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“If you really want to change the city, or want a real struggle, DUHDOĂ€JKW then it would require re-­engaging with things like public planning for example, or re-­engaging with government, or re-­ engaging with large-­scale institutionalised developers. I think that’s where the real struggles lie, that we re-­engage with these structures and these institutions, this horribly complex ‘dark matter’. That’s where it becomes really interesting.â€?

Gated  Community  and  Social  Housing  Blocks  exist  side  by  side  in  a  landscape  of  typical  Istanbul   topography.

-­Wouver Vanstiphout

FEATURES

Rewiring  the  Simplified Things  in  the  megacity  are  dealt  in  an   economical  way,  with  a  singular  agenda.  It  is   time  for  an  integrated  approach

Istanbul  Measured Introducing  qualitative  measures  of  success  to   the  public  investments,  on  top  of   quantitative  ones

The  One  Man  Show “Mentality  of  an  official�  revealed:  Strong   leaders,  impotent  followers

Conflict  and  Consensus  in  Urbanism A  journey  to  find  the  right  mix  in   Metropolitan  Governance

.DGLU7RSEDú  as   Mayor  of  Istanbul

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Public planning and city governance have ORQJEHHQGHĂ€QHGE\RXU profession as obscure and enigmatic domains. Seeming complexity RIWKHĂ€HOGLVGXHWRLWV confusing position, somewhere between political, managemental and cultural practices;Íž therefore understanding it requires engagement ZLWKWKRVHĂ€HOGVRI knowledge. From this joint perspective Istanbul-­ Behind the Scenes reveals the “status quoâ€? as well as an optimism for “changeâ€?. After all, so-­called “dark matterâ€? is not that dark.


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ADMINISTRATION

REWIRING THE SIMPLIFIED Economies of  scale  dictate  its  rules  in  megacities,  resulting   in  increased  specialization  and  organizational  disintegration.   It  is  only  possible  to  rewire  those  solutions  back  to  their   complexity  by  succesful  urban  operations.   Here’s  how  for  Istanbul.

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Each man  on  his  own  Various  urban  actors  in   Istanbul  are  initiating  various  developments  simul-­ taneously   and   seperately.   This   collage   of   wildly   seperated  elements  gives  the  face  of  the  contem-­ porary  Istanbul.

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ADMINISTRATION

Cities are complex entities. Their material is accumula-­ tion of masses who shares and touches each other on the same territory and deal with its complexity in diverse associations, some voluntar-­ ily, some reluctantly.  Take   food   system   for   instance,   being   a   fundamental   need,   masses   demand   food.   Someone  has  to  produce  it,  some  other  has   to  deal  with  its  logistics,  some  has  to  check   if  it  meets  the  standards  of  hygiene  and  nu-­ trition,  some  other  has  to  decide  on  those   standards,  regulate  them.  There  has  to  be   a   land   positioned   strategically   concerning   logistics,  urban  relations  and  an  organiza-­ tion  to  manage  that  land  in  order  to  deliver   the   goods   to   the   customer   and   regulate   those   relationships;͞   decide   on   the   prices,   build  the  infrastructure,  talk  to  the  market-­ ers   and   give   decisions   in   other   words,   be   the   visible   hand.   Finally,   it   reaches   to   the   consumer,  goes  to  the  homes  of  citizens.        This  brief  look  at  the  main  elements   of   the   food   system   gives   us   an   overview   of  the  several  tasks  that  this  system  alone   has  to  deal  with.  But  this  is  only  one  of  sev-­ eral  stories  of  city.  If  we  look  at  what  hap-­ pens  to  that  food  after  it  goes  into  the  home   of   the   customer,   we’ll   see   a   great   deal   is   wasted.  Then,  along  with  the  other  wastes   there  comes  another  system  of  waste  dis-­

posal.  This  system  is  no  less  complex  then   the  food  system  and  no  less  important  for   the  entire  city  in  terms  of  its  daily  life,  when   garbage   crisis   emerged   Napoli   in   2011,   Italy   had   to   send   troops   to   deal   with   it1.   Such  a  crisis  reminds  us  that  vulnerability   of  one  system  is  the  vulnerability  of  another   because  in  such  a  situation  from  food  sys-­ tem   to   transportation   system   or   to   waste   disposal  systems,  many  others  would  also   suffer.  That  is  because  they  are  in  essence   bound  to  each  other. City  breaths  with  its  systems,  day  in  day   out,  and  to  manage  all  of  them  is  one  intri-­ cate  challenge  of  management. Like   all   the   mortal   beings   who   face   a   FRPSOH[ SUREOHP WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHÀH[ is   to   divide   the   problems   into   its   sub-­ele-­ ments,  simplify  it  and  try  to  solve  them  one   by   one   which   would   presumably   conse-­ quence  on  the  solution  of  the  entire  prob-­ lem2.  That  is  why  we  have  seperate  organi-­ sations  in  our  cities  to  deal  with  for  instance   the   public   transportation,   water   infrastruc-­ ture  or  social  housing  production.  Each  or-­ ganization  solves  the  singular  problem  that   stands  in  front  it;͞  each  man  on  its  own. Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality:   a  straight  forward  urban  administration   model Due  to  its  scale,  Istanbul  has  Metropoli-­ tan  Municipality  on  top  of  the  39  local  mu-­ nicipalities.  This  administrative  model  also   exists  in  18  other  cities  in  Turkey  that  have   a   population   over   750,000.   In   Istanbul,   metropolitan  municipality  is  responsible  for   urban  planning  task  for  the  entire  city  from  

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7KH3UREOHP6ROYHUV Directorates  and  subsidi-­ ary   companies   under   Istanbul   Metropolitan   Mu-­ nicipality  have  singular  agendas  to  deal  with  their   well   defined   problems:   food   wholesale   infrastruc-­ tures,  sports  facilities,  waste  renewal  facilities...  

1/100.000  scale  to  1/5000  scale.3  This  mod-­ el   is   applied   in   order   to   deliver   leadership   and   bring   unity   amongst   the   fragmented   plans  of  the  local  municipalities,  which  had   failed   to   integrate   their   plans   and   opera-­ tions  to  each  other.  Although  concentrating   land  management  into  a  singular,  city-­wide   public   organisation   increased   the   unity   of   operations   in   the   metropolitan   area,   the   public  services  within  Istanbul  Metropolitan   Municipality   are   divided   into   various   sub-­ organisations   as   well.   Therefore,   one   can   argue  that  with  the  establishment  of  Istan-­ bul   Metropolitan   Municipality   in   1984,   the   city  has  shifted  the  management  system  of   the  metropolitan  area  from  a  territorial  divi-­ sion  into  operational  divion  of  tasks.   There   are   several   types   of   operational   units   within   the   metropolitan   municipality.   )LUVWO\WKHUHDUHø6.øIRUZDWHULQIUDVWUXF-­ WXUH PDQDJHPHQW DQG ø(77 IRU SXEOLF transportation   management.   These   two   organisations   are   bound   to   the   metropoli-­ tan   municipality   in   their   management,   but   independent  in  their  budget.  The  system  is   followed  by  singular  directorates  that  form   the   body   of   the   metropolitan   municipality:   one   directorate   for   landscaping,   another   for   urbanism,   one   for   rail   system,   another   for  road  maintenance,  one  for  earthquake   risk   management,   another   for   real   estate   managmentâ&#x20AC;ŚThese   directorates,   which   divides  the  metropolitan  municipality  tasks   into   managable   chunks,   are   supported   by   25  subsidiary  companies.4  They  are  private   companies,   established   independent   from   the   restraints   of   public   regulations   but   the   municipality   has   shares   on   each   of   them  

and  therefore  they  are  underpinning  its  op-­ HUDWLRQVĂ&#x20AC;H[LEO\DQGVLJQLÂżFDQWO\ Just   like   the   directorates,   each   one   of   them   separates   and   isolates   tasks   of   the   city  management  and  treats  them  individu-­ DOO\ø67$dEXLOGVZDVWHUHQHZDOIDFLOLWLHV ø63$5. EXLOGV FDU SDUNLQJ EORFNV 6325 $Ăš EXLOGV VSRUWV IDFLOLWLHV ,6721 $Ăš builds  public  spaces.5 Liberated   from   the   clumsiness   of   the   SXEOLFVHFWRUDQGSURÂżWSUHVVXUHVRIWKHSUL-­ vate   sector,   hybrid   city  management  units   focuses   on   their   individual   tasks   and   their   tasks  only.   Learning  to  deal  with  megacity In  a  megacity,  numbers  are  everything.   %\ GHÂżQLWLRQ FLW\ LV ZKHUH JRRGV DUH LP-­ ported   for   the   packed   population   which   can   no   longer   produce   and   consume   in   the  same  territory  and  a  megacity  is  where   these  balances  cracked  like  no  where  else   and  no  other  time  in  the  history  of  man.  The   challenge  is  the  production  of  services  that   is  concerned  with  the  technical  question  of   how   resources   are   put   together   to   deliver   service  to  this  large  and  concentrated  pop-­ ulation.   It   is   precisely   for   that   reason   why   municipalities  in  megacities  are  organized   so   severely   sepereated   and   units   are   iso-­ lated.  This   is   one   effective   method   to   dis-­ tribute   and   allocate   resources   effectively   EHQHÂżWWLQJ IURP WKH HFRQRPLHV RI VFDOH and   ensuring   that   the   large   population   is   served   properly.   However,   it   took   a   while   for  the  megacities  and  their  managemental   arms  to  learn  to  do  that.   Sources:  Metropolitan  Municipality  Law  5216, ibb.gov.tr,  local  municipalities.  


ADMINISTRATION The White   Elephant   Atatürk   Olympics   Stadi-­ um  was  built  in  the  western  outskirt  of  Istanbul  as   part   of   the   failed   olympics   bid   of   Turkey   in   2008.   The   investment   was   made   in   total   disintegration   from  the  urban  life.Today  it  is  an  underused,  mon-­ olith   infrastructure,   one   of   the   white   elephants   of   Istanbul’s   urban   development   history   only   after   a   few  years.

8


source:  bernart  mimarlik

9


ADMINISTRATION Megacities  for   a   long   time   had   failed   -­and  in  some  areas  are  still  failing-­  to  deliv-­ HUEDVLFVHUYLFHV,Q6DR3DXORPRUHWKDQ 3  million  residents  live  in  dilapidated  tene-­ ments  as  a  result  of  the  failure  of  city  to  re-­ spond   to   housing   pressures6.   Mexico   City   ODFNVDQHIÂżFLHQWZDWHUGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP since  the  existing  one  creates  losses  that  is   HVWLPDWHGWREHDURXQGSHUFHQW2QWRS of  this,  only  40  per  cent  of  domestic  users   are   metered   therefore   authorities   collect   much   less   fees   than   they   should   charge.   'XH WR WKHVH ÂżQDQFLDO GLVDGYDQWDJHV maintenances  are  not  made  regularly  and   the   system   constantly   cracks7.   Most   meg-­ acities   have   experienced   extraordinarily   rapid   growth   in   the   number   of   private   ve-­ hicles.  This  is  again  a  failure  of  the  public   service  to  provide  preferable  option  to  pri-­ vate   cars   and   that   even   further   increases   the   congestion,   posing   mobility   as   a   seri-­ ous  problem,  however  that  is  the  most  ba-­ sic  need  and  yet  most  common  problem  of   megacities  worldwide. Istanbul   has   a   history   with   failing   in   many   of   its   basic   services   as   well.   Fail-­ ure   of   providing   social   housing   created   a   VSHFLÂżF EXLOGLQJ W\SH QDPHG JHFHNRQGX quickly   made,   illegal   housing   units.   Water   and   Electricity   services   for   a   long   while   worked   with   regular   cuts   in   services   and   the   city   has   never   had   a   proper   public   transportation  infrastructure. However,  despite  the  initially  inadequa-­ cy  of  cities  to  deal  with  such  large  amounts   of   demands   in   urban   areas,   they   have   learned  and  improved  in  time  by  engineer-­ ing  their  processes.  Today  Istanbul,  as  well   as  other  mega-­cities,  are  suffering  less  and   less  from  the  inadequacy  of  basic  services.   State   policies   and   management   cultures   are  hand  in  hand  renewing  themselves  and   eventually   improving   their   numerical   per-­ formances. Although   isolation   of   tasks   creates   ef-­ fectivity   and   good   services   in   their   own   right,  they  donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t  necessarily  create  a  good   FLW\ 2QH UHSHUFXVVLRQ RI GLVLQWHJUDWLRQ RI WDVNV LV WKDW LW FUHDWHV D VSHFLÂżF PLQGVHW for  each  unit,  one  that  is  totally  unaware  of   the  larger  context,  freed  from  the  territorial   understanding  of  their  tasks  but  abstracting   the  world  from  their  disintegrated,  singular   perspective  and  therefore  drawing  it  in  the   VDPH ZD\ ,Q WKLV VKULQNHG DQG VLPSOLÂżHG world,   capacities   are   the   only   measure   of   success  and  therefore  physical  correspon-­ dance  of  this  mindset  is  also  merely  capac-­ ity  based.  This  is  the  architecture  of  simple   PDWKV 2QH H[DPSOH RI WKLV LV D SURJUDP run   by   one   of   the   municipality   subsidiary   FRPSDQLHV ø63$5. ZKLFK LV UHVSRQVLEOH of  the  parking  infrastructure  of  the  city.  The   company  has  a  program  of  building  multi-­ storey  parking  structures  in  the  city  at  the   spots   that   are   appropriate   in   terms   of   ac-­ quiring  the  land.  The  aim  of  the  program  is   to   increase   the   parking   capacity   respond-­ ing  to  the  demands  of  the  city  with  the  ef-­

6

&ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ć?Í&#x2022;ZŽůÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;:Í&#x2DC;DÄ&#x17E;Ĺ?Ä&#x201A;ͲÄ?Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;'Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ç Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;&ĆľĆ&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;dŽŏÇ&#x2021;Ĺ˝Í&#x2014; hĹśĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;EÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ?hWÍ&#x2022;ϭϾϾϰÍ&#x2DC;WĆ&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2DC;

7

 Ibid.

8

Í&#x17E;/Ć?Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;ĹŹͲWĆ&#x152;ŽŊÄ&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x;/Ć?Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;ĹŹÍ&#x2DC;EÍ&#x2DC;Ć&#x2030;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x2022;ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC;tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC;Ď­ĎąDÄ&#x201A;Ç&#x2021;ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ&#x2DC;

9

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ø63$5.SURMHFWV

10  DdZKWK>/dE 'KsZEEÍ&#x2DC;Í&#x; hĹśĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161; Ĺ?Ć&#x;Ä&#x17E;Ć? Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161; >Ĺ˝-­â&#x20AC;? Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻ 'Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ć? Ĺ?Ć&#x;Ä Ć? Ć&#x161; 'ŽƾÇ&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĹśÄ&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ć? >Ĺ˝Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĆľÇ&#x2020; hĹśĹ?Ć? Ń  Ĺ?ĆľÄ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć? z 'Ĺ˝Ä?Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;ŜŽĆ? >Ĺ˝Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ć? hĹśĹ?Ä&#x161;Ĺ˝Ć?Í&#x2DC; Î&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä?Ä&#x17E;ůŽŜÄ&#x201A;Î Í&#x2014; Î&#x20AC;'>hÎ Í&#x2022; ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎ´Í&#x2DC;EÍ&#x2DC;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?Í&#x2DC;WĆ&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2DC;

11

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fective  technologies  that  increase  effectiv-­ ity.8   However,   the   entire   program   suffers   from   the   chronic   problems   of   horizontally   disintegrated  urban  investments. Firstly,  the  strategical  decision  of  build-­ ing   parking   structures   is   part   of   the   trans-­ portation   system   and   when   an   organisa-­ tion   gives   independent   decisions   about   a   part   of   the   system,   general   transportation   strategy   suffers.   Secondly,   in   order   to   be   tailored   to   the   needs   of   the   locality   their   location  should  be  decided  strategically  in   collaboration   with   the   local   municipalities   ensuring   their   integration   with   the   supply-­ GHPDQG EDODQFHV RI WKH VSHFLÂżF DUHD +RZHYHUVLQFHø63$5.LVPHUHO\IRFXVHG on  delivering  maximum  parking  areas  with   minimum  resources  as  a  result  of  its  task-­ oriented   position,   such   considerations   are   not  part  of  their  agenda.  Last  but  not  least,   the   parking   plots   are   lacking   integration   with  the  territorial  life  qualities  they  become   part  of.  In  contrast  they  are  monolith  struc-­ tures  that  fell  haphazardly  to  the  city  in  or-­ der  to  meet  numbers,  failing  to  contribute  to   the  urbanistic  qualities  of  their  surrounding. 3DUNLQJVWUXFWXUHVRIø63$5.ZDWHULQ-­ IUDVWUXFWXUHRIø6.øSXEOLFKRXVHVRI72.ø RU VSRUWV IDFLOLWLHV RI 6325 $Ăš DUH LQ fact  still  answers  to  the  questions  that  are   posed,  they  still  work  individually,  however   with   a   lot   of   missed   opportunities,   unculti-­ vated  collaborations,  lacking  the  complex-­ ity   that   characterizes   the   urban.   In   their   disintegrated   operations,   city   becomes   an   archipelago  of  isolated  solutions  which  are   adamantly  left  as  â&#x20AC;&#x153;solutionsâ&#x20AC;?  with  a  singular   agenda,  with  a  singular  mind,  uncombined. Contemporary   orgasation   of   many   states  all  around  the  world  have  the  same   characteristical  approach  based  on  secto-­ ral   decomposition   of   services.   â&#x20AC;&#x153;The   sec-­ tor   based   approach   (education,   energy,   health,   transportation)   is   still   core   policy   option   of   states   which   prevent   urban   de-­ velopment  measures  from  becoming  more   horizontal  and  territorialisedâ&#x20AC;?  is  stressed  by   WKH QRQSURÂżW RUJDQL]DWLRQ ,67(' ZKLFK aims   to   introduce   the   French   understand-­ ing  of  delivering  sustainable  urban  services   to  the  other  cities  around  the  world.92QWKH city  scale,  successful  urban  operations  are   the   ones   that   rewire   disintegrated   opera-­ tions  back  to  their  complexity.  Urban  devel-­ opments  are  where  the  city  processes  see   the  light  of  the  day  and  for  a  megacity  they   should   be   the   bedrock   of   this   integration   process. Paris  amidst  decentralization France  has  a  strongly  centralized  deci-­ sion   making   tradition   in   its   public   institu-­ tions  which  have  been  relatively  loosened   during  the  1980s  with  the  decentralization   processes.   This   created   a   culture   of   hori-­ zontal  integration  of  units  to  get  away  with   large   scale   political,   managemental   or   ur-­ EDQ SURMHFWV 7KHUHIRUH 3DULV LV D JRRG example   to   observe   how   that   system   be-­


Social  housing  developments  in  Istanbul  are  built  in  monstrous  scale  because  it  is  useful  to  canalize  energy  and  investment  in  a  concentrated  location.  The  price  of  this   VLQJXODUPHWKRGE\DVLQJXODUSXEOLFGHYLFH 72.ø LVXUEDQDUHDVRIGLVLQWHJUDWHGHQYLURQPHQWVRIPRQRVRFLDOFODVVDQGPRQROLIH

haves  on  a  megacity  and  what  are  the  les-­ sons  to  be  learned  from  it. 7KH FLW\ RI 3DULV LV JRYHUQHG E\ 3DULV Municipality   together   with   a   metropolitan   body  that  consists  of  1584  communal  gov-­ ernments.  Due  to  the  large  quantity  of  hori-­ ]RQWDOERGLHVPHWURSROLWDQ3DULVH[HPSOL-­ ¿HV D SRO\FHQWULF PRGHO ZLWK KLJK GHJUHH of   territorial   fragmentation.  As   a   result,   in   trash  collection,  water  or  sewage  and  land-­ use  planning,  inter-­governmental  arrange-­ PHQWV LQ 3DULV KDYH SUROLIHUDWHG ,Q WKHVH domains,   multiple   municipalities   often   de-­ SHQG RQ XQL¿HG FHQWUDOL]HG DJHQFLHV RU companies,  whereas  before  the  decentrali-­ zation   even   land   use   and   planning   were   FDUULHGRXWE\QDWLRQDO¿HOGRI¿FHV10 :LWKLQ WKH 3DULV 0XQLFLSDOLW\ WKH GH-­ livery   of   urban   services   is   organised   very   similarly   to   Istanbul.   Tasks   are   seperated   under  22  departments  with  topics  such  as   8UEDQ GHYHORSPHQW 'HSDUWPHQW 5RDGV and  transportation  department  and  depart-­ ment   of   housing.   Similar   to   Istanbul   Met-­ URSROLWDQ0XQLFLSDOLW\HYHU\IRXURU¿YHRI them   are   grouped   under   deputy   secretar-­ ies.   However,   the   difference   lies   on   how  

ALTHOUGH ISOLATION OF TASKS CREATE EFFECTIV-­ ITY AND GOOD SERVICES IN THEIR OWN RIGHT, THEY DONâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T NECESSARILY CREATE A GOOD CITY.

the  system   behaves   on   the   operational   level  when  they  need  to  communicate  with   each  other. ,Q&LW\RI3DULVZDQWHGWRUHGXFH the  disparities  related  to  the  reconciliation   of   time   especially   between   women   and   men   and   to   prevent   situations   in   which   people  are  excluded  from  certain  activities   and  services.  For  this  purpose  the  munici-­ SDOLW\RI3DULVVHWXSWKH7LPH2I¿FHRQWKH initiative   of   the   Mayor   Bernard   Delanoe11.   7LPH RI¿FH ZDV LQGHSHQGHQW IURP DQ\ department   and   had   a   temporary   nature   based  on  its  mission,  in  other  words,  it  was   an  external  program  which  would  exist  un-­ WLOLWFRPSOHWHVLWVPLVLRQ7KHRI¿FHKDGD simple   objective   and   it   developed   relative   policies   and   launched   programs   with   the   different  departments  of  the  municipality  to   UHDOL]H LW :KHQ ¿QDOL]HG WKH SURMHFW KDG effects   on   a   variety   of   urban   services,   for   example  parks  and  gardens  have  adopted   new   hours,   opening   hours   of   the   munici-­ pal   swimming   pools   to   individual   swim-­ mers   are   extended   in   the   evenings   eight   new  afternoon  markets  are  opened  and  so   on.This  is  how  an  initiative  with  a  clear  goal  


ADMINISTRATION

bend  the   entire   system   together,   integrat-­ ing   several   departments   to   realize   some   clear  goals  in  the  messiness  of  the  city  and   once  it  was  done,  left  the  scene.  The  pro-­ MHFW EHFDPH WKH LQWHJUDWRU DQG WKH RIÂżFH was  nothing  more  than  a  communicator. ,QDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRIWKHFLW\RI3DULVWKLV form  of  management  is  nothing  peculiar  to   WKH7LPH2IÂżFHWKDWÂśVKRZGLVDGYDQWDJHV of  division  of  labour  within  the  municipaity   are  systematically  overcome  on  the  territo-­ ry  with  an  organisational  apparatus,  name-­ ly  SEMs.  SEM  stands  for  a  mixed  economy   company  which  the  city  uses  as  an  agency   to  conduct  its  developments.They  hold  the   communeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  power  of  expropriating  land  as   well  as  keeping  the  right  to  buy  land  that  is   available  on  the  market.  The  development   agency  therefore  usually  inherits  substan-­ tial  powers  and  implementation  of  the  cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   plans  is  thus  fragmented  by  several  SEMs.   However,   poltical   control   of   them   ensures   their  ultimate  responsibility  to  the  city  coun-­ cil.  Since  1980,  the  number  of  active  SEMs   LQ )UDQFH KDV JURZQ VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ DFFRP-­ panying  the  decentralisation  trend  and  they   are  the  ones  that  strengthen  the  horizontal   character  of  the  public  administration.12,  13

Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality Organizational  Chart

Seine  Rive   Gauche:   an   exceptional   ur-­ ban  development â&#x20AC;&#x153;I  have  always  felt  that  in  order  to  build   5LYH*DXFKHOLWHUDOO\PHDQVÂłOHIWEDQN´ the   metropolis   we   needed   to   bring   the   and  refers  to  the  southern  arrondissements   stakeholders   together   around   a   shared   RI 3DULV ZKLFK DUH ERUGHULQJ WKH 6HLQH SURMHFW´ VD\V 3LHUUH 0DQVDU WKH 'HSXW\ 5LYHU7KHVLWHFRYHULQJKHFWDUHVZDV 0D\RULQFKDUJHRI3DULV0pWURSROH14  Seine   occupied   with   rail   tracks   adjacent   to   in-­ 5LYH *DXFKH LV RQH YHU\ ODUJH XUEDQ RS-­ dustrial   land   efectively   turning   the   area   to   HUDWLRQLQ3DULVZKHUHWKLVXQGHUVWDQGLQJLV an  impenetrable  barrier  between  the  local   H[HPSOLÂżHG,WLVWKHODUJHVWXUEDQUHQHZDO residents  and  the  waterfront.  This  was  the   project  since  the  time  of  Haussmannâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  and   state  of  affairs  in  the  land  when  the  city  of   an   illustration   of   the   bene-­ 3DULV HPEDUNHG D SEM   to   ÂżWV RI LQWHJUDWLRQ SULPDULO\ â&#x20AC;&#x153;I HAVE ALWAYS FELT THAT be  used  as  a  development   in   terms   of   organisational   IN ORDER TO BUILD THE vehicle:   6(0$3$ 6(0$-­ elements  and  then  of  phys-­ 3$ VWDQG IRU Âł3DULVLDQ GH-­ ical   elements   to   deliver   an   METROPOLIS WE NEEDED velopment,   project   owner-­ environment  which  has  the   TO BRING THE STAKEHOLD-­ ship  and  studies  companyâ&#x20AC;?   qualities   of   urbanity.   It   is   ERS TOGETHER AROUND A and  is  founded  in  conjunc-­ noteworthy  that  this  project   tion   with   the   national   train   is   an   exceptional   case   in   SHARED PROJECT.â&#x20AC;? company   SNCF   together   -­ PIERRE MANSAR with  the  contribution  of  var-­ XUEDQ RSHUDWLRQV RI 3DULV that   has   never   been   managed   in   a   very   ious  other  public  players.16  The  chairman  of   long  time  in  cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  history15  and  it  is  no  coin-­ 6(0$3$ LV -pU{PH &RXPHW ZKR LV DOVR cidence  that  the  foundations  of  the  project   the   mayor   of   the   13th   arrondissement.17   have  been  set  in  1985  after  the  decentrali-­ 6(0$3$   now   has   an   exclusively   public   sation   of   France.   Therefore   it   is   a   useful   shareholding  structure  which  breaks  down   example  to  learn  from  not  just  for  Istanbul   DVIROORZV3DULVPXQLFLSDOLW\'HSDUW-­ and  other  megacities  as  such,  but  even  for   PHQW RI 3DULV  DQG ,OHGH)UDQFH UH-­ 3DULVLWVHOI JLRQ,QGHHGMXVWOLNHWKH7LPH3URMHFW

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15   ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152; Ä&#x201A;ĹľÄ?Ĺ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ Ĺ?Ć? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Ć&#x;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161; Ä?Ç&#x2021; ^Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;ĹŹĹ˝Ç&#x152;Ç&#x2021; Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;ĹľĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜ ƾŜÄ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x;Ć&#x161;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;ŽĨGrand  ParisĹ?ŜώϏϏϳÍ&#x2DC;dĹ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;ĹŻÄ&#x201A;ĹśĹ?Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹľÄ&#x17E;Ĺ?Ä&#x201A;Ä?-­â&#x20AC;? Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ć?Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻĹ˝Ć&#x2030;ĹľÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x152;ŽŊÄ&#x17E;Ä?Ć&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹŹÄ&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;ĹśĆ?Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜ Ć?Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x17E; Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝ Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ć? Ä?Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E; Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161; Ć?ĆľĹ?Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ć? ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ĺś Ĺ?ĹśÇ&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;ĹľÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161; Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;ŽƾŜÄ&#x161; Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ĺ?ŜĨĆ&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;ĆľÄ?Ć&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;,Ĺ˝Ç Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆ&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä?ƾůÄ&#x17E;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?ĹśÄ&#x161; Ĺ?Ć&#x161; Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E; ŜŽĆ&#x161; Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x161; Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x17E;Ĺś Ä?ŽžÄ&#x17E; Ä?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ĺś Ä?Ç&#x2021; ÄŽĹśÄ&#x161;Ĺ?ĹśĹ? Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E; Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2039;ĆľÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E; Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x2030; ŽĨ Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ć? Ĺ?Ĺś Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152; Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝ Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ç&#x152;Ä&#x17E; Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161; Ä&#x201A; ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E; Ä&#x201A;ĹľÄ?Ĺ?-­â&#x20AC;? Ć&#x;ŽŜÍ&#x2DC; /Ĩ Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ç&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2022; Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć? Ç Ĺ˝ĆľĹŻÄ&#x161; Ä?Ä&#x17E; Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E; ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161; ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ĺś Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨWÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ć?Í&#x203A;Ć?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ç&#x2021;Í&#x2DC;

16  Í&#x17E;^DW Ä&#x17E;Ä?ŽžÄ&#x17E;Ć? Ä&#x201A;Ĺś ^W>Í&#x2DC;Í&#x; ^DWÍ&#x2DC;ĨĆ&#x152;Í&#x2DC; ^DWÍ&#x2022; ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC; Ä&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC;ĎŽĎłDÄ&#x201A;Ç&#x2021;ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ&#x2DC;Ń&#x201E;Ĺ&#x161;ĆŠĆ&#x2030;Í&#x2014;ÍŹÍŹÄ&#x17E;ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ć?Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Í&#x2DC;ĨĆ&#x152;ÍŹÄ?Ć&#x161;ĆľÄ&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć?ÍŹ^DWͲ Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ä?ŽžÄ&#x17E;Ć?ͲÄ&#x201A;ŜͲ^W>Ń&#x2026;Í&#x2DC;

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18 ^Ć&#x;žžůÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ͳ,Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹŻÍ&#x2022;,Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x17E;ZĹ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;'Ä&#x201A;ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ZÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÍ&#x2DC;Í&#x;hĹśĹ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć?Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021; ŽĨ Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í&#x2022; ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC; tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC; Ń&#x201E;Ĺ&#x161;ĆŠĆ&#x2030;Í&#x2014;ÍŹÍŹÄ?Ä&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ć?Í&#x2DC;ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í&#x2DC;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;ƾ͏ Ć?Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć?ÍŹÄ?Ä&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ć?Í&#x2DC;ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í&#x2DC;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;ƾ͏ĨĹ?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ć?ÍŹĆľĆ&#x2030;ĹŻĹ˝Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;Ć?ÍŹĆ&#x2030;Ä&#x161;Ĩ͏WÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ć?-­â&#x20AC;? ZĹ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;'Ä&#x201A;ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x161;ĨŃ&#x2026;Í&#x2DC;

public  stakeholders  to  make  it  happen.  The   organizational  integration  between  the  city   RI3DULVDQG6(0$3$  to  coordinate  and  al-­ lign  each  stake  holdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;  contribution  to  the   necessary  level  is  key  to  meet  its  ambition.   Therefore,  the  project  and  the  physicality  it   creates   on   the   land   is   also   an   integrated,   complex   physicality   in   an   array   of   scales,   which  breaks  down  as  following: Firstly,   the   project   is   integrated   to   the   larger  objectives  of  the  city  council.  Domi-­ QDWHG E\ RIÂżFH GHYHORSPHQW WKH SURMHFW UHĂ&#x20AC;HFWVWKHRULJLQDOGHVLUHRIWKHFLW\FRXQ-­ cil   to   manage   the   market   but   also   more   recent  objective  of  extending  the  commer-­ FLDOFHQWHURI3DULVLQRUGHUWRNHHSWKHFLW\ competitive  with  its  European  rivals.  This  is   GXHWRWKHSROLWLFDOFRQWURORIWKHFLW\RI3DU-­ is  over  6(0$3$  to  coordinate  the  project   with  the  general  strategy  of  the  city.   Secondly,   development   incorporates   a   new   public   transport   exchange   linking   metro   and   5pVHDX ([SUHVV 5pJLRQDO   ser-­ vices.   The   projects   are   programmed   in   the  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Contrat  de  planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;  for  Ile-­de-­France,  the   UHJLRQWKDW3DULVLVSDUWRI7KDWKDVEHHQ possible  because  SNCF  is  also  one  of  the   stakeholders   of   the   project   therefore   the   project   naturally   becomes   part   of   the   city   transportation   system.   This   ensures   that   development  is  integrated  to  the  rest  of  the   this  is  also  a  project  that  is  not  developed   city  as  opposed  to  the  counterpart  develop-­ by  any  single  department  of  the  municipal-­ ments   in   other   metropols   such   as   Canary   ity  but  an  external  program  that  acts  as  a   Wharf  in  London  or  Maslak  district  in  Istan-­ platform  for  the  departments  to  collaborate   bul  where  the  development  was  prior  to  the   and   integrate   their   actions   to   each   other   infrastructure   and   therefore   disintegrated   ZLWKWKHDLPRIEHWWHUPHQWRI6HLQH5LYHU from   the   transportation   system   of   the   city   With  this  clear  objective  in  mind,  6(0$3$   and  therefore  the  city  itself. organsed  a  design  competition  to  imagine   Thirdly,  the  project  is  an  integration  of  a   the  future  of  this  territory  and  as  a  result  six   variety  of  uses  for  a  variety  of  citizens.  The   architects   were   selected,   program   of   the   develop-­ each   one   with   their   part   IN ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHQW LQFOXGHV RIÂżFH VSDF-­ in   the   larger   development   CITY OF PARIS, DISADVAN-­ es,   schools,   parks,   library,   site.   The   value   of   the   pro-­ TAGES OF DIVISION OF LA-­ movie  complex  and  a  vari-­ ject   lies   on   its   calibration   ety  of  housing  for  a  variety   BOUR ARE SYSTEMATICALLY of   income   groups.   The   di-­ to   potentially   have   a   posi-­ tive  effect  on  the  city  over-­ OVERCOME ON THE TERRITO-­ versity  of  elements  creates   all   and   developement   with   RY BY AN ORGANIZATIONAL a   concentrated   multiplicity   horizontal   care,   adding   in   APPRATUS NAMED â&#x20AC;&#x153;SEMâ&#x20AC;?. that   ensures   an   urban   life   much   of   Franceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   best   ur-­ as  the  continuation  of  con-­ ban  thinking. WHPSRUDU\3DULVOLIH Lastly,  the  project  is  integrated  with  the   From  organisational   close  surroundings  that  it  takes  part  of  on   integrity  to  physical  integrity the   architectural   scale.  This   has   been   en-­ $UFKLWHFWVPDNHWKHGHÂżQLWLRQRIWKHXU-­ sured  with  the  careful  calibration  of  public   ban  operation  and  then  it  is  the  project  it-­ and   private   use   of   spaces   to   make   sure   self  that  becomes  the  ambition  of  6(0$3$   that  the  buildings  do  not  hamper  the  broad-­ to  realize.  Its  role  is  to  mediate  a  variety  of   er  functioning  of  the  city  and  an  advantage  


ADMINISTRATION

Âľ$NDV\D$FĂ&#x2022;EDGHPÂśLVDPL[HGXVHSULYDWHGHYHORSPHQWEXLOWRQDPDVVLYHP2  site  in  Istanbul.   ,WLVRQHRIWKHPDQ\ODUJHVFDOHSULYDWHGHYHORSPHQWVWKDWDUHFDOOHGJDWHGFRPPXQLWLHV$OWKRXJKDVPDOOKLQWRIWKHEHQHÂżWVRILQWHJUDWLRQKDVEHHQVKRZQE\FROODERUDW-­ LQJZLWKWKHORFDOPXQLFLSDOLW\WRGHYHORSLWDVSDUWRIWKHQHZVXEZD\V\VWHPWKHSURMHFWVXEVWDQWLDOO\PDQLIHVWVLWHOIRQKRZLWLVLVRODWHGIURPWKHUHVWIRUEHWWHUPHQWRILWV interiority.

was  the   projects   were   not   bound   to   the   DUWLÂżFDOERUGHUVRIWKHDUURQGLVVHPHQWVRU any   other   administrative   bodies   to   hinter   WRWDOLW\RIWKHXUEDQUHODWLRQVKLSV2QHH[-­ DPSOH RI WKLV DWWLWXGH LV Âľ'RFNV GH 3DULVÂś one  of  the  signature  projects  of  the  devel-­ opment   by   architects   Jakob+Macfarklane   Sarl   Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;architecture.   It   is   a   transformation   project   of   former   waterfront   warehouse-­ W\SH EXLOGLQJ 2QH RI WKH FKDOOHQJHV IRU the  architects  was  to  make  the  building  not   only   accessible   to   the   public   but   also   as   welcoming   as   any   other   waterfront   prom-­

HQDGHLQ3DULV7RWKLVHQGGHVLJQVHQVLEO\ ¿WV LQ EUHH]HZD\V WKDW SDVV WKURXJK WKH ground  level,   along   with   the   exterior   stair-­ cases   that   allow   people   to   circulate   freely   with  an  access  to  riverside  terrace  and  the   rooftop   garden.18   These   arrangements   of   the   public   circulations   with   the   integration   of  public  spaces  to  the  project  renders  it  a   part  of  its  close  surrounding.  These  consid-­ erations   are   repeated   on   each   project   by   their  architects  as  part  of  the  larger  agenda   of   6(0$3$   and   the   jurors   who   evaluate   the  projects.

In  Istanbul  as  well  as  other  megacities,   economies   of   scale   dictate   its   own   rules,   resulting  in  the  city  as  an  agglomeration  of   island  developments.  The  only  considerate   way   to   deal   with   these   pressures   is   hori-­ zontal  cooperation  of  units  who  has  territo-­ rial  understanding  of  their  problems.   This  administrative  understanding  is  not   unique  to  managing  megacities  but  manag-­ ing  any  large  scale  organisation,  because   as   the   problems   get   larger,   branching   the   solutions   emerges   naturally.   States   them-­ selves  are  about  divaricating  problems  and  

Official  logos  of  the  ministeries  of  Turkey


7KHDUHDPDVWHUSODQQHGE\&KULVWLDQGH3RUW]DPSDUFDVSDUWRIWKHODUJHU6HLQH5LYH*DXFKH'HYHORSPHQW 7KHDUHDLQYROYHVDYDULHW\RIXVHVZLWKDYDULHW\RIEXLOGLQJW\SHV7KHSURMHFWVXEVWDQWLDOO\PDQLIHVWVLWVHOIRQKRZLWLQWHJUDWHVZLWKWKHUHVWRIWKHFLW\IRUEHWWHUPHQWRIWKH environment  overall.

approaching  them   part   by   part.  This   is   an   LQHYLWDEOHUHĂ&#x20AC;H[ Accepting   this   phenomenon   as   a   ten-­ dency   and   overcoming   its   disadvantages   should   be   in   the   agenda   for   Istanbul   be-­ cause   complexity   and   integration   are   cor-­ related  concepts  for  a  megacity.  In  order  to   create   integrated   urban   operations,   com-­ plexity   of   considerations   is   necessary.   To   make  sure  that  the  complexity  of  demands   are   realized   on   site,   integration   of   diverse   VWDNHKROGHUV LV QHFHVVDU\ 2QO\ WKHQ DQ urban   operation   can   respond   to   a   variety  

Official  logos  of  the  Ministeries  of  the  Netherlands

of  agendas  and  incorporate  the  complexity   that  is  required  to  create  lively  and  diverse   urban   environments.   It   is   no   less   than   a   crucial   agenda   for   Istanbul   to   cultivate   its   messiness  into  a  fruitful  complexity  and  or-­ ganize  its  sprawl  in  integrity  and  balance. However,   to   realize   this,   all   the   depart-­ ments  of  the  city  need  to  get  familiar  with   the   politics   of   mutuality   and   understand   the  rules  of  integrating  their  singular  agen-­ das   to   each   other.   This   means   sitting   on   the   same   table   and   looking   for   potentials   in   each   otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   aspirations.   This   is   where  

a  quantitative   understanding   of   the   world   is  no  longer  valid  per  se,  but  qualities  also   become   part   of   the   agenda.   In   a   situation   where   they   only   integrate   their   operations   numerically,  politics  of  integration  is  not  at   stake,   since   politics   is   also   about   values.   7KDW LV ZK\ WKLV DSSURDFK FDQ RQO\ ÂżQG its   meaning   when   those   qualities   are   also   becomes  part  of  the  discussions,  replacing   their  indicators  of  success  with  not  just  how   they   do   numerically   but   also   qualitatively.   Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  why  it  is  an  equally  important  matter   of  how  they  are  â&#x20AC;&#x153;Measuring  Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x153;.  

Sources:  Ministeriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;  Websites


Numbers translated   to   buildings   The   de-­ velopments   of   Mass   Housing   Administration   of   Turkey   are   covering   vast   territories   in   Istanbul   outskirts   with   an   aesthetic   of   programmatic   dia-­ grams.The   reasons   are   simple:   quickly   and   effi-­ ciently  responding  to  the  housing  demands.

16


MANAGEMENT

MEASURING ISTANBUL 3XEOLFLQYHVWPHQWVRI,VWDQEXODUHPDGHZLWK quantitative concerns  with  a  singular  agenda.   Qualitative  management  models  can  be  a   guide  for  city  authorities  to  transform  their   measure  of  success  and  create  sustainable   urban  qualities.


MANAGEMENT

3URMHFWIRU<HQLNDSĂ&#x2022;7UDQVIHUSRLQWGHYHORSHGE\,VWDQEXO0HWURSROLWDQ0XQLFLSDOLW\LVPDQLIHVWHGRQRQHVLQJOHTXDOLW\DELOLW\WRKRVWSHRSOH

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2: '2 :( 0($685( success  for   our   cities?   What   is   the   vocabulary   that   we   adopt   when   talk-­ ing   about   our   physical   environments   and   what   is   our   ref-­ erence  points  to  assess  their  quali-­ ties?   The  language  of  the  measure  of   success  tells  a  lot  about  the  mind-­ set  and  the  culture  of  an  organiza-­ tion,  therefore  decisive  on  its  value   creation.   However,   seldom   it   is   questioned   and   time   invested   in   it   in  order  to  think  of  its  purposes  and   validate  its  relevance.   72.ø LV WKH PDVV KRXVLQJ DG-­ ministration  of  Turkey,  a  significant   portion   of   its   operations   are   con-­ centrated  in  Istanbul.  The  cover  of   housing   applications   brief   booklet   WKDWLVSURGXFHGE\72.øPDQLIHVWV WKH JRDO RI 72.ø DV ³ housing  units  by  the  year  2023,  the   KXQGUHGWK DQQLYHUVDU\ RI WKH 5H-­

public.â&#x20AC;?  Short   term   plans   include   152.486   housing   units   for   the   low   income   group   and   45.293   houses   for   revenue   sharing   programs.   Construction   of   30.218   housing   units  started  simoultaneously  in  64   regions   and   protocols   have   been   signed   with   132   municipalities   for   113.072  houses  within  the  scope  of   urban  renovation. 1 In   this   tyranny   of   numbers   one   question   prevails:   what   does   it   all   mean?   Numbers   themselves   are   mean-­ ingless,   we   can   not   associate   with   them   since   we   do   not   have   refer-­ ence   points   to   judge   them,   put   another   way,   we   are   unable   to   translate   them   from   quantities   to   qualities. 2 2SHUDWLRQV RI 72.ø DQG many   other   public   authorities   of   Istanbul   are   very   quantity   based,   amounts   and   effectivity   are   the   domineering  concepts  and  success   is  measured  by  numbers.  

1

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2

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In  f act,  i t  i s  s eldom  t hat  o nly  n um-­ bers   can   measure   true   success.   Numbers   gain   meaning   as   long   as   they  serve  to  solve  a  certain  quali-­ tiative   issue   and   for   public   organi-­ zations   that   deal   with   the   city,   it   is   those  intangible  assets  that  play  a   central   role   in   value   creation.   The   assets   that   can   be   articulated   by   words  rather  than  numbers. This   does   not   mean   that   city   authorities   in   Istanbul   donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t   have   values   and   visions.   Istanbul   Met-­ ropolitan   Municipality   (IBB)   for-­ mulated   its   vision   as   â&#x20AC;&#x153;The   leading   and   pioneering   municipality   which   makes   Istanbul,   the   apparent   face   and   opening   gate   of   Turkey   to   the   world,   a   sustainable   city   with   a   high   quality   of   life   by   patronizing   its   unique   heritage.â&#x20AC;? 2   This   as   well   as   all   the   visions   indicates   long-­ term   goals   of   the   city,   underlin-­ ing   the   values   of   the   organization   and   they   do   so   by   formulating   in-­ tangible   goals   in   order   to   deliver   sustainable,   long-­term   qualities.   Numerical   goals   respond   to   the   basic   demands   such   as   the   num-­ ber   of   social   housing   needed   or   the   length   of   water   infrastructure   required.  In  contrast,  intangible  as-­ sets  produce  value  through  chains   of   cause-­and-­effect   relationships   involving  two  or  three  intermediate   stages.   For   instance,   the   ambition   in   the   vision   â&#x20AC;&#x153;opening   gate   of   Tur-­ key   to   the   worldâ&#x20AC;?   is   a   qualitiative  

figure  that   implicitly   assumes   that   being  an  opening  gate  to  the  world   will   strengthen   the   global   signifi-­ cance  of  the  city,  which  will  attract   international   attention   via   events   VXFKDV2O\PSLFVRUJOREDOLQYHVW-­ ments   and   that   in   turn   contribute   to  the  social  diversity  of  the  city  as   well   as   providing   economical   ro-­ bustness  to  deliver  better  services   to  the  citizens. However   the   problems   arise   when   qualitative   intangible   mean-­ ings   of   the   vision   are   translated   to   the  actions  to  realize  them  together   with   the   short-­term   goals.   In   other   words,   the   vital   issue   is   how   one   manages   his   resources   in   order   to   realize  his  intentions. 3   IBB   and   all   the   other   public   and   private   agencies   that   take   part   of   the   management   of   Istanbul   suf-­ fer   from   reducing   their   visionary   ambitions   to   mere   numbers   when   translating   them   into   actions.   IBB   as   well   as   all   the   local   municipali-­ ties   that   take   part   in   city   creation   has   the   same   strategic   manage-­ ment  plan  that  involves  4  layers  of   information   that   determines   how   they   function.   First   of   these   layers   is  the  vision  statement  of  the  insti-­ tute.   This   is   usually   formulated   as   a  paragraph  that  communicates  the   largest   values   and   aspirations   of   the  institute  as  a  whole.  It  is  placed   in   the   center   of   the   strategy   while   the  rest  of  the  3  layers  are  devised  

from  it  sequentially  and  they  are  re-­ spectively   named   strategic   goals,   strategic   objectives   and   actions.   Strategy   is   generally   a   branching   process  originating  from  the  vision   statement   and   ending   with   actions   that  are  controlled  by  numerical  in-­ dicators  of  success  and  linked  to  a   directorate   under   the   organization   to   execute   it.   In   short,   in   an   ideal   situation   where   each   directorate   meets   their   numerical   tasks   that   are   put   in   front   of   them,   the   ide-­ als   of   the   organization   supposed   to   be   realized   naturally.   However,   that  is  not  how  things  work  out.  By   only   meeting   numerical   goals,   an   organization   can   realize   its   short-­ term   objectives   that   have   direct   consequences   but   not   the   long-­ term   objectives   with   indirect   con-­ sequences.   The   reason   is,   visions   are  qualitative  matters  that  can  not   be   captured   by   numbers   and   this   strategy   falls   short   of   translating   them  into  meaningful  actions. In   his   book   â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;0DQDJHPHQW LQ  Wordsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;   Sir   Terry   Leahy   emphasiz-­ es   the   importance   and   difficulty   of   balancing  short-­term  and  long-­term   plans  for  institutions:  â&#x20AC;&#x153;To  do  some-­ thing   to   plug   a   short   term   need,   to   get   through   a   week   or   a   month   throws  a  company  off  balance  and   postpone   the   long   term   goals   to   next   time.   The   next   time   comes,   the   pressures   are   still   the   same   and   another   short   term   solution   is  

6RXUFHV0XQLFLSDOLW\6WUDWHJLF3ODQV Hurriyet  News


MANAGEMENT chosen(...)  For  many  organizations   setting   long-­term   goals   may   seem   as   something   of   a   luxury   as   they   are   constantly   under   pressures   to   deliver  the  short  term.â&#x20AC;? 5   This   situation   is   very   similar   to   WKH RQH RI 72.ø %HLQJ RQH RI WKH significant   players   amongst   the   SXEOLFDXWKRULWLHVLQ,VWDQEXO72.ø is   proactively   building   the   city.   However,   their   developments   all   around   the   city   are   an   example   of   the  chronicle  short-­term  thinking  in   the  p ublic  d omain.  T here  i s  a  s trong   pressure   for   cheap   housing   by   re-­ newing  the  existing  housing  stock,   which  is  under  threat  of  destruction   in   case   of   an   earthquake.   These   are   very   serious   pressures   that   72.øLVGHDOLQJZLWKDQGVKRXOGQRW be  underestimated.  In  that  respect,   72.ø LV DJUHVVLYHO\ DFTXLULQJ ODQG and   building   large   quantities   of   housing   for   the   minimum   cost   as   well   as   being   stakeholder   in   vari-­

Happiness  is  a  warm  gun   7ZRRI72.øRIIL-­ FLDOVVHHPLQJYHU\FRQWHQWDERXWKRZWKH\GHDO ZLWKPHJDFLW\SUHVVXUHV

THE VITAL ISSUE FOR CITY CREATION IS HOW ONE MANAGES HIS RESOURCES IN ORDER TO REALIZE HIS INTENTIONS.

ous  upper-­class   housing   projects   in  order  to  finance  itself.  Added  on   top   of   each   other,   that   becomes   a   significant   portion   of   the   new   de-­ velopments   of   Istanbul.   With   this   VWUDWHJ\72.øLVUHVSRQGLQJWRWKH short-­term   pressures   successfully   by   numerically   doing   an   excep-­ tional   job   of   producing   large   num-­ bers   of   housing   for   the   minimum   resources.   However,   lack   of   long-­ term  strategy  which  might  have  in-­ cluded   qualitative   considerations   such   as   pursuing   integration   with   the   rest   of   city   operations,   pursu-­ ing   a   social   agenda,   is   justified   by   the  enormity  of  the  pressures 6  and   at   the   current   conditions   it   is   seen   as  a  luxury,  however  when  the  next   time  comes,  pressures  are  still  go-­ ing   to   be   there   and   another   short-­ term   solution   will   be   chosen,   only   to  be  invalid  again.   During   our   interview   with   the   head   of   Toki   Istanbul   Implementa-­

tion  Directorate   Niyazi   Ă&#x2013;zdemir,   he   shared   his   observation   that   the   concept  of  an  â&#x20AC;&#x153;old  buildingâ&#x20AC;?  in  Am-­ sterdam   is   100   years   old   whereas   it   is   30   years   old   in   Istanbul.   He   then   shared   that   his   prediction   for   WKHOLIHVSDQRI72.øGHYHORSPHQWV that   he   is   a   part   of   is   50   years 7.   However,   to   make   a   more   credible   prediction,   they   can   be   compared   to   similar   examples   from   the   past.   In  France,  during  1950s  and  1960s   large  social  housing  developments   were   built,   namely   Grands   En-­ sembles 9HU\ VLPLODU WR 72.ø GH-­ velopments,   these   social   housing   projects  were  built  under  high  pres-­ sure   of   the   post-­war   period.   They   were  massive  in  size  and  built  with  

5

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6

WĆ&#x152;Ĺ?ĹľÄ&#x17E;DĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŽĨhĹśĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;<Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Ä&#x161;ŽžÍ&#x2022;Ä&#x201A;Ç&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ä&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹľÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŽŜÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?ĆľÄ&#x17E;Ć? Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161; ĹľÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć?ĆľĆ&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĹ? Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161; Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĨŽĆ&#x152;ĹľÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E; Ä?Ç&#x2021; Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ˝Ç  žƾÄ?Ĺ&#x161; žŽŜÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x2021; Ç&#x2021;Žƾ Ć?Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÄ&#x161; ŽŜ Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E; Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ç&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ć? Ĺ?Ć? Ç Ć&#x152;ŽŜĹ? Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻ Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ŝŏ-­â&#x20AC;? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Í&#x2022;Ä?ĆľĆ&#x161;Ĺ?ĨÇ&#x2021;ŽƾĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?ŜŏÄ&#x201A;Ä?ŽƾĆ&#x161;Ĺ˝Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Ć?Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝Ç Ä&#x17E;ĹŻĹŻÄ?Ä&#x17E;-­â&#x20AC;? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Í&#x2022;Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć?Ä?ŽžžƾŜĹ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Í&#x2022;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆľÄ&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÇ&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ć&#x152;ŽŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2022;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E; žƾÄ?Ĺ&#x161;žŽĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;ƾŜĹ?Ć&#x;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝Ä?ƾůĆ&#x;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;,Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?ĆľÄ&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161; Ĺ?ĨÇ Ä&#x17E;Ä?ŽžÄ?Ĺ?ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?ĹŹĹ?ĹśÄ&#x161;ŽĨĆ&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?ŜŏĹ?ĹśĹ?Ç Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĹśĆ? ŽĨ Ĺ?ŜĨŽĆ&#x152;ĹľÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜ Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;ŽůƾĆ&#x;ŽŜ Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161; Ĺ?Ć? Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹŹĹ?ĹśĹ? Ć&#x2030;ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ä?Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2022;  Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E; Ĺ?Ć? Ä&#x201A;Ĺś Ĺ?ĹśÄ?Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?Ä?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;ƾŜĹ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x201A;ĹŹÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;ĆľÄ?ĹŻĹ?Ä?Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ç&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x201A;ĹŹÄ&#x17E; Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĹśÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;&Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x2020;Ä&#x201A;ĹľĆ&#x2030;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;ŽĨĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x17E; Í&#x161;DÄ&#x17E;Ĺ?Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ͳ&Ĺ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜÍ&#x2022;  DÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ĺś 'Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĹśÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E;Í&#x203A; Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152; ŽĨ Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ä?ŽŽŏÍ&#x2DC;

7

/ĹśÄ&#x201A;ŜŽĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ç&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ç Í&#x2022;Ç Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÇ Ä&#x17E;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć?ĹŹÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ä?ŽƾĆ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻĹ?ĨÄ&#x17E;Ͳ Ć?Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x2020;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ?Ç&#x2021;ŽĨĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ç ĨŽŽÄ&#x161;Ç Ĺ&#x161;ŽůÄ&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻĹ˝Ć&#x2030;-­â&#x20AC;? ĹľÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161; Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝ Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ć? Ä?ŽžžĹ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć?Í&#x2022; Ç Ä&#x17E; Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E; Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ĺ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161; Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E; Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹľÄ&#x17E; Ä&#x201A;Ĺś-­â&#x20AC;? Ć?Ç Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Í&#x2014;ϹϏÇ&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ć?Í&#x2DC;


72.ø LV RQH VLJQLILFDQW FDVH RI how  Istanbul   is   managed,   but   not   the   only   actor.   In   Istanbul,   there   are   several   urban   actors:   national   government   based   Minister   of   En-­ vironment   and   Urbanism,   Istanbul   Metropolitan   Municipality   and   its   VXEVLGLDU\ FRPSDQLHV 72.ø DQG Local   Municipalities,   all   have   au-­ thorities   of   varying   forms   on   the   land   and   together   they   form   an   unarranged  entity  that  is  when  ob-­ served   overall   has   a   quantitative   strategy  for  city  creation  and  prob-­ lems  of  this  strategy  applies  to  the   entire   entity.   In   other   words,   what   ZHREVHUYHLQ72.øDSSOLHVWRWKH entire  system. 6HYHUDO \HDUV DJR 5REHUW .D-­ plan   and   David   Norton   adressed   this   not   very   unique   management   challenge   with   the   strategic   man-­ agement   system   they   have   devel-­ oped:   Balanced   Scorecard.   They   have  developed  it  for  organizations  

IN AN IDEAL SITUATION WHERE EACH DIRECTORATE MEETS THEIR NUMERICAL TASKS THAT ARE PUT IN FRONT OF THEM, THE IDEALS OF THE ORGANIZATION SUPPOSED TO BE REALIZED NAT-­ URALLY. HOWEVER, THAT IS NOT HOW THINGS WORK OUT.

8

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9

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10 /ĹśĨÄ&#x201A;Ä?Ć&#x161;Í&#x2022;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä?ƾůĆ&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ŽĨÍ&#x17E;ĹŠĆľĆ&#x152;Ç&#x2021;Í&#x17E;Ĺ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ć&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹľĹ?Ä&#x201A; Ĺ?Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x2030;ĹŻĹ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜŽĨĆ&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ä?ƾůĆ&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;/ĹśÄ&#x201A;ĹŠĆľĆ&#x152;Ç&#x2021;Ĺ?Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ä?ĆľĆ?Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2022; Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆľÄ&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆ?Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC;dĹ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x17E;ĹśÇ&#x20AC;Ĺ?-­â&#x20AC;? Ć&#x152;ŽŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Ç Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ĺ?Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśĹ?ĹśĆ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśĆ?Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2039;ĆľÄ&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ä?ŽžžƾŜĹ?Ä?Ä&#x201A;-­â&#x20AC;? Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ&#x161;Ĺ˝Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆľÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ĨŽĆ&#x152;ĹľÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E;ŽĨÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ć&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĆ&#x2030;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ä&#x161;ĆľÄ?Ć&#x161;Í&#x2DC;

technical,  numerical   concerns   and   successfully  meet  those  considera-­ tions.  However,  due  to  the  lack  of  a   more   holistic   approach   to   the   city,   which   would   create   longer   lasting   values,   they   soon   became   horrific   suburbs   detached   from   the   urban   areas   and   proved   to   be   failures   in   terms  of  the  social  aspects  of  those   HQYLURQPHQWV 2QO\  \HDUV DIWHU their   erection   they   became   envi-­ ronments  in  which  no  body  wanted   to   live   anymore   and   they   started   to   be   demolished. 7   Lack   of   long-­ term   qualities   in   the   urban   devel-­ opments   and   measuring   success   merely  by  numbers  created  results   in   the   short   term   but   wasteful   in-­ vestments  in  the  long  term.

that  value   creation   is   central   to   their   operations   and   they   have   in-­ troduced   nonfinancial   and   nonnu-­ merical   metrics   for   them   to   meas-­ ure   their   success. 9   Innermost   idea   is  to  intensify  the  communication  of   ideas   within   the   organization,   re-­ placing  the  culture  of  quantities. 10 Balanced   Scorecard   is   not   one-­ size-­fits-­all  strategy,  it  is  developed   as   a   series   of   principles   for   any   type  of  public  and  private  organisa-­ tions.   Different   organizations   have   to   develop   their   own   strategies   to   apply  this  tool.  Here,  various  appli-­ cations   of   balanced   scorecard   are   discussed  as  examples  of  how  oth-­ er   organizations   developed   tech-­ niques   to   better   translate   their   vi-­ sions  to  actions.  In  three  key  steps   of  the  process,  the  principles  of  the   strategy   are   exemplified   together   with   what   would   it   possibly   mean   for  Istanbul.


MANAGEMENT

22


The Great   Reunion   Managers   of   Municipality   subsidiairiy  companies  comes  together  to  discuss   if   they   are   in   coordination   with   the   budget   plans.   Nothing   else   is   talked   about   except   for   numbers.   Then,  they  are  spread  out  once  again,  to  execute   their  tasks  totally  in  isolation  from  each  other.

23


MANAGEMENT Translating the  Vision Lofty   statements   such   as   “an   empowered   organization”,   “a   pio-­ neering   municipality”   or   “being   a   global   city”   don’t   translate   easily   into  operational  terms  that  provide   useful   guides   to   action   at   the   lo-­ cal   level.   The   authorities   who   has   to  execute  actions  to  realize  these   statements   don’t   usually   have   the   same   understandings   of   these   concepts,  let  alone  being  aware  of   them   properly.   This   is   one   of   the   challenges   in   front   of   public   and   private   enterprises   to   act   in   bal-­ ance  with  all  levels  of  its  organiza-­ tion  and  subunits. 2QHRIWKHFRPSDQLHVWKDWXVHG scorecard   encountered   a   similar   gap   while   applying   it.   The   senior   executive   group   had   reached   an   aggreement   on   the   overall   strat-­ egy:   “to   provide   superior   service   to   targeted   customers.”   However   when   formulating   the   measures   for   the   customer-­perspective   por-­ tion   of   strategy,   it   became   appar-­ ent  that  although  the  25  senior  ex-­ ecutive  agreed  on  the  words  of  the   strategy,   each   one   had   a   different   definition   of   superior   service   and   targeted  customers.9  To  have  their   balanced   scorecard   it   was   neces-­ sary  for  them  to  write  down  the  vi-­ sion   of   the   entire   organization,   its   yearly   goals   to   achieve   that,   and   its   subunits’   responsibilities.   The   exercise   of   developing   operational   measures   forced   the   managers   to   sit  on  the  table,  clarify  those  mean-­ ings  and  arrive  at  a  consensus  and   clear  understanding  of  what  the  or-­ ganization   aspires   to   be   and   how   to  reach  there. In   Istanbul,   since   it   is   a   political   entity   with   multiple   actors   there   is   a   multiplicity   of   visions   by   several   authorities.   Local   municipalities,   Metropolitan   Municipality   and   the   National   government   have   differ-­ ent   visions   and   future   expecta-­ WLRQVIURPWKHFLW\DVZHOODV72.ø and   local   municipalities.   However,   there  are  also  many  possible  com-­ mon   grounds   for   them,   “heritage”   and   “human   oriented   service”   are   two   statements   that   are   stated   by   several   authorities   frequently.   Ar-­ riving  to  some  degree  of  consensus   amongst  the  shared  values  and  fur-­ ther   clarification   of   their   meanings   are   necessary   for   the   authorities  

24


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25


MANAGEMENT

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Overdetermined,  Operations  based,  Numerical

to  have   a   more   balanced   manage-­ ment   and   coordination   amongst   the  actors  ensuring  that  they  reach   to   common   targets   and   in   balance   with  each  other.  This  would  give  at   least  a  unification  of  the  values  on   top  of  the  system  that  may  find  dif-­ ferent   physicalities   under   different   units.   For   instance,   the   fact   that   72.ø LV GHDOLQJ ZLWK VRFLDO KRXV-­ LQJZKLOHø6.øLVGHDOLQJZLWKZDWHU infrastructure   of   the   city,   is   not   an   obstacle   in   front   of   them   to   have   common   visions   such   as   better-­ ment  of  basic  services  that  are  the   rights  of  each  citizen.  After  all,  this   would  make  them  realize  that  they   are  players  of  the  same  team,  only   with  different  roles.   Business  Planning Most   organizations   have   sepa-­ rate  procedures  and  organizational  

units  for  strategic  planning  and  for   budgeting,  a s  a  r esult,  t hey  b ecome   two   different   documents   detached   from   each   other.   In   their   monthly   and   quarterly   meetings,   manag-­ ers   only   discuss   about   the   budget   because  periodic  reviews  focus  on   comparison  of  actual  and  budgeted   results  of  the  operations.  Strategic   objectives  and  therefore  long-­term,   qualitative  matters  becomes  off  the   topic  forcing  them  only  to  focus  on   short-­term  goals  that  are  numerical   evaluation   of   their   operations   and   the  finances  related  to  it. The   very   exercise   of   creating   balanced  scorecard  forces  manag-­ ers  to  integrate  their  strategic  plan-­ ning   and   budgeting   processes   to   each  other  by  adding  strategy  also   as  the  topic  of  their  meetings.  This   opens   up   the   validity   of   their   pro-­ cesses  to  discussion  regardless  of  

their  financial   alignment   with   the   EXGJHW SODQV 3XW DQRWKHU ZD\ they   are   required   to   prove   how   they   are   contributing   to   the   citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;   aspirations   on   top   of   how   they   are   doing  numerically. 2QH H[DPSOH RI LW LV D SULYDWH bank   which   was   a   composition   of   more   than   70   different   initiatives.   This   multiplicity   of   units   were   in-­ tended   to   create   a   more   competi-­ tive   institutions   but   they   were   in-­ adequately   integrated   into   the   overall  strategy.  After  building  their   balanced   scorecard,   managers   dropped   many   of   those   programs   and  consolidated  others  into  initia-­ tives   that   were   better   aligned   with   the  companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  strategic  objectives.   If  they  were  only  talking  about  num-­ bers,   they   would   have   never   real-­ ized  that  meeting  set  numbers  and   reaching  to  the  strategic  objectives  


6WUDWHJLF3ODQ%RRNOHWRI City  of  London

Introduction

The planning cycle

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Bold,  Qualitative,  Verbal

donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t  necessarily  go  hand  in  hand.   In  the  old  system  as  long  as  a  unit   does   numerically   fine,   it   would   be   there,  however  the  tone  of  the  dis-­ cussion  became  different  when  the   qualities   and   value   creation   also   became   part   of   the   discussion,   re-­ sulting   in   constantly   reorganizing   themselves   to   reach   their   shared   vision. IBB   has   29   subsidiary   compa-­ nies   on   top   of   more   than   70   indi-­ vidual   departments.   The   manager   who  is  responsible  of  their  integra-­ tion   of   the   IBB   by   financially   con-­ trolling   their   progresses   holds   the   annual   meetings   with   the   subsidi-­ ary   companies.   This   avoids   con-­ fronting   their   qualitative   produc-­ tions   to   the   overall   aspirations   the   city  because  that  is  not  part  of  the   discussion.  An   example   for   that   is   72.ø DQG .ø37$Ăš DUH HVVHQWLDOO\

responsible  of   the   same   tasks   for   the   city,   however   they   operate   in-­ dependent   from   each   other,   this   results   in   not   only   avoiding   them   to   learn   from   each   other   but   also   creates  a  fragmented  urban  devel-­ opment.  Changing  the  tones  of  the   discussion   and   linking   budgets   to   strategic   goals   is   a   must   in   order   to   reevaluate   and   rediscuss   subu-­ nits   organizations   of   the   city   but   also   to   create   sustained   qualities   for  the  city  by  pursuing  its  strategic   objectives   actively.   In   that   picture   72.øœVFRPIRUWDEOHSRVLWLRQUHO\LQJ on   the   numbers   would   be   opened   up   to   debate   and   the   meetings   would  have  a  more  qualitative  tone   thank  quantitative  one. Communicating  and  Linking The  communication  of  the  objec-­ tives  up  and  down  the  organization  

is  also  a  crucical  aspect  of  qualita-­ tive   management.   Conventionally,   the  ones  on  the  top  make  the  stra-­ tegic  plan  for  the  organization  and   determines   each   and   every   unitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   and   individualsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;   role   in   the   gen-­ eral   strategy   ensuring   their   over-­ all   unity.   Then   the   individuals   of   the   organization   are   only   informed   about   their   role,   shrinking   their   world  to  their  singular  goals.  When   a   scorecard   is   disseminated   up   and  down  the  organizational  chart,   strategy   becomes   a   tool   available   to   everyone.   Thus,   subunits   know   what   they   are   contributing   to   in   the   general   organization   and   indi-­ vidual   employees   understand   how   their  own  productivity  supports  the   overall   strategy.   That   is   an   impor-­ tant  step  to  share  the  responsibility   vertically   between   the   institutions   of   the   city   as   well   as   amongst   the  


MANAGEMENT

individuals  within  the  institutions. 2QHFRPSDQ\GHYHORSHGDWHFK-­ nique  to  empower  individuals  to  set   goals   for   themselves   what   were   consistent   with   the   organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.   It  created  a  small,  fold-­up  personal   scorecard   that   people   could   carry   in   their   pockets.   The   scorecard   contained   three   levels   of   informa-­ tion.   The   first   one   describing   the   objectives   of   the   corporate,   sec-­ ond   one   is   the   translated   ones   of   those   for   each   business   unit,   the   third   level   was   to   be   determined   by  the  individuals  themselves.  This   forced   them   to   articulate   which   of   their  own  objectives  would  be  con-­ sistent   with   the   business   unitand   corporate   objectives,   as   well   as   what   initiatives   they   would   take   to   achieve   their   objectives.   This   encourages   the   individuals   to   be   more   engaged   with   their   roles   thinking   qualitatively,   rather   than   merely  focusing  to  meet  numerical   goals  that  are  brought  top  down  by   their  superiors.   This   means   IBB   should   avoid   overly   determined   actions   to   real-­ ize   its   strategic   objectives   and   in-­ stead   focus   on   communicating   the   main   ideas   better   with   the   other   XQLWV VXFK DV 72.ø ORFDO PXQLFL-­ palities   or   subsidiary   companies,   the   ones   who   have   to   execute   them.  This  would  push  the  respon-­ sibility   downwards   in   the   organi-­ zation   and   the   units   would   take   a  

the  Bureucracy  7KHGRFXPHQWUHTXHVWLQJSHUPLVVLRQWRYLVLWWKHVWDWHRZQHGSRUW+D\GDUSDVD/LPDQĂ&#x2022; in   Istanbul   as   part   of   the   field   trip   for   this   work,   spent   a   week   in   the   administrative   bodies   of   Istanbul.   After  circulated  around  numerous  institutes,  it  was  full  of  stamps,  checks  and  signatures,  exemplifying   the  inability  of    the    higher  officials  to  give  responsibility  to  the  front-­line  officials.


more active   role   in   realizing   the   bold   objectives   of   IBB.   Instead   of   controlling  by  numerical  goals,  the   ideas  are  shared  with  them  and  the   subunits  are  let  to  figure  out  which   meaningul   actions   to   take   in   order   to  realize  these  goals. This   scenario   does   not   just   ap-­ ply   amongst   the   institutions   but   has   implications   amongst   the   in-­ dividuals   within   those   institutions.   Ankara   centered   administration   of   72.øGHWHUPLQHVWKHWDUJHWVIRU,V-­ tanbul   implementation   directorate   and   Istanbul   manager   distributes   the   tasks   within   the   directorate   to   the   relevant   individuals.   Top   down   character   of   the   decision   giving   mechanism   is   already   reflected   on   the  name  by  the  word  “implementa-­ tion”.  Decision  giving  power  is  con-­ centrated   in  Ankara   leaving   the   of   Istanbul  branch  with  some  numeri-­ cal   targets   to   meet,   unaware   of   what   he   is   contributing   in   the   long   term.     This   process   shrinks   his   worldview   to   a   numerical   and   con-­ trollable   perspective   and   avoids   him   to   think   and   act   qualitatively.   Same   applies   as   you   go   down   the   organisation,   leaving   the   front   line   officials   with   simplified   tasks   to   accomplish   during   their   working   hours,   sucking   the   creativity   and   gumption  from  their  mentality.  This   is  “the  mentality  of  an  official”  with   the   popular   saying   in   Turkey,   de-­ scribing  a  personality  who  does  his   11

/ĨƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĂŶLJĚŽƵďƚƐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĂƟďŝůŝƚLJŽĨƐƵĐŚĂŶ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŶĂƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞŵĂŶ͕ĂŵŽƌĞƌĂĚŝĐĂůĞdžƉĞƌŝ-­‐ ŵĞŶƚŽĨŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĐĂŶďĞŵŝŶĚŽƉĞŶŝŶŐ͕ƐĞĞ͞dŚĞŽƐƐ tŚŽƌĞĂŬƐůůƚŚĞZƵůĞƐ͘͟KĚĞtŝƌĞ͘E͘Ɖ͕͘Ŷ͘Ě͘tĞď͘ϭϳ:ƵŶĞ ϮϬϭϯ͘ фŚƩƉ͗ͬͬŽĚĞǁŝƌĞ͘ĐŽŵͬϱϯϴϱϵͬƚŚĞͲďŽƐƐͲǁŚŽͲďƌĞĂŬƐͲ ĂůůͲƚŚĞͲƌƵůĞƐ͘Śƚŵůх͘

job soullessly  and  half-­heartedly. However   if   these   front-­line   em-­ ployees   would   be   treated   as   in-­ dividuals   who   are   ready   to   take   initiative   and   responsibilities   by   communicating   the   wider   goals   of   the   city   rather   than   their   singular   objectives,   they   would   be   urging   for   betterment   of   their   environ-­ ments.  This  would  change  their  job   description   from   “delivering   300   cheap   housing   units   in   9   months   of  time”  to  “creating  a  livable  envi-­ ronment   for   the   economically   dis-­ advantaged   with   the   least   usage   of   resources”.   Clearly,   it   is   more   likely  for  the  second  official  to  col-­ laborate   with   an   architect   for   in-­ stance 11… Communication   within   the   or-­ ganization   is   the   key   incentive   for   long-­term,   sustained   qualities   in   the   environment   and   without   it   the   organization   as   a   whole   is   unable   to  navigate  to  the  future  and  create   sustainable   values   for   itself.   That   is  not  a  luxury  but  a  necessity. Since  it  is  the  front-­line  individu-­ als   who   are   the   ones   to   execute   the   programs   of   the   ones   of   the   top,   their   worldview   determines   the   qualities   of   their   creations.   In   other  words,  vision  statements  and   strategic  objectives  are  nothing  be-­ yond   good   intentions   unless   they   are   shared   by   the   organization   as   a  whole.  Because  the  an  organisa-­ tion  is  by  definition  is  an  entity.

Command-­order relationships   aslo  keeps  the  entity  as  a  singular   whole   but   with   losses   in   how   the   information  circulates  within  it.  The   command   and   order   relationship   engulfs  visions  because  as  you  go   further   away   from   the   administra-­ tion   to   the   management   the   goals   become   numerical,   shrinking   the   world   of   the   ones   who   execute   it   to  what  they  can  measure  and  con-­ trol.  As  the  perspective  of  individu-­ als   narrow,   they   become   detached   from  the  wider  goals  of  the  institu-­ tion   and   therefore   lack   the   actions   that   would   realize   the   visions,   the   only   asset   to   create   longer   lasting   values. However,  to  reorganise  these  re-­ lationships   between   individuals   is   not  just  a  managemental  challenge   but   also   a   cultural   one.   Because   this  is  fundamentally  not  about  the   ones   on   the   bottom   of   the   organi-­ sation  but  on  the  top.  Because  this   requires   a   different   type   of   leader-­ ship,   one   of   not   parental   protec-­ tionism  and  unproductive  authority   but  rather  one  of  trust  and  sharing   the   responsibilities.   It   requires   a   culture  of  collaboration,  rather  than   a  culture  of  “The  One  Man  Show”


CULTURE

THE ONE MAN SHOW


Decision giving  mechanisms   of  Istanbul  are  hierarchical,  the  leadership  figures  are   parental.  This  cultural  phenomenon  effectively  avoids  both   vertical  sharing  of  the  responsibilities  and  horizontal  formation   of  collaborations.  As  a  result,  The   situation  is  either  way  absolute   submission  or  infinite  conflict.   Istanbul  is  the  consequence   of  these  interactions.


CULTURE

Niyazi Özdemir General  Director  of  TOKI  Istanbul  Implementation  Directorate


A food  seller

Bayram Ali  Çakiroglu General  Manager  of  Istanbul  Food  Wholesales  Directorate


CULTURE

Erdal Gemici Haydarpasa  Port  General  Manager


Olga Sankova

Niyazi Özdemir

Onur Can  Tepe


CULTURE

Stefano Graziani

Necati Demirci Istanbul  Wholesale  Market   Deputy  Manager

Banu Özkaya Istanbul  Wholesale  Market   Foreign  Relations  Manager

Andres Lopez


A warehouse  in  Haydarpasa  Port


CULTURE


The One  Man  Show   Modernity  in  Turkey  has  been  initiated  by  a  revolutionist,  avantgarde  group  who  problematized  the  Ottoman  empire  and  its  cultural  foundations  thus  founded  the  Republic  with  strong  and  convincing  arguments  treating  the  nation  as  a  tabula  rasa  conditon. This  radical  idea  originated  in  Atatürk’s  mind  and  quickly  convinced  its  followers  and  collaborators,  eventually  the  entire  nation   has  been  reinvented  on  the  persona  of  one  man. One  can  argue  that  in  fact  there  has  never  been  any  revolution  in  terms  of  how  this  society  organized  itself;  one  man  and  his   infinite  responsibilities  for  the  people  who  made  him  that  specific  man. This  pattern  of  human  behaviour  can  be  followed  in  the  entire  nation  from  as  small  as  how  a  family  is  managed,  to  as  large  as   how  a  state  is  managed  and  all  the  rest  in  between. Captains  and  their  ships... One  should  not  confuse  it  with  a  tradition.  This  behaviour  is  not  a  tradition,  tradition  is  artificial.  Traditions  has  rules  that  some   of  them  are  counter-intuitive,  they  are  beyond  the  urges,  they  demand  adaptation  of  the  individuals  to  partly  give  away  their   impulses  and  adopt  new  behaviours. One  man  show  is  not  a  tradition,  it  is  what  any  person  with  some  leadership  skills  does  the  first.  It  is  instinctive,  addictive  and   what’s  more,  it  is  normal.   However,  the  difference  is  made  by  abnormals  who  manage  to  build  institutions  out  of  individuals,  who  manage  to  shift  the  level   of  an  organization  from  one  state  to  another  by  establishing  rules  of  interaction  rather  than  rules  of  authority.  Then  follows  the   tradition.  Tradition  is  not  the  accumulation  of  information  but  accumulation  of  wisdom  over  long  periods  of  times.  Tradition   gives  the  newcomers  a  foundation  to  built  upon  mutually  with  the  dynamism  of  the  youth  and  the  experience  of  the  old.  Then   leave  it  to  the  next  generation  when  the  time  comes.  One  man  show  is  counter  tradition. One  man  is  alone  in  his  mind,  therefore  suggestive  in  his  suppositions.  That  is  why  he  is  inspirational  and  yet,  he  makes  inevitable   mistakes.  He  is  the  control-freak.  His  responsibility  is  beyond  his  capacities  but  he  is  unable  to  cooperate,  he  can  only  operate.   His  authority  is  legitimate  but  unchallenged.  His  value  system  is  strong  but  immature.  He  lives  in  hierarchy,  treating  his  superiors     exactly  how  he  is  treated  by  his  minors,  and  he  contently  does  so.  He  constantly  and  adamantly  reproduces  the  same  pattern,  day   in  day  out. You  can  find  him  in  his  city.  You  will  see  him  designing  bridges,  building  infrastructures,  destroying  neighbourhoods.  He  constantly  mobilizes  investment  to  spread  programs  and  infrastructures  all  over  the  city.  He  has  friends  who  are  helping  to  achieve   his  best  and  meet  his  desires.  He  can  build  districts  out  of  numbers,  blocks  out  of  gecekondus  and  he  loves  doing  big  things...   He  is  obsessed  with  significance  therefore  his  actions  are  big.  He  is  the  ultimate  utopian  and  the  grand  optimist,  therefore  his  city   never  stops  developing.   He  builds,  he  destroys,  he  builds  again.   Please  don’t  be  mad  to  him,   he  only  does  what  he  knows  the  best...

39


POLITICS

CONFLICT AND CONSEN

40


SENSUS IN URBANISM WHAT MIX IS THE RIGHT MIX?

The Unbeatables   Prime  minister,  Mayor  and  Minister  of  Sports  in  a   meeting   with   the   olympics   comitee   for   the   candi-­ dacy  of  Istanbul  to  host  2020  summer  Olympics. Due   to   the   centralized   power   model   of   metropoli-­ tan   governance,   in   case   of   an   alliance   amongst   President   Erdogan   and   Mayor   Topbas   there   is   virtually   nothing   they   can   not   do   in   the   city,   but   until  when?

41


POLITICS

In 2006, Istanbul reached to its long waited master plan after years of search and expectation.

It  has   been   developed   by   a   total   of   250   people   consisting   of   plan-­ ners,   urbanists,   the   academia   and   experts  from  different  fields.  Istan-­ EXO 0HWURSROLWDQ 3ODQQLQJ ,03  conducted   the   work   which   is   a   de-­ partment   under   %ø07$Ú,   one   of   Istanbul   Metropolitan   Municipality   subsidiary   companies.   The   plan   is   regarded   by   the   mainstream   me-­ dia   as   the   main   law   of   the   city 1,   implying   its   importance   and   rigor-­ ousness.   It   used   to   be   one   of   the   critique  that  many  architects  in  the   city   enjoyed   making,   to   not   having   one   master   strategy   for   the   entire   city.   Masterplan   is   conceived   as   one   collective   answer   to   many   of   the   problems   of   the   city   such   as   gecekondus,   connectivitiy   issues   and   lack   of   green   areas.   Finally,   it   was  there.  However,  things  did  not   turn   out   as   expected;͞   same   prob-­ lems,  same  fights  are  on  the  public   debate. The   master   plan   is   sued   numer-­ ous  times  by  civil  associations  and   chamber   of   architects   and   engi-­ neers.   The   courts   suspended   the   plans   for   some   times,   investigated   the  claims  and  ultimately  revalidat-­ ed  them  over  and  over  again.  How-­ ever,  four  years  after  the  plan  saw   the   light   of   the   day,   national   gov-­ ernment   declared   its   ambitions   to   build   a   new   airport   and   a   new   city   on   the   north   of   Istanbul   and   Min-­ istery   of   Transportation   revealed   their  plans  to  build  the  third  bridge   to  cross  Bosphorus  on  the  north  of   the  second  bridge.  These  plans  are   not  just  absent  in  the  original  plan,   they  are  also  in  great  contrast  with   the   general   aims   of   it   which   can   be   summarized   as   protecting   the  

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northern  forests  through  horizontal   growth  on  east-­west  axis.     :KDWœVPRUHLQ3ULPH0LQ-­ ister   Erdogan   publicly   announced   the   details   of   his   long-­anticipated   FUD]\ SURMHFW   to   open   up   an   arti-­ ficial   sea-­level   waterway   on   the   west   of   Istanbul   and   create   a   new   city   where   it   meets   the   Black   Sea.   The  announcement  was  made  dur-­ ing   his   elections   campaign   to   give   it   a   political   legitimacy   and   Mayor  

1

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6

Í&#x17E;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;dÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x2022;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ?Í&#x2DC;Í&#x;/Ä?Ä?Í&#x2DC;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Í&#x2DC;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Í&#x2DC;7Ć?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ?ƾůĆşÇ&#x2021;ƺŏĆ&#x201D;Ä&#x17E;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?-­â&#x20AC;? Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ?Í&#x2022;ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC;tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC;ĎŽĎŹDÄ&#x201A;Ç&#x2021;ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ&#x2DC;Ń&#x201E;Ĺ&#x161;ĆŠĆ&#x2030;Í&#x2014;ÍŹÍŹÇ Ç Ç Í&#x2DC;Ĺ?Ä?Ä?Í&#x2DC;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Í&#x2DC;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;ÍŹĆ&#x161;Ć&#x152;ͲdZÍŹ ĹŹĆľĆ&#x152;ƾžĆ?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÍŹÄ&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;dÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ?ÍŹWÄ&#x201A;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ć?ÍŹÄ&#x17E;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x17E;dÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;Ä?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ?Í&#x2DC;Ä&#x201A;Ć?Ć&#x2030;Ç&#x2020;Ń&#x2026;Í&#x2DC;

.DGLU 7RSEDú ZDV WKHUH RQ WKH stage,  right   next   to   him   during   the   public   announcement.   The   project   is   clashing   with   the   master   plan   WKDW 7RSEDú KLPVHOI FRPPLVLRQHG to   develop   and   has   been   backing   proactively.   Then   why   did   he   sup-­ port  the  project?  A nd  If  the  national   government  had  such  ambitions  for   the   city,   why   there   is   not   any   clue   of  them  on  the  master  plan? The  answer  lies  at  the  metropoli-­

tan  governance   issues   behind   this   contradiction. Istanbul,   as   well   as   many   other   megacities,   has   an   exceptional   status   of   governance.   As   globali-­ sation   progresses,   urban   regions   are  emerging  as  key  players  in  the   world  economy.  T he  pursuit  of  com-­ petitiveness   in   urban   regions   has   become  a  major  local  and  national   policy   objective. 2   Therefore   a   spe-­ cial  status  of  government  started  to   emerge,   and   a   long   series   of   dis-­ appointing   experiments   have   been   made   on   metropolitan   governance   all   around   the   world.   Cities   are   managed   by   their   municipalities   whereas   megacities   are   governed   by   their   metropolitan   authorities.   Just  like  after  a  certain  scale  mac-­ ro-­economics  turn  into  politics,  be-­ cause  it  becomes  a  matter  of  world   views   and   priorities,   metropolitan   governance   is   also   a   highly   politi-­ cal   task.  Therefore,   its   actors   play   their  political  roles,  make  alliances   with  their  friends  and  confront  their   HQHPLHV 7KLV LV ZK\ 7RSEDĂş ZDV with   his   beloved   friend   Erdogan   during   the   announcement   and   he   was   not   generous   enough   to   offer   his   critical   friendship   to   him.   That   LV DOVR ZK\ ,03 DYRLGHG WKH LQ-­ terests   of   the   national   government   since   they   positioned   themselves   as  an  apolitical  institute  entitled  to   give  decisions  on  their  own  for  the   sake   of   their   scientific   independ-­ ence. 3,  4 Metropolitan   governance   is   not   apolitical,   it   is   essentially   about   balancing  the  distribution  of  power   with   keeping   the   ability   to   concen-­ trate  it  occasionally  to  deliver  lead-­ ership. 5 In  Istanbul  with  the  military  coup   on   1980,   the   municipal   structure   of   Istanbul   was   fundamentally   changed.   Villages   around   the   me-­ tropolises   with   populations   over   300,000   were   turned   into   suburbs   or   neighborhoods   and   were   united   with  metropolitan  municipalities.  In   2004  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Munici-­ palityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  jurisdiction  was  enlarged  to   cover   all   the   area   within   the   pro-­


POLITICS vincial limits   and   all   the   rights   of   making  plans  from  1/100.000  scale   till   1/1000   scale   is   concentrated   on   the   Metropolitan   Municipality,   leaving   local   municipalities   with   almost   no   authority   on   land. 6   This   was  done  to  ensure  the  unity  of  city   governance  and  deliver  the  leader-­ ship   that   was   missing.   Its   elected   mayor  has  substantial  powers  over   the  city  and  as  long  as  he  is  in  con-­ sensus   with   the   national   govern-­ ment  there  is  virtually  nothing  they   can   not   do   and   that   is   exactly   the   case  for  the  last  couple  of  years.   Although   it   is   a   very   successful   model   for   leadership   that   ensures   a  high  level  of  consensus  on  many   urbanistic   matters   and   effectively   canalize   investments   when   neces-­ sary,  it  does  not  decentralize  pow-­ er  to  include  more  actors  to  deliver   more  healthy  policies  and  urbanis-­ tic  decisions.   Improving   governance   in   met-­ ropolitan   areas   is   not   just   about   reforming   institutions   and   numeri-­ cally   performing   well,   it   is   also  

about changing  behaviours  and  the   culture   of   governance.   More   “in-­ clusive”   and   participatory   forms   of   governance  are  replacing  tradition-­ al  rule-­driven  systems.  Successful-­ ly   managing   change   in   the   culture   of  governance  requires  opening  up   the   process   to   new   players   who   have   a   legitimate   concern   about   their  “place”  in  the  urban  area.  The   actors   in   the   governance   process   now   comprise   a   more   socially   and   culturally   diverse   population,   the   business   sector,   associations,   and   all   levels   of   the   public   administra-­ tion  intervening  in  the  urban  area. 7   2QH VXFFHVVIXO PRGHO RI GHFHQ-­ tralization   of   power   in   metropoli-­ tan   governance   amongst   the   meg-­ acities  is  Seoul,  an  example  worth   having  a  look  at. ,Q 6RXWK .RUHD WKHUH DUH QLQH provinces   called   ‘do’.   Six   metro-­ politan   cities,   and   Seoul   which   is   considered   as   a   special   city.   Seoul’s   administrative   tiers   can   be   subdivided   into   ‘gu’   units   and   further   yet   into   ‘dong’   neighbor-­

7 K͕ĞĚ͘͞dŚĞZĞĨŽƌŵŽĨDĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͘͟dŚĞ KďƐĞƌǀĞƌ͕Ŷ͘Ě͘tĞď͘

8  ^ŶLJĚĞƌ͕ EŝĐŚŽůĂƐ͕ ǀĞůLJŶ ,ĞƌŶĂŶĚĞnj͕ ĂŶĚ >ŝƐĂ DĂdžǁĞůů͘ ͞DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞZĞĨŽƌŵƐ͗dŚĞĂƐĞŽĨ^ĞŽƵůDĞƚ-­‐ ƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ͘͟ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂŶĚ WŽůŝƟĐĂů^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ;ϮϬϭϮͿ͗ϭϬϳͲϮϳ͘WƌŝŶƚ͘

Deadlock The   most   prominent   opera   house   of   Istanbul   has   been   closed   for   more   than   3   years   now.   Everything   started   when   national   government  declared  plans  to  renew  the  building  as  part  of  2010  Istanbul  ‘capital  of  culture’  agenda,  the  idea  was  rejected  straight  ahead     by  the  artists  using  the  building.  Despite  all  the  efforts,  a  normalised  communication  could  not  be  estabished  and  the  building  which  was   emptied  to  be  renewed  is  neither  renewed,  nor  opened  again.  It  is  a  political  deadlock  at  the  heart  of  the  city.


Spontaneous  Urbanism  2Q D OLYH GHEDWH ZLWK 3ULPH 0LQLVWHU (UGRJDQ D ZHOO NQRZQ MRXUQDOLVW )DWLK$OWD\OL DVNHG IRU D SURPLVH WR XVHWKHODQGRI$WDW UN$LUSRUWZKLFKLVVRRQWRPRYHRXWDVDQXUEDQSDUN3ULPH0LQLVWHUVSRQWDQHRXVO\JDYHWKHSURPLVHWRKLPDQGDQ urbanistic  decision  is  given  live  on  TV  as  a  result  of  the  discussion  among  two  individuals.

9 Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ŜͲ'ŽŜÍ&#x2022;<Ĺ?ĹľÍ&#x2DC;Í&#x17E;hĆ&#x152;Ä?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;DÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśDÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;ŽĨ ^Ä&#x17E;ŽƾůÍ&#x2014;WÄ&#x201A;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;WĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x;WŽůĹ?Ä?Ç&#x2021;WĹŻÄ&#x201A;ŜŜĹ?ĹśĹ?ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĆľÍ&#x2DC;^Ä&#x17E;ŽƾůDÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;-­â&#x20AC;? Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ĺś'Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2022;ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC;tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC;

10 Í&#x17E;^Ä&#x17E;ŽƾůDÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ĺś'Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;ŜŜŽƾŜÄ?Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x161;ĹľĹ?Ĺś-­â&#x20AC;? Ĺ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x;ŽŜDÄ&#x201A;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;WĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ĺś&Ĺ˝Ä?ĆľĆ?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;ŽŜ<Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x2021;Ç Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ä&#x161;Í&#x161;WÄ&#x17E;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Í&#x203A;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x;^Ä&#x17E;ŽƾůÍ&#x2DC; Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í&#x2DC;ĹŹĆ&#x152;Í&#x2DC; ^Ä&#x17E;Žƾů DÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;ŽůĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ĺś 'Ĺ˝Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŜžÄ&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;Í&#x2022; ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC; tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC; ĎŽĎł DÄ&#x201A;Ç&#x2021; ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ&#x2DC; Ń&#x201E;Ĺ&#x161;ĆŠĆ&#x2030;Í&#x2014;ÍŹÍŹÄ&#x17E;ĹśĹ?ĹŻĹ?Ć?Ĺ&#x161;Í&#x2DC;Ć?Ä&#x17E;ŽƾůÍ&#x2DC;Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í&#x2DC;ĹŹĆ&#x152;ÍŹĹ?Ć&#x161;ĹŹÍŹĹśÄ&#x17E;Ç Ć?ÍŹĹśÄ&#x17E;Ç Ć?ÍşÇ&#x20AC;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ç Í&#x2DC; Ć&#x2030;Ĺ&#x161;Ć&#x2030;Í?Ĺ?Ä&#x161;Ç&#x2020;Ń Ď­ĎłĎŻĎąĎąŃ&#x2026;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x2DC;

hoods.  The   next   level   is   subdi-­ vided   into   â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tongsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;   Currently,   there   are   522   dongs   and   13,787   tongs. 8   That   means   the   territory   of   Seoul   is   divided   into   13,787   parts   as   the   smallest   form   of   administration,   in   contrast  to  the  39  municipalities  of   Istanbul   as   the   smallest   adminis-­ trative   unit.   Fragmentation   of   that   level  obviously  comes  with  its  par-­ ticularities  for  better  and  for  worse.   5HFRJQL]LQJ WKH ORFDO FRQFHUQV RI the   dongs   and   the   tongs,   and   in-­ corporating   them   into   the   govern-­ ance   process   was   critical   for   the   6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQDQFH Although,   this   model   involves   a   seemingly   smooth,   decentralised   form   of   governance   that   does   not   mean  things  are  without  a  problem,   in   fact   multiplicity   of   actors   at   the   same   level   increases   the   chanc-­ es   of   contradictions.   Between   the   6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQDQFH and   district   offices,   conflicts   often   arises   about   cross-­jurisdictional   public   administration.   In   order   to   overcome   those   conflicts   and   ar-­ rive   to   consensuses   government   and   district   offices,   have   regular   meetings   such   as   â&#x20AC;&#x153;Association   of  

District  mayorsâ&#x20AC;?   where   Mayor   of   Seoul   and   District   mayors   attend   quarterly,   and   â&#x20AC;&#x153;Conference   of   Dis-­ trict  Vice  Mayorsâ&#x20AC;?  where  Vice  May-­ or  of  Seoul,  department  heads  and   District   vice   mayors   attend   every   month.   Seoul   city   adopted   give-­ and-­take,   or   win-­win   strategies   to   manage   consensus.   For   instance,   6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQPHQW provides   welfare   fund,   conveni-­ ence   facilities,   and   health   care   for   residents   in   a   district,   while   resi-­ dents   consent   to   sit   incineration   plants   in   their   district. 9   This   mode   of   constant   conflict   and   consen-­ sus  creates  a  healthy  environment   and   still   large   scale   plans,   that   re-­ quire   high   level   of   leadership,   are   achieved.  An   example   is   the   mas-­ ter   plan   that   was   announced   in    Âł&LW\ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 3ODQ WR Create   Seoul   Jointly   with   Its   Citi-­ zensâ&#x20AC;?   in   which   the   city   as   a   whole   arrived   to   a   consensus   on   pursu-­ ing   five   main   goals,   namely   â&#x20AC;&#x153;wel-­ fare,  economy,  culture,  sustainable   urban   development,   and   citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   rights,â&#x20AC;?  which  will  be  backed  up  by   285  projects  in  15  fields. 10 London   on   the   other   hand   deals  


POLITICS

with things   differently.   In   1997,   a   one   example   of   this   type   of   rela-­ major   change   took   place   in   British   tionship   where   the   double   agenda   SROLWLFVZKHQWKH/DERXU3DUW\ZRQ of   national   government   and   the   the  elections  after  18  years  of  Con-­ mayor  of  London  formed  the  Olym-­ servative   rule.   This   was   to   have   a   pic   Delivery   Authority   as   the   third   major   effect   on   the   institutional   actor   to   mediate   the   differences   context   for   strategic   planning   in   on   the   basis   of   “the   project”.   It   is   London.   In   their   1997   a   non-­departmental   election   manifesto,   ALTHOUGH SEOUL AND LON-­ public  body  of  the  De-­ Tony   Blair’s   Labour   DON EXAMPLES EXHIBIT partment   for   Culture,   3DUW\ KDG LQFOXGHG REVERSE GOVERNANCE Media   and   Sport,   re-­ a   commitment   to   an   MODELS, THEY BOTH IN-­ sponsible   for   ensur-­ elected  mayor  of  Lon-­ ing   the   delivery   of   ^ĂůĞƚ͕t͘'͘D͕͘ŶĚLJdŚŽƌŶůĞLJ͕ĂŶĚŶƚŽŶ<ƌĞƵŬĞůƐ͘ CLUDE A HEALTHY DEGREE venues,  infrastructure   11͞ŚĂƉƚĞƌ don.   The   mayor   was   ϯ͕ >ŽŶĚŽŶ͗ /ŶƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŽŶĂů dƵƌďƵůĞŶĐĞ ďƵƚ Ŷ-­‐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ EĂƚŝŽŶͲƐƚĂƚĞ ŽŶƚƌŽů͘͟ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶ-­‐ conceived   as   having   OF CONFLICT AND CONSEN-­ and   designing   the   ĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ^ƉĂƚŝĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͗ ŽŵƉĂƌĂƚŝǀĞ ĂƐĞ ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ strong  executive  pow-­ SUS. legacy   for   the   2012   ŽĨƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŝƚLJͲƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗^ƉŽŶ͕ϮϬϬϯ͘E͘ƉĂŐ͘ WƌŝŶƚ͘ ers.   Alongside   the   6XPPHU 2O\PSLF DQG mayor,  an  elected  Assembly  would   3DUDO\PSLF*DPHVLQ/RQGRQ 13 12  >ŝǀŝŶŐƐƚŽŶĞ͕ <͘ ;ϮϬϬϬͿ /ŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁ ǁŝƚŚ DĂLJŽƌ ĐŽŶ-­‐ have   a   scrutinising   and   checking   In   conclusion   of   these   two   re-­ ĚƵĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ >^ ^Z ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ͚^ƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĐŽͲŽƌĚŝŶĂ-­‐ role.   It   was   hoped   that   the   strong   verse   models   of   metropolitan   ƚŝŽŶĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƚŝŽŶƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞ'> mayor   would   overcome   the   prob-­ governance   is,   although   they   are   lem   of   lack   of   political   leadership   different   in   nature,   they   both   in-­ 13͞KůLJŵƉŝĐĞůŝǀĞƌLJƵƚŚŽƌŝƚLJ͘͟tŝŬŝƉĞĚŝĂ͘tŝŬŝŵĞĚŝĂ in   the   capital   and   that   the   elec-­ clude   a   healthy   degree   of   conflict   &ŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕ϭϲDĂLJϮϬϭϯ͘tĞď͘ϮϴDĂLJϮϬϭϯ͘фŚƚƚƉ͗ͬͬ ĞŶ͘ǁŝŬŝƉĞĚŝĂ͘ŽƌŐͬǁŝŬŝͬKůLJŵƉŝĐͺĞůŝǀĞƌLJͺƵƚŚŽƌŝƚLJх͘ toral   processes   would   introduce   and   consensus   and   that   is   their   greater  transparency  and  account-­ ability   into   strategic   decision   mak-­ .LVVRI'HDWK ùLúOL0D\RU6DUÕJOSKRWRJUDSKHGNLVVLQJ0HWURSROLWDQ0D\RU7RSEDúG LQJ 2QH RI WKH PDMRU IHDWXUHV RI the  culture  of  communication  and  collaboration  with  each  other,  although  they  don’t  seem the  new  model  was  that  it  would  be   culture  where  they  cultivate  their  conflicts  into  healthy  consensuses  in  times  of  necessit a   streamlined   authority.   However,   the   election   for   mayor   indicated   that   although   Blair   was   keen   on   devolution,  he  also  wanted  to  keep   control  of  the  process.  He  did  eve-­ rything   he   could   to   stop   the   elec-­ WLRQ RI .HQ /LYLQJVWRQH DV KH VDZ him   as   too   independent   and   likely   to   develop   his   own   policies   rather   than   conform   to   central   govern-­ ment. 11   Even   though   the   mayor’s   powers   are   limited,   he   or   she   can   use  his  or  her  electoral  mandate  to   voice   opinions   and   pressurise   the   government   for   more   autonomy.   This   is   precisely   how   Livingstone   sees  his  role.  His  broad  agenda  is   to  increase  the  financial  resources   available   to   the   mayor   and   also   expand   the   policy   topics   under   his   control.   He   has   said   that   he   aims   to  turn  the  British  regional  govern-­ ment  system  into  one  that  is  similar   WR WKDW RI *HUPDQ\ 12   So   this   form   of   centralized   metropol   govern-­ ance   model   where   the   authority   is   very  much  concentrated  on  the  top   of   the   triangle   is   not   without   con-­ flicts   of   interest.   National   govern-­ ment   and   the   mayor   has   different   world-­views   and   priorities   but   that   does   not   avoid   them   from   arriving   to   a   consensus   when   the   interests   overlap   with   each   other.   London   2O\SLFV GHYHORSPHQW RI  LV


strength. Metropolitan   governance   consensus  as  in  the  case  of  Istan-­ only   functions   without   conflict   on   bul   and   if   it   is   not   arrived   as   a   re-­ H[DPSOHV VXFK DV 5RWWHUGDP RU sult  of  challenging  each  other  then   Bologna  where  the  scale  of  the  city   it  is  not  consensus,  it  is  keeping  up   much  smaller  and  therefore  oppor-­ the  appearance.  That  means  some   tunities   and   interests   on   it   are   not   parties’   interests   are   excluded   in   as  concentrated  as  a  megacity.  So   the  process  and  that  is  bad  for  two   the   question   is   “until   reasons,   first   you   do   when  and  in  the  name   THERE IS NOTHING ESSEN-­ not   include   a   variety   of   what,   will   metro-­ TIALLY WRONG WITH THE of   actors   to   difersify   politan  governance  be   MODEL OF METROPOLITAN the  mix  of  projects  for   capable  of  solving  the   GOVERNANCE IN ISTANBUL better   environments   problem  of  conflict?” 14 and   second   you   do   14  >ĞĨĞǀƌĞ͕ ŚƌŝƐƚŝĂŶ͘ ͞DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ THERE ARE ONLY ACTORS not   create   a   sustain-­ In  fact  it  cannot  and   'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ tĞƐƚĞƌŶ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͗  ƌŝƚŝĐĂů ZĞǀŝĞǁ͘͟ KdžĨŽƌĚ͗ :ŽŝŶƚ ĚŝƚŽƌƐ ĂŶĚ ůĂĐŬǁĞůů͕ ϭϵϵϴ͘ E͘ ƉĂŐ͘ it   does   not   have   to.   WHO DON’T PLAY THEIR able   state   of   affairs.   tĞď͘ Metropolitan   govern-­ ROLES PROPERLY. Especially,   stability   ance  is  not  normative,   is   central   for   govern-­ 15  KŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƚŝĐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ it   can   not   be   apolitical.   Conflict   of   ing   a   megacity   since   metropolitan   ĂƌĐĞůŽŶĂƚŚĂƚƉůĂLJĞĚĂĐĞŶƚƌĂůƌŽůĞŝŶŝƚƐƐƵĐĐĞƐƐǁĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ Ă ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĂƐ ďĂĐŬĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚƌĞĞ interests,   contradiction   of   visions   governance   requires   large   invest-­ ĐŽŶƐĞĐƵƚŝǀĞŵĂLJŽƌƐŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐƐƚĂďŝůŝƚLJĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶĐLJ͘ are   necessary   for   a   megacity   as   ments   of   money,   labour   and   en-­ long  as  the  moments  of  consensus   ergy.  Larger  the  investment,  longer   16 is   found   and   when   found,   cultivat-­ the   duration   is   needed   to   absorb    ͞/K >ĞĂǀĞƐ /ƐƚĂŶďƵů /ŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ ďLJ ϮϬϮϬ KůLJŵ-­‐ ƉŝĐ ŝĚ͘͟ ŶŶ͘ĐŽŵ͘ EE͕ Ϯϳ DĂƌ͘ ϮϬϭϯ͘ tĞď͘ Ϯϴ DĂLJ ed.  If  there  is  only  conflict,  you  are   that   investment.   That   is   why   you   ϮϬϭϯ͘ фŚƚƚƉ͗ͬͬƐƉŽƌƚƐŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚ͘ĐŶŶ͘ĐŽŵͬͲŽůLJŵƉŝĐƐͬ ŶĞǁƐͬϮϬϭϯϬϯϮϳͬŝŽĐͲŝƐƚĂŶďƵůͲϮϬϮϬͲŽůLJŵƉŝĐͲďŝĚͬх͘ not  going  anywhere.  If  there  is  only   need  sustainable  conditions  to  op-­ erate  coherently  for  longer  periods   of  times 15. 0D\RU7RSEDúGXULQJDIXQHUDO7KH\DUHWZRSROLWLFDOULYDOVZKRVHLQVWLWXWLRQVGRQ¶WKDYH In   other   words,   there   is   nothing   h  they  don’t  seem  to  mind  interaction  from  time  to  time.  This  picture  is  a  reminiscent  of  a   essentially  wrong  with  the  model  of   mes  of  necessity,  which  is  what  city  needs  more  than  a  master  plan. metropolitan   governance   of   Istan-­ bul,  there  are  only  actors  who  don’t   play   their   roles   properly.   Turkey’s   ELGIRU6XPPHU2O\PSLFVLVD great  case  to  observe  why  they  are   not   played   well   and   what   are   the   consequences  of  it.   In   a   situation   of   smooth   con-­ sensus,   national   government   and   Istanbul   Metropoltian   Municipality   showed   a   great   willingness   to   the   comittee  and  a  gret  deal  of  promis-­ es 16.   The   mega   investment   project   for   the   olympics   are   developed   by   the  national  government  to  be  pre-­ VHQWHGWRWKH2O\PSLFVFRPPLWWHH The   project   promises   four   zones   of   development   in   the   city   and   a   transportation   network   in-­between   linking   them   to   each   other.   Three   of   these   zones   are   located   in   the   European   side   while   one   takes   place   in   the   Asian   side.   Although   these   are   very   positive   promises   for   the   city,   they   could   only   be   better   in   a   situation   in   which   the   mayor  had  played  more  strongly.  In   fact,   he   could   have   used   this   flow   of   investment   by   pushing   for   inte-­ grating   these   developments   with   his   1/100.000   master   plan   for   the   city  and  evolve  the  original  plan  to   a   more   complex   level   by   integrat-­ ing   additive   concerns   of   his   plan,   such   as   new   commerce   centers,  


POLITICS better  organised   housing   develop-­ ments   and   green   zones.   By   doing   so  the  plan  would  not  just  be  about   2O\PSLFVEXWDERXWWKHFLW\RYHUDOO The   mayor   could   have   diversified   the   mixture   of   concerns   and   this   would  not  just  create  a  plan  that  is   better   aligned   with   the   cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   am-­ bitions   but   it   would   also   eliminate   the   autocratic   character   of   the   de-­ cision  with  a  more  inclusive  one  for   a  more  stable  environment. However,   continuous   misplayed   role  of  the  mayor  rendered  the  en-­ tire   investment   unrealisable.   Here   is  an  explanation  of  how: -XVWOLNH2O\PSLFVGHYHORSPHQW UGEULGJHSURMHFWRU.DQDOøVWDQEXO SURMHFW 1DWLRQDO *RYHUQPHQW DOVR came   up   with   plans   for   Taksim   Square,   the   most   representative   public  space  of  Istanbul.  The  plans   included   a   shopping   mall   by   reviv-­ ing  a  replica  of  the  old  military  bar-­ racks   on   the   area   that   is   today   a   park   adjacent   to   Taksim   square.   Final   circle   of   this   long   series   of   autocratic   decisions   about   the   city   to   a   level   of   micro-­management,   created  an  extreme  outburst  in  the   society.  Thousands  of  people  gath-­ ered   around   the   park   to   avoid   the   plans  b eing  r ealized  a nd  e xpressed   their   objection   to   the   nature   of   the   decisions   that   is   given   about   their   city  and  their  life  at  large.  The  fact   that  whatever  national  government   imagined   about   Istanbul   went   un-­ challenged,   exhausted   the   nerves   of   the   citizens   and   country   went   into   a   turbulence   involving   pro-­ tests,  police  brutality  and  seeming-­ ly  a  referandum  about  the  future  of   the  park.  Under  this  instability  and   public   unrest   over   a   public   space   project   that   is   much   more   smaller   WKDQWKH2O\PSLFVSURMHFWLWLVXQ-­ LPDJLQDEOH IRU 2O\PSLFV FRPPLWWH to  trust  Turkey  to  realize  the  devel-­ opments  it  promised.   Turkey   failed   the   bid   for   2020   summer  olympics.   This  is  the  announcement  of  this   article... In   fact,   Turkish   megacity   urban-­ ism   is   no   different   than   Turkish   economy.   It   is   â&#x20AC;&#x153;strong   but   vulnera-­ bleâ&#x20AC;?  as  noted  by  the  Economist. 17,18   It   is   strong   because   the   political   instruments  behind  its  investments   are  in  absolut  consensus  with  each   other   but   it   is   vulnerable   because   conflicting   forces   can   not   find   a  

Ď­ĎłÍ&#x17E;dĹ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;dĆľĆ&#x152;ĹŹĹ?Ć?Ĺ&#x161;Ä?ŽŜŽžÇ&#x2021;Í&#x2014;^Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;ŽŜĹ?Ä?ĆľĆ&#x161;sƾůŜÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ä?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x;dĹ&#x161;Ä&#x17E; Ä?ŽŜŽžĹ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Í&#x2DC; EÍ&#x2DC;Ć&#x2030;Í&#x2DC;Í&#x2022; ĹśÍ&#x2DC;Ä&#x161;Í&#x2DC; tÄ&#x17E;Ä?Í&#x2DC; Ń&#x201E;Ĺ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ć&#x2030;Í&#x2014;ÍŹÍŹÇ Ç Ç Í&#x2DC;Ä&#x17E;Ä?ŽŜŽžĹ?Ć?Ć&#x161;Í&#x2DC; Ä?Žž͏ŜÄ&#x17E;Ç Ć?ÍŹÄ&#x17E;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ĺ˝Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;͏ώϭϹϳϾϰϾϭͲĆ&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;ĹŹÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x2021;ͲĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x201A;Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ͲĹ&#x161;Ĺ?Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;ĹŻÇ&#x2021;Ͳ Ä&#x17E;Ç&#x2020;Ć&#x2030;Ĺ˝Ć?Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x161;ͲůŽĆ?Ć?ͲÄ?ŽŜĨĹ?Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;ĹśÄ?Ä&#x17E;ͲĨŽĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ĺ?Ĺ?ŜͲĹ?ĹśÇ&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ĺ˝Ć&#x152;Ć?ͲĆ?Ć&#x161;Ć&#x152;ŽŜĹ?Ͳ Ç&#x20AC;ƾůŜÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ä?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ń&#x2026;Í&#x2DC;

Silent  Majority 3ULPHPLQLVWHU(UGRáDQPDGHDSROLWLFDOUDOO\ZLWKKLVVXSSRUWHUVDIWHUWKHGHPRQVWUDWLR opments  to  the  rally  area.  There  is  no  clearer  picture  about  the  relationship  between  politics  and  urbanism

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND MET-­ ROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITY SHOWED A GREAT WILLINGNESS TO THE OLYM-­ PICS COMITTE AND GAVE A NUMBER OF PROMISES.

HOWEVER, TURKISH MEGACITY UR-­ BANISM IS NO DIFFERENT THAN TURK-­ ISH ECONOMY. IT IS STRONG BUT VUL-­ NERABLE.


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KHGHPRQVWUDWLRQVDW¾*H]L3DUNœ)RUWKHHDVHRIWUDQVSRUWDWLRQPXQLFLSDOLW\UXQEXVVHVIURP72.øGHYHO-­ cs  and  urbanism.  

UNDER THE INSTABILITY AND PUBLIC UNREST OVER A PUBLIC SPACE PRO-­ JECT THAT IS MUCH SMALLER THAN THE OLYMPICS DEVELOPMENTS, IT IS UNIMAGINABLE FOR OLYMPICS CO-­ MITTE TO TRUST TURKEY TO REALIZE THE DEVELOPMENTS IT PROMISED.

BUT PROBABLY, THIS FAILURE IS NOT A TRAGEDY BUT AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE PLAYERS TO EVALUATE HOW THEY PLAYED THEIR ROLES.

place  for  themselves  in  this  picture   thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   why   influencing   the   city   with   guerilla  tactics  causing  turbulence.   In  other  words,  its  strength  is  at  the   price   of   excessive   volatility.   This   volatility   that   is   caused   by   unbal-­ anced  mix  of  conflicts  and  consen-­ suses   in   the   megacity   politics   is   the   reason   why   Turkey   failed   the   ELG3OD\HUVGLGQRWSOD\WKHLUUROHV properly. 3UREDEO\ WKLV HYHQW LV QR WUDJ-­ edy  but  an  opportunity  for  the  play-­ ers   to   evaluate   how   they   played.   At   best,   it   is   possible   to   cultivate   this   conflict   into   a   consensus   and   to  learn  from  the  experience.   The   visious   circle   of   only   two   possibilities   between   a   shopping   mall  and  things-­shall-­stay-­as-­they-­ are   can   be   expanded   to   find   an   architectural   model   that   finds   the   right   mix   in   between.   A   multiplic-­ ity   of   future   scenarios   and   a   dis-­ cussion   around   them   can   create   a   healthy   tone   in   the   environment   in   which   the   art   of   collective   deci-­ sion   making   would   be   practiced.   This   requires   a   two-­sided   commu-­ nication   and   longer   negotiations   DURXQGWKHSRVVLELOLWLHV2QO\WKHQ the  project  would  find  the  right  mix   of   conflict   and   consensuses,   in   short   interests,   to   mold   the   future   of   the   most   representative   public   space  of  Istanbul.   This   right   mix   is   not   able   to   be   pinpointed   clearly   since   it   is   not   a   numerical  figure  or  a  clear  amount   but   it   should   be   understood   more   as   a   process   of   conflicts   and   con-­ sensuses  amongst  urban  actors.  It   is   a   condition   that   parties   collide   with   each   other   until   the   balance   emerges. 2QFH \RX DUH IUHHG IURP WKH heaviness   of   giving   the   right   an-­ swer   to   the   questions,   but   rather   understand   that   possible   solutions   lies  in  processes,  the  dynamic  that   can  deliver  the  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;right  mixâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;  emerges   naturally   to   continuously   produce   its  future. Megacity   is   about   continuous   change,   thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   why   it   is   â&#x20AC;&#x153;tomorrow   where  most  of  its  productivity,  moti-­ vation  and  achievement  is  stored.â&#x20AC;? Hence,   to   make   this   investment   to   your   tomorrow   is   not   just   but   possible  but  also  necessary


Profile for Onur Can Tepe

Istanbul, Behind the Scenes  

A section from "Megacity: Food, Rituals, Logistics" collective research book produced at the Berlage Institute.

Istanbul, Behind the Scenes  

A section from "Megacity: Food, Rituals, Logistics" collective research book produced at the Berlage Institute.

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