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ANTI SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN UK CITY CENTRES

ER OLIVER LEIGH PRODUCT DESIGN PRODUCT RESEACH 3 DR. EDDY ELTON


Contents Introduction

2 Scope Planning Aims and Objectives Literature Review Methodology

Secondary Research

11 Context Overview Key Factors Perceptions Most Common Crimes

Primary Research

21 ASB Scope Interview Observation Behavioural Mapping Further Observation

Translation 27 Insights into Opp. Persona Image Board URS Brief

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References


Introduction Project Theme My final year project will be focussed around the topic of crime. I have chosen to explore this topic because it is a reoccuring unresolved issue in almost every society on the planet. Crime has been a part of life for thousands of years and continues to occur within our daily lives. In today’s society, there are many definitions for crime and various different types. Crime can range from littering in the street or defacing of public property to more serious offences such as murder or rape. The cost of crime within the United Kingdom accounts for a substantial amount of government spending. Services such as the Police Force, Ambuluance, Fire Service and the NHS all play a part in the prevention of crime and are all funded by the tax payers of the United Kingdom. A low level of crime is a highly regarded asset for any country to posses. A lower crime rate lowers the chances of the public experiencing a form of crime, making countries and areas with lower crime rates more desirable places to live.

What is Crime? The term “Crime” does not have a simple or Universially accepted meaning. However crime is often defined as an offence against a person, the state and/ or the community. Such acts are all punishable by law.

Definition The following definition of “crime” was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, and applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: “The expression “crime” means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fiftyeighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.”

Throughout the research stage of this project I will gather qualitive and quantitive data to aid in my investigation of crime in the United Kingdom. I shall use Secondary and Primary research methods to help me better understand my topic of choice. From this research I shall also deduce thoughtful insights and relevlant product opportunities that will aid in the prevention of crime in the UK. Once I have understood my problem area and my users wants and needs in full, I will able to create a product brief.

Project Outline

Secondary

Primary

Brief

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PRISON OVERCROWDING WEAPONS IN PRISON

SHOP LIFTING

POSSESION FINANCIAL CRIME

ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

Crime

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE

COST

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LITTERING

VIOLENCE

DEFACING PUBLIC PROPERTY EMERGECY

SEXUAL OFFECNES

TERRORISM

POLICING CRIME

GRAFFITI

CRIMINAL DAMAGE

HATE CRIME

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUBLIC ORDER ARSON VEHICLE CRIME

SERVICES

RESPONSE TO CRIME

EXTERNAL SERVICES

JUSTICE SYSTEM

DRUGS

FILM AND MUSIC PIRACY

RAPE

PUBLIC SAFETY

DEALING

THEFT FROM PUBLIC SPACEYOUTH PERSON ROBBERY WEAPONS IN SCHOOLS DEALING FIREARMS THEFT WEAPONS GUNS

CYBER CRIME

FRAUD

STREET SAFETY

CCTV SECURITY BURGLARY

NIGHT LIFE

HOMELESS

ALCOHOL

Scope


Planning The graphic below outlines my plan throughout the Research Stage of this Project.

SECONDARY RESEARCH Identify the most common crimes committed in UK city Centres Identify the Key Factors that affect crime in the UK Select an area of Crime in UK city centres to take froward into Primary

APPROX. 3 Weeks

PRIMARY RESEARCH

APPROX. 3 Weeks

Identify all possible users Gain Firsthand data surrounding the topic Understand the data and gather insights

TRANSLATION OF FINDINGS

APPROX. 2 Weeks

Translate Insights into Product Opportunities Construct a User Requirement Specification

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Aims & Objectives The diagram below outlines my inital aims for this research report, each of these aims will help my better understand my topic of Crime in the United Kingdom. The diagram also breaks down each of my research aims into more detailed objectives.

Aim1:

Aim 2:

Aim 3:

To understand the most common crimes committed in UK city centres.

To better understand where, when and why these crimes occur.

To identify the key factors that contribute to crime rates in city centres in the UK.

Objective 1.1: Determine which crimes occur most in City Centres, conduct an investigation using primary research methods to better understand the crimes committed and the areas and periods of time they occur.

Objective 1.2: Indentify and review existing information in public domain relevant to crime rates and areas in which these crimes occur.

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Objective 2.2: Conduct Primary research to be better understand why and how these crimes occur. Who are the victims on these crimes?

Objective 3.1: Identify which factors affect crime rates in the UK and in particular city Centres.

Objective 2.1:

Objective 3:

Investigate where and what time of the day these crimes occur, who is committing theses crimes and why?

Use Primary research methods to better understand which factors affect crime in Brighton.


Literature Reveiw “Acting in a manor that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household as the defendant” Defining and Measuring ASB

Perceptions of ASB and Measuring Crime

The issue of Anti Social Behaviour is one that affects almost every major city and town in the United Kingdom, everyday of the year. As our society has evolved over years, alcohol has firmly integrated itself into our social environment. Binge drinking in Britain has become a significant issue that needs to be addressed as a large proportion of Antisocial behavioural crimes committed are fuelled by alcohol.

There are many different types of Anti Social behavioural crimes that can range from public order offences to littering in a public domain, due to this fact, Anti Social Behaviour includes the most common crimes committed in UK city Centres.

This review focuses on literature written on the subject of ASB in the UK. To better understand ASB behaviour in the UK’s City Centres, I have identified 4 main problem areas that affect ASB in the UK and devised questions that I intend to answer, the headings and questions are outlined below; Public perceptions of ASB and the way in which crime is measured • What are the key factors that need to be addressed when measuring crime? • Why is the Perception of Crime Important? • Why do UK city Centres perceive high levels of crime? Tackling Anti Social Behaviour • How is ASB dealt with in the UK? • What key issues surround this? The Youth And ASB Crime • Why is the Youth Involved in ASB crime? The Youth and Public Space • Why are the Youth using Public Space? • What issues arise when Youth’s use Public Space at night? I will review literature written on each of these chosen areas and identify any key areas of research I feel are missing.

What are the key factors that need to be addressed when measuring crime?

The way in which the general public perceive crime in their local area and on a national scale has a direct impact on the facts and figures gathered when measuring crime levels in the UK. This is due to the fact that not all incidents that occur will be reported. Reasons for this can be, tolerance of the behaviour, fear of repercussions of reporting incidents or lack of knowledge of how to report. To gain more accurate figures and statistics surrounding the magnitude of the ASB problem in the UK agencies such as CSEW (Crime Survey England and Wales) and BCS (British Crime Survey) collect data from samples of the general public to gage a better understand of the volume of the issue. In 2003, the ASBU conducted a one-day count of reported ASB, to help them better gage the size of the ASB issue. A total of 1,500 organisations took part, and were asked to count the number of ASB reports the received from the hours of 00:01 and 24:00 on Wednesday 10th Sept 2003. The results of this count showed that Litter and Rubbish issues were the most commonly reported ASB crime, closely followed by criminal damage and nuisance behaviour. Noise and Rowdy Behaviour was counted as the third most common ASB crime. Why is the Perception of Crime Important? The way, in which people perceive crime in their area, can have a direct influence on the areas they avoid and the areas they feel safe in. Personal experience was the most common source of high perceptions of ASB problems, “26% of people that experienced ASB in a certain area said they would avoid that area as a result of that incident” Tackling ASB- National Audit Office

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Literature Reveiw If a person does not experience a personal account of ASB, they still might perceive crime to be high in their area. Areas covered with graffiti and heavily populated by ‘Youths’ may have a similar effect.

Tackling ASB

“In 2003/4 a quarter of the UK public perceived particular behaviours such as vandalism graffiti, litter and teenagers hanging around as a serious problem in their local area.” Defining and Measuring ASB

Different police forces around the country use different strategies when combating anti-social behaviour in and around the city centre, the often work withy many different agencies that aid them in different aspects of combating ASB. For example some agencies might specialise in the correctional facilitation of young offenders, whilst other agencies might specialise in underage club nights to help facilitate the youths and keep them off the streets.

Perceived levels of crime, can also be linked directly to the wealth of an area. If a certain area of a city is ‘wealthy’, more disposable income will be spent on security measures such as camera’s and street lighting, as a pose to an area that is hard pressed. “Area characteristics are strong predictors of perception of high-levels of ASB, those living in hard pressed areas had odds of perceiving high levels that were 4 times higher than those in wealthy achiever areas” Perceptions and Experience of ASB-BCS 2003/04 Why do UK city Centres perceive high levels of crime? In the UK, the city centre is a social hub for all generations of people, so social interaction is inevitable. The youth of the UK (13-17) will congregate in City centres on Social days/ evenings, however with not many social venue options available to them (Pubs/Clubs/ Casino), public space can often be used a substituition. Within city Centre’s, incidents of ASB were found to be more frequently experienced than other crime, with over half of those perceiving problems with ‘young people’ more or less everyday or all the time. (Mentioned by 58% of regular city centre visitors, BCS 2003/04)

How is ASB prevented in the UK?

However these external agencies do not always benefit the ASB issue, for example in one case, 800 youths turned up to an ‘underage’ event, which was twice the capacity of the venue. Resulting in 400 youths roaming the streets of the city at night, in possession of alcohol. (Policing Anti Social Behaviour- Tim Read and Nick Bland) There are also many street level disciplinary schemes that have been designed to deter youngsters from offending and re-offending. Schemes such as the HCSI scheme were created to allow the officer on duty to return the offending youngster home to his/parents. However this scheme did not prove to be a full solution to the problem as more often than not, a suitable adult was not present to welcome the youth home. In this circumstance the child must be taken to the Police Station and processed. This then incurs an avoidable costs the government and the taxpayer. The most commonly used deterrent for Anti-social behaviour are Warning Letters, these provide a cheaper alternative to processing the offender and only cost the Police force £66. There are many different types of Police intervention, each different for a specific purpose, for example Acceptable Behavioural Contracts are used for Adults and cost the Police force £230, where as ASBO’s are designed to inconvenience the offender, and are the most costly intervention tot eh Police Force (£3,100). This is why they are used on the most challenging individuals. “63% of people in sample who received warning letters desisted from ASB in the future” Tackling ASB- National Audit Office

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Literature Reveiw “ASBO’s deter people from re-engaging in ASB for longer that warning letters and Acceptable Behaviour Contracts” Tackling ASB- National Audit Office Other methods of Policing ASB came in the shape of Parental Enforcement, filming acts of ASB to prove to reluctant parents that it was is in fact their child that has been involved in ASB acts, proved to be a useful method of deterrent. However some young people rightly argued that such Police action constituted as harassment. (Policing Anti Social Behaviour- Tim Read and Nick Bland)

Youth and Anti Social Behavioural Crime Why are Youths involved in ASB Crime?

What are the key issues surrounding dealing with ASB?

Adults have targeted the youth in the United Kingdom as a social issue for at least 100years, but not enough time and money has ever been devoted to hearing the other side of the story. The problem for many young people is that their anti-social phase is a part of growing up; often unaware of consequences when engaged in ASB, the youth argue they were simply ‘having a laugh’. However other member’s of the public and other generations can view youths ‘having a laugh’, very differently.

When dealing with Youths and ASB, the Police must also consider the legitimacy of the complaint. For example 2 people drinking on the grass may not be considered a public order problem and will not require immediate Police intervention, however a group of 30 youths drinking constitutes as a public order and may require immediate Police intervention.

The amount of ASB crime perceived can be directly linked to the amount of youths witnessed to be ‘hanging around’ and causing ‘nuisance’. However not all youths are causing issues by ‘hanging around’. The cultural gap between older generation and the younger generation, social group relationships, can be an explanation for the high levels of perceived crime in city Centre’s.

Large groups of teens, disperse when they see Police intervention, some might stay and chat to the Police. However the majority will disperse and take their alcohol/drugs with them. This results in the police having to re-visit the location at a later stage in the evening.

“Victims who were aged between 55 and 64 years were significantly more likely than those aged between 16 and 19 years to experience problems with young people” Perceptions and Experience of ASB-BCS 2003/04

“In some incidents, Police Felt complaints were unreasonable and felt the best action was to speak to the complainer rather than deal solely with the youths.” “Some officers also alleged that some member’s of the public exaggerated the extent of bad behaviour by youths in their complaints to gain Police attention to the issue.” “Complaints ‘made up’ the use of drugs by youths to guarantee Police intervention.” Policing Anti Social Behaviour - Tim Read and Nick Bland The general Public suggesting the police wouldn’t intervene without the presence of drugs and alcohol.

The older generation may perceive a group of youths to be ‘doing wrong’ or being a ‘nuisance’ when in fact they might be considered to be harmless by someone of a different generation, with a smaller age gap. ‘The size of the group involved in problems tends to be largest in the cases of young people ‘hanging around’. Incidents of ASB were more likely to involve males, but females were also widely involved and groups were generally mixed.” BCS 2003/04 Offenders across all types of ASB considered to be young, even aside form young people hanging around, (13-15 year olds were involved in 76% of incidents).

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Literature Reveiw Youth and Public Space

What issues arise when Youth’s use Public Space at night?

Why do the Youth use Public Space?

Youth should be consulted when agencies design and build ‘public areas’ or ‘social clubs’ for them.

When considering the way in which in which public space within a city centre is used by youth we need to understand why the youths are there at all. It is a commonly known fact that teenagers want to be independent to their parents once they reach a certain age, since they have no real private space of their own, they tend to congregate in public space. The problem is that the youth ‘hang around’ shops, on street corners, in car parks and son on, drinking and loitering. This age group cannot frequent pubs and other alcoholic venues and youth clubs are often only open open on specific night for specific groups. Other Options, such as cinema, are too expensive, so many choose the cheaper more ‘exciting’ option of alcohol. The result is seen in street vandalism and other forms of ASB crime. Causes of youth crime can be related to many different issues such as; Low income or poor housing, Living in deteriorating inner city areas, poor parental supervision and Parental conflict or broken families. However some studies suggest other cause of youth crime. “One study of adolescent substance abuse associated boredom with deviant behaviour. This research suggested that if leisure activities fail to satisfy an adolescent’s need for optimal arousal, leisure boredom and drug use and delinquent behaviour might be the only alternative.“ (Iso-Ahola and Crowley 1991) Design out Crime “A quarter of 13-14 year olds indulged in binge drinking, consuming five or more alcoholic drinks in one session” A survey Carried out by the Joseph Roundtree Foundation 2002 (14,00 Pupils) Design Out Crime

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Open spaces at night contribute to the fear of crime within a city centre. The youth of the city often use the public open spaces as points of congregation and the lack of formal and informal surveillance also contributes to the potential for ASB crime. Poorly lit areas of open space in and around the city centre also install fear within the general public. Street lighting can be used to reduce the fear of ASB experienced at night; it is an inexpensive way to reduce street crime with no implications. Some paper’s read suggested that street lighting can reduce day-crime as well as night time incidents, “Street lighting increases community pride and sense of ownership and surveillance.” Youth and Crime- John Munchie

Conclusion From this literature I can conclude that, the public perceptions of crime can be directly linked to the cultural gap between the users of a City Centre. The older generation may perceive crime to higher in their local area because they witness behaviour of the younger generation that they deem unacceptable. I feel that the researches composed in this area focuses solely on the older generations experiences and perceptions. I have also understood that if a City can’t provide for the social requirements of the youth culture, public spaces become an optional venue. This raises issue with other generations and the way in which they feel public space should be used. I feel that the research conducted in this area is also biased towards an older generations point of view. The literature reviewed on public space within a City Centre has enabled me to understand issues that arise when used at night. Youths congregating and the misuse of public space at night can be distressing to other members of society and make them feel unsafe. To better understand this topic I feel more research could be conducted to understand the space in which the youths ‘hang out’ and why they choose these spaces.


Methodology Throughout the Research stage of this Project I have used different methods of data collection to help me understand the issue fully. Throughout the Secondary Reseach stage I used Journals, the Internet and Governement Statistics to gain an insight into the UK most committed crimes. Throughout the Primary Reseach Stage I used Unstructured Interveiws, Observations and Behaviourial Mapping to better understand Anti Social behaviour in UK city Centres.

Throughout the early stages of the Primary Research Stages, I began to look into street drinking in and around UK City Centres. To help me gain a firsthand input into the Night Time Culture of the UK, I designed this cultural probe. The document was intended for local shop owners, bouncers, Pub and club staff and PCSO’s. However after meeting with my first Primary Research Contact, I was informed that the ethical issues involved in conducting such research would comprimise the results. (For me to posses evidence of ASB incidents is forbidden by the Police)

To enable me to clearly translate my findings, I used Image Boards, Persona Generation and User Requirement Specifications. From these i was able to clearly understand the wants and needs of my users.

Secondary

Primary

Translation

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Context Global Crime Generally (Worldwide) Males commint more crime than Females.

People that come from unstable backgrounds are more likely to commit crimes.

The infographic below shows the top countries in the world in relation to total crime ecperienced. The top 3 countries include the USA, UK and Germany.

UK 6,523,706

RUS 2,952,370

USA 11,877,218

20%

80%

SA 2,683,849

Crime is most common in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life.

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

FRA 3,771,850

GER 6,507,394

JAP 2,853,739 The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention

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Context Global Crime Perception of crime, percentage of population who felt they could report a crime to the police. (%)

NZ

60

NL

58

SWEDEN

57

DENMARK

56

BELGUIM

53

UK

50

USA

49

Total Prisoners, by country.

USA

2,019,234

MALAYSIA

26,294

CHINA

1,549,000

HONG KONG

10,593

RUSSIA

840,677

USA

1,558

RUSSIA

739

SA

228

INDIA

313,635

BRAZIL

308,304

THAILAND

213,815

GERMANY

209

SA

181,944

ITALY

205

UK

78,753

UK

International Crime Victims Survey 2000

Proportions of International Victims reporting that they feel safe walking in the dark.

DENMARK UK AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND CANADA USA

85%

SWEDEN

89%

USA

82%

USA

87%

CANADA

72%

UK

International Crime Victims Survey 2000

144

Proportion of people who say police controll crime in their area efficiently.

UK FRANCE JAOAN DENMARK USA SWEDEN

70%

Total Prisons, by country.

UK

International Crime Victims Survey 2000

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Overveiw UK Crime Top 5 crimes committed across the entire UK.

1

To better understand the crimes that are committed in UK city centres I will reveiw crime data from 10 main cities in the UK. The infographic below outlines these cities.

Criminal Damage

NEWCASTLE

2 3

Theft and Handling of stolen goods

Violence against the peron

4

Car Theft

5

Burglary

LEEDS

MANCHESTER NOTTINGHAM

BIRMINGHAM BATH BRISTOL LONDON CARDIFF BRIGHTON

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Overveiw UK Crime Using widely available crime maps, I was able to collect data on my chosen cities and depict which crimes occur most commonly across the country. The data was collected within a 1 mile radius, this has enabled me to focus purely on the city centre’s and will exclude data from surrounding rural areas. The data collected from each location was from 3 different months, spanning over 1 year. (August 2012, January 2013, August 2013)

Crimes committed in London (1 mile radius), average of 3 months. (August 2012,January 2013, August 2013)

Shoplifting 222 Violent Crime 330

Other Theft 1,766

The infographic below shows the average of the data collected for each month and clearly shows how each crime is weighted. I have chosen to only included 5 out of 10 cities within my report as they posses a similar theme.

Crimes committed in Manchester City Centre (1 mile radius), average of 3 months. (August 2012,January 2013, August 2013)

ASB 795

Burglary 183.6 Vehicle 103 Crimes committed in Birmingham City Centre (1 mile radius), average of 3 months. (August 2012,January 2013, August 2013)

Burglary 90.6 Shoplifting 160

ASB 574.3

Violent Crime 127 ASB 372

Burglary 54

Other Theft 420

Violent Crime 160 Vehicle Crime 118.6

Other Theft 207

Vehicle Crime 77 Shoplifting 151.6 UK Police Crime Maps, www.police.co.uk

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Overveiw UK Crime Crimes committed in Brighton’s City Centre (1 mile radius), average of 3 months. (August 2012,January 2013, August 2013)

Crimes committed in Newcastle’s City Centre (1 mile radius), average of 3 months. (August 2012,January 2013, August 2013)

Other Theft 153.3

ASB 610

Vehicle Crime 47.3 Shoplifting 119.6

Burglary 36.6

ASB 721.3

Vehicle Crime 28

Other Theft 349.6

Burglary 66.6

Violent Crime 117.3 Shoplifting 132

Violent Crime 169

After reveiwing the data I collected, I was able to determine common themes across the data of the UK and identify which crimes occur most commonly in our major cities. The infographic below shows the accumulation of all of my results, across 10 cities, and identifies the 4 most common crimes.

Anti Social Behaviour 380.09 Other Theft

176.04

Shoplifting

137.61

Violent Crime

115.4

Vehicle Crime 107.54

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Burglary 69.56

UK Police Crime Maps, www.police.co.uk


Key Factors UK Crime There are many facotrs that need to be considered when researching and analysisng crime. Geographical, economic and social factors all affect crimes rates in different ways, to better understand why crimes such as Antisocial Behaviour, Other Threft, Shoplifting and Violent Crime occur in UK city centres I shall identify and analyse the key factors that affect Global Crime aswell as the UK crime. The infographic below clearly outlines the main key factors that affect crime globally and how they can be linked. Poverty and Socio Economic Conditions

Social Tolerance of Crime

Social Level of Morality

Rapidly Changing Societies

There are also geographic factors that affect crime rates across the United Kingdom. There is a strong correlation between poorly maintained neighbourhoods and high crime rates. A high volume of alcohol and gambling estabishments also affect crime rates.

Level of Law enforcement

High frequency of changing jobs or Unemployment

Weather conditions and seasonal changes also affect crime rates, both globally and locally (UK). Crime rates can vary with temperature depending on both short-term weather change and seasonal changes. It appears that countries closest to the equator tend to have higher crime rates.

A criminal Class

High Religious involvement, organised religion

Equator

Crimes against property more common in North and in winter. Crimes against person more common in South and in summer.

Quelet - ‘Thermal Law’ Theory.

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Perception UK Crime The perception of crime in the UK is crucial to the measurement and prevention of UK crime, the the gap between what we know is going on and what we think is going on. Throughout this section I explore the available secondary data on crime perception in the UK. Crime Statistics England and Wales (CSEW), is a survey conducted across the nation to gage the perception of crime by the UK public. The CSEW survey asks people whether they think that crime is getting worse in their area and on a national scale. The inforgraphics below depict how the public perceive crime in the UK.

60% OF PEOPLE THOUGHT THAT CRIME IN THE COUNTRY AS A WHOLE HAD INCREASED OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS

10%

OF PEOP.LE THOUGHT THAT CRIME IN THEIR LOCAL AREAS WAS HIGHER THAN AVERAGE

COMPARED WITH THOSE WHO THOUGHT IT WAS LOWER THAN AVERAGE

Burglary

Car Crime

Violent Crime

22 37 18

2005

16

26

15

%

85 100

2-3 hours a day

79 100

72 100

66

Never

100

25%

2010/11 BCS

%

Percentage saying crime in the country as a whole has gone up More than 3 hours a day

Less than 2 hours a day

2009/10 BCS

Perceived Likely hood of being a victim of crime: Percentage saying crime in the local area is higher than average or about average

Perceived Likely hood of being a victim of crime: 2001

Amount of television watched and perceptions of crime.

2010

13

17

13

75

Abandoned cars

%

Vandalism or Graffiti

40% 54% 28% 2010/2011 CSEW

People Dealing Drugs

48 72 43 72

Problem

41 70

Noisy Neighbours

Not a Problem

47

People Being Drunk

43

Teenagers loittering

42

Rubbish or Litter

42

70 70 68 100

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2010/11 BCS


Cost UK Crime The cost of crime can be broken down into 3 sections.

Security

The infographic below shows how the total cost of crime in 1999/2000 can be broken down into individual crimes

D

C

Anticipation

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

CCTV

Criminal Juustice System

Propert Stolen

Police Fire Ambulance

Response

Consequence

60 BILLION

Emotional or Physical damge

60 Billion

The total cost of crime in the UK in 1999/2000 was around 60billion (£), the following infographic shows a breakdown of this total. TOTAL COST OF PROPERTY CRIME

19 Billion 14 Billion 12 Billion 10 Billion 5 Billion

AS A RESULT OF VIOENT CRIME RESPONSE TO CRIME OTHER CRIME SECURITY EXPENDITURE

B

A

A B C D E F

Violence Against the Person Wounding Other Theft From a Shop Vehicle Theft Burglary

G H I J K L

Burglary not in a Dwelling Sexual Offences Robbery Common Assult Criminal Damage Burglary

Defensive Expenditure - Spending on precautionary security measures. WEALTHIER INDIVIDUALS AT LOWER RISK OF VICTIMISATION,AS THEY HAVE THE ABILLITY TO SPEND ON SECURITY MEASURES WHEREAS INDIVIDUALS WITH LIMITED MEANS ARE AT A HIGHER RISK OF VITIMISATION AS THEY WILL HAVE LESS MONEY TO SPEND ON SECURITY MEASURES.

TECHNOLOGY

IMPORTANT DRIVER OF CHANGES IN DEFENSIVE EXPENDITURE

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Most Common Crimes UK To better understand the crimes committed in UK city centres, I will further reseach each of the 4 most common crimes committed in UK city centres. This will enable me to make an informed decision as to which crime to take into the primary reseach phase.

There are many different types of anti-social behaviour, the infograpghics below outlines some of the key facts surrounding Anti-Social Behaviour.

Other Theft Other theft in UK city centres can relate to a number of crimes such as theft from person, theft of property from a public space and intention to permanently deprive. The infographics below outline some of the key facts surrounding other theft in UK city centres.

826,000 797,000 Mobile phone theft, from person, has increased in the previous year.

2012

2011

6 Billion AMOUNT OF MONEY LOST IN 2012 YEAR IN THE UK DUE TO FRAUD

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Drunk and Disorderly

Graffiti

Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Noise Ofences

973,000 43%

OF PUBS AND RESTURAUNTS IN THE UK FOOD AND ACCOMODATION SECTOR EXPERIENCED DRINK RELATED ANTI SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR LAST YEAR

21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00

ALCOHOL RELATED INCIDENTS IN THE UK EACH YEAR

2,700,000 ASB CRIMES RECORDED BY POLICE IN 2012

MOST ALCOHOL RELATED ANTI SOCIAL BEHAVIIOUR OCCURS LATE AT NIGHT OR IN THE EARLY HOURS OF THE MORNING


Most Common Crimes UK The following infographics outline the key facts surrounding Shoplifting in UK city Centres.

4,000,000 7% 11,000 200 100

SHOPLIFTING CRIMES IN THE UK EVERY YEAR, ONLY

RECORDED AND EVEN FEWER PROSECUTED.

SHOPLIFTING CRIMES A DAY, AND MORE THAN POUNDS WORTH OF MERCHANDISE STOLEN, AVERAGE

COST INCURRED BY AVERAGE FAMILY IN UK, PER YEAR, POUNDS

Content Analysis Having gathered available secondary data around the topic of Crime in UK city Centres, I will reveiw the data and select one area of Crime in the City Centre to further investigate. I have selected trends and common themes from my data so far, and chosen my area for Primary Research accordingly.

Common Themes throughout Secondary Research: Perceptions of Crime Alcohol Issue

Key Areas to Consider When analysing data: Cost of Crime

After analysing the data taken from the UK Police crime maps, Anti-Social Behaviour is the most common and largest issue within UK City Centres. Anti-Social Behaviour aslo has a direct link with the way in which th epublic perceive crime in the UK. ASB also incldues some of the UK’s costly crimes.

The following infographics outline the key facts surrounding Violent Crime in UK city Centres. Violent crime covers a wide range of offences, from minor assaults such as pushing and shoving that result in no physical harm through to serious incidents of wounding and murder. VIOLENCE AGAINST THE PERSON OFFENCES

2011 2012

775,000 6% 728,802 Shopliftinting ASB Other Theft Violent Crime When considering which area of crime to take forward to the Primary Reseach stage, it was important that I consider the design potential within each crime topic. Following that, I have decided to engage the topic of Anti Social Behaviour within UK city Centres. The following section explains the Primary Research I conducted around this topic.

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NEST Research Report  

Secondary Research, includes existing data that I have collected and analysed before moving into the Primary research stages of the brief.

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