How to Create Housing Choice No rwa l k E ri n B o g g s , E s q . E x ec u 6 ve D i rec t o r
OPEN COMMUNITIES ALLIANCE Embracing Diversity to Strengthen Connec6cut
OPEN COMMUNITI ES ALLIANCE
The Alliance is a new Connec8cut-‐ based civil rights non-‐proﬁt that is developing an urban-‐suburban interracial coali8on to advocate for access to opportunity, par8cularly through promo8ng aﬀordable housing development in thriving communi8es. 2
CT IS ONE OF THE MOST RACIALLY, ETHNICALLY, AND ECONOMICALLY SEGREGATED STATES IN THE COUNTRY.
Racially Concentrated Area of Poverty • > 50% minority population • 3x regional poverty rate
RCAPS = < 1% of the areas of Connec8cut (39 square miles) Sources: ACS 2006 to 2010 table B17019, Census 2010 SF2 table PCT5, RCAP formula from HUD
EXPLAINING SEGREGATION Racial/Ethnic Segrega6on in CT by Land Area and Density
Percentage of Connec8cut Land Area
People per Square Mile
Dispropor6onately White Areas (72% White or greater) Dispropor6onately Minority Areas (30% minority or greater) High Poverty Areas (Poverty greater than 9.2%) Racially Concentrated Areas of Poverty
= < 1%
(50% or greater minority + 3x regional poverty) 4
RACE BY TOWN 100 90
80 70 56
40 30 20 10
New Norwalk Stamford Weston Westport Wilton Canaan
% White (Non-‐Hispanic)
% People of Color
CONNECTICUT BY THE NUMBERS: EDUCATION Connec8cut is home to some of the most severe dispari8es in school performance between White children and La8no and Black children in the na8on.
RACE IN SCHOOLS 100
30 20 10
% White (Non-‐Hispanic)
Stamford Westport % People of Color
PERCENT FREE OR REDUCED-‐PRICE LUNCH IN SCHOOLS: NORWALK AREA 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
7 2 Fairﬁeld
PERCENT FREE OR REDUCED-‐PRICE LUNCH IN SCHOOLS: HARTFORD AREA 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
93 61 43
CONNECTICUT BY THE NUMBERS: UNEMPLOYMENT Connec8cut has some of the widest gaps in unemployment rates by race and ethnicity in the country.
§ While the unemployment rate for Whites was around 8.4% in 2012, it was about 17.3% for La8nos and 17% for Blacks. § Connec8cut has the second widest gap in the U.S. in unemployment rates between La8nos and Whites and the 10 th widest gap between Blacks and Whites. 10
CONNECTICUT BY THE NUMBERS: INCARCERATION Connec8cut has some of the highest incarcera8on rates by race and ethnicity in the country. § With 12 Blacks incarcerated for every White inmate, Connec8cut has the fourth highest Black/White ra8o in the country. § Connec8cut has the highest La8no/ White incarcera8on rate in the country – 6.6 La8nos are incarcerated for every White inmate 11
CONNECTICUT BY THE NUMBERS: HEALTH Starkly diﬀerent health outcomes for Black and La8nos and Whites are longstanding and cut across health indicators.
§ For example, in Connec8cut, infant mortality rates for Blacks and La8nos are three and two 8mes greater, respec8vely, as compared to Whites. § In 2009, Connec8cut asthma hospitaliza8on rates for Blacks and La8nos were almost ﬁve 8mes that for White non-‐La8nos. 12
CONNECTICUT BY THE NUMBERS: INCOME DISPARITY Race and income are almost inextricably intertwined and the income gap between the rich and poor is growing in Connec8cut. Since the 1970s, Connec8cut has experienced the greatest increase in the income disparity between the top 20% and boiom 20% of income earners in the na8on.
ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITY 50 years of social science research demonstrates that where we live dictates the opportuni8es we have access to such as thriving schools, safe neighborhoods and social networks that lead to jobs. john powell, of Berkeley and his colleagues have developed a system to measure opportunity.
IMPACT ON OPPORTUNITY
Educa8on Opportunity Score
Economic Opportunity Score
Housing & Neighborhood Score
Final Opportunity Score (Map)f
WHERE DO WE LIVE? OPPORTUNITY BY RACE AND ETHNICITY IN CT
% of People by Race & Ethnicity Living in Lower Opportunity Areas Blacks: 73% La8nos: 73% Whites: 26% Asians: 36%
BIG PICTURE SOLUTIONS: ¡ B ring resources to areas that are struggling. § This has been happening for years, but we can do it beier.
¡ L ink people in groups that have been isolated from opportunity to higher opportunity areas. Through: § Housing § Educa8on § Transporta8on
SOLUTIONS ¡ BALANCE: Bringing balance to the loca8on of hard units of government-‐supported housing. ¡ CHOICE: Ensuring true housing choice through enforcing fair housing laws and promo8ng mobility counseling. ¡ DATA: Requiring the collec8on and analysis of appropriate data to measure progress. ¡ C ITY LIFT: Promo8ng policies that work to lin up struggling areas. 21
NEED FOR BALANCE: PRESERVATION LIST
Land Area of CT
% of Units in Dispropor8onately Minority Areas
% of Units in High Poverty Areas
% of Units in RCAP Areas
Preserva6on List by Loca6on and Demographic Served (by tracts)
People with Disabili6es
The Preserva8on List is the most comprehensive list available of the subsidized housing stock in Connec8cut, but it does not include the en8re inventory. For example, the number of units of suppor8ve housing listed above represents only a frac8on of the actual total.
LOW INCOME HOUSING TAX CREDIT PROGRAM
Figure 38: LIHTC by Race, Poverty and RCAP (by tract) Demographic Served All Family Elderly Suppor6ve
Total Units % Units in Dispropor8onately Minority Areas
20,018 13,560 4,740 734
73% 76% 58% 96%
% Units in High Poverty Areas
73% 76% 55% 96%
% Units in RCAP
40% 37% 36% 63%
ASYLUM HILL: 1.6 SQ/MI
Subsidized housing in the Norwalk area. Source: Preserva8on List 25
PRESERVATION LIST: NORWALK AREA
The Preserva8on List does not include every unit of subsidized housing in the state, but it is the most comprehensive list available. 26
ENSURING CHOICE: MOBILITY COUNSELING ¡ A counseling interven8on for par8cipants in the Housing Choice Voucher program that provides full informa8on about housing in higher opportunity areas. ¡ H ighly successful programs in Bal8more and Dallas (resul8ng from li8ga8on).
Tenant-‐Based Voucher Holders by Loca6on and Minority Status (by tracts) Voucher Holder Race/Ethnicity
% Voucher Holders in Dispropor8onately Minority Areas
% Voucher Holders in High Poverty Areas
TENANT-‐BASED HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHERS
Geographical Area of the State All Voucher Holders Minority Voucher Holders
Non-‐Hispanic White Voucher Holders
5.8% 83% 92% 62%
Minority Voucher Holders White Voucher Holders
10.5% 79% 85.5% 65%
Maps provided courtesy of Professor Stefanie Deluca of Johns Hopkins University.
HOW D ID W E G ET H ERE?
A quick history lesson
¡ Fair housing testing reveals discrimination occurs in 50% to 80% of black/white tests conducted.
RACIAL COVENANTS ¡ The Supreme Court ﬁnally held that State courts could not enforce racial covenants under the 14 t h Amendment’s Equal Protec8on Clause in the Shelley v. Kraemer case in 1948.
100% of areas that were redlined in 1937 are very low opportunity areas today.
For over 75 years eﬀorts to help struggling neighborhoods have focused on adding more low income housing to low income areas. It is 8me for a new strategy.
THE POVERTY IMPACT ¡ As of the 2000 census, 40% of families in Asylum Hill are living in poverty. ¡ Urban Studies Professor George Galster of Wayne State University has found: "My review of the U.S. literature suggests that the independent impacts of neighborhood poverty rates in encouraging nega8ve outcomes for individuals like crime, school leaving, and dura8on of poverty spells appear to be nil unless the neighborhood exceeds about 20 percent poverty, whereupon the externality eﬀects grow rapidly un8l the neighborhood reaches approximately 40 percent poverty; subsequent increases in the poverty popula8on appear to have no marginal external eﬀect." 36
SOLUTIONS ¡ Balance: Bringing balance to the loca8on of hard units of government-‐supported housing. ¡ Choice: Ensuring true housing choice through enforcing fair housing laws and promo8ng mobility counseling. ¡ Good Data: Requiring the collec8on and analysis of appropriate data to measure progress. ¡ Fair Share Housing: Promo8ng fair share housing policies that increase the amount of aﬀordable housing in thriving areas without re-‐concentra8ng poverty. ¡ City Li_: Promo8ng policies that work to lin up struggling areas. 37
WAYS TO PARTNER ¡ Can we work to iden8fy and create funding resources that support revitalizing struggling areas while ensuring aﬀordable housing for families who love this community and want to stay? ¡ Can we ﬁnd a way to reach low-‐income residents interested in moving? ¡ Can we work together to promote statewide policies that ensure that every town in Connec8cut takes on its fair share of aﬀordable housing?
THREE BILLS THAT MATTER ¡ HB-‐6138: AN ACT CONCERNING RESIDENCE MOBILITY COUNSELING FOR SUBSIDIZED HOUSING. ¡ HB-‐6640: AN ACT CONCERNING THE ALLOCATION OF LOW INCOME HOUSING TAX CREDITS. ¡ HB-‐6461: AN ACT CONCERNING THE DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING.
Erin Boggs, Esq. Execu8ve Director Open Communi8es Alliance 207 Washington Street Hartord, CT 06106 Tel. 860.904.6137 email@example.com Check us out online: hip://www.ctoca.org 40