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How to  Create   Housing  Choice     No rwa l k       E ri n   B o g g s ,   E s q .   E x ec u 6 ve   D i rec t o r  


OPEN COMMUNITIES  ALLIANCE   Embracing  Diversity  to  Strengthen   Connec6cut  

OPEN COMMUNITI ES  ALLIANCE  

The Alliance  is  a  new  Connec8cut-­‐ based  civil  rights  non-­‐profit  that  is   developing  an  urban-­‐suburban   interracial  coali8on  to  advocate  for   access  to  opportunity,  par8cularly   through  promo8ng  affordable   housing  development  in  thriving   communi8es.   2  


CT IS  ONE  OF  THE  MOST  RACIALLY,  ETHNICALLY,   AND  ECONOMICALLY  SEGREGATED  STATES  IN   THE  COUNTRY.  

             

Racially Concentrated Area of Poverty •  > 50% minority population •  3x regional poverty rate

RCAPS =  <  1%  of  the  areas  of  Connec8cut   (39  square  miles)   Sources: ACS 2006 to 2010 table B17019, Census 2010 SF2 table PCT5, RCAP formula from HUD

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EXPLAINING SEGREGATION   Racial/Ethnic  Segrega6on  in  CT  by  Land  Area  and  Density    

Analysis Category  

 

Percentage of   Connec8cut  Land  Area  

People per  Square  Mile  

Dispropor6onately White  Areas   (72%  White  or  greater)   Dispropor6onately  Minority  Areas     (30%  minority  or  greater)   High  Poverty  Areas   (Poverty  greater  than  9.2%)   Racially  Concentrated  Areas  of   Poverty    

=    93.5%  

506

= 5.8%  

3,948

= 10.5%  

2,940

= <  1%  

7,400

(50% or  greater  minority  +  3x  regional   poverty)   4  


RACE BY  TOWN   100   90  

91

91

88

90

90

90

80 70   56  

60 50  

53 44  

47

40 30   20   10  

7

12

9

10

10

10

0 Darien  

Fairfield

New Norwalk   Stamford   Weston   Westport   Wilton   Canaan  

% White  (Non-­‐Hispanic)  

% People  of  Color  


CONNECTICUT BY  THE  NUMBERS:   EDUCATION   Connec8cut  is  home  to  some  of  the   most  severe  dispari8es  in  school   performance  between  White   children  and  La8no  and  Black   children  in  the  na8on.    

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RACE IN  SCHOOLS   100  

93

93 85  

90

91

90

80 70  

63

61

60 50  

37

40

39

30 20   10  

15 7  

10

7

9

0 Darien  

Fairfield

New Canaan  

Norwalk

% White  (Non-­‐Hispanic)  

Stamford Westport   %  People  of  Color  

Wilton


PERCENT FREE  OR  REDUCED-­‐PRICE  LUNCH  IN   SCHOOLS:  NORWALK  AREA   50   45   40   35   30   25   20   15   10   5   0  

44

30

4 Darien  

7 2   Fairfield  

Norwalk

Stamford Westport  

1 Wilton  


PERCENT FREE  OR  REDUCED-­‐PRICE  LUNCH  IN   SCHOOLS:  HARTFORD  AREA   100   90   80   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0  

93 61   43  

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17

12

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CONNECTICUT BY  THE  NUMBERS:   UNEMPLOYMENT   Connec8cut  has  some  of  the  widest  gaps   in  unemployment  rates  by  race  and   ethnicity  in  the  country.    

§  While  the  unemployment  rate  for   Whites  was  around  8.4%  in  2012,  it   was  about  17.3%  for  La8nos  and  17%   for  Blacks.       §  Connec8cut  has  the  second  widest  gap   in  the  U.S.  in  unemployment  rates   between  La8nos  and  Whites  and  the   10 th  widest  gap  between  Blacks  and   Whites.     10    


CONNECTICUT BY  THE  NUMBERS:   INCARCERATION   Connec8cut  has  some  of  the   highest  incarcera8on  rates  by   race  and  ethnicity  in  the  country.         §  With  12  Blacks  incarcerated  for   every  White  inmate,  Connec8cut  has   the  fourth  highest  Black/White  ra8o   in  the  country.         §  Connec8cut  has  the  highest  La8no/ White  incarcera8on  rate  in  the   country  –  6.6  La8nos  are   incarcerated  for  every  White  inmate   11  


CONNECTICUT BY  THE  NUMBERS:     HEALTH   Starkly  different  health  outcomes   for  Black  and  La8nos  and  Whites   are  longstanding  and  cut  across   health  indicators.          

§  For example,  in  Connec8cut,  infant   mortality  rates  for  Blacks  and  La8nos   are  three  and  two  8mes  greater,   respec8vely,  as  compared  to  Whites.       §  In  2009,  Connec8cut  asthma   hospitaliza8on  rates  for  Blacks  and   La8nos  were  almost  five  8mes  that  for   White  non-­‐La8nos.     12  


CONNECTICUT BY  THE  NUMBERS:   INCOME  DISPARITY   Race  and  income  are  almost   inextricably  intertwined  and   the  income  gap  between  the   rich  and  poor  is  growing  in   Connec8cut.    Since  the   1970s,  Connec8cut  has   experienced  the  greatest   increase  in  the  income   disparity  between  the  top   20%  and  boiom  20%  of   income  earners  in  the   na8on.    

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ACCESS TO  OPPORTUNITY   50  years  of  social  science   research  demonstrates  that   where  we  live  dictates  the   opportuni8es  we  have   access  to  such  as  thriving   schools,  safe   neighborhoods  and  social   networks  that  lead  to  jobs.     john  powell,  of  Berkeley   and  his  colleagues  have   developed  a  system  to   measure  opportunity.  

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IMPACT ON  OPPORTUNITY  

Educa8on Opportunity   Score  

Economic Opportunity   Score  

Housing &   Neighborhood   Score  

Final Opportunity   Score  (Map)f  

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WHERE DO  WE  LIVE?     OPPORTUNITY  BY  RACE  AND  ETHNICITY  IN  CT    

% of  People  by  Race  &  Ethnicity  Living  in   Lower  Opportunity  Areas     Blacks:    73%   La8nos:    73%   Whites:      26%   Asians:    36%  


BIG PICTURE  SOLUTIONS:   ¡ B ring  resources  to  areas  that  are  struggling.   §  This  has  been  happening  for  years,  but  we  can  do  it  beier.    

¡ L ink people  in  groups  that  have  been  isolated   from  opportunity  to  higher  opportunity  areas.     Through:   §  Housing   §  Educa8on   §  Transporta8on  

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SOLUTIONS ¡    BALANCE:  Bringing  balance  to  the  loca8on  of   hard  units  of  government-­‐supported  housing.     ¡    CHOICE:  Ensuring  true  housing  choice  through   enforcing  fair  housing  laws  and  promo8ng   mobility  counseling.     ¡     DATA:  Requiring  the  collec8on  and  analysis  of   appropriate  data  to  measure  progress.     ¡ C ITY  LIFT:  Promo8ng  policies  that  work  to  lin  up   struggling  areas.   21  


NEED FOR  BALANCE:  PRESERVATION  LIST  

Land Area  of  CT  

Total Units  

Demographic Served  

% of  Units  in   Dispropor8onately   Minority  Areas  

% of  Units  in  High   Poverty  Areas  

% of  Units  in   RCAP  Areas  

 

Preserva6on List  by  Loca6on  and  Demographic  Served  (by  tracts)  

5.8%

10.5%

< 1%  

All

82,290

66%

69%

28%

Family

43,534

75%

78%

32%

Elderly

37,330

56%

58%

24%

Suppor6ve

440

89%

83%

40%

People   with  Disabili6es    

442

48%

39%

6%

The Preserva8on  List  is  the  most  comprehensive  list  available  of  the  subsidized  housing   stock  in  Connec8cut,  but  it  does  not  include  the  en8re  inventory.    For  example,  the   number  of  units  of  suppor8ve  housing  listed  above  represents  only  a  frac8on  of  the  actual   total.  

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PRESERVATION LIST  

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LOW INCOME  HOUSING  TAX  CREDIT   PROGRAM  

Figure 38:  LIHTC  by  Race,  Poverty  and  RCAP  (by  tract)   Demographic  Served   All   Family   Elderly   Suppor6ve  

Total Units   %  Units  in  Dispropor8onately   Minority  Areas  

20,018 13,560   4,740   734  

73% 76%   58%   96%  

% Units  in  High  Poverty   Areas  

73% 76%   55%   96%  

% Units  in  RCAP    

40% 37%   36%   63%  

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ASYLUM HILL:  1.6  SQ/MI  

Subsidized housing  in  the  Norwalk  area.  Source:  Preserva8on  List   25  


PRESERVATION LIST:  NORWALK  AREA  

The Preserva8on  List  does  not  include  every  unit  of  subsidized  housing  in  the   state,  but  it  is  the  most  comprehensive  list  available.   26  


ENSURING CHOICE:  MOBILITY  COUNSELING   ¡ A  counseling  interven8on  for  par8cipants  in  the   Housing  Choice  Voucher  program  that  provides   full  informa8on  about  housing  in  higher   opportunity  areas.     ¡ H ighly  successful  programs  in  Bal8more  and   Dallas  (resul8ng  from  li8ga8on).  

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Tenant-­‐Based Voucher  Holders  by  Loca6on  and  Minority  Status  (by  tracts)     Voucher  Holder  Race/Ethnicity  

% Voucher  Holders  in  Dispropor8onately  Minority   Areas  

% Voucher  Holders  in  High  Poverty    Areas  

TENANT-­‐BASED HOUSING  CHOICE  VOUCHERS  

Geographical Area  of  the  State   All  Voucher  Holders   Minority  Voucher  Holders  

Non-­‐Hispanic White  Voucher  Holders  

5.8% 83%   92%   62%  

Minority Voucher  Holders     White  Voucher  Holders  

10.5% 79%   85.5%   65%  

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Maps provided  courtesy  of   Professor  Stefanie  Deluca  of   Johns  Hopkins  University.  

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HOW D ID   W E   G ET   H ERE?    

A quick   history   lesson  

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DISCRIMINATION

¡  Fair housing testing reveals discrimination occurs in 50% to 80% of black/white tests conducted.

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RACIAL COVENANTS   ¡  The  Supreme  Court  finally  held  that  State  courts  could  not   enforce  racial  covenants    under  the  14 t h  Amendment’s  Equal   Protec8on  Clause  in  the  Shelley  v.  Kraemer  case  in  1948.        

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100% of  areas   that  were   redlined  in  1937   are  very  low   opportunity   areas  today.      

For  over  75  years  efforts  to  help  struggling  neighborhoods   have  focused  on  adding  more  low  income  housing  to  low   income  areas.    It  is  8me  for  a  new  strategy.  

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THE POVERTY  IMPACT   ¡  As  of  the  2000  census,  40%  of  families  in  Asylum  Hill  are  living  in   poverty.       ¡  Urban  Studies  Professor  George  Galster  of  Wayne  State   University  has  found:     "My  review  of  the  U.S.  literature  suggests  that  the  independent   impacts  of  neighborhood  poverty  rates  in  encouraging  nega8ve   outcomes  for  individuals  like  crime,  school  leaving,  and  dura8on  of   poverty  spells  appear  to  be  nil  unless  the  neighborhood  exceeds   about  20  percent  poverty,  whereupon  the  externality  effects  grow   rapidly  un8l  the  neighborhood  reaches  approximately  40  percent   poverty;  subsequent  increases  in  the  poverty  popula8on  appear  to   have  no  marginal  external  effect."   36  


SOLUTIONS ¡     Balance:  Bringing  balance  to  the  loca8on  of  hard  units  of   government-­‐supported  housing.     ¡     Choice:  Ensuring  true  housing  choice  through  enforcing   fair  housing  laws  and  promo8ng  mobility  counseling.     ¡     Good  Data:  Requiring  the  collec8on  and  analysis  of   appropriate  data  to  measure  progress.     ¡   Fair  Share  Housing:  Promo8ng  fair  share  housing  policies   that  increase  the  amount  of  affordable  housing  in  thriving   areas  without  re-­‐concentra8ng  poverty.   ¡  City  Li_:  Promo8ng  policies  that  work  to  lin  up  struggling   areas.   37  


WAYS TO  PARTNER   ¡  Can  we  work  to  iden8fy  and  create  funding  resources  that   support  revitalizing  struggling  areas  while  ensuring  affordable   housing  for  families  who  love  this  community  and  want  to  stay?     ¡  Can  we  find  a  way  to  reach  low-­‐income  residents  interested  in   moving?   ¡  Can  we  work  together  to  promote  statewide  policies  that  ensure   that  every  town  in  Connec8cut  takes  on  its  fair  share  of   affordable  housing?  

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THREE BILLS  THAT  MATTER   ¡  HB-­‐6138:  AN  ACT  CONCERNING  RESIDENCE  MOBILITY   COUNSELING  FOR  SUBSIDIZED  HOUSING.     ¡  HB-­‐6640:  AN  ACT  CONCERNING  THE  ALLOCATION  OF  LOW   INCOME  HOUSING  TAX  CREDITS.     ¡  HB-­‐6461:  AN  ACT  CONCERNING  THE  DATA  COLLECTION  AND   ANALYSIS  OF  AFFORDABLE  HOUSING.  

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Erin Boggs,  Esq.   Execu8ve  Director   Open  Communi8es  Alliance   207  Washington  Street     Hartord,  CT  06106     Tel.  860.904.6137   eboggs@ctoca.org     Check  us  out  online:  hip://www.ctoca.org     40  

Profile for Open Communities Alliance

Open Communities Alliance: How to Create Housing Choice - Norwalk  

Open Communities Alliance presentation to the Norwalk Fair Housing Advisory Commission and the NAACP Norwalk Branch, May 12, 2015

Open Communities Alliance: How to Create Housing Choice - Norwalk  

Open Communities Alliance presentation to the Norwalk Fair Housing Advisory Commission and the NAACP Norwalk Branch, May 12, 2015

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