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U - NEWS Alzheimer’s Disease What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Pag.7

Bethanny Hamilton Bethany Hamilton (8 February 1990) is an American surfer. She is best known for surviving a shark attack. Pag,2

To the reader

Sports: Biography of Bethany Hamilton, a story of courage Will read about her life, obstacles and opportunities to overcome

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Addictions: Types of addictions, disadvantage and possible treatment

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Child Exploitation: Read about some ways of child abuse, disadvantage for


the humanity and national organization against this abuse

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Effective Communication: importance, skills and manners to communicate effectively ….. Page 8 Health: What is Alzheimer Desease?

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Gluten: Posibles foods that contain, symptoms and importance to eat healthy

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Flow Charts: Importance, characteristics and describe this engineering tool

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Day of dead: Description of this custom, importance and rituals that represent

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Movies: Topics, film critic for experts

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Addictions: Importance of fighting and some types of addictions

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Written by Daniel Castro

Bethanny Hamilton, a story of courage (By Jenny Córdoba Córdoba))


Many times people have to face different circumstances during their life. These circumstances teach us that no matter how difficult the problem is, we ought to move forward. We can’t give up; we should keep our mind positive. This is the case of Bethany Hamilton, a professional surfer with only one arm. She has given a lesson of love, courage, and faith. Bethany liked surfing since she was a little girl. She was attacked by a shark. However, she never gave up; she continued loving surfing. She also had her family’s help, being a source of strength for her. They were an important support in her mental and physical recovery. Despite her inability to surf, Bethany always showed a courageous attitude. Regardless of how difficult surfing was, she made the decision to return. She had to face many obstacles after that, but she always maintained a positive mind. She showed her love for surfing which she never gave up, and she was always very optimistic. Another virtue that she had was her faith, not only in herself, but also in God. Bethany was an active Christian and sought advice in her religious community. As she herself said: “in spite of not understanding God’ s plan, she took it.” This allowed her to achieve her goal and become a professional surfer. This story helps us to see our life different. Sometimes we feel like we can’t do anything just because we are sick or with any physical disability. However, Bethany has taught us that everything we want could do it. It is important to keep this in mind, especially when we feel discouraged. Source: Movie Soul Surfer


ADDICTIO An addiction is a dependency on something that makes us think is good while keeping our mind busy. Addictions are very dangerous, especially when they are out of control and people can´t handle them; they become sicknesses, something that our body claims every day because gives us a sensation of comfort. This issue keeps us away from the reality and separated from our normal lifestyle. There are some modern addictions like social network as facebook or twitter, videogames, internet, cell phone and TV. All these are part of the top ten list, including shopping, sex, love and exercising. These ones have became a problematic issue for our society because they make people become slaves. One of the reasons why people get addicted is because they think they´re an escape from their problems. Another reason and, in my opinion the most common one is stress. According to experts, stress is a natural reaction to when our body demanding situations. Professionals think that people have addictions to avoid stress, and stop thinking of their problems. People can handle stress through different activities; however, it depends on the person. Some of these activities are: Listen to your body: our body reacts when is under stress, so we have to pay attention to all kind of reactions, In other words, know what our body is telling us. Taking time to ourself: we can spend time going to gym. It helps to release toxins or we also can listen to music, instrumental music is the most suggested. Another people use to practice some sports, for example soccer, tennis, etc. It is important to dedicate time to others, but it is extremely important to dedicate time to us. Socialize: spend time with our friends or family, expressing our feelings to them. It can create a good love atmosphere around us. Recreational activities: by dedicating time to do these activities can help us to get our mental and physical conditions better. We do not need a lot of money or a big space to recreate, even in our own house we can do recreational activities, as reading a book, cooking, painting, aerobics, etc. All these help to keep our mind busy and reduce stress. It is important to know how to detect an addiction; one of the most common sign is through our behavior, an addictive person behaves differently from those who do not have an addiction and the lifestyles begin to change. They usually spend a lot of time on their addiction, for example, facebook, watching T.V. or playing videogames. When people are addicted to drugs (cocaine or alcohol) their physical appearance and behavior change. On another hand, it is important to take into account that according to experts, there are many ways to treat addictions and overcame them, for example: •Admit and accept there is a problem, be willing and open to change. •Be part of a community club: sport team, or other kind of community. •Be part of a therapy program: like Alcoholic Anonymous. •Consult to experts and look advices to overcome them

Writing #1. Jenny Cordoba


Child exploitation is related to all kinds of forced or dangerous labor including, child traffic or child prostitution. Nowadays, many children are forced to work to help their family economically. In fact, children are hired by companies or factories because they are special capabilities than adult people don’ t have as tiny fingers or little hand that allow them to make specific jobs as assembling electronics devices in China or Korea. Child exploitation can be also related with sexual abuse. Many people are unaware of this problem and still think that exploitation on such a dramatic level has passed into the history, but unfortunately the reality is different. Types of child exploitation Nowadays there are many types of exploitation to children, for example: sexual abuse, child trafficking, and child prostitution. These kinds of abuses have been present in our society. Sexual Abuse: This is one of the most dangerous and common abuse against children. Unfortunately, children are exposed to this kind of mistreat even in their own family. There are many cases of children that are abused by their own parents or relatives. The consequences of sexual abuse are serious. In some cases children grow up with mental disorders and become problematic and conflicted people in the future. Another consequence is that children who were abused, keep the same pattern from their abuser and they follow the same pattern when they become adult abusing other people too. Child Trafficking: Is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the recruitment of a child for the purpose of exploitation. The trafficking of children has been internationally recognized as a major human rights violation which exists in every region of the world. One of the most common examples of child trafficking is children from Sierra Leone, Sudan, Congo and Liberia (African Continent) where they forced many children to join its ranks, and get trained to use weapons and kill people. Children are separated from their parents by force and taken to battlefields, most of them never return to their families.


Child Prostitution: Is a commercial sexual exploitation of children in which a child performs the services of prostitution, for financial benefit. The saddest thing about this is that in many cases even the same family forces the children to prostitute. These children are exposed to any danger of getting a disease or physical abuse committed on the spot. Some of these children have left home to escape from physical or sexual abuse. Unfortunately, many of them end up on the streets. Without legitimate means of support and a safe place to stay, they are often victimized again through pornography sexual exploitation, and drugs. Child exploitation is a reality that we must face; we are not exempt from this scourge and we must all raise awareness as this has been a significant loss of lives not only in our country but around the world. It is important not only to raise awareness of this problem, but also act. Fortunately, there are national and international organizations as the PANI (National Children's Board) in Costa Rica, UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund), an international institution, which have maintained a strong fight against this problem. UNICEF focuses on the critical impact social and economic policy issues have on children. This organization and its partners are leading global efforts to end preventable child deaths, working with governments, national and international agencies, and civil society to support effective and life-saving actions at each phase in a child’s life (from prenatal care in a mother’s pregnancy to effective and affordable health care through childhood and into adulthood) However, we must not become complacent. We can also make a difference in many ways: by making donations to these institutions, raising more conscience, denouncing any abuse by neighbors or acquaintances. Remember that today's children are tomorrow's future and that future will become our future society, do not let it deteriorate. Writing #2. Jenny Cordoba

Effective communication helps us better understand a person or




situation, enables us to resolve differences, built trust and respect, and creates a good labor atmosphere. When we communicate our ideas we accomplish our goals; when we communicate our ideas in a clear way is very easy for others persons to understand what we want to communicate, we maximize the possibility of getting a good feedback and avoid wasting time explaining our message again. In business, it is necessary even mandatory to clearly express our ideas and objectives; there are some secrets to have an effective communication or conversation with customers. People normally define communication as the technique used to express thoughts, feelings and needs either by talking, writing or using our body language; however, most of the time listening is more important than speaking or any other way of expression. And this takes us to the first communication secret which is ¨ask the right questions¨; this way helps us to understand the other person´s needs and gather as much information as possible in order to be able to move forward to the next secrete that is ¨communicate professionally¨. This skill is extremely important when closing deals and contracts because allows people be more convinced. Our last advice is speaking paused and listens. This technique allows people o get better feedback. Another important part of communication is body language; it can constitute 50% or more of what we are expressing in a face to face conversation. It is mandatory to know how to properly use it when speaking to customers, but it is even more important to understand the other party´s language. Nowadays with the internet boom, there are many ways to communicate with others; we have so many resources and channels like email, social media, web chatting, and video conferences among others that it is impossible not to express our ideas effectively. In sum, it is impossible to survive in our world if we cannot communicate our needs to others, not only in business but in every single activity we perform. Writing# 3. Jenny Cordoba

Avoiding Alzheimer’s Disease


What is Alzheimer’s Disease? According to the Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer is a disease of the brain that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. It is not a normal part of aging. It gets worse over timer. Although symptoms can vary widely, the first problem many people notice is forgetfulness severe enough to affect their ability to function at home or at work, or to enjoy lifelong hobbies. It is important to consider that is not just about forgetting things, activities or even people, the specific problem about this disease is that the brain stops sending information to the different organs of the body, so they will not work properly or they will stop their function completely. Many people worry about becoming more forgetful as they grow older. The brain change as we age, just like the rest of our bodies. Most of us may experience that memory is slowed and also will have some problems trying to remember certain things. However, serious memory loss, confusion, and other major changes in the way our minds work are not a typical part of aging. Many conditions can affect memory and mental function. Symptoms may improve when the main cause is treated. When a person is experiencing significant memory problems should see a doctor as soon as possible. Methods for early diagnosis are improving dramatically, and treatment options and sources of support can improve quality of life. An early diagnosis helps individuals receive treatment for symptoms and get access to programs and support services. It may also allow them to take part in decisions about care, living arrangements, money and legal aspects.


Ten Warning signs of Alzheimer’s Disease Memory loss that disrupts daily life Changing in planning or solving problems Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure Confusion with time or place Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships New problems with words in speaking or writing Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps Withdrawal from work or social activities Changes in mood and personality Decreased or poor judgment The most important task we may consider for avoiding this disease is to keep our brain working so the neurons will keep making connections among them. Activities such as reading, practicing memory games, changing things from its original places, allows our brain to exercise and diminish the Alzheimer’s symptoms or even the disease. Thougly written by Diana Rivera


Then I will talk about the Glutten that’s a protein present in many aliments and is very common consume it. This


protein can produce digestives problems inclusive death.


is found in the seeds of many cereals, and danger is


To describe the gluten may be mentioned that this protein therefore present in many foods that we consume daily, it is important to note that wheat is made up almost 80% gluten, and wheat is a commodity to produce bread, crackers and other foods that are the daily diet. When a person who is intolerant to gluten consumes this protein it produces problems originating in the small intestine, that problem is really uncontrollable and can origin the death. One of the discomforts that gluten can trigger in the body is that it allow the body to absorb the nutrients from food causing malnutrition In Costa Rica, we have a population of about ten thousand people with this disease, as well as the United States has approximately 2 million people with this condition. The European Union has designated a number of checks to certify food sold to people and has included in the packaged foods that indicate some images which gluten – free Although currently there is no specific treatment for this condition, when a person stop eating food with gluten, the body begins to replace itself and work normally. In Costa Rica has developed a factory where they produce gluten-free foods, in addition to this in some supermarkets and there is a line of gluten-free products include why we are working to seek improvements in society and it is important to have people who are care about healthy eating alternatives which bring many benefits. Writing#1. Daniel Castro



Most people have trouble trying to give an explanation of something since it is easy for instructions to get misunderstood or even forgot what you were going to say along the way. This is why flow charts are so useful. Flow charts show step-by-step a process so people can see quickly what they need to do. Standards symbols are used for certain actions so that people can understand what they need to do for each step of the process. Most flow charts are made of easy main shapes: First shape is an elongated circle which means the start or the end of a process. The next shape is a rectangle which signifies instructions or the actions. The other main shape in flow charts is the diamond which represents when decisions need to be made. All these symbols are connected to each other by arrows which show the flow of the process from one step to the next.There are many shapes people can use in their flow charts but since the purpose of them is to communicate and if a person uses a lot of these shapes people might get confused. Before creating a flow chart, brainstorm every step or decision must be made in order to complete the process successfully. Importantly, a flow chart is a tool that guide us through the different processes in a standard, always seeking to create fluid processes and profitable for all businesses In many companies have put in place a flow charts because this tool provides many benefits, especially when anybody need learn any process is more easy teach with drawings and colors that start to read a boring book. Some benefits that this tool offers: They promote understanding of the process to show it as a picture A good flow chart replaces several pages of text It can identify problems and opportunities for process improvement. They are an excellent tool for training new employees and those who develop the task, when making process improvements.


In many companies have put in place a flow charts because this tool provides many benefits, especially when anybody need learn any process is more easy teach with drawings and colors that start to read a boring book. Some benefits that this tool offers: They promote understanding of the process to show it as a picture A good flow chart replaces several pages of text It can identify problems and opportunities for process improvement. They are an excellent tool for training new employees and those who develop the task, when making process improvements.

C H A R T S Writing #2. Daniel Castro Sources:


Day of the Dead is a Mexican tradition. This tradition highlights the belief of Mexican people in life after death. For them death is a door that releases them to another world that exist beyond ours and they also celebrate this fact by honoring their dead relatives. This tradition is celebrated on November 2nd. For Mexicans, death and dying is not the end of life. It is a passage through which a human soul enters a new, more sublime life. Origin The Day of the Dead comes from the indigenous culture that made rituals to celebrate the deaths of ancestors. In the prehispanic area skulls were commonly kept as trophies and displayed during the rituals to symbolize death and rebirth.


Celebrations Day of the Dead has been a part of the Mexican culture for over 3000 years now. Depending upon the region, the details of the celebrations differ. Nevertheless the spirit of honoring the dead remains the same. Another important aspect of the Aztec culture that is still preserved is the use of human skull. The Aztecs and other Meso-American civilizations used skulls to honor the dead. Today people wear wooden skull masks known as calacas that have become a symbol of the celebration, and dance in honor of those that are gone People visit the graves of their relatives. They clean and decorate the graves with offerings and flowers that are supposed to attract the souls. Offerings include favorite candies of the deceased relatives. If the dead are children, toys are taken to their graves. Adults are offered bottles of tequila. All these offerings support the belief in life after death of the Mexican people. Mexicans believe that their dead relatives will visit them during this festival and preparations for gifts and offering for the souls span almost over the entire year. Private altars are also erected in the cemeteries where the favorite food and drinks of the dead relative are placed. The altars are decorated with photos and memories of the dead. Altars are also made at home and decorated with objects that a deceased relative liked. Other than the wooden masks, foods like sugar or chocolate skulls and type of sweet egg bread made in the shape of skulls and rabbits are symbols of the festival. Writing #3. Daniel Castro



The Blind Side is a movie that conveys a message that dreams can be fulfilled and everything in life is possible, if you want.This film is based on the story of young Michael Oher, who is a boy who lives in a state of very low socio-economic, where poverty abounds, violence, and bad attitudes. For most of his childhood, 17 year old Michael has been in foster care with different families in different places, but every time he is placed in a new home, he runs away for fear of what he suffered in his childhood. After spending so much suffering Michael arrives at a new school, where his physical support it despite being a young man with a past like his. At his new school, Michael is befriended by a boy named Sean Jr. "SJ". The mother of Sean, Leigh Anne Tuohy is a strong minded interior designer and the wife of wealthy businessman Sean Tuohy. When Anne went to his house he met Michael walking on the road, shivering in the cold; when she learns he intends to spend the night huddled outside the school gym, she offers him a place to sleep at her house. The next morning, when she sees Michael leaving, she asks him to spend the Thanksgiving holiday with her family. Slowly, Michael becomes a member of the Tuohy family. After his grades improve, Michael is allowed to join the school football team. He has a shaky start due to his polite and gentle nature, yet after some encouragement by Leigh Anne to tap into his "protective instincts" and regard his teammates as he would members of his family, Michael dominates on the field. SJ sends out videos of the games to college coaches around the country. Leigh Anne discovers that to get a Division I scholarship, Michael needs a 2.5 GPA, so they hire a tutor. Some of the teachers help out as well, and Michael ends up with a GPA of 2.52. Despite all the contempt that Michael suffered at school and many femilias, finally managed to overcome and live with this new family achieve all your goals and desires, coming to college he wanted. The message we leave this film is that we should not turn anyone away for social status, his past or his appearances. And fight for our dreams. Written by Mariana Chavarria


Technology is an excellent tool to communicate at work, to business, and to create or keep relationships. People are now surrounded by internet, cell phones, MP3 players, iPods and other distractions. They are used by people of all ages and social classes. Unfortunately, the influence caused by this technology may produce addiction, this happens when you cannot live without something. The real problem is that people do not think, waste their time, and lose their creativity, innovation and productivity. Most new addictions have come out recently Alcohol Addiction, smoking, Drug Addiction, Gambling, Food Addiction, Video Games, Internet Addiction, Sex Addiction, Shopping and Work Addiction Some people do not use their mental abilities since they can get everything with her or his addiction. People who are addicted not reasoning, since everything is given. People become addicts maybe are very depress, and stress or have a long time and spend it in some distraction, and this distraction could become an addiction. Many people suffer from the new disease “Stress”. That is the century disease and is very dangerous for your health because many researches says stress can cause cancer. When you have stress you feel frustrated. Can be many factors like: work, university, friends, relationship, maybe also you don´t have time to do everything you need to do. If you are an addiction, and if you leave that, the best form first is accepted you are an addict. Then you can start practicing others activities like: soccer, have good friends and out with them, enjoy your family, if is necessary you can go to a psychologist for help. You do not have to be afraid, always is possible out of an addiction. God made the world to enjoy it, and we often do not see the beauties of the universe. I think the unique good addiction is that of spending time seeing the wonders of God. I know both work and study are necessary, but you have to treat be happy in harmony and not frustrated whit something you only consume.

Writing#1. Mariana Chavarria


The Ramadan is the ninth month of Islamic calendar, internationally known as the month in which Muslims for their faith and their beliefs fast from the sunrise until sunset. In this period the people can’t drink, eat or have sex. This tradition born in the year 610 and began when Allah revealed the first verses of the Koran to Mohammed the ninth lunar month of the Muslim calendar. The elderly, travelers, pregnant or sick people may break the fast and make up later in the year with other days. If they cannot, they must feed a person in need, for every day of fasting that they lost. Young people begin to fast from puberty, although some choose to do so even earlier. Each night, the fast is broken with iftar that is a light meal. Many Muslims also get up early for breakfast (suhoor) before the start of the period of fasting. When the fast begins, anyone who tries to fast should express publicly or privately their intention to do, with the words: “I try to fasting today for love to Allah. O Allah let me it easy and accept my fast When approaching the moment of breaking the fast at sunset, Muslims say, "O Allah, for You I have fasted, in you I have believed, I trust in you and in your lunch I break my fast." Fasting is not merely to refrain from ingestion of food and drink, but also involves eliminating negative and immoral behavior and show solidarity with those who have some need. The purpose of fasting according with Koran, the sacred book of Muslims, is to help to acquire self-control and make them more aware of God. Ramadan is a month of spiritual growth and increased social responsibility. Compliance with the Muslim religious obligations during this month gets a reward 70 times higher than the rest of the year.

Writing#2. Mariana Chavarria


In many cases people seek care from a dentist when they know that they have problems in their mouth, for example, periodontal diseases. This disease begins with gingivitis that is an inflammation of the gums, characterized by a change of the normal pink color of the gums. Gums turned into red and are accompanied by swelling, bleeding. When gingivitis is not treated properly it may turn into periodontitis which is an infection of the gums, periodontal ligament and bone supporting. The main cause of periodontal disease is the bad oral hygiene, this happens when the bacterial plaque that is sticky, colorless, constantly forms on teeth. For this reason the oral hygiene it’s important. Periodontal diseases symptoms when starting •Swollen • Inflamed gums •Shining gums •Red gums


Symptoms when the disease is far advanced •Bloody gums when brushing or flossing • Sensitive gums to the touch •Sometimes can be insensitive to pain •Halitosis ( Bad breath) , sometimes even after brushing your teeth It is important to know that if periodontal disease left untreated the symptoms will gradually increase and can lead to tooth loss. The main factors of this disease are poor oral hygiene, use of snuff, systemic diseases such as diabetes and leukemia, certain medications such as steroids, anticonvulsants and oral contraceptives, pregnancy, poor nutrition, decreased immunity and restores . Over 70% of the population suffers from periodontal disease in their lives, gingivitis or periodontitis either by poor oral hygiene. The reason why we chose this topic is because many people do not give much importance to oral hygiene many people do not give much importance to oral hygiene. Most of us do not the problems that can cause. We think that if people read this poster they can become aware of their oral health. People need take more seriously their oral health, and visit the dentist often, not only when there are a problem. Writing #3. Mariana Chavarria

Paul Fotek, DMD, Florida Institute for Periodontics & Dental lmplants, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. American Academy of Periodontology. 737 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611

There are two things to aim at in life; first to get what you want, and after that to enjoy it. Only the wisest of mankind has achieved the second. Logan Pearsall Smith

Designers: Diana Rivera Mariana Chavarr铆a Jenny C贸rdoba Daniel Castro



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