Page 1

IF YOU KNOW THEN YOU


2


Own images and User generated content from IYK brief see appendix 8.4

4


PREFACE Peplum - the fav blogger top of 2013

Llymrs had dip dye hair, so I got dip dye hair

Part of my infatuation in fashion began as a teenager when I became obsessed with bloggers and shopping their looks. I developed an unconscious preoccupation for following these #fbloggers and was heavily influenced by them. I used these style influencers as purely inspiration as often I could not purchase what they posted because of barriers to entry such as price or availability. This however, was part of the fun. I couldn’t just click to buy. I had to hunt for that piece and actively explore or DIY how I could wear and tap into that trend. This active searching of looking on Ebay, vintage shops or dupe copies really excited me and was what at the time made me dress differently to all of my friends. My first favourite fashion bloggers were ‘Llymrs’, ‘She Wears Fashion’ and Sarah Ashcroft. They were not ‘paid to wear’ or sponsored. They were just cool girls inspiring other girls by their style and love of fashion.

Dupe of the ‘it’ blogger Zara bag

The Tumblr famous blogger lita boots

More recently, I find myself scrolling through Instagram and blogs feeling a mix of disappointment and dissatisfaction with the landscape of bloggers, influencers and fashion inspiration. I feel Instagram has brought about saturation in style that has become difficult to escape and not adhere to. It is for these reasons I will explore what it means to influence fashion and aim to solve the issues and dissatisfaction many consumers feel.

Ebay leather trousers found through blogger Charlotte Martin

Fig 1. Blogger Lover Visualisation, Own Image. 2013

6


12-17

The game has changed

18-19

With a look at the history of blogging

Blogging has lost its cool factor They’ve reached their tipping point

20-21

The authentic issue

22-25

Saturation of style

Consumers can sniff it out

The style stats have been saturated

28-29 30-31

Dwindling ROI

Bye Blogger, *enters influencer*

With case study from internship at Aveda

A new term to influence

34-37

Micro or mega? 38-43

Micro in size, mega in influence

Social media is changing The social media struggle and saturation which has occurred

44-51

Future trends and problems 4 key trends and problems which IYK will utilise

8

part one


56-59

The Big Idea

60-65

If You Know If You Know, you know

The design recipe, branding & brand values

66-73

Consumer The Influencers, influential and influenced

80-81

Marketing big idea Aims and strategy

82-89

The app

part two

Where the authentic magic happans

90-91

IYK brand touchpoints Video, social media direct mail and outdoor advertising

98-101

Communication strategy The route to engage and convert the IYK consumer

102-103

Measures of success and conclusion Looking to the future

104-106

Glossary

107-119

Phrases and words explained

Referencing Illustrations, references and bibliography

10


“ THE NAME

intro

This report, ‘Influenced’ looks to identify and explain the social trends and shifts in the world of fashion bloggers and influencers.

‘BLOGGER’ HAS BECOME A DIRTY WORD FOR SOME

Consumers social media feeds have become inundated with marketing messages. Often tagged with #ad and #sp (advert/sponsored) they are feeling fed up with the fake fashion bloggers they once loved. 32% of consumers have downloaded an ad blocker on their smartphones in the past year, evidence that advertisers will soon need to change their strategy (Scott, 2016).

When fashion bloggers first entered the industry they felt raw and inspiring. They represented real people and let everyone into the fashion conversation. Social media specifically Instagram, Snapchat and YouTube pushed this one step further. They gave individuals the chance to create prosperous careers and gain a mass following with user-generated iPhone captured content. Anyone can now influence through the online world.

So lets make room for real style influencers who dress great but also have some real substance and something to say. Brands such as ASOS Marketplace, Adidas and My Flash Trash are early adopters reacting to this shift in consumer behaviour. There is also a new wave of style influencers gaining momentum for their unfiltered and authentic social channels.

As bloggers grew their audiences, advertisers saw opportunity to capitalise on them. This has now brought about an issue of authenticity and mistrust from consumers and fans.

Drapers: Goldfingle, 2016

When everything is accessible and available perhaps the unavailable and mystery will be the next counter culture. (i-D, 2016).

THE NEXT GEN 12

Fig 3. The Haute Pursuit, 2015.


the game has changed the manrepeller

Tavi Gevinson

susie bubble fashion toast bryan boy

aimme song

scott schulman

chiara ferragni Fig 4. The Gamechangers Moodboard, 2017. The first generation of fashion bloggers began to emerge on the internet and ‘frows’ in 2002. They created content which had a “raw truth that did not exist in traditional outlets” (Givhan, 2014). At this time PC’s, laptops and broadband become affordable alongside easier access to blogging platforms and simplified web publishing tools. This gave mass accessibility to the internet and led to a new democratised fashion industry (Barefoot & Szabo, 2010). “Digital opened the fashion window and welcomed everyone in” (Jones, 2017). The book ‘Pro Blogger’ (2010) written by Darren Rowse and Chris Garrett describes their journeys as bloggers in 2002. It is interesting to note that during this time there was little consideration around earning money from blogging. “In the beginning it was almost unheard of for someone to earn money from their blog; in fact, for many, profit was seen as counter to blogging culture, but this soon changed”. Bloggers began to realise their relevance and power and started to monetise on their blogs through advertising space, paid reviews, sponsorships and affiliate commissions. This change created a shift in power from the gatekeepers of the fashion industry to anyone who created a following. The launch of Blogger.com and Live Journal.com allowed anyone to become a blogger. The barriers to entry were low yet the traction and buzz these user-generated sites could 14 create was incredibly high.

Catwalk shows shifted from seating fashion editors and designers on the front row sat quietly and formally, to bloggers and influencers sat snapping and filming the latest trends on their smart phones and sharing with thousands of loyal fashion followers. Of course this new found power was met with backlash and soon shifted from being about fashion to publicity and fame. The blogging industry has transitioned through Everett M. Rogers Diffusion of Innovation theory. Bloggers have now reached the ‘laggard’ stage due to bloggers now being a mass market marketing strategy. The space is extremely saturated and this is perhaps due to the fact that “everyone now thinks their an influencer” as stated in a webinar by mega influencer Louise Roe (Roe, 2016). A refinery 29 article ‘The newest fashion bloggers don’t even have blogs’ in 2015 highlighted the “new wave of style ‘bloggers’ upsetting the system by ditching the website entirely and focusing solely on social media” (Darwin, 2015). @whitneybearr went on to comment that “Instagram is super-quick, there is hardly any planning and you can still reach a huge audience”. This signified the shift from these individuals presence on blogs to social media. Instagram has been the fastest ever growing social network and shows no sign of slowing down in 2017 (Chaffey, 2017). Some may say it is a shame that intelligent and witty blog posts have been replaced with a quick iPhone captured photo, but we have to roll with the times...

“Blogging is not dead or dying; it’s far too complex for that. Like anything with a lot of layers, like fashion itself, it is simply undergoing metamorphosis, one that may require a different name: none at all.” Shiffer, 2016 Fig 5. The Pioneers of Fashion Blogging. 2015


Vogue has created much controversy in the last few years with opinions on fashion bloggers. This began in 2013, when Suzy Menkes wrote the article ‘The Circus of Fashion’. She described fashion shows as a zoo with bloggers as the animals putting on a show for public and press. She illustrated the absurdity of bloggers wearing paid-for outfits and changing outfits mid show. This article marked a shift in opinions around fashion bloggers. More recently in 2016, Vogue Fashion Editor, Sally Singer lashed out at bloggers stating:

“Note to bloggers who change head-to-toe, paid-to-wear outfits every hour. Please stop. Find another business. You are heralding the death of style.” Many have questioned Vogue and named them hypocritical for their strong views despite the fact they continue to feature and promote bloggers in their content. Vogue was the first to market a published issue with a blogger as the cover girl. Vogue therefore gave bloggers a legitimacy that they would not have been able to create without the power house that Vogue is, therefore the backlash has come as a surprise for many. In a lecture with previous Vogue editor, Dolly Jones (2017) when asked about the bloggers vs Vogue editors war she commented that many of the Vogue editors had been misquoted and that in her opinion “when the blogging revolution happened, that was the first real competition for Vogue, but we simply saw bloggers as more competition and Vogue thrives on competition”. She reflected that she had been misquoted and that it was incredibly frustrating but she feels it was clear to the public Vogue UK were not involved. (Jones, 2017).

Above: Fig 6. Chiara Ferragni Vogue Cover, 2015. Below: Fig 7. Caroline Vreeland and Anna Wintour, with key tweets, 2016. Across: Fig 8 Milan Fashion Week, 2015.

It’s funny that we even still call them ‘bloggers’ as so few of them even do that anymore. Rather than a celebration of any actual style, it seems to be all about turning up, looking ridiculous, posing, twitching your seat as you check your social media feeds, fleeing, changing, repeating...It’s all pretty embarrassing - even more so when you consider what else is going on in the world. Have you registered to vote yet? Alessandra Codinha, Vogue.com Fashion News Editor, 2016.

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VOGUE, HATER OR HYPOCRITE?


blogging has lost its cool factor

In their early years, blogs were more like zines, manned by obsessive fashion fans who got paid in the emotional currency of comments rather than agent-negotiated contracts. They had more candour and edge than mainstream fashion magazines, in part because brands weren’t paying attention. Readers were, however, and soon, advertising rolled in...

Refinery 29 : Hines, 2015

The blogosphere has lost it’s cool factor. Around 2009 was the time when blogging reached ‘The Tipping Point’ and changed from being innovators and early adopters to the mass majority. Malcolm Gladwell’s (2000) concept of the ‘Law of the Few’ claims there are three archetypes who are “information specialists”. Bloggers certainly have these skills. It is this sharing of information, becoming well connected and selling products or themselves that lead bloggers to success. Social media has altered the traditional means of communication with new channels and platforms giving a new meaning to Gladwell’s phrase “social gifts” (Fashion and Beauty Monitor Report 2016).

Tim Blanks stated in BOF’s ‘How to Fix the Fashion System’ “the brands are petrified. They know they need to embrace digital and they don’t know how... We don’t know what to do so lets make sure the Blonde Salad is front row” (Blanks, 2016). Murray (2016) agrees with this statement by stating, “A lot of what we are seeing at the moment is gimmicky. Its short sighted and it is not offering anything interesting beyond PR for that particular brand”. It is these kind of ill thought out decisions and a one size fits all approach that has damaged the image of the blogger. Influencers now represent approximately 1/5 of the consumer population and they influence purchases of 74% of the population (Cartay, 2016). It appears that everyone is now an influencer and it is this mass of noise in the industry which has brought about consumer annoyance and mistrust.

However, whilst these bloggers rose in popularity an undercurrent of annoyance and lack of authenticity started to emerge like a slow moving epidemic. As blogger’s followers rose so did the monetising of their businesses which for many led to taking on projects or acting in a way which felt inauthentic for the original readers of that blog.

When questioned, popular blogger Lydia Millen stated “I think the future for fashion blogging is that we will replace celebrity endorsements, offering credible spokes person capabilities as the industry continues to grow. If undertaken responsibly.” (see full interview in appendix 3.2) The future is uncertain for bloggers.

As blogging hit mass market at a rapid speed the path for brands and bloggers was uncertain. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) marketing guidelines were vague and unclear to follow and brands felt unsure on how to capitalise on bloggers along with trying to embrace and innovate with new digital technologies.

“It frustrates me when bloggers change their style according to what free things they get gifted, it’s not very authentic.” Style Questionnaire response. 2016 Fig 9. Change in Bloggers, 2017

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the authentic issue

In 2016 “engagement, authenticity, reality and experience” are the “buzz words that matter” (Petty, 2016). As ‘new consumerism’ develops, phrase coined by Euromonitor, these concepts are now at the forefront of importance for brands and influencers to take note of.

This argument of transparency was further discussed in a BBC Four radio show ‘The kids who decide what all the other kids talk about.’ Journalist Paul Mason discusses the negative effects of not knowing if posts are sponsored. “Across the social media landscape there is little consistency, it’s confusing and misleading for young consumers as they don’t know what to look for” (Mason, 2016). Furthermore, 34% of influencers surveyed for ‘The Voice of the Influencer report’ (2016) revealed they do not always state when content has been sponsored. Just a quick scroll down Instagram and you will be inundated with sponsored posts and ads. The blogger you used to love for her raw style is now wearing head-to-toe gifted styled outfits and no longer deserves a follow.

Research suggests millennials see through celebrity endorsements and YouTube vloggers (Atherton, 2016). They still enjoy engaging with fashion bloggers and influencers however, see through paid posts and gifted products. A primary research questionnaire of over 100 millennials highlighted that consumers saw through fashion bloggers and influencers posts. One participant stated that fashion influencers are “creative and using social media to make a business, but sponsored ads are becoming tiresome and repetitive” (Anonymous questionnaire response, 2016).

There has become a saturation of teeth whiting, bodycon dresses and vegan snacks that consumers are quite frankly becoming bored. It is therefore unsurprisingly that there is a counter trend emerging of unfiltered, fun and playful content which will take lead for 2017 and onwards.

Deceptive endorsements are a hot topic at the moment as the guidelines of how sponsored posts should be dealt with is vague from the FTC. This presents a battle for brands and bloggers as many want to follow the guidelines however clearly highlighting #AD often reduces the perceived value and authenticity of the post (Frier, 2016).

Left: Fig. 10 Inauthentic Instagram cliches, 2016. Fig. 11 Speech balloons primary research, 2016. Fig. 12 Blogger Images, 2016. 20


INSTA DONT BE BORING “FAMILIARITY BREEDS LIKING”

saturation of style

“I'm not sure what prompted it, but I recently found myself unfollowing a majority of my picture-perfect Instagram feed. Suddenly, gone were the flat-lays of lipsticks and seasonal candles and adorable desk supplies — in favour of unfiltered, imperfect realness. I wanted funny, not flawless! I wanted unfiltered images with personality and bite! I wanted to add some life back into my feed”

According to Business Insider (2017) Instagram is the most popular app for visual millennials and it has an incredible influence on consumer buying behaviour. Trends emerge onto Instagram and in a matter of weeks the platform is surged with posts of that trend. The diffusion of innovation happens at incredible speed. In Sophie Milner’s blog post ‘Help! Is Instagram brainwashing our taste in fashion?’ she reflects that she found herself buying clothes and products purely because she had seen them on Instagram and thought they would look great in a post, rather than because they were her style. (For primary research see appendix 3.3). This is most probably true for many consumers as our visual feed helps us control our impression management. A theory suggested by Byron Sharp, (2010) “familiarity breeds liking,” insinuates that if a consumer sees a trend or item on her feed multiple times this consequently will make the consumer grow to like it and potentially buy. But what is this all leading to? “A lack of personal style and a look that resembles pretty much everyone’s out there” (Milner, 2016).

Brannigan, 2016.

22

Fig.13 Saturation of Style Moodboard, 2017


SO WHY & HOW ARE CONSUMERS BUYING & BEING style stats

INFLUENCED? 24

63%

of respondents would be a blogger or influencer if given the chance

£££

Price was the largest influencing factor over respondents buying a product with recommendation from a friend and post from blogger also being a popular answer

53%

would rather order a popular item online and get it next day despite 5 other people wearing it than hunting for a one of item on the high street

63%

describe themselves as being influenced Fig 14. @tomiellewear user generated image, 2017. Fig 15. Primary research questionnaire infographic, 2017. (For all primary research questionnaire results see appendix 5.1- 5.2)

82%

follow fashion bloggers or influencers

79%

have purcha sed an item afte r seeing it po sted or wor n by a fashion blog ger or influence r


“ yes, 26

Digiday, 2016.

popular”

as being too

there’s such a thing

5% described themselves as an influencer


DWINDLING

Case Study: Aveda The Strategy: Acquire Niomi Smart, wellness and fitness blogger with a mass following. Niomi’s content is often themed around health, beauty and fitness on a luxury entry price point so she felt like a good match for Aveda with the correct target audience. The aim: To create buzz around the new product, increase the brand status and boost sales. What Content? Aveda briefed Niomi to create one Instagram post holding the product with curled hair. To create a 20 minute Vlog named ‘My Guide to Healthy Hair’ and to attend an event at House of Fraser which would be a meet and greet for her followers.

ROI

Fig. 16 Capture Your style, 2016.

The Telegraph (2016) stated “fashion is now a numbers game. Success is measured by how many clicks a website gets and how many likes an influencer receives on their Instagram post” and this is inherently true.” The return on investment (ROI) in blogger and influencer marketing strategies is dwindling across many brands and industry’s. Bloggers are being chosen for their stats and not their quality of content, much to the frustration of many smaller micro bloggers with highly engaged followers. Case study 6.6 is a perfect example of how utilising a mega blogger brought about a low ROI as the strategy was undeveloped, see appendix to read more. Media agency Digiday, carried out a survey in 2016 of two million social media influencers. This research is very insightful to show the new opportunity of micro influencers and the declining influence of mega influencers.

FOLLOWERS

< 1k

8.03%

1k- 10k

4.04%

10k-100k

2.37%

100k- 1M

1.78%

1M- 10M

1.66%

1

2

3

4

5

6

LIKE RATE % Fig. 17 Influencer engagement data visualisation, 2016.

7

8

9

Alice Sperring, search engine optimisation manager at ASOS stated in an interview,

“We no longer regularly do blogger outreach campaigns as they are immensely time-consuming for the agency and the results are underwhelming.” Read full interview in appendix 4.3

ASOS are known for leading digital innovation and their strategy has moved from blogger outreach to a micro influencer and user generated content (ugc) strategy. This content helps build the brand image of ASOS and improves their search engine optimisation and increases their organic content (Full case study see appendix 6.3). Alice Sperring’s comment is reinforced in a Marketing Week article when Kevin Edwards (2016) stated that “affiliate marketing is time intensive and can drain resources for sometimes minimal output”. The main issue which has brought about this decline in investment is due to a shift in the way consumers interact with advertising and consume content. “They don’t want to look at ads” and if they do they have to be relevant and appealing to them (Harris 2016). Further evidence of this shift is supported by the fact that 22% of smart phone users are blocking advertising on their device while browsing the internet, a 90% annual increase (NY Times, 2016). This presents many issues for marketers as if this number rises the data that can be collected from cookies and online 28 activity will no longer be available.

Return On Investment? The Instagram image gained 63,000 likes and the vlog over 250,000 views. This was the expected engagement rating from her mass following however further measures of success highlighted the strategy was overall extremely unsuccessful as the click through to buy rate from her YouTube video was very low. Furthermore the product failed to reach its sales forecast. The House of Fraser event was expected to bring a lot of buzz to the Aveda concession and encourage consumers to enter the trial stage of the buying process, however the event felt extremely empty and did not achieve the marketing aims.

http://www.niomismart.com @niomismart 1.8M Followers 1,711,718 subscribers 102,828,011 views Known for: - Vegan, Plant based diet - Being an early Vlogger

The Brief: To promote the new Aveda Damage Remedy product through an influencer marketing strategy

So what went wrong? All content in which Niomi posted clearly stated #AD and was directed by the Aveda team. Images and vlogs were sent back and fourth between Niomi and the team with amendments to be made which predictably meant the content felt extremely inauthentic and false. This is evidence to show that mega influencers are no longer a successful or efficient marketing strategy. For the full case study see appendix 5.6. Perhaps if a micro influencer strategy was used the content would have felt more authentic and followers would have trusted the recommendation more. Although this would have a smaller reach the engagement would have be higher. Fig. 18 Niomi Smart #AD Post, 2016. Fig. 19 Niomi Smart You Tube Video, 2016. Fig. 20 Instagram Images of event, 2016.


bye blogger *enters influencer*

Influencers have taken over the blogging space since 2015. Consumers trust and interest in bloggers has decreased so influencers have taken the spotlight. Influencer and writer Xenia has a total audience of 5.2 million and stated “don’t call me a blogger. Bloggers do anything for money. I’m an influencer” (Drapers, 2017). Singer Tallia Storm agrees stating that “now it’s uncool to even be considered a blogger..they have lost their authenticity” (Storm, 2016). Unlike the stereotypical blogger, almost all influencers have a specific area of expertise. Influencers are writers, fashion editors, models, activists, designers and many more. What groups them is their power to influence and social capital. The term influencer and influencer marketing soared on Google trends and search requests in 2015. However marketing specialist Kevin Edwards (2016) has discussed that influencer marketing is really just affiliate marketing with a new name. Whether this term is just a buzz word, it cannot be denied that influencer marketing which “targets individuals with influence over potential buyers” (Wong, 2014) is extremely lucrative when carried out authentically and correctly. There is certainly a great opportunity for bloggers and influencers still in the industry when a following has been built organically and authentically (Atherton, 2016). Many new companies are emerging which purely offer influencer marketing services, see case study 6.4 in appendix to learn about Sidebuy and their services.

1 2 3

Fig. 21 Pandora Sykes Tweet, 2016. Fig. 22 Riposte Magazine Scan, 2017.

“2017 will be the year that brands will gain more confidence in handing over created freedom and narrative control to influencers. This is the point where quality will win out over quantity.”

Influencer marketing is proving to be hugely effective, however there are new expectations and strategies for brands and influencers to succeed:

Fashion and Beauty Monitor. ‘The 7 hottest trends of influencer marketing’ 2017.

Authenticity is key Be authentic and real. Brands need to strategically research who they want to acquire against key performance indicators and brand values whilst ensuring they target the correct audience for the influencer and brand. Without this the post instantly feels inauthentic.

“As shoppers increasingly turn their backs on commercial bloggers Influencers are stepping in to swap shoppers opinions.” Goldfinger, 2016. Drapers

Influencers as creative director - Content creators Influencers are creative people and often have ideas for a project. When the concept comes from the influencer and not the brand this can lead to a more authentic concept. Hyundai commissioned influencer Jay Alvarrez; he was given full creative control over his vlog style video in which was then put into a TV campaign in Canada and received 300% rise in sales. Evidence giving creative freedom can lead to more interesting brand content. (See appendix 4.1 for this source) Content, aesthetic and engagement before numbers “Too many agencies and brands focus on the number of followers, but that viewpoint is outdated. A more authentic approach is to look at the aesthetic of the content they’re posting, how often they engage, who they’re following and who’s following them. By defining those factors you can build a genuine community of fan girls at scale” (Amber Atherton, CEO of My Flash Trash, 2016).

30

“I think they’re easy for people with to make fun of, but I admire them as it would take a lot of work to put into social media, websites, blogging, contacting people to collaborate with, contacting brands... and you’d have to do it for a long time before making substantial/liveable income.” Fig. 22 Riposte Magazine Style Questionnaire response, 2016. Scan, 2017.


32

Chapple, 2016.

better”

mean

dosen’t always

“ bigger


micro opportunity

mass results

Fig 23. ASOS Insiders, 2015.

So where is the sweet spot of influencer marketing? 2017 is suggesting it’s with micro influencers. This ‘magic middle’ is with influencers with a following of 1K to 100,000 followers or subscribers as they are seen by consumers as more reachable than mega influencers. This relatable but aspirational influence is why micro influencers present such an attractive strategy. Jewellery brand, My Flash Trash pioneered this marketing strategy in an inspiring way (see appendix 6.1) and since, ASOS, Revolve, New Look and Vagabond are just a handful of brands beginning to reap the benefits of a micro influencer strategy.

Micro influencers when authentic, are beneficial to brands due to their engaged and trusted positioning in the industry. But this is a mutually beneficial relationship. Micro influencers are starting to gain the attention they deserve as many of them have stronger and more engaging content than mega influencers. Instagram is supporting this content through its new algorithm; which favours good quality content and no longer ranks content by the highest following. Micro influencer pods or squads are also proving a clever strategy combining a group of influencers to heighten traffic and ROI (For full case study see appendix 6.5).

Micro influencers target a smaller reach than macro however they often have a more niche subject area and with this have authority in that space where followers listen up. This informed and often more relatable content improves the ‘stickiness factor’ (Gladwell, 2010) of ads and promoted posts as the consumer listens to the recommendations of these influencers. Furthermore these influencers have more authentic conversations with their audience and listen to what their followers want. They often reply and build relationships with their followers, a luxury larger influencers cant afford.

Micro influencers are everyday people with interesting things to say and content to create. They are early adopters of trends and are often on a more localised level, again helping the engagement and reliability between the influencer and consumer. This proves Simmel’s theory of ‘The trickle down effect’ (Simmel, 1904) is no longer valid as these micro influencers are creating trends and inspiration which if anything is trickling up to larger influencers. Furthermore, these individuals are more meticulous with the brands they work with or promote which works for brands as this equates to better quality content and a happier collaboration.

“It’s our preference to work with smaller, up and coming micro influencers, as they tend to have more impact with their audience. When they are new and emerging this can lead to better relationships with brands in the long term.”

Looking to the future of this marketing trend, Elijah Whaley predicts that the next innovation will come when systems are created to harness everyone as super micro influencers “of niche attention silos” (Whaley, 2017). Analysing this opinion suggests an opportunity to imagine all consumers as niche influencers who have a power to influence peers.

Allyson Griffiths, Strategy Director at ICrossing, 2016.

Fig. 24 Nasty Gal, 2016. Across Fig. 27 Vagabond Campaign Scan, 2017.

Fig. 25 New Look Model Squad, 2017.

34

Fig. 26 Urban Outfitters Campaign, 2016.


EVERYDAY INFLUENCE STATS

everyone as an influencer

Everyone is now a content producer and a future thinking strategy to push micro influencers could be to use everyday people as influencers. Both primary and secondary research suggests word of mouth from friends still as one of the strongest influencers on consumer behaviour. Jonah Berger states in ‘Contiguous’ (2013) that the reason for this is that “friends objectivity coupled with their candidness” makes us more likely to believe and listen than from influencers or bloggers.

x2

consumer word of mouth generates twice the sales compared to paid advertising (McKinsey, 2016)

77%

of consumers are likely to buy a new product when learning about it from friends and family (LSN Global, 2016).

73%

prefer content from real people or friends in contrast to only 21% choosing bloggers or influencers. (Primary questionnaire, 2016).

NO.1

word of mouth is still number one influence (Hooper, 2017). Word of mouth is the primary factor behind 20-50% of all purchasing decisions (Berger, 2013). Fig. 28 IYK Shoot. Own Image, 2017. 36

Fig 29. Primary research questionnaire results, 2017. See appendix for full responses 5.1- 5.2


“Thanks to the Internet, it has never been so easy to become the person of your wildest dreams.”

social media; hyperreality

Being Virtual: Who You Really Are Online. Winder, 2008 In an online Dazed article (2017) Emma Allwood discussed John Berger’s ‘Ways of Seeing’ theory and how this can be applied to modern day society. She defined current society to be “image obsessed”, which is hard to deny when millennials and Gen Z spend hours a day on social media apps, often strategically planning their impression management curating that perfect identity. Users of social media are becoming obsessed with instant gratification. Research suggests that receiving likes or a new follower releases dopamine, a neurochemical which is known as the reward molecule. This is the same hormone which is released when receiving a hug, exercising or buying something. The desire growing within many young teens to receive this feeling has been found to be highly addictive.

Fig. 30 Adidas Originals: Your Future is not mine, 2016. Fig. 31 Black Mirror- Nose Dive, 2016.

We are living in an image culture where our daily lives are saturated with media and branded, constructed content. This real time nature of continually documenting your life is leading to hyperreal and synthetic experiences which is why consumers are slowly opting out from receiving this mass of targeted media. Consumers attention is more valuable than ever in this attention economy. The Adidas ‘Future’ campaign series (2016) visualises the potential way our lives could look in the future. Drones, VR headsets and selfie culture all feature. The videos are heavily engaging and visually stimulating but when juxtaposed when the frightening affects digital and social media could bring, the out take is negative more than positive. Similarly, Charlie Brookers, Black Mirror (2015) explores the future through the lens of the public’s deepest fears. ‘Nosedive’ was an episode which poked satirical humour at the instant gratification world we already live in but explored the depths of what this could mean in the future. Within the episode everyone is rated out of five stars in a virtual world but it affects every aspect of peoples offline lives. Although parts of this episode feel ridiculous, on reflection the public are already showing elements of this consumer behaviour. Bloggers are acquired by brands for their numbers of followers and not for content or credibility and Fashion Week is often a PR frenzy all about who you are sat next to or who your outfit was sponsored by. This episode certainly encourages the viewer to consider the hyperreality we experience online every day.

38

HYPER REAL HYPER REAL HYPER


40

Felix Petty, 2016

counterculture”

be the next

might

“ mystery


social media; changes

Key Insight:

Everything begins to look and sound the same. Everything’s available, everything’s possible, everything’s a little boring. In an age of total availability, unavailability and mystery might be the new countercultures. Felix Petty, i-D ‘What does youth culture mean today?’ 2016 Fig. 32 A$AP Rocky’s Instagram feed, 2016.

42

Felix Petty’s (2016) article ‘What does youth culture mean today?’ has provided an extremely interesting proposition and insight as to where the future of social media, subculture and consumer behaviour is leading to. He proposes that the next counterculture will focus on unavailability and mystery. This shift in behaviour and created content has been embraced by celebrities and micro influencers and they are bringing about this new counterculture in backlash to the years of Instagram perfection. Kim Kardashian and A$AP Rocky have been early adopters of this aesthetic. They now have art directors for their Instagrams in the form of Eli Russell Linnetz and Robert Gallardo; visual innovators creating engaging and creative feeds.

Is it this unavailability of information and mystery which will get consumers interested in content again? Consumers have now have everything available and “as life becomes a paid for experience, people increasingly question what is real and what is not” (Pine, 2016). Now it’s not to say these innovative feeds are fully real and authentic, they have art directors behind them lets face it! However it does feel more interesting, it makes us want to explore and discover. Perhaps if this unfiltered style filters into the mass market, users on social media will feel they can be themselves online and have fun with their impression management. They can use this “tailored stream for exactly what they want” (Milner, 2016.

To use Kim Kardashian as an example, her original brand image was about glamour, fame, sex and promotion. However, her new aesthetic created by Eli Russell Linnetz uses visual theory and a strong aesthetic to really turn this perception on its head. These new images are low-fi, grainy and are nostalgic family polaroid photos. They use depth of field and visual contrast strategically to tell stories and connote meaning, whilst keeping some information and detail from followers. Unsurprisingly this new aesthetic was met with some negative feedback but this new aesthetic and undercurrent on social media certainly has more meaning.

“Readers can now create a tailored stream of content of exactly what they want, written by who they want, as opposed to binging on work dictated from the traditional authority publications.” Sophie Milner, 2016.

“ Fig. 33 Kim Kardashian Instagram Post, 2017.


SO REALITY IS BACK

Satenstein, 2016.

“2016 WILL GO DOWN AS THE YEAR WHEN REAL PEOPLE RULED”

it’s cool to be cool again

As discussed in the saturation of style chapter, Instagram brought about a uniform approach to style and the medium itself. However, 2017 is looking for real, inspiring people with interesting style and fresh perspectives. This turn to reality can be noted with the new models being featured on the runway, the rise of designer brands such as Vetements, Eckhaus Latta, and Hood By Air and a new visual aesthetic of authenticity. Nasty Gal, American fast fashion brand is a great example of a brand which was built on being cool and under the radar, see appendix 6.2 for the full case study.

“Where once there was blithe uniformity, today there’s a new mood of inclusivity and individually” Sheffield, 2017.

By 2020, Gen Z will be the largest group of consumers (Fitch, 2016) and these individuals are more accepting of their differences and are pushing for diversity. They would rather see themselves portrayed in a campaign rather than a famous face and are “reacting to decades of airbrushed gloss, social media and its user-generated aesthetic” as explained by Creative Review. They are opting for reality and therefore pushing and inspiring this trend (Chiu, 2016). A key article of this reports research stated that “consumers are looking for inspiration; they aren’t drawn to one brand, person, retailer or magazine” (Pithers, 2016). Consumers of 2017 will want real and inspiring inspiration. When combined with realness and Fig. 34 Vetements, 2016. mystery the discovery of fashion trends and inspiration should come alive; the big idea of If Across Fig. 35 Kate Moss by Corrine Day. Scan from ‘Unseen Vogue’. 1993 You Know was inspired by this concept. 44

COOL TO BE COOL TO BE COOL


future thinking

“Influencer marketing is in an exciting place, and there’s much research to show that it’s the fastest growing marketing channel at present. As the relationship of trust strengthens between brand and influencer, it seems likely that 2017 will be the year that brands will gain more confidence in handing over creative freedom and narrative control to influencers. This is the point where quality will win out over quantity.” ‘7 influencer marketing 46 trends for 2017 Fashion and Beauty Monitor.’

1. Video content will be king Video content is where the content space will move too. Consumers want to experience short but visual bursts of communication as stated by LS:N Global in their trend briefing. Primary research supports this, 84% of consumers prefer image content to text or video. YouTube is the second largest search engine and with social media platforms all adding video and live streaming elements, video is definitely on the rise. (The Telegraph, 2016). Blogger Sophie Milner, (2016) when asked on the future of influencers commented, “YouTube is becoming imperative for younger audiences so it’s about going with that and making it work. You need to be more of a personality these days. Facebook live, Snapchat, and Instagram stories will continue to be huge.” The trend towards ephemeral videos is increasing and it will be interesting to watch the space to see how the FTC can track influencers compliance to advertising standards.

2. Social media platforms are merging into one Facebook and Twitter are on the demise yet Instagram and Snapchat continue to boom with Gen Z. Each social media is borrowing from the other to try engage and stay current but consumers don’t seem to be liking this strategy. Facebook now allows you to have a ‘story’ as do Snapchat and Instagram. Instagram has borrowed from Pinterest with its bookmarking of images function and will soon become instantly shoppable like popular shopping app Polyvore. Gen Z and millennials are very aware of social platforms being businesses and as advertising increases on these platforms will this turn consumers away?

3. Gen Z have different standards as to whom influences them and brands are scared Gen Z have very different characteristics than any generation before them. They believe they have the power to change the future therefore the influencers they follow should inherit these same qualities. Brands are feeling increasingly worried and unprepared for the future and how to accommodate to these consumers. For this reason Dazed and Confused and Penguin Books have been the first to hire Gen Z staff to gain an understanding of who they want to influence them and how to re think digital to be suitable to them. “When these kids enter the workplace, social media tools will be as familiar to them as my #2 pencil was when I took notes in school’. Barefoot, (2009) ‘Friends with Benefits, a social media marketing handbook.’

4. A personal prediction Currently there are 2.2 million apps on the Apple app store available to download. However, the public only use around 5% of those apps available. Consumers are highly critical of these platforms and Tech Crunch research (2013) highlighted that 80 - 90% of all downloaded apps are used once and then deleted by users. This proposes a challenge for businesses to solve and to create apps which target a nuanced consumer and are more relevant and engaging. I predict in the future, people will use apps as another way to build their identity and impression management. Consumers will use different apps which will fluidly work together. The film ‘Lo and Behold’ (2016) touches on this idea that the future of digital will be when everything knows your exact preferences. “You could essentially, in the not too distant future, tweet thoughts. So not type your tweet but think it, press a button and all your followers could read it.” There will be lots of interesting things to come!

Fig. 36 Table of future thinking, 2017.


HYPER REAL HYPER REAL HYPER 48

WHERE IS THE GAP IN THE MARKET/ THE PROBLEM?


4 key problems the problem to solve

“There’s a certain satisfaction with knowing you’ve discovered something before everyone else. Wearing clothes by an up-and-coming designer, getting a table at the coolest new restaurant long before it becomes impossible to get in, or buying a print from an unknown artist who later hits the big time.”

REAL IS RARE ‘ ASOS advertorial50 in Stylist Magazine, 2017.

False promotion is not cool, bring back trust

Cool, small businesses don’t get the exposure they deserve

Everyone looks the same and goes to the same places

Consumers have lost faith in a large proportion of bloggers and influencers. Many are chosen for their follower stats and not for quality of content. See Appendix Case Studies with Hannah Whiting 3.1 and Sophie Milner 3.3 for more depth from bloggers perspectives.

There are many small, exciting brands and businesses in the UK. There are places to visit and things to do in cities which are not in the mass market but could be really inspiring. Many consumers are looking for new and fresh inspiration however much of the content currently on the market is inauthentic, saturated or untargeted. There are currently no digital platforms in which are filling this gap in the market.

Instagram and fashion bloggers have created mass consumption of the same products, trends and aesthetics. Style and individuality therefore has become saturated.

Consumers have highlighted they find bloggers and influencers unrealistic and fake. The solution: Micro influencers are paving the way for authentic, relatable and high quality content; great for brands and consumers.

Ian Rodgers, chief digital officer of LVMH stated in a BOF Voices interview (2017) that “it’s a great time to be small, even the bigger guys are trying to act small.’ The solution: Create a platform these small brands can be giving authentic exposure.

These mega influencers which we have been consuming in recent years have been pushing fashion trends in which large groups adopt. (Just look on Missguided, it’s all Kardashian inspired and every Missguided girl looks the same). What happened to subcultures of style and identity? The solution: There is a large group of authentic influencers who are bringing individuality back with their own brands, places to go out and ways to look. Create a platform they can post this content.

Spend time online but enjoy life offline and don’t just do it for the gram A current e-retailer difficulty at the moment is how they can effectively bridge offline and online. Digital detoxes or digital first, what is the right balance? We are living in a experience economy where consumers don’t just want to buy products but want to experience new emotions and adventures. This has created a problem and opportunity to create a 360 omnichannel experience for the consumer. The solution: Create a brand which connects the offline and online.

Fig. 37 Key problems, 2017.


52

The soultion...

with us

sit

can

ok, you


part two

54


The Big Idea:

Bring back individual style, discovery and authenticity to influencers via an inspiration platform and community app. 56

I Y

IF YOU KNOW


THE BIG IDEA EXPLAINED

STEP 1.

Researching bloggers and influencers, analysing the market and secondary research of the current landscape. Interviewing bloggers to gauge their perspectives leading to look to the future of influencer marketing.

STEP 4. Instagram has brought about a saturation of style and users want a fresh platform of inspiration.

STEP 2.

Consumer research revealed insightful results that consumers no longer trust or follow bloggers.

STEP 5. i-D article key insight highlighting the next counterculture is predicted to be unavailability and mystery.

IDEA TESTING

STEP 3. Marketing trends highlighted the shift to micro influencers. Alice Sperring insight that ASOS no longer use bloggers and Digiday data that micro influencers are the sweet spot of influencer marketing.

LEADING IYK TOO..

Fig.38 Journey of the Big Idea diagram. With own image of Nottingham skyline. 2017.

If You Know: A style inspiration app encouraging authenticity and discovery The primary research for this report highlighted the lack of trust consumers now have in mega influencers and bloggers and the shift for them wanting to be influenced by real people. These consumers often felt bored with current inspiration and social media platforms and wanted a platform they could go to with original, localised and authentic content. Furthermore, trend forecasting highlighted the future trend of backlash brands, authenticity and the new counter culture of mystery and unavailability.

The market is highly competitive as analysed in a PEST in appendix 7.3 with many varying competitors, see appendix 7.4. However, IYK has a strong point of difference; its fully authentic. It gives exposure to niche brands and local places to visit but in a targeted nuanced way unlike competitors. Its inspiration on a localised and real scale. This proposition is timely to the market as consumers are looking for transparency and authenticity from brands. The IYK ethos and aim is to bring back authenticity to style influencers and to re-establish what it means to influence. The individuals who influence on the app will not be chosen by likes, followers, stats or traditional measures of success but by their quality of content, engagement, credibility and authenticity.

If You Know (IYK) is a style inspiration content app. Consumers are looking for real and interesting content, places to visit and ways to build their cultural capital so this is the need the app fills. The apps local filter means the consumer can find local brands and places to visit and explore. See SWOT in appendix 7.2 for a further analysis of the concept.

Taking inspiration from My Flash Trash (see appendix 6.1) IYK will embrace the fact that everyone is now a content producer and create a strategy to push micro influencers. Both primary and secondary research suggests word of mouth from friends still being one of the strongest influencers on consumer behaviour. Jonah Berger states in ‘Contiguous’ (2013) that the reason for this is that “friends objectivity coupled with their candidness” makes us more likely to believe and listen than from influencers or bloggers. This trust linked with style and inspiration will create a network of new influencers.

It is evident the 18-25 consumer is mobile first so naturally IYK will be mobile. Mobile users spend 90% on apps and only 10% on internet browsers therefore IYK will be a visual and interactive app. This research has been further backed up by (WGSN, 2016) as they state mobile apps are the favoured shopping medium for new brands and their consumers.

58

See appendix 4.6 for full interview transcripts. Fig. 39 IYK campaign image. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L. 2017


U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, W IF YOU KNOW, YOU OU KNOW, YOU KNOW OW, YOU KNOW IF YOU U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, W IF YOU KNOW, YOU OU KNOW, YOU KNOW OW, YOU KNOW IF YOU U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, W IF YOU KNOW, YOU OU KNOW, YOU KNOW OW, YOU KNOW IF YOU U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, W IF YOU KNOW, YOU IYK OU KNOW, YOU KNOW OW, YOU KNOW IF YOU IYK U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, IYK W IF YOU KNOW, YOU OU KNOW, YOU KNOW OW, YOU KNOW IF YOU NOW U KNOW IF YOU KNOW, YOU design recipe

I Y K

OU KNOW, YOU , YOU KNOW IF IF YOU KNOW, OW, YOU KNOW

Fig. 40 Design Recipe of moodboard, 2017.

KNOW IF YOU KNOW, YOU KNOW IF YOU 60

IF YOU KNOW


BE REAL BE REAL BE

“AS LIFE BECOMES A PAID FOR EXPERIENCE,

Fig. 41 IYK campaign image. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L. 2017.

PEOPLE INCREASINGLY QUESTION WHAT IS REAL AND WHAT IS NOT” says Joseph Pine, author of “The Experience Economy (1999).”

62

IF YOU KNOW TACKLES THIS AND GIVES REALNESS.


COLOUR PALETTE

The colour palette is 3 main colours and 4 complimentary colours. These are a combination of brights and muted tones which appeal to consumers with a wide variety of style and aesthetic preferences. This mirrors the spectrum of people featured on the app.

SUPPORTING LOGOS

These two logos will be an extension of the primary logo. The variety adds more personality and allows flexibility with which logo can applied to various channels and contexts. They are visually cohesive to keep the brand image strong.

TYPEFACES

The logo will be in Ariel Black. The bold, graphic design connotes confidence and style. Body copy in Arial Regular as it is easy to read on the app in mobile format. A mix of hand written pieces of text will also be used to develop the brand value of authenticity on behind the scenes and personal content.

PHOTOGRAPHY & VIDEO

Low fi, heavily filtered, raw, real, polaroid effect. Feels nostalgic whilst new and exciting. Leave some details to mystery. A combination of art directed content and also user generated content. Strong use of depth of field and model direct address. Imagery inspired by Petra Collins and Corrine Day. The video/ GIFS will have glitches and use focus and distortion to create consumer intrigue.

64

THE ANATOMY OF IF YOU KNOW

I Y K

LOGO The main logo will be the black box with white text.

IYK DEVICES & ICONS These icons will visually help the consumer navigate the app and also be used on promotional material to connote the inspiration and exploring elements of the app. This will reinforces brand values and be clear communication.

ARIEL BLACK

Arial Regular

BRAND PATTERNS

Bold text and phrases will be used as patterns which will ad a low fi, scanned in texture. The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;If You, You Knowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; tagline pattern will be used on the app and on promotional material. This repetition will engage the consumer, force them to remember the name and download the app.


THE ON SCREEN SOCIETY:

WHO

IS THE IF YOU KNOW CONSUMER ? 66

There are many varying archetypes and nuances in the consumer segmentation of the IYK consumer. LS:N Global highlighted that demographics can often be too broad to market to and therefore using a psychographic approach can be more effective. These three consumers are nuanced by their mindset.

Vogue editor Elle Pithers stated that this consumer is

‘THE INFLUENCERS’ of the app are the individuals whose content is featured by IYK. They own their own brands, have created a new club night or own a new shop in a city.

When considering ‘Who do you Want Your Customers to Become’ a theory by Michael Schrage (2012) IYK customers will become inspired and authentic individuals who go out, explore what the world can offer them and adopt it ahead of the curve. These innovators and early adopters will not be passively consuming online content but actively engaging with new local brands and interesting projects. The app innovation will be “an investment in the human capital, capabilities and competences of customers”.

‘THE INFLUENTIAL’ consumers are aspirational to these brand and individuals featured but also want to promote their own style and inspiration. They are the next generation of authentic influencers and see the app as a platform to gain exposure in the right way. They want to be the first to hear about newness. ‘THE INFLUENCED’ is the largest consumer group of the three and has high aspiration values to both ‘The Influential’ and ‘The Influencers’. They love the instant gratification feeling that the online world gives them. This consumer lives in a big city or regularly travels to cities to feel part of the lifestyle. They want to explore, hunt and be influenced or influence in an authentic way. These consumers are interested in micro trends and brands which give them a sense of community.

“looking at everything for inspiration” (Pithers, 2016). The Influential and Influenced consumer are doing just that. They are looking to many different places to get inspiration but often feel they have exhausted all platforms. This is the gap IYK fills.

In the future, the IYK consumer will be largely Gen Z and this presents exciting characteristics which will flood the app with new inspirational content. Gen Z are moving to a visual and entrepreneurial culture where visibility and authenticity are key. Gen Vis has been discussed alongside Gen Z but is a psychographic more than a demographic. This mindset is existing currently in ‘The Influential’ consumer group (LS:N Global, 2016).

CHARACTERISTICS:

8 SECOND ATTENTION SPAN BEFORE THEY’VE MOVED ON ONLINE

THEY VALUE INTERACTIVITY AND ENGAGEMENT

INFLUENCED BY DIGITAL FRIENDS & WORD OF MOUTH

61% WOULD RATHER BE AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN EMPLOYEE

AWARE OF AUTHENTICITY, SUSTAINABILITY & TRANSPARENCY

SNAPCHAT & INSTAGRAM ARE THE MOST USED APPS


the influencer./ @ them to find out more. Fig 42- 54.

THE INFLUENCER

Joev Vood

Swamp Breed

Bristol Start Up Brand

Paris Decaro

TRPHSE

New Nottingham Club Night

Liv Bass

l.C Studio

Manchester Handbag Start Up

Dimeji Sadiq

Uniform 68 Studios

Nottingham Start up brand


the influential./ @ details in appendix. Fig 55-75.

THE INFLUENTIAL Georgie

Sydney

Betsy

Jose

Charlotte

Gemma

Coco

Tomielle

Emily

Chloe

March

Kimmy

Isabella

Alisha

Liva

Elenor

Tiff

Olivia

Amelia

Olive

70


the influential./ consumer group with highest profit potential. Fig 76- 106.

THE INFLUENCED Cinzia

Beth

Kate

Faye

Naomi

Ebun

Lesley

Lissy

Nia

Meg

Tayla

Lotte

Annabel

Emma

Cara

Bella

Tara

Becky

Natalie

Sarah

Ava

Ella

Alex

Melissa

Lily

Georgie

Mel

Izzy 72

Megan

Polly


74

KNOW

YOU

KNOW,

IF YOU


76


78


WHAT’S

THE MARKETING BIG IDEA & AIM ?

MARKETING STRATEGY Real is rare so The ‘If You Know’ marketing big idea is to: Reinstill authenticity and inspiration to loyal fashion followers by inspiring and relevant content. Appendix 9.7 explains the marketing strategy plan by a SOSTAC analysis.

MARKETING OBJECTIVES: 1. Bring back authenticity and originality to fashion inspiration 2. Be digitally innovative 3. Inspire, inform and engage 4. Communicate brand values of mystery and individuality

HOW?

INFORM & INSPIRE; RAISE AWARENESS

AN OMNICHANNEL INTEGRATED EXPERIENCE TARGETED, LOCALISED & PERSONALISED

BUILD LOYALTY THROUGH AUTHENTICITY

CHALLENGE & MOTIVATE THE CONSUMER TO GET BACK EXPLORING, HUNTING AND CREATING THEIR OWN TRENDS

ALWAYS BE RELEVANT TO EACH PLATFORM OR CHANNEL

Fig. 107 @tomiellewear at Coachella, 2017.

80

TELL STORIES AND CREATE A VIRAL WORD OF MOUTH- MAKE MEMBERS FEEL LIKE INSIDERS


the app; get to know

NEWER THAN NOW Fig. 108 App Home screen. Own Image 2017.

STEP 3.

HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE INSPIRED?

STEP 1. YOU’RE IN

The graphic user interface has been designed to be highly visual engaging for the user.

NEXT UP BRANDS

STEP 2.

IF YOU KNOW, YOU’LL KNOW TO COME LOOK

GET OUT THERE

The user will be greeted by this screen each time they open the app. The sign up process will ask users to insert conventional details but also preferences of content and location. This will enable to the app to be localised, relevant and personalised to them. Fig. 110 App Inspiration page. Own Image 2017.

Fig. 109 App enter screen. Own Image 2017.

82

This page will show a preview of the content available on the app that day. The content collections are ‘newer than now’, ‘next up brands’ and ‘get out there’. These tabs will be a collection of images, video and text with lifestyle and fashion inspiration.


NEXT UP BRANDS.

NEW INSPIRING BRANDS AND BUSINESSES. The ‘next up brands’ content is created by IYK but in collaboration with new and exciting small brands. This content will help promote new brands which deserve the exposure. The promotion of these brands will be completely authentic and the focus of the content is to inspire and create buzz for the brand. This will link IYK to the brand as an affiliate and IYK will be paid per click (cpc) through and sale on their website or in store. However no brands would be acquired finical gain as the sole aim. Authenticity is still at the heart of this content. This is not a sponsorship or sponsored post as IYK will choose the brands they feature. These shoots will always have behind the scenes content which will be sent out in an email newsletter to intrigue the consumer before the content goes live. IYK will feature a few new brands a week ensuing the consumer does not suffer choice trauma and encouraging them to consume carefully. The girls photographed for these contact pieces will be girls who wear the brand already so this makes the content authentic and they promote how they integrate the pieces into their current wardrobes.

Fig. 113 App ‘next up brands’ page. Own Image 2017.

SO WHY ADOLESCENT CLOTHING? Adolescent clothing will be one of the first brands IYK feature on the app. Their brand values sit well with IYK and their ironic and bold designs are inspiring and really resonate with the If You Know archetype. This content is fun, creative and bold. The outfits the girls are wearing in the images are a combination of their own clothing and adolescent clothing. Adolescent Clothing was the first brand created to instantly respond to an ever-changing youth culture. All of there designs are limited edition, so like the app the brand is about exclusivity and slightly unavailability. The synergy of both brands visually looks great and would be a mutually beneficial and authentic piece of inspiring content.

Fig. 111 App ‘newer than now’ page Own Image 2017.

Fig. 112 App Georgie Mortimer page. Own Image 2017.

NEWER THAN NOW.

USER GENERATED INSPIRATION CONTENT ‘Newer than now’ is all about user generated content, influencers, everyday people and micro influencers. Users can upload their content to the app and IYK will choose content to becomes live each day. This will give fashion, beauty and lifestyle inspiration and give the users a platform to shout about what they love, whether it be a new trend or a new item they got from their local charity shop! Content can be images, gifs, videos, illustrations; anything goes. This newness will promote diversity, inclusivity and celebrate real style. Users will be chosen over quality of content and not followers or stats. 84

Fig. 114 App video content example. Own Image 2017.


AIMS OF THE APP:

INSPIRE ENGAGE CONVERT BUILD BRAND LOYALTY TELL STORIES

Fig. 115 App localised option page. Own Image 2017

GET OUT THERE This content is localised to give the user inspiration on where to go in their city. This content will also be user generated, created by real people who have been to interesting places to visit. These include the best places to shop, fun places to photograph, bars and clubs.

Fig. 116 App Curious Townhouse inspiration example. Own Image 2017.

SAVE FOR LATER The save for later element allows the user to save any content they love. This encourages the user to go find that new bar, shop new brands and make use of the inspo. Saving is easy just screenshot (a consumer behaviour already instilled in the users habits) and the content will go into the save for later page. Pinterest and Instagram have this feature so IYK will follow user experience trends by doing this. 86

WOULD YOU LIKE A CHAT? The app will have a real time chat where users can ask questions or ask for more information on any of the content listed. This chat will only be available at set times and will encourage users to explore themselves and will not release all information, as remember mystery will be the next counter culture.

A GENTLE NUDGE. Push notifications will be sent out to users at targeted times, for example 6 o clock when many users are commuting home or Friday afternoon. These notifications will always have a call to action encouraging the consumer to for instance look at content, get out and explore a new place in their local city or upload their own content.

Fig. 117 Live chat page. Own Image 2017.

Fig. 118 Push notification example. Own Image 2017.


IF YOU KNOW OKAY, WE WILL LET YOU IN THE KNOW, THEORIES AND THINKING FOR THE IYK APP. Everlane:

Online clothing retailer Everlane, has created a private Instagram account which only accepts 100 followers a day. Their account has become an ‘Instagram incubator’ of ideas and inspiration between the brand and the consumer. This has proven an effective strategy and has added brand value and exclusivity. This limited availability fits into IYK brand values as it encourages consumers to actively ‘opt in’ and will create a hot moment for the consumer, encouraging them to download the app while they can (LSN Global, 2016).

Limited content per day:

IYK will have new content uploaded to the app each day however their will be a limited amount of content encouraging the consumer to explore all content each day for 15 minutes and get their inspiration fix. This reduces choice trauma for consumers and encourages them to consume content more effectively.

A members only model:

Jonah Berger (2013) in his book ‘Contagious: Why Things Catch On’ suggested to “make people feel like insiders” and this is a key element of IYK. IYK’s marketing and advertising will be highly targeted; this will ensure IYK promotes the correct, authentic users and user generated content is of a high standard.

Live Chat & advice:

44% of consumers stated that having questions answered by a live chat whilst in the middle of an online purchase is one of the most important features a website can offer (Photo Slurp, 2016). This is why IYK will have a chat available which helps the consumer discover and be inspired. However, it wont give everything away.

88 Fig. 119 IYK campaign image. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L. 2017.

ONTO

OTHER STRATEGIES TO ENGAGE THE IYK GIRL


promotional video THE VIDEO Primary and secondary research highlighted that demand for video content is rising and will continue in coming years. For this reason IYK will release a promotional video before the launch as the first brand touchpoint. The video is fun and playful and follows visual trends as it is a short burst of spontaneous video, featuring glitches and low res imagery. The video will be initially posted by the influencers chosen to be first on the app and posted in PR content (see marketing timeline). This therefore will mean IYK will not post the video itself until the beta app is launched. Therefore although the video is owned media, when users post the content it will become earned media and an organic post. This will ensure IYK appears as almost a rumour to the consumer that something is coming out to challenge Instagram.

The v

VIDEO AIMS: - Create first PR exposure - Visually inspire consumers - Create intrigue and buzz

WATCH IF YOU KNOW WATCH SCAN TO WATCH

Fig. 120 IYK video still. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L. 2017. Across Fig. 121 Video on phone. Own Image, 2017 90


WE DON’T FOLLOW THE INSTA TRENDS IF YOU KNOW, YOU KNOW .

92

If You Know will have a limited social media presence. The brand cannot rule out social media completely as this is where the consumer currently spends a vast amount of their time consuming. However this unavailability of content on social will encourage the consumer to download the app and receive the content there. This will mean when users are on the If You Know app they will be actively engaged in just IYK content in contrast to when on social platforms as they are inundated with various accounts and brands. This limited social strategy fits in with IYK brand values as it is not following trends in the market and will encourage consumers to realise the amount of false advertising on these channels. This will different the platform from existing apps pushing the authentic usp.

INSTAGRAM AIMS: - Create PR stories - Create consumer intrigue - Encourage target consumers to download the app

The content should initially create confusion which will intrigue the consumer to download the app. In a primary research lecture Alexandra Shulman, previous editor of Vogue UK stated “The need for stories is as important as ever in 2017” (Shulman, 2017). This strategy will create a story for brands but will also be a great way to gain organic PR coverage gaining earned media and exposure. The IYK Instagram account will follow influencers and target consumers to increase interest and gain followers however content will be limited. The message of this platform will be to download the app. Further plans for the social media strategy can be found in appendix 9.4 with the 5 C’s of social media theory.

SCAN TO INSTA

Fig. 122, 123 Mockups of social media presence, Own Image 2017


bts

direct mail

(behind the scenes)

IYK will use Instagram as a tool of promotion but it will also use it as a targeting tool to find they key authentic influencers in London, Manchester and Nottingham. These individuals will be sent a direct mail ‘You Know’ pack.

1 2 3 4 5 6

STEP 1. IYK find consumers on Instagram and ask for their addresses to send them information about a new inspiration content app.

Choosing influencers

“I THINK PEOPLE ARE AS INTERESTED IN THE STORY AS IN THE FINISHED THING”

Christopher Bailey, 2017.

STEP 2. Invites will be sent on the 17th July 2017. STEP 3. The Influencer consumer will receive the pack, post about is on social media spreading word of mouth digitally and online. STEP 4. They download the beta version by scanning the code. STEP 5. Digital friends comment on the consumers user generating content asking how they also can get access to the app.

Send to influencer

STEP 6. The Influencer can give 5 friends a code to also get onto the beta app. They will receives a discount reward for inviting new members to the app.

Direct mail is underestimated as a marketing tool by many digital brands. The usage of this channel has decreased since the rise of digital marketing however statistics suggest that although this medium is often more expensive per exposure than digital marketing, the strategy often brings a high return on investment and conversion rates. This is due to the nature of this brand touchpoint, it is highly targeted and personal. Also by being a tangible object entering the consumers home this will be more engaging than the digital content the consumer is inundated with daily. As the consumer will not receive post like this often, this will be highly exciting for the consumer. They will post this on social media creating organic content and creating intrigue around this new app. Philip Graves in his book Consumer. ology (2010) states that marketing is successful when it connects with consumers emotions. This will be the aim of this consumer touchpoint.

Influencer recieves the pack

The performance of this strategy can be measured by monitoring how many consumers react to the call to action of signing up to the app with their specific qr code and how many friends they refer to the app. Although direct mail often connotes junk mail the aesthetic and nature of the brand pack will contrast to this medium stereotype.

Fig. 125 127- Behind the scenes images. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L. 2017 For more see appendix 8.2

This ‘below the line’ strategy is great for building a strong relationship with the consumer as first impression is everything. This will be a lower investment than a TV campaign or billboard and fits seamlessly with If You Knows brand values of being different to competitors. This idea was inspired by consumer insight have gained from PR. See appendix 9.2 for case study which informed this strategy.

Fig. 124 Direct mail consumer journey moodboard. Own Image 2017

She posts about it on social media and dowloads the app.

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“I THINK MORE AND MORE GIRLS ARE WANTING AUTHENTICITY AND MORE BEHIND THE SCENES ACTION. MAYBE BECAUSE IT’S MORE PERSONAL AND RELATABLE.” Debbie Shasanya. Primary research interview, 2016. Read the full transcript in appendix 4.2.


GET ONLINE TO GET OFFLINE

WGSN, 2016.

“CONSUMERS LIVE IN A CONSTANT STATE OF BROWSING”

consuming irl

Fig. 129 Poster mockup. Own Image, 2017.

“98% of Gen Z still prefer to shop at physical stores...It’s the joy of the hunt that they’re looking for. They want to go out there and find that thing that represents them.”

As discussed in the saturation of style chapter, Instagram brought about a uniform approach to style and consuming. However, Gen Z specifically are driving the trend back to consuming in real life. Consumers live in a constant state of browsing (WGSN, 2016) and this could be why Gen Z are more interested in experiences than products. They want to interact offline and not passively consume online. Only 7% of word of mouth happens online therefore these interactions offline allow for word of mouth to spread (Berger, 2013). Consumer insight from primary experience has given evidence that consumers like to see tangible advertising in places offline that are relevant to them. See appendix 9.2 and 9.3 for case studies.

Matthews, 2016.

These factors inspired the app’s content of ‘get out there’ which will give inspiration to the consumer on where to visit and things to do in their city. This will be further developed in the outdoor advertising marketing strategy as posters and stickers will be placed around the three cities in locations which are relevant and interesting to the consumer. This will be a low budget brand touchpoint which will be localised and will target the influencer or influential consumer.

Fig. 130 ‘Get out there’ Own Image, 2017.

Fig. 131 Sticker mockup in Nottingham. Own Image, 2017.

Fig. 128 Consumer of IYK, Own Image. 2017 96


communication strategy Within the IYK consumer there are many consumer nuances. This therefore means the communication strategy will use targeted and personalised marketing to be specific to these varying groups of consumer. For example an email newsletter will be sent at the same time to all consumers however the content will be differentiated.

LOYALTY LOOP

Fig. 134 shows the overall strategy route for the first three months of trading, pre and post app launch. A key part of this strategy will be PR. See appendix 9.4 for IYK’s press release. The type of PR gained will be essential and should only be from other titles which follow our brand values and that are relevant to our consumer.

Fig. 132 The loyalty loop. Edited Image 2017

“You’re making the communication different for each channel...its become a tighter loop.”

The only ‘above the line’ content will be the outdoor advertising as IYK’s strategy is to gain organic exposure and create buzz and traffic to brand touch points by inspiring and engaging the consumer. The communication and marketing strategy will be authentic on each platform. This will be a low budget but highly engaging strategy. The route to consumer will work as an omni-channel, 360 experience for the consumer so they can fluidly consume the brand on each platform and move throughout.

Ian Rodgers, BOF, 2017.

This first campaign will be an activation campaign as it will encourage users to download the app and get involved with the community. This route to consumer will sow the seed of awareness and change perceptions of what it means to influence. The second campaign will be a brand building campaign by bringing back authenticity to LFW17. This will develop the storytelling and brand values of IYK.

HOW WILL WE REACH THE CONSUMER? 98


SO HOW IS THIS AN INTEGRATED STRATEGY? How Integrated?

This marketing strategy is fully integrated due to the fact the consumer can begin their consumer journey from any touchpoint. The strategy bridges offline and online despite IYK being a digital presence app. The marketing strategy will be ‘fomo’ inducing as it will build on exclusivity. The call to action, PR exposure, video and social media strategy will encourage the consumer to get involved and explore what the app has to offer. Every piece of content will have consistent brand messaging and be compelling to the consumer (Pickton & Broderick, 2005).

“Consumers have become increasingly critical and vocal on the touch points they engage with of a brand. They expect a complex omnichannel digital presence and complete honesty and transparency.” LS:N Global, 2016.

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Fig. 134 IYK Campaign Image. Gascoine, O, Mustoe, L.2017


MEASURING SUCESS & ROI

HOW

WILL IF YOU KNOW MEASURE FUTURE SUCCESS ? 102

The If You Know integrated strategy will need data analytics to help educate future progress. By analysing these metrics this will allow decisions and content to be improved. KPI’s and a growth plan will be created to plan the future of the app and brand. ‘How Brands Grow’ by Bryan Sharp (2010) states that “marketing practise for all its advances has never been strong on evaluation; there is plenty of ineffectiveness and room for improvement.” If You Know should take this advice and ensure that evaluation is taken as seriously as brand development and the launch strategy. Furthermore, analysis should be carried out at the end of strategies but also during. In a lecture (2017) with Dolly Jones, ex-editor for Vogue she reflected that Vogue often edit articles online multiple times in the first few weeks of the content being live. This is to improve the page optimisation and boost traffic. This is a major benefit of online content as it can be edited and improved to attract new readers and boost traffic. This will be carried out by If You Know on app content but only in an authentic way. So what does success look like? The key aims for the app from year one will be measured by how many app downloads are reached, ROI from posted brands and traffic. Success will also be measured qualitatively by shifts in consumer behaviour. IYK will aim to in a year to have made an impact on the authenticity problem. The app should start to encourage consumers to get back out there and explore their local cities and smaller brands. IYK could look in the future to work with the council to push this strategy further. Growth of IYK could be to add more cities to the app in the UK with potential to add cities in Europe that are of interest to the IYK consumer.

TO CONCLUDE, NOW YOU KNOW The research objectives at the start of this self devised project looked to analyse how the future of the fashion blogger could be capitalised on. My research quickly revealed that bloggers were a declining ROI and consumer trust had been lost. This highlighted a problem for brands and consumers that authenticity and trust needed to be regained. This informed my big idea to create a fully authentic inspiration platform and make everyone influencers. If You Know will bring back authenticity and inspiration and will push the next counterculture. I fully believe that consumers in the near future will begin to feel choice trauma by the amount of content there is to consume and availability will become boring. For this reason IYK is timely and will fill the gap when consumers begin to realise they want some counterculture and excitement in their lives! In the future, I personally hope to gain a role in influencer marketing in which I can really apply my research and create innovate and authentic influencer marketing strategies. Word Count : 8,647

MEASURES:

REACH, USAGE AND FREQUENCY OF DOWNLOADS

CLICK THROUGH RATE TO BRANDS FEATURED, PAID AT COST PER CLICK

ORGANIC SEARCH ENGINE TRAFFIC

CONVERSION RATE

TRAFFIC FROM SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS

ANALYSE ENGAGEMENT THROUGH COMMENTS AND INTERACTION ON APP CHAT; QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS


glossary

Diffusion of Innovation

IRL

This theory was developed by Everett Rogers in 1962 and is based on the idea of the rate that new ideas and technology spread from one consumer to the next . This theory explains how people adopt trends at different times and speeds and have different consumer behaviour and aspirations.

SEO

Gen Z abbreviation for In real life. Used in the title consuming irl to state how consumer especially gen Z are starting to return to bricks and mortar stores to consume or try before they buy online.

ROI

Search Engine Optimization: A marketing discipline which aims to enhance the visibility of organic search engine results so the consumer can find the site more efficiently. Bloggers often teach themselves this tool to increase their traffic and ranking on search engines.

Economic resources or rewards

Return on Investment: A term for the measuring of a success or failure/ gain or loss of an investment where capital was invested. Often expressed as a percentage and analysed to determine future investments. The ROI across the board for Blogger strategy’s has declined in recent years.

Gifts, freebies, gifted clothing, merchandise or paid ad placements.

Instant gratification

Cultural capital The theory of cultural capital was developed by French sociologist Bourdieu in the 1960s. This theory refers to the assets a person has whether it be education, style, taste etc. This was originally thought to be linked with position in society however was later considered as something a person can develop and acquire.

Affiliate Marketing

The desire to instantly receive the emotional feeling of pleasure or fulfilment. A phrase often used to describe the ‘I want it now’ mentality consumers have developed. This feeling is achieved from receiving likes online, a text, buying something and at this point dopamine is released creating that feel good feeling.

Hot moments

Affiliate marketing is performance based in which businesses reward their affiliates for every time a visitor or sale is made. This b2b relationship is built on bringing more exposure and buzz to a business. ASOS have a whole affiliate marketing team who work with a range of businesses.

An emotion consumers feel when our bodies release dopamine and endorphins. This is released when we reward ourselves. This often occurs when a consumer purchases a product and can be monetized on by brands by creating pressure on the consumer i.e limited availability products, count downs or timely promotions.

Image culture

Influencers, bloggers and everyday people all have the power to influence peer consumers tastes and lead with this power. This is the power micro-influencers currently have to influence peoples taste.

Hyperreality Hyperreality is when the lines between reality and fiction are seamlessly blended together so there is no clear distinction between which is which. This is often a simulation of reality and is often experienced in the online, virtual world.

Our culture has become an ‘attention economy’ as our attention now has a high worth to businesses and advertisers. It is increasingly difficult to engage and capture the consumers attention and it has become a precious commodity.

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A term for Gen Z users of Snapchat. The characteristics of this generation are visually stimulated and enjoy short bursts of visually communication. They communicate with emojis and are constantly digitally connected.

Taste leadership

We are living in an image culture in which every moment of our lives has become saturated with images and visual content which has the capacity to evoke a range of emotions. When created by brands and advertisers the emotions are often desire and envy.

Attention economy

‘Snapchat generation’

‘Digital footprint’ The term ‘digital footprint’ describes the trail of footprints users leave behind them on the internet. This footprint can be tracked by cookies and search engine requests.

@handle A handle is a person’s online name, which is sometimes shortened or branded. A influencer/ blogger often uses their handle as a way to differentiate themselves and get noticed online and appear highly in search engine requests. I.e Blogger @gallucks


Fig 16. Capture Your Style (2016) Song, Aimme ‘Capture Your Style’ book [Scan Photograph]

Digital Delusion

Impression Management

A coined term by WGSN for the effect digital is having on consumers. The Hyperreality is causing consumers to become digitally addicted.

How consumers often use social media; Attempting to impress others by curating a self image and create an impression. Often aiming to provoke envy and desire from the follower. The image curated often aims to show status, wealth and for specifically bloggers style and popularity.

illustrations Fig 1. Gascoine, O (2013) Blogger Lover Visualisation [Photograph] Fig 2. Gascoine, O (2017) Timeline Moodboard of Blogging and Influencers [Moodboard] Fig 3. The Haute Pursuit (2015) Koko in New York [Photograph] Available at: http://thehautepursuit.com/ koko-in-new-york/comment-page-2/

The On Screen Society

Fig 4. Gascoine, O (2017) The Game Changers Moodboard [Moodboard]

An umbrella term for the ‘If You Know’ consumer. This consumer group can be nuanced by the mindset of the individual consumers and their influence. As the name suggests these users are always online and digitally connected in a sophisticated way. They network and influence through this virtual world.

Fomo Fear of missing out- often anxiety felt by young consumers when they see this content happening in real time on social media.

New Consumerism Phrase coined by Euromonitor. There are 8 key trends within ‘new consumerism’ which are the factors changing the landscape of consumption. These trends include the sharing economy, sustainability and experience. More trends and detail can be found on Euromonitor.com

‘Magic middle’ The ‘magic middle’ is a phrase defined by David Sifry, founder of Technorati. This theory was created to describe the magic middle of blogs with 20-1,000 active links. Solis believed that the magic middle represented a disregarded level of influence. This phrase is currently being used to describe the micro influencers opportunity.

KPI’s Key performance indicators are a way for businesses and brands to set measurable values and targets of performance. This measures how effectively they are reaching their key business objectives and can be a measure of success metric.

Frow A fashion journalism term for the ‘front row’ of a fashion show. Often where bloggers, celebrities and ‘it’ girls sit.

Fig 5. The Pioneers of Fashion Bloggers (2015) History of Personal Style Blogs [Edited Scan] Original Available at: http://www.racked.com/2015/5/27/8640369/personalstyle-blog-history-tavi-gevinson-bryanboy-rumi-neely Fig 6. Chiara Ferrangi Vogue Spain Cover (2015) Vogue Espana Cover [Photograph] Available at: http:// www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/news/ chiara-ferragni-is-the-first-blogger-to-land-a-cover-ofvogue-10116719.html Fig 7. Caroline Vreeland and Anna Wintour (2017) Caroline Vreeland taking down Vogue [Photograph] Available at: Instagram.com/carolinevreeland/@ timuremek_photography Fig 8. Milan Fashion Week (2015) Milan Women’s Fashion Week Fall/Winter 2014 Street Style Report – Part 2 [Photograph] Available at: http://www.highsnobiety. com/2014/02/21/milan-womens-fashion-week-fall-winter2014-street-style-report-part-2/#slide-8

AR Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that applies a digital and interactive layer to the real world. It is these computer generated layers that will soon be part of our every day lives. The Google Glass was an early example of AR innovations and now Snapchat is a simple example of AR.

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The concept of ‘choice trauma’ was developed by Barry Schwartz (2004) In his book The Paradox of Choice. He discusses the difficulties of modern life; how we have so much choice and freedom it actually often makes our lives harder, making us ‘miserable’ ‘Infinite choice is paralysing’. This if why If You Know will have a limited amount of content per day to reduce this stress of over consumption.

Fig 18. Smart, N (2016) #AD Instagram Post [ Instagram Image] Fig 19. Smart, N (2016) My Guide to healthy hair #AD. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMqTZRD82w&t=179s [You Tube Video] Fig 20. User Generated Instagram Images of House of Fraser event (2016) [Instagram Images] Fig 21. Sykes, P (2016) Tweet on Influencers [Tweet Screenshot] Fig 22. Riposte Magazine Scan, (2017) [Magazine Scan] Fig 23. ASOS Insiders (2015) ASOS Insiders Campaign [Photograph] Available at: https://influence.bloglovin. com/influencer-marketing-2-0-key-trends-in-2017a5fb97424cd Fig 24. Nasty Gal campaign (2017) Post caption- ‘What about your friends #friends day’ Available at: https:// www.instagram.com/p/BQB_OGyDPpD/?takenby=nastygal [Instagram Image] Fig 25. New Look Model Squad Campaign (2016) New Look Model Squad [Photograph] Available at: https:// www.linkedin.com/biz/25988/feed?start=10 Fig 26. Urban Outfitters Campaign (2017) ‘We are future’ [Photograph] Available at: https://hypebae.com/2016/8/ urban-outfitters-adidas-we-the-future-petra-collins Fig 27. Vagabond Class of 2017 (2017) Scan from Nylon Magazine [Photograph Scan]

Fig 9. Gascoine, O (2017) Change in Blogger Status [Moodboard Scan]

Fig 28. Gascoine, O (2017) Everyone as an Influencer Model Georgie Mortimer [photograph]

Fig 10. Gascoine, O (2017) Inauthentic Instagram clichés [Moodboard]

Fig 29. Gascoine, O (2017) Everyone as an influencer [Data visualisations]

Fig 11. Speech balloons of primary research questionnaire [Data visualisations]

Fig 30. Adidas your future is not mine (2016) Adidas Campaign [Photograph] Available at: http://www. nssmag.com/en/fashion/8168/your-future-is-not-mine

Fig 12. Blogger Images 1-3. Image 1: Williams, L (2016) Instagram Post [Instagram photograph] Image 2: Fashion Panic, (2016) Instagram Post [Instagram photograph]

Choice trauma

Fig 17. Gascoine, O (2017) Influencer engagement chart. Source: Ware, S Markerly Available at: https://digiday. com/marketing/micro-influencers/ [data visualisation]

Image 3: Lauren, V (2016) Instagram Post [Instagram photograph]/

Fig 31. Black Mirror, Nose Dive (2016) Black Mirror image from episode ‘Nose dive’ [photograph] Available at: http://www.vanschneider.com/obsessed-with-thebest/ Fig 32. A$AP Rocky Instagram (2016) A$AP Rocky Instagram [Screenshot] Available via: Instagram @A$AP Rocky

Fig 14. Wear, Tomielle. Image sent from user generated content brief [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.

Fig 33. Kim Kardashian Instagram Post (2017) Kim Kardashian New Instagram aesthetic and tweet [photographs] Source for Tweet: @meizy Source Image: http://nssdata.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/ images/galleries/11985/kim-k-new-instagram-aestheticnss-magazine-1.jpg

Fig 15. Gascoine, O (2017) Style Stats [Info graphic] Source: Primary research questionnaire see appendix 5.1- 5.2.

Fig 34. Vetements (2016) Vetements designs [photograph] Available via: http://www.racked. com/2016/3/2/11139622/what-is-vetements

Fig 13. Gascoine, O (2017) Saturation of Style [Moodboard]


Fig 35. Kate Moss, Corrine Day (1993) Kate Moss Photographed by Corrine day [Scan from Book ‘Unseen Vogue’ edited by Derrick, R and Muir R.

Fig 53. Uniform Studios (2016) Product image of black trousers [photograph] Available at: https:// uniformstudios.co.uk/

Fig 71. Russle, A (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://twitter.com/ ItsHerPersona/with_replies

Fig 36. Gascoine, O (2017) Table of future thinking [diagram]

Fig 54. Decaro, P (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRWpxRqB8G3/?taken-by=parisdecaro

Fig 72. Bruzelius, L (2017) Selfie [photograph] Available at: http://nouw.com/livabiehl/2017/03

Fig 37. Gascoine, O (2017) Table of problems [diagram] Fig 38. Gascoine, O (2017) Journey of the big idea [diagram]

Fig 55. Wyse, O (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRgJSINFn4k/?taken-by=oliviakatewyse

Fig 39. Gascoine, O and Mustoe, L (2017) IYK Campaign Image [Photograph]

Fig 56. White, A (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BPnvd35j10z/?taken-by=meemeewhite

Fig 40. Gascoine, O (2017) Design recipe of If You Know [Moodboard] Fig 41. Gascoine, O and Mustoe, L (2017) If You Know campaign imagery [photograph]

Fig 57. Gascoine O, Newton, C, Mortimer, G (2017) Collaborative shoot image of Georgie Mortimer [photograph]

Fig 42. Swampbreed brand image (2016) Instagram [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQn4w2iA9qr/?taken-by=swampbreed&hl=en.

Fig 58. Gascoine O, Newton, C, Mortimer, G (2017) Collaborative shoot image of Sydney Turner [photograph]

Fig 43. Heathfield, J (2016) User generated image of a Swampbreed T-shirt [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BQyV_yYBPib/?takenby=jemmaheathfield

Fig 59. Smith, O (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRqgkxBFPpT/?taken-by=asos_olive Fig 60. Gascoine, O (2017) Polariod image of Betsy Taylor [photograph]

Fig 44. Swampbreed brand image (2016) Instagram post of campaign imagery [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BP3N2D1hSAZ/?takenby=swampbreed&hl=en

Fig 61. Fine, J (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BTjvXT3gEcX/?taken-by=josefinehj

Fig 45. Decaro, P (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BLOxA0DAMYY/?taken-by=parisdecaro&hl=en

Fig 62. Martin, C (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BTjBaRBTYP/?taken-by=iamcharlottemartin

Fig 46. TRPHSE (2017) Instagram post of crowd [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BO7jz4bAWb_/?taken-by=trp.hse&hl=en

Fig 63. Unknown author of image (2017) Vintage T-shirt inspiration [photograph] Available at: http://wheretoget. it/look/3820628

Fig 47. TRPHSE (2016) Instagram post of branded sticker [photograph] Available at: https://www. instagram.com/p/BFZ43qFFlnx/?taken-by=trp.hse&hl=en

Fig 64. @cocobeautea (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQyXv_CFxQt/?taken-by=cocobeautea

Fig 48. L.C Studio (2017) Instagram post of @livbass [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BOk-JdChuA6/?taken-by=lcstudio.online&hl=en

Fig 65. Wear, Tomielle. Image sent from user generated content brief [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.

Fig 49. L.C Studio (2017) Instagram post of Clutch bag [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BNZ-Z39BBHh/?taken-by=lcstudio.online&hl=en

Fig 66. Ratajkowski, E (2017) Outfit of the day [photograph] Available at: https://twitter.com/hashtag/ giizeleoliveira?lang=en

Fig 50. Bass, L (2017) Instagram post of international women’s day [photograph] Available at: https:// www.instagram.com/p/BRYBP0Chglp/?taken-by=liv_ bass&hl=en

Fig 67. Newton, C (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQTGUw5AO3f/?taken-by=chloeenewton Fig 68. Beth, M (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQ46Vh2jtP_/?taken-by=march_beth

Fig 51. Sadiq, D (2017) Instagram post of ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRn0XAejVkY/?taken-by=dimejisadiq&hl=en

Fig 69. Lawerence, K (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQ3p0adDWtq/?taken-by=kimmybeatbox

Fig 52. Uniform Studios (2016) Product image of cream jumpsuit [photograph] Available at: https:// uniformstudios.co.uk/

Fig 70. Thordson, I (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BTW_cWtjU9k/?taken-by=isabellath 108

Fig 73. Morris, E (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BGhLkFPxGpG/?taken-by=eleanor.morris

Fig 90. Gascoine, O (2017) Street style image of Cara Grey [photograph] Fig 91. May, E (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BR0SvdYhi_0/?taken-by=eldikamayy&hl=en Fig 92. Gascoine, O (2017) Street style image of Tara Grimes [photograph]

Fig 74. Eden, T (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BREL5I4Au7i/?taken-by=tiffxeden

Fig 93. Cordery, B (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BLl4P3GAslTTe3xyMu02_0WjJvkejTHBwm4PVM0/?tak en-by=beckycorderyx&hl=en

Fig 75. Gascoine, O (2017) Image sent from user generated content brief of Georgie Sandhar [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.

Fig 94. Fig 75. Gascoine, O (2017) Image sent from user generated content brief of Natalie Jayne [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.

Fig 76. Zullo, C (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BQ_ BLLNFfgK/?taken-by=cinziabayliszullo

Fig 95. Ashcroft, S (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BHcnlgThGWS/?taken-by=sarahhashcroft&hl=en

Fig 77. Gascoine, O (2017) Polariod image of Beth Edwards [photograph]

Fig 96. Danso, C (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BR0F0APBrtF/?taken-by=cecedanso&hl=en

Fig 78. Rodgers, K (2017) Selfie [photograph] Available at: http://www.outfittrends.com/urban-outfits-for-theteenage-girls/ Fig 79. Ellaby, F (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BST4DpRgU_X/?taken-by=fellaby Fig 80. May, N (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BST4DpRgU_X/?taken-by=_naiomimay Fig 81. Unknown author of image (2017) Skateboard hipster [photograph] Available at: http://uk.complex. com/style/2012/11/10-signs-you-dress-like-a-hipster/ Fig 82. Vye, L (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRyngtEArX4/?taken-by=asos_lesley

Fig 97.Calcasola, E (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRJpOPOjrS5/?taken-by=ella_calcasola&hl=en Fig 98. Bright, P (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BR0ZV72AHAy/?taken-by=thepatriciabright&hl=en Fig 99. Shakeri, M (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRQW3XZg1oY/?taken-by=melshakeri&hl=en Fig 100. Redrup, L (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRRVnYqDKWY/?taken-by=lilyredrup&hl=en Fig 101. Fig 75. Gascoine, O (2017) Image sent from user generated content brief of Georgie Sandhar [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.

Fig 83. Roddy, L (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BQTZtqSj3Av/?taken-by=lissyroddyy

Fig 102. Gascoine, O (2017) Street style image of Mel Whitebread [photograph]

Fig 84. Stiley, N (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BPVhL8pAHrh/?taken-by=niastiley

Fig 103. Hill, C (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BNSI4IRD5Y1/?taken-by=brookecarriehil&hl=en

Fig 85. Gascoine, O (2017) Polariod image of Emma Smith [photograph]

Fig 104. Atherton, M (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BRnjdNZAoxm/?taken-by=meganatherton&hl=en

Fig 86. Hearn, V (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BOpvWq5geFK/?taken-by=victoriahearn&hl=en Fig 87. Williams, L (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/ asos_lotte/ Fig 88. Oriana, C (2017) Inspiration clothing image [photograph] Available at: http://weheartit.com/oriana_ estrada/collections/90884724-ropa Fig 89. Gascoine, O (2017) Street style image of Emma Hayes [photograph]

Fig 105. Rosey, P (2017) Instagram post ugc [photograph] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BMMfgJThIV_/?taken-by=pollyrosey&hl=en Fig 106. Gascoine O, Newton, C, Mortimer, G (2017) Collaborative shoot image of Sydney Turner [photograph] Fig 107. Wear, Tomielle. Image sent from user generated content brief [Photograph] Available in appendix 8.4.


Fig 108. Gascoine, O (2017) App home screen. Own Image [Photograph]

Future Laboratory, (2016) Backlash Brands [Lecture to NTU students] 26 October 2016.

Fig 130. Gascoine O, Newton, C, Mortimer, G (2017) Collaborative shoot image of Georgie Mortimer [photograph]

Fig 109. Gascoine, O (2017) App enter screen. Own Image [Photograph]

Fig 131. Gascoine, O (2017) Mockup of sticker in Nottingham [Photograph]

Fig 110. Gascoine, O (2017) App inspiration screen. Own Image [Photograph]

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Influencer Marketing Dissertation - If You Know You Know.  

My dissertation looked into the influencer marketing space and from research to ideation created a brand, app, and marketing campaign, IYK t...

Influencer Marketing Dissertation - If You Know You Know.  

My dissertation looked into the influencer marketing space and from research to ideation created a brand, app, and marketing campaign, IYK t...

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