engage in and learn about political literacy through debate and discussions? Not sure where to begin? Follow what’s happening with the winners of this year’s Schools Questions and Answers initiative and you may decide to enter the 2012-13 Schools Q&A (watch for the
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launch around October 2012). This initiative is supported by the Institute for Citizenship, Parliament’s Education Service and the BBC. Follow the winning schools (announced 23 January 2012) and see their live webcasts from their school from March to July 2012. If you want to explore political literacy some more, you can find a “free Political Literacy resource which can be used independently from the Schools Questions and Answers Challenge and explores the roles of Parliament, Government and mps” as well as other resources to help you prepare for the Q&A. All are available at: www. schoolsquestionsandanswers.co.uk.
Teacher Training Cuts for Cit Ed In November the dfe announced a 14% reduction in the number of Citizenship pgce places for 2012-13 and also revealed that Citizenship is the only statutory National Curriculum subject for which trainee teachers will receive no training bursary. With the ending of tda funding for pgce providers this means the few Citizenship teachers trained next year will be liable for up to £9000 fees with no regular income while they train. A key point by Ofsted in all its reports into the subject over the past decade has been that the number of trained Citizenship teachers needs to be increased through access to quality training. Citizenship is a subject that needs expert skills and knowledge to be able to deliver it well. Act, along with some pgce providers, has written to the dfe to complain. Members of act are invited to write to the dfe and/or their mps to share their opinions.
Sheila is a professional trainer, regional subject advisor, ACT Council Member, partner in an educational consultancy business and is involved in the teaching of Citizenship and PSHE at The King Edward VI School, Morpeth, Northumberland.
ACT takes over the Five Nations Network This year act is taking over responsibility for the Five Nations Network and the next annual conference is due to take place in England at the end of 2012. This network is sponsored by the Gordon Cook Foundation and offers a unique opportunity for the Five Nations (England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales) to collaborate and share good practice in citizenship and values education. Annual conferences of the Five Nations Network have been held since 2000 and are hosted by a different nation each year. It’s a great opportunity for teachers, educationalists, policy makers, curriculum planners, members of the inspectorate, representatives of ngos and young people to focus on common experiences, explore new ground, network, and access indepth and up-to-date expertise.
New Citizenship Quality Award The Citizenship Quality Standard has been set up by act to recognise school improvement in Citizenship
provision. The standard, which is being piloted this year, has been designed to support the development of a quality Citizenship curriculum at all phases and to acknowledge good practice. It includes a teacherled review of provision and a section for young people to report on their involvement in an active citizenship campaign which has brought about change within their school, local, regional, national or international community. To find out more, please contact Millicent Scott on 020 7253 0051, or see the act website: www. teachingcitizenship.org.uk
ACT CPD Day tackles challenging and sensitive issues
United Nations World Cultural Diversity Day 21 May 2012
We should all take more notice of special days such as this – especially in this year of the Olympics. Why not use it to explore and experience another country that’s This cpd event, held on 8th February taking part in the Olympics – and 2012 in Manchester, explored the learn about its culture, people and theme of ‘Helping students make their language? What issues and sense of the world: complexity, concerns are they facing? What’s it conflict and conspiracy theories like to go to school there? How do in the classroom’. It highlighted they report the news? Do they rely on some of the key challenges faced foreign aid? What is their political by educators dealing with sensitive system? What’s their record like for topics and the opportunities arising addressing human rights? How does to address controversial issues. this country compare with our own? The keynote speaker was Jamie Cross-curricular links can be Bartlett, Head of the Violence and made between many subjects and Extremism Programme at Demos, you could make Citizenship the leading research into the “norms, overall theme in mfl, Music, Art, attitudes and incentives” that exist English, Geography, re, ict and pe. throughout a range of antisocial In fact, there’s probably so many behaviour such as knife crime, links that could be explored and gang culture, and violent extremism. it could potentially touch every The role of media was also subject. You could have a whole day explored as a central theme, with or week of events coming out of a review of the trustworthiness of this – a rich experience! For more various sources. Practical activities info, see: www.un.org/en/events/ and opportunities to share culturaldiversityday. questions and experiences with others were also available throughout the day. If you would like to discuss running a similar event in your la, contact the act office. www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 7
Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives
Inspirational citizenship Using the past to stimulate active citizenship Alison Bodley introduces this edition’s theme by arguing that museums and archives provide wonderful opportunities for Citizenship learning and points the way to some useful resources.
work to the strengths of their collections. Whilst some feel they can cover the majority of the curriculum, others focus on one or two areas such as History, Geography or Science. Over the last few years there has been a huge growth in services which focus on very year around Citizenship, from exhibitions, 2500 museums and to online resources, and from 2000 archives in comprehensive programmes to England open their individual activities. doors and welcome Some museum buildings the public to explore create a perfect fit for Citizenthe fascinating, ship as they have played a stimulating, prerole in political power and cious, historic, and the creation of democracy in on occasion, eccenEngland. This includes court tric collections that rooms, prisons and police cells, they hold. The mufor example, the Galleries of seums come in all shapes and Justice in Nottingham, York sizes; the national museums Castle Museum, and the Ripon that hold our national heritage, Police Museum. Others have the local authority museums objects that are very relevant, that chart a town’s history and such as collections focusing the independent museums, on the abolition of the slave often created by and run by the trade that can be useful for local community. They all have teaching human rights and in something unique to offer to recent years many museums inspire a class of children. and archives have developed As diverse as the collecactivities in this area such as tions are, so are the services Hull Museums, Bristol Musemuseums and archives offer ums, National Museums on to schools. Some have sophisMerseyside Liverpool and the ticated and well developed National Maritime Museum. educational offers and employ Leeds City Museums and the experienced education staff, Museum of London do work whilst at the other end of around the Suffragettes, whilst spectrum a small independent the Royal Armouries, Imperial museum may have an enthusi- War Museum and the National astic volunteer who can bring Army Museum look at conflict. the collections to life. Museums are also an opMuseums and archives all portunity to look more cre8 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“Over the last few years there has been a huge growth in services which focus on Citizenship, from exhibitions to online resources, and from comprehensive programmes to individual activities”
atively at the curriculum. One of the more challenging areas of the curriculum to teach in an inspirational way is “the needs of the local community and how these are met through public services and the voluntary sector.” A stroll down the recreated 1842 Street at the Thackray Museum in Leeds, complete with sound effects and pungent smells, is a very effective way to see why services such as lighting, rubbish collection and street cleaning are needed. Visitors take a character card and discover how long their character will live in such conditions. Others are less obvious but can still provide a ‘slice of life’ from the past, such as Beamish and the Black Country Museum. This provides ample opportunity for teachers to compare modern day services with those of the past. Also don’t forget that museums themselves often form part of local authority services. A more active way to engage young people in museums is the Take Over Day, run by Kids in Museums. In November 2011 over 50 museums took part, with young people curating exhibitions, working on the archives or providing valuable information on what young people would like to do in the museum. More information is available online at: www.kidsinmuseums.org. uk/2010/03/07/project-1.
Alison Bodley is an experienced heritage consultant, specialising in museum education. She is also Programme Manager for the British Library led citizenship programme Campaign! Make an Impact.
So what should you expect as a Citizenship teacher? Do museums offer the complete deal and deliver the Citizenship you need to teach? Well some do, but most will help with critical thinking and enquiry, give you an introduction to a subject and a platform from which to explore it. For instance looking at a collection about slavery in Britain in the eighteenth century is a good way to start exploring human rights. Using empathetic skills about what was right and wrong in the past can help young people begin to discuss these issues in relation to their own lives. For some young people this may be much easier than approaching a subject cold, for example, looking at prison life in the nineteenth century, with its restrictions on rights, could be a more enlightening way to discuss whether prisoners today should have the right to vote or not. Some programmes, howev-
er, do offer a complete Citizenship experience. Museums and archives involved with the British Library Campaign! Make an Impact (cmai) Programme (www.bl.uk/campaign) do offer a way of working from museum and archive collections straight into active modern day Citizenship. Students study a campaign subject such as the abolition of the slave trade, suffragettes or public health campaigns, learn campaign skills from these and modern day campaigns and then run their own campaigns about things they would like to change. The skills required for campaigning such as planning and knowing how to get your message across have not really changed in 200 years. Campaigners still need to know how to write a good speech or presentation, design a poster or strong visual image and get their message across, and students working on these projects are encouraged to be
as creative as possible. On occasion, campaigns can lead to protest, but protest is just one possible part of planning and running a campaign. There are a whole range of skills involved, and consequently a creatively run campaign can link strongly with English, Art and many other subjects. The process is also a good way to support students in engaging with the local community, and it isnâ€™t unusual to see young people discussing their concerns with local councillors and community leaders. Often this creates a legacy as students are asked to get involved with local community forums and other activities. Teachers are enthusiastic about the approach: â€œI would say that the children are very enthusiastic about it and want to learn. They are excited about creating their own campaigns. From my point of view the children are learning valuable his-
Pictured left: Geevor Tin Mine Museum www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 9
Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives Inspirational Citizenship / Alison Bodley torical and citizenship skills which will help them in these and other subjects”, says the Head of History at Lake Middle School. “We’ll definitely use the cmai handbook resources with our gcse and A-Level citizenship group”, said a Citizenship teacher from Sandown High School. And the project has had an impact on students’ aspirations for active citizenship: “You can do anything if you put your mind to it”, said a Year 9 student from Parklands Comprehensive. “I should speak up for what I think is fair”, said a Year 9 student from Primrose High School (working with Thackray Museum Leeds). This innovative programme involves over 60 museums and archives in England country, many offering bookable sessions to schools. The programme is now being devel-
oped in Wales using campaigns around the miners’ strike and chartists. Inspired by the chartists who campaigned for the right to vote, young people in Monmouth wrote their own charter and made a film to promote their campaign for more activities for young people. They caught the attention of the Mayor, were invited to contribute to local forums and the council agreed to provide a new venue for youth events. When asked what was the most important part of the project the young people said “Making a difference” and “Having our voice respected because of what we have produced”. Museums and schools in the South West and Wales have been successful in being awarded a grant from the Five Nations Network. They are now working together, sharing skills and experiences. In particular they are looking at the political structures and organ-
isations in each country, and how this impacts on who they need to influence in order to achieve their campaign aims.
Visiting a museum or archive To find a museum near you go to: www.culture24.org.uk or look on your local council site or tourism information. For information on museums and archives involved in campaigning: www. bl.uk/learning/citizenship/ campaign/teachers/find/ findpartner.html. To find an archive see: www.history. org.uk/resources/public _ resource _ 2778 _ 77.html. If there is an existing Citizenship offer this will be advertised. If not you could try contacting the museum and asking if they would work on something specifically with you. Like everywhere, museums are experiencing cuts, but if museums and archives know there is a good market
“I should speak up for what I think is fair”, said a Year 9 student
Pictured left: Pupils in Worcester join ‘Campaign! Make An Impact’. 10 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
in a particular subject then they are more likely to develop something new. For some museums and archives Citizenship may be a new area for them, but if you are happy to help them, then you may get a better response, and have an activity that you can use for several years to come. If you are inspired by a particular collection, then there is nothing stopping you leading your class round a museum yourself. Your school will have guidelines on how to organise school trips, but there are also additional resources at the Learning Outside the Classroom site: www.lotc.org.uk.
Resources As well as being places to take your class, some museums and archives offer resources to use back in school. What sets these resources apart from other Citizenship resources you may use is that they are all focused around original archives, objects or exhibitions. Democracy and Rights British Library The British Libraries groundbreaking exhibition Taking Liberties, which looks at the struggle for Britain’s freedom and rights, is available on line. You can explore archive copies of the key documents that have helped to form our democracy, such as the Magna Carta, the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights and the 1838 People’s Charter. A stunning interactive programme can also create stimulating classroom activities: www.bl.uk/learning/ citizenship/takingliberties/ tlinteractive.html.
Thackray Museum Take a virtual tour of the 1842 Leeds Street (without the smells): www.thackraymuseum.org/leeds-1842.html. Follow it by creating your own campaign poster to improve conditions in Leeds: www.thackraymuseum.org/ games.html. People’s History Museum Search the collection for objects relating to the history of working people in Britain. Find suffragettes, strikes, banners and many more: www.phm.org.uk/keemu.
Human Rights, Identity and Social Cohesion British Library The Sacred Texts resource looks at six different religions – a useful way to link identity and social cohesion in citizenship with re: www.bl.uk/learning/citizenship/sacred/sacredintro.html. National Maritime Museum The Understanding Slavery initiative looks at the history of slavery. It also provides useful approaches to teaching about controversial and sensitive issues such as racism: www.understandingslavery.com.
Sheffield Museum Trust Resources linked to the theme Restless Times: Exploring British community and identity through art from 1914 to 1945 are available here: www. museums-sheffield.org.uk/ learning/schools-and-colleges/ online-resources/classroomresources/temporaryexhibition-resources.
Active Citizenship As well as original archive material the cmai website also has considerable resources on how to campaign with young people, including a student’s hand book which is accepted by some gcse examination boards and a list of most of the museums and archives involved in the programme: www.bl.uk/campaign.
“As well as being places to take your class, some museums and archives offer resources to use back in school”
Bath Preservation Trust Sustainable World Heritage is a project designed to engage students in Bath and North-East Somerset in the debate over the future of their heritage. This pack suggests a structure for holding a Citizenship day at your school and provides lesson ideas and supporting resources: www.bptlearning. org.uk/index.php?page=61.
History of Advertising Trust This archive is the largest collection of uk advertising, marketing and media material Imperial War Museum in the world. Check out their From the World Wars to the website at www.hatads.org.uk. Cold War and recent genocides, And their new resource ad: Their Past Your Future gives Mission at: www.advertisinginteachers and students in uk education.org/admission. schools everything they need to explore the course, causes In addition, you can explore and consequences of conflict the 58 Learning Journeys or from the First World War to resources on the My Learning today: www.theirpast-yourfuwebsite: www.mylearning.org/ ture.org.uk. subjects/citizenship. ▪ www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 11
Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives Case Studies / Democracy and Rights
Catherine O’Donnell is Learning Officer at the People’s History Museum, Manchester.
People’s History Museum “There have always been ideas worth fighting for” 200 years ago, the only people who had a say in how the country was run were very rich men. Ordinary men and women were working extremely long hours for little reward in appalling conditions with no way of doing anything about it. They could not vote, so their views were not represented in parliament. Trade unions were illegal, so they had no representation in the workplace. However, people came together and campaigned and fought for the rights we enjoy today. The People’s History Museum in Manchester tells the story of this struggle and the people that fought and changed things for the better. The museum re-opened in February 2010 after a £12.5m re-development. Two floors of main galleries chart the history of working people in Britain – from the horrific events of the Peterloo Massacre to the changing landscape of post-war Britain. Many big ideas are handled in an engaging and accessible way, including Chartism, the Labour movement, the rise of trade unions, the suffragettes and the welfare state. The museum has the largest collection of trade union, political and campaigning banners in the world, which encapsulate the museum’s ethos – ‘there have always been ideas worth fighting for’. These ideas – fundamental principles of democracy, equality and rights for working people – are explored throughout the museum’s galleries, learning programme, collections
A school trip to the People’s History Museum
and digital presence. The learning programme is cross-curricular, but teaching Citizenship is at its core and it links directly to the national curriculum. There are two main strands to the programme. Living history workshops These are designed to make history come to life and tell the personal stories that really help pupils to connect with the big ideas. Workshops use performance, interactive drama activities and gallery exploration to bring learning to life. Professional actors, writers and directors deliver living history sessions such as ‘The Hard Way Up – A Suffragette’s Story’, which is based on the story of Hannah Mitchell. She was a suffragette and local councillor who spoke out for women and for the poor and
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became a peace campaigner after World War i. Participate art workshops These are artist-led sessions inspired by our unique collections. ‘The Art of Protest’, for example, looks at historical images of protest and objects from our collections, as well as contemporary protest art. The session also explores issues, impact and media to help students design their own protest art and culminates in a march through the museum. Teachers can download free resource packs including the material in the Labour History Archive and Study Centre. To find out more information, visit our website www. phm.org.uk. To book a session call 0161 838 9190 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. ▪
Polly Shorthouse is Head of Learning at the National Centre for Citizenship and the Law.
The National Centre for Citizenship and the Law “A brilliant day for everyone, very interactive” The National Centre for Citizenship and the Law is the education division of the Egalitarian Trust, an independent charity, that delivers Citizenship education through our Courts of Justice Programme at different venues across the UK: the Galleries of Justice Museum, Nottingham; the Royal Courts of Justice, London; the Supreme Court, London; and recently at piloted education work at Sessions House, Northampton. The Courts of Justice Programme uses buildings and collections to allow young people to learn about the law and how to be responsible citizens.
Galleries of Justice work with Shire Hall, Wales
The courtrooms at the Galleries of Justice Museum and Royal Courts of Justice become the backdrop for the learning environment outside the classroom. Learning outcomes of the Courts of Justice Programme are taken from the national curriculum for Citizenship – focusing on Democracy and Justice – but also key skills and knowledge from Critical Thinking and Enquiry, and Advocacy and Representation. Pupils from ks1 to University level learn about the roles in the courtroom: who they are, what they do and how they can access those careers. Students participate in courtroom workshops, exploring issues of fairness in the court system through looking at historical and contemporary criminal law cases. Students also learn about their rights and responsibilities as a uk citi-
zen, with specific reference to what happens if someone breaks the law, looking at the consequences for the perpetrator and victim. Through using the courtrooms at the Galleries of Justice Museum and Royal Courts of Justice nccl helps young people to explore the law, justice and democracy in a hands-on, kinaesthetic approach to learning. Through ‘learning by doing’ the courtroom workshops create memorable and powerful learning experiences for students and staff. Nccl has been delivering Citizenship education at the Galleries of Justice Museum for over 15 years. Feedback from teachers is positive and confirms the quality and value of the students’ learning experience: “The day was full of information and the children learnt with enthusiasm
and excitement. The children learnt much more than expected and everyone had a wonderful time!” (Teacher, Al-Huddaa Primary School) Nccl creates sessions at the Galleries of Justice Museum bespoke to gcse coursework questions for the Crime and Punishment History gcse. Many gcse Citizenship students visit to enhance their coursework or as part of their exam revision and preparation. We work alongside teachers to tailor our activities to suit all learning needs. We are here as a service for schools and colleges to work with trained facilitators, the police and legal professionals to learn about the consequences of their actions and their rights and responsibilities, so that they grow up to live within the law and become good citizens. ▪
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Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives
Museums of citizenship in action Gavin Baldwin explores some of the specific ways in which museums can be used as a starting point for Citizenship learning about identity and diversity. By encouraging students to engage with museums as deliberate constructions of identity, he argues we can use them to explore the politics of identity, exclusion and community building.
The feeling that is particularly appropriate here is that of belonging. The more a person feels recognised, valued and respected by society the greater their investment in that society is likely to be. Teachers are particularly aware of the need to construct a balanced curriculum that has relevance to pupils and many museums attempt to do the same for their visitors. So in both schools and museums we need to teach and learn in a way that: • explores our current concerns, n many ways museums can be • enables us to learn more about ourselves seen as museums of citizenship in and our heritage, action in that they record, study, • broadens our horizons by engaging us display and celebrate the thoughts with the concerns of the wider world, with and actions of those in the past new ideas, and with values different from who have worked to improve our own, their communities. As such they • enables us to develop an increasingly comare valuable but underused sites plex understanding of ourselves and othfor Citizenship education. In this ers. In this way both schools and museums article I want to examine the rela- become sites for identity exploration. tionship between museums and Citizenship education, particularly In order to feel a sense of belonging, our with regard to developing an understanding identities need to be recognised and underof the identities of ourselves and others. stood. By identity I don’t mean a fixed and I will explore the potential for museums to certain self but a varied and fluid process. contribute to social inclusion through devel- Our identity changes depending on the situoping an understanding of the various social ations we find ourselves in. Am I the same groups that make up the society in which we person at home as I am in school? Physically live. This will involve developing a critical yes, but otherwise…? So in this way identity approach to museum visiting that enables may be more akin to a role. teachers and pupils to ask questions of what Related to this is the idea that identity is and is not presented in museums, through also depends on perception. Our identity exappreciating some of the processes through ists in relation to others who may perceive us which museum knowledge is constructed. differently, indeed we may project ourselves differently to different people and we may Citizenship, Identity and Museums perceive others differently from someone There is one particular way of looking at else. Is the idea of an unchanging identity Citizenship that I am interested in here and only convincing to ourselves? that is citizenship as feeling (Osler & Starkey Our identity is also made up of a number 2005). This is just one aspect of a tripartite of factors: our ethnicity, our gender, our sexmodel along with citizenship as status and ual orientation, our class background, our citizenship as practice. various abilities and disabilities. These are 14 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“Museums can reflect back to us our communities and how they have developed over time. They can show us how people like ourselves have organised their societies in the past… to win recognition, to win the right to play a part in democracy, to fight prejudice. They can also enable us to feel that we belong because we see people like ourselves represented.”
Gavin Baldwin is Programme Leader for the PGCE Citizenship at Middlesex University. He teaches on European courses for teachers about Museums and Identity exploration and is co-author, with Beth Goodacre, of Living the Past: Reconstruction, Recreation, Re-enactment and Education at Museums and Historical Sites.
major sociological categories that we can use to develop our understanding of ourselves and others. We are also aligned to groups: our religion, our politics, our sporting allegiances, etc. We are also defined by our relationship to power: citizens or subjects, voters or nonvoters, free or controlled. These categories and the notion of fluidity and change open up the possibilities for multiple identities, some of which are more or less given, some of which can be consciously chosen, and some of which may be ascribed by others more or less accurately and more or less stereotypically. These group identities, particularly in relation to the broader sociological categories, can form into communities that make up our society. In Parekh’s words they make up a ‘community of communities’ (Parekh 2000). One of the responsibilities of the Citizenship teacher is to develop a sense of Citizenship as feeling, by enabling a deeper understanding of these constituent communities through reflecting on the identities of ourselves and others. So what can museums contribute to this process? Most obviously museums can reflect back to us our communities and how they have developed over time. They can show us how
people like ourselves have organised their societies in the past to cooperate in a more or less civilised way of life; they can illuminate migration patterns and help explain how diverse communities have developed; they can show how people have organised themselves politically in relation to power, to win recognition, to win the right to play a part in democracy, to fight prejudice. They can also enable us to feel that we belong because we see people like ourselves represented. The experiences of people just like us can be reflected back to us so that we can feel validated and that we belong. Critically Reading Museums Notice that I repeatedly say ‘can’. Museums are like any other information source in that they are constructed in a certain temporal and social setting. The material presented is interpreted by curators who have their own interests and their own motivations, they are economically affected by funding cuts, they have policies about what they collect and the dates up to which they collect and they are influenced by the conditions that come along with their funding, if they have any! It is necessary for students and teachers to be mindful of these processes. Just as with any other text, museums have to be read critically. Who ‘wrote’ this museum and
“Who is represented in this museum and who is absent? A visit to a local history museum in an ethnically diverse area may, or may not, reflect that diversity in its displays… Taking a critical approach to museum education raises fascinating questions about the relationship between that museum and society.”
World City Gallery © Museum of London www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 15
Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives Museums of Citizenship in Action / Gavin Baldwin who did they ‘write’ it for? When were the displays constructed? What is the collections policy of this museum and what can it reasonably be expected to tell us? As Citizenship teachers interested in exploring identity, however, there is one question that is more important than all the others. Who is represented in this museum and who is absent? A visit to a local history museum in an ethnically diverse area may, or may not, reflect that diversity in its displays. Is the role of women adequately represented in a technical museum? Is there an lgbt presence in museums representing lifestyles and communities? Taking a critical approach to museum education raises fascinating questions about the relationship between that museum and society. It demands a supportive relationship to be developed between teachers and museum staff, so that young people can explore these issues and ask curators appropriate questions to explore the politics and economics of museum display. In terms of identity exploration, though a student may not find themselves reflected in the museum, they can explore some of the reasons why. Depending on the answers given they can then argue for inclusion, they can suggest alternative approaches and they can begin to campaign for change. Does the museum have suitable artifacts with which to mount a display but lack the resources to do so? If so, students could campaign for funding. If the museum does not have the artifacts is it appropriate to change the collections policy? Most effectively, on discovering that some people are not represented in the museum, students can return to school to research and produce their own alternative museum displays. Museums can then become sites of active citizenship, not just displays of citizenship in action.
“Museums are not only ideal places for exploring identity through considering citizenship in action in the past but are also sites of active citizenship in the present.”
Students from Morpeth School give a keynote speech for a ‘Campaign: Make London Yours’ project at the Museum of London.
Citizenship and belonging in a museum: a case study The Museum of London tells the story of the city from its prehistoric origin through to the present day and offers teachers numerous opportunities for exploring Citizenship. Starting from the earliest settlements evidence can be gathered of the changing political organization used to govern the city, from tribal power structures to Roman 16 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
civic government, through the rise of the medieval guilds to the establishment of a republic, the development of the monarchy, to increasingly democratic government. Issues of social welfare and reform can be explored through the role of the church in the middle ages, the health reforms of the nineteenth century and poverty and housing using photos and Booth’s Survey (1886-1903). Campaigns such as anti-slavery, prison reform, education and votes for women are also represented. Throughout these general Citizenship themes questions of identity and representation can be raised but it is in the last section World City 1950s to Today that there are the most specific opportunities for identity exploration. Displays include Race and Rights and examine campaigns for equal rights for women and lgbt people including artifacts, pictures and fascinating interviews with campaigners. In the section of the museum that deals with London today, Inspiring London, there are a number of temporary exhibitions. These certainly demonstrate how the museum has become involved in active citizenship. At the time of writing there are two campaigns represented. Dispossessed presents evidence from the Evening Standard campaign (www.dispossessedfund.communityfoundations.org.uk) about the socially excluded in London. Modern Slavery explores, through testimonies and photographs, the experiences of those who have been trafficked to London and enslaved in a range of domestic and sexual activity and has been developed in partnership with Anti-Slavery International, End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking (ecpptuk) and the Poppy Project. So we can see that Museums are not only ideal places for exploring identity through considering citizenship in action in the past but are also sites of active citizenship in the present. ▪ References Osler, A & Starkey, H. (2005) Changing Citizenship. Maidenhead: oup. Parekh, B. (2000) The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: Report of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. London: Runnymede Trust.
Museums of Citizenship in Action: Comments for debate Copies of Gavin’s article were sent to a number of colleagues and we received the following comments for debate. It’s very good to see that museums are already involved in so much Citizenship and Student Voice and are therefore ready to develop this work further with Citizenship teachers.
Friday 11th November 2011. Young people were invited to take over the roles of key personnel at the museum. For one day only, they made key decisions, influenced future exhibitions and helped with daily activities. We worked with young people from Nottingham schools who are interested in a future career in the arts and heritage sector but have yet to experience working life. The Alison Bodley, co-editor roles pupils took over included Director of “The last few years have seen a vogue for Enterprise and Operations, costumed interinvolving young people on museum councils, preters, Senior Curator and Archivist and the creating youth forums to advise boards and marketing team. Our Youth Panel is helping one museum even has a junior trustee, so our Senior Curator and Archivist to create a young people wouldn’t necessarily have to new interpretation strategy and develop our campaign to change a display – museums are object handling sessions for school groups, all too desperate to get young people’s views. amongst other things.” Now getting a museum to change what they collect is somewhat harder as it is taken Lucy Parkes, Programme Manager for Secondary Schools at the Museum of London extremely serious and linked to a standard called Accreditation, so although not impos- “As a museum whose purpose is to relate sible, it would be tricky.” the histories of everyday Londoners, our approach is very much to make London’s Katie Edwards, Florence Nightingale Museum school pupils feel a part of that purpose – “After taking part in recent projects such that, as Londoners, the museum and the city as Campaign! Make an Impact and Stories of belong to them. By giving pupils a sense of the World: London, the Florence Nightingale belonging or even ownership to the museMuseum introduced a youth panel at the um’s purpose we hope to draw an increased museum. The panel meet four times a year feeling of relevance and interest from them and discuss future projects and ideas. The as to how that history is being told. young people were involved in planning, For this reason Citizenship education developing and installing the current comhas been given an increasingly high profile munity temporary exhibition.” on our secondary school programme. Using the museum to explore pupils’ own sense of Polly Shorthouse, Galleries of Justice Museum identity and how it is connected to place is “The Galleries of Justice Museum have a the chief aim of our study day Am I a Lonyouth panel who helped create our Convict doner? The day provides pupils with the opShip exhibition last year – they wrote some portunity to explore their own identity and of the interpretation. We are also consulting their understanding of diversity, tolerance them on their ideas and views in revamping and community through poetry, dance and parts of the HM Prison Service Collection gallery work. Ultimately, we aim for all puand some of the work we offer pupils as part pils to leave with a greater sense of pride in of school visits to the museum. their city, thus inspiring active and positive We also took part in Take Over Day on involvement in shaping its future.” ▪
“By giving pupils a sense of belonging or even ownership to the museum’s purpose we hope to draw an increased feeling of relevance and interest from them as to how that history is being told”
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Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives
Persuading history to tell the truth Using archive materials to explore LGBT identity Jan Pimblett considers the exploration of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered) identity through the use of archive sources. She discusses some of the problems that can be encountered and celebrates the successes that can be achieved. ondon Metropolitan Archives (lma) holds a vast collection of material dating back nearly a thousand years including maps, photographs, prints, plans, drawings, posters and films as well as manuscripts and documents. This material provides users with sources and evidence revealing the story of London and its people. For Citizenship teachers and students the collections relate to many relevant areas including law and order, human rights, the urban environment, diversity and changing communities and democracy in action. Identity is a powerful area of potential exploration within the collections. An individuals’ identity can be expressed in letters, statements in courts of law, diaries, society membership lists, photographs and commentaries from officials describing people housed in asylums or workhouses. Collective identities meanwhile can be seen in archives which reflect group or communal activity for example, cultural activities, political beliefs and active campaigns. Where Can You Find the Evidence? Of course archive collections can be incomplete, presenting only partial evidence. Over time material can be lost or destroyed before any attempt is made to deposit it in an archive and getting to any version of the truth can be a challenge. But what if the story of an
entire community is made invisible through social pressure and condemnation? How can the story ever really be told if the primary sources you see represent only one set of opinions which are condemnatory and negative? Lgbt archives provide an opportunity for students to think about this question very clearly. Before 1967 and the introduction of the Sexual Offences Act which decriminalised consensual sex between men in private, gay men’s lives were only revealed through official records. These were the records of the law courts, hospitals and asylums and campaigning groups like the Public Morality Council. Gay men’s lives were described in terms of sickness, criminality and vice, focused only on their sexuality and perceived perversion. There has never been a law against sex between women and so that world remained very secret, sometimes emerging through the diaries and letters of women such as The Ladies of Llangollen and Yorkshire’s own Anne Lister. In the 1960s and 70s lgbt people campaigned openly for the removal of legal and social discrimination and so an alternative, positive viewpoint emerges, that of some lgbt people themselves. More modern material is not buried within other record series but increasingly stands by itself on its own terms. Official records, moreover, gradually took on a very different tone. For example the Greater London Council Grants Branch has records relating to lgbt activities including a Lesbian Feminist Writer’s Conference and a Gay Video Collective. Another example is that the Inner London Education Authority collection includes a video called ‘Telling Friends: A Different Story’, intended for use in secondary schools to encourage discussions and featuring young people who have identified themselves as lesbian or gay
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“What if the story of an entire community is made invisible through social pressure and condemnation? How can the story ever really be told if the primary sources you see represent only one set of opinions which are condemnatory and negative? LGBT archives provide an opportunity for students to think about this question very clearly.”
Jan Pimblett is the Principal Development Officer for the Culture, Heritage and Libraries Department of the City of London, based at London Metropolitan Archives.
who talk about the prejudice they encounter. The visible identity of the lgbt community in the archive continues to grow. Since 2003 lma has hosted an annual lgbt History and Archives Conference and this has encouraged members of the lgbt community to deposit collections dating from the 1970s to the present. These have included: • the Campaign for Homosexual Equality – Southwark / Lambeth Group 1976-89; • Walking Proud Oral History Project 2011; • rukus! Federation Black lgbt cultural archive, 1972-2010 and • items from the campaigner Peter Tatchell. An information leaflet about lgbt collections can be found on the lma website: www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/lma. Working With Material Lgbt related collections and material link powerfully to Campaign! Make an Impact (discussed in Alison Bodley’s article). Using carefully selected documents from these archives young people can encounter groups and individuals working to reform, cure or punish lgbt people and lgbt people raising awareness through political and cultural activities designed specifically to remove stigma, defy oppressive rules and legislation and cast off the burden of invisibility. There is also no doubt that the material will encourage and support students as they come to think about their own attitudes within a pshe framework. Current affairs can also be linked to the material. In Uganda lgbt people are being subjected to imprisonment and personal attacks; the Russian government is attempting to pass legislation making illegal any reference to lgbt people or issues. In terms of Citizenship this would be a powerful extension of exploring historical evidence and the way in which current situations reflect parallel experiences from the past. Selecting material does have to be done with care. Some court records are explicit, the language used in material produced by some campaigning groups can be strong and challenging and of course the particular agendas associated with any of the material can skew debate and present more of a distraction than a talking point. London Metropolitan Archives is devel-
“Using carefully selected documents from these archives young people can encounter groups and individuals working to reform, cure or punish LGBT people and LGBT people raising awareness through political and cultural activities designed specifically to remove stigma, defy oppressive rules and legislation and cast off the burden of invisibility.”
oping a pack, selecting items from across the collections which will offer stimulating and challenging material as a balanced set of resources. This will be available from the end of March 2012. Teaching ideas At the lgbt History and Archives Conference 2010, Young Hearts Run Free, a number of excellent projects were showcased. Below are two examples, with links to useful resources. On the following two pages there are some resources from the archive, with some suggestions for how teachers might use them in the classroom. ▪
Culture Shock is a partnership project led by Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums and funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, Renaissance North East, Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums Business Partners and the Gillian Dickinson Trust. The project explores the diverse heritage of individuals, groups and communities living in the North East of England by encouraging participants to create their own digital stories inspired by museum and gallery collections. By creating these stories, the project aims to promote a greater awareness and understanding of diverse communities by encouraging people from different backgrounds to document and share their heritage and experiences with each other and the wider North East community. See www.cultureshock.org.uk and find LGBT stories under the community section. Rewriting History is a Heritage Lottery Fund supported project carried out under the auspices of the Terrence Higgins Trust and a number of partner organisations. A group of young people researched LGBT history and conducted interviews to produce a teaching resource. The resource looks at certain key moments and issues of the last 50 years of British LGBT history to address the gaps and silences in how history is conventionally told. The idea is neither to make heroes nor victims of LGBT people, but to celebrate and commemorate their lives, achievements and experiences. www.tht.org.uk/informationresources/ professionals/resources-teachers/ rewritinghistory.
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Lesson Plan Museums, Libraries & Archives / Teachers’ Notes
LGBT perspectives on rights On the following pages there are some resources taken from the archive to help teach about LGBT perspectives on rights. The focus of the lesson is appreciating how rights are defined by the law, how they can change over time and how campaigning can play a part in this process. The first source is ‘The Molly’s Lament’, a ballad sheet from 1762 showing a man in the stocks with a sequence of highly insulting verses beneath. (‘Molly’ is an eighteenth century term used to describe gay men. For an accessible account of Molly Houses and how the police used entrapment techniques to arrest Mollys, we recommend you see: www.rictornorton.co.uk/eighteen/ mother.htm.) The Molly’s Lament is fairly difficult to access and interpret, but here are some suggestions for breaking the task down.
1. Place a copy of the ballad sheet in the centre of a large sheet of paper and label it as pictured below. Start from the inside, describing the picture and work towards the outer boxes:
a verse each and identify the meanings or the key messages. The stickers and poster from 1970s campaigns (see page 22) are easier to interpret but there are two additional resources you might find useful to prepare to teach What more do you need to know this lesson. The first is a personal in order to understand this better? account of a life spent in the gay What does this tell you liberation movement, and includes about the era? a set of demands articulated by What is happening LGBT campaigners in 1971: www. in the picture? outgay.co.uk/glfintro.html, the The second is the official website of the Molly’s Campaign for Homosexual Equality, Lament which produced these materials: www.c-h-e.org.uk. Young people today are growing up in a society where there is formal equality on many issues for LGBT people, and yet schools are often places where an everyday homophobia persists. These resources help to 2. Try to work out the meaning of illustrate why change happens the text… Who is being attacked and how to promote equality. The and why? These starting points Molly’s Lament helps students might help: In the first verse, understand just how discriminatory what does ‘effeminate’ mean? the law has been in relation to What do you think ‘reverses of LGBT people. The second set nature’ refers to? In verse III, of resources shows how LGBT what do ‘men of sense’ enjoy? campaigners actively resisted What does this tell you about the forms of discrimination and helped man in the stocks? If you feel a class is more able change social attitudes. The final to access the text, you might want question enables students to think to skip the second set of questions about how active citizenship can and simply ask students to take lead to positive changes.
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Lesson Plan Museums, Libraries & Archives / LGBT perspectives on rights
2. Stickers and poster from the Campaign for Homosexual Equality, 1970s. (a) Think about the materials pictured above. Do they look cheap and almost homemade? Does this mean the group had no money? What other examples from this era can you find (eg. punk art materials)?
(c) Discussion question: The scene in ‘The Molly’s Lament’ would be described as a ‘hate crime’ in the UK now. What do these sources tell us about changing attitudes towards minority groups, like LGBT people, over time? How important do you think LGBT campaigns were in changing attitudes?
(b) Look at the language used on the stickers. Why do you think the campaigners decided to use these words?
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Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives Case Study
Nikki Parkhill is Youth Development Worker for Surrey County Council, email her at: email@example.com.
Out, Loud & Proud
Exploring LGBT Heritage – learning from the past and preserving it for the future Based in Surrey Out, Loud & Proud is a group for young LGBT people, who explored the experiences of the LGBT community in the Holocaust, explains Nikki Parkhill.
They had planned to take the group to visit Krakow in Poland, Berlin in Germany, Amsterdam and London to find out about what had happened to the lgbt populations in the different countries and how the events have been recorded and were The group were particularly interremembered today. They managed ested in World War Two and wanted to raise £4000 by doing jumble sales, to go to Auschwitz concentration cake sales, and car boot sales, and camp to explore the impact of the they also received some money from Holocaust on the European lgbt the Youth Opportunities Fund. They community. They also planned to wrote many funding bids and letters use the information gained to proto individuals and organisations duce resources for schools and youth who they thought might be able to centres to use with young people to support them financially. They also explore this aspect of history and built very supportive relationships draw out the devastating impact with Surrey History Centre who are homophobia and transphobia can including their project on their have as they recognised that there is ‘Exploring Surrey’s Past’ website. currently limited information availDue to funding constraints, the able about the experiences of lgbt young people had to review their people. They began the long process ideas and after two and a half years of planning the project, undertaking of hard work and determination they research and fundraising. had to make the difficult decision
Out, Loud & Proud’s visit to Auschwitz-Birkenau
to reduce the scope of their project. They realised that they could not visit all of their intended locations or take more young people with them. They decided instead that they would proceed with part of their project and visited the Imperial War Museum and World War Two monuments in London and went to Krakow in August this year. Here are some excerpts from their report: “During our stay we undertook research about the Holocaust and the experiences of those who were persecuted and those who survived. We visited museums, places of worship and memorials. We also went to Auschwitz and Birkenau. Before leaving the uk we had thought about what we thought the camps would be like. We had read descriptions and seen photographs. We had mixed feelings while we were there. The heat, sunshine and hundreds of other visitors meant that we didn’t experience the eerie quietness that we had expected. However we were all affected in different ways and by different things. Seeing the living conditions, photographs of people who were killed, displays of children’s clothes, spectacles, suitcases, shoes, other possessions and piles human hair all moved us. Our guide was brilliant and we realised that there was so much to learn and many people’s stories are still untold, especially of lgbt people.” “We are now working on an education pack for use by schools and youth projects and preserving our work within the lgbt archive at Surrey History Centre.” ▪
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Theme: Museums, Libraries & Archives Case Study
Khadir Hussain, World War 2 veteran, talks to young people…
Stephen Irwin is Education Office at Blackburn Museum. To find out more about this project email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
…and shows a photograph of his service days
We Also Served
The role of British Muslim veterans in World War 2 is not something that has been widely recognised in the wider community or even within the South Asian community. Elderly Muslim Veterans certainly felt this when they met Steve Irwin at Blackburn Museum. One result of that meeting was a short film, made with a group of young men from the South Asian community and displayed in a town centre venue, to raise awareness of the role of South Asian servicemen in World War 2. Museum staff discovered that none of the young men, all of whom had gone to local schools, knew anything about these men from within their community. In addition, several stated that whilst they had studied the war at school, they didn’t realise it “had anything to do with us”. The events of the war are still an important part of the national narrative and yet here were large numbers of pupils who were being taught something that they felt was irrelevant to them. In fact, 2.5 million Indian Army soldiers – Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Christian fought alongside British and African troops (along with many others) to defeat fascism in Europe, Africa and Asia. Following the production of the film the Muslim veterans marched in the Remembrance Day parade and laid a wreath in memory of Muslim soldiers who had died in World War 2. This made a great impact on those who were there - community cohesion in action, simple and powerful. It was decided to make a second film that could be used in secondary schools, with filmmaker Graham Kay. The result is a 32 minute film broken up into six sections. It follows a group of Year 10/11 pupils from two Blackburn schools, who try to find out why elderly Muslim men are in the Remembrance Day parade and why they haven’t been told about the involvement of South Asian soldiers in Word War 2 at school. They visit museums
and talk to experts in order to try and find the answers. Having found out about the experiences of South Asian soldiers in World War 2, they then speak to a senior British Army officer in order to find out more about the experience of Muslims serving in the British Army today. The children interview Jamila, a young woman who was educated in Pakistan, to find out what she was taught about World War 2 and this leads them to consider how the events around independence and partition in 1947 might have led to the earlier conflict being overshadowed. They eventually interview two elderly gentlemen who served in the Indian Army in World War 2 (one in Italy and one in the Middle East) and put their questions to them. The young people reflect on what they have learnt and what the project has meant to them. We Also Served can be used for Key Stages 3 and 4 and teachers can choose to show the whole film or just select sections from it to explore different topics, such as Brigadier Aldridge’s views on the future of the army in a multicultural society or Molly’s views on the handling session at the Fusiliers Museum. The film is currently being evaluated in local schools and in selected schools across England and lesson plans and related resources are still needed to complement the film. Free copies of the film are being given away to History and Citizenship teachers in exchange for copies of the resources that teachers develop for use in their classrooms. The ultimate aim is to use the internet to make the film and accompanying resources available for free to any teacher interested in using it with their classes. ▪
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Tricia Manktelow is a Citizenship teacher at Dartford Technology College and an ACT Council member. Email: email@example.com.
Diary of a debate debutante part two In the second installment of her diary, Tricia Manktelow begins developing her school’s new debating society. The new academic year arrived far too quickly and the prospect of starting a dynamic debating group looked daunting. However, I grabbed the opportunity to strike while everyone was still optimistic. But, what to call this exciting venture? ‘DTC Debating Society’ sounded so pompous, but as I mulled over a variety of alternatives none of them had the right ring. Then, driving to school one morning, reminiscing on a past school production, it came to me – DTC Speak Easy. It was perfect! Exactly the mood and ethos I wanted to convey. After a poster campaign promising nibbles, debate and a chance to meet our local mp, Gareth Johnson, I was a little disappointed that my stalwart ‘Bite the Ballot’ girls were joined by just a few other year 11 and sixth form students, but I felt sure once we got started we could capture the attention of other students later in the year. Janice Small from Conservative Action for Electoral Reform had been sent ahead by Gareth to warm up the meeting and to provide a more female perspective since we are a girl’s school. The girls were so engrossed in discussing the roles and rights of women that they hardly noticed that time was passing and that the key speaker hadn’t arrived! In fact it was just as we were closing down that he arrived after being delayed by a prang with a minibus en route.
Despite that small setback, I went home feeling very pleased with myself that we had started well. Gareth had left with promises of visits to Parliament to enable us to watch some debates and Janice had boosted the girls’ morale in an email message, “Your girls were delightful and intelligent and they will all go far because they have the right attitude, commitment and inquiring minds”. Now it was up to me to maintain the momentum. Teenagers are busy people and we could only find lunchtimes free in their schedules, so the next Tuesday nine girls and I shared our lunches and discussed in general terms what they wanted from the group. They want to debate, they want to be able to express their opinions forcefully and convincingly, they want to become more adept at formulating speeches. I had my ‘scheme of work’ to develop and went away to do some research. The next week was the Labour party conference and thank God for Rory Weal – a local boy who showed them how to do it! We watched his performance on YouTube, the girls were blown away! “He is so good!” “I can’t believe he is only our age!” “Well girls, you know what to aspire to!” We identified what made his presentation so good and compared it to their presentation in July. They were suitably embarrassed at how unprepared they had been and vowed never to be caught out like that again.
We had some practical sessions too – I used the Debating Matters website and part of an old esu London Debating Challenge dvd. We giggled at the girls’ first attempts last summer and we were anaesthetised by some speeches on the Parliament Channel. Now we are ready to put some of this accumulated wisdom into action. The girls identified some debate topics, both national and school-based, that interest them and we are voting on which to prepare for debate in the spring. I was amazed at their awareness of national issues – they are actually much more tunedin than we give them credit for. And so that is where we are at the moment. Unfortunately the sixth formers haven’t graced us with their presence since the first meeting, but it’s their loss. The Year 11s now have to focus on their mock exams and so it will be independent small group research of the chosen topics to carry them into the New Year. And maybe we can also impress Ofsted when they return. We’ll certainly try! ▪
Developing an integrated assessment system Many of the skills at the heart of citizenship also appear in other areas of the curriculum. Lorellie Canning’s approach is to ensure the assessment of citizenship builds on these connections rather than risking fragmentation between different curriculum areas. egardless of the endless research and papers conducted into ‘how to assess Citizenship’ many of us still feel left in the dark when it comes to the mechanics of assessing students against the levels of attainment. I therefore did what any true geek would do and made an assessment grid. This paper and supporting framework aims to offer some guidance on how ks3 Citizenship could be assessed. The levelled framework explores the 8 levels of attainment for Citizenship, Personal Learning and Thinking Skills Framework and the app levels for writing, speaking and listening. These separate frameworks are closely linked and as they are all key aspects of our modern classrooms, it seems only logical to link them into a manageable assessment framework to be used by teachers and students alike. The theory of assessment As we all know assessment should not be seen as a ‘bolt on’ as it provides both the teacher and the student with a baseline from which to progress. Therefore the levelled framework can be adapted to be used by students in peer and self assessment tasks (as shown in the exemplar) as well as by the teacher to guide future planning. As the expectation is that by the end of Year 9 students should be broadly equivalent to levels 5 and 6 in Citizenship, I have
used the attached framework alongside my schools top/middle/bottom approach to evidence students’ termly levels. For example: If student A had continually met all of the level 4 descriptors and most of the level 5 descriptors I would deem student A as operating at level 5L for that term and then give them appropriate feedback on how to progress to a solid Level 5 (5M) during the next term. However, if student B had met most of Level 3 Descriptors and an occasional Level 4 descriptor I would deem student B as operating at a level 3T and then give them appropriate feedback on how to progress onto the next Level (4L) during the next term. The National Strategies app Speaking and Listening criteria and how it applies to Citizenship The 2010 qcda app Speaking and Listening Assessment criteria include the following: • AF1 Talking to others in purposeful and imaginative ways to explore ideas and feelings, adapting and varying structure and vocabulary according to purpose, listeners, and content. • AF2 Being able to Listen and respond to others, including in pairs and groups, shaping meanings through suggestions, comments, and questions. This can be linked to the elements of the Citizenship Programmes of Study (key process 2) concerned with debating various perspectives on topical issues. Basically, the Speaking and Listening app criterion requires students to talk in a way that engages the interest of the listener through vocabulary and expression, and show an understanding of ideas discussed and sensitivity to others; isn’t this also exactly what we are trying to achieve in a good debate too?
26 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“assessment should not be seen as a ‘bolt on’ as it provides both the teacher and the student with a baseline from which to progress”
Lorellie Canning is a Citizenship teacher at St Joseph’s Catholic College in Bradford, West Yorkshire. She and her colleagues created a discrete Citizenship programme for all students in years 7-10, and initiated the school’s first GCSE in Citizenship. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Personal Learning and Thinking Skills (plts) and how they apply to Citizenship The Framework for plts, as the qcda described them, comprises “...six groups of skills that, together with the functional skills, are essential to success in learning, life and work.” These capture “... the essential skills of: managing self; managing relationships with others; and managing own learning, performance and work.” As these skills will enable young people to enter work and adult life as confident and capable citizens it seems only logical for the relationship between these two frameworks to be acknowledged and used to complement one-another. For example, the focus of the Independent enquirer skill requires that “Young people process and evaluate information in their investigations, planning what to do and how to go about it. They take informed and well-reasoned decisions, recognising that others have different beliefs and attitudes.” is closely linked to the skills required as part of the Citizenship key process 2.1 Critical thinking and enquiry. As for key process 2.2 Advocacy and representation and 2.3 Taking informed and responsible action, an element of the Creative thinker, Self-Manager, Team worker and Effective participator plts skills are evident throughout. And finally, the Reflective learner is a skill inherently taught through engaging lessons and our ability to assess their success. Citizenship levels of attainment The 2007 level descriptions for ks3, which we should be using until further notice, are a jumble of various knowledge and skills students are required to exhibit. I have colour coded one of these levels to demonstrate how they are made up of the skills and knowledge outlined below: Key: Plts Skills Active Citizenship & English app Rights & Responsibilities Democracy & Justice Identity And Diversity Level 5 Students discuss and debate topical and controversial issues including those
where rights are in conflict and need to be balanced. They consider what is fair and unfair to different groups involved and make reference to relevant national, European and international dimensions of the issues. They use different methods of enquiry and sources of information to investigate issues and explore a range of viewpoints, drawing some conclusions. They communicate their arguments clearly, giving reasons for their opinion and recognising the range of ideas involved. They identify the contributions of different cultures and communities to society and describe ways in which the uk is interconnected with the wider world. They work collaboratively with others from the wider community, to negotiate, plan and carry out action aimed at making a difference to the lives of others and explain the impact of actions taken. They show some knowledge of the operation of the political and justice systems in the uk, by describing the key features of democratic processes and the work of government in the uk. They participate effectively in activities involving representation, voting and campaigning on issues they have explored. As you can tell each level requires students to exhibit plts and Active Citizenship (and adequate English skills) as well as demonstrating an understanding of the three core knowledge elements of Citizenship. This is why the following framework combines these elements into one manageable framework for assessing ks3 Citizenship.
“these skills will enable young people to enter work and adult life as confident and capable citizens”
The Combined Assessment Model Grid Overleaf are extracts from my Combined Assessment Grid which incorporates elements of Citizenship, plts and English into its framework (Figures 1 and 2). There isn’t space to reproduce the whole grid, but these can be downloaded from the act website. An example of how to apply the Grid to an assessed task There is also a copy of the student task sheet (Figure 3) and a copy of how this task could have a peer assessment aspect to it in order to help you see how the grid could be applied and wording changed to suit the task (Figure 4).
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Student can use information to present a convincing argument and give reasons for their views.
Students can show they can challenge assumptions and ideas.
Students develop informed arguments that show a number of different views and ideas.
Students describe appropriate research methods and can evaluate sources for validity and bias.
Students negotiate their role in a group and they can take part in the course of action decided on by the group
Groups and Communities
Students describe the many diverse groups and communities in the UK and the wider world and use this understanding to explore the communities they belong to and how they shape their beliefs/customs.
Students explain the complexity of identities an individual can have (locally, nationally and Globally) and explain the impact of some of the changes in UK society and the global community.
Rights, needs and wants
Students consider a range of scenarios (from local to global) where there are inequalities and explain how different kinds of rights need to be protected, supported and balanced; and the structures that are in place to enable the protection of these rights.
Students explore a range of sources of information to engage with topical and controversial issues, including where rights compete and conflict and can discuss what is fair/unfair in these situations.
Students can describe the processes undertaken to change things in communities and the wider society at a basic level. Students are able to participate within group tasks where a planned action is undertaken with some guidance and support. Students work within a group, negotiating a clear role to plan and carry out an action (form of protest) aimed at improving lives within their local / National / International communities; and can explain the impact of their actions citing evidence to support their explanation. Students are able to reflect upon their achievements and discuss possible improvements/future actions.
Students can make comparisons between the UK Political system and others around the world to a good level (by describing the key features of a Democracy, Dictatorship, Monarchy etc). Students can explain the UK Justice system at a good level and how our laws and justice system is affected by the EU and the decisions it makes.
The Democratic Process
Students can discuss some features of a democracy on a Local / National level and how individuals / groups can affect the decisions made at local / national level. Students can discuss the UK Justice system at a basic level (eg. why we have laws and what happens if you break them?).
Planning for Change
Students can read, understand and discuss a range of texts. Students can give a personal response to texts , and refer to aspects of language, structure and themes to justify their views. Students can make connections between texts from different times and cultures and can link these to their own experiences and Knowledge of the issues. Students can summarise a range of information from different sources.
Students evaluate the success of their actions in achieving influence or improving their community. Students also suggest ways of taking the project further in the future.
Students take part in an informed debate and can argue points well including those they don’t agree with, using evidence to support both sides of their argument.
Students can use a range of sources to find out about topical and controversial issues and ask research questions to begin exploring these issues
Students write in a range of forms can be lively and thoughtful. Students ideas are often sustained and sometimes developed in interesting ways. Students vocabulary choices are sometimes adventurous and they can occasionally use words for effect. Students can use complex sentences to extending meaning, and can generally spell simple words accurately.
Students describe the impact of Citizenship issues on themselves and others
Students take part in class debates and can argue points to a reasonable level when supported.
Students can work in a group to plan and take part in a project that addresses a citizenship issue with significant support.
Personal Development & Independent Enquiry
Participation & Team Work
Figure 2 – Extract from Combined Knowledge Grid
Students can state and explain their own opinion and show that they understand views and opinions opposite to their own.
Students can make informed contributions to a debate.
Speaking and Listening
Figure 1 – Extract from Combined Skills Grid
Your Task Your task is to make people aware of modern slavery and how it affects the UK and the wider world. You are to use the information you have learnt in class and from your own research to produce a 5 minute presentation on Modern Slavery. Your presentation will be filmed and then assessed by your teacher and your peers after half term as a homework task on the VLE.
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is when people are tricked or forced to leave their homes and move to another place or country where they are exploited in slavelike work. Usually they cannot move around freely and receive very little pay. They are controlled by threats or violence. The United Nations estimates that over 1.5 million children are trafficked worldwide each year and possibly 2 million adults. Trafficking is a global issue and Europe is not excluded. Hundreds of thousands of people from Africa, Asia and China have been trafficked into Europe and the UK to work in domestic slavery, agricultural work, food industry or construction. Many children and young women from Eastern Europe are trafficked into the sex trade and prostitution – around 4000 at any one time according to UK government estimates. They are often held captive by threats to their families at home.
Modern Slavery Assessment Task It is thought that between 12 and 20 million people are at this moment in some form of slavery around the world. It is very difficult to know exact numbers because by its nature much of this exploitation is secret and hidden away. It is mostly found in poor Asian, African and Latin American countries, but it can be found in developed countries and it does exist in the UK! Modern slavery takes many different forms such as forced labour, domestic slavery, sex slavery and bonded labour.
Figure 3 – Example Task
Useful Websites www.antislavery.org www.cms-uk.org www.iabolish.org www.hrw.org/campaigns www.ethicaltrade.org www.notforsalecampaign.org
Remember! To get the high levels you must use ICT to enhance your verbal presentation. Explain what Internal and External Human Trafficking is, how it affects the UK and how you think it could be abolished in the UK using facts and figures from your research to back up your opinions and ideas.
• An explanation of what the UK government is doing to tackle trafficking and whether you think it could do more.
• An explanation of how buying fair/ethically traded goods help to tackle this and other modern forms of slavery.
• Examples of Human Rights which are neglected/ broken by the traffickers.
• Statistics of estimated slaves within the UK/across the world and the conditions they live with.
• A definition of trafficking and slavery, with explanations and examples to illustrate these definitions.
The presentation should include (for the higher levels):
Two things I think you could do to make it even better are:
Three things I liked about your presentation were:
Mark the presentation out of five as an overall mark for effort 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 (1 = no effort; 2 = poor; 3 = ok; 4 = good; 5 = excellent)
How could it be made clearer?
Was the verbal presentation clear? YES / NO (Could you understand everything they said?)
How could it be made more interesting?
Did the presentation keep your interest from start to finish? YES / NO
Peer Assessment of Modern Slavery Presentation
Figure 4 – Example Peer Assessment Sheet
The overall presentation is a little basic and uses some ICT/props in some places. Students can explain the impact of Human Trafficking on different communities through FAY research. Students can use different sources of information to explore a range of opinions and draw their own conclusions from them. Some teacher input and guidance to assist student. Students produce a creative presentation which suggests ways of abolishing Human Trafficking in the UK. Students can evaluate sources for validity and bias in their research. Minimal teacher input and guidance to assist student.
Students produce a highly creative presentation with lots of student based research evident. Students question assumptions about trafficking and their own views after examining relevant evidence. Students use a range of sources of information to back up their arguments. Minimal teacher input and guidance to assist student.
Students state their own opinion and show that they are aware of a range of opinions on Human Trafficking. Students evaluate a number of different views and ideas, and can use information (research) to present a convincing argument and give reasons for their views on this issue and how it could be resolved. A professional looking presentation, excellent use of IT to support the verbal presentation. Detailed research into the modern-day slavery (Trafficking) with relevant facts and figures presented; and an explanation of how internal and external trafficking is able to exist within the UK (prostitute laws etc) and what loop-holes are being exploited by the criminals.
Students can verbally describe the issue of Human Trafficking and Slavery while engaging their audience. Students are able to clearly state their own opinion on the topic and show an understanding of views and opinions opposite to their own.
Students can verbally discuss (highly articulate) the issue of Human Trafficking and Slavery while engaging their audience. Students discuss how a number of different views and ideas, and can use information (research) to present a convincing argument and give reasons for their views.
Name of Assessor: Date:
Name of Present: Class:
If you want to progress to the next level you should:
…this is because:
English Elements Students will verbally discuss slavery and Human Trafficking in simple terms and can state a basic opinion on Human Trafficking and Slavery and show an understanding of views and opinions opposite to their own.
A well designed presentation (good use of ICT) covering the history of slavery and the legal acts which abolished it. Detailed research into the modernday slavery (Trafficking) with relevant facts and figures presented; and an explanation of how internal and external trafficking is able to exist within the UK (prostitute laws etc).
Some explanation of the background to the issue of slavery and the problems which still exist, with a clear message explaining how several Human Rights are threatened by such practices.
A general idea of what slavery is and that it still exists today, with Some basic information about how slavery breaks a person’s Human Rights.
The overall level I would give this work is:
PLTS & Effort The overall presentation is a little basic and shows a lack of effort in some places. Students can use a range of sources to find out about slavery and Human Trafficking and ask research questions to begin exploring these issues further. High level of teacher input and guidance to assist student.
Highlight all the things you think their presentation showed from the grid below and then give them an overall level:
Creating citizenship communities What do schools do to help young people understand and take part in society? In the second of a series of updates on a major national research project Ian Davies reports on a recently completed survey of school coordinators and leaders on community cohesion and citizenship. The results illustrate the need for more to be done to help young people understand and become involved in society. n the basis of the national survey and a review of literature researchers highlight the need to coordinate work in schools by: i) developing more liaison between citizenship education teachers and those responsible for whole school initiatives to promote community engagement; and ii) helping teachers to build on young people’s existing knowledge and expertise in community matters to help them understand and act more effectively in society. In light of the disturbances in English cities in 2011 it is possible that more needs to be done to help young people integrate their knowledge and experience of their communities with professionally organised community-based citizenship education. Key findings Schools are hugely active in promoting citizenship education and community cohesion. 98% of teachers report they develop students’ sense of social responsibility. 98% say they help young people respect and celebrate diversity; 92% emphasise developing young people’s sense of social justice; and 92% work to raise participation in the democratic process.
Teachers do these things through a wide variety of strategies including linkages with local businesses (91%), charities (80%) and other schools with a different school population (77%); by opening up extended schools provision to others (67%); and, by encouraging local people to participate in volunteering and creating community spaces (60%). Teachers offer opportunities to discuss difficult issues, work with young people in inclusive environments, develop enterprise activities, and teach citizenship through lessons and whole school activities such as school councils. Significant attention is devoted to volunteering both formally and informally. But there is a problem. Schools recognise that they face significant challenges in helping young people to understand and become constructively engaged in society. Parents / carers were involved in the curriculum only in a third of schools. Only approximately two-fifths of respondents reported that they work with a pre-approved list of organisations that provide opportunities for volunteering, and undertake outreach activities with the community to identify potential opportunities for students to volunteer. Only just over one-third of respondents (35%) have in place policies and systems to respond to opportunities provided by organisations that directly approach their school. Just over one-quarter of respondents (28 per cent) have in place policies and systems to support students to undertake volunteering opportunities they have identified themselves. Schools feel that young people are not widely involved in planning such activities and they lack the skills to do so. A substantial minority (twofifths, 43 per cent) reported that only ‘some’ of their students feel valued as contributors. Less than half (42 per cent) reported that
30 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“Teachers do these things through a wide variety of strategies... But there is a problem. Schools recognise that they face significant challenges in helping young people to understand and become constructively engaged in society.”
Professor Ian Davies teaches at the University of York and is the author of numerous books and articles, most of which explore issues related to teaching and learning about contemporary society, with a particular focus on citizenship education. Email: email@example.com.
‘most’ of their students think teachers are good at facilitating their ideas for community cohesion activities and a further two-fifths (40 per cent) reported that only ‘some’ of their students feel this is the case. The above difficulties may contribute to limited implementation of education for citizenship and community involvement. The vast majority (78 per cent) of respondents reported that their high achieving students are more likely than their peers to do voluntary work or take part in community activities. 71 per cent reported that this was the case for their high ability students. Respondents reported most strongly that students from a disadvantaged background are less likely than their peers to do voluntary work or take part in community activities (38 per cent reported that this was ‘less likely’). That said, over half of schools proactively work to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds through for example, engaging mentors and role models from students’ communities (71%), working with organisations with expertise in engaging disadvantaged young people (63%), and subsidising transport so that young people can take part in community based activities (52%). Further discussion The above problems may emerge from two challenges. Firstly, there may be a lack of connection between work in schools and the lives of young people beyond school. Young people know a good deal about their communities but this may not be taken fully into account by teachers. Secondly, there may be a lack of coordination between the citizenship education teacher and those in the school charged with the responsibility for strengthening community involvement. In the survey, the vast majority of schools declare
“The vast majority of respondents reported that their high achieving students are more likely than their peers to do voluntary work or take part in community activities. Respondents reported most strongly that students from a disadvantaged background are less likely than their peers to do voluntary work or take part in community activities.”
their commitment to both citizenship education and community cohesion but respondents less commonly reported that their schools had specific objectives or targets which linked citizenship with the community: just under two-fifths (39 per cent) reported that these linkages are made. The research project from which the above findings emerge continues with eight case studies in schools in which data will be gathered from young people. Notes Contact details: Professor Ian Davies / Dr Gillian Hampden-Thompson, Department of Education, University of York, email: Yvonne.firstname.lastname@example.org or Dr Pippa Lord, National Foundation for Educational Research: email@example.com. The Department of Education at the University of York, in collaboration with the National Foundation for Educational Research (nfer), is conducting a study into Creating Citizenship Communities through new approaches to learning, funded by a generous grant from the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation. As part of this study, nfer conducted an online questionnaire survey to identify current thinking and practice in schools in relation to community cohesion, and to begin exploration of young people’s perceptions and practice as a basis for further exploration in the case-study phase. The survey sample consisted of 800 secondary schools in England. Target respondents for this survey were members of staff with responsibility for community cohesion and/or citizenship within their school. A total of 132 respondents participated in the survey, from 119 schools. The responses received were largely representative of the national population of schools. ▪
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Back on the agenda and off the curriculum? Citizenship education and young people’s political engagement Matt Henn and Nick Foard share some important research which demonstrates that many young people feel powerless and alienated from politics, but nevertheless look to Citizenship teachers as potentially offering them a greater understanding and empowerment. amned if they do and damned if they don’t, young people in Britain are often characterised as apathetic and politically lazy, with neither aptitude nor inclination for participating in any form of collective social endeavour, and with no sense of civic responsibility. And yet 2011 will be remembered as a year in which they were prominent in a series of significant – and indeed dramatic – mass social actions. Whether these were the spontaneous and often violent episodes of civil unrest that beset many major cities across Britain last summer, the more organised student-led protests against university tuition fees, or the campaign of occupations at St Paul’s Square and at other major metropolitan sites, young people’s interventions have been observed with increasing alarm by commentators. Indeed, there has been growing anxiety within government circles over the course of the last decade that young people in Britain are disengaging from the ‘formal’ political process and from democratic institutions (Ministry of Justice 2007). This is evident in the persistently low election turnout of young voters, but there is also considerable research evidence that this generation has been characterised as dissatisfied with, and alienated from, the political process (see Henn and Foard 2011). The government response has included
the introduction of statutory citizenship classes at schools in England and, despite some problems getting the subject established (Ofsted 2006), there is evidence that such lessons are now having a beneficial impact for many young people (Benton et al. 2008). When given a choice, many more students opt to study citizenship subjects: Citizenship is the fastest-growing gcse subject, with 94,000 students undertaking this subject in 2010; the numbers of students sitting politics–related A Level exams increased by 24% between 2003 and 2008; and enrolment on politics programmes at uk universities has seen a rapid rise of 69% between 1997 and 2007 (Kisby and Sloam 2009). Despite this, the government review of the national curriculum seems to put the future of Citizenship in jeopardy. Research In this article, we report the findings from a national study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council that considers young people’s political participation and levels of engagement. Our research specifically addresses the following issues: • Young people’s levels of interest in, and understanding of, politics and elections; • Youth attitudes towards democracy in Britain; • The degree of faith that young people have in political parties and politicians; • The likelihood that young people will take part in differing political activities in the future, including voting at elections; • What the political parties need to do if they are to engage young people in the future. We conducted a national online survey of 1,025 ‘attainers’ (18 year olds eligible to vote for the first-time at the 2010 General Election) during April and May 2011. In addition to the survey of this representative sample, we also conducted fourteen online
32 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“When given a choice, many more students opt to study citizenship subjects: Citizenship is the fastestgrowing GCSE subject, with 94,000 students undertaking this subject in 2010; the numbers of students sitting politics–related A Level exams increased by 24% between 2003 and 2008; and enrolment on politics programmes at UK universities has seen a rapid rise of 69% between 1997 and 2007.”
Matt Henn is a Professor of Social Research, interested in researching young people and political engagement. Nick Foard is Senior Lecturer in Social Research, his main areas of research interest are socio-cultural and political identities of youth. They are both based in the School of Social Sciences at Nottingham Trent University.
focus groups during November 2011, with 84 attainers who did not vote at the 2010 General Election. The focus groups afforded us the opportunity to consider how young people had experienced Citizenship classes at school.
about three quarters of young people (approximately six times as many) claimed to lack such influence. • Nearly half of young people have a general confidence in the electoral process, against a third who hold more sceptical views. • There is a similar faith in the value of votFindings ing, with well over half professing a commit• A quarter of the respondents to our online ment to the principle of voting, and just a survey reported that they had taken a gcse quarter not perceiving it to be worthwhile. in Citizenship Studies. As Table 1 reveals, • When asked how likely it was that they there is no statistically significant differmight take part in various types of political ence in the political orientations or levels of activity over the next few years, half indicatpolitical engagement between this particular ed that they considered that they might be group and the group of respondents that did prepared to do so, but a significant minority not sit this particular exam. of over two fifths could not see themselves as • Our survey results seem to run counter being politically active. to popular thinking that young people are • Young people hold a deep antipathy to dismissive of political matters. Nearly two politicians and the political parties; they thirds of respondents claimed to have some consider them to be remote and self-serving, or more interest in politics. with no commitment towards championing • Despite their interest in politics, more than the interests of young people. One tenth of half of young people lack confidence in their this particular cohort of young people are knowledge and understanding of British positively disposed to these political players, politics, with only a third claiming confiwhereas four fifths hold a negative view of dence in such matters. them. • Young people do not feel that they can • Finally, the results reveal that young people influence the decision-making process. are deeply distrustful of the political classes; Only a very small minority considered there less than a sixth admit to any trust in the existed meaningful opportunities open to political parties or professional politicians, them to influence the political scene, while while four fifths claim little or no trust at all.
Table 1: Political engagement (%)
Interest in politics?
Confidence in personal knowledge and understanding of British politics?
Meaningful opportunities open to them to influence the political scene?
Attitudes to elections
Attitudes to voting
Future political activism?
Perception of political parties and professional politicians
Trust in political parties and professional politicians
“Many of the young people would like to see citizenship being delivered as formal classes explicitly devoted to the subject, rather than it being embedded within other subjects where it might become lost.”
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Feature Back on the agenda... / Matt Henn & Nick Foard
These online survey results indicate that there are no appreciable differences in orientation to formal politics between those young people who have taken a gcse in Citizenship and those who have not. However, our online focus groups reveal some interesting findings about the potential value of citizenship classes for increasing understanding of politics and citizenship issues, and for re-engaging young people with the political process. Many of the young people would like to see citizenship being delivered as formal classes explicitly devoted to the subject, rather than it being embedded within other subjects where it might become lost. One participant received support from others when she suggested that, “i feel i would have benefited from these classes because we wouldnt really have a choice of whether we wanted to listen to it or not and maybee i would have voted this year”1. Although not a unanimous view, similar sentiments were shared in other groups – “mmore effeort should be made in school to educate, it should not be a choice as to wether we want to follow politics”. Participants from the group who had not remained in full-time education were particularly vocal about how teachers need to make the subject more interesting and engaging, stating that it “depends what approach they have on it and how they teach it”, and “if done in the right way that would help boost interest in it”. In another group, one participant’s school had made use of student representatives standing for each party, their role to help explain policies to other students, thereby enabling them to become better informed. This idea received interest from other participants: “i wish all schools had something like [that] … id know loads more if they had it in my college”. Methods of delivery were often considered
alongside the young people’s perceptions of teachers responsible for delivery, with one participant capturing this shared view in her statement that “the right teacher could make the difference”. The point at which citizenship education should be introduced was widely discussed, and there was a reasonably strong belief that if left too late, there is a danger that young people will have lost interest – “i think it should be taught from a much younger age”. Capturing the imagination at the right stage was seen to be important by a number of participants and across several of the focus groups. For instance, one person felt that, “there should be classes at a younger age so that we are exposed to politics early on … if done in the right way that would help boost interest in it”, while someone else from the same group offered that, “it would give children much more of an insight and understanding”. Although not unanimous, this popular view supports the Goldsmith Commission’s suggestion that citizenship education should be made compulsory from an earlier age. Overall, the attitudes expressed by participants towards citizenship education were mixed. Although the views of some of the young people in our focus groups were undoubtedly negative,2 there is a clear indication that these have arisen from poor personal experiences. By and large, however, these same young people are not writingoff the idea of citizenship education; like their contemporaries from more affluent backgrounds and those who had opted to remain in full-time education, they can see the potential of a brand of citizenship education that offers more than they have themselves previously experienced at school. It would appear that innovation in the structure and delivery of the subject would be welcomed by young people who
34 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
“Although the views of some of the young people... were undoubtedly negative, there is a clear indication that these have arisen from poor personal experiences. By and large... these same young people are not writingoff the idea of citizenship education, they can see the potential of a brand of citizenship education that offers more than they have themselves previously experienced at school.”
clearly see the benefit of engaging with concepts of citizenship. If a review of the subject is to take place, then it should be carried out with the willingness to explore these options further. Conclusion The evidence from our research study suggests that contrary to popular (mis) conceptions, young people are interested in politics and in broader citizenship issues. However, they do not feel that they can influence the decision-making process – our research data reveal that today’s generation of young people consider themselves to be relatively powerless, politically. Interestingly, and despite feeling that there are few opportunities open for them to intervene effectively within, or influence, the world of formal politics, they do have some faith in the value of elections and voting. However, their first experience of a general election at last year’s contest has left them feeling frustrated, and they are deeply critical of professional politicians and the main political parties. Just at the time when the coalition government has initiated a process for review of the National Curriculum which raises questions about the future of statutory citizenship education in schools, young people themselves consider there to be significant potential value in such classes. The shared view seems to be that lack of knowledge and understanding about politics and citizenship issues serves as a major impediment to young people’s engagement with the democratic process; extending citizenship education in schools might just serve to help provide the political literacy skills necessary for young people to intervene in and connect with British democracy in an effective and—perhaps most importantly—a confident way. ▪
“extending citizenship education in schools might just serve to help provide the political literacy skills necessary for young people to intervene in and connect with British democracy in an effective and a confident way.”
References Benton, T., Cleaver, E. Featherstone, G. Kerr, D. Lopes J. and Whitby, K. (2008) Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study: Sixth Annual Report. Young People’s Civic Participation In and Beyond School: Attitudes, Intentions and Influences, Slough, nfer Henn, M. and Foard, N. (2011) ‘Young People, Political Participation and Trust in Britain’, Parliamentary Affairs, doi: 10.1093/pa/gsr046 Goldsmith Commission (2008) Citizenship. Our common Bond, London, hmso Kisby, B. and Sloam, J. (2009) ‘Revitalising Politics – The Role of Citizenship Education’, Representation, 45, 3, 313-324 Ministry of Justice (2007) ‘The Governance of Britain’, Green Paper, CM 7170, available at: www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/ cm71/7170/7170.pdf [accessed 11/11/11] Ofsted (2006) Towards Consensus? Citizenship in Secondary Schools, hmi 2666, London, Ofsted Acknowledgements We would like to thank: Paul Carroll and Sarah Pope at Ipsos-Mori, both for their preparation of the data and for their general contribution to the project. The research upon which this article has been based has been funded by the Economic and Social Research Council [Res-000-22-4450]. For more information, contact either matt. firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Notes 1. Quotes used in this article are from the original text responses typed by participants during the online focus groups, and have not been altered to improve spelling or grammar. 2. Notably those no longer in full-time education, those from poorer social backgrounds and those from black and minority ethnic groups.
Recent events such as the actions against fees and cuts (pictured above left) and the ‘Occupy’ movement (above right) have demonstrated young people’s interest in the politics of protest and direct action, while remaining sceptical of formal and electoral politics. www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 35
Hugo Goodson is Subject Leader for Citizenship and PSHE at Lodge Park Technology College, Northamptonshire.
Remembrance in schools – The Royal British Legion Learning Pack Reviewed by Lorellie Canning
The Complete Citizenship Resource File A Comprehensive Programme For Years 7-11 By Andrew McCallum Published by Routledge, RRP £125 Reviewed by Hugo Goodson
This is a triple cd / dvd disk set of resources aimed at Key Stages 1-4 covering elements of the History, English and Citizenship National Curriculum. Due to it covering four key stages there is obviously a lot of information and films to wade through, which if I’m honest would be my only real criticism of this resource. However, others may view this as its strength as it would enable the teaching of these topics (once tailored to your needs) to be delivered across a whole school. There is a lot of good stuff on it which can be adapted to many aspects of the Citizenship curriculum such as looking at the Poppy Appeal as a method of campaigning, how the British media portrays Remembrance Day, or how the British Legion and Remembrance Day are considered by many as key elements, and characteristic, of our national identity and ‘Britishness’. However in order to make this resource work with my students in a Citizenship focused lesson it did require some thought, so this is not really a pick up and go resource that enables dazzling lessons to be produced instantly. Despite this I would still recommend it as a resource as with some teacher inspiration it could be used to produce a creative take on Remembrance Day with a Citizenship focus in varying degrees for different Key Stages. You can order this resource from: www.britishlegion.org.uk/ remembrance/schools-and-learning/ learning-pack. ▪ 36 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
Andrew McCallum has produced this folder which he sets out as a scheme of work for years 7-11. He says that it contains everything you need to teach lively and engaging lessons. The idea is that the resources provided can either be used on their own or adapted according to the individual school’s approach to citizenship. It will depend on your individual school context how useful this folder is to you. I personally believe that this is not the sort of resource that would be particularly useful if you have one or more citizenship specialists in your department because I think it is possible to create more dynamic experiences than are offered. For example, the active citizenship element in year 7 focuses on an imaginary campaign to create a youth leisure centre – I would never want to focus on an imaginary campaign in lessons but get students involved in the community instead. However, if the school context asks for a resource which is ready made and easy to deliver and which will also maintain student’s interests, then this folder could be of considerable use. One example I can think of in which it might be useful is in schools where citizenship is taught by form tutors. That said, this folder contains a lot of useful worksheets that could be used as part of a specialist written curriculum. I also noticed quite a few links with RE and some of the worksheets would fit well within a key stage 4 ethics programme. For more details, including purchasing options, see the Routledge website: www.routledge.com ▪
Denise Howe is a member of the ACT Council and helps to coordinate the ACT North East network.
Countryside Investigators www.countrysideinvestigators.org.uk Reviewed by Denise Howe
Persona Dolls www.persona-doll-training.org Reviewed by Denise Howe
Whilst there are many new and interactive, all-singing and dancing resources out there (that give nightmares to the ict immigrants amongst us!) I found this easy on the eye, the brain and the keyboard/touchpad/fingertips. It is easily accessible, explaining and highlighting on-screen directions, has simple, yet attractive coloured animations and has a variety of activities and resources to be used by teachers and pupils. The format is quickly learned and repeated for each section – so can be accessed with little input from the teacher – leaving teacher’s time for follow up work and discussion, or pursuing linked projects As well as character animation, there are real photos of the countryside and the various jobs and people – and each section has a video which features two brothers (Milo & Felix) who act as roving reporters, gathering information and asking pertinent questions of the countryside workers – all of which adds to the bank of knowledge we collect about the countryside, that can be used later in the classroom or to take part in on-line quizzes and interactive games. It was funded by The Countryside Alliance Foundation in 2009 and aims to encourage Key Stage 2 children to learn about the countryside by exploring 10 interesting rural jobs. It is particularly useful to those inner city children who may not have much experience of the countryside, but could also be used as an adjunct to those ‘big debate’ questions around (for example) battery farming, fox hunting and sustainable planting. Research has shown that there are considerable benefits for children to become involved with nature and there are a number of ways to arrange a great day out. Advice about organising a school trip to a farm or other rural venue is provided, including a risk assessment form, planning guidance and details of organisations that can help. ▪
I did my own training in using Persona Dolls as a Local Authority Advisor in 2005 and I remember well the explanation that they are not intended to be puppets or playthings. It is important that children develop a relationship and respect for the dolls that encourages them to develop empathy and an understanding of how the discriminatory and hurtful behaviours of others makes an individual feel. I believe it is the ‘sharing’ of these feelings and the discussion and questioning that takes place that encourages inclusive patterns of behaviour. By giving them their own individual personas, practitioners change them from being inanimate objects into ‘people’ with individual personalities, family, cultural and class backgrounds, names, gender and ages. To ensure that the personas they create are detailed and authentic, practitioners include important facts such as where the dolls live and sleep, the language(s) they speak, their likes and dislikes; things they are good at and the ones they find difficult. By presenting a range of scenarios and problems for children to explore, the dolls open up a world of possibilities and encourage children to imagine what it might be like to live through situations they have not personally experienced. This is particularly important in areas of the uk that have not traditionally had much ethnic variety within their communities. Until the recent arrival of asylum seekers and refugees, many Primary schools’ only experience of ethnic minority groups was the odd traveller child passing through on high days and holidays, or the children of the proprietors of the local fast food take-away. After initial training, schools within Local Authorities are encouraged to network and share dolls and stories, but Persona Dolls sells a number of extra resources such as videos, dvds and story books and Trentham Books have published three books by Babette Brown, ‘Unlearning Discrimination in the Early Years’; ‘Combating Discrimination: Persona Dolls in action’; and more recently ‘Equality in Action: a way forward with Persona Dolls’, which can also be ordered from the Persona Dolls website. ▪ www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk / Spring 2012 / Issue 32 / Teaching Citizenship / 37
ually ... enough about student voice – what about teacher listening? Lee Jerome argues that we all need to listen harder if we don’t want students’ voices to get lost in the hubbub of school. Article 12 of the uncrc states that children have the right to express their views freely in all matters affecting them, and that the views of the child should be given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. In recent years the influence of Article 12 has been seen in a range of initiatives, such as Student Councils, Student Researchers and Student Observers. As all these labels suggest, much of the focus of the Student Voice agenda has been on the students themselves, creating programmes for them and training them up to assume new roles. But, in an influential article in 2007, Laura Lundy argued that we all need to think about what systems need to be in place to make sure children’s voices are really heard. 1. Space Children must have opportunities to express their views, which is to say there must be fora, consultation mechanisms and an ethos which assures them they are entitled to express themselves. Teachers should strive to ensure all children can get involved when they are ready. 2. Voice For these opportunities to make sense, children also require adults
to facilitate opportunities for them to develop and express their views. There is an educational imperative to ensure young people learn how to express themselves, how to argue a point and how to weigh it in relation to others’ interests. The best talkers understand how others hear them. 3. Audience At its most basic, children need someone to listen to them, which is not the same as someone who has to attend their meetings and hear them. John Annette has written about the importance of civic listening skills as well as skills related to articulating one’s own view point. Teachers need to actively listen to the student voice. 4. Influence For student voice to be meaningful there must be someone to acknowledge and respond, but there must also be a realistic chance that someone will act on their views. There is evidence to suggest that having ineffective student voice is worse than not bothering – it’s better to know no-one cares what you think than build up false hopes. Derry Hannam used to argue that in most schools, children’s learning about democracy was like prisoners reading holiday brochures. If we want to nurture democratic citizens, student voice gives us a chance to allow young people to experience democratic citizenship in action. The un Committee on the Rights of the Child reminds us that “children do not lose their human rights by virtue of passing through the school gates.”
38 / Teaching Citizenship / Issue 32 / Spring 2012 / www.teachingcitizenship.org.uk
Whilst most of us would agree that this should be the case, how many of us can honestly say our school honours the spirit and the letter of Article 12? ▪ Reference Lundy, L. (2007) ‘Voice is not enough: conceptualizing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child’ British Educational Research Journal, 33 (6), 927-42.
Interesting Numbers Numbers agreeing there were opportunities for students to be involved in running the school through student councils:
of managers said there were
of teachers agreed
of students agreed
(Reported in the second NFER longitudinal report, 2004) Number of students reporting they felt they were involved in the following consultation activities:
could get involved in school council
were consulted on rules and policies
were involved in planning teaching (Reported in the seventh NFER longitudinal report, 2009)
The Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT) is the professional membership association for primary and secondary school teachers involved in delivering Citizenship education. Teaching Citizenship is our magazine. It comes out once a term and is sent direct to all our members. It complements our online resources, our monthly e-newsletters and our face-to-face training or in-school CPD – all these are available to members. ACT membership provides an outstanding opportunity for professional development, whether you’re new to Citizenship or an old hand. We are a teacher-led independent charity with over 2,000 members across the country, whose principal charitable objective is to further the aims of citizenship teaching and learning. For teachers, ACT membership is only £35 for the whole year. If you’re not already a member then join now and get your own copy of this magazine – together with all the other support we offer you for teaching citizenship.
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'Teaching Citizenship' is the journal of the UK Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT). The theme for this issue is 'Museums, Libraries...
Published on Feb 23, 2012
'Teaching Citizenship' is the journal of the UK Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT). The theme for this issue is 'Museums, Libraries...