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Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing - Residential Skyscraper Focused On Social Interaction -

Oula Mohamad Alchati

Ajman University of Science and Technology Department of Architectural Engineering

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Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing - Residential Skyscraper Focused On Social Interaction -

A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Architectural Engineering at Ajman University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architectural Engineering

Oula Mohamad Alchati January 2014 5


The sun never knew how great it was until it hit the side of a building. Louis Khan

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Acknowledgment I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this thesis. Firstly to my special thanks to my family. Especially my parents, I must say that they were the biggest wall behind me, pushing me even further, and their patient love enable me to complete this work. Encouraged me to go ahead with my thesis. I am deeply indebted to my Dr. Chuloh Jung For the valuable guidance and advice. Stimulating suggestions and his encouragement helped me all the time of research and writing of this thesis. My colleagues supported me in my research work .I want to thank them for all their help and valuable hints. Especially I am obliged to my friend Ibtihal.

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< Abstract >

Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing - Residential Skyscraper Focused On Social Interaction -

This is a proposal for a 40 story Residential skyscraper to be located on the western part of Dubai, Marina. The program consists of apartments- retail â&#x20AC;&#x201C; gym-Spa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pool- steam- open spaces. These respond to the needs of the site, which serves a sense of community in a typically anonymous urban landscape. The process of designing a skyscraper for this site faced two problems above and beyond the issues typically confronted by skyscrapers. Firstly, the building needed to follow the series of towers and hotels in pattern and program which located along Dubai Marina. Secondly, to enhance the harch climate of Dubai and thats will effect heavily the inhabitants. Thats meant to designing communities that balance social and environmental needs. The concept mainly based on First, apply sustainability factors which will affect the climate and the skyscraper environment mostly. Second, to create a socialized atmosphere between the inhabitant whether they are belong to the same culture and religious or not. through haveing some open hollows or parts with green spaces.

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< Index of Contents > Index of the tables ...................................................................................................................15 Index of the Figures ................................................................................................................17 Chapter 01. Introduction 1. First use of term “SKYSCRAPER” ......................................................................................26 2. The definition of “skyscraper” ..............................................................................................26 3. Building higher and higher ..................................................................................................28 4. Development of the Form ...................................................................................................30 5. Why we need “SKYSCRAPER”? ........................................................................................31 6. The first residential skyscrapers .........................................................................................31 7. Skyscraper development ....................................................................................................32

Chapter 02: Precedents Study 1. Torre CuaJjimalpa Helicold gardens ...................................................................................36

2. Beach Road Singapore by Norman Foster .........................................................................46 3. New songdo city first world .................................................................................................54 4. Mirador building ..................................................................................................................64 5. Herzog & de meuron: beirut terraces ..................................................................................74 6. Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT .....................................................................84 7. Aqua Tower in Chicago .......................................................................................................96 8. Ardmore Residence ............................................................................................................106 9. Executive Towers ................................................................................................................116 10. EDITT Tower Singapore ....................................................................................................126 11. Futuristic Library Style Encouraging Social Interaction In Edmonton,Canada ..................138 12. River Heights Pavilion .......................................................................................................144

Chapter 03. Building Programs 1. Analysis of Precedents’ Programs .....................................................................................152 1.1 Program of Herzog & de meuron: beirut terraces ......................................................154 1.2 Program of Torre Cuajimalipa Heli Cold Gardens ......................................................158 1.3 Program of Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT ........................................162 1.4 Program of Aqua Tower in Chicago ...........................................................................166 2. Human Scale and Standards ..............................................................................................172 3. Programs for My project ......................................................................................................178

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Chapter 04. Site Analysis 1. Site Selection ..................................................................................................................... 184 1-1. Site Alternative_01 ..................................................................................................186 1-2. Site Alternative_02 ..................................................................................................188 1-3. Site Alternative_03 ..................................................................................................199 2. Site Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 2-1. Location ..................................................................................................................192 2-2 Neighborhood Context ............................................................................................194 2-3 Infrastructure / Circulation .......................................................................................196 2-4 Size and Zoning ......................................................................................................198 2-5 Nature & Climate .....................................................................................................200 2-6 Natural and Physical Features ................................................................................202 3. Comparative Site Nalysis ...................................................................................................204

Chapter 5 : Conclution 1. Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing Observatory Segnificance ......................................208 2. Cases Observation .............................................................................................................210 3. Program Selection ..............................................................................................................214 4. Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing Observatory Program .............................................216 5. Site Selection ......................................................................................................................218 6. Design Concept ..................................................................................................................222

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< Index of Tables > Table 01. Program table of Beirut Terraces ..............................................................................156 Table 02. Program table of Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens .............................................160 Table 03. Program table of Rødovre Skyscraper .....................................................................164 Table 04. Program table of Aqua Tower ..................................................................................168 Table 05. Program table of My Project .....................................................................................179 Table 06. Comparative table between the three sites ................................................................204 Table 07. Program table of My Project .....................................................................................217 Table 08. Comparative table between the three sites ................................................................220

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< Index of Figures > Fig 001.George A Filler ........................................... 28

Fig 036. Multi-Use Development .............................53

Fig 002.Begining of frameworks .............................. 29

Fig 037:Vision of the future: Work on

Fig 003.Begining of frameworks(early

Songdo started in 2000 ...........................................56

skyscraper of Chicago............................................. 29

Fig 038.real view .....................................................56

Fig 004.“Trump World Tower in New York” .............. 30

Fig 039.site plan ......................................................57

Fig 006. “21st Century Tower in Dubai” ................... 30

Fig 040.zonning plan ...............................................58

Fig 005. “21st Century Tower .................................. 31

Fig 041.view of all towers ........................................58

Fig 007. “21st Century Tower .................................. 31

Fig 042.elevation of the residential towers ..............59

Fig 008. The Belcher’s Towers ................................32

Fig 043.Real views ..................................................60

Fig 009. Trump World Tower in New York ............... 33

Fig 043.Elevation of the residential towers .............61

Fig 010. Q1 tower in Dubai ...................................... 33

Fig 044.real vew of the commercial towers .............61

Fig 011 Eureka Tower, Melbourne ........................... 33

Fig 045. real view ....................................................61

Fig 012. New York’s Tallest Residential

Fig 046. elevation of residential building .................62

Building Designed By Frank Gehry ........................ 33

Fig 047. Zoning 3d plan ..........................................62

Fig 013: The internal living area .............................. 38

Fig 048.the view of the public space .......................66

Fig 014: ncorporating large gardens on each level.. 38

Fig 049. social enjoyment .......................................66

Fig 015: The shifting horizontal floor planesprovide

Fig 050.view of the facade ......................................66

adequate space for full trees to grow ..................... 38

Fig 051.an elevated plaza for the residents ............67

Fig 016 : The internal green areas ........................ 38

Fig 052.the repetition of the standard family unit ....68

Fig 017: Tipo A ......................................................... 40

Fig 053.side elevation .............................................68

Fig 018:Floor plan .................................................... 40

Fig 054.the ‘blocks’, stacked and glued together ....69

Fig 019: Tipo C ........................................................ 40

Fig 055.real view .....................................................69

Fig 020: Tipo B ........................................................ 41

Fig 057.plans of the unit .........................................70

Fig 021: Tipo D ........................................................ 41

Fig 058.the entrance to the staircase ......................71

Fig 022: Section A-A’ ............................................... 42

Fig 059.open stair case ...........................................71

Fig 023: Section C-C’ .............................................. 42

Fig 060. exposed stair between the units ................71

Fig 024. B-B ............................................................ 43

Fig 061.diagrams .....................................................72

Fig 025: Site plan .................................................... 44

Fig 061.The red areas are exposed walkways

Fig 027. System of deep shear walls ...................... 44

and hallways, and stairways that give the

Fig 026.Axonometric dyagram .................................45

residents a bit more openness and frees space

Fig 028. network of complicated

up inside the structure .............................................73

systems to maintain a comfortable thermal

Fig 062. layers and terraces, inside and outside

environment ............................................................48

and Vegetation ........................................................76

Fig 029. Active system to act as pseudo

Fig 063. views and privacy ......................................76

Greenhouses ...........................................................48

Fig 064.plan level 3 .................................................78

Fig 030. psychrometric chart of energy load ...........49

Fig 065.plan level 9 .................................................78

Fig 031. Environmental section ...............................50

Fig 066.plan level 20 ...............................................79

Fig 032. section .......................................................50

Fig 067.plan level 25 ...............................................79

Fig 033. real view ....................................................51

Fig 068. Terraces ....................................................80

Fig 034. network of ennironmental systems ............53

Fig 069. view from the inside ..................................80

Fig 035. the exterior pedestrian space ....................53

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Fig 070. view from the inside ..................................80


Fig 071.uses of some teracess ............................... 81

Fig 110.Facade Diagram ........................................103

Fig 072. Section shows the functions ......................81

Fig 111.Facade analysis ........................................ 104

Fig 073. real shot .....................................................81

Fig 112. Section .....................................................105

Fig 074. real shot .....................................................82

Fig113. large windows and double height balcony. 108

Fig 075. real shot .....................................................82

Fig114. View through the large windows from

Fig 076. real shot .....................................................82

the inside ................................................................108

Fig 077. view from the inside ...................................83

Fig115. Detail of the Facade system ......................110

Fig 078. Layers of terracess ....................................83

Fig116. Detail of the Facade system ..................... 110

Fig 079. design for mix-use high-rise ‘Sky Village’ for

Fig117. Plan ...........................................................111

Copenhagen ............................................................86

Fig 118. Section .....................................................112

Fig 080. Plaza View .................................................86

Fig 119. Master Plan .............................................112

Fig 081. Terrace View ..............................................87

Fig 120. Detail of the unrolled facade ..................113

Fig 082.Elevation .....................................................87

Fig 121. Diagram shows the units types ...............113

Fig 083. view of the units .........................................88

Fig 122. Real View .................................................114

Fig 084. Site Plan .................................................... 88

Fig 123. Inside-outside landscape .........................114

Fig 085. Plans of the units .......................................89

Fig 124. Textured facade ....................................... 115

Fig 086. Section shows the functions ......................89

Fig 125. Textured facade ....................................... 115

Fig 087. Level 5 Plan ...............................................90

Fig 126. Site plan ...................................................118

Fig 088. Level 15 Plan ............................................90

Fig 127. the facade of the towers .......................... 118

Fig 089. Level 10 Plan .............................................91

Fig 128. real view ...................................................119

Fig 090. Level 19 Plan .............................................91

Fig 129. F10 - 1 Bedroom - 1214 sq ft ...................120

Fig 091. Section .......................................................92

Fig 130. F20 - 2 Bedroom - 1735 sq ft ..................120

Fig 092. structure diagram .......................................92

Fig 131 .F21 - 2 Bedroom - 1317 sq ft ...................120

Fig 093. Model Detail ...............................................92

Fig 132. F23 - 2 Bedroom - 1547 sq ft ...................120

Fig 094. Section .......................................................93

Fig 133. F31 - 3 Bedroom - 1809 sq ft ..................120

Fig 095.the constellation of pixels allow for flexibility in

Fig 134 .4 Bedroom - 2865 sq ft ............................ 120

function.Here is an illustration of how the program in

Fig 135 .Floors 3-6 & 9-15 .....................................121

the building ciuld transform according to market

Fig 136 .Floors 7.....................................................121

forces ......................................................................94

Fig 137. .Floors 8 ...................................................121

Fig 096. Programme Flexibility Diagram ................. 94

Fig 138.Floors 16 ...................................................121

Fig 097.how the architect reach the shape of the build-

Fig 139 .Floors 17-20 .............................................121

ing ............................................................................94

Fig 140 .Floor Layout - 2-15 .................................. 122

Fig 098. Light, Views and Terraces Diagram ...........95

Fig 141 .Floor Layout - 17-20 ................................ 122

Fig 099. Stacking Diagram ...................................... 95

Fig 142 .Floor Layout - 2-15 .................................. 123

Fig 100. Real view ...................................................98

Fig 143 .Floor Layout - 2-15 .................................. 123

Fig 101. Uniqe design of Balconies .........................99

Fig 144 .Floor Layout - 2-15 .................................. 124

Fig 102.Balconies extension ....................................99

Fig 145 . Floor Layout - 2-15 ................................. 124

Fig 103.Master plan .................................................100

Fig 146. Floor Layout - 2-15 .................................. 125

Fig 104.Diagrams .................................................... 100

Fig 147.1 Bedroom - 813 sq ft ............................... 125

Fig 105.Facade Diagram .........................................101

Fig 148.1 Bedroom - 983 sq ft ............................... 125

Fig 106.Facade Diagram .........................................101

Fig 149.1 Bedroom - 1031 sq ft ............................. 125

Fig 107.Continous Balconies ...................................102

Fig 150. planting concept .......................................128

Fig 108.Site plan ......................................................102

Fig 151. waste recycling ........................................ 128

Fig 109. Balconies view ...........................................103

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Fig 152. rainwater collection ..................................129


Fig 153. waste seperation system ...........................129

Fig 196. Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens .......... 161

Fig 154.use of Ambient Energy ............................... 130

Fig 197. Rødovre Skyscraper .................................163

Fig 155. planting facade .......................................... 131

Fig 198. Rødovre Skyscraper entrance ..................164

Fig 156. solar energy panels ................................... 131

Fig 199. Rødovre Skyscraper .................................165

Fig 157. ecosystem elements ..................................132

Fig 200. Rødovre Skyscraper pixels .......................165

Fig 158. the composition of the ecosystem ............. 132

Fig 201. Aqua Tower ............................................... 167

Fig 159. conceptual view .........................................133

Fig 202. Aqua Tower ............................................... 168

Fig 160. plans of the 5th & 6th floors .......................134

Fig 203. Aqua Tower balconies design ................... 169

Fig 161. plans of the 9th & 10th floors .....................134

Fig 204. Aqua Tower balconies view .......................169

Fig 162. plans of the 21th & 25th & 26th floors ....... 135

Fig 205. Aqua Tower ............................................... 169

Fig 163. section ....................................................... 135

Fig 206. Site 01 : Bussiness bay - Dubai ................185

Fig 164. model shots ............................................... 136

Fig 207. Site 02 : Al Khan- Sharjah .........................185

Fig 165. complet sectin ........................................... 136

Fig 208. Site 03 : Marina - Dubai ............................185

Fig 166.part of the facade ....................................... 140

Fig 209. Macro map shows the Business bay location

Fig 176. part of the facade shows the opining shape140

Fig 210. Site 03 :Business bay - Dubai ...................187

Fig 168. main elevation ........................................... 140

Fig 211: Macro map shows Al Khan location .......... 188

Fig 169. back elevation ........................................... 140

Fig 212. Site 02 :Al Khan - Sharjah ........................ 189

Fig 170. part of the facade ...................................... 141

Fig 213. Macro map shows Marina location .......... 190

Fig 171. real view .................................................... 141

Fig 214. Site 03. Marina - Dubai..............................191

Fig 172. real view .................................................... 141

Fig 215. Macro map shows the three sites ............192

Fig 173. intirior shot .................................................142

Fig 216. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay .................. 193

Fig 174. intirior shot .................................................142

Fig 217. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan ...........................193

Fig 175. intirior shot .................................................143

Fig 218. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................193

Fig 176.part of the facade ....................................... 143

Fig 219. Macro map shows the three sites ............194

Fig 177. intirior shot .................................................143

Fig 220. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay .................. 195

Fig 178. intirior shot .................................................143

Fig 221. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan .......................... 195

Fig 179. landscape design is an undulating extension

Fig 222. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................195

of linear blocks ........................................................146

Fig 223. Macro map shows the three sites ............196

Fig 180. Interior Shot ...............................................146

Fig 224. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay ................... 197

Fig 181. Interior Shot ...............................................146

Fig 225. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan .......................... 197

Fig 182. Elevation ....................................................147

Fig 226. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................197

Fig 183. Elevation ....................................................147

Fig 227. Macro map shows the three sites ............198

Fig 184. landscape design .......................................147

Fig 228. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay ................... 199

Fig 185. Three dimensional Section ........................148

Fig 229. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan .......................... 199

Fig 186. Section .......................................................148

Fig 230. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................199

Fig 187. Elevation ....................................................148

Fig 231. Macro map shows the three sites ............200

Fig 188. First floor plan ............................................149

Fig 232. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay ................... 201

Fig 189. Second floor plan ...................................... 149

Fig 233. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan ...........................201

Fig 190.Perspective .................................................150

Fig 234. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................201

Fig 191. Real view ...................................................150

Fig 235. Macro map shows the three sites ............202

Fig 192. Real view ...................................................150

Fig 236. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay ................... 203

Fig 193. Beirut terraces ........................................... 155

Fig 237. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan ...........................203

Fig 194. Beirut terraces ........................................... 157

Fig 238. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina ..............................203

Fig 195. Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens ...........159

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Fig 239. Skyscraper Ecosystem in Manhattan ........208


Fig 240. skyscrapers can beautify an area to attract toursists ........................................................ 208 Fig 241. Residential: Mina El Hosn’ housing project in Beirut designed by LAN Architecture ..............................................................209 Fig 242 . Torre Cuajimalpa Heli Cold Gardens ........ 210 Fig 243 . EDITT Tower Singapore ........................... 210 Fig 244 . Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and AD ..211 Fig 245 . Beirut terraces ...........................................211 Fig 246 . Ardmore Residence .................................. 212 Fig 247 . Aqua Tower ..............................................212 Fig 248 . Mirador building ........................................ 213 Fig 249 . Beach Road Singapore .............................213 Fig 250. Dubai - Marina ........................................... 219 Fig 251. Dubai - Marina ........................................... 219

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Come, let us build us a city and a tower with its top in the heavens. And let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered upon the face of the whole earth.â&#x20AC;? The builders of Babel

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Chapter 01: Introduction


First use of term “SKYSCRAPER”

The term “skyscraper” was first used during the 1880s, after 2000 years of western architecture. the skyscrapers suddenly appeared during the second half of the nineteenth century as an architectural “type” it grew out of compulsion that is as old as the world itself : to build as high as possible, touch the clouds, and reach the celestial world of the divine.Shortly after the first 10 to 20 story buildings were built in the United States. Skyscrapers came to dominate American skyline at the turn of the 20th century after the combination between several innovations: steel structure, elevators, central heating, electrical heating, electrical plumbing, pumps and the telephone. Where these innovations change the economy and the social conditions, and above all they are related to technology and city development.

The definition of “skyscraper”.

Is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, usually designed for office and commercial and residential use.There is no official definition or high above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper.One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel frame work which was the invention of George A. Fuller who worked on solving the problems of the “load bearing capacities” of tall building.Using Bessemer steel beams and he created steel cages that supported all the weight in tall building or skyscraper, and supports curtain walls. These certain walls either bear on the frame work below or are possibly suspended from the frame work above. History of skyscraper The development of the skyscraper was crucially influenced by two seemingly independent factors. The indispensable given was the free standing, load

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bearing iron skeleton, which was later replaced by an even stronger steel frame. The self supporting iron frame already developed in England in the first half of the nineteenth century, was further advanced in France after 1850, by the French engineer Gustave Eiffel, amongst others. His ground breaking invention of a riveted iron construction reached the United States in 1885 with his plans for a 984-foot (300-meter) tower for the 1889 world exhibition in Paris was seen as a direct challenge by engineers. By 1888 the architect Leroy s. buffing ton from Minneapolis had patented a skeleton construction _ called the (cloud scraper)_which could accommodate-date up to twenty -eight floors. Since it was practically impossible to find tenants for offices and apartments above the fourth or the fifth floor because of the tedious climb up the stairs to the higher floors, the invention of the elevator was the second factor underpinning the establishment of the sky-scraper. Mechanical elevators as such had been known long before the nineteenth century, but it was only in 1853 when Elisha graves Otis presented a passenger elevator guaranteed not to plunge suddenly downwards, that it became possible for people to travel upwards in safety and comfort. in 1857 the first passenger elevator was built into a five -story new York office building. However, the hydraulic system used to power these elevators still being used in the flatiron building as late as 1903 _could only achieve very slow speeds. in 1880 Warner von Siemens in Germany demonstrated the first electrically powered elevator. In 1889 the first electric elevator system was installed in an office block in New York . mprovements in the technology soon opened the way to the ever faster vertical conquest.

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However, besides these important technical and structural factors, there was a third (economic) catalyst. After the devastating fire of 1871 in the center of Chicago, there was a surge in the demand for office space. sites in the city center were expensive, and investors expected maximum usage. Increasing the Chicago in the 1880 combined with the intense financial pressures and the exploitation of the new construction methods


that made it possible for the skyscraper to evolve so quickly. The home insurance building in Chicago (1885), designed by the architect William le baron Jenney, is generally regarded as the first tall building of this kind. its crucial difference lies in its construction. iron constructions had already been used in walls to reinforce the load -bearing brick walls. Jenney went a step further and now used the steel frame to support the masonry walls. Although this decisive step in construction methods was not yet visible from the outside. The building looked like a renaissance palace that had been ex-tended in all directions. but from now on, building could rise ever higher without increasing the thickness of the walls. the ten-story home insurance building was soon overtaken in 1889 by the fourteenstory Tacoma building , also in Chicago. freed of its load -bearing function, the facade with its dynamic design and tall windows breaking up of the wall surface points very clearly to the new possibilites.by 1892 the Masonic temple in Chicago, with its twenty-two floors and 302 feet (92meters)height, was the tallest building of its time and the first to be publicly known as such. in 1895 the reliance building (p.30)went even further in this same direction.

Building higher and higher:

The development of what we now call the â&#x20AC;&#x153;structural frameâ&#x20AC;? which is the basis of all modern multistory buildings. Reached its final stages in the early 1880s in New York and Chicago after a decade of intense construction.

The circumstances that led to this period of remarkable innovation by both architects and engineers were rooted in the economic climates of the two cities. In New York the local economy revived rapidly after the enforced restraint during the civil war (1861-65).

Fig 001.George A Filler 28


And there was soon a demand for buildings of every type, but especially new commercial and office buildings.In Chicago, although the economic revival was slower, the demand for new buildings become a matter of urgency after the terrible fire that swept through the central part of the city in 1871 , destroying 18000 buildings and leaving over 100000 people homeless.

Fig 002.Begining of frameworks 29

Fig 003.Begining of frameworks(early skyscraper of Chicago


Through a large number of wide –ranging visuals, sketches, and photographs as well as provocative textual narrative. Drawing on the experiences of several cities from different parts of the world, it provides a global perspective on the urbanization phenomenon and tall building development and examines their underlying logic and design.

Development of the Form

Many mechanical and structural developments in the last quarter of the 19th cent. contributed to its evolution. With the perfection of the high-speed elevator after 1887, skyscrapers were able to attain any desired height. The earliest tall buildings were of solid masonry construction, with the thick walls of the lower stories usurping a disproportionate amount of floor space. In order to permit thinner walls through the entire height of the building, architects began to use cast iron in conjunction with masonry. This was followed by cage construction, in which the iron frame supported the floors and the masonry walls bore their own weight.

Fig 004.“Trump World Tower in New York”

The next step was the invention of a system in which the metal framework would support not only the floors but also the walls. This innovation appeared in the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, designed in 1883 by William Le Baron Jenney—the first building to employ steel skeleton construction and embody the general characteristics of a modern skyscraper. The subsequent erection in Chicago of a number of similar buildings made it the center of the early skyscraper architecture. In the 1890s the steel frame was formed into a completely riveted skeleton bearing all the structural loads, with the exterior or thin curtain walls serving merely as an enclosing screen. Fig 005. “21st Century Tower 30


Why we need “SKYSCRAPER”?

Major cities of the world are facing crisis of housing, shortage of work place, polluted environment, and deteriorating infrastructure. That’s why Existing cities have a challenge of how to introduce new tall buildings.In the urban fabric whereas expanding cities are exploring new schemes about how to select the most appropriate sites and fashion the contextual setting of new tall buildings. Through a large number of wide –ranging visuals, sketches, and photographs as well as provocative textual narrative. Drawing on the experiences of several cities from different parts of the world, it provides a global perspective on the urbanization phenomenon and tall building development and examines their underlying logic and design. Fig 006. “21st Century Tower in Dubai”

The first residential skyscrapers

The first residential skyscrapers were The Belcher’s Tower 1 and The Belcher’s Tower 2 located in Hong Kong, whose heights equal 221 m (725 ft). In 2001, Trump World Tower in New York City became the tallest residential building in the world until it was surpassed in 2003 by the 21st Century Tower in Dubai. In 2005, Q1, which is located in Gold Coast, Australia, became the tallest residential building in the world. The percentage of residential buildings has increased from 34% in 2009 to 45% in 2010 while office buildings has fallen from 42% to just 20%.[9] making Burj Khalifa the world’s first super tall skyscraper to include residential space. Only four out of the ten tallest buildings in the world and twenty-eight out of the fifty tallest buildings in the world are used primarily as offices.

Fig 007. “21st Century Tower 31


Skyscraper development

Skyscraper development paused during the years of the Second World War. Once development began again in the 1950s and 1960s, the skyscraper entered a different phase of development, usually called the international or modern period. Some experimental designs in this style had been built in the US using European architectural concepts in the early 1930s, most notably the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society and McGrawHill Buildings. The term skyscraper first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 storys in the late 19th century in Chicago, United State in 1884 when the American architect “William Jenny” built the first skyscraper (Home Insurance building) of ten storys using the steel frame work. Also utilized fireproofing, elevators and electrical wiring. The next step was the invention of a system metal framework which support not only the floors but also the walls. Post-war, their modernist themes were used in a new generation of skyscrapers. These stood alone on individual plots in the fashion of the Rockefeller Centre’s RCA building, rather than as part of a row of buildings, forming huge slabs and towers featuring huge glass façades, breaking with earlier skyscraper traditions. Inside, new technologies such as fluorescent lighting and widespread air-conditioning meant that many older architectural features such as light courts and operable windows were unnecessary. The trend had substantial implications for many early skyscrapers. Some were redesigned to fit new tastes. Much of the ornate detail was removed from the Metropolitan Life Tower in the 1960s, for example, to fit contemporary, plainer fashions. Many older skyscrapers could not be adapted, however, as they lacked the physical depth to build larger modern offices or the space for new service facilities. Some were demolished to make way for new, larger structures.Amongst

Fig 008. The Belcher’s Towers

Fig 009. Trump World Tower in New York 32


Fig 011 Eureka Tower, Melbourne

Fig 010. Q1 tower in Dubai 33

Fig 012. New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tallest Residential Building Designed By Frank Gehry


Chapter 02: Precedents Study


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TORRE CUAJIMALPA HELICOIDGARDENS Location: Mexico City, Mexico Program: Thirty-six storey residential tower Area: 25,000 square meters aprox. Designer/architect: 

MEIR

LOBATON

CORONA

+ KRISTJAN DONALDSON Collaborators: Javier Sepulveda Consultants: Garcia Jarque Ingenieros, SC., Buro Happold Consulting Engineers P.C. date: July 2008 – March 2009 Date of completion: December 2011

The main aim of the project is to remain the typology of the residential tower, to emulate the quality of living in a single-family residence in a skyscraper, by adding large gardens on each level. The concept challenges posed by the inclusion of large landscaped areas and trees at each level framed the requirements of a complex 3 dimensional puzzle which would; Enable enought height between levels for trees to grow and for the penetration of daylight into the apartments. Maintain privacy and minimize overlooking between levels, Include gardens without building extra floor-space. Systematize the many conflicting requirements into a proposal consistent with local construction techniques and the development model. The design process may be seen as a search for a simple, coherent architectural description of this puzzle. The helicoid configuration of successive stacked apartments establishes triple height volumes above the gardens to maximize light penetration to the living areas and creates suf By rotating the apartments 90 degrees at succes-

37

sive levels, the gardens sit above the cantilevered


Each iteration was modulated until a tight final model was discovered with essentially only one apartment plan rotated through 90 degrees at successive levels. The helicoid configuration of successive stacked apartments establishes triple height volumes above the gardens to maximize light penetration to the living areas and creates sufficient space for the planting of trees. In a volatile seismic re-

Fig 013: The internal living area

gion, a system of deep shear walls stabilizes the structure. Vierendeel trusses are cantilevered from this primary structure supporting the bedrooms within and the gardens above. 36 story residential tower.   The project addressed the balance between the desire of living in a single-family residence with the cost of the land. ficient space for the planting of trees. In a volatile seismic region, a system of deep shear walls stabilizes the structure. Vierendeel trusses are cantilevered from this primary structure support-

Fig 014: ncorporating large gardens on each level.

ing the bedrooms within and the gardens above. 36 story residential tower.   The project addressed the balance between the desire of living in a single-family residence with the cost of the land. The residential tower provides the family the luxury of living in an apartment building without sacrificing the comfort of a backyard.   Gardens located on every level try to break with the di-

Fig 015: The shifting horizontal floor planes provide adequate space for full trees to grow

chotomy between land and building, and, more importantly, provide an area that is attractive and functional for the family members. Each floor plan is organized around a single apartment type that is 400 square meters with a gardened extension of approximately 160 square meters. 

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Fig 016 : The internal green areas


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bedrooms of the apartment below. The shifting horizontal floor planes provide adequate space for full trees to grow. This shifting also balances the greenery, creating a blend of structure and nature, rather than allowing one element to dominate and the second to feel like an after-thought. The internal living areas are organized to take full advantage of the gardens which adds a feeling of openness to the residences. Due to the volatile seismic condition that charac-

Fig 017: Tipo A

terizes Mexico City, a system of deepshear walls and Vierendeel trusses stabilizes the structure while accommodating therotating floor plans. His design work has been internationally recognized and widely published. After graduating with honors from the University of Western Australia in 2003 aged 26, Kristjan established SPACEconsultants, a multidisciplinary design studio with a breadth of focus ranging from small domestic interventions through commercial interiors and regional masterplanning. More recently he has been based in New York City, collaborating on projects in Mexico and NYC. His work has featured in numerous Architectural journals including MARK magazine (NL), Monitor (Italy/ Russia), Artichoke (Australia), Beyond (China), SPACE (Korea). Kristjan has led architectural design studios at

Fig 018:Floor plan

Columbia University in New York, The University of Western Australia and Curtin University of Technology. QUALIFICATIONSMaster of Science in Advanced Architectural Design, Columbia University, New York City 2008Bachelor of Architecture (Honours), The University of Western Australia, 2003

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Fig 019: Tipo C


Meir Lobaton Corona // b. Mexico City, Mexico 1974 // Architect UIA, MSc. AAD  Meir received an Architecture degree from the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City in 2002 and a Master of Science in Advanced Architectural Design from Columbia University GSAPP in 2007. As a CONACYT Scholar, he graduated from Columbia with Honors for Excellence in Design, and was a recipient of the Lucille Smyser Lowenfish Memorial Design Prize.Meir has taught architectural design studios at Columbia University in New York City and Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico

Fig 020: Tipo B

City and has been an invited critic in several architecture schools worldwide. Since 1996 he has been involved in multiple projects in various fields, ranging from architecture, design and visual arts.

Fig 021: Tipo D

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Fig 022: Section A-A’

Fig 023: Section C-C’ 42


Fig 024. B-B 43


Fig 025: Site plan

Fig 027. System of deep shear walls 44


Fig 026.Axonometric dyagram

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Beach Road Singapore by Norman Foster Location: Singapore Program: two striking towers, 45 storeys and 42 storeys tall office space, two hotels, shops and city residences Area: 3.5ha Designer/architect:  Foster & PartnersCollabora Date of completion: December 2012

Located between the Marina Center and the Civic District in Singapore, the Beach Road designed and developed as a mixed-use area at a 150,000 sqm. Its most unique element is the canopy`s form and structure that filtering sunlight to deliver convenient public space. Designed by Norman Foster, as mentioned by architecture.MNP, it fits perfectly into Singapore _city in a garden_ concept. Site Conditions Tropical Rainforest Climate with no distinctive seasons. High temperatures, high pressure, high relative humidity, abundant rainfall. Temperatures throughout the year range from 73 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Relative humidity fluctuates between 73 and 79 percent. The hottest months in Singapore are April and May. Monsoon Seasons. Northeast Monsoon (Dec-Mar) - Northerly to northeasterly winds 6-8 m/s Southwest Monsoon (June-Sept) - Southerly to southwesterly winds 6-8 m/s. Beach Road’ proximity to the water exposes it to variable but light sea breezes mixing humidity with warmer land air. This mixture often creates thunderstorms or rainclouds in the early to late afternoon.

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Psychrometrics:

Based on the psychrometric chart, buildings in Singapore should utilize specific design strategies to reduce energy loads.

Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relatively con-

stant climatic conditions allow architects to design for specific weather phenomena. In the case of Beach Road, the mean temperature is around 82 degrees while the relative humidity remains about 78 percent. Thermal comfort is understood to be between 68 and 78 degrees and between 20 and 60 percent humidity. Although the humidity is almost at an ideal place, average temperature exceeds the normal comfort zone. To lower temperature and humidity, Beach Road incorporates a series of ventilation shafts through the vertical length of the structure. These shafts carry warm air all the way up the building and exhausts it out through exit openings at different levels of the structure. Every 10 floors or so, there are green spaces which filter circulating air as it makes its way

Fig 028. network of complicated systems to maintain

up the and out of the building. The top of the structure is made porous to capture the abundant rainfall that occurs in Singapore. The rain is collected and funneled through the structure. As it travels, it is evaporated, helping cool the building and reducing its energy load. Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s average temperature and relative humidity are in a good range for natural ventilation and evaporative cooling to have a substantial affect on total energy consumption. To also help relive energy loads, Norman incorporates solar shading along the east and west facades to combat heat gain and produce energy for the building. Both passive and active systems are at work to benefit building design. It is clear that Foster and Partners have considered all site conditions and have deeply planned the city block so it is seamlessly integreated into the existing natural environment.green building and sustainability,

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Fig 029. Active system to act as pseudo greenhouses


There are many systems at work in the development proposed by Norman Foster. On a human scale, not every system is felt but there are some more active systems that remain noticeable to personal comfort. Fosterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design incorporates several floors that act as pseudo greenhouses, providing fresh air into the surrounding spaces. The plants retain heat, raising the interior temperature. To combat this, cooling ceilings are utilized to equalize interior thermal quality.

Inhabitants near these green spaces

would feel a warm breeze provided by the cross ventilation through the space as well as a cool breeze or even mist from above.

Unlike the

eastward facade, glass glazing covers most of the surface. Although the sun is let through immensely, solar glazing limits the amount of emitted light into the interior, The elongated atrium space offers inhabitants a sheltered yet still airy and incredibly natural environment.

n a comfortable thermal environment.

Fig 030. psychrometric chart of energy load. 49


Although the building isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t completed yet, it is apparent that this building will raise the bar for environmentally sustainable building.

Inhabit-

ants will experience a network of complicated systems, they all will wirk harmoniously to maintain a comfortable thermal environment. Sitehistory. The four conservation buildings comprises three 1930s army blocks (Blocks 1, 9 and 14) and the former NCO Club built in 1952. The old concrete buildings were given conservation status in 2002 due to their rich historical and architectural significance. The Beach Road camp was the venue for the first National Service enlistment in 1967. The former NCO Club was originally designed as the headquarters of the Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes in Singapore, and had a swimming pool. The army blocks are in Art Deco style known for elegant, functional features, while the club is a hybrid of that and what came in the 1950s, called Modern architecture. Site plansWhen tender closed in July 2007, URA re-

Fig 031. Environmental section

ceived seven submissions from major developers and firms. monitoring thermal quality within. Someone near the glass would obviously feel a wave of radiant heat entering the space, warming the skin. Each main green space is a piece of an overall vertical ventilation shaft. A person in this area may experience an airflow moving upward, carrying cool air upward, and warm air outward. In the exterior pedestrian space, wind is allowed to enter and is maneuvered upward via the structures form. This flow of air moves warm air out of the space and continues to push cool fresh air up through the core of the towers. In this space, many planters are implemented to filter air naturally as well as add an aesthetic pleasure. Passers through would experience breezes of varied intensity depending on the weather. The ventilation carryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the humidity produced by the plants upward and out. Light is allowed to pour through the space, feeding the plants with life while warming the environment.

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Fig 032. section


On 27–29 September 2006, the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) showcased the Beach Road site at the “Marche International des Professionals de L’Immobilier” (MIPIM) Asia in Hong Kong. MIPIM Asia is the Asia-Pacific version of MIPIM, an international property exhibition held in Cannes every year. The 3.5-hectare land parcel is bounded by Beach Road, Bras Basah Road, Nicoll Highway and Middle Road, and is located next to Esplanade MRT station. URA has planned the site for a mixed use development comprising prime office space and high-end hotel rooms. The conserved buildings on the site would enhance the uniqueness of the development. The new integrated development would offer a mixture of lowrise conservation and medium to high rise buildings for commercial and hotel uses. URA required the developers to set aside at least 40% of the space for office use, and at least 30% of the space must be for hotel rooms. Site tender.The site was launched for tender in March 2007, and was awarded through a “two-envelope” system, where the bids were first evaluated based on their

Fig 033. real view

concept proposals before the bid prices were made known. Proposals were assessed on their contribution to the city’s skyline profile, the provision of attractive public spaces and high-quality architecture. Five were rejected even though some of them came with higher bids; these included a joint venture between Pontiac Land Group and Morgan Stanley, CapitaLand, one of two bids from a joint venture between Keppel Land and Hong Kong’s Cheung Kong Holdings, and two bids by Overseas Union Enterprise. The winning bid was the higher of two remaining tender submissions shortlisted by URA for their acceptable concept proposals.Won by a consortium led by City Developments Limited, the winning bid of S$1.689 billion worked out to about S$1,069 per square foot of potential gross floor area. The 99-year leasehold development, which was named “South Beach” and has a gross floor area of 146,827 square metres (1,580,433 square feet), will be built by 2012. CDL tied up with Dubai World’s Is-

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tithmar Beach Road FZE and Elad Group Singapore,


and tendered via Scottsdale Properties. Second-place

The first storey will be laid out with a series of internal

Keppel Land and partner Cheung Kong Holdings lost

streets, with the aim of enhancing street level vibrancy

out with their bid of S$1.386 billion. CDL estimated that

and allowing pedestrians to move about easily.

its investment in the South Beach project would cost at

A pedestrian “green axis” arises upwards from the

least S$2.73 billion.

basement MRT station exit through multi-tiered gardens. The block layout features alleyways reminiscent of the nearby Seah Street area. It will also feature sunken courtyards, tiered gardens lined with shops,

Architecture

and food and beverage outlets.

The development will feature two new towers, 45 storeys and 42 storeys tall, which house two luxury hotels, offices and apartments. The original conserved military buildings of the old Beach Road Camp will be restored for retail and hotel-related uses such as function rooms. The project will add at least 46,450 square metres (500,000 square feet) of new office space and about 700 to 800 hotel rooms. The CDL Consortium has proposed to adopt an environmental design and green technology to create a distinctive, high-quality development that fits in well with Singapore’s tropical climate and urban context. Designed by British architectural firm Foster and Partners, a key feature of the winning design is a large “environmental filter” canopy that covers the open spaces, linking conservation buildings with the two high-rise towers and providing shelter from the elements and drawing air currents to cool the area beneath it. The canopy rises at some areas and lowers at others, resembling huge waves. Some parts of the canopy hover around one conservation block, another covers it, while yet another part appears to go into a block. Other parts of the canopy also appear to rise skywards, covering part of the façades of the two new towers. The two towers will have slanting façades to catch winds and direct air flow to the ground-level spaces. The building façades will also incorporate photovoltaic cells. Rainwater will be collected off the towers and the canopy to flow into a holding tank underground, instead of being wasted.

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Fig 034. network of ennironmental systems

Fig 035. the exterior pedestrian space

Fig 036. Multi-Use Development

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New songdo city first world

General information Status : Complete Type: Mixed-Use, Residential Location: Songdo IBD, Songdo International City, Incheon Free Economic Zone, Incheon South Korea completion: April 2009 Technical details Floor count: 3 FL to 64 FL Floor area: 5.7 million sf, 2685 units Design and construction Architect: KPF / BAUM Developer: Gale International, POSCO E&C

Songdo First World is the first completed residential project in Songdo IBD, Korea. There are 12 buildings ranging from 3 floors to 64 floors.Currently, there are 2,685 units within this complex. This luxury apartment is designed by KPF and BAUM. It is located adjacent to the Songdo convensia, Northeast Asia Trade Tower, and subway station. Songdo International Business District (SIBD)

is a new Smart City or Ubiquitous City built from scratch on 1,500 acres (610 ha) of reclaimed land along Incheonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waterfront,[1] 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Seoul, South Korea and connected to Incheon International Airport by a 7.4 mile (12.3 km) reinforced concrete highway bridge, called Incheon Bridge. 55


Along with Yeongjong and Cheongna, it is part of the Incheon Free Economic Zone. The Songdo International Business District will feature the Northeast Asia Trade Tower and the Incheon Tower. Schools, hospitals, apartments, office buildings and cultural amenities are to be built in the district. Replicas of architectural hallmarks, including New York City’s Central Park and Venice’s waterways, will also be incorporated. This 10-year development project is estimated to cost in excess of $40 billion, making it one of the most expensive development projects ever undertaken. A small number of Japanese residents have sought to live in Songdo IBD after the Tohoku earthquake. Ownership and Design Gale International, holds a majority stake of 61%, Posco 30%, and the remaining 9% is owned by Morgan Stanley Real Estate.The plan was designed by the New York office of Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF). Infrastructure development, labor, and funding are also being provided by the city of Incheon.

Fig 037:Vision of the future: Work on Songdo started in 2000

Development

Songdo Central Park Built on 1,500 acres of land reclaimed from the Yellow Sea off Incheon, about 35 miles (56 km) from the South’s capital Seoul, Songdo International Business District is the largest private real estate development in history. By its completion date in 2015, the district is planned to contain 80,000 apartments, 50,000,000 square feet (4,600,000 m2) of office space and 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of retail space.The 65-floor Northeast Asia Trade Tower became South Korea’s tallest building. Computers have been built into the houses, streets and offices as part of a wide area network.The Songdo IBD was part of former President Lee Myungbak’s effort to promote green and low-carbon growth as an avenue for future development after 60 years of reliance on export-oriented manufacturing.

Fig 038.real view 56


The nation launched a $38 billion economic stimulus package in January 2009, with over 80% of the total earmarked for green investment. The Framework Act for Low Carbon Green Growth, passed by Korea’s National Assembly in 2010. The Songdo IBD was part of former President Lee Myung-bak’s effort to promote green and low-carbon growth as an avenue for future development after 60 years of reliance on export-oriented manufacturing. The nation launched a $38 billion economic stimulus package in January 2009, with over 80% of the total earmarked for green investment. The Framework Act for Low Carbon Green Growth, passed by Korea’s National Assembly in 2010, increased this to $83.6 billion spanning five years. Under this initiative, the Songdo IBD is being developed as a sustainable city with more than 40% of its area reserved for green space, including the park of 100 acres (0.40 km2), 16 miles (26 km) of bicycling lanes, numerous charging stations for electric vehicles and a waste collection system that eliminates the need for trash trucks. Also, it is the first city in the world to have all of its major buildings in par or beyond LEED’s requirements.

Fig 039.site plan

Three additional foreign university campus are planning to open in 2014. This makes 4 total universities, located within an international business district some 40 miles from Seoul, including the first overseas university that opened in Korea, the State University of New York, Stony Brook.[6] The schools will be funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, the Incheon Free Economic Zone and the Incheon Metropolitan Government.The development is part of a $35 billion effort by the Korean government to form an international business district that houses competitive universities from around the world.

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In spring 2014, George Mason University (Fairfax, Virginia) will open its Korean campus in Songdo to support undergraduate academic interests and professional development programming for local corporations. Three additional foreign university campus are planning to open in 2014. This makes 4 total universities, located within an international business district some 40 miles from Seoul, including the first overseas university that opened in Korea, the State University of New York, Stony Brook.[6] The schools will be funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, the Incheon Free Economic Zone and the Incheon Metropolitan Government.The development is part of a $35 billion effort by the Korean government to form an international business district that houses competitive universities from around the world. In spring 2014, George Mason University (Fairfax, Virginia) will open its Korean campus in Songdo to support undergraduate academic interests and professional development programming for local corporations.

Fig 040.zonning plan

Additionally, University of Utah anticipates opening a satellite campus in March of 2014 with several American bachelor’s degrees offered in Social Sciences, along with an M.A. in Applied Linguistics Sixty-three floors up, the view is stunning. Below, Central Park’s lawns, bike lanes, kids boating in the lake. To my right, apartments and shops lining a canal. In the distance, the ocean, planes approaching, and a sweeping highway bridge. I’m not in New York, or Venice, or even in Las Vegas. I’m in South Korea. And a few years ago, none of this was here. New Songdo City, the place I’m visiting, is a reallife game of SimCity with billions of dollars at stake. This brand-new city is being built from scratch on reclaimed land that once lay beneath the Yellow Sea. It’s a high-design and high-tech place, masterplanned to offer a quality of life that most Koreans don’t have access to. And it’s the Korean government’s big, new bet to attract foreign companies building their presence in Asia, competing with the likes of Hong Kong, Singapore, and even Seoul.

Fig 041.view of all towers 58


But today, not nearly finished, Songdo still feels as much theory as reality. It’s half city of tomorrow, half construction site. In a couple places, if you squint the right way, you might think you’re in downtown Chicago. But then turn around and see overgrown lots, vacant storefronts, empty office towers, and deserted streets. (For a summary of Songdo’s highlights, see my list of the city’s most futuristic features.) The Songdo project started almost 20 years ago as construction began on the new Incheon International Airport, some 35 miles west of Seoul, Korea’s capital and largest city. The idea was something like: “Hey, we’re building one of the world’s busiest airports here. Why not extend the ‘aerotropolis’ and develop a business and tech hub, too?” About a third of the world’s population lives within a three-hour flight, and more than 30 million people pass through Incheon airport every year. So why not build on that? The result: Songdo International Business District, a $35 billion, privately owned project cover ing 2.5 square miles. When it’s done, it will host some 65,000 residents with another 300,000 daily commuters. Today, it’s about a third of the way there, housing 22,000 people. (Greater Songdo, including the Uni versity of Incheon, will eventually house about 250,000. Incheon, which governs Songdo, is a city of 3 million.)

Fig 042.elevation of the residential towers

What makes Songdo unique? Two main attractions: It’s the first place in Korea where foreign companies can own land, thus the big idea to get foreign companies to locate there. And the area has been painstakingly designed feel completely unlike the boring, homogenous developments that surround it.

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This Is Not Disney World

The creative minds in charge of the project initially couldn’t believe the scope of the assignment. “When we got the invitation, we thought it was beyond anybody’s capability,” says Stan Gale, CEO of Gale International, the New York-based real estate development and investment firm that’s the majority shareholder in Songdo IBD. “Why us? They wanted our creativity, and they wanted somebody outside Korea to come in and help Korea interpret what they wanted to be in 20 years. That was our job.” The big-picture plan: A futuristic, green city with extremely high quality of life. “This is not ‘create Disney World’,” Gale says. “This is to create a very serious destination where people come from all over the world.” Designed by the New York architecture and planning firm Kohn Pedersen Fox, Songdo takes cues from some of the world’s best cities. Thus, “Central Park” and a Venetian canal, a forthcoming residential “casbah,” and a calculated mix of apartment, retail, and commercial buildings, organized by height to form a tent-like cityscape. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SONGDO IBD MASTER

PLAN:

The 68-story Northeast Asia Trade Tower, which will stand as Korea’s tallest building and most advanced corporate center. The architecturally stunning Songdo Convensia, operating as Incheon’s primary convention center, is Korea’s largest column-free interior space. 600 acres of open space including a 100-acre Central Park, providing a beautiful place of refuge and relaxation for those who live and work in the city.

Fig 043.Real views 60


The Incheon Arts Center, a cultural complex housing a concert hall, opera house, museum of Asian contem. porary art, a music conservatory, design school, artist in residence housing, and a library. The Jack Nicklaus Golf Club Korea features an 18hole championship golf course, a full clubhouse and a fitness center situated on a 228 acre site which will also include luxury villas and condominiums. Public and private schools including the Chadwick International School for students kindergarten through high school, offering a state-of-the-art learning environment and international perspectives to prepare them for leading post-secondary schools around the world. Songdo International City Hospital, planned to boast the latest in medical diagnosis and treatment technologies. Partners such as 3M and Microsoft will also participate in the development of this world class healthcare facility

Fig 043.Elevation of the residential towers

SONGDO IBD IS ALSO DISTINGUISHED BY SETTING A NEW STANDARD IN SUSTAINABILITY INCLUDING BUILDING DESIGN, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE AND COMMUNITY PLANNING. Fig 044.real vew of the commercial towers

Songdo IBDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership in sustainable development will be key quality-of-life attributes for both corporations and residents. The city will be the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified district in Korea and the largest project outside North America to be included in the LEED ND (Neighborhood Development) Pilot Program. With more than US $10 billion invested and approximately 100 buildings completed or currently under construction, it is expected that Songdo IBD will quickly become the central business hub in Northeast Asia.

Fig 045. real view

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culture chanllenge

sangdo become a bigger challenge for variety of reasons.on top of these reasons ,we have cultural risks...how we are actual going to implement this idea?...Ther wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t anybody else foreign who had developed anything in Korea (J.Kynes,3/2008) Gale international quickly learned that business environment in Korea is totally different from that in KSA. in addiion, there was no international real estate investor or developer in Korea and creadible information on market and develop process was scarce.Gale international needed to learn the bussiness culture and market environment. this was a process of trail and errors that would clearly be time consumi ng and cost a great deal of money.

Fig 046. elevation of residential building

Fig 047. Zoning 3d plan 62


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64


Mirador building Architect: MVRDV Year(s) of construction: 2001-2005 Floors: 21 Land Area: 23,000 m2 Location: Madrid, Spain Coordinates: 40° 29’ 15” N, 3° 39’ 17” W

Introduction The housing project in height, designed by Dutch architects studio MVRDV in collaboration with architect madrileña Lleó Blanca, wants to break the excessive uniformity of the planned route for the planning, which in almost all the residential plots, the configuration of Apple closed 6 floors. However, the projected volume for the plot TR-22, developed in 21 plants and emerge as a benchmark for the city and territory. Situation The building is located in the neighborhood Sanchinarro in Madrid. Meaning The building is an observatory of the frame and a distant horizon. Construction projected to rise, largely frees the occupation of the plot, thus makes possible the transfer of a portion of private land for the benefit of the collective social enjoyment. 65


Thus contributing to the generation of public space necessary for the contemporary city demand. Moreover, the large veranda at 36,850 meters above the ground, offers residents a community garden and an outdoor space at a height where to meet and enjoy the views. Seriation against rationalist and repetition rate of family unity, there is a reasonable variation in response to new modes of contemporary living. Proposed housing organizations flexible and adaptable. This is to facilitate the identity that each person puts in his home, providing the required matching operation where possible and incorporating the changes and applications for current demand.

Fig 048.the view of the public space

Description

Circulations in the building are like small vertical streets. His transformations along each route, make up the collection of structured types as small neighborhoods. Outside, each of the nine districts of equal or housing is identified and differentiated from others. Stop using different combinations result in the modulation and position of the voids, as well as materials, texture and color of the fences of different facade. The vacuum outside, also called garden in height or viewpoint has an approximate area of 580 m2 in floor [39.4 x 14.70 meters] and a height of 14.14 meters [less build-up of 1.35 meters] in Plant 12, brings together the diversity and identity is all built.

Fig 049. social enjoyment

The most impressive element of the building is the incredible gap of it shape. The gap is used by the neighborhood as a meeting area and playground. The views from the gap are incredible, across to the Guadarrama Mountains, because Mirador is one of the highest buildings in the area. In the facade the different colors are coded for different uses, for instance red is used for the corridors.

Fig 050.view of the facade 66


Residents disagree about whether the building is really a masterpiece; some think the architects have thought only about the external appearance, not about the users of the building. This building is one of the most innovative in Spain, and has been awarded several prizes and shown in many different exhibitions abroad. MVRDV and Blanca Lleó are designing another building in Madrid called ‘Celosía’, and MVRDV have also a project for a garden-building in Valencia.

Fig 051.an elevated plaza for the residents.

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AWARDS

Municipality of Madrd : Best Design in Housing 2005 VISIT The Mirador is not a public building and therefore is not open for visits. Your respect for the privacy of the residents is appreciated.

ABOUT

The opening of European borders has caused a real estate boom in Spain. Land values have increased enormously, leading to a boom in the production of housing. This operation is facilitated in Madrid by gigantic new neighborhoods that surround the historic city center. The architecture of these new cities appears to be rather introverted; compact blocks with small windows surround private patios, creating an isolated experience that opposes the traditionally extroverted Spanish culture. In PAU de Sanchinarro, one of the new cities situated on the northeastern edge of Madrid, two plots are destined to develop as a possible escape from the uniformity and claustrophobia of this sea of six-story blocks. In the first the typology of houses surrounding an inaccessible patio is turned sideaways, creating a communal space with a view of the city and the Guadarrama Mountains. The tower preserves open space needed by the modern city. The large lookout space, 40 meters above the ground, provides occupants and neighbours with a community garden and a space to contemplate the skyline. The proposal opens domestic architecture to the new city environment and to its surrounding territories. The semi-public sky plaza is easily accessible with a direct lift connection from the plaza surrounding the building. This lifted public space is surrounded by different neighbourhoods, a wide variety of compact housing types integrating different social groups and

Fig 052.the repetition of the standard family unit

Fig 053.side elevation 68


lifestyles. In contrast to the mass produced repetition of the standard family house, these housing units are grouped into small blocks which are stacked and glued together, create a towering community superblock. The slits in between the blocks act as access zones and are conceived as vertical alleys. Their transformation along each itinerary agglomerates the compendium of typologies that are structured like small suburbs. It leads to a vertical sequence of stairs, halls, platforms, and streets. It creates a vertical neighbourhood. It becomes the reference point of the neighbourhood. The allowance for the realisation of this building can be seen as a sincere and honest manifestation of Spanish self criticism, an admirable character trait. Perhaps it is an elementary one, especially for a culture that wants to be open, vivid, and cosmopolitan.

CREDITS Fig 054.the ‘blocks’, stacked and glued together

Design Team: Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs, Nathalie de Vries with Ignacio Borrego, Stefan Witteman, Guillermo Reynes, Pedro García Martinez, Gabriela Bojalil, Antonio Lloveras, Nieves Mestre, Marjolijn Guldemond, Fabien Mazenc, Dagmar Niecke, Renzo Leeghwater, Florian Jenewein

Fig 055.real view 69


Fig 057.plans of the unit 70


Fig 058.the entrance to the staircase

Fig 059.open stair case

Fig 060. exposed stair between the units 71


Fig 061.diagrams 72


Fig 061.The red areas are exposed walkways and hallways, and stairways that give the residents a bit more openness and frees space up inside the structure.

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Herzog & de meuron: beirut terraces

Architects: Herzog & de Meuron Location: Minet El Hosn Partner In Charge: Stefan Marbach Project Director: Tobias Winkelmann Project Managers: Ursula Hürzeler, Claudia Winkelmann Year: 2015

Beirut Terraces rethinks the concept of the skyscraper, creating a vertical village composed of thin, elegant platforms layered in a playful formation. By offering lavish outdoor spaces, breathtaking views, and meticulously composed lofts, architects Herzog & DeMeuron bring an unprecedented way of living to crowded and dense Beirut. More on these contemporary living spaces after the break… The architects’ most conceptual work – the VitraHaus project – is most likely the root of the “stacked” methodology adopted for this project in Beirut. However, the Beirut terraces are much more complex in composition, offerings apartments that range from 250sqm to 1050sqm and come in the form of simplexes, duplexes, and townhouses. Moreover, the project’s most seductive quality, its terraces, range from 28sqm to 400sqm. The building sits on a podium that occupies the entire lot, with the tower rising on 65% of the surface area. All 132 living units benefit from terraces and views, and they are placed with no relation to their size. A 300sqm apartment could exist on one of the highest floors just as an 800sqm is placed on one of the lower ones. 75


Apartments often take form as one large surface, with glass separating interior from exterior and some plants separating a bedroom terrace from a living space’s (usually) larger terrace. The building sits on a podium that occupies the entire lot, with the tower rising on 65% of the surface area. All 132 living units benefit from terraces and views, and they are placed with no relation to their size. A 300sqm apartment could exist on one of the highest floors just as an 800sqm is placed on one of the lower ones. Apartments often take form as one large surface, with glass separating interior from exterior and some plants separating a bedroom terrace from a living space’s (usually) larger terrace. Small decisions draw the line between a more communal versus a typical residential building. Take, for instance, the idea of allowing all apartments to share a single large lobby surrounded by a 2000sqm shallow body of water accessed from four separate circulation cores. Every time a resident comes home he is reminded of nature’s presence and welcomed by a crowd of people inhabiting the populated structure. Sensitivity to space and light is not something unexpected from the architects. Think of their Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, done with Ai Weiwei: the roof shares similar qualities to the platforms that compose the Beirut Terraces. Moreover, the fluidity of the space as well as its relationship to greenery and the exterior are equally present in the Beirut Terraces. he project came in third place for Best Futura Project at the 2013 MIPIM awards, recognized as one of the best un-built sustainable projects. It is widely credited for bringing a new typology to Beirut’s waterfront.

Fig 062. layers and terraces, inside and outside and vegetation

Site

The city of Beirut lies in the heart of the developing Middle East. Having always been a cosmopolitan city, it is a focal point of the region as a cultural and geo

Fig 063. views and privacy 76


graphical link between Europe and the Middle East. The history of Beirut could hardly be more diverse; remains of Phoenician, Roman, Mamluk, Ottoman and Colonial rule have shaped the city and its buildings. The design of Beirut Terraces was quite literally influenced by the layers of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rich and tumultuous history. It is a history now also marked by inescapable traces of an eventful present. For generations to come, the people of Beirut will remember the assassination in 2005 of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, when a car bomb detonated in front of St. Georges Hotel. The resultant devastation is still visible as a daily reminder. Despite a scarred history, there is a clear vision to rehabilitate the area, with a master plan well under way that aims to rebuild and revitalize this part of Beirut. The site of Beirut Terraces is in a portion of the master plan dedicated to office and residential high-rise buildings, in the vicinity of a new yacht marina.

Architecture

The structure and appearance of the proposed building are informed with an awareness and respect for the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s past, as well as the self-confidence and optimism of contemporary Beirut. Five principles define the project: layers and terraces, inside and outside, vegetation, views and privacy, light and identity. The result is a vertically layered building: slabs of varying sizes allow for interplay between openness and privacy that fosters flexible living between inside and outside. Fine detailing and a focus on the concerted orchestration of quality materials produce a structure that is both efficient and luxurious. Careful environmental engineering and specific use of vegetation further enhance sustainability and the quality of life within the building.

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Layers and Terraces

The building is a multilayered 119-metre tall high-rise. The stratified structure is distinguished by projecting or set back living areas that generate terraces and overhangs, light and shadow, places of shelter and exposure. As a result, each unit is unique and variations in the layout of the apartments on each layer thoughtfully shape a new neighbourhood.

Inside and Outside

The moderate climate of Beirut is undoubtedly one of the city’s greatest assets; it makes outdoor living an integral part of Beirut’s urban culture. The design

Fig 064.plan level 3

therefore aims to cultivate this asset and incorporate it into the apartments. Indoor and outdoor spaces merge into each other so that the generous terraces truly become living spaces. Vegetation, Views and Privacy The proposal for the vegetation blends in with the concept of the existing master plan. The idea of a green boulevard that connects the residential high-rise to its surroundings is taken up by the design and continued vertically both inside and outside the building. An expansive water feature in the main entry – a tall, airy, open space – is complemented by views of the sea to the north and the green boulevard to the east. The interplay of architecture and nature that enlivens the spacious lobby around the central core is reiterated on the balconies and terraces throughout the entire building. The lobby thus forms a vibrant transition between the open, public landscape and private, green residences. Being so close to the shoreline of Beirut, the building affords beautiful views of the sea. The vegetation on the terraces acts as a screen that not only provides shade but also ensures privacy for each apartment. Additionally, the building’s vegetation frames views

Fig 065.plan level 9 78


and generates pleasant microclimates by tempering the immediate environment.

Light and Identity

Extensive overhangs provide shade and reduce solar gain. The slabs of each floor protrude around their entire circumference by a minimum of 60 centimetres, easing construction and maintenance of the extensive double-galzed faรงades. The floor plates are thick enough to balance the daily temperature cycles by virtue of their thermal mass, storing cold through the night and releasing it during the day. Such passive strategies make the building a truly sustainable place to live in. Where necessary, perforations in the overhangs modulate the lighting and exposure to the sun. Their density, shape,

Fig 066.plan level 20

and the shadows they generate form a striking pattern that gives the tower a distinctive identity and sets it off from its surroundings.

Structure

To guarantee sufficient differentiation of the build ing volume and maintain reasonable building ratio, the tower is made of five modular floors, repeated in different combinations. The structure is carried by the core and a regular column-grid that spans up to 14.7 metres. As a result the walls of the apartments are not structural and their arrangement is open to future flexibility. Each quarter of the tower has its own lobby with elevators serving no more than two apartments at a time. For greater efficiency, two lobbies share service elevators, MEP risers, and fire escapes.

Fig 067.plan level 25 79


Apartments

The mix of apartments of different sizes and types, including multi-storey duplexes, are distributed throughout the building, offering a variety of conditions to meet each tenantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs and provide each level with a unique identity. The apartments generally consist of three areas: a public reception area, a private living space, and a service area. The foyer and grand living room in the reception area include areas for seating and dining with access to a spacious viewing terrace. The private space features a family living room and bedrooms with en-suite bathrooms and walk-in clos-

Fig 068. Terraces

ets and often also includes access to a terrace. The service area comprises a kitchen with storage and laundry room attached and a maidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom with bathroom. All the main spaces such as living rooms and bedrooms, provide a clear height of 3.31 metres.

Amenities

Beirut Terraces provides amenities for residents at the

Fig 069. view from the inside

entry level, such as a generous spa with pool, sauna, steam and massage rooms and shopping facilities along the eastern boulevard. Parking Vehicle access and parking is separated between visitors and residents. Visitors enter by car from the north to parking on a lower level. Residents enter through a gate at the south on street level to a circular driveway, where passengers are dropped off at the main lobby. Ramps flanking the driveway provide direct access to secure underground parking levels. Herzog & de Meuron, 2011A master plan for the city

of Beirut is guiding the rehabilitation of the coastal city, and Herzog & de Meuron just unveiled an open and airy apartment development located in the central district.

Fig 070. view from the inside 80


Fig 071.uses of some teracess

Fig 072. Section shows the functions

Fig 073. real shot 81


Beirut Terraces, seen over at Dezeen, is a composed of a series of terraces with various sized apartments and large open outdoor living areas. The apartment complex is rich with lush vegetation at the ground floor entrance and features hanging gardens integrated throughout the building. Solar passive design, daylighting and energy efficiency also play a strong roll in the design of the apartments.

Appearing a bit like a Jenga tower, Beirut Terraces is made up of various shaped slabs overlapping each other to create overhangs and shaded terraces. The outside windows of the building are actually recessed back from the edge by 6 meters, providing lots of outdoor living space for the occupants in order to enjoy the moderate climate. The overhangs and recessed living spaces also help improve the energy efficiency of the building, protecting the living areas from direct solar gain, but working to heat the thermal mass, which releases the heat later in the day.

Fig 074. real shot

Despite the large overhangs, the apartments all have ample access to natural daylighting and ventilation, which aid in the energy efficiency of the building. A large garden and vegetated space serve as the entrance to the apartment building, while hanging gardens are installed throughout offering the occupants another connection with the natural world. (Coincidentally, the design for the Beirut Terraces is a bit reminiscent of Herzog & de Meuronâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design for the Miami Art Museum.) Located in the central district, the apartment, which includes 129 single, duplex and townhouse apartments, is close to many other offices and attractions and also includes amenities like a spa and shopping on the ground floor level.

Fig 075. real shot

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Fig 076. real shot


Fig 077. view from the inside

Fig 078. Layers of terracess 83


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Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT Project: Rødovre Skyscraper Designed by MVRDV and ADEPT Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Type: Hotel, Retail, Offices, Housing. Scope: 21,688m2

The 116 metre tall tower will include apartments, a hotel, retail, offices, and a public park and plaza. The stacked building consists of “pixels”, each 60 metres square, which are arranged around the central core of the building. “The constellation of the pixels allows flexibility in function; the building can be transformed by market forces,” say the architects. “Flexibility for adaptation is one of the best sustainable characteristics of a building.” The municipality of Rødovre, an independent municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark, announced today MVRDV and co-architect ADEPT winner of the design competition of the Rødovre Skyscraper. The 116 meter tall tower accommodates apartments, a hotel, retail and offices. A public park and a plaza are also part of the privately funded scheme. The skyscraper’s shape reflects Copenhagen’s historical spire and present day high-rise blending in the skyline of the city, it further combines the two distinctive typologies of Rødovre, the single family home and the skyscraper in a vertical village. Consideration of these local characteristics leads to Copenhagen’s first contemporary high-rise. 85


Responding to unstable markets the design is based on a flexible grid, allowing alteration of the program by re-designating units. These ‘pixels’ are each 60m2 square and arranged around the central core of the building, which for flexibility consists of three bundled cores allowing separate access to the different program segments. On the lower floors the volume is slim to create space for the surrounding public plaza with retail and restaurants; the lower part of the high rise consists of offices, the middle part leans north in order to create a variety of sky gardens that are terraced along the south side. This creates a stacked neighbourhood, a Sky Village.

Fig 079. design for mix-use high-rise ‘Sky Village’ for Copenhagen

From this south orientation the apartments are benefitting. The top of the building will be occupied by a hotel enjoying the view towards Copenhagen city centre. The constellation of the pixels allows flexibility in function; the building can be transformed by market forces, however at this moment it is foreseen to include 970m2 retail, 15,800m2 offices, 3,650m2 housing and 2,000m2 hotel and a basement of 13,600m2 containing parking and storage. Flexibility for adaptation is one of the best sustainable characteristics of a building. Besides this the Sky Village will also integrate the latest technologies according to the progressive Danish environmental standards. Furthermore the plans include a greywater circuit, the use of 40% recycled concrete in the foundation and a variety of energy producing devices on the façade. A public park adjacent to the Sky Village is part of the project and will be refurbished with additional vegetation and the construction of a ‘superbench’, a meandering public path and bench. A playground, picnic area and exercise areas for elderly citizens are also part of the plan.

Fig 080. Plaza View 86


Lead architect MVRDV and co-architect ADEPT Architects won the competition from BIG, Behnisch and MAD. Winy Maas and Jacob van Rijs present the plan today in Copenhagen together with Anders Lonka and Martin Krogh from local office Adept Architects, Dutch engineering firm ABT and Søren Jenssen act as consultants for the project.

It´s interesting to see the structural approach for this new typology, as you can see on another render below: the inner core -actually 3 cores to access the different program segments- is made out of concrete, with the units wrapping it around on a steel structure. Something interesting in times like this, is that the building allows for different configurations responding to unstable markets, flexibility achieved by re-designating these 60sqm units.

Fig 081. Terrace View

The lower levels will offer space for retail and restaurants, with a surrounding public plaza. Over that, the building starts to widen for office space, and then starts to lean to the north to generate terraced gardens to the south, an orientation that benefits the residential apartments on that portion of the building. At the top, the hotel will have a great view of the city.

Fig 082.Elevation 87


Fig 083. view of the units

Fig 084. Site Plan 88


Fig 085. Plans of the units

Fig 086. Section shows the functions 89


Fig 087. Level 5 Plan

Fig 088. Level 15 Plan 90


Fig 089. Level 10 Plan

Fig 090. Level 19 Plan 91


Fig 091. Section

Fig 092. structure diagram

Fig 093. Model Detail 92


1. Underground parking 2. Plaza 3. Core 4. Pixel units

Fig 094.

93


Fig 095.the constellation of pixels allow for flexibility in function.Here is an illustration of how the program in the building ciuld transform according to market forces

Fig 096. Programme Flexibility Diagram

Fig 097.how the architect reach the shape of the building 94


Fig 098. Light, Views and Terraces Diagram

Fig 099. Stacking Diagram 95


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Aqua Tower in Chicago

Type: Hotel Residential Architectural style: Modern architecture Location: Chicago, Illinois Address: 225 N. Columbus Drive Coordinates: 41°53′11″N 87°37′12″WCoordinates: 41°53′11″N 87°37′12″W Construction started: 2007 Completed: 2009 Cost: US$300 million Owner : Aqua Realty Holdings LLC Height : 261.8 m (859 ft)

Aqua—a new, eighty-two-story apartment tower in the center of Chicago—is made of the same tough, brawny materials as most skyscrapers: metal, concrete, and lots of glass. But the architect, Jeanne Gang, a fortyfive-year-old Chicagoan, has figured out a way to give it soft, silky lines, like draped fabric. She started with a fairly conventional rectangular glass slab, then transformed it by wrapping it on all four sides with waferthin, curving concrete balconies, describing a different shape on each floor. Gang turned the façade into an undulating landscape of bending, flowing concrete, as if the wind were blowing ripples across the surface of the building. You know this tower is huge and solid, but it feels malleable, its exterior pulsing with a gentle rhythm. 97


The building would be an achievement for any architect, but Gang, who has run her own firm since 1997, had never designed a skyscraper before and happened into this one almost by accident. A couple of years ago, she was seated at a dinner next to Jim Lowenberg, a developer who had built a number of mediocre condominium towers in a huge development over the old Illinois Central rail yards, known as Lakeshore East. A prime site in the project remained, Lowenberg told her, and he envisioned doing something more ambitious there. He liked Gang and offered her a shot. A lot of attention—in Chicago, at least—has been given to the fact that Aqua is the tallest building in the world designed by a woman. That’s nice for Gang, but beside the point, and dwelling on it leads too easily to predictable interpretations of skyscrapers as symbols of male identity. Gang’s achievement has more to do with freeing us from such silliness. Her building is most compelling as an example of architecture that is practical and affordable enough to please real-estate developers and stirring enough to please critics. Not many buildings like that get made at any height, or by architects of either gender. Furthermore, the success of Aqua isn’t just that Gang figured out a smart, low-budget way of turning an ordinary glass condo tower into something that looks exciting. The design is anchored in common sense in two ways that aren’t immediately apparent, making the building, from a technical point of view, even more remarkable than it looks. The balcony overhangs of the fa çade serve an environmental purpose, shading apartments from the hot summer sun. More ingenious still, they protect the building from the force of wind, one of the most difficult challenges in skyscraper engineering. The landscape of rolling hills and valleys created by the balconies effectively confuses the heavy Chicago winds, giving them no clear path. Fig 100. Real view 98


The wind is broken up so much that the building didn’t require a device known as a “tuned mass damper”—a mass weighing hundreds of tons that engineers place at the top of tall buildings to stabilize them against the vibrations and sway caused by the force of wind. And using the curves to dissipate the wind gave Gang a bonus: she was able to put balconies on every floor, all the way up. Usually, condominiums sixty or seventy floors above the street don’t have balconies, because it’s just too windy up there to go outside.

Balconies

Aqua is in essence a conventional tower but its balconies, which have a unique design for each of the apartments, give the building a remarkable silhouette. The balconies of the Aqua tower in Chicago The balconies The pattern of undulating balconies, from the tower’s base all the way up to the top, make for an interesting façade. The effect is especially beautiful when seen up close, when it looks almost like waves in the ocean, which explains the tower’s name.

Fig 101. Uniqe design of Balconies

The balconies don’t just create a nice visual effect, but serve other purposes as well. They break up the wind streams so that the tower needs less resistance against the strong Chicago wind. As a result the skyscraper does not need a tuned mass damper to stabilize the building against vibrations and sways caused by wind forces. The balconies that protrude 2 to 12 feet (60cm to 3.6 meter) outward also allow for wide views of the area, giving more residents views of Michigan Lake and the Chicago River. The balconies are shaped in such a way that they casting large shades on the apartments below, reducing the energy costs. The areas without balconies have a special reflective glass cladding, again reducing the need for air conditioning

Fig 102.Balconies extension 99


The tower is set on a rather bland two-story platform which is well integrated at the street level. On top of the platform is a large green roof terrace with a running track, gardens and an outdoor pool. Planters along the street repeat the wavy design of the tower’s balconies.

AWARDS

2010 International Highrise Award Finalist, Deutsches Architekturmuseum 2010 Honor Award, Distinguished Building, AIA Chicago 2009 Skyscraper of the Year, Emporis 2009 Annual Design Review Honorable Mention, Architect Magazine 2009 “Proggy” Award, PETA 2008 American Architecture Award, Chicago Athenaeum Museum of Architecture & Design The Aqua Tower, rising up in a dance of ever-changing concrete forms, is very different from its neighbours. Seen from the sidewalk, it really does have the look of a multi-layered Lake Michigan rock for-

Fig 103.Master plan

mation, albeit one that towers above the city. This is a Chicago landmark that has broken out of the citywide straitjacket of right angles and smooth surfaces – as if Gaudi had taken up skyscraper design, or a spinning ballerina had morphed into a building. It all began three years ago at a dinner following a Frank Gehry lecture in Chicago. Gang found herself sitting with architect and developer James R Loewenberg, who asked her to take a preliminary design for his Aqua Tower and make it sing. She jumped at the chance. After all, at 819ft, the Aqua Tower would be the world’s biggest skyscraper designed by a woman (or, to be more precise, the tallest building in the world designed by a female-run architectural practice).

Fig 104.Diagrams 100


Fig 105.Facade Diagram

Fig 106.Facade Diagram 101


Skyscrapers are traditionally seen as an expression of overbearing male libido, a sort of mine’s-tallerthan-yours competition. So, even today, it is a surprise to find a woman building so swagskyscraper, even if I never do one again.”

A tower that’s bird-friendly

In Chicago’s impoverished south side, her practice has built a much-admired community centre for foster children, and is working on an environmental centre, which rises in a happy weave of recycled materials from a site – part industrial wasteland, part natural wilderness – close to a Ford assembly plant. Gang likes working within an astute economy of means and materials. “Because of the nature of the sites and limited budgets, we’re making the building out of what’s available locally,” she says. “We’re like birds making nests.” As it happens, Gang is immensely fond of birds. In the design of the Aqua Tower, she has paid careful attention to the way birds see – or don’t see – sheer glass walls, helping them to avoid fatal collisions. (A building with a complex facade is much safer for them, as are irregular window bars; birds pick up on the irregularity.) In her office, Gang has a number of bird’s nests lined up on a window sill; she says she admires their spare, essential beauty. Studio Gang is on to something here: a creative fusion of nature, found materials, inventive engineering, and a matter-of-fact environmental awareness. And, of course, style. Even if the Aqua Tower, the glamorous, dancing skyscraper that will make Jeanne Gang an international name, is not typical of her studio’s work, it is a mighty bird’s nest of sorts, an urban rock face for people with a fondness for heights to nest in. Infused with a big mid-western spirit, Gang’s architecture promises to soar in the

Fig 107.Continous Balconies

coming years, whether built close to the ground and down to a budget, or 82 storeys up into the skies above Chicago.

Fig 108.Site plan 102


Fig 109. Balconies view

Fig 110.Facade Diagram 103


Fig 111.Facade analysis 104


Fig 112. Section 105


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Ardmore Residence © Iwan Baan Architects: UNStudio Location: Singapore Design Team: Ben van Berkel, Wouter de Jonge and Holger Hoffmann, Imola Berczi, Christian Bergmann, Aurelie Hsiao, Juergen Heinzel, Derrick Diporedjo, Nanang Santoso, Joerg Petri, Kristin Sandner, Katrin Zauner, Arne Nielsen Area: 5,625 sqm Year: 2013

The Ardmore Residence at 7 Ardmore Park in Singapore is located in a prime location close to the Orchard Road luxury shopping district and enjoys both expansive views of the panoramic cityscape of Singapore City and the vast green areas of its immediate western and eastern surroundings. Living landscape The primary concept for the design of the 36 storey, 17.178 m² residential tower is a multi-layered architectural response to the natural landscape inherent to the ‘Garden City’ of Singapore. This landscape concept is integrated into the design by means of four large details: the articulation of the facade, which through its detailing creates various organic textures and patterns; expansive views across the city made possible by large glazed areas, bay windows and double-height balconies; the interior ‘living landscape’ concept adopted for the design of the two apartment types and the introduction of transparency and connectivity to the ground level gardens by means of a raised structure supported by an open framework.

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The facade of the Ardmore Residence is derived from micro-design features which interweave structural elements, such as bay windows and balconies into one continuous line. The faรงade pattern is repeated for every four storys of the building, whilst rounded glass creates columnfree corners, visually merging the internal spaces with the external balconies. Intertwining lines and surfaces wrap the apartments, seamlessly incorporating sun screening, whilst also ensuring that the inner qualities of the apartments and the outer appearance of the building together form a unified whole. From a distance the tower appears to adopt vastly divergent contours when viewed from different perspectives, whilst from close by the various openings in the concrete panels of the facade affect a sense of organic mutation and transition as you move around the building.

Textured facade The facade of the Ardmore Residence is derived from micro-design features which interweave structural elements, such as bay windows and balconies into one

Fig113. large windows and double height balconies

continuous line. The faรงade pattern is repeated for every four storys of the building, whilst rounded glass creates column-free corners, visually merging the internal spaces with the external balconies. Intertwining lines and surfaces wrap the apartments, seamlessly incorporating sun screening, whilst also ensuring that the inner qualities of the apartments and the outer appearance of the building together form a unified whole. From a distance the tower appears to adopt vastly divergent contours when viewed from different perspectives, whilst from close by the various openings in the concrete panels of the facade affect a sense of organic mutation and transition as you move around the building.

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Fig114. View through the large windows from the inside


Inside-outside landscape The apartments in the Ardmore Residence embody the idea of a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;living landscapeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Functional spaces are redefined and extended into the living landscape concept, offering the possibility for versatile functionality for the occupants. An indoor-outdoor living experience is achieved through the inclusion of large windows and double height balconies in all of the residences. These elements enable a wide variety of views across Singapore City, while the large vertical balconies additionally offset the horizontality of the more private interior spaces. With the terrace spaces integrated into every-day internal living scenarios, the living landscape promotes seamlessness between interior and exterior spaces. Bay window features on the façade create natural shading on the glass to minimize heat gain and provide welcome opportunity for planting by the residents.

109


The floor plan chosen for the 58 individual apartments is designed to increase the amount of daylight and take full advantage of the panoramic views, thereby creating an atmosphere of spaciousness in the dwellings. This floor plan is based on an analysis of Renaissance villa prototypes – and the concept of a “cours d’honneur” as in between space which enable visual links between different parts of one and the same house. In the design for the Ardmore Residence this concept is appropriated and translated in order to allow for visual interconnection between specific areas within the apartments. This concept furthermore increases privacy for sleeping rooms and adds a four-dimensional aspect to the layout, as both wings can operate separately, service different needs and be active at different

Fig115. Detail of the Facade system

times of the day.

Continuous landscape The first residential level of the Ardmore Residence is located on the eighth storey of the building. An open framework is therefore introduced at the base of the raised tower which enables full connectivity and transparency across the ground level landscaping, while simultaneously organising the shared amenity facilities. Whilst building regulations in Singapore specify both the height and area of high-rise buildings, views are also deemed to be essential for the occupants. The raised design of the Ardmore Residence therefore integrally incorporates these set parameters to take full advantage of the potential they afford to optimise the design concept and simultaneously create a fully integrated living and leisure landscape for its occupants. Fig116. Detail of the Facade system

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Fig117. Plan

111


Fig 118. Section

Fig 119. Master Plan

112


Fig 120. Detail of the unrolled facade

Fig 121. Diagram shows the units types 113


Fig 122. Real View

Fig 123. Inside-outside landscape

114


Fig 124. Textured facade

Fig 125. Textured facade

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Executive Towers

General information Status :Complete Type: 10 residential 1 commercial 1 hotel Location: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Opening: 2010 Design and construction Architect: WS Atkins & Partners Developer: Dubai Properties

The Executive Towers is a complex of 12 towers in Business Bay development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. They comprise 10 residential towers, one commercial tower known as Aspect Tower, and one hotel tower known as the Executive Hotel Tower. They are the first buildings to be completed in Business Bay, and are located near its entrance. A three-storey podium connects all the towers in addition to the nearby Vision Tower, which is going to be connected by a special passage.The first two levels of the podium comprise Bay Avenue shopping mall, with retail space of 175,000 square feet (16,300 m2) and water-front terraces.The third level (Plaza Level) is called The Courtyard, it contains communal facilities, landscaped plazas, childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s play areas, fountain yards, courtyards, and covered walking arcades.

117


High Standards of the executive tower: The high standard of living in The Executive Towers is reflected in the beauty of the architectural design implemented for the buildings. The theme for the towers is the modern city of Dubai looking to the future of technology, business and living. The apartments come with high tech compatible spaces as well as international styles of interior design. Externally, they have lush landscaped courtyards and gardens which provide a tranquil residence no matter where you are in the community. You can choose from studio through four bedroom apartments and various levels of luxury in duplexes, apartments and penthouses. High Standards of the executive tower: The high standard of living in The Executive Towers is reflected in the beauty of the architectural design implemented for the buildings. The theme for the towers is the modern city of Dubai looking to the future of technology, business and living

Fig 126. Site plan

Business Bay is already set to become the Manhattan of Dubai and The Executive Towers residential building is located right in the heart of this area. Living and working in a progressive business area has never been more luxurious. The Executive Towers are located on Sheikh Zayed Road which is just a short drive from the Dubai International Financial Center, Jumeirah Beach and Dubai Mall. This cluster of 11 residential towers has all the comforts of home as well as the benefits of living in an upscale community. High Standards of the executive tower: The high standard of living in The Executive Towers is reflected in the beauty of the architectural design implemented for the buildings. The theme for the towers is the modern city of Dubai looking to the future of technology, business and living.

Fig 127. the facade of the towers 118


The apartments come with high tech compatible spaces as well as international styles of interior design. Externally, they have lush landscaped courtyards and gardens which provide a tranquil residence no matter where you are in the community. You can choose from studio through four bedroom apartments and various levels of luxury in duplexes, apartments and penthouses.

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fig 128. real view

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Name Heightmetres / ft Floors Executive Tower M 210 / 689 52 Executive Tower B 190 / 623 47 Executive Tower K 186 / 610 46 Executive Tower H 182 / 597 45 Executive Tower L 182 / 597 45 Executive Tower G 170 / 558 42 Executive Tower J 170 / 558 42 Aspect Tower 135 / 443 39 East Heights One 120 / 394 30 Executive Tower E 118 / 387 29 Executive Hotel Tower 114 / 374 28 Executive Tower C 114 / 347 28


Executive Towers - Business Bay

Fig 129. F10 - 1 Bedroom - 1214 sq ft

Fig 132. F23 - 2 Bedroom - 1547 sq ft

Fig 130. F20 - 2 Bedroom - 1735 sq ft

Fig 133. F31 - 3 Bedroom - 1809 sq ft

Fig 131 .F21 - 2 Bedroom - 1317 sq ft

Fig 134 .4 Bedroom - 2865 sq ft

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Burj Damac

Fig 138.Floors 16 Fig 135 .Floors 3-6 & 9-15

Fig 136 .Floors 7

Fig 137. .Floors 8

Fig 139 .Floors 17-20

121


Clayton Residency

Fig 140 .Floor Layout - 2-15

Fig 141 .Floor Layout - 17-20

122


Fairview Residence

Fig 142 .Floor Layout - 2-15

Fig 143 .Floor Layout - 2-15

123


Fig 144 .Floor Layout - 2-15

Fig 145 . Floor Layout - 2-15

124


Hamilton Residence

Churchill Residency

Fig 147.1 Bedroom - 813 sq ft

Fig 146. Floor Layout - 2-15

Fig 148.1 Bedroom - 983 sq ft

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Fig 149.1 Bedroom - 1031 sq ft


126


EDITT Tower Singapore Architect : T.R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn Bhd Client: URA (Urban Redevelopment Authority) Singapore (Sponsor) EDITT (Ecological Design in The Tropics) (Sponsor) NUS (National University of Singapore) (Sponsor) Location: Junction of Waterloo Road and Victoria Street, Singapore Nos. of Storeys: 26 Date Start:1998 (Competition: design) Completion Date: Pending Areas: Total gross area: 6,033 sqm Total nett area: 3,567.16 sqm Total area of plantation: 3,841.34 sqm Site Area: 838 sqm Plot Ratio: 7.1

Singapore’s 26 storey EDITT Tower, designed by architects T R Hamzah & Yeang, is being created to rehabilitate an urban, non-organic site, classified as ‘zero-culture’ where the natural ecosystem has been completely devastated. Besides meeting their client’s practical requirements for a tower for use as retail, exhibition and auditorium use, the design is very much an ecological design. The unique feature of this scheme is the well-planted facades and vegetated terraces that surround the building. The design approach enables ecological succession to take place and to balance the existent inorganic nature of the site. The vegetation areas are designed to be continuous and to ramp upwards from the ground to the uppermost floor. Importantly the planting of the tower uses indigenous plants so as not to compete with the existing species of the locality.

127


The ramps are used to create a continuous spatial flow from street level to the floors of the city’s high rise towers and high-level bridge-linkages are added to connect to neighbouring buildings for greater urbanconnectivity. The tower’s green credentials continue inside the tower with ecological features including water self-sufficiency through rainwater-collection and grey-water reuse at over 55% and the design optimises recovery and recycling of sewage waste through the creation of compost and bio-gas fuel. The EDITT tower will also achieve almost 40% energy self-sufficiency through a system of solar panels. The EDITT Towers won the 1998 competition for Ecological Design in the Tropics and the building will be realized at the junction of Waterloo Road and Middle Road in Singapore.

Building Typology Fig 150. planting concept the design for the 26 story EDITT Tower, is a hybrid form that fulfls the client’s requirments for an expo Tower. the overall programme of uses is initially defined by the nature of an expo event and includes retail areas.exibition spaces and auditorium uses as well as more conventional open office spaces on the upper level, but its design allows furure transformation to ofoices or apartments.

Social Function In creating vertical places,the design brings street life to the building’s upper-parts through wide landscapedramps upwords from street-levels .Ramps are lined with street-activities(stalls, shops, cafes, performance spaces, viewing desks , et), up to the 6 floors. Ramps create a continuous spatial flow from public to less public, as a vertical extension of the street theraby eliminating the problematic stratification of floors inhearent in all tall buildings typology.

Fig 151. waste recycling

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Materials Used The architect have completed a study of the embodied energy and greenhouse-das efficiency of the building materials, especially the solar ponels due to their payback in energy during the life of the building and recyclable building materials such as steel and aluminum. Comppsite timberfloor casseettes will replace the commonly used concrete floors to achieve gains in energy-efficient construction.

Construction Method

Aspects of the potential life cycle of a skyscraper have been taken into account, ensuring that the building can flexibily adapt to alternative uses and that materials can be easily recovered during refitting. Techniques used in the IDITT project include removable floors and mechanically jointed (as opposed to bonded) construction. Fig 152. rainwater collection Sewage Recycling

The design optimises recovery and recycling of sewage waste. Sewage is treated to create compost (fertilizer for use elsewhere) or bio-gas fuel.

Building Materials Recycling and Reuse Design has an in-built waste-management system. Recycleable materials are separated at source by hoppers at every floor. These drop-down to the basement waste-separators, then taken elsewhere by recycling garbage collection for recycling. The building is designed to have mechanically-joined connections of materials and its structural connections to facilitate future reuse and recycling at the end of

Fig 153. waste seperation system

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buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s useful-life.


Embodied Energy and CO2

Embodied-energy studies of the building are useful to indicate the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental impacts. Subsequently, estimates of CO2 emissions arising from building materials production may be made. Energy sources affect CO2 emissions associated with embodied-energy. If the majority of energy sources is petroleum-related (with some gas and electricity), 80 kg CO2 per GJ of energy averages. The building here is associated with emissions of c. 11.5 thousand tonnes CO2. Embodied-energy ratio to gross floor area (GJ/m2 GFA) is generally between 6 and 8, but may be more depending on methodology used. The designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ratio is at the high end (@ 14.2 GJ/m2 GFA) but differs from others since using solar-panels having high embodied-energy will significantly offset operational-energy saved over building-life. High embodied-energy materials used (e.g. aluminium and steel) are however easily recycleable and therefore halving their embodiedenergy when reused. Replacing concrete floors with composite timber-floors casettes will reduce embodied-energy by c. 10,000 GJ. enerating Energy

The EDITT tower will achive almost 40% energy selfsufficiency through a system of solar panels.

Fig 154.use of Ambient Energy

comfort levels for ocoupats will be ensured by a mixture of options.including architectural elements designed to direct wind for ventilation and ceiling fans with water misters to minimize refrigerant based air conditioning. Building Efficiency

Vegetation from the street-level spirals upwards as a continuous ecosystem facilitating ambient cooling of the facades.

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Fig 155. planting facade

Fig 156. solar energy panels

131


Air Consumption

wind is used to create internal comditions of comfort by “wind walls” that a placed parallel to the prevailing wind to direct wind to internal spaces and sky courts for comfort cooling. Air Technology

The options for the M&E servicing modes for any ecological building are: Possitive mode Background (mixed) mode Full (specializaed) mode The design here optimizes on the locality’s biaclimatic responses using “mixed mode” M&E servicing . Mechanical air-conditioning and artificial-lighting systems are reduced. Ceiling-fans with demisters are used for low-energy comfort-cooling.

Fig 157. ecosystem elements

Multi Performance

The site is un urban “zero culture” site and is essentially a devastateed ecosystem with little of its original top soil, flora and fauna remaining. The design approach is to re-habilitate this with organic mass to enable ecologic succession to take place and to balance the existing non-organic urban site. The uniqe design feature of this scheme is in the wellplanted facades and vegetated-terraces which have green areas that approximate the gross useable-areas of the rest of the building. The vegetation areas are designed to be continous and to ramp upwards from the ground plane to the ground plan to the uppermost floor in a linked landscaped ramp. Fig 158. the composition of the ecosystem

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Design begane with mapping the indigenous planting within a 1 mile radius vicinity of the site to identity species to be incorporated in the design that will not complete with the indigenous species. Water self-sufficiency (by rainwater-collection and greywater reuse) in the tower is at 55.1% Rainwatercollection system comprises of “roof-catchment-pan” and layers of “scallops” located at the building’s facade to catch rainwater running off its sides. Water flows through gravity-fed water-puriflication system, using soil-bed fillters. Water & Nutrient Management

Sewage will be reclaimed to fertilizer and built in waste hoppers will drop separated waste streams to the basement to facilitate recycling.

Fig 159. conceptual view

133


Fig 160. plans of the 5th & 6th floors

Fig 161. plans of the 9th & 10th floors

134


Fig 162. plans of the 21th & 25th & 26th floors

Fig 163. section

135


Fig 164. model shots

Fig 165. complet sectin

136


137


138


Futuristic Library Style Encouraging Social Interaction In Edmonton,Canada

Architects: Hughes Condon Marler and Dub Architects Location: Edmonton,Canada Date of completion: December 2012

The design collaboration between Hughes Condon Marler and Dub Architects led to the development of Jasper Place Branch Library, a project recently completed in Edmonton, Canada. The aim of the new construction was to create “a sustainable design to fulfill present and future library needs and uses, to welcome all demographics and to accommodate future reorganizations of the collection and reading areas”. The massive contemporary building replaces a small library which was located on the same site. design project jasper place Futuristic Library Design Encouraging Social Interaction in Edmonton,Canada Share on FacebookTweetComment The futuristic project displays an irregular shape, with an impressive glass facade and an original undulating roof. The inner spaces encourage social interaction, by “incorporating a continuous raised floor that allows for flexibility over time and eliminating the need for services at the roof level. Stairs (one of which also acts as both social space and informal amphitheater) are located at each end of the upper level and form a continuous circulation loop”, explained the architects.

139


Fig 166.part of the facade

Fig 168. main elevation

Fig 176. part of the facade shows the opining shape

Fig 169. back elevation

140


Fig 170. part of the facade

Fig 171. real view

Fig 172. real view

141


Fig 173. intirior shot

Fig 174. intirior shot

142


Fig 175. intirior shot

Fig 176.part of the facade

Fig 177. intirior shot

Fig 178. intirior shot

143


144


River Heights Pavilion Architects: People’s Architecture Office Location: Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Principal: Hezhe, James Shen, Zangfeng Project Team: Zhang minghui, Liu xiujuan, Jennifer Tran Area: 1,800 sqm Year: 2012 Photographs: Courtesy of People’s Architecture Office

From the architect. The River Heights Pavilion is situated on the outskirts of Taiyuan along the edge of its famous Fen River. As the capital of Shanxi province, Taiyuan is an example of a second tier Chinese city developing at break neck speed. The River Heights Pavilion is built on a typical blank slate site, yet counters the trend of low density housing developments. It is an urban project located in the middle of suburbia. Courtesy of People’s Architecture Office Within this empty context, the urban environment is most effectively rendered within the building’s interior, as spaces are organized to afford unique relationships between various activities. For example, imagine standing in the lobby watching a performance, beyond which is a lounging couple in the courtyard, while above, office workers leave their desks to join a party in the adjoining roof deck.

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The design of the River Heights Pavilion consists of linear blocks of varying lengths that are replicated and arranged to fit the boundaries of the site. Each block houses a unique programmatic element, such as exhibition, lounge, and office. In form, the blocks alternate between single and double story heights, while interiors alternate between cool and warm materials and finishes. Courtesy of People’s Architecture Office This organization provides two completely different spatial experiences. Looking down the length of an individual block, one views the depth of a unified space

Fig 179. landscape design is an undulating extension

extending uninterrupted to the exterior landscape. In

of linear blocks

contrast, turning 90 degrees, one’s view penetrates diagonally through discrete layers of shallow spaces that reveal various activities juxtaposed horizontally and vertically. Furthermore, there is a stacking of views through the interior, exterior, and interior and exterior again. Courtesy of People’s Architecture Office The landscape design is an undulating extension of these linear blocks, each grassy strip separated by corten steel.

Fig 180. Interior Shot

Fig 181. Interior Shot

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Fig 182. Elevation

Fig 183. Elevation

Fig 184. landscape design

147


Fig 185. Three dimensional Section

Fig 186. Section

Fig 187. Elevation

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Fig 188. First floor plan

Fig 189. Second floor plan

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Fig 190.Perspective

Fig 191. Real view

Fig 192. Real view

150


151


Chapter 03. Building Programs


Herzog & de meuron: Beirut terraces

terraces

Beirut Terraces rethinks the concept of the skyscraper, creating a vertical vilage composed of thin, elegant plan forms layerd in a playful formation. By offering lavish outdoor spaces, breath taking views, and meticulously composed lofts.

Bedrooms

the apartments range from 250 sqm to 1050 sqm, and comes in the form of simplexes, dublexes, and town-

house. terraces range from 280 sqm to 400 sqm. The tower rising on 65% of the surface area. 132 living units. All apartments share a single large lobby. Surrounded by a 2000 sqm shallow body of water accessed from four separate circulation cores.

Livingroms

five different modular floor slabs used in varying combination to create a mixture of overhangs and terraces. 129 single, dublex and townhouse apatments will be available arranged in different clusters through out the tower. The project is founded on five principles: layers and terraces,inside and outside,vegetation, views and privacy,light and identity. The apartment generally consist of three areas:a reception, private living space,and a service area. The reception opens to a foyer and leads to a grand living room with a spacious area for entertaining, a dinning area, and a generous viewing terrace. The private space features a family living room and bedrooms including ensuite bathrooms and walking closets. The service area includes a kitchen with storage and lundry room attached and a maidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom with bathroom. All the main spaces like living room and bedrooms consistently provide a generous clear hight of 34 meters.

dinning

private livimg

Kitchens storage corridors bathroom Entrance

Core

Steam shopping facilities Pool

Massage rooms

Spa

154

Parking


Fig 193. Beirut terraces

155


No Space 1 parking 2 Apartments

3 4 5 6 7

8

Services

simplexes

reception living room dinning bed room walkin closet kitchen bath room storage corridors Terraces

Users 200

Area(sqm)No of areas Total area 2809 4 11236

4 4 4 2 2 4 4 1 4

21 69.5 11.7 25 6.5 24 7.6 6.5 19

Total area duplexes reception 7 13 living room 7 40 dinning 7 25 Master bed room 2 32 private living room 5 24.5 bed room 2 25 walkin closet 2 3.5 kitchen 7 38 storage 1 14.5 bath room 2 5.5 corridors 18.5 Terraces Total area Town house reception 10 60 living room 1 100 dinning 10 20 Master bed room 2 33 private living room 7 60 bed room 2 27 walkin closet 2 5.5 kitchen 7 33 storage 11 bath room 2 9.5 corridors 52 Terraces Total area Total area of Housing Core elevators+stairs 290 Retail 500 Steam 200 Massage rooms 280 Spa 280 Pool

Total area of all functions

Table 01. Program table of Beirut Terraces

156

195

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

1 1

1 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 1

1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 4

21 69.5 11.7 25 6.5 24 15.2 6.5 19 70 250 13 40 25 32 24.5 50 10.5 38 14.5 16.5 18.5 100 400 60 160 20 33 60 81 11 33 11 38 52 500 1050 72400

26 1 500 1 200 280 1 280

1 195

7540

29631


Fig 194. Beirut terraces

157


TORRE CUAJIMALPA HELICOID GARDENS Terraces

36 story residential tower Area: 25,000 square meters aprox. The concept challenges posed by the inclusion of large landscaped areas and trees at each level framed the requirements of a complex 3 dimensional puzzle which would; Enable enought height between levels for trees to grow and for the penetration of daylight into the apartments. Maintain privacy and minimize overlooking between levels, Include gardens without building extra floor-space. Systematize the many con-

living room

flicting requirements into a proposal consistent with local construction techniques and the development model. The residential tower provides the family the luxury of living in an apartment building without sacrificing the comfort of a backyard. Gardens located on every level try to break with the dichotomy between

Bedroom

land and building, and, more importantly, provide an area that is attractive and functional for the family members.

storage

Each floor plan is organized around a single apartment type that is 400 square meters with a gardened extension of approximately 160 square meters. By

bathroom

rotating the apartments 90 degrees at successive levels, the gardens sit above the cantilevered bed-

Dinning

rooms of the apartment below.

Kitchen Core

Pool

158

Parking


Fig 195. Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens

159


No Space Services Users Area(sqm) No of areas Total area 1 parking 100 400 4 1600 2 Apartments living room 6 90 1 90 dinning 6 31 1 31 Master bed room 2 56 1 56 kitchen 4 24 1 24 bath room 2 19 2 38 storage 1 9 1 9 Terraces 100 Total area of each apartment 400 Total area of Apartments 14400 3 Core elevators+stairs 31 1116 4 Pool 70 400 1 400 5 Terraces 10 100 36 3600 Total Area of all functions 17516 Table 02. Program table of Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens

160


Fig 196. Torre Cuajimalpa Helicoid Gardens

161


Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT

retail

hotel

The 116 metre tall tower will include apartments, a ho-

bathrooms kitchen

tel, retail, offices, and a public park and plaza. The stacked building consists of “pixels”, each 60 me-

livingrooms

tres square, which are arranged around the central

bedrooms

housing

core of the building. These ‘pixels’ are each 60m2 square and arranged around the central core of the building, which for flexi-

offices

bility consists of three bundled cores allowing separate access to the different program segments. The constellation of the pixels allows flexibility in function; the building can be transformed by market forces, however at this moment it is foreseen to include 970m2 retail, 15,800m2 offices, 3,650m2 housing and 2,000m2 hotel and a basement of 13,600m2 containing parking and storage.

Meeting rooms

It´s interesting to see the structural approach for this new typology, the inner core -actually 3 cores to access the different program segments- is made out of concrete, with the units wrapping it around on a steel structure.

offices baths

offices circulation

Something interesting in times like this, is that the building allows for different configurations responding to unstable markets, flexibility achieved by re-designating these 60sqm units.

housing circulation hotel circulation storage

The lower levels will offer space for retail and restaurants, with a surrounding public plaza. Over that, the building starts to widen for office space, and then starts to lean to the north to generate terraced gardens to the south, an orientation that benefits the residential apartments on that portion of the building. At the top, the hotel will have a great view of the city.

162

Parking


Fig 197. Rødovre Skyscraper

163


No Space Services Users Area(sqm) No of areas Total area 1 parking 1000 10000 1 10000 2 Apartments living room 6 90 1 90 dinning 6 31 1 31 Master bed room 2 56 1 56 kitchen 4 24 1 24 bath room 2 19 2 38 storage 1 9 1 9 Total area of each apartment 400 Total area of Housing 3650 3 Offices meeting rooms 500 25 120 3000 workshop 150 50 100 5000 offices 350 20 350 7000 Auditorium 200 800 1 800 Total area of the offices 15800 4 Retail 200 970 1 970 5 Hotel 100 2000 1 2000 6 Storage 3600 1 3600 7 Core 1000 14400 14400 Total area of all functions 50420 Table 03. Program table of Rødovre Skyscraper

Fig 198. Rødovre Skyscraper entrance

164


Fig 199. Rødovre Skyscraper

Fig 200. Rødovre Skyscraper pixels

165


Aqua Tower in Chicago balconies

Floor count : 82 ,1 below ground Floor area: 1,990,635 sq ft (184,936.0 m2) Lifts/elevators : 24

bedrooms

Aqua is an 82 story mixed-use residential skyscraper in the Lakeshore East development in downtown Chicago, Illinois.Designed by a team led by Jeanne Gang of Studio Gang Architects, at 859 ft (262 m) tall. Livingrooms

It includes one level of parking below ground. The buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eighty-story, 140,000 sq ft (13,000 m2) base is topped by a 82,550 sq ft (7,669 m2) terrace with

Dinning

gardens, gazebos, pools, hot tubs, a walking/running track and a fire pit. Each floor covers approximately 16,000 sq ft (1,500

Kitchen

m2).The Aqua was named the Emporis Skyscraper

Bathrooms

Award 2009 skyscraper of the year, and was shortlisted in 2010 for the biannual International Highrise

Entrance

Award. Core

The building contains 55,000 sq ft (5,100 m2) of retail and office space, in addition to 215 hotel rooms (floors 1-18), 476 rental residential units (floors 19-52), and 263 condominium units & Penthouses (floors 53-81). Aqua is the first downtown building to combine condos, apartments and a hotel. Strategic Hotels & Resorts had agreed to acquire the

hotel units

first 15 floors of hotel space upon completion of the building, but terminated its $84 million contract for the space in August 2008, citing significant changes in the economic environment. Sustainability was an important factor in Aquaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design. Gang and her team refined the terrace exten-

Offices

sions to maximize solar shading, and other sustainable features will include rainwater collection systems

Retail

and energy-efficient lighting. The green roof on top of the tower base will be the largest in Chicago. The tower will seek LEED certification.

166

Parking

rental residential units


Fig 201. Aqua Tower

167


No Space Services Users Area(sqm) No of areas Total area 1 parking 120 1500 3 4500 2 Apartments living room 6 32 1 32 dinning 6 17 1 17 Master bed room 2 30 1 30 bed rom 2 19 1 19 kitchen 4 21.5 1 21.5 bath room 2 8 2 16 storage 1 6 1 6 Total area of each apartment 141.5 Total area of Housing 49500 3 Offices 200 3100 1 3100 4 Retail 400 2000 1 2000 5 Hotel 300 27000 1 27000 6 Terrace with garden 1000 7669 1 7669 7 Core 1000 2296 2296 Total area of all functions 96065 Table 04. Program table of Aqua Tower

Fig 202. Aqua Tower

168


Fig 203. Aqua Tower balconies design

Fig 204. Aqua Tower balconies view

Fig 205. Aqua Tower

169


170


171


Human Scale and Standards - Bed rooms standers

172


- Dinning rooms standers

173


- Entrance standers

174


- Kitchen standers

175


- Storage standers

- Bathroom standers

176


- House orientation

177


Programs for My project

Dubai sustainable high-rise housing in a 40 story residential skyscraper, at (170 m) tall. Consist of 120 residential units. Based on the analysis of the Precedents’ Programs I’ve figured out the required functions which form the hole residential skyscraper. In fact, the main function is the housing part, which will covers all the common family sizes in United Arab Emirates. I have broken down the residential units into three kinds of apartments: First, The Simplex: 50 units of the skyscraper units, for 2 users, consisting of Living room open to the entrance, bed room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. Second, The Duplex: 50 units of the skyscraper units, for 5 users, consisting of Reception, Living room, Private living room, Master bed room, two single bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, two bathrooms, storage and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. Third, The Townhouse: 20 units of the skyscraper units, for 7 users, consisting of Reception, Living room, Private living room, Master bed room, three bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, three bathrooms, storage and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. In addition, the skyscraper will contain all the functions which required for the inhabitants of the tower. For example: Retail, Steam, Massage rooms, Spa and Pool.

178


1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

No

Space Services Users Area(sqm) No of areas Total area parking 650 2809 4 11236 Apartments simplexes reception 4 6 1 6 living room4 30 1 30 dinning 4 3 1 3 bed room 2 25 1 25 kitchen 4 9 1 9 bath room 4 4.25 1 4.25 storage 1 3 1 3 Terraces 20 Total area 100.25 duplexes reception 7 13 1 13 living room7 40 1 40 dinning 7 8 18 Master bed2room 25 1 25 private living 5 room 25 1 25 bed room 1 10 2 20 walkin closet 2 3 13 kitchen 7 12 1 12 storage 1 3 13 bath room 2 4.25 2 8.5 corridors 6 16 Terraces 54.3 Total area 217.8 Town house reception 10 20 1 20 living room1 60 1 60 dinning 10 15 1 15 Master bed2room 30 1 30 private living 7 room 30 1 30 bed room 2 25 3 75 walkin closet 2 3 39 kitchen 7 33 1 33 storage 5 15 bath room 2 6 4 24 corridors 10 10 Terraces 100 Total area 411 Total area of Housing 24122.5 Core elevators+stairs 290 26 7540 Retail 500 1 500 Steam 200 1 200 Massage rooms 280 280 Spa 280 1 280 Pool 195 1 195 Total area of all functions 33117.5

Table 05. Program table of My Project

179


180


181


Chapter 04. Site Analysis


1. Site Selection

I have broken down the site-selection process into the following topics: •

Location

Neighborhood Context

Choosing a site for a residential tower based on many

Infrastructure / Circulation

factors, i.e.: (nature-climate-man made-social and

Size and Zoning

economic) must be examined

Nature & Climate

Where to build and how to build on the site have an

Natural and Physical Features

impact on the local and global environments, also

Special features/uniqueness

physical and psychological well-being. With today’s dwindling resources and increasing pollution threats, concern for human and environmental health are causing me to take closer look to the tower practices starting with the site. The site have to be positioned in the community properly, and should be close to work, schools, shopping, etc. That’s will minimize travel distances and time. Short distances, sidewalks, bus stops and metro stations will allow for healthier modes of transportation. In addition, according to the skyscraper definition and purpose, I have to position it into an area which has the same characteristics of high density, wealth social community, proportions and vertical fabrics. When looking at locations I also consider the size of the area. I focused on metro areas also,I avoided small communities because I don’t think the demand is there. The main reason for this is that the small community typically has very relaxed zoning regulations and the land prices are not expensive enough. I specifically selected sites that has the right zoning classification and no restrictions before I consider any other property. The reason is two-fold: First, the site plan is very important to the Tower design because it has to be a part of the surrounding communities, Second, I need to feel more comfortable with what I have to do to develop the project and the hall area.

184


Fig 206. Site 01 : Bussiness bay - Dubai

Fig 207. Site 02 : Al Khan- Sharjah

Fig 208. Site 03 : Marina - Dubai 185


1-1. Site Alternative_01:

-Business Bay will cost AED 110 billion (USD 30 billion). Business Bay is a new Dubai free zone project that is in the planning and early construction stages. This freehold development, located near downtown Dubai,

Business Bay (Al-Khaleej Al-Tijari) is a central busi-

was conceived with the idea of creating a modern

ness district under construction in Dubai, United Arab

business area that will keep the City and Emirate as

Emirates.

the region’s business capital and help catapult it into

The project features numerous skyscrapers located in

the forefront of global business centers. Business Bay

an area where Dubai Creek will be dredged and ex-

will be a completely self contained business and living

tended. Business Bay will have upwards of 240 build-

center with modern office buildings and residences.

ings, comprising commercial and residential developments. The infrastructure of Business Bay has been completed in 2008, and the entire development is expected to be completed between 2012-2015.Business Bay is part of the vision of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashed Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President, Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, and Ruler of Dubai. Business Bay will be a new ‘city’ within the city of Dubai and is being built as a commercial, residential and business cluster along a new extension of Dubai Creek extending from Ras Al Khor to Sheikh Zayed Road. Covering an area of 64,000,000 square feet (5,900,000 m2), once completed it will comprise office and residential towers set in landscaped gardens with a network of roads, pathways and canals. It will become the region’s business capital as well as a freehold city. Development

The entire development covers an area of 46,900,000 sq ft (4,360,000 m2), and the gross leasable area is 78,500,000 sq ft (7,290,000 m2). The projected population of the entire development is more than 191,000, and the estimated population of employers and others is 110,000, making the total population more than 300,000. Commercial development will comprise 2,653,244 sq ft (246,494.4 m2), which is 18.5 percent of the entire development; mixed use development will comprise 8,520,368 sq ft (59.4 percent); and residential development will cover 3,163,628 sq ft (22.1 percent).

Fig 209. Macro map shows the Business bay location

186


Fig 210. Site 03 :Business bay - Dubai 187


1-2. Site Alternative_02:

Sharjah is the third largest emirate in the United Arab Emirates, and is the only one to have land on both the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The emirate covers 2,590 km² (1,003 mi²) which is equivalent to 3.3 per cent of the UAE’s total area, excluding the islands. It has a population of over 800,000 (2008). Al Khan is a southern suburb of the city of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The suburb is located on the Al Khan Bay, which serves as a boundary between Sharjah and Dubai. Al Khan Beach stretches out from the old village in Al Khan to Al Layyeh power station and it is one of the safest beaches in the UAE. This beach is very popular with the tourists and during the weekends and holidays. Brief History

Al Khan is a deserted coastal village south of Sharjah. Only a few old coral stone houses have survived the old settlement after the local residents abandoned the coastal village. In 2011, archaeological finds of neolithic and medieval times were made at Al Khan. Curioulsy, it seemed that the tradition of using the shoreline of Al khan for mooring fishing boats and enjoying a cookout, had been kept up for thousands of years from the neolithic age to the present day. The survey being carried out by the Maritime Archaeology Stewardship Trust, has recovered the remains of houses, courtyards, and remnants, which pointed to the place having roads or tracks in the ancient times. According to the Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture & Heritage, the project aims at conserving UAE’s coastal heritage.

188

Fig 211: Macro map shows Al Khan location


Fig 212. Site 02 :Al Khan - Sharjah

189


1-3. Site Alternative_03:

Dubai Marina Metro Station Dubai Marina has been connected through the Dubai Metroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s red line to the other places of Dubai. Dubai Marina is a rapid transit station on the Red Line of the Dubai Metro in Dubai. It opened on 30 April 2010

Dubai Marina is a district in Dubai, United Arab Emir-

as part of an extension to Ibn Battuta. Dubai Marina

ates. Dubai Marina is an artificial canal city, built along

station is located near Interchange 5 of Sheikh Za-

a two mile (3 km) stretch of Persian Gulf shoreline.

yed Road, around 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of

When the entire development is complete, it will ac-

Downtown Dubai.

commodate more than 120,000 people in residential

It lies to the east of the northern half of the Dubai Ma-

towers and villas. It is located on Interchange 5 be-

rina and to the west of the northern portion of Jumeirah

tween Jebel Ali Port and the area which hosts Dubai

Lake Towers.

Internet City, Dubai Media City, and the American University in Dubai. The first phase of this project has been

Dubai Marina station lies on a viaduct paralleling the

completed. Dubai Marina was inspired by the Concord

eastern side of Sheikh Zayed Road. It is categorised

Pacific Place development along False Creek in Van-

as a type 2 elevated station, indicating that there is an

couver, BC, Canada. Dubai Marina is also one of the

elevated concourse between street and platform level.

few places in Dubai where people from Western Eu-

Pedestrian access to the station is aided through walk-

rope form a majority.

ways above Sheikh Zayed Road, connecting to developments on either side of the road.

Development An Aerial view of Dubai MArina Towers, with Jumeirah Lake Towers in the background In order to create the man-made marina, the developers brought the waters of the Persian Gulf into the site of Dubai marina, creating a new waterfront. There is a large central waterway, excavated from the desert and running the length of the 3 km site.More than 12% of the total land area on the site has been given over to this central public space.Although much of this area is occupied by the marina water surface, it also includes almost 8 km of landscaped public walkways. The marina is entirely man-made and has been developed by the real estate development firm Emaar Properties of the United Arab Emirates and designed by HOK Canada.Upon completion, it is claimed to be the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest man-made marina. The current largest man-made marina in the world[citation needed] is Marina del Rey in California, USA. There is a publicly accessible foreshoreway around the marina and some sections of public oceanway along the beach with views to Palm Jumeriah. Its largest development is the Jumeirah Beach Residence.

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Fig 213. Macro map shows Marina location


Fig 214. Site 03. Marina - Dubai

191


2-1. Location

Site alternative -01: Dubai - Business bay Surrounded By: 1- Al Safa and Al Wasel from the west north. 2- Down Town Dubai,Dubai mall and Burj Khalifa from the north. 3- Mohammad bin Rashed Gardens and Business park from the east. 4- Al Qouz from the west south. Site alternative -02 : Sharjah - Al Khan

Surrounded By: 1- Al Khalidia Suburb from the east north. 2- Al Majaz from the east. 3- Al Qasba from the east south. 4- Al Mamzar beach park from the west south. Site alternative -03 : Dubai - Marina

Surrounded By: 1- Jumeirah Beach Residence from the west. 2- Jumeirah Lakes Towers and Meadows 1 from the south. 3- Montgomerie Golf Club from the east. 4- Dubai Marina Mall from the west south.

Fig 215. Macro map shows the three sites

192


Fig 216. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 217. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 218. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 193


2-2 Neighborhood Context

9-Bank of Sharjah

Site 01 : Dubai - Business Bay

11-Sharjah Carlton Hotel

10-Carlton Tower Hotel 12-Iman English Center for Quran and Sunnah

1- The oberoi hotel 2- Les Barons general trading

Site 03: Dubai - Marina

3- The Bay Gate 4- Executive Towers

1-ISLAND PARK TOWER

5- The Corner Burj Damac 4

2-Infinity Tower

6- Lake central Tower

3-Al Fattam Marine Towers

7- XL Tower

4-Dubai Marina Mall

8- Union Dredgers and Marine Contractiong

5-Dubai Metro station

9- Info tech middle east centre

6-MarinaScape

10- Residetial Towers ( Cheese tower- U Bora tower)

7-Le Royal Meridien Beach Resort & Spa

11- Residetial Buildings

8-Dusit Residence

12- Shoba Ivory tower

9-Jumeirah Lakes Towers

13- Dubai Softball Field 14- Dubai Airline Centre 15- Residetial Towers 16- Porsche Design Tower Site 02 : Shajah - Al Khan 1- Al Khan historic area 2- Emirates Stars Hotel Apartments 3-Khawla Bint Thalaba school 4-TIME Ruby Hotel Apartments 5-Al Khaledia Health Centre 6-Post Office 7-Al Bustan Beach Hotel 8-Sharjah Mall

Fig 219. Macro map shows the three sites

194


Fig 220. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 221. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 222. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 195


2-3 Infrastructure / Circulation

First site: Dubai – Business bay The site surrounded by many main and secondary streets. - Sheikh Zayed road and Al Khail road as Major city roads. - Al Abraj street, Al Khaleaj street and Al Amal street as Intra city roads. - Midan street and Eastern parallel road as Minor inter city roads. In addition, There is a metro station next to the site which gives the site more importance which is Business bay station. Second site: Sharjah – Al Khan This site is surrounded by a net of roads, which are: - Al Khan cornice street as a Major city road. - Al Meena street and Al Khan street as Inter city roads. - Some Minor inter city roads. Third site: Dubai – Marina The site considered as one of the most important sites for a residential tower because it’s surrounded by the most important roads of the city and some beautiful pedestrian roads along Jumeirah beach . - Sheikh Zayed road and Jumeirah beach road as a Major city roads. - Al Mareef street, Al Marsa street and Barieh street as a Intra city roads. - Al Swayeb street and Al Mamsha street as Minor inter city roads. Also, there is a nearby metro station which is Marina station.

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Fig 223. Macro map shows the three sites


Fig 224. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 225. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 226. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 197


2-4 Size and Zoning

First site: Dubai â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Business bay For this site, the entrance is accessible through the Al Abraj street. The tower will be located on the center of the site in order to avoid having block view over the two sides on the east and the west of the site. The main Gate will be parallel to the street to be clearly accessible for the inhabitant and the visitors , leading to Parking entrance . The parking will be contained in the tower floors. In fact, this site zoning is good but not the perfect for Dubai sustainable high-rise. Second site: Sharjah â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Al Khan The entrance of this site is accessible because of the service road which is connected to Al khan street. The tower will be located on the center of the site in order to avoid having block view over the three sides and to have some landscaping around the tower. The parking will be contained in the tower. The main Gate also will be parallel to al Khan street to have clear access for the inhabitant. Third site: Dubai â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Marina For this site, the entrance is accessible through the Al Mareaf Street, and the main Gate will be parallel to it, leading to Parking entrance. In addition, the parking will be contained in the tower floors. The tower will be located the eastern south part of the site in order to have wider view over marina on all the sides. In Fact, this site zoning is the most useful zoning among the three sites.

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Fig 227. Macro map shows the three sites


Fig 228. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 229. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 230. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 199


2-5 Nature & Climate

Talking about the climate and comparing the three site to themselves, It’s clear that the three sites have nearly the same climate and natural features, because they are related to the same regional territory. The three sites are exposed directly to the two kinds of wind, Prevailing wind and Warm wind. For the sun direction, In fact, on the first site which is Dubai – Business bay, the tower will be facing the sun direction from three sides along all the day time. In addition, there isn’t any building blocking the sun rays. While in the second site which is al Khan, the tower will be exposed to the sun rays from two sides, from 6:00 am to 12:00 pm, and from 12:00 pm to 6:00 pm. On the third site which is Dubai – Marina, the tower will be exposed to sun rays from 6:00 am to 4:00 pm and blocked from 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm because of the existing towers. The temperature degrees are nearly the same in the three sites and they are varies between the 12 months of

the year and reach a peak on 28th of July to be

105◦ F.

Fig 231. Macro map shows the three sites

200


Fig 232. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 233. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 234. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 201


2-6 Natural and Physical Features

The first site: Dubai – Business bay: The topography of the site is nearly steady with some slight changes. And the soil is sandy. The site considered as poor in landscape and green areas around, which is going back to the whole country nature. While, business bay is reach with its water features. and the first diagram on the next page explains the previous informations The Second site: Sharjah- Al Khan: The topography of the site is nearly steady with some slight changes. And the soil is sandy also. The site considered as poor in landscape and green areas around, which is going back to the whole country nature. On the other hand, the site is rich on its water features because it’s next to the sea. and the second diagram on the next page explains the previous informations The Third site: Dubai – Marina: The topography of the site is nearly steady with some slight changes. And the soil is sandy. The site considered as poor in landscape and green areas around, which is going back to the whole country nature. While, Marina is reach with its water features. and the third diagram on the next page explains the previous informations

Fig 235. Macro map shows the three sites

202


Fig 236. Site 1 : Dubai - Business Bay

Fig 237. Site 2 : Sharjah -Al Khan

Fig 238. Site 3 : Dubai - Marina 203


2-6 Natural and Physical Features Category

Site 01

Location qualities Easy Described Location Close educational facilities Site area suitability Budget suitability High-rise blocking views Vegetation Water view Pollution free Streets surrounding Metro station availability Less noise Positive climate Best views from many sides Comfortable outdoors Most suitable context Easily reached by pedestrians Constant surroundings Total

5 5 3 4 4 5 3 5 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 70

Table 06. Comparative table between the three sites

204

Site 02

3 3 3 4 4 5 1 3 2 2 0 2 4 4 3 3 4 4 54

Site 03

5 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 5 3 4 5 5 4 4 5 80


205


Chapter 05 : Conclusion


5-1 Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing Observatory Significance Skyscrapers defined as the world’s tallest buildings. Theie birth were in New York and Chicago at the end of the 19th century. Skyscrapers can considered as small cities. They offer space for offices, apartments, shops, hotels, restaurants and other services. Tens of thousands of people live and work there. Yet people choose to build Skyscrapers for many reasons. They are built so that many living spaces spaces can exist on a smaller piece of land. Since land is expensive, it may be cheaper to build up rather than outward on the ground. They may also be built for aesthetic reasons: to beautify an area, to attract toursists, to improve the appearance of big cities, or to compete with other skyscraper designs.

Fig 239. Skyscraper Ecosystem in Manhattan

In addition, skyscrapers are the way to achieve great density, or a form of retro-urbanism that should be retired. With a debate simmering in the planning world over the energy efficiency and urban necessity of tall towers. “Come, let us build us a city and a tower with its top in the heavens. And let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered upon the face of the whole earth.” the builders of Babel. These early developers correctly understood that cities could connect humanity. The current debate on the sustainability of skyscrapers and their proper place in today’s urban environments has great implications for the future of city-building. The design and building of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings hould support their resist wind ,earthquaukes and weight, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be clearly accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the inhabitants.

208

Fig 240. skyscrapers can beautify an area to attract toursists


The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management. including the heating and cooling system, elevator use, and LEED certification criteria, that would more or less influence a building’s total energy expenditure. What discovered is that the question of energy consumption for promoters as well as detractors is not the primary topic of debate. The issues are instead more nuanced, including the “embodied energy” of the materials used in construction, the life of the building as well as the need for future rehabilitation and the proximity to urban amenities.

Fig 241. Residential: Mina El Hosn’ housing project in Beirut designed by LAN Architecture

209


5-2 Cases Observation TORRE CUAJIMALPA HELICOIDGARDENS This project succeeds by two points: First, How to emulate the quality of living in a singlefamily residence in a skyscraper and adding large gardens on each level. Second, the concept which posed by the inclusion of large landscaped areas and trees at each level framed the requirements of a complex 3 dimensional puzzle which would; Enable enought height between levels for trees to grow and for the penetration of daylight into the apartments. Maintain privacy and minimize overlooking between levels, Include gardens without building extra floor-space.

EDITT Tower Singapore

Fig 242 . Torre Cuajimalpa Heli Cold Gardens

26 srory building, the programme of uses is initially defined by the nature of an expo event and includes retail areas.exibition spaces and auditorium uses as well as more conventional open office spaces on the upper level, but its design allows furure transformation to ofoices or apartments. The project succeeeds by its social function in creating vertical places brings street life to the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s upperparts through wide landscaped-ramps upwords from street-levels. Ramps create a continuous spatial flow from public to less public, as a vertical extension of the street theraby eliminating the problematic stratification of floors inhearent in all tall buildings typology.

Fig 244 . EDITT Tower Singapore 210


Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT The 116 metre tall tower include apartments, a hotel, retail, offices, and a public park and plaza. The stacked building consists of “pixels”, each 60 metres square, which are arranged around the central core of the building. This project succeeded by the design of its pixels which allows flexibility in function; the building can be transformed by market forces. In addition, The skyscraper’s shape reflects Copenhagen’s historical spire and present day high-rise blending in the skyline of the city, it further combines the two distinctive typologies of Rødovre, the single family home and the skyscraper in a vertical village. .

Fig 243 . Rødovre Skyscraper by MVRDV and ADEPT

Herzog & de meuron: beirut terraces The building sits on a podium that occupies the entire lot, with the tower rising on 65% of the surface area. All 132 living units benefit from terraces and views, and they are placed with no relation to their size. A 300sqm apartment could exist on one of the highest floors just as an 800sqm is placed on one of the lower ones. Apartments often take form as one large surface, with glass separating interior from exterior and some plants separating a bedroom terrace from a living space’s (usually) larger terrace. Small decisions draw the line between a more communal versus a typical residential building. Take, for instance, the idea of allowing all apartments to share a single large lobby surrounded by a 2000sqm shallow body of water accessed from four separate circulation cores.

Fig 245 . Beirut terraces

211


Ardmore Residence 36 storey, 17.178 m² residential tower is a multi-layered architectural response to the natural landscape inherent to the ‘Garden City’ of Singapore. This project succeeds by its land scape concept which integrated into the design by means of four large details: First, the articulation of the facade. Second, bay windows and double-height balconies. Third, expansive views across the city. Forth, the introduction of transparency and connectivity to the ground level gardens by means of a raised structure supported by an open framework. In addition, its Textured Facade which repeated for every four storys of the building, whilst rounded glass creates column-free corners, visually merging the internal spaces with the external balconies. Intertwining lines and surfaces wrap the apartments, seamlessly incorporating sun screening, whilst also ensuring that the inner qualities of the apartments and the outer appearance of the building together form a unified whole.

Fig 246 . Ardmore Residence Aqua Tower Eighty-two-story apartment tower in the center of Chicago. This Skyscraper succeed by low-budget way of turning an ordinary glass condo tower into something that looks exciting.Also the design is anchored in common sense in two ways that aren’t immediately apparent, making the building, from a technical point of view, even more remarkable than it looks. The balcony overhangs of the fa çade serve an environmental purpose, shading apartments from the hot summer sun. More ingenious still, they protect the building from the force of wind, one of the most difficult challenges in skyscraper engineering. The landscape of rolling hills and valleys created by the balconies effectively confuses the heavy Chicago winds, giving them no clear path.

Fig 247 . Aqua Tower 212


Mirador building This project succeed by the most impressive element of the building which is the incredible gap of it shape. The gap is used by the neighborhood as a meeting area and playground. The views from the gap are incredible, across to the Guadarrama Mountains, because Mirador is one of the highest buildings in the area. In the facade the different colors are coded for different uses, for instance red is used for the corridors. In addition, Circulations in the building are like small vertical streets. His transformations along each route, make up the collection of structured types as small neighborhoods. Outside, each of the nine districts of equal or housing is identified and differentiated from others. Stop using different combinations result in the modulation and position of the voids, as well as materials, texture and color of the fences of different facade.

Fig 248 . Mirador building

Beach Road Singapore The Beach Road designed and developed as a mixeduse area at a 150,000 sqm. Its most unique element is the canopy`s form and structure that filtering sunlight to deliver convenient public space. Every 10 floors or so, there are green spaces which filter circulating air as it makes its way up the and out of the building. The top of the structure is made porous to capture the abundant rainfall that occurs in Singapore. The rain is collected and funneled through the structure. To also help relive energy loads, Norman incorporates solar shading along the east and west facades to combat heat gain and produce energy for the building. Both passive and active systems are at work to benefit building design, with takeing in consider all the siteconditions .

Fig 249 . Beach Road Singapore

213


5-3 Program Selection

Based on the study of the Precedents Programs, I’ve obtained some important points to apply them on my Skyscraper programe. First, There are definite functions to be study and design. For example, spaces for livivg and spaces for service. Living room, bed rooms, Kitchen and bathrooms. While, There are functions depends on the skyscraper size and its apartments kinds. I mean by that, there is a big difference between 2 users apartment and 5 users apartment. that’s mean it will affect the numbers of the living spaces, Also the number of the bath room spaces. Taking All above into consideration will determine how the skyscraper succeed or fail. The diagrams on the next page explain the programs of the precedents study and shows how the sizes of each space varies according to the design and the site of each one of them. Clearly, we can notice that the bed rooms is the greatest space size iv this kind of skyscrapers, and the living rooms is second greatest. While the other functions covers nearly 40 % of the whole tower. In fact, other functions as retail,steam,pool and spa, exist deppending on the skyscraper level of quality and sites’ requirments. Other required spases such as Parking and core depends on other functions sizes and number of users.

214


215


5-4 Dubai Sustainble High-rise Housing Observatory Program Dubai sustainable high-rise housing in a 40 story residential skyscraper, at (170 m) tall. Consist of 120 residential units. Based on the analysis of the Precedents’ Programs I’ve figured out the required functions which form the hole residential skyscraper. In fact, the main function is the housing part, which will covers all the common family sizes in United Arab Emirates. I have broken down the residential units into three kinds of apartments: First, The Simplex: 50 units of the skyscraper units, for 2 users, consisting of Living room open to the entrance, bed room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. Second, The Duplex: 50 units of the skyscraper units, for 5 users, consisting of Reception, Living room, Private living room, Master bed room, two single bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, two bathrooms, storage and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. Third, The Townhouse: 20 units of the skyscraper units, for 7 users, consisting of Reception, Living room, Private living room, Master bed room, three bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, three bathrooms, storage and terraces. With suitable approximates according to the analysis of the precedents’ study programs. In addition, the skyscraper will contain all the functions which required for the inhabitants of the tower. For example: Retail, Steam, Massage rooms, Spa and Pool.

216


1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

No

Space Services Users Area(sqm) No of areas Total area parking 650 2809 4 11236 Apartments simplexes reception 4 6 1 6 living room4 30 1 30 dinning 4 3 1 3 bed room 2 25 1 25 kitchen 4 9 1 9 bath room 4 4.25 1 4.25 storage 1 3 1 3 Terraces 20 Total area 100.25 duplexes reception 7 13 1 13 living room7 40 1 40 dinning 7 8 18 Master bed2room 25 1 25 private living 5 room 25 1 25 bed room 1 10 2 20 walkin closet 2 3 13 kitchen 7 12 1 12 storage 1 3 13 bath room 2 4.25 2 8.5 corridors 6 16 Terraces 54.3 Total area 217.8 Town house reception 10 20 1 20 living room1 60 1 60 dinning 10 15 1 15 Master bed2room 30 1 30 private living 7 room 30 1 30 bed room 2 25 3 75 walkin closet 2 3 39 kitchen 7 33 1 33 storage 5 15 bath room 2 6 4 24 corridors 10 10 Terraces 100 Total area 411 Total area of Housing 24122.5 Core elevators+stairs 290 26 7540 Retail 500 1 500 Steam 200 1 200 Massage rooms 280 280 Spa 280 1 280 Pool 195 1 195 Total area of all functions 33117.5

Table 07. Program table of My Project

217


5-5 Site Selection Choosing a site for “Dubai Sustainable High-rise Housing” based on many factors. I’ve examined three site alternatives: 1- Dubai, Business bay. 2- Sharjah, Al Khan. 3- Dubai, Marina. In fact, after studying the three sites and examine -each one through many features, i.e : Location, Neighborhood context, Infrastructure / Circulation, Size and Zoning, Nature & Climate and Natural and Physical Features- I choosed Dubai Marina to be the High-rise site. That’s because of the priority of Marina in the most of the circumstances. First, its mostly a residential area with many serise of residential towers. Second, its location has the most active and famouse places for entertaining and services. i.e : (Dubai down town- Burj Khalifa- Alsafa park and Dubai mall). In addition Marina is a rich area educationally as there are many american and britich schools for all the stages. Third, clearly accessible through the Major city roads (Sheikh Zayed road) and intra city roads (Jumeirah Beach road-El Mareef street). Also the metro station gives the site more importance. Fourth, Dubai Marina has the right zoning classification for a sustainable residential tower. Fifth, Marina has the suitable surrounding nature for the tower view and the tower oriantation to the sun direction. Taking all above into consideration gives the result that Dubai Marina is the most appropriate site for Sustainable High-rise Housing.

218


Fig 250. Dubai - Marina

Fig 251. Dubai - Marina

219


Table 08. Comparative table between the three sites

220


221


6-5 Design Concept Residential High-rise designed to provide community environment and it will contain many functions which is serve the habitant (retail – gym-Spa – pool- steamopen spaces…) And fostering a sense of community in a typically anonymous urban landscape. And so the proposed tower is designed to have a network of hollow parts. The resident quarters are arranged to encourage interaction and community-building. Where the “the border between the public and the private spheres is being renegotiated. Green buildings are becoming increasingly common for residential structures. The high demand for green design spurs from a greater than ever world consciousness for the environment and sustainability. In many cases as well, green structures may provide a lower lifetime cost alternative to conventional building methods. Although green technology is more expensive than traditional technologies, it has the potential to have a shorter payback period. With the current economic status, cost-effective designs will certainly drive the market forward.

The process of designing a skyscraper for this site faced two problems above and beyond the issues typically confronted by skyscrapers. Firstly, the building needed to follow the series of towers and hotels in pattern and program which located along Dubai Marina. Secondly, to enhance the harch climate of Dubai and thats will effect heavily the inhabitants. Thats meant to designing communities that balance social and environmental needs. The concept mainly based on First, apply sustainability factors which will affect the climate and the skyscraper environment mostly. Second, to create a socialized atmosphere between the inhabitant whether they are belong to the same culture and religious or not. through haveing some open hollows or parts with green spaces. 222


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< References > Books: - “The future of the city” ........................................ tall buidings and urban design - “Skyscrapers” ..................................................... ‎Joaquim Ballarín i Bargalló - “Eco Skyscrapers” .............................................. Ken Yeang - “Rein venting the skyscraper a vertical theory of urban design” - “Skyscraper 44” - “Higher” .............................................................. Neal Bascomb - “The Heights: Anatomy of a Skyscraper” ........... Kate Ascher

URL: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blskyscapers.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyscraper http://architizer.com/projects/torre-cuajimalpa-helicoid-gardens/ http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?t=148659 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Songdo_First_World http://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/mirador/ http://www.archdaily.com/353569/beirut-terraces-herzog-de-meuron/ http://www.dezeen.com/2008/11/04/r%C3%B8dovre-skyscraper-by-mvrdv-and-adept/ http://www.radissonblu.com/aquahotel-chicago http://www.archdaily.com/448924/ardmore-residence-unstudio/ http://dubaipropertiesgroup.ae/buy/executive-towers http://inhabitat.com/editt-tower-by-trhamzah-and-yeang/ http://www.interiorsigndesign.com/decorations/futuristic-library-style-encouraging-social-interaction-in-edmontoncanada/

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