Istanbul, Behind the Scenes

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“If you really want to change the city, or want a real struggle, D UHDO Ă€JKW then it would require re-­engaging with things like public planning for example, or re-­engaging with government, or re-­ engaging with large-­scale institutionalised developers. I think that’s where the real struggles lie, that we re-­engage with these structures and these institutions, this horribly complex ‘dark matter’. That’s where it becomes really interesting.â€?

Gated  Community  and  Social  Housing  Blocks  exist  side  by  side  in  a  landscape  of  typical  Istanbul  topography.

-­Wouver Vanstiphout

FEATURES

Rewiring  the  Simplified Things  in  the  megacity  are  dealt  in  an  economical  way,  with  a  singular  agenda.  It  is  time  for  an  integrated  approach

Istanbul  Measured Introducing  qualitative  measures  of  success  to  the  public  investments,  on  top  of  quantitative  ones

The  One  Man  Show “Mentality  of  an  officialâ€?  revealed:  Strong  leaders,  impotent  followers

Conflict  and  Consensus  in  Urbanism A  journey  to  find  the  right  mix  in  Metropolitan  Governance

.DGLU 7RSEDú  as  Mayor  of  Istanbul

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Public planning and city governance have ORQJ EHHQ GHĂ€QHG E\ RXU profession as obscure and enigmatic domains. Seeming complexity RI WKH Ă€HOG LV GXH WR LWV confusing position, somewhere between political, managemental and cultural practices;Íž therefore understanding it requires engagement ZLWK WKRVH Ă€HOGV RI knowledge. From this joint perspective Istanbul-­ Behind the Scenes reveals the “status quoâ€? as well as an optimism for “changeâ€?. After all, so-­called “dark matterâ€? is not that dark.


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ADMINISTRATION

REWIRING THE SIMPLIFIED Economies of scale dictate its rules in megacities, resulting in increased specialization and organizational disintegration. It is only possible to rewire those solutions back to their complexity by succesful urban operations. Here’s how for Istanbul.

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Each man on his own Various urban actors in Istanbul are initiating various developments simul-­ taneously and seperately. This collage of wildly seperated elements gives the face of the contem-­ porary Istanbul.

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ADMINISTRATION

Cities are complex entities. Their material is accumula-­ tion of masses who shares and touches each other on the same territory and deal with its complexity in diverse associations, some voluntar-­ ily, some reluctantly.  Take  food  system  for  instance,  being  a  fundamental  need,  masses  demand  food.  Someone  has  to  produce  it,  some  other  has  to  deal  with  its  logistics,  some  has  to  check  if  it  meets  the  standards  of  hygiene  and  nu-­ trition,  some  other  has  to  decide  on  those  standards,  regulate  them.  There  has  to  be  a  land  positioned  strategically  concerning  logistics,  urban  relations  and  an  organiza-­ tion  to  manage  that  land  in  order  to  deliver  the  goods  to  the  customer  and  regulate  those  relationships;Íž  decide  on  the  prices,  build  the  infrastructure,  talk  to  the  market-­ ers  and  give  decisions  in  other  words,  be  the  visible  hand.  Finally,  it  reaches  to  the  consumer,  goes  to  the  homes  of  citizens.     This  brief  look  at  the  main  elements  of  the  food  system  gives  us  an  overview  of  the  several  tasks  that  this  system  alone  has  to  deal  with.  But  this  is  only  one  of  sev-­ eral  stories  of  city.  If  we  look  at  what  hap-­ pens  to  that  food  after  it  goes  into  the  home  of  the  customer,  we’ll  see  a  great  deal  is  wasted.  Then,  along  with  the  other  wastes  there  comes  another  system  of  waste  dis-­

posal.  This  system  is  no  less  complex  then  the  food  system  and  no  less  important  for  the  entire  city  in  terms  of  its  daily  life,  when  garbage  crisis  emerged  Napoli  in  2011,  Italy  had  to  send  troops  to  deal  with  it1.  Such  a  crisis  reminds  us  that  vulnerability  of  one  system  is  the  vulnerability  of  another  because  in  such  a  situation  from  food  sys-­ tem  to  transportation  system  or  to  waste  disposal  systems,  many  others  would  also  suffer.  That  is  because  they  are  in  essence  bound  to  each  other. City  breaths  with  its  systems,  day  in  day  out,  and  to  manage  all  of  them  is  one  intri-­ cate  challenge  of  management. Like  all  the  mortal  beings  who  face  a  FRPSOH[ SUREOHP WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHĂ€H[ is  to  divide  the  problems  into  its  sub-­ele-­ ments,  simplify  it  and  try  to  solve  them  one  by  one  which  would  presumably  conse-­ quence  on  the  solution  of  the  entire  prob-­ lem2.  That  is  why  we  have  seperate  organi-­ sations  in  our  cities  to  deal  with  for  instance  the  public  transportation,  water  infrastruc-­ ture  or  social  housing  production.  Each  or-­ ganization  solves  the  singular  problem  that  stands  in  front  it;Íž  each  man  on  its  own. Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality:  a  straight  forward  urban  administration  model Due  to  its  scale,  Istanbul  has  Metropoli-­ tan  Municipality  on  top  of  the  39  local  mu-­ nicipalities.  This  administrative  model  also  exists  in  18  other  cities  in  Turkey  that  have  a  population  over  750,000.  In  Istanbul,  metropolitan  municipality  is  responsible  for  urban  planning  task  for  the  entire  city  from Â

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,Ä‚ĆŒĆŒÄžĹŻĹŻÍ• Ä?ÄžĹśÍ˜ ÍždĹšĹ?Ć? ^Ć&#x;ŜŏĆ?Í— /ƚĂůLJ ^ĞŜĚĆ? dĆŒŽŽĆ‰Ć? ƚŽ ,ĂŜĚůĞ dĆŒÄ‚Ć?Ĺš ĆŒĹ?Ć?Ĺ?Ć?͘Í&#x; d/D ͘Ä?ŽžÍ˜ dĹ?žĞ DÄ‚Ĺ?Ä‚ÇŒĹ?ŜĞ͕ ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ Ď­ĎŻ DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ ,ƾžÄ‚Ĺś ĞŋƾĞŜƚ ĂŜĚ Ć?ŽůĹ?Äš Ç Ä‚Ć?ƚĞ Ä?Ä‚Ĺś Ä‚Ä?Ä?ƾžƾůĂƚĞ Ĺ?Ĺś Ä‚Ĺś Ğdž-­â€? ĆšĆŒÄžĹľÄž ƉĂÄ?Ğ͘ /Ĺś Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺš Ä?ĆŒĹ?Ć?Ĺ?Ć? žŽžÄžĹśĆšĆ? Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ Ć?LJĆ?ƚĞžĆ? Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹŻÄ‚Ć‰ ĂŜĚ ÄšĹ?Ç€Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜ ŽĨ ĹŻÄ‚Ä?ŽƾĆŒ Ä?ÄžÄ?ŽžÄžĆ? Ĺ˝Ä?Ć?ŽůĞƚĞ Ĺ?Ĺś ƚŚĞ ĨÄ‚Ä?Äž ŽĨ ĆľĆŒĹ?ĞŜÄ?LJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ć?Ĺ?ƚƾĂĆ&#x;ŽŜ͘ dĹšĹ?Ć? Ç Ä‚Ć? ƚŚĞ ĆŒÄžÄ‚Ć?ŽŜ Ç ĹšÇ‡ /ƚĂůLJ Ć?ĞŜĚ ƚŚĞ ĆšĆŒŽŽĆ‰Ć? ƚŽ ĚĞĂů Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ Ĺ?ƚ͕ Ä?ÄžÄ?Ä‚ĆľĆ?Äž ÄžŜŽĆŒĹľĹ?ƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚĂĆ?ĹŹ Ç Ä‚Ć? Ä?ĞLJŽŜÄš ƚŚĞ Ç Ĺ˝ĆŒŏĨŽĆŒÄ?Äž ĂŜĚ Ä?ĂƉĂÄ?Ĺ?ĹŻĹ?Ć&#x;ÄžĆ? ŽĨ ĂŜLJ Ĺ˝ĆšĹšÄžĆŒ ÄšÄžĆ‰Ä‚ĆŒĆšĹľÄžĹśĆš ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ä?Ĺ?ĆšÇ‡Í˜ ĆŒĹľÇ‡ ŚĂĆ? Ä‚ĹŻÇ Ä‚Ç‡Ć? Ä?ĞĞŜ ƚŚĞ ŊŽŏÄžĆŒ ŽĨ Ć?ƚĂƚĞ Ć?ÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?Ä?ÄžĆ?͘ KĹś ƚŚĞ ĆŒŽůÄž ŽĨ Ä‚ĆŒĹľÇ‡ Ĺ?Ĺś žŽÄšÄžĆŒĹś Ć?Ĺ˝Ä?Ĺ?ÄžĆ&#x;ÄžĆ? Ć?ĞĞ Ä‚ĹŻĆ?Ĺ˝ ĹśÄ‚ĆŒÄ?Ĺ?ƚLJ ^ƚƾĚĹ?Ž͕ ZÄžĆ?ÄžÄ‚ĆŒÄ?Ĺš ZÄžĆ‰Ĺ˝ĆŒĆšÍ˜ ZŽƊÄžĆŒÄšÄ‚ĹľÍ— ÄžĆŒĹŻÄ‚Ĺ?Äž /ĹśĆ?Ć&#x;ƚƾƚĞ͕ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŽÍ˜ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

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dĹšĹ?Ć? Ĺ?Ć? ŜŽĆš ƾŜĹ?ƋƾĞ ƚŽ žĂŜĂĹ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ? Ä?Ĺ?ĆšĹ?ÄžĆ?Í• Ä?ĞŚĂǀĹ?ŽƾĆŒÄ‚ĹŻ Ä?Ĺ?ŽůŽĹ?Ĺ?Ć?Ćš ZĹ˝Ä?ÄžĆŒĆš ^ĂƉŽůĆ?ŏLJ Ć?ĆľĹ?Ĺ?ÄžĆ?ĆšĆ? ƚŚĂƚ Ç ĹšÄžĹś ŽŜÄž ĚĞĂůĆ? Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ žĞĆ?Ć?LJ Ä?ŽžĆ‰ĹŻĹ?Ä?ĂƚĞĚ Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ä?ůĞžĆ? Ç Äž Ä‚ĹŻĹŻ ŚĂǀĞ Ä‚ Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĆšÄžĹ?LJ ƚŚĂƚ Ç Äž Ä?ŽžÄž ƾƉ Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ͖ Ç Äž ƚĂŏĞ ƚŚĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć? ƚŚĂƚ Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ä?ŽŜĆšĹ?ŜƾŽƾĆ? ĂŜĚ Ç Äž Ä?ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĹŹ ƚŚĞž Ĺ?ŜƚŽ Ä?ĂƚĞĹ?Ĺ˝ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ?͘ tÄž ƚŚĹ?Ŝŏ Ĺ?Ĺś Ä?ĂƚĞĹ?Ĺ˝ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ? Ä?LJ ƉƾƚƚĹ?ĹśĹ? Ä?ŽƾŜÄšÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ? ŽŜ Ä?ŽŜ-­â€? ĆšĹ?ŜƾŽƾĆ? Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ä?ÄžĆ?Ć?ÄžĆ? Ä?ÄžÄ?Ä‚ĆľĆ?Äž Ĺ?Ćš žĂŏĞĆ? Ĺ?Ćš ĞĂĆ?Ĺ?ÄžĆŒ ƚŽ Ć?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒÄž ƚŚĞ Ĺ?ŜĨŽĆŒĹľÄ‚ĆšĹ?ŽŜ ĂŜĚ ĚĞĂů Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ Ĺ?ĆšÍ˜ ^Ĺ˝ Ç ĹšÄžĹś Ĺ?Ćš Ä?ŽžÄžĆ? ƚŽ ĚĞĂů Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ ƚŚĞ Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ͕ Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ƚĞĂĚ ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?ŜŏĹ?ĹśĹ? ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ä‚Ä?Ć?ŽůƾƚĞ ĨÄžÄ‚ĆšĆľĆŒÄžĆ? ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŜƚĹ?ĆŒÄž Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ Ç Äž Ć?ĂLJ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ĺ?Ć? ƚŚĞ ĆŒĹ˝Ä‚Äš Ĺ?Ĺś-­â€? ĨĆŒÄ‚Ć?ĆšĆŒĆľÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄžÍ• Ĺ?Ćš Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚ ĆľĆ?ÄžĨƾů ĆšŽŽů ĨŽĆŒ ƚŚĞ Ĺ˝Ć‰ÄžĆŒÄ‚ĆšĹ?ŽŜĆ? ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ ĂŜĚ / Ć?ŚĂůů Ä?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒ ƚŚĞ ĆšÄžĆŒĆŒĹ?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ? Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ ƚŚĂƚ ĂŜĚ ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÄž Ä?ŽžÄžĆ? ƚŚĞ ÄšÄžĆ‰Ä‚ĆŒĆšĹľÄžĹśĆš ŽĨ ĆŒĹ˝Ä‚Äš Ĺ?ŜĨĆŒÄ‚Ć?ĆšĆŒĆľÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄžÍ˜ /ĹśĆšĆŒĹ˝ÄšĆľÄ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ ƚŽ ,ƾžÄ‚Ĺś ĞŚĂǀĹ?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄ‚ĹŻ Ĺ?ŽůŽĹ?LJ͘ WÄžĆŒĨ͘ ZĹ˝Ä?ÄžĆŒĆš ^ĂƉŽůĆ?ĹŹÇ‡Í˜ /ĹśĆšĆŒĹ˝ÄšĆľÄ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ ƚŽ ,ƾžÄ‚Ĺś ĞŚĂǀĹ?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄ‚ĹŻ Ĺ?ŽůŽĹ?LJ͘ zŽƾ-­â€? dĆľÄ?Ğ͕ ĎŹĎ­ &ÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎŹĎ­Ď­Í˜ tÄžÄ?͘ Ď­ĎŽ Ć‰ĆŒÍ˜ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜

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DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ DƾŜĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƉĂůĹ?ƚLJ >Ä‚Ç Í• ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞĆ?Ĺ? <Ä‚-­â€? ŜƾŜƾÍ• <Ä‚ŜƾŜ EƾžÄ‚ĆŒÄ‚Ć?ĹŚÍ— ϹώϭϲÍ• <Ä‚Ä?ƾů dÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ĹšĹ?Í— ϭϏ͏ϳ͏ώϏϏϰ͘

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Íž7Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞĆ?Ĺ? zƂŜĞĆ&#x;Ĺľ bĞžĂĆ?ĹŚÍ˜Í&#x; 7Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞĆ?Ĺ?͘ 7 Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎł Ć‰ĆŒÍ˜ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜

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Íž7Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞĆ?Ĺ? <ĂLJŜĂŏ 'ĞůĹ?Ć”Ć&#x;ĆŒĹľÄž sÄž 7Ć”Ć&#x;ĆŒÄ‚ĹŹĹŻÄžĆŒ Ä‚Ĺ?ĆŒÄž ĂƔŏĂŜůŌĹ’ĹŚÍ˜Í&#x; 7Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞĆ?Ĺ?͘ EÍ˜Ć‰Í˜Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎł DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜


7KH 3UREOHP 6ROYHUV Directorates  and  subsidi-­ ary  companies  under  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Mu-­ nicipality  have  singular  agendas  to  deal  with  their  well  defined  problems:  food  wholesale  infrastruc-­ tures,  sports  facilities,  waste  renewal  facilities... Â

1/100.000  scale  to  1/5000  scale.3  This  mod-­ el  is  applied  in  order  to  deliver  leadership  and  bring  unity  amongst  the  fragmented  plans  of  the  local  municipalities,  which  had  failed  to  integrate  their  plans  and  opera-­ tions  to  each  other.  Although  concentrating  land  management  into  a  singular,  city-­wide  public  organisation  increased  the  unity  of  operations  in  the  metropolitan  area,  the  public  services  within  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality  are  divided  into  various  sub-­ organisations  as  well.  Therefore,  one  can  argue  that  with  the  establishment  of  Istan-­ bul  Metropolitan  Municipality  in  1984,  the  city  has  shifted  the  management  system  of  the  metropolitan  area  from  a  territorial  divi-­ sion  into  operational  divion  of  tasks.  There  are  several  types  of  operational  units  within  the  metropolitan  municipality.  )LUVWO\ WKHUH DUH ø 6 . ø IRU ZDWHU LQIUDVWUXF-­ WXUH PDQDJHPHQW DQG ø ( 7 7 IRU SXEOLF transportation  management.  These  two  organisations  are  bound  to  the  metropoli-­ tan  municipality  in  their  management,  but  independent  in  their  budget.  The  system  is  followed  by  singular  directorates  that  form  the  body  of  the  metropolitan  municipality:  one  directorate  for  landscaping,  another  for  urbanism,  one  for  rail  system,  another  for  road  maintenance,  one  for  earthquake  risk  management,  another  for  real  estate  managment‌These  directorates,  which  divides  the  metropolitan  municipality  tasks  into  managable  chunks,  are  supported  by  25  subsidiary  companies.4  They  are  private  companies,  established  independent  from  the  restraints  of  public  regulations  but  the  municipality  has  shares  on  each  of  them Â

and  therefore  they  are  underpinning  its  op-­ HUDWLRQV Ă€H[LEO\ DQG VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ Just  like  the  directorates,  each  one  of  them  separates  and  isolates  tasks  of  the  city  management  and  treats  them  individu-­ DOO\ ø67$d EXLOGV ZDVWH UHQHZDO IDFLOLWLHV ø63$5. EXLOGV FDU SDUNLQJ EORFNV 6325 $ Ăš EXLOGV VSRUWV IDFLOLWLHV ,6721 $ Ăš builds  public  spaces.5 Liberated  from  the  clumsiness  of  the  SXEOLF VHFWRU DQG SURÂżW SUHVVXUHV RI WKH SUL-­ vate  sector,  hybrid  city  management  units  focuses  on  their  individual  tasks  and  their  tasks  only.  Learning  to  deal  with  megacity In  a  megacity,  numbers  are  everything.  %\ GHÂżQLWLRQ FLW\ LV ZKHUH JRRGV DUH LP-­ ported  for  the  packed  population  which  can  no  longer  produce  and  consume  in  the  same  territory  and  a  megacity  is  where  these  balances  cracked  like  no  where  else  and  no  other  time  in  the  history  of  man.  The  challenge  is  the  production  of  services  that  is  concerned  with  the  technical  question  of  how  resources  are  put  together  to  deliver  service  to  this  large  and  concentrated  pop-­ ulation.  It  is  precisely  for  that  reason  why  municipalities  in  megacities  are  organized  so  severely  sepereated  and  units  are  iso-­ lated.  This  is  one  effective  method  to  dis-­ tribute  and  allocate  resources  effectively  EHQHÂżWWLQJ IURP WKH HFRQRPLHV RI VFDOH and  ensuring  that  the  large  population  is  served  properly.  However,  it  took  a  while  for  the  megacities  and  their  managemental  arms  to  learn  to  do  that.  Sources:  Metropolitan  Municipality  Law  5216, ibb.gov.tr,  local  municipalities. Â


ADMINISTRATION The White Elephant Atatürk Olympics Stadi-­ um was built in the western outskirt of Istanbul as part of the failed olympics bid of Turkey in 2008. The investment was made in total disintegration from the urban life.Today it is an underused, mon-­ olith infrastructure, one of the white elephants of Istanbul’s urban development history only after a few years.

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source:  bernart  mimarlik

9


ADMINISTRATION Megacities  for  a  long  time  had  failed  -­and  in  some  areas  are  still  failing-­  to  deliv-­ HU EDVLF VHUYLFHV ,Q 6DR 3DXOR PRUH WKDQ 3  million  residents  live  in  dilapidated  tene-­ ments  as  a  result  of  the  failure  of  city  to  re-­ spond  to  housing  pressures6.  Mexico  City  ODFNV DQ HIÂżFLHQW ZDWHU GLVWULEXWLRQ V\VWHP since  the  existing  one  creates  losses  that  is  HVWLPDWHG WR EH DURXQG SHU FHQW 2Q WRS of  this,  only  40  per  cent  of  domestic  users  are  metered  therefore  authorities  collect  much  less  fees  than  they  should  charge.  'XH WR WKHVH ÂżQDQFLDO GLVDGYDQWDJHV maintenances  are  not  made  regularly  and  the  system  constantly  cracks7.  Most  meg-­ acities  have  experienced  extraordinarily  rapid  growth  in  the  number  of  private  ve-­ hicles.  This  is  again  a  failure  of  the  public  service  to  provide  preferable  option  to  pri-­ vate  cars  and  that  even  further  increases  the  congestion,  posing  mobility  as  a  seri-­ ous  problem,  however  that  is  the  most  ba-­ sic  need  and  yet  most  common  problem  of  megacities  worldwide. Istanbul  has  a  history  with  failing  in  many  of  its  basic  services  as  well.  Fail-­ ure  of  providing  social  housing  created  a  VSHFLÂżF EXLOGLQJ W\SH QDPHG JHFHNRQGX quickly  made,  illegal  housing  units.  Water  and  Electricity  services  for  a  long  while  worked  with  regular  cuts  in  services  and  the  city  has  never  had  a  proper  public  transportation  infrastructure. However,  despite  the  initially  inadequa-­ cy  of  cities  to  deal  with  such  large  amounts  of  demands  in  urban  areas,  they  have  learned  and  improved  in  time  by  engineer-­ ing  their  processes.  Today  Istanbul,  as  well  as  other  mega-­cities,  are  suffering  less  and  less  from  the  inadequacy  of  basic  services.  State  policies  and  management  cultures  are  hand  in  hand  renewing  themselves  and  eventually  improving  their  numerical  per-­ formances. Although  isolation  of  tasks  creates  ef-­ fectivity  and  good  services  in  their  own  right,  they  don’t  necessarily  create  a  good  FLW\ 2QH UHSHUFXVVLRQ RI GLVLQWHJUDWLRQ RI WDVNV LV WKDW LW FUHDWHV D VSHFLÂżF PLQGVHW for  each  unit,  one  that  is  totally  unaware  of  the  larger  context,  freed  from  the  territorial  understanding  of  their  tasks  but  abstracting  the  world  from  their  disintegrated,  singular  perspective  and  therefore  drawing  it  in  the  VDPH ZD\ ,Q WKLV VKULQNHG DQG VLPSOLÂżHG world,  capacities  are  the  only  measure  of  success  and  therefore  physical  correspon-­ dance  of  this  mindset  is  also  merely  capac-­ ity  based.  This  is  the  architecture  of  simple  PDWKV 2QH H[DPSOH RI WKLV LV D SURJUDP run  by  one  of  the  municipality  subsidiary  FRPSDQLHV ø63$5. ZKLFK LV UHVSRQVLEOH of  the  parking  infrastructure  of  the  city.  The  company  has  a  program  of  building  multi-­ storey  parking  structures  in  the  city  at  the  spots  that  are  appropriate  in  terms  of  ac-­ quiring  the  land.  The  aim  of  the  program  is  to  increase  the  parking  capacity  respond-­ ing  to  the  demands  of  the  city  with  the  ef-­

6

&ĆľÄ?ĹšĆ?Í• ZŽůĂŜĚ :͘ DÄžĹ?Ä‚ͲÄ?Ĺ?ƚLJ 'ĆŒĹ˝Ç ĆšĹš ĂŜĚ ƚŚĞ &ĆľĆšĆľĆŒÄžÍ˜ dŽŏLJŽ͗ hĹśĹ?ƚĞĚ EÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ? hWÍ• ϭϾϾϰ͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

7

 Ibid.

8

Íž/Ć?Ć‰Ä‚ĆŒĹŹ Ͳ WĆŒŽŊÄžĹŻÄžĆŒÍ˜Í&#x; /Ć?Ć‰Ä‚ĆŒĹŹÍ˜ EÍ˜Ć‰Í˜Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ Ď­Ďą DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜

9

ĂǀĂůůĹ?ÄžĆŒÍ• 'ÄžĹ˝ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ?͘ hĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś ^ÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?Ä?ÄžĆ? ƚŚĞ &ĆŒÄžĹśÄ?LJ tĂLJ Ͳ ĨŽĆŒ DĹ˝ĆŒÄž ^ĆľĆ?ƚĂĹ?ŜĂÄ?ĹŻÄž ÄžÇ€ÄžĹŻĹ˝Ć‰ĹľÄžĹśĆšÍ˜ WĆľÄ?ĹŻĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ͘ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í— /^d Í• ϭϾϾϴ͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

ø63$5. SURMHFWV

10 D dZKWK>/d E 'Ks ZE E ͘Í&#x; hĹśĹ?ƚĞĚ Ĺ?Ć&#x;ÄžĆ? ĂŜĚ >Ĺ˝-­â€? Ä?Ä‚ĹŻ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆšĆ? Ĺ?Ć&#x;Ä Ć? Ćš 'ŽƾÇ€ÄžĆŒĹśÄžĹľÄžĹśĆšĆ? >Ĺ˝Ä?Ăƾdž hĹśĹ?Ć? Ń Ĺ?ƾĚĂĚĞĆ? z 'Ĺ˝Ä?Ĺ?ÄžŜŽĆ? >Ĺ˝Ä?Ä‚ĹŻÄžĆ? hĹśĹ?ĚŽĆ?͘ ΀ Ä‚ĆŒÄ?ÄžůŽŜÄ‚Î Í— ΀ '>hÎ Í• ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎ´Í˜ E͘ ƉĂĹ?͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

11

ÍždŚĞ dĹ?žĞ KĸÄ?Äž ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DƾŜĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƉĂůĹ?ƚLJ ŽĨ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?͘Í&#x; EÍ˜Ć‰Í˜Í• ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎ°Í˜ tÄžÄ?͘ Ď­ĎŽ DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ Ń„ĹšĆŠĆ‰Í—ÍŹÍŹÇ Ç Ç Í˜Ä?Ĺ?Ć&#x;ÄžĆ?ĨŽĆŒÄ?ĹšĹ?ĹŻÄšĆŒÄžĹśÍ˜Äžƾ͏ĎůĞĂĚ-­â€? ĹľĹ?Ŝ͏žÄžÄšĹ?Ä‚ÍŹW &ÍŹt'Ď°ÍŹdŚĞͺĆ&#x;žĞͺŽĸÄ?ĞͺWÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í˜Ć‰ÄšĨŃ…Í˜

fective  technologies  that  increase  effectiv-­ ity.8  However,  the  entire  program  suffers  from  the  chronic  problems  of  horizontally  disintegrated  urban  investments. Firstly,  the  strategical  decision  of  build-­ ing  parking  structures  is  part  of  the  trans-­ portation  system  and  when  an  organisa-­ tion  gives  independent  decisions  about  a  part  of  the  system,  general  transportation  strategy  suffers.  Secondly,  in  order  to  be  tailored  to  the  needs  of  the  locality  their  location  should  be  decided  strategically  in  collaboration  with  the  local  municipalities  ensuring  their  integration  with  the  supply-­ GHPDQG EDODQFHV RI WKH VSHFLÂżF DUHD +RZHYHU VLQFH ø63$5. LV PHUHO\ IRFXVHG on  delivering  maximum  parking  areas  with  minimum  resources  as  a  result  of  its  task-­ oriented  position,  such  considerations  are  not  part  of  their  agenda.  Last  but  not  least,  the  parking  plots  are  lacking  integration  with  the  territorial  life  qualities  they  become  part  of.  In  contrast  they  are  monolith  struc-­ tures  that  fell  haphazardly  to  the  city  in  or-­ der  to  meet  numbers,  failing  to  contribute  to  the  urbanistic  qualities  of  their  surrounding. 3DUNLQJ VWUXFWXUHV RI ø63$5. ZDWHU LQ-­ IUDVWUXFWXUH RI ø6.ø SXEOLF KRXVHV RI 72.ø RU VSRUWV IDFLOLWLHV RI 6325 $ Ăš DUH LQ fact  still  answers  to  the  questions  that  are  posed,  they  still  work  individually,  however  with  a  lot  of  missed  opportunities,  unculti-­ vated  collaborations,  lacking  the  complex-­ ity  that  characterizes  the  urban.  In  their  disintegrated  operations,  city  becomes  an  archipelago  of  isolated  solutions  which  are  adamantly  left  as  â€œsolutionsâ€?  with  a  singular  agenda,  with  a  singular  mind,  uncombined. Contemporary  orgasation  of  many  states  all  around  the  world  have  the  same  characteristical  approach  based  on  secto-­ ral  decomposition  of  services.  â€œThe  sec-­ tor  based  approach  (education,  energy,  health,  transportation)  is  still  core  policy  option  of  states  which  prevent  urban  de-­ velopment  measures  from  becoming  more  horizontal  and  territorialisedâ€?  is  stressed  by  WKH QRQ SURÂżW RUJDQL]DWLRQ ,67(' ZKLFK aims  to  introduce  the  French  understand-­ ing  of  delivering  sustainable  urban  services  to  the  other  cities  around  the  world.9 2Q WKH city  scale,  successful  urban  operations  are  the  ones  that  rewire  disintegrated  opera-­ tions  back  to  their  complexity.  Urban  devel-­ opments  are  where  the  city  processes  see  the  light  of  the  day  and  for  a  megacity  they  should  be  the  bedrock  of  this  integration  process. Paris  amidst  decentralization France  has  a  strongly  centralized  deci-­ sion  making  tradition  in  its  public  institu-­ tions  which  have  been  relatively  loosened  during  the  1980s  with  the  decentralization  processes.  This  created  a  culture  of  hori-­ zontal  integration  of  units  to  get  away  with  large  scale  political,  managemental  or  ur-­ EDQ SURMHFWV 7KHUHIRUH 3DULV LV D JRRG example  to  observe  how  that  system  be-­


Social  housing  developments  in  Istanbul  are  built  in  monstrous  scale  because  it  is  useful  to  canalize  energy  and  investment  in  a  concentrated  location.  The  price  of  this  VLQJXODU PHWKRG E\ D VLQJXODU SXEOLF GHYLFH 72.ø LV XUEDQ DUHDV RI GLVLQWHJUDWHG HQYLURQPHQWV RI PRQR VRFLDOFODVV DQG PRQR OLIH

haves  on  a  megacity  and  what  are  the  les-­ sons  to  be  learned  from  it. 7KH FLW\ RI 3DULV LV JRYHUQHG E\ 3DULV Municipality  together  with  a  metropolitan  body  that  consists  of  1584  communal  gov-­ ernments.  Due  to  the  large  quantity  of  hori-­ ]RQWDO ERGLHV PHWURSROLWDQ 3DULV H[HPSOL-­ ÂżHV D SRO\FHQWULF PRGHO ZLWK KLJK GHJUHH of  territorial  fragmentation.  As  a  result,  in  trash  collection,  water  or  sewage  and  land-­ use  planning,  inter-­governmental  arrange-­ PHQWV LQ 3DULV KDYH SUROLIHUDWHG ,Q WKHVH domains,  multiple  municipalities  often  de-­ SHQG RQ XQLÂżHG FHQWUDOL]HG DJHQFLHV RU companies,  whereas  before  the  decentrali-­ zation  even  land  use  and  planning  were  FDUULHG RXW E\ QDWLRQDO ÂżHOG RIÂżFHV 10 :LWKLQ WKH 3DULV 0XQLFLSDOLW\ WKH GH-­ livery  of  urban  services  is  organised  very  similarly  to  Istanbul.  Tasks  are  seperated  under  22  departments  with  topics  such  as  8UEDQ GHYHORSPHQW 'HSDUWPHQW 5RDGV and  transportation  department  and  depart-­ ment  of  housing.  Similar  to  Istanbul  Met-­ URSROLWDQ 0XQLFLSDOLW\ HYHU\ IRXU RU ÂżYH RI them  are  grouped  under  deputy  secretar-­ ies.  However,  the  difference  lies  on  how Â

ALTHOUGH ISOLATION OF TASKS CREATE EFFECTIV-­ ITY AND GOOD SERVICES IN THEIR OWN RIGHT, THEY DON’T NECESSARILY CREATE A GOOD CITY.

the  system  behaves  on  the  operational  level  when  they  need  to  communicate  with  each  other. ,Q &LW\ RI 3DULV ZDQWHG WR UHGXFH the  disparities  related  to  the  reconciliation  of  time  especially  between  women  and  men  and  to  prevent  situations  in  which  people  are  excluded  from  certain  activities  and  services.  For  this  purpose  the  munici-­ SDOLW\ RI 3DULV VHW XS WKH 7LPH 2IÂżFH RQ WKH initiative  of  the  Mayor  Bernard  Delanoe11.  7LPH RIÂżFH ZDV LQGHSHQGHQW IURP DQ\ department  and  had  a  temporary  nature  based  on  its  mission,  in  other  words,  it  was  an  external  program  which  would  exist  un-­ WLO LW FRPSOHWHV LWV PLVLRQ 7KH RIÂżFH KDG D simple  objective  and  it  developed  relative  policies  and  launched  programs  with  the  different  departments  of  the  municipality  to  UHDOL]H LW :KHQ ÂżQDOL]HG WKH SURMHFW KDG effects  on  a  variety  of  urban  services,  for  example  parks  and  gardens  have  adopted  new  hours,  opening  hours  of  the  munici-­ pal  swimming  pools  to  individual  swim-­ mers  are  extended  in  the  evenings  eight  new  afternoon  markets  are  opened  and  so  on.This  is  how  an  initiative  with  a  clear  goal Â


ADMINISTRATION

bend  the  entire  system  together,  integrat-­ ing  several  departments  to  realize  some  clear  goals  in  the  messiness  of  the  city  and  once  it  was  done,  left  the  scene.  The  pro-­ MHFW EHFDPH WKH LQWHJUDWRU DQG WKH RIÂżFH was  nothing  more  than  a  communicator. ,Q DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RI WKH FLW\ RI 3DULV WKLV form  of  management  is  nothing  peculiar  to  WKH 7LPH 2IÂżFH WKDWÂśV KRZ GLVDGYDQWDJHV of  division  of  labour  within  the  municipaity  are  systematically  overcome  on  the  territo-­ ry  with  an  organisational  apparatus,  name-­ ly  SEMs.  SEM  stands  for  a  mixed  economy  company  which  the  city  uses  as  an  agency  to  conduct  its  developments.They  hold  the  commune’s  power  of  expropriating  land  as  well  as  keeping  the  right  to  buy  land  that  is  available  on  the  market.  The  development  agency  therefore  usually  inherits  substan-­ tial  powers  and  implementation  of  the  city’s  plans  is  thus  fragmented  by  several  SEMs.  However,  poltical  control  of  them  ensures  their  ultimate  responsibility  to  the  city  coun-­ cil.  Since  1980,  the  number  of  active  SEMs  LQ )UDQFH KDV JURZQ VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ DFFRP-­ panying  the  decentralisation  trend  and  they  are  the  ones  that  strengthen  the  horizontal  character  of  the  public  administration.12,  13

Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality Organizational  Chart

Seine  Rive  Gauche:  an  exceptional  ur-­ ban  development “I  have  always  felt  that  in  order  to  build  5LYH *DXFKH OLWHUDOO\ PHDQV ÂłOHIW EDQN´ the  metropolis  we  needed  to  bring  the  and  refers  to  the  southern  arrondissements  stakeholders  together  around  a  shared  RI 3DULV ZKLFK DUH ERUGHULQJ WKH 6HLQH SURMHFW ´ VD\V 3LHUUH 0DQVDU WKH 'HSXW\ 5LYHU 7KH VLWH FRYHULQJ KHFWDUHV ZDV 0D\RU LQ FKDUJH RI 3DULV 0pWURSROH 14  Seine  occupied  with  rail  tracks  adjacent  to  in-­ 5LYH *DXFKH LV RQH YHU\ ODUJH XUEDQ RS-­ dustrial  land  efectively  turning  the  area  to  HUDWLRQ LQ 3DULV ZKHUH WKLV XQGHUVWDQGLQJ LV an  impenetrable  barrier  between  the  local  H[HPSOLÂżHG ,W LV WKH ODUJHVW XUEDQ UHQHZDO residents  and  the  waterfront.  This  was  the  project  since  the  time  of  Haussmann’s  and  state  of  affairs  in  the  land  when  the  city  of  an  illustration  of  the  bene-­ 3DULV HPEDUNHG D SEM  to  ¿WV RI LQWHJUDWLRQ SULPDULO\ “I HAVE ALWAYS FELT THAT be  used  as  a  development  in  terms  of  organisational  IN ORDER TO BUILD THE vehicle:  6(0$3$ 6(0$-­ elements  and  then  of  phys-­ 3$ VWDQG IRU Âł3DULVLDQ GH-­ ical  elements  to  deliver  an  METROPOLIS WE NEEDED velopment,  project  owner-­ environment  which  has  the  TO BRING THE STAKEHOLD-­ ship  and  studies  companyâ€?  qualities  of  urbanity.  It  is  ERS TOGETHER AROUND A and  is  founded  in  conjunc-­ noteworthy  that  this  project  tion  with  the  national  train  is  an  exceptional  case  in  SHARED PROJECT.â€? company  SNCF  together  -­ PIERRE MANSAR with  the  contribution  of  var-­ XUEDQ RSHUDWLRQV RI 3DULV that  has  never  been  managed  in  a  very  ious  other  public  players.16  The  chairman  of  long  time  in  city’s  history15  and  it  is  no  coin-­ 6(0$3$ LV -pU{PH &RXPHW ZKR LV DOVR cidence  that  the  foundations  of  the  project  the  mayor  of  the  13th  arrondissement.17  have  been  set  in  1985  after  the  decentrali-­ 6(0$3$  now  has  an  exclusively  public  sation  of  France.  Therefore  it  is  a  useful  shareholding  structure  which  breaks  down  example  to  learn  from  not  just  for  Istanbul  DV IROORZV 3DULV PXQLFLSDOLW\ 'HSDUW-­ and  other  megacities  as  such,  but  even  for  PHQW RI 3DULV DQG ,OH GH )UDQFH UH-­ 3DULV LWVHOI JLRQ ,QGHHG MXVW OLNH WKH 7LPH 3URMHFW

12 EÄžÇ ĹľÄ‚ĹśÍ• WÄžĆšÄžĆŒÍ• ĂŜĚ ŜĚLJ dĹšĹ˝ĆŒŜůĞLJ͘ Íž&ĆŒÄžĹśÄ?Ĺš Ä‚Ć?Äž ^ƚƾĚ-­â€? Ĺ?ÄžĆ?͘Í&#x; hĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś WĹŻÄ‚ŜŜĹ?ĹśĹ? Ĺ?Ĺś ĆľĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ÄžÍ— /ĹśĆšÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜÄ‚ĹŻ ŽžĆ‰ÄžĆ&#x;Ć&#x;ŽŜÍ• EÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜÄ‚ĹŻ ^LJĆ?ƚĞžĆ?Í• ĂŜĚ WĹŻÄ‚ŜŜĹ?ĹśĹ? WĆŒŽŊÄžÄ?ĆšĆ?͘ >ŽŜÄšŽŜÍ— ZŽƾƚůĞĚĹ?Ğ͕ ϭϾϾϲ͘ E͘ ƉĂĹ?͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

13 dĹšĹ?Ć? ĂĚžĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ǀĞ ÄšĹ?Ć?Ä?Ĺ?ƉůĹ?ŜĞ Ĺ?Ć? ĆŒŽŽĆšÄžÄš Ĺ?Ĺś ƚŚĞ ĹšĹ?Ć?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒÇ‡ ŽĨ ƉŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä‚ĹŻ ĞǀŽůƾĆ&#x;ŽŜ Ĺ?Ĺś &ĆŒÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž ĂŜĚ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć? Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚ ƚĞĆ?Ćš Ć?Ĺ?ƚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?Ć? žŽÄšÄžĹŻ ŽŜ Ä‚ žĞĹ?Ä‚Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ Ć?Ä?Ä‚ĹŻÄž Ĺ?Ĺś Ç ĹšĹ?Ä?Ĺš ƚŚĞ ŜĂĆ&#x;ŽŜ Ĺ?Ć? ÄžÇ†Ć‰ÄžĆŒĹ?žĞŜƚ-­â€? Ĺ?ĹśĹ? ŽŜ͘ &Ĺ˝ĆŒ Ĺ˝ĆšĹšÄžĆŒ Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺš ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś ÄžÇ†Ć‰ÄžĆŒĹ?ĞžĞŜƚĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś &ĆŒÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž Ä‚ĹŒÄžĆŒ ĚĞÄ?ÄžĹśĆšĆŒÄ‚ĹŻĹ?njĂĆ&#x;ŽŜ Ć?ĞĞ <ŽŽůŚĂĂĆ?Í• ZĞž͕ ĂŜĚ ĆŒĆľÄ?Äž DÄ‚ĆľÍ˜ ÍžYƾĂŜ-­â€? Ćšƾž >ÄžÄ‚Ć‰Í˜ ĆľĆŒÄ‚ĹŻĹ?ůůĞ͗ ÄžĹśĆšĆŒÄž /ĹśĆšÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜÄ‚ĹŻ Í› ÄŤÄ‚Ĺ?ĆŒÄžĆ?͘Í&#x; ^ D > y>Í— KD ͘ ^Í˜ĹŻÍ˜Í— ^Í˜ĹśÍ˜Í• ϭϾϾϯ͘ ϭϭϹϲͲϭώϏϾ͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜ KŜĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ žĂĹ?Ĺś Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝ĆšÄ‚Ĺ?ŽŜĹ?Ć?ĆšĆ? ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĆľĆŒÄ‚ĹŻĹ?ĹŻĹŻÄž žĂĆ?ĆšÄžĆŒ ƉůĂŜ Ç Ä‚Ć? :ĞĂŜͲWÄ‚ƾů Ä‚Ĺ?ĞƊŽ Ç ĹšĹ˝ ĞdžƉůĂĹ?ĹśĆ? ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ Ä?ŽžĆ‰ĹŻÄžÇ† Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝-­â€? Ĺ?ĆŒÄ‚žžÄ‚Ć&#x;Ä? Ä‚ĆŒĆŒÄ‚ĹśĹ?ĞžĞŜƚ Ć?ĆľĹ?Ĺ?ÄžĆ?ƚĞĚ Ä?LJ KD Ç Ä‚Ć? Ä‚Ä?Ä?ĞƉƚĞĚ Ä‚Ć? Ä‚ Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĆšÄžĹ?Ĺ?Ä? ĚĞÄ?Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜ͘ &Ĺ˝ĆŒ ĹšĹ?ž͕ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ç Ä‚Ć? Ä‚ ŜĞÄ?ÄžĆ?Ć?Ä‚ĆŒÇ‡ Ä?ŽžĆ‰ĹŻÄžÇ†-­â€? Ĺ?ƚLJ ŜŽĆš ĹŠĆľĆ?Ćš ƚŽ Ä?ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĆšÄž Ä‚Ĺś ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś ƋƾĂůĹ?ƚLJ Ä?ƾƚ Ä‚ĹŻĆ?Ĺ˝ ƚŽ Ä?ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĆšÄž ͞Ă ĚLJŜĂžĹ?Ä? ĨĆŒŽž ŚĞůů͞ Ä‚Ć? ŚĞ ĆŒÄžĨÄžĆŒĆ? ĆšĹ˝Í˜ dĹšĹ?Ć? ĚLJŜĂžĹ?Ä? Ĺ?Ć? ĆŒÄžĹŻÄ‚ĆšÄžÄš ƚŽ ƚŚĞ žƾůĆ&#x;ƉůĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ ŽĨ Ä‚Ä?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĆ? Ç ĹšĹ˝ ŜĞĞĚĞĚ ƚŽ Ä?ŽůůÄ‚Ä?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄ‚ĆšÄž ĂŜĚ ĨŽĆŒĹľ Ä‚ĹŻĹŻĹ?Ä‚ĹśÄ?ÄžĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś Ĺ˝ĆŒÄšÄžĆŒ ƚŽ žĂŏĞ ƚŚĞ Ć‰ĆŒŽŊÄžÄ?Ćš ĹšÄ‚Ć‰Ć‰ÄžĹśÍ˜ /Ćš Ĺ?Ć? ƚŚĞ ƋƾĂůĹ?ƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ žƾƚƾĂůĹ?ƚLJ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂĚ Ä?ĞĞŜ Ä?ŽŜĚĞžŜĞĚ ƚŽ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ÄšÄžĆšÄžĆŒĹľĹ?ŜĞĆ? ƚŚĞ Ĺ˝ĆŒĹ?Ä‚ĹśĹ?njĂĆ&#x;ŽŜÄ‚ĹŻ Ä?ŽŜÄšĹ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ć‰ĆŒŽŊÄžÄ?Ćš ĂŜĚ ƚŚĞ Ć?Ĺ?ƚĞ Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚ ĹľÄžĆŒÄž ĆŒÄžĹ‡ÄžÄ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ ƚŚĂƚ Ä?ŽŜÄšĹ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ͘

14 DÄ‚ĹśĆ?Ăƚ͕ WĹ?ÄžĆŒĆŒÄžÍ˜ ÍžWÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í›Ć? &ĆľĆšĆľĆŒÄž 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?Ğ͘Í&#x; /ĹśĆšÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?ÄžÇ Ä?LJ ^ƚĞƉŚĂŜĞ <Ĺ?ĆŒĹŹĹŻÄ‚ĹśÄšÍ˜ ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜Í— ĹśÍ˜ ƉĂĹ?͘ ,ƊƉ͗͏͏Ć?ƚĞƉŚĂŜĞŏĹ?ĆŒĹŹ-­â€? ĹŻÄ‚ĹśÄšÍ˜Ä?Žž͏͘ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎŹ DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ фŚƊƉ͗͏͏Ć?ƚĞƉŚĂŜĞŏĹ?ĆŒĹŹĹŻÄ‚ĹśÄšÍ˜ Ä?Žž͏Ć‰Ä‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Ć?ͲĨƾĆšĆľĆŒÄžͲĹ?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?ÄžͲÄ‚ŜͲĹ?ĹśĆšÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?ÄžÇ Í˛Ç Ĺ?ƚŚͲƉĹ?ÄžĆŒĆŒÄžͲ žĂŜĆ?Ä‚Ćš͏ΡžŽĆŒÄžͲϰϴϯϹŃ…Í˜ /Ĺś ƚŚĞ Ĺ?ĹśĆšÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?ÄžÇ WĹ?ÄžĆŒĆŒÄž DÄ‚ĹśĆ?Ä‚ĆŒ Ä‚ÄšÄšĆŒÄžĆ?Ć?ÄžĆ? ƚŚĞ ĹśÄžÇ ĹŻÄ‚Ç Ć? ĨŽĆŒ DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž ŽĨ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć? Ä‚Ć? ĹšĹ?Ć?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĹ?Ä? Ä?ÄžÄ?Ä‚ĆľĆ?Äž Ä‚Ä?-­â€? Ä?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄšĹ?ĹśĹ? ƚŽ ĹšĹ?Ĺľ ƚŚĞLJ ĆŒÄžĆ?ƉŽŜÄš ƚŽ ƚŚĞ Ć?ƉĞÄ?Ĺ?Ä‚ĹŻ ŜĞĞĚĆ? ŽĨ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í• Ç ĹšĹ?Ä?Ĺš Ĺ?Ć? ƚŽ Ä‚Ä?Ćš ƚŽĹ?ÄžĆšĹšÄžĆŒ Ç ĹšĹ?ĹŻÄž Ä‚Ä?ĹŹĹśĹ˝Ç ĹŻÄžÄšĹ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ? ƚŚĞ ƉŽůLJÄ?ĞŜ-­â€? ĆšĆŒĹ?Ć?Ĺľ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć? ĹľÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?Ć?͘ dĹšĹ?Ć? ƾŜÄšÄžĆŒĆ?ƚĂŜĚĹ?ĹśĹ? Ĺ?Ć? ŏĞLJ ĨŽĆŒ DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?Ğ͗ ƚŽ Ä?Ä‚ĆšÄ?Ĺš ƚŚĞ ĆŒĹ?Ĺ?Śƚ Ä?Ä‚ĹŻÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž Ä?Äž-­â€? ĆšÇ ÄžÄžĹś žƾůĆ&#x;ƉůĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ ŽĨ Ä‚Ä?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĆ? ĂŜĚ Ä?Ĺ˝ĹšÄžĆŒÄžĹśÄ?Äž ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Ä‚Ä?Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ?͘


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15 ĹŻÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆŒ Ä‚ĹľÄ?Ĺ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ Ĺ?Ć? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Ć&#x;ĂƚĞĚ Ä?LJ ^Ä‚ĆŒĹŹĹ˝ÇŒÇ‡ ĂĚžĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ƾŜÄšÄžĆŒ ƚŚĞ Ć&#x;ƚůĞ ŽĨ Grand  Paris Ĺ?Ĺś ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎłÍ˜ dŚĞ ƉůĂŜ Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚ žĞĹ?Ä‚Ä?-­â€? Ĺ?ƚLJ Ć?Ä?Ä‚ĹŻÄž ĚĞǀĞůŽƉžĞŜƚ Ć‰ĆŒŽŊÄžÄ?Ćš ƚŚĂƚ ƚĂŏĞĆ? ƚŚĞ ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĹśĆ?Ć‰Ĺ˝ĆŒĆšÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ Ć?Ä?ŚĞžĞ ƚŽ Ĺ?ĆšĆ? Ä?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄž ĂŜĚ Ć?ĆľĹ?Ĺ?ÄžĆ?ĆšĆ? ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś Ĺ?ŜǀĞĆ?ƚžĞŜƚ Ä‚ĆŒŽƾŜÄš ƚŚĂƚ Ĺ?ŜĨĆŒÄ‚Ć?ĆšĆŒĆľÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄžÍ˜ ,Ĺ˝Ç ÄžÇ€ÄžĆŒ ƚŚĞ ƉŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä‚ĹŻ ĆšĆľĆŒÄ?ƾůĞŜÄ?Äž Ä?ĞŚĹ?ŜĚ Ĺ?Ćš ŚĂǀĞ ŜŽĆš LJĞƚ Ä?ĞĞŜ Ä?ŽžÄž Ä?ůĞĂŜ Ä?LJ ĎŜĚĹ?ĹśĹ? ƚŚĞ ĂĚĞƋƾĂƚĞ Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹŻÄ‚Ć‰ ŽĨ Ĺ?ĹśĆšÄžĆŒÄžĆ?ĆšĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś Ĺ˝ĆŒÄšÄžĆŒ ƚŽ ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĹŻĹ?njĞ Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺš Ä‚ ĹŻÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Äž Ä‚ĹľÄ?Ĺ?-­â€? Ć&#x;ŽŜ͘ /Ĩ ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĹŻĹ?njĞĚ͕ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ç Ĺ˝ĆľĹŻÄš Ä?Äž ƚŚĞ ĹŻÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ÄžĆ?Ćš ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś Ĺ˝Ć‰ÄžĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í›Ć? ĹšĹ?Ć?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒÇ‡Í˜

16 Íž^ D W ÄžÄ?ŽžÄžĆ? Ä‚Ĺś ^W> ͘Í&#x; ^ D W ͘ĨĆŒÍ˜ ^ D W Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ ÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎł DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ Ń„ĹšĆŠĆ‰Í—ÍŹÍŹÄžĹśÍ˜Ć?ÄžĹľÄ‚Ć‰Ä‚Í˜ĨĆŒÍŹ Ä?ƚƾĂůĹ?ƚĞĆ?ÍŹ^ D W Ͳ Ä?ÄžÄ?ŽžÄžĆ?ͲÄ‚ŜͲ^W> Ń…Í˜

17 Íž:Ä ĆŒĆ€ĹľÄž ŽƾžÄžĆšÍ˜Í&#x; tĹ?ĹŹĹ?ƉĞĚĹ?Ă͘ tĹ?ĹŹĹ?žĞĚĹ?Ä‚ &ŽƾŜĚĂĆ&#x;ŽŜÍ• ϭϲ DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎł DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ фŚƊƉ͗͏͏ĨĆŒÍ˜Ç Ĺ?ĹŹĹ?ƉĞĚĹ?Ä‚Í˜Ĺ˝ĆŒĹ?ÍŹÇ Ĺ?ĹŹĹ?ÍŹ :Ä ĆŒĆ€ĹľÄžÍş ŽƾžÄžĆšŃ…͘

18 ^Ć&#x;žžůÄžĆŒͲ,Ä‚ĹŻĹŻÍ• ,ÄžÄ‚ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÍ˜ ÍžZĹ?ǀĞ 'Ä‚ĆľÄ?ŚĞ ZĞǀĹ?Ç€Ä‚ĹŻÍ˜Í&#x; hĹśĹ?Ç€ÄžĆŒĆ?Ĺ?ƚLJ ŽĨ ĹšĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ĺ?Ž͕ ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ фŚƊƉ͗͏͏Ä?ÄžĹśĆšÄžĆŒĹ?ĹśĆ‰Ä‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í˜ĆľÄ?ĹšĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í˜ÄžÄšƾ͏ Ć?Ĺ?ƚĞĆ?ÍŹÄ?ÄžĹśĆšÄžĆŒĹ?ĹśĆ‰Ä‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?Í˜ĆľÄ?ĹšĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í˜ÄžÄšƾ͏ĨĹ?ĹŻÄžĆ?͏ƾƉůŽĂĚĆ?͏ƉĚĨ͏WÄ‚ĆŒĹ?Ć?-­â€? ZĹ?ǀĞ'Ä‚ĆľÄ?ĹšÄžÍ˜Ć‰ÄšĨŃ…Í˜

public  stakeholders  to  make  it  happen.  The  organizational  integration  between  the  city  RI 3DULV DQG 6(0$3$  to  coordinate  and  al-­ lign  each  stake  holders’  contribution  to  the  necessary  level  is  key  to  meet  its  ambition.  Therefore,  the  project  and  the  physicality  it  creates  on  the  land  is  also  an  integrated,  complex  physicality  in  an  array  of  scales,  which  breaks  down  as  following: Firstly,  the  project  is  integrated  to  the  larger  objectives  of  the  city  council.  Domi-­ QDWHG E\ RIÂżFH GHYHORSPHQW WKH SURMHFW UHĂ€HFWV WKH RULJLQDO GHVLUH RI WKH FLW\ FRXQ-­ cil  to  manage  the  market  but  also  more  recent  objective  of  extending  the  commer-­ FLDO FHQWHU RI 3DULV LQ RUGHU WR NHHS WKH FLW\ competitive  with  its  European  rivals.  This  is  GXH WR WKH SROLWLFDO FRQWURO RI WKH FLW\ RI 3DU-­ is  over  6(0$3$  to  coordinate  the  project  with  the  general  strategy  of  the  city.  Secondly,  development  incorporates  a  new  public  transport  exchange  linking  metro  and  5pVHDX ([SUHVV 5pJLRQDO  ser-­ vices.  The  projects  are  programmed  in  the  â€˜Contrat  de  plan’  for  Ile-­de-­France,  the  UHJLRQ WKDW 3DULV LV SDUW RI 7KDW KDV EHHQ possible  because  SNCF  is  also  one  of  the  stakeholders  of  the  project  therefore  the  project  naturally  becomes  part  of  the  city  transportation  system.  This  ensures  that  development  is  integrated  to  the  rest  of  the  this  is  also  a  project  that  is  not  developed  city  as  opposed  to  the  counterpart  develop-­ by  any  single  department  of  the  municipal-­ ments  in  other  metropols  such  as  Canary  ity  but  an  external  program  that  acts  as  a  Wharf  in  London  or  Maslak  district  in  Istan-­ platform  for  the  departments  to  collaborate  bul  where  the  development  was  prior  to  the  and  integrate  their  actions  to  each  other  infrastructure  and  therefore  disintegrated  ZLWK WKH DLP RI EHWWHUPHQW RI 6HLQH 5LYHU from  the  transportation  system  of  the  city  With  this  clear  objective  in  mind,  6(0$3$  and  therefore  the  city  itself. organsed  a  design  competition  to  imagine  Thirdly,  the  project  is  an  integration  of  a  the  future  of  this  territory  and  as  a  result  six  variety  of  uses  for  a  variety  of  citizens.  The  architects  were  selected,  program  of  the  develop-­ each  one  with  their  part  IN ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHQW LQFOXGHV RIÂżFH VSDF-­ in  the  larger  development  CITY OF PARIS, DISADVAN-­ es,  schools,  parks,  library,  site.  The  value  of  the  pro-­ TAGES OF DIVISION OF LA-­ movie  complex  and  a  vari-­ ject  lies  on  its  calibration  ety  of  housing  for  a  variety  BOUR ARE SYSTEMATICALLY of  income  groups.  The  di-­ to  potentially  have  a  posi-­ tive  effect  on  the  city  over-­ OVERCOME ON THE TERRITO-­ versity  of  elements  creates  all  and  developement  with  RY BY AN ORGANIZATIONAL a  concentrated  multiplicity  horizontal  care,  adding  in  APPRATUS NAMED “SEMâ€?. that  ensures  an  urban  life  much  of  France’s  best  ur-­ as  the  continuation  of  con-­ ban  thinking. WHPSRUDU\ 3DULV OLIH Lastly,  the  project  is  integrated  with  the  From  organisational  close  surroundings  that  it  takes  part  of  on  integrity  to  physical  integrity the  architectural  scale.  This  has  been  en-­ $UFKLWHFWV PDNH WKH GHÂżQLWLRQ RI WKH XU-­ sured  with  the  careful  calibration  of  public  ban  operation  and  then  it  is  the  project  it-­ and  private  use  of  spaces  to  make  sure  self  that  becomes  the  ambition  of  6(0$3$  that  the  buildings  do  not  hamper  the  broad-­ to  realize.  Its  role  is  to  mediate  a  variety  of  er  functioning  of  the  city  and  an  advantage Â


ADMINISTRATION

Âľ$NDV\D $FĂ•EDGHPÂś LV D PL[HG XVH SULYDWH GHYHORSPHQW EXLOW RQ D PDVVLYH P2  site  in  Istanbul.  ,W LV RQH RI WKH PDQ\ ODUJH VFDOH SULYDWH GHYHORSPHQWV WKDW DUH FDOOHG JDWHG FRPPXQLWLHV $OWKRXJK D VPDOO KLQW RI WKH EHQHÂżWV RI LQWHJUDWLRQ KDV EHHQ VKRZQ E\ FROODERUDW-­ LQJ ZLWK WKH ORFDO PXQLFLSDOLW\ WR GHYHORS LW DV SDUW RI WKH QHZ VXEZD\ V\VWHP WKH SURMHFW VXEVWDQWLDOO\ PDQLIHVWV LWHOI RQ KRZ LW LV LVRODWHG IURP WKH UHVW IRU EHWWHUPHQW RI LWV interiority.

was  the  projects  were  not  bound  to  the  DUWLÂżFDO ERUGHUV RI WKH DUURQGLVVHPHQWV RU any  other  administrative  bodies  to  hinter  WRWDOLW\ RI WKH XUEDQ UHODWLRQVKLSV 2QH H[-­ DPSOH RI WKLV DWWLWXGH LV Âľ'RFNV GH 3DULVÂś one  of  the  signature  projects  of  the  devel-­ opment  by  architects  Jakob+Macfarklane  Sarl  D’architecture.  It  is  a  transformation  project  of  former  waterfront  warehouse-­ W\SH EXLOGLQJ 2QH RI WKH FKDOOHQJHV IRU the  architects  was  to  make  the  building  not  only  accessible  to  the  public  but  also  as  welcoming  as  any  other  waterfront  prom-­

HQDGH LQ 3DULV 7R WKLV HQG GHVLJQ VHQVLEO\ ¿WV LQ EUHH]HZD\V WKDW SDVV WKURXJK WKH ground  level,  along  with  the  exterior  stair-­ cases  that  allow  people  to  circulate  freely  with  an  access  to  riverside  terrace  and  the  rooftop  garden.18  These  arrangements  of  the  public  circulations  with  the  integration  of  public  spaces  to  the  project  renders  it  a  part  of  its  close  surrounding.  These  consid-­ erations  are  repeated  on  each  project  by  their  architects  as  part  of  the  larger  agenda  of  6(0$3$  and  the  jurors  who  evaluate  the  projects.

In  Istanbul  as  well  as  other  megacities,  economies  of  scale  dictate  its  own  rules,  resulting  in  the  city  as  an  agglomeration  of  island  developments.  The  only  considerate  way  to  deal  with  these  pressures  is  hori-­ zontal  cooperation  of  units  who  has  territo-­ rial  understanding  of  their  problems.  This  administrative  understanding  is  not  unique  to  managing  megacities  but  manag-­ ing  any  large  scale  organisation,  because  as  the  problems  get  larger,  branching  the  solutions  emerges  naturally.  States  them-­ selves  are  about  divaricating  problems  and Â

Official  logos  of  the  ministeries  of  Turkey


7KH DUHD PDVWHU SODQQHG E\ &KULVWLDQ GH 3RUW]DPSDUF DV SDUW RI WKH ODUJHU 6HLQH 5LYH *DXFKH 'HYHORSPHQW 7KH DUHD LQYROYHV D YDULHW\ RI XVHV ZLWK D YDULHW\ RI EXLOGLQJ W\SHV 7KH SURMHFW VXEVWDQWLDOO\ PDQLIHVWV LWVHOI RQ KRZ LW LQWHJUDWHV ZLWK WKH UHVW RI WKH FLW\ IRU EHWWHUPHQW RI WKH environment  overall.

approaching  them  part  by  part.  This  is  an  LQHYLWDEOH UHĂ€H[ Accepting  this  phenomenon  as  a  ten-­ dency  and  overcoming  its  disadvantages  should  be  in  the  agenda  for  Istanbul  be-­ cause  complexity  and  integration  are  cor-­ related  concepts  for  a  megacity.  In  order  to  create  integrated  urban  operations,  com-­ plexity  of  considerations  is  necessary.  To  make  sure  that  the  complexity  of  demands  are  realized  on  site,  integration  of  diverse  VWDNHKROGHUV LV QHFHVVDU\ 2QO\ WKHQ DQ urban  operation  can  respond  to  a  variety Â

Official  logos  of  the  Ministeries  of  the  Netherlands

of  agendas  and  incorporate  the  complexity  that  is  required  to  create  lively  and  diverse  urban  environments.  It  is  no  less  than  a  crucial  agenda  for  Istanbul  to  cultivate  its  messiness  into  a  fruitful  complexity  and  or-­ ganize  its  sprawl  in  integrity  and  balance. However,  to  realize  this,  all  the  depart-­ ments  of  the  city  need  to  get  familiar  with  the  politics  of  mutuality  and  understand  the  rules  of  integrating  their  singular  agen-­ das  to  each  other.  This  means  sitting  on  the  same  table  and  looking  for  potentials  in  each  other’s  aspirations.  This  is  where Â

a  quantitative  understanding  of  the  world  is  no  longer  valid  per  se,  but  qualities  also  become  part  of  the  agenda.  In  a  situation  where  they  only  integrate  their  operations  numerically,  politics  of  integration  is  not  at  stake,  since  politics  is  also  about  values.  7KDW LV ZK\ WKLV DSSURDFK FDQ RQO\ ÂżQG its  meaning  when  those  qualities  are  also  becomes  part  of  the  discussions,  replacing  their  indicators  of  success  with  not  just  how  they  do  numerically  but  also  qualitatively.  That’s  why  it  is  an  equally  important  matter  of  how  they  are  â€œMeasuring  Istanbul“. Â

Sources:  Ministeries’  Websites


Numbers translated to buildings The de-­ velopments of Mass Housing Administration of Turkey are covering vast territories in Istanbul outskirts with an aesthetic of programmatic dia-­ grams.The reasons are simple: quickly and effi-­ ciently responding to the housing demands.

16


MANAGEMENT

MEASURING ISTANBUL 3XEOLF LQYHVWPHQWV RI ,VWDQEXO DUH PDGH ZLWK quantitative concerns with a singular agenda. Qualitative management models can be a guide for city authorities to transform their measure of success and create sustainable urban qualities.


MANAGEMENT

3URMHFW IRU<HQLNDSĂ• 7UDQVIHU SRLQW GHYHORSHG E\ ,VWDQEXO 0HWURSROLWDQ 0XQLFLSDOLW\ LV PDQLIHVWHG RQ RQH VLQJOH TXDOLW\ DELOLW\ WR KRVW SHRSOH

H

2: '2 :( 0($685( success  for  our  cities?  What  is  the  vocabulary  that  we  adopt  when  talk-­ ing  about  our  physical  environments  and  what  is  our  ref-­ erence  points  to  assess  their  quali-­ ties?  The  language  of  the  measure  of  success  tells  a  lot  about  the  mind-­ set  and  the  culture  of  an  organiza-­ tion,  therefore  decisive  on  its  value  creation.  However,  seldom  it  is  questioned  and  time  invested  in  it  in  order  to  think  of  its  purposes  and  validate  its  relevance.  72.ø LV WKH PDVV KRXVLQJ DG-­ ministration  of  Turkey,  a  significant  portion  of  its  operations  are  con-­ centrated  in  Istanbul.  The  cover  of  housing  applications  brief  booklet  WKDW LV SURGXFHG E\ 72.ø PDQLIHVWV WKH JRDO RI 72.ø DV ³ housing  units  by  the  year  2023,  the  KXQGUHGWK DQQLYHUVDU\ RI WKH 5H-­

public.â€?  Short  term  plans  include  152.486  housing  units  for  the  low  income  group  and  45.293  houses  for  revenue  sharing  programs.  Construction  of  30.218  housing  units  started  simoultaneously  in  64  regions  and  protocols  have  been  signed  with  132  municipalities  for  113.072  houses  within  the  scope  of  urban  renovation. 1 In  this  tyranny  of  numbers  one  question  prevails:  what  does  it  all  mean?  Numbers  themselves  are  mean-­ ingless,  we  can  not  associate  with  them  since  we  do  not  have  refer-­ ence  points  to  judge  them,  put  another  way,  we  are  unable  to  translate  them  from  quantities  to  qualities. 2 2SHUDWLRQV RI 72.ø DQG many  other  public  authorities  of  Istanbul  are  very  quantity  based,  amounts  and  effectivity  are  the  domineering  concepts  and  success  is  measured  by  numbers. Â

1

WĆŒĹ?žĞ DĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšÄžĆŒÇ‡ ,ŽƾĆ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ? ĞǀĞůŽƉžĞŜƚ ĚžĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ dĆľĆŒĹŹÄžÇ‡Í˜ ,ŽƾĆ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ? ƉƉůĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ? ĆŒĹ?ÄžĨ͘ EÍ˜Ć‰Í˜Í— WĆŒĹ?žĞ DĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšÄžĆŒÇ‡ ,ŽƾĆ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ? ĞǀĞůŽƉžĞŜƚ ĚžĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ dĆľĆŒĹŹÄžÇ‡Í• ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎ´Í˜ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜ dŚĞ ĞŜĆ&#x;ĆŒÄž Ä?ŽŽŏ Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚ ŊƾdžƚĂƉŽĆ?Ĺ?Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ ŜƾžÄ?ÄžĆŒĆ? Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƉĹ?Ä?-­â€? ĆšĆľĆŒÄžĆ? ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉžĞŜƚ͕ ŚĂǀĹ?ĹśĹ? ŜŽ Ć?ƉĂÄ?Äž ĨŽĆŒ ƚŚĞ Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJ Ĺ˝ĆŒ ƚŚĞ ƋƾĂůĹ?Ć&#x;ÄžĆ? ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞĎŜĞĆ? ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉžĞŜƚĆ?͘

2

Íž ĹŒÄžĆŒ Ä‚ĹŻĹŻÍ• ĞǀĞŜ ƚŚĞ Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ć‰Ĺ˝Ć?Ĺ?Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ? ŽĨ žĂƚŚĞžĂĆ&#x;Ä?Ć? Ç Ĺ˝ĆŒĹŹ ĹŻĹ?ĹŹÄž ƚŚĹ?Ć?Í— Ç Äž Ä?ĞůĹ?ĞǀĞ ƚŚĞž ÄŽĆŒĆ?ƚ͕ ĂŜĚ ŽŜůLJ ĹŻÄ‚ĆšÄžĆŒ ĚŽ Ç Äž ĆšĆŒÇ‡ ƚŽ Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ç€Äž ĆšĹšÄžĹľÍ˜Íž <ŽųÄ‚ĹŹĹ˝Ç Ć?ĹŹĹ?Í• >ÄžĆ?ÇŒÄžĹŹÍ• ĂŜĚ Ĺ?ĹśĹ?ÄžĆ?ÇŒĹŹÄ‚ <ŽųÄ‚ĹŹĹ˝Ç Ć?ĹŹÄ‚Í˜ Íž'ŽĚ ĂŜĚ DĂŜ͗ tŚĂƚ /Ć? Ç€Ĺ?ĹŻÍ?Í&#x; tŚLJ /Ć? dĹšÄžĆŒÄž ^ŽžÄžĆšĹšĹ?ĹśĹ? ZÄ‚ĆšĹšÄžĆŒ ƚŚĂŜ EŽƚŚĹ?ĹśĹ?Í?Í— ĎŽĎŻ YƾĞĆ?Ć&#x;ŽŜĆ? ĨĆŒŽž 'ĆŒÄžÄ‚Ćš WĹšĹ?ĹŻĹ˝Ć?Ĺ˝Ć‰ĹšÄžĆŒĆ?͘ EÄžÇ zĹ˝ĆŒĹŹÍ— Ä‚Ć?Ĺ?Ä?Í• ĎŽĎŹĎŹĎłÍ˜ ϲϳ͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

3 Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ƚĞĹ?Ĺś Ć?ĆľĹ?Ĺ?ÄžĆ?ĆšĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś ĹšĹ?Ć? Ć?ƉĞĞÄ?Ĺš ŽŜ ĨĆŒÄžÄžÄšŽž ƚŚĂƚ Íž/Ćš Ĺ?Ć? ŚŽƉĞ-­â€? ĹŻÄžĆ?Ć? ƚŽ ĚĞÄ?ĂƚĞ Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš ĨƾŜĚĂžĞŜƚĂů ǀĂůƾĞ ŊƾĚĹ?ĞžĞŜƚĆ? Ä?ƾƚ Ĺ?Ĩ ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÄž Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ĺś Ä‚Ĺ?Ĺ?ĆŒÄžÄžĹľÄžĹśĆš ŽŜ Ä?ÄžĆŒĆšÄ‚Ĺ?Ĺś Ĺ?ŽĂůĆ? ĂŜĚ ǀĂůƾĞĆ? ŽŜÄž Ä?Ä‚Ĺś Ä‚ĆŒĹ?ƾĞ ĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜĂůůLJ Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš ƚŚĞ žĞĂŜĆ? Ä?LJ Ç ĹšĹ?Ä?Ĺš ƚŚĞĆ?Äž Ĺ˝Ä?ĹŠÄžÄ?Ć&#x;ǀĞĆ? žĂLJ Ä?Äž Ä‚ĆŠÄ‚Ĺ?ĹśÄžÄšÍ˜Í&#x; dŚĞ Ç ĹšŽůÄž ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ä‚ĆŒĆ&#x;Ä?ĹŻÄž Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš Ä‚ĆŒĹ?ĆľĹ?ĹśĹ? ĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜĂůůLJ Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš ƚŚĞ žĞĂŜĆ? ƚŽ ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĹŻĹ?njĞ ŽƾĆŒ Ä?ŽŜĆ?ĞŜĆ?ĆľĆ?ÄžĆ?͘ Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ƚĞĹ?Ŝ͕ ĹŻÄ?ÄžĆŒĆšÍ• ĂŜĚ ĹŻÄ?ÄžĆŒĆš Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ƚĞĹ?ĹśÍ˜ ÍžKĹś &ĆŒÄžÄžÄšŽžÍ˜Í&#x; /ĚĞĂĆ? ĂŜĚ KƉĹ?ĹśĹ?ŽŜĆ?͘ EÄžÇ zĹ˝ĆŒĹŹÍ— DĹ˝ÄšÄžĆŒĹś >Ĺ?Ä?ĆŒÄ‚ĆŒÇ‡Í• ϭϾϾϰ͘ ĎŻĎ­Í˜ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜ 4

/Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ DƾŜĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƉĂůĹ?ĆšÇ‡Í˜ ^ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĆšÄžĹ?Ĺ?Ä? WĹŻÄ‚Ĺś ώϏϭϏͲ ĎŽĎŹĎ­Ď°Í˜ /Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾůÍ— /Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ DƾŜĹ?Ä?Ĺ?ƉĂůĹ?ƚLJ͕ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŹÍ˜ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜


In  f act,  i t  i s  s eldom  t hat  o nly  n um-­ bers  can  measure  true  success.  Numbers  gain  meaning  as  long  as  they  serve  to  solve  a  certain  quali-­ tiative  issue  and  for  public  organi-­ zations  that  deal  with  the  city,  it  is  those  intangible  assets  that  play  a  central  role  in  value  creation.  The  assets  that  can  be  articulated  by  words  rather  than  numbers. This  does  not  mean  that  city  authorities  in  Istanbul  don’t  have  values  and  visions.  Istanbul  Met-­ ropolitan  Municipality  (IBB)  for-­ mulated  its  vision  as  â€œThe  leading  and  pioneering  municipality  which  makes  Istanbul,  the  apparent  face  and  opening  gate  of  Turkey  to  the  world,  a  sustainable  city  with  a  high  quality  of  life  by  patronizing  its  unique  heritage.â€? 2  This  as  well  as  all  the  visions  indicates  long-­ term  goals  of  the  city,  underlin-­ ing  the  values  of  the  organization  and  they  do  so  by  formulating  in-­ tangible  goals  in  order  to  deliver  sustainable,  long-­term  qualities.  Numerical  goals  respond  to  the  basic  demands  such  as  the  num-­ ber  of  social  housing  needed  or  the  length  of  water  infrastructure  required.  In  contrast,  intangible  as-­ sets  produce  value  through  chains  of  cause-­and-­effect  relationships  involving  two  or  three  intermediate  stages.  For  instance,  the  ambition  in  the  vision  â€œopening  gate  of  Tur-­ key  to  the  worldâ€?  is  a  qualitiative Â

figure  that  implicitly  assumes  that  being  an  opening  gate  to  the  world  will  strengthen  the  global  signifi-­ cance  of  the  city,  which  will  attract  international  attention  via  events  VXFK DV 2O\PSLFV RU JOREDO LQYHVW-­ ments  and  that  in  turn  contribute  to  the  social  diversity  of  the  city  as  well  as  providing  economical  ro-­ bustness  to  deliver  better  services  to  the  citizens. However  the  problems  arise  when  qualitative  intangible  mean-­ ings  of  the  vision  are  translated  to  the  actions  to  realize  them  together  with  the  short-­term  goals.  In  other  words,  the  vital  issue  is  how  one  manages  his  resources  in  order  to  realize  his  intentions. 3  IBB  and  all  the  other  public  and  private  agencies  that  take  part  of  the  management  of  Istanbul  suf-­ fer  from  reducing  their  visionary  ambitions  to  mere  numbers  when  translating  them  into  actions.  IBB  as  well  as  all  the  local  municipali-­ ties  that  take  part  in  city  creation  has  the  same  strategic  manage-­ ment  plan  that  involves  4  layers  of  information  that  determines  how  they  function.  First  of  these  layers  is  the  vision  statement  of  the  insti-­ tute.  This  is  usually  formulated  as  a  paragraph  that  communicates  the  largest  values  and  aspirations  of  the  institute  as  a  whole.  It  is  placed  in  the  center  of  the  strategy  while  the  rest  of  the  3  layers  are  devised Â

from  it  sequentially  and  they  are  re-­ spectively  named  strategic  goals,  strategic  objectives  and  actions.  Strategy  is  generally  a  branching  process  originating  from  the  vision  statement  and  ending  with  actions  that  are  controlled  by  numerical  in-­ dicators  of  success  and  linked  to  a  directorate  under  the  organization  to  execute  it.  In  short,  in  an  ideal  situation  where  each  directorate  meets  their  numerical  tasks  that  are  put  in  front  of  them,  the  ide-­ als  of  the  organization  supposed  to  be  realized  naturally.  However,  that  is  not  how  things  work  out.  By  only  meeting  numerical  goals,  an  organization  can  realize  its  short-­ term  objectives  that  have  direct  consequences  but  not  the  long-­ term  objectives  with  indirect  con-­ sequences.  The  reason  is,  visions  are  qualitative  matters  that  can  not  be  captured  by  numbers  and  this  strategy  falls  short  of  translating  them  into  meaningful  actions. In  his  book  â€˜0DQDJHPHQW LQ Words’  Sir  Terry  Leahy  emphasiz-­ es  the  importance  and  difficulty  of  balancing  short-­term  and  long-­term  plans  for  institutions:  â€œTo  do  some-­ thing  to  plug  a  short  term  need,  to  get  through  a  week  or  a  month  throws  a  company  off  balance  and  postpone  the  long  term  goals  to  next  time.  The  next  time  comes,  the  pressures  are  still  the  same  and  another  short  term  solution  is Â

6RXUFHV 0XQLFLSDOLW\ 6WUDWHJLF 3ODQV Hurriyet  News


MANAGEMENT chosen(...)  For  many  organizations  setting  long-­term  goals  may  seem  as  something  of  a  luxury  as  they  are  constantly  under  pressures  to  deliver  the  short  term.â€? 5  This  situation  is  very  similar  to  WKH RQH RI 72.ø %HLQJ RQH RI WKH significant  players  amongst  the  SXEOLF DXWKRULWLHV LQ ,VWDQEXO 72.ø is  proactively  building  the  city.  However,  their  developments  all  around  the  city  are  an  example  of  the  chronicle  short-­term  thinking  in  the  p ublic  d omain.  T here  i s  a  s trong  pressure  for  cheap  housing  by  re-­ newing  the  existing  housing  stock,  which  is  under  threat  of  destruction  in  case  of  an  earthquake.  These  are  very  serious  pressures  that  72.ø LV GHDOLQJ ZLWK DQG VKRXOG QRW be  underestimated.  In  that  respect,  72.ø LV DJUHVVLYHO\ DFTXLULQJ ODQG and  building  large  quantities  of  housing  for  the  minimum  cost  as  well  as  being  stakeholder  in  vari-­

Happiness  is  a  warm  gun  7ZR RI 72.ø RIIL-­ FLDOV VHHPLQJ YHU\ FRQWHQW DERXW KRZ WKH\ GHDO ZLWK PHJDFLW\ SUHVVXUHV

THE VITAL ISSUE FOR CITY CREATION IS HOW ONE MANAGES HIS RESOURCES IN ORDER TO REALIZE HIS INTENTIONS.

ous  upper-­class  housing  projects  in  order  to  finance  itself.  Added  on  top  of  each  other,  that  becomes  a  significant  portion  of  the  new  de-­ velopments  of  Istanbul.  With  this  VWUDWHJ\ 72.ø LV UHVSRQGLQJ WR WKH short-­term  pressures  successfully  by  numerically  doing  an  excep-­ tional  job  of  producing  large  num-­ bers  of  housing  for  the  minimum  resources.  However,  lack  of  long-­ term  strategy  which  might  have  in-­ cluded  qualitative  considerations  such  as  pursuing  integration  with  the  rest  of  city  operations,  pursu-­ ing  a  social  agenda,  is  justified  by  the  enormity  of  the  pressures 6  and  at  the  current  conditions  it  is  seen  as  a  luxury,  however  when  the  next  time  comes,  pressures  are  still  go-­ ing  to  be  there  and  another  short-­ term  solution  will  be  chosen,  only  to  be  invalid  again.  During  our  interview  with  the  head  of  Toki  Istanbul  Implementa-­

tion  Directorate  Niyazi  Ă–zdemir,  he  shared  his  observation  that  the  concept  of  an  â€œold  buildingâ€?  in  Am-­ sterdam  is  100  years  old  whereas  it  is  30  years  old  in  Istanbul.  He  then  shared  that  his  prediction  for  WKH OLIH VSDQ RI 72.ø GHYHORSPHQWV that  he  is  a  part  of  is  50  years 7.  However,  to  make  a  more  credible  prediction,  they  can  be  compared  to  similar  examples  from  the  past.  In  France,  during  1950s  and  1960s  large  social  housing  developments  were  built,  namely  Grands  En-­ sembles 9HU\ VLPLODU WR 72.ø GH-­ velopments,  these  social  housing  projects  were  built  under  high  pres-­ sure  of  the  post-­war  period.  They  were  massive  in  size  and  built  with Â

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>ĞĂŚLJ͕ dÄžĆŒĆŒÇ‡Í˜ DĂŜĂĹ?ĞžĞŜƚ Ĺ?Ĺś Ď­ĎŹ tĹ˝ĆŒÄšĆ?͘ >ŽŜÄšŽŜÍ— ZĂŜĚŽž ,ŽƾĆ?Äž ĆľĆ?Ĺ?ŜĞĆ?Ć?Í• ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŽÍ˜ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

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WĆŒĹ?žĞ DĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšÄžĆŒ ŽĨ hĹśĹ?ƚĞĚ <Ĺ?ĹśĹ?ÄšŽžÍ• Ä‚Ç€Ĺ?Äš Ä‚ĹľÄžĆŒŽŜ Ä‚ĆŒĹ?ƾĞĆ? ƚŚĂƚ žĞĂĆ?ĆľĆŒĹ?ĹśĹ? Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆš Ć‰ÄžĆŒĨŽĆŒĹľÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž Ä?LJ ĹšĹ˝Ç ĹľĆľÄ?Ĺš žŽŜĞLJ LJŽƾ Ć?ƉĞŜĚ ŽŜ ƚŚĞ Ć?ÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?Ä?ÄžĆ? Ĺ?Ć? Ç ĆŒŽŜĹ? ƉŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä‚ĹŻ ƚŚĹ?Ŝŏ-­â€? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Í• Ä?ƾƚ Ĺ?Ĩ LJŽƾ ƚŚĹ?Ŝŏ Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš Ĺ˝ĆšĹšÄžĆŒ ƚŚĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć? ĆŒÄžĹŻÄ‚ĆšÄžÄš ƚŽ Ç ÄžĹŻĹŻ Ä?Äž-­â€? Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Í• Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺš Ä‚Ć? Ä?ŽžžƾŜĹ?ƚLJ͕ ǀĂůƾĞĆ? ĂŜĚ ĞŜǀĹ?ĆŒŽŜžÄžĹśĆšÍ• ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÄž Ä‚ĆŒÄž žƾÄ?Ĺš žŽĆŒÄž Ĺ˝Ć‰Ć‰Ĺ˝ĆŒĆšƾŜĹ?Ć&#x;ÄžĆ? ƚŽ Ä?ƾůĆ&#x;Ç€Ä‚ĆšÄžÍ˜ ,Äž ƚŚĞŜ Ä‚ĆŒĹ?ƾĞĆ? ƚŚĂƚ Ĺ?Ĩ Ç Äž Ä?ŽžÄ?Ĺ?ŜĞ ƚŚĹ?Ć? ĹŹĹ?ŜĚ ŽĨ ƉŽůĹ?Ć&#x;Ä?Ä‚ĹŻ ƚŚĹ?ŜŏĹ?ĹśĹ? Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ ƚŚĞ žĞĂŜĆ? ŽĨ Ĺ?ŜĨŽĆŒĹľÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ĆŒÄžÇ€ŽůƾĆ&#x;ŽŜ ƚŚĂƚ Ĺ?Ć? ƚĂŏĹ?ĹśĹ? ƉůĂÄ?Ğ͕ ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÄž Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ĺś Ĺ?ĹśÄ?ĆŒÄžÄšĹ?Ä?ĹŻÄž Ĺ˝Ć‰Ć‰Ĺ˝ĆŒĆšƾŜĹ?ƚLJ ƚŽ ĆŒÄžĹľÄ‚ĹŹÄž ƉƾÄ?ĹŻĹ?Ä? Ć?ÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?Ä?ÄžĆ? ĂŜĚ ĆŒÄžĹľÄ‚ĹŹÄž Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?Ğ͘ &Ĺ˝ĆŒ Ä‚Ĺś ĞdžĂžƉůĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ä‚Ć‰Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ä‚Ä?Ĺš Ć?ĞĞ ÍšDÄžĹ?Ä‚Ä?Ĺ?ƚLJͲ&Ĺ?Ä?Ä‚Ć&#x;ŽŜÍ•  DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹśÄ?Ğ͛ Ä?ĹšÄ‚Ć‰ĆšÄžĆŒ ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ä?ŽŽŏ͘

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/Ĺś Ä‚ŜŽĆšĹšÄžĆŒ Ĺ?ĹśĆšÄžĆŒÇ€Ĺ?ÄžÇ Í• Ç ĹšÄžĹś Ç Äž ŚĂǀĞ Ä‚Ć?ŏĞĚ Ä‚Ä?ŽƾĆš ƚŚĞ ĹŻĹ?ĨÄžͲ Ć?ƉĂŜ ĞdžƉĞÄ?ƚĂŜÄ?LJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĹśÄžÇ Ä¨Ĺ˝Ĺ˝Äš Ç ĹšŽůÄžĆ?Ä‚ĹŻÄž ƉŽĹ?Ŝƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ-­â€? žĞŜƚ ƚŽ Ĺ?ĆšĆ? Ä?ŽžžĹ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜÄžĆŒĆ?Í• Ç Äž ŚĂǀĞ ĆŒÄžÄ?ÄžĹ?ǀĞĚ ƚŚĞ Ć?ĂžĞ Ä‚Ĺś-­â€? Ć?Ç ÄžĆŒÍ— ϹϏ Ç‡ÄžÄ‚ĆŒĆ?͘


72.ø LV RQH VLJQLILFDQW FDVH RI how  Istanbul  is  managed,  but  not  the  only  actor.  In  Istanbul,  there  are  several  urban  actors:  national  government  based  Minister  of  En-­ vironment  and  Urbanism,  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality  and  its  VXEVLGLDU\ FRPSDQLHV 72.ø DQG Local  Municipalities,  all  have  au-­ thorities  of  varying  forms  on  the  land  and  together  they  form  an  unarranged  entity  that  is  when  ob-­ served  overall  has  a  quantitative  strategy  for  city  creation  and  prob-­ lems  of  this  strategy  applies  to  the  entire  entity.  In  other  words,  what  ZH REVHUYH LQ 72.ø DSSOLHV WR WKH entire  system. 6HYHUDO \HDUV DJR 5REHUW .D-­ plan  and  David  Norton  adressed  this  not  very  unique  management  challenge  with  the  strategic  man-­ agement  system  they  have  devel-­ oped:  Balanced  Scorecard.  They  have  developed  it  for  organizations Â

IN AN IDEAL SITUATION WHERE EACH DIRECTORATE MEETS THEIR NUMERICAL TASKS THAT ARE PUT IN FRONT OF THEM, THE IDEALS OF THE ORGANIZATION SUPPOSED TO BE REALIZED NAT-­ URALLY. HOWEVER, THAT IS NOT HOW THINGS WORK OUT.

8

ĆľĆ‰ÄžĆŒĆ?Í• <ÄžŜŜLJ͘ Íž ÄžĆ?Ĺ?Ĺ?ĹśĹ?ĹśĹ? ^Ĺ˝Ä?Ĺ?Ä‚ĹŻ >Ĺ?ĨĞ͗ dŚĞ hĆŒÄ?Ä‚ĹśĹ?Ć?Ĺľ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ 'ĆŒÄ‚ĹśÄšĆ? ĹśĆ?ĞžÄ?ĹŻÄžĆ?͘Í&#x; :ŽƾĆŒĹśÄ‚ĹŻ ŽŜ DĹ˝ÄšÄžĆŒĹś ĆŒÄ?ĹšĹ?ƚĞÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄž ĂŜĚ hĆŒ-­â€? Ä?Ä‚ĹśĹ?Ć?Ĺľ Ď­Í˜^Ć‰ĆŒĹ?ĹśĹ? ͞ώϏϭϏͿÍ— ϾϹͲϭώϭ͘ tÄžÄ?͘

9

<ĂƉůĂŜ͕ ZĹ˝Ä?ÄžĆŒĆš ^͕͘ ĂŜĚ Ä‚Ç€Ĺ?Äš W͘ EĹ˝ĆŒĆšŽŜ͘ dŚĞ Ä‚ĹŻÄ‚ĹśÄ?ĞĚ ^Ä?Ĺ˝ĆŒÄžÄ?Ä‚ĆŒÄšÍ— dĆŒÄ‚ĹśĆ?ĹŻÄ‚Ć&#x;ĹśĹ? ^ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĆšÄžĹ?LJ Ĺ?ŜƚŽ Ä?Ć&#x;ŽŜ͘ Ĺ˝Ć?ĆšŽŜÍ• D Í— ,Ä‚ĆŒÇ€Ä‚ĆŒÄš ĆľĆ?Ĺ?ŜĞĆ?Ć? ^Ä?ĹšŽŽůÍ• ϭϾϾϲ͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

10 /Ĺś ĨÄ‚Ä?ƚ͕ ƚŚĞ Ä?ƾůĆšĆľĆŒÄž ŽĨ ÍžĹŠĆľĆŒÇ‡Íž Ĺ?Ĺś ƚŚĞ Ä‚ĆŒÄ?ĹšĹ?ƚĞÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄž Ä‚Ä?ĂĚĞžĹ?Ä‚ Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ĺś ĂƉƉůĹ?Ä?Ä‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ ƚŚĹ?Ć? Ä?ƾůĆšĆľĆŒÄžÍ˜ /Ĺś Ä‚ ĹŠĆľĆŒÇ‡ Ĺ?ĚĞĂĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž ÄšĹ?Ć?Ä?ĆľĆ?Ć?ĞĚ͕ ǀĂůƾĞĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝Ć‰Ĺ˝Ć?ĞĚ ĂŜĚ Ĺ?ĚĞĂůĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ć?ĹšÄ‚ĆŒÄžÄšÍ˜ dĹšĹ?Ć? Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ĺś ĞŜǀĹ?-­â€? ĆŒŽŜžÄžĹśĆš Ç ĹšÄžĆŒÄž ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÄž Ĺ?Ć? Ä‚Ĺś Ĺ?ŜƚĞŜĆ?Äž ƋƾĂůĹ?ƚĂĆ&#x;ǀĞ Ä?ŽžžƾŜĹ?Ä?Ä‚-­â€? Ć&#x;ŽŜ ƚŽ ĞǀĂůƾĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ Ć‰ÄžĆŒĨŽĆŒĹľÄ‚ĹśÄ?Äž ŽĨ Ä‚Ĺś Ä‚ĆŒÄ?ĹšĹ?ÄžÄ?ĆšĆľĆŒÄ‚ĹŻ Ć‰ĆŒĹ˝ÄšĆľÄ?ĆšÍ˜

technical,  numerical  concerns  and  successfully  meet  those  considera-­ tions.  However,  due  to  the  lack  of  a  more  holistic  approach  to  the  city,  which  would  create  longer  lasting  values,  they  soon  became  horrific  suburbs  detached  from  the  urban  areas  and  proved  to  be  failures  in  terms  of  the  social  aspects  of  those  HQYLURQPHQWV 2QO\ \HDUV DIWHU their  erection  they  became  envi-­ ronments  in  which  no  body  wanted  to  live  anymore  and  they  started  to  be  demolished. 7  Lack  of  long-­ term  qualities  in  the  urban  devel-­ opments  and  measuring  success  merely  by  numbers  created  results  in  the  short  term  but  wasteful  in-­ vestments  in  the  long  term.

that  value  creation  is  central  to  their  operations  and  they  have  in-­ troduced  nonfinancial  and  nonnu-­ merical  metrics  for  them  to  meas-­ ure  their  success. 9  Innermost  idea  is  to  intensify  the  communication  of  ideas  within  the  organization,  re-­ placing  the  culture  of  quantities. 10 Balanced  Scorecard  is  not  one-­ size-­fits-­all  strategy,  it  is  developed  as  a  series  of  principles  for  any  type  of  public  and  private  organisa-­ tions.  Different  organizations  have  to  develop  their  own  strategies  to  apply  this  tool.  Here,  various  appli-­ cations  of  balanced  scorecard  are  discussed  as  examples  of  how  oth-­ er  organizations  developed  tech-­ niques  to  better  translate  their  vi-­ sions  to  actions.  In  three  key  steps  of  the  process,  the  principles  of  the  strategy  are  exemplified  together  with  what  would  it  possibly  mean  for  Istanbul.


MANAGEMENT

22


The Great Reunion Managers of Municipality subsidiairiy companies comes together to discuss if they are in coordination with the budget plans. Nothing else is talked about except for numbers. Then, they are spread out once again, to execute their tasks totally in isolation from each other.

23


MANAGEMENT Translating the Vision Lofty statements such as “an empowered organization”, “a pio-­ neering municipality” or “being a global city” don’t translate easily into operational terms that provide useful guides to action at the lo-­ cal level. The authorities who has to execute actions to realize these statements don’t usually have the same understandings of these concepts, let alone being aware of them properly. This is one of the challenges in front of public and private enterprises to act in bal-­ ance with all levels of its organiza-­ tion and subunits. 2QH RI WKH FRPSDQLHV WKDW XVHG scorecard encountered a similar gap while applying it. The senior executive group had reached an aggreement on the overall strat-­ egy: “to provide superior service to targeted customers.” However when formulating the measures for the customer-­perspective por-­ tion of strategy, it became appar-­ ent that although the 25 senior ex-­ ecutive agreed on the words of the strategy, each one had a different definition of superior service and targeted customers.9 To have their balanced scorecard it was neces-­ sary for them to write down the vi-­ sion of the entire organization, its yearly goals to achieve that, and its subunits’ responsibilities. The exercise of developing operational measures forced the managers to sit on the table, clarify those mean-­ ings and arrive at a consensus and clear understanding of what the or-­ ganization aspires to be and how to reach there. In Istanbul, since it is a political entity with multiple actors there is a multiplicity of visions by several authorities. Local municipalities, Metropolitan Municipality and the National government have differ-­ ent visions and future expecta-­ WLRQV IURP WKH FLW\ DV ZHOO DV 72.ø and local municipalities. However, there are also many possible com-­ mon grounds for them, “heritage” and “human oriented service” are two statements that are stated by several authorities frequently. Ar-­ riving to some degree of consensus amongst the shared values and fur-­ ther clarification of their meanings are necessary for the authorities

24


6RXUFHV $. SDUWL YL]\RQ 6WUDWHJLF 3ODQV RI 5HVSHFWLYH0XQLFLSDOLWLHV 72.ø SXEOLFDWLRQV %LPWDú :HEVLWH

25


MANAGEMENT

6RXUFHV ,VWDQEXO %Â \Â NĂşHKLU %HOHGL\HVL 6WUDWHMLN 3ODQ &LW\ RI /RQGRQ 6WUDWHJLF 3ODQ

6WUDWHJLF 3ODQ %RRN RI Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality

Overdetermined,  Operations  based,  Numerical

to  have  a  more  balanced  manage-­ ment  and  coordination  amongst  the  actors  ensuring  that  they  reach  to  common  targets  and  in  balance  with  each  other.  This  would  give  at  least  a  unification  of  the  values  on  top  of  the  system  that  may  find  dif-­ ferent  physicalities  under  different  units.  For  instance,  the  fact  that  72.ø LV GHDOLQJ ZLWK VRFLDO KRXV-­ LQJ ZKLOH ø6.ø LV GHDOLQJ ZLWK ZDWHU infrastructure  of  the  city,  is  not  an  obstacle  in  front  of  them  to  have  common  visions  such  as  better-­ ment  of  basic  services  that  are  the  rights  of  each  citizen.  After  all,  this  would  make  them  realize  that  they  are  players  of  the  same  team,  only  with  different  roles.  Business  Planning Most  organizations  have  sepa-­ rate  procedures  and  organizational Â

units  for  strategic  planning  and  for  budgeting,  a s  a  r esult,  t hey  b ecome  two  different  documents  detached  from  each  other.  In  their  monthly  and  quarterly  meetings,  manag-­ ers  only  discuss  about  the  budget  because  periodic  reviews  focus  on  comparison  of  actual  and  budgeted  results  of  the  operations.  Strategic  objectives  and  therefore  long-­term,  qualitative  matters  becomes  off  the  topic  forcing  them  only  to  focus  on  short-­term  goals  that  are  numerical  evaluation  of  their  operations  and  the  finances  related  to  it. The  very  exercise  of  creating  balanced  scorecard  forces  manag-­ ers  to  integrate  their  strategic  plan-­ ning  and  budgeting  processes  to  each  other  by  adding  strategy  also  as  the  topic  of  their  meetings.  This  opens  up  the  validity  of  their  pro-­ cesses  to  discussion  regardless  of Â

their  financial  alignment  with  the  EXGJHW SODQV 3XW DQRWKHU ZD\ they  are  required  to  prove  how  they  are  contributing  to  the  cities’  aspirations  on  top  of  how  they  are  doing  numerically. 2QH H[DPSOH RI LW LV D SULYDWH bank  which  was  a  composition  of  more  than  70  different  initiatives.  This  multiplicity  of  units  were  in-­ tended  to  create  a  more  competi-­ tive  institutions  but  they  were  in-­ adequately  integrated  into  the  overall  strategy.  After  building  their  balanced  scorecard,  managers  dropped  many  of  those  programs  and  consolidated  others  into  initia-­ tives  that  were  better  aligned  with  the  company’s  strategic  objectives.  If  they  were  only  talking  about  num-­ bers,  they  would  have  never  real-­ ized  that  meeting  set  numbers  and  reaching  to  the  strategic  objectives Â


6WUDWHJLF 3ODQ %RRNOHW RI City  of  London

Introduction

The planning cycle

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Bold, Â Qualitative, Â Verbal

don’t  necessarily  go  hand  in  hand.  In  the  old  system  as  long  as  a  unit  does  numerically  fine,  it  would  be  there,  however  the  tone  of  the  dis-­ cussion  became  different  when  the  qualities  and  value  creation  also  became  part  of  the  discussion,  re-­ sulting  in  constantly  reorganizing  themselves  to  reach  their  shared  vision. IBB  has  29  subsidiary  compa-­ nies  on  top  of  more  than  70  indi-­ vidual  departments.  The  manager  who  is  responsible  of  their  integra-­ tion  of  the  IBB  by  financially  con-­ trolling  their  progresses  holds  the  annual  meetings  with  the  subsidi-­ ary  companies.  This  avoids  con-­ fronting  their  qualitative  produc-­ tions  to  the  overall  aspirations  the  city  because  that  is  not  part  of  the  discussion.  An  example  for  that  is  72.ø DQG .ø37$Ăš DUH HVVHQWLDOO\

responsible  of  the  same  tasks  for  the  city,  however  they  operate  in-­ dependent  from  each  other,  this  results  in  not  only  avoiding  them  to  learn  from  each  other  but  also  creates  a  fragmented  urban  devel-­ opment.  Changing  the  tones  of  the  discussion  and  linking  budgets  to  strategic  goals  is  a  must  in  order  to  reevaluate  and  rediscuss  subu-­ nits  organizations  of  the  city  but  also  to  create  sustained  qualities  for  the  city  by  pursuing  its  strategic  objectives  actively.  In  that  picture  72.øœV FRPIRUWDEOH SRVLWLRQ UHO\LQJ on  the  numbers  would  be  opened  up  to  debate  and  the  meetings  would  have  a  more  qualitative  tone  thank  quantitative  one. Communicating  and  Linking The  communication  of  the  objec-­ tives  up  and  down  the  organization Â

is  also  a  crucical  aspect  of  qualita-­ tive  management.  Conventionally,  the  ones  on  the  top  make  the  stra-­ tegic  plan  for  the  organization  and  determines  each  and  every  unit’s  and  individuals’  role  in  the  gen-­ eral  strategy  ensuring  their  over-­ all  unity.  Then  the  individuals  of  the  organization  are  only  informed  about  their  role,  shrinking  their  world  to  their  singular  goals.  When  a  scorecard  is  disseminated  up  and  down  the  organizational  chart,  strategy  becomes  a  tool  available  to  everyone.  Thus,  subunits  know  what  they  are  contributing  to  in  the  general  organization  and  indi-­ vidual  employees  understand  how  their  own  productivity  supports  the  overall  strategy.  That  is  an  impor-­ tant  step  to  share  the  responsibility  vertically  between  the  institutions  of  the  city  as  well  as  amongst  the Â


MANAGEMENT

individuals  within  the  institutions. 2QH FRPSDQ\ GHYHORSHG D WHFK-­ nique  to  empower  individuals  to  set  goals  for  themselves  what  were  consistent  with  the  organization’s.  It  created  a  small,  fold-­up  personal  scorecard  that  people  could  carry  in  their  pockets.  The  scorecard  contained  three  levels  of  informa-­ tion.  The  first  one  describing  the  objectives  of  the  corporate,  sec-­ ond  one  is  the  translated  ones  of  those  for  each  business  unit,  the  third  level  was  to  be  determined  by  the  individuals  themselves.  This  forced  them  to  articulate  which  of  their  own  objectives  would  be  con-­ sistent  with  the  business  unitand  corporate  objectives,  as  well  as  what  initiatives  they  would  take  to  achieve  their  objectives.  This  encourages  the  individuals  to  be  more  engaged  with  their  roles  thinking  qualitatively,  rather  than  merely  focusing  to  meet  numerical  goals  that  are  brought  top  down  by  their  superiors.  This  means  IBB  should  avoid  overly  determined  actions  to  real-­ ize  its  strategic  objectives  and  in-­ stead  focus  on  communicating  the  main  ideas  better  with  the  other  XQLWV VXFK DV 72.ø ORFDO PXQLFL-­ palities  or  subsidiary  companies,  the  ones  who  have  to  execute  them.  This  would  push  the  respon-­ sibility  downwards  in  the  organi-­ zation  and  the  units  would  take  a Â

the  Bureucracy  7KH GRFXPHQW UHTXHVWLQJ SHUPLVVLRQ WR YLVLW WKH VWDWH RZQHG SRUW +D\GDUSDVD /LPDQĂ• in  Istanbul  as  part  of  the  field  trip  for  this  work,  spent  a  week  in  the  administrative  bodies  of  Istanbul.  After  circulated  around  numerous  institutes,  it  was  full  of  stamps,  checks  and  signatures,  exemplifying  the  inability  of   the   higher  officials  to  give  responsibility  to  the  front-­line  officials.


more active role in realizing the bold objectives of IBB. Instead of controlling by numerical goals, the ideas are shared with them and the subunits are let to figure out which meaningul actions to take in order to realize these goals. This scenario does not just ap-­ ply amongst the institutions but has implications amongst the in-­ dividuals within those institutions. Ankara centered administration of 72.ø GHWHUPLQHV WKH WDUJHWV IRU ,V-­ tanbul implementation directorate and Istanbul manager distributes the tasks within the directorate to the relevant individuals. Top down character of the decision giving mechanism is already reflected on the name by the word “implementa-­ tion”. Decision giving power is con-­ centrated in Ankara leaving the of Istanbul branch with some numeri-­ cal targets to meet, unaware of what he is contributing in the long term. This process shrinks his worldview to a numerical and con-­ trollable perspective and avoids him to think and act qualitatively. Same applies as you go down the organisation, leaving the front line officials with simplified tasks to accomplish during their working hours, sucking the creativity and gumption from their mentality. This is “the mentality of an official” with the popular saying in Turkey, de-­ scribing a personality who does his 11

/Ĩ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ĂŶLJ ĚŽƵďƚƐ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂƟďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƐƵĐŚ ĂŶ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŶ͕ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ƌĂĚŝĐĂů ĞdžƉĞƌŝ-­‐ ŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵŝŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ƐĞĞ ͞dŚĞ ŽƐƐ tŚŽ ƌĞĂŬƐ ůů ƚŚĞ ZƵůĞƐ͘͟ KĚĞtŝƌĞ͘ E͘Ɖ͕͘ Ŷ͘Ě͘ tĞď͘ ϭϳ :ƵŶĞ ϮϬϭϯ͘ фŚƩƉ͗ͬ​ͬŽĚĞǁŝƌĞ͘ĐŽŵͬϱϯϴϱϵͬƚŚĞͲďŽƐƐͲǁŚŽͲďƌĞĂŬƐͲ ĂůůͲƚŚĞͲƌƵůĞƐ͘Śƚŵůх͘

job soullessly and half-­heartedly. However if these front-­line em-­ ployees would be treated as in-­ dividuals who are ready to take initiative and responsibilities by communicating the wider goals of the city rather than their singular objectives, they would be urging for betterment of their environ-­ ments. This would change their job description from “delivering 300 cheap housing units in 9 months of time” to “creating a livable envi-­ ronment for the economically dis-­ advantaged with the least usage of resources”. Clearly, it is more likely for the second official to col-­ laborate with an architect for in-­ stance 11… Communication within the or-­ ganization is the key incentive for long-­term, sustained qualities in the environment and without it the organization as a whole is unable to navigate to the future and create sustainable values for itself. That is not a luxury but a necessity. Since it is the front-­line individu-­ als who are the ones to execute the programs of the ones of the top, their worldview determines the qualities of their creations. In other words, vision statements and strategic objectives are nothing be-­ yond good intentions unless they are shared by the organization as a whole. Because the an organisa-­ tion is by definition is an entity.

Command-­order relationships aslo keeps the entity as a singular whole but with losses in how the information circulates within it. The command and order relationship engulfs visions because as you go further away from the administra-­ tion to the management the goals become numerical, shrinking the world of the ones who execute it to what they can measure and con-­ trol. As the perspective of individu-­ als narrow, they become detached from the wider goals of the institu-­ tion and therefore lack the actions that would realize the visions, the only asset to create longer lasting values. However, to reorganise these re-­ lationships between individuals is not just a managemental challenge but also a cultural one. Because this is fundamentally not about the ones on the bottom of the organi-­ sation but on the top. Because this requires a different type of leader-­ ship, one of not parental protec-­ tionism and unproductive authority but rather one of trust and sharing the responsibilities. It requires a culture of collaboration, rather than a culture of “The One Man Show”


CULTURE

THE ONE MAN SHOW


Decision giving mechanisms of Istanbul are hierarchical, the leadership figures are parental. This cultural phenomenon effectively avoids both vertical sharing of the responsibilities and horizontal formation of collaborations. As a result, The situation is either way absolute submission or infinite conflict. Istanbul is the consequence of these interactions.


CULTURE

Niyazi Özdemir General Director of TOKI Istanbul Implementation Directorate


A food seller

Bayram Ali Çakiroglu General Manager of Istanbul Food Wholesales Directorate


CULTURE

Erdal Gemici Haydarpasa Port General Manager


Olga Sankova

Niyazi Özdemir

Onur Can Tepe


CULTURE

Stefano Graziani

Necati Demirci Istanbul Wholesale Market Deputy Manager

Banu Özkaya Istanbul Wholesale Market Foreign Relations Manager

Andres Lopez


A warehouse in Haydarpasa Port


CULTURE


The One Man Show Modernity in Turkey has been initiated by a revolutionist, avantgarde group who problematized the Ottoman empire and its cultural foundations thus founded the Republic with strong and convincing arguments treating the nation as a tabula rasa conditon. This radical idea originated in Atatürk’s mind and quickly convinced its followers and collaborators, eventually the entire nation has been reinvented on the persona of one man. One can argue that in fact there has never been any revolution in terms of how this society organized itself; one man and his infinite responsibilities for the people who made him that specific man. This pattern of human behaviour can be followed in the entire nation from as small as how a family is managed, to as large as how a state is managed and all the rest in between. Captains and their ships... One should not confuse it with a tradition. This behaviour is not a tradition, tradition is artificial. Traditions has rules that some of them are counter-intuitive, they are beyond the urges, they demand adaptation of the individuals to partly give away their impulses and adopt new behaviours. One man show is not a tradition, it is what any person with some leadership skills does the first. It is instinctive, addictive and what’s more, it is normal. However, the difference is made by abnormals who manage to build institutions out of individuals, who manage to shift the level of an organization from one state to another by establishing rules of interaction rather than rules of authority. Then follows the tradition. Tradition is not the accumulation of information but accumulation of wisdom over long periods of times. Tradition gives the newcomers a foundation to built upon mutually with the dynamism of the youth and the experience of the old. Then leave it to the next generation when the time comes. One man show is counter tradition. One man is alone in his mind, therefore suggestive in his suppositions. That is why he is inspirational and yet, he makes inevitable mistakes. He is the control-freak. His responsibility is beyond his capacities but he is unable to cooperate, he can only operate. His authority is legitimate but unchallenged. His value system is strong but immature. He lives in hierarchy, treating his superiors exactly how he is treated by his minors, and he contently does so. He constantly and adamantly reproduces the same pattern, day in day out. You can find him in his city. You will see him designing bridges, building infrastructures, destroying neighbourhoods. He constantly mobilizes investment to spread programs and infrastructures all over the city. He has friends who are helping to achieve his best and meet his desires. He can build districts out of numbers, blocks out of gecekondus and he loves doing big things... He is obsessed with significance therefore his actions are big. He is the ultimate utopian and the grand optimist, therefore his city never stops developing. He builds, he destroys, he builds again. Please don’t be mad to him, he only does what he knows the best...

39


POLITICS

CONFLICT AND CONSEN

40


SENSUS IN URBANISM WHAT MIX IS THE RIGHT MIX?

The Unbeatables Prime minister, Mayor and Minister of Sports in a meeting with the olympics comitee for the candi-­ dacy of Istanbul to host 2020 summer Olympics. Due to the centralized power model of metropoli-­ tan governance, in case of an alliance amongst President Erdogan and Mayor Topbas there is virtually nothing they can not do in the city, but until when?

41


POLITICS

In 2006, Istanbul reached to its long waited master plan after years of search and expectation.

It  has  been  developed  by  a  total  of  250  people  consisting  of  plan-­ ners,  urbanists,  the  academia  and  experts  from  different  fields.  Istan-­ EXO 0HWURSROLWDQ 3ODQQLQJ ,03 conducted  the  work  which  is  a  de-­ partment  under  %ø07$Ăš,  one  of  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Municipality  subsidiary  companies.  The  plan  is  regarded  by  the  mainstream  me-­ dia  as  the  main  law  of  the  city 1,  implying  its  importance  and  rigor-­ ousness.  It  used  to  be  one  of  the  critique  that  many  architects  in  the  city  enjoyed  making,  to  not  having  one  master  strategy  for  the  entire  city.  Masterplan  is  conceived  as  one  collective  answer  to  many  of  the  problems  of  the  city  such  as  gecekondus,  connectivitiy  issues  and  lack  of  green  areas.  Finally,  it  was  there.  However,  things  did  not  turn  out  as  expected;Íž  same  prob-­ lems,  same  fights  are  on  the  public  debate. The  master  plan  is  sued  numer-­ ous  times  by  civil  associations  and  chamber  of  architects  and  engi-­ neers.  The  courts  suspended  the  plans  for  some  times,  investigated  the  claims  and  ultimately  revalidat-­ ed  them  over  and  over  again.  How-­ ever,  four  years  after  the  plan  saw  the  light  of  the  day,  national  gov-­ ernment  declared  its  ambitions  to  build  a  new  airport  and  a  new  city  on  the  north  of  Istanbul  and  Min-­ istery  of  Transportation  revealed  their  plans  to  build  the  third  bridge  to  cross  Bosphorus  on  the  north  of  the  second  bridge.  These  plans  are  not  just  absent  in  the  original  plan,  they  are  also  in  great  contrast  with  the  general  aims  of  it  which  can  be  summarized  as  protecting  the Â

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northern  forests  through  horizontal  growth  on  east-­west  axis.   :KDWÂśV PRUH LQ 3ULPH 0LQ-­ ister  Erdogan  publicly  announced  the  details  of  his  long-­anticipated  FUD]\ SURMHFW  to  open  up  an  arti-­ ficial  sea-­level  waterway  on  the  west  of  Istanbul  and  create  a  new  city  where  it  meets  the  Black  Sea.  The  announcement  was  made  dur-­ ing  his  elections  campaign  to  give  it  a  political  legitimacy  and  Mayor Â

1

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2

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3

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KŜĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĆŒÄžÄ‚Ć?ŽŜĆ? ĨŽĆŒ ƚŚĞ tÄžĆ?ƚ͛Ć? ĞǀĞŜƚƾĂů ÄšŽžĹ?ŜĂĆ&#x;ŽŜ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĹľĹ?ĹŻĹŻÄžŜŜĹ?ƾž ĹŻĹ?ÄžĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś ƚŚĞ ÄšĹ?ÄŤÄžĆŒÄžĹśĆš ĹľĹ?Ç†ĆšĆľĆŒÄžĆ? ŽĨ Ä?ÄžĹśĆšĆŒÄ‚ĹŻĹ?Ć?ĞĚ ĂŜĚ ĚĞÄ?ÄžĹśĆšĆŒÄ‚ĹŻĹ?Ć?ĞĚ ĚĞÄ?Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜ žĂŏĹ?ĹśĹ? Ĺ?Ĺś Ĺ?ĆšĆ? ĆšĹ˝Ç ĹśÍ˜ Ğ͕ >ĂŜĚĂ DÄ‚ŜƾÄžĹŻÍ˜ dĹšŽƾĆ?ĂŜĚ zÄžÄ‚ĆŒĆ? ŽĨ EŽŜůĹ?ĹśÄžÄ‚ĆŒ ,Ĺ?Ć?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒÇ‡Í˜ EÄžÇ zĹ˝ĆŒĹŹÍ— ŽŜĞ͕ ϭϾϾϳ͘ E͘ ƉĂĹ?͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

6

Íž ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞ dÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ŚĕĞĆ?Ĺ?͘Í&#x; /Ä?Ä?͘Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€Í˜ĆšĆŒÍ˜ 7Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾů ƺLJƺŏƔĞŚĹ?ĆŒ ĞůĞĚĹ?-­â€? LJĞĆ?Ĺ?Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎŹ DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ Ń„ĹšĆŠĆ‰Í—ÍŹÍŹÇ Ç Ç Í˜Ĺ?Ä?Ä?͘Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€Í˜ĆšĆŒÍŹĆšĆŒͲdZÍŹ ĹŹĆľĆŒƾžĆ?Ä‚ĹŻÍŹ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞdÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ĹšÄ?ÄžĆ?Ĺ?ÍŹWÄ‚Ĺ?ÄžĆ?ÍŹ ĞůĞĚĹ?LJĞdÄ‚ĆŒĹ?ĹšÄ?ÄžĆ?Ĺ?͘ĂĆ?Ć‰Ç†Ń…Í˜

.DGLU 7RSEDú ZDV WKHUH RQ WKH stage,  right  next  to  him  during  the  public  announcement.  The  project  is  clashing  with  the  master  plan  WKDW 7RSEDú KLPVHOI FRPPLVLRQHG to  develop  and  has  been  backing  proactively.  Then  why  did  he  sup-­ port  the  project?  A nd  If  the  national  government  had  such  ambitions  for  the  city,  why  there  is  not  any  clue  of  them  on  the  master  plan? The  answer  lies  at  the  metropoli-­

tan  governance  issues  behind  this  contradiction. Istanbul,  as  well  as  many  other  megacities,  has  an  exceptional  status  of  governance.  As  globali-­ sation  progresses,  urban  regions  are  emerging  as  key  players  in  the  world  economy.  T he  pursuit  of  com-­ petitiveness  in  urban  regions  has  become  a  major  local  and  national  policy  objective. 2  Therefore  a  spe-­ cial  status  of  government  started  to  emerge,  and  a  long  series  of  dis-­ appointing  experiments  have  been  made  on  metropolitan  governance  all  around  the  world.  Cities  are  managed  by  their  municipalities  whereas  megacities  are  governed  by  their  metropolitan  authorities.  Just  like  after  a  certain  scale  mac-­ ro-­economics  turn  into  politics,  be-­ cause  it  becomes  a  matter  of  world  views  and  priorities,  metropolitan  governance  is  also  a  highly  politi-­ cal  task.  Therefore,  its  actors  play  their  political  roles,  make  alliances  with  their  friends  and  confront  their  HQHPLHV 7KLV LV ZK\ 7RSEDĂş ZDV with  his  beloved  friend  Erdogan  during  the  announcement  and  he  was  not  generous  enough  to  offer  his  critical  friendship  to  him.  That  LV DOVR ZK\ ,03 DYRLGHG WKH LQ-­ terests  of  the  national  government  since  they  positioned  themselves  as  an  apolitical  institute  entitled  to  give  decisions  on  their  own  for  the  sake  of  their  scientific  independ-­ ence. 3,  4 Metropolitan  governance  is  not  apolitical,  it  is  essentially  about  balancing  the  distribution  of  power  with  keeping  the  ability  to  concen-­ trate  it  occasionally  to  deliver  lead-­ ership. 5 In  Istanbul  with  the  military  coup  on  1980,  the  municipal  structure  of  Istanbul  was  fundamentally  changed.  Villages  around  the  me-­ tropolises  with  populations  over  300,000  were  turned  into  suburbs  or  neighborhoods  and  were  united  with  metropolitan  municipalities.  In  2004  Istanbul  Metropolitan  Munici-­ pality’s  jurisdiction  was  enlarged  to  cover  all  the  area  within  the  pro-­


POLITICS vincial limits and all the rights of making plans from 1/100.000 scale till 1/1000 scale is concentrated on the Metropolitan Municipality, leaving local municipalities with almost no authority on land. 6 This was done to ensure the unity of city governance and deliver the leader-­ ship that was missing. Its elected mayor has substantial powers over the city and as long as he is in con-­ sensus with the national govern-­ ment there is virtually nothing they can not do and that is exactly the case for the last couple of years. Although it is a very successful model for leadership that ensures a high level of consensus on many urbanistic matters and effectively canalize investments when neces-­ sary, it does not decentralize pow-­ er to include more actors to deliver more healthy policies and urbanis-­ tic decisions. Improving governance in met-­ ropolitan areas is not just about reforming institutions and numeri-­ cally performing well, it is also

about changing behaviours and the culture of governance. More “in-­ clusive” and participatory forms of governance are replacing tradition-­ al rule-­driven systems. Successful-­ ly managing change in the culture of governance requires opening up the process to new players who have a legitimate concern about their “place” in the urban area. The actors in the governance process now comprise a more socially and culturally diverse population, the business sector, associations, and all levels of the public administra-­ tion intervening in the urban area. 7 2QH VXFFHVVIXO PRGHO RI GHFHQ-­ tralization of power in metropoli-­ tan governance amongst the meg-­ acities is Seoul, an example worth having a look at. ,Q 6RXWK .RUHD WKHUH DUH QLQH provinces called ‘do’. Six metro-­ politan cities, and Seoul which is considered as a special city. Seoul’s administrative tiers can be subdivided into ‘gu’ units and further yet into ‘dong’ neighbor-­

7 K ͕ ĞĚ͘ ͞dŚĞ ZĞĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͘͟ dŚĞ KďƐĞƌǀĞƌ͕ Ŷ͘Ě͘ tĞď͘

8 ^ŶLJĚĞƌ͕ EŝĐŚŽůĂƐ͕ ǀĞůLJŶ ,ĞƌŶĂŶĚĞnj͕ ĂŶĚ >ŝƐĂ DĂdžǁĞůů͘ ͞DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ZĞĨŽƌŵƐ͗ dŚĞ ĂƐĞ ŽĨ ^ĞŽƵů DĞƚ-­‐ ƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ͘͟ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ WŽůŝƟĐĂů ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ ;ϮϬϭϮͿ͗ ϭϬϳͲϮϳ͘ WƌŝŶƚ͘

Deadlock The most prominent opera house of Istanbul has been closed for more than 3 years now. Everything started when national government declared plans to renew the building as part of 2010 Istanbul ‘capital of culture’ agenda, the idea was rejected straight ahead by the artists using the building. Despite all the efforts, a normalised communication could not be estabished and the building which was emptied to be renewed is neither renewed, nor opened again. It is a political deadlock at the heart of the city.


Spontaneous  Urbanism 2Q D OLYH GHEDWH ZLWK 3ULPH 0LQLVWHU (UGRJDQ D ZHOO NQRZQ MRXUQDOLVW )DWLK $OWD\OL DVNHG IRU D SURPLVH WR XVH WKH ODQG RI $WDW UN $LUSRUW ZKLFK LV VRRQ WR PRYH RXW DV DQ XUEDQ SDUN 3ULPH 0LQLVWHU VSRQWDQHRXVO\ JDYH WKH SURPLVH WR KLP DQG DQ urbanistic  decision  is  given  live  on  TV  as  a  result  of  the  discussion  among  two  individuals.

9 ŚĂŜͲ'ŽŜÍ• <Ĺ?ĹľÍ˜ ÍžhĆŒÄ?Ä‚Ĺś ĂŜĚ DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ DĂŜĂĹ?ĞžĞŜƚ ŽĨ ^ÄžŽƾůÍ— WÄ‚Ć?Ćš ĂŜĚ WĆŒÄžĆ?ÄžĹśĆšÍ˜Í&#x; WŽůĹ?Ä?LJ WĹŻÄ‚ŜŜĹ?ĹśĹ? ĆľĆŒÄžÄ‚ĆľÍ˜ ^ÄžŽƾů DĞƚ-­â€? ĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆšÍ• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘

10 Íž^ÄžŽƾů DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆš ŜŜŽƾŜÄ?ÄžĆ? Ĺ?ƚLJ ĚžĹ?Ĺś-­â€? Ĺ?Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;ŽŜ DÄ‚Ć?ĆšÄžĆŒ WĹŻÄ‚Ĺś &Ĺ˝Ä?ĆľĆ?ĞĚ ŽŜ <ÄžÇ‡Ç Ĺ˝ĆŒÄš ÍšWÄžĹ˝Ć‰ĹŻÄžÍ›Í˜Í&#x; ^ÄžŽƾů͘ Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í˜ĹŹĆŒÍ˜ ^ÄžŽƾů DÄžĆšĆŒĹ˝Ć‰ŽůĹ?ƚĂŜ 'Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆšÍ• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ ĎŽĎł DĂLJ ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ˜ фŚƊƉ͗͏͏ĞŜĹ?ĹŻĹ?Ć?ĹšÍ˜Ć?ÄžŽƾů͘Ĺ?Ĺ˝Í˜ĹŹĆŒÍŹĹ?ĆšĹŹÍŹĹśÄžÇ Ć?ÍŹĹśÄžÇ Ć?ͺǀĹ?ÄžÇ Í˜ ƉŚƉÍ?Ĺ?ÄšÇ†Ń Ď­ĎłĎŻĎąĎąŃ…Í˜Í˜

hoods.  The  next  level  is  subdi-­ vided  into  â€˜tongs’  Currently,  there  are  522  dongs  and  13,787  tongs. 8  That  means  the  territory  of  Seoul  is  divided  into  13,787  parts  as  the  smallest  form  of  administration,  in  contrast  to  the  39  municipalities  of  Istanbul  as  the  smallest  adminis-­ trative  unit.  Fragmentation  of  that  level  obviously  comes  with  its  par-­ ticularities  for  better  and  for  worse.  5HFRJQL]LQJ WKH ORFDO FRQFHUQV RI the  dongs  and  the  tongs,  and  in-­ corporating  them  into  the  govern-­ ance  process  was  critical  for  the  6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQDQFH Although,  this  model  involves  a  seemingly  smooth,  decentralised  form  of  governance  that  does  not  mean  things  are  without  a  problem,  in  fact  multiplicity  of  actors  at  the  same  level  increases  the  chanc-­ es  of  contradictions.  Between  the  6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQDQFH and  district  offices,  conflicts  often  arises  about  cross-­jurisdictional  public  administration.  In  order  to  overcome  those  conflicts  and  ar-­ rive  to  consensuses  government  and  district  offices,  have  regular  meetings  such  as  â€œAssociation  of Â

District  mayorsâ€?  where  Mayor  of  Seoul  and  District  mayors  attend  quarterly,  and  â€œConference  of  Dis-­ trict  Vice  Mayorsâ€?  where  Vice  May-­ or  of  Seoul,  department  heads  and  District  vice  mayors  attend  every  month.  Seoul  city  adopted  give-­ and-­take,  or  win-­win  strategies  to  manage  consensus.  For  instance,  6HRXO 0HWURSROLWDQ *RYHUQPHQW provides  welfare  fund,  conveni-­ ence  facilities,  and  health  care  for  residents  in  a  district,  while  resi-­ dents  consent  to  sit  incineration  plants  in  their  district. 9  This  mode  of  constant  conflict  and  consen-­ sus  creates  a  healthy  environment  and  still  large  scale  plans,  that  re-­ quire  high  level  of  leadership,  are  achieved.  An  example  is  the  mas-­ ter  plan  that  was  announced  in  ³&LW\ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 3ODQ WR Create  Seoul  Jointly  with  Its  Citi-­ zensâ€?  in  which  the  city  as  a  whole  arrived  to  a  consensus  on  pursu-­ ing  five  main  goals,  namely  â€œwel-­ fare,  economy,  culture,  sustainable  urban  development,  and  citizen’s  rights,â€?  which  will  be  backed  up  by  285  projects  in  15  fields. 10 London  on  the  other  hand  deals Â


POLITICS

with things differently. In 1997, a one example of this type of rela-­ major change took place in British tionship where the double agenda SROLWLFV ZKHQ WKH /DERXU 3DUW\ ZRQ of national government and the the elections after 18 years of Con-­ mayor of London formed the Olym-­ servative rule. This was to have a pic Delivery Authority as the third major effect on the institutional actor to mediate the differences context for strategic planning in on the basis of “the project”. It is London. In their 1997 a non-­departmental election manifesto, ALTHOUGH SEOUL AND LON-­ public body of the De-­ Tony Blair’s Labour DON EXAMPLES EXHIBIT partment for Culture, 3DUW\ KDG LQFOXGHG REVERSE GOVERNANCE Media and Sport, re-­ a commitment to an MODELS, THEY BOTH IN-­ sponsible for ensur-­ elected mayor of Lon-­ ing the delivery of ^ĂůĞƚ͕ t͘ '͘ D͕͘ ŶĚLJ dŚŽƌŶůĞLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶƚŽŶ <ƌĞƵŬĞůƐ͘ CLUDE A HEALTHY DEGREE venues, infrastructure 11͞ ŚĂƉƚĞƌ don. The mayor was ϯ͕ >ŽŶĚŽŶ͗ /ŶƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŽŶĂů dƵƌďƵůĞŶĐĞ ďƵƚ Ŷ-­‐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ EĂƚŝŽŶͲƐƚĂƚĞ ŽŶƚƌŽů͘͟ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶ-­‐ conceived as having OF CONFLICT AND CONSEN-­ and designing the ĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ^ƉĂƚŝĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͗ ŽŵƉĂƌĂƚŝǀĞ ĂƐĞ ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ strong executive pow-­ SUS. legacy for the 2012 ŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŝƚLJͲƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ >ŽŶĚŽŶ͗ ^ƉŽŶ͕ ϮϬϬϯ͘ E͘ ƉĂŐ͘ WƌŝŶƚ͘ ers. Alongside the 6XPPHU 2O\PSLF DQG mayor, an elected Assembly would 3DUDO\PSLF *DPHV LQ /RQGRQ 13 12 >ŝǀŝŶŐƐƚŽŶĞ͕ <͘ ;ϮϬϬϬͿ /ŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁ ǁŝƚŚ DĂLJŽƌ ĐŽŶ-­‐ have a scrutinising and checking In conclusion of these two re-­ ĚƵĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ >^ ^Z ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ͚^ƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĐŽͲŽƌĚŝŶĂ-­‐ role. It was hoped that the strong verse models of metropolitan ƚŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƚŝŽŶ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ '> mayor would overcome the prob-­ governance is, although they are lem of lack of political leadership different in nature, they both in-­ 13 ͞KůLJŵƉŝĐ ĞůŝǀĞƌLJ ƵƚŚŽƌŝƚLJ͘͟ tŝŬŝƉĞĚŝĂ͘ tŝŬŝŵĞĚŝĂ in the capital and that the elec-­ clude a healthy degree of conflict &ŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ϭϲ DĂLJ ϮϬϭϯ͘ tĞď͘ Ϯϴ DĂLJ ϮϬϭϯ͘ фŚƚƚƉ͗ͬ​ͬ ĞŶ͘ǁŝŬŝƉĞĚŝĂ͘ŽƌŐͬǁŝŬŝͬKůLJŵƉŝĐͺ ĞůŝǀĞƌLJͺ ƵƚŚŽƌŝƚLJх͘ toral processes would introduce and consensus and that is their greater transparency and account-­ ability into strategic decision mak-­ .LVV RI 'HDWK ùLúOL 0D\RU 6DUÕJ O SKRWRJUDSKHG NLVVLQJ 0HWURSROLWDQ 0D\RU 7RSEDú G LQJ 2QH RI WKH PDMRU IHDWXUHV RI the culture of communication and collaboration with each other, although they don’t seem the new model was that it would be culture where they cultivate their conflicts into healthy consensuses in times of necessit a streamlined authority. However, the election for mayor indicated that although Blair was keen on devolution, he also wanted to keep control of the process. He did eve-­ rything he could to stop the elec-­ WLRQ RI .HQ /LYLQJVWRQH DV KH VDZ him as too independent and likely to develop his own policies rather than conform to central govern-­ ment. 11 Even though the mayor’s powers are limited, he or she can use his or her electoral mandate to voice opinions and pressurise the government for more autonomy. This is precisely how Livingstone sees his role. His broad agenda is to increase the financial resources available to the mayor and also expand the policy topics under his control. He has said that he aims to turn the British regional govern-­ ment system into one that is similar WR WKDW RI *HUPDQ\ 12 So this form of centralized metropol govern-­ ance model where the authority is very much concentrated on the top of the triangle is not without con-­ flicts of interest. National govern-­ ment and the mayor has different world-­views and priorities but that does not avoid them from arriving to a consensus when the interests overlap with each other. London 2O\SLFV GHYHORSPHQW RI LV


strength. Metropolitan governance consensus as in the case of Istan-­ only functions without conflict on bul and if it is not arrived as a re-­ H[DPSOHV VXFK DV 5RWWHUGDP RU sult of challenging each other then Bologna where the scale of the city it is not consensus, it is keeping up much smaller and therefore oppor-­ the appearance. That means some tunities and interests on it are not parties’ interests are excluded in as concentrated as a megacity. So the process and that is bad for two the question is “until reasons, first you do when and in the name THERE IS NOTHING ESSEN-­ not include a variety of what, will metro-­ TIALLY WRONG WITH THE of actors to difersify politan governance be MODEL OF METROPOLITAN the mix of projects for capable of solving the GOVERNANCE IN ISTANBUL better environments problem of conflict?” 14 and second you do 14 >ĞĨĞǀƌĞ͕ ŚƌŝƐƚŝĂŶ͘ ͞DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ 'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ THERE ARE ONLY ACTORS not create a sustain-­ In fact it cannot and 'ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ tĞƐƚĞƌŶ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͗ ƌŝƚŝĐĂů ZĞǀŝĞǁ͘͟ KdžĨŽƌĚ͗ :ŽŝŶƚ ĚŝƚŽƌƐ ĂŶĚ ůĂĐŬǁĞůů͕ ϭϵϵϴ͘ E͘ ƉĂŐ͘ it does not have to. WHO DON’T PLAY THEIR able state of affairs. tĞď͘ Metropolitan govern-­ ROLES PROPERLY. Especially, stability ance is not normative, is central for govern-­ 15 KŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƚŝĐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ it can not be apolitical. Conflict of ing a megacity since metropolitan ĂƌĐĞůŽŶĂ ƚŚĂƚ ƉůĂLJĞĚ Ă ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ŝƚƐ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ Ă ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĂƐ ďĂĐŬĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚƌĞĞ interests, contradiction of visions governance requires large invest-­ ĐŽŶƐĞĐƵƚŝǀĞ ŵĂLJŽƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ƐƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶĐLJ͘ are necessary for a megacity as ments of money, labour and en-­ long as the moments of consensus ergy. Larger the investment, longer 16 is found and when found, cultivat-­ the duration is needed to absorb ͞/K >ĞĂǀĞƐ /ƐƚĂŶďƵů /ŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ ďLJ ϮϬϮϬ KůLJŵ-­‐ ƉŝĐ ŝĚ͘͟ ŶŶ͘ĐŽŵ͘ EE͕ Ϯϳ DĂƌ͘ ϮϬϭϯ͘ tĞď͘ Ϯϴ DĂLJ ed. If there is only conflict, you are that investment. That is why you ϮϬϭϯ͘ фŚƚƚƉ͗ͬ​ͬƐƉŽƌƚƐŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚ͘ĐŶŶ͘ĐŽŵͬͲŽůLJŵƉŝĐƐͬ ŶĞǁƐͬϮϬϭϯϬϯϮϳͬŝŽĐͲŝƐƚĂŶďƵůͲϮϬϮϬͲŽůLJŵƉŝĐͲďŝĚͬх͘ not going anywhere. If there is only need sustainable conditions to op-­ erate coherently for longer periods of times 15. 0D\RU 7RSEDú GXULQJ D IXQHUDO 7KH\ DUH WZR SROLWLFDO ULYDOV ZKRVH LQVWLWXWLRQV GRQ¶W KDYH In other words, there is nothing h they don’t seem to mind interaction from time to time. This picture is a reminiscent of a essentially wrong with the model of mes of necessity, which is what city needs more than a master plan. metropolitan governance of Istan-­ bul, there are only actors who don’t play their roles properly. Turkey’s ELG IRU 6XPPHU 2O\PSLFV LV D great case to observe why they are not played well and what are the consequences of it. In a situation of smooth con-­ sensus, national government and Istanbul Metropoltian Municipality showed a great willingness to the comittee and a gret deal of promis-­ es 16. The mega investment project for the olympics are developed by the national government to be pre-­ VHQWHG WR WKH 2O\PSLFV FRPPLWWHH The project promises four zones of development in the city and a transportation network in-­between linking them to each other. Three of these zones are located in the European side while one takes place in the Asian side. Although these are very positive promises for the city, they could only be better in a situation in which the mayor had played more strongly. In fact, he could have used this flow of investment by pushing for inte-­ grating these developments with his 1/100.000 master plan for the city and evolve the original plan to a more complex level by integrat-­ ing additive concerns of his plan, such as new commerce centers,


POLITICS better  organised  housing  develop-­ ments  and  green  zones.  By  doing  so  the  plan  would  not  just  be  about  2O\PSLFV EXW DERXW WKH FLW\ RYHUDOO The  mayor  could  have  diversified  the  mixture  of  concerns  and  this  would  not  just  create  a  plan  that  is  better  aligned  with  the  city’s  am-­ bitions  but  it  would  also  eliminate  the  autocratic  character  of  the  de-­ cision  with  a  more  inclusive  one  for  a  more  stable  environment. However,  continuous  misplayed  role  of  the  mayor  rendered  the  en-­ tire  investment  unrealisable.  Here  is  an  explanation  of  how: -XVW OLNH 2O\PSLFV GHYHORSPHQW UG EULGJH SURMHFW RU .DQDO øVWDQEXO SURMHFW 1DWLRQDO *RYHUQPHQW DOVR came  up  with  plans  for  Taksim  Square,  the  most  representative  public  space  of  Istanbul.  The  plans  included  a  shopping  mall  by  reviv-­ ing  a  replica  of  the  old  military  bar-­ racks  on  the  area  that  is  today  a  park  adjacent  to  Taksim  square.  Final  circle  of  this  long  series  of  autocratic  decisions  about  the  city  to  a  level  of  micro-­management,  created  an  extreme  outburst  in  the  society.  Thousands  of  people  gath-­ ered  around  the  park  to  avoid  the  plans  b eing  r ealized  a nd  e xpressed  their  objection  to  the  nature  of  the  decisions  that  is  given  about  their  city  and  their  life  at  large.  The  fact  that  whatever  national  government  imagined  about  Istanbul  went  un-­ challenged,  exhausted  the  nerves  of  the  citizens  and  country  went  into  a  turbulence  involving  pro-­ tests,  police  brutality  and  seeming-­ ly  a  referandum  about  the  future  of  the  park.  Under  this  instability  and  public  unrest  over  a  public  space  project  that  is  much  more  smaller  WKDQ WKH 2O\PSLFV SURMHFW LW LV XQ-­ LPDJLQDEOH IRU 2O\PSLFV FRPPLWWH to  trust  Turkey  to  realize  the  devel-­ opments  it  promised.  Turkey  failed  the  bid  for  2020  summer  olympics.  This  is  the  announcement  of  this  article... In  fact,  Turkish  megacity  urban-­ ism  is  no  different  than  Turkish  economy.  It  is  â€œstrong  but  vulnera-­ bleâ€?  as  noted  by  the  Economist. 17,18  It  is  strong  because  the  political  instruments  behind  its  investments  are  in  absolut  consensus  with  each  other  but  it  is  vulnerable  because  conflicting  forces  can  not  find  a Â

Ď­Ďł ÍždŚĞdĆľĆŒĹŹĹ?Ć?Ĺš Ä?ŽŜŽžÇ‡Í— ^ĆšĆŒŽŜĹ? Ä?ƾƚ sƾůŜÄžĆŒÄ‚Ä?ĹŻÄžÍ˜Í&#x; dŚĞ Ä?ŽŜŽžĹ?Ć?ĆšÍ˜ EÍ˜Ć‰Í˜Í• ĹśÍ˜ÄšÍ˜ tÄžÄ?͘ Ń„ĹšĆšĆšĆ‰Í—ÍŹÍŹÇ Ç Ç Í˜ÄžÄ?ŽŜŽžĹ?Ć?ĆšÍ˜ Ä?Žž͏ŜÄžÇ Ć?ÍŹÄžĆľĆŒĹ˝Ć‰Äž͏ώϭϹϳϾϰϾϭͲĆšĆľĆŒĹŹÄžÇ‡ͲĆŒÄžĹľÄ‚Ĺ?ĹśĆ?ͲĹšĹ?Ĺ?ŚůLJͲ ĞdžƉŽĆ?ĞĚͲůŽĆ?Ć?ͲÄ?ŽŜĨĹ?ĚĞŜÄ?ÄžͲĨŽĆŒÄžĹ?Ĺ?ŜͲĹ?ŜǀĞĆ?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĆ?ͲĆ?ĆšĆŒŽŜĹ?Ͳ Ç€ƾůŜÄžĆŒÄ‚Ä?ĹŻÄžŃ…Í˜

Silent  Majority 3ULPH PLQLVWHU (UGRáDQ PDGH D SROLWLFDO UDOO\ ZLWK KLV VXSSRUWHUV DIWHU WKH GHPRQVWUDWLR opments  to  the  rally  area.  There  is  no  clearer  picture  about  the  relationship  between  politics  and  urbanism

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND MET-­ ROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITY SHOWED A GREAT WILLINGNESS TO THE OLYM-­ PICS COMITTE AND GAVE A NUMBER OF PROMISES.

HOWEVER, TURKISH MEGACITY UR-­ BANISM IS NO DIFFERENT THAN TURK-­ ISH ECONOMY. IT IS STRONG BUT VUL-­ NERABLE.


Ď­Ď´ ĨĆšÄžĆŒ dĆľĆŒĹŹÄžÇ‡ ŚĂĆ? Ĺ?žƉůŽĚĞĚ Ç Ĺ?ƚŚ ‘Gezi  Park‘  ÄšÄžžŽŜ-­â€? Ć?ĆšĆŒÄ‚ĆšĹ?ŽŜĆ?Í• Ĺ?Ĺś ĹšĹ?Ć? ƉƾÄ?ĹŻĹ?Ä? Ć?ƉĞĞÄ?Ĺš WĆŒĹ?žĞ DĹ?ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšÄžĆŒ ĆŒÄšĹ˝Ĺ’Ä‚Ĺś Ä‚ŜŜŽƾŜÄ?ĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ Ć?ŽžÄž Ä?ŽžĆ‰Ä‚ĹśĹ?ÄžĆ? ŚĂǀĞ Ć?ƚŽƉƉĞĚ Ĺ?Ĺ?Ç€Ĺ?ĹśĹ? Ä‚ÄšÇ€ÄžĆŒĆšĹ?Ć?ĞžĞŜƚĆ? ĂŜĚ ƚŚĞ Ĺ?Ĺ˝Ç€ÄžĆŒŜžÄžĹśĆš Ç Ĺ?ĹŻĹŻ ƉƾŜĹ?Ć?Ĺš ƚŚĞž Ĺ?Ĩ ƚŚĞ ĆŒÄžÄ‚Ć?ŽŜĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ĺ?ĚĞŽůŽĹ?Ĺ?Ä?Í• ĆŒÄžĹŻÄ‚ĆšÄžÄš ƚŽ 'ĞnjĹ? ǀĞŜƚĆ?͘ LJ Ć?ĂLJĹ?ĹśĹ? ƚŚĹ?Ć? ŚĞ Ĺ?žƉůĹ?ĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ Ć?ŽžÄž Ć?Ĺ?ĚĞĆ? Ĺ?Ĺś ƚŚĞ Ä?ŽƾŜĆšĆŒÇ‡ Ç ĹšĹ˝ Ä‚ĆŒÄž ŜŽĆš Ä?ĹŻĹ˝Ć?Äž ƚŽ ĹšĹ?Ĺľ Ĺ?ĚĞŽůŽĹ?Ĺ?Ä?ĂůůLJ͕ Ä?Ä‚Ĺś Ä?Äž Ć‰ĆŒÄžĆ?-­â€? Ć?ĆľĆŒĹ?njĞĚ͘ dĆľĆŒĹŹĹ?Ć?Ĺš ÄžÄ?ŽŜŽžĹ?Ć?Ćš KĹ’ĆľÇŒ <Ä‚ĆŒÄ‚žƾŏ Ä‚ĆŒĹ?ƾĞĆ? ƚŚĂƚ Ć?ĆľÄ?Ĺš Ä‚Ĺś ĂƚƚĹ?ƚƾĚĞ žĂŏĞĆ? ƚŚĞ dĆľĆŒĹŹĹ?Ć?Ĺš ÄžÄ?ŽŜŽžÇ‡ ͞Ă Ĺ?ĂžĞ Ä?ÄžĆšÇ ÄžÄžĹś ƚŚĞ Ä‚Ä?Ć‹ĆľĹ?ŜƚĂŜÄ?ÄžĆ?Íž Ç ĹšÄžĆŒÄž ƚŚĞ ĚĞÄ?Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ĺ?ŜĨůƾĞŜÄ?ĞĚ Ä?LJ Ć‰ÄžĆŒĆ?ŽŜÄ‚ĹŻ Ä?ŽŜƚĂÄ?ĆšĆ? ĂŜĚ Ĺ?ĚĞŽůŽĹ?Ĺ?ÄžĆ?͘ :ĆľĆ?Ćš ĹŻĹ?ĹŹÄž ƚŚĞ ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚ĹśĹ?Ć?ĆšĹ?Ä? ĚĞÄ?Ĺ?Ć?Ĺ?ŽŜĆ? Ä‚ĆŒÄž Ĺ?Ĺ?ǀĞŜ Ä?LJ Ĺ?ĚĞŽůŽĹ?Ĺ?Ä?ĂůůLJ Ä?ĹŻĹ˝Ć?Äž Ä‚Ä?ĆšĹ˝ĆŒĆ? ĹŻĹ?ĹŹÄž ĆŒÄšĹ˝Ĺ’Ä‚Ĺś ĂŜĚ dŽƉÄ?Ä‚Ć” Ç ĹšĹ˝ ĚŽ ŜŽĆš Ä?ŚĂů-­â€? ůĞŜĹ?Äž ĞĂÄ?Ĺš Ĺ˝ĆšĹšÄžĆŒÍ˜ dĹšĹ?Ć? Ä?ĞŚĂǀĹ?ŽƾĆŒ Ä?ĆŒÄžÄ‚ĆšÄžĆ? ƚŚĞ Ç€ƾůŜÄžĆŒ-­â€? Ä‚Ä?Ĺ?ĹŻĹ?ƚLJ ŽĨ ÄžÄ?ŽŜŽžÇ‡ ĂŜĚ ĆľĆŒÄ?Ä‚ĹśĹ?Ć?ĹľÍ˜ <Ä‚ĆŒÄ‚žƾŏÍ• KĹ’ĆľÇŒÍ˜ ÍžZĞŏůĂž dĞŚĚĹ?ÄšĹ? ^ÄžĆŒĹľÄ‚Ç‡ÄžÇ‡Ĺ? ĆşĆŒĹŹĆşĆšĆşĆŒÍ˜Í&#x; dÄ‚ĆŒÄ‚Ĩ ΀/Ć?ƚĂŜÄ?ƾůΠϹ :ƾŜÄž ĎŽĎŹĎ­ĎŻÍ— ĹśÍ˜ ƉĂĹ?͘ WĆŒĹ?ĹśĆšÍ˜

KH GHPRQVWUDWLRQV DW Âľ*H]L 3DUNÂś )RU WKH HDVH RI WUDQVSRUWDWLRQ PXQLFLSDOLW\ UXQ EXVVHV IURP 72.ø GHYHO-­ cs  and  urbanism. Â

UNDER THE INSTABILITY AND PUBLIC UNREST OVER A PUBLIC SPACE PRO-­ JECT THAT IS MUCH SMALLER THAN THE OLYMPICS DEVELOPMENTS, IT IS UNIMAGINABLE FOR OLYMPICS CO-­ MITTE TO TRUST TURKEY TO REALIZE THE DEVELOPMENTS IT PROMISED.

BUT PROBABLY, THIS FAILURE IS NOT A TRAGEDY BUT AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE PLAYERS TO EVALUATE HOW THEY PLAYED THEIR ROLES.

place  for  themselves  in  this  picture  that’s  why  influencing  the  city  with  guerilla  tactics  causing  turbulence.  In  other  words,  its  strength  is  at  the  price  of  excessive  volatility.  This  volatility  that  is  caused  by  unbal-­ anced  mix  of  conflicts  and  consen-­ suses  in  the  megacity  politics  is  the  reason  why  Turkey  failed  the  ELG 3OD\HUV GLG QRW SOD\ WKHLU UROHV properly. 3UREDEO\ WKLV HYHQW LV QR WUDJ-­ edy  but  an  opportunity  for  the  play-­ ers  to  evaluate  how  they  played.  At  best,  it  is  possible  to  cultivate  this  conflict  into  a  consensus  and  to  learn  from  the  experience.  The  visious  circle  of  only  two  possibilities  between  a  shopping  mall  and  things-­shall-­stay-­as-­they-­ are  can  be  expanded  to  find  an  architectural  model  that  finds  the  right  mix  in  between.  A  multiplic-­ ity  of  future  scenarios  and  a  dis-­ cussion  around  them  can  create  a  healthy  tone  in  the  environment  in  which  the  art  of  collective  deci-­ sion  making  would  be  practiced.  This  requires  a  two-­sided  commu-­ nication  and  longer  negotiations  DURXQG WKH SRVVLELOLWLHV 2QO\ WKHQ the  project  would  find  the  right  mix  of  conflict  and  consensuses,  in  short  interests,  to  mold  the  future  of  the  most  representative  public  space  of  Istanbul.  This  right  mix  is  not  able  to  be  pinpointed  clearly  since  it  is  not  a  numerical  figure  or  a  clear  amount  but  it  should  be  understood  more  as  a  process  of  conflicts  and  con-­ sensuses  amongst  urban  actors.  It  is  a  condition  that  parties  collide  with  each  other  until  the  balance  emerges. 2QFH \RX DUH IUHHG IURP WKH heaviness  of  giving  the  right  an-­ swer  to  the  questions,  but  rather  understand  that  possible  solutions  lies  in  processes,  the  dynamic  that  can  deliver  the  â€˜right  mix’  emerges  naturally  to  continuously  produce  its  future. Megacity  is  about  continuous  change,  that’s  why  it  is  â€œtomorrow  where  most  of  its  productivity,  moti-­ vation  and  achievement  is  stored.â€? Hence,  to  make  this  investment  to  your  tomorrow  is  not  just  but  possible  but  also  necessary