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emergent voices








nt voices



key terms


AUTONOMY(PERTAINING TO LEGAL MINORS) The capacity to display cognitive ability, whilst fulfilling the criteria of autonomous agency appropriate to the age of the individual (Dryden, J. n.d) CREATIVITY The capacity to imagine, conceive, express, or make something that was not there before (Arts Council England and Durham University. 2019) CREATIVE INDUSTRIES Industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property ( 2001) The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport categorise the creative industries according to the following sub-sectors: Advertising and Marketing, Architecture, Crafts, Design and Designer Fashion, Film, TV,

Video, Radio and Photography, IT, Software and Computer Services, Publishing; Museums, Galleries and Libraries and; Music, Performing and Visual Arts (Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. 2018) CREATIVE PLACEMAKING Connecting and leveraging the role of arts and culture in society, for collective or individual enjoyment, in order to build community confidence, or establish pride in local identity (Arts Council England and Durham University. 2019) CULTURAL CAPITAL An embodied familiarity and knowledge of a range culture, categorised by the ability to deploy appropriate knowledge in any given situation (Cultural Learning Alliance. 2019 B) CULTURAL SECTOR The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport have defined the Cultural Sector as those industries with a cultural object at the centre of the industry. It includes the following sub-sectors: Arts; Film, TV, and Music; Radio, Photography, Crafts, Museums and Galleries; Library and Archives; Cultural Education; and Operation of Historic Buildings and Similar Visitor Attractions (Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. 2018)

DIVERGENT THINKING Divergent thinking is the methodology for developing creative ideas, by exploring and recording as many options as possible without judgement (Mrochuk, A. 2016) INTERDISCIPLINARY Integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines, using a real synthesis of approaches (Jensenius, A.R 2012) MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a motivational theory in psychology, comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid (McLeod, S. 2018) SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY A theory of motivation that specifically defines the motives that fuel people’s behaviour. It also defines how psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence, as well as one’s social environment, can support or undermine motivation (University of Rochester Medical Centre. 2019)



10 14 16 20 36 50 70 74



In 2010 the UK Government introduced the English Baccalaureate, hereafter referred to as the EBacc. Originally intended as a school performance indicator, which recognised student ‘achievements across a core of selected academic subjects’, the Ebacc considered ‘English, mathematics, sciences, a language and a humanities subject’ (Secretary of State. 2010) to be a broad range, that promoted academic aspiration in schools. In 2019 the Ebacc is still being promoted by the government as ‘a set of subjects at GCSE that keeps young people’s options open for further study and future careers’ (Department of Education. 2019), however drastically different opinions from creative and cultural industry leaders, condemn the Ebacc for damaging ‘creative and artistic education in our schools’ (Bacc For The Future. 2019 A).

10 | introduction

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Vice President & Vice-Principal and Senior Advisory Fellow for Culture at King’s College London, Baroness Deborah Bull, says that ‘art is squeezed out of education for 93% of the population’ (Baroness Bull. 2019); this staggering figure arises as the number of teachers, teaching hours and uptake of creative subjects at GCSE in the UK are in decline (Cultural Learning Alliance. 2019). Given the conflicting discourse surrounding the Ebacc in its current state, I aimed to uncover the extent to which students and parents were aware of its personal impact, as well as the potential future implications of a lack of validated creative education and equal opportunities in schools nationwide.

12 | introduction

Fig 1. Ron Clark (2019) Founder of the pioneering ‘The Ron Clark Academy’ and Global Teacher Award winner Ron Clark is pictured here teaching math at his not-for-profit middle school in Atlanta, USA

| 13


Youth in 2019 are increasingly politically and socially curious (Friend, H. 2019); at a time when Brexit’s political discourse has the power to shape their futures ( 2017), the government and the Department for Education should be prioritising creative arts education for young people, not discounting its importance and positive impact on mental health issues (Baroness McIntosh of Hudnall. 2019), which remain at the forefront of developing minds (McCabe, B. 2016). Fortunately, as Sir Nicholas Serota, Chair of Arts Council England observes, there is ‘a very steady increase in the place of arts and culture in the economy as a whole’ (Brown, M. 2019). With creative industries accelerating faster than the rest of the UK economy, there is ample opportunity to fortify the UK’s position as a world leader for arts education (McCabe, B. 2016) and prevent future students from being limited by, or pushed into studying subjects ‘that make the school look good’ rather than enhancing their education ( 2019). If the UK government offers more support to the creative industries which ‘nurture and develop the next generation’, thereby encouraging a larger ‘more diverse range of talent entering a broader range of creative jobs’ (Farrer, S. 2018), the UK would be well positioned to compete in the current climate of accelerated globalisation, ahead of the impending automation boom (Cultural Learning Alliance. 2018 B).

14 | rationale

Fig 2. Stormzy on the Pyramid Stage at Glastonbury 2019 (2019) Croydon born rapper Stormzy headlines an explosive set on Glastonbury’s infamous Pyramid stage

| 15


I undertook a mixed methods approach to gather research which produced a range of primary insights relating to the impact of the Ebacc and creative industries education in the UK; whilst also delivering new foresights from which further research into divergent areas can be undertaken. • Quantitative

data was harvested from an array from reports, online articles and research studies (see annotated bibliography). The findings contextualised the impact of the Ebacc, alongside the economic contribution and status of creative industries in the UK

• A

range of online and offline articles, books, journals and digital media sources accounted for secondary research, which contextualised the findings

• Case

studies supported the development of foresights and served to qualify ideas that arose throughout the research journey (see appendix 6)

• Primary insights were gleaned from young people and parents through observation

at events (see appendix 3.5 & 9), informal interviews and vox pops carried out over a period of 12 weeks (07 August 2019 - 01 November 2019). The informality of these exchanges allowed the subjects to deliver unfiltered responses, which improved the empirical understanding of the data and built greater empathy for the demographic

16 | methods

Fig 3. The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter Exhibition (2019) ‘The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter’ is an exhibition at the Science Museum that explores the interplay between social developments and scientific progress over time

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• Formal

interviews were conducted in person with students (aged 9 to 15) and parents, as well as with creative industry professionals and education practitioners (see appendix 13). All interviews were conducted in line with University of the Arts London’s (UAL) ethical research policy

• Each

interview was transcribed using Intelligent Verbatim Transcription techniques (Isaac, 2015) and explored a set of core questions (see appendix 11)

• Visual

analysis of mixed media resources was conducted in order to deepen understanding of the material offering for young people aged 13 - 18 years old (see appendices 3-5)

18 | methods

Fig 4-6. Post-16 Prospectus 1, 3 & 10 (2019) The Croydon Council youth service produces this Post-16 prospectus, which is comprised of impartial advice and guidance, surrounding further study and careers after year 11

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insight one

Year 9 students need wa autonomously discover, e in activities with profession creatives because schools the reality of life as a creat nor the full scope of in varied interdiscipl

20 | insights






ays to authentically and experience and partake nal and non-professional s are not communicating tive industry practitioner, ndividual and uniquely linary pathways

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exploration x excavatio Recurring themes throughout this research project have been greater autonomy for young people, youth empowerment, access to creativity and authenticity. The first instance of an“autonomous� educational decision for UK students occurs in year 9, when GCSE options are presented. It is at pivotal moments such as this that young people especially want to feel that their actions, choices and opinions are of value (see appendix 13.1) and that the adults around them consider the full impact of their decisions over their lives. As society cycles through a fourth industrial revolution, it is crucial that the next generation of interdisciplinary thinkers (Arts Council England and Durham University. 2019) are equipped to navigate a reality yet unknown to us. Creativity is the key.

22 | insights | insight one: exploration x excavation



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insight two


Year 9 students need high relatable and impartial ca with appealing aesthetic student career materials a wastefully produced a constructive peer to p

24 | insights







h quality, contemporary, areers advice, delivered c sensibilities because are generic, impersonal, and do not facilitate peer communication

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aesthetic x design


Each interview uncovered new levels of dissatisfaction with the way creative education and career prospects are being delivered in schools. Tedious enterprise days (see appendix 13.3) are being supplemented with objectionable ephemera (see appendix 5), which further highlighted the aspirational disconnect between creative and cultural industries, education institutions and vitally, the students themselves. Without adequate opportunities to engender diverse communication (Becko, L. 2015), the student voice is silenced.

26 | insights | insight two: aesthetic x design

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insight thre e

Year 9 students need a that offer equal benefits counterparts in city centre the majority of highly v cultural activitie

28 | insights






access to local spaces s and appeal to their es because that is where valued and respected es are based

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provenance x locality The UK creative industries contribute over £101 billion a year to the economy (CBI. 2019), yet in 2019 the cultural value of the nation is still determined by a collection of exclusive London postcodes. For young people, ‘culture is linked closely to their environment’ (Becko, L. 2015) so in order for cultural capital to be equally distributed across communities, ‘provisions should exist for everyone to locally explore their creative interests’ (see appendix 13.4).

30 | insights | insight three: provenance x locality

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insight four


Year 9 students need a free creative provisions regardless of any persona that currently restrict them f

32 | insights



Y x




an extensive range of s that are accessible, al, or financial limitations from the existing offering

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equality x economy

The Ebacc school performance measure is representative of the ‘government pursuing creative education policies that actually exacerbate inequality’ (Norris, R. 2018), which is re-widening the gap between social classes. If more provisions are made available at local levels (Becko, L. 2015) and efforts are made to meet all needs, not just those of the most disenfranchised, then all children and young people could feel free to explore a range of activities, with nothing preventing them from ‘accessing what should be available in their communities’ as a standard (see appendix 14).

34 | insights | insight four: equality x economy

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Illuminating the needs of young people in the context of creative direction for fashion is an exciting and charged prospect. Not only could young people be empowered in new, autonomous ways of communication, they could also be more readily exposed to and given practical skills, that will better prepare them for a future reality yet unknown. By narrowing the research area to the impact of the Ebacc and the ways that young people engage with creative industries, I was able to identify several tension points. I discovered that whilst many provisions are on offer at local and national levels in the UK (Arts Emergency. 2019), the target demographic which is primarily students and their parents, are largely unaware they even exist (Becko, L. 2015). In addition, the offering is not diverse enough to meet the needs of far too many young people who want to ‘direct their own vision’ (Becko, L. 2015) for their futures, let alone those who are already proactively seeking out creative industry engagement and counsel, only to find they are ‘too young’ (see appendix 13.5) to participate. There is undoubtedly an opportunity to address these unmet needs and equip young people with discernible, disruptive voices, that declare they are more than the sum of archaic league table standings. Perhaps the most compelling research finding is that there is now cogent reason to believe that any communication outcome that places these ideas at the crux, has the potential to revolutionise the relationship between young people and the UK creative industries.

36 | foresights

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foresight one

How might we facilitate a young pe and non-professional interdisciplina

foresight two

How might we deliver high qua impartial careers advice, with demo communication at the forefront of d

foresight three

How might we flexibly, inexpensi local creative spaces and provisio culturally diverse community? 38 | foresights

erson’s direct access to professional ary practitioners and their practice?

ality, contemporary, relatable and ographic sensibility and peer to peer design?


ively and safely widen access to ons, whilst strengthening Croydon’s

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Potential responses to these foresights might include: • A

mixed media collaboration with the ‘Bacc For The Future’ campaign (Bacc For The Future. (2019 A)

• A

demographically targeted publication created in collaboration with schools, cultural and creative partners

• A

specialist-staffed open access studio space (See appendix 13.2)

• A

software application that facilitates connectivity between local businesses, physical spaces and users; that leverages skills as currency

• A

communication platform that safely allows students to communicate across sites, schools and peer groups

• A

project in collaboration with ‘Croydon Creative Campus’ (see appendix 6) that places young people at the heart of future developments in the town

40 | foresights

Fig 7. Croydon Creative Campus Brochure 2 (2019) ‘Croydon Creative Campus’ is a vision of Croydon from cultural placemaking agency, Futurecity

| 41

As a Croydon resident I have a vested interest in local creative and cultural provisions. I empathise with the students who actively seek more ‘ways to learn about courses and things you actually do at college and university’ (see appendix 13.5) because I experienced the frustration over the poor quality and general lack of information first hand as a pupil at a Croydon school during the early 2000s. To deepen my empathy and contextualise my understanding of the youth demographic further, I developed 6 user personas that represent a small, diverse cross section of Croydon society. Each persona is motivated by different needs (University of Rochester Medical Centre. 2019); some are directly related to the creative industries, whilst others share realistic tenuous links (Snell, R. 2019).

42 | foresights

Figures on overleaf Fig 8. Emily Louise Johnson User Persona. (2019) Fig 9. India Sanchia Powell User Persona. (2019) Fig 10. Priyanka Shah User Persona. (2019) Fig 11. Kyle James Murray User Persona. (2019) Fig 12. Shakil Masood User Persona. (2019) Fig 13. Matthew Lloyd Carty User Persona. (2019)

| 43


P ri y



, 13 y l i m

Shakil, 13

44 | foresights: user personas



4 1 , ka

n youth Indi


, 13 w e h t at



, 13 e l y K

| 45

As a student, creative industry practitioner and purveyor of the arts, I think it is of paramount importance to regularly and vigorously appraise the way creativity is delivered in education systems. Through continued interdisciplinary creative practice and ongoing research, I intend to enrich my creative start-up enterprise with these findings and use them to foster stronger relationships with schools and educational governing bodies; in order to extend the scope of opportunities for young people in Croydon, closely followed by applications nationwide and internationally.

46 | foresights




tc iv

s r e n t r a eP

Prospective Partners Fig 14. A New Direction Logo (2019) Fig 15. OMY Logo (2019) Fig 16. Bacc For The Future Magenta Logo (2019) Fig 17. Young Croydon Logo (2019) Fig 18. Futurecity Logo (2019)

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48 |

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y ’r ea



y a ll no

at t th

ba y ou s ic if don’t have them



(see ap

pe n

dix 13. 2)

| 49


50 | annotated bibliography

nnotated bibliography

A. Appadurai et al. (2011) ‘Interviewing, Power/Knowledge, and Social Inequality’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 494-506. Available at: https://methods. (Accessed: 07 July 2019) A New Direction. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 21 October 2019) A New Direction is a London based not-for-profit organisation that launched in October 2008 (Charity number: 1126216) and brings together local authorities, schools, businesses and cultural venues across London to campaign for children and young people. Strategising better policies, organising events and facilitating relationships between mentors and young people are some of the ways they help to unlock creativity locally. The team comprises of a diverse group of individuals who share the vision of bringing arts and culture to all young people and children. A New Direction is an example of how meaningful relationships can be formed between creative industries and communities. Thinking prospectively, their model could be adopted for similar enterprises that wish to tap into the younger demographic. Ackroyd, N, Emin, T, Perry, G et al. (2018) British Artists: Ebacc Will Damage Creativity and Selfexpression Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Through an open letter to the UK government on 08 May 2018, 104 artists came together to express concerns over the Ebacc’s exclusion of arts and creative subjects. These artists and creatives represent a wide range of disciplines that contribute to and support the UK creative industries. This article addresses the need to value arts education and its provisions in schools. It is in direct opposition to the roll-out of the Ebacc and unpacks the negative impact the adoption of the school performance measure has on the development of imagination, sociability, expression and creativity. These ideas are echoed throughout my research findings, insights and foresights. (See Appendix 7 for full list of artist names) Adegoke, Y. (2019) Our Hobbies Must Be Protected from the Culture of the Side-Hustle Available at: 0I (Accessed: 15 July 2019)

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Al-Khair Schools. (2019) Available at: All Things Massiah. (2019) Available at: HOW I GOT ALL 9s IN MY GCSEs | Everything I Did To Get Top Marks In My Exams (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Annetts, D. (2018) Arts Risk Becoming The Preserve Of The Elite Once Again Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Antaki. C et al. (2011) ‘Ethnomethodological Analyses of Interviews’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 395-412. Available at: https://methods.sagepub. com/base/download/BookChapter/inside-interviewing/n19.xml (Accessed: 07 July 2019)   Arts Council England and Durham University. (2019) Durham Commission on Creativity and Education Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) The Durham Commission is chaired by Sir Nicholas Serota, Chair of Arts Council England and was established to review and evaluate how education systems, primarily the UK, can expand children’s creative capacities. Looking at how the world values and experiences creativity, this report was developed by communicating and collaborating with industry practitioners across the arts, education, politics and science.  Unpacking fascinating statistics in relation to creative industries and crucially taking the challenge to define creativity, the report also presents a vision for a more inclusive creative education. By directing recommendations to the Arts Council England, BBC, Department for Education (DfE), Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education, Local Cultural Education Partnerships (LCEPs) Ofsted, Ofqual and Nesta, the Durham Commission have presented a road map for strategic developers, fundraisers and researchers like myself to confidently follow. This report was published 15 October 2019. (See Appendix 8 for full list of commissioners names) Arts Emergency. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 20 October 2019) Arts Emergency is a mentoring charity and network. They strive to help young people gain access and find success in higher education, the creative and cultural industries. With over 7,000 creative and cultural industry professionals making up the network, Arts Emergency provides free cultural activities, mentoring opportunities and work experience to young people across London, Greater Manchester and Kent. Arts Emergency was founded in Hackney, East London, by award-winning British comedian Josie Long and campaigner Neil Griffiths in 2011. Arts Emergency evidences that grassroots projects in local areas can expand and provide support and guidance to wider audiences through community care, involvement and financial investment. B. Allen. et al. (2011) ‘Analytic Strategies for Oral History Interviews’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 347-367. Available at: base/download/BookChapter/inside-interviewing/n17.xml (Accessed: 07 July 2019) Bacc For The Future. (2019) A. Bacc For The Future Available at: (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Bacc For The Future was launched on 15 October 2012 and is a campaign to protect creative subjects in secondary schools in England. Founded by Deborah Annetts, Chief Executive of Incorporated Society of Musicians, Bacc For The Future is supported

52 | annotated bibliography

by over 200 education bodies, plus creative businesses and organisations. The campaign provides materials for supporters to join the plight for eliminating the Ebacc altogether or updating it to include “arts” as a sixth pillar. Proactivity at local levels is supported by the up to date research and downloadable resources through the social media channels and website. The Bacc For The Future campaign highlights the extent to which the creative and cultural industries are in opposition to the Ebacc and formulates an approach to challenge it. B. Fresh Evidence Cite the EBacc as Cause of Decline of Arts in Schools Available at: https:// (Accessed: 25 October 2019) This news update from the Bacc For The Future campaign was uploaded on 24 October 2019 and presents reports from the Durham Commission (Durham University and Arts Council England collaboration) on creativity and education, alongside the Confederation of British Industry’s (CBI) report on the cultural and economic value of UK creative industries. The Bacc For The Future founder Deborah Annetts, Chief Executive of Incorporated Society of Musicians, comments on the evidence and brings to light Liberal Democrat Lords Spokesperson (Education), Lord Storey’s critique of the Ebacc at the 22 October 2019 House of Lords debate. The House of Lords debate brings forth and contextualises parliamentary opinions of the Ebacc which were previously unexplored in my research. Bakshi, H. (2014) Measuring The Creative Industries Available at: https://creativeconomy. (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Baroness Blackwood of North Oxford The Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Health and Social Care Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Baroness Bull (2019) Crossbench Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Baroness Garden of Frognal (2019) Deputy Chairman of Committees, Deputy Speaker (Lords) Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Baroness Massey of Darwen (2019) Labour Available at: lords/?id=2019-10-22a.495.0#g502.0 (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Baroness McIntosh of Hudnall (2019) Deputy Chairman of Committees, Deputy Speaker (Lords) Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) (2019) A. 10 Charts On What Happens After GCSEs Available at: education-49249684 (Accessed: 17 September 2019) B. BTEC Nationals: Who Are the Students Who Didn’t Just Do A-Levels? Available at: https:// (Accessed: 17 September 2019)

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C. GCSEs 2019: Where Are We At With the New Grades 9-1? Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) D. What Are School League Tables and Why Do They Matter? Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) This article was published by the BBC on 21 June 2019 and offers an objective perspective on the relevance of and adherence to school league tables. By contextualising the history of school league tables across the UK, the article presents readers with the opportunity to engage with related facts, changes and critiques in a simplified, unbiased manner. When selecting a school, parents often turn to school league tables as their initial port of call and the information presented in this article is designed to support the parents’ understanding of them. The tone and style of the article is successful and could be adopted for other types of communication media in relation to potential creative outcomes. (2017) Vocational Training Shake Up Most ambitious Since A-Levels Available at: https:// (Accessed: 17 September 2019) (2016) What Does It Mean To Be An Academy School? Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) (2011) Many Vocational Courses Axed From League Tables Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Becko, L. (2015) CREATIVE CROYDON Findings From A Youth Consultation On Arts And Cultural Provision In CroydonAvailable at: t/59df3b724c326db04dee7ca4/1507801975226/Creative+Croydon+Report+-+June+2015.pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2019) This report from Creative Croydon was published in May 2015 and presents the findings from a youth consultation on cultural and arts provisions in Croydon. It was compiled by Lawrence Becko, a vision and strategy, research, concept development and youth empowerment specialist. Becko has run consultations for the Paul Hamlyn Foundation and Youth Music, plus worked with organisations such as ArtsTrain, Roundhouse, A New Direction and Newham Music Trust to name a few. Comparable to the research I have conducted, this report is to be viewed as a ‘living’ study, with the findings uncovering the opinions of Croydon’s youth and local creative and cultural leaders on lack of provision, cultural education, democratic participation, future innovation, creative opportunity, inequality, community responsibility and involvement. Becko, L. (2019) Lawrence Becko Available at: lawrence-becko-consulting/ (Accessed: 01 November 2019) Bentley, B. (2018) Why Millennial Family Travel Will Foster A New Generation of Woke Kids Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Bianchini, I. (2016) YOUTH ARTS IN CROYDON: Overcoming Barriers To Access Available at: ae167/1507802325333/Overcoming+Barriers+Report+-+October+2016.pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2019)

54 | annotated bibliography

This report was published through a partnership of Croydon Music and Arts, Croydon Youth Arts (Croydon Council) and Fairfield Halls in September 2015 and was compiled by Izzy Bianchini, Arts Development Manager Croydon Music and Arts. The cultural education strategies presented are to be seen as a potential model, or guide for cultural and creative partners seeking to engage and develop opportunities for youth in Croydon. The report discusses the need for better signposting from trusted sources, greater and more widely publicised opportunities and increased engagement with diverse groups. These ideas are central to the development of improved creative provisions for youth in Croydon and have influenced the direction of my targeted research into this demographic. Bishop, K. (2019) Kid Architects Available at: article/23737/kid-architects (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Katherine Bishop is LS:N Global’s resident luxury specialist and has a background as a consultant, writer and editor in the luxury sector. Bishop has previous writing credits at publications and agencies such as WGSN, CityAM, Adorn Insight and Stylus. This article was published on 11 March 2019 and highlights organisations that partner with schools and children in order to develop skills in critical thinking, collaborative skill and design. Discussing future cities, mobility, urban planning and greater autonomy for youth decision making, the article also presents a case study for Scotland’s first Unicef Child Friendly City. The ideas and organisations in this article have shaped new perspectives on the potential for creative and cultural developments for the youth population in Croydon. Black, T. (2017) Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) Bond, V. (2013) When is a Qualification Not a Qualification? When it’s an EBacc Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Bourdieu, P. (1986) ‘The Forms of Capital’ in Halsey, A.H, Lauder, H, Brown, P and Wells, A.S Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press pp 46-58 Brown, M. (2019) Arts Contribute More to the UK Economy Than Agriculture - Report Available at: (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Bruguera, T. (2012) Manifesto On Artist’s Rights Available at: files/manifesto_on_artists_rights_-_eng.pdf (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Tania Bruguera is a performance and installation artist, boasting permanent collections at the Bronx Museum of the Arts, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana and the Museum of Modern Art. Bruguera’s work explores control, power and active interrogation; arrested and jailed on multiple occasions, Bruguera is known for art and activism. Bruguera’s Manifesto on Artist’s Rights was read in “Expert Meeting on Artistic Freedom and Cultural Rights” Hall # 21, Palais des Nations, seat of the United Nations Organization Geneva on 06 December 2012. The manifesto is an impassioned collection of statements and ideas that discuss art as a basic social need and right, whilst also talking of the opportunity artists have to suggest, subvert, challenge, re-define and express social constructs, especially around reality and being human.

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This manifesto is a powerful expression that communicates the frustration over the unequal value of art and creativity in society. It has continually served as a reference point for my research rationale. CBI. (2019) Centre Stage: Keeping the UK’s Creative Industries in the Spotlight Available at: https:// =IwAR0E4ZEY0K1TE39W5iRv7olvSiwW3ind5Dq_DBpQEoAXqXdbIF29DiYLdFY (Accessed: 24 October 2019) Cellen-Jones, R. (2019) A. Computing in Schools in ‘Steep Decline’ Available at: technology-48188877 (Accessed: 17 September 2019) B. Why Are Pupils Switching Off From Computing GCSE? Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Centre for Economics and Business Research. (2019) Contribution of the Arts and Culture Industry to the UK Economy Available at: economy%20FINAL_0_0.PDF (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Chambers, D. et al. (2004) The Practice of Cultural Studies. London: Sage. pp. 62-84 Available at: (Accessed: 07 July 2019) Coloma Convent Girls’ School. (2019) Available at: Connick, T. (2017) Stormzy Crowned ‘Person Of The Year’ By Oxford University Society Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) Cookson, T. (2012) What is the Ebacc All About? Available at: secondaryeducation/9672897/What-is-the-EBacc-all-about.html (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Coughlan, S. (2019) As GCSE Exams Get Harder, How Will Results Go Up? Available at: https:// c207p54ml0gt/gcses&link_location=live-reporting-correspondent (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Creative England. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) Creative Industries Federation. (2019) Statistics Available at: https://www.creativeindustriesfederation. com/statistics (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Cronberg, A,A. (2019) Thinking Critically About Fashion with Anja Aronowsky Cronberg, LCF Senior Research Fellow [Book Reading and Conversation], University of the Arts London, 05 July. Croydon Art Society. (2019) The Croydon Art Society Available at: https://www.croydonartsociety. org/ (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Croydon Art Store. (2019) Available at: art/?view=calendar&month=11-2019 (Accessed: 12 October 2019)

56 | annotated bibliography


Croydon Council. (2018) Director of Public Health Report 2018 Available at: https://www.croydon. 2018.pdf (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Croydon Council. (2017) A. Director of Public Health Report 2017 Available at: documents/s1572/Annual%20Report%20of%20the%20Director%20of%20Public%20 Health%202017%20-%20draft.pdf (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Rachel Flowers is Croydon’s Director of Public Health with over 30 years experience of working across NHS bodies, Senior Civil Service and local government. This Public Health Report was published in 2017 and discusses Croydon as an exciting, youthful and evolving borough. Diving into increasing population statistics, resource distribution methods and unmet needs that impact borough health among other challenges, it is brimming with insightful data and infographics which informed the research journey, insights and foresights. B. Councillor Alisa Flemming - Croydon’s Vision for Children and Young People Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) Croydon Council. (2016) Director of Public Health Report 2016 Available at: https://www.croydon. (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Croydon Council. (2015) Director of Public Health Report 2015 Available at: https://www.croydon. 2015.pdf (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Croydon Council. (2014) Director of Public Health Report 2014 Available at: https://www.croydon. (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Croydon Council. (2013) Director of Public Health Report 2013 Available at: https://www.croydon. (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Croydon Gov. (2019) A. Sarah Jones MP Available at: aspx?UID=128 (Accessed: 25 September 2019) B. Councillor Alisa Flemming Available at: aspx?UID=124 (Accessed: 25 September 2019) C. Croydon’s Youth Zone Opened With Thousands Signed Up Available at: https:// (Accessed: 01 October 2019) D. Make A Difference To A Young Person In Care By Becoming A Learning Mentor Available at: (Accessed: 01 October 2019) This post was uploaded onto the Croydon Gov newsroom on 04 July 2019 and introduces a learning mentor programme in Croydon which was recruiting for mentors starting from September 2019.

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Launching as a way to offer guidance and support to a small group of young people aged 14 to 16, calls for mentors to take part in programmes such as this indicate a clear need for creative, cultural involvement in the nurturing of young people in Croydon, which I have also identified through research. Croydon Labour Group. (2019) Alisa Flemming Available at: councillors/alisa-flemming/ (Accessed: 02 October 2019) Croydon Music and Arts. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 10 October 2019) Croydon Music Arts (seemingly established shortly after 2015) is a service that aims to provide young people in Croydon with access to creative opportunities. Croydon state schools, services for children and young people, plus cultural organisations have come together as local network partners, utilising funding from Arts Council England to fully support music education in the borough. Croydon Music Arts is committed to growing opportunities and offering cultural learning experiences for children and young people and serves as a case study to which new developments in Croydon could be modelled, implemented and improved upon to provide a more enriching, engaging and diverse experience for the same demographic. Croydon Tech City. (2019) CROYDON TECH CITY: 2012 - 2018 Available at: http://croydontechcity. com/ (Accessed: 30 October 2019) Cultural Learning Alliance. (2019) A. GCSE Results Announced Today See A Continuing Freefall In Arts Subject Entries Available at: (17 September 2019) B. What Is Cultural Capital? Available at: (Accessed: 29 October 2019) Cultural Learning Alliance. (2018)  A. The Arts in Schools Available at: uploads/2018/09/Arts-in-Schools-Briefing-A4.pdf (Accessed: 30 September 2019) B. Employability and Enterprise Available at: (Accessed: 30 September 2019) Cultural Learning Alliance. (2017) Continuing Decline In The Hours of Arts Teaching and Number of Arts Teachers in England’s Secondary Schools Available at: uk/gcse-results-announced-today-see-a-continuing-free-fall-in-arts-subject-entries/ (17 September 2019) Cultural Learning Alliance, Incorporated Society of Musicians and What Next? (2018) Arts in Schools: A Bacc for the Future, Cultural Learning Alliance and WHAT NEXT? Toolkit Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 04 October 2019) CV Democracy Club. (n/d) Sarah Jones’ CV, Central Croydon, MP Candidate Available at: http:// (Accessed: 25 September 2019)

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CYAC. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 15 October 2019) Croydon Youth Arts Collective (CYAC) was founded in 2015 after the Creative Croydon Findings From A Youth Consultation On Arts And Cultural Provision In Croydon Report was published. CYAC comprises of a diverse group of 11 young people who are supported by staff from Croydon Music and Arts and Croydon Council’s Education and Youth Engagement team. Meeting monthly, CYAC discuss event planning, learn advocacy skills, receive consultations from arts organisations and meet other creatives. The level of involvement the CYAC young people have in decision making is equal to the vision of democratic participation that could shape the future of Croydon’s youth. Daly, R. (2017) Watch A Labour MP Quote Stormzy Lyrics In The House Of Commons Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) Rhian Daly is a writer for NME, InStyle UK, BBC Music and iD. This article highlights how a Croydon Labour MP, Sarah Jones, quoted Stormzy lyrics in the House of Commons on 12 July 2017 and this act by an MP is particularly sensational because Stormzy is a grime MC from Croydon and the House of Commons has previously not seen lyrics being quoted in this fashion before. The purposeful and effective inclusion of Stormzy’s words elevated Sarah Jones’ status among young people in Croydon, making Jones more relatable, whilst raising Stormzy’s artistic profile as well. Incorporating relevant cultural figures that inspire young people in Croydon is one way to better engage, understand and empathise with them. Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. (2018) DCMS Sectors Economic Estimates 2017 (provisional): Gross Value Added Available at: government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/759707/DCMS_Sectors_Economic_ Estimates_2017__provisional__GVA.pdf (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. (2019) DCMS Sector Economic Estimates Methodology Available at: uploads/attachment_data/file/829114/DCMS_Sectors_Economic_Estimates_-_Methodology.pdf (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Department of Education. (2019) A. English Baccalaureate (EBacc) Available at: english-baccalaureate-ebacc/english-baccalaureate-ebacc (Accessed: 14 September 2019) B. Key Stage 4 Qualifications Counting in the English Baccalaureate Available at: https:// file/785413/English_Baccalaureate_list_of_qualifications_Feb_2019.xlsx (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Dias, N. (2018) Croydon Tech City is Dead; Long Live Croydon, Tech City Available at: https:// (Accessed: 30 October 2019) Durham University. (2019) Durham Commission on Creativity and Education Available at: https:// (Accessed: 26 October 2019)

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Dryden, J. (n.d) Autonomy Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2019) Elsea, K, Hebert, M, Hall, R, Richer, J, Vickers, S. (2018) Why Wait To Unleash Children’s Creativity? Available at: (Accessed: 03 October 2019) Fairfield. (2019) Fairfield Theatre Workshop Available at: fairfield-theatre-workshop/ (Accessed: 01 October 2019) Farrer, S. (2018) What Does The Future Hold For The UK Creative Industries? Available at: (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Fazelian, P, Azimi, S. (2013) Creativity in Schools, Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, pp 719 - 723. Available at: (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Find Courses. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Flowers, R. (2019) Rachel Flowers Available at: (Accessed: 01 November 2019) Freeman, B. (2018) ‘Communication and Media: Types, Functions, and Key Concepts, Handbook of Research on Media Literacy in Higher Education Environments, pp 25-26. Available at: https:// and_Key_Concepts (Accessed: 22 September 2019) Friend, H. (2019) A. Everyteen TV Available at: article/24042/everyteen-tv (Accessed: 17 September 2019) B. Is Screen-Based Schooling Driving A New Class Divide? Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Friend, H, Houghton, L. (2018) NEED TO KNOW Available at: https://www-lsnglobal-com.arts.idm. (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Holly Friend is an LS:N Global expert on consumer trends in Travel & Hospitality and Youth. Before joining LS:N Global, Friend worked at WGSN forecasting travel trends. Livvy Houghton manages and constructs visual elements and content for LS:N Global’s news stories. Offering researching and visualising support across the site, Houghton joined LS:N Global after working as a researcher at an interior design consultancy. This article was published on 16 October 2018 and introduces Burberry’s 4 year initiative, ‘Burberry Inspire’, which aims to understand how from a young age, children can be positively affected by deep arts experiences. Initiatives such as Burberry Inspire, highlight the opportunity for brands to further engage schools with arts, creative and cultural experiences. Friend, H, Walker, J. (2018) Alternative Education Market Available at: https://www-lsnglobal-com.arts. (Accessed: 17 September 2019)

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Futurecity. (2019) A. Croydon Creative Campus Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) B. Croydon Creative Campus  Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019)  Gardner, B. (2019) I’ve Been Studying Logos for Decades. Here’s What Changed This Year Available at: (Accessed: 05 July 2019) Garner, A,E and Acklen, L,M. (1979) ‘Involving Students in Curriculum Planning’, The Clearing House, Vol. 53 (1, September), pp.36. Available at: scan_tab_contents (Accessed: 21 September 2019) George, M. (2018) Ofsted Can’t Impartially Inspect Curriculum, Says Teach First Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Global Teacher Prize. (2018) Ron Clark Available at: person?id=2892 (Accessed: 12 October 2019) (2019)  A. About Us Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) B. The National Curriculum Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) The national curriculum is a set of subjects issued by the UK government and is used by primary and secondary schools to regulate which subjects are taught and the standards children should reach within them. It was last updated on 16 July 2014. The national curriculum is not compulsory for all schools in the UK, seeing academies and private schools with the ability to opt out, providing they offer broad and balanced curriculums that include english, maths, science and religious education. As the national curriculum is not compulsory and the definition of a broad and balanced education can be subjective, developing a sound understanding of what the UK government deems essential for all children across the UK to learn is crucial for developing better and more inclusive, creative curriculums moving forward. C. Courses and Qualifications for 14 to 19 Year Olds Available at: courses-qualifications (Accessed: 04 October 2019) (2001) Foreword Available at: system/uploads/attachment_data/file/183544/2001part1-foreword2001.pdf (Accessed: 20 October 2019) Granados, N. (2016) What Is Media In The Digital Age? Available at: sites/nelsongranados/2016/10/03/what-is-media-in-the-digital-age/#715e359f51ea (Accessed: 22 September 2019)

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Gray, A. (2016) The 10 Skills You Need To Thrive in the Fourth Industrial Revolution Available at: (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Gray, C. and Malins, J. (2004) Visualizing Research. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Available at: (Accessed 07 July 2019) Groys, B. (2009) The Communist Postscript. London: Verso. Hancock, M. (2016) Arts Are One Of The Greatest Forces For Openness And Social Mobility Available at: (Accessed: 20 September 2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace. (2019) Harris Invictus Academy Croydon. (2019) Hart, R. A. (1992) Children’s Participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship, Innocenti Essay (4), International Child Development Centre, Florence Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2019) Hickmore, H. (2019) Cuts Mean Arts Education Is Being Outsourced To The Culture Sector – And It’s Not Working Available at: (Accessed: 29 August 2019) Ho, V. (2018) How Social Media Prevented Me From Creativity: An Analogy Using Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Available at: (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (2011) ‘New Lenses, New Concerns’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 02-30. Available at: base/download/BookChapter/inside-interviewing/n1.xml (Accessed: 07 July 2019) (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Isaac. (2015) How To Transcribe an Interview for Dissertation – Part 2 Available at: https://weloty. com/how-to-transcribe-an-interview-for-dissertation-part-2/ (Accessed: 31 October 2019) Issimdar, M. (2018) Homeschooling in the UK Increases 40% Over Three Years Available at: https:// (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Jeffreys, B. (2019) Teenagers Given Updated Advice on A-Level Choices Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Jensen, K. B. (2013) ‘What’s Mobile in Mobile Communication?’, Mobile Media & Communication, 1(1), pp. 26–31. Available at: pdf/10.1177/2050157912459493 (Accessed: 22 September 2019)

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Jensenius, A.R (2012). Disciplinarities: Intra, Cross, Multi, Inter, Trans Available at: https://www.arj. no/2012/03/12/disciplinarities-2/ (Accessed: 06 October 2019) Kadavy, D. (2018) Why Art Is Self-Actualization Available at: why-art-is-self-actualization-e1077abaedf8 (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Karpov, A.O. (2013) The Commodification of Education, Russian Social Science Review, 54:5, pp 22-37 Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2019) King’s College London. (2019) Baroness Bull (Deborah Bull) Available at: aboutkings/governance/committees/acboard/members/deborahbull (Accessed: 28 October 2019) Krueger, J.I. Ph.D. (2013) Maslow on Creativity Available at: blog/one-among-many/201309/maslow-creativity (Accessed: 09 October 2019) L. Abu-Lughod et al. (2011) ‘Their Story/My Story/Our Story: Including the Researcher’s Experience in Interview Research’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 466-493. Available at: (Accessed: 07 July 2019) Lauder, H. (1991) ‘Education, Democracy, and the Economy’ in Halsey, A.H, Lauder, H, Brown, P and Wells, A.S Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press pp 382-391 Lightfoot, L. (2018) Sheku Kanneh-Mason is a State School Success Story. He May Never Have a Successor Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Lord Berkeley of Knighton (2019) Crossbench Available at: lords/?id=2019-10-22a.495.0#g502.0 (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Lord O’Shaughnessy. (2019) Conservative Available at: lords/?id=2019-10-22a.495.0#g502.0 (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Lord Storey. (2019) Liberal Democrat Lords Spokesperson Available at: https://www.theyworkforyou. com/lords/?id=2019-10-22a.495.0#g502.0 (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Lord Watson of Invergowrie. (2019) Shadow Spokesperson (Education) Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 25 October 2019) McCabe, B. (2016) ‘Arts Education In The UK Is The Envy Of The World, But It Is Being Sidelined In Schools’ Available at: (Accessed: 20 September 2019)   Macwan, V. (2018) What Is The Future Of Web Scraping For Android Apps? Available at: (Accessed 09 July 2019) Matthews, D. (2014) 1,300 Universities, One Shared Fear: The Commodification of Education Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2019)

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McLeod, S. (2018) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Available at: maslow.html (Accessed: 09 October 2019) McGregor, R. (2018) Young Bibliophiles Available at: youth/article/22781/young-bibliophiles (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Mickiewicz, M.K, Szymanska, A. (2017) Civic Brands Available at: https://www-lsnglobal-com.arts. (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Middlehurst, T. (2019) SSAT On Curriculum Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Monteiro, Prof. B, G. (2018) Commodification of Education is a Necessary Evil Available at: https:// html (Accessed: 15 July 2019) Moran, C. (2012) How To Be A Woman. London: Ebury Press  Morris, E. (2012) The National Curriculum: Why Have One If It’s Not For Everyone? Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Estelle Morris is former Secretary of State for Education and Skills and Minister for the Arts in the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and is now a life peer, who was conferred as Baroness Morris of Yardley, of Yardley in the County of West Midlands, on 14 June 2005. This article was published on 23 January 2012 and heavily critiques the necessity, structure and generalised implementation of the national curriculum in UK schools. Querying who should control the curriculum and challenging the ineffective national roll-out method still in place today, Morris speaks of stifled teacher creativity, government ambition and the imbalance between guaranteed entitlement for students and flexibility. This article highlights the need for further research into national curriculum development, reform, or total eradication and has informed the scope of impact the national curriculum has across the UK for all schools and children, not just those most in need or disaffected. Morris, E. (2013) Someone Needs To Inspect The Ofsted Inspectors Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Moss, G. (2019) Do University and School League Tables Matter? Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Mrochuk, A. (2016) How to Use Divergent Thinking to Succeed at School Available at: (Accessed: 11 October 2019) NASUWT The Teachers’ Union. (2017) Creativity And The Arts In The Curriculum Available at: (Accessed: 15 October 2019) The National Association of Schoolmasters / Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT) was founded in 1976 and is a trade union that represents all teachers throughout the UK. 

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In the context of the school curriculum, this report (published in 2017) considers creative subjects to include art and design, music, design & technology, performing arts and drama, whilst also viewing creativity as a skill within individual learners, to be developed through the inclusion of creative teaching and resultantly creative learning. Raising awareness to the high-stakes nature of accountability in schools and also commenting on the punitive inspection practices currently in place, this report presents strong evidence that suggests a drastic overhaul and decidedly more strategic approach to creative learning is desperately needed in the UK education system. The insights gained from this report reinforced the notions of the value of creative arts education throughout my research and helped to unify varying definitions of creativity. Neubauer, A.J, Martskavishvili, K (2018) ‘Creativity and Intelligence: A link to Different Levels of Human Needs Hierarchy?’ Heliyon, 4(5), Available at: pii/S2405844017336277 (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Aljoscha C. Neubauer is a professor of differential psychology at the University of Graz. Neubauer’s research looks at individual differences in human behaviour and focuses on human abilities such as creativity, emotional and social intelligences. Khatuna Martskvishvili PhD is an associate professor at Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University in Georgia.  This study was published in May 2018 and empirically explores how creativity and intelligence relate to different levels in the human needs hierarchy. Placing Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs at the centre, this research discusses how divergent thinking and intelligence serve creative ability and how according to Maslow’s concept, lower needs can be met through intelligence because it is a more basic cognitive ability, whilst higher needs require divergent thinking, which can also be understood as creative potential. Two main takeaways from this research were how consistent and continual the interplay between creativity and intelligence is when measuring basic human needs, as well as how creativity is essential for individuals to be able to have the opportunity to fulfil selfactualisation; which according to Maslow’s concept is the pinnacle of human enlightenment. These ideas have helped to contextualise the differences in opportunities for success for students attending private and publicly funded educational institutions, that may or may not follow the national curriculum, or offer adequate education in creative subjects. Newbigin, J. (2011) ‘A Golden Age for the Arts?’, Cultural Trends, 20 (3-4), pp. 231–234. Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Newbigin, J. (2014) What Is The Creative Economy? Available at: https://creativeconomy. (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Newhouse, C. (2015) The Ron Clark Story 2006 Base On The True Story Movie Available at: https:// (Accessed: 24 October 2019) Norris, R. (2018) Creativity Can Be Taught to Anyone. So Why Are We Leaving it to Private Schools? Available at: (Accessed: 15 September 2019) Not Going To Uni. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 04 October 2019)

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NSEAD. (2019) The Distinctiveness of Art & Design and D&T – Ensuring Schools Provide for HighQuality Provision in Both Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) O’Shea, B. (2019) Ron Clark Academy - Things to Know About This Prominent Atlanta Middle School Available at: (Accessed: 12 October 2019) Ofsted. (2017) Ofsted Strategy 2017- 22 Available at: government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/648211/Ofsted_strategy_summary.pdf (Accessed: 11 September 2019) Ofsted. (2018) An Investigation Into How To Assess The Quality Of Education Through Curriculum Intent, Implementation And Impact Available at: government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/766252/How_to_assess_intent_and_ implementation_of_curriculum_191218.pdf (Accessed: 21 September 2019) The Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) was established in 1992 after John Major succeeded Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister and Conservative Party Leader. Ofsted inspects services that provide skills and education for all learners. Ofsted also regulates services for children and young people and publish the results of their inspections online. They report directly to Parliament and are impartial and independent. This report was published in December 2018 and outlines what Ofsted have done in the third phase of their research into the quality of the curriculum in schools. It highlights the inadequacy of their own research methods, considering that one line of investigation called for inspectors to discuss with 4-12 students for up to 20 minutes, when in reality only 1 or 2 of those pupil discussions took place on a one-day visit. This report expresses how insufficient Ofsted’s current inspection methods are and these discoveries sparked further research into how Ofsted carry out other types of investigation and reporting in relation to creative children and young people’s services outside of schools. P. Adler. et al. (2011) ‘The Reluctant Respondent’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 152-173. Available at: download/BookChapter/inside-interviewing/n8.xml (Accessed: 07 July 2019) P. Atkinson. et al. (2011) ‘Analysis of Personal Narratives’, in Holstein, J,A & Gubrium, J,F. (ed.) Inside Interviewing. California: Sage pp. 331-346. Available at: download/BookChapter/inside-interviewing/n16.xml (Accessed: 07 July 2019) (2019) Written Questions and Answers Available at: business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-questions-answers/?hou se=commons&max=100&member=4631&page=1&questiontype=AllQuestions (Accessed: 26 September 2019) Pownall, A. (2019) Stacie Woolsey Creates Her Own Masters Course As “Viable Alternative” To Design Education Available at: (Accessed: 09 October 2019) Pratt, A.C (2014) Three Stages In The Life Of The Creative Economy Available at: https:// (Accessed: 21 September 2019)

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Prince Ea. (2019) Student Vs. Teacher (2019) Available at: watch?v=H4xH8sw0Eh8 (Accessed: 01 October 2019) Prince Ea. (2016) I Sued the School System Available at: watch?v=dqTTojTija8 (Accessed: 01 October 2019) Rackham, A. (2019) The Face: Is 2019 The Time To Launch A New Magazine? Available at: https:// (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Richardson, H. (2019) GCSE Results: Pass Rates and Top Grades Edge Upwards Available at: topics/c40rjmqdqgxt/department-for-education&link_location=live-reporting-story (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Robinson, Sir, K. (2006) Do Schools Kill Creativity? Available at: robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity?language=en (Accessed: 20 October 2019) Rose, G. (2001) Visual Methodologies. London and Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Available at: (Accessed: 07 July 2019) Rose, J. (2016) The Croydon Tech City ‘Timeline of Success’: From 20 people in a Room to London’s Fastest-Growing Tech Cluster Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2019) Royal Russell School. (2019) Available at: Say It Loud. (2019) “Black Sounding” Names and Their Surprising History Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 07 July 2019) Schools Forum. (2019) Minutes of Meeting Held on Monday 7 October 2019 9.30am – 12 noon, F10, Town Hall Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) Schools Week Reporter. (2019) Non-EBacc Subjects Being Taught After-School, During Tutor Time Or On ‘Intensive’ Days, DfE Study Finds Available at: (Accessed: 18 September 2019) Secretary of State. (2010) STATEMENT OF INTENT 2010 – ADDENDUM (THE ENGLISH BACCALAUREATE) Available at: (Accessed: 18 October 2019) Sky News. (2019) In Full: Climate Activist Greta Thunberg Rebukes World Leaders Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) Sleigh, S. (2019) Secondary School League Tables 2019: Find Out How Your London School Did in GCSE and A-Level Standings Available at: secondary-school-league-tables-2019-find-out-how-your-london-school-did-in-gcse-and-alevelstandings-a4048861.html (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Snell, R. (2019) It’s Time for Art And Academia To Be Celebrated As Equal Available at: https://exposure. (Accessed: 20 September 2019)

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Somerville, E. (2018) University League Tables Fuel a Toxic Undercurrent of Snobbery Available at:,us%20 students%20and%20our%20families.&targetText=University%20league%20tables%20are%20 simply,standards%20and%20student%20satisfaction%20scores. (Accessed: 14 September 2019) Student Ladder. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Tate. (2019) Tania Brugeuera Available at: (Accessed: 01 November 2019) The Art Workers’ Guild (2019). Available at: (Accessed: 09 October 2019) The Great Courses. (2015) The Global Challenge to Educate [Film]. Available at: https://arts.kanopy. com/video/how-world-learns-comparative-educational-s-0 (Accessed: 26 September 2019) The Open University. (2019) The UK Skills Shortage Is Costing Organisations £6.3 Billion Available at: (Accessed: 21 September 2019) The Telegraph. (2019) Queen’s Speech 2019: Queen says Britain will leave on October 31 Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2019) Tobin, O. (2017) Who Is Sarah Jones? What Do We Know About Croydon’s First Female MP Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2019) Turf Projects. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 12 October 2019) University of Rochester Medical Centre. (2019) Our Approach. Self- Determination Theory Available at: (Accessed: 02 October 2019) Vales, L. (2016) Atlanta Teacher’s Slick Dance Routine With His Students Goes Viral Available at: (12 October 2019) Veal, R.L. PhD. (2019) How to Define a User Persona Available at: blog/ux-design/how-to-define-a-user-persona/ (Accessed: 16 October 2019) Raven L. Veal, PhD is a design researcher who specialises in behavioural science. This article is a guide to designing and defining a user persona, presenting the full scope of the process from what user personas are and why they are necessary, to how to define them effectively.  By following and embellishing the structure in this article, I developed the user personas included in this report (See appendix 1 for full User Persona Profiles) Weale, S. (2019)  Russell Group Scraps Preferred A-levels List After Arts Subjects Hit Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2019)  Whitgift School. (2019) Available at:

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Whittaker, F. (2018) EBacc Not to Blame for Decline in Arts Subjects, Claims Minister Available at: (Accessed: 28 August 2019) Willett, D. (2019) Skills Gap Is Costing UK Business £4.4bn Each Year Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 21 September 2019) Williams, R. (2019) It’s Time For Tech to Bridge Families’ Divisions Available at: (Accessed: 17 September 2019) Wong, A. (2016 a) The Commodification of Higher Education Available at: https://www.theatlantic. com/education/archive/2016/03/the-commodification-of-higher-education/475947/ (Accessed: 15 July 2019) Wong, A. (2016 b) Where College Admissions Went Wrong Available at: https://www.theatlantic. com/education/archive/2016/03/college-admissions-narcissists/475722/ (Accessed: 15 July 2019) Wong, A. (2016 c) The Absurdity of College Admissions Available at: education/archive/2016/03/where-admissions-went-wrong/475575/ (Accessed: 15 July 2019) Woolf, C. (2019) Available at: (Accessed: 22 September 2019) Yang, R. (2006) The Commodification of Education and Its Effects on Developing Countries: A Focus on China Available at: of_Education_and_Its_Effects_on_Developing_Countries_A_Focus_on_China (Accessed: 15 July 2019) Young Croydon. (2019) Post-16 Prospectus Available at: uploads/2018/07/Interactive_Prospectus.pdf (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Young Croydon is a youth service and online portal of resources for young people in Croydon. This prospectus was published in 2018 for students seeking to study in 2019/20 and was designed to give information and advice to young people about their choices for Post-16 education in Croydon. After looking through the document it became clear that the outdated style, irrelevant imagery, condescending colour scheme and uninteresting content was not created with particular consideration for the intended audience. This insight will inform the design of any communication outcome produced as a result of this research. Your Croydon. (2019) Young People Apply Now To Take Over Croydon! Available at: https:// (Accessed: 07 October 2019)

I, Layla Robinson, certify that this is an original piece of work. I have acknowledged all sources and citations. No section of this essay has been plagiarised

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list of il ustrations


Figure 1. Andres, B. (2019) Ron Clark [Photograph]. Available at: large/Pub/p8/AJC/2017/05/05/Images/ron-clark-8.jpg (Accessed: 12 October 2019) Figure 2. Leon Neal/Getty. (2019) Stormzy on the Pyramid Stage at Glastonbury 2019 [Photograph]. Available at: (Accessed: 23 October 2019) Figure 3. Robinson, L. (2019) The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter Exhibition [Photograph]. Figure 4. Young Croydon. (2019) Post-16 Prospectus 1-22 [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Figure 5. Young Croydon. (2019) Post-16 Prospectus 1-22 [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Figure 6. Young Croydon. (2019) Post-16 Prospectus 1-22 [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Figure 7. Futurecity. (2019) Croydon Creative Campus Brochure 1 - 3 [Screenshot]. Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) Figure 8. Robinson, L. (2019) Emily Louise Johnson User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Figure 9. Robinson, L. (2019) India Sanchia Powell User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Figure 10. Robinson, L. (2019) Priyanka Shah User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 11 October 2019)

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Figure 11. Robinson, L. (2019) Kyle James Murray User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Figure 12. Robinson, L. (2019) Shakil Masood User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https://www. (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Figure 13. Robinson, L. (2019) Matthew Lloyd Carty User Persona [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 11 October 2019) Figure 14. A New Direction. (2019) A New Direction Logo [Graphic]. Available at: https://pbs.twimg. com/profile_images/996686351897645056/w11Ps7QV_400x400.jpg (Accessed: 03 November 2019) Figure 15. Our My Your Ltd. (2019) OMY Logo [Graphic]. Available at: (Accessed: 05 November 2019) Figure 16. Bacc For The Future. (2019) Bacc For The Future Magenta Logo [Graphic] Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2019) Figure 17. Young Croydon. (2019) Young Croydon Logo [Graphic]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 03 November 2019) Figure 18. Futurecity. (2019) Futurecity Logo [Graphic]. Available at: (Accessed: 03 November 2019) Figure 19. Robinson, L. (2019) User Empathy Map: Target Demographic [Scan] Figure 20. Robinson, L. (2019) User Empathy Map: Appeal Demographic [Scan] Figures 21-30. Robinson, L. (2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Prospectus [Scan]. Figures 31 & 32. Robinson, L. (2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Digital Media Handout [Scan]. Figures 33 & 34. Robinson, L. (2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form OCR A Level in Music Handout [Scan]. Figures 35-38. Robinson, L. (2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form A-Level Art at HCACP Handout [Scan]. Figures 39-43. Robinson, L. (2019) Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Open Evening Event [Scan]. Figures 44-46. Robinson, L. (2019) Unicorn Theatre 2019/20 Guide [Scan]. Figures 47. Robinson, L. (2019) Unicorn Theatre 2019/20 Guide [Scan]. Figure 48. Robinson, L. (2019) Kids Kreate Postcard (2019)

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Figures 49-58. Young Croydon. (2019) Post-16 Prospectus 1-22 [Screenshot]. Available at: https:// (Accessed: 04 October 2019) Figures 59-61. Futurecity. (2019) Croydon Creative Campus Brochure 1 - 3 [Screenshot]. Available at: (Accessed: 07 October 2019) Figures 62-69. Robinson, L. (2019) Slide Deck of Initial Research [Screenshot]. Figures 70 & 71. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Participant Consent Form [Scan]. Figure 72. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant R [Scan]. Figure 73. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant D [Scan]. Figure 74. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant M [Scan]. Figure 75. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant P [Scan]. Figure 76. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant K [Scan]. Figure 77. Robinson, L. (2019) Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant E [Scan]. Figures 78 & 79. Robinson, L. (2019) Whatsapp Transcript [Screenshot].

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74 | appendices



6 personas were generated to develop empathy and understanding of prospective users in the UK year 9 demographic 1.1 User Persona: Emily, 13 FULL NAME: Emily Louise Johnson D.O.B: 19 / 02 / 06 AGE: 13 GENDER: Female ETHNICITY: White English EDUCATION: Coloma Convent Girls’ School (Year 9) FAMILY STATUS: Widowed mother, older sister (21) and older brother (18) DEVICES • Old iPhone 5 (brother’s old phone) • Macbook pro 15” 2017 • Family desktop Mac (complete with Microsoft office suite • Personal iPad pro (brother’s old iPad) | 75

USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS • Spends most of her time at school, at home, or with her mother at church • Helps with the youth choir at church on Sundays • Part of a small group of friends; her peers have strong bonds with each other, but Emily only feels mild affinity with them • Emily is chosen first when groups are required for academic tasks and chosen last for physical tasks or social events • Emily has a personal YouTube account and follows a lot of channels • Emily doesn’t have any other social media accounts, so she doesn’t keep with her friends social exploits or contemporary youth trends • Enjoys going to museums and galleries • Hates poorly exhibited work, without signage • Enjoys foreign films and documentaries • Prefers meaningful conversation over idle chat or gossip • Tends to be oblivious to how her friends find her superior intellect and maturity intimidating • Emily is mature beyond her years but still very naive WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? I’m good at studying, so perhaps something academic, like a scholar OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • Emily could expand her existing foundation of knowledge • Emily could equip herself with interdisciplinary skills to help her in the future IN EMILY’S WORDS I spend most of my time at school or at home with my mum, so I don’t very often socialise with friends outside of school, or on weekends. My friends aren’t really interested in things I like, so I do that stuff with my mum or alone. I think it would be nice to meet other people who have similar interests and maybe join a group to share our interests together. Ideally I would find them nearby where I live so we can do things together. No-one ever wants to come all the way to Beckenham from Croydon.

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1.2 User Persona: India, 13 FULL NAME: India Sanchia Powell D.O.B: 15 / 11 / 05 AGE: 13 GENDER: Female ETHNICITY: Black British Caribbean (Jamaican) EDUCATION: Harris Invictus Academy Croydon - Coeducational (Year 9) FAMILY STATUS: Single mother and one older brother (20) DEVICES • iPhone X (unlimited data, but limited calls and texts) • Family desktop PC (at least 10 years old) • Samsung tablet with a cracked screen USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS • Spends time mostly at schools and in the local area around school (Croydon town centre) • On weekends India does chores and then goes out all day with friends in Croydon town centre, at parks, or at her friend’s houses. • India’s friend’s parents allow them to smoke weed in the house, drink alcohol and invite large groups of people over. • India smokes occasionally to be seen to be doing it, but would prefer not to and it makes her hair smell • India is the leader of her tight-knit social group of 5 and the protege of an older girl in the year group above her at school • India is active on Snapchat • India has an Instagram account but does not post often - she mostly uses the account to bookmark posts • India thinks that Tik Tok is ‘dumb’ but she often watch challenge compilations on YouTube at home • India uses her phone obsessively to communicate with friends and she is involved in 10’s of instant messaging groups • Enjoys hanging out with friends and widening her social circle with their friends • Appreciates people who can ‘back it up’. | 77

• India hates ‘fake, influencer, clout’ and thinks it is embarrassing to lie about your life • Prefers

the company of boys because they offer ‘less drama, more banter’ like her older brother who she is very close with • Tends to underachieve because she doesn’t want to appear to be trying too hard • India actively does the bare minimum to pass at school • India is confident, yet impressionable • India believes she already understands everything she needs to know about life • India is not particularly close with her mother; she feels mild resentment about her father leaving when she was 6 years old • India is not interested in having children of her own or long term committed relationships WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? I don’t really know...I don’t think I have any OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • India could broaden her horizons beyond Croydon in order to discover a range of possibilities outside the borough • India could develop an understanding of her current skill set and begin to explore ways to apply them both academically and practically in her life IN INDIA’S WORDS I go to school because I have to. There isn’t much I couldn’t learn by myself, or just from working. I see so many people killing themselves at school to get good grades and it’s not even worth it. I can go to college without grade 9s. I could do an apprenticeship and be fine. I don’t have time for all of the homework they make us do, it’s too much. It’s pointless.

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1.3 User Persona: Priyanka, 14 FULL NAME: Priyanka Shah D.O.B: 03 / 09 / 05 AGE: 14 GENDER: Female ETHNICITY: British Pakistani EDUCATION: Royal Russell School - Coeducational (Year 9) FAMILY STATUS: Married parents. No siblings. Emigrated from Pakistan aged 3 DEVICES • iPhone 11 • Apple Mac desktop in her bedroom • Apple Mac desktop in father’s office • Apple Mac desktop in the study • Personal Macbook pro 13” • iPad Air 3rd generation • iPad Air 2nd generation USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS • Spends time mostly at school, enrichment clubs, or music classes on weekends • Priyanka can play the piano; a compromise made with her parents after giving up the cello aged 10 • Priyanka efficiently completes all of her homework during the school week • Priyanka takes private music lessons at home with a tutor on weekend mornings • Priyanka attends the Phoenix Piano Academy at Fairfield Halls on Saturday afternoon after her private music lesson • Priyanka commutes to Phoenix Piano Academy at Fairfield Halls by herself; after the class she meets up with friends in Croydon town centre to eat and hang out • Priyanka relishes this time with her friends as they do not attend her school • Priyanka is acutely aware of her privileged, middle-class background; she finds it stifling • Priyanka feels more comfortable in the diverse environment of central Croydon, preferring to be surrounded by working class children who use a wider range of dialects and colloquial language | 79

• Priyanka’s

parents openly want her to pursue a career in medicine • Priyanka is working towards that goal to please them and fulfil her ‘duty’ as a filial daughter • Meticulously maintains a semi-secret social life in order to prevent her world’s from colliding and collapsing • Uses Snapchat with her non-school friends • Uses Instagram with her school friends • Priyanka’s parents are unaware she has either account because they are kept in a hidden folder on her phone • Priyanka doesn’t feel pretty when she is at school surrounded by less diversity • Priyanka’s self-confidence rises when she is in her comfort zone outside of school, with her external friends • Feels estranged from Pakistani culture, she is chiefly British • Feels as though her parents do not understand her, especially not the complexity of her life in 2019 as an immigrant • Dislikes having to mask her ‘most authentic self WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? I am good at science, but I need to get better at biology I guess OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • Priyanka could discover how to authentically and articulately express herself • Priyanka could become empowered to shape her parents’ perception of her as an individual, as well as her interests and those of her friends • Priyanka could develop an understanding of interdisciplinary pathways and use divergent thinking to better align her personal and academic interests IN PRIYANKA’S WORDS Studying is easy, so I’m not really worried about college or university. I don’t really get to be myself at home and my friends aren’t allowed to come over, so I can’t really tell my parents when I’m hanging out with them. We’re not doing anything bad, we’re just having fun. I’d love for my parents to see that side of me.

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1.4 User Persona: Kyle, 13 FULL NAME: Kyle James Murray D.O.B: 12 / 05 / 06 AGE: 13 GENDER: Male ETHNICITY: White Mixed Asian (Scottish and South Korean) EDUCATION: Harris City Academy Crystal Palace - Coeducational (Year 9) FAMILY STATUS: Unmarried parents living as a couple. No siblings DEVICES • Doro 8055 smartphone • Dell desktop computer in home study • Personal Dell laptop (father’s old laptop) USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS • Kyle’s parents are anti-trend, anti-technology and anti-capitalism • Spends most of his time at school or hanging out with friends at each other’s houses • Responsible for personal space at home and cleaning the dishes after dinner • Kyle has a close relationship with his parents • Kyle has an open door policy at home; he has no curfew and lots of social freedom • Kyle is a key player in his group of friends and is well liked by his entire peer group • Kyle is known for his off-the-wall, light-hearted personality and mixed ethnicity • Kyle is not a particularly academic student • Excels in practical subjects such as art, science and design technology • Kyle has social media accounts but never posts or updates them • Kyle only engages with social media when he is with his friends • Enjoys hanging out with friends, playing guitar, drawing temporary tattoos and experimenting with natural recreational drugs • Appreciates a good laugh and people who understand that he “isn’t white” or “that Korean boy” • Tends to make light of all situations in order to support his friends, without realising that they require more than jokes for comfort • Kyle is genuinely a good person • Kyle is the pride of his parents and all those that call him a friend | 81

WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? I guess drawing and illustration. That type of stuff OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • Kyle could stimulate more conscious thoughts surrounding his future and the style of life he wishes to lead IN KYLE’S WORDS My mum is South Korean and my dad is Scottish. I’ve lived in Seoul, Glasgow and London, so many places feel like home to me. When people see me at first, they always judge me for what I look like, so it’s fun to shock people by speaking to my family in Korean, or doing my dad’s thick Scottish accent. I don’t know why people care about how I look of where I’m “from” because to be honest it doesn’t really matter. I like mange and manhwa because I’m a teenage boy, not because I’m Asian. I just want to be me, not what people assume I am just because I look a certain way.

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1.5 User Persona: Shakil, 13 FULL NAME: Shakil Masood D.O.B: 26 / 08 / 06 AGE: 13 GENDER: Male ETHNICITY: Asian British (Iranian) EDUCATION: Al-Khair Boys Secondary School (Year) FAMILY STATUS: Married parents. Three older sisters (37, 35 & 31) and an older brother(27) DEVICES • Google Pixel 4 (brand new with a fully loaded contract) • Personal HP Spectre x360 laptop • iPad pro • 2019 Apple iMac in home office • Google Next Hub USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS • Spends most of his time at school • Enjoys multiple trips abroad with his parents • Shakil’s father is a highly sought after financial advisor for clients in the middle east so he accompanies his parents when his father is travelling for business • Shakil’s maternal grandparents live in his family home • Shakil has four older siblings who have all moved away from home • Shakil often feels like an only child • Relishes the undivided attention and favour he receives from his parents and grandparents • Shakil is accustomed to the best of everything; he doesn’t believe that he is spoilt simply because his parents can afford to buy him whatever he wants • Shakil has no responsibilities at home • Shakil is active on Snapchat and Instagram; he regularly updates stories for his growing following • Shakil would like to start a YouTube channel to add to his influencer career ambitions | 83

• Shakil’s

parents encourage his larger than life personality; they view his behaviour as a youthful exploration before he is expected to settle down after university • Shakil enjoys talking to people and calling attention to himself • Hates being ignored and having to wait • Appreciates how hard his father works and is incredibly respectful • Enjoys grime, trap and hip hop music • Shakil often unintentionally appropriates black culture • Prefers to hang out with people share similar personality traits, cultural upbringing and social class • Tends to overlook his privilege, which results in a misguided world-view of social disparity • Believes he is more mature than his peers because he regularly operates within the “adult” world WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? My teachers always tell me I’m charming, so I should do sales, but I want to be an influencer OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • Shakil could develop entrepreneurial skills that allow him to harness and apply his natural charisma IN SHAKIL’S WORDS My life is basically set, so school doesn’t really’s just not a big deal for me. I’d like to be making my own money though. Lots of people my age are making big money and I can do that easily.

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1.6 User Persona: Matthew, 13 FULL NAME: Matthew Lloyd Carty D.O.B: 25 / 12 / 05 AGE: 13 GENDER: Male ETHNICITY: Black British Caribbean (Jamaican, Bajan) EDUCATION: Whitgift School - Independent Boys School (Year 9) FAMILY STATUS: Child carer to sick mother and father largely absent. No siblings DEVICES • Samsung Galaxy Note 7 • Acer Chromebook • iPod Nano USER ENVIRONMENT & PSYCHOGRAPHICS Spends most of his time at school, or at home by his mother’s bedside • On weekends he is able to study at the library • After school Matthew goes straight home to help the nurses care for his mother • Matthew is loved by staff and students at his school; he is often directly told that he is an asset in the classroom, as a friend, in team games and as part of the wider school community • Attends Piano ensemble club after school every other Wednesday • Matthew is reluctant to spend time away from his mother, so he completes his homework and practices on a small keyboard at her bedside in the family living space • Matthew posts videos of his original songs and covers on YouTube • Matthew has a small following; to date he has zero dislike and 214 subscribers • Matthew is very close to his mother; she is his motivation to succeed in life • Before having a stroke Matthew’s mother was the worship leader in a Pentecostal church, so now Matthew sings gospel songs together with her joyfully • Matthew’s home is happy and humble • Enjoys going to church with his mother and singing with the choir at Easter and Christmas • Appreciates every second he can spend with his mother, as he fears for her health every day | 85

• Matthews

feels a lot of pressure to maintain his school grades so that he remains eligible for his tuition bursary • Matthew is oblivious to the amount of stress he is under comparable to his friends • Prefers to spend time alone listening to music and writing songs after his mother falls asleep • Matthew doesn’t feel as though he has been forced to grow up too soon; he feels like the man of the house and never identifies as a victim WHAT SKILLS WOULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP FOR YOUR FUTURE? Singing. I’m a singer. I can’t imagine doing anything else OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • Matthew could connect with experts who could advise him on how to cultivate his talent and monetise his burgeoning career • Matthew could be exposed to industry practitioners who shared similar upbringings, who could widen his knowledge of the range of options available to someone in his position IN MATTHEW’S WORDS My mum is my best friend and my hero. I know that might sound weird to some people but it’s true. I will do all that I can to keep her happy and healthy. The Lord blessed me with this talent, so I know He will make a way for us somehow. It’s all good. I’m blessed. We’re blessed.

1.7 User Persona Thumbnails , 13 y l i Em

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Shakil, 13

, 13 e l y K




4 1 , ka

P ri y




, 13 w e h t at

Fig 8. Emily Louise Johnson User Persona. (2019) Fig 9. India Sanchia Powell User Persona. (2019) Fig 10. Priyanka Shah User Persona. (2019) Fig 11. Kyle James Murray User Persona. (2019) Fig 12. Shakil Masood User Persona. (2019) Fig 13. Matthew Lloyd Carty User Persona. (2019)

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APPENDIX 2 Empathy Mapping was used to investigate, interrogate and interpret the environment of prospective users in the UK year 9 demographic. As I utilised the technique alongside carrying out related research, I identified an opportunity to target specific users and appeal to others. 2.1 User Empathy Map: Target Demographic

Fig 19. User Empathy Map: Target Demographic (2019)

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2.2 User Empathy Map: Appeal Demographic

Fig 20. User Empathy Map: Appeal Demographic (2019)

Narrowing the demographic to a single, specific user was incredibly challenging because education policy reform impacts all students, in a range of ways and in varying degrees. Rather than ignore an entire demographic that would benefit from the same innovation that may arise as a result of this research, I considered their needs and pain points as illustrated above, which allowed me to better categorise my findings. There were significantly more points of tension for the older demographic, which all stemmed from more experience at life and a greater engagement in society. As I unpacked insights and developed foresights, I realised that increased engagement in society and discourse surrounding creativity, future career prospects and critical thinking is necessary and of crucial value at any age. As I continue researching, I would like to discover and analyse the ways that knowledge and information are reserved for different stages of life.

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APPENDIX 3 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Open Day. This event took place on 15 October 2019. I collected a selection of resources and materials designed to assist students with making well-informed academic choices 3.1 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Prospectus

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Figs 21-30. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Prospectus (2019)

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The prospectus is professionally produced and offered a pleasant user experience. The higher gsm paper stock added value to the initial quality, but aside from the materiality, it boasts few other plus points. It is clear that the institution is communicating their agenda and vision of what successful student careers look like, however the aesthetic, layout and design is rather clinical and presented with a decidedly corporate tone; certainly inappropriate and unappealing to the 15 - 16 year old demographic. Prospectuses and supplementary materials are supposed to entice students and give them an understanding of the courses they wish to study. In this instance, it does successfully communicate the visual language of Harris City Academy Sixth Form; which is an uninspired, manicured and generic expression of perceived quality, rather than passion to teach, learn and achieve.

3.2 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Digital Media Handout

Figs 31 & 32. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Digital Media Handout (2019)

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3.3 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form OCR A Level in Music Handout

Figs 33 & 34. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form OCR A Level in Music Handout (2019) Figs 35-38. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form A-Level Art at HCACP Handout (2019)

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3.4 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form A-Level Art at HCACP Handout

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3.5 Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Open Evening Event

Figs 39-43. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form Open Evening Event (2019)

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Upon arrival at the Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form open evening event, I was faced with a crowd of 30-40 children outside the gates. Mostly of ethnic heritage, they were not allowed inside without a parent or guardian, because there were ‘too many people’. Along with a companion, I escorted 2 separate groups of 6 children (1:3 adult to child ratio) over the course of 2 hours and spoke to them about their academic aspirations, creative interests and career prospects, as well as their opinions of the current GCSE grading system and Ebacc performance measure. Completely disappointed by the treatment of the children, who did nothing but display independence, maturity and supreme proactivity by trying to attend the event, I attempted to discuss the matter with staff on hand. They were dismissive, indifferent and keen to redirect my party to the open areas of the school; which consequently was only one corridor of language classrooms in the sixth form building as the rest of the school was ‘off-limits’. | 97

APPENDIX 4 Creative and cultural industry related ephemera from the Black Cultural Archives in Brixton, South London 4.1 Unicorn Theatre 2019/20 Guide

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Figs 44-46. Unicorn Theatre 2019/20 Guide (2019)

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The opening letter from the Artistic Director of the Unicorn Theatre, Justin Audibert, perfectly addresses and contextualises the discourse surrounding disaffected children lacking in access to creative environments and education; cuts faced by schools and communities, plus the urgency with which change needs to occur in the midst of the political uncertainty in the UK. This evidences how the creative and cultural industries are publicly responding to the negative impact that the Ebacc has on children and young people, which demonstrates the present need to provide realistic, sustainable measures to combat the damage caused and stifle any further continuation. The community programmes the theatre runs are enterprising, raise awareness of arts and creativity and are hugely beneficial, but they do not provide the necessary range of targeted activities or programmes for an older demographic of children and young people. The Unicorn Theatre, among many other cultural industry providers, target young audiences and so offer a plethora of entertaining shows, performances and programmes for 2 - 12 year olds. Whilst there is provision for teenagers aged 13 - 18 years olds, the offering is often limited at best.

4.2 Kids Kreate Postcard

Fig 47. Unicorn Theatre 2019/20 Guide (2019) Fig 48. Kids Kreate Postcard (2019)

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APPENDIX 5 The Croydon Council youth service produces this Post-16 prospectus, which is comprised of impartial advice and guidance, surrounding further study and careers after year 11. I accessed the prospectus online; I could not find evidence of a print version 5 Post-16 Prospectus 2019-2020

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Including overleaf figures Fig 49-58. Post-16 Prospectus (2019)

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Young people in 2019 have unparalleled access to media. Whether physical, digital or otherwise, youth are exposed to, are well-versed in and generate the codes of content. This ever-changing cycle is continuously informing and being informed by itself; so in order to contribute relevant content, or appeal to its consumers, it is essential to be knowledgeable. This prospectus indicates a complete lack of awareness of the communication landscape of youth in 2019 and is offensively reductive. There is no evidence of contemporary design practice; the outdated typography is inane and needlessly colourful, whilst the stock imagery is condescending and trite. Young people deserve as much aesthetic consideration in design outputs as adults do; perhaps even more so, given the immense value of their status and opinions as current and future consumers.

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APPENDIX 6 ‘Croydon Creative Campus’ is a vision of Croydon from cultural placemaking agency, Futurecity 6 Croydon Creative Campus Brochure

Fig 59-61. Croydon Creative Campus Brochure (2019)

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Futurecity’s narrative for Croydon as an interconnected, creative, centralised hub for business, education and community is opportune enough to be prophetic. Luxury apartment buildings are rising every year and there are talks of rezoning East Croydon to zone 4 to encourage even higher footfall into the city’s centre (it is currently zone 5). As the London borough with the highest number of young people (aged 0-17), Croydon possesses a concentration of divergent thinkers primed with conscious, socialist mindsets and an unprecedented agenda to design their own futures. | 107

APPENDIX 7 List of artists who wrote an open letter to the UK government about the Ebacc 7 List of Artists • Norman

Ackroyd • Tracey Emin • Grayson Perry • Nicola Green • Wolfgang Tillmans • Sam Taylor Johnson • Martin Boyce • Barbara Walker • Christine Borland • Antony Gormley • Fiona Banner • Gary Hume • Rose Wylie • Edmund de Waal • Rachel Whiteread • Mona Hatoum • Anish Kapoor • Cornelia Parker • David Shrigley • Alison Wilding • Bob and Roberta Smith • Gillian Wearing • Koo Jeong A • Phyllida Barlow 108 | appendices

• Hurvin

Anderson • Hannah Collins • Paul Noble • Cathy de Monchaux • Shezad Dawood • Susanna Heron • John Akomfrah • David Batchelor • Nikki Bell • Zarina Bhimji • Brian Clarke • Susan Collins • Celine Condorelli • Michael Craig-Martin • Deborah Curtis • Dexter Dalwood • Adam Dant • Grenville Davey • Cathy de Monchaux • Richard Deacon • Tacita Dean • Jeremy Deller • Rose English • Doug Fishbone

• Anya

Gallaccio • Ryan Gander • Dryden Goodwin • Liam Gillick • Mathew Hale • Anne Hardy • Alex Hartley • Tim Head • Lubaina Himid • Shirazeh Houshiary • Gary Hume • Callum Innes • Isaac Julien • Phillip King • Tania Kovats • Henry Krokatsis • Michael Landy • Ben Langlands • Christopher Le Brun • Liliane Lijn • Jeff McMillan • Lisa Milroy • Haroon Mirza • Goshka Macuga

• Mike

Nelson • Hayley Newman • Chris Orr • Vicken Parsons • Eddie Peake • Simon Periton • Susan Philipsz • Amalia Pica • Sarah Pickering • Kathy Prendergast • Charlotte Prodger • David Remfry • Liz Rideal • Ben Rivers • Eva Rothschild • Jenny Saville • Conrad Shawcross • Yinka Shonibare • Gavin Turk • Keith Tyson • Jessica Voorsanger • Mark Wallinger • Rebecca Warren • Sue Webster • Richard Wentworth • Jane Wilson • Louise Wilson • Richard Wilson • Sarah Woodfine • Bill Woodrow • Richard Wright • Catherine Yass • Carey Young • Abbas Zahedi | 109

APPENDIX 8 List of commissioners from the Durham Commission on Creativity and Education 8 List of Commissioners • Sir Nicholas Serota, CH: Chair of Durham Commission Chair of Arts Council England • Sir

David Adjaye, OBE: principal and founder of Adjaye Associates Architects • Lauren Child, MBE: award-winning children’s author and former Children’s Laureate • Sir Jon Coles: Chief Executive of United Learning • Althea Efunshile, CBE: Chair of National College of Creative Industries • Dame Reena Keeble: Educationalist and former primary Headteacher • Lord Kerslake: Chair, Peabody Trust • Imran Khan: Head of Public Engagement, Wellcome Trust • Akram Khan MBE: Director of Akram Khan Company • Baroness Kidron, OBE: Filmmaker and co-founder of educational charity Into Film • Professor Roger Kneebone: Professor of Surgical Education and Engagement Science, Imperial College • Anne Longfield, OBE: Children’s Commissioner for England • Professor Linda Merrick: Principal of Manchester’s Royal Northern College of Music • Jacqui O’Hanlon: Director of Education, Royal Shakespeare Company • Kathryn Pugh: Headteacher of The St Marylebone CE School, London • Paul Roberts, OBE: Arts Council England National Council member and Chair of the Innovation Unit • Phil Stokes: Creative Industries Leader, PwC • Alice Webb: Director, BBC Children’s and BBC North

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APPENDIX 9 ‘The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter’ is an exhibition at the Science Museum that explores the interplay between social developments and scientific progress. (25 September 2019 – 26 January 2020) 9 The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter’ exhibition visit on 30 October 2019

Fig 3. The Art of Innovation: From Enlightenment to Dark Matter Exhibition (2019)

I visited the exhibition at 11am during the school holiday and aside from the two children I accompanied and a volunteer, there were no other visitors. The Science Museum is one of the most culturally significant and widely respected institutions in the UK, so I was shocked by the lack of attendance; not only because the exhibition was widely publicised, but also that it was a school holiday. | 111

APPENDIX 10 Slide deck of initial research into topic area conducted June - September 2019 10 Slide Deck of Initial Research

Figs. 62-69 Slide Deck of Initial Research (2019)

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The initial research period offered a lucrative opportunity to discover who the key players were in creative arts education discourse, learn new terminology (Ebacc, grade 9) and also situate my interests in the context of creative direction for fashion. I was able to reveal layers of complexity and issues surrounding social mobility and access to resources , as well as observe and reflect on changes to educational delivery since I was a youth. These early insights from all of the secondary research and impromptu interviews that I conducted, helped to shape my view of creative arts education in the UK and give an academic framework from which I can develop a creative outcome.

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APPENDIX 11 Interview Questions 11.1 Interview Questions: Adult I am researching creative arts education in the UK and am interested in your personal journey in the education system. I would like to follow a chronological account of your journey, so will be asking questions that follow a relative order. There is certainly room for off-topic, related commentary, so please don’t feel too restricted in your answers, but do bear the research topic of creative arts education in the UK in mind. • Are

you happy to begin the conversation?

• Start

out by telling me your: Name, Age, Primary School, Secondary School, College, University

• Starting

at the beginning of your school journey, tell me about your experience of primary school

• And

Secondary school, what was your experience like there?

• Particular • What

subjects that you enjoyed, why?

was the qualification at the time and what did you choose to study?

• Can you recall how you felt when making decisions about your educational future? • Did

your schools offer enrichment, or extra-curricular activities?

• How

would you describe the careers advice and provision at your school?

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• Thinking

specifically about the creative arts; art, music, design and technology, what was the provision for those subjects?

• At

the time, how was career progression discussed amongst your peers?

• Following

the same pattern, please discuss your college experience.

• University

can be seen by many to be the final destination on the educational journey; what are your thoughts on this?

• What

was your experience of studying at university?

• So

I would like to share some information with you about recent educational reform in the UK and then hear your thoughts. Have you heard of something called the EBaccalaureate or EBacc before?

• It

was created by the government and is a performance indicator for schools, the results can be seen on league tables. The government says the EBacc ‘is a set of subjects at GCSE that keeps young people’s options open for further study and future careers’. Those subjects are English language and English literature, maths, the sciences - which are biology, chemistry and physics, and then the remaining subjects are geography or history and a language. To repeat, the EBacc subjects are English, maths, science, the humanities and a language, and they are quote, ‘a set of subjects at GCSE that keeps young people’s options open for further study and future careers’. What is your view on the Ebacc?

• The

EBacc has received a lot of criticism from education leaders, high-profile artists and creative practitioners for it’s exclusion of creative arts subjects such as art, music and design and technology. Popular opinions and strong evidence suggests that schools seeking to rank higher on league tables, are strongly encouraging students to study the EBacc combination of subjects at the expense of creative arts subjects. What impact do you think this influence could have on the: students; quality of provision for creative subjects in schools; creative industries and higher education institutions; parents who use league tables

• The

EBacc is comprised of subjects that form the National Curriculum, which ‘sets out the programmes of study and attainment targets for all subjects at all 4 key stages.’

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• Currently,

‘all local-authority-maintained schools in England must teach these programmes of study’ as is stated by the UK government. How do you think the national curriculum should be put together? With whose involvement?

• How

do you think your school experience would have been impacted by the EBacc, should it have been implemented at the time?

11.2 Interview Questions: Adult Parent I would like to engage with you as a parent. Still thinking about creative arts education in the UK, I am interested in your experience of the school system through your children. • Are

you happy to begin the conversation?

• Start

out by telling me the: current ages of your children, their primary and secondary schools, plus post-16 / colleges or universities

• Did

you have any involvement in your child’s school PTA, or as a governor for example?

• Beginning

perhaps with your eldest child, what was their primary school experience like?

• Secondary • Particular • What


subjects that they enjoyed, why?

was the qualification at the time and what did they choose to study?

• Can

you recall discussions with your child about their educational future, or career prospects?

• How

would you describe the careers advice and provision at their school?

• Thinking

specifically about the creative arts; art, music, design and technology, what was the provision for those subjects? | 119

• So

any further education?

• How

do you think the education system impacted your child’s development as an individual?

• Do

you feel as though the education system prepared them well enough for the reality of life as a UK citizen?

• I

would like to follow the same pattern of questioning with your next child, beginning again with primary school. Was there a difference in support offered?

• Did

they enjoy the experience?

• Thinking

about each of your children’s experiences, how do you think they would have been impacted by the EBacc, should it have been implemented at the time?

• What

additional thoughts do you have to share regarding creative arts education in the UK? I designed questions that were open in order to encourage each interview participant to share as much detail as possible, without overloading them. Over the course of each conversation, I adapted the questions to suit the emerging lines of enquiry, so these remained as flexible guidelines, rather than being fixed instructions. Preparing questions ahead of time allowed me to send a small selection to the participants before each interview. This enabled them to understand the research I was conducting and engage in more spirited, relevant discourse.

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APPENDIX 12 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Participant Consent Forms 12.1Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Participant Consent Form

Figs 70 & 71. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Participant Consent Form (2019)

In order to validate consent for each interview, I invited participants to consensually sign the above consent form. In instances where interviews were conducted with minors and transcribed, I sought consent and signatures from parents. In order to maintain the anonymity of the participants, I have redacted their names but preserved the signatures on each of the following forms. | 121

12.2 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant R

Fig 72. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant R (2019)

12.3 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant D

Fig 73. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant D (2019)

12.4 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant M

Fig 74. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant M (2019)

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12.5 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant P

Fig 75. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant P (2019)

12.6 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant K

Fig 76. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant K (2019)

12.7 Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant E

Fig 77. Research for Independent Project: Creative Direction for Fashion Consent Form for Participant E (2019)

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APPENDIX 13 Interview Transcripts with 6 participants 13.1 Interview Transcript with Participant R Participant R is a minor so sections of this transcript have been redacted Interviewee: [Resp R] Year 5 Student and Croydon Resident Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [28/09/2019][16:00] Location: [BOXPARK Croydon, 99 George St, Croydon CR0 1LD] Audio file information: [Resp R][00:28:33] [LR] For the purposes of the recording can you please state your name and your age [Resp R] [redacted] and I am 9 years old. [LR] Can you tell me the name of your school please [Resp R] [redacted] [LR] What year are you in? [Resp R] Year 5 [LR] Okay, so do you want to just talk to me about the kind of subjects you study at school. [Resp R] I don’t mind. [LR] What subjects are you studying at school? [Resp R] I am studying English and maths. I am also doing art, religious education, 124 | appendices

Topic and science. [LR] What is ‘Topic’? [Resp R] Topic is a little bit - I don’t particularly know, they don’t really explain it to us. They just give us a heading. Our thing might be, ‘beast creators’ which we’re doing at the moment and you go around and do different types of things. You might go to a museum to learn about bugs and it’s really cool when you go on trips, you find it really exciting. But when you do the science thing in a school, you write about the bug you’re doing or make posters about it, so it’s pretty cool in Topic, but I don’t really know the meaning of what it is. [LR] Oh you don’t know what the meaning of Topic is? [Resp R] No, they just give you a heading. [LR] Have any of your topics been non-science related? [Resp R] Maybe [...] magic. We do a magic one and you can make different potions, but that’s really it. The rest of them are pretty much science related. [LR] Okay, so if we were to talk about art, what kind of things do you do in your art lessons? [Resp R] So in my art lessons we do clay making and we do drawing. Sometimes we don’t really [...] sometimes we just write about it and do things about who the artist is. We also have extra art sessions that you do on a Tuesday. I’m one of the people that get to go into the art sessions and then you do it for an hour and you can build up an autobiography that you can get into an art school with. [LR] Into an art school with? [Resp R] Yeah. [LR] That’s interesting, talk to me more about that. [Resp R] So you go there and there’s clay and you can do clay-making. You can do drawing and you get one extra trip. I find it really cool because you can do it and it’s just a nice thing to relax and do. But then you can go there to build up an autobiography. Our school is the only school that really does it to go to an art school. | 125

That means [indiscernible] you just give it in and get into an art school doing the clay-making, or something that you’ve done. [LR] Do you know the name of this additional class? [Resp R] It’s just called art. [LR] Just called art? Is it like a gifted and talented program, or-? [Resp R] No, it’s just an extra art lesson basically. [LR] So can any student do it? [Resp R] No, you get specially picked if you’ve been doing good in art since reception, to year one and year two. However our teachers have changed, so instead of it being the first teacher that done it, it’s the second teacher that does it, so we’ve been learning from some other teacher. She’s been our teacher for quite a long time now. [LR] Okay, so the teacher just picks somebody they think has done well? [Resp R] They don’t pick one, they pick quite a few. [LR] Quite a few, okay. How long does the program run, will it be- ? [Resp R] It goes until the end of year 5. [LR] So it’s just for year 5 students? [Resp R] Yes, but they do year 6 things. So you have different house captains in PE and people have [redacted], [redacted], [redacted] and [redacted] but only year sixes can run that. I feel to me it’s a little bit unfair, it should be for the little bit older children. Maybe the year 4s, or the year 5s, because only the year 6s get to do it. I know that they do different types of things but they get free trips after they finish their SATs which is fair, but I think we should get something because other people also work hard in the class, so that’s my only thing about the school. [LR] Moving onto secondary school, have you thought much about the kind of things you’d like to study there? [Resp R] I’ve been thinking about secondary school. I mean I don’t particularly know 126 | appendices

what to do, or what secondary school I want to go to. I feel like I am starting to get on the edge about it. I feel like I just want to go to an all-girls school, however if I go to an all-girls school, I wouldn’t want it to just be an all sports school, or just an art school. I think I’m good at art and everything, or I may want to do a dance school, or maybe a sports school. I feel like I’m good at tennis and football that they do at break times. Sorry I’m going a bit off the subject, but how the playtime’s work is a little bit different and I think it’s unfair for the year sixes. So your receptions’, year ones’ and year twos’ break times start at 10.15[am] and then their school day ends at 3 o’clock[pm] but both come in at the same time as us. They have three break times in the school and the first break time we have is just the playground that’s all for us, the little mini one on the side corner which has the MUGA [multi use games area] and a climbing frame in it and four square. We have that playtime at 10.30[am] and our lunch is at 12.15[pm] and the year twos and year ones go for their lunch earlier than us. It’s always pretty much 15 minutes, except the year sixes. They go for their lunch at 12 o’clock[pm] and then I remember me going at like 11.45[am] when I was in reception [...]. After you finish that you go to the year sixes and they have to wait until 1.15[pm] to eat their meals, which I feel is unfair because they start at the same time as us, they finish at the same time as us and they don’t get extra breaks. We don’t get extra breaks except the other kids and they end their school day earlier than us, which I find a little bit unfair. I feel like all of us should just finish at the same time and we should have equal break times instead of the little kids having more. I know that they should be creative, however we should all have a little bit more and while we’re focused in class, we can hear them playing outside. My classroom is right next to the window, so when the receptions, or year ones,or year twos go out for their break, we can hear them banging on the walls, which is a little bit annoying and frustrating for me as well. [LR] Okay, that’s reasonable. Circling back to secondary school and the kind of subjects you’d be interested in studying, you mentioned dance and music[Resp R] Sports too [LR] Yes and arts as well. Those are all things that you think you are good at; what do you think is the reason behind why you would decide on one subject instead of another? | 127

[Resp R] I think that it all relies on how I finish primary school, because if I finish hating art, or not really liking particular subjects, my path is pretty much lead on what I particularly want to do. I feel like sometimes you don’t really have a good understanding about what you want to do. It’s just things that pop into your head. You might be like ‘okay, I know what I like. I like art and I might like sports’ and then you come to the end of the school year and you can look it up, which I think is really interesting. [LR] So do you feel like you need to choose a school based off of your attributes, your talents? [Resp R] To me it’s not what I’ve been forced to do, I feel like it will be best for me. If I’m going to a school where it’s all mixed, which will be cool with all different subjects, but maybe I would like more of a change. If I do art, that’s something that I enjoy, whereas if I do religious education, I feel like sometimes it can be too much. Sometimes people will talk about Christianity and things like that which I don’t really mind, but then they get a bit too *inner about it and I personally am not a Christian. I don’t believe in certain things that people believe in, or practice. When they sit down to pray to God, or next to the candles, I don’t really like doing things like that because I don’t want to know that much about someone’s religion that I’m am not, when I already know the basics about it. [LR] Would you say that you feel the same way about religion as perhaps other subjects? Meaning if you were at a school that was teaching you a subject that you didn’t have as much interest in, would that be frustrating for you? [Resp R] Yeah [LR] Okay [Resp R] I feel like some subjects are boring and some lessons at school, they don’t really make fun for the kids, they just make it basic. In English you do writing, or they read a bit of a story and build the anticipation up, however we should just read the whole book because I feel like we can get through a little bit more of the topic and get to know everything, which is cooler. I feel like it’s a bit unfair when you don’t do it how you’re meant to. I find it cooler when you just relax and you’re happy with what you’re doing and you find it interesting, so you can say ‘I really want to stay’. Sometimes the lessons are a bit too short in 128 | appendices

something that you love, so I feel like we should be able to pick what sessions we would like to do and say ‘these are the things I can really learn from’. English and maths and things like that are the subjects that they don’t really make fun for you, so you’re like ‘I don’t really want to do that, I already know things about this’. They’re just teaching you things that I don’t particularly want to get taught. [LR] Okay. So it sounds like you are more interested in learning about subjects that interest you, but I am also detecting that you are perhaps interested in subjects that relate to what you could possibly do in the future[Resp R] Yeah. [LR] Is that right? [Resp R] Yes. [LR] Do you think that it is important for your education, to study things that could help you with a career in the future? [Resp R] Yes because there are some jobs out there that I think I can be better at, than working in a starter job at Sainsbury’s just to earn money. It’s annoying when you just have to work with what you got for that reason, because I feel like you can do so much more instead [LR] Would the subjects you think would be interesting to study and that you think would be beneficial for your future, be described as creative subjects? [Resp R] Yes I think it would be classed as creative subjects because I think some things are just interesting to learn and can help you along the way. There are some things that you’re not very keen about, but then there are loads of things that you can get excited about too. [LR] Have you heard of something called the EBaccalaureate, or Ebacc before? [Resp R] No. [LR] Okay, well it was created by our government and can be thought of as a tool to measure how well secondary schools are performing. The government says the Ebacc ‘is a set of subjects at GCSE that keeps young people’s options open for further study | 129

and future careers’. The subjects on that list are English language and English literature, maths, the sciences - which are biology, chemistry and physics, and then the remaining subjects are geography or history and a language. So those are the subjects that the government feels every student in the UK should study and they encourage schools to promote them in order to help prepare students for their futures. [Resp R] Okay [LR] Thinking about everything that we’ve spoken about so far, you may notice that I haven’t mentioned art, music, theatre studies, dance, design, or anything along those lines. [Resp R] Yeah [LR] The Ebacc tool doesn’t include those subjects when they are looking at how well a school is doing, but they are still available to study at secondary school level. Recently some schools have not been offering some, or any of those “creative subjects” and people have done research, which shows that one reason could be so that schools can put more time and effort into teaching English, maths, science, geography, history and languages. You are in year five now and are already thinking about which secondary school you’ll be moving onto in a couple of years time. How does it make you feel to know that the school you could be attending, may not be teaching some of those creative subjects? [Resp R] I find it very upsetting because I feel like some people’s future shouldn’t be chosen for them by the government. My future depends on what I want to do and some of those subjects might help you in your career, but they also won’t help you in your career at the same time. Imagine if I wanted to do art. English doesn’t match with art. Maths doesn’t match with art. Art matches with art because it is something that you can imagine and if you don’t really have imagination, or something fun you can do while you’re at school, it comes to a point where it gets boring. I like getting my hands messy and I like doing clay things, but there are some other things that are not going to help me achieve something that I want to put my mind to. I disagree with what the government is doing, however do you feel they are going to ban trips? Do you know what trips they are going to be planning? Will they be more 130 | appendices

educational and less fun? [LR] In terms of school trips? [Resp R] Yeah. [LR] Different schools are able to select what and how to teach the students different subjects, so it’s down to that school and the teachers to plan what lessons look like and whether or not they want to visit various museums or something like that. Not the government. But if there isn’t a music teacher for example, it is unlikely that other teachers would plan visits to music related exhibitions or spaces. It’s not impossible, just unlikely. Does that make sense? [Resp R] Yeah, a little bit. [LR] Well if there isn’t an art department at a school, or any art teachers, there would likely be less opportunities to take part in arts activities and go on those types of trips as part of your school day. So I can’t say, ‘no, there won’t be any art trips’, but it seems most likely that if those creative subjects are not being offered, then trips and additional, extra curricular activities related to those subjects won’t be on offer at those schools. Is that clearer? [Resp R] Yes and I feel like that’s really upsetting because at the moment there’s this trip going on and our school does really fun trips. With year two at the moment in our school you make your own movie and it comes up in the IMAX cinema, so it might have your own poster in the IMAX cinema. The thing is called ‘11 Before 11’ and that’s what year two are doing. You might get to watch other schools’ movies and you have popcorn and snacks like a proper movie theatre and you might see yours. Year three [...] I can’t really remember what they’re doing. Year four are doing horse riding. My year are going to the National Space Station up in Leicester. You sleep over there, you get breakfast, get two platinum shows and you get different artefacts that you can look at and you have your own tour guide to look around with. In year 5 you go up to Wales and you do camping there as well. You can go on canoes and boats and I feel like I may not get the opportunity of doing that at secondary school, now you’ve spoken to me about it. The thing is with these trips is they say ‘you’ll be doing this trip and going there’ but you have to have money. I feel like the school should put money aside for arranging these trips instead of other people paying, because it’s a little bit unfair that some people | 131

can be poorer than others and they are wasting their money to do it. At the moment we’re doing a talent contest and you have to pay one pound to audition, which some people might need to do an after school shop, or get a nice sweet thing for their children. Yes schools need money to do it, however they should put a little more money aside. My school also arranges breakfast for people that don’t particularly eat and they change it up so you might have jam on toast, or they might have honey on toast, or porridge. Sometimes they might do pancakes, but that’s like on special occasions. [LR] So you already know about some children being from less advantaged home environments. If I were to say that creative subjects are being taught less at free schools and academies, but in privately funded schools, which are schools that people pay for, the same creative subjects are being taught the usual amount. How would that make you feel? [Resp R] To me, I feel like I want to do something that I want to be good at and now I’ve thought of things they are doing in different private schools like Trinity, or Wallington High School for Girls, which is really exciting and I don’t think the same things will be at all normal schools, which is upsetting. [LR] Do you mean free schools? Yes, free schools. Also, I think it is really out of order because there are other things that are going on at the moment, like with Brexit and it is getting too many things in peoples’ minds. I feel like Newsround is good because it tells you what’s happening in Brexit and some kids’ parents just talk about it, but I think most adults at the moment are just planning kids’ futures, instead of you planning it yourself. Like with Brexit about leaving the EU, or staying in the EU, it’s really unfair because you might want to stay but the adults are choosing to go out. Then it’s unfair for other people too because they might choose something that somebody else might not be able to because you don’t have a vote. It’s really upsetting and I know that you might not understand what’s happening, but your adults could maybe sit down and talk to you. Or there might be a little session that explains what is happening because it’s really unfair that your future is getting planned for you and it’s not like they’re going to stop it because the children don’t like what they’re saying about things. 132 | appendices

Some people might not have experienced that much at their age and by the time you turn a particular age, it might already have changed and you might not even have got to vote. I feel like a vote is a vote and adults are voting for children’s future at the moment, which is unfair. What the government is doing is also unfair because we’re the ones that are going to try to do things in the future and nobody is actually listening to what our say is. [LR] So if you could speak directly to the government in this situation, what would you say?. [Resp R] I think it is absolutely unfair. I feel like we all have a right to say something and everybody has their own civil rights. At the moment some people are taking away your civil rights of what you feel you want to do and I have a right to say something. Some people are just taking away civil rights because they might be older, but our future should not be planned by somebody else. It’s just selfish of them, which is just appalling to me because nobody is really trying to do anything, about literally anything. Like with the pollution that’s going round, or with the sea, nobody is trying to do anything about it. They just stick to what it is and that’s just what it is. Whereas sooner or later you’re going to regret that you didn’t do anything. There might be things that are going on and you might know something was made by the government, but we don’t know the people in it and we don’t know if what they are doing is good. [LR] Who do you think should decide what is taught in schools? [Resp R] To me, I feel like they should not be somebody that doesn’t accept you for what you want. I think all schools should have every single subject and then you just pick for the entire school year, whatever is your thing. It’s upsetting because you shouldn’t just have someone choose it for you, when you can choose it yourself. You obviously have to pick writing and maths, but then you might pick some fun sessions as well, like art or something that you get dedicated to do. You don’t want to rush yourself, just choose things that you might want to do and go for them. [LR] It sounds like you’re saying that all subjects, including creative subjects, should be available to everyone equally at every school[Resp R] Yeah because whether you have money or not, or you live in a more wealthy area, it’s everyone’s school *deeply involved | 133

This interview took place in BOXPARK Croydon with Participant R - a year 5 student and local Croydon resident - and their father. We sat beneath an outdoor heater; Participant R ate ice cream and we began the interview after the process, topic and structure was explained. Participant R articulates how the structure of a school day impacts their learning and the learning of others, which shows that conscious thought and analysis is happening very early on in childhood. Participant R also showed a keen awareness of several personal and objective injustices, whilst identifying simple remedies that could be offered by schools and parents. Timely and satisfactory explanation seemed to be lacking for Participant R, who would likely have these basic needs met if adults offered children and young people the courtesy of it more readily. By explaining, we are providing children with the opportunity to inquire further and develop an understanding. Rather than just accept all of the information we supply them with at face value, children like Participant R are seeking out additional sources (Newsround) to fill voids left by the education system, or parents. During the interview I was uninterested in Participant R talking about their school lunch times, however whilst transcribing, I realised that the dialogue sounded incredibly similar to the gripes of adult workers. Smoking breaks, working lunches, ergonomic equipment and bathroom facilities are all tension and talking points for adults because of the environments we regularly exist in. The same is true for Participant R who cannot focus through the noise in the playground, get over not being a house captain, or contend with the thought of younger children not receiving sweet treats after school. If adults had more empathy for children and young people and chose to acknowledge and equate the grievances we experience all in our lives, rather than discounting them as inconsequential, a mutually beneficial relationship of understanding and affinity would underpin our society.

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13.2 Interview Transcript with Participant D Interviewee: [Resp D] Level 3 Extended Diploma Course Tutor Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [09/10/2019][11:00] Location: [Black Cultural Archives Café, 1 Windrush Square, Brixton, London, SW2 1EF] Audio file information: [Resp D][02:17:17] [LR] I will try to be efficient so I don’t keep you too long. [Resp D] That’s okay. [LR] Some information before we start. I am researching creative arts education in the UK, so I am interested in your account and experience of it. I’m going to try to follow a chronological look through your journey to where you are now. There’s obviously room for off-topic, related things to say, so don’t feel too restricted by the questions. If you feel like something is more pressing, or urgent to mention, then please do. [Resp D] Do you have a hypothesis for your- is this for your dissertation? [LR] So I am doing a dissertation, as well as a research project with a view to creating an outcome after January. I am essentially doing the same theme for the topic, which is looking at how we can make arts education and creative industries education accessible to everyone equally. Regardless of your social class standing, or type of schooling if it’s private, or state funded, or even homeschooling too; looking at extracurricular activities and how provisions in different areas vary, or are incredibly limited. In some cases very targeted for the most needy individuals and in other cases, not on offer at all. I think it’s mostly about making creative industries information and knowledge accessible to everybody, not just those who have had a super strong keen interest because they’ve been drawing since they were 2 years old, it’s not just those students that deserve to know about what’s available to them. Especially in the current climate of social, political, environmental and technological change. Traditional jobs and careers that are seen as, well that are glorified and validated as the pinnacle of success, some of them won’t exist because of automation and probably other factors as well. So, how can we put that knowledge in front of students sooner. Basically, that’s what I’m looking at. | 135

[Resp D] Do you look at the parental impact on kid’s decisions? [LR] Yes. For my dissertation I’m developing this idea of education as performative. So in a performative sense, everybody has an understanding of “education” and what it means to have an “education”. There’s the student, the teacher, you’re in some kind of learning environment and there’s the knowledge that’s being delivered to you. So if we think, ‘all children go to school’, we could also think and realise that ‘not all children are receiving an education’. So if “education” is not doing the job of preparing students for life, careers and society and individuals don’t feel as though they’ve gained those key skills either, then one of those pillars - the teachers, the students themselves, the quality of the knowledge communication, or the learning environment - is not facilitating or doing the “education” that we all agree on. From a performative sense, there are already accepted, or widely understood ideas of what it means to be a “good student” or a “bad student,” or “bad teacher”, etcetera. Whereas when we look at, that is to say, focus on grades and league tables, we are not taking in the wider context of the individual circumstances and barriers, or advantages that ultimately impact or affect “education” and the “system” it operates under. Education is something we are all doing whether we feel directly attached to it as students, parents, teachers, or the government. It’s about perception and it’s all very subjective, or very often considered from an academic, archaic viewpoint so- sorry, does any of that make sense? [Resp D] Kind of. [LR] Sorry. What did you- you asked me about parent’s impact? So I’ve been thinking about education as performative and those “pillars”; teachers, students etcetera, and then exploring what the students themselves are doing in relation to education and this idea of autonomy sparked after reading about the Ebacc. I’m saying all of this to say that I have basically pinpointed that the first time autonomy is presented in schools with weighted ramifications and implications on your future, happens in year 9. That is the first moment when students are given the choice over what to study because up until that point that have to follow the national curriculum selected by their schools. Whereas in year 9, well for most schools it’s year 9, but at 13, 14 years old, students are empowered to make conscious decisions to choose pathways and subjects that give them qualifications which matter for further education, careers and beyond. 136 | appendices

Now, the overwhelming majority of people that I’ve spoken to, young and old, have all talked about different motivations for those decisions. Some people already had some creative knowledge, they knew somebody, or their parents were in music, so they already knew about what they could do and chose subjects from a learned perspective. Other people who didn’t have any creative influences around them externally just chose formal, traditionally academic subjects because that’s what they were told would secure them a good job. That’s from teachers, their peers and parents too, so I think parental influence is key to understanding how much access is given to knowledge and the scope of life in general, or influences outside of school. All of these factors impact how effectively students can make their choices for GCSE, or align them for prospective futures. [Resp D] I think it’s an element of how certain subjects are valued and ironically, well not ironically, but often kids who have arts in their family, those families will value it more. Then there’s other kids who don’t have that, so it’s a much harder struggle to make that kind of decision. [LR] Well following on from when we spoke before about teaching, you were saying that some of your students came [to Croydon College] and that’s exactly what they wanted to do, but then the pathways were changed, or moved? [Resp D] So, I taught a Level 3 Extended Diploma course and the students, because of the demographic of the area as well, most of them didn’t come from weren’t born in England and those that were, I think only 1 or 2 had parents that had gone to university. So in that respect, you’ve got the kind of odds that we talk about. They’re all now studying art and design diplomas, but at the same time, a lot of them also had very few GCSEs and because you have to be in education until 18, you rock up to college to enrol on a subject and very often they’re just enrolled onto a course. Not necessarily because they really want to do it, because they don’t really know that they want to do, but because they probably haven’t had those discussions before, or are not really aware of what it means to have done life drawing when they were little, or making stuff. A lot of them really struggled at school anyway, so they’re put into another kind of academic environment where a lot of them just continue to struggle, but it’s seen as, by some, as the easier option to do that course. Does that make sense? [LR] Yes. | 137

[Resp D] So I think there actually are a lot of students that are doing Art and Design courses and a lot of them had actually started from level 2; so they come in and they don’t have the GCSEs, so they’ll do level 2 art and design and then that is the equivalent of [earning] GCSEs and then that allows them to start level 3, but a lot of them still don’t have a good grounding for how to study, or [...] I don’t know, I think that might have just been the place that I was teaching at. There were so many pressures on the staff and the institute. Time as well. Kids enrolling onto the full time course are only getting 11 hours a week contact. [LR] How would that work in full time education at that level? [Resp D] Because in theory the rest is independent study. But they’re 16, 17, 18 year olds, with only 11 hours contact a week and within those 11 hours you have to fit in assessments and lots of other stuff, so it becomes- well what I actually found quite incredible last year, especially the social media and access kids have to other [groups], some of them are really active creatively outside of college, that I found really fascinating. Almost to the point where it was like, you’re kind of doing it already. A lot of them had Instagram feeds where they were putting up their work and selling work, working creatively in different kinds of areas, whether it was henna designs or, illustration and photography. They were really kind of- I thought it was amazing. It was almost like a lot of younger people were actually taking things into their own hands and there were these subcultures of things that are going on that maybe people like me, in my age and the kind of route that I took aren’t even aware of, we’ve all kind of plodded the same, “this is what art education is”, does that make sense? [LR] Absolutely. How do you think they came to know about those external ways of exploring their creativity? [Resp D]: I think these were the students who were genuinely engaged and were really interested in it. A couple of them didn’t have the great GCSE results but they are genuinely creative individuals and really talented as well and it almost felt like sometimes the things that we were asking them to do, the critical studies part and the evaluating and reflecting, they couldn’t really see the point of it because they were already doing all of this amazing stuff. I guess that’s always been the struggle with art and design, even- I started an MA recently and I was in a workshop yesterday and this guy was trying to teach us how 138 | appendices

to respond to text and we had to do a free-writing exercise and this guy next to me had written, “‘I just want to make prints and draw’” and I thought, at every level of the education system there’s people that just want to make stuff, but there’s this other element that you have to do, the academic side of it and it’s at every level. There are people that really don’t want to do it and they just don’t see the point of it. [LR] Why do you think there is such a disconnect between the practical side of things and the theoretical, academic side when it comes to creativity in education? [Resp D] I don’t know. I think possibly it’s just to do with your upbringing and what your exposure to ideas are. I don’t know if this is right, but you’ll grow up and you’ll be like, “‘oh, she’s really good at drawing, she really likes painting’” and there’s the idea that that’s what art is, or that’s what design is. That you’re just good at drawing and painting, or this idea that unless you’re educated to a certain point and been exposed to those ideas behind what you’re doing, or it’s things that are embedded in what’s come before without you realising it. So maybe that’s- I think if you grow up in a home that has lots of art on the walls and books and your parents are watching those documentaries rather than just Coronation Street or EastEnders, you’re being exposed to [...] actually it’s a much bigger thing than just what you’re doing. That’s the academic side and it doesn’t necessarily have to be like that. I was talking to one of my colleagues who teaches on music production and I was saying “sometimes I just feel like I’m squeezing all of the creativity out of these kids. They’re really passionate about drawing and making all of this great stuff and then it feels like you stop them. Now do this. Now reflect on what you just did. Evaluate. Find things. It almost puts them off from carrying on.” And he made a really good point, he said “‘well that’s the difference between doing something academically and not.’” You can sit in your bedroom and make music and you can paint and draw and make stuff, but if you want to actually get a qualification, then you have to do the academic side to it. Does that make any sense? [LR] It does make sense. If anything, it sounds like in order to qualify the creative aspects of what somebody is doing and their practice, you have to do the academic stuff otherwise it’s not going to be recognised. [Resp D] Yeah a little bit. I also think it’s having the confidence to speak about what you’re doing because it is quite an elitist- I mean I’m coming from the perspective | 139

of fine art because that’s what I studied. I don’t know if it’s the same in more design subjects, but when I did my foundation course it was very much about conceptual art. That was the kind of thing that people were talking about, so it just felt like you had to qualify everything. ‘I did it because of this’ and have an explanation for everything and it can be quite- it felt like you couldn’t do anything emotional, or purely expressive, but maybe that was my perception of it. Then when I went to do my degree it was fine art but broken down into 5 different areas and that was sculpture, print, painting, film,video and [critical]. I think it was something kind of conceptual which is probably what most fine art courses are now, people who can dabble in anything and they had- their dissertation was weighted more heavily and a lot of their making was just like “ what~?” There were so many big ideas but it didn’t really translate in what they produced. I think sometimes if you’re told that, that’s what art is, it can almost feel like, “well I want to do a painting, or I want to make a sculpture, or print” and depending on what’s in vogue at the time is whether it’s accepted or not. It’s all about fashion isn’t it - it’s trends within all spheres of the art world. Sorry, I’ve gone really off topic. [LR] No, that’s particularly relevant. Especially when you were talking about if that is what you’re being told, that ‘that’s what art is’ and that you need to evaluate it and do it based off of a set of standards in order to justify the work that you’re doing. It has to make sense in the context of art as “this” and then with “these” conventions, we can then understand what it is that you’re doing. What impact do you think that has on expression? [Resp D] I think it has a really big impact. I think with education it depends on who your tutors are as well. So if you make something, one tutor would just be like, “well that’s not really relevant to what’s happening here and now in the arts scene”, whereas another tutor might say, “that’s a really powerful piece of work and it’s coming from you.” So I think the biggest problem is that everything is subjective, so it feels like everything has to be rooted in whatever movement is happening at any time. But then there’s all these other things happening that the art world, or the educational establishment aren’t necessarily even aware of, but they’re generating income and people are making a living and doing really exciting things, even though it’s not necessarily connecting with what’s happening in the institution. I don’t know if you’ve found that. 140 | appendices

[LR] I have. In my research I’ve found that creative industries contribute over £100 billion a year to the UK economy, which is more than oil, farming and some other industries combined. But then we have things like the Ebacc which presents this set of subjects and says ‘this is how you have an open future’. It’s counter-intuitive to be recognising all of the creative talent that comes out of the UK and say “well yeah OK, it does make a lot of money,’’ when there’s such a lack of respect for it. It should be something we’re trying to cultivate but there doesn’t seem to be a huge push to do that, except when it’s trying to get the Olympics, or big festivals. [Resp D] Or property development. [LR] Exactly. [Resp D] People want to live somewhere that’s really cool because that’s where all the artists are, so then they move in, but then those artists can’t afford to have those studios anymore and then they get pushed out and the property goes up and so- have you heard of Tania Bruguera’s manifesto? [LR] No. [Resp D] It’s really interesting. We looked at it the other day and I’ll just try to find it [...] “Manifesto on Artist Rights”, I think she read it at the UN, so it’s quite a lot actually. You could spend a long time just reading each paragraph. It starts off, “‘Art is not a luxury. Art is a basic social need to which everyone has a right. Art is a way of building thought, of being aware of oneself’” and it goes on and starts talking about artists and it’s a really interesting manifesto. I want to look into it more and see if she actually wrote it with other people. I was thinking that if something like that was in every classroom, next to the periodic table, the universal declaration of human rights, or next to the alphabet where it’s seen as being creative. If having space to make and think and do stuff was on equal footing with the other subjects right from the beginning, then maybe people would make different decisions. It’s such a weird thing because some artworks are valued so highly and make millions of pounds, but yet for a lot of people, they may say to their parents, “oh I want be an artist and they’re just like, ‘no, you have to be a doctor’” because that’s kind of the social value, as well as the idea that they’ll make any money. | 141

There isn’t this idea that actually we need art as much as we need doctors. We need to have the space to make something for our well-being as much as we need to keep our cholesterol down, so I think a lot of it usually comes back down to the value being placed on things and I imagine in different societies it’s different. Everyone always talks about, Scandinavian countries and their approach to education which is apparently very different and they all have beautiful homes. [LR] Yes, lots of airy spaces. Why do you think, I mean obviously you are speaking from your own experience, but do you think there has been any difference, or shift in value in the education system over time? [Resp D] I think mainly people understand value, but they don’t invest in it. So we can all talk about, “oh, it would be great to have music lessons at the school and it would be great to have more art”, but then the money isn’t there to invest in it. Like you were saying, you have something like the 2012 Olympics where the director is putting on this amazing creative endeavour that involved hundreds of people and brought people together in this huge expression, that’s celebrating all of this amazing stuff. Then cuts [happen] and people still expect those things to continue to happen but they can’t and kids that come from certain backgrounds can always afford to make stuff and go to workshops and then other kids, they don’t have the space. Actually one thing that I realised when I was writing my personal statement for the course I was applying for, I was thinking about lots of galleries and institutions and family days where you can make art and it’s always the same demographic that you see. Even though their goal is to get in people from the local community that haven’t engaged with the institution, they really struggle to do that and I was thinking that growing up, my parents never took us to a gallery, to the theatre, or even to the cinema. They didn’t take us anywhere, they were working too much. Then it occurred to me that because my dad was a carpenter, there was stuff in the garage that I could just go and take. There were materials around and my mother was a seamstress, so I could see making in progress. I didn’t have the intellectual side of anything, nor the theoretical, side or exposure to great works of art through my family, but I did have stuff to make stuff if I wanted to and if I needed a bit of white paint, I could just go to the garage and get it. I actually realised that was really valuable. 142 | appendices

When I was teaching last year, a lot of the times I would [say], “you could do this, or you could do that and they’d be like, ‘well I don’t have that’” and I just thought, shit I did have that. If I needed a rag, or a needle and thread, I could. Just really basic things, but they’re actually not that basic if you don’t have them. From that I’ve become more aware of it now. I’m quite practical and being able to be practical has been valuable within the arts, but I didn’t have the other side to it, the exposure or awareness of what I could do with these practical skills. My kids are growing up, well it’s quite weird actually because I was born in Brixton and then my parents moved out just after the riots. My dad was a carpenter so he needed space to put his tools and you don’t have much space in the flats around here, so they moved out to Mitcham. A really, really white area. So now I’m living back here and it’s completely different to how it was when I left and so my kids, they’re white and they’re middle class and the school they go to is also filled with other middle class parents and it’s quite a broad demographic, but it’s heavily middle class. I forgot the point I was going to make. [LR] Moving back to Brixton. Your children attending a largely middle class school? [Resp D] Yes. There are lots of people that work in charities and film. All these parents are in really cool, interesting jobs and a lot of them went to private schools, so there is a high percentage of middle class parentage and they almost all know each other, or know people that know each other. What I find interesting is that I’ve got one friend who has a much older child and she’s applying to uni, so she asked a friend, “‘can you help her write her personal statement,’ ‘can she do work experience with you here’” and it’s all these connections that people have that just from your birthplace, you’re already miles ahead of someone else. You’re already working in that field before you’ve even gone to university. You’re already working as an assistant, or in someone’s studio. Even getting into educational places, it’s that thing of if you know someone, a friend, a parent, or someone who’s in that area, you can go there and work and get an understanding of what you need to know and I think a lot of it is about class and I think it’s always been that way. Look at the government, they all went to private schools and certain universities, so it’s always been about who you know and getting access to things. | 143

That’s what I found quite exciting about what the students were doing. They were creating their own industry and forming their own ideas and it was just quite interesting. So I guess it’s being a part of something, we need to be a part of something to feel like you’re doing something. [LR] As a parent with an interest and obviously you work in the creative arts industry, would you push your children to be outside of the mainstream and explore different aspects of the industry organically and create as people who don’t have as much access, or strong connections? Or would you say, “well I do know these people, I do have this experience, I can help you do x, y, z-” [Resp D] That’s a good question. So would I use my connections to help my kids? [LR] Yeah [Resp D] That’s a very good question. If I thought that my child- well this is the thing, this is what I hear. I hear the parent asking the other parent, “‘my child needs work experience, can they come and work at your company’”, but the child doesn’t get in touch with that person, so it’s just the parent trying to get their kids ahead, or to do something. So for example I think at school, you have to do work experience in year 9 [LR] Year 10 [Resp D] Yes, year 10 and I think if you don’t find a placement you just end up having to sweep the floors at the school, or just do stuff at the school. So of course you’ve got all of these parents with connections saying “‘can my kid come and do this’, ‘can my kid come and do that’” and so I wouldn’t do that. I would say to my child, “what are you interested in? You write letters to these people yourself, you have to try and find the placement yourself” and I might say to them, “I know that person, I’ve worked with them”, but I wouldn’t go and approach the parent. That would have to come from them because I don’t think that’s healthy or how the real world works, but I guess that is how the real world works to a certain extent. I wouldn’t feel confident doing that though and I wouldn’t push them. My son is really good at drawing, he’s 100 hundred times better than what I could do and he will literally just sit there and draw something in a black pen and if he thinks he’s made a mistake he will just start the whole thing from scratch again and keep drawing and drawing. So I’ll ask him, “what you want to do when you’re older? ‘I want to be a farmer’”, so he doesn’t really equate what he does on his bedroom floor with what he could do. 144 | appendices

I actually wouldn’t, unless he really wanted to, I wouldn’t encourage him either because I think sometimes if it’s something you enjoy doing, you shouldn’t necessarily make it be something that you make a living from. I think that can be a problem with arts education. Years ago you could go to university, you could get a grant and you didn’t have to pay for tuition and there was much more of this idea of education for education’s sake, whereas now it’s very much about what is it going to lead to? Can I get a job at the end of it? Studying art is about having access to facilities and having access to other people to share your ideas with and that’s a really valuable thing. I guess maybe that’s why social media can be helpful for some people because they can get a response to it and a dialogue can be created that way. A lot of the time you’re getting instruction, practical and often very minimal, it’s up to you to develop it and understand how to make something, but it’s about discussing ideas and being told what to read and then you move onto other things to expand your knowledge and other stuff. [LR] You said years ago it felt like education was more for education’s sake[Resp D] Yeah I think so [LR] - whereas now it’s with a view to it leading onto something [Resp D] Well I think it’s also more that it’s so expensive. I would not have had the confidence to get a loan out to study. I just wouldn’t have had the confidence to do that because I wouldn’t have really known what I was going to do afterwards. I think I would just really struggle. I’m coming from a generation where you don’t have debts, you only buy something if you can afford to buy it. You’ll live 20 years saving up to buy something rather than just getting a loan out and enjoying it for 20 years. My parents worked really hard and didn’t earn a lot of money, so for me to take out 9 grand just to pay for fees [...] well I don’t think they would have had a problem with it, they would have been really worried and I don’t think I would have had the confidence to think, “I can take this amount of money out and pay it back one day”. [LR] What do you think the root of their worry would have been? [Resp D] Just owing and “how do you pay it back?” | 145

[LR] So not related to your prospects post-degree, just the financial aspects? [Resp D] Yes. My older sister has a real issue with my parents because she feels like they didn’t push us to do anything. I told my mum I was going to do an MA and she was like “‘oh’”. She didn’t ask a single question. I think it comes back to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. I think for my parents, you have food, you have shelter, you have clothes and you’re alright. My mum wishes I could be a hairdresser. She said it the other day and sometimes I think it makes sense in a lot of ways. It’s quite creative and you can always find work, it’s sociable. You know what I was saying before about when students turn up at college to enrol on something because they have to and a lot of the time they’re in education because their parents’ benefits depend on them being in full-time education. It’s always this thing of, will they be sent to hair and beauty or art and design? I do get this sense that art and design looks down slightly on hair and beauty, but then that’s a value-judgement too. It’s really interesting because there is this thing of, the arts are not valued, but then if you are within the art world, you often don’t value other things because you are of a certain education or social class if you’re in the arts [...] [LR] Well you have this cultural capital [Resp D] Yes exactly and when we were talking about the manifesto earlier, there were quite a few people who were from Asia who said their parents didn’t want them to study art. They wanted them to become a doctor or do something really weird, I can’t remember what it was, but there was another student who was a lot older, maybe in her sixties, who said that when she wanted to study art when she was younger, her parents replied, “‘who do you think you are? You’re not from that kind of class, you can’t do that’”. So it is quite a complicated idea. I think art is a very elitist subject, but also really looked down upon by some people who probably value Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, or value being a doctor, or being a lawyer by status. Then again, that status depends on who they’re hanging around, so it’s all about people’s cultural groups and what they’re exposed to. My mother in law was talking to [redacted] the other day on the phone, they live in [redacted]. She thinks I studied art because I was bad at maths and science and she’s verbalised that to me. 146 | appendices

She grew up in [redacted], she was poor and then got into a grammar school and sat an 11+. She’s in her late seventies and she still talks about people she grew up with, whether they passed the 11+ or not. [LR] Wow, so that’s her standard? [Resp D] Yes, that’s the standard and she’s always asked me if I passed the 11+ and I’m like “I didn’t sit the 11+, we didn’t have them in my class” and I know she doesn’t believe me. I know she thinks I just failed it. So she’s talking to [redacted], “‘how’s school? ‘Yeah it’s good I really really like it granny.’ How’s the maths and science, is the maths and science good? Are you learning maths and science? I know your mother doesn’t care about maths and science but it’s important”, and I can hear her and I’m like “what~”. How would you extrapolate the fact that I went down one route, that I think that they’re not important subjects? Everyone has their own perception of what’s important and what’s not important and I guess it just depends a lot on what you are around growing up. [LR] So thinking specifically about students who may be existing in environments where conversations surrounding arts and careers are not happening, at what stage do you think it would be most beneficial for them to start having those conversations in a school environment? [Resp D] I think as early as possible because once they get to secondary school, they’ve got hormones as well, which probably can play a role in what they’re thinking, whereas if they’re exposed to ideas of what’s possible when they’re much younger, that stays with them. Those little workshops and experiences of trying things, a lino print or making a little film, those kinds of things stay with them and obviously people change as well. You might try something when you’re 8 and not like it and then try it when you’re older and you might understand it a bit better, but I think as early as possible. Just to be aware of what’s possible [LR] That’s interesting. The idea of sharing the possibilities of creative arts and creative industries is central to workshops that I run. We [redacted] 02:02:34 [Resp D] This workshop that you talked about doing, is that something you would be interested in doing at Croydon College? They used to have quite strong relationship with Turf Gallery. Do you know Turf Gallery? | 147

It’s this really cool place in the Whitgift Centre that got given a space, because they’re meant to be tearing it all down. Well they’re still there and they offer residencies to students. [LR] Like artist residencies? [Resp D] Yes and they do lots of projects and they have art exhibitions on. What usually happens is they do a talk in the college but because it’s like a gallery, what I found was probably quite frustrating for a lot of students that want to go into design, is that they’re all artists. So the talks covered a lot of interesting ideas and concepts, but a lot of the time they’re white, middle-class boys, so they’re not diverse enough. The student body is very diverse. [The college] don’t have to pay either. I don’t think the department has the budget for anything so you get what you can [LR] So we have 2 types of workshops [redacted] [Resp D] I was wondering if you wanted to do a focus group, it would be quite interesting without knowing anything about you and then maybe do a presentation with them that would maybe follow. It’s almost like you’re getting the raw ideas from the focus group and then they’re getting exposed to your experience and everything that you know. [LR] I’d love to do something like that, I’m so open [Resp D] There definitely isn’t enough on offer. There was no careers [advice/guidance/ provision] and there [are] resources and facilities and they are just not used at all. They have no fashion technicians anymore. Everything’s just got smaller to the point where the college can justify closing down. [LR] I considered going to Croydon College when I was younger. I couldn’t stay at my sixth form at Harris City Technology College because they only had textiles and I knew I wanted to do fashion. I thought about Croydon College and Watford College and then ended up going to Richmond Upon Thames College and doing an Art and Design BTEC. At that time Croydon College also had an Art and Design BTEC and my mum was like, “‘no, that’s a last resort, if you don’t get into the other ones then you can go to Croydon College’”

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[Resp D] Really? [LR] Yes because the school didn’t have a great reputation. You’d see the Croydon College students with red lanyards and they always seemed to be loitering around, causing trouble and being disruptive in some way. I didn’t even go to the open day because my mum said to just apply as it’s the last possible resort, whereas I went to all the other places. So it’s interesting [Resp D] [Croydon College] used to be pride of place, it just had this amazing history to it and when I taught there, it was so huge that I didn’t even meet the other staff because the basement was just filled with all art and design. Now it’s barely functioning because the first step was they closed the BA programmes, so there’s no progression and because they closed the BA programmes it makes it really difficult to find technicians because a lot of the money comes from BA’s. How do you justify having technicians if the resources aren’t being used as much as they should be? But you have to have a technician if someone’s going to use the print workshop, or the sewing machines for one hour. They do have better, just amazing facilities there, so it’s slowly been cut and cut and cut. It’s a really resource heavy subject. Business, English, all the other subjects[LR] Well they just need a room really. Maybe a screen. [Resp D] Yes, they just need a room and a computer sometimes, but art, music and theatre, they need more [LR] For my project, which will happen after I’ve submitted this report with my research findings, they will say, “‘so what do you want to make in response to it?’”. I am leaning towards some kind of publication, or essentially any kind of communication outcome that houses all of this information that could be a regular thing. I would love to incorporate the student voice into the process of it [redacted]. Do you think there would be space to potentially facilitate something like that with the college? [Resp D] Everyone is fighting to keep their job at the moment, so when requests come in they just get lost. They actually got rid of the managerial role, so there’s a gap between the person here and the staff now, so it’s a really good opportunity. I can think of students that I knew that would be really excited to get involved in something, but they’re not there anymore. I think if it’s something that could be worked | 149

into the units that they have to do, then it could work. It’s a really exciting thing. I think if you could do the focus groups, you’ll get a better idea of what could be done. For the focus groups or workshops you want to do, they could probably fit you in on a Wednesday. On a Wednesday would be when they would have artists come in and talk. What would usually happen is that the artist would come in and they would do 1:1 tutorials and then do an hour talk, so they would be there for the whole day from 10 or 11 and then students would get an idea of what their work was about. [LR] [Redacted] So I suppose then, just in closing, is there anything else you feel is relevant to share, given that you know what I’m researching? Is there any sort of need that is pressing? [Resp D] I think it would help if there was an open space in every neighbourhood that was just filled with tools and materials and was just open to all to come, just like an open studio. I think that would help as a kind of well-being. I think it would help to elevate that status if people had more access to space and materials and could make stuff any time. Especially in London, space is such a premium. You hear about in some other cities and towns where there are loads of abandoned shops. They could go in, open it up and have open access to just make and do stuff. I think I gained a lot myself from having access to just “stuff” [LR] Thank you for your time, I think we’ll conclude there This interview took place in the café at the Black Cultural Archives in Brixton. Participant D and I sat across from each other at a large table; we both drank tea and began the interview promptly at 11am. Participant D’s insights from their experience as a college tutor were invaluable to my investigation. I was able to contextualise my personal memories of studying art and design at the same level Participant D taught, which enabled me to better empathise with the students experiencing that line of study now. Participant D spoke candidly about their own pathway through arts education and offered unique perspectives on why the culture of the industry exists as it does. After this interview I did wider reading into Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Tania Bruguera’s manifesto and began tentative talks to facilitate a collaboration with staff and students at Croydon College. 150 | appendices

13.3 Interview Transcript with Participant M Interviewee: [Resp M] Year 11 Student and Croydon Resident Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [15/10/2019][17:21] Location: [Harris City Academy Crystal Palace, Maberley Rd, London, SE19 2JH] Audio file information: [Resp M][00:4:58] [LR] For the purposes of the recording can you please tell me your name, age and which school you go to. [Resp M] My name is [redacted] and I’m a year 11 student at [redacted] [LR] Your age? Resp M] I’m 16 [LR] Can you tell me about how your school educates you about future career opportunities? Assemblies, letters, career’s advisors? [Resp M] The letters they send home are so shit. It’s just the same stuff with no tech [...] it’s just dead man. Everything is just about getting a job, or going to university. I don’t even pick it up unless my tutor tells us we can’t leave it. I don’t see the point. They’re basically just telling me to do “the path”, like it’s just simple. Get 9’s. Go to college. Go to university. Get a job. Boom. They’re mocking the [ting]. [LR] Do you engage with any other career resources? Online resources for example? [Resp M] Yeah [...] well actually no. They told us to google careers websites and find out what jobs and careers we might want to do, or might be interested in [LR] Do you remember the name of any particular sites? [Resp M] Just the gov one. It takes to you to [a lot of] other links and you can do a career quiz. There are [a lot] of them. [LR] What did you think of the sites you visited? [Resp M] Nothing. They’re just *bait. Not really anything I couldn’t just google myself. | 151

[LR] What kind of career days, or events does your school offer? [Resp M] We did an enterprise day, but it was dead. Just [a lot of] people talking about [a lot of] jobs that are dead. I don’t even know what I want to do. The people that came in were fine but they don’t even know how to talk to us. [It was] like we were going to do something to them. It’s like they just come in to talk about their jobs and not even really check the play. Do we look like we want to do your dead job? NO. It was just dead man. There’s nothing really geared towards reality. I’m not necessarily going to do sports because I go to a sports college. What if I get injured? What if I have a heart attack, or a stroke? I just think the whole day was them doing it because they have to and [it was about] helping students that already know that they want to be a teacher, or a postman, or some other dead job. Low it. *obvious; lacking any sense of individual style, purpose or point This interview took place outside the front gates of Harris City Academy Crystal Palace with Participant M and their mother. I approached Participant M as they were part of a group of people waiting outside the school. The general atmosphere outside was tense as so many students were being refused entry. Participant M’s mother was deciding on the best course of action to help the other students and the interview began after I sought permission to discuss the research and record my conversation with Participant M. The interview was short and Participant M was happy to share their thoughts. It felt as though Participant M enjoyed speaking freely as they passionately critiqued their school and teachers’ approach to careers education and delivery. From this transcript it is clear that Participant M feels marginalised. Schools attempting to offer well-rounded, inclusive careers days and materials need to place more consideration on the demographic they are seeking to appeal to, rather than using a one size fits all method.

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13.4 Interview Transcript with Participant P Interviewee: [Resp P] Head of Humanities and Careers Lead at a Lambeth secondary school Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [09/10/2019][14:23] Location: [The Crystal Palace Market, 3-7, Church Rd, Upper Norwood, London SE19 2TF] Audio file information: [Resp P][00:11:07] [LR] Do you think that local creative arts provision in Croydon, is equal to Central London? [Resp P] No, I feel that there are probably a lot more things related to the creative arts in central London. Obviously Croydon’s quite a small area compared to all of London and there are not that many opportunities for students to go visit the theatre, or anything to do with creative arts. [LR] Can you think of any creative arts provisions that are available in Croydon? [Resp P] [...] Fairfield Halls? Anything to do with creative arts? [LR] Yes, anything you can think of. [Resp P] The cinema? [...] Fairfield Halls. That’s about it. [LR] To your knowledge, what most impacts children and youth engagement with local arts provision? [Resp P] Okay, so it has to be relatable to them. For them to be interested in that sort of field, it would have to be something that they would be able to relate to. This could be done through social media, or younger people but provisions should exist for everyone to locally explore their creative interests. In terms of creative arts it’s when they’re looking at grime music, or just things that they see on YouTube. Instagrammers and things like that. Obviously that can lead to fashion, or music. I would say the first thing is that it would be relatable to them. Secondarily, easy for them to access. [LR] So the biggest impact is going to be something that they can relate to and ease of access? | 153

[Resp P] Yeah [LR] In terms of schooling, what level of involvement do students have in curriculum planning for their school? [Resp P] There’s a student voice committee and they have a say in terms of what they want to see in lessons, how they want to be taught and what topics they might want to study. We have a student voice panel where there are questionnaires they fill out. Obviously we can take into consideration some of what they say, but we also need to follow the national curriculum. In terms of the topics that they want to be taught, they probably would have a say in it. Some students prefer group work instead of independent work, so in terms of the way they want to be taught, they may want to watch video clips, not just read from a textbook. They have more of a say in terms of the tasks that we can include in the lessons and the delivery but not so much what is being taught within the curriculum. [LR] Is that exclusive to your school? [Resp P] No every school will have a student voice committee and it just depends on how they want to deliver that. Normally they will have weekly meetings, or it could be a student voice drop in box at reception where they just put in their ideas. There are various ways that they can use the student voice within the school. [LR] Is there a framework that allows you to measure how much weight the opinions of the students have on the outcome? [Resp P] Yes. For example, if you’re trying to change your curriculum, then you may distribute questionnaires to the whole of year 7. You get all the feedback, then collate and analyse it, then you can obviously draw up some action plans in response to what they want, using them to inform your planning of future lessons. [LR] Is the inclusion of student voice something that you have to do? [Resp P] Yes. It’s in the Ofsted criteria as well. It’s all about student leadership. It’s about them taking ownership of their learning. It is part of that but you can’t go the full way because you still need to follow the national curriculum and naturally students will only want to learn about fun things all the time and unfortunately it’s not always about that. 154 | appendices

[LR] So you have to do the student voice research in order to get feedback, but implementing your findings is not compulsory? [Resp P] No. It’s more about how they want to be taught, as opposed to what they want to be taught. Obviously we’ve got a framework that we need to follow but in terms of their engagement in the lesson, they may want to be taught in a different way to how the teacher may be delivering. It’s about them developing themselves as leaders and then taking ownership of their learning and to some extent we can take that into consideration. [LR] Focusing more on the creative industry, how do students engage with creative industry practitioners as part of the curriculum? [Resp P] There is something called the Gatsby Benchmarks and every school must meet these standards to make sure that the career provision that we are providing is good. One of them would be that we need to expose students to careers in different industries. I would say the exposure is probably a lot more than it was because it’s a requirement for every school to offer that provision. We’ll have employers coming in, we may run careers fairs and there could be mock interviews for specific professions and one of them would include the creative arts as well. [LR] So you have to provide access to a range of career professions, is the selection at the school’s discretion? [Resp P] Yes. It’s also who we have connections with because a lot of the people that want to come in are not free of charge, so that needs to be taken into consideration. It’s who’s available to come and talk. Obviously there are budget cuts as well and what you find with a lot of these industries, even within the creative arts, is that the available people are a lot older and have been in the industry for a while. People in their twenties are the people that we actually need in order to relate to the students, so that’s one problem that I think schools face. [LR] Have you ever had complaints from children about the creative arts offering? [Resp P] Yes and those complaints would be that they found the presentations boring, that they don’t necessarily relate to them. It wasn’t engaging, they’re just being spoken at, or they expected it to be more interactive. Finding people to come in to speak to the girls, or any students that will engage them is the challenge. | 155

[LR] What would a typical student’s response be after a session? [Resp P] They would say ‘“Miss that was really boring, what was the point?” “Why are these people here? This is really dead”’. [LR] What are the students doing to fill the creative arts education void in schools? Considering some of them will be able to take part in extracurricular activities, whereas others may not. [Resp P] The issue is that we tailor the careers provision to what the students are interested in, so it’s not always exposed to all of the students if they’re off timetable. In some of the schools I’ve worked in, we have something called “well-being lessons” and every student receives that. What we try to do is make sure that any exposure to specific careers are within those lessons, so that everyone is able to get that opportunity. That’s what we’ve done to overcome that and fill in the gaps. [LR] Thank you very much for your time [Resp P] Thank you This interview with Participant P took place at The Crystal Palace Market. We sat opposite each other at a table by the window and began the interview over the sounds of whirring traffic and humming afternoon chat. Participant P is Head of Humanities and Careers Lead at a Lambeth secondary School, so I was keen to understand the institutional approach to careers education, with a focus on creative industries. Participant P was happy to divulge their view on limitations within the school system and brought to light new ideas surrounding how practitioners could successfully engage youth in the classroom. Key takeaways included the Gatsby Benchmarks and the student voice, which I hadn’t yet come across on my research journey.

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13.5 Interview Transcript with Participant K Interviewee: [Resp K] Year 11 Student and Croydon Resident Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [15/10/2019][18:03] Location: [Harris City Academy Crystal Palace, Maberley Rd, London, SE19 2JH] Audio file information: [Resp K][00:8:26] [LR] How does your school educate you about future career opportunities? [Resp K] They talk to us in assemblies or give us letters to take home. We had a career day. Some students came in that have left the school and they talked about their achievements and other stuff they’ve done since leaving. [LR] Do you engage with any other career resources? Online resources for example? [Resp K] Not really, no. [LR] What do you think of the assemblies that your school runs? [Resp K] I don’t know. They’re okay. [LR] Can you think of anything that would make them better? [Resp K] Maybe more videos, or pictures? They always show something and then leave it on screen for ages, so we [...] lose focus [LR] What about the letters you take home, do you find them helpful? [Resp K] I don’t know. I just give them to my mum usually [...] [LR] Have you ever read one of the letters? [Resp K] [...] I remember the one about work experience. It was basically telling us to go out and find places we wanted to work. I ended up doing my work experience with my dad because I couldn’t find another place, but he works in accounting and I’m good at maths so it was fine. Actually it was good. I didn’t really [...] I already knew what I wanted to do for work experience, so I didn’t really focus on the letters and assemblies. But I focus now. | 157

[LR] Do you think the letters and assemblies were helpful to your classmates? [Resp K] Yes and no. The assemblies are definitely better because different people might come in and some people need more support and others asked questions. The assemblies were definitely more helpful than the letters, or going to see Miss [redacted], the careers woman. She basically told me I didn’t need careers advice because I would probably go and work with my dad after college. [LR] Is that what you would like to do? No. Sorry dad. I am interested in media so that’s why we came here today, to see the media stuff inside. [LR] Why do you think the careers teacher gave you that advice? [Resp K] Well she asked me what my parents do, so I said. Then she asked if I could do my work experience with them and I said I could easily do it with my dad. Then she asked me if I liked maths and accounting, statistics, economics blah blah blah and I said yes, so she told me I should just do it there. [Resp K Mother] She didn’t ask about your passions, or your ambitions. That’s why I can’t wait to get you out of that school. [Resp K] I know mum, it’s fine. [LR] Do you think that careers advice and provisions are better at any other schools, particularly in Croydon? [Resp K Mother] Absolutely. When I went to school teachers cared about students and had real knowledge and wisdom to pass on. It’s basically kids teaching kids in schools right now. They’re so young, all these graduate teachers, or the staff like Miss [redacted] who don’t even care about what the kids bloody want. Even now, look at all this. It’s sad. I saw you talking to the boys outside before and inside just now and that’s why I wanted to talk to you, I thought maybe you were from the Metro or something. [LR] Thank you. It means I look official. [Resp K Mother] Yes and even though you’re not, your research and everything is 158 | appendices

the type of stuff that needs to be spoken about. I only agreed to come here tonight because [Resp K] heard about the media course here [Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Sixth Form] from her cousin. I don’t like all of this academy business, but it’s what she wanted to know about, so we’ve come. And it’s exactly how I imagined. Black children outside the gates, penalised because they haven’t got parents here? Are they serious? It’s a joke. Couldn’t they put some teachers out here to escort the children instead of leaving them outside? It’s cold. It’s a bloody open day. A sixth form open day and the kids here want to further their education and they can’t. I’m sorry, I just have been seeing this all my life. People in power just abusing it. Anyway [Resp K], let me shut up and let you finish saying what you’re saying, this isn’t about me. Sorry. [LR] Not a problem at all, thank you for sharing. It will certainly inform my research. [Resp K], do you feel that careers advice might be better at other schools in Croydon? [Resp K] Yes definitely. My friends around my area go to Croydon High and they got to speak to people doing theatre design and music video production. Miss [redacted] didn’t really seem like she wanted to help me find media work experience. She even suggested doing it at school. I think other schools must have better advisors and advice for work experience and careers [LR] In Croydon, what activities, or places do you visit to engage with your career interest? [Resp K] The cinema? I don’t know. I’ve been to shows at Fairfield Halls with my parents a few times. I went to a dance competition final at Stanley Halls because my friend was in it, but that’s not media related anyway. That’s it. There isn’t anything specifically related that I can do in Croydon. Just the cinema. [LR] Outside of Croydon, how do you engage with your career interest? [Resp K] I like going to Brick Lane and taking pictures, or going to the Tate. Yeah, I mostly go to the Tate, or Southbank and go to exhibitions. There’s not that stuff in Croydon. There’s David Lean but it’s only limited showings. I was going to volunteer there because it’s always closing down but I was too young. A lot in Croydon is for adults, not teenagers. There is stuff for us, but it’s limited, or for much younger kids. [LR] For my final question then, [Resp K] what more, if anything, do you think could be done | 159

to improve careers education for year 9 to year 13 students? [Resp K] More workshops and that type of thing at school. We had a careers day and I thought it was good to have other students right there to talk to. [LR] Anything else? [Resp K] More ways to learn about courses and things you actually do at college and university. Yeah, that’s it. [LR] Thank you [Resp K]. Thank you everyone. This interview took place outside the front gates of Harris City Academy Crystal Palace after I escorted a group of students around the sixth form open day. I was approached by Participant K’s mother who thought that my UAL lanyard was representative of me being a journalist. Participant K’s mother was outraged by the situation (see appendix 3.5) and we discussed our individual contributions to remedy it before the topic of my research came up. Participant K’s mother encouraged the interview with Participant K, who obliged. This interview was unusual because Participant K’s parents’ close proximity caused their responses to be skewed. Every other word was punctuated by a glance at their parents and it was clear that the Participant would have either preferred to be interviewed without such scrutiny, or not at all. I understand why policies are in place to protect vulnerable children and young people, but in instances such as this where participants are capable of autonomous action, it would be advantageous to have more flexible measures; that allow consent to be attained for teenagers, or youths that are older. I did gain further insight into how young people view Croydon’s creative and cultural offering, plus how some schools are offering careers provision so it was certainly a helpful exchange.

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13.6 Interview Transcript with Participant E Interviewee: [Resp E] Singer, Songwriter, Music Producer & Musical Director Interviewer: [Layla Robinson / LR] Date and Time: [28/09/2019][16:40] Location: [WeWork 138 Holborn, Waterhouse Square, 3, 138 - 142 Holborn, London EC1N 2SW] Audio file information: [Resp P][15:25] [LR] What was the name of your primary school and your secondary school? [Resp E] My primary school was Bellenden school in Peckham and my secondary school was William Penn in Red Post Hill in Herne Hill. Both in London. [LR] When did you start and finish secondary school? [Resp E] For secondary school I started in 1975 and finished in the 1980s [LR] What was the qualification at the time? Right now it’s GCSEs. [Resp E] At the time it was CSE, O-level and A-level [LR] Do you remember how many you had to take? [Resp E] I didn’t take any O-levels, I took CSE. I did Commerce, maths, English, PE studies and woodwork, but I didn’t take Woodwork as an exam. [LR] Did you choose any of those options out of a set roster? [Resp E] I chose Commerce because I didn’t want the other alternatives and I didn’t really know what Commerce meant. So I picked commerce, PE Studies and physics because I preferred that over chemistry, or biology. [LR] What other subjects were on offer at your school in terms of creative arts? [Resp E] Creative arts? Drama [...] woodwork, metalwork? Music of course. In terms of the arts [...] technical Drawing? I don’t know if that’s classed as the arts though because it was technical drawing, so it wasn’t really freehand. We were using rulers and compasses. | 161

[LR] Was that with a view to pursuing a particular type of career? Technical Drawing in particular. [Resp E] Yes it would be towards being an architect, or some sort of designer. Perhaps furniture designer, that’s what that would lead to. [LR] So thinking about careers, what kind of provisions did you have in terms of preparing you to enter into any kind of industry? [Resp E] They had apprenticeships that you could go onto from school to work with local companies. Of course you had the gateway to go onto college as well They had people that would come in and advise you about your choices and if they didn’t think it would be good for you then they would steer you away towards what they think is more suitable for how they’ve read your academic ability. I wanted to do chemistry and they said “‘well you know you’re really not good at chemistry, so to pursue that as a chosen subject wouldn’t be advisable’”. It would be things like that. As a black youth at that time, a lot of the stuff that you might have wanted to do ‘I would like to be a lawyer’, they would steer you away from. For subjects that in their opinion is not where you should really be, they would lead you instead to doing a car mechanic course, or plumbing. They just led you towards more manual work, rather than academic positions. [LR] Would those kinds of discussions have happened with a careers advisor? [Resp E] Yeah. [LR] Did that rhetoric also cross over into your subject teacher’s opinions? An English teacher, or Maths teacher for example [Resp E] Yes, because obviously they [the careers advisors] would be getting a report from the teacher and after you’d done your mock exams you would see your careers advisors. That’s when they would suggest you do this, or that. I suppose the teachers in general would be working in tandem with them. Obviously at that time you wouldn’t be thinking of anything as any sort of agenda, but with hindsight I can see that there was an agenda. If somebody said, “‘I want to be a pilot’” it would just be ridiculous that a black boy would want to be a pilot, or could ever be a pilot. Do you know what I mean? It was that sort of thing. Like with music, we only did classical music in our school. There weren’t any other options. 162 | appendices

Whereas at other local schools in and around where I went: Stockwell, Brixton, Herne Hill, they had jazz groups, reggae groups, soul groups. They had classical and steel pans. They had other options of music that were suitable for the local demographic. At my school we only had classical and I really did not like classical music. Really I should have taken that as an option but the music teacher [redacted] was not a very nice man and he told me that I didn’t have a musical bone in my body. And obviously I’ve made a career of being in the entertainment business, but it’s nothing to do with what I did in school at any time. Primary school was a more enjoyable time with music because of the songs. We would sing a lot more contemporary songs. Beatles songs, Brotherhood of Man and things like that. At the time we thought they were old songs but actually they were new songs. When I went to secondary school it just went straight to classical and that was it. So if you didn’t want to learn the oboe, the violin, or the cello, there were no other options for music. It was so disappointing because I would have loved to be a competent musician, but as I said I wasn’t interested in that at the time. [LR] What kind of impact, if any, do you think being able to study music at that level could have had on you and your progression in the music industry? [Resp E] I think it would have given me a good grounding in terms of the theory part of music. I have the practical part of it because I have a good ear and play by ear, but if I knew the theory behind something [...] If I’m after a particular emotion in my music, in terms of the colours of the chords, or the choice of harmonies [...] If I wanted a particular sad sound, or melancholy, then I would know theoretically that it’s a suspended sixth with a ninth, or an augmented G7. I would know the type of chord. Just like I know with colour, if you want something to look dark and grey, then you know to use black and white to achieve that colour. If you want something sunny and bright then you use bright yellows and oranges because you know the theory behind the colour. If you see red you know it’s danger. With my music I would have to feel around, ‘oh that’s the type of emotion that I’m after’, but if I knew straight off it would save me a lot of time in terms of my creativity because I could get there sooner. At the same time if I knew theoretically what to do then I would probably be doing what other people are doing theoretically because they know that this is the correct way to do it. So often when I make my music people say, ‘“oh, how did you come to do that?” “oh you’ve put that type of chord with that, that’s really interesting”’ but I don’t know, I just hear it and feel it. | 163

It could have hindered me, but at the same time I would have liked to have learned to play an instrument at a really good [level]. That’s what I kind of regret. I think it would have been a good time to learn that, at school. [LR] Obviously you had, particularly in music, access to knowledge or experiences outside of school. Could you give an outline of what you had access to. [Resp E] Well I’m the youngest of 6 boys and 4 of my brothers were very interested in music, so my parents bought a piano, which was in my brother’s room. [redacted], [redacted] and [redacted] used to have piano lessons at home, so by the time I was getting to the age where I could have piano lessons my parents felt that my brothers could teach. Obviously having 6 boys is expensive, so she thought she would use their ability to teach us. That was disappointing because I couldn’t really pick up the keyboards. They taught me how to play guitar, so it was really through them that I sort of got my musical bug, but as I said it was just a general overview of music, really rudimental stuff. That’s what it was and going to their rehearsals until we started our own band in 1979. And then as you go along you watch what people are doing and pick up ideas you know [...]become a jack of all trades and master of none, really. [LR] Would you really say you’re a ‘master of none’ you’ve had an incredibly successful career based on your talent? [Resp E] Well [...] I’m no master of any instruments. Drums would be the instrument that I would be most comfortable going on stage and playing but then I’d be playing just from what I’m feeling, not a musical theory point of view. [LR] Switching gears, are you aware of a school performance measure called the EBaccalaureate, or Ebacc? [Resp E] No, I’ve never heard of that before. [LR] Okay, well it was introduced in 2010. It was originally set to become a qualification, but it is now used as a performance measure for schools. The government says the Ebacc, or EBaccalaureate ‘is a set of subjects at GCSE that keeps young people’s options open for further study and future careers’. And those subjects are English Language and Literature, Maths, Sciences, Geography or History and a language. These subjects are what the government feels are essential for children to learn for a well-rounded education. 164 | appendices

Alongside those subjects, the National Curriculum states that Computing, Physical Education and Citizenship are foundation subjects which need to be studied. This leaves schools with the choice of additionally offering at least one of the following subjects to students at GCSE, or as you may be more familiar, CSE level. Those are History and Geography, Modern Foreign Languages, Arts and Design Technology. [Resp E] Okay. [LR] So with schools only having to offer at least one of those subjects and with the humanities and a language already being included in the Ebacc school performance measure, it can be said that there is little to no incentive for schools to offer Arts or Design Technology subjects at all. How does that make you feel? [Resp E] I think it’s not necessarily a good idea. It should be something that they have as standard really. You can go onto further education and study it but obviously you’re going to need the foundation stuff to take you into college anyway, so all of the creative arts should be in there as standard. From drama to music [...] creative writing, everything. [LR] Thank you very much for your time This interview took place on the first floor of a WeWork in Holborn. Participant E and I sat in a booth and began the interview over coffee. Race discrimination and lack of provisions that catered to the local demographic were important to Participant E. There was no explanation offered about certain subjects; students should not be expected to research independently at this developmental stage. Schools and educators are so empowered - especially when their audience, young people, lacks knowledge. It should be of paramount importance to offer it to them soundly, alongside real life applications for skills and potential pathways. Institutions need to build a better relationship of trust with students and present credible voices and opinions to them, which would grant students opportunities to validate and corroborate the well-rounded, balanced education that we all want to see in schools.

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APPENDIX 14 Whatsapp Transcript with BA (Hons) Youth and Community Work, Chief Operating Officer and Director of Communications for a Creative Arts SME in Croydon 14 Whatsapp Transcript

Robinson, L. (2019) Figures 78 & 79. Whatsapp Transcript [Screenshot].

166 | appendices

Following a line of enquiry similar to previous interviews, this screenshot is from a conversation with the Chief Operating Officer and Director of Communications of a creative arts SME in Croydon. Fortuitously their experience as a youth worker uniquely informed these opinions and enriched the quality of the comments. As has been demonstrated across the breadth of my research, young people need to have more contact with and provisions designed by people who have great empathy for them. Creative industries could incorporate more youth work ideology and methodology into their practice. As the research became situated in the borough, I looked to local creative industry professionals for their opinion on the current offering for young people in the area, as well as how well they are publicised. It is clear that there is an opportunity to fill a void for creative and cultural outlets in Croydon that appeal to a wider demographic than what the current provision services. I intend to work closely and collaborate with other creative industry practitioners in the area, across a range of interdisciplinary fields; not only to explore the foresights, but to address the pain points outlined in the transcript.

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Emergent Voices  

Emergent Voices is a collection of research surrounding creative arts education in the UK. Unpacking insights and delivering foresights, thi...

Emergent Voices  

Emergent Voices is a collection of research surrounding creative arts education in the UK. Unpacking insights and delivering foresights, thi...