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Ong Yeok Ho 603404 Virtual Environments ENVS 10008 2013 Semester 1 Module 3 - Fabrication

Module 1 – Review

Recipe 1. Start with a point 2. Draw lines from the starting point, away from it 3. Draw more lines, like branches branching out. 4. Draw even more lines facing random directions, but ensuring some spaces are enclosed. Analytical drawing

3D extrusion

Sketch Model Using Clay

In module 1, my chosen natural pattern is the pattern of floor cracks. I decide to incorporate the pattern into my lantern. I then explored with the overall form of the lantern and decided on holding the lantern upwards. How the lantern is held against the hand.

Module 2 – Review

Process of lofting the overall form

In Module 2, I then lofted the overall form of the clay model into digital form. The contour lines are tweaked and adjusted to achieve a more irregular shape.

I then explored with the different types of paneling. Prototypes were produced and light effects were tested out. I decided on having a 3D custom panel made up of triangles that closely resemble my pattern. I decided to work on triangles as I was advised to do so and it is the easiest shape to work with. In testing my panels, I tested and produced prototypes of different offset values. I also tested on panels with no offset value as the initial lighting I was trying to achieve is the effect similar to Miss Maple’s lamp.

The 3D extrusion of my pattern. I produced custom panel which is similar to the original pattern.

Prototype 1 which was relatively easy to do, but not the same pattern as what I want.

Prototype 2, with 0.3 offset value. I thought that the light effect is quite interesting.

Prototype 3, with 0.2 offset value. There is focus on the thin lines, which expresses the pattern more, resembling the cracks.

Prototype 4, with no offset value. This is the initial effect I was trying to achieve, as there the shadows of the tabs give focus on the lines of the pattern.

Module 3 Paneling

I decide to incorporate the 3 prototypes from Module 2, since all of them produce interesting lighting effects and reflect my pattern well.


Offset border: 0



After getting feedbacks and ideas from Module 2, I decided to modify the panels of my lantern. Instead of having only one light effect, I decided on incorporating the 3 prototypes I did in Module 3 into my lantern. I was also given the idea of having a concept from enclosed panels to open panels. Besides that, the shadows that was formed from the panels with offset borders is interesting and I thought that I should explore with the idea. I also thought about how the lantern will be held and the part that is held by hand should be closed panels and also it supports more weight at the bottom. As it goes up, the holes of the panels gradually become bigger as they support less weight.


Offset border: 0.7

Offset border: 0.6



Offset border: 0.5

Offset border: 0.4

7. I wanted a lantern where the panels are enclosed at the bottom and the holes of the offset borders gradually become wider as it goes up to the top. Hence, I had to panelize the lantern part by part. I started from the bottom part and paneled it without any offset border. However, the problem is that the edges of the panel might not match

Offset border: 0.3

Offset border: 0.2

Module 3 Problem with unrolling

However, when I wanted to unroll the surfaces, I realise that they could not be unrolled. After going to the Tech Help session, I found out that the problem is because of the curved surfaces of the panels. Rhino would not recognise them and refuse to unroll. The solution is to mesh the panels them, and then turn them into open surfaces again.

A few of the curved surfaces

1. The panel is meshed.

2. It is then paneled as normal into the lofted surface.

3. The mesh surface is turned to open surface by using the command “MeshToNURB� . The borders are then offset accordingly like normal.

I then managed to produce the final form successfully that can be unrolled and with no curved surfaces.

Module 3 Unrolling the panels I then started unrolling the panels. Initially, I unrolled them in bigger sections as I thought this would be faster and easier.

However, when they were cut out and folded, I realised that it was more difficult than I thought. The score lines are straight continuous lines which means that it cannot be folded the opposite direction. Besides that, I was very confused as to which side has to be glued. This method of unrolling turned out to be more difficult than I thought. I then changed the score lines to dashed lines. However, the effect that came out was different from what I expected. The gaps between the dashes allow more light, hence, there are uneven lighting along the lines. The folded lines produced by the dashed lines are also not as smooth as continuous score lines. Hence, I decided to unroll them in smaller sections. I unrolled those that are folded in the same directions in one section. This would make the foldings easier and much neater.

The part with red colour is unrolled in on section as they are folded outwards When both sections are combined, it would be easier to just fold them inwards. The part with blue colour is unrolled in another section There are some parts which are folded inwards that I am not able to separate into another section. I solved this problem by just running the blade through the other side of the paper. As there are not many of them, it wasn’t a big problem for me. However, I had to pay more attention as to which direction the panels are folded.

Module 3 Unrolling the panels

The unrolled sections for one part of the lantern and they are numbered accordingly to avoid confusion when cutting and pasting.

Module 3 Modification of Tabs I then explored with the directions of tabs. I tried with tabs that are facing outwards instead of inwards. However, I didn’t like it very much as I thought that it looks a little messy and not as neat.

I also tried cutting tab on one side and have the other side’s tab to be glued on it. However, it affects the shadow that was produced as it is too obvious.

There are some tabs which overlap with each other. This causes some slight problem when they are cut and glued together. The edges are quite difficult to be glued as the are being cut away. This causes gaps in some parts. I solved this problem by trimming them in Rhino first.

Module 3 Full Scale Prototype

When building the full scale prototype, I experienced the earlier problems that was explained. Besides that, I realised that I need to pay attention to ensure that it is neat. There are problems where the alignments between the panels are not right, hence causing some holes and gaps. The inaccurate alignment also makes it hard to for me to join the top parts . I was also using glue stick to stick them which takes incredibly long time to dry and extremely time consuming. The cut cutter’s original setting for score was: Score lines: 15 Cut lines: 35 (that was before they changed it ) The force wasn’t strong enough, with score lines that can barely be seen. Hence, I had to run my own blade through the score lines again. However, this causes problem as the edge of my blade is less sharp, causing thicker and rougher score lines. The smaller panels are also harder to fold and when not careful, will cause some damages at the edge of the paper. I then increased the forces of the lines manually to these settings: Score lines: 25 Cut lines: 40 These new settings work much better and I don’t have to run my own blade through the lines again. Rough score lines

Gaps seen when they are not glued tightly.

Some of the alignments are not accurate causing some lines to be on top of the panels.

Carelessness when unrolling, hence missing out some panels.

If not careful of which direction and where the panels are glued, the will be mismatch in the alignments, causing problems when joining up the other panels.

Module 3 Full Scale Prototype

Paper that is bought from the outside has different quality from the paper that is bought in fablab. The paper bought from outside has worse quality and the paper is less glossy. This causes problem when folding, eventhough my score lines was set at the correct value. When folded, they cause rough lines, hence causing my model to be really messy. I then stopped buying paper from the outside and only buy from fablab. The paper here is much better with glossier surface. When folded, they form less defects and the model looks so much cleaner and neater. Comparison between paper from outside and paper from FabLab.

I used glue stick to glue the panels together, which is extremely time consuming. I then changed to using PVA as advised and it was so much easier and better! The glue dries up much faster. Paper strips are used to spread the glue so that it would not dirty the paper.

Completed full scale prototype with some defects that I have to improvise in my final model.

Gaps and holes I need to minimize in my final model.

Paper clips are used to ensure that the panels are glued together .

Module 3 Exploded Axonometric View

Module 3 Exploded Axonometric View (Top Half)

Module 3 Exploded Axonometric View (Bottom Half)

Module 3 Cutting File

Total surface area of the lantern = 311206 mm² Total surface area of paper (900 X 600) X 4 = 2 160 000 mm² Amount of wastage = approximately 80% Type of paper: White Ivory Card

Module 3 Construction of Final Model







Module 3 Construction of Final Model





Module 3 Lighting


2. There is an issue on how the lighting will affect the way I hold the lantern. I wanted to have an equal lighting throughout the lantern, hence, I can’t fix my bulb at the surface of the lantern. I then decided on having the LED lights to be held at the center of the lantern. However, by doing so, there is a problem of how the LED lights will be held at the center. I could use a string at the center but as the top of the lantern carries less weight and more fragile, I don’t think it would be able to hold the lights well. If I were to do so, I would have to change the way it Is held which is to hold it upside down so that the part with enclosed surface can hold the lights. However, I feel that it feels more comfortable holding it the way I initially wanted (No. 1) instead of holding it upside down. How the position of the the LED lights will affect the way I hold the lantern.

Going back to Module 1 and 2 to think about what I wanted to create initially.

Hence, to solve this problem, I decide to use something to that is able to hold the lights at the center.

Module 3 Lighting I was contemplating between having cool light and warm light. Cool light will just be normal white light while warm light will be produced from slightly yellow light. I then decided on having warm light for its aesthetics and that is more interesting than the normal cool light.

I bought coloured paper to produce warm light. As the exposure of the LED lights is also an issue, I decided to make a sphere out of the coloured paper and have the LEDs hidden in the sphere, after getting feedbacks from my tutor. In order to do so, I made a sphere in Rhino, panellised it, unrolled it, got it printed and cut. I made 2 spheres, where one is put at the bottom, while the other is put at the center of the lantern. Cutting file of the unrolled sphere.

The red lines are where the spheres will be located.

The shadow effect that I was trying to achieve is obvious and really sharp shadows. Hence, my light source will have to be really bright. I need to have more than 1 LED for my sphere to ensure that it is bright enough. Initially, at the top sphere has 5 LEDs in it while the bottom sphere has 2. However, I found out that after I cover the LEDs with the sphere, the brightness of the light is affected greatly is it produces much dimmer light. Besides, as the sphere is covering the lights, this prevent shadows to be formed. In order for the shadows of my pattern to be formed, I need some light source where it is not covered by the sphere and is bright enough to produce sharp shadows. The sphere, while it has really good lighting effect, is quite dim.

I solved this problem by swapping between the 2 spheres. The top sphere now has only 2 LEDs while the bottom sphere has 5 LEDs. This is because I realise that the further the light source, the sharper the shadows will be. The bottom sphere will not be fully enclosed where, there is some gap. This is to allow direct lighting from the LEDs so that it is bright enough to produce shadows. Besides, there are wires that goes through that gap. However, this would mean that the aesthetics might not look that good.

Module 3 Lighting

In order to allow the sphere to “float� at the center of the lantern, I made 2 strips of paper that is hard enough to support the sphere (by using 4 pieces of ivory card and they are then combined and glued). They are then glued inside. The spheres will then be located on top of the strips.

Parallel circuit is installed instead of series circuit. This is because I used 7 LEDs which requires 21V (too many batteries will be needed for series). I was told by the person JayCar that it would be advisable to use parallel circuit.

The final lighting effect is not as equally distributed throughout the lantern as I expected. The bottom part of the lantern receives more light than the top part. However, I was really satisfied with the outcome of the shadows, formed by the top, which is the initial effect that I was trying to achieve.

Module 3 Final model

Module 3 Final Model

How it is held against the hand:

Week 9