Ancestors & Antiquarians
Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7413 9937, Fax : 020 7581 4445 Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : enquiries@ﬁnch-and-co.co.uk Website : www.ﬁnch-and-co.co.uk
 A Superb and Rare Polynesian Marquesas Islands Carved Wood Tiki Figure Tikiâkau with Characteristic Prominent Goggle Shaped Eyes Narrow Bandlike Open Mouth Serene Expression and Distinctive Hands A length of Tapa and an old label tied around his middle inscribed Idol from Tahiti Island the Protector of the Household the Loin Cloth is Made of Tapa Smooth reddish dark brown patina over old adze marked surface Some damage to base Early 19th Century s i z e : 28.5 cm high, 8 cm wide, 7.5 cm deep – 11¾ ins high, 3¼ ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e : From the Private Museum of a North Yorkshire Public School c f : For a similar ﬁgure see Musée du Quai Branly inv. 71.1887.31.25 The Marquesas are a chain of ten large mountainous islands and some islets of ancient volcanic origin. On the larger islands the terrain is a series of steep sided valleys leading to a central ridge. Travel between valleys is diﬃcult and it is a dangerous journey by sea. The isolation of one valley group from another led to a tribal system in which warfare and cannibalism were normal activities. Chiefs were usually of respected descent, but leadership ability was more important than lineage. In the valleys people were dispersed but they often had a common cultural centre, the Tohua, in which was the Me´ae a stone paved marae decorated with tiki ﬁgures. Tiki appear throughout Marquesan sculpture and decorative art and typically represented etua supernatural beings consisting primarily of deiﬁed ancestors whose powers protected and sustained the community. Tiki may also have been used as votive oﬀerings, as guardians of the gods, and as talisman to bring success in new undertakings and to help cure the sick. Marquesan art contains many examples of the tiki image. He is their god of creation, who created the ﬁrst human being. They believe he lived in Havai´i, the land of the gods and there created his wife out of sand. With her he fathered a son and daughter and when they in turn produced children, Tiki left Havai´i and created the island of Nuku Hiva for the next generations of his descendants. When that island became well populated Tiki left again and created Ua Pou and this process of departure, creation and settlement was followed on each island of the archipelago until they were all populated (Handy 1930 pp. 122–23) Many Marquesan undocumented artefacts found their way to Britain, before the French annexation of the archipelago in 1842, by being traded with the visiting whale men who used the Islands for revictualling and supplying their ships before returning to the Northern whaling ports of Britain.
 Rare Long Antique Specimen of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros with a Deep Spiral Twist Aged smooth creamy patina 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 274.5 cm long – 108 ins long – 9 feet long / 305 cm high – 122 ins high – 10 feet high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Collected by Henry Thorp in the 19th Century on one of his many travels around the World Thence by descent to his nephew James Thorp (1912–1999) Inherited by his daughter in 1999 C.I.T.E.S Article 10 Available The unicorns of the sea, narwhals, are only found in the Greenlandic and Canadian Arctic. Members of the whale family, they swim in pods ranging from a few to 100 animals. Their tusk is actually a tooth which they use corkscrew-like to make breathing holes in the Arctic ice when they are foraging under ice ﬂoes in the winter. These holes are then used by all species especially the baleen whales. Narwhals live in the cracks of dense pack ice for much of the year and because they are fairly small, they are fast swimmers and cannot be herded toward shore by the Inuit hunters like the Beluga whales. They swim underwater and far oﬀshore eating a diet consisting of squid, arctic cod and Greenland halibut. The narwhals are incredibly deep divers as the halibut are a bottom dwelling prey. They are able to plunge to around 1800 metres, more than one mile deep due to having compressible rib cages, and once down at such a depth they apparently swim upside down for most of the time.
 An Ancient Egyptian Section of a Painted Sycamore Fig Wooden Coﬃn Panel Decorated with a Cartouche Reading Osiris of the West Lands (Read at the British Museum 8th Dec 1949) and Religious Emblems, Symbols and Figures An old label to the reverse : Certiﬁcate of Antiquity Blanchard’s Egyptian Museum Sharia Kamel Cairo Egypt with inventory no. 13051 stating Found at Thebes and signed R.H. Blanchard Other ink inscribed labels detailing the location and meaning of the painted symbols and ﬁgures In old oak frame Some restoration to central lower portion New Kingdom 19th – 20th Dynasty / 1295 – 1069 bc
s i z e : 28.5 cm high, 22 cm wide – 11¼ ins high, 8¾ ins wide / 32.5 cm high, 26 cm wide – 12¾ ins high, 10¼ ins wide (frame) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection Acquired Prior to 2nd World War The increase in tomb robberies just before and during the New Kingdom created an atmosphere of insecurity among the high oﬃcials and priesthood of Amun of Thebes and brought about several changes in burial customs. The richly decorated tombs no longer insured the security of the mummies, not even if the entrances of the tombs were carefully disguised. A solution was found to prevent the unwanted tomb robberies by burying the dignitaries of Thebes in subterranean vaults or caches which escaped the attention of the robbers. A new type of coﬃn had also appeared in Thebes; anthropoid and no longer conceived just as an inner coﬃn it rested on its back because of a change in funerary customs whereby the deceased was no longer laid on one side. This anthropoid coﬃn was to become the burial container of choice among both royalty and commoners. Mostly carved from local sycamore ﬁg because the Thebans no longer had access to imported cedar, they were traditionally painted with scenes in red, light and dark blue on a yellow ground. Those that could aﬀord it would be buried in an outer and inner coﬃn although the quality varied widely. Poorer ones were often unnamed, although there were sometimes blank spaces that were meant to be ﬁlled in with the name of the deceased owner. Such coﬃns were bought ready-made from cheap workshops, whereas those belonging to high ranking members of the elite would be custom built and ﬁnely painted. According to Egyptian funerary beliefs the decoration of the tombs played a great role in the afterlife of the deceased. Due to the changes in burial customs this kind of decoration became impossible in the vaults containing numerous coﬃns and funerary furniture. The most important funerary scenes were therefore painted on the coﬃns instead, with a new repertory of scenes referring to the journey into the underworld, the daily cycle of the sun and other beliefs being painted on the inner coﬃn. The coﬃn had thus assumed the old function of the tomb.
 A Remarkable Scottish Finely Carved Boxwood and Silver Mounted Table Snuﬀ Box decorated with a Kilted Scotsman playing the pipes wearing a Tam-o-Shanter seated with his stockinged feet crossed two rams and a sheepdog behind him the feather in his hat forming a loop perhaps as a belt attachment A label to the Silver lid Eila Grahame collection no.9 Second half of 18th Century
s i z e : 8 cm high, 4.5 ins dia. – 3 ins high, 1¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse In Cawdor Castle, Scotland there is a chimney-piece dated 1510 depicting a fox smoking a pipe. It is not known how the fox obtained his tobacco at so early a date as it is generally accepted that tobacco was ﬁrst introduced to Britain around the year 1565. It is documented that Sir Walter Raleigh ﬁrst brought tobacco into use as a pleasurable and fashionable habit, and Raleigh remained a conﬁrmed smoker until his last minutes on the scaﬀold in 1617. James I (1566–1625), son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, loathed Raleigh and in his Counterblaste to Tobacco published anonymously on 1603, branded him the instigator of a habit loathsome to the eye, harmful to the braine, dangerous to the lungs. However, throughout the 18th century and during the ﬁrst 30 years of the 19th century, snuﬀ taking remained the fashionable addiction. Queen Charlotte, although only 17 when she married George III, was such a conﬁrmed snuﬀ taker that she was known as Snuffy Charlotte! Hundreds of varieties of snuﬀ were sold ﬂavoured, spiced or perfumed with diﬀerent scented oils, but the Scots had no use for these and Scotch snuﬀ made only from the stalks of tobacco was renowned for its purity.
 A Fine Tibetan Prayer Wheel Mani' Khor Lo containing Rolled Prayers and with Applied Fretworked Silver Panels Inset with Coral and Turquoise Studs to the cylinder with brass mounts set upon a wooden copper bound spindle the wheel driven by an attached bead of malachite and a heavy gilded bronze nugget on hide cord a small brass bell attached to the handle 19th Century
s i z e : 23 cm long, 7 cm dia. – 9 ins long, 2¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy The prayer wheel is a uniquely Tibetan spiritual device used by both Buddhist monks and lay people. Set in motion by a ﬂick of the wrist, with each spin the sacred texts within are understood as being read or chanted once. According to Tibetan Buddhist tradition, spinning a prayer wheel will have the same meritorious eﬀect as orally reciting the prayers. They are used to accumulate wisdom and merit, to gain good Karma and most usually spin clockwise as the direction in which the mantras are written inside the wheel mirrors that of the movement of the sun across the sky. On very rare occasions the prayer wheel is spun counter-clockwise in order to manifest a more wrathful protective energy. As the wheel turns the mantra Om Mani Padme Hum is repeated to focus and calm the mind. The more written mantras the prayer wheel’s cylinder contains the more powerful it is said to be.
 Ancient Prehistoric Native American Hopewell Culture Carved Steatite Eﬃgy Pipe Head in the Form of a Hawk Inscribed Bird Head Pipe Cooper Migh 100 – 400 ad
s i z e : 7 cm high, 6 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Californian collection The Hopewell culture was characterised by the use of mounds and earthwork enclosures for burial and archaeological evidence has established traces of the culture in Michigan as well as Ohio, Illinois and Iowa. The eﬃgy tobacco pipes of the Hopewell mound building culture are amongst the ﬁnest examples of Stone Age Art, so well sculpted that the particular species of bird or animal is immediately recognisable. Some of them, such as this one once had, have eyes set with points of copper or pearls. The large stone pipes were reserved for ceremonial use, and have been found as sacriﬁcial oﬀerings in grave contexts, sometimes placed above a burial to act as guardian spirits. The ceremonial burning or smoking of tobacco was a sacriﬁce to the gods in the same manner as incense. Shaman would smoke tobacco in preparation for receiving oracles and messages from the spirit world. The pipe bowl was regarded as a miniature altar on which tobacco was oﬀered to the heavens or ceremonially in honour of important guests. The animals and birds carved upon the pipes represented the symbol of a spirit personal to an individual, family or clan, that particular spirit providing protection throughout life. Hawks were a favourite bird, and in more recent history it was common practice among the Native Americans to capture and tame hawks and eagles.
 Native American Northern Plains Mountain Crow Elk Tooth and Dentalium Shell Warrior’s Arm Ring A dealers old stock label attached : N. American Indian -/- 27.3.24. Early 19th Century
s i z e : approx : 10.5 cm dia. – 4 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy In the nomadic culture of the plains Indian wealth land to be portable and a man’s ornaments signiﬁed more than a desire for beauty and wealth because they were also symbolic. The use of elk teeth as ornamentation originated among the Crow as the Yellowstone Valley, the heartland of traditional Crow territory, abounded with wildlife, the elk being especially numerous. Elk teeth indicated he was a successful hunter as only two upper ivory incisors are taken from each animal, the others like human teeth eventually disintegrate. Thus the elk were not killed in great numbers by any one hunter and by the 1850’s one hundred teeth was equal in value to one horse. It was said by the Crow that in observing the carcass of an elk it is found that the two upper ivory teeth remain after everything else has crumbled to dust, so that these teeth last longer than the life of a man and are regarded as the emblem of a long life, as well as a signal of wealth and prestige. Later in the Reservation period of the 1880–90’s elk teeth had become completely unobtainable and imitation teeth carved from bone and disguised with brown pigment were used instead.
 Superb Pair of Victorian Gothic Spar Boxes Containing Northern English Fluorites, Fluorspars, Calcites, Quartz, Ores and Minerals Circa 1860
s i z e : 47 cm high, 34 cm wide, 12.5 cm deep – 18½ ins high, 13¼ ins wide, 5 ins deep c f : Lord McAlpine’s collection at West Green House, Sothebys 1990, lots : 809 and 810
Spar boxes were made by Victorian lead miners in the North Pennines where in the 19th century there existed a vast lead mining community. As they laboriously worked the seams of lead ore the miners would ďŹ nd the mineral deposits in cavities which they would then use to produce carefully constructed spar boxes and towers in their spare time. This hobby became a highly organised and competitive pastime with annual shows held in the town halls of the area at which prizes were awarded for the spar boxes and towers judged to be the best and most elaborate. A good selection can still be seen in the Killhope Lead Mining Museum in Upper Weardale.
 The 2nd Baron of Harlech’s Bezoar Stone from the Welsh Estate of Glyn Cywarch An old label attached inscribed This Ball was Found in the Stomach of Heifer Killed... Glyn in 1886 Late 19th Century
s i z e : 8 cm dia. – 3¼ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : 2nd Baron Harlech William Richard Ormsby-Gore (1819–1904) M.P. Thence by descent to 7th Baron Harlech Jasset David Cody Ormsby-Gore the contents of the property sold at auction 2017 For over 500 years bezoar stones have been famed for their powers as a universal antidote to poison and melancholy. Thought to have magical healing properties they became valuable commodities. In the 17th century the Portuguese did a roaring trade in these stones and many of them were mounted in gold and silver ﬁligree work. A bezoar is formed of a mass, usually of hair, found trapped in the gastrointestinal system and was thought to be able to cure and detect the eﬀects of poison. In 1567 the surgeon to the French royal court Ambroise Paré described an experiment to test the properties of bezoar stones. A cook at the King’s court had been caught stealing the royal silver cutlery and was sentenced to death by hanging. He agreed to be poisoned instead. Paré used the bezoar stone, but it failed to avert the cook’s agonising death seven hours later. However, it has been proved scientiﬁcally that through the chemical compound brushite found in the stones, the toxic compounds in arsenic can eﬀectively be exchanged for phosphate and thus rendered harmless.
 A Small European Gold Mounted Pendant Bezoar Stone Late 17th – Early 18th Century
s i z e : 2 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – ¾ ins high, ½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West Country collection Small bezoar stones were often mounted to be worn around the neck to enable them to put into a goblet of wine or water so that the stone could impart its medicinal properties, and also identify any poisons present in the liquid. Several bezoars are mentioned in the inventory of the estate of Catherine of Braganza, who died in Lisbon in 1705, one of which was set in gold and had a chain. Bezoars were therefore regarded in the same manner as other sorts of amuletic jewellery; the stones were believed to possess special prophylactic qualities oﬀering protection from the various evils that can befall humans.
 An Ancient Punuk or Thule Bering Sea Eskimo Walrus Ivory Comb Nuyiurutet carved with an amuletic masked and tattooed male ﬁgure probably representing a Shaman a loop to the back of the head for attachment to a belt The teeth mostly missing Smooth silky creamy patina ad 800 – 1200
s i z e : 6 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 1.3 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 1 ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Russian collection c f : Sainsbury Collection University of East Anglia Norwich has a similar Comb surmounted with a carved human head (inv. no. 734) Larger combs were used to prepare or hackle ﬁbres of sinew, or to comb the fur on clothing. These smaller ones were used as personal hair combs and they epitomise the Eskimos skill in infusing items of everyday use with artistic elegance. Eskimo artists were indiﬀerent to verticality as lacking in literacy they visualised forms without a knowledge of Western perspective, and possessed a simultaneous perception of multiple meanings within one form. This comb has precisely rendered features with deep set eyes, perhaps once with inlay, and a large broad nose. An encircling groove around the front of the head suggests that the face is masked like that of a shaman performing a ritual. The tattoos to back and front of the torso may represent scariﬁcation or clothing. The ﬁgure is also shown wearing a necklace.
 Two Bering Sea Yupik Eskimo Walrus Ivory Women’s Amuletic Belt Fasteners Depicting a Double Headed Seal with Inlaid Baleen Eyes 19th Century
s i z e s : 2 cm high, 4 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – ¾ ins high, 1½ ins wide, ½ deep (each) These miniature carvings are exclusively used by women and young girls as amuletic pendants and fasteners on belts. Carved of walrus ivory they came in an array of shapes including seals, whales, walrus, wolves, otters, birds, ﬁsh and caribou. Holes are bored through for attachment and they were hung close together on the lower edge of a belt, serving as both decoration and protection, they were often carved by young men for their prospective brides to bring them good fortune. Belts with numerous amuletic attachments were regarded as special and hung over the grave of the deceased.
 A Japanese Ritual Trumpet made from a Conch Shell Charonia Tritonis with a Black Lacquered Mouthpiece known as a Horagai or Jinkai according to use Fine aged smooth silky mellow patina 17th Century or Earlier
s i z e : 30 cm long, 15.5 cm wide, 11 cm deep – 11¾ ins long, 6 ins wide, 4¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy Japanese ritual trumpets have been in use for over 1000 years and are still used today in the Buddhist temples especially during the water drawing ceremony Omizutori in the Shuni-E rite, a service held on the second month of the Lunisolar calendar. The trumpets are given diﬀerent names according to the function they perform. The Horagai is associated with the Yamabushi who are ascetic warrior monks living in remote mountainous areas. They follow the Shugend¯o tradition and are believed to be endowed with supernatural powers. The Yamabushi used the trumpets to signal their movements to one another across the mountains as well as to accompany the ritual chanting of Buddhist sutras. The temperatures in the mountainous regions of Japan are often below freezing and so the lacquered mouthpiece acts to protect the players lips which would freeze to a metal surface. A Japanese conch shell trumpet was famously used to good effect in the ﬁlm The Last Samurai as the symbolic sound indicating an impending battle. Many Japanese Damyo¯ would enlist the Yamabushi monks to serve as Kai Yaku, trumpeters, because of their experience in playing the instrument. Used as a war shell the trumpet was called Jinkai and would be blown with a diﬀerent combination of notes to signal troops to attack, withdraw or change strategies much like a bugle was used on the European battle ground. Unlike other shell trumpets from other parts of the world which produce only one pitch, Japanese Horagai can produce up to ﬁve diﬀerent notes with each Shungendo¯ Buddhist temple having its own conch shell melodies.
 A Superb Scrimshaw Narwhal Tusk Walking Cane with T Shaped Handle Fine old deep spiral twist with a creamy smooth patina to the shaft First half 19th Century s i z e : 86 cm long – 34 ins long C.I.T.E.S Article 10 available The greatest Danish scientist of the 17th century was Ole Worm (1588–1654) who made a drawing in 1638 of the monodon monoceros with its tusk. After attending Aarhus Cathedral school in Jutland he travelled and studied all over Europe before starting a career in Copenhagen in 1615. His interest in the truth of the existence of the unicorn was aroused when he was presented with a narwhal skull by Chancellor Christian Friis of Kragerup. Friis gave him the skull complete with the tusk and so provided him with the proof that had previously been diﬃcult to obtain : the alicornus was indisputably attached to a whale. From then on Ole Worm was positive that the legendary unicorn horn was in fact a tusk!
 A Collection of Twenty Two Pre-Columbian Mexican Aztec Texcoco Obsidian Spear and Arrow Heads Scrappers Blades and Three Blade Cores Some with old ink inscribed paper labels variously reading Obsidian Spear Heads and Chips (Volcanic Glass) from Mexico Lent by H Fell Pease Esq. M.P. and Obsidian Arrow Heads San Martin Mexico James Backhouse and Chips Made in Shaping Arrow and Spear Heads Mexico Obsidian James Backhouse Inscribed on the reverse of a Late 19th Century visiting card for Mrs and Miss Fell Pease 25 Ennismore Gardens S W Circa 1000 – 1500 ad s i z e s : 16 cm long, 4.5 cm dia. (max) – 6¼ ins long, 1¾ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection The Aztecs developed great skill in fashioning objects from Obsidian, a hard and brittle volcanic glass that is extremely diﬃcult to work. It was used in Mesoamerica from the earliest times by all the various settlements in the Basin of Mexico until the arrival of the Spanish. Obsidian can have grey, green or golden reﬂections according to type and was obtained by collecting blocks of it on the surface or by mining the large deposits that existed in the area. Regarded as a valuable commodity, obsidian was given to the Aztec capital as a form of tribute by the local communities. To the Aztecs, black obsidian symbolised the night and the cold. The omnipotent god of fate Tezcatlipoca or smoking mirror was associated with the material as one of his attributes was an obsidian divinatory mirror. Later after the Spanish conquest, this god’s association with sacriﬁce, blood and obsidian drew a parallel between Aztec belief and Christian cruciﬁxion imagery, and obsidian became requested by the Jesuit priests for the making of portable travelling altars which were used as liturgical instruments in their conversion of the indigenous people.
 A Northern Netherlandish Late Medieval Carved Ivory Figure Group of the Virgin and St John at the Foot of the Cross set upon a grassy tussock with the Skull of Golgotha The upper section now lost St John with one hand lacking The concave back with two old collection labels with inventory number 435 Aged worn smooth patina Late 15th Century – Early 16th Century
s i z e : 11.5 cm high, 9.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 4½ ins high, 3¾ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Flanders Small ivory cruciﬁxion scenes such as this were polychromed and used to embellish private devotional altars for use in personal meditation. The carving shows the grief stricken Virgin her mantled head bowed in mourning, her hands clasped in prayer standing next to St John portrayed with a mop of curly hair looking upward, his left hand on his heart lamenting the death of Christ. The image would have the eﬀect of reminding the faithful viewer to remember God’s love and his sacriﬁce for humanity, and to have compassion for the suﬀering of the saviour.
 A Rare Arabian Bedouin Leather Training and Calming Hood for an Imperial Eagle or Peregrine Falcon together with a Gauntlet Inset with a Wooden Perch Rail and Embroidered with a Scene of a Falconer on Horseback Flying Two Birds 19th Century
s i z e s : approx : 14 cm high – 5½ ins high (with plume) glove : 18 cm wide, 33.5 cm long – 7 ins wide, 13¼ ins long For more than 500 years falconry has been immensely popular across Europe, Asia and the Arab world. Since pre-Islamic times Arabia and the Middle East has had a proud tradition of ﬂying hawks, including sakers, lanners and peregrines, and of ﬂying Imperial eagles. From Morocco to Pakistan falconers, princes and Sheikhs came together at hunting camps to share their experiences and techniques for trapping and training hawks and for ﬂying them at quarry. Whether the hawking party involved a handful or hundreds of men, they sat around the campﬁre to discuss their sport and prepare their birds for the next day of hunting.
Arab falconers train their birds to be successful hunters of their chosen quarry using traditional hooding techniques and this hood was used to calm newly captured wild falcons or eagles and to acquaint the birds with the use of a hood. In the heat of the desert the side of the gauntlet is left open for more comfort. Eagles are fast, have big claws and crush their prey so the gauntlet has to cover the lower arm and has an inbuilt wooden perch, used when carrying the bird on horseback, to protect the falconer against the natural instinct of the eagle to grip hard. Taming and training an eagle or falcon is a serious and skilled business. Every Autumn falconers bring new birds to their Arabian sheikhs and princes. In long meetings the quality and condition of each bird is assessed, appraised and carefully measured. In both Arab and western falconry free-ﬂying eagles and falcons are trained to return to a lure, but when in past times the only lights in the desert were campﬁres the Bedouin falconer made sure he only ever fed his bird right next to the ﬁre. If ever this bird became lost during hunting expeditions she ﬂew back, even at night, to the huge ﬁre her anxious falconer built as a beacon for her return. Traditionally, every Spring her keeper released her in the Hejaz mountains so she could breed and every October he returned to the mountains, built a big ﬁre and re-trapped her.
 An Ancient Egyptian Large Red Cedar-Wood Headrest Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 bc
s i z e : 19.5 cm high, 23 cm wide, 11 cm deep – 7½ ins high, 9 ins wide, 4¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Acquired 1950’s London When they slept the ancient Egyptians rested their heads on low wooden or stone supports. The fundamental form of a ﬂat base, straight shaft and a neckpiece carved to accommodate the head appeared as early as the First Dynasty (3100–2890 bc) and continued through the Ptolemaic period. Elaborate hairstyles necessitated the use of the headrests in order to protect time consuming and expensive hairdressing. The hard pillow or platform kept the wigs and braiding from being damaged during sleep. They were also remarkably comfortable as long as one did not roll over. Similar wooden headrests are still used today in West Africa. As a support for the most vulnerable part of the body when it was most at risk from the powers of darkness, the headrest was a potent symbol of protection and was often placed in sarcophagi next to the mummy’s head or supporting it. As important burial gifts, headrests served to assist the deceased in his or her quest for immortal life.
 An Unusual Small Fijian Throwing Club I Ula Tavatava the Fluted Head with a Tooth pushed into a crevice the shaft carved to facilitate a ﬁrm grip Old smooth silky dark brown patina First half 19th Century
s i z e : 32.5 cm long – 12¾ ins long These light throwing clubs took their name from the ﬂanges or serration of the head which were originally the buttress roots of the shrub from which they were made. They were carried in the girdle of a man’s loincloth and when of this size were speciﬁcally used for hunting pigeons and ﬂying fox fruit bats. A long range throw could be aimed with great precision. Teeth and other materials such as shell or glass beads, or rough sperm whale ivory pieces are all found decorating crevices on Fijian clubs and it is now thought that this was a prestige driven practice that reﬂected on the status of the owner of the club rather than a warfare related embellishment denoting a warrior’s military success.
 A Fine Heavy Ceremonial Chieﬂy Tabua of Sperm Whale Tooth Each End Bored With Old Suspension Holes Aged Smooth Honey Coloured Silky Patina Early 19th Century
s i z e : 16.5 cm long – 6½ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy C.I.T.E.S Article 10 available The Tongan tapua an embodiment of the Tongan god, travelled from Tonga to Fiji in the 16th century and became equally important as tabua. For a sperm whale tooth to became a tabua suitable for presentation it is scraped, polished, oiled and smoked until it ideally develops a honey-coloured patina. In the 18th century tabua were also made from shells, wood and stone, but once the European merchants supplied large quantities of whale teeth in trade for their sandalwood and bêche-de-mer in the early 19th century, ivory tabua became dominant. In 1810 Richard Siddons wrote that in Fiji whale’s teeth were more valued there than gold. He also observed that they will give as much (sandal) wood for one large tooth, as for ﬁve or six axes. This regard they put upon large teeth is the more extraordinary as they do not seem to make use of them except as ornaments (Im Thurn and Wharton 1925 :174) The Fijian chiefs did use them as high status regalia in the form of breast ornaments, but they also used them strategically as presentation gifts to request military assistance, secure marriage alliances, pledge allegiance and make oﬀerings to the gods, tabua were also distributed at great ceremonial exchanges solevu. In their eﬀective deployment for these purposes tabua were indeed more valuable to the Fijians than gold.
 A Tibetan Belt Hung Coin Pouch decorated with panels of chased silver and brass inset with green turquoise and with Two Tibetan Fire Steel Chakmak Belt Hung Tinder Pouches the leather set with decorative panels of silver copper and brass and red coral with attached steel striker 19th Century
s i z e s : A : 30 cm high, 14 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 5½ ins wide B : 25 cm high, 13.5 cm wide – 10 ins high, 5¼ ins wide C : 18 cm high, 14 cm wide – 7 ins high, 5½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy In the 1820’s William Moorcroft travelled extensively in the Himalayan regions and in describing Tibetan dress he noted Every man carries a knife hanging from his girdle and a chakmak or steel for striking a light. Constructed from a stiﬀ leather purse with a curved steel striker attached by rivets, the sides and ﬂap are sewn and ﬁxed by ornamental silver and brass plates, and small decorative plaques. Inside are kept a piece of ﬂint and some tinder such as dried plant roots. To the top a metal plate allows the pouch to be hung from the belt with a chakmak strap. With the introduction of the friction match the function of the tinder box and pouch gradually became redundant, but the Tibetans and Mongolians still wore them and regarded them as amuletic jewellery and an essential part of their traditional dress.
 A Fine Italian Neoclassical Carved Lava Stone Plaque of the Three Graces or Muses After the Antique Early 19th Century
s i z e : 13.5 cm high, 10 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 4 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep Lava stone was a popular material at the beginning of the 19th century especially with the Grand Tourists visiting Italy and Pompeii who wished to take home mementoes of Mount Vesuvius. In the natural colours of matt grey, greenish brown or beige the carvings are often very intricately carved with archaeological subjects. The three Greek Muses or graces were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne or Memory, and were the goddesses of literature, music and dance. The early Greek poet Hesiod was the ﬁrst to name them and according to him, there were nine, each of whom in later Roman times presided over one particular art, but their names and number vary considerably at diﬀerent times in antiquity. Also known as the three graces, they represented youth and beauty, comedy and mirth, and elegance and they would preside over banquets in order to delight the guests of the gods. Artists of all kinds in antiquity felt a personal bond with the Muses who they believed to be the source of their gifts, and it is from them that the word Museum originated meaning a place connected with the muses where arts and learning was cultivated. The most famous museum was that of Alexandria in Egypt founded by Ptolemy I (323– 283 bc). Distinct from the library, it housed scholars who were state supported and who attended lectures and discussions which even royalty might attend. Queen Cleopatra is reputed to have done so. Dinners with clever conversation were a characteristic institution of the Museum, a poet of the 3rd century bc described it as the hencoop of the Muses.
 A Carved Ivory Artist’s Palette used for Oil Paints by a Painter of Miniatures Late 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 14.5 cm x 10.5 cm – 5¾ ins x 4¼ ins Intimately associated with the painter’s craft, the artist’s palette, in addition to its practical service as a tool, has become a metaphor for the colours used in particular pictures. Terms such as a restricted palette referring to a restricted range of colours employed in a painting. This type of palette began its evolution in the early 15th century as a small wooden bat-like surface, just as its French name implies, upon which artists could work up a few colours prior to their application. Their shape was then very similar to the baker’s peel which was also known as a palette. The small size of these early palettes reﬂects the procedures of egg tempera painting and the tradition for ﬁnishing small areas bit by bit. Their growth in size coincided with the development of oil painting. The batlike English palettes continued to be used occasionally throughout the 18th century until they were ﬁnally displaced by the ovoid, sometimes rectangular form with the thumb-hole and brush bay. In this shape the palette occurs in countless allegorical representations as an attribute of the arts. The small ivory or porcelain palettes used by painters in miniature remained small and were sometimes minute. They were made from materials consistent with the surface upon which the artist worked, and were of a scale appropriate to that work. The palette was the surface upon which a painter could rehearse the consistency, tone and colour of the paint that he intended to apply to the work in hand. Richard Wilson recalled that on a visit to see landscape painter George Lambert it was possible by looking at his palette to see the cow and the grass she was going to eat.
 Set of English Turned Ivory Artist’s Watercolour Dishes each Tower having ﬁve sections unscrewing to reveal the dry powdered paint pigments Late 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 5.5 cm high, 4.5 cm dia. – 2¼ ins high, 1¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection The portable nature of watercolour and gouache has long been recognised by artists. The medium was used by Albrecht Durer for his landscape studies made on his travels to Italy around 1495, and it was used by various expeditions of exploration and discovery from John White’s records of the Native Americans of Virginia in 1585–90 to the paintings by the naturalist Sydney Parkinson who sailed on Captain Cook’s ﬁrst voyage in 1768. All of these artists needed portable dry storage for their powdered pigments on their travels and these ivory towers provided an excellent and convenient solution.
 Ancient British Limestone Celtic Votive Head of a Man The limestone blackened by exposure 2nd – 3rd Century ad
s i z e : 28.5 cm high, 21 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 11¼ ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a Yorkshire Surveyor c f : Pagan Celtic Britain by Dr Anne Ross illustration 27b shows a similar head found near Appleby, Cumberland The Austere and abstract aesthetic portrayed in ancient Celtic severed head sculpture is powerful and disconcerting. The minimal carving and reduction of the facial features to essentially geometric forms shown in the expressionless lentoid eyes and schematically suggested hair gives these heads a sense and feeling of contemporary modernism. The human head was regarded by the Celts as being symbolic of divinity and supernatural powers which would provide protection against evil. The motif of the severed head ﬁgures throughout the entire ﬁeld of Celtic cult practice and persisted over a long period of time. Intended for ritualistic purposes these carved stone heads functioned as surrogates for actual decapitated human heads taken in battle by Celtic warriors, or in sacriﬁce by priests. The veneration of the head was rooted in the Celtic religion being regarded as the seat of the soul and capable of independent being, and so possession of an enemy’s head meant control over that particular person and their spirit. The severed head represented an aspect of divinity and as such was an appropriate oﬀering with which to adorn a temple, and made in stone, it would be everlasting. The Celtic cult of the head laid the foundation for the Christian belief in the head as the locus of the soul explaining the later reverence for the heads of saints and martyrs, and their preservation as sacred relics.
 A Fine Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke of an Oni His Eyes inlaid with Horn Grappling an Octopus with inlaid Ivory Eyes its Tentacles encircling the Oni’s arms and legs Early 19th Century
s i z e : 3.5 cm high – 1¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands In the late 18th century direct contact with Europeans on Japan was strictly limited to a few Dutch trading on Dejima, but the books they brought with them had a great inﬂuence becoming the main source of western knowledge in Japan. The information disseminated through such works, known as rangaku or Dutch studies, resulted in the introduction of drawing from nature and the use of perspective, light and shade. The eﬀect of Western Art produced a new sense of realism which was also reﬂected in the carving of netsuke. The keen observation and attention to detail, especially in the depiction of animals, can be seen in the eyes that are inlaid with various materials and the meticulous portrayal of, as in this example, the suckers of the octopus and the face of the oni.
 A Japanese Naturalistically Carved Boxwood Netsuke of Two Shiitake Mushrooms the smaller Fungus upside down on the cap the underneath showing the gill formation the bent stalk forming the Himotoshi Early 19th Century
s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 4 cm dia. – 1 ins high, 1½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands
 A Fine Japanese Naturalistically Carved Boxwood Model of a Lotus Fruit Containing Seven Horn Loose Seeds the Bent Stalk inlaid with minute Horn Spots forming the Himotoshi Early 19th Century
s i z e : 4 cm high, 3.5 cm dia. – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands
 A Japanese Boxwood Netsuke of One Large and Four Smaller Vegetable Gourds attached to a long stalk with three leaves the gap between the Gourd and the Stalk forming the Himotoshi Late 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 5.5 cm long – 2¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands
 A Fine Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke of a Branch of a Peach Tree Laying on a Basket the Ripe Fruit Depicted in Red Coral First half 19th Century
s i z e : 2 cm high, 3.5 cm dia. – ¾ ins high, 1¼ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands
 A Fine Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke of an Oni Cowering Terriﬁed Under Shoki the Demon Queller’s wide Hat his three ﬁngered hand gripping the Brim his horned head tucked down with only the top of his eyes visible the top of the hat inlaid with two copper beans the Himotoshi formed in the gap between his three toed foot and his leg Signed without reserve Shosan Superb rich smooth dark brown patina Mid 19th Century
s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 3.5 cm dia. – 1 ins high, 1¼ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Channel Islands Japanese oni are devils and demons, sometimes of giant size, distinguished by two horns and three ﬁngered hands and three toed feet. Normally cruel, mean and lecherous they are sometimes depicted in comical situations as intelligence is not their strong point. Shoki, the Demon Queller is the oni’s great enemy, who habitually tries to shorten or cut oﬀ the oni’s horns thereby depriving him of his evil power. Bean or peas are the only other things that frighten an oni and at the Japanese Setsubun New Year festival a ceremony is performed called Oni-Yarai at which people throw the legumes whilst shouting Devils out! Good Luck in!
 A Fine Impressive Large Carved Ivory and Gem Set Silver Figure of the Legendary King Arthur Dressed in Regal Parade Armour his Tabard Carved with Numerous Welsh Dragons around it an Enamelled and Gem Set Silver Belt from which Hangs a Silver Gilt Sword Excalibur his other hand holding a silver shield displaying the Medieval Royal Arms of England quartered with France his gem set silver visor rising to reveal his face with a luxuriant moustache Austro Hungarian Viennese workshop On original ebony base Fine condition Late 19th Century
s i z e : 43 cm high – 17 ins high / 50 cm high – 19¾ ins high (with base) There are two legends about King Arthur. The best known portrays Arthur as a chivalrous King who held magniﬁcent court at Camelot with his fellowship of Round Table Knights. The second shows him to be a Romanised Briton who as a renowned war leader temporarily halted the invading Anglo-Saxons. However, the general view of Arthur remains that which was inspired by Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and reinforced in Victorian times by Alfred Lord Tennyson’s Idylls of the King. Merlin the Wizard was Arthur’s mentor. Responsible by magical means for his conception, he protected him and advised him. It was Merlin who provided the bridge in the Arthurian legend between the old pagan world with its enchantments and mysteries and the Christian world in which the Knights of the Round Table saw their ultimate mission as the quest for the blessed chalice that once held the blood of Christ. Often described as the last Druid priest, Merlin is Britain’s most famous sorcerer, although a curiously shadowy ﬁgure in legend. He is ﬁrst mentioned under the name of Myraddin, a Welsh bard, and his early fame was built on his ability as a seer advising Vortifern on the two dragons beneath his castle. The two warring dragons, one white the other red, were causing the foundations to sink and Merlin advised digging a tunnel beneath the castle. They found a huge subterranean lake and watched the red dragon defeat the white one. Merlin told Vortifern that the red dragon symbolised Wales and the white the Saxons who would be defeated in the future. Thus Merlin created the Welsh national emblem and the red dragon is still today synonymous with Welsh identity.
 A Curious Three Dimensional Sculpted Paste or Bread Depiction of a Terriﬁed British Oﬃcer in his Tent Surrounded by the Flying Bombs of the Russians during the Crimean War his startled eyes inlaid with glass The hand-coloured lithographic print entitled Quiet Lodgings : A First Night in the Crimea and The Russian Mode of Giving a Border Notice to Quit ‘Printed by C. Moody of 257 Holborn’ ‘Modelled by R. Evans’ ‘Published 1855 by R. Evans Lower Charlton Kent’ Contained in original rosewood veneered shadow box with gilt slip Circa 1855
s i z e : 29.5 cm high, 24 cm wide – 11½ ins high, 9½ ins wide / 40 cm high, 34.5 cm wide – 15¾ ins high, 13¾ ins wide (frame) This unusual theatrical depiction of the Crimean War (1854–1856) gives an impression of the diﬃculties encountered by Britain and France battling the Russians in the Peninsula. The origins of the war lay in the Russian successes in the area of the Black Sea, and the allies desire to prevent further expansion into the Ottoman Empire by the Russians, as this would threaten the Mediterranean and overland routes to India. Major battles were fought in 1854 at the River Alma, Balaclava and Inkerman. The fall of the Russian Fortress at Sevastopol in September 1855 led to peace negotiations. The war was most famous for the nursing exploits of Florence Nightingale at Scutari and the pioneer war reports of W.H. Russel in The Times.
 Sir John Franklin’s (1786 –1847) Tasmanian Myrtle Wood and Brass Bound Travelling Writing Box the Arctic Explorer Rear Admiral and Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) from 1837–1843 A label to the inside inscribed This writing desk was the property of Sir John Franklin the Polar Explorer who perished with his ship’s company (c.1845) Another later card states This writing desk was purchased at Hexton & Cheney Auction Room from a sale by Littlehampton Musuem 19th March 1969 J.A. Rankin Circa 1830 – 40 s i z e : 15 cm high, 47 cm wide, 24 cm deep – 6 ins high, 18½ ins wide, 9½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Littlehampton Musuem, Sussex sold at auction 1969 Acquired from J.A Rankin Arundel, Sussex Thence by descent In January 1837 Sir John Franklin together with his wife and private secretary arrived in Hobart as successor to the troubled administration of Sir George Arthur. Van Diemen’s Land was a dual purpose settlement, both a free colony and a prison and so inevitably there was a conﬂict of imperial and colonial interests. The free colonists proﬁted by the convict establishment which provided them with a market for their products and a cheap labour force, but they resented the arbitrary form of government by a lieutenantgovernor and a legislative council of his chief oﬃcials. Sir Arthur had given primacy to the penal purpose of the colony, but the free colonists held that their interests should come ﬁrst. This diﬃcult, and nearly irreconcilable situation was never resolved and after six years Franklin was recalled to Britain in 1843. After Franklin’s second Arctic expedition only 311 miles of Arctic coastline remained unexplored. The British decided to send a well equipped expedition to complete the charting of the Northwest passage and asked Sir James Ross to command it. He declined and the position was oﬀered to Franklin who eagerly accepted despite his age of 59. On the 7th February 1845 he was given the title of Expedition Commander with Capt’ Fitzjames and Capt’ Crozier appointed in command of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. Both ships became trapped in the ice oﬀ King William Island and never sailed again. According to a note found later Franklin died there on 11th June 1847. In 1854 the Scottish explorer Dr John Rae while surveying the Boothia Peninsula for the Hudson’s Bay Company discovered the true fate of the Franklin party from talking to Inuit hunters. He was told both ships had become ice bound, the men had tried to reach safety on foot, but had succumbed to cold and some had resorted to cannibalism. Rae’s report to the admiralty was leaked to the press which led to wide spread revulsion in Victorian society, enraged Franklin’s widow and condemned Rae to ignominy. Lady Franklin’s eﬀorts to eulogise her husband with support from the British establishment led to a further 25 searches over the next 40 years none of which added any further important information. In 1997, more than 140 years later, Rae’s account was ﬁnally vindicated. Blade cut marks on the bones of some of the crew found on King William Island suggested that in desperation cannibalism had indeed happened. Portrayed by Victorian society as a hero who led his men in the quest of the Northwest Passage, Franklin and the mystery surrounding his last expedition to this day still inspires dramatists, artists and authors.
 Antique Specimen of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros with Deep Spiralling Twist Aged smooth creamy dark patina 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 219 cm long – 86¼ ins long / 235 cm high – 92½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Edgar Chandler (1899–1984) Acquired Prior to the 1930’s Thence by descent to his Grandson C.I.T.E.S Article 10 Available Monodon Monoceros means one tooth one horn. The Inuit term for a large tusked narwhal is Angisoq Tuugaaq. Occasionally a male may have two tusks, but only three percent of females have a tusk at all. The single fang is ﬁlled with a dental pulp that is full of nerves, and which can grow as thick as a lamp post and taller than a man over time. The twist also becomes deeper and more eccentric the longer the narwhal lives. They are the fair alabaster skinned Beluga whale’s dark cousin. The Norse named them corpse whale because their blotchy ﬂesh reminded the Viking sailors of a drowned body. Unlike other species of whale, the narwhal does not survive for long in captivity which has greatly reduced the opportunity for scientists to study them. In the wild they can live for more than 100 years and with 50 per cent of their body made up of blubber fat they can survive extreme freezing arctic winters. Migrating more than 1000 miles a year, their fate is tied to the ice, always returning to the coast of Greenland for the onset of Winter.
 An Ancient Egyptian Solid Cast Bronze Figure of Osiris Late Dynastic Period 26th – 30th Dynasty 664 – 343 bc
s i z e : 26 cm high – 10¼ ins high / 28 cm high – 11 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Artist and Sculptor Henry Moore (1898– 1986) Thence by descent Ex Rupert Wace Ancient Art Ex Private English collection One of the earliest of the ancient Egyptian Gods, Osiris became one of the most important of all the deities whose principal association was with death, resurrection and fertility. As in this ﬁgure, he is often depicted as a mummy whose hands project through his wrappings to hold the royal insignia of crook and ﬂail. He wears the distinctive atef crown consisting of the tall white crown ﬂanked by two plumes and a pair of twisted ram horns. His skin and ﬂesh is shown as black to signify the fertile Nile soil as one of his earliest functions was as a fertility god overseeing the growth of crops and controlling the inundation of the river and its all important alluvium deposits. The combination of his fertility and funerary aspects transformed Osiris into the quintessential god of resurrection. By the 5th Dynasty (2494–2345 bc) the dead King was identiﬁed with Osiris while the living ruler was equated with his son Horus, and by the First Intermediate Period (2181–2055 bc) it appears to have become possible for any deceased person to be resurrected in the guise of Osiris. In order to gain eternal life it was essential the mummiﬁed body had to imitate the appearance of Osiris as closely as possible. Herodotus, the Greek historian described the most expensive technique of mummiﬁcation as being in the manner of Osiris.
 A Fine West African Burkina Faso Lobi Ivory Pendant Thunbu Biel of Elegant Abstract Form Fine old smooth dry mellow patina 19th Century
s i z e : 21.5 cm high, 11.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 8½ ins high, 4½ ins wide, 4¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Pierre Darteville Brussels, Belgium Ex Private Belgian collection The Lobi inhabit the south of Burkina Faso and are also found in the north of the Ivory Coast and Ghana. They were literally children of the forest known for their animist beliefs, their communities are based on the laws of God, Thagba who is the creator of all living things, but who has no direct contact with his people. The Lobi are dependent on nature spirits Thila who act as invisible intermediaries which can harness their supernatural powers towards good or evil. They set the rules which dictate how a Lobi should behave in all aspects of life, but like the European ancient Greek or Roman gods the thila themselves are subject to mortal virtues and vices. Lobi villages have a diviner Thildar, a religious specialist who interprets the rules of the spirits and can communicate with them. These ﬁne pendants are slightly curved around a vertical axis up to one inch thick and are carved from the wall of the tusk. The groove along their length follows the inside of the tusk. Known as Thunbu Biel or elephant whistles they are highly prized and are worn by Lobi men of rank.
 A Venetian Renaissance White Istrian Marble Figure of a Striding Lion 16th Century
s i z e : 40.5 cm high, 53.5 cm wide, 18.5 cm deep – 16 ins high, 21 ins wide, 7¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Venice is a city of marble. A city with doorways, arches and balconies decorated with carved white lions. The lion of St Mark raised on a high column in the Piazzetta is a bronze of late 13th century work and is representative of the animal’s ﬁrm, ﬁerce and ﬁery strength making him the symbol of the evangelist whose remains were brought to Venice from Alexandria in 829 ad. The lion was associated with St Mark because the ﬁrst lines in his gospel refer to voice which cried in the wilderness which, St Jerome claims, cannot be other than the roar of the lion (Mark I :3). The symbolic pairing of the four evangelists with animals was not accepted by the Eastern Christian Church and so there are very few representations of them with these symbols within Byzantine art. Venice was an exception due to the inﬂuence of the west.
 A Rare Spanish Colonial South American Colombian Silver Mounted Wood Lined Tortoiseshell Tobacco Leaf and Cigar Box The sides with silver loops set on ﬂoral rosettes for a chain attachment Some slight damage to four tortoiseshell panels Containing an early 20th century paper label stating : Cofre de Rapé Perteneció a la Familia de José Benito de Castro Y Arcayá Año 1640 Bogotá, Colombia First half 17th Century
s i z e : 19.5 cm high, 9 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 7¾ ins high, 3½ ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Dutch collection The smoking of tobacco arose in antiquity from the religious ceremonies of priests in the coastal districts of Central America and Mexico. Stone carvings depict Mayan shaman using a form of pipe to blow tobacco smoke towards the sun and the four points of the compass. These practices gradually spread to other tribes such as the Aztecs who used reeds for smoking and to the North American mound people of the Mississippi basin who were using tobacco ceremonially for over 1000 years before any European set foot on the continent. They regarded tobacco as a gift from the gods and highly valued it as an intoxicating supernatural substance. In 1492 Christopher Columbus was oﬀered dried brown leaves as a gesture of friendship and in Cuba two members of his crew found men chewing wads of tobacco and smoking crudely made cigars. By the early 16th century both the tobacco plant and the smoking of cigars had reached Spain where its use was considered medicinal. Monardes in Seville became famous for his cures for bites, headaches, colds, fevers and rheumatism based on the taking of powdered tobacco. The Spanish ﬁrst arrived in Colombia in 1499 and after the conquest of the indigenous Musica and Tairona chieftains, they created the Viceroyalty of New Granada. By the 17th century agriculture had begun to replace mining as an important enterprise, and by the early 1700’s sugar and tobacco had become very important export commodities. As the exhaustion of the country’s mineral and metal resources continued the Spanish crown re-orientated its economic policy to further stimulate agriculture with the result that the export of tobacco became so important to the colonists, and its value as a commodity so great, that it became a form of legal currency.
 Two Papuan New Guinea East Sepik Province Western Prince Alexander Mountains Abelam Peoples Basketry Masks and Headdress Ornaments in the form of an Abstract Bird brightly painted with red yellow and white earth pigments An old printed label attached to one mask reading : Birmingham Musuem with ink inscribed inventory no. 64́ 29 5 Early 20th Century
s i z e : 19 cm high, 12 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 7½ ins high, 4¾ ins wide, 3¼ ins deep and 17.5 cm high, 10 cm wide, 7.5 cm deep – 7 ins high, 4 ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Birmingham City Musuem Ex Private UK collection Thence by descent
Made from the plaited stems of a climbing vine, lygodium, coloured with naturally brightly coloured earth pigments, these masks were worn on the back of the head attached by means of a rattan shaft on a comb ﬁxed in the hair. The abstract bird would then move about energetically in dance ceremonies perhaps as a representation of clan spirits. Traditionally all New Guinea art was made for use in a social context such as initiation rituals, end of mourning festivals or for the ceremonial men’s house. These masks may have been used in the initiation of adolescent boys into cult of the men’s house Haus Tambaran. New Guinea has hundreds of cultures in the many diﬀerent environments and ecosystems within its boundaries. Living along its rivers, in the mountains, tropical rainforest and on numerous islands the people speak almost 1000 diﬀerent languages. The Sepik river meanders west to east over a lowland course of some 700 miles emptying into the Paciﬁc in about the centre of the north coast. The art of this immense region is largely sculptural and can be divided roughly into ten stylistic areas, which in turn can be broken down into stylistic subregions. Art was central to ritual life and was centred around the men’s house and the elaborate initiations and ceremonies associated with it.
 A Fine Unusual Sailors Scrimshaw Walrus Ivory Seam Rubber Carved with Masonic Symbols Consisting of an Eye Inlaid with Abalone Shell and Baleen a Skull and Crossbones and the Square and Compass Etched with initials A.N.P. English or American Old creamy silky patina the bottom edge of the Seam Rubber worn smooth with use First half 19th Century
s i z e : 12 cm long, 4 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 4¾ ins long, 1½ ins wide, 1 ins deep Seam Rubbers made of walrus ivory, whalebone or wood had a practical ship board use for the sailmaker in helping to ﬂatten the canvas insuring good seams. The sailmaker and his assistant had plenty to do on a large whaling ship repairing or making new sails and dexterity, patience and a love of good workmanship was needed in their work. They used a variety of tools such as ﬁds, hooks, seam rubbers and needle horns which they often crafted themselves on board ship, for it was a tradition that a sailor could not remain idle even for a few moments. Many British and American sea captains and oﬃcers during the 19th century were members of masonic lodges and the ceremonies and emblems of the order were used decoratively on scrimshaw items such as this seam rubber, which were made as tools by mariners on board ship on commission or for their own use.
 A Northern Italian Renaissance Braccia a Carved Walnut Wooden Glove with Six Rows of Spikes used on the Forearm to Play a Team Ball Game Pallone Col Bracciale The top inscribed with the name Bonino. A. Fossano Old smooth dry patina Late 17th – Early 18th Century
s i z e : 18 cm high, 15 cm dia. – 7 ins high, 6 ins dia. c f : A carved stone ﬁgure of a dwarf wearing a Braccia can be seen in the Salzburg museum at Schloss Mirabell Austria Pallone col Bracciale was a traditional Italian ball game played by young men called pallonista wearing the wooden spiked glove over the forearm which was used to strike an inﬂated ball back and forth on courts that were marked out often on the town streets. Braccia exists for both the left and right hands and were usually made to measure. The inscription on the glove may refer to the owner rather than the maker. A designated mandarino or server was used to put the ball into play and the receiving players were allowed to reject any of the serves. The scores were made in tens and ﬁfteens, much like tennis, with the ﬁrst team to gain 12 games being the winner. Violent play often resulted in broken limbs as the braccia weighed up to two kilos and could be used to deliberately inﬂict injury. The game was popularly played in Italy from the mid 16th century, when the ﬁrst oﬃcial regulations were written out in 1555 by Antonio Scaino from Salÿ, to around 1910. The professional players of the game, pallonista, were the highest paid sportsmen in the world with some, like the modern footballer, achieving celebrity status.
 A Spanish Embroidered and Painted Silk Panel Depicting Jesuit Saint Francis Xavier Meditating on The Passion Whilst on his Mission in Southern India the Sea and Coconut Palms in the Background Fine and unblemished condition An old label to reverse for Hampton & Sons inscribed 513 Fine Old Spanish Embroidered Panel £6.10.0 and paper inventory no. 118 Late 18th Century
s i z e : 30 cm high, 23 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 9 ins wide / 34 cm high, 27.5 cm wide – 13¼ ins high, 10¾ ins wide (framed) Francis Xavier (1506–51) was a pioneer Jesuit missionary. Born at the castle of Xavier in Navarre, he was a Basque Spaniard educated at the University of Paris where he met and eventually joined Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits. Francis was one of the group of seven who took their vows at Montmartre in 1534 and who were ordained priests in Venice three years later. From the very beginning preaching in foreign missions was an integral part of Jesuit ideal and vocation. Francis joined Simon Rodriguez at Lisbon and in 1541 sailed to Goa at the invitation of the King of Portugal, John III to evangelise the East Indies fortiﬁed by a papal brief nominating him apostolic nuncio in the East. The journey took 13 months. Francis made Goa his headquarters and his astonishing missionary achievements ﬁlled the remaining ten years of his life. He began by reforming Goa which was full of relaxed Portuguese Catholics notorious for their cruelty to their slaves, open concubinage, and neglect of the poor. He did much to oﬀset this apparent betrayal of Christ and the Church by preaching and writing verses on Christian truths set to popular tunes. For the next seven years he worked among the Paravas in southern India, Sri Lanka, Malacca, the Molucca Islands and the Malay Peninsula. He went among the poor as a poor man himself : sleeping on the ground in a hut, and eating mainly rice and water. He met with immense success among the low caste of India, but with almost none among the Brahmins. Wherever he went he left numerous organised Christian communities, and a good example of the permanence of his achievements is the persistent ﬁdelity to Christianity of the Paravas whom he probably also saved from extermination. Despite his propensity to seasickness and his diﬃculty in learning foreign languages, he went further east making over a hundred converts a year at Kagoshima in Japan. However, on his way to China in 1551 he fell ill and died almost alone on the island of Chang-Chuen-Shan. He had suﬀered extreme hardship and worn himself out with ceaseless activity, but despite his lack of understanding of the great religions of the East, he built a lasting Christian presence there. His body was placed in quicklime and brought to Goa where it remains enshrined and for long has been, in its incorrupt state, an object of popular pilgrimage.
 A Finely Carved Northern Renaissance Flemish Boxwood Sculpture depicting the animated twisted and tortured ﬁgure of the Good Thief at the Cruciﬁxion from a Brussels Altar Piece Attributed to the Studio of Jan Boorman (circa 1475–1525) Some old historic damage probably dating from the time of the break up of the altar piece Last quarter of 15th Century
s i z e : 26.5 cm high, 8.5 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 10½ ins high, 3¼ ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 35.5 cm high – 14 ins high (with base) Coming from a family of sculptors, Jan Boorman joined the Brussels sculptors guild in 1479 and his workshop, together with those of his two sons, evolved a narrative style that was well suited to the large scale altarpieces which were in demand at that time. The St George altarpiece is regarded as his masterpiece, commissioned in 1493 for the Crossbowman’s Guild of Louvain and originally sited in the church of Ouze-LieveVrouw van Ginderbuyten now in the Brussels Musées Royal d’Art et d’Histoire. In this altarpiece the animated supporting characters twist and turn around the central ﬁgure of the saint in each of the seven large compartments devoted to the torments and eventual martydom of St George. The precision of observation and attention to detail mirroring the photographic clarity of the great painters of the period such as Roger van der Weyden. Gordon Campbell in the Grove Encyclopaedia of Northern Renaissance Art describes Boorman’s style exempliﬁed in the St George altarpiece as meticulously carved decorative details of costume, hair and beards, and an agile exaggerated sense of movement using twisting and swaying poses, the slender ﬁgures often placed with their backs to the viewer and swathed in heavy angular folded drapery. Boorman became highly regarded in his own lifetime and in 1511 was commissioned to create the wood models and sculptures for the tombs of the Duke and Duchess of Brabant, being described in the Royal accounts as the best sculptor.
 A French Empire Gold Mounted Ivory and Tortoiseshell Opera Monocular Original Shagreen and Velvet Lined Case Circa 1800 – 1830
s i z e : 4 cm dia., 6 cm high – 1½ ins dia., 2¼ ins high (closed) 4.5 cm dia., 7 cm high – 1¾ ins dia., 2¾ ins high (case) When Napoleon took power he reduced the number of Parisian opera houses to three from the many that had proliferated during the 1790’s. These were the Opéra, for serious operas with recitative and not dialogue, the Opéra-Comique for works with spoken dialogue in French, and the Théâtre-Italien for imported Italian operas. All three played a leading role in Parisian entertainment, but audiences ﬂocked to see traditional opera buffa at the Théâtre-Italien and works in the newly fashionable bel canto style especially those by Rossini whose fame was sweeping across Europe. In 1823 the Theatre scored an immense coup by persuading him to come to Paris and take up the post of manager of the opera house. He arrived to an outstanding welcome worthy of a modern Oscar winning celebrity actor. He went on to revive the ﬂagging fortunes of the Théâtre-Italien and then turned his attention to the Opéra, giving it French versions of his Italian operas and in 1829 a new piece Guillaume Tell. However, it all proved too much and ground down by the workload and disillusioned by the failure of Tell, Rossini retired as a composer.
 Fine French Gold Mounted Shagreen Travelling Writing Set the Hinged Lid concealing a Mirror and Compartment for Patches the Lower Hinged Body containing Two Gold Topped Ink Wells Four Gold Pen Nibs and a Pen Holder together with a Gold Mounted Cut Crystal Seal Engraved with a Cupid Dancing under the motto L’Amitié The mirror with crack otherwise ﬁne complete condition Late 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 4 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 1½ ins deep Writing paper took over 1000 years to reach Europe being brought to Spain by the Moors in the 11th century. The name paper is derived from Papyrus, the Egyptian reed which preceded it as a writing material. The Chinese are said to have ﬁrst invented paper at the end of the 1st century ad. Paper mills were established in France in the 12th century and 100 years later the manufacture spread to Italy and thence to Germany, the Low Countries and England. The ﬁrst recorded mill for paper of writing quality was John Tate’s Sele Mill near Stevenage set up in 1490. However, paper only superseded vellum for writing, other than legal documents, in the 16th century. Probably used for writing notes at court or social events, for example, to engage a prospective lover in a secret tryst, this beautifully produced objet virtue belongs to a time before mobile communication.
 Ancient Old Bering Sea Eskimo Okvik Carved Walrus Ivory Human Figure with Facial Tattoos Pyrites inlays to the eyes the body engraved with skeletal lines The dark colouring resulting from soil mineralisation Old smooth polished patina 200 bc – 100 ad
s i z e : 13 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 5 ins high, 1 ins wide, ¾ ins deep / 17 cm high – 6¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection This abstract ﬁgure displays typical Okvik features including an elongated oval face, a long thin nose, a pursed mouth and a rectangular palette shaped torso which is thought to have been designed to assist its standing in sand. The lack of limbs on these ﬁgures has led to the assumption that they were used as dolls. However, it is now thought that their main function was to act as a guardian spirit. In Siberia, the Yupiget call the stick-like ﬁgures Yugaaq meaning powerful person and believed them to protect individuals from evil spirits of the land and sea, the spirits of strangers and those associated with unknown places that a person had not previously visited. The Yugaaq of a new mother was also believed to protect her infant from evil when placed on the forehead. These guardian spirits could also become malevolent towards their owners if they were not properly fed with sacriﬁces of animal tallow and tobacco.
 A Rare Early English Sailors Scrimshaw Carved Marine Ivory Lottery or Teetotum Gambling Ball Numbered 1 to 25 Smooth old silky patina Late 17th Century
s i z e : 4 cm dia – 1½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private North Country collection Totum is Latin for the whole and is used in reference to the whole stake in gambling. Teetotum balls act somewhat like spinning dice, but have faceted numbered sides so when thrown there is an equal chance of any number turning up which is not the case with dice. Lotteries ﬁrst began to become an acceptable form of raising money for government funds under Queen Elizabeth I in 1568–69 in order to pay for urgent repairs to the harbours and coastal fortiﬁcations of England then under threat of invasion from the Spanish. Great eﬀorts were taken to provoke the people to part with their money and even fortune tellers were consulted about lucky numbers. Lotteries became ﬁrmly established by successive Acts of Parliament, even during the time of the puritan rule of the Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell. They went on to become a popular and very lucrative means of increasing government revenue, and indeed still are!
 Regency Tortoiseshell Veneered Conchologist’s Cabinet containing a Collection of Seashells Arranged in Five Drawers Sectioned with Gold Braided Paper Rods showing some rare specimens such as the Precious Wentletrap Old ink inscribed labels naming some Harlequin Cowry Music Shell Tulip or Radiated Teller Circa 1800 – 1820
s i z e : 17.5 cm high, 38 cm wide, 25.5 cm deep – 7 ins high, 15 ins wide, 10 ins deep p rov e na nc e : From the Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 proud descendent of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse Shell collecting in one form or another has been a passion of mankind for centuries. Few natural objects have been collected for so long or been treasured so much. Shells are associated with pre-Dynastic Egypt, Pre-historic Europe, Pre-historic Mexico and North America and pre-Columbian Ecuador. The cult of the shell probably originated with the cowry which became used as currency and for personal adornment. Later, larger shells were used as trumpets and were important in initiation ceremonies and temple worship. The art of the classical world is strewn with scallop shells and the earliest writings on molluscs are those of Aristotle (384–322 bc). From Cicero’s writings (De Oratoic vol. 2, VI, p22) it is known that two famous Roman consuls, Laelius (b. 186 bc) and Scipio (b. 185 bc) found relaxation from the cares of war and government in collecting shells. Perhaps the ﬁrst large scale ﬁeld trip in search of shells was undertaken by the Romans as a military exercise. Caligula (ad 12–41), known as Caius Caesar, marched into Gaul in 40 ad and led his troops down to the sea as if to embark on an invasion of Britain, but having drawn them up in battle array, he ordered them to collect shells which he then proclaimed the spoils of conquered ocean (Suetonius : Caligula XI vi)
 Indian Mughal Amuletic Gold and Turquoise Mounted Amethyst Forehead Ornament Tikka the Gem in the Shape of a Banyan Leaf with a bearded face probably representing the God Shiva the reverse with an overlaid gold foliate symbol inlaid with turquoise With some wear to gold overlay 17th Century
s i z e : 2.7 cm high, 1.8 cm wide – 1 ins high, ¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of the Late Seward Kennedy In Hindu physiognomy the forehead is regarded as the most sacred part of the body housing the psychic seat of enlightenment Sahasra Chakra. Gems such as this, worn with a chain along the parting of the hair and hung over the forehead, functioned as a medium between human and divine, the known and the unknown. In India a jewel was not a mere ornament, it was a magical and amuletic protector against evil spirits and a guardian of religious faith. Flora and fauna are an inseparable aspect of Indian jewellery design. Even ordinary everyday foods like the mango and clove are found incorporated to propitiate deities for food, sustenance and good luck. The leaves of the banyan tree were frequently employed as jewellery. The tree is associated with longevity, prosperity and good health, and also symbolises the trinity : Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The banyan tree was especially sacred to women as a symbol of fertility.
 Rare Indonesian Central Java Encrusted Gold and Gem Studded Belt Hook for a Ceremonial Sword depicting the Hindu Giant Mythical Bird Garuda its head set with six diamonds and a central Ruby 17th Century
s i z e : 7 cm high, 2 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, ¾ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy c f : A similar encrusted gold and gem set belt buckle was exhibited in the Court Arts of Indonesia at The Asia Society New York 1990 Fig. 113 no. 52, catalogue by H.I. Jessup Indonesia is the ﬁfth most populated country in the world with an ancient and rich culture, but it’s art remains remarkably little known in the West. The Kris is the most recognisable of all objects and it embodies the mythological, spiritual, artistic and technical ideals of Indonesian society and has been developed to a unique degree in the archipelago. A Javanese proverb lists the ﬁve things essential to a man’s happiness : wisma (house), wanita (woman), kukila (singing bird), turonˇgga (horse) and curiga (kris). No other object is more enshrined in mythology, stimulates more interest or is held in such esteem and awe. This gold encrusted belt hook was probably made to hold a kris and is decorated with Garuda the golden sun bird, the enemy of all serpents and the vehicle of the Hindu deity Vishnu.
 Ancient Late Hellenistic Early Roman Alabaster Torso of Aphrodite the Goddess of Love 3rd – 2nd Century bc
s i z e : 22 cm high, 18.5 cm wide, 17 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 7¼ ins wide, 6¾ ins deep / 31.5 cm high – 12½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Karl Gröber collection circa 1930’s / 40’s Ex Private German Augsburg collection Thence by descent Ex Private UK collection Authenticated by British Museum 2016 Aphrodite, the foam born steps out of the sea onto the island of Cyprus and as a goddess of the calm sea and prosperous voyages was widely worshipped by sailors and ﬁshermen. As a goddess of the Spring, the garden and its bounties, she was worshipped in that season when her birth out of a seashell was celebrated at Paphos. At her most powerful she was the golden goddess of beauty and love, outshining all other deities in grace and loveliness, and in her girdle keeping all the magic charms that can bewitch the wisest man and subdue the very gods. She was a principal god of the ten named by Homer as important who together with Demeter and Dionysus made up the twelve gods of Greece. Religion in Greek society was not centred upon the Church. The power in religious matters lay with those who had secular power; in the household with the father, in early communities with the King, in developed city-states with the magistrates or even with the citizen assembly. At Athens it was a magistrate who impersonated the God Dionysus in an important ritual of sacred marriage, and decisions about the use of sacred monies or lands were taken by the democratic assembly. Individual gods had their priests, but to hold a priesthood was a part time activity which required no special training or qualiﬁcations. There was no institutional framework to unite the priests into a class with interests of their own. The only true religious professionals in Greece were the seers who were important ﬁgures because omens were taken before many public activities. Recognising the Gods was principally a matter of observing their cult. Piety was expressed in behaviour; in acts of respect towards the gods. Religion was not a matter of innerness or intense private communion with the god. Religion was never personal in the sense of a means for the individual to express his unique identity. Religion reﬂected and supported the general ethos of Greek culture and discouraged individualism, a preoccupation with inner states and the belief that intentions matter more than actions; it emphasised the sense of belonging to a community and the need for due observance of social forms. No Greek would ever thought of keeping a spiritual diary.
 Pair of English Green Silk Brocaded Trousers once Worn by Sir Jeﬀrey Hudson (1619 –1682) Court Dwarf to Queen Henrietta Maria, Wife of King Charles I Together with an old inscribed card from the Marquess of Abercorn reading : Worn by the Celebrated Sir Geoﬀrey Hudson Charles II’s Dwarf 17th Century
s i z e : approx : 29 cm high, 33 cm wide – 11½ ins high, 13 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame (1935–2009) proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse Renowned at court for his ﬁne, perfect proportions and extremely diminutive size, Sir Jeﬀrey Hudson was the favourite court dwarf to Queen Henrietta Maria. His height was recorded as 45 cms (19.5ins) and came ﬁrst to the Queen’s notice when he was served up in a pie wearing a miniature suit of armour. Known as the Queen’s dwarf and Lord Minimus he was considered one of the wonders of the age. He was painted by Van Dyck standing with the Queen, her pet capuchin monkey pug on his arm. In 1626 he moved into Denmark House in London where the Queen’s royal household was maintained. He became the companion of William Evans, a giant Welsh porter and they developed a routine where Evans would pull him out of his pocket along with a loaf of bread and proceed to make him into a sandwich. Hudson entertained the court with his wit and often performed roles in elaborate costumed masques which were staged by Inigo Jones. Although dwarves were not rare in the seventeenth century courts of Europe, his tiny size made him uniquely famous.
 An Unusual French Carved Ivory Snuﬀ Box in the Form of a Court Dwarf Dressed as Pulcinella or Punch a Member of the Commedia Dell’Arte Holding his baton behind his back his head unscrewing to reveal an inner cavity
Mid 18th Century
s i z e : 8.5 cm high – 3¼ ins high Punch or Pulcinella ranks with Harlequin among the most prominent and inﬂuential characters of the commedia dell’arte. Originating around 1550 in Tuscany, the theatre spread rapidly through almost all the countries of Europe reaching as far as Moscow and establishing a permanent théâtre Italien in Paris. In the 18th century Harlequin’s theatre became known as Commedia dell’arte. By then it had been a potent dramatic force for over two centuries, having a strong inﬂuence on the popular stages of many lands and also on some of the greatest playwrights such as Shakespeare, Lope de Vega and Molière. Apart from Hamlet, Harlequin is the most widely known of all stage characters, but Pulcinella has remained his chief rival for fame and the principal person among all the puppets of the Commedia dell’arte, and during the 18th century he was selected and became the presiding acerbic genius of Mr Punch.
 Heavy Fijian Spurred War Club Vivia Gata with Carefully Applied Dot Decoration to the Spur and Head the grip ﬁnely etched with traditional designs two small eye holes in the blade originally strung with wiry black creepers
An old Christies auction label to the shaft Lot 88 2 Dec 1988 Early 19th Century s i z e : 106.5 cm long – 42 ins long
These clubs are often wrongly called gun stock clubs because of their resemblance to muskets, but all of the basic forms were in use before ﬁrearms were ﬁrst introduced to Fiji in the early 19th century, examples having been taken back to Europe and others recorded by early explorers. The great diversity and decoration of clubs produced in 18th and 19th century Fiji reﬂected an immense investment of artistic labour appropriate to their cultural signiﬁcance. Despite the arrival of ﬁrearms in the 19th century, clubs continued to be produced and used in traditional warfare and their enduring popularity highlights their symbolic as well as practical value. Before the advent of ﬁrearms, chiefs and priests enjoyed a semi-divine, relatively immune status on the battleﬁeld being more at risk from ﬂesh wounds incurred in arrow showers than in decidedly dangerous club combat. They advertised their high status by their war dress and ornaments, huge war fans and distinctive weapons, generally being armed with a multi-pronged war spear or a shield-like broad-bladed club which doubled as eﬃcient missile parrying weapons.
 An English North Country Cannel Coal Bust of Queen Elizabeth I Attributed to Robert Town or (Towne) of Wigan Repaired breaks and cracks Second half 18th Century
s i z e : 33 cm high, 18.5 cm wide, 12 cm deep – 13 ins high, 7¼ ins wide, 4¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse In the 19th century many archaeologists were unable to distinguish between jet, lignite, cannel coal and shale. Most black grave goods were labelled jet and many museums today have collections from the Bronze Age in which no distinction is made between any of these materials. The ancient Romans more confusingly still called jet black amber. Sometimes called candle coal, cannel coal is a sapropelic coal composed largely of ﬁnely disintegrated plant debris. It was formed in stagnant water and is rich in spores, resin bodies and leaf cuticle. It does not take such a high polish as jet, but when polished the colour darkens and it can then be easily mistaken for jet. It has more volatile hydrocarbons and fragments burn more easily with more ﬂame and less smoke than jet. It is found in the coal measures of Newcastle and in Scotland. Large pieces have been used for both sculpture and the veneer of furniture. In the 18th century Robert Town (or Towne) of Wigan was renowned for his ﬁgures and busts carved from cannel coal and examples of his work can be seen in the British Museum. Wigan council museum have a very similar bust of Henry VIII in cannel coal which was mined in the Haigh area of Wigan. The bust of the Tudor King was commissioned from Robert Town by the Earl of Crawford in 1756 for the cost of one guinea. This bust of the Queen Elizabeth I is thought to belong to a series of busts by the same artist.
 An Large Antique Specimen of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros of Exceptional Colour and Patination Early 19th Century
s i z e : 244 cm long – 96 ins long / 274 cm high – 108 ins high / 9 feet high (with base) C.I.T.E.S Article 10 Available p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection of Mr Packer Acquired 60 years ago in a London Antiques market Inherited by his Nephew Thence by descent Narwhal fossils have been found as far south as Norfolk which was once covered in pack ice some 50,000 years ago. It is the ice that protects the narwhals from the orca killer whales as their high, stiﬀ dorsal ﬁns prevent them from entering frozen waters. Narwhals also enjoy almost exclusive access to their prey beneath the ice, particularly the Greenlandic halibut, a favourite food. The ice can also pose risks. Lingering too long in the fjords, they can get trapped as the ice expands and the cracks shrink, and then desperate to breathe, they can cut themselves horribly. However, it is a lack of ice that now spells disaster for narwhals. Since 1979 the Arctic has lost an ice mass the size of nearly two Alaskas and the summer of 2007 saw the lowest ice cover ever recorded in the Arctic.
 A Tibetan Cast Silver Amulet Box Containing Prayers and Relic Materials behind an Engraved Copper Back and a smaller Cast and Pierced Silver Amuletic Plaque containing Relics with Inscriptions to the Reverse the Base with a Copper Plug Both decorated with ﬁne gilded images of the Deity Vaisravana the God of Prosperity Together with an Amuletic Block of Turquoise set in a Silver Collar with a Leather and Horsehair backing probably containing Relics 18th – 19th Century
s i z e s : A : 6 cm high, 3.5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 1½ ins deep B : 3.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, ¼ ins deep C : 5.5 cm high, 7 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy The Buddhist art and culture of Tibet are unique in world history. Their charms and amulets are made in the form of various deities and auspicious emblems. The substances, blessed prayers and holy relics kept in the boxes are believed to protect the wearer from evil inﬂuences. Amulet boxes are used as portable shrines and are therefore often placed on domestic altars. The Buddhist god of wealth and prosperity is variously known as Vaisravana, Kubera and Jambhala and he is an important and complex ﬁgure. In addition to his role as dispenser of wealth and treasure he also acts as guardian of the northern sphere of the world. On these two amulets he is portrayed with a round gilded face to convey the radiance associated with the deity. His peaceful expression corresponds to his attitude as an attentive guardian of wealth. His stout body with large belly reinforce the notion of guardian of wealth, as in Tibet corpulence was a privilege of the very rich. Coral and turquoise are the Tibetans’ favourite semi-precious stones. They believe that wearing these substances attracts the spirits of prosperity and balances the body’s aura.
 A Plains Native American Ute Beaded Tanned Buﬀalo Hide H Shaped Saddle Blanket Sinew sewn with a design of Eight Pointed Stars comprised of Coloured Glass pony beads thin fringe ﬁnish strips with attached small brass bells slits in the hide for the girth Circa 1850 – 1870
s i z e : approx : 198 cm long (with fringe) 61 cm wide – 78 ins long (with fringe) 24 ins wide / 98 cm high – 38.5 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Santa Fe New Mexico c f : John W. Painter collection Cincinnati Ohio for a similar example It took over 200 years for the horses introduced by the Spanish to spread throughout the Plains. The main centres of diﬀusion were Santa Fe and San Antonio where Spanish settlements and horse breeding farms operated. Horses were initially spread more through trade than raid, as a certain amount of knowledge about their care and skill in handling must have been gained and passed on with them. Southern Plains tribes were closest to the source of supply and so gained early control of the trade. Between 1780 and 1800 most tribes became mounted, but horses remained unevenly distributed as some groups such as the Comanche, Crow and Flathead owned far more horses per lodge than others. Even within a camp a successful raider might own several hundred while others had none. In this warrior society based on individual prestige gained through war honours, raiding for horses was one of the primary causes of inter-tribal clashes as horses were the universally recognised symbol of a man’s wealth. Horses freed the warrior from walking and carrying his own burdens and he repaid them with his complete devotion expressed in lavish decoration such as this ﬁne saddle blanket. Used on special occasions the owner would have acquired status through its display. In the 1880’s James Walker, a physician working on the Pine Ridge Reservation, recalled that owning a beaded saddle blanket was a mark of distinction similar to the ownership of a high priced automobile among the citizens of Denver (Walker 1982 pg. 107).
 Two Indian Punjabi Koftgari Gold Damascened Ironwork Perfume Ewers Decorated with ﬁnely scrolling ﬂoral designs Second half 19th Century
s i z e : 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (each) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Dutch collection Koftgari or Kuftkari is the technique in which a pattern traced onto iron or steel is inlaid with gold. It was traditionally used in the manufacture of weapons and armour, but after the annexation of the Punjab by the British in 1849 the production of arms was banned. The skilled artisan Kuftkars quickly turned their attention to supplying the growing European demand for luxury domestic objects decorated with damascened gold or silver. However, they did quietly continue their traditional art with weaponry albeit on a much reduced scale.
 The Venetian Artist Rosalba Giovanna Carriera’s Turned Ivory Paint Palette Pot the top unscrewing to reveal Twelve Petal Edged Palettes another compartment to the Bulb shaped Base which held a 19th century Letter detailing the Provenance Late 17th to Early 18th Century
s i z e : 16 cm high, 10 cm dia. – 6¼ ins high, 4 ins dia. (palettes) 3.7 cm dia. 1½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : The letter found in the base states This pallet box originally the property of Rosalba Carriera a celebrated Italian painter was by her presented to her pupil Miss Gavin by whom it was given in the year 1796 to Mary Sutherland This beautiful antique specimen of rose engine turning must therefore have weathered the chances of 200 years It is signed A.R. Sutherland and dated Craigdhu Nov´ 13th 1858 To the reverse is written: Here raried tints - their memory lingers / mingled by talents fairy fingers / once pictured o’er the glowing page / the beauties of a former age / Rosalba here her pigments spread / They live, while she sleeps mid the dead / With her have fled the magic hues / Which now their charmed powers refuse / Thou rest – nor let my brush profane / Where traces of her art remain This is signed G.M. Sutherland dated Nov 13th 1868 Given by Rosalba Carriera to her pupil Miss Gavin who in 1796 gave it to Mary Sutherland Thence by descent to A.R. Sutherland and to G.M. Sutherland both of Craigdhu Dunfermline, Scotland Ex Private collection of Eila Grahame (1935–2009) proud descendant of the Grahame’s of Duntrune and Claverhouse Rosalba Carriera (1673–1757) was born in Venice into a modest family and was most probably self taught. She became internationally celebrated and praised for her talent as a pastel portraitist. She also painted portrait miniatures often portraying foreign visitors to Venice. In 1705 she was elected a member of the Academia di San Luca, the artists academy in Rome. In 1720 she was at the French court in Paris where she painted Louis XV as a boy. Whilst there she was elected a member of the French Royal Academy for Painting and Sculpture. One of her most ardent admirers was Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, who ﬁlled one of the rooms of his palace in Dresden with more than 100 of her pastels. This paint palette pot is typical of the work produced in turned ivory in late 17th century - early 18th century Dresden and was very probably acquired by, or given to her whilst she was there. Rosalba was in the vanguard of female artists during the early 18th century and her mastery of working in pastels helped transform the medium into a serious and highly regarded art form. Her portraits were often commissioned by the newly rich, as well as the European nobility, as a visible symbol of their wealth. Eager to aﬃrm their elevated social status sitters were depicted in the latest fashion wearing sumptuous outﬁts. With its unique texture and luminosity, pastel was the most suited medium to capture the sitters evanescent expressions and the richness of their silk and velvet attire. For both the artist and the sitter pastel painting oﬀered practical advantages over oil as it required fewer sittings because it did not need to dry between sessions. Ready made pastel sticks were also easily portable and cost much less than oils. Carriera’s ability to smooth and blend the hues in her portraits inﬂuenced a whole generation of British pastelists among them John Russel, who trained with Francis Coles who wrote Elements of Painting with Crayons (1772), one of the earliest English treatises on the pastel technique.
 An Ancient Egyptian Painted Sarcophagus Fragment Divided into Registers showing scenes and divine motifs in a variety of colours on a bright yellow ground including seated Pharonic ﬁgures Anubis the Jackal and a Winged Scarab Beetle Third Intermediate Period 1050 – 730 bc
s i z e : 53.5 cm long, 13.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 21 ins long, 5¼ ins wide, ¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Heidelberg Germany The 3rd intermediate period was a time of political disruption and turmoil in ancient Egypt, but artistic standards did not suﬀer. At Thebes there was a change in burial practices that resulted in the abandonment of the decorated tomb chapel, so that the visual expression of funerary beliefs that was once a great feature of the walls, was transferred to the coﬃns that enclosed the deceased, and accompanying items such as funerary papyri and painted wooden stelae. Without doubt, some of the most remarkable artistic products of this period were the brightly painted coﬃns whose interior and exterior designs illustrating aspects of the underworld and divine protection form some of the best examples of the painter’s art in ancient Egypt.
 A Japanese Finely Carved Ivory Okimono of a Human Skull Entwined with a Snake Memento Mori Meiji Period 19th Century
s i z e : 5 cm high, 4 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 2 ins high, 1½ ins wide, 2 ins deep Anatomically correct carvings of skulls and skeletons have more than one symbolic meaning in Japanese art. They can represent ghosts or memento mori, a Buddhist reminder that in the end all physical beauty deteriorates, and so the pursuit of spiritual growth rather than vanity should be the chosen path.
 An Indian Mughal Carved Translucent Green Nephrite Scribes Rule 18th Century
s i z e : 20.5 cm long, 1.5 cm dia. – 8 ins long, ½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Un-carved jade and nephrite was among the precious materials that the Mughal rulers stored in their treasuries. In 1609 the Mughal Jahangir possessed, in addition to a number of jade vessels, lumps of Chinese jade weighing 55 pounds. Persians, Afghans, Arabs and Europeans are all known to have worked for the Mughal Emperors. European inﬂuence was greatest during the reign of Jahangir mainly through Portuguese Jesuit missionaries and occasionally travellers like William Hawkins who set out from England in 1607 in command of an East India Company ship. Part of his mission was to carry letters and gifts from James I to the princes and governors of India. Hawkins arrived at the Mughal court in Agra in April 1609 and remained for nearly three years. During his stay he became one of the Emperor’s most intimate friends. Hawkins died on the way back to England, but the journal he kept during his stay in India was eventually published. It is in this journal that Hawkins mentions the ﬁve hundred jade wine cups stored within the Emperor’s treasury.
 A Turned Mahogany Brass and Ivory Rastrum or Raster a Five Pointed Writing Implement used in Scoring Music Manuscripts Late 18th Century
s i z e : 17 cm long – 6¾ ins long Rastrum are used to draw parallel staﬀ lines when drawn horizontally across a blank piece of sheet music. Prior to the manufacture of printed staﬀ paper in the 19th century, the manuscript page was not pre-ruled and so rastrum were used. The word is derived from the Latin for rake and the study of the use of the rastrum became known as rastrology, a study which can provide valuable information in dating and ﬁnding the provenance of antique musical manuscripts. A variant was used by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971) in his compositional sketchbooks. It was called the stravigor a wheeled instrument which he attempted to patent in 1911.
 A Fine Boxwood Baroque Erotic Group of the Centaur Nessus Abducting the Wife of Heracles D¯eianeira Attributed to Johann Georg Kern (1622–1695) Old repairs to three of the Centaur’s fetlocks 2nd half 17th Century
s i z e : 20.5 cm high, 16.5 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 8 ins high, 6½ ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 30 cm high – 11¾ ins high (with base) c f : A carved ivory of the Medici venus attributed to Johann Georg Kern in Wurttembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart (inv. no. KK blau 36) Also a carved limewood sculpture of a naked boy playing bagpipes in Victoria and Albert Musuem (A.25 1941) The most famous of all the Greek heroes, Heracles married D¯eianeira, daughter of Oeneus of Calydon winning her by defeating the river god Achel¯ous in a wrestling match. When he and D¯eianeira departed they came to a ﬂooded river, Ev¯enus. A centaur, Nessus carried D¯eianeira across and tried to rape her whereupon Heracles shot him with a poisoned arrow. As he lay dying the centaur advised D¯eianeira, apparently with good intentions, to keep some of his blood which smeared on a garment would win back the love of Heracles if he was ever unfaithful to her. This D¯eianeira did. Johann Georg Kern’s nude and stocky ﬁgures show the inﬂuence of his celebrated uncle, Leonard Kern with whom he worked. Distinctive in style, their sculptures were most probably inﬂuenced by South Netherlandish sources such as Rubens, but fused with Italian baroque classical subjects and poses. Together with Leonard’s son, Johann Jakob Kern, Johann Georg ran the workshop after the death of the master in 1662 and they continued to produce small scale pieces in a variety of materials including boxwood, ivory and alabaster in the tradition of 17th century cabinet sculpture. Many of these works, as in this example, have erotic content; the naked D¯eianeira struggles to be released from the centaur’s embrace as he carries her oﬀ, his muscles ﬂexing and his long hair ﬂowing.
 A Victorian Scientiﬁc Collection of Naturally Occuring Substances and Minerals with examples of the manmade manufactured products made from each one consisting of four trays divided into sections with each item indivually labelled conatined in a mahogany box with key An educational teaching aid Circa 1880 – 1900
s i z e : 13 cm high, 31 cm wide, 18 cm deep – 5 ins high, 12¼ ins wide, 7 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame (1935–2009) proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse
 An Interesting After the Antique Architectural Cork Model of the French Romanesque Chapelle Saint Clair in Aiquilhe Le Puy-En-Velay Haute-Loire known as the Temple de Diane The initials P.O. carved into the cork each side of the doorway The underside painted with a directional dial and Roman numerals Late 18th Century
size : 92 cm high, approx : 58 cm dia. (max) – 36¼ ins high, approx : 22¾ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex European collection The Rocher d’Aiquilhe, a vertical outcrop of volcanic breccia 80 metres high, is surmounted by a chapel and at its foot stands the octagonal 12th century chapel of Saint Clair, the Temple of Diana. The Romanesque chapel was probably built by the Templars upon an earlier Roman ediﬁce. Two hundred and sixty seven steps ascend from the chapel to St Martin-d’Aiquilhe, a 10th century oratory with noted Romanesque sculpture. The town of Le Puy-En-Velay is one of the most curiously sited in France, high lying and set amongst a denticulated landscape of volcanic caves. Its name is derived from the Roman term for the hill Podium Aniciense upon which it stands and where once an ancient temple dedicated to Jupiter stood. This was replaced by a church, now a cathedral, that contains a venerated blackened image of the virgin which attracted medieval pilgrims including many popes and crowned heads from all over Europe. The tradition of making architectural models began in 16th century Italy where scale models were commissioned for strategic military and engineering purposes. By 1780 there were several documented artists working in cork serving the growing interest into the study of the ancient world by Grand Tourists. Detailed drawings, measurements and sketches were made of many archaeological sites and excavations and this led to their recreation as three dimensional architectural models. Cork was a natural choice as its softness lends itself to being worked in ﬁne detail and can produce the eﬀect of the worn and weathered stone of ancient ediﬁces. It was also readily available as a material in southern Europe and so light to be easily transported. The most famous collection of cork models was formed by Sir John Soane over the course of his lifetime. One hundred and twenty one models were displayed after his wife’s death in her former bedroom. After Soane died in 1837 his house became a museum and the model room was dismantled and converted into an apartment for the curator. However, through careful study of period drawings and watercolours the model room was reassembled and re-opened to the public in 2015.
 An Unusual English Sailors Scrimshaw Turned Narwhal Tusk Walking Cane with a Silver Mounted Carved Walrus Tusk Handle Aged smooth silky patina Mid 19th Century
s i z e : 86 cm long – 34 ins long Whaling changed very little between the 16th and 19th centuries, with generations of whalers throwing harpoons from open boats and living on board a wooden world often for years at a time. The life of a ship was extraordinary, a new sailor coming upon it for the ﬁrst time entered a peculiar society with its own manners, dress and language. One boy remembered of his going to sea, Nor could I think what world I was in, whether among spirits or devils. All seemed strange; different language and strange expressions of tongue, that I thought myself always asleep or in a dream, and never properly awake (Bellamy Ramblin Jack, The Journal of Captain John Cremer 1700–1774)
 A Rare Melanesia Bismarck Archipelago New Ireland Club the End Bound with Finely Woven Fibre with Traces of Lime Showing in the Fibres worn from use Fine old smooth silky dark brown patina Early 19th Century
s i z e : 98 cm long – 38 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection c f : An example in the Pitt Rivers Museum Oxford (1884.12.201) New Ireland had a long and varied history of contact with Europeans from 1616 onward and weapons were probably the ﬁrst artefacts to be collected. However, other objects from New Ireland’s rich artistic traditions were oﬀered for trade and exchange from the 1860’s when western contact became almost continuous. It was then that metal tools and their use became widespread. Metal arrived in New Ireland initially in the form of pieces of iron hoop that were taken from barrels on board ships and traded by sailors for coconuts and other food stuﬀs. Western visitors later used hoop iron and other trade goods such as glass beads to purchase weapons and other artefacts. Wood was worked in a variety of techniques before 1860. Controlled burning with ﬁre was probably the most eﬀective way of felling trees. Knives and chisels were made from shell, stone, bone, teeth and pig tusk. Once the wood was shaped it was ﬁnished with rasps made from coral and sandpaper made from shark skin and leaves. The ﬁnished wood was then coated with lime and seasoned for several months.
 An Early Victorian Naive English Portrait of a Young Doctor his hand upon a skull Oil on panel set in an original birds eye maple wood frame Circa 1830 – 45
s i z e : 30 cm high, 26 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 10¼ ins wide / 37 cm high, 32.5 cm wide – 14½ ins high, 12¾ ins wide (frame) Modern medicine is still a mixture of art, developing the skills to deal with people, and science using the latest technological advances to enhance the care of the patient. Medicine as a practice has been built up over the centuries and today’s general medical practitioner is the descendant of both the ancient Greek doctor and teacher, Hippocrates and the Greek priests of Aesculapius. The doctor’s ability to diagnose disease starts with his taking a history from the patient which is a practice that stems from these ancients and has nothing to do with scientiﬁc method. His clinical diagnostic methods do belong to the age of science, but are the development of systems worked out much later in the 18th and 19th centuries. By the 20th century these procedures had become old fashioned and were supplanted by more modern techniques.
 English Regency Gentlemen’s Large Turned Rosewood Gallery Glass Circa 1820
s i z e : 42 cm long , 21.5 cm dia. – 16½ ins long, 8½ ins dia. This large and impressive form of a magnifying glass was made to enable connoisseurs and collectors to view paintings and sculpture in detail whilst in a dealer’s gallery or an artist’s studio. Works of art could be surveyed from a distance whilst being discussed at leisure from a comfortable vantage point.
 Three Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Harpoon Fore-Shaft Heads each resembling a Swimming Seal 19th Century
s i z e s : 30.5 cm long – 12 ins long / 36.5 cm long – 14¼ ins long / 37.5 cm long – 14¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Seward Kennedy Acquired from Finch & Co The techniques used for hunting sea mammals have been understood by Bering Sea Eskimos from time immemorial. The essential implement is the harpoon and this device has been developed especially for hunting large mammals and ﬁsh which living in the sea cannot be reached or intercepted in the same way as those can be on land. Nor is it easy to kill them in the instant when they appear at the surface of the water even if they are close to the hunter. To successfully take them a line must ﬁrstly be secured into their hide or skin so that their escape can be impeded until death blows can be administered by another weapon. Sea mammal hunters needed to have a special vision, as well as honouring the spirits of their prey in order to maintain a proper balance and harmony in the world, they had to recognise the subtle signs of unseen spirits. They believed that the sea mammal spirits rewarded hunters who approached them in respectful ways and so all the preparatory rituals, which included singing songs to the spirit of his intended prey, were performed whilst being very careful not to mention it by name. After the hunt, the spirit of the captured animal was welcomed to the village with ritual dances and ceremonies. Hunting weapons and the acquisition of game were therefore not just isolated endeavours, but components of a belief system that reached into every aspect of life from the mundane or minute to the cosmic.
 An Ancient Roman Hollow Cast Bronze Chariot Mount of Large Size Depicting the Goddess Venus Seated on a Chair Wearing a Diadem and Himation holding an Apple in one hand a Lock of her Hair with the other The base with a Kymation to the front Greenish red brown smooth patina Traces of Tin deposits showing in the metal Second half 2nd Century ad
s i z e : 22 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 10.5 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 4 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private German collection Acquired 1920’s thence by descent through the Schüll and Düren families Sold at auction late 1990’s Ex Private Belgian collection Roman charioteers did not appear naked like the Greeks, but wore a short tunic strapped tightly round the upper part of the body. They carried a curved knife in the belt in order to cut the traces on the horses running away. Their headdress consisted of a leather cap resembling a helmet. Favourite charioteers and horses were received by the public with loud applause, and in inscriptions the name of the victorious horse is frequently mentioned together with that of the charioteer. Cappadocia, Sicily, Spain and Africa were all celebrated for their race horses whose pedigree, age and names were meticulously recorded. In the beginning charioteers were free citizens, but over time the occupation, although never considered dishonourable like that of the gladiator, came to be regarded as unworthy of a free Roman. It was therefore left to be taken up by mostly slaves and freedmen who previous to appearing in public were trained at special schools. These were comprised of a complete staﬀ of chariot makers, tailors, shoemakers, surgeons and teachers, and were kept by one or several owners domini factionum who would let out both the chariots and the charioteers to the highest bidders of the parties in control of the circus. Victorious charioteers received silver crowns, valuable garments and money, and the successful ones amongst them frequently made large fortunes and became domini factionum on their own account.
 An Ancient Bering Straight Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Drag Handle Depicting Transformative Half Man-Polar Bear The long necked bear with a shaman crouched riding on his back Early Punuk 800 – 1200 ad
s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 10 cm long, 1.5 cm wide – 1½ ins high, 4 ins long, ½ ins wide / 6.5 cm high – 2½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex European Private collection In winter game, usually ringed seal, is brought home over the ice with the aid of drag handles. This small sculpture has a dual function acting as a handle and as an amuletic hunting charm which assists the hunter in ﬁnding his prey, guiding his harpoon and appeasing the spirit of the animal. Many half-creatures are known in Eskimo mythology and are frequently illustrated in their ivory carvings, especially on drag handles. Animal transformation is a basic concept of western Eskimo thought and is described in many legends as well as displayed in their art. Despite the transformation an animals inua or spirit will not change, and this ability results in an unpredictable world in which the true identity of any given creature is not certain. These transformational capabilities lie within the domain of the Shamans who make use of these powerful spirits in their ceremonial performances and ritual magic. Polar bears are prized and respected sea mammals and like whales they are regarded as essentially human. The Yupik artist Susie Silook, explained this concept at a workshop Gifts of the Ancestors held in Anchorage in May 2005; They said that when they cut up a polar bear it’s just like a man on the inside. The bones and everything. They respect it because it’s a hunter just like we are you know. That’s why it’s so honoured.
 A Flemish Bollock or Kidney Dagger with a Carved and Turned Walrus Ivory Hilt and a Single Edged Blade of Heavy Triangular Section Mid 16th Century
s i z e : 29.5 cm long – 11½ ins long p rov e na nc e : Found in the mud whilst dredging a canal in Holland in the early 20th Century Ex Private Dutch collection The bollock dagger is so named because of the carved guard formed of two rounded lobes that bear a resemblance to the male testes. During the Victorian period in England the name was changed to kidney dagger in order to avoid the embarrassing sexual connotation. The weapon originated in Northern Europe at the end of the 14th century and was used as late as the 17th century. The predecessor to the Scottish dirk, it was particularly popular during the Tudor Period in England where it was used as a backup for the lance and sword. A large number of them were found on board the wreck of the Mary Rose. Most of these daggers had a hilt of carved boxwood known as dudgeon in the 16th century and so were referred to as dudgeon daggers. It is unusual to ﬁnd a bollock dagger with a ﬁnely carved ivory handle and this example was probably made for a high ranking individual.
 The Tip of an Antique Narwhal Tusk with Typical Spiral Corkscrew Twist A Unicorn’s Horn Smooth aged creamy patina Mid 19th Century
s i z e : 100 cm long – 39¼ ins long / 112 cm high – 44 ins high (with base) C.I.T.E.S Article 10 Available To catch a unicorn it is said you need virgins for bait, so went a medieval saying of the legend of the Sacred Hunt. It is a common feature of the myth of the unicorn that the horned creature lives alone in nature and shares its reproductive power. It allows itself to be enticed and tamed by a maiden, and the King wishes to catch it for he needs its magical gifts. Its horn can forewarn and protect against poison and sickness, and in its purity the unicorn signiﬁes the body of Jesus Christ. The combination of the Virgin and Unicorn stimulated diﬀerent forms of art in Medieval Europe. As early as the 13th century the Unicorn’s erotic nature was being implicitly understood and depicted by artists and writers in paintings, tapestries, carvings, woodcut prints and poetry. In France, the King of Navarre, Thibaut IV of Champagne (1201–1253) wrote : Like the Unicorn am I / quite astonished to see / the maiden walking towards me / so seized with sorrow as it is, / fainting it rests upon her lap / and then is slain by guile, / in the same manner they slew me / Amor and my lady, for to see : / They have my heart, I shall not see it more
 A Fine German Carved Ivory Depicting a Bedraggled Beggar with a Bandaged Peg Leg his Coat Breeches and Hat decorated with Silver Buttons Attributed to the Circle of William Krüger (1680 –1756) Standing on original ebonised arcaded wood base Mid 18th Century
s i z e : 10.5 cm high – 4 ins high / 16 cm high – 6¼ ins high (with base) Noted for his peasants and beggars, William Krüger’s style was not unsympathetic to the plight of the Wahre Arme the true poor. Many of these individuals were veterans of the war of the Austrian succession. One of Krüger’s models was reproduced in porcelain at the Furstenberg factory and the pervasive power and inﬂuence of these ivory models on the early production of porcelain ﬁgures cannot be doubted. In fact, the easy translation from ivory to porcelain of the statuettes probably helped to hasten the demise of ivory carving in Germany towards the end of the 18th century.
 A Finely Detailed Ancient Egyptian Bright Green Faïence Votive Amulet of the Striding Lion Goddess Sekhmet Holding to Her Breast the Eye of Ra Wearing the Uraeus an inscription to the back plinth probably identifying her as beloved of Ptah and having healing powers The right hand holding an Ankh now missing Late Period 26th Dynasty to Ptolemaic Period 672 – 332 bc
s i z e : 7.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 3 ins high, ½ ins wide, ¾ ins deep / 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Acquired 1950’s London Faïence was used as a material for ancient Egyptian amulets as it had intrinsic associations with light, rebirth and fertility, making it an appropriate material for objects intended to protect the dead and also the living. Amulets of deities either placed the wearer under the protection of that deity or enabled them to assimilate the person of the deity and therefore gain access to their particular power or characteristics. Sekhmet, the lion goddess, personiﬁed the aggressive aspects of female deities, her name simply meaning she who is powerful. During the New Kingdom (1550–1069 bc) with the rise to power of the Theban Pharaohs Sekhmet was increasingly represented as a manifestation of the goddess Mut and over ﬁve hundred large statues of the liongoddess were erected by Amenhotep III (1390–1352 bc) in the Temple of Mut at Karnak and in his mortuary temple in Western Thebes.
 Northwest Coast Tlingit Whalebone Salmon Trap Stake or Trigger carved with a double Janus head perhaps depicting a transformative Fish-Shaman Late 18th – Early 19th Century
s i z e : 28 cm long – 11 ins long / 29.5 cm high – 11½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : From the collection of Colonel C.E.S. Wood (1852–1944) Military Oﬃcer, Lawyer and Artist Colonel Wood was present at the surrender of Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce and is known for transcribing Chief Joseph’s famous speech : My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will ﬁght no more forever Wood became an inﬂuential politician in Portland, Oregon and helped found the Portland Art Museum Ex Butterﬁelds, San Francisco, U.S.A. November 1997 Ex Guest / McGlinn collection, Washington DC The warm North Paciﬁc current oﬀ the Northwest coast produces moderate temperatures and heavy rainfall which nourishes an environment rich in natural resources. Dense strands of forest blanketed the region and thick undergrowth provided a variety of berries, roots and plants that were used for food and medicine. Waterfowl and seagulls provided meat and eggs. The sea produced even greater riches. Five species of wild salmon were to be found and they were the primary resource around which life revolved with the seasons. Although other ﬁsh such as cod, herring and halibut, and marine mammals such as whales, sea otters and seals were hunted, none was so revered as a food source by the Tlingit as the salmon.
 A Rare Greek Boxwood Polygonal Pyx Finely Carved in Relief with the Twelve Disciples Amid Cloister Columns Each Saint Named on the Base the centre with a double headed Phoenix the lid with the Paschal Lamb surrounded by foliate vines the inside of the lid depicting the Madonna and Child The hinged silver mount a later 18th century addition Old luscious silky smooth patina 16th/ 17th Century
s i z e : 4.5 cm high, 7.5 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 3 ins wide, 2¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse The Greek word pyxis meaning a box usually made of boxwood parallels the derivation of the English word box from boxwood. It was an especially suitable material for small sculptures and carvings because of its extremely ﬁne grain and excellent density. Pyxes or pyxides were used to hold the Host, the consecrated wafer of the Mass. It was the custom to put the Host in containers to be placed either on the altar or to be suspended above it for the veneration of the faithful and these were sometimes made in the form of a Eucharistic dove. The origins of these boxes stems from the early Christian period when, because of Roman persecution, the Host had to be periodically hidden in private houses to prevent its desecration by non-Christians. The pyx also had to be ready at all times for administration to the sick and this rare example was probably used by a cleric when travelling to administer the last rites.
 An Alaskan Yupik Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Boat Hook or Gaﬀ with ﬂuted surfaces and spurred feathered line engravings Smooth silky old creamy patina 19th Century
s i z e : 27.5 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 10¼ ins long, 1¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep c f : Bureau of American Ethnology 18th Annual Report pl. LXXX. Paddles and Boat Hooks no. 3 shows a similar boat hook Umiaks, the boats used for whale hunts, varied only slightly in design from one end of the Eskimo world to other. Made of a wooden frame covered with a seal or walrus skin tarpaulin, a 9 metre (30 feet) long craft could easily carry a load of 900kg and eight people, yet be light enough when empty to be carried by four men. The single or double man kayak used for hunting seals and for ﬁshing, was the hunter’s most prized possession and a symbol of his manhood. Usually made of driftwood in a tight skin covering, it was strong and ﬂexible. It would not freeze or be cut by newly formed ice, and when handled by an experienced paddler equipped with a skin spray skirt tied around the cockpit, it was virtually unsinkable. Stored in the cockpit, boat hooks were attached to a wooden shaft by means of leather strips fastened through the holes drilled to one end. It was a tool that ocean hunters travelling on the sea or the ice could not do without. It was used to pull hard to reach items out from inside the ends of a kayak, retrieve ﬁsh traps or nets from the water, or even rescue another boat that had ﬂoated away.
 An Unusual South American Spanish Colonial Silver Mounted Carved Jaguar Tooth Priming Flask and Chain Late 17th – Early 18th Century
s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 2 cm dia. (max) – 2½ ins high, ¾ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Amsterdam, Holland With matchlock, wheel lock and ﬂintlock guns it was necessary to use a ﬁner powder in the pan than in the charge. The act of ﬁlling the pan was called priming and the ﬂask was thus the primer. In Europe it was frequently the smaller counterpart of the bigger powder ﬂask used for charge powder and was often combined with the bullet pouch, but elsewhere a great variety of shapes and forms was used. Powder ﬂasks have been favourite objects for decoration in all periods and countries, but the primer, being small and constantly carried on the person, was particularly chosen for this purpose. This very unusual South American example has been carved to resemble the scaly tail of an armadillo.
 A Fine Kanak New Caledonian Bird Beaked War Club Silky smooth light brown patina 19th Century
s i z e : 70.5 cm high – 27¾ ins high / 71 cm high – 28 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Entwistle London Ex Private London collection Fine clubs such as this were owned by high ranking men. The weapon signiﬁed their status and indicated that they should be treated with respect. Warfare was widespread throughout the Islands of Melanesia until the inﬂuence of colonial missionaries and governments brought it to an end soon after 1840. Guerilla tactics were used rather than the battles of the ﬁeld held by the Fijians in the Paciﬁc. The New Caledonians favoured surprise attack and deadly ambush to open combat. To the Kanak the relations between the living and the dead were dependent on the bodies of the deceased, and so it was critical to secure the dead and wounded from the enemy as the physical remains contained the power to attract ancestors to the places where they were kept. Ancestors were highly important in supporting and strengthening the minds of the living during warfare.
 A Very Rare Set of Eight English Elizabethan Painted Sycamore Roundels in their original turned wooden box each one decorated with Poesies and ﬂoral symbols amidst knotted scrolls upon which are written biblical verses Late 16th – Early 17th Century
s i z e : 12.5 cm dia. – 5 ins dia. (roundels) / 16 cm dia. – 8 cm high – 6¼ ins dia. – 3 ins high (case) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 proud descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse c f : The Victoria and Albert Museum have a similarly decorated set of early 17th century roundels within a decorated box (401G - 1878) The Normans served their meat on a square slice of bread known as a tranche and it is thought that at high table the tranche was always placed on a rectangle of wood known as a trencher. The connection between this custom and a part song with a refrain is the roundel. These became thin circular wooden trenchers decorated with poesies which were sung or recited by guests as roundelays in the reign of Elizabeth I, James I and Charles I. The Civil War and the puritan ethic killed both the banquets and the festive spirit of the party games in which roundels and roundelays played a part. After the more robust wooden trenchers used for the main course were cleared away a roundel, plain side up, was placed before each dinner. These roundels were used for cheese, for sticky marzipans known as marchpanes, sugar-plums or other confeittes or conceits which terminated Elizabethan or early Stuart banquets. After grace had been said, the roundels were reversed revealing the ornamental side which was painted with one or two verses, from proverbs, fables or the bible, elaborately bordered, brightly coloured and varnished over. The verses varying from the amusing to the improving, were sung or recited by the diners in turn around the table, probably to the accompaniment of a lute, for the entertainment of the company. Roundels were made in sets of 8 or 12, and very occasionally 24, and kept in circular roundel boxes. Very few complete sets of roundels have survived and of those that have the majority have become separated from their original boxes. References to roundels occur in late 16th and early 17th century inventories and are sometimes mentioned in contemporary literature : in Northwood Ho by Webster and Dekker published in 1607 a character declares : I’ll have you make twelve posies for a dozen cheese trenchers. Later in the early 18th century sets of ceramic delft motto plates replaced the tradition of the small wooden roundels.
Bibliography Audenaerde Thys van den, D.F.E; Musée Royal De L’Afrique Centrale Tervuren, Ludion Editions sa, Gand, 1994 Audenaerde Thys van den, D.F.E; Treasures from the Africa-Musuem Tervuren, Verlag, Berlin, 1995 Ayers, James; The Artist’s Craft, Phaidon, Oxford, 1985 Baddeley, Jon; Nautical Antiques & Collectables, Sotheby’s Publications, 1993 Barry, Jeanne; Inua, Smithsonian Ins., 1982 Bassani, Ezio; African Art and Artefacts in European Collections 1400 – 1800, British Museum Press, 2000 Béguin, Gilles; Buddhist Art, River Books Ltd., 2009 Blüchel, K G; Game and Hunting, Tandem Verlag, 2004 Brake, Brian; Art of the Pacific, Oxford University Press, 1979 Brown, Steven C; Spirits of the Water, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2000 Bruemmer, Fred; The Narwhal Unicorn of the Sea, Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, UK Burch, Ernest,S; The Eskimos, Macdonald Orbis, 1988 Burn, Lucilla; Greek and Roman Art, British Museum Press, 1991 Burnie, David; Animal, Dorling Kindersley, London, 2001 Clarke, Christa; Central African Art, Neuberger Museum of Art, 2001 Clunie, Fergus; Yalo i Viti, Fiji Museum, Suva, 1986 Clunie, Fergus; Fijian Weapons & Warfare, Fiji Museum, 2003 Coe, Ralph T; The Responsive Eye, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003 Coe, Ralph T; Sacred Circles, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1976 Cranstone, B.A.L; Melanesia A Short Ethnography, BMP, 1961 Cunliffe, Barry; The Pre History of Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994 Desautels, Paul.E; The Gem Kingdom, Random House, 1971 Dodd, Edward; Polynesian Art, Robert Hale and Company, London, 1967 Dubin, Lois Sher.; The History of Beads, H.Abrams, 1987 Dyke Van, Kristina; African Art from the Menil Collection, Yale University Press, 2008 Edge-Partington; Ethnographical Album of the Pacific Islands, SDI Publications, 1996 Ewins, Rod; Fijian Artefacts, Tasmanian Museum, 1982 Fagg, William; Collecting African Art, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1979 Felix, Marc; White Gold Black Hands Ivory Sculpture in the Congo,Gemini Sun, China, 2012 Fitzhugh, William and Kaplan, Susan, A; Inua Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982 Fitzhugh, W and Crowell,A; Crossroads of Continents, Smithsonian Institute Press, 1988 Fitzhugh, William, Hollowell, Julie, Crowell, Aron. L; Gifts From The Ancestors Ancient Ivories of Bering Strait, Yale University Press, 2009 Flayderman, E. Norman; Scrimshaw and Scrimshanders, N. Flayderman & Co., Inc., New Milford, 1972 Frank, Stuart M; Ingenious Contrivances, Curiously Carved, David R. Godine, Publisher, Boston, 2012 Freer-Cook, Gervais; The Decorative Arts of the Mariner, Jupiter Books, 1996 Gamester, David, Nurse, Bernard & Steele, Julia; Making History Antiquaries in Britain 1707–2007, Die Keure, Belgium, 2007 Geary, Christraud.M; Oceanic Art in the Teel Collection, MFA Publications, 2006 Ginzberg; African Forms, Skira, Italy, 2000 Gribbon, Deborah; Meisterwerke im J. Paul Getty Museum, Thames and Hudson, 1998 Grimes, J.R, Feest, C.F, Curran, M.L; Uncommon Legacies, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2002
Gundestrup, Bente; The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737, Denmark, 1991 Hail, Barbara A; Hau, Kóla!, Haffenreffer Musuem of Anthropology, 1980 Hales, Robert, Islamic and Oriental Arms and Armour, Published by Robert Hales C.I. Ltd., 2013 Hartman, P.W.; Elfenbeinskunst, Wien, 1998 Haskell, Francis & Penny, Nicholas; Taste and the Antique, Yale University Press, 1998 Hathaway, Nancy; The Unicorn, Penguin, Penguin Books, 1980 Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta & Krüger, Gundolf; James Cook Gifts and Treasures from the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1998 Heermann, I; Schmuck Der Südsee, Prestel, 1990 Herle, Anita & Carreau, Lucie; Chiefs and Governors Art and Power in Fiji, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, 2013 Hooper, Steven; Pacific Encounters, British Museum Press, 2006 James Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Artificial Curiosities, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, 1978 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Kaufmann,C, & Newton,D; Oceanic Art, Harry N Abrams, Inc., New York, 1997 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; James Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Polynesia: Mark & Carolyn Blackburn Collection of Polynesian Art, 2010 Kecskési von, Maria; Kunst Aus Afrika, Prestel, 1999 Kjellberg, Pierre; Objets Montés, Les editions de l’Amateur, 2000 Kjellgren, Eric; Oceania: Art of the Pacific Islands in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007 Koloss, Hans-Joachim; Africa Art and Culture, Prestel, Munich, Germany, Koudounaris, Paul; The Empire of Death, Thames and Hudson, London, 2011 Laue, Georg; Memento Mori, Munich 2002 Laue, Georg; Exotica, Munich, 2012 Levenson, J; Encompassing The Globe, Smithsonian Institution, 2007 Linton, Ralph and Wingert,Paul,S; Arts of the South Seas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1946 Macgregor, A; Tradescants Rarities, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1983 Mack, John; Emil Torday and the Art of the Congo 1900–1909, British Museum Publications MacGregor, Arthur; Sir Hans Sloane, British Museum Press in association with Alistair McAlpine, London, 1994 Mack, J; The Art of Small Things, British Museum Press, 2007 Mack, John; Emil Torday and the Art of the Congo 1900–1909, British Museum Publications Mauries, Patrick; Cabinets of Curiosities; Thames and Hudson, 2002 Miles, Charles; Indian & Eskimo Artifacts, Bonazo Books, NY Neich, Roger; & Pereira,Fuli; Pacific Jewellery & Adornment, University of Hawaii Press, 2004 Newton, Douglas; Arts of the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1999 Oldman,W.O; Catalogue of Ethnographical Specimens, Oldman Sale Catalogues, reprinted Pal, P; Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, (vol. 1,2 & 3,) Yale University, 2004 Penney, David,W; Art of the American Indian Frontier, Phaidon Press Ltd., UK, 1992 Phelps,Steven; Art and Artefacts The James Hooper Collection, Hutchinson, London, 1976 Phillips, Ruth B; Trading Identities, University of Washington Press, 1998 Pinto, Edward H; Treen and other wooden bygones, Bell & Hyman, London, 1979 Price, Monica.T; Decorative Stone, Thames and Hudson, 2007
Randall, Richard.H; The Golden Age of Ivory, Hudson and Hills, 1993 Randall, Richard.H; Masterpieces of Ivory from the Walters Art Gallery, Richard H Randall, Jr., Sotheby’s, 1985 Robins, Gay; The Art of Ancient Egypt, B.M London 1997 Roy, Christopher.D.; Kilengi, Kestner Gesellschaft, Hanover, 1997 Sandars, NK; Prehistoric Art in Europe, Penguin Books, 1968 Scammon, Charles.M; The Marine Mammals of the North Western Coast of North America, Dover Publications, 1968 Scott, Jonathan; The Pleasure of Antiquity, Yale University Press, 2003 Seipel, Wilfred; Exotica, Skira, Vienna, 2000 Selman; 18th Century Ethnographic Collections in the Hancock Museum, Newcastle, 2003 Sloane, Kim; Enlightenment, Discovering the World in the 18th Century, British Museum Press, 2003 Stanley, Tim, Palace & Mosque, V&A Publications, 2004 Stepan, Peter; Picasso’s Collection of African & Oceanic Art, Prestel, Munich, 2006 Syndram, Dirk; Gems of the Green Vault in Dresden, Koehler and Amelang, Munchen, 2000 Syson, L; and Thornton,D; Objects of Virtue, BM Press, 2001 Tanner, Julia; From Pacific Shores, University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999 Taylor, Colin, F; The Plains Indian, Salamander Books, 1994 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Native Americans, Tiger Books International, London, 1995 Torrence, Gaylord; The Plains Indians Artists of Earth and Sky, Skira Rizzoli, Paris, 2014 Trnek, H and Vassallo e Silva,N; Exotica, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisboa, 2001 Trusted, Marjorie; Baroque and Later Ivories, V&A Publishing, 2013 Varejka, Pascal; Mata Hoata Arts & Society in the Marquesas Islands, Quai Branly, Paris, 2016 Exhibition Varjola, Pirjo; The Etholén Collection, Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, Finland, 1990 Vincent, G.T., Brydon,S, Coe, Ralph T.; Art of the North American Indians, The Thaw Collection, University of Washington, 2000 Vogel, Susan.M; African Art Western Eyes, Yale University Press, 1997 Walker, Roslyn Adele; The National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1999 Walters, Anna Lee; The Spirit of Native America, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1989 Wardwell, Allen; Island Ancestors, Univ. of Washington Press, 1994 Warner, J.A; The Life and Art of the North American Indian, Hamlyn, 1997 Whitfield, P.Dr.; The Marshal Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Animals, Marshal Publishing, London, 1998 Wild, Anthony; The East India Company, Harper Collins, 1999 Williamson, Paul; Netherlandish Sculpture 1450–1550, V&A Publications, 2002 Witte, Hans; A Closer Look, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal, 2004 Zandvliet, Kees; The Dutch Encounter with Asia 1600–1950, Rijksmueum, 2002 Zimmer, H; The Art of Indian Asia, vol. 1&2, Pantheon Books, 1955 Zwalf, W.; Buddhism Art and Faith, British Museum Publications Ltd., London, 1985 Design by Prof. Phil Cleaver and Jennifer Penny et al design, 020 7490 3976 Photography by Phil Connor, 07831 151549 Printed and bounded in Great Britain by Pureprint
© 2017 Finch & Co No Part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the permission in writing of the publisher.