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U M S Youth E ducatio n P rogra m

P au l T a y l or D a n ce C o m pa n y + G rupo C orpo

TEACHER RESOURCE GUIDE 2010–2011 GRUPO / TAYLOR

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SUPPORTERS

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation University of Michigan Anonymous Arts at Michigan Arts Midwest’s Performing Arts Fund The Dan Cameron Family Foundation/Alan and Swanna Saltiel CFI Group Community Foundation for Southeast Michigan Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Endowment Fund DTE Energy Foundation The Esperance Family Foundation David and Jo-Anna Featherman Forest Health Services David and Phyllis Herzig Endowment Fund JazzNet Endowment W.K. Kellogg Foundation John S. and James L. Knight Foundation Masco Corporation Foundation Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs THE MOSAIC FOUNDATION [of R. & P. Heydon] National Dance Project of the New England Foundation for the Arts National Endowment for the Arts Prudence and Amnon Rosenthal K-12 Education Endowment Fund PNC Bank Target TCF Bank UMS Advisory Committee University of Michigan Credit Union University of Michigan Health System U-M Office of the Senior Vice Provost for Academic Affairs U-M Office of the Vice President for Research Wallace Endowment Fund

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UMS 10-11

This Teacher Resource Guide is a product of the UMS Youth Education Program. Researched and written by Sarah Suhadolnik. Edited by Omari Rush. Special thanks to Sue Budin, Tara Sheena, Pam Reister, the University of Michigan Museum of Art, Linda Grekin, Mark Jacobson, and Michael Kondziolka for their contributions, feedback, and support in developing this guide. Cover Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima by Jose Luiz Pederneiras


U M S Y o u t h E D U C AT I O N P R O G R A M Y O U TH P E R F O R M A N C E S E R I E S ( D A N C E )

PAUL TAYLOR DANCE COMPANY Friday, October 8, 12 NOON – 1 PM • POWER CENTER

Grupo Corpo Friday, January 21, 11 AM – 12 NOON • POWER CENTER

GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: Piazzolla Caldera by Paul Goode

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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

Short on time? If you only have 15 minutes to review this guide, just read the sections in black in the Table of Contents. Those pages will provide the most important information about this performance.

Attending the YOUTH PERFORMANCE 6 Coming to the Show 8 Map + Directions 9 The Power Center 10 Being an Audience Member DANCE 12 Artistic Statement 13 Types of Movement 14 Dimensions of Movement 15 Performance 17 How to Watch Dance 18 Dance History 26 Visual Arts

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GRUPO / TAYLOR

PAUL TAYLOR DANCE COMPANY 29 The Company 30 Timeline 32 Paul Taylor 34 Why I Make Dances by Paul Taylor 36 Dancers 42 Artistic Staff 43 Repertoire 45 What makes the PTDC Unique? GRUPO CORPO 47 The Company 48 Timeline 51 The Pederneiras Family 52 Dancers + Artistic Staff 53 Repertoire

RESOURCES 55 National Standards 56 Curriculum Connections 58 Lesson Plans 60 Suggested Readings 61 Other Resources 63 Related Organizations 64 Bibliography ABOUT UMS 66 What is UMS? 67 Youth Education Program 69 Contacting UMS


AT T E N D I N G T H E C O N C E R T

GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: Grupo Corpo Parabelo

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D E TA I L S

COMING TO THE SHOW We want you to enjoy your time with UMS! PLEASE review the important information below about attending the Youth Performance:

TICKETS TICKETS We do not use paper tickets

DOOR ENTRY A UMS Youth Performance

DURING THE PERFORMANCE At the

for Youth Performances. We hold school

staff person will greet your group at your bus

start of the performance, the lights will

reservations at the door and seat groups

as you unload. You will enter through the

dim and an onstage UMS staff member will

upon arrival.

front doors of the Power Center, which faces

welcome you to the performance and provide

Fletcher Street.

important logistical information. If you have any questions, concerns, or complaints (for instance, about your comfort or the behavior

ARRIVAL TIME Please arrive at the Power

USHER

of surrounding groups) please IMMEDIATELY report the situation to an usher or staff member in the lobby.

Center between 10:30-10:50 AM (Grupo Curpo) and 11:30-11:50 AM (Paul Taylor

SEATING & USHERS When you arrive at

Dance Company) to allow you time to get

the front doors, tell the Head Usher at the

seated and comfortable before the show starts.

door the name of your school group and he/ she will have ushers escort you to your block of seats. All UMS Youth Performance ushers

PERFORMANCE LENGTH 60 minutes with

wear large, black laminated badges with their

no intermission

names in white letters.

DROP OFF Have buses, vans, or cars drop off students on Fletcher Street in front of the Power Center. If there is no space in the drop off zone, circle the block until space becomes

AFTER THE PERFORMANCE When the

available. Cars may park at curbside metered spots or in the visitor parking lot behind the power Center. Buses should wait/park at Briarwood Mall.

performance ends, remain seated. A UMS staff

BEFORE THE START Please allow the usher

member will come to the stage and release

to seat individuals in your group in the order

each group individually based on the location

that they arrive in the theater. Once everyone

of your seats.

is seated you may then rearrange yourselves and escort students to the bathrooms before the performance starts. PLEASE spread the adults throughout the group of students.

NOTE: These logistical details are applicable to both the Paul Taylor Dance Company Youth Performance and the Grupo Corpo Youth Performance.

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UMS 10-11


BUS PICK UP When your group is released,

SENDING FEEDBACK We LOVE feedback

ACCESSIBILITY The following services are

please exit the performance hall through the

from students, so after the performance please

available to audience members:

same door you entered. A UMS Youth Perfor-

send us any letters, artwork, or academic

• Wheelchair, companion, or other special seating

mance staff member will be outside to direct

papers that your students create in response

• Courtesy wheelchairs

you to your bus.

to the performance: UMS Youth Education

• Hearing Impaired Support Systems

Program, 881 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor,

AAPS

MI 48109-1011.

close to the Power Center on Fletcher Street and in the parking structure behind the Power Center on Palmer Drive. The first three levels

AAPS EDUCATORS You will likely not get

of the Palmer Drive structure have 5 park-

on the bus you arrived on; a UMS staff mem-

ing spots on each level next to each elevator.

ber or WISD Transportation Staff person will put you on the first available bus.

PARKING There is handicapped parking very

There are a total of 15 parking spaces in the

NO FOOD No food or drink is allowed in

garage.

the theater.

WHEELCHAIR ACCESSIBILITY The Power Center is wheelchair accessible and has 12 seats for audience members with special needs.

LOST STUDENTS A small army of volunteers staff Youth Performances and will be

PATIENCE Thank you in advance for your

ready to help or direct lost and wandering

patience; in 20 minutes we aim to get 1,300

students.

people from buses into seats and will work as efficiently as possible to make that happen.

BATHROOMS ADA compliant toilets are available in the green room (east corner) of the Power Center for both men and women.

ENTRY The front doors are not powered, however, there will be an usher at that door opening it for all patrons.

LOST ITEMS If someone in your group loses an item at the performance, contact the UMS Youth Education Program (umsyouth@umich. edu) to attempt to help recover the item.

GRUPO / TAYLOR

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E. H U R O N S T

D RO P - O FF Z O N E

S TATE S T

RA C KHA M

P OWER PA L M ER D R IVE

PA R K

drop-off zone.

WA S HTEN AW AVEN U E

a spot is free in the

F L ET C H ER S T

THAYER S T

Circle this block until

E . LIB ERTY ST

H IL L M A L L PA R KIN G &

WILLIA M ST

N. U N IVER S IT Y AVEN U E

CHURCH ST

MAP + DIRECTIONS This map, with driving directions to the Power Center, will be mailed to all attending educators three weeks before the performance.

MAP

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UMS 10-11


VENUE

THE POWER CENTER THE POWER CENTER for the Performing

was built to supply this missing link in

a new theater, realizing that state and

Arts grew out of a realization that the

design and seating capacity.

federal governments were unlikely to

University of Michigan had no adequate

provide financial support for the con-

proscenium-stage theater for the per-

In 1963, Eugene and Sadye Power,

forming arts. Hill Auditorium was too

together with their son Philip, wished to

struction of a theater.

massive and technically limited for most

make a major gift to the University. The

Opening in 1971, the Power Center

productions and the Lydia Mendelssohn

Powers were immediately interested in

achieved the seemingly contradictory

Theatre was too small. The Power Center

supporting the University’s desire to build

combination of providing a soaring interior space with a unique level of intimacy. Architectural features include two large spiral staircases leading from the orchestra level to the balcony and the well known mirrored glass panels on the exterior. The lobby of the Power Center presently features two hand-woven tapestries: Modern Tapestry by Roy Lichtenstein and Volutes (Arabesque) by Pablo Picasso. The Power Center seats approximately 1,300 people. POWER CENTER 121 Fletcher St Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Emergency Contact Number: (734) 764-2538 (Call this number to reach a UMS staff person or audience member at the performance.)

University of Michigan, Power Center

GRUPO / TAYLOR

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D E TA I L S

BEING AN AUDIENCE MEMBER When preparing students for a

members from hearing. Often in large

on stage or whether they will miss

live performing arts event, it is impor-

rock concerts or in movie theaters,

something because of the sound and

tant to address the concept of “concert

the sound is turned up so loud that

movement you are making. Given this

etiquette.” Aside from helping prevent

you can talk and not disturb anyone’s

consideration, it’s often best to wait

disruptive behavior, a discussion of concert

listening experience. However, in other

until a pause in the performance (a

etiquette can also help students fully enjoy

concerts and live theater experiences,

pause of sound, movement, or energy)

the unique and exciting live performance

the sound is unamplified or just quite,

or to wait until the performer(s) bow to

experience. The following considerations

and the smallest noise could cause

the audience to share your enthusiasm

are listed to promote an ideal environment

your seat neighbor to miss an impor-

with them.

for all audience members.

tant line of dialogue or musical phrase.

Your Surroundings • Concert halls and performing arts venues are some of the most grand and beautiful buildings you might ever visit, so be sure to look around while you follow an usher to your group’s seats or once you are in your seat.

Movements or lights (from cell phones) may also distract your audience neighbors attention away from the stage, again, causing them to miss important action...and there’s no instant replay in live performance! • At a performance, you are sharing the physical components of the performance space with other audience

• UMS Ushers will be stationed through-

members. So, consider whether you

out the building and are identifiable

are sharing the arm rest and the leg

by their big black and white badges.

room in such a way that both you and

They are there to help you be as

your seat neighbors are comfortable.

comfortable as possible and if you have a question (about the perfor-

• As an audience member, you are

mance, about where to go, or about

also part of the performance. Any

what something is), please ask them,

enthusiasm you might have for the

and don’t feel shy, embarrassed, or

performance may make the perform-

hesitant in doing so.

ers perform better. So, if you like what you are seeing make sure they know it!

Sharing the Performance Hall

Maybe clap, hoot and holler, or stand

with Other Audience Members

up and cheer. However, when express-

• Consider whether any talking you do during the performance will prevent your seat neighbors or other audience

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UMS 10-11

• Out of respect for the performer(s), if you do not like some part of the performance, please do not boo or shout anything derogatory. Remember, a lot of hard work went in to creating the performance you are watching and it takes great courage for the performer to share his or her art with you. Share your Experience with Others • An important part of any performing arts experience is sharing it with others. This can include whispering to your seat neighbor during the performance, talking to your friends about what you liked and didn’t like on the bus back to school, or telling your family about the performance when you get home. More Information • For more specific details about coming

ing your own personal enjoyment of

to the concert (start time, bathroom

the performance, consider whether

locations, length), see pages 6-8 of this

your fellow audience members will be

guide.

able to see or hear what’s happening


DANCE

GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima 10 by Jose Luiz Pederneiras

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UMS

A R T I S T I C S TAT E M E N T In the book Anthropology of Dance,

the younger Paul Taylor, led the way to

Corpo performances give UMS audiences

Anya Peterson Royce labels dance “the

founding what can retrospectively be

opportunities to experience and celebrate

oldest of the arts.” She writes, “The

called the New York School of Dance.

contemporary dance thriving in another

human body making patterns in time

These choreographers both combined

region of the Americas: dance that will

and space is what makes dance unique

and rejected the rival influences of mod-

clearly remain important in the years to

among the arts and perhaps explains its

ern dance and ballet, notably the senior

come.

antiquity and universality.1”

choreographers Graham and Balanchine.

This season, UMS continues to celebrate the vitality of this universal, living art form while acknowledging the passing of Merce Cunningham, legendary icon of American modern dance.   Cunningham, dancer and revolutionary choreographer, died July 26, 2009. A performer until the end, Cunningham appeared in every performance given by the Merce Cunningham Dance Company until the age of 70. According to his obituary, Cunningham was close to the founding members of the New York Schools of Music, Painting and Poetry. “Mr. Cunningham himself, along with Jerome Robbins and

They absorbed aspects of ordinary pedestrian movement, the natural world and city life. They tested connections between private subject matter and theatrical expression. And they re-examined the relationship between dance and it’s

Both the Paul Taylor Dance Company and Grupo Corpo present daytime UMS Youth Performances for K-12 school audiences on the 10/11 Youth Performance Series. Beyond the opportunity they bring to watch beautiful dance, they also bring

sound accompaniment.2”

with them traditions from the past and

UMS’s 10/11 dance series is bookended

the diverse spirit of the Americas, the

with performances from the Paul Taylor

possibilities of human expression, and the

Dance Company (including a daytime

products of a life dedicated to study.

gestures towards the future that reflect

Youth Performance) and the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, which will dissolve upon completion of its 10/11 legacy tour. In addition to recognizing the importance and influence of these iconic figures in the history of modern dance, the energy and intensity of Grupo

1 Anya Peterson Royce. The Anthropology of Dance. (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1977), 26. 2 Alastair Macaulay. “Merce Cunningham, Dance Visionary, Dies” The New York Times, July 27, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/28/arts/ dance/28cunningham.html

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GRUPO / TAYLOR


DANCE

TYPES OF MOVEMENT While, over time, dance has taken a number of different forms in a number of different social and artistic contexts, the “patterns in time and space” created by the dancer or dancers involved are essential to the artistic impact of the dance on its audience. Choreography is the series or combination of movements that creates these fundamental patterns. Like words in a sentence, the individual movements are just as important as the product of their combination. In dance there are many different types of movement. Here are some options to explore as you think about dance.

T YPE

DEFINITION An even release of energy that stays constant, either fast or slow but not both.

SUSTA IN ED

PERCU SSIVE

SWIN GIN G

SUSPEN D

COLL A PSE

EXPLOD E

Usually sustained movement feels best when it uses a large range of space and a slow time. But changing any one element changes the quality.

Sudden short bursts of energy that start and stop quickly.

A drop of energy into gravity that sustains and follows through.

This is the movement at the end of a swing, before gravity takes over.

A sudden and complete release of energy, like fainting. You can have partial collapse of the body like head, shoulders, arms, etc.

The opposite of collapse. Exploding requires gathering all of one’s energy then letting it burst forth in one huge sudden action with the whole body.

GRUPO / TAYLOR

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ABOUT

DIMENSIONS OF MOVEMENT When watching dance, one can analyze the movement by breaking them down into the following key elements, easily remembered with the acronym BEST: Body, Energy, Space, and Time.

BODY

PAR TS

Head, neck, torso (hips, abdomen, shoulders, back), arms and elbows, hands and wrists, fingers, legs, knees and feet (ankles and toes)

Isolation

Movements restricted to one area of the body such as the shoulders, rib cage or

SHAPES

hips; isolations are particularly prominent in jazz dance. Curved, twisted, angular, small/large, flat/rounded (Non-locomotor: Movements organized around the spine of the body)Stretch,

ACTION S

bend, twist, rise, fall, circle, shake, suspend, sway, swing, collapse or (Locomotor: Movements that occur when a dancer moves place to place) walk, run, leap, hop, jump, gallop, skip, slide

ENERGY

FORC E WE IGH T STREN GTH FLOW

Smooth or sharp Heavy or light Tight or relaxed Sudden or sustained, bound or free

SPACE

LEVEL DI REC TION SIZE DESTIN ATION PATH WAYS FOC U S

Low, middle, high. The height of the dancer in relation to the floor. Forward, backward, up, down, sideways Large or small Where a dancer moves Patterns made with the body on the floor and in the air Where a dancer looks

TIME

Rhythm Speed Accent Duration Phrases

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GRUPO / TAYLOR

Pulse, beat Time or tempo Light or strong emphasis Length Dance sentences, patterns and combinations


DANCE

PERFORMANCE CHOREOGRAPHY

PERFORMANCE

SETTING THE SCENE

Different dance styles, or genres, use

Dancer as Character

Space

different styles of movement, sometimes

To be able to convey these larger nar-

The space in which a dance is performed

called dance vocabularies. Ballet, for

ratives or themes, choreographers can

is almost as important as the choreogra-

example, uses a dance vocabulary that is

assign certain characters or ideas. When

phy used to create it. Depending on the

very different from the dance vocabulary

choreographing in this way, there are dif-

intent of the choreographer, a dancer’s

used in tap. Individual choreographers

ferent techniques a choreographer might

position in the dance space can define

can use their own signature style of

use to convey this characterization.

the relationship between characters or

pre-existing dance vocabularies, the way Grupo Corpo uses its own signature style of contemporary ballet, or invent their own dance vocabulary, the way Paul Taylor and other modern dance choreographers typically do. It is important to remember that choreographers have different motivations for creating a dance, which can include any

Specific movements: Sometimes characters do the same movement in differ-

Symbolic Hotspots: Certain positions

individual personality.

on stage can carry symbolic meaning.

Costumes: Depending on the type of choreography, a dancer’s costume can help define their character or role in the dance’s narrative, or it can elaborate the

of the following: • to tell a story through their movement

pher a dancer’s costume, it is important

• to design beautiful, geometric, or sequentially connected “dance images.”

to remember that it is often the product

• to create a physical expression of sound

dances plot or overall message.

ent ways to give you a sense of their own

“dance image” the choreographer is

• to explore larger abstract themes, such as love, or relationships

define the dancer’s relationship to the

trying to create. When trying to deci-

of a compromise between who or what the dancer is meant to represent and the dancer’s ability to move freely. Props: In dance, a prop can serve a number of different functions. Props can further define a dancer’s character/role, add to the scenery, or help to establish a particular mood. Dance props are often symbolic and not necessarily meant to be what they look like.

This can be as simple as taking advantage of where people naturally look to emphasize certain events or movements over others. It can also be as complex as assigning different meanings to different parts of the stage. The different sides of the stage can represent good or evil for example, characterizing the action that occurs in those places or assigning certain traits to the dancers that enter and exit from these respective sides. Setting Any sort of set, from the realistic to the abstract, sets up a restraint on the space, confining or controlling the dancer’s ability to move. As a result, a choreographer’s decision to use a set is deliberate. Choreographers can use sets to define the larger setting of their dance or they can use a set more like a prop, using it to define

GRUPO / TAYLOR

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Lighting

The work of other choreographers is

composers like Johann Sebastian Bach or

In addition to sets, lighting plays an im-

more dependent on the music they have

John Adams, popular music of Michael

portant role in creating the larger setting

chosen. For example, Rodrigo Pedernei-

Jackson, or just pure sound effects. In his

for a dance performance; often chore-

ras, the choreographer for Grupo Corpo,

autobiography Private Domain, Paul Tay-

ographers use lighting primarily to guide

starts choreographing a new piece by

lor describes the diversification of musical

what the audience is looking at. In ad-

picking the music he will use – focusing

accompaniment used for dance in this

dition to this fundamental purpose, they

on the feelings that are conveyed by the

way. “If dance could be broadened to

can also use lighting to create shadows

music he has chosen. From that point

include everyday moves,” Taylor writes,

and achieve other effects that contribute

on, he concentrates on translating the

“so could its accompaniment.”

to characterization and/or create certain

music into movement – uninterested in

moods. For example, depending on how

speech or mime. For Pederneiras, chore-

it is used, low lighting can signify a dark

ography is all about creating movements

or evil character, or it can set a generally

and patterns that echo sounds, shapes,

dark or sinister mood.

and feelings that are created by the music he is using.4

Music Depending on the type of dance and in-

For other choreographers, like Paul Taylor,

dividual choreographer, music can define

the relationship between dance and mu-

the form and structure of the dance, exist

sic can fall somewhere in between these

as an entirely separate entity indepen-

two models. In his dance pieces, the

dent of the dancer’s movement, or fall

relationship between dance and music

somewhere in between.

can fall in and out of phase, striking a

The relationship between the dance and the music in Cunningham’s work for example is one of coexistence. He typically rehearsed his dancers without music, so

middle ground between the type of relationship between music and dance that is represented in Cunningham’s work and that of Pederneiras’s work.

that they would hear it for the first time

Choreographers of modern and con-

during the performance. "He manipu-

temporary dance also experiment with

lates movement for movement’s sake,

different types of music when they

making it nonlinear and random. "

choreograph: some use the art music of

3

3 4 5

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Kassing, 244. Wilcke Taylor, 77.

UMS 10-11


DANCE

H O W T O WAT C H D A N C E : BEFORE, DURING, AFTER There are many different ways to watch a dance performance. Here are some things to think about before, during, and after the show.

BEFORE: THINK ABOUT WHAT YOU

DURING: SUGGESTIONS FOR

ALREADY KNOW

WATCHING DANCE

You have probably experienced dance

You don’t have to have any special

in your everyday life, as dance exists in

training or previous experience to watch

many forms beyond the formal stage.

dance. You will be taking in information

Before attending the performance,

with all your senses – your eyes, your

answer these questions to explore your

ears, even your muscles. You may be

feelings about dance—and there are no

fascinated with the physical activity you

"right" answers:

see, the music, the production elements

• What is dance? • Have you ever attended a performance before? If so, what type of performance and what was your experience? If not, what do you think this performance will be like? • What do you think are the differences between going to a sports event and attending a play; or listening to the radio and going to a concert? What do you think the differences will be between going to a dance performance and attending a play? • Where have you seen or experienced dance (for example, at school dances, in their neighborhoods, on MTV, in movies, etc.)? What was the experience like?

• What are the technical properties in the dance? What kind of space is being used? What are the shapes and designs being made? • How does the movement make you feel? AFTER: SHARING YOUR INTERPRETATION

(lighting, costumes, props), or with a

After the performance, feel free to

“story” the dancers convey (or at least

discuss your thoughts with others, but do

that you think they are conveying).

not be disturbed if you find that oth-

Every piece of choreography has a reason for being. Dances may be celebrations, tell stories, define moods, interpret poems, express emotions, carve designs,

ers have a different reaction than yours. Think about these questions to reflect on your experience watching dance: • Was it fun to watch?

visualize music, or simply explore movement. As you watch a dance, a story may occur to you because of a past experience. However, not all dances relate to stories and the movement sequences do not have to make literal sense. Allow any images and personal feelings to pop into your mind.

• Did the dance remind you of experiences in your own life? • Did the choreography inspire you to express yourself – write a poem, draw a picture, or make up your own dance?

You may want to ask yourself some questions as you watch: • How are each of your senses experiencing the dance? What do you see? What do you hear? What are the dancers actually doing?

GRUPO / TAYLOR

17


ABOUT

DANCE 101: A C rash C ourse in D ance H istory Dance is a type of dynamic social expression that, over time, has taken many forms. Sometimes dance is a mode of community communication, marking significant community events, such as births, marriages, or funerals. Other times dance is employed as a means of spiritual expression, used in ritualistic events like those that are used for healing or ancestor worship. Dance is also a mode of entertainment that can bring people together in an entirely different way. In this form dance can be used to demonstrate social status, as it did in the royal courts of late 16th and 17th century Europe. It can also be used to challenge social norms, in the way that provocative dance crazes like the Twist have. Last, but not least, dance is an art form that shows its audience the inherent beauty of bodies in motion. Be it in classical modes of “theatrical dance,� like ballet, stylized forms of everyday movements, or bold new ways of movement that challenge our preconceived notions of what dance represents, dance can both celebrate and critique the nature of our human experience.

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UMS 10-11


GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS - Unidentified dancer

19


Photo: A Cadet Hop at West Point

CONTEMPORARY VS. MODERN

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MODERN

This new form of dance “did not simply

DANCE

DANCE HISTORY

appear at the turn of the century.” In-

Distinguishing between modern dance

As with all history, particularly in the case

companies and contemporary dance

of such an enduring and dynamic art

companies can be difficult. Modern

form as dance, it would be impossible to

dance companies, like the Paul Taylor

go through the entire history of modern

Dance Company, are typically companies

dance in one sitting. The following out-

whose legacies are associated with the

line highlights certain key concepts and

late 19th and 20th centuries. These com-

events in the history of modern dance,

panies promote and create within the

with the hope of enhancing appreciation

framework of their founding choreogra-

of the type of dance performances on

pher’s movement legacy. Contemporary

the UMS Youth Performance Series.

dance companies like Grupo Corpo, on the other hand, become adept in a number of different styles of choreography, exploring both modern and classical styles of dance.

Developed in the U.S and Europe in the 20th century as a reaction to the restrained, technical style employed by classical ballet, modern dance choreographers continually experiment with

While this distinction explains the

new styles of movement, often develop-

variation in repertoire that exists among

ing their own unique dance techniques.

modern and contemporary companies

Whereas classical ballet restricted

that are still active today, historically, con-

expression because choreography had to

temporary and modern dance companies

adhere to a specific form, modern dance

share the history of modern dance.

focused more on expression.

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UMS 10-11

stead, this new trend in dance represented the synthesis of a number of different events that occurred in the years leading up to the start of the new century. The stories of these choreographers show how they pushed the limits of the question of what is dance, and illustrate the fact that it is okay to have many different points of view on the subject of dance. Keep in mind that this only represents a small fraction of the numerous choreographers involved in modern dance.


Photo: Afternoon of a Faun /dancer: det.: Nijinsky and nymphs

The Founders of modern dance were

Isadora Duncan (1878-1927) Heavily

Ruth St. Denis (1880-1968) Ruth St.

all influenced by the idea that dance did

inspired by Loïe Fuller, Isadora Duncan

Denis formed the Denishawn Company

not just have to be a momentary diversion

choreographed dance that grew out of

(1915) with her pupil and husband, Ted

of entertainment and that it could move

her personal responses to music empha-

Shawn. Denis’s use of exoticism coupled

audiences in a deep and serious way. In

sizing flow, symmetry, and the realization

with her ability to make dance widely

the beginning, they often compromised

of the beauty of simple movements in

appealing to the American public made

their artistic beliefs to gain a following;

her choreography. She sought a new kind

St. Denis and Denishawn successful. The

the later founders rebelled much more

of movement language, extending the

dominant dance company of the 1920s,

strongly against their traditional ballet

role and range of the dynamic elements

Denishawn was the training ground for

roots.

in movement, making it organic rather

Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and

than merely decorative.7

Charles Weidman, among other important

Loïe Fuller (1862-1928) Loie Fuller was

figures in the history of modern dance.

a self-taught dancer, noted for improvisa-

Maude Allen (1873-1956) Just like

tory performances in which she would

Isadora Duncan, many of Maude Allen’s

Ted Shawn (1891-1972) Shawn’s empha-

manipulate a filmy silk dress into shapes

works were the result of her appreciation

sis on the male dancer and establishment

through her dance. Fuller was also a major

of music. The two actually engaged in

of one of the first all male companies in the

innovator with interest in all aspects of

brief conflict during which Duncan ac-

early 20th century was a significant develop-

theater using material and lighting ef-

cused Allen of imitating her art, but the

ment in the early years of modern dance.8

fects to enhance her choreography. Her

problems were resolved quickly. Allen

works were forerunners of mixed media

liked to call her style “dramatic dancing.”

6

performances. 6 7 8

Kassing, 184 Kassing, 185. Kassing, 187

GRUPO / TAYLOR

21


Photo: Ballet Russes Rite of Spring

In the early 1930’s, schools like

The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was

Mary Wigman (1886-1973) Important

the Denishawn School and the Duncan

the largest and most ambitious effort

figure in the history of German expres-

Dance School were incubators for the

mounted by the Federal Government to

sionist dance. She used mythical subjects

development of the first generation of

organize and produce theater events. It

that emphasized a bond with nature

American modern dance artists and

was an effort of the administration of

while developing a style that evolved

choreographers, which included dancers

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to

from muscular tension and release.

like Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey.

provide work for unemployed profes-

“This first generation of dance artists

sionals in the theater during the Great

ushered in a new era of experiments that

Depression. The FTP was administered

were to emerge as modern dance. ” The

from Washington, D.C., but its many

uncertain political climate led choreogra-

companies stretched the full breadth

phers to comment on events in contem-

of the nation. It functioned from

porary society, hoping to convince audi-

1935 to 1939 when its funding was

ences and critics that their work was a

terminated. In that brief period, it was

legitimate dance form.10” The inspiration

responsible for some of the most in-

for these choreographers came from folk

novative staging of its time. While the

legends, social protests, and theatrical ex-

primary aim of the FTP was the re-em-

pressions of culture and ethnicity. These

ployment of theater workers on public

choreographers made artistic statements

relief rolls, including actors, directors,

through American modern dance that

playwrights, designers, vaudeville art-

were both individual and collective.11

ists, and stage technicians, it was also

9

hoped that the project would result in 9 10 11 12 13

22

Kassing, 204 Kassing, 204 Kassing, 205. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/fedtp/fthome.html Foster, 30

UMS 10-11

the establishment of theater so vital to community life that it would continue to function after the FTP program was completed.12

Martha Graham (1894-1991) To this day, Martha Graham remains one of the most well-known modern dancers. Her contraction-and-release technique has become one of the most widely taught modern styles in the U.S. Developing a company as she built a repertory, Graham has explored a number of different themes, “evaluating their personal relevance but also their universal significance.” “To perform the role of a character in Graham’s dances, the dancer must find the experience of that character in his or her own psychological life, grow into that experience, and become completely identified with the character.13”


Photo: 42nd Street

In the 1940’s and 1950’s modern

Modern dance in the 1960’s was

used chance determination, in which parts

dancers and their companies saw their

an abrupt change from what had been

of choreography would be determined by

reputation and notoriety grown within

established by previous generations.

random methods, such as a coin toss.

outside of the U.S. borders.14 “In the

Choreographers began to explore what

postwar period, the earlier simple, stark,

was happening in other contemporary

Paul Taylor (b. 1930) Paul Taylor has

group modern dance performances

arts: the use of chance, serial, and elec-

created an outstanding repertory of antic

became more elaborate, produced with

tronic music; “happenings;” and theatri-

wit and hard reality. Taylor scrutinizes the

costumes, commissioned music, and set

cal experiments. These choreographers

epic and the everyday with tough inno-

décor. Most modern dance companies

were more concerned with movement

cence and athletic vigor. His company has

were small; they rehearsed quickly, per-

and its performance than communicating

served as a training ground for notable

formed, and then dissolved until it was

emotional themes or narratives.

choreographers such as David Parsons

time to prepare for the next year’s performance. New choreographic approaches, techniques, themes, and styles branched out from this generation of choreographers who took their places alongside the pioneers. Meanwhile, as the Cold War grew colder, the U.S. government used modern dance to create a national awareness of American arts by sending artists around the world.15” José Limón (1908-72) Born in Mexico and brought up in the U.S., Limón joined the Humphrey-Weidman company (1930-40) and organized his own troupe after World War II. His dance possessed a unique lyricism due to a technique of fall and recovery, in which one gives in to gravity and then rebounds off the ground. This technique is often taught as a coun-

and Twyla Tharp. These new dance forms were also presented in new, outdoor and indoor, environ-

Alvin Ailey (1931-89) Showcasing his

mental performing spaces like museums,

versatility of style, Alvin Ailey choreo-

parks, gymnasiums, rooftops, and other

graphed for Broadway in addition to his

cityscapes. Because rents for theaters and

work in both ballet and modern dance.

other performance venues continued to

As a choreographer, Ailey was known for

escalate, dance was often presented in

his exploration of the Black experience in

lofts, warehouses, and garages.

America in his work.

Merce Cunningham (1919-2009) As

Twyla Tharp (b. 1941) The choreogra-

one of the first to challenge the founding

phy of Twyla Tharp has used a strong,

principles of modern dance, Merce Cun-

rhythmical use of the lower half of the

ningham initially worked with the Martha

body, while the upper half possesses

Graham dance company, only the second

a throwaway and rambling look. She

male to do so. He formed his own com-

is classicist in structure, yet her dance

pany after leaving Graham and increas-

utilizes the body language of a graceful

ingly used an approach which focused on

athlete. Tharp has choreographed for

pure movement without a story, character,

numerous styles of music ranging from

or dramatic mood. He also frequently

jazz to popular to classical.

terbalance to Martha Graham’s technique. 14 Kassing, 224. 15 Kassing, 224.

GRUPO / TAYLOR

23


Photo: Merce Cunningham

The 1960’s and 1970’s both Ameri-

The 1980’s and 1990’s a second

can culture and American dance were

generation of postmodern choreogra-

experiencing radical shifts that chal-

phers set upon exploring the possibilities

lenged norms and traditions as well

of dance and the lens through which it is

as conventional modes of expression.

created. Mathematics grew as an artistic

The Balanchine-Graham collaboration,

tool, some performances moved to non-

Episodes, though not an enduring work,

traditional outdoor spaces, and pedestri-

was a fuse for the changes that began

an, folk, and highly repetitive movements

in the 1960’s and continued through the

were incorporated in to work.17

1970’s. American ballet and modern dance underwent changes that shook

Garth Fagan (1940 - ) Fagan studied

their foundations. Societal issues and

with Primus, Limón, Ailey, and Graham,

arts movements exploded, and ballet ac-

among other famous dance greats.

quired a thirst for contemporary subjects

“After founding and dancing with several

and passing fads, along with an aware-

companies in Detroit, in 1970 he joined

ness of what was happening in modern

the faculty at the State University of New

dance. These changes brought new

York and began teaching dance classes

audiences to ballet, as did touring and

for youths from the streets of nearby

television exposure.16

Rochester.18“ “Fagan’s style is a unique blend of modern dance, jazz, and AfroCaribbean forms with some subtle ballet influences.19”

16 Kassing, 254 17 Kassing, 267 18 Kassing, 268 19 Kassing, 268.

24

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"The most brilliant scientific discoveries will in time change and perhaps grow obsolete, as new scientific manifestations emerge. But art is eternal, for it reveals the inner landscape, which is the soul of man." – from I am a Dancer, Martha Graham

GRUPO / TAYLOR

25


CONNECTIONS

VISUAL + PERFORMING ARTS The following works of art are part of the University of Michigan Museum of Art collection.

Look at the images on pages 26 and 27 and consider the following: How does each artwork express movement or dance? How might each piece relate to the work of Paul Taylor Dance Company or of Grupo Corpo? How are the two images alike or different? How would you interpret each artwork as a real life dance move?

Max Ernst (German, 1891-1976) Dancers (Danseuses) 1950 Lithograph Museum Purchase made possible by the Friends of the Museum of Art, 1987/1.264

26

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Mark Bressler (American, born 1951) Spirit Dancer 2001 Madrone burl Gift of Robert M. and Lilian Montalvo Bohlen, 2003/2.79

GRUPO / TAYLOR

27


UMS Youth PERFORMANCE

PAUL Taylor dance company PAUL TAYLOR artistic director • Friday, October 8, 12 NOON – 1 PM • POWER CENTER

Sponsored by the David and Phyllis Herzig Endowment Fund and the Prudence and Amnon Rosenthal K-12 Education Endowment Fund. Funded in part by the Wallace Endowment Fund and by the National Endowment for the Arts as part of American Masterpieces: Three Centuries of Artistic Genius.

28 10-11by Tom Caravaglia Photo:UMS Also Playing


ABOUT

T H E C O M PA N Y Founded in 1954, the Paul Taylor

musicality and diverse creations have

and Alex Katz as well as with the famous

Dance Company has become one of the

become staples of American modern

Tiffany and Co. designer, Gene Moore.

greatest modern dance companies in

dance. In addition to Esplanade, he has

The National Book Critics Circle nomi-

America; the company has performed in

won international acclaim with his mas-

nated his biography, Private Domain,

more than 520 cities in 62 countries and

terworks, including Aureole, Le Sacre du

for the most distinguished biography of

has represented the U.S. at arts festivals

Printemps (The Rehearsal), Musical Offer-

1987, and the feature film documentary

in more than 40 countries. Founder and

ing, Airs, Speaking in Tongues, Company

created on his company, Dancemaker,

artistic director Paul Taylor has been the

B, Piazolla Caldera, Promethean Fire,

was nominated for an Academy Award

recipient of every major honor given to

Beloved Renegade, and, most recently,

in 1998. His impact on the world of

artists in the U.S. for his choreography,

Brief Encounters. He has collaborated

American modern dance is comparable

including the Kennedy Center Honors

with important American painters such

to other notable choreographers such

and an Emmy. His distinct use of gestural

as Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns,

as Merce Cunningham, Martha Gra-

movement has become a trademark of

ham, Jose Limón, and Doris Humphrey.

his choreography and characterizes his

However, the true scope of Paul Taylor’s

most famous work, Esplanade, set to mu-

career is seen in his dances, ranging from

sic by Johann Sebastian Bach. His singular

outrageously humorous to purely romantic to disturbingly tragic; he has proven time and time again that he is one of the prolific choreographers of the last fifty years and, undoubtedly, the next fifty years as well.

Photo: Also Playing by Tom Caravaglia

GRUPO / TAYLOR

29


ABOUT

C O M PA N Y H I S T O R Y: T I M E L I N E “More often than not, the kind of dance we work on together turns out to be dependent on these different dancers as individuals. Sometimes their limitations are as interesting as their strong points. The finest choreography in the world does not mean a thing if the dancers are not suited to it and they look terrible.20” —Paul Taylor

1954

1957

1965

Taylor assembles a small company of

Dances by Paul Taylor, Taylor’s first full

Paul Taylor choreographs From Sea to

dancers and begins choreographing his

evening performance of his own chorog-

Shining Sea, the first of a series of works

own works. Jack and the Beanstalk, Tay-

raphy, is performed at the Kaufmann

based on American themes and the first

lor’s first professional work and collabora-

Concert Hall in New York City. Seven

in a series of collaborations with designer

tion with artist Robert Rauschenberg, is

New Dances, a piece from this program,

John Rawlings. In addition, the Paul Tay-

premiered.

provokes Louis Horst’s famous blank

lor Dance Company tours South America

review.

on its first of eleven tours as goodwill

1955 Taylor joined the Martha Graham Dance

1960

Company as soloist while continuing

Taylor’s dance company makes its first

to choreograph on his own troupe. He

international tour. Meridian, Tablet, 3

would dance with the Martha Graham

Epitaphs, Rebus, and Circus Polka are

Dance Company for seven years.

danced at Italy’s Spoleto Festival. While

ambassadors under the auspices of the U.S. State Department. The Company also gets its first Music Director, Simon Sadoff.

1966

at Spoleto, Taylor is invited to create The

The Paul Taylor Dance Foundation is

White Salamander for the Netherlands

established to preserve Taylor’s repertoire

Ballet, using the pseudonym George H.

while bringing it to the largest possible

Tacet, Ph.D for the first time.

audience and supporting the continued creation of more dance works.

30

UMS 10-11


1974

1992

1996

After the New York premiere of American

Taylor receives an Emmy Award for

The Paul Taylor Dance Company performs

Genesis (Taylor's first full-evening work)

Speaking in Tongues, produced by

for the first time in the People’s Republic

at the Brooklyn Academy of Music on

WNET/13. He also receives the Kennedy

of China.

March 14, Taylor retires as a performer,

Center Honors for “enhancing the lives

devoting himself fully to choreography.

of people around the world and enrich-

1980 Taylor receives the Dance Magazine Award while Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal) is seen by many as a landmark approach to the renowned Stravinsky score.

ing the culture of our nation.” In addition, John Tomlinson, General Manager for the Paul Taylor Dance Company, joins the organization.

1993 Taylor is awarded a National Medal of

1985 Taylor receives a MacArthur “Genius” Award. Bettie de Jong, Company member since 1962, retires from dancing but remains Rehearsal Director.

1987 Paul Taylor’s autobiography, Private Domain, which has since been nominated for the National Book Critics Circle Award in Biography, is published for the first time. It is now in its third edition.

Arts by President Bill Clinton at the White House. Taylor also forms Taylor 2, now directed by Linda Hodes, bringing many of his masterworks to smaller venues around the world. Taylor 2 also teaches

1999 Dancemaker, a film that documents the experience of the Paul Taylor Dance Company’s trip to India, is nominated for an Academy Award for best documentary feature film of 1998.

2004-2005 Paul Taylor’s works were performed in all 50 States in celebration of the Paul Taylor Dance Company’s 50th Anniversary.

2005

modern technique and Taylor style in schools and workplaces, at community

Taylor wins the Association of Perform-

gatherings, and during annual workshops

ing Arts Presenters Award of Merit for

for pre-professional dancers.

Achievement in the Performing Arts,

1995 Taylor receives the Algur H. Meadows

and the Americans for the Arts Life Time Achievement Award.

2008

Award for Excellence in the Arts, for work that “endures as some of the most

Taylor is awarded an honorary doctorate

innovative and important the world has

by Adelphi University, with previous doc-

ever seen.” He is also named one of

torates awarded by California Institute

Taylor is elected Honorary Member of the

50 prominent Americans honored in

of the Arts, Connecticut College, Duke

American Academy and Institute of Arts

recognition of their outstanding achieve-

University, The Julliard School, Skidmore

and Letters.

ment by the Library of Congress’ Office

College, Syracuse University, and the

of Scholarly Programs.

State University of New York at Purchase.

1989

20

Paul Taylor, “Down With Choreography” in The Modern Dance: Seven Statements of Belief

GRUPO / TAYLOR

31


PEOPLE

Paul Taylor paul Taylor was born in 1930 and grew up in and around Washington, D.C. He was a swimmer and student of painting at Syracuse University in the late

Taylor has received every important

1940s until he discovered dance, which he began studying at The Juilliard School.

honor given to artists in the United

He is now the last living member of the pantheon that created America’s indig-

States:

enous art form, modern dance. At 80 – an age when most artists’ best work is behind them – Taylor continues to win acclaim for the vibrancy, relevance and

• the Kennedy Center Honors

power of his recent dances as well as his classics. As prolific as ever, he continues

• an Emmy Award

to offer cogent observations on life’s complexities while tackling some of society’s thorniest issues. He may propel his dancers through space for the sheer beauty of it, or use them to wordlessly illuminate war, spirituality, morality, and mortality. People in cities and towns throughout the world have enjoyed live modern dance performances due largely to the far-reaching tours Taylor pioneered as a virtuoso dancer in the 1950s. Having made his first dance in 1954, he has amassed a growing collection of 132 dances performed by his celebrated company of 16

• the National Medal of Arts • the Algur H. Meadows Award for Excellence in the Arts • one of 50 prominent Americans honored in recognition of their outstanding achievement by the Library of Congress’s Office of Scholarly Programs

dancers and the six-member Taylor 2. He has set movement to music so memo-

• three Guggenheim Fellowships

rably that for many people it is impossible to hear certain orchestral works and

• honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degrees from California Institute of the Arts, Connecticut College, Duke University, The Juilliard School, Skidmore College, the State University of New York at Purchase, Syracuse University, and Adelphi University

popular songs and not think of his dances. The subject of these dances represents a breathtaking range: love, life, death, and everything in between. His work has influenced dozens of men and women to create their own dances or form their own troupe, and his own work has been influenced by collaborations with such artists as Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Alex Katz, Tharon Musser, Thomas Skelton, Gene Moore, John Rawlings, William Ivey Long, Jennifer Tipton, and Santo Loquasto

• a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (often called the “genius award”) • the Samuel H. Scripps American Dance Festival Award • the New York State Governor’s Arts Award • the New York City Mayor’s Award of Honor for Art and Culture • elected one of ten honorary American members of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters • elected to knighthood by the French government • the Légion d’Honneur, France’s highest honor, for exceptional contributions to French culture

32

UMS 10-11


PAUL TAYLOR’S NEW YORK The following is a snapshot from Paul Taylor’s insightful autobiography Private Domain that gives a glimpse at his experiences as an artist in mid-20th-century New York City: Up until then I had received scholarship handouts from Syracuse, the American Dance Festival, and Julliard. Classes at Martha’s School and Merce’s were also gratis, and the ones from Tudor and Miss Craske at the Metropolitan Opera Ballet School, cut rate. Rehearsals with Martha, Merce, and lately Pearl Lang I did for love, as did their other dancers; and so, the subject of food being foremost on my mind, I began to leaf through Variety and Show Business, to find out who was holding auditions for what. Although show dancing was not what I had come to New York for, any kind of performing experience was bound to be worthwhile, I started making the rounds regardless of what the auditions were for, as long as the job would pay.21

21

Taylor, 50.

GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: Paul Taylor by Maxine Hicks

33


PEOPLE

WHY I MAKE DANCES by Paul Taylor

No one has ever asked me why

as much satisfaction. When they aren’t

I’m not above filching steps from other

I make dances. But when flummoxed

I’ve had the luxury, in the past at least, of

dance makers, but only from the best –

by the financial difficulties of keeping a

being allowed to create others.

ones such as Martha Graham and Antony

dance company afloat, I sometimes ask it of myself. Dance makers are most often quizzed this way: which comes first, the

From childhood on, I’ve been a reticent guy who spends a lot of time alone. I

Tudor – and only when I think I can make an improvement.

make dances in an effort to communi-

Although there are only two or three

cate to people. A visual medium can be

dances in me – ones based on simple im-

more effective than words. I make dances

ages imprinted at childhood – I’ve gone

because I don’t always trust my own

to great lengths to have each repeat of

words or, for that matter, those of quite

them seem different. Because of the vari-

a few others I’ve known. I make dances

ous disguises my dances wear, viewers

because working with my dancers and

sometimes mistake them for those made

other cohorts allows me to spend time

by other choreographers. My reaction

with trustworthy people I’m very fond of

to this depends on how talented I think

and who seldom give me trouble. Also

that person is. Imitating a chameleon has

because I’m not suited to do the jobs

always come easy. Maybe it’s genetic, or

that regular folks do. There is no other

a protective artifice. The only identity that

tiveness, this is how I might reply:

way I could make a living, especially not

bugs me is that of the lauded person-

at work that involves dealing face-to-face

age. This is because the responsibilities

To put it simply, I make dances because

with the public. I make dances because

demanded by fame are nuisances that I

I can’t help it. Working on dances has

crowds are kept at a safe distance. That’s

could easily do without. Ideally, my work

become a way of life, an addiction that

what proscenium stages are good for.

would be anonymous.

Dance making appeals to me because,

Stylized lies (novelistic truths) for the

although group projects and democratic

stage are what the medium demands. I

systems are okay if they work, when on

love tinkering with natural gesture and

the job I find that a benevolent dictator-

pedestrian movement to make them read

ship is best. I don’t make dances for the

from a distance and be recognizable as

masses, I make them for myself. That is,

a revealing language that we all have

even though they are meant to be seen

in common. Of particular interest is the

in public (otherwise, what’s the point?), I

amorous coupling of men and women,

make dances I think I’d like to see.

as well as the other variations on this

dance or the music? This conundrum was answered most tellingly by the celebrated choreographer George Balanchine, who said: “The money.” Nobel Prize-winner Orhan Pamuk has often been asked why he writes. The savvy answer in his My Father’s Suitcase was so meaningful and struck such a chord of recognition in me – his devotion, his steadfastness, his anger – that it caused me to ponder my own reasons. Motivated by Balanchine’s sensible quip and Pamuk’s candid percep-

at times resembles a fatal disease. Even so, I’ve no intention of kicking the habit. I make dances because I believe in the power of contemporary dance, its immediacy, its potency, its universality. I make dances because that’s what I’ve spent many years teaching myself to do and it’s become what I’m best at. When the dances are good nothing else brings me

34

UMS 10-11


subject. In short, the remarkable range of

I make dances because it briefly frees

driving passion that infected me when I

our human condition.

me from coping with the real world,

first discovered dance.

Whenever a dance of mine is controversial it brings me much satisfaction. One of my aims is to present questions rather than answers. My passion for dance does not prevent me from being terrified to start each new piece, but I value these

because it’s possible to build a whole new universe with steps, because I want people to know about themselves, and even because it’s a thrilling relief to see how fast each of my risk-taking dancers can recover after a pratfall.

The novelist Albert Camus said it best: A man’s work is nothing but this slow trek to rediscover through the detours of art those two or three great and simple images in whose presence his heart first opened.

fears for the extra energy they bring.

I make dances, not to arrange decorative

from http://www.ptdc.org/about-artists/paul-taylor-

Getting to know the music I use is a

pictures for current dancers to perform,

bio/why-i-make-dance

great pleasure even though toilsome.

but to build a firm structure that can

After making sure that the rights to use

withstand future changes of cast. Quite

it are affordable, each piece needs to be

possibly I make dances to be useful or

scanned, counted out and memorized.

to get rid of a chronic itch or to feel

Since I’ve not learned to read scores, this

less alone. I make them for a bunch of

can take an awful long time.

reasons – multiple motives rooted in the

Photo: Esplanade by Lois Greenfield

GRUPO / TAYLOR

35


PEOPLE

DANCERS (in alphabetical order) Michael Apuzzo

Eran Bugge

Francisco Graciano

North Haven, Connecticut

Oviedo, Florida

San Antonio, Texas

Appuzo studied economics and theater

Bugge began her dance training at the

Graciano began dancing and acting

at Yale University, graduating magna

Orlando Ballet School. She went on to

at an early age. He received a B.F.A. in

cum laude in 2005. He began his dance

study at the Hartt School of the Univer-

dance from Stephens College for Women

training while in college, performing and

sity of Hartford under the direction of

(male scholarship), and scholarships from

choreographing in undergraduate organi-

Peggy Lyman, graduating summa cum

the Alvin Ailey School and The Taylor

zations. After being dance captain for an

laude with a B.F.A. in ballet pedagogy in

School. He has been a member of TAKE

original production of Miss Julie choreo-

2005. She attended The Taylor School

Dance Company, Connecticut Ballet, Ben

graphed by Peter Pucci, Mr. Apuzzo de-

and the 2004 and 2005 Taylor Summer

Munisteri Dance Company, Cortez & Co.

buted professionally at the Yale Repertory

Intensives. Ms. Bugge has performed in

Contemporary/Ballet, Pascal Rioult Dance

Theater. He has performed in numerous

works by Amy Marshall, Katie Stevinson-

Theater, and Dusan Tynek Dance Theater,

musicals and at equity theaters across the

Nollet and Jean Grand-Maître. She

among others.  He also appeared in the

county, and recently finished perform-

was also a member of Full Force Dance

operas Aida and White Raven directed by

ing in the National Tour of Twyla Tharp’s

Theatre and the Adam Miller Dance

Robert Wilson. Mr. Graciano joined Taylor

Broadway show, Movin’ Out. He holds

Project. She joined the Paul Taylor Dance

2 in February 2004 and made his debut

a second-degree black belt in Tae Kwon

Company in Fall 2005.                                    

with the Paul Taylor Dance Company in

Do.  He made his debut with the Paul

Michelle Fleet

Taylor Dance Company at New York City

Bronx, New York

Center in Spring 2009.

Fleet began her dance training at age Elizabeth Bragg

four. She attended Ballet Hispanico of

Denver, Colorado

New York during her training at Talent

Bragg began dancing at the age of three. She trained with Colorado Ballet and Cleo Parker Robinson Dance. She graduated summa cum laude from Southern Methodist University in Dallas, receiving her B.F.A. in dance and an award for outstanding achievement in dance. She then moved to New York and has studied at the Taylor School since 2005, attending several Taylor Intensives as well. Ms. Bragg has performed with RedWall Dance Theatre and Bardos Ballet. She

Unlimited High School. There she was a member of The Ballet Hispanico Jr. Company. Ms. Fleet earned her B.F.A. in dance from Purchase College in 1999 and received her M.B.A. in business management in 2006. She has performed in works by Bill T. Jones, Merce Cunningham, Kevin Wynn, and Carlo Menotti. Ms. Fleet joined Taylor 2 in the summer of1999. She made her debut with the Paul Taylor Dance Company in September 2002. 

Granada, Spain in Summer 2006.  Laura Halzack Suffield, Connecticut Halzack began her dance training at the age of four with Brenda Barna. She furthered her training at The School of the Hartford Ballet and studied at the Conservatory of Dance at Purchase College. Ms. Halzack graduated summa cum laude with a degree in history from the University of New Hampshire in 2003. She then studied at the Hartt School and at The Taylor School’s 2004 Summer Intensive. She has performed with the Amy Marshall Dance Company and Syren Modern Dance and has enjoyed teaching in her home state. Ms. Halzack studied

will make her debut with the Paul Taylor

at The Taylor School for two years before

Dance Company in Fall 2010.

joining the Paul Taylor Dance Company in Summer 2006. 

36

UMS 10-11


Photo: Esplanade by Lois Greenfield

GRUPO / TAYLOR

37


Parisa Khobdeh

Robert Kleinendorst

Plano, Texas

Roseville, Minnesota

Annmaria Mazzini Mazzini began dancing in Allentown,

Khobdeh trained under Kathy Chamber-

Kleinendorst graduated from Luther

Pennsylvania under the direction of Fran-

lain and Gilles Tanguay. She earned her

College in 1995 with a B.A. in voice

ces Evers, and later earned her B.F.A.

B.F.A. from Southern Methodist Univer-

and dance. After moving to New

at the Meadows School of the Arts at

sity and, while a student there and at the

York, he danced with the Gail Gilbert

Southern Methodist University. While

American Dance Festival as a Tom Adams

Dance Ensemble, and Cortez & Co. Mr.

working as an art model for painters

Scholar, she worked with choreogra-

Kleinendorst also performed with Anna

and sculptors, she studied at The Taylor

phers Robert Battle, Judith Jamison, and

Sokolow’s Players Projects at The Ken-

School and in 1995 joined Taylor 2. She

Donald McKayle, among others. She also

nedy Center in Washington, D.C. Having

has been a guest artist with CorbinDanc-

attended Taylor and Graham Intensives in

studied at The Taylor School since 1996,

es, the Amy Marshall Dance Company,

New York City. Ms. Khobdeh has choreo-

he joined Taylor 2 in August 1998. Mr.

Kim Gibilisco Dances, Karla Wolfangle,

graphed dances to benefit human rights

Kleinendorst joined the Paul Taylor Dance

and Juliette Soucie.  Ms. Mazzini teaches

organizations, as well as for independent

Company in Fall 2000.  

modern dance on the road and at The

films. In July 2006 she made her New

Taylor School, choreographs and per-

York theatrical debut at the Stella Adler

forms her own work, and is an accom-

Studios in the lead role of Lanford Wil-

plished jewelry designer and creator of

son’s Burn This. She premiered with the

AMulets, seen at www.annmaria.com. 

Paul Taylor Dance Company at the Ameri-

She made her debut with the Paul Taylor

can Dance Festival in Summer 2003.    

Dance Company at the 1999 American Dance Festival in Durham, North Carolina.

38

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Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia


Sean Patrick Mahoney

Michael Novak

Aileen Roehl

Bensalem, Pennsylvania

Rolling Meadows, Illinois

Hiedelberg, Germany

At age 12, Mahoney began training with

Novak started his dance training at age

Roehl began her dance training at the

Fred Knecht and by attending Princeton

ten at the Bonnie Lindholm School of

Heidelberg School of the Arts with Isabel

Ballet School on scholarship. He became

the Dance. He continued his training on

Christie and Carolyn Carattini. Under

an apprentice at American Repertory

scholarship at The University of the Arts,

Mrs. Christie’s direction she danced many

Ballet (ARB) and then became a featured

the Pennsylvania Academy of Ballet, and

roles including Puck, The Firebird, Aurora

dancer with the company. After graduat-

Springboard Danse Montreal, and in

in The Sleeping Beauty, and Nikia in La

ing high school in 1993, he was chosen

2009, graduated magna cum laude and

Bayadere. She received her B.F.A. from

as one of the first members of Taylor

Phi Beta Kappa from Columbia University

the University of Hartford’s Hartt School

2. Mr. Mahoney later danced for David

with a B.A. in dance. He has performed

where she performed works by Martha

Parsons, Alex Tressor, and Geoffrey Doig-

featured roles in repertory by Bill T.

Graham, Peggy Lyman, Katie Stevenson-

Marx and was in Radio City’s Christmas

Jones, James Kudelka, Vaslav Nijinsky,

Nollet, Jean Grand-Maitre, Kirk Peterson,

Spectacular. He returned to ARB under

and Stephen Petronio, and has worked

Alla Nikitina, Ralph Perkins, and Adam

the direction of Graham Lustig and mar-

for numerous choreographers, includ-

Miller. Aileen was a member of the Amy

ried his dance partner, Peggy Petteway.

ing Gina Gibney, Daniel Gwirtzman, and

Marshall Dance Company from Septem-

Mr. Mahoney rejoined Taylor 2 in Sum-

Bonnie Scheibman. Mr. Novak started

ber 2005 through May 2010, and was

mer 2002. His debut with the Paul Taylor

studying at the Taylor School in 2008

the Company’s resident costume de-

Dance Company was in January 2004.

and participated in the Taylor Summer

signer. She joined the Paul Taylor Dance

Intensive before joining the Company in

Company in June 2010.

Summer 2010. Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia

GRUPO / TAYLOR

39


James Samson

Jeffrey Smith

Michael Trusnovec

Jefferson City, Missouri

Rhode Island

Yaphank, New York

Samson began his dance training at age

Smith began his performing career sing-

Trusnovec began dancing at age six,

eight. He received a B.F.A. in dance with

ing and tap dancing.  Upon entering the

and attended the Long Island High

a minor in business from Southwest Mis-

Boston Conservatory as a musical theater

School for the Arts. In 1992 he was

souri State University, then went on to

major, he had the opportunity to perform

honored by the National Foundation for

study as a scholarship student with the

works by Paul Taylor, José Limón, Sean

Advancement in the Arts (youngARTS)

David Parsons New Arts Festival, Pilobo-

Curran, and Anna Sokolow, and later he

and was named a Presidential Scholar in

lous Intensive Workshop, and the Alvin

switched majors to graduate with a B.F.A.

the Arts. In 1996 he received a B.F.A. in

Ailey Summer Intensive where he was se-

in dance performance.  After graduating

dance performance from Southern Meth-

lected to perform in Paul Taylor’s Airs set

in 2001, he became a member of the

odist University in Dallas.  Professionally,

by Linda Kent. Mr. Samson has danced

Martha Graham Ensemble performing

he danced with Taylor 2 from 1996 to

for Charleston Ballet Theatre, Omaha

featured roles in Diversion of Angels, El

1998, and has appeared with Cortez &

Theatre Company Ballet, Omega Dance

Penitente, and the duet from A Dancer’s

Co. Contemporary/Ballet, and Corbin-

Company, New England Ballet, Connecti-

World, and Bertram Ross’s Nocturne. 

Dances. Fall 1998 marked his debut with

cut Ballet, and the Amy Marshall Dance

During this time he participated in The

the Paul Taylor Dance Company.  Mr.

Company. He joined the Paul Taylor

Taylor School Winter and Summer Inten-

Trusnovec received a 2006 New York

Dance Company in February 2001.

sives and became a member of Taylor 2

Dance and Performance Award (The

in March 2005. Mr. Smith made his de-

Bessie) for his body of work during the

but with the Paul Taylor Dance Company

2005-06 Taylor season.

in Cleveland in May 2005.

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Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia


Amy Young Washington State

Jamie Rae Walker Walker began her ballet and modern

Young spent her senior year of high

dance training at age eight in Levittown,

school studying at the Interlochen Arts

Pennsylvania and later she performed

Academy in Michigan prior to entering

with the Princeton Ballet, now American

The Juilliard School in New York, where

Repertory Ballet. In 1991 she began train-

she earned a B.F.A. in 1996. She joined

ing at the Central Pennsylvania Youth

Taylor 2 in August of that year. Ms.

Ballet where she performed principal and

Young enjoys teaching and has been on

soloist roles in many Balanchine ballets.

the faculty of Alaska Dance Theatre in

In 1992 she was awarded a scholar-

Anchorage, Perry-Mansfield Perform-

ship by Violette Verdy at the Northeast

ing Arts Camp, Metropolitan Ballet of

Regional Dance Festival in Illinois. Ms.

Tacoma, and The Taylor School. She also

Walker joined Miami City Ballet in 1994

dances with TAKE Dance Company. Ms.

and performed principal and soloist roles

Young made her debut with the Paul

in Balanchine and Taylor dances until

Taylor Dance Company at the Paris Opera

2000. In 2001 she received a scholarship

House in January 2000.

to attend The Taylor School and was part of the original cast of Twyla Tharp’s Broadway show, Movin’ Out. Ms. Walker joined Taylor 2 in Fall 2003, and became a member of the Paul Taylor Dance Company in Summer 2008.

Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia

GRUPO / TAYLOR

41


PEOPLE

A R T I S T I C S TA F F Here are some of the behind-the-scenes members of the Paul Taylor Dance Company.

Bettie De Jong

John Tomlinson

Rehearsal Director

Managing Director

Bettie de Jong joined the Paul Taylor Dance Company in 1962 and danced

Edson Womble

JOBS IN A DANCE COMPANY

Director of Finance and Administration

Sound Engineer: This person is re-

the 124 people who have been members

Alan Olshan 

of the Company. De Jong was born in

plification during the performance.

Director of Marketing

until 1985—the longest tenure of any of

Sumatra, Indonesia, and in 1946 moved to Holland, where she continued her ear-

Kim Chan 

ly training in dance and mime. Her first

Director of Development

professional engagement was with the

Lisa Labrado

Netherlands Pantomime Company. After coming to New York City to study at the

Director of Public Relations

Martha Graham School, she performed

Holden Kellerhals

with the Graham Company, the Pearl

Director of Operations

Lang Company, John Butler, and Lucas Hoving, and was seen on CBS-TV with Rudolf Nureyev in a duet choreographed

Andy LeBeau Company and Rehearsal Manager

by Paul Taylor. Ms. de Jong joined the

Tom Patrick

Taylor Company in 1962. Noted for her

Administrator and Archival Supervisor

strong stage presence and long line, she was Mr. Taylor’s favorite dancing partner and, as Rehearsal Director, has been

Ann Wagar  Touring Supervisor

his right arm for the past 35 years. In

Toni Hsu

November 2007 she received the Dance

Associate Director of Development

Magazine Award. 

Steve Carlino Production and Assistant Company Manager Brian Jones Lighting Supervisor

42

UMS 10-11

sponsible for music and/or its am-

Lighting Designer: The person who decides which lights will help create the desired mood of the dance. Mood is created through the use of light, shadow, and color. Stagehands: The crew who sets the scenery on stage or “flies it in” using a pulley system. The crew also helps dress, launder and iron costumes, and run the light board (a computer with all of the different lighting “looks” or cues in it).


REPERTOIRE

L e S acre du P rintemps ( T he R ehearsal ) Choreographer: Paul Taylor Music: Igor Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, arrangement for piano Premiere: January 15, 1980 Casting: Dance students from the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance have had an opportunity to learn this piece, they have worked on it in rehearsal with experts in Taylor repertoire and technique, they have visited the company’s New York studio, and use all of these exclusive experiences to perform Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal), an honor and privilege that has not been granted to any other student dancers outside of the company.

One of Taylor’s biggest hits, Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal) is one of the best-known American reinterpretations of Stravinksy’s The Rite of Spring. The Stravinsky score was originally composed for the 1913 ballet of the same name and it tells the story of a pagan sacrifice, the plot of which calls for an adolescent girl—the chosen sacrifice—to dance herself to death.22 In Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal), Stravinksky’s score accompanies the telling of two parallel stories, neither of which relates to pagan sacrifice. The piece begins, as the title would dictate, with a ballet rehearsal. Mayhem however, ensues, beginning with the kidnapping of a baby, who is thrown around like a football. As Jennie Schulman, of Back Stage magazine explains, “The rest of the cast are seen in madcap chases with crooks, henchmen, and police sufficient to fill out a dozen silent films. Ultimately, everyone gets stabbed to death in staccato moves typical of the jerky cuts in old films. Villains, heroes, and heroines all expire at the conclusion. It’s a grand spoof.23”  Using a “comic-strip pictorial style,” most of the choreography keeps the dancers in tension-filled profiles.24 According to Alan M. Kriegsman of The Washington Post, “It takes a genius to upstage another genius, and that’s just about what Paul Taylor accomplished in his deliciously berserk dance version of Igor Stravinsky’s hallowed, epoch-making score… Taylor uses this musical masterpiece as if it were simply a fiendishly interesting piece of music... in devising a dance charade of ever so brittle, arch and waspish humor.”

22 Grout, Donald Jay. A History of Western Music. New York, W.W Norton & Company, 2001, 704. 23 Schulman, Jennie. “Paul Taylor Dance Company in three gems. (Dance Diary)” Back Stage Magazine, v46 i12, p. 11, March 24, 2005. 24 Kisselgoff, Anna. “Bach as a fount for Taylor’s choreographic games.” New York Times, March 4, 2000

GRUPO / TAYLOR

43


REPERTOIRE

A lso playing

v

Choreographer: Paul Taylor Music: Gaetano Donizetti Premiere: April 8, 2009 Casting: Members of the Paul Taylor Dance Company “Ballet music by Donizetti propels a Vaudeville revue with acts ranging from an Apache dance and a tap-dancing horse (a true hoofer) to a striptease and flag-waving march. Among the performers are a toreador whose sissy bulls are frightened of her, a dying swan in her lengthy final throes, and a star-struck stagehand who takes a turn with his broom. The dance is ‘dedicated to all Vaudevillians, especially those who went on no matter what.’ ‘A madcap tribute to vaudeville [that] celebrates the sublime and the ridiculous aspects of the traveling theater families who brought entertainment to small-town America between the Civil War and the advent of radio…. It reminds us that vaudeville was a rare breath of the world of art and music for young people in dusty farming towns. The vaudeville performers of old, if perhaps technically flawed, were plucky and gave their all.’ – Kristen Fountain, Valley News, April 9, 200925” 25 http://www.ptdc.org/repertoire/also-playing

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Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia


ABOUT

W hat makes P T D C U nique ?

Both artistically and historically

Martha Graham’s dance company. “With

there is a great deal about the work of

Taylor,” Jowitt says, “it’s the idea of the

Paul Taylor that makes him historically

dance.” When watching a Paul Taylor

distinctive.

piece Jowitt explains she is struck by the

The key to much of Taylor’s choreography can be found in its vigor and simplicity as well as its innate musicality. His works relish movement rather than fussing with steps. On rural

question, “Where did he get the idea to do a dance on that subject?” Taylor’s attention and use of ordinary movements from everyday life gives his choreography a distinct signature.

Long Island, where Taylor lives almost

Off the stage, the Paul Taylor Dance

reclusively, he takes inspiration from

Company helped change the nature of

anything and everything.26

the modern dance profession. As one of the first touring modern dance compa-

On stage, Paul Taylor continually pushes

nies, the Paul Taylor Dance Company

the boundaries of his art form. To begin

toured more than 500 cities in 62 coun-

with, as dance critic Debra Jowitt notes

tries in its first 50 years. The performers

in the documentary Paul Taylor: Dance

in Taylor’s company were also among

Maker, Paul Taylor’s choreography

the first to be paid regularly for their

challenged prevailing artistic conven-

work. Even now, especially early in a

tions in modern dance. For example,

dancer’s career, it is not necessarily as-

initially modern dance choreography

sumed that every performance opportu-

was organized around a central figure,

nity will be paid.

as it was with the choreography used by 26 http://catnyp.nypl.org/search~blolclilplrlal

Photo: Also Playing by Tom Cararaglia

GRUPO / TAYLOR

45


UMS Youth PERFORMANCE

Grupo Corpo Paulo Pederneiras artistic director Friday, January 21, 11 AM – 12 NOON • POWER CENTER

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UMS 10-11

Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima by Jose Luiz Pederneiras


ABOUT

T he company

Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima by Jose Luiz Pederneiras

Grupo Corpo is a contemporary dance company that operates out of the city of Belo Horizonte—the “Secret Cultural Capital” of Brazil. As capital of Minas Gerias, which is the second most populous state in Brazil, Bella Horizonte is the third largest city and industrial center in Brazil. A repository of contemporary architecture, this rapidly growing city is also home to Brazil’s flourishing avant garde art scene. Founded by members of the Pederneiras family in 1975, Grupo Corpo, or “Body Group,” in many ways works as one large family. Aside from the members of the Pederneiras family that actually work for the company, Grupo Corpo’s twenty members are famous for the harmony and unity of their performance style. “We are like a single body,” says choreographer Rodrigo Pederneiras, “there is no hierarchy of dancers or prima ballerina.” Pederneiras continues, explaining that his is a company in which “everyone is equal; while it is important that each member maintain their own personality, in this company it is important that it be done in light of what’s best for the group.” As a result, Grupo Corpo performances tend to emphasize the interplay of the larger performance elements like sets, costumes, choreography, and music, rather than emphasize the performance of any individual dancer. In developing work, Grupo Corpo draws on a wide variety of elements and influences, producing shows of diverse characters— cerebral, cosmopolitan, primitive, existential, and tough—while always keeping in sight the company’s distinctive traits of physicality and unity.

GRUPO / TAYLOR

47


ABOUT

C O M PA N Y H I S T O R Y: T I M E L I N E 1975

1989

1993

The company debuted its first work,

The group debuted Missa do Orfanato,

Nazareth is produced, expressing Rodrigo

Maria Maria. Featuring original music by

a complex theatrical reading of Mozart’s

Pederneiras’s fascination with traversing

Milton Nascimento, a script by Fernando

Missa Solemnis K. 139.

the worlds of both popular and tradition-

Brant, and choreography by the Argentine Oscar Aralz, the ballet would go on to spend six years on stage and tour fourteen countries. The piece was an immediate critical, popular, and commercial success.

1992 The group underwent a radical transformation with the production of 21, a ballet which confirmed the uniqueness of Rodigro Pederneiras’s choreography and

1976 – 1982

the unmistakable persona of the dance

al music. Though built on a solid, classical foundation, the production brought together in good-humored fashion the light-hearted and sensual elements inherent Brazillian popular dances.

1996 – 1999

troupe. Utilizing the singular sounds of

Grupo Corpo is the resident dance com-

While the success of Maria Maria was

Brazilian instrumental group Uakti, as

pany of the Maison de la Danse in Lyon,

still reverberating throughout Brazil and

well as ten themes composed by Marco

France. Several of the group’s creations

in various European and Latin American

Antonio Guimaraes, 21 leaves behind

(Bach, Parabelo and Benguele) were first

countries, Grupo Corpo staged no less

the group’s preoccupation with technical

staged in Europe over this period. Today,

than six productions between 1976 and

form and sees it taking apart melodies

having created 34 choreographed works,

1982.

and rhythms in order to explore their

this Brazilian dance company maintains

underlying ideas. The decision to once

ten ballets in its repertoire at any one

again use specifically composed scores –

time and gives 80 performances a year in

a mark of the group’s first three shows in

places as distinctive as Iceland, South Ko-

the 1970’s – allowed it to further explore

rea, the United States, Lebanon, Canada,

the language of popular Brazilian dance.

Italy, Singapore, the Netherlands, Israel,

As the critic Rul Fontana Lopes put it,

France, Japan, and Mexico.

1985 The company launched Preludios, its second great success and a theatrical piece incorporating 24 Chopin preludes interpreted by pianist Nelson Freire. The show debuted to public and critical acclaim at the First International Dance Festival of Rio de Janeiro and would ce-

the group had finally found “the most precise translation of the word ballet into the mother tongue.”

2004 Lecuona is produced, a work that draws

ment the group’s reputation in the world

on thirteen love songs by the Cuban

of contemporary Brazilian dance. Grupo

composer Ernesto Lecuona (1895-1963)

Corpo then entered a new phase, estab-

and in which Rodrigo Pederneiras dem-

lishing its own unique theatrical language

onstrated his gift for the creation of pas-

and choreography, with repertoire featur-

de-deux (a dance for two).

ing the works of Richard Strauss, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Edward Elgar, among others, the company began combining classical technique with contemporary Brazilian dance.

48

UMS 10-11


GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima by Jose Luiz Pederneiras

49


50

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Photo: Grupo Corpo Ima by Jose Luiz Pederneiras


PEOPLE

T he P ederneiras Family Paulo Pederneiras

“O Corpo [Grupo Corpo] is under nobody’s name: we were able to get an identity as a group.” It’s a fact: dance, music, lighting, costumes, stage setting—

everything is integrated as one in Grupo Corpo’s creations. But someone must direct the group, and as general and artistic director of the company, this has been Paulo Pederneiras's job since he founded the company in 1975. According to Paulo, “A Brazilian company has great physical diversity. Each dancer’s movement is different, and yet the idea of being a group is not lost. That’s where the dance draws its strength from.” The words describe what happens with the bodies, but equally serve to describe Grupo Corpo. Under the direction of Paulo, the company made a virtue out of its diversities and it continues making this virtue the principle of creation. Paulo is also responsible for the lighting of the dances, and since Bach (1996), he has also been involved in the creation of stage setting. For Paulo, the light is a strong presence, which both illuminates and serves as a space for dancing: “I think of the space the same way I think of the lighting. Sometimes the light is the space.” As a signature characteristic of the company’s work, examples of this

In O Corpo (2000), the distinction

known and recognized nationally and

between stage setting and lighting

internationally. In Brazil he has cho-

virtually disappears and the dancers

reographed for the Ballet do Theatro

simply dance in red.

Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, the Ballet do

In 21 (1992), a spot light serves as a mobile tunnel for a block of bodies.

In Sete ou Oito (1994), each dancer at the end of the piece individualizes themselves in a vertical column of color.

Besides his work with Grupo Corpo, Paulo has done lighting projects for several operas, including Don Giovanni, Lucia de Lammermoor, Salome, and Orfeo. He has also done the set designing for exhibits such as the section for “Indigenous and Anthropologic Art” at the Brazil 500 Years Exhibit, at the Oca (Hut), and at Ibirapuera Park in Sao Paulo. Rodrigo Pederneiras

Teatro Guaira, and the Ballet da Cidade de Sao Paulo. Outside of Brazil he has choreographed for Deutsche Oper Berlin Company (Germany), Les Ballets Jazz Montreal (Canada), Stradttheater Saint Gallen (Switzerland), and Opera du Rhin (France). Creating for Grupo Corpo, however, remains his main interest. Rodrigo learned how to dance on the streets, and his fundamentally modern movement vocabulary is informed by the samba, ballroom dances, Brazilian celebrations, capoeira as well as the joy, humor, violence, and ambiguity of the world around him. While Rodrigo modifies and manipulates classical movements in an intensely Brazilian way, his work is entirely free from the exotic, boastful, and easy identities. Music is also at the

“It was only in 1988, when working

core of his work and guides all of his

in Uakti, that I started thinking about

creative process.

what it would be like to make a dance which would be more inside our body.”

If Gupo Corpo has a language all its

Rodrigo’s words define a crucial moment

own today, it is Rodrigo’s language:

not only for his career, but also for Grupo

it has his unmistakable accent and is

Corpo as well. From this moment, his

understood by each of the company’s

work with Grupo Corpo can be seen

dancers as a physical and unified explo-

as a variety of explorations of the idea,

ration of the body.

“dance inside our body.”

connection between light and space ap-

Rodrigo has been Grupo Corpo’s cho-

pear throughout the repertoire:

reographer since 1978 and his work is

GRUPO / TAYLOR

51


PEOPLE

D ancers + A rtistic S taff DANCERS

Bettina Bellomo Maitre de Ballet

Alberto Venceslau

JOBS IN A DANCE COMPANY

Ana Paula Cançado

Anna Maria Ferreira

Ana Paula Oliveira

Pianist

Ballet Mistress: A woman who

Gabriel Pederneiras

as a choreographer for a ballet or

Technical Coordinator

dance company.

Andressa Corso Carolina Amares Cassilene Abranches Danielle Pavam

Virgilio Dangelo

Danielle Ramalho

Stage Manager

Edson Hayzer

directs, trains, and sometimes acts

Stage Manager: The person who conducts the flow of each performance: she supervises the

Elias Bouza

Technicians

Everson Botelho

Eustáquio Bento

dancers to their places before the

Filipe Bruschi

Lucas Araújo

curtain rises.

Flávia Couret

Stefan Böttcher

Gabriela Junqueira Grey Araújo Helbert Pimenta

Alexandre Vasconcelos Wardrobe Assistant

lighting and sound and calls the

Wardrobe Assistant: The person who maintains the costumes and shoes, making sure they are

Janaina Castro

Marcello Cláudio Teixeira

always in good condition and that

Mariana do Rosário

Administrator

the dancers can move comfort-

Silvia Gaspar Uátila Coutinho Victor Vargas

Kênia Marques Secretary Cândida Braz Documentation

ARTISTIC STAFF Carmen Purri Rehearsals Director Pedro Pederneiras Technical Director

oversees the construction of new costumes for the dancers. Production Manager: This person has a variety of responsibili-

Cristina Castilho

ties including overseeing set and

Communication

costume construction and lighting and sound set-up and operation

Cláudia Ribeiro Manager Patricia Galvã

Choreography Assistants

ably while wearing them. He also

Production

before each performance. The production manager coordinates and supervises all aspects of touring, including transporting

Ana Paula Cançado

the equipment and planning with

Carmen Purri

each theater manager the lighting

Miriam Pederneiras

and special needs required for each dance.

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UMS 10-11


REPERTOIRE

PA R A B E L O

Photo: Grupo Corpo Parablo

Choreographer: Rodrigo Pederneiras Music: Tom Zé and José Miguel Wisnik Length: 60 minutes Premiere: 1997 Casting: Alberto Venceslau, Ana Paula Oliveira, Andressa Corso, Carolina Amares, Cassilene Abranches, Danielle Pavam, Danielle Ramalho, Edson Hayzer, Elias Bouza, Everson Botelho, Filipe Bruschi, Flavia Couret, Gabriela Junqueira, Grey Araújo, Helbert Pimenta, Janaina Castro, Mariana do Rosário, Silvia Gaspar, Uátila Coutinho, Victor Vargas

Countryside inspiration and a contemporary soundtrack written by Tom Zé and José Miguel Wisnik, prompted choreographer Rodrigo Pederneiras to bring Parabelo to life in 1997; he refers to it as his “most Brazilian and regional” creation. The choreography is full of hip swaying and feet stamping and is a ravishing statement of maturity and expressive teachings. The work’s visual aesthetic evokes images of votive candle offerings present in countryside churches and the intensity of costume’s colors are veiled by black tulle at the beginning, but are set free at the end to show off joyous and hot colors. As is characteristic of Grupo Corpo, Parbelo plays with lighting, shadows, and colors in a way that blends dancer, set, and stage into one. 27 The underlying narrative is based on the hard working lives and traditional culture of poor rural communities in Brazil.  The ensemble of twenty dancers begins crouch huddled on the floor, bent over backwards, shoulders rounded in a kind of Yogic position, as they shuffle crab-like in tight unison.  Scene by scene the pace quickens and the fluidity and energy of their bodies gets released through gravity defying moves, precisely synchronized footwork, circles of gyrating hips, romantic duets, and breathtaking physical movements full of spirit.28

27 http://www.grupocorpo.com.br/site/index.php?mudaLingua=2# 28 http://www.edinburghguide.com/festival/2010/edinburghinternationalfestival/grupocorporeview-6323

GRUPO / TAYLOR

53


RESOURCES

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UMS 10-11

Photo: Dancer with a Bouquet


ENGAGE

N ational S tandards The following are national standards addressed through these Youth Performances and through the ideas in these Curriculum Connections.

Social Sciences U.S. History K-4 NSS-USH.K-4.1 Living and Working Together in Families and Communities Now and Long Ago

NM-GEO.Pk-2.3 Apply Transformations

Disciplines Outside The Arts

and Use Symmetry to Analyze Mathemat-

NA.M.5-8.9 Understanding Music in

ical Situations

Relation to History and Culture

Mathematics 3-5

Visual Arts K-4

NM-ALG.3-5.1 Understand Patterns,

NA-VA.K-4.6 Making Connections

Relations and Functions

Between Visual Arts and Other Disciplines

U.S History 5-12

NM-GEO.3-5.3 Appy Transformations

NSS-USH.5-12.1 Three Worlds Meet

and Use Symmetry to Analyze Mathemat-

Geography NSS-G.K-12.4 Human Systems

Science

ical Situations

Performing Arts

Visual Arts 5-8 NA-VA.5-8.6 Making Connections Between Visual Arts and Other Disciplines Dance K-4 NA-D.K-4.3 Understanding Dance as a

Music K-4

Way to Create and Communicate Mean-

NA-M.K-4.1 Singing, Alone and with

ing

Others, a Varied Repertoire of Music

NA-D.K-4.5 Demonstrating and Under-

NA-M.K-4.3 Improvising Melodies, Varia-

standing Dance in Various Cultures and

tions, and Accompaniments

Historical Periods

Science 5-8

NA-M.K-4.6 Listening To, Analyzing and

NA-D.K-4.7 Making Connections Be-

NS.5-8.2 Physical Science

Describing Music

tween Dance and Other Disciplines

NS.5-8.4 Earth and Space Science

NA-M.K-4.8 Understanding Relationships

Science K-4 NS.K-4.2 Physical Science NS.K-4.4 Earth and Space Science

Between Music, The Other Arts, and

Dance 5-8 NA-D.5-8.3 Understanding Dance as a

English Language Arts

Disciplines Outside the Arts. Relation to History and Culture

ing

Language Arts K-12

Music 5-8

standing Dance in Various Cultures and

NA.M.5-8.1 Singing, Alone and with

Historical Periods

Others, a Varied Repertoire of Music

NA-D.%-8.7 Making Connections Be-

NA.M.5-8.3 Improvising Melodies, Varia-

tween Dance and Other Disciplines

NL-ENG.K-12.1 Reading For Perspective NL-ENG.K-12.6 Applying Knowledge NL-ENG.K-12.12 Applying Language Skills

Mathematics Mathematics Pre K-2 NM-ALG.PK-2.1 Understand Patterns, Relations and Functions

NA-M.K-4.9 Understanding Music in

Way to Create and Communicate MeanNA-D.5-8.5 Demonstrating and Under-

tions, and Accompaniments NA.M.5-8.4 Composing and Arranging

Applied Arts

Music Within Specified Guidelines NA.M.5-8.6 Listening To, Analyzing and

Technology K-12

Describing Music

NT.K-12.3 Technology Productivity Tools

NA.M.5-8.8 Understanding Relationships

NT.K-12.4 Technology Communication

Between Music, The Other Arts, and

Tools

GRUPO / TAYLOR

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ENGAGE

C urriculum C onnections The Youth Performances by the Paul Taylor Dance Company and Grupo Corpo give students a chance to explore the concept of movement. To help connect these performances to classroom curriculum, pick one of these concepts and activities or create an entire interdisciplinary curriculum with these as a base.

CONNECTIONS BY GRADE

Some special dances were popular in

but using descriptive language to tell the

Michigan as young people moved to the

expanded story. Older students can have

beat of the Motown sound. How did

fun choosing a simple story and pickig

Kindergarten, First Grade,

kids dance in the 50s, and 60s? Did they

music to go with it. They can use the

dance differently than students do today?

computer to do a podcast in which they

Do dances and music reflect the times?

read a story and use music to embellish it

How? Were different dances done in

and express the concepts and ideas in the

different eras?

story musically.

Students might do a creative timeline of

Fifth Grade

dance through the ages to learn about

Fifth graders study America’s Past.

Second Grade Students in kindergarten, first grade and second grade can look at body language along with their study of Myself and Others, Family, and Community. Talk about how you can tell by the way a person looks and moves if he or she is feeling happy, sad or angry. The songs “If You’re Happy and You Know It” and “It’s All Right To Cry” would be good additions here. Let students act out the way people stand and walk when they are feeling good and bad. Extend this by discussing what you would do and how

history, connect the arts to different historical periods and understand the purpose of, and how to make a timeline. Have some fun. Play some music and

Native Americans Talk about the part dance played, and still plays, in the lives of Native Americans.

dance.

What kinds of dances did they do? What

Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade

Compare dance to prayer. For example,

Some dances tell a story.

a rain dance was asking the gods for

was the purpose of some of the dances?

rain.

you would act toward someone feeling

Dance Me a Story, Twelve Tales from the

sad or angry, happy, excited, embar-

Classic Ballets by Jane Rosenberg would

Listen to some Native American music.

rassed, etc.

be fun to use with fourth and fifth grad-

You can find it on the internet. De-

ers. Combine telling the story with the

scribe it. What kinds of instruments

ballet music. Ask students if they think

were used? Discuss the part drumming

the music describes the action. If there

played in Native American life. Listen

isn’t music, and someone is telling a

to the drums in Native American music.

story, what does he/she use to describe

At this point it would be interesting to

the action? Review the definitions of

talk about where the people got their

metaphors, similes and other descriptive

instruments. They didn’t go downtown

language. Give students a short summa-

and buy them. They used the materi-

ry of a story plot and have them embel-

als around them to make instruments.

lish it, taking the plot anywhere they like,

Divide the class into groups. Make each

Third Grade Third graders study Michigan. Michigan was settled by many ethnic groups, all bringing with them their language, traditions, and culture. What is a folk dance? What kind of dances did the early Michigan residents do? Were they folk dances? When did they dance? Did some residents not dance? Why?

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group a specific Native American tribe

ferent way, trying not to repeat a move-

Draw it. It forms a pattern. Look at the

that lives in an environment specific to

ment (skipping, hopping, etc.).

constellations. They form a pattern

their tribe, like the groups that lived on the plains. Pass out pictures of the en-

Name each type of movement. Introduce

vironment in which they lived. Tell them

the concept of verbs. Have students list

to look carefully at the picture and figure

as many verbs as they can. Make a class

out what natural resources, that is things

list. After viewing the Paul Taylor Dance

they could find around them, they would

Company performance have students

use to make an instrument. What would

write a descriptive paragraph using as

the instrument sound like? Look like?

many different verbs as they can to de-

Make some instruments.

scribe the dance and the dancers.

Look at some of the lyrics to Native

Movement: Muscles

American songs and read some Native

How do we move? Students study the

American poetry. Much of it is about

body. What a perfect time to talk about

life at the time and the kinds of things

muscles, what they are and what they

the people needed to survive. Divide

do. Depending on your curriculum,

students in groups. Tell each group to

explain inertia and momentum.

write down the problems faced by the Native Americans (getting food, shelter, staying safe, etc.). Tell students to write a group poem or song or prayer about

Some people can’t move parts of their bodies or move their bodies well. Read Dancing With Katya by Dori Charonas.

and that pattern tells a story. Dance is movement, but it is also movement with a pattern. Define pattern. Show students examples of patterns. Divide students in groups and have them act out a movement pattern. Give students patterns to complete. These can be number patterns, letter patterns or patterns of shapes. They can be done on paper or using the computer. This can be done in conjunction with a unit on geometry. Movement: Patterns The person who decides the pattern of a dance is called the choreographer. The pattern of the dance is called the choreography. Look at the movements in nature and see if you can see a pattern. Look at some pictures of different types

a problem or need, and then make up a

Movement: Nature

of patterns. There are some great books

dance about it.

What moves beside people? Ask

of quilt patterns. Different patterns

students to describe the way different

mean different things. (If it fits into your

animals move. Tie this in with your study

curriculum here, you could discuss the

of mammals, bees, or birds. Act out the

quilts that were used as maps during the

the way different animals move. Tell

time of the Underground Railroad. If not,

students to use words to compare the

bring this up during Black History Month)

movements of different animals.

Discuss pattern as a piece of art. Have

Colonial Americans Colonial Americans had dances they performed. What were they like? What kind of music did they listen to and dance to in the early days of our country? When did they dance? Was dance an important part of colonial life? How? Why? What is a circle dance? Did they do them a long time ago? Do we do them now? What about a minuet, a square dance, etc? With music, teach students how to do some of these dance.

CONNECTIONS BY SUBJECT AREA AND IDEA

students create their own pattern. Let What else in nature moves? Wind,

young students use their bodies to create

hurricanes and tornedos move. Waves

the letters of the alphabet.

move. These are good to talk about in relation to a unit on Weather. Define the

Movement: Animation

terms. What do they look like as they

If you have a computer lab, teach anima-

move? Go to the internet and look up a

tion to the older students. How do we

weather map. Show how weather can

use the computer to show movement?

be tracked. What are weather patterns?

The art teacher may want to step in here

Have students look at the weather map

and discuss the figure in motion as it is

every day for a few weeks and keep a

painted, drawn or sculpted.

chart of the weather. They can also do Movement

weather graphs.

Movement: Verbs Dance is movement. How do we move?

Talk about movement in relation to

Ask students to move across the room

planets. Describe the movement of

one at a time, each student moving a dif-

the planets around the sun. Act it out.

GRUPO / TAYLOR

57


ENGAGE

LESSON PLANS Artsedge.org and PBS.org offer a wide range of arts-infused lesson plans and materials for educators to use. Below are a few that relate to this Youth Performance.

Exploring the Roots of Modern Dance in America http://www.pbs.org/wnet/freetodance/lessonplans.html Dance is an expression of culture, yet at the same time it is constrained by culture. The purpose of this lesson is to explore the role of African culture in modern dance in America. The lesson will focus on three key areas. The first area will examine the Afro-Caribbean slave roots that were a part of modern dance and the ways that modern dance movements and themes reflected daily life activities. The second area will focus on how modern dance reflected issues of Black pride, self-expression, and identity. The third area will explore how modern dance themes of social justice and activism evolved in response to a racist American society. Modern Dance and the Harlem Renaissance http://www.pbs.org/wnet/freetodance/lessonplans_2.html The Harlem Renaissance was a time when Black culture flourished. This lesson explores how modern dance developed during this era by focusing on the lives of important choreographers and dancers whose work was impacted by the constraints and possibilities of the time. Steps of a Giant: Martha Graham (Unit Plan) This unit is dedicated to exploring the work of Martha Graham, one of the most innovative and celebrated dance artists of the 20th century. http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/3782/ Merce Cunningham: A lifetime of dance http://www.pbs.org/teachers/connect/resources/1257/preview/ As Merce Cunningham describes it, he doesn’t choreograph dance pieces based upon an idea or story, but begins simply with an exploration of movements observed or experienced in life. In this lesson plan, students get a chance to observe movement by creating a “movement journal”, and then they experiment with what they have observed to create a unique “movement vocabulary.” Systems of the Body: Choreography and Movement http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/2012/ In this lesson, students create movement patterns that express information about the basic systems, organs, and processes of the human body. They work in pairs and in groups to make movement choices that communicate scientific concepts in creative movement, and make inquiries, through research and movement experimentation, into the ways in which the body’s systems work and how those systems interact.

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DANCING THROUGH POETRY http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/3534/ In this lesson, students look at poetry as a way to express the art of dance metaphorically. Students read two different poems about break dancing in which one will show dance visually in the way the words are placed on paper and the other using its content to represent dance. ELEMENTS OF DANCE http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/2338/ How many ways can a person move? Students explore and discover the elements of dance by demonstrating various simple movements. This exercise helps the teacher assess the students’ level of experience and ability with respect to dance. Students create simple dances in small groups and perform them for the class. Students manipulate task cards to comprehend the elements of dance and then they will be tested on their knowledge. Telling a Story Through Dance http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/2347/ This lesson introduces students to the concept of emotionally and physically telling a story through dance and pantomime. Students learn that in ballet the dancer is trained to act out the story/character with movement instead of words. The Nutcracker serves as the foundation for the lesson and activities.

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59


EXPLORE

SUGGESTED READINGS Below is a list of books related to these performances that the Ann Arbor District Library helped create.

Elementary + Middle School: Non-Fiction • Dance!: No Matter What Kind of Dance You like to do, this Book is for You by Apryl Lundsten • José!: Born to Dance: The Story of José Limón by Susanna Reich • Imagine That! It’s Modern Dance, Sorine by Stephanie Riva • How Can You Dance? by Rick Walton • Legends of American Dance and Choreography by Carin T. Ford • Edgar Degas: Paintings that Dance by Maryann Cocca-Leffler • Martha Graham, a Dancer’s Life by Russell Freedman Elementary + Middle School: Fiction • Can you Dance, Dalila? by Virginia L Kroll • Dancing Shoes by Noel Streatfeild • Tanya and the Red Shoes by Patricia Lee Gauch • Ballet Magic by Nancy Robison • Rosie’s Ballet Slippers by Susan Hampshire • Presenting Tanya, the Ugly Duckling by Patricia Lee Gauch • Belinda, the Ballerina by Amy Young Adult Books (with Teen Appeal): Non-Fiction • The Erick Hawkins Modern Dance Technique by Renata Celichowska • Ailey Spirit: the Journey of an American Dance Company by Robert Tracy • African-American Concert Dance: The Harlem Renaissance and Beyond by John O. Perpener • Appreciating Dance: A Guide to the World’s Liveliest Art by Harriet R. Lihs • Deep Song: The Dance Story of Martha Graham by Ernestine Stodelle • Prime Movers: The Makers of Modern Dance in America by Joseph H. Mazo • Conditioning for Dance by Eric N. Franklin

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EXPLORE

OTHER RESOURCES Behind the Scenes Volume 3: Music and Dance. First Run Features, 2002. David Parsons episode covers some basic vocabulary (choreographer, movement, shape, movement patterns, movement sequence) and highlights the different ways to view dance (dancers are viewed from above, below, dancing to convey a story and dancing “to look pretty.”)  Adds cartoons, and various other images that echo movement providing a sense of broader context.  Stage fight choreography is also included.

“Behind the Scenes,” a film by Juergen Wilcke. Documentary: Dance Theater from Brazil, Grupo Corpo Companhia de Dança. West Long Branch, NJ : Kultur, [2004], c1996.

A Dancer’s Journal: Martha Graham http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/3674 This interactive site introduces students to the life and work of Martha Graham, known as “the mother of modern dance.” Students learn about specific Graham dances through the journals of Jordy Kandinsky, a (fictional) new member of the Martha Graham Dance Company. In Jordy’s journals, students will find letters, newspaper articles, checklists, photographs, video clips, and music that illuminate various aspects of the dance Jordy is learning. Jordy’s journals for four Graham dances—Lamentation, Appalachian Spring, Errand into the Maze and Diversion of Angels.

Dance Magazine http://www.dancemagazine.com Online version of Dance Magazine that includes a Young Dancer section, reviews, dance news, and features on dancers, choreographers, dance companies and more.

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61


The Guardian’s Step-By-Step Guides to Dance http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/dance+series/stepbystepguidetodance These guides break down the works of current choreographers in a humorous and accessible format. They cover biographies, elements of style, and quotes. Many well-known choreographers are included, such as George Balanchine and Merce Cunningham.

The New Deal Stage: Selections From the Federal Theater Project 1935 – 1939. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/fedtp/fthome.html This online presentation includes over 13,000 images of items selected from the Federal Theatre Project Collection at the Library of Congress. Featured here are stage and costume designs, still photographs, posters, and scripts for productions of Macbeth and The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus as staged by Orson Welles, and for Power, a topical drama of the period (over 3,000 images). Also included are 68 other playscripts (6,500 images) and 168 documents selected from the Federal Theatre Project Administrative Records (3,700 images). The Federal Theatre Project was one of five arts-related projects established during the first term of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt under the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

Paul Taylor: Dancemaker. Docurama, 1998.

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UMS 10-11


EXPLORE

R E L AT E D organizations LOCAL

NON-LOCAL

UMS 10/11 DANCE SEASON

University Musical Society

American Dance Festival

Paul Taylor Dance Company

881 N University Avenue

715 Broad Street

551 Grand Street

Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1011

Durham, NC 27705

New York, NY 10002

(734) 615-0122

(919) 684-6402

(212) 431-5562

umsyouth@umich.edu

www.americandancefestival.org

www.ptdc.org

Jacob’s Pillow

Sankai Juku

Swing City Dance Studio

P.O. Box 287

c/o Pomegranate Arts

1960 S Industrial E & F

Lee, MA 01238

1140 Broadway, Suite 305

Ann Arbor, MI 48104

(413) 243-0745

New York, NY 10001

(734) 668-7782

www.jacobspillow.org

(212) 228-2221

www.ums.org

www.swingcitydance.com

www.sankaijuku.com The Joyce Theater

University of Michigan

175 Eighth Avenue

Grupo Corpo

Department of Dance

New York, NY 10011

Av. Bandeirantes, 866 – Mangabeiras

3501 Dance Building

(212) 242-0800

30315 000 Belo Horizonte

Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2217

www.joyce.org

Minas Gerais, Brazil

(734) 763-5460

(+55 31) 3221 7701

www.music.umich.edu/departments/

New York City Center

dance

130 West 56th Street

www.grupocorpo.com.br

New York, NY 10019

Merce Cunningham Dance Company

Michigan Dance Council

(212) 247-0430

55 Bethune Street

P.O. Box 381103

www.nycitycenter.org

New York, NY 10014

Clinton Twp., MI 48038 www.michigandance.org

(212) 255-8240 Danspace Project

www.merce.org

131 East 10th Street Wayne State University

New York, NY 10003

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater

Dance Department

(212) 674-8112

The Joan Weill Center for Dance

4841 Cass Avenue

www.danspaceproject.org

405 W. 55th Street (at 9th Avenue)

Detroit, MI 48202

New York, NY 10019

(313) 577-4273

Dance/USA

(212) 405-9000

www.dance.wayne.edu

1111 16th Street NW, Suite 300

www.alvinailey.org

Washington, DC 20036 (202) 833-1717 www.danceusa.org

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, Jack. Ballet & Modern Dance: A Concise History. New Jersey: Princeton Book Company, 1986. Cheney, Gay. Basic Concepts in Modern Dance: A Creative Approach. New Jersey: Princeton Book Company, 1989. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture ed. Barbara A. Tenenbaum. New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1996. Foster, Susan Leigh. Reading Dancing: Bodies and Subjects in Contemporary American Dance. Berkley: University of California Press, 1986. www.grupocorpo.com.br Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. Illinois, Human Kinetics, 2007. McDonagh, Don. The Complete Guide to Modern Dance. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1976. www.ptdc.org Taylor, Paul. Private Domain. New York: Knopf, 1987.

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ABOUT UMS

GRUPO / TAYLOR Photo: In Vaudeville Dancer with Chorus

65


UMS

W H AT I S U M S ? The University Musical Society (UMS) is committed to connecting audiences with performing artists from around the world in uncommon and engaging experiences. One of the oldest performing arts presenters in the country, the University Musical Society is now in its 132nd season. With a program steeped in music, dance, and theater performed at the highest international standards of quality, UMS contributes to a vibrant cultural community by presenting approximately 60-75 performances and over 100 free educational and community activities each season. UMS also commissions new work, sponsors artist residencies, and organizes collaborative projects with local, national, and international partners.

UMS Education and Community Engagement Department

STAFF

INTERNS

Kenneth C. Fischer,

Emily Barkakati

UMS President

MAILING ADDRESS 100 Burton Memorial Tower

Neal Kelley Claire C. Rice Interim Director

Emily Michels

Mary Roeder

Sarah Suhadolnik

881 North University Ave Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1011

Residency Coordinator

Omari Rush Education Manager

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UMS 10-11


UMS

U M S Y O U T H E D U C AT I O N P R O G R A M 10 THINGS TO KNOW

QUALITY Every student deserves access to

ACCESSIBILITY Eliminating participation barriers

“the best” experiences of world arts

Working directly with schools to align our programs with classroom

• UMS subsidizes Youth Performance

and culture

K-12 SCHOOL PARTNERSHIPS

goals and objectives

tickets to $6/student (average subsidy: • UMS presents the finest international

$25/ticket)

performing and cultural artists.

Ann Arbor Public Schools and the Washt• When possible, UMS reimburses bus-

• Performances are often exclusive to

• Superintendent of Ann Arbor Public • UMS Youth Education offers person-

Schools is an ex officio member of the

alized customer service to teachers in

UMS Board of Directors.

• UMS Youth Performances aim to

order to respond to each school’s unique

present to students the same perfor-

needs.

mance that the public audiences see (no watered-down content).

enaw Intermediate School District.

sing costs.

Ann Arbor or touring to a small number of cities.

• 14-year official partnerships with the

• UMS has significant relationships with Detroit Public Schools’ dance and world

• UMS actively seeks out schools with

language programs and is developing

economic and geographic challenges to

relationships with other regional districts.

ensure and facilitate participation. • UMS is building partnerships with or of-

DIVERSITY Highlighting the cultural, artistic,

fering specialized services to the region’s ARTS EDUCATION LEADER

independent and home schools.

and geographic diversity of the world One of the premier arts education • Programs represent world cultures and

programs in the country

mirror school/community demographics. • UMS’s peer arts education programs: Car• Students see a variety of art forms:

negie Hall, Lincoln Center, Kennedy Center.

classical music, dance, theater, jazz, choral, global arts.

• UMS has the largest youth education

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION PARTNERSHIPS Affecting educators’ teaching practices at the developmental stage

program of its type in the four-state region

• UMS Youth Education is developing

• UMS’s Global Arts program focuses

and has consistent school/teacher participa-

a partnership with the U-M School of

on 4 distinct regions of the world—

tion throughout southeastern Michigan.

Education, which keeps UMS informed

Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Arab World—with a annual festival featuring

• 20,000 students are engaged each sea-

the arts of one region.

son by daytime performances, workshops and in-school visits. • UMS Youth Education was awarded “Best Practices” by ArtServe Michigan and The Dana Foundation (2003).

of current research in educational theory and practice. • University professors and staff are active program advisors and workshop presenters. GRUPO / TAYLOR

67


KENNEDY CENTER PARTNERSHIP

TEACHER ADVISORY COMMITTEE

• UMS Youth Education has been a

Meeting the actual needs of today’s

member of the prestigious Kennedy

educators in real time

Center Partners in Education Program since 1997. • Partners in Education is a national consortium of arts organization and public school partnerships.

• UMS Youth Education works with a 50-teacher committee that guides program decision-making. • The Committee meets throughout the season in large and small groups

• The program networks over 100 na-

regarding issues that affect teachers and

tional partner teams and helps UMS stay

their participation: ticket/bussing costs,

on top of best practices in education and

programming, future goals, etc.

arts nationwide. IN-SCHOOL VISITS & CURRICULUM PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT “I find your arts and culture workshops to be one of the ‘Seven Wonders of Ann Arbor’!” –AAPS Teacher

DEVELOPMENT Supporting teachers in the classroom • UMS Youth Education places international artists and local arts educators/ teaching artists in classes to help educa-

• UMS Youth Education provides some

tors teach a particular art form or model

of the region’s most vital and responsive

new/innovative teaching practices.

professional development training.

• UMS develops nationally-recognized

• Over 300 teachers participate in our

teacher curriculum materials to help

educator workshops each season.

teachers incorporate upcoming youth performances immediately in their daily

• In most workshops, UMS utilizes and engages resources of the regional community: cultural experts and institutions, performing and teaching artists.

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UMS 10-11

classroom instruction. UMS Youth Education Program umsyouth@umich.edu | 734-615-0122 www.ums.org/education


SEND US YOUR FEEDBACK! UMS wants to know what teachers and students think about this Youth Performance. We hope you’ll send us your thoughts, drawings, letters, or reviews.

UMS YOUTH EDUCATION PROGRAM Burton Memorial Tower • 881 N. University Ave. • Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1011 (734) 615-0122 phone • (734) 998-7526 fax • umsyouth@umich.edu www.ums.org/education

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UMS Teacher Resource Guide - Paul Taylor Dance Company and Grupo Corpo