Education should not be limited within the walls of the classroom. Gathering knowledge and sharing it with others is very important. Keen observation, experimentation and creativity will enrich the knowledge. It is a pleasant experience to see the youngsters of Mar Athanasius College of Engineering bring out a magazine to express their ideas and technical knowhow. I hope the magazine will promote the technical and scientific aspirations among the students. With best wishes. Dr. George Issac Principal
In this era of globalization, engineering study is not limited to gathering knowledge from textbooks alone. The frontiers of knowledge and skill acquisition are enlarging at a tremendous pace. The students should be acquainted with the new vistas of knowledge to become technically competitive. Endeavors like publishing technical journals will help them to a great extend in this venture. The students of first year mechanical(2010-11) has taken a welcome initiative in this area. I congratulate them in this effort and hope they will pursue it in future also. I wish them all success. Dr. Josephkunju Paul C HOD, Mechanical Engineering
Beyond the reality...
Credits Editor Tity M Alex Assistant Editor Jobin Geo Chief Designer Habeeb M K(S6R)
Finance Thomas George, Abijith U
Supporting Team Harishankar P, Joseph Alex Ajith Joseph, Amal Vijayan Karthik Bahulayan
A Note.... Another magazine is born, among the innumerable ones out there. But, this will be different. When the first thought came about bringing out a magazine, hurdles kept coming up and up. To win the race you have to jump over them but, here some had to be avoided also. Many asked, how are we going to make this a reality? And this is the answer to them. We had nothing in our hands, other than the burning desire and passion to make this a reality. We were always optimistic and thus came the name â€œOptimistaâ€?. The articles, features and columns included are the original work of the authors to the best of our knowledge. The work about Large Hadron Collider is a journal posted by CERN. Photos and pictures are collected from various sources and we have no particular right over them. The contents were selected such that it would please the masses and not a particular section. Take a look at how airplanes have evolved from paper planes to one carrying hundreds of people, or have a fast ride in the most amazing road machines man has ever built. Are all touch screens the same. Don't know? Find the answer inside. Are Ghosts real? You may answer only after reading. What's so unusual about an interview? Read on to find out. Take your senses to an unforgettable ride with the off-roading experience of our friends. Tips also are included to prevent it from becoming the worst nightmare ever. Ever thought, what is lying under the blue carpet of the ocean? There's a way to know. Finally how mysterious a painting can be? See the last page to find out. Till the next edition.
Tity M Alex firstname.lastname@example.org
The large hadron collider 7 Aviation from growing wings till the near future 9 Simply touch it 12 Super cars the furious five 14 Ghosts: people without bodies or vice versa 18 Unusual interview teleporter tells us 20 Techvies 22 Photo gallery 24 Avoid traffic go off road 26 Robots of the sea 30 Ken ken 33 Crossword 34
Optimista 66 Optimista
Our understanding of the Universe is about to change... The safety of the LHC The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can achieve an energy that no other particle accelerators have reached before, but Nature routinely produces higher energies in cosmic-ray collisions. Concerns about the safety of whatever may be created in such highenergy particle collisions have been addressed for many years. In the light of new experimental data and theoretical understanding, the LHC Safety Assessment Group (LSAG) has updated a review of the analysis made in 2003 by the LHC Safety Study Group, a group of independent scientists. LSAG reaffirms and extends the conclusions of the 2003 report that LHC collisions present no danger and that there are no reasons for concern. Whatever the LHC will do, Nature has already done many times over during the lifetime of the Earth and other astronomical bodies. The LSAG report has been reviewed and endorsed by CERN's Scientific Policy Committee, a group of external scientists that advises CERN's governing body, its Council. The following summarizes the main arguments given in the LSAG report. Anyone interested in more details is encouraged to consult it directly, and the technical scientific papers to which it refers.
Cosmic rays The LHC, like other particle accelerators, recreates the natural phenomena of cosmic rays under controlled laboratory conditions, enabling them to be studied in more detail. Cosmic rays are particles produced in outer space, some of which are accelerated to energies far exceeding those of the LHC. The energy and the rate at which they reach the Earth's atmosphere have been measured in experiments for some 70 years. Over the past billions of years, Nature has already generated on Earth as many collisions as about a million LHC experiments and the planet still exists. Astronomers observe an enormous number of larger astronomical bodies throughout the Universe, all of which are also struck by cosmic rays. The Universe as a whole conducts more than 10 million million LHC-like experiments per second. The possibility of any dangerous consequences contradicts what astronomers see - stars and galaxies still exist.
Microscopic black holes Nature forms black holes when certain stars, much larger than our Sun, collapse on themselves at the end of their lives. They concentrate a very large amount of matter in a very small space. Speculations about microscopic black holes at the LHC refer to particles produced in the collisions of pairs of protons, each of which has an energy comparable to that of a mosquito in flight. Astronomical black holes are much heavier than anything that could be produced at the LHC. According to the well-established properties of gravity, described by Einstein's relativity, it is impossible for microscopic black holes to be produced at the LHC. There are, however, some speculative theories that predict the production of such particles at the LHC. All these theories predict that these particles would disintegrate immediately. Black holes, therefore, would have no time to start accreting matter and to cause macroscopic ceffects. Although theory predicts that microscopic black holes decay rapidly, even hypothetical stable black holes can be shown to be harmless by studying the onsequences of their production by cosmic rays. Optimista 7
Whilst collisions at the LHC differ from cosmic-ray collisions with astronomical bodies like the Earth in that new particles produced in LHC collisions tend to move more slowly than those produced by cosmic rays, one can still demonstrate their safety. The specific reasons for this depend whether the black holes are electrically charged, or neutral. Many stable black holes would be expected to be electrically charged, since they are created by charged particles. In this case they would interact with ordinary matter and be stopped while traversing the Earth or Sun, whether produced by cosmic rays or the LHC. The fact that the Earth and Sun are still here rules out the possibility that cosmic rays or the LHC could produce dangerous charged microscopic black holes. If stable microscopic black holes had no electric charge, their interactions with the Earth would be very weak. Those produced by cosmic rays would pass harmlessly through the Earth into space, whereas those produced by the LHC could remain on Earth. However, there are much larger and denser astronomical bodies than the Earth in the Universe. Black holes produced in cosmic-ray collisions with bodies such as neutron stars and white dwarf stars would be brought to rest. The continued existence of such dense bodies, as well as the Earth, rules out the possibility of the LHC producing any dangerous black holes.
Strangelets Strangelet is the term given to a hypothetical microscopic lump of 'strange matter' containing almost equal numbers of particles called up, down and strange quarks. According to most theoretical work, strangelets should change to ordinary matter within a thousand-millionth of a second. But could strangelets coalesce with ordinary matter and change it to strange matter? This question was first raised before the start up of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, in 2000 in the United States. A study at the time showed that there was no cause for concern, and RHIC has now run for eight years, searching for strangelets without detecting any. At times, the LHC will run with beams of heavy nuclei, just as RHIC does. The LHC's beams will have more energy than RHIC, but this makes it even less likely that strangelets could form. It is difficult for strange matter to stick together in the high temperatures produced by such colliders, rather as ice does not form in hot water. In addition, quarks will be more dilute at the LHC than at RHIC, making it more difficult to assemble strange matter. Strangelet production at the LHC is therefore less likely than at RHIC, and experience there has already validated the arguments that strangelets cannot be produced.
Vacuum bubbles There have been speculations that the Universe is not in its most stable configuration, and that perturbations caused by the LHC could tip it into a more stable state, called a vacuum bubble, in which we could not exist. If the LHC could do this, then so could cosmic-ray collisions. Since such vacuum bubbles have not been produced anywhere in the visible Universe, they will not be 8 Optimista
made by the LHC.
Magnetic monopoles Magnetic monopoles are hypothetical particles with a single magnetic charge, either a north pole or a south pole. Some speculative theories suggest that, if they do exist, magnetic monopoles could cause protons to decay. These theories also say that such monopoles would be too heavy to be produced at the LHC. Nevertheless, if the magnetic monopoles were light enough to appear at the LHC, cosmic rays striking the Earth's atmosphere would already be making them, and the Earth would very effectively stop and trap them. The continued bodies therefore rules out dangerous proton-eating magnetic monopoles light enough to be produced at the LHC.
Other aspects of LHC safety: Concern has recently been expressed that a 'runaway fusion reaction' might be created in the LHC carbon beam dump. The safety of the LHC beam dump had previously been reviewed by the relevant regulatory authorities of the CERN host states, France and Switzerland. The specific concerns expressed more recently have been addressed in a technical memorandum by Assmann et al. As they point out, fusion reactions can be maintained only in material compressed by some external pressure, such as that provided by gravity inside a star, a fission explosion in a thermonuclear device, a magnetic field in a Tokamak, or by continuing isotropic laser or particle beams in the case of inertial fusion. In the case of the LHC beam dump, it is struck once by the beam coming from a single direction. There is no countervailing pressure, so the dump material is not compressed, and no fusion is possible. Concern has been expressed that a 'runaway fusion reaction' might be created in a nitrogen tank inside the LHC tunnel. There are no such nitrogen tanks. Moreover, the arguments in the previous paragraph prove that no fusion would be possible even if there were. Finally, concern has also been expressed that the LHC beam might somehow trigger a 'Bose-Nova' in the liquid helium used to cool the LHC magnets. A study by Fairbairn and McElrath has clearly shown there is no possibility of the LHC beam triggering a fusion reaction in helium. We recall that 'Bose-Novae' are known to be related to chemical reactions that release an infinitesimal amount of energy by nuclear standards. We also recall that helium is one of the most stable elements known, and that liquid helium has been used in many previous particle accelerators without mishap. The facts that helium is chemically inert and has no nuclear spin imply that no 'Bose-Nova' can be triggered in the superfluid helium used in the LHC. To be continuedâ€Ś
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Gibu Reji email@example.com
The first forms of man-made flying objects were kites. The earliest known record of flying kites is from around 200 BC in China, when a General flew a kite over enemy territory to calculate the length of the tunnel required to enter that region. With the efforts to analyze the atmosphere in the 17th and 18th century, gases such as hydrogen were discovered which in turn led to the invention of hydrogen balloons. Various theories in mechanics formed by physicists during the same period of timenotably fluid dynamics and Newton's laws of motionled to the foundation of modern aerodynamics. Experiments with gliders laid the groundwork to build crafts heavier-than-air, and by the early 20th century advancements in engine technology and aerodynamics made controlled and powered flight possible for the
first-time. Although many people think of human flight has its beginning with the aircraft in the early 20th century, in fact people had been flying repeatedly for more than 100years. The first generally recognized human flight took place in Paris in 1783.Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes covered 8 km (5miles) in a hot air balloon invented by the Montgolfier brothers. The balloon was powered by a wood fire, and was not steer able i.e., it flew wherever the wind took it. But these forms of flight were those which were called 'lighter than air' designs.It was because they were able to stay up in the air by means of creating an uplift using relatively low density gases like hydrogen or hot air.Also, these aircraft were generally short-lived and extremely frail.
106 nd DH Havilla
It was the Wright brothers who had designed the first 'heavier than air' type of aircraft which flew successfully. The Wrights appear to be the first design team to make seriously studied attempts to simultaneously solve the power and control problems. Eventually, they made the first sustained, controlled, and powered 'heavierthan-air' manned flight at Kill Devil Hills, four miles(8 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903.They rigorously tested and improved their design and made aircrafts capable of longer flights. Many parallel researches were going on at the same time which resulted in the making of better aircrafts. As soon as they were invented, planes were drafted for military service. The first country to use planes for military purpose was Italy. The years between World War I and II saw great advancements in aircraft technology. All countries involved in the World War II stepped up development and production of aircraft and flight based weapon delivery systems. After the war, commercial aviation grew rapidly and used mostly ex-military aircrafts, to transport people and cargo. The first commercial jet airliner to fly was, the 'British de Havilland Comet'.Perhaps like no other single technology, the jet engine revolutionized air travel around the world. Unlike the old propeller-driven planes that were powered by piston engines, jet planes could fly at tremendous speeds, thus cutting down travel time. Jet-equipped airplanes could also climb faster and higher. There were, however, major concerns about transferring jet engine technology to the commercial aviation sector. Airline executives in the postwar era were 10 Optimista
aware that, although jet engines were simpler than the old piston engines, they also had high operating temperatures that required very expensive metal alloy components that ultimately would affect an aircraft's longevity and reliability. Moreover, jet engines used far greater amounts of fuel. The initial low takeoff speed would also require longer runways. All of this added up to increased costs. Hence, passenger air carriers did not support the building of jet airliners in the immediate postwar years, and adopted a â€œwait-and-seeâ€? approach before embarking on this risky path. The British Overseas Aircraft Corporation (BOAC), the British national carrier, first introduced a commercial jet airliner into service. The 36 seater de Havilland DH 106 Comet flew for the first time on July 27, 1949. With the Comet, passengers could travel comfortably at480 miles per hour (772 kilometers per hour), making it a revolutionary leap in air travel. The Comet type planes were vibrationfree and relatively quiet. One of the more unusual aspects of the coming of the jet era was that the airlines from all over the world replaced piston-engine aircraft with jets at an unprecedented pace. Jet travel revolutionized air travel throughout the world. Once again, as with the introduction of piston engines into civil aviation in the 1920s, a new revolution in technology made the world an even smaller place. Present aircrafts are faced with problems of which the most important is the fuel consumption. Aviation impacts the environment because aircraft engines emit noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and
MIT Concept-Double Bubble
global dimming. Despite emission reductions from automobiles and more fuel-efficient and less polluting turbofan and turboprop engines, the rapid growth of air travel in recent years contributes to an increase in total pollution attributable to aviation. In the EU, greenhouse gas emissions from aviation increased by 87% between 1990and 2006. Researches have been going on to develop highly efficient and low pollution aircrafts worldwide. One possible design has been brought forward by the MIT and NASA, a concept named as the “double bubble”. They have given birth to a green airplane that is estimated to use 70 percent less fuel than current planes while also reducing noise and emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx).The engineers conceived the D series by reconfiguring the tube-and-wing structure. Instead of using a single fuselage cylinder, they used two partial cylinders placed side by side to create a wider structure whose cross-section resembles two soap bubbles joined together. They also moved the engines from the usual wing-mounted locations to the rear of the fuselage. Unlike the engines on most transport aircraft that take in the high-speed, undisturbed air flow, the D-series engines take in slower moving air that is present in the wake of the fuselage. Known as the Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI), this technique allows the engines to use less fuel for the same
amount of thrust, although the design has several practical drawbacks, such as creating more engine stress. According to Mark Drela, the Terry L. Kohler Professor of Fluid Dynamics and lead designer of the D series, the design mitigates some of the drawbacks of the BLI technique by traveling about 10 percent slower than a 737. To further reduce the drag and amount of fuel that the plane burns, the D series features longer, skinnier wings and a smaller tail. Independently, each tweak might not amount to much, but the “little 5-percent changes add up to one big change,” Drela said. Although the plane would travel slightly slower than a 737, he said that some of this time could be recovered because the plane's wider size should allow for quicker loading and unloading. Not only does the D series meet NASA's long-term fuel burn, emissions reduction and runway length objectives, but it could also offer large benefits in the near future because the MIT team designed two versions: a higher technology version with 70 percent fuel-burn reduction, and a version that could be built with conventional aluminum and current jet technology that would burn 50 percent less fuel and might be more attractive as a lower risk, near-term alternative. The NASA teams have proposed evaluating the interactions between the propulsion system and the new aircraft using a large-scale NASA wind tunnel. Even if the MIT designs are not chosen for the second phase, the researchers hope to continue developing them, including testing smaller models at MIT's Wright Brothers' Wind Tunnel and collaborating with manufacturers to explore how to make the concept a reality.
Airbus A380-Largest air plane in the world
Arjun G Krishnan stunner.agk2gmail.com
Long long ago (though not very long ago),more like 10 yrs. ago while on a tour to Vagamon(a hill station) I came across the first Mobile Phone I've seen in my life, for a sec, I thought the family was a bunch of crooks trying to steal bricks from the nearby building site. The mobile was huge and rather was not so “mobile” but thanks to their son (an idiot by his looks) the family had no problem carrying the 'jumbo' around. Times have changed and like everything else (except our roads!), so have the mobile phones. They've come down in size, weight and whatever used to be large, alright, don't start turning the page. You have read all these a million times, thanks to the Digit and Chip guys. I'm not here to talk about mobile phones but about Touch Screens. Hey, don't start with an argument, there's a touchscreen in your mobile or maybe in someone's, you know. But that doesn't mean that they are the same. You have an elephant stick(you know, the one mahouts carry along with them to beat up the jumbos before they turn nuts and make a paste of them) doesn't necessarily mean that you have an elephant. I know, that was a bad example. Anyway coming to the not so interesting, yet amazingly boring subject of touch screens, they were invented by Sam Hurst (definitely not an Indian) in God knows for sure when. Don't blame me, Wikipedia thinks it's in 1972 & inventors.com thinks it's in 1974 and I'm no encyclopedia. Those who still want the right date may settle down with the average 1973. (My math is right. Right?) 12 Optimista
Touch screens are actually a transparent input device placed ingeniously in front of the screen so that you don't have to carry a stupid mouse around with your device to get a good computing experience. It allows you to interact directly with what's displayed on the screen and kicks out the keypad, which means to view movies (Hurray!...) Going a bit deep into the subject the widely used touch screens are the cheap resistive ones and few stupid's going behind capacitive ones(Owners of X6,Galaxies please… don't kick me).One can find with a bit of googling that there are ones working on acoustic and infrared waves too(I've never seen'em).Though the purpose served by these things are more or less the same all these things work upon entirely different principles. It's like the difference in taking a boat or a car to go to a place (Of course it's more or less the same in monsoon).Lets start with the simplest one, Resistive Touchscreen. Just think of it as a sandwich, of a resistive screen and a conductive screen separated by an insulating jelly (Sounds tasty. Doesn't it?). Of course all these things are transparent. When you touch the screen or rather push it (in my case, punch it) you push aside the jelly brining the screen into contact and there by changing the current supplied to the touch screen. This is calculated by some “I have no idea” circuits to locate your touch. All though this might sound 'Whoa! That genius' it's got some problems too. Multiple layers on the device means your transparency reduces to 75% (to hell with math) .Then, since the device works with
application of pressure there is no chance of having a multi touch option (You know , the one in which you can put all your fingers on the screen to do whatever you were thinking of doing). Then comes the costlier at the same, more snappy capacitive touch screens. It's got an insulating layer like glass coated with a conducting metal (please don't ask me how to do that. I don't even know how to make a good omelet for God's sake.) A potential is applied to this setup producing an electrostatic field. When you touch this with a conductor (like your hand. Doubt it?.... Why don't you try it on the mains supply?) A change in electric field is produced which is measured in terms of capacitance and thereby detecting your touch (Cool … huh?) the gain is that since a single layer is used its pretty much transparent and looks cool, thanks to the glass layer. Since you don't have to apply any pressure you get a smooth feeling plus you can easily do a multi touch operation like pinch on a capacitive screen. But don't jump into conclusions yet, because its got its own flaws too. Like you won't be able to use an ordinary stylus on it and if you touch it with an insulator like, while wearing gloves you see a dump thing staring back at you, means nothing happens. It's also said that these ones are not so durable as resistive ones. But we would have to wait, to see about that.
The other ones are not commonly used and are used in special situations (Sorry, I've never seen one…) and their working varies with point of application. So why worry about something we don't even get to see. In the future, we won't actually need any screen at all for direct input. We just have to show gestures on air for an input. But don't start practicing yet, people may get a feeling that you've lost a bolt or two. But you can try the same in front of an XBOX 360 with a device called Kinect installed .It can actually detect your motions& gestures. So there are touch screens and touch screens, You choose a resistive one if you are a smart and economical guy or may end up with a capacitive one if you are like lot many others out there(who are cool too…Happy?).Anyway the final decision is up to you and you may bet that both will be around for a while. So talking about being around, I've got a movie to watch. So this is as far as we go. Catch you in the next edition (If it happens….What? I'm being realistic here) Ciao…
Mo to rol a_M iles to ne
n the vivid and wonderful world of automobiles, super cars have a unique and fascinating place. They are so fascinating that they just make the hair to rise each time you even hear their names. Super cars are the ultimatum in the all-exciting world of cars. Combining pleasure and performance each time you drive, they are the best of all. And due to this same reason it's nearly impossible to choose the top 5 supercars of modern era from a number of close competitors who are excellent as per different criteria. However, let me give a try. During the years many super cars came and had gone in the car world. And some have left a tyre mark of their own. Here in preparing this list of top 5, it's not only the speed or size of the engines or the horses it had, been made the criteria, but also the importance and elegance that these wonderful machines had in the world of cars itself. And I am sure that some of you will be disappointed to see many of your favorite fast cars to be absent from the list. Now let us have a look at those masterpieces, which made into my List of Top 5 super cars
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Lamborghini Miura -“The Kick Start” The car, which started the era of sports cars in the automotive industry. It is undoubtedly the first proper and successful two seater sports car to hit the streets. This legendary car was manufactured by Lamborghini. Actually it got its place in this list after a tough battle with Lamborghini's own Diablo. Production period of Miura was from 1966 to 1972. During which 764 of them were produced. Many variants including P400S, P400 SV, P400 SVJ Spider, P400 Roadster etc. were released. And in 2006 Lamborghini also revealed a Miura concept car. Chief designer of the project was Marcello Gandini and chief engineers were Gian Paolo Dallara, PaoloStanzani, and Bob Wallace. Most powerful Miura produced is the P400SV version. It had a 3.9 literV12 Engine producing 380 bhp and a maximum torque of 388 N-m @5500 rpm. Gearbox was5-speed manual with rear wheel drive. Miura had a top speed of 276 km/h and it did 0-100 km/h in6.4seconds. It was very light and had a curb weight of only 1298 kg. It's power to weight ratio was 295bhp per ton, which was outstanding by the standards of 70's. The Miura was originally conceived by Lamborghini's engineering team, who designed the car in their spare time against the wishes of company founder Ferruccio Lamborghini. When its rolling chassis was presented at the 1965 Turin auto show, and the prototype P400 debuted at the 1966 Geneva show, the car received an amazing reception from show goers and motoring press alike, who were impressed by Marcelo Gandini's sleek styling as well as the car's revolutionary design. Miura cost about ` 0.6 million in 1968 and in today's terms it's just over `6.5 million. But due to its antique value some versions have been auctioned today at prices up to `25 million!. By 1972, when production was stopped, Miura had already paved the way for the super cars to come. In a wider view it was the first supercar ever.
McLaren F1-“The True Legend” McLaren F1 is a legendary car which shook the ground when it was launched in 1992. Till that day no car had been made with such perfection and elegance. It is a car that can never be excluded from list of all-time best supercars. It was built by McLaren automotive company. Production period of this majestic car was from 1992 to 1998. But in those six long years only 106 cars
were produced. McLaren F1 was the brain child of the legendary designer Gordon Murray and exterior was designed by Peter Stevens. Among the 106 cars produced, most of them had similar designs with little variations. Main variants were LM, GTR and GTs. Things will get more exciting when you come to know that only71 of 106 cars were made road cars. Rest of them was used for racing (GTR version) and testing. McLaren F1 has a 6.1 liter V12 engine manufactured by BMW. It produces 627 bhp and maximum torque of 651 Nm @ 5600 rpm. This car could achieve a top speed of 391 km/h, when the rev limiter was removed. And it did hold the title as world's fastest road car for a while. McLaren F1has a proper 6-speed manual gearbox. The car is very light and has a curb weight of only 1140 kg. And it has a superb power to weight ratio of 550 bhp per ton. Due to which it could even out run many of the supercars having a higher top speed in a quarter mile drag race (400 meter). It is capable of going from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.2 seconds. In fact McLaren F1 is the fastest naturally aspired car in the world even after almost two decades from it's launch. Unlike most of its high-speed competitors, this car doesn't use any forced induction (no turbo chargers!) system to achieve its top speed. The car featured numerous new designs and technologies at the time of launch. Even it's modern rivals can't really match it's lightness and stream line structure. During the development of F1 it was found that the existing analogue rev meters can't stand in the kind of acceleration that the engine produced and brand new kind of rev meter, gear system etc. were built. Even engines were specially built for F1 by BMW. A fact of fantasy is that McLaren F1 uses gold foil as heat shield in exhaust compartment as gold was the most suited!. In 1994, the British car magazine AutoCar stated in a road test , "The McLaren F1 is the finest driving machine yet built for the public road." and that "The F1 will be remembered as one of the great events in the history of the car, and it may possibly be the fastest production road car the world will ever see." This legendary car came with an unmatched price. In 1998 it's price was about `45 million But today due to its increased antique value it is being re-sold at prices above ` 100 million1! A Perfect example of this was evident when a McLaren F1 was auctioned for $4100000 (`200 million) in 2008 at London. No wonder this car is called the legend among supercars.
Bugatti Veyron -“The Ultimate Car” It's not at all surprising to find the Bugatti Veyron in the top 5. It is undoubtedly the best supercar ever built. It's a proper combination of luxury and speed. Made by Bugatti Automobiles and Volkswagen Group (parent company), it's Production began on 2005 and is still going on. Chief designer of the project was Jozef Karban. A number of variants and special versions like Pur Sang,Sag Noir, Grand Sport, Super Sport, Blue Centenaire etc. have been produced during the years. The Super Sport version of Bugatti Veyron is the fastest road-legal car in the world, with a top speed of431.07km/h where original version has a top speed of 408.04 km/h. Truth is that it's not even possible to find the exact top speed as fuel will ran out before that (in just 12 minutes at speedsover400km/h). It has a 8.0 liter W16 engine which produces an amazing 987bhp output in original versions and 1184 bhp in super sport versions. Engine has 4turbo chargers and 10 radiators. It produces a max torque of 1250 Nm in original version whereas super sport is capable ofproducing1500Nm. The car has curb weight of 1888 kg and an amazing power to wait ratio (pwt) of627 bhp per ton. And it only take 2.4 seconds to go from 0 to 100 km/h. Bugatti Veyron had a tough time in keeping the title as 'World's fastest road-legal car. In fact the car SS Cultimate aero TT have snatched the title from Veyron's original version in the year 2007. But in2010with the introduction of Veyron's super sport version, it regained the title back. Other cars which come close to Veyron in terms of speed are Saleen S7 and Koenigsegg CCX. Beyond the amazing numbers that this magnificent machine provides, it's one of the most comfortable cars to ride on. It has almost all the luxuries that you can find on any modern day luxury cars. And unlike many of it's high-speed competitors, it is very much stable even at speeds beyond 400 km/h. When Volkswagen first thought about developing this car, even the company's top engineers were not sure about a positive outcome. And they faced numerous challenges during the development stages while creating this masterpiece. Overall, Bugatti Veyron is a complete supercar. But don't think this perfection comes any cheap. Base price for original version is `120 million in India (it's going to be available in Indian market) whereas the Super Sport costs a whopping `170 million!
Ferrari F60 Enzo
Another creation by Ferrari which was launched in 2002. Ferrari Enzo was a technological leap for supercars as far as Ferrari was concerned. F60 was named after the founder of company, Enzo Ferrari himself. You will now be guessing that this must be a wonderful car as it was named after the founder of a world class company. And let me say that you are right about it, because Enzo was clearly a giant technological leap for Ferrari. It was one of the first road cars in which Ferrari applied it's Formula one technologies such as a carbon-fiber body, F1-style electro hydraulic shift transmission, and Carbon fiber-reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used are technologies, not allowed in F1 race such as active aerodynamics and traction control. This was a Limited edition carlike most and only 400 were produced during the period, 2002 to 2004. The engine architecture of this car was a new one and was used for many Ferraris came after Enzo. So many cars were made based on this. The list includes Ferrari FXX, Ferrari P4/5 and Maserati MC12. Many of the technologies that we see in present day Ferraris like F430, F458 Italia and 599 were first came in Enzo. Chief designer was Ken Okuyama. Ferrari Enzo has a 6.0 liter V12 engine producing 660bhp. It had a maximum torque of 657 N-m @ 5500 rpm. Enzo has a top speed of 350 km/h. It is equipped witha6-speed semi-automatic gear box. Curb weight for Enzo is 1365 kg, giving it an excellent power to weight ratio of 484 bhp per ton. It could do 0 to 100 km/h in 3.2 seconds. Even though Ferrari 430Scuderia may out run Enzo in a track, it still remains as the most Prestigious Ferrari ever built. And due to this same reason buying a Ferrari Enzo was not easy at all. Beyond the original $670000(`33million) price tag, owners of each Ferrari was chosen by the company itself! And all the cars were sold even before the production was began. Ferrari made it sure that this masterpiece will only go to the hands of deserving and the lucky. Today Enzos are auctioned at a price around a million US dollars (above `45 million). And each time one of these crashed the price just goes up. 16 Optimista
Bugatti-Veyron Super Sport(2011)
Ferrari F60 Enzo-“The Best of Ferrari”
Porsche 911 Turbo S-“Mr. Practical” How in the world could I end this article without including my favorite and all-time best practical, reliable sports car among the top five? World Famous 911 series is manufactured by German carmakers Porsche. And some of you may even disagree with me if I call 911, a modern super car. But the fact is that its new turbo S version is practically a challenge to any supercars. Porsche 911 series came into existence in 1963, and to this date, nearing its 50th year in the market, the series continues to rule the sports car industry. It is true that 911 series have gone many variations in the last 50 years. However, the spirit and the identities of 911 are never lost. Even today's modern versions have a distinct design that separates it from the rest. During these years 911 has undergone countless number of changes both internally and externally. There are even classifications among 911's itself. Porsche internally classifies 911 as six generations ( 911,930, 964, 993, 996 and 997). Among these first 4had aircooled engines. But in market it was sold under the same badge of 911.Before we specifies on latest turbo version, lets have a history lesson. Throughout its lifetime, the 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing, rallying and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars ever. In the mid-1970s, normally aspirated 911CarreraRSRs won major world championship sports car races such as Targa Florio, Daytona, Sebringand the most famous Nürburgring, even against prototypes. The 911-derived 935 turbo also won the coveted 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979.In the 1999 international poll for the award of Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth. It is the one of two in the top five that had remained continuously in production (the 1963 Porsche-901
original Beetle remained in production until 2003) and was until 1998 the most successful surviving application of the air- (now water) cooled opposed rear engine layout pioneered by its original ancestor, the Volkswagen Beetle. It is one of the oldest sports coupe nameplates still in production. Now about 911's most exciting road version, the Turbo S. It has 3.8 liter F6 ( 6 cylinder flat ) engine producing 500 bhp. And a maximum torque of 650 N-m @5000 rpm. The standard version has6-speed manual gearbox where as a 7-speed PDK gearbox is also available. With optional Sports package, 911 turbo will go from 0 to 100 km/h in just 3.4 seconds, something that you won't expect from a 6cylinder car. With curb weight of just 1420 kg, it has a pwt ratio near 360 bhp per ton. It has a maximum speed of 320 km/h, which is quite a lot for a car having size less than your average sedan. Price is about `16.4 million (base model). In fact it's the cheapest in our list. Tracing back the history and technological improvements of 911 models, it is equivalent to tracing out the history of world's most committed car makers, Porsche itself. Latest turbo S version of 911 comes with so much of new technologies that it could out run any supercar in the practical world. Unlike other supercars, 911 gives better fuel efficiency, less CO2 emission, higher ground clearance and so much more. And more importantly 911 is a car that you can drive in everyday life. Reliability of this amazing piece of engineering is time tested. Without a doubt Porsche 911 is the most practical, A Supercar which people don't consider as one that often, simply because, it's too practical and too common. But the new Turbo S could change it all. Let's wait and watch……. 2011 Porsche-911 Turbo S
Ghosts: People without bodies Or vice versa...? Jobin Geo firstname.lastname@example.org
Note: Before You Read the Article let me take an excuse that these are not experimentally verified and these are written on the basis of investigation on investigations and the aim is to show the possibility of some machines which may help you to communicate with the ghosts...!
HE GHOST PHENOMENON has become so closely associated with the instinct of fear that it's almost a given that, if asked, most people would admit that of course they would be frightened if they encountered an apparition. Even many seasoned ghost investigators have been known to run like scared rabbits when they see or even hear something unexpected. Why? Have ghosts really earned the reputation of being harmful to humans? Actually there are only two kinds of ghosts: real and unreal.
The real ghosts are everywhere. They're in your home, in your car, in your school, and in your dreams. Ghost researchers call these the 'Interactive Ghosts'. I call them soulghosts, or disincarnate souls. I don't care for the term, disembodied because they do have a body. We just can't see it for the same reason that we can't see sound waves and ultraviolet light. They're outside the range of our sentient boundary. Soul-ghosts are interactive. They reach out to you, and you feel no fear â€Ś absolutely none. They envelop you in a blanket of warm fuzzies. Real ghosts can be mistaken for angels. This isn't a paranormal experience. It's a supernatural and spiritual experience. The unreal ghosts seem to be everywhere too, but only for those, who believes that they exist, or at least believe that they might exist. They rarely bother unbelievers. Ghost researchers call the unreal ghosts â€Ś residual ghosts. These ghosts seem to defy the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy because they pop in and out of existence like virtual particles. The appearance of this type of ghost can be explained by quantum physics. From the Copenhagen Interpretation, which states that nothing is real until you look at it, to the holographic theory of the universe, all ghosts abide by the laws of quantum physics. People that experience residual ghosts say that they seem to be caught in a timeloop replaying the same scene over and over. The above mentioned physics also apply to residual ghosts but with the addition of Schrodinger's equations. For every "now" that we experience, a positive wave flows into the future and a negative wave flows into the past like concentric ripples created by a rock thrown into a pond. The fact that some people experience residual ghosts is due to normal functions of human consciousness. Although some might rather think of it as a "glitch." Residual ghosts are unusual and fascinating experiences with natural causes. Briefly, a few more types of unreal ghosts are poltergeists, demons, and shadow people.
Abnormal psychology applies to poltergeists and demons. The physiology of the eye accounts for shadow people. So, what's the truth about ghosts? Do they exist? Yes, of course they do. Can the scientific method be used to investigate them? Yes, they use measurable amounts of energy. Can you record their voices and photograph ghosts? Yes, but Abnormal psychology applies to poltergeists and demons. The physiology of the eye accounts for shadow people. So, what's the truth about ghosts? Do they exist? Yes, of course they do. Can the scientific method be used to investigate them? Yes, they use one needs to be alert to pattern recognition tendencies. The science of ghost investigation has the potential to make a huge difference in a society still tormented by superstition and fear. You have the equipment. You have the rationale. And you have the compassionate desire to help others.
Should you fear Ghosts? If you were walking unarmed in a dense tropical jungle that you know is inhabited by tigers and large snakes, you'd undoubtedly be petrified. The threat to your life and wellbeing is quite real and your fears justified. Tigers and snakes can and do kill. Now place yourself alone at night in a house that has the reputation for being haunted. Most people would probably experience the same fear. Yet, according to most authorities on the subject, the fear is not justified. Ghosts, by and large, are harmless. The true behavior of ghosts, as evidenced by many thousands of investigations and case studies conducted by paranormal experts, overwhelmingly contradicts the common idea that they are to be feared.
Maligned ghosts Veteran ghost investigator Hans Holzer, in his book Ghosts: True Encounters with the World Beyond emphasizes “...the need to forget a popular notion: that they are always dangerous, fearful, and hurt people. Nothing could be farther from the truth.... Ghosts have never harmed anyone except through fear found within the witness, of his own doing and because of his own ignorance as to what ghosts represent. “Lloyd Auerbach, another respected ghost hunter of many years, agrees: “In many cultures and religions around the world, ghosts are thought to harbor ill will towards the living. This is unfortunate, since the evidence from thousands of cases...suggests that people don't change their personalities or motivation after death... nor do they turn evil.”
Roots of fear So why do we fear them? There are probably two main reasons. Fear of ghosts also known as spectrophobia or phasmophobia most obviously stems from our fear of the unknown. This is a deep-seated fear that is hard-wired into our genetic makeup. The primitive parts of our brain that respond to instinct a holdover from our cave-dwelling ancestors flushes our bodies with adrenaline when we encounter a threat, preparing us to fight or flee. And when that threat is something unknown that might leap out of the darkness, we'd just as soon flee. There's another component to this fear when that something in the dark is perceived as a ghost. After all, a ghost is the manifestation of a person who is dead. So now we are confronted not only with what we think is a threat to our lives, but a representative of death itself. Not only is it an entity that we don't understand, it is also a resident of the place many of us fear the most the mysterious land of the dead.
orter Artist’s view of telep
Joji Alex email@example.com
INT: Hi friends! Today we have with us a Teleporter, TU-6. Of course, you may already know about Teleporters from fictions. However let's ask it a few questions let's see what answers it has got for us…………… Hey there, are you ready to answer my questions? TU-6: ……. INT: Hey I'm talking to you! TU-6: OH! Yes, yes. I'm sorry; I was just checking my linkers. What did you say? INT: I was asking you whether you are ready to answer my questions. TU-6: Whenever you are!! INT: So what are linkers? TU-6: Oh! Slow down, don't go so fast buddy. Let's start with the basics. INT: Okay. Then tell me what exactly a Teleporter is? TU-6: Well, we Teleporters are actually machines that do teleportation. INT: So what is teleportation? TU-6: You don't know!! Teleportation involves dematerializing an object at one point, and sending the details of that object's precise atomic configuration to another location, where it will be reconstructed. Guess what this means? Time and space could be eliminated from travel; we could be transported to any location instantly, without actually crossing a physical distance. INT: Can you explain more clearly? TU-6: Consider you want to go to a particular city on another continent. You may either goby ship or by plane. But both cause loss of time and is very costly. However if you use a Teleporter, you may reach your destination within fractions of a second at a cost very low compared to other means. INT: Wow!! That's so cool. TU-6: Exactly, not so cool. INT: Huh, Why?
TU-6: Do you know how the process is done? INT: No TU-6: I'll try to explain in a simple way. You know that every object in the universe, including humans, are made of large number of atomic particles. Teleporting is actually destroying the original object and creating a copy of the object at the destination. INT: So? TU-6: So the Teleporter at the sending station copies the position, orientation, number and other details of each and every atom. Then it disintegrates the original object, thereby destroying it, and sends the data via linkers to the Teleporter at the receiving station, which constructs an exact copy of the original object by arranging the correct number of atoms in the exact orientation and position. INT: Tough job! TU-6: But simple with the latest technologies. But there is a really tricky part! INT: Which is?! TU-6: If any of the calculations go wrong or the data reaching the receiving station is not perfect, the arrangement can go quite wrongly you may end up in a different shape and in a completely distorted manner! You may even be permanently destroyed. Sometimes, two of you could also be produced! INT: Two of me? TU-6: That's right. You may find yourself facing another exact copy of you at the receiving station!! INT: Weird!! I guess. The method would be fast and cheaper for traveling large distances, but is quite risky. TU-6: You have hit the point. So, like to go through me to another place? INT: Well, No! I'm happy at being in my complete form as it is right now. TU-6: Okay then. So have you found the answer for your first question? INT: Linkers? Let me guessâ€Ś..are they a kind of medium connecting you to other Teleporters. TU-6: Right! Well then, I must go. Got a signal coming through the linkers from a Teleporter abroad. See you! INT: Bye! And ensure that you construct whatever you are receiving carefully and exactly!
Tity M Alex firstname.lastname@example.org
his has something to do with the movies but if so why didn't I write Movies. Somewhere something is not right. Anyhow at the end of this you will come to know what this is and why not movies. Movies are an art form which shows the culture, traditions and practices of a community to an extend knowingly or not. Motion Picture had an accidental start when an English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States took a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to watch the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a hand crank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. Movies are actually an illusion that makes the picture seem to be moving. This is due to the effect, the persistence of vision by which an image stands still for 1/24th of a second and the eye is fooled to believe that the picture is moving, when a sequential series of images are displayed continuously. In short, movies are making us fools with still images, which we mistake to be in motion. Motion Picture cameras, which could capture and store individual component images on a single reel , were developed by 1880s, which was followed by the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. As you all know, first films were silent ones displayed in movie houses with a background music performed by musicians or by a full orchestra. The silent movies were shot and projected using hand-cranked cameras and projectors which captured images at 1000 frames per minute (16? frame/s). Then came the talkies,(movies with dialogues) which phased out their silent counterparts in a short span of time. They needed a constant speed for the sound head, which was fixed to be 24
frames per second, as it was the slowest speed which allowed sufficient sound quality. Then came the age of color films. Surprisingly the transition of films to color took more time than that to the talkies. By 1954 half of the movies were color and it became more popular as the production cost of color films became affordable. Color films also provided an edge for the films over the television which remained B/W till 1960s. Movies are traditionally recorded on transparent celluloid, acetate, or polyester base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. But now a days more people are recording film digitally which do not need film and transmits to the theatres for display through satellite which reduces the production cost to a large extend. The 3D craze in movies are back with more and more 3D movies being shot. Basically 3D movies can be made in two ways. One shooting the movie in 2D and then converting it into 3D as post production work. The other popular method is to shoot in 3D itself. 3D vet Vince Pace endured a long tedious process of building a suitable 3D rig with James Cameron that resulted in Avatar and it's monstrous box office success. With the Arri Alexa cameras, Pace has rigged an updated system to shoot 3D with the newest digital cinema camera. The good old movies which showed the life of humans on earth are in the verge of extinction and now is the time of films showing humans invading other planets for resources or joining hands with alien robots to fight the evil etc... I would call the new age movies as " Techvies ", (All those tube lights without electronic chokes are finally bright) which depend on technology more than anything else for its production. Be it cameras, animation, background, sound or anything, without the help of technology everything is incomplete. There are many films which are fully technology based. Earlier images were captured for displaying in movies. But images are created with the help of computer graphics known as Computer Graphics Imagery (CGI). To be continued...
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A fractal is generally "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts, each of which is at least approximately a reduced-size copy of the whole". A property called self-similarity. The term was coined by BenoĂŽt Mandelbrot in 1975 and was derived from the Latin fractus meaning "broken" or "fractured." A mathematical fractal is based on an equation that undergoes iteration, a form of feedback based on recursion Approximate fractals are easily found in nature. These objects display self-similar structure over an extended, but finite, scale range. Examples include clouds, snow flakes, crystals, mountain ranges, lightning, river networks, cauliflower or broccoli, and systems of blood vessels and pulmonary vessels. .
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It was raining hard when we reached there. When it poured, our fog laden, lush green mountain side near Munnar turned from slip side mud to f#%@*#g marsh land. Water crossings would go from mere streams to SUV engulfing rivers and our hill climbing would turn into desperate scrambles to the top. It was the perfect setup for a nerve wracking off-roading. Our hope didn't go in vain, the mud turned to sticky chocolates & inclines demanded mountaineering levels of driving skills!! ....the only thing we lacked. We got the opportunity to be part of an off-roading event organized by the Club Mahindra. It was a dream come true for us since, we have been longing for this “guy thing” for long. But the code can't be cracked without an efficient off roader. We had a tough time finding the “mean machine” that would do the job for us. Thus the lot went to TOYOTA FORTUNER. we had few trials with the vehicle and we immediately fall in love with this four cylindered turbo beast. We reached the camp one day before& the climate was extreme. We were very much excited but tensed, probably because we were mere beginners!. Seventeen brave men (oops! we too)
Turned up for a dose of this hardcore fun in deep dirt. Surjith Singh (our instructor) gave us some tips on the event. All the practice is going to end Now and it's our time to beat the metal. We are giving those tips below for all those iron hearted Guys (okay! Gals too) around, who would like to taste the mud. TIP 1: READ ABOUT YOUR SUV'S OFFROAD ABILITY IN THE OWNERS MANUAL and FAMILIARISE YOURSELF WITH THE CONTROLS. Surjith Singh, our 4x4 specialist, was on hand to drove over specially laid out ramps to give us a demo on “wheel articulation” which measures travel of each wheel and influences the ability to keep the wheels in constant contact with uneven terrains. The extreme ascent and descent ramp was heart-in-mouth stuff for first timers. Driving up the steep incline, it's quiet unnerving the way road falls away from you. Nose pointing skywards, all you could see are the dark grey monsoon clouds. Equally astonishing is the case with which the Fortuner trots up the slope and gently rolls down the other side. This small demo was enough for us to whet the appetite for the full course.
Joseph Alex , Thomas George email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
TIP 2:GIVE YOUR SUV A THOROUGH CHECK UP BEFORE HEADING OUT.NO POINT IN, BEING STUCK MILES FROM HELP. Track was hard, Oh! No it was the toughest. The few ones had it quiet easy .The track was still fresh and there was plenty of grip under all the brown water that covered most of it. But with each passing vehicle, the ruts became chasms, the dirt got a little softer and water a little deeper.4WD “high” would work through most of it but as the day wore on, the track demanded you stay in ”low” with the DIFFERENTIAL*locked.
*Differential is a device, usually but not necessarily employing gears, capable of Transmitting torque and rotation through three shafts, almost always used in one of Two ways: in one way, it receives one input and provides two outputs this is found in most automobiles and in the other way, it combines two inputs to create an output that is the sum, difference, or average, of the inputs In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows each of the driving road wheels to rotate at different speeds. While for most vehicles supplying equal Torque, vehicle's wheels rotate at different speeds, mainly when turning corners. The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels with equal torque while allowing them to
rotate at different speeds. In vehicles without a differential, such as karts, both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. When cornering, the inner wheel needs to travel a shorter distance than the outer wheel, so with no differential, the result is the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging, and this results in difficult and unpredictable handling, damage to tires and roads, and strain on (or possible failure of) the entire drive train.
TIP3:PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE-IF IT LOOKS TOUGH, GET INTO 4WD LOW RANGE BEFORE YOU ATTEND THE STRETCH. Fortuner really does feel like, it can harm the rocks it is driving over. With its brilliant ground clearance, huge on/off-road tyres and ability to plough through anything, there's little chance you will get stuck. It has the great grunt to pull through the soft stuff, the APPROACH DEPARTURE ANGLE* that keep it's chin(& tail) off the ground and the best part is that it does all this with non chalance.
* Definition: An indication of the steepest incline angle, the vehicle can approach and drive up without encountering front bumper or undercarriage damage. (Fortuner with its massive torque has a 30 deg approach and 25 deg departure angles) Optimista 27
And then we get to it .A soft, soggy mud section dug up by other off roaders which were here the day before. That had left a high center line and deep wheel ruts on each side of the tail narrows, then climbs rather sharply and has three tight hair pin bends with huge rocks en route to navigate through .the Fortuner with its shift-on-the-fly 4WDsystem and monster torque climbs easily enough, but its sizeable length means the Hair-pins are three-point turns .The bursts of torque also make rock crawling a bit tricky as you have to be careful with, how much throttle u feed in. TIP 4:WHEN ATTACKING HILL SLOPES ,ALWAYS DRIVE STRAIGHT UP OR STRAIGHT DOWN.AS FAR AS POSSIBLE, TRY NOT TO DRIVE ACROSS A HILL SIDE AS THE CHANCE OF YOUR SUV ROLLING OVER IS MUCH HIGHER. And, just as we're thinking, we're through the trail and to relative safety. Our chosen path ends in a muddy pond with an uphill climb over rocks. We get out and walk through the cold water to gauge how deep it is, which. Turns out that all will make it through quite easily .The problem is the rock on the other side. It's slippery so we can't lose any momentum crossing the pond-the wet tyres simply won't find enough grip to haul us up the rock. The tyres simply won't have enough traction to have a
TOYOTA FORTUNER Price.................................1.9 million Engine..............................4cylinder inline, 2982cc, turbo diesel Power...............................171.3bhp Torque..............................34.98kgm at 1400-3400rpm Transmission......................5speed automatic Front suspension...............Double wishbone Rear suspension...............4link with coil spring Ground clearance...........221mm Kerb weight......................1955kg Offroad gear....................Fulltime 4wd,4wd low ratio transfer case, centre differential lock. 28 Optimista
hold, that's where the Traction Control System System** plays its role.
*A Traction Control System (TCS), also known as Anti-
Slip Regulation (ASR), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the anti-lock braking system on production vehicles, and is designed to prevent loss of traction of the driven road wheels, and therefore maintain the control of the vehicle when excessive throttle is applied by the driver and the condition of the road surface (due to varying factors) is unable to cope with the torque applied. The intervention can consist of one or more of the following: Reduces or suppress the spark to one or more cylinders Reduce fuel supply to one or more cylinders Brake one or more wheels Close the throttle, if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle In turbo charged vehicles, the boost control solenoid can be actuated to reduce boost and therefore engine power. Typically, the traction control system shares the electro-hydraulic brake actuator (but does not use the conventional master cylinder and servo), and the wheel speed sensors with the anti-lock braking system. .
TIP 6:STICK TO EASY OFFROAD TRAILS FIRST,GET A FEEL OF WHAT YOUR SUV CAN DO AND THEN ATTEND THE TOUGH STUFF BE PREPARED THE OCCUPANTS: Wear sturdy shoes, something you can lace up, because the last thing you want to do is lose your shoes when struggling through deep slush. Wear full length jeans, there are critters in the wild that will bite. Carry a pair of sturdy Gloves they will help when you want to dig the car out of dirt .carry shovels and a few sturdy wooden boards just in case you need to help your tyres find additional traction .also ,carry a basic medical kit. THE VEHICLES: Always be in the right gear for the right situation. For example, to lower a gear up a steep slope will result in you spinning the power away and running You could throw the two ton FORTUNER around out of vital momentum, and that's not good bends, catch its slow speed slides and feel the tyres claw into the soft track for the very last bit of traction. halfway up a slope, to high a gear as you will risk stalling the car midway through your climb. Most That big smile on our face rapidly turnsinto a look of horror!! When you come upon the pond. Not only we SUVs work well in 2nd or 3rdgear when the low have to drive through this “mini lake” but you have to range transfer case is engaged .Always hold the take a U turn in the middle! It's scary, the way the steering wheel only by the rim. The wheel could Fortuner sinks up to the grille, creating a huge wave kick back and the steering spokes could break as it moves along. Your first instinct is to back off but your fingers. A nice touch will be the that's the last thing you should do as you need the complimentary car wash at the end of the day, momentum to wade through. And, just as the Fortuner courtesy cars spa .Everyone left with a light heart, threatens to give up and then the tyres find grip and a lot of off-roading experience and a new found haul you out of what could be a very watery grave. respect for our SUVs. The best part is that we could get all our thrills at walking speeds .That in essence is, what off-roading is all about !
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.TIP5:KEEP YOUR MOMENTUM UP AS FAR AS POSSIBLE ESPECIALLY THROUGH THE SOFT BITS.
Abijith U email@example.com
he fascinating and mind-boggling world of machines and the ever increasing ultramodern gadgets present an endless source of delight and inspiration for a common man and more so for budding engineers like us. The sense of joy and wonder when you behold these techie stuffs are beyond comparison. The heart pulsates at the wonderful, novel and terrific designs of these devices and their working leaves us stunned, flabbergasted and breathless. Let us now venture into the entertaining and fabulous world of the enchanting ROVs, the robots of the sea. You might all be remembering the opening scene of the Oscar winning movie TITANIC in which a ROV is used to explore the inside of the ship wreck. An ROV is a remotely operated vehicle which is a robot that operates in response to commands given by a human operator or a computer from a distance utilizing the dynamic positioning system to the fullest. Most of the ROVs usually comprise of a frame, a control system, a propulsion system, a tether management system and some usually have an on board camera. For the\past 30 odd years, hundreds of ROVs across the globe have been doing task that 30 Optimista
divers can't, due to its ability to work at great depths with great accuracy. The ROVs are designed with careful planning that enables it to come out victorious in its battle with the natural forces. They will hover even in the strongest of currents and can automatically avoid obstacles out of the pilot's sight and monitor itself for structural integrity. It is also provided with the technology that helps it to know its position relative to the front end at all times. The lights, camera, imaging equipment are also specially designed to overcome the high pressure and intense cold conditions at large depths which ordinary ones are incapable of surviving. Their origin and history arouses one's curiosity. They were first put into use by the military in the 1980's in the offshore oil and gas industries. Since then designs have evolved and modern ROVs make use of higher resolution cameras, more sensitive sonar, and better manipulator arms and can be easily controlled from the surface using fiber optics communication systems. At present, under ideal weather conditions a properly maintained ROV can work for long shifts, sometimes a complete week, before being recovered.
Applications ROVs have opened up a whole new world of endless possibilities beneath the water bodies that, we could never have imagined in the wildest of our dreams. Thanks to this multi-purpose vehicle, we are now capable of exploring the previously unknown depths of the ocean in quest of new marine species, and other underwater resources. ROVs are equipped with modern gadgets to map sea floors, explore the ocean depths, and to locate shipwrecks. In Layman's language, it's actually an “Underwater Robot” that is used for many different underwater applications Underwater exploration and documentation, recoveries, inspection, search and rescue, trenching, cable burial and much more. An ROV is called a remotely operated underwater vehicle to distinguish it from remote control vehicles operating on land or in the air. They are unoccupied, highly maneuverable underwater robots usually operated by a person aboard a surface vessel. They are linked to the ship by means of cables that carry the electrical signals back and forth between the operator and the vehicle. ROVs had a significant role in repairing the heavy damage inflicted on subsea facilities during the drastic attack of hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the American coast in 2005.They also play a very
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important part in the development of offshore oil and gas reserves below ocean waters at a depth of 3to 4 kilometers or even to 6 kilometers in certain cases.
Important features #Thruster: enables the ROV to reposition and navigate itself. #Cameras and Hydrophones (Underwater microphones): helps the crew stationed at the control center to see (and in some cases hear) what is going on. #Various Sensors: ROVs can be equipped with various sensors such as water temperature sensors, depth sensors and sonar, depending on the application. #Manipulator arms: These are used to install and maintain equipment positioned on the ocean floor and to work on underwater portions of production platforms. These are commonly provided with “lobster claws” or “parallel closure jaws” for gripping objects and other tools, such as rotary cutting tools. #Digital communications link: It facilitates the control of vehicle functions by means of three continuous video channels. A continuously updated video display provides the machinist with compass heading, depth, thruster turn count, and other data, including optional temperature or GPS position. Navigation is accomplished via a gyro-stabilized, solid-state magnetic compass unit and an electronic depth sensor. Optimista 31
Types ROVs come in many different sizes and shapes to address the diverse demands they face. Small ROVs are as small as a bread box while the larger ones can be as large as a truck. Some ultra-heavy duty models weigh several tones and use250 hp motors to carry all this weight underwater. These are used for performing heavy duty construction jobs. ROVs have price tags ranging from a few thousands to several millions of dollars according to their capabilities and size. ROVs of 15 kilograms or less are used to examine the interior of pipelines and other small cavities or carry out tedious operations, such as checking ship hulls for terrorist devices. Larger ROVs put into use at depths down to 1,000 meters. They can carry sonar units to sound the sea- floor thereby identifying the best terrain that will support the underwater pipelines. Deployment and recovery operations range from simply dropping the ROV over the side of a small boat to complex deck operations that involve large winches for lifting and A-frames to swing the ROV back onto the deck. The manipulator arms to carry out various operations in work-class ROVs. The typical workclass ROV is built around an aluminum skeleton. It is furnished with electric motors and several propellers for maneuvering, with powerful searchlights to illuminate pitch-black depths, and with as many as eight cameras. Some may even contain mapping devices. Large ROVs can accommodate grasping claws that will lift and maneuver loads of as much as100 kilograms. Tool options include cutting wheels which can slice steel and high-pressure water jets.
FUTURE OF ROVs The future of the ROV is very wide and we need to develop more vehicles that could help explore the ocean wealth. I expect that one day they will help us to build structures that generate energy from deep-sea currents or from ocean temperature gradients. There will be days when they will be able to mine the ocean floors for minerals. In near future, ROVs will be able to put on to the seafloor to operate for six to eight months at a time. We know that Mount Everest is 32 Optimista
the tallest point on earth surface, but the deepest point on earth is over 11000 m more than that of the tallest point. Man has mastered the tallest of mountains, pierced the unfathomable skies and blasted the smallest of atoms but is yet to conquer the deepest oceans. The ROVs hold the key to the deep sea cavern in the pacific, the deepest place on our planet.
ROVs in INDIA We Indians are also taking part in excavation of the ocean floor, joining a selected club. We successfully deployed our first remotely operated unmanned submersible (ROV) on October 10th, 2010. It is necessary for observation and exploration of mineral wealth, in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. The Remotely Operable Vehicle (ROV), developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in association with the Russia-based Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering (EDBOE), will study poly-metallic nodules, a rich source of iron and manganese hydroxides, at a depth of nearly 6Kilometers. Thus, the developments of ROVs are very much essential for the development of our country and its vast resources. Let us make optimum use of the available resources to create a better tomorrow.
Ken Ken L
ike Sudoku, Ken Ken is also a puzzle that helps to test your puzzle acumen and improve math skill. It was invented by the Japanese math teacher, Tetsuya Miyamoto. The rules for playing Ken Ken are fairly simple:
!For a 6Ă—6 puzzle, fill in with the numbers 1-6. !Do not repeat a number in any row or column.
!The numbers in each heavily outlined set of squares, called cages must combine(in any order) to produce the target number in the top corner of the cage using the mathematical operation indicated. !Cages with just one box should be filled in with the target number in the top corner. !A number can be repeated within a cage as long as it is not in the same row or column.
Across 1. Tiny picture on the screen. 4. Extra copy of a document or program. 5. Get a file from another computer, across a network. 7. Tiny unit of information storage consisting of an on/off signal. 9. Temporary storage on chips. 12. Communicate with someone on another computer by typing rather than talking. 13. Millions of computers around the world connected by a network of networks. 15. Tiny dot of light on the screen. 17. A kind of memory, it holds files and programs only while you're using them. 18. Where a column and row intersect on a spreadsheet. 19. 8 bits. 22. Part of the Internet that has linked pages of pictures, sounds, video and text. ("You can find it on the _____.") 23. Software program that you use to explore the Web. 25. The parts of a computer system that you can touch. ("The computer is made up of software and ______________.") 26. Portable diskette that holds 1.4MB of data. 34 Optimista
Down 2. Also known as a processor, it's the chip that is the most important part of the computer. 3. "Takes a picture" of something and digitizes it. 6. A searchable, organized collection of information. 8. The programs that run on a computer. 9. Device that connects a computer to a network via a telephone line. 10. Tiny piece of silicon with electronic circuits; the CPU is one. 11. Line or shape on the screen that shows where the next character will go. 14. Document that organizes data in rows and columns of cells. 16. Bundle of wires that connects computer parts. 20. A way of counting using the numbers 0 and 1. 21. Website address. 24. Portable disk that stores about 650MB of "read only" information. (Usually written with a hyphen in it.)
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