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A Velodrome Book

First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Velodrome Publishing A Division of Casemate Publishers 10 Hythe Bridge Street Oxford OX1 2EW, UK and 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown, PA 19083 USA

THE CYCLING JERSEY

www.velodromepublishing.com @velodromepub © Oliver Knight 2016 ‘Le Maillot Jaune’ © William Fotheringham 2016 ‘The Breakthrough’ © David Millar 2016 ‘The Wider Appeal’ © Josh Sims 2016

CRAFTSMANSHIP, SPEED AND STYLE Oliver Knight

The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher in writing. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-911162-05-6 Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd To receive regular email updates on forthcoming Velodrome titles, news and reader offers, please email info@velodromepublishing.com with ‘Velodrome Updates’ in the subject field. For a complete list of Velodrome Publishing titles, please contact: CASEMATE PUBLISHERS (UK) Telephone (01865) 241249 Fax (01865) 794449 Email: casemate-uk@casematepublishers.co.uk www.casematepublishers.co.uk CASEMATE PUBLISHERS (US) Telephone (610) 853-9131 Fax (610) 853-9146 Email: casemate@casematepublishing.com www.casematepublishing.com

velodrome


A Velodrome Book

First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Velodrome Publishing A Division of Casemate Publishers 10 Hythe Bridge Street Oxford OX1 2EW, UK and 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown, PA 19083 USA

THE CYCLING JERSEY

www.velodromepublishing.com @velodromepub © Oliver Knight 2016 ‘Le Maillot Jaune’ © William Fotheringham 2016 ‘The Breakthrough’ © David Millar 2016 ‘The Wider Appeal’ © Josh Sims 2016

CRAFTSMANSHIP, SPEED AND STYLE Oliver Knight

The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher in writing. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-911162-05-6 Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd To receive regular email updates on forthcoming Velodrome titles, news and reader offers, please email info@velodromepublishing.com with ‘Velodrome Updates’ in the subject field. For a complete list of Velodrome Publishing titles, please contact: CASEMATE PUBLISHERS (UK) Telephone (01865) 241249 Fax (01865) 794449 Email: casemate-uk@casematepublishers.co.uk www.casematepublishers.co.uk CASEMATE PUBLISHERS (US) Telephone (610) 853-9131 Fax (610) 853-9146 Email: casemate@casematepublishing.com www.casematepublishing.com

velodrome


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 8

THE JERSEYs 10

LE MAILLOT JAUNE 58

by WILLIAM FOTHERINGHAM

THE CREATORS 64

THE BREAKTHROUGH 84 BY DAVID MILLAR

THE WIDER APPEAL 96 BY JOSH SIMS

THE RIDERS 108

THE COLLECTORS 144

acknowledgements 188 and credits INDEX

190


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 8

THE JERSEYs 10

LE MAILLOT JAUNE 58

by WILLIAM FOTHERINGHAM

THE CREATORS 64

THE BREAKTHROUGH 84 BY DAVID MILLAR

THE WIDER APPEAL 96 BY JOSH SIMS

THE RIDERS 108

THE COLLECTORS 144

acknowledgements 188 and credits INDEX

190


introduction Quite simply, the cycling jersey demands to be seen. Whether to differentiate one team sponsor from another, or to highlight a race leader or champion, its purpose has always been to draw your attention. I have been under the spell of these captivating items for a number of years. As my own collection grew, I began photographing the jerseys in order to produce a poster of them to hang on my wall – when not worn, the jerseys were stored out of sight and I wanted to see a reminder of them each day. Through this book, I now have the opportunity to share these images with a wider audience. Part of the joy collecting these items is that it is still fairly easy to find them, if you know where to look – those dusty vintage clothing stores can often contain real treasures, lying in forgotten corners waiting to be resurrected. Once you become attuned to these jerseys, it is also often the case that they ultimately find you. The rise of dedicated websites, forums and social media accounts has led to the creation of global communities of cycling jersey aficionados, enabling the sharing of knowledge linked to the discovery and research of these items. Indeed one of the catalysts for this book was the creation of my own ‘threebackpockets’ Instagram account two years ago, which has since spawned its own website. The account was set up to share images of my collection and quickly led to contact with a host of appreciative collectors, designers and manufacturers. I have since been able to meet a range of them in person and share their expert thoughts and insights in the following pages. Aside from the Instagram accounts of the collectors featured here (listed at the end of this book), the following accounts are worth noting: “onthebackfoot”, “wtfkits” and “thepoggio”; while the Facebook groups “Wool is Cool vintage cycling jerseys” and “Vintage Wool, Lana, Wolle cycling jerseys” provide a further great resource. So what is the continuing allure of cycling jerseys? Ultimately it is their association with the riders’ achievements, heroics, trials and tribulations. While riders may age, their jerseys remain a timeless physical reminder of their efforts. Their intrinsic quality and craftsmanship, as well as their aesthetic appeal, are also key. It is not uncommon to find a 40-year-old jersey, though heavily worn, that has remained in almost pristine condition. The timeless combination of wool and chain-stitched lettering may be impractical by modern standards but still holds a special place in the hearts of cyclists and manufacturers. The growing popularity of vintage cycling events, such as ‘l’Eroica’ – which sees participants exclusively clothed in jerseys from the wool era – are a real testament

8 THE CYCLING JERSEY

to this. It is not just an appreciation based on sentiment: wool is now seeing something of a rennaissance. Many manufacturers are now returning to the use of wool, albeit with modern construction methods, even though they have a huge range of modern fabrics at their disposal. It seems that the days of cyclists wearing wool jerseys are far from over. Many jersey collectors feel that they are custodians of the past – collecting items that deserve to be shared and seen, not hidden away, and that will live on beyond their current owners. This book epitomizes that sentiment, as collectors, jersey designers and manufacturers have all generously donated their time, priceless items, views and insights for this project. Producing it has involved crossing Europe to meet a host of dedicated experts and visiting locations ranging from the eerily empty Roubaix velodrome on a crisp March afternoon to the cycling museum in Cesiomaggiore, Italy, where every street is named after a cycling legend. To best tell the story of the iconic cycling jersey, this book is divided into four chapters: The first features a chronological summary of some of the sport’s bestknown designs; the second chapter examines the evolution of the construction of the cycling jersey up to the modern day; the third focuses on six titans of cycling who represent timeless jersey and rider combinations; while the last is devoted to a range of collectors who now covet these items. Although these pages feature many vintage items, the book represents something new – many of the designers and collectors interviewed here are talking exclusively about their relationship with the cycling jersey for the first time. The foundations of the global cycling family are definitely based on generosity and passion; I hope the same generosity and passion are evident and returned here on these pages.


introduction Quite simply, the cycling jersey demands to be seen. Whether to differentiate one team sponsor from another, or to highlight a race leader or champion, its purpose has always been to draw your attention. I have been under the spell of these captivating items for a number of years. As my own collection grew, I began photographing the jerseys in order to produce a poster of them to hang on my wall – when not worn, the jerseys were stored out of sight and I wanted to see a reminder of them each day. Through this book, I now have the opportunity to share these images with a wider audience. Part of the joy collecting these items is that it is still fairly easy to find them, if you know where to look – those dusty vintage clothing stores can often contain real treasures, lying in forgotten corners waiting to be resurrected. Once you become attuned to these jerseys, it is also often the case that they ultimately find you. The rise of dedicated websites, forums and social media accounts has led to the creation of global communities of cycling jersey aficionados, enabling the sharing of knowledge linked to the discovery and research of these items. Indeed one of the catalysts for this book was the creation of my own ‘threebackpockets’ Instagram account two years ago, which has since spawned its own website. The account was set up to share images of my collection and quickly led to contact with a host of appreciative collectors, designers and manufacturers. I have since been able to meet a range of them in person and share their expert thoughts and insights in the following pages. Aside from the Instagram accounts of the collectors featured here (listed at the end of this book), the following accounts are worth noting: “onthebackfoot”, “wtfkits” and “thepoggio”; while the Facebook groups “Wool is Cool vintage cycling jerseys” and “Vintage Wool, Lana, Wolle cycling jerseys” provide a further great resource. So what is the continuing allure of cycling jerseys? Ultimately it is their association with the riders’ achievements, heroics, trials and tribulations. While riders may age, their jerseys remain a timeless physical reminder of their efforts. Their intrinsic quality and craftsmanship, as well as their aesthetic appeal, are also key. It is not uncommon to find a 40-year-old jersey, though heavily worn, that has remained in almost pristine condition. The timeless combination of wool and chain-stitched lettering may be impractical by modern standards but still holds a special place in the hearts of cyclists and manufacturers. The growing popularity of vintage cycling events, such as ‘l’Eroica’ – which sees participants exclusively clothed in jerseys from the wool era – are a real testament

8 THE CYCLING JERSEY

to this. It is not just an appreciation based on sentiment: wool is now seeing something of a rennaissance. Many manufacturers are now returning to the use of wool, albeit with modern construction methods, even though they have a huge range of modern fabrics at their disposal. It seems that the days of cyclists wearing wool jerseys are far from over. Many jersey collectors feel that they are custodians of the past – collecting items that deserve to be shared and seen, not hidden away, and that will live on beyond their current owners. This book epitomizes that sentiment, as collectors, jersey designers and manufacturers have all generously donated their time, priceless items, views and insights for this project. Producing it has involved crossing Europe to meet a host of dedicated experts and visiting locations ranging from the eerily empty Roubaix velodrome on a crisp March afternoon to the cycling museum in Cesiomaggiore, Italy, where every street is named after a cycling legend. To best tell the story of the iconic cycling jersey, this book is divided into four chapters: The first features a chronological summary of some of the sport’s bestknown designs; the second chapter examines the evolution of the construction of the cycling jersey up to the modern day; the third focuses on six titans of cycling who represent timeless jersey and rider combinations; while the last is devoted to a range of collectors who now covet these items. Although these pages feature many vintage items, the book represents something new – many of the designers and collectors interviewed here are talking exclusively about their relationship with the cycling jersey for the first time. The foundations of the global cycling family are definitely based on generosity and passion; I hope the same generosity and passion are evident and returned here on these pages.


THE

JERSEYS This book starts with a chronological summary of some of cycling’s most notable jerseys. In cataloguing professional cycling’s best known teams, it is clear that each design stands on its own merits. Some designs will be forever associated with their team sponsors, such as the damiers of Peugeot, the argyle of Slipstream and the kaleidoscopic barrage of Mapei. Other jerseys are remembered more simply for their iconic use of colour – the combinations of the Dutch TI-Raleigh and Italian Atala teams in particular. Starting from 1962, the evolution of the look of the cycling jersey over time is clear. The use of block colours slowly gave way to more complex designs as stitching techniques progressed. The development of flocked transfer lettering allowed further scope for creativity after the long-time use of the wonderfully tactile technique of chain stitching. Material choices also shifted as manufacturers in France and Belgium began to use the man-made fibre acrylic in the 1970s. At this point, Italian manufacturers continued to use wool, but with a percentage of acrylic to prevent shrinkage. The early 1980s saw the use of the jersey’s side panels for further displays of sponsor branding – this previously unused area finally realized as valuable advertising space under the gaze of increased television audiences. The biggest change in the aesthetics of the cycling jersey came in the mid-1980s with the use of polyester for the jersey’s construction and the new process of dye sublimation printing. This pioneering process, which began in Italy, allowed inks to be printed directly into the material for the first time. This cost-effective technique signalled the end of the use of wool with its familiar combination of either flocked or chain-stitched lettering. Dye sublimation printing gave jersey designers almost limitless creative freedom – leading to some arguably excessive designs in the 1990s, which have gone on to become infamous. The host of exotic-sounding sponsor names splashed across team jerseys often stand for some rather mundane products – aluminium doors, paint, hardware stores, kitchen suppliers and stainless steel cutlery, among them. By virtue of adorning a cycling jersey, however, they have been imbued with an element of glamour. Inevitably, holding the Grand Tours during the summer months has also attracted ice cream sponsors – lots of them. Some jerseys are celebrated as a result of the exploits of team riders; or have been inextricably linked with some of the darker moments of professional cycling’s history. Other jerseys single out riders for their excellence above all others – either on the national or world stage, or within the stages of a Grand Tour. The most famous of these, the maillot jaune, is examined at the end of the chapter in an essay by acclaimed cycling journalist William Fotheringham.

10 THE CYCLING JERSEY


THE

JERSEYS This book starts with a chronological summary of some of cycling’s most notable jerseys. In cataloguing professional cycling’s best known teams, it is clear that each design stands on its own merits. Some designs will be forever associated with their team sponsors, such as the damiers of Peugeot, the argyle of Slipstream and the kaleidoscopic barrage of Mapei. Other jerseys are remembered more simply for their iconic use of colour – the combinations of the Dutch TI-Raleigh and Italian Atala teams in particular. Starting from 1962, the evolution of the look of the cycling jersey over time is clear. The use of block colours slowly gave way to more complex designs as stitching techniques progressed. The development of flocked transfer lettering allowed further scope for creativity after the long-time use of the wonderfully tactile technique of chain stitching. Material choices also shifted as manufacturers in France and Belgium began to use the man-made fibre acrylic in the 1970s. At this point, Italian manufacturers continued to use wool, but with a percentage of acrylic to prevent shrinkage. The early 1980s saw the use of the jersey’s side panels for further displays of sponsor branding – this previously unused area finally realized as valuable advertising space under the gaze of increased television audiences. The biggest change in the aesthetics of the cycling jersey came in the mid-1980s with the use of polyester for the jersey’s construction and the new process of dye sublimation printing. This pioneering process, which began in Italy, allowed inks to be printed directly into the material for the first time. This cost-effective technique signalled the end of the use of wool with its familiar combination of either flocked or chain-stitched lettering. Dye sublimation printing gave jersey designers almost limitless creative freedom – leading to some arguably excessive designs in the 1990s, which have gone on to become infamous. The host of exotic-sounding sponsor names splashed across team jerseys often stand for some rather mundane products – aluminium doors, paint, hardware stores, kitchen suppliers and stainless steel cutlery, among them. By virtue of adorning a cycling jersey, however, they have been imbued with an element of glamour. Inevitably, holding the Grand Tours during the summer months has also attracted ice cream sponsors – lots of them. Some jerseys are celebrated as a result of the exploits of team riders; or have been inextricably linked with some of the darker moments of professional cycling’s history. Other jerseys single out riders for their excellence above all others – either on the national or world stage, or within the stages of a Grand Tour. The most famous of these, the maillot jaune, is examined at the end of the chapter in an essay by acclaimed cycling journalist William Fotheringham.

10 THE CYCLING JERSEY


peugeot French professional team Designs from 1962 to 1984 French steel manufacturing firm Peugeot began producing bicycles in 1882 and introduced their first chain-driven bicycle in 1886. Early on, the family saw the publicity value in sponsoring racing cyclists and in 1901 the first team was born with the sponsorship of two Italian riders. The blue and yellow colour scheme for the team kit was introduced in 1905 – the same year that Peugeot celebrated their first tour win with Louis Trousselier. The team colours remained a firm staple up until 1963, when the design was switched to the iconic and instantly recognizable damier checkerboard design. Over the years, the team included top riders such as Tom Simpson, Rolf Wolfshohl, Eddy Merckx and Hennie Kuiper, as well as French household names and Tour de France winners Roger Pingeon and Bernard Thévenet. Peugeot have been the most successful factory team in the history of the Tour, winning the race on ten occasions. The damier design remained unchanged until 1987, when Peugeot’s last team manager Roger Legeay created the Vêtements Z-Peugeot team. With the role of primary sponsor now taken over by the French childrenswear brand, the classic checkerboard design was brought to an end.

[Clockwise from left] 1979 acrylic jersey with flocked lettering worn by team rider Hennie Kuiper. 1967 Tour de France publicity poster signed by the winner Roger Pingeon. 1984 jersey worn by team rider Pascal Seymour. The mid-1980s saw the beginning of the mass switch to polyester for jersey construction. The flock lettering is still present but was soon phased out in favour of lettering printed directly into the material. Amateur and club team variations on the classic monochrome design from the 1980s.

[Left] The 1962 Peugeot team jersey made from pure wool with chain-stitched lettering. The jersey shows the familiar front chest pockets used since the birth of the sport. The following year these pockets were dropped for the team jersey redesign – heralding the birth of the modern cycling jersey as we now know it. [Top] The utilitarian nature of cycling’s first clothing can be seen in these Peugeot publicity posters from 1896 and 1919.

12 THE CYCLING JERSEY

THE JERSEYS 13


peugeot French professional team Designs from 1962 to 1984 French steel manufacturing firm Peugeot began producing bicycles in 1882 and introduced their first chain-driven bicycle in 1886. Early on, the family saw the publicity value in sponsoring racing cyclists and in 1901 the first team was born with the sponsorship of two Italian riders. The blue and yellow colour scheme for the team kit was introduced in 1905 – the same year that Peugeot celebrated their first tour win with Louis Trousselier. The team colours remained a firm staple up until 1963, when the design was switched to the iconic and instantly recognizable damier checkerboard design. Over the years, the team included top riders such as Tom Simpson, Rolf Wolfshohl, Eddy Merckx and Hennie Kuiper, as well as French household names and Tour de France winners Roger Pingeon and Bernard Thévenet. Peugeot have been the most successful factory team in the history of the Tour, winning the race on ten occasions. The damier design remained unchanged until 1987, when Peugeot’s last team manager Roger Legeay created the Vêtements Z-Peugeot team. With the role of primary sponsor now taken over by the French childrenswear brand, the classic checkerboard design was brought to an end.

[Clockwise from left] 1979 acrylic jersey with flocked lettering worn by team rider Hennie Kuiper. 1967 Tour de France publicity poster signed by the winner Roger Pingeon. 1984 jersey worn by team rider Pascal Seymour. The mid-1980s saw the beginning of the mass switch to polyester for jersey construction. The flock lettering is still present but was soon phased out in favour of lettering printed directly into the material. Amateur and club team variations on the classic monochrome design from the 1980s.

[Left] The 1962 Peugeot team jersey made from pure wool with chain-stitched lettering. The jersey shows the familiar front chest pockets used since the birth of the sport. The following year these pockets were dropped for the team jersey redesign – heralding the birth of the modern cycling jersey as we now know it. [Top] The utilitarian nature of cycling’s first clothing can be seen in these Peugeot publicity posters from 1896 and 1919.

12 THE CYCLING JERSEY

THE JERSEYS 13


TOUR DE FRANCE Various classification winners’ jerseys Designs from 1981 to 1986 Aside from the celebrated maillot jaune, which indicates the rider who has ridden the race in the lowest overall time, the Tour awards a number of other jerseys to the leaders of distinct classifications. Points are awarded to riders according to the position in which they finish each stage, as well as for their performance during intermediate sprints. The rider who earns the most of these points is awarded the green jersey. The polka dot jersey is awarded to the rider who amasses the most points during mountain stages by being the first to reach the crest of a climb. The white jersey signals the best young rider classification leader – the rider below 26-years-old who has completed the Tour in the least amount of time. There have been other jerseys in past that are no longer awarded. The red jersey, for example, was awarded to the leader of the intermediate sprints classification. There was also the short-lived combined jersey, awarded from 1985 to 1989, which featured all the classification colours and reflected the overall leader of the general, points and mountain classifications.

[Above] Commemorative medal for participants in the Tours of 1984 and 1998. [Left] The polka dot “King of the Mountains” classification jersey; this one awarded to the British cyclist Robert Millar who won the category in the Tour of 1984. [Below] Commemorative plate awarded to Emile Daems for his win of the sixteenth stage of the 1962 Tour de France, between Montpellier and Aix-en-Provence.

56 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Above] Vehicle caravan plates used by publicity and press vehicles for the Tours of 1965 and 1966. [Left] Red intermediate sprints classification winner’s jersey, awarded to Dutch rider Gerrit Solleveld in the Tour of 1986. Next to this, the white 1983 young rider classification winner’s jersey, awarded to the 22-year-old Laurent Fignon – he would also be the overall general classification leader in the same Tour, winning the first of his two yellow jerseys. [Below] The green points classification jersey won by the Belgian rider Freddy Maertens in the Tour of 1981. Behind this, a decorated silk scarf showing the route of the Tour of 1950.

57


TOUR DE FRANCE Various classification winners’ jerseys Designs from 1981 to 1986 Aside from the celebrated maillot jaune, which indicates the rider who has ridden the race in the lowest overall time, the Tour awards a number of other jerseys to the leaders of distinct classifications. Points are awarded to riders according to the position in which they finish each stage, as well as for their performance during intermediate sprints. The rider who earns the most of these points is awarded the green jersey. The polka dot jersey is awarded to the rider who amasses the most points during mountain stages by being the first to reach the crest of a climb. The white jersey signals the best young rider classification leader – the rider below 26-years-old who has completed the Tour in the least amount of time. There have been other jerseys in past that are no longer awarded. The red jersey, for example, was awarded to the leader of the intermediate sprints classification. There was also the short-lived combined jersey, awarded from 1985 to 1989, which featured all the classification colours and reflected the overall leader of the general, points and mountain classifications.

[Above] Commemorative medal for participants in the Tours of 1984 and 1998. [Left] The polka dot “King of the Mountains” classification jersey; this one awarded to the British cyclist Robert Millar who won the category in the Tour of 1984. [Below] Commemorative plate awarded to Emile Daems for his win of the sixteenth stage of the 1962 Tour de France, between Montpellier and Aix-en-Provence.

56 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Above] Vehicle caravan plates used by publicity and press vehicles for the Tours of 1965 and 1966. [Left] Red intermediate sprints classification winner’s jersey, awarded to Dutch rider Gerrit Solleveld in the Tour of 1986. Next to this, the white 1983 young rider classification winner’s jersey, awarded to the 22-year-old Laurent Fignon – he would also be the overall general classification leader in the same Tour, winning the first of his two yellow jerseys. [Below] The green points classification jersey won by the Belgian rider Freddy Maertens in the Tour of 1981. Behind this, a decorated silk scarf showing the route of the Tour of 1950.

57


THE

CREATORS The cycling jersey has now seen a century of constant evolution. At the birth of the sport, the clothing was utilitarian in nature. Choices were very much based on comfort, as riders endured long race stages during the infancy of the Grand Tours in both Italy and France. Italian riders soon approached established tailoring firms, asking them to apply their fine techniques to the riders’ own cycling jerseys. This trend would have a lasting legacy – if you were a top-level rider in the 1950s, you made sure that your personal team jerseys were handmade in Italy to distinguish yourself from your teammates. Gradual changes in the sport had a direct influence on the jersey’s construction: as race stages became shorter, with a general emphasis on speed rather than endurance, the front pockets were jettisoned. The use of wool for the jersey’s construction – which had endured in Italy despite other European manufacturers switching to acrylic – was finally universally replaced in the mid-1980s by lighter and more durable polyester. Aside from the ergonomic changes afforded by this material, the pioneering process of dye sublimation – printing inks directly onto the material – would lead to a marked change in jersey aesthetics as well. Jersey manufacturers now had free reign to produce designs in a seemingly endless combination of vibrant colours. The distinguished chain stitching and use of simple block colours was now a thing of the past, replaced by the vibrant tight-fitting jerseys of the decades to come. Increasing awareness of the importance of aerodynamics, and the significant advantages this afforded, heralded a further revolution in both the construction and material choices for the jersey. By this stage, the jersey was beginning to be seen as an important piece of equipment in its own right. This process is still very much in progress, with manufacturers continuing to convert their technological innovations into further energy-saving advances for elite-level riders. These new advances have also gone on to have a direct influence in other sports that require highly considered technical wear. When I first planned this chapter, it was my overwhelming desire to hear from the designers themselves and to discuss their expertise in the construction of these items. In a testament to the power of social media, when I sent my initial requests to today’s major manufacturers, hoping for their participation, they replied that they would be delighted to accommodate me. I was incredibly flattered to discover that a number of them were already keen followers of my Instagram account! Their generosity in supplying interviews, both in person and via the internet, is greatly appreciated and I am delighted to share them with you in the following pages. Their passion is clear, and their insights enlightening. They have certainly taken my, already deep, appreciation of the cycling jersey to a new level. 64 THE CYCLING JERSEY


THE

CREATORS The cycling jersey has now seen a century of constant evolution. At the birth of the sport, the clothing was utilitarian in nature. Choices were very much based on comfort, as riders endured long race stages during the infancy of the Grand Tours in both Italy and France. Italian riders soon approached established tailoring firms, asking them to apply their fine techniques to the riders’ own cycling jerseys. This trend would have a lasting legacy – if you were a top-level rider in the 1950s, you made sure that your personal team jerseys were handmade in Italy to distinguish yourself from your teammates. Gradual changes in the sport had a direct influence on the jersey’s construction: as race stages became shorter, with a general emphasis on speed rather than endurance, the front pockets were jettisoned. The use of wool for the jersey’s construction – which had endured in Italy despite other European manufacturers switching to acrylic – was finally universally replaced in the mid-1980s by lighter and more durable polyester. Aside from the ergonomic changes afforded by this material, the pioneering process of dye sublimation – printing inks directly onto the material – would lead to a marked change in jersey aesthetics as well. Jersey manufacturers now had free reign to produce designs in a seemingly endless combination of vibrant colours. The distinguished chain stitching and use of simple block colours was now a thing of the past, replaced by the vibrant tight-fitting jerseys of the decades to come. Increasing awareness of the importance of aerodynamics, and the significant advantages this afforded, heralded a further revolution in both the construction and material choices for the jersey. By this stage, the jersey was beginning to be seen as an important piece of equipment in its own right. This process is still very much in progress, with manufacturers continuing to convert their technological innovations into further energy-saving advances for elite-level riders. These new advances have also gone on to have a direct influence in other sports that require highly considered technical wear. When I first planned this chapter, it was my overwhelming desire to hear from the designers themselves and to discuss their expertise in the construction of these items. In a testament to the power of social media, when I sent my initial requests to today’s major manufacturers, hoping for their participation, they replied that they would be delighted to accommodate me. I was incredibly flattered to discover that a number of them were already keen followers of my Instagram account! Their generosity in supplying interviews, both in person and via the internet, is greatly appreciated and I am delighted to share them with you in the following pages. Their passion is clear, and their insights enlightening. They have certainly taken my, already deep, appreciation of the cycling jersey to a new level. 64 THE CYCLING JERSEY


italian roots The cycling jersey has been through a century of constant evolution. At the birth of the sport, no real consideration was given to riders’ clothing; but the first specific cycle-wear would soon emerge from Italy

In the late 1800s, cyclists could be found in workman-like clothing that was unrefined and utilitarian. Race stages were ridden over much longer distances than today and often lasted well into the night, so wool was settled upon as the best all-purpose material for cycle-wear. The first items made specifically for the sport can be traced back to 1876, and were produced by a Milanese tailor named Vittore Gianni. He had already cemented his reputation for sportswear by applying his tailoring techniques to clothing for clients such as the AC Milan football team and the dancers of the Milan Ballet.By 1910 he was using these skills to clothe a number of Italian cyclists, such as Alfredo Binda, the five-time winner of the Giro d’Italia. Pockets were added to the jerseys to allow cyclists to carry necessary items and fine chain stitching allowed sponsors’ names to be prominently embroidered. Other Italian manufacturers of cycle clothing soon appeared. Emilio De Marchi, for example, had started by making jerseys for himself and teammates. His reputation soon spread, leading to the expansion of the company in 1946. Wool was still the material of choice for cycling jerseys, but finer-grade Merino wool was favoured above all other types. This soft wool, derived from a Spanish breed of sheep, was excellent at regulating body temperature, especially when worn against the skin. It drew moisture away from the body and had antibacterial properties, making it a natural choice for cycling jerseys. Manufacturers were also open to rider suggestions and in some cases were ready to experiment with other materials. In 1954, the first zip-fastening jersey was produced by De Marchi after a suggestion by the French rider Louison Bobet. The Vittore Gianni tailoring company developed a strong relationship with Italian cycling legend Fausto Coppi, producing the majority of his kit, including the first silk skin suit in 1948 for use in time trials. To this day, Italy remains the centre of cycle-wear manufacturing. Although the company of its originator Vittore Gianni has long since ceased trading, his jerseys remain highly prized among collectors – a testament to their lasting quality and construction. 66 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Opposite page, above] In context. Original photograph dating from the 1930s showing a trainer and riders of the Italian Legnano-Hutchinson team. [Opposite left] Ink illustration of French rider Lucien Michard attired in a track outfit of the period. By L. Defleurac 1922. [Above] Original jersey manufacturer labels from Italy, France and Belgium.


italian roots The cycling jersey has been through a century of constant evolution. At the birth of the sport, no real consideration was given to riders’ clothing; but the first specific cycle-wear would soon emerge from Italy

In the late 1800s, cyclists could be found in workman-like clothing that was unrefined and utilitarian. Race stages were ridden over much longer distances than today and often lasted well into the night, so wool was settled upon as the best all-purpose material for cycle-wear. The first items made specifically for the sport can be traced back to 1876, and were produced by a Milanese tailor named Vittore Gianni. He had already cemented his reputation for sportswear by applying his tailoring techniques to clothing for clients such as the AC Milan football team and the dancers of the Milan Ballet.By 1910 he was using these skills to clothe a number of Italian cyclists, such as Alfredo Binda, the five-time winner of the Giro d’Italia. Pockets were added to the jerseys to allow cyclists to carry necessary items and fine chain stitching allowed sponsors’ names to be prominently embroidered. Other Italian manufacturers of cycle clothing soon appeared. Emilio De Marchi, for example, had started by making jerseys for himself and teammates. His reputation soon spread, leading to the expansion of the company in 1946. Wool was still the material of choice for cycling jerseys, but finer-grade Merino wool was favoured above all other types. This soft wool, derived from a Spanish breed of sheep, was excellent at regulating body temperature, especially when worn against the skin. It drew moisture away from the body and had antibacterial properties, making it a natural choice for cycling jerseys. Manufacturers were also open to rider suggestions and in some cases were ready to experiment with other materials. In 1954, the first zip-fastening jersey was produced by De Marchi after a suggestion by the French rider Louison Bobet. The Vittore Gianni tailoring company developed a strong relationship with Italian cycling legend Fausto Coppi, producing the majority of his kit, including the first silk skin suit in 1948 for use in time trials. To this day, Italy remains the centre of cycle-wear manufacturing. Although the company of its originator Vittore Gianni has long since ceased trading, his jerseys remain highly prized among collectors – a testament to their lasting quality and construction. 66 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Opposite page, above] In context. Original photograph dating from the 1930s showing a trainer and riders of the Italian Legnano-Hutchinson team. [Opposite left] Ink illustration of French rider Lucien Michard attired in a track outfit of the period. By L. Defleurac 1922. [Above] Original jersey manufacturer labels from Italy, France and Belgium.


background to it. That probably pushed me into doing more research and validating anything I was putting forward. A lot of the time, I was finding the storytelling more interesting than the [actual] thing. You could spend a lot more time getting the story right, but not worrying too much about actually getting a pin-sharp result – if the story was right that was the main thing. I studied graphic design for a few years, then fine art for a while, before returning to graphic design. Where does the direct decision-making come from?

ultan coyle timeless chronicles The art director for the global cycling brand Rapha shares his holistic approach to creating items that echo and pay homage to cycling’s rich heritage

After being involved with Rapha for so long, you get a sense of what is going to fly and what is not. Over the years from pitching certain ideas and talking about certain things you calibrate what will work. If we want to come up with a special edition for autumn or winter, we would obviously look more to the autumn races than early spring races; the same is true for spring and summer editions. What are your production schedules in terms of making the products compared to design time? Sometimes we can use existing styles that we have set up – the classic jersey is a prime example, that is very replicable. Everybody knows how it is made; it’s quite easy to attach certain things to that. The Lombardia was very different?

You go into some detail when researching a rider, what is your approach and research process? Everybody is quite different, there is no formula really. Year on year we focus on something different – it might be a rider one year, a race the next. I start delving into that, to see what I can find. Looking at early winners, I might then discover that it was the loser who perhaps had the more interesting story. 68 THE CYCLING JERSEY

For the Lombardia range, I worked on the sequel to the item we had done three years earlier. The focus of the first one was the rider Giovanni Gerbi; the second edition focused on his great rival Giovanni Cuniolo. I tried to offset the two of them. One of them had an autumnal, deciduous-looking colour scheme; the other had an evergreen one. That’s one approach. It can change depending on what I’m looking at. In college I was pushed a lot to come up with why I was doing certain things, I couldn’t just present something that looked good. . . it had to have a

Not so different, it just had a slightly different construction; but again we were using fabrics that were tried and tested. It is when we want to push it a little bit further and use different fabrics and techniques that there is a whole trial and error process to go through. Everything needs to be tested; we make sure it can stand up to use. Some of the stuff we are looking at now has shrinkage issues, so we need to look at different fabrics again.

Ultan photographed in his studio space at Rapha’s headquarters in London. The brand’s name is a nod towards cycling’s heritage, derived from the nickname of the St. Raphaël cycling team of the 1950s. A mural of its iconic logo decorates the studio walls. Reference materials and books on cycling’s legacy are stacked around Ultan’s workspace.

THE CREATORS 69


background to it. That probably pushed me into doing more research and validating anything I was putting forward. A lot of the time, I was finding the storytelling more interesting than the [actual] thing. You could spend a lot more time getting the story right, but not worrying too much about actually getting a pin-sharp result – if the story was right that was the main thing. I studied graphic design for a few years, then fine art for a while, before returning to graphic design. Where does the direct decision-making come from?

ultan coyle timeless chronicles The art director for the global cycling brand Rapha shares his holistic approach to creating items that echo and pay homage to cycling’s rich heritage

After being involved with Rapha for so long, you get a sense of what is going to fly and what is not. Over the years from pitching certain ideas and talking about certain things you calibrate what will work. If we want to come up with a special edition for autumn or winter, we would obviously look more to the autumn races than early spring races; the same is true for spring and summer editions. What are your production schedules in terms of making the products compared to design time? Sometimes we can use existing styles that we have set up – the classic jersey is a prime example, that is very replicable. Everybody knows how it is made; it’s quite easy to attach certain things to that. The Lombardia was very different?

You go into some detail when researching a rider, what is your approach and research process? Everybody is quite different, there is no formula really. Year on year we focus on something different – it might be a rider one year, a race the next. I start delving into that, to see what I can find. Looking at early winners, I might then discover that it was the loser who perhaps had the more interesting story. 68 THE CYCLING JERSEY

For the Lombardia range, I worked on the sequel to the item we had done three years earlier. The focus of the first one was the rider Giovanni Gerbi; the second edition focused on his great rival Giovanni Cuniolo. I tried to offset the two of them. One of them had an autumnal, deciduous-looking colour scheme; the other had an evergreen one. That’s one approach. It can change depending on what I’m looking at. In college I was pushed a lot to come up with why I was doing certain things, I couldn’t just present something that looked good. . . it had to have a

Not so different, it just had a slightly different construction; but again we were using fabrics that were tried and tested. It is when we want to push it a little bit further and use different fabrics and techniques that there is a whole trial and error process to go through. Everything needs to be tested; we make sure it can stand up to use. Some of the stuff we are looking at now has shrinkage issues, so we need to look at different fabrics again.

Ultan photographed in his studio space at Rapha’s headquarters in London. The brand’s name is a nod towards cycling’s heritage, derived from the nickname of the St. Raphaël cycling team of the 1950s. A mural of its iconic logo decorates the studio walls. Reference materials and books on cycling’s legacy are stacked around Ultan’s workspace.

THE CREATORS 69


THE

RIDERS Having looked through the first chapter of this book, many readers will no doubt have noticed some very obvious omissions in terms of classic jersey designs. While some jerseys stand up on their own aesthetic merits, others have gained a completely different level of kudos through the achievements of the team riders who wore them. Indeed, there are a number of iconic rider and team jersey combinations that have stood the test of time and become part of the visual heritage cycling history. This chapter examines the stories of six titans of cycling, all riders who have become forever associated with a particular team – and team kit. These riders, ordered chronologically, herald from the three European countries with the strongest historical links with the sport – France, Italy and Belgium. Inevitably, narrowing down the riders to just six has lead to some omissions. The pairing of the Belgian Freddy Maertens with the “red train” colours of Flandria is an obvious example; but a selection of his jerseys feature in a later chapter thanks to the efforts of a dedicated young Belgian collector. Similarly, the achievements of the Spaniard Miguel Indurain, who dominated cycling in the 1990s, are indisputable, but the jersey designs of the Banesto team for which he rode have not achieved the same level of timelessness as those featured here. The jersey designs in this chapter are varied but they all have one thing in common – clarity. Their arresting aesthetics serving to draw even more attention to the extraordinary exploits of the six riders included here. Many of these jerseys remain highly prized by collectors, with original team issue items fetching increasing prices and those worn by the riders now the preserve of auction house sales with international bidders battling for the chance to own them. The demand for reproductions of these team jerseys, now produced in modern fabrics, is also constant – the appetite for team colours that evoke the achievements of their most notable riders shows no signs of abating. Aside from the jerseys, the team sponsors’ iconography and colours have been used to adorn an array of items away from the saddle – long after some of them have ceased trading. From mugs to T-shirts, phone cases to posters, there is no shortage of available products to satisfy the devoted following that these riders and their best-known team jerseys inspire.

108 THE CYCLING JERSEY


THE

RIDERS Having looked through the first chapter of this book, many readers will no doubt have noticed some very obvious omissions in terms of classic jersey designs. While some jerseys stand up on their own aesthetic merits, others have gained a completely different level of kudos through the achievements of the team riders who wore them. Indeed, there are a number of iconic rider and team jersey combinations that have stood the test of time and become part of the visual heritage cycling history. This chapter examines the stories of six titans of cycling, all riders who have become forever associated with a particular team – and team kit. These riders, ordered chronologically, herald from the three European countries with the strongest historical links with the sport – France, Italy and Belgium. Inevitably, narrowing down the riders to just six has lead to some omissions. The pairing of the Belgian Freddy Maertens with the “red train” colours of Flandria is an obvious example; but a selection of his jerseys feature in a later chapter thanks to the efforts of a dedicated young Belgian collector. Similarly, the achievements of the Spaniard Miguel Indurain, who dominated cycling in the 1990s, are indisputable, but the jersey designs of the Banesto team for which he rode have not achieved the same level of timelessness as those featured here. The jersey designs in this chapter are varied but they all have one thing in common – clarity. Their arresting aesthetics serving to draw even more attention to the extraordinary exploits of the six riders included here. Many of these jerseys remain highly prized by collectors, with original team issue items fetching increasing prices and those worn by the riders now the preserve of auction house sales with international bidders battling for the chance to own them. The demand for reproductions of these team jerseys, now produced in modern fabrics, is also constant – the appetite for team colours that evoke the achievements of their most notable riders shows no signs of abating. Aside from the jerseys, the team sponsors’ iconography and colours have been used to adorn an array of items away from the saddle – long after some of them have ceased trading. From mugs to T-shirts, phone cases to posters, there is no shortage of available products to satisfy the devoted following that these riders and their best-known team jerseys inspire.

108 THE CYCLING JERSEY


fausto coppi Known as “il Campionissimo”, the “champion of champions”, this iconic Italian rider was a huge source of pride in post-war Italy. Inextricably linked with the light blue kit of the Bianchi team, Coppi was also renowned as a stylish dresser off the bike

One of the seminal combinations of rider and jersey was the pairing of the slender Italian rider Fausto Coppi with the sky-blue jersey of the bicycle firm Bianchi. The two have become icons of Italian cycling, both with supreme legacies. Founded in 1885, Bianchi are the world’s oldest surviving bicycle company and continue to provide some of the finest racing bicycles to the sport’s elite. Fausto Coppi is widely regarded as the greatest all-round cyclist there has ever been, with only the achievements of the Belgian Eddy Merckx as comparable. After the Second World War, Coppi spent a decade riding for the Bianchi team during which he amassed four Giro d’Italia wins, two Tour de France wins, five Giro di Lombardia wins, and three wins of the one-day Spring Classic Milan– San Remo. In 1949 and 1952, he also completed 110 THE CYCLING JERSEY

the Giro–Tour double – the first rider to complete this epic feat on two occasions. To cement his status as an exceptional and unequalled all-rounder, Coppi broke the world hour record in 1942. Coppi’s campaign of domination began when he won the 1940 Giro d’Italia by a margin of almost three minutes. The 20-year-old Coppi had originally been hired by the Legnano team to aid teammate Gino Bartali in the race, but Coppi left Bartali behind to persue his own ride to victory. When it became obvious that Coppi could not be contained, a bitter rivalry began with Bartali. This went on to deeply divide Italian cycling fans who began to assert their allegiance as either a “Coppiani” or “Bartaliani”. In 1945, after spending two years in a North African prisoner-of-war camp, Coppi returned to

[Opposite page] Fausto Coppi with a throng of adoring fans during a rest day in the 1949 Tour de France in the south-western city of Pau. [Above] A faithful reproduction of a 1973 Bianchi-Campagnolo team jersey featuring the iconic “celeste” blue used throughout the cycle manufacturer’s history.

THE RIDERS 111


fausto coppi Known as “il Campionissimo”, the “champion of champions”, this iconic Italian rider was a huge source of pride in post-war Italy. Inextricably linked with the light blue kit of the Bianchi team, Coppi was also renowned as a stylish dresser off the bike

One of the seminal combinations of rider and jersey was the pairing of the slender Italian rider Fausto Coppi with the sky-blue jersey of the bicycle firm Bianchi. The two have become icons of Italian cycling, both with supreme legacies. Founded in 1885, Bianchi are the world’s oldest surviving bicycle company and continue to provide some of the finest racing bicycles to the sport’s elite. Fausto Coppi is widely regarded as the greatest all-round cyclist there has ever been, with only the achievements of the Belgian Eddy Merckx as comparable. After the Second World War, Coppi spent a decade riding for the Bianchi team during which he amassed four Giro d’Italia wins, two Tour de France wins, five Giro di Lombardia wins, and three wins of the one-day Spring Classic Milan– San Remo. In 1949 and 1952, he also completed 110 THE CYCLING JERSEY

the Giro–Tour double – the first rider to complete this epic feat on two occasions. To cement his status as an exceptional and unequalled all-rounder, Coppi broke the world hour record in 1942. Coppi’s campaign of domination began when he won the 1940 Giro d’Italia by a margin of almost three minutes. The 20-year-old Coppi had originally been hired by the Legnano team to aid teammate Gino Bartali in the race, but Coppi left Bartali behind to persue his own ride to victory. When it became obvious that Coppi could not be contained, a bitter rivalry began with Bartali. This went on to deeply divide Italian cycling fans who began to assert their allegiance as either a “Coppiani” or “Bartaliani”. In 1945, after spending two years in a North African prisoner-of-war camp, Coppi returned to

[Opposite page] Fausto Coppi with a throng of adoring fans during a rest day in the 1949 Tour de France in the south-western city of Pau. [Above] A faithful reproduction of a 1973 Bianchi-Campagnolo team jersey featuring the iconic “celeste” blue used throughout the cycle manufacturer’s history.

THE RIDERS 111


‘‘He only sourced [his team jerseys] from the Milanese tailor Vittore Gianni – a trend later adopted by riders such as Jacques Anquetil and Tom Simpson, eager to emulate Coppi’s fastidiousnes.’’

racing in the iconic light-blue kit of the Bianchi team. This shade of blue, referred to as “celeste” (roughly translated as “sky blue”), had been used by the company from its earliest years and is said to derive from an order from their most notable customer. In 1895 the company founder Eduardo Bianchi received a request from the Italian Queen Margherita to supply her with one of his cuttingedge “safety” bicycles. As an act of gratitude and respect, he decided to paint the bicycle in the now famous celestial blue to match the colour of the Queen’s eyes. Regardless of the accuracy of this legend, this shade of blue has been used by the company ever since, and it would be hard to imagine Coppi in the saddle wearing any other colour. Even out of the saddle, Coppi was much admired for his stylish but informal look, which was always underpinned by fine Italian tailoring. His considered approach to clothing extended to his personal team jerseys. He only sourced them from the Milanese tailor Vittore Gianni – a trend later adopted by riders such as Jacques Anquetil and Tom Simpson, eager to emulate Coppi’s fastidiousness. By the 1950s Coppi was enjoying a meteoric rise to the status of national hero, but this was soon marred by affairs in his private life, which resulted in a spectacular fall from grace. 112 THE CYCLING JERSEY

Coppi had unwisely begun an affair with a married woman, Giulia Occhini, after she had approached him for a signed autograph. In 1953 they were photographed together at the Road World Championships in Lugano, Switzerland. The incriminating photograph was published in a French newspaper and caused shockwaves back in Coppi’s deeply Catholic homeland. Both he and Occhini (referred to in the paper simply as “the woman in white”) were both married and at the time adultery was still a criminal offence in Italy. The two received suspended jail sentences after being put on trial. Coppi’s treatment by fans changed overnight. Once lauded, Coppi was now jeered at by some and spat at during races. His rejection by the Italian state seemed complete when he received a personal note from the Pope himself expressing his dismay. Although he and Occhini would subsequently marry and have a child of their own, neither was officially recognized by the Italian authorities. Tragically, just five years later, aged 40 years old, Coppi was dead. He had contracted a fatal form of malaria while completing an exhibition tour in the West African country of Burkina Faso. At his funeral on 5th January 1960 this fallen angel of Italian cycling was finally put to rest and Italy mourned the loss of one of the world’s cycling greats.

[Clockwise, from far left] A poster highlighting Coppi’s legendary achievements. Best of enemies: Coppi and Bartali seen at the Grand Départ of the 1949 Tour de France. A caricature by the great French sports illustrator René Pellos. The famous “celeste” blue with a dash of red from secondary sponsor Faema on this 1978 team jersey. [Overleaf] With Frenchman Louison Bobet at his wheel, passionate spectators cheer on Coppi during a stage in the 1951 Giro passing through the Dolomite mountains.

THE RIDERS 113


‘‘He only sourced [his team jerseys] from the Milanese tailor Vittore Gianni – a trend later adopted by riders such as Jacques Anquetil and Tom Simpson, eager to emulate Coppi’s fastidiousnes.’’

racing in the iconic light-blue kit of the Bianchi team. This shade of blue, referred to as “celeste” (roughly translated as “sky blue”), had been used by the company from its earliest years and is said to derive from an order from their most notable customer. In 1895 the company founder Eduardo Bianchi received a request from the Italian Queen Margherita to supply her with one of his cuttingedge “safety” bicycles. As an act of gratitude and respect, he decided to paint the bicycle in the now famous celestial blue to match the colour of the Queen’s eyes. Regardless of the accuracy of this legend, this shade of blue has been used by the company ever since, and it would be hard to imagine Coppi in the saddle wearing any other colour. Even out of the saddle, Coppi was much admired for his stylish but informal look, which was always underpinned by fine Italian tailoring. His considered approach to clothing extended to his personal team jerseys. He only sourced them from the Milanese tailor Vittore Gianni – a trend later adopted by riders such as Jacques Anquetil and Tom Simpson, eager to emulate Coppi’s fastidiousness. By the 1950s Coppi was enjoying a meteoric rise to the status of national hero, but this was soon marred by affairs in his private life, which resulted in a spectacular fall from grace. 112 THE CYCLING JERSEY

Coppi had unwisely begun an affair with a married woman, Giulia Occhini, after she had approached him for a signed autograph. In 1953 they were photographed together at the Road World Championships in Lugano, Switzerland. The incriminating photograph was published in a French newspaper and caused shockwaves back in Coppi’s deeply Catholic homeland. Both he and Occhini (referred to in the paper simply as “the woman in white”) were both married and at the time adultery was still a criminal offence in Italy. The two received suspended jail sentences after being put on trial. Coppi’s treatment by fans changed overnight. Once lauded, Coppi was now jeered at by some and spat at during races. His rejection by the Italian state seemed complete when he received a personal note from the Pope himself expressing his dismay. Although he and Occhini would subsequently marry and have a child of their own, neither was officially recognized by the Italian authorities. Tragically, just five years later, aged 40 years old, Coppi was dead. He had contracted a fatal form of malaria while completing an exhibition tour in the West African country of Burkina Faso. At his funeral on 5th January 1960 this fallen angel of Italian cycling was finally put to rest and Italy mourned the loss of one of the world’s cycling greats.

[Clockwise, from far left] A poster highlighting Coppi’s legendary achievements. Best of enemies: Coppi and Bartali seen at the Grand Départ of the 1949 Tour de France. A caricature by the great French sports illustrator René Pellos. The famous “celeste” blue with a dash of red from secondary sponsor Faema on this 1978 team jersey. [Overleaf] With Frenchman Louison Bobet at his wheel, passionate spectators cheer on Coppi during a stage in the 1951 Giro passing through the Dolomite mountains.

THE RIDERS 113


THE

COLLECTORS The collection or coveting of cycling jerseys has massively increased among cycling fans in recent years, along with a general rise in interest among designers, stylists and fashion labels. In my case, I started my collection around five years ago when I moved to a new apartment near to a vintage shop that I’d previously photographed for an editorial client. I’d kept in contact with the owners after the shoot, and they continued to set aside their best cycling jerseys for me. I was soon completely under the spell of these evocative items, and always eager to see what treasures awaited in their next delivery from the Continent. As the collection grew, I began to feel somewhat frustrated that I had these visually arresting jerseys stored out of sight when I wasn’t wearing them. I soon borrowed a mannequin and decided to photograph the jerseys to produce a poster that I could hang on my wall – quite simply I wanted to see these jerseys every day. Having amassed a large catalogue of images, I created the “threebackpockets” Instagram feed in order to share them with the wider world. Within a few weeks I was amazed at the interest the account was attracting and I soon built up contacts with a wide range of like-minded collectors across the globe. This book has afforded me the fantastic opportunity to meet some of these collectors in person – not only to photograph their diverse collections but also to discuss their views and motives for collecting these iconic items from cycling’s heritage. In the majority of cases, the appeal of cycling jerseys is that they remind the collectors of their youth – a physical reminder of a bygone era, a time of innocence that can be recollected fondly. Interestingly, however, these items are also now appealing to a new generation of young dedicated collectors who, like myself, are too young to remember the jerseys from their original days of use. These collectors may not have the same emotional ties to the items, but their dedication in uncovering them is just as strong. To sum up the enduring significance of the cycling jersey to both the new and older generations of collectors, I will relay a message I received from an online vendor after receiving his old TI-Raleigh trainer. I had sent him a note thanking him for the item and received this response: ‘Thanks for your message. I am 52 years old now and when I was younger at fifteen TI-Raleigh was my favourite team and I did many rides in this jersey. Now I’m old, a young father and I live in a region with many mountains so no cycling. I’m really happy to know that my jersey is in good hands and I’m sure you’re going to win many rides with it.” This seems to encapsulate the legacy of these items – the riders may get old, but the jerseys will live on to be appreciated by the generations to come. 144 THE CYCLING JERSEY


THE

COLLECTORS The collection or coveting of cycling jerseys has massively increased among cycling fans in recent years, along with a general rise in interest among designers, stylists and fashion labels. In my case, I started my collection around five years ago when I moved to a new apartment near to a vintage shop that I’d previously photographed for an editorial client. I’d kept in contact with the owners after the shoot, and they continued to set aside their best cycling jerseys for me. I was soon completely under the spell of these evocative items, and always eager to see what treasures awaited in their next delivery from the Continent. As the collection grew, I began to feel somewhat frustrated that I had these visually arresting jerseys stored out of sight when I wasn’t wearing them. I soon borrowed a mannequin and decided to photograph the jerseys to produce a poster that I could hang on my wall – quite simply I wanted to see these jerseys every day. Having amassed a large catalogue of images, I created the “threebackpockets” Instagram feed in order to share them with the wider world. Within a few weeks I was amazed at the interest the account was attracting and I soon built up contacts with a wide range of like-minded collectors across the globe. This book has afforded me the fantastic opportunity to meet some of these collectors in person – not only to photograph their diverse collections but also to discuss their views and motives for collecting these iconic items from cycling’s heritage. In the majority of cases, the appeal of cycling jerseys is that they remind the collectors of their youth – a physical reminder of a bygone era, a time of innocence that can be recollected fondly. Interestingly, however, these items are also now appealing to a new generation of young dedicated collectors who, like myself, are too young to remember the jerseys from their original days of use. These collectors may not have the same emotional ties to the items, but their dedication in uncovering them is just as strong. To sum up the enduring significance of the cycling jersey to both the new and older generations of collectors, I will relay a message I received from an online vendor after receiving his old TI-Raleigh trainer. I had sent him a note thanking him for the item and received this response: ‘Thanks for your message. I am 52 years old now and when I was younger at fifteen TI-Raleigh was my favourite team and I did many rides in this jersey. Now I’m old, a young father and I live in a region with many mountains so no cycling. I’m really happy to know that my jersey is in good hands and I’m sure you’re going to win many rides with it.” This seems to encapsulate the legacy of these items – the riders may get old, but the jerseys will live on to be appreciated by the generations to come. 144 THE CYCLING JERSEY


SEbastien corne roubaix AMBASSADOR His passion for both Gan, Merckx and “le pavé” has gained him a dedicated online following that reflects his characteristic warmth and humour. He also has some outspoken insider views to share on the most famous of the Spring Classic races

The area where you live is rich in cycling culture, how did you come to the sport? I was a junior rider from fourteen to eighteen years old and the president of my Saint-Pol-surTernoise cycling club offered to pay my French Cycling Federation license. During this time certain teams, such as Kelme and Panasonic, inspired my dreams. These teams were equipped with Eddy Merckx bikes, but my parents couldn’t afford that. Some seven or eight years later, a friend was selling his Eddy Merckx bike and I purchased it (in 1995), but I just kept it at my parents’ house. I only cycled for around five years. After a while I became more interested in my studies and discovered girls, which I guess is a common story. Around eight or nine years ago, I realized that no one was selling Eddy Merckx bikes, so I decided to sell mine on eBay and it was purchased by an American. I think I was one of the first people to do this. I got a very good price for it and this allowed me to buy another bike that I had fancied for a long time – a Telekom team bike, again from Merckx. After this, I continued the process of buying and selling. Then I began specializing in the Gan team bikes from between 1995 and 1998. Again the attraction was that they were manufactured by Merckx in Meise near Brussels.

One hundred per cent Gan. Sébastien photographed near his home at the section of pavé named in honour of Gan team rider Gilbert DuclosLassalle, winner of Paris–Roubaix in both 1992 and 1993. By his side is the bike owned by another Gan team rider François Lemarchand – a 1995 Eddy Merckx model “MX-Leader”. This was the first bike that Sébastien bought online and which started his hobby of collecting and restoring racing bikes from the Eddy Merckx catalogue.

170 THE CYCLING JERSEY

Were the bikes cheap at this time? Did people in France appreciate their value, or were they appreciated more internationally? Since 2004 I have sold bikes almost exclusively to Americans. In France, people do not have the collecting spirit. These were second-hand bikes, steel bikes. Today everybody uses carbon fibre not steel. Seven or eight years ago you could find steel bikes for an incredibly cheap price. Now this is very much over – when someone posts a notice with one of these [bikes] for sale they receive 50 responses in return.


SEbastien corne roubaix AMBASSADOR His passion for both Gan, Merckx and “le pavé” has gained him a dedicated online following that reflects his characteristic warmth and humour. He also has some outspoken insider views to share on the most famous of the Spring Classic races

The area where you live is rich in cycling culture, how did you come to the sport? I was a junior rider from fourteen to eighteen years old and the president of my Saint-Pol-surTernoise cycling club offered to pay my French Cycling Federation license. During this time certain teams, such as Kelme and Panasonic, inspired my dreams. These teams were equipped with Eddy Merckx bikes, but my parents couldn’t afford that. Some seven or eight years later, a friend was selling his Eddy Merckx bike and I purchased it (in 1995), but I just kept it at my parents’ house. I only cycled for around five years. After a while I became more interested in my studies and discovered girls, which I guess is a common story. Around eight or nine years ago, I realized that no one was selling Eddy Merckx bikes, so I decided to sell mine on eBay and it was purchased by an American. I think I was one of the first people to do this. I got a very good price for it and this allowed me to buy another bike that I had fancied for a long time – a Telekom team bike, again from Merckx. After this, I continued the process of buying and selling. Then I began specializing in the Gan team bikes from between 1995 and 1998. Again the attraction was that they were manufactured by Merckx in Meise near Brussels.

One hundred per cent Gan. Sébastien photographed near his home at the section of pavé named in honour of Gan team rider Gilbert DuclosLassalle, winner of Paris–Roubaix in both 1992 and 1993. By his side is the bike owned by another Gan team rider François Lemarchand – a 1995 Eddy Merckx model “MX-Leader”. This was the first bike that Sébastien bought online and which started his hobby of collecting and restoring racing bikes from the Eddy Merckx catalogue.

170 THE CYCLING JERSEY

Were the bikes cheap at this time? Did people in France appreciate their value, or were they appreciated more internationally? Since 2004 I have sold bikes almost exclusively to Americans. In France, people do not have the collecting spirit. These were second-hand bikes, steel bikes. Today everybody uses carbon fibre not steel. Seven or eight years ago you could find steel bikes for an incredibly cheap price. Now this is very much over – when someone posts a notice with one of these [bikes] for sale they receive 50 responses in return.


Is this because of the rise of online auction sites? Yes absolutely, there is a lot of speculation now. Was this also the start of your jersey collecting? Yes, I wanted to collect everything belonging to the Gan team. It was a French team that used Merckx bikes, so there is a double interest for me.

‘‘What I appreciate in Merckx is not necessarily the cyclist, it is how he converted from a sportsman to a businessman. He equipped the Tour with his bikes... they are incredibly well made in an artisanal way – welded by men. They have a history.’’

And your appreciation of Merckx as rider? Not as much, to be honest. For me Merckx was an extra terrestrial – like an athlete from another planet. It was more the Merckx bikes then? What I appreciate in Merckx is not necessarily the cyclist, it is how he converted from a sportsman to a businessman. He equipped the Tour with his bikes – the Kelme, Panasonic and Gan teams all used his bikes. There is a real workmanship in his frames, they are incredibly well made in an artisanal way – welded by men. They have a history. Where do you find your bikes and jerseys? Mainly on French websites such as “Le Bon Coin”, or similar Belgian sites. There are also specialized sales and increasingly I find items by word-of-mouth because people know me. You have a dedicated following on Instagram, when did you start the account? Around five years ago I created the Paris–Roubaix account. It consists mainly of images of local races and of course shots of my bike collection and jerseys. Thanks to the platform I have interest from across the globe; in a few weeks time, for example, some Australians are coming to visit me for the day of the race. Are there any pieces that you regret not buying at the time? Yes, I missed a jersey from the Brooklyn team – an original Vittore Gianni. It was offered to me two years ago and I missed it. But I’m sure another will come my way. My best find was a 1974 DeRosa Molteni team bike used by Eddy Merckx himself. 172 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Opposite page] Gan team jersey from 1996, which Sébastien managed to have signed by all the members of the team. [Above] Full set of team postcards individually signed by the riders of the 1997 équipe. Sébastien’s collection of Gan team kit is impressive – at his home a large suitcase houses every item issued to the team in multiple numbers.

THE COLLECTORS 173


Is this because of the rise of online auction sites? Yes absolutely, there is a lot of speculation now. Was this also the start of your jersey collecting? Yes, I wanted to collect everything belonging to the Gan team. It was a French team that used Merckx bikes, so there is a double interest for me.

‘‘What I appreciate in Merckx is not necessarily the cyclist, it is how he converted from a sportsman to a businessman. He equipped the Tour with his bikes... they are incredibly well made in an artisanal way – welded by men. They have a history.’’

And your appreciation of Merckx as rider? Not as much, to be honest. For me Merckx was an extra terrestrial – like an athlete from another planet. It was more the Merckx bikes then? What I appreciate in Merckx is not necessarily the cyclist, it is how he converted from a sportsman to a businessman. He equipped the Tour with his bikes – the Kelme, Panasonic and Gan teams all used his bikes. There is a real workmanship in his frames, they are incredibly well made in an artisanal way – welded by men. They have a history. Where do you find your bikes and jerseys? Mainly on French websites such as “Le Bon Coin”, or similar Belgian sites. There are also specialized sales and increasingly I find items by word-of-mouth because people know me. You have a dedicated following on Instagram, when did you start the account? Around five years ago I created the Paris–Roubaix account. It consists mainly of images of local races and of course shots of my bike collection and jerseys. Thanks to the platform I have interest from across the globe; in a few weeks time, for example, some Australians are coming to visit me for the day of the race. Are there any pieces that you regret not buying at the time? Yes, I missed a jersey from the Brooklyn team – an original Vittore Gianni. It was offered to me two years ago and I missed it. But I’m sure another will come my way. My best find was a 1974 DeRosa Molteni team bike used by Eddy Merckx himself. 172 THE CYCLING JERSEY

[Opposite page] Gan team jersey from 1996, which Sébastien managed to have signed by all the members of the team. [Above] Full set of team postcards individually signed by the riders of the 1997 équipe. Sébastien’s collection of Gan team kit is impressive – at his home a large suitcase houses every item issued to the team in multiple numbers.

THE COLLECTORS 173


acknowledgementS This book has been made all the more possible by the generous support of a host of collectors and manufacturers, all of which has been invaluable in the creation of this title.

The CYCLING jersey Photographed, designed and written by Oliver Knight More of my growing collection of cycling jerseys can be seen at: www.threebackpockets.com / instagram: threebackpockets

Special thanks must go to the following: Principally a freelance photographer for over a decade, I also work professionally as a designer and videographer Jean-Marc Leynet of the auctioneers Drouot in Paris. His generosity in allowing me to access the entire catalogue of their cycling lots has meant that many of these priceless items are in print here for the first time. Steven Smith at Castelli and Daniel Loots at Sportful for making me so very welcome during my visit to their company headquarters in Italy. Jasper De Deyne for his dedication to the project. Ultan Coyle and Alex Valdman at Rapha for sharing their expertise and dedication to their craft. Cédric Laurent for spending most of an already busy morning climbing up a ladder to remove his items ready for me to photograph in the studio. David Evans for inviting me to his home; also to pet dog Harry for “helping” during the shoot. Sébastien Corne for being a total trooper while having his portrait taken in wind chill temperatures well below zero. Patrick Den Hert for the time and energy spent whilst showing me his truly mind boggling collection of cycling memorabilia. Judd Cappelletti for sharing his wonderful photographs and anecdotes of his grandfather’s cycling team. Maria Teresa Castelli and Enrico Ubezio for sharing their fascinating knowledge and wonderful insights. Charlotte Wilson at Offside Sports Photography for her expedient assistance to requests in supplying wonderful archive photography. David Millar and Peter Sagan for generously supplying fascinating content from the professional cyclists perspective. William Nisi at the Museo Storico Della Bicicletta in Cesiomaggiore for allowing me a private visit to photograph their fine items. Edoardo Civiero for ferrying me round Belluno in the big red Castelli van. William Fotheringham and Josh Sims for providing their excellent features. Anna Cheifetz for her fine work editing all the copy. A huge thank-you to John Lee at Velodrome Publishing for providing the opportunity for me to publish my first book and to his brother, and my good friend Peter Lee for initially putting us in contact for the project. Extra special thanks must go to all the followers of my ‘threebackpockets’ instagram account. Your enthusiasm has been a driving force during the massive task of producing this title. Bravo, this book is for you! This book is very much dedicated to the constant love and support I am blessed to receive from my family and Laurence.

Collections Cédric Laurent, Paris David Evans, London Jasper De Deyne, Antwerp Sébastien Corne, Tourcoing Patrick Den Hert, Antwerp

www.cycleslaurent.com www.greyfoxblog.com instagram: jsprdd88 instagram: paris_roubaix1973

Creators Castelli www.castelli-cycling.com Sportful www.sportful.com Rapha www.rapha.cc

Further resources Online forums (Facebook groups)

I continue to complete commissions internationally for both editorial and corporate clients, while my personal projects have included documenting a voyage along the entire length of the Ganges River More of my work can be seen at: www.denizenreport.com / www.oliver-knight.com

Design Further design and pre-press work on this title was completed by Laurence Canevet Her work can be seen at: www.canevet.design

Photography All photography by Oliver Knight, with the following exceptions Drouot Auctioneers, Paris 6–7, 8–9, 12–14, 16–17, 19, 24, 26, 28, 34–36, 38, 41, 43, 46, 50–57, 61–63, 76, 112–113, 116, 119, 120, 125, 132, 138, 142 Offside Sports Photography 15, 26, 39, 40, 43, 45, 59, 60, 61, 73, 84, 90, 110, 112, 114–115, 117, 118, 121, 123, 126, 128, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140–141, 143 PYMCA 97, 99 25, 66 Judd Cappelletti Castelli 76, 81, 95 Sportful 48, 78 Rapha 49, 72, 73, 75, 101 Charlieandmarley.com 98 Alamy 83 Edoardo Civiero 47, 77, 95 Ben Ingham 71 George Marshall 100 Wig Worland 70–71, 102–103, 106 Ilario Biondi 82 BrakeThroughMedia 48, 80 Michael Bodiam 104–105 Patrick Den Hert 184–187

Illustration Page 94 features an illustration by Julien Trédan-Turini His work can be seen at: www.julientredanturini.com

French translations ‘Wool is cool vintage cycling jerseys’ ‘Vintage Wool, Lana, Wolle cycling jerseys’

Marie-Christine Knight (thanks Mum)


acknowledgementS This book has been made all the more possible by the generous support of a host of collectors and manufacturers, all of which has been invaluable in the creation of this title.

The CYCLING jersey Photographed, designed and written by Oliver Knight More of my growing collection of cycling jerseys can be seen at: www.threebackpockets.com / instagram: threebackpockets

Special thanks must go to the following: Principally a freelance photographer for over a decade, I also work professionally as a designer and videographer Jean-Marc Leynet of the auctioneers Drouot in Paris. His generosity in allowing me to access the entire catalogue of their cycling lots has meant that many of these priceless items are in print here for the first time. Steven Smith at Castelli and Daniel Loots at Sportful for making me so very welcome during my visit to their company headquarters in Italy. Jasper De Deyne for his dedication to the project. Ultan Coyle and Alex Valdman at Rapha for sharing their expertise and dedication to their craft. Cédric Laurent for spending most of an already busy morning climbing up a ladder to remove his items ready for me to photograph in the studio. David Evans for inviting me to his home; also to pet dog Harry for “helping” during the shoot. Sébastien Corne for being a total trooper while having his portrait taken in wind chill temperatures well below zero. Patrick Den Hert for the time and energy spent whilst showing me his truly mind boggling collection of cycling memorabilia. Judd Cappelletti for sharing his wonderful photographs and anecdotes of his grandfather’s cycling team. Maria Teresa Castelli and Enrico Ubezio for sharing their fascinating knowledge and wonderful insights. Charlotte Wilson at Offside Sports Photography for her expedient assistance to requests in supplying wonderful archive photography. David Millar and Peter Sagan for generously supplying fascinating content from the professional cyclists perspective. William Nisi at the Museo Storico Della Bicicletta in Cesiomaggiore for allowing me a private visit to photograph their fine items. Edoardo Civiero for ferrying me round Belluno in the big red Castelli van. William Fotheringham and Josh Sims for providing their excellent features. Anna Cheifetz for her fine work editing all the copy. A huge thank-you to John Lee at Velodrome Publishing for providing the opportunity for me to publish my first book and to his brother, and my good friend Peter Lee for initially putting us in contact for the project. Extra special thanks must go to all the followers of my ‘threebackpockets’ instagram account. Your enthusiasm has been a driving force during the massive task of producing this title. Bravo, this book is for you! This book is very much dedicated to the constant love and support I am blessed to receive from my family and Laurence.

Collections Cédric Laurent, Paris David Evans, London Jasper De Deyne, Antwerp Sébastien Corne, Tourcoing Patrick Den Hert, Antwerp

www.cycleslaurent.com www.greyfoxblog.com instagram: jsprdd88 instagram: paris_roubaix1973

Creators Castelli www.castelli-cycling.com Sportful www.sportful.com Rapha www.rapha.cc

Further resources Online forums (Facebook groups)

I continue to complete commissions internationally for both editorial and corporate clients, while my personal projects have included documenting a voyage along the entire length of the Ganges River More of my work can be seen at: www.denizenreport.com / www.oliver-knight.com

Design Further design and pre-press work on this title was completed by Laurence Canevet Her work can be seen at: www.canevet.design

Photography All photography by Oliver Knight, with the following exceptions Drouot Auctioneers, Paris 6–7, 8–9, 12–14, 16–17, 19, 24, 26, 28, 34–36, 38, 41, 43, 46, 50–57, 61–63, 76, 112–113, 116, 119, 120, 125, 132, 138, 142 Offside Sports Photography 15, 26, 39, 40, 43, 45, 59, 60, 61, 73, 84, 90, 110, 112, 114–115, 117, 118, 121, 123, 126, 128, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140–141, 143 PYMCA 97, 99 25, 66 Judd Cappelletti Castelli 76, 81, 95 Sportful 48, 78 Rapha 49, 72, 73, 75, 101 Charlieandmarley.com 98 Alamy 83 Edoardo Civiero 47, 77, 95 Ben Ingham 71 George Marshall 100 Wig Worland 70–71, 102–103, 106 Ilario Biondi 82 BrakeThroughMedia 48, 80 Michael Bodiam 104–105 Patrick Den Hert 184–187

Illustration Page 94 features an illustration by Julien Trédan-Turini His work can be seen at: www.julientredanturini.com

French translations ‘Wool is cool vintage cycling jerseys’ ‘Vintage Wool, Lana, Wolle cycling jerseys’

Marie-Christine Knight (thanks Mum)


INDEX Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations

A acrylic jerseys 10, 29, 33, 64 Adidas 43 Admirers of Eddy Merckx 175 Adorni, Vittorio 24 Aero Race jersey 88, 94–5, 95 aerodynamics 64, 76–7, 94–5 Aerts, Mario 43 Age of Chance 97 Aldag, Rolf 43 Alfa Lum 32 Altig, Rudi 22, 51, 122 Alycon 146, 148 Anquetil, Jacques 116–21 - jerseys owned by 62, 74, 112, 116, 116, 120, 146 - Tour de France 22, 39, 41, 62, 116, 118, 119 Argentin, Moreno 29, 29, 50 Armstrong, Lance 39, 43, 53, 62, 62, 99, 146 ASO 60–1 Assos 92 Atala 10, 21 L’Auto 54, 58, 60

B Banesto 39, 108 Baronchelli, Gianbattista 24, 24 Bartali, Gino 110, 112–13, 137 Bartoli, Michele 45 Basso, Ivan 132 Battaglin, Giovanni 17, 17, 54 Baugé, Alphonse 60 Beeckman, Theopile 63 Beheyt, Benoni 53 Bianchi 21, 29, 82, 110, 111, 112 Bianchi, Eduardo 112 Bianchi-Campagnolo 111 BIC 156, 159 Binda, Alfredo 55, 66 BMC Racing Team 46 Boardman, Chris 40, 40, 62 Bobet, Louison 50, 52, 54, 59, 63, 66, 114–15 Le Bon Coin 173 Bordeaux–Paris 119, 146, 151, 152–3 Bottecchia, Ottavio 63, 76 Boule d’Or 166, 167 BP Mercier 118 Brochard, Laurent 41 Brooklyn 79, 128, 128–9, 131–3, 133, 169, 173 Brunik 37 Bruycker, Omer De 181 Bruyère, Joseph 63 Buffalo 97

c C&A 174 Café du Cycliste 99 Callens, Norbert 63 Camenzind, Oscar 51 Cancellara, Fabian 183 Cannondale Pro Cycling 47, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82 Canyon 75 Canyon/SRAM 75 Capo 99 Cappelletti, Florio 25 Carrera 42 Castelli - Aero Race jersey 94–5 - aerodynamics 76, 76, 77, 94–5 - Atala 21 - Brooklyn 133 - Cannondale 47 - Del Tongo 20, 20, 55 - Enrico Ubezio 78, 81 - GIS Gelati 31 - Inoxpran 17, 54 - maglia ciclamino 17 - Malvor-Sidi 36 - Maria Teresa Castelli 88–95 - Miko Mercier 18 - Once 38 - Renault-Elf 139 - Sammontana 29 - speedsuit 84, 84–7 - sublimation dye process 31, 36 - Teka 28 Castelli, Armando 76 Castelli, Maria Teresa 88–93, 89 Castelli, Maurizio 76, 94 Castorama 36, 37 Caubergh, Michel 168 Cavendish, Mark 187 Cervélo 95 chain stitching 10, 64, 66 Christophe, Eugène 58 Cipollini, Mario 63, 88, 90 Clarey, John 157 Colnago 25, 97 Colnago, Ernesto 122 combined jersey 56 Contador, Alberto 48, 63, 79, 183 Coppi, Fausto 55, 66, 74, 76, 96, 110–15, 137 Le Coq Sportif 22, 138 Corne, Sébastien 170–9, 171, 178 La Course en Tête 61 Coyle, Ultan 68–75, 68 Crédit Agricole 40 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré 119 Cuniolo, Giovanni 68, 71 Cycles Laurent 9, 146–53, 147, 148

d Daems, Emile 56 Danceli, Michelle 122 Danesi 25, 30 De Marchi, Emilio 66 De Rosa 29 - De Rosa Molteni 173, 175, 176 Decca 33

Del Tongo 20, 32, 55 Deledda, Adolphe 51 Desgrange, Henri 58, 60, 61, 63 Deyne, Jasper de 162–9, 163, 180, 184, 187 Di Paco, Raffaele 63 Diana-Colnago-Animex 37 doping 41, 42, 43 Duclos-Lassalle, Gilbert 171, 175, 176 Dumoulin, Samuel 46 dye sublimation printing 10, 31, 36, 64, 70, 91

e eBay 156, 165, 170 Ellesse 96 L’Eroica 9, 72, 106–7, 156 Eroica Britannia 156 Eustice, John 27, 133 Evans, Cadel 46 Evans, David 154–61, 154 Everest, Timothy 96 Exteondo, Once 38

f fabrics 88, 93, 97–8, 107 - see also acrylic; polyester; wool Facebook 8 Faema 113, 125 Fagor 16 Fagor-Mercier-Hutchinson 149 Farrer, Tyler 46 fashion 88, 91, 92, 96–9 Fendi 88, 92 Ferry, Bryan 96 Festina 41, 42 Fiat 175, 176 Fignon, Laurent 34, 34, 57, 143 Fila 96 Flandria 108, 162, 164, 169 Flandria-Mars 165 Flandria-Romeo 164 Flandria-Velda-Latina 164, 165–6 flock printing 10, 21, 27 Fondriest, Maurizio 32, 53, 132 Fontan, Victor 63 Ford France-Gitane 120, 121 Fotheringham, William 10, 58–63 France Loire 119 Frantz, Nicolas 63 Fred Perry 96 Frigécrème 22 Froome, Chris 49

g Gallagher, Brendan 125 Gan 40, 170, 172, 173, 173, 175 Gan Mercier 16 Garmin-Cervélo 95 Garmin-Sharp 95 Gaulle, President de 119 Gazetta 159 La Gazzetta dello Sport 54, 60 GBC 24, 24 Gelati Sanson 134–7, 134, 135, 136, 137

Géminiani, Raphaël 119, 120 Gerbi, Giovanni 68 Gianni, Vittore 66, 122, 124–5, 169, 173, 174 - Armando Castelli 76 - maglia rosa 55 - riders who favoured his jerseys 66, 74, 112 Gianni Motta 27 Gianni Motta-Linea MD 133 Gimondi, Felice 134 Giordana Sport 29 Gios, Tolmino 133 Gios-Clement 27 Giro di Lombardia - Bernard Hinault 139 - Eddy Merckx 126–7 - Fausto Coppi 110, 115–16 - Francesco Moser 136 - Sean Kelly 26 - Ultan Coyle 68, 69, 71 Giro d’Italia - Alfa Lum 32 - Alfreda Binda 66 - Atala 21 - Bernard Hinault 138 - Bottechia 76 - Del Tongo 20 - Eddy Merckx 122 - Fausto Coppi 96, 110 - Francesco Moser 134, 137 - Giovanni Battaglin 17, 17 - GIS Gelati 30 - John Eustice 27 - maglia rosa 54–5, 60, 61, 74, 82, 122 - Marco Pantani 42 - Miguel Indurain 39 GIS Gelati 30–1 Gitane 22, 138, 148 Gitane & Germiniani 116 Gitane-Campagnolo 23 Goddet, Jacques 61 Gowland, Tony 157 Grand Prix de Nationals 116 green jersey 56, 57 Greg LeMond Activewear 40 Grey Fox 154 Groeninghe Spurters 169 Guimard, Cyrille 138, 143

H Helyett 146 Helyett-Hutchinson 148, 150 Henn, Christian 43 Hert, Patrick Den 180–7 Hinault, Bernard 39, 58, 60, 138–43 Histor-Sigma 36 Horton, Bret 146 Howies 99 Hoy, Chris 99

I Indurain, Miguel 39, 39, 74, 108 Inoxpran 17, 54

J Jagger, Mick 96 Jalabert, Laurent 38, 38 Janssen, Jan 53 Junior World Championships 184, 185

K Kelly, Sean 26, 26 Kelme 170, 173 King of the Mountains jersey 56, 56, 96 Klöden, Andreas 46 Knetemann, Gerrie 14, 15, 33 Kubler, Ferdinand “Ferdi” 149 Kuiper, Hennie 12, 13, 14, 52, 139 Kwantum 14 Kwantum Hallen-Decosol-Yoko 33

L Labourdette, Bernard 126–7 Lacoste, Rene 96 Lapebie, Roger 50 Laurent, Alain 149, 151 Laurent, Cédric 146–53, 147, 148 Laurent, Jean-Paul 149, 151, 152 Laurent, Marcel 146, 148, 149, 151, 152–3 Laurent, Paul 146, 149, 149, 151 Le Bert, Raymond 63 Leblanc, Jean-Marie 61 Leducq, André 63 Legeay, Roger 12, 35, 40 Legnano 110 Legnano-Hutchinson 66 Lemarchand, François 171 LeMond, Greg 34, 35, 35, 40, 40, 143 Leth, Jorgen 137 Leulliot, Jean 60–1 Levi’s 92, 99, 101, 107 Levitan, Félix 61 Liège–Bastogne–Liège 26, 29, 122, 139 Linea 27 Liquigas 78 Looy, Rik Van 52 Lotto-Mobistar 36 Lubberding, Henk 15 Lutz 157 Lycra 76 Lys Yarn 30

M Madiot, Yvon 34 Maertens, Freddy 57, 108, 164, 166–7, 180, 187 maglia ciclamino 17 maglia rosa 54–5, 60, 61, 74, 82, 122 Magniflex 99 maillot jaune 54, 56, 57, 58–63, 74, 122 maillot rojo 54 Majka, Rafal 48, 79 Malvor-Sidi 36 MAMILs 99 Mapei 10, 44–5, 46, 51, 75 Mappi 96

Marc-Carlos-V.R.D.-Woningbouw 168 Margherita, Queen 112 Mercanto Uno 82 Mercier 16, 18–19 Merckx, Axel 45 Merckx, Eddy 17, 110, 122–7, 134, 138, 173, 180, 182 - bikes 170, 171, 173, 176 - Molteni 17, 51, 79, 122, 124, 125, 125, 174 - Peugeot 12 - Tour de France 39, 59, 61, 62, 122, 125 - yellow jersey 58, 61–2 Merino wool 66, 74, 97, 107 Michard, Lucien 66 Miko 16 Miko Mercier 18–19 Milan–San Remo 26, 62, 110, 122, 128 Millar, David 84–7 Millar, Robert 56 Mod movement 14, 96, 99 Molteni 24, 79, 122–7, 159, 169, 174 Molteni Alimentari 125 Moncler 88, 91 Mondrian, Piet 98, 142, 143 monochrome 24–5 Monseré, Jean-Pierre 180 Moore, Jim 157, 161 Moser, Francesco 20, 30, 134–7, 187 Motta, Gianni 122 Mottram, Simon 106 MTN-Qhubeka 46

N Nalini 36, 37, 39, 40, 42 National Cycling Championships 50–1 National Road Race Championships 20, 29, 50, 51, 122, 125, 137 New York Six Day 181 Nibali,Vincenzo 183 1990s designs 36–7 Nys, Sven 187

O Ocaña, Luis 61–2, 126–7 O’Grady, Stuart 40 Olano, Abraham 51 Once 38

P Palace 98 Panasonic 14, 98, 170, 173 Pantani, Marco 42, 63, 73, 73, 82 Parentini, Del Tongo 20, 20 Paris–Nice 19, 60, 84 Paris–Roubaix Classic - Alcyon 148 - Eddy Merckx 123 - Francesco Moser 134, 135, 137 - Roger de Vlaeminck 128, 130 - Sean Kelly 26, 26 - Sébastien Corne 170–9 Paul & Shark 96 Pelissier, Charles 63


INDEX Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations

A acrylic jerseys 10, 29, 33, 64 Adidas 43 Admirers of Eddy Merckx 175 Adorni, Vittorio 24 Aero Race jersey 88, 94–5, 95 aerodynamics 64, 76–7, 94–5 Aerts, Mario 43 Age of Chance 97 Aldag, Rolf 43 Alfa Lum 32 Altig, Rudi 22, 51, 122 Alycon 146, 148 Anquetil, Jacques 116–21 - jerseys owned by 62, 74, 112, 116, 116, 120, 146 - Tour de France 22, 39, 41, 62, 116, 118, 119 Argentin, Moreno 29, 29, 50 Armstrong, Lance 39, 43, 53, 62, 62, 99, 146 ASO 60–1 Assos 92 Atala 10, 21 L’Auto 54, 58, 60

B Banesto 39, 108 Baronchelli, Gianbattista 24, 24 Bartali, Gino 110, 112–13, 137 Bartoli, Michele 45 Basso, Ivan 132 Battaglin, Giovanni 17, 17, 54 Baugé, Alphonse 60 Beeckman, Theopile 63 Beheyt, Benoni 53 Bianchi 21, 29, 82, 110, 111, 112 Bianchi, Eduardo 112 Bianchi-Campagnolo 111 BIC 156, 159 Binda, Alfredo 55, 66 BMC Racing Team 46 Boardman, Chris 40, 40, 62 Bobet, Louison 50, 52, 54, 59, 63, 66, 114–15 Le Bon Coin 173 Bordeaux–Paris 119, 146, 151, 152–3 Bottecchia, Ottavio 63, 76 Boule d’Or 166, 167 BP Mercier 118 Brochard, Laurent 41 Brooklyn 79, 128, 128–9, 131–3, 133, 169, 173 Brunik 37 Bruycker, Omer De 181 Bruyère, Joseph 63 Buffalo 97

c C&A 174 Café du Cycliste 99 Callens, Norbert 63 Camenzind, Oscar 51 Cancellara, Fabian 183 Cannondale Pro Cycling 47, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82 Canyon 75 Canyon/SRAM 75 Capo 99 Cappelletti, Florio 25 Carrera 42 Castelli - Aero Race jersey 94–5 - aerodynamics 76, 76, 77, 94–5 - Atala 21 - Brooklyn 133 - Cannondale 47 - Del Tongo 20, 20, 55 - Enrico Ubezio 78, 81 - GIS Gelati 31 - Inoxpran 17, 54 - maglia ciclamino 17 - Malvor-Sidi 36 - Maria Teresa Castelli 88–95 - Miko Mercier 18 - Once 38 - Renault-Elf 139 - Sammontana 29 - speedsuit 84, 84–7 - sublimation dye process 31, 36 - Teka 28 Castelli, Armando 76 Castelli, Maria Teresa 88–93, 89 Castelli, Maurizio 76, 94 Castorama 36, 37 Caubergh, Michel 168 Cavendish, Mark 187 Cervélo 95 chain stitching 10, 64, 66 Christophe, Eugène 58 Cipollini, Mario 63, 88, 90 Clarey, John 157 Colnago 25, 97 Colnago, Ernesto 122 combined jersey 56 Contador, Alberto 48, 63, 79, 183 Coppi, Fausto 55, 66, 74, 76, 96, 110–15, 137 Le Coq Sportif 22, 138 Corne, Sébastien 170–9, 171, 178 La Course en Tête 61 Coyle, Ultan 68–75, 68 Crédit Agricole 40 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré 119 Cuniolo, Giovanni 68, 71 Cycles Laurent 9, 146–53, 147, 148

d Daems, Emile 56 Danceli, Michelle 122 Danesi 25, 30 De Marchi, Emilio 66 De Rosa 29 - De Rosa Molteni 173, 175, 176 Decca 33

Del Tongo 20, 32, 55 Deledda, Adolphe 51 Desgrange, Henri 58, 60, 61, 63 Deyne, Jasper de 162–9, 163, 180, 184, 187 Di Paco, Raffaele 63 Diana-Colnago-Animex 37 doping 41, 42, 43 Duclos-Lassalle, Gilbert 171, 175, 176 Dumoulin, Samuel 46 dye sublimation printing 10, 31, 36, 64, 70, 91

e eBay 156, 165, 170 Ellesse 96 L’Eroica 9, 72, 106–7, 156 Eroica Britannia 156 Eustice, John 27, 133 Evans, Cadel 46 Evans, David 154–61, 154 Everest, Timothy 96 Exteondo, Once 38

f fabrics 88, 93, 97–8, 107 - see also acrylic; polyester; wool Facebook 8 Faema 113, 125 Fagor 16 Fagor-Mercier-Hutchinson 149 Farrer, Tyler 46 fashion 88, 91, 92, 96–9 Fendi 88, 92 Ferry, Bryan 96 Festina 41, 42 Fiat 175, 176 Fignon, Laurent 34, 34, 57, 143 Fila 96 Flandria 108, 162, 164, 169 Flandria-Mars 165 Flandria-Romeo 164 Flandria-Velda-Latina 164, 165–6 flock printing 10, 21, 27 Fondriest, Maurizio 32, 53, 132 Fontan, Victor 63 Ford France-Gitane 120, 121 Fotheringham, William 10, 58–63 France Loire 119 Frantz, Nicolas 63 Fred Perry 96 Frigécrème 22 Froome, Chris 49

g Gallagher, Brendan 125 Gan 40, 170, 172, 173, 173, 175 Gan Mercier 16 Garmin-Cervélo 95 Garmin-Sharp 95 Gaulle, President de 119 Gazetta 159 La Gazzetta dello Sport 54, 60 GBC 24, 24 Gelati Sanson 134–7, 134, 135, 136, 137

Géminiani, Raphaël 119, 120 Gerbi, Giovanni 68 Gianni, Vittore 66, 122, 124–5, 169, 173, 174 - Armando Castelli 76 - maglia rosa 55 - riders who favoured his jerseys 66, 74, 112 Gianni Motta 27 Gianni Motta-Linea MD 133 Gimondi, Felice 134 Giordana Sport 29 Gios, Tolmino 133 Gios-Clement 27 Giro di Lombardia - Bernard Hinault 139 - Eddy Merckx 126–7 - Fausto Coppi 110, 115–16 - Francesco Moser 136 - Sean Kelly 26 - Ultan Coyle 68, 69, 71 Giro d’Italia - Alfa Lum 32 - Alfreda Binda 66 - Atala 21 - Bernard Hinault 138 - Bottechia 76 - Del Tongo 20 - Eddy Merckx 122 - Fausto Coppi 96, 110 - Francesco Moser 134, 137 - Giovanni Battaglin 17, 17 - GIS Gelati 30 - John Eustice 27 - maglia rosa 54–5, 60, 61, 74, 82, 122 - Marco Pantani 42 - Miguel Indurain 39 GIS Gelati 30–1 Gitane 22, 138, 148 Gitane & Germiniani 116 Gitane-Campagnolo 23 Goddet, Jacques 61 Gowland, Tony 157 Grand Prix de Nationals 116 green jersey 56, 57 Greg LeMond Activewear 40 Grey Fox 154 Groeninghe Spurters 169 Guimard, Cyrille 138, 143

H Helyett 146 Helyett-Hutchinson 148, 150 Henn, Christian 43 Hert, Patrick Den 180–7 Hinault, Bernard 39, 58, 60, 138–43 Histor-Sigma 36 Horton, Bret 146 Howies 99 Hoy, Chris 99

I Indurain, Miguel 39, 39, 74, 108 Inoxpran 17, 54

J Jagger, Mick 96 Jalabert, Laurent 38, 38 Janssen, Jan 53 Junior World Championships 184, 185

K Kelly, Sean 26, 26 Kelme 170, 173 King of the Mountains jersey 56, 56, 96 Klöden, Andreas 46 Knetemann, Gerrie 14, 15, 33 Kubler, Ferdinand “Ferdi” 149 Kuiper, Hennie 12, 13, 14, 52, 139 Kwantum 14 Kwantum Hallen-Decosol-Yoko 33

L Labourdette, Bernard 126–7 Lacoste, Rene 96 Lapebie, Roger 50 Laurent, Alain 149, 151 Laurent, Cédric 146–53, 147, 148 Laurent, Jean-Paul 149, 151, 152 Laurent, Marcel 146, 148, 149, 151, 152–3 Laurent, Paul 146, 149, 149, 151 Le Bert, Raymond 63 Leblanc, Jean-Marie 61 Leducq, André 63 Legeay, Roger 12, 35, 40 Legnano 110 Legnano-Hutchinson 66 Lemarchand, François 171 LeMond, Greg 34, 35, 35, 40, 40, 143 Leth, Jorgen 137 Leulliot, Jean 60–1 Levi’s 92, 99, 101, 107 Levitan, Félix 61 Liège–Bastogne–Liège 26, 29, 122, 139 Linea 27 Liquigas 78 Looy, Rik Van 52 Lotto-Mobistar 36 Lubberding, Henk 15 Lutz 157 Lycra 76 Lys Yarn 30

M Madiot, Yvon 34 Maertens, Freddy 57, 108, 164, 166–7, 180, 187 maglia ciclamino 17 maglia rosa 54–5, 60, 61, 74, 82, 122 Magniflex 99 maillot jaune 54, 56, 57, 58–63, 74, 122 maillot rojo 54 Majka, Rafal 48, 79 Malvor-Sidi 36 MAMILs 99 Mapei 10, 44–5, 46, 51, 75 Mappi 96

Marc-Carlos-V.R.D.-Woningbouw 168 Margherita, Queen 112 Mercanto Uno 82 Mercier 16, 18–19 Merckx, Axel 45 Merckx, Eddy 17, 110, 122–7, 134, 138, 173, 180, 182 - bikes 170, 171, 173, 176 - Molteni 17, 51, 79, 122, 124, 125, 125, 174 - Peugeot 12 - Tour de France 39, 59, 61, 62, 122, 125 - yellow jersey 58, 61–2 Merino wool 66, 74, 97, 107 Michard, Lucien 66 Miko 16 Miko Mercier 18–19 Milan–San Remo 26, 62, 110, 122, 128 Millar, David 84–7 Millar, Robert 56 Mod movement 14, 96, 99 Molteni 24, 79, 122–7, 159, 169, 174 Molteni Alimentari 125 Moncler 88, 91 Mondrian, Piet 98, 142, 143 monochrome 24–5 Monseré, Jean-Pierre 180 Moore, Jim 157, 161 Moser, Francesco 20, 30, 134–7, 187 Motta, Gianni 122 Mottram, Simon 106 MTN-Qhubeka 46

N Nalini 36, 37, 39, 40, 42 National Cycling Championships 50–1 National Road Race Championships 20, 29, 50, 51, 122, 125, 137 New York Six Day 181 Nibali,Vincenzo 183 1990s designs 36–7 Nys, Sven 187

O Ocaña, Luis 61–2, 126–7 O’Grady, Stuart 40 Olano, Abraham 51 Once 38

P Palace 98 Panasonic 14, 98, 170, 173 Pantani, Marco 42, 63, 73, 73, 82 Parentini, Del Tongo 20, 20 Paris–Nice 19, 60, 84 Paris–Roubaix Classic - Alcyon 148 - Eddy Merckx 123 - Francesco Moser 134, 135, 137 - Roger de Vlaeminck 128, 130 - Sean Kelly 26, 26 - Sébastien Corne 170–9 Paul & Shark 96 Pelissier, Charles 63



'The Cycling Jersey' by Oliver Knight - book preview