9 Most product and service design process models seen in this study have embedded assumptions that the challenges being faced are product or service related, and that solution outcomes will be products or services. These built-in assumptions place product and service process models downstream from the more upstream oriented CPS models. In highly complex, fuzzy situations at the scale of organizations and societies, the orientation of presuming up front what the challenge and solution paths are has become obsolete.
Humantific for OPEN Innovation Consortium
Innovation Methods Mapping