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THE CANTUARIAN VOL. XXVl.

No. 4

D ECEMBER,

1955

EDITORIAL Eddison once defined genius as "I % inspiration, 99 % perspiration". He might well have said the same of enthusiasm, because both virtues depend upon the initial spa rk of perception developed by intense resea rch and study. Isaac D'Israeli had the same idea when he said that enthusiasm was the secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the production of genius, but I would develop hi s conception still fu rther and say that, whether genius is inherent or not, ent husiasm requires experience and study in .its nurture and in its flowering. No one without any knowledge of classical music would be carried into raptures of ecstasy upon a first hearing of Mozart's 0 minor Piano Quartet, and in the same way no one who had lived all his life in Basutoland would be deeply moved by a first sight of Canterbury Cathedral. They might well be impressed and wi sh to know more, but only the seeds of enthusiasm can have been sown. It is only when one has experienced in the fullest sense the poignancy of Bach and the tone of O iorgione, when the ha rmony and eloquent moods of the Precincts have been stamped on the mind for ever, when one has walked and talked with Ood, that enthu siasm develops from mere awe \0 feal life en hancemen t, "


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( M . J. Gnwur.l'

THE P ENT ISE

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'Enthusiasm is the most positive and electric of virtues. Apathy and cy nicism pall before it because tbey a re negative forces leading nowhere. A man who has lived in himself all that is noblest in life and religion cannot help radiating something of his fervour. Everything to him is vital, whether it be praying or singing, studying or playing games, writing or helping the needy, and to have contact with thi s vitality is the greatest experience of joy. It produces in us that inspiration wh ich our "sense of proportion" and ollr unwitting obedience to convent io n has hitherto kept in check. It proves that nothing great can eve r be achieved without enthusiasm. Jt shows LI S above all that enthu sias m .is not the ordained talent of the few, but the most vital part of the lives of everyone. The first cautious steps in this development are always slow and often self-conscious, because the ultimate goal seems so remote. But discover for the first time the Italian Renaissance, the music of Beethoven, and above a ll Christ Himself, and the toil is rewarded ten times over.

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THE SCHOOL Captain of the School: R. J. SNELL, K.S. Head Head Head Head Head Head Head Head

of The School Hollse of The Grange of Walpole House .. . of Meister Omers .. . of L uxmoore House of Galpin's House .. . of Linacre HOllse .. . of Mnrl owe HO Ll~c .. .

J. C. TRICE J. S. P. SALE E. J. SMAUfAN-SMITH, K.S. G. P. MORGAN R. G. PATERSON R. J. SNELL, K.S, D. D. JEVONS C. M, .T. WHITTI NGTON, K.S. '

MONITORS R. J. SNELL, K.S. , D. D. JEVONS, J. S. P. SALE, E. J. SMALMAN-SMITH, K.S., G. P. MORGAN, J. C. TRICE, R. G. PATERSON, C. M. J. WHITTI NGTON, K.S., D. E. BALFOUR, F. D. WOOOROW, K.S., P. F. VALPY, M. A. MURCH HOUSE' PREFECI" The SchoolHouse : R. P . BARWELL, J. S. BLAKE, H. A. BROWN, A. J. D. SMITH The Grange : A. J. AG NEW, D. P. BUCHAN, B. D. FooRD, I. S. McDONALD, K.S .. S. T, J. MAZZARELLA, K.S., R. J. W. SAINSBURY Walpole House : J. H. G . HUTTON. I. C. POTrER, R. M. SUTTON Meister Omers: P. K. W. CASBELL, A. N, HARVEY, P. F. LAMB, R. O. LINFORTH. K.S., C. P. MCCUR DY, K.S., M. E. W. V, NCENT Luxmoore H ouse: C. R . ALABASTER . K.S.. P . .I , SARGENT . .I . A, O. STEWART, C. W. WATKI NS Galpin's HOllse : R. G. D. M. BURR, T. C. J. CHBNEVIX-TRBNCH. K.S. , R. COLLINGWOOD, K.S., R. A. LA NE, J. P. D . MOORE Linacl'c House : R. L. BATES, O. R. F. DAVIES, K.S., S. C. HARDISTY, K.S., D. J. LOVERIDGE, R. C. TOMKINS, A. J. B. WALKER, K.S. Marlowe HOllse : 0, G, BARDER, O. A. MICKLEAURml. M. G. PARAMOR. F. D. PI LCHER . .1. Il. 1\IRNER Captain Captain Captain Captain Captain

of Rugby Football of Fencing of Boxing ". of Squash Rackets of Shooting

D. D. JEVONS P. K . W. CASBELL R. G . PATERSON, K.S. A. N . If. H ARVEY E. J. SMALMAN-SMITH. K.S.

The Contl/arian : Editors : THE CAPTAIN OF SCHOOL, O. R. P. DAVIES, K.S., S. T . .T. MAZZARELLA. K:S. Sports Ed itor: D. D. JEVONS Secretary: T . C. J. CHENRVIX-TRENCH, K.S. 28 1


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YJRTUTE FUNCTI MORE PATRUM DUCES J . DE V. ALLEN .- Entered School, Sept., '47 ; K.S. a nd Entrance Schol., '49 ; Lord Milner Schol., '50 ; S.K.S., '51 ; Luxmoore H ouse Monitor, '5 1; School Monitor a nd Head of House, Sept. , '54 ; Up. vr ; Hon. Sec. Pater Soc.: Editor of Can/uariall: State Schola rship : Gi lber! Gift. P. 1. ALLEN .- Entered School, Sept., '49; Si r Edmund Davis Music Scholar, '49; H on. S.K.s., '54 ; G ra nge Ho use Monitor, '52 ; School Monitor, '53; Captain of School, '54; 1st XV, '53, '54 ; 1st VII I, '53, '54 ; 1st Athletics, '54 ; 1st Squash, '52-'55; Ca pt. '55: Up. VI" : Platoo n Comma nder. C.C.F.: Editor o f Can/uarian : Rose Gift. N. H. H. GRABuRN.- Entered School, Sept., '50 ; K.S. and Entra nce Schol. ; Hon. S.K .S., '54 ; Walpole House Monitor: Bomba rdier. e.C. F.: Up. VI: Hon. Sec. Nat. Hi st. Soc. ; Hon. Treas. Somner Soc .: Sta te Scholarship : Open Ex. Clare Coil. , Ca mbridge, '54. H. R. J. HOARE.- Entered School, Sept., '49 ; K.S. ; School Monitor, Head of Linacre House, ' 54 ; 2nd XV. ' 53 ; 1st XV, ' 53 ; 1st Hockey, ' 55 ; Shooting, '5 1: C.S.M .. e.e.F., '54: Up. VI; Open Maths. Ex. St. John's Coil. . Ca mbridge. E. R. G . Jo n.- Entered School, Ja n., ' 51 ; Music Schol. : Hon. S. K.S.; G ra nge House Monitor; School Monitor, '55; Up. VI : Sta te Scholars hi p: Open Hist. Ex. Magda len Coll ., Oxford; Shephera Gift. S. P. JONES.- Entered School, Sept., ' 50 ; K. a nd Entrance Schol. ; S.K.S., '53 ; School Monitor; Head of Walpole House, ' 54 ; La nce-Corporal. e.C.F.: Up. VI: State Schola rship: Open Ex. Merton CoIl. , Oxfo rd. e. N. LAI Nf:.-Entered School, Sept. , '50 ; K.S.; School House Monito r; School Monitor, ' 54; 1st C ricket, ' 53, ' 54, '55 ; Capt. , '55 ; 2nd Hockey, ' 54 ; 1st H ockey, '55; 2nd XV, ' 53 ; 1st XV, '54 ; 1st Athletics, '55; Sergea nt, C.C. F.: Up. VI: State Scholarship : Ford Studentship in Hist. to Trinit y Coll .. Oxford . W. T. LAMIl.-Entered School, Sept.. '49 : Meister Omers HOllse Monit or : School Monitor, '54 ; Sergeant, C.C.F. G. M. LV NcH.- Entered Sch ool, Sept. , '45 ; MeisterOmers Ho use Monitor, '53; School Monitor, Head of House, ' 54; 2nd VrrJ , '52 ; 1st VIII , ' 53, '54. ' 55: Ca ptain Boats, '55; 2nd XV, '52 : 1st XV. '54 ; Capta in Fencing, '54. '55. J. S. NVE. -Entered School, Sept., '49 ; K.S.; School House Monitor ; School Monitor, Head of House, '54 ; Sergeant, C.e.F.: Up. VI : Sta te Scholarshi p: Open Hist. Schol. C hrist's Coll ., Cambridge. M. D. H. PEACocK.- Entered School, Sept., '49; Marlowe House Monitor ; School Monitor, Head of House, ' 54; 2nd VIII , '53. '54. ' 55: Ca pta in . '55: C.S .M., e.C.F. ; Up. v r: Hon . Sec. Mod . Lang. Soc. D. A. R. PooLE.- Entered School, Sept., '47; G range House Moni tor: School Monitor, ' 54 ; 2nd VIII . '54, '55; C.S.M., C.C.F. .I . E. L. SALES.-Entered School, Sept. , '49 ; G alpin's House Monitor; School Monitor, Head of House, '54; 2nd Cricket. '53. '54: 2nd XV. '54 : Pl atoon Commander, C.C.F. ; Up. vr: O.K.S. Gift. 282


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C. 13 . Sl RUU I S.- e ntered School, May, '41 ; K.S. a nd IO ntra nce Schol. , '49; Grange House Monitor ; School Monitor, '54; Vice-Capt. of School a nd Head of House. '54; 2nd At hletics, '52; 1st, '54; 2nd XV, '53, Capta in , ' 53; 1st XV, ' 54 ; 2nd VTlI , '53, '54; IstVlII , '55 : L/Sgt. , C.C.F.; Up. VI; Maso n Schola rship, C.e.e., Oxford. J. D. B. WAL KER.--Entered School, Sept. , '50 : K.S . a nd Ent rance Scholar ; Sen. K.S .; Linacre House Monitor ; L/Sgt., C.C.F.; Up. VI ; Editor of Can/uariatl ; State Scho!a rsllip ; Open Classical Schola rship, Tri nity Coll. , Oxford . W. N. WEN BAN-SMITH.- Entered School, Sept., '50 ; K.S. a nd Entra nce Scholar ; Luxmoore H ouse Monitor ; 1st Hockey, ' 54, ' 55 ; Captain, '55 ; 1st Athletics, '54 ; Able Seama n, C.C. F.: Up. VI; Editor of Call/uariall : Open Ex. Classics, King's Coll. , Ca mbridge. M. WILLIAMS.- E 'ltered Schoo l, Sepl., '49 ; Sen. K.S.; Walpole House Monitor ; Sgt. and Platoon Comd. , C.C.F.; Up. VI: Hon. Sec. Caxton Soc. ; Hon. Sec. Photographic Soc.; State Scholarship.

YALETE

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R. G . S. Ada ms, J . C. Ala bas ter, C. J. At kinso n, D. R. Barber, P. G . Beaumount , E. D. Bell , M. E. C. Brown, J. L. Buckwo rth , R. J . C. Collins, J . B. Davies, K.S., T. H. Davy, D. e. V. Parrallt, M. Fisher, R. L. S. Fishlock, P. G . W. e. Flashma n, J . A. Fletcher, J. P. D. Ga ndy, D. C. G ra ha m, P. R. Go urmand, R. D. Gray, J . A. Griffith'. J. H a milton-Pa terson, P. B. Ha rding, T. J. Hurst, M. L. Iremonge r, A. D. Jenkins, A. D. Jones, E. T. Laker, e. P. Lardner, F . J. Love, D. E. Mellish, M. P. Miller, J . P. Moss, R . N . Murch, G . W. Newkey-Burden, T. P. Nicholson, D. E. O'Sulliva n, R. B. Phillips, T . B. H . Phillips, M. Philpott, J . C. St. C. Rear, D. B. Rees, B. C. Reynolds, C. D. Russell , D. C. M . Scott, N . Simnuck, C. R. Sincla ir, C. D. Sladen, W. W. Smith, P. J. Snow, M . F. Sparrow, l. W. Studt, G. H. Taylor, P. J. Va n Berckel, C. E. vo n Bibra, H. B. Waynfo rth, P. H. Wi lkinson , A. V. D. Woodhouse, J. W. S. H. Young.

SALVETE M. H. Ackla nd, P. F. Allen, K.S., M. R . Ayli ng, H. A. Barker, J . 13. Batchelor, K.S.. W. H . Bishop, C. F. Black, K.S., W. J. R . Blakeney, K. S., A. W. Blaxland, D. W. Bristow, P. W. F. Browlle, K.S., W. L. Camp, R. A.. P. Carden, R. E. T. Clark , J. A.. Colligan, K.S., R . A. F . Collins, K.S. , T. J. Dale, N. J. Davies, N . T . Ed wa rds, D. R. L. Evans, r. B. R. Fowler, P. H . Gall wey, R. A. Good ma n, P. B. Greenwood, N. H. Griffith. C. D . G willn , G . W. F. Hale, J. D. Hamilton Paterson, D. A . .I. Harris, D . J. Heath . F. B. Hobbs, M. R. Hoile, D. W. Horton, A. H. Howard, R. E. Igguldell, J. K. Khanna, F. J . D. La mbert, K.S., M. W. Lee, N. H. Livingston, P. R. C. Loadman, J . A. McLean. J . D . Maclldowic, P. B. Maddocks, A. R. May bury, A. R. H. Milcson, C. K. Morga n, A. R. Mulford, R. A. Neil, W. E. R . Oa tridge, J . B. Paterso n, K.S. , J. P. D. Pattrick, M. T . L. Pay ne, A. W. Pengell y. C. D. Powell , G. e. Pritchard, .I. L. D. Radcliffe, R. Ra inbow, K.S., J. G . P. Ri vett, R. A. H. Robertson, J. Rod well, e. e. Rose, G. N. Salmon M .. H. Schofield , C. B. Seaman, K.S., M. A. Sharwood-S mith, R . T . C. Stanger, P. H . Stanley, A. R. O. Stebbings, M. J. Stevenson, 1'. J. Stringer, J. '0 . "Strom-Olsen, K.S., C. R. Suarez, A. J. H . Swanson, C. J. Tavener, K.S., W. l . D. Taylor, M. A. Thorp, M. H. T urner, R. H. Turner, J. P. Va rcoe, A. B. N. Watkins, W. M. Watson, D. J. T. Webster, O. J. C. Wethered, D. M . Whewell, C. L. Williams, R. K. Woodma n, C. J. Yates. 283

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AN DREW BARR Y GARRETI The news that Andrew Garrett has died so suddenl y during the hoUdays came as a great shock to all who know him. Almost our last recollection of him was as an active member of the Grange Water Polo team at the Swimming Sports at the end of the Stim,mer Term, and he had gone home happy and a pparentl y well after the course with the Naval Section. He was a loyal and devoted member of his House and of the School, aIld his cheerful good temper and sound sense ea rned him a host of friends. Andrew was one of whom nobody eVer spoke ill; one, too, for whom his religion meant a great dea!. Though modest and never seeking the limelight for himself, there could never be any doubt of what he stood for as a member of his Ho use and of the School, nor of the respect and affection which he won from all who knew him. Remembering him gratefully, we would offer fo his parents this general expression of ou , very real sympathy, of which they have already been assured by the ma ny individual letters they have received.

THiS AN D TH AT Tile School lost a very great friend by the death of Miss Mary Mills on October 30th. In token of o ur grief some thirty scholars attended her funeral in the Qu ire on Wednesday. November 2nd . A full obituary will be fo und elsewhere. Miss M ary M ills

No Comment

(From an entrance pa per): " 1 arrived aL my Public School to have a look round . T he school was King's School, Canterbury built in 1066. Some of the buildings have been renewed since then."

Mo rtar-boards which appeared somewhat tentatively in the snow of last year, have now received omcial sanction for everyday wear. The extraordinary mauve shade of the Sellior Scholars' new tassels have excited much comment, but as yet balled description. Mortar-boards

Wedding

We congratulate Mr. Scott on his marriage to Miss J. M. Pawsey on Saturday, August 6th, at SI. John's Church, Great Clacton. We wish them both every happiness.

1280 Penny A silver penny, minted in Canterbury a bout 1280, has been discovered at Cookham Rise, Berks. Early this term the School received a visit from Sheik Awa, a figure of high standing in the Sudan. He arrived from London with Mr. Tony Eyres, O.K.S., and was enthralled with the School and its buildings. He is himself a director of education in the Sudan, and said that his own schools are modelled on our p ublic schools. The only criticism he had to make was that there were too many stairs to climb.

Sheik Awa

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The custom of having blue socks with white tops for the 1st XV has long been neglected, and has now been introduced once again. With this revival also comes the 1st Colour cap-"Jerries"-which are to be awarded this year.

Socks and Caps

We congratulate the rollowing on being awa rded State Scholarships State Scholarships as a result of las t term 's examinations:- R. G. S. Adams, N . C. Cooper, C. C. Fanner, B. K. Jeffery. S. T. J. Mazza rella. R . G. Paterson, W. A. N . Pitch, A. R. Sea l, A. J. B. Walker. . " Ralle, last yea, 's prop forward, was hooking . . . . and at times the Rocket P ropulsion ba ll came out of the scrum as if it had been fi red from a gun." (A newspa per culli ng from the match between Cambridge Uni versity and G uy's Hospita!.) At last the "F" classrooms loo k presentable. The chocolatecoloured paint has disappeared, and has been replaced by grey-blue and crea m. Somehow a two-inch hrown streak has survived . a permanent reminder of form er trials.

"F's" Redecorated

. Sister Gflce

The Sa n. in the Londo n Road has been taken over this term by Sister Grice, and the editors take this opportunity to welcome her to the School.

Physical training, accepted in its new fo rm so mewhat dubiously into the School, has now esta bl ished a firm hold on Canterbury li fe, and such phrases as "crossbuttocks" a nd " fl ying ma r'" have considera bly enriched the school language. Though little new equipment has yet reached us, Messrs. Caswell and Milner have introduced a full programme of wrestling, bas ket-ball , boxin g and fencing, which has proved deservedl y popular. With the new pla ns for the Gy m. approved by th e governors, this hitherto neglected side of school life will co me inl o its own. Gym

W e we re delighted to learn in what great esteem the

The Rev. C. W. Donaldson

Rev. Christopher Donaldson (193 1- 34) is held by his parishi oners al St. Ma ry-in-the-Marsh and Newchu rch. He is a member of the local British Legion, an Assista nt District Commissioner, a nd a playing member of the Beachcom bers I'[ockey Clu b. hul has nnw been appoin ted Vicar of Birchington with Aco!. N. Paine, who was in Ihe School 1st VII! in 1952 and 1953 An Oxford Trial Cap was awa rded a Trial Cap by the O.U.B .C. to row at 2 in "B" Crew in the Trial VIII 's Race, which they subsequently wo n by It lengths. Pai ne is a freshman at Trinity, Oxfo rd . a nd his achievement is extremely encouraging for our present generation of oa rsmen.

R.S.M . Herbert

This year the Corps has been joined by R.S.M. Herbert from the Royal Marines at Dea!. Already the Army Section has considera bly benefitted by his efficiency and understanding.

We congratulate Dr. E. W. Mowll, a former King's Scholar, on celebrating his jubilee in holy orders. Ordained in 1905, Dr. Mowll was Provost of Bradford Cathedral rrom 1933 to 1943 and Bishop of Middleton from 1943 unti l his retirement in 1951 .

Fiftieth Anniversary

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William Simpson, O.K.S., has recently brought out a new book, rBurned My Fingers, the third in his moving trilogy describing his Iransition from a disillusioned and impotent wreck, resulting from extensive burns after a 'plane crash in 1940. to a useful and happy position in society. The book has been very well reviewed .

WiUiam Simpson, O.B.E., D.F.C .

Congratulations to D. S. W. Hinds, O.K.S., lecturer in Child Health and Academical Social Medicine in Bristol University, on his appointment to the University Distinctions Readership in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: and to G. 1.. Taylor, O. K.S., Assistant Keeper at the Ashmolean Museum, Department of Fine Art, on being awarded a De Osma Studentship by the University of Oxford; also to B. 1.. Leary ( 1940- 47) on being awarded a Middle Tem ple Harmsworth Law Scholarship; H . 1. D uck ( 1946- 5 1), a Scholar of Tri nity College, Cambridge, who passed first in the whole cand idature for the Civil Service a nd was the ollly candidate to be selected fo r the Foreign Office; E . N. Brealy o n having take n his degree ill J urispr udence; and A. Yo ung on having taken his in Modern His tory at Oxford this summer; S. Young, a Liddon Scholarship at St. Edm und Hall; J. P. D. Moore. R.N .; - . Ross. Sandhurst. We congratulate M. J. Herbert on his appointment as Secretary of The Gre;hounds Oxford University Greyhounds, and also for the appearances he has S ecre ory made in the University side this season. We have been joined this term by Mr. J . C. Baggaley, Mr. P. H. Garwood, and Mr. I. N . Wilkinson. Mr. Baggaley, an Oxford Blue for two years, and Mr. Garwood have been giving most valuable Itelp with the rugger. The Masters' XV has also been greatly strengthened by their arrival. and it twice defeated the 3rd XV by 13- 3 and 16- 6. New Masters

Many paren ts and O. K.S. will regret tlte departure at the end of this John Corner term of Mr. John Corner. However, Ilot even his beloved "King's" must stand in the way of promotion, a nd deserved ly Mr. Corner has been appointed Head master of the R.A.F. Benevolent School at Va nbruglt Castle, Ilear Gree nwich. T hat is a large a nd diffi cu lt task, but l1Obody ca ll do it better than he can. It is not possible to express in words all that the SCI100 I owes to Mr. Corn er in the past twe nty years. He has served it with wonderful fidelity : a nd had it not been fo r his vision, initiative, enterprise, and vigou r, the School woul d have been less successful than it has been. The School over which he goes to preside is fortunate in his appointment. We record with gratitude receipt of a legacy of ÂŁ4,000 from the late Col. Loftus Legacy Crawford to establ ish scholarships in memory of his brother, the late Charles S. Crawford, O.K.S. It is hoped to make the first award of one of these Entrance Scholarships next summer. Tlte Headmaster was very pleased to receive from Mrs. W. P. Woodruff and Cape Cape her late husband's copy of the History ~r the King's School, Canterbury, by Woodruff a nd Cape. We va lue the possession of a copy with such a personal connection . Mr . H. E. Bates

We are very gratefu l to Mr. H. E. Bates, WI10 has promised us the manuscript of o ne of his books for the Wa lpole Collection. 286

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Among Lhe sermons heard by lhe School this term were lWO particu larly line

Sermons ones, by the Rt. Rev. J. R. S. Taylor, formerly Bisho p of Sodor and Man, and the Rev. L. M. Charles-Edwards, Vicar of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields respectively. There is gross inflation on every side this tcrm- numbers, fees, newspapers, Inflation and now periods. An extra period has been added three days in a week, making eight on a whole school day. The mathematicians assure us that P.T. takes toll of two of these: the third we fea r is being held over for further

machinations. One of the most amazing archaeo logical discoveries of recent times is of course the Roma n theatre of D urovernum, which lies roughly under the j unction of St. Margaret's Street, Watli ng Street, and Beer Cart Lane. The theatre, the largest in Nortltern Europe, has all approximate diameter of two hundred and fifty feet, and an outer wall twelve feet thick. The Classical Sixth have been visiting the little that can be seen of the theatre, and the Somner Society, who were lucky enough to be addressed by Mr. Frank Jenkins this term, hope to do some excavating in the future.

Roman Canterbury

"I have entirely for the present given up all thoughts a bo ut architecture: being disgusted quite beyond all recovery' by the state of modern work." Thus begins one of several manuscript letters of Ruskin's which Mrs. H. Beaumo nt has very kindly presented to the Walpole Collection. We a re indeed gratefu l to her.

Ruskin Manuscript Letter

It is with pleas ure, mingled witll considera ble relief, that we T winges of Conscience fo und at the begi nnin g of the term that the law n of Chillenden

Chambers has morc or less recovered from the ravages of 1/olileo and Juliet. The founta in, which looked so defian tl y permanent, has also been spirited away. S

. H s At the lime of going to print the lirst round of the senior house matche emor I ou e has been played, and Grange confounded all expectations by holding Ma t Cles Luxmoore to a succession . 0 f tIuee d raws, nelt .h d e scoring . .In a tota I . er' 51 of over tluee hours' play. 111 desperation their half of tl,e competition was redrawn .

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The sunsets, especially in O'c tober, have been particularly beautiful this term. SUDsets Turner indeed considered the sunset over the Isle of Sheppey the finest in Europe, and we have often experienced a little of his ecstasy of colour. This, however, detracts from the theory that the hydrogen bomb has something to do with it. 287


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.l1rom an Examination Paper Q. What is a caesura ? As.

I. 2. 3. 4.

The birth of a living baby from a dead mother. Anything ancient and roman like Caesar. A person like Caesar, big and strong. "He was a Caesura boy".

Overheard in the Cathedral: "Does this place o pen on Sundays?" Also: "Eh, lass, we'd better go : they're just starting the Matinee.'

f ( THE FLESH AND THE SPIRIT "Satiation!" cries the spirit.

"Satisfaction!" cries the mind ; Body grins, and mocks the merit Bought by chastity of hand. Mind is strong, a nd spirit stronger; But body breaks all strong in tentions. Mind and spirit damn this danger; Body catcalls, "All conventions!" Which is right, alld Wllich is wrong I cannot tell, for love of each . They say by chastity the pallg Of passion's crushed: and any wretch Who reins his flesh is good for 'grace'. But oh, my love so cruelly beats Me now that mind and spirit lose, Must bow to body's hated heats.

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SPEECHES IN THE CHAPTER HOUSE The Speeches this year were unusually well chosen because the action of each, whell supplemented by a synopsis in the programme, was easily ullderstandable even by t1lOse not conversant with the particular foreign languages. The Greek Speech once more fell back on The Frogs of Aristophanes, from which they presented the very a musing sccne where Dionysus (R . G. S. Adams) and Xanthias (J. P. Roche) on becoming invol ved with Aeacus (N. H . Nicholls) are forced to perform a succession of bewildering an tics to avoid Pluto's porter and caterers. A certain amount of the Greek was necessarily lost thro ugh the violence of the action, but the principals d id on the who le speak with a clarity, perception, and rhythm th at increased the regard for Aristophanes of those who had previously tho ught of him as a writer of comedy, bordering o n satirical farce. T he French Speech however broke witll M oliere, that perennia l English favour ite, a lld this year turn ed to Tristan Bernard, a modern playwright, and his L ' AlIglais tel qll'OIl Ie parle. Eugene (J. A. Turner) takes a post as a hotel interpreter witho ut any knowled ge of foreign languages . The arrival of a Yo rkshire tourist, played by R. J. SnelL who excels in such parts, causes considerable chaos in the hotel and leads to his

arrest for a non-existent crime. It was an amusing piece, but our French actors must learn to accept the challenge of speaking in a comparatively fami liar tongue with greater boldness and decision. It is onl y natural and right that they should str ive for correct accent and intonation, but this should not be subordinated to audibili ty or to dramatic requirements. Resisting the very natural impulse to choose a piece from The Governmellt Illspector or a Chekhov farce, the Russian experts selected The Cherry Orchard, and the part icularly d iffic ult scene a t the beginning of Act II, where the servants of the Ra nyevskaia estatc discuss their problems of existence. Much of the actual conversation was understanda bly

lost on the audience, but the general meaning of each character's view of li fe came across re markably well. It wilt be long before we shalt forget J . de Y. Alten's bearded clerk, nursing a sho tgun and looking for all the world like Tolstoi at the age of 80. The English Speech was a little disappointing, since the opportunity of returnin g to the original intention of the "speech" was o nce more neglected. It would be adm itted ly tedious if200 tines ofYirgii were to be declaimed, but the exqu isite scene from Congreve's Way of the World, where Mirabell and Miltamant lay dow n their marriage cond iti o ns, wo uld be ad mirable speech material. The piece chosen was from the Pickwick Paoers, and it demonstrated that Dickens never d ra ma tizes very happily. The incidents tended to be cut up, each character being allowed only a set num ber of lines, and the whole was not suffi ciently integrated . C. D. Russelt as Mr. Pickwick wou ld havc been very good with a little more benigni ty, Mr. Snodgrass (C. D . Sladen), Sam Weller (D. E . Mellish) a nd Mr. Jingle (0. R . F. D av ies) were just as we have always imagined them, but und ou btedly the " star turn" was C. R. Sinclair as Mrs. Leo Hunter, the collector of celebrities. whose recitation of Ode to all Expirillg Frol( touched the heights of suhlimity.


THE CANTUARIAN

ACADEMICAL AND OTHER DISTINCTIONS GAINED, 1954-55 J. de V. ALLEN N. H. H. GRABURN R. L. HOLFORD E. R. G. JOB S. P. JONES C. N. LAIN'" ... B. H. MCCLEERY J. S. NYE C. D. SLADEN J. D. R. SPOONEH B. A . J. WALSHAW F. D. WOODROW J. D. B. WALKER

State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Scholars hip. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. Sir Louis Stuart F.xhibition in Hist ory

State Scholarsltip. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. Open Scholarship in Classics to Trinity College, Oxford Open Exhibition in History to Magdalen College, Oxford . Sir Louis Stuart Exhibition in History to Balliol College, Oxford. Open Exhibition in Classics to King's College, Cambridge. Open Exhibition in Natural Science to Clare Coilege, Cambridge. Open Exhibition in Mathematics to Magdalene Coilege, Cambridge. Open Scholarship in History to Christ's Coilege, Cambridge. Open Exhibition in History to Merton College, Oxford. Ford Studentship in History to Trinity College, Oxford. Open Scholarship in Modern Subjects to University Coilege, Oxford . Open Exhibition in History to Worcester College, Oxford . Open Exhibition in History to Exeter College, Oxford. A.R .C.M. Elected Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Jesus College, Cambridge; 1st Class

E. R. G. Jon .. . C. D. SLADEN W. N. WENBAN-SMITlI N. H. H. GRAB URN ... R. L. HOLFORD J. S. NYE S. P. JONES C. N. LAINK ... J. C. ST. C. REAR A. BARING

C. R. SINCLAIR E. R. G. JOB .. . R. G. WEST .. . R. D. H. ROBERTS

Ho no urs, fnter-Co llegiate Examination

in Modern Languages, and College Exhibition. 290

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H. J. FHAMPTON

Edinburgh University; 1st Class Hono urS in Zoology. Ford Student of Trinity College, Oxford; 2nd Class Honours in Mathematical Moderations. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2nd

R. G. MILNE

and Modern Languages Tripos, Par t I. Trinity Coilege, Cambridge, 2nd Class

L. E. LUSH A. H. M. HOARE

Class Honours, Division 1, Mediaeval Honours, Division 2, N atural Sciences

W. E. EUSTACE J. E. M. LUCIE-SMITH E. R. STROUTS

...

B. J. STAFFORD

Tripos, Part J. Exhibitioner of Trinity Hall, Cambridge; 2nd Class Honours, Division 2, History Tripos. Part I. Scholar of Merton College, Oxford; 2nd Class Honours, Final Honour School of History. Jesus College, Cambridge; 2nd Class Honours in Architecture. Queens' College, Cambridge; 2nd Class Honours, Division 2, Natural Sciences

Tripos, Part II. Emman uel College, Cambridge; awarded N. C. G. RAFFLE Rugger Blue. St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; awa rded Cricket J. B. PHILLIPS Blue. MAJOR-GENERAL G. D. G . HEYMA N, C.B.E. Created C.B. 2N D LT. C. M. BREN NAN, Royal Innis killing Awarded M.C. for service in Kenya . Fusiliers LT.-COL. W. H. G. DUNBAR, T. C. Awarded O.B.E. Awarded M.B.B., for services as ComD. F. KELLIE mander, Metropolitan Special Constabulary. MAJOR J. O. M. ROBERTS, M.e., 2nd Gurkha Awarded M.B.e. (Military Division) for distinguished services in Malaya. Rifles PRESENT HOLDERS OF EXHIBITIONS AND GIFTS R. D. H. Roberts, Jesus Coilege, Cambridge STANHOPE EXHIBITIONS J. A. Rowe to Christ Church, Oxford . C. H. McCleery, St. Thomas's Hospital. CRAWFORD EXHIBITIONS D . H. W. Kelly, St. Thomas's Hospital. A. P. Marks, St. Bartholomew's Hospital. LEATHBRSELLERS' EXHIBITION K. D. Agnew, Mason Scholar of Jesus BUNCE EXHIBITIONS Coilege, Cambridge. A. J. Briggs to Pembroke College, Cambridge EDMUND DAVIS EXH IBITION M. C. Patterson, Middlesex Hospital. 2Yl


t H E CA NTUARI AN

ELECTED ROSE Gwr ... G I LBERT GII'T

SHEPHERD Gwr O.K.S. Gwr

JU NE, 1955 P. J. Allen to Jesus College, Cambridge. J . de V. Allen to Magda len College, Oxford E. R . G . Job, Exhibi tioner of Magdalen College, Oxford. J. E. L. Sales, to St. John's College, Cambridge

PRIZES 1954-55 P. J. Allen. P. J. Allen . Co B. Strouts { G. M . Lynch W. N. Wen ban-Smith

Captain's Prizc (Mitchinson) Lady Dav idson Prize

Headmaster's Prizes Classical (Broughton) Greek Prose ( Dean Farrar) Upper School Middle School La tin Prose (Horsley) Upper School Middle School Mathematics (Mitchillsoll) Natural Science (Mitchinsoll) Modern Lang uages (Mitchillsoll) (Scratton) ... Reading and Eloc uti o n (Harvey Boys) Senior Junior Latin Verse (Blore) Greek Verse Music (Ryley) Senior ... Junior (Courtlley) .. . Natural History .. . The King's School, Parra matta, Prizes Upper School Middle Schoo l

J. de V. Allen A. W. Budgen S. T. J . Mazzarella W. A. Hodges A. J . B. Walker R. R. Burk S. C. Ha rdisty R. J . B. Clark S. P. Jones O. R . F. Davies R. G. Ada ms J. B. Davies G. I. Allen H. J. Ricketts R . A. Lane P . J. S. F urneaux J. D. B. Walker N . C. Attwater C. D . Siaden { N. H. Freeman J. G. Underwood D. I. Fisher

History (Stallley)

(Everitt ) English (Evans) 292


THE CANTUARIAN

M. J. Gregory { G. W. Newkey-Burden

Go ugh Prizes for Photography ... Drawing Prizes Open .. . Lower School Divinity Prizes Upper School (Brough ton)

T. J. Chenevix-Trench J . A. G . Man M. Williams Po D . Elvy { W. A. Hodge W. A. T. T . GuelJones J. P. Moss S. P. Jo nos

Middle School (Marshall Wild) Lower School (Lady Hertslet) 1lI0re Prize for the Harvey Society Streatfeild Prize for th e Marlowe Society Me rton College Prizes History

Science Ala n Baker Prize for Musical Appreciatio n Oliver Johnson G ift (PhysiCS and Chemistry) H. V. Crawford Essay Prizes Upper School Middle School Lower School J. Crawford Essay Prizes Upper School Middle ScllOOI Lower School Latin Prizes: Upper School Middle School Lower School Gree k Prizes : Upper School Middle School Lower School Mathematics Prizes ( Harrisoll) Upper School Middle School Lower School Modern Languages Prizes (Greaves) Upper School French German Middle School Lower School French German 29~

J. de V. Allen { J. S. Nyc N . H. H. G ra burn M. J. Ri ckotts J. D. R . Spooner

T. J. ChlJnevix: Trench P. D. Elvy T. J . Stevens S. P . Jones P . D. Elvy T. J. Stevens C. M. J. Whittington J. P. Roche R. E. F. Minns S. T. J . Mazzarella R . M. Harvey A. G. S. Douglas R. L. Holford A. G. Robiette H. L. Foster B. H. McCleery

B. K. Jeffer y J . P . Green N. Payne M. A . Levitt


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Science Prizes :

J N. H . H.

Upper School Middle School (Physics) (Chemistry and Biology) Lower School English Prizes Upper School Middle School (Galpin) Lower School History Prizes : Upper School Middle School (Gordon) Lower School Geography Prize ... D ivinity Prize Form Pr izes (Middle and Lower School) Arts VA .. . ... ... '" Arts Middle VTH Arts Vn Ar ts Vc Science VA Sciencc VB Science Vc Upper Shell Arts Arts Shell A Arts Shell B .. . Arts Shell C .. . Sciencc Shell .. . Remove ] VTH

Graburn D. R. Spooner T. Jardine Brown K. R. Nightingale D. M. Huxley

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C. D. Sladen A. G . Robiette D. M. Edwards S. P. Jones N. J. Drew T. J. Stevens D. T. Fisher D. C. V. Farrant G . S. Brock P. S. Skinner P. A . Ca mpbell E. I-J . J . Stanley D. S. Bree D. D . Valpy R. F. L. Wood M. N . J. Broomfield H. L. F oster J. R. C. Wr ight F. A. R ockley N . J. Muller J. Polglase D. G. Hazelton

Th e Rev. J. D. Brockma n, M.A . . O.K.S.. Vicar of Win gham . wa s the Anniversary Preacher

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KING'S WEEK, 1955 " It'll be a ll ri ght all the Ilight, I suppose." How often, ill the past few weeks, had we hcard it- the doleful theme of coulltless variations. Players and singers had sped wi th Proteall dexterity from one rehearsal to another- from Messiah to the Military Band , from " serenading" in the Cloisters to duelling in the garden of Chillellden Chambers, from plainsong to pavone . Tn weather that seemed abnormall y, unreasonably summery,

actors, musicians, singers, painters, stage-hands-and the rest-strove hard through July to keep up some pretence of rcason and normality. "AU level lay behind ti S, "0" level seemed to be intermillable, and for those lucky people for whom exams. held no further fears the days were golden, fo rma l routine had almost slid from their ken. But as King's Week approached, the apprehensions of all remotely connected with

its presentation rose with the thermometer. Always, unspectacularly, somewhere in the Precincts, Colo nel Ro berts would be busy teaching, copying, arrangillg, transcribing, rehearsing; Mr. Harris would be advising, co nsulting, teaching his actors rhythm and gesture, movement a nd aud ibility; Dr. Burgess wo uld be desiglling and painting, criticizing and laughing; Mr. Wright would be grimacing and gesticulatin g, straining for precision and intonation . . . . The ceaseless jangle of the pavane, the haunling notes of the oboe and clarinet, the ex ultation fo r a risen Christ seemed to have become a part of o ur lives.

" MESSIAH " Saturday, July 161h Tllere musl be a ll sorts of reasons for going to a performance of Messiah , or for slaying away from it. On the one hand, it might be a lirst hearing or the prospect of a truly sat isfying rendering; perhaps only to support local elfort, or the box-office draw of well-known names. On the otller hand, it might take wild horses to drag a sensitive artist, wi til memories of chora l durbars, to listell to a Handel oratorio sung by a school choir and accompanied by a school orchestra. In the light of what happened in the Cathedral in King's Week, the optimists had their hopes fulfilled and the pessimists missed a good thing. From the lirst chorus the choir showed both that it knew tile music alld that it was a competent body of singers. They didn't altogether like the pace which the conductor was setting them; it appeared to be a trille faster than they relt to be comfortable, but as a disciplined body they gave him what he asked for and, metaphorically, smiled while doing it. It would not have been surprising if the adolescent voices had sounded immature, for the share which members of the stalf contributed to the ensemble was not large enough to dominate the character of the tone. From the rearmost seat in the Cathedral, however, the underparts were convincing. All lines were good, but the a ltos deserve special mention. It is a rare thing, and the greater a treat, to hear a clear, confident, steady, full part witho ut the bosomy contralto sounds one comes to accept as the ordinaire of oratorio chorus work. How often does one not listen to a broadcast or not go to a performance of Messiah, rearing that masses of amorphous sound will assai l one's ears from a choir battering its way thrOUgll the chor uses as though it were a matter of fighting the world, the Resh, a nd the devil. Here in Canterbury was some idea 2!J 5


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of singing M essiah as music. There was light and shade; that enemy of all choirs"nearly forte" throughout-never once raised its head. The chorus knew their stuff, because they had been adequately trained. The greatest compliment that one can pay the orchestra is to say that they were a lways where they were wanted, showing their heads when left to themselves but otherwise acting the part of the skilful accompanist. As in the choir, members of the staff joined in, mostly in the strings, and apart from one double-bass a nd the necessary trumpet, there was no professional padding, the orchestra being complete in all parts, including wood wind and brass . The soloists were Margaret Ritchie, Janet Howe, William Herbert and Owen Brannigan. All well known artists, they lived up to the expectations of an appreciative a udience. The conductor handled his combined forces with the skill of long experience a nd when it is realised how much else was going on that week, with many boys each playing many dilTerent roles, one can only sympathise with a nd co ngratulate those who produced results of such quality. .It is of course a remarkable tribute not only to the musical tradition of the School but also to the policy which encouragcs so much music amongst the boys.

MR. RONALD SMITH SU NDAY, J ULY 17nl

Mr. Ronald Smith's recital on the first Sunday of King's Week made it clear that he is a pianist with few equals. His technique is second to none, and- in contrast to many pianists-is always backed up by extremely feeling musicianship a nd by a wonderful warmth of colour and tone. On the technical side alone, his progra mme was as exacting as a ny that could be found; but technique by itself is not sufficient for Beethoven's Sonata, Opus 109, with which he opened his recital, and it was in tilis wo rk as much as in any other that he . revealed the qualities of profound musicianship within him. Particularly striking was the contrast between forte and piano playing; one was never . hard, the other never effete. The greatest triumph of the evening was undoubtedly Ilis performance of Book One of the Chopin Etudes. To play them all straight off as he did is a rare feat indeed; 'but to a performance already technically unimpeachab le he added rea l sensitivity and warmth. If his conception of the popular E major Et ude No.3 was a little heterodox, he only succeeded in making his audience listen even more to those that followed-and Nos. X (in A flat) and XI (the spread-chords) were quite outstanding. The second half. of the recita l opened with the first book of Brahms' Variations on a Theme of Paganill i- the theme Rachmaninov used in his variations for Piano and Orchestra- and here again the listener who is fascinated not by the sheer music only but as well by the tech nieal side, was treated to a wonderful display. Mr. Smith ended his recita l with a group of Liszt pieces : Foulltains at the Villa D'Este, Forgottell Waltz, the well-known a nd much loved Liebestrtiume No. 3-which was played with an exquisite fervour and altogether without sentimentality-and finally La Campallella. Mr. Snjith excelled himself in this last work and he was accorded a tumultuous reception. Two encores- Chopin's F major Noctume and Holst's Toccatawere a fitting end to a trul y wonderful recital. E.R.G.J. 296

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" ROMEO AND JULIET" R. J. SNELL Prince of Verona D. C. GRAHAM Paris M. B. CHESTER Montagu .. . F. J. GILES Old Capulet A. J. K. AUSTIN Romeo O. R. F. DAVIES Mercutio ... J. P. ROCHE Benvolio N. H. FREEMAN Tybalt D. E. BALFOUR Friar Lawrence C. R. SINCLAIR Friar John .. , J. W. BALCHIN Balthasar R. A. BRBWESTER Sampson ... R. B. HORTON Gregory P. C. AMENT Abraham .. . N. J. DREW Apothecary J. M. G. HUTTON Peter A. N. A. BROWNER Lady Montagu A. W. BUDGEN Lady Capulet J. G. UNDERWOOD Juliet J. J. R. THOMPSON Nurse W. A. T. T. GAREL-JONES Page to Paris P. J. TULL Page to Tybalt R. J. SNELL Chorus J. A. TURNER, A. J. REDPATH Citizens: Guards and Attendants: J. A. KANE, M. G . SAYER, C. C. F. MATTI'IEW, R. A. ArCAR, M. P. F. PLUTTE P. J. B. GRAINGER, B. S. GUARD, K. R. WILKINS, P. Dancers: ARNOLD, B. M. MORRISON, B. C. REYNOLDS, J. A. W. BEWLEY, C. WHITE, D. A. HENTON, A. D . W. O'Sullivan, D. H. B. CHESSHYRE MR. G . P. ROBERTSON, P. J. ALLEN, G. J. ALLEN, J. D . B. Mllsicians: WALKER, E. R. G. Jon, H. RICKETTS, R. L. BATES, S. P. PRICE, R. F. LUNN, J. POLGLASE

Romeo and Juliet is, in some ways, the most difficult play the School has yet attempted. Its imagery is so ornate that one longs for a leisurely delivery to take it all in; yet a slow pace would stifle the impetuous passions which are the essence of the play. And when the language is not ornate, it hovers, in this early play, on the edge of triteness, so that the rhyming couplets can sound perilously like jingle-rhymes in the mouth of an inexperienced actor.

It was therefore courageous of Mr. R. W. Harris to produce this play ; still more 10 do so with a Romeo aged only 14. But the risk was well worth taking ; and this was a fin.e production which moved swiftly, was never stiff or awkward in its grouping, and held the audience even on the night when it drizzled-the cast overcame this handicap hy acting with particular verve that evening. '(.97


THE CANTUARJAN

Austin looked every inch the part of Romeo. He moved with grace and assu rance. a nd in the few light-hearted moments which the play a llows him , one cou ld see that Romeo was indeed the compan ion whom Mercuti o would love. His lovesickness for Rosaline was tinged with j ust eno ugh self-pity to make it appear the ca lf-l ove it was in comparison with his later and deeper passion for Juliet. He did not perhaps quite reach the heights of lyricism which the part demands, for in the ecstasies of love and despair he was inclined to rush his words and to drop his voice at the end of a line; but his performances even of these scenes became better throughout the week; and in the vault-scene he achieved a dignity which made it one of the memora ble passages of the play. Underwood admirab ly sustained the tragedy of Ju liet's pa rI. Juliet's dependence on her famil y is so strong that, a lmost from th e beginning. the co nRict or loya lty is tn her more agonizing th an it is to Romeo . Underwood por trayed thi s inner pain very

well and still had a mple strength for the exacting scenes towards the end of the play. He, too, moved with a grace and a poise which few boys CQ uid achieve in this part, and if he did not ach ieve quite enough va riation in vocal colouring and in pace, his eyes, which he used most expressively, more than made up for this. No player matched face, voice, and gest ure more perfectly than did Davies as Mercuti o. Indeed, his was one of the finest and most vital performances yet seen in our School productions. His Queen Mab speech rea lly did cast a spell ; a nd his death-scene was almost unbearable. Another outstanding performance was that of Thompson as the Nurse-a fine portrayal of an old woman who can afford to take li bert ies with even so tetchy a gentleman as her lord Capulet. Russell played the latter part endearingly : one felt that his rages would soon pass off, a nd that there was more of the jovial host in him than of the domineering father. Young peo ple in trouble wo uld turn to so meone who shows strengtll as well as amiability; yet the strength of Friar Lawrence is not ofte ll seen on the stage, and Balfour was in good professional company in concentrating on making the Friar into an old dear. Of its type, his performance was very good. Freeman's Tybalt was also excellent, a true "prince of cats". 1n the part of Benvolio. Roche unfortunately had Ijttle talent for his acti ng abilities. The other parts in the play were all filled very adequately. The Archdeaco n of Canterbury again kindly lent us his lovely garden, and in it the stage carpenters, under Mr. David Lawrellce and D. B. Strouts, put up a most attractive Italiana te set, as beautiful as any that Dr. Malcol m Burgess has yet designed for us. Much work had gone into it, both before King's Week and after the night when torrential rain had damaged its delicate colouring. As darkness fell each evenillg, the Hoodlights made the colours of the set and the costumes glow more richly, and the intimacy of the vault-scene was beautifully emphasized by playing it in a small island of light picked out of the surrounding darkness. . The elaborate Pavane, arranged by Mrs. Stanger, was accurately executed each night. The musicians in the gallery, under the djrection of Colonel Roberts, played discreetly and added much to the atmosphere- in particular the high tremolo of the violins durin g the quarrel scenes were most effecti ve in increas ing the tension .

R.K.B .

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THE NAVE CONCERT On Sunday, 24th Jul y, the School Orchestra, led by Mr. Sugden a nd conducted by Colonel Roberts, gave a concert in the Cathedral before an audience of over two thousand . The Occasiona l Overture by Handel Wllich opened their programme received a perfo rma nce which, if com petent, was undistinguished . It did, however, serve to give the players the measure of their aud itorium, a nd as the first strains of Nimrod wafted down the Nave, it became clear that initial nervousness had been surmounted. Here was a Nimrod that Elgar need have felt no qualms in ack nowledging-warm, but not sentimental, the climax ample, but not blatant- interpreted with a restraint that prepared us for the serene chorale-tune (Wohl lI1ir, doss ich JeslIm Iwbe, from Bach's Cantata No. 147) that followed it. An odd-seeming arrangement of the vocal parts for ilute, clarinets, bassoons and horns sounded quite effective in performance, and if the rhythmic pulse of the acco mpanying strin gs was not always so steady as could have been wis hed, the total impression was most agreeable. Familiarity with Schubert's B Minor Symphony. the Unfinished, can never breed contempt: its loveliness increases at each hearing. It has been played, however, so often. so va riously, a nd so well . that everyo ne has constructed his private ideal of it, and any new reading must in vite compariso n not only with the best that we have heard , but a lso. like the port ra it ofa friend, with cherished preconceptions. To have undertaken to provide a version of this masterpiece that wo uld give delight and hurt not appeared daring to the point or presumption. and it says much ror the quality of our Orchestra that what we now heard annoyed no o ne. This inoffensiveness was secured, moreov~r, witho ut loss of dramatic power. Exordial strings emerged darkly out of silence li ke life from chaos. Oboe and cla rinet becko ned across their first urgent stirrings, and it was not long before we found that the old Schubertian spell had lost nothing of its potency. Only once did it seem to falter- at tile modulation from a sustained D natural into the second subject. No li berties were taken witll pace or with dynamic markings, and even in the vastness of the Cathedral, sJorzato chords remained precise and crisp. We have heard performances in which the pathos of the development sectio n has been unwarrantably exagge rated . We have heard performa nces- professional performances even-where the best-known melody from the first movement has been tumed into so mething too like a Viennese wal tz. We have also- let us be quite frank- heard perfo rma nces that were more thrilling. What this one lacked in tenseness it m.de up in taste. For sheer opulence of tone it could not vie with the resources of our national orchestras, but iLl every other respect it was remarkably satisfying. The andollte COil moto gave the woodwind a chance to show what they could do. They took it. The ha unting clarinet theme, with its a nswers from oboe and fiute, was played to perfecti on. But the strings were not to be outdone. Their opportun.ity came in the next piece, the second of six cOllcerti grossi which Francesco Geminjani published in London in 1732. Apart from his treatise on violin technique, Gemini. ni is remembered chiefly for having added a viola to the traditional cOllcertillo, thus enlarging it into a full string quartet, and bringing the number of ripiello parts up to seven. TillS composition, a very graceful specimen of its kind, was treated with a ll the elegance its style demands. Intonation, phrasing, a nd attack we re good thro ughout. 299


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After the Interval came another concerto, in the same key (C Minor), but of a very different character-the fourth piano concerto of Saint-Saens, in which (as in his A minor 'cello concerto) the composer has ingeniously exploited his thematic material to establish the close kinship of contrasting sections. For Ronald Smith the exacting solo part held no terrors, and the support he received from the Orchestra was alert and sympathetic. Better bala nce was achieved than at the rehearsal Wllich the B.B.C. had broadcast on the previous evening from the Eastern Crypt, and rapid legato passages which then had sounded somewhat blurred and flurried were now heard in shapely distinctness. Soloist and Orchestra alike were in excellent rorm, and gave a .spirited account of a work in which subtleties of rhythm and syncopation call for the utmost accuracy.

It was the Anabaptist rising under John of Leyden that furnished the curi ous background of Meyerbeer's opera Le Proph'''e. The flamboyant march ori ginall y intended to accompany John's coronation in Act IV was played now wit h great gusto, and brought to a n aptl y festive concl usion a concert that confounded the fears of those who had thought the programme too ambitious, and rounded off what chroniclers of the School's musical acti vities wi ll surely rank as an annus mirabilis. It would be ungenerous to end this notice without recording the gratitude which even the most critical of us feel to members of the Orchestra for the time they had obviously spared for rehearsals on summer days that were magically fine and full, and our appreciation of the unspectacular but indispensable preparatory work to which conductor, leader, and soloist had devoted themselves with never-failing tact and patience and enthusiasm. H.R.D.

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SONNET XXIV This was the silence deeper than any nerve That breaks the cords of all our mortal flesh: Now on the axis of the years that curve The starfalls of your life in heaven's mesh, And draws to another end this bitter day, That made the lightning beauty of summer's tears, Unravelling the years my heart must say, Though ever bond, for ever needless fears, For this last wish, previsioned as the wave That curls for ever, all our true life turns To unchanged silence: who will therefore brave Such wintry light, unmaking as it burns? o truest heart, your giving held that power, That sad ass urance, ill its golden hour. 300


THE CANTUARIAN

A NINETIETH BIRTHDAY On December the 8th of this year Jean Sibelius celebrated his ninetieth birthday. In spite of the fact that he has not published a new work for thirty years, no one has come to challenge his position as the greatest Ijving composer in thc world to-day. This fact atone gives some idea of his magnitUde and the estimation in which he is held to-day. Even before receiving any instruction in the theory of music, Sibelius as a small child began to compose. He wanted fro m boyhood to become a violin virtuoso, and, although as a young man he entered Helsinki University to study law, he was later persuaded to study music in Austria and Germany. After a little study he found that his own path lay

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neither Wagner nor Brahms, who at that time were worshipped

by the whole of Central Euro pe, but it was not until his retuTll to Fin land that he discovered his own personal style. The music of Sibelius had an immediate appeal in England, since Ell Saga was first heard, and we can claim to-day to be among the greatest admirers and even exponents of his music. This success must surely be a result of his use of the orchestra. Brahms has often been accused, unjustly I might add, of being dull and unexciting in his orchestration. But while Brahms was fundamentally a pianist, Sibelius is a violinist and Ilis writing for strings reveals the most phenomenal insight into the character of this section of the orchestra. That does not mean that his writing for the wind sect ion is ever lacking in precision or vitality. Indeed a large measure of his success lies in his colourful use of the wind, a few characteristics of which are the "chattering" oboes, a nd the long sustained notes on the brass which have the effect of binding a movement more closely together. It would be unfair, besides virtually impossible, to forecast the form of the long awaited eighth symphony. Sibelius himself says that it has been "finished" many times, but how far the development of his own particular style has taken him is uncertain. His first six published symphon ies have three or four movements. They vary in form and thought from the gaiety of the third, the grandeu r of the second and fifth, the "pastoral" feelings of the sixth to the tragedy and gloom of the fourth; but his originality and energy are commo n to all of them. Most important of all is his use of repetition, which is amply demonstrated by his first symphony. The apparen tl y insignificant fragments of phrases, enlarged and defined, provide the development through which the climax o f the work receives extra dimension. Often the development is slow and emotionally moving but beneath it can be disce. ned the most closely inter-woven musical organism. Persistently the themes come through until they reach a final climax, which is often hammered out in a blaze of glory. His instinctive use of thematic relationships has resulted in the seven th symphony being in one continuous movement, not designed so, but the outcome of a subconscious co-ordination of thematic material.

Sibelius' originality of expression, colouring, and symphonic development has placed him high in the great tradition of symphonic writers. His works, as of no other composer, show that the increasing departure from the classical form, which was so much in evidence at thc cnd of the last century. has done nothing to diminish the expressive potentialities of Ihe symphony.

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" BEATING THE BOUNDS" We were naturally rather curious when the City Council invited a party from the School to partake in the ceremony of "Beating tile Bounds" of the City of Canterbury. Uncertain what to expect, six of us arrived at the Victoria allotments, by the West station, shortly before 9 o'clock on a fine Thursday, 29th September. We found quite a congregation there, the Mayo r, the Deputy Mayor, some members of the City Council, Press photographers, and various other citizens. I should explain that this ceremony is one of the oldest in the Country, dating from 1368, and is now performed every seventh year; its purpose being to ensure that the forty~rour boundary stones are in their correct places, thus maintaining the Co uncil's legal right to the Boundary. We were handed an itinery and a stave each, the latter being used to beat the stones . After so me photogra phs of the gro up had been taken, we set ofT towards the first stone, sited on an embankment by the Ashford railway line. Assembled around it, we "bumped" the Mayor, the Deputy-Mayor. and various others, including J. B. Batchelor, K.S. The Mayor later told us that this idea is to ensure that the sto nes are firmly fixed, and to remind those who are bumped of the situation of the boundary. From there, we climbed uphill, bellind the Sanatorium and Kent College, across to St. Stephen's Hill. By then the party had split up, the younger people generally leading by about one hundred yards. Consequently, we had several stops to reassemble; even so, we were ahead of schedule when we arrived on the Margate Road, close to Sturry. Ascending the Scotland Hills by way of the Golf Course, we met our first difficulty; stone No . II could IlOt be found . Jt should have been by the side of one of the Greens, but after several minutes' fruitless searching, we passed on up towards the Stodmarsh Road, where lunch was taken. The break, and the glass of beer provided by the Mayor. were very welcome, for it was hot work going uphill. After an hour's rest, we continued through the Trenleypark Woods. The stops were more frequent now, for these woods were not made for walking, indeed, it was as if no footpath existed. After half an hour, the way opelled out into apple orchards, truly the "Garden of England" country, extending for some miles and broken only by the coastal roads to Sandwich aIld Dover. We found the windfalls very refreshing, for they were ripe and crisp. Whell we reached the last stone on the Nackington Road, thirty boundary stones had been beaten and twel ve miles covered. We were ready for tea. Our curiosity was satisfied. R.I.R.

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hiE CANTUA RIAN

CANTERBURY PILGRIMS OF 1955 (We are printing this by kind permission of "The Times", and we are indebted author, Canon W. F. France, for his interest and alterations)

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To-day it is not only "from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende for almost every hill and valley of five continents pours its tributary into Ihe stream of pilgrims and tourists. No longer are they clattering, chattering little groups travelling by horse or on foot; for they are carried-many hundreds a day- by the coach-load much as a bee-keeper moves his hives . Whel' the hive comes to rest they swarm out and move in hot clusters down Burgate and so through the Christchurch Gate to the Cathedral. They speak mal'y tongues, and they ask diverse questions of the guides and chaplains there to welcome them. "Excuse me," is almost certain to be followed by, "can you kindly tell me where was Becket murdered?" This will be met many times a day, but there are variations by those who shun so coarse a word as murder. "Please, Sir, can you show me where the gentleman was killed?" or "Can you kindly indicate the spot where Canterbury's tragic event occurred?" "Where is the sheep?" asked the graceful young couple from Indonesia, "the guide book says it is long and beautiful" (the answer? Sheep-ship-navis-nave). "Where is the tomb of King Arthur's wife?" or "Where is Becket now?" needed handling with care so as to inform and not to offend . But the story of the French girl and the dragon had an ending that sets it apart. She was very pretty, dressed in the neap-tide style of to-day, wide-eyed and most serious. "You say", she inquired as she pointed to a mischievous grotesque, "dray-gon? It is for me etude speciale. What mean he?" Now when a knight meets a damsel beset by a dragon he knows what is expected of him and chivalry allows him no other choice. A cassock has no such certainty. Mr. T. S. R. Boase's massive learning was beyond his French or her English. The theory of craftsmen's merriment hardly matched her grave expectancy. So Benedicite Omnia Opera was tried: that God made all things and therefore even the oddest must be added to the praise of Him. "Non, non. God, He no make dray-gon. Please may I buy picture postcard of dray-gon?" But for the most part they move round in slow silence, hushed by the awe of beauty or soothed by the yearning patience of the great Cathedral. They are told a little history, shown this or that shrine housing some eloquent memory, invited to enjoy the radiance of the glass and to chuckle over Bobbie throwing stones at a frog or the Three Kings in one bed all witll their crowns on as they sleep. Then perhaps they are led to the steps before tlle screen of the Six Kings. In the great West Window they see Adam digging; to the South Methuselah, chin upon hand supporting the memories of his 969 years; and then they are urged to look up. [t is beyond compare. The unexpectedness of Fuji from the Long Tail Pass? The harmonies of the Taj Maha!? No : it stands alone. As the eye is drawn up and up it sees that eternity is not dark or fearful but is light, lovely, alluring, and all-embracing. "By gum, it makes a man think", says Yorkshire. "Coo", exclaim the Cockney children together. And one of them took cassock by the hand and added, "I wish 1 could live in here always and always." 303


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And when they pass out again into the Precincts, memory of the visit must be held , so they photograph each other. Three or four in a straight line, arms sagging from shoulders, eyes scre'hed up in the bright light, looking directly at cameras- but these things do not matter so long as "it comes out". Often cassock is invited to join the group to give it Cathedral reality. Transatlantic visitors have asked Ilim to " walk and

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talk" with father while mother takes a movie of them, for inflation leaves nothing alone,

not even memory. And when in a few years' time the children are shown the film of grandfather's travels and ask "Is that the Archbishop of Canterbury talking to Grandad?" surely the answer will be "Could be. I guess that's how it was." We have heard that there are other Cathedrals, but we know no more of them than Chaucer did. We tell with delight a tale of the Abbey because, we assure ourselves, it could not have happened here. A large Cadi llac stopped at the Abbey and an eager famil y tumbled out- all except father. He had seell enough Cathedrals in Europe. "But say, this is Westminster Abbey where the Coronation was; you must come on inside. " Pop guessed no he'd stay put. The family was deeply shocked. "Not even walk round Westminster Abbey?" cried Mamie in shrill indignation, "why what did the Lord give you two legs for if you can't walk that far?" But Pop knew all the answers: "One for the brake and one for the accelerator. " It could not happen in Canterbury.

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tINES ON SEEING THE ASSEMBLY HALL STAlRCASE , Like some vague, occidental Taj Mahal Scintillating in the effervescent haze Of sun through steam; Ablaze Like some dream Nephelococcygia of Arabian days Long past, in that fast-fleeting beam , Which burst upon my vision in a fireball, Framed by serrations of the broken window In my bathroom, To show The boundless bloom Of that approvable, superior, Postdiluyiai, ferro-concrete stair. VYVYAN

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AN ARTISTIC SCIENTIST Of all studies one of the most rewarding is that of the human mind and of the way in which it links ordinary life with its spiritual experience. Some people are limited, some are great: but when you are dealing not only with a brilliant artist, but also with a brilliant scientist and one of the greatest of the Universal men, Leonardo da Vinci, the study becomes completely absorbing. I would like, here, to present a few aspects of the mind and its conceptions, of one of the greatest of all men. Some knowledge of Renaissance Italian social history is needed to give Leonardo his full due of appreciation; it must suffice to say here that in him is the culmination and completion of one of the world's most glorious eras; he is the embodiment of the Renaissance's greatness, representing three centuries of mental awakening, discovery,

achievement, glory, art, and above all, of individual development. No man has summed up a great age so completely. The greatest of the Universal Men, the only other that bears comparison with da Vinci is Goethe; but Leonardo was more stable and more

exalted. He is a strange, almost symbolic figure; if he represents the culmination of the Renaissance he represents also its transition into the civilization of to-day, ill pass ing from art to science. He can also be said to symbolize an historical transition in the passing of civilization from Italy to France when he went, four years before his death, to stay with King Fran90is at Auboix. He wrote, "In rivers, the water that you touch is the last of what has passed and the fIrst of what comes; so with time present"; and so with himself. He is known primarily as a painter because his few, transcendent masterpieces are

almost universally known- his only works that are-and almost universally appreciated. Tt is often fo rgotten that he was as great a scientist as an artist, and one who gave all for llis knowledge. Science is too often regarded as a mere sideline with him, the whim of a genius: and SUCll was the view of his early biographers. But he saw all existence as a unity, and gave his life to the search for the all embracing elements and causes of creation. However, the first clue to understanding him is to find where art and science stood in his valuation. Leonardo saw two things in life; he saw man, who had over the centuries, allowed himself to be degraded to the point of becoming a despicable beast: and he saw Nature, stit! undergoing her ageless processes of evolution, perfect and untouched by the foolishness of humanity. Her laws were eternal and intangible and in her, being perfect, was to be found the secret of all existence. In this light, art was not merely the only thing a man can do that is in itself worthwhile, being the imitation of the perfect, but also the greatest creative possibility open to him. He says that art and the artist are the grand-children of God. But it must be remembered that art was but an imitation, however honourable. He writes : "He who despises painting, which is the sole imitator of all the visible works of nature ... wit! be despising a subtle invention which with philosophical speculation takes as its theme all the various kinds of forms, airs, scenes, plants." Such were his opinions of art: but after the age

of a bout twenty-eight he regarded art as a sideline, a part of his living and the sole vent for his love of science; he produced it because it was the nearest he could come to the perfection that Jay just outside his grasp. I hold this opinion chiefly because after what might be termed a mental revolution, at that age, his artistic output appears almost to cease: and there is a scarcity of drawings and paintings. (Most of his drawin~s are in


THE CANTUAR IAN

any case scientific diagrams or studies.) Now Science was not an im itadon of a good

but the mea ns of finding the substance of a good- it was the sure stud y in which was to be fou nd the source of knowledge and of life . Hence his great research into botany, anatomy, geology, optics, fli ght, atmos phere, aco llsti cs, astronomy, physics, geometry, arithmetic, geography, and various o ther branches of science. Their number is so great

because he considered that if he omitted any one of the known scientific studies, his data would be incomplete and so useless. He writes, "Of what use, pray, is he who in order to abridge the part of the things of which he proposes to give complete in formation, leaves out the greater part of the matters of which the whole is composed?" Of the certainty of mathematics he writes, "He who blames the supreme certainty of mathematics feeds on co nfusion, and will never impose sil ence upon th e contrad icti o ns of th e sophistica l sciences which occasion a perpetual clamour." We do not know much, and can o nl y conjecture, abo ut the sta ges through which he

passed in the course of his evolution. How he developed from the easy going student in Venocchio's studio, where his mo rality was

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bro ught to question by an anonymous

accuser to the exalted intellect that he was half a dozen years later, it is impossible to say. When he ca me to gay an d romantic F lo rence, where art was everyw here in the

ai r, he probably had the most intense artistic impulses which, coupled with the realisation that he was a master pain ter, presented to his very sensitive mind the love and beauty that can be found throughout ; presented it in such a way that he could not help fo llowing and seeking after it. He soon looked at it more closely, fa scinated; and the search was so absorbing, and involved so much that was of permanent Importance and value, that

he felt he had to give his life to it. He tended to live out of this world; he virtually created for himself, with the aid of mathematics, intellect and, possibly, religion, a n existence of harmon y and ideal that could look down on everyday life : and ha ving created it, he set out alo ne for it. He found continual difficul'.ies that beset him ; he rosc, defi nitely, a bove the common life, but was unable quite to reach the higher. He is lost in mid-journey, as it were, not knowing where to turn next and compelled to seek his way through the maze of the inferior life. His aspirations were so high that one ca nnot be surprISed that he Just fell short of them in his lifetime. He himself was sometimes grievo usly disheartened. "J have wasted my years", he jots down. And an unknown friend writes, "0 Leonardo, why do you toil so much?" There is .to my mind a very p~thetic note he!e, revealing the feverish toil put into the unrelentmg search. Many a lIme was It wntten that he could spare no time for drawing or painting because of his abso rption in scientific studies. But he had, without question, a very clear vision of that world of his creation, and occasionally actually achieves it. He ta kes for granted, by his intellect, that the height of moral virtue is a basic necessity for goodness ; he deems himself above marriage, above sex which he loathes, and above everything that bears witness to the animal nature in ma n. His early biographers all depict him as not caring to live, hut only to know. That is not quite true, for he found much that was lovely in life; but T like to say that he was above death, which he called the greatest evil of all. But in spite of all this, he excelled equally in the social and physical spheres. One at his great gifts was the ability to give everything its due value. His spirit was housed in a body ; so his body, too, had to excel ; and Leonardo was proud ofb~l11g able t~.crus h a horseshoe in one hand, proud of hIS good looks,-he was once descnbed as an angel JO~


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incarnate"-pleased to be a brilliant social persOilality and conversationalist. How proud he must have been to be able to play the lyre so beautifully! He was said by Lomazzo to be the finest Iyrist of his day, together with Alfonso of Ferrara. He had his own distinctive tastes. Many have called him aloof or indifferent ; and although it is clear from the No tebooks that he was very aristocratic in taste, he was on the other hand extremely sensitive. He could deal sympathetically with others, even in fo rgiving G iacomo Salai, his thieving pupil, for stealing a new leather just presented to him with which to buy "aniseed comfits" . Moreover, Leonardo must have been a very lonely man, a nd ca nnot be blamed for occasionally standing aloof, when forced to regard most

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of his contemporaries as "passion dri ven pigmies" and to be perpetually thrown back

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We shall never know how much in spiration he gained from religion. He has been deemed irreligious by almost every biographer-i n fact Vasari in the first edition of his works says that " Leonardo chose to be a philosopher rather than a Christian." Probably a mere piece of Florentine gossip, it was omitted in the second edition; but some have called him so merel y because of the scorn in which he held t.he Church of his day. His was a deeply religious nature, and he was fully justified in pouring scorn and sati re on the rotten institution that professed to be God's Church on Earth. The 15th Century Roman Church was then one of the greatest sources of immorality in an immoral age, and Bandello has left us a dreadful description of its vices. One band ¡of monks, the

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on himself. He was rather li ke a Gulliver in Lilliput.

"Minorites", he says, "cheat, stea l, fornicate and when they are at the end of their resources, they set up as saints, and work miracles from which they gain fortunes." But

Leonardo writes, "I speak not against the sacred books, for they are supreme truth." As his years increased, so did his religion, and the sacred books always remained supreme truth to him; it was his idea of God that changed. U p to old age he regarded God as a mathematical conception (for all mathematics is founded all Truth, he says). But when in his will he commends his soul to God, to the Virgin Mary, to St. Michael and All Angels and the Saints in Paradise; and when on his death bed he took the Holy Communion in all devoutness, as Melzi tells, I am sure he is a true and noble Catholic, and one glad to be leaving this sensual, trivial but interesting world for Paradise. He wrote, "It has been proved to us by experience" (one must notice that his spiritual experience was as substantial as his scientific) " that if we will have knowledge of a nything, we must be quit of the body- the soul must in herself behold all things in themselves, and then we shall attai n the wisdom which we desire, of which we say that we are lovers; not while we live but after death : for if, while in company with the body the soul cannot have knowledge, one of two things follow-either knowledge is not to be attained at all, or, if at all, after death." Now he himself writes, "No man knows what is after death", but he knows instinctively that there he will find his heart's desire. Nevertheless there is still uncertainty, death follows life and none know its content. If one is to sleep well, one must work hard by day; hence his ever recurring exhortation to "use life well" . As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well spent brings happy death." The realisation of how basically, and morally important it was to use life well must have been one of the greatest continual sources of inspiration and of power to persevere in his toil. For he was human, and many a time must have felt the task too forlom. Here, I think, lies the secret of his greatness; few lives have been so fully used, and to such great purpose. And the very knowledge that in this world where men were drab, spoilt and evil, there was such love 307

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to be found love and beauty that would make up for such bestialissima pazzia-vestial madness-a~, war must have played a great part in provoking his heart, intellect and soul to persevere unrelentingly in the search for Love and Truth. Of these last two his paintings reveal such a sense and reverence, especiaUy his religious works that I cannot helieve he was a pagan. The Virgil! of the Rocks, The Virgin and Child ;vith St. Aline, The Last Supper, any of these seen;l to me to be celestial works that on ly inspiration given by those beings whom he was paIntIng could have produced .

The Virgin of the Rocks, for instance, is a living testimony of Leonardo, with all his aspirations, experience and even failings; and one .must blot out all but tI~e actual canva~, forgett ing the technical qualities, to see these. ThIS done, Olle can look, If darkly, on h!s ideal wo rld and it is a miracle of creation. The to ne of the wo rk IS all love-love for Ills conception;, for beauty, for Nature and for sy~bo lis m . The beings are ethereal realities and each has a so ul revealed throu gh ItS phYSIcal forms 111 no mortal way. T hey are ideal creatures a nd immortal' and their love is holy, as befits the Saviour of the World, His mother arld celestial bei~gs. Then, when one looks at the flowers, the grass, foliage, pebbles, m~untains and seas, one says, "Truly this was the grandchild of God." The painting moreover teaches the height of realism not of one but of two worlds, hIs as well as ours. And behind, the great, symbolic mountains gaze down; they are Nature's most massive elements that look down upon the passing of man, and yet whicb themselves pass in perfect e~olution; they will pass away, but the love that is in the so uls of these blessed ones will never pass away. Before he was thirty years old he had reaclled the stage at which he could present his thoughts on canvas almost as exactly as his mind could order them. He was in his style beyond the stage of achievement, and in the few paintings he produced a ft~r this age, one can sec the great mental change through which he passed; from the Vlfg111 of the Rocks, the Virgin and Child with St. Anne and the Led~ t? the deep, mystIcal St. John, and the symbolical Mona Lisa . One can see Leonardo s Ideals 111 these pa111t111gs : we see his other world in whicll his "types are exceedingly ethereal, lacking in all sensuality". He made only two paintings that were in any way ser~s uo us; one was a portrait.ofIsab~lIa d'Este which the good lady doubtless wr ung from hl1n, and the other a portraIt of Mona Lisa which 1 interpret as a bittcr satire on this life. It was painted in the last years of his life, part at Milan and part in France, at a time when he could look back . . It ~ictures all the pervading sensuality and bogu~ of the world, all the unnecessary tnv""he~ or evil but contenting indulgences of man, 111 thelf true " ght, through lI~eans of the exqu!sltely detailed clothes, in the tiny (but to man, great) bndge over the nver of Nature, III the buildings and the fashionable hair style. Crowning all is the smug, pretty and self-sahsfied smile yet from Wllich a host of enigmas. are not absent. Man ~ay shy from the Truth and from life's enigmas, but they meet him everywhere,. even In hIS self-sahsfactlOn. The facial arrangement is and will always remain partrally 1I1comprehenslble. It was tYPIcal of Leonardo to make it so by making the right hand side of the face smile broadly and confidently the other side puzzled and all but scowling; and to make the right eye gaze into yours ~nd the left look distractedly over your right .shoulder .. Artists have a.lways been distracted by this "smile"-and all who see the pamlmg. But It was never fimshed. Although he almost ceased to paint after the age of thirty, he did not renou!'ce art. Science was a continuation of the search for what he had prevIOusly looked for 111 artprobably he saw art as the right path that hitherto he had missed. All was a complete 308

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unity to him. He had no need, like Uccello, or Piero della Francesca in his "Prospetlia Puiguendi" to attempt to relate painting to Plato's arithmetic. His sense of values show.ed him that each had a place and a task in existel!ce, and that creation was a positive actIvIty wIth a delil11te goa \. Tn other respects, too, hIS values were, for those days, quite remarkable. We know of no one who described war as "bestial madness"; and there were exceedingly few, in a period of interstate wars, feuds, vendettas whiell might last a century, CIVIl strife and such an atmosphere of unrest, who would even think of it as such. Nor would anyone else who had invented a submarine, and the use of gas in war, have rejected fame and a fortune by refusing to divul ge his secret, on Ihe grounds that he would be unleashing too devilish a weapon on mankind.

Soon he became completely taken up with science. A pupil wrote of him that he co uld not get the master to come even to look at his work, as he was so frantica lly and perpetuall y engaged in stud ying shells or plants. His ambition was to find the causes of Nature, and to do this he must om it nothing, he must give every minute deta il its due of im portance and never, never accept a ny til ing that was on ly "possible" or "probable"; experience alone sufficed. To give a just estimation of his scientific wo rk wo uld require an encyclopaed Ic WIdth of knowledge. He was the first great anatomist. He was denounccd by the Pope for his numerous dissections of human bodies (although Michaelangelo was allowed to dissect). All condemned him for it, but Dr. William Hunter said tnat Leonardo was the ~reatest physician and anatomist of his day. Many are the branches of sCIence m wluch ne mcreased and surpassed all knowledge of that time. He was often centuries ahead in his methods. For instance, no one, until 1890, had the idea of pouring wax into the ventricles of the brain, and so obtaining an exact cast; Leonardo however outlines tI,e process in great detail. Perhaps of all the sciences geology fascinated him most-the study of tI,e vastest masses on earth, a part of Nature and with laws as sure and immutable as those of the tenderest flower. He virtually introduced Geology into the class of sciences, as it had hitherto been a lmost entirely neglected. He developed rema rkable new geological methods many of which are sti ll used. He could explain the strata of rocks, he could am r~ that the mo untains that soared so high had once been under the sea basing his view On data received from such objects as fossil s, shells a nd varying strata. Likewise his methods discoveries in and statements o n light and o ptics, hydraulics and water, movement and weight, flight and atmosphere, astronomy and aco ustics, physiology and anatomy revea l an innate scientific sense and co nsiderable grasp of each. In fact, .he gave a new aspect to all he undertook, often revolutionising a science, or even creatmg new realms of knowledge. The secret lies in that he was Ihe first man to study science on a basis of observed fact-he called it experience. In his scientific thought he was almost a portent of ages still to come, centuries ahead of his times . His contemporaries could scarcely have understood him, had he said (as he wrote): "The man '.':ho in an argument addres~es authority is not using his intellect, but only hIS m~n:ory . HI~ contempt for the Ar!stotehans~ the adducers of authority, is genuine and bltmg, espeCIally when he comes mto conflIct WIth them over his new methods. "The disciples of Aristotle, men of wo rds and book, think, because I am not a man of letters as .they are, that I am incapable of speaking upon my own subjects. They do not perceIve that my matter IS to be expounded rather by experience than by words: expenence whIch tru ly has been the mstructress of all those who have written well ; which r take for my instructress, by which, in all cases, I will stand or fall", 309


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His scientific instinct is astonishing; often he makes conjectures in which he unerringly reaches an almost correct conclusion whose causes he c~)Uld not hope to explll:in . "The waves oflight and sound are governed by the same mecharncallaw as that governmg waves of water' and the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection." Newton, a hundred and s~venty years later, still supposed that "light was due to little corpuscles entering the eye after being shot at by the luminious body". Sometimes he appears to know too much! It would seem that some knowledge of the law of gravity was needed to be able to write. "The whole earth is moved by the action of one drop of water falling on it". He knew that the blood moved in the body- but took it for granted; and he wrote once in his Notebooks, in large letters, "The Sun does not move". He has been called the forerunner of many great men- Harvey, Newton, Bacon and Watt, even

Goethe' but the claim is only justified in that he anticipated their methods of investigation. Nevertheless, it is remarkable ho~ far he reached. Perhaps his greatest scientific achievement was to conceive of the Universe as the one vast, law-governed and cosmic clement that it is. Tn a way he anticipated the modeI'll idea of science; for seeking Truth through neither philo~o~hy nor antiquity, he sought it t~rot~gh a philosophic mathematics and science, u111fymg knowledge as do the great sCIentIsts of today.

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Not only was Leonardo a great painter and scie~tist ; he was asculptor of renown, and wrote much in a very clear and often beautIful style. He mvented WIdely and became the most knowledgeable engineer of his day. But he always practised aU tha, he spoke or wrote. "The supreme misfortune is when theory outstrips performance. For we can see Leonardo "studying stains on walls, or the ember of a fire wherein he may find divine landscapes, battles, figures in violent action or even the expressions of faces'" and we know that he fulfilled his greatest exhortation, to "use life well" .-"May I be d~prived of movement ere I weary of being u seful: T never weary of. being useful. Hands into which fall like snow ducats and precIOus stones, these never tIre of servmg, but such service is only for its usefulness and not for our advantage" . His were such hands; and he has crystallised and beautified those ducats and precious stones for all the generations to see, and to wonder. C-T.

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THE CANTUARTAN

DIVINITY HUNG ROUND THAT MAN

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"When I acted the Ghost with Betterton, instead of my awing him, he terrified me. Divinity hung round that man." Today many assure us that the age of the 'great' actor is over, and rightly so, because subordination of text and structure to the demands of one single actor's interpretation is bad theatre. As William Poel, whose Elizabethan Stage Society so revolutionized modern presentation, once said: "Actors can never abrogate their right to claim Shakespeare as their fellow, nor forget that they are personally responsible to the public for the justice and honour, or the lack of either, rhat is meted out to him, and more especially for the invaluable legacy Shakespeare left in their custody." The Old Vic's present scheme to perform all the plays in the First Folio is indicative of the new respect that the theatre has for Shakespeare the writer, rather than Shakespeare the creator of character. This is not to say that a flood of scholarship has suddenly opened up new vistas of Elizabethan interpretation, for Irving himself spent months in research for each new production he staged. The difference lies rather more in approach than in method. Poel always saw Shakespeare as a consummate craftsman of the practical theatre. He believed that a sensitive regard for the actual intention of the author would produce a far more integrated and satisfying effect than mere display of personal talent, heedless of the real underlying craftsmanship. The view has been expressed that Macready and Kean were nothing more than ranting hams, incapable of any analytical or psychological perception of real character. It has been stated that Kean's whole conception of Othello was wrong and that his jealousy was premature and allowed of no development, that Macready's Macbeth was seltislt and hampered by stupid stage mannerisms, that Kemble was too formal, that Irving moved and spoke badly, and that the essential rhythm of the verse was lacking. There is indeed much to criticize, and it is rigllt that we should do so. Gielgud's Hamlet in all probability shows a far better intellectual grasp of the character than Kemble or Phelps ever achieved. The " improved versions" of Shakespeare, and the drastic scene cutting which existed as late as Irving were grave defects from which we are fortunate enough to have escaped today. The great "set-pieces" of Shakespeare are no longer declaimed and ranted, it no longer takes a Hamlet six minutes to deliver "To be or no to be", actors no longer borrow lines and speeches from other plays; and for all this we are grateful, even though in its place there has developed a regrettable tendency to throw away great lines as if half ashamed of them. "When I acted the Ghost with Betterton, instead of my awing him, he terrified me. Divinity hung round that man." Divinity! How can we ignore the welter of contemporary adulation that surrounds these men? Kean's "farewell" speech in Othello "sounded like the moan of ocean 1 no mortal man could equal him". Irving as Shylock had "the horrible stillness and fascination of the rattlesnake", and "the thrill that passed over the house was a sensation to have witnessed and shared". There is no doubt that audiences, though at times severely critical, were passionately thrilled by great performances and idolized their favourites with the respect that only film stars and footballers command today. It might then be argued that these old actors provided by their antics good entertainment but not good Shakespearian tragedy. The principles of tragic appeal would not, however, justify this. People go to see tragedy because they receive from it that "life enhancement" which is provided by the gigantic struggles of man 31t


'tHE C ANTUARIAN

against the rorces or character and circumstances and the glory or final dereat. Lire is enriched by the splendour or a soul in conflict. Compare such reactions with those of Wilkes when he saw Garrick's Lear: " I never see him coming down from onc corner of the stage, with his old grey hair standing, as it were, erect upon his head, his face filled with horror and attention, his hands expanded, and

his whole frame actuated by a dreadful solem nity. but I am astounded, and share in all his

distresses; . . . . one might interpret from the dumbness of his gesture,"

It is clear tha t contemporary witnesses round " lire enhancement" in these perrormances. Nor can the sincerity or the actors be doubted when we read Mrs. Siddons' experiences or first playing Lady Macbeth at 20 :

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"I went on with tolerable composure, in the silence of the night, (a night I ca n never forget,) tiJI [came to the assassination scene, where the horrors of the scene rose to a degree that made it imposs ible for me to get further. I snatched up my candle, and hurried out of the room, in a paroxysm of terror . .. "

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The most powerrul criticism that the old actors have to race is that their style or playing was not sufficientl y natural- a fau lt that Irving was an xious to eliminate. But a close examination of the wr iting of contemporary witnesses shows that the great actors did not

in ract achieve their most chill ing effects by ran ti ng or by exaggerated emot ion . Greenhat records: "You have seen a Ham let, perhaps, who, o n the first appearance of his Father's

Spirit, has thrown himselr into all the straining vocireration requisite to express Rage and Fury, and the House has thundered with Applause", but Betterton rerused to sacrifice meaning thus a nd " in this beautiful Speech the Passion never rises beyo nd an almost breathless Astonishment, or an Impatience, limited by filial Reverence". The truth is that all the pomp or declamation belonged to the second-rate actors, as we see rrom The COlllloisseur or 1754: "The manner of elocution in a tragedy should not, o n the other hand . be more remote from o ur nat ural way of expressing ourselves than blank verse is from prose. . . . Our present set of actors have, in genera l. discarded the dead insipid pomp applauded in their predecessors."

It is the period of Kean, Macready, Phelps, and the elder Booth however that has been most rorcibly criticized. It is true that their acting was of the "romantic" school, but "romantic" in its contemporary sense, which included as a primary feature a striving after the real individual. Picture the mouthing, ranting, violent Kean , and then read

Leveson-Gower's revealing comment upon his acting of Othello : "The Play- I never saw such acting. f am not sure whether I like it; ad mire it I must-it is nature. Should tragedy be quite so lIaturan". The truth is that these actors were trying to discover the essence o f a character's wo rds, thoughts, motives, and actions. Macready's o riginality

shou ld not detract rrom his depth of thought : as Bulwer-Lytton said, he was "original because he never sought to be original, but to be truthful; because, in a word, he was as conscientious in his art as in his actions". The romantic and the modern conception of "naturalism" in art may be at variance, but the vital point is that tile actors or bOUl ages were striving to atta in naturalism in their own particular way.

What, ill our final estimation, is the value and greatness or these old actors? As Robert Speaight so rightly said: "When we say that So-alld-so's perrormance was a good one, we mean that it was good on sucll-and-such a night. Eacll night our performances die: each night they must be born again" . But although Phelps' Hamlet can give us no direct delight, just as Chopin's playing or Ilis own studies can never be recreated, it is the aura of grea tness, of divinity, around these men that enhances our lives. By

careful stud y of contemporary acco unts, all so vivid and revealing, we can conjure up in 312


THE CANTUARIAN

o llr imaginati o n something of Macready's look as he hea rd the news tha t "Birnam Wood is come to Dunsinane", rar more easily perhaps than we ca n of Rachmaninov's

own rendering or the cadenza rrom the Intermezzo or his Third Piano Concerto. Ir we ca nno t wi tness their ac tual performances, we can pay homage to thc character and (alent

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tha t they undo ubted ly possessed. We catch something or their devotion to their art in the story or Irving's leaving or his wire. Returning arter midnight across Hyde Park in a carriage arter the first night or frving's great success in The Bells, his wire callously asked him when hc was going to stop " playing the rool". Irving stopped the carriage, got out, and never spoke to his wirc again, tho ugh ror the rest or her lire he cOlll inued to send her tickcts ror all his fi rst-nights, as ir to call witness to the heights his rooling had carried him. And when his son, H . B. h¡ving, decided aga inst his adv ice to take up acting a nd played rhe battlement scenes or Hamlet with huge braziers burning to convey the ex treme cold , Sir Henry's sa le comment was characteristic : "Um- T see they had theum- streets lip in Elsinore". h vi ng made a fortune, and lost most o f it wh e.n a fi re destroyed all the sets he had stored llllder a rai lway arch, many or which had cost £ 10,000 th irty years before. But to him his art counted for mo re than perso nal gain .

At Bradford in 1905 on his rarewell tour, he said to a rellow-actor, "It's a pity- just as one is begi nning to know a little abo ut this wor k of o urs, it's time to leave it". The

next evening he collapsed on the stage arter uttering Becket's last words, " Into Thy hands, 0 Lord", and died an hour later. The "last of the great actors" could have died no other way.

O.R.F.D.

FLOTSAM

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You may not realize it, but it is the Iittie things that most proroundly affect your lire. There is, or course, no particular reason why this should be, but the world would be very dull ir it were wholly rational. H ow many times have I been jolted rrom the rut of desponde ncy by a cheerru l word rrom a most casual acquaintallce. How many times has the meaning of lire been sought rrom the heights or intellect and emotion, only to be learned rrom the mouth or a little child . And how ma ny times has the human weakness of man shown tha t he cannot make himself the inhuman automaton he has

so often tried to become. Lire is a juxtaposition or tragedy and comedy, the sublime and the ridiculous; yet these are more closely connected than peo ple would like to think. Faust eventually find s his salvation in the humility or selflessness, and Cordelia and the Fool, ror all their weakness, their folly and their railure, show us a warm humanity which restores o ur confidence in man.

The prostitute and the drunkard are sometimes nearer to God than the Pharisee, condescend ingly intolerant in his selr-rigllteousness. Men, spurning the irrelevant and the non-utilitarian petty delights of lire have orten tried to subdue them, but little kindnesses ror their own sake still continue, and the lark still sings without asking what purpose it serves. Hope remains.

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TH E CANTUARIAN

THE BOND " Tell them J came . .. I kept my word," he said.

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It was very dark as my father a nd I drove through the back streets of Southa mpton. Eve n the dull yellow lights failed to illuminate the road for more tha n a few ya rds. The streets were deserted and my father drove fast. A boy suddenly ran out of one of the dingy houses into the road in front of the car. My father could not avoid him and the boy was throw n violentl y into the gutter. When we ran back the boy, who was about my age. was dead ; and a man was kneeling bes ide him. He was a Jew, with lo ng black hair and hollo w cheeks; his clothes were tattered a nd dirty; he was like Svengali in the film. As he loo ked up at us r saw that his eyes were cruel and fri ghtening. "Is that yo ur son?" he asked, turning his ev il eyes o n me.

My father could not a nswer.

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"As surely as yo u have killed my Jacob", he went on-and his voice was like his eyes-" so surely will J come and kill your son." He picked up the body and carried it hurriedl y into the dingy house a nd locked the door. No ma tter how ha rd we knocked we could get no answer. My father rang up the police from a nearby ca ll-box, and it was not till late at night that we reached home. I was very tired, but in my sleep I could not forget those eyes a nd that cold cruel voice.

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The next night was clear and moonlit. J was lying in bed in my room at the top of the house, when T heard someo ne walking up the gravel drive to the front door. I got up and looked out. It was the Jew, and he was knocking on the door. My father was out, a nd T heard a servant going down the stairs. r called out to her not to let him in. The Jew knocked aga.in. r was terrified but I could not tear myself away from the window. He knocked louder still , a nd then he looked up and saw me, and I saw once more those cruel eyes. "Tell your father J ca me", he said in that hateful voice. " Tell Ilim I kept my word." He turned ro und a nd walked slowly down the drive, but T never saw him reach the gate, for I rushed in terror to my bed, and in spite of my fear I fell immediately into a deep sleep.

J was suddenl y aware that someone was in my room. T opened my eyes and saw a boy. He was the boy we had killed. "But you're dead", I gasped. "So are yo u", he replied quietly .

S.C.F. 3\4

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ST. GABRIEL'S CHAPEL Some two yea rs ago, the Chapter decided to take down the wall Wllich had fo r well over seven centuries walled off the apse of St. Gabriel's Cha pel, on the South side of the Crypt. For more tha n 700 yea rs, the splendid wall-paintings in this apse, described by the late Professor Tristram as ran king with the finest exa mples of Western Europea n wo rk, were sheltered behind this wall, which protected them fro m expos ure and from the lime-washing of the Refo rmati o n, so that they now appear in a state of preserva ti on

most unusual for work of so earl y a date. We owe a great debt of gratitude to the Chapter, by whose decision this beauty has been revealed, a nd to the Friends, who, we understand, have borne the cost of this wo rk with their customary generosity . The story of St. Gabriel's ChapeJ is a fascinating one. On the site where it now stands, the Saxon Archbishop Cuthbert (742 to 749) had built a church called the Church of St. John Baptist, just East of the old Saxo n Cathedral. He built it, as Dart says, "for a Ba ptistry and Court to examine causes, and to be a Place for burial of Archbishops, where himself, St. Bregwine, and others were buried. " This church, together with the Saxo n Cathedral, was burnt down by the Da nes in 101 \.

The present chapel is part of the extension to La nfra nc's church, which was carried out under the guida nce of Prior Ernul f (1096 to 1107) . The two columns in the cha pel show the same grotesqueness in their capitals as do the other columns in the Crypt. 11 is a pity that we have lost one face of the capital on the column at the entrance of the a pse : it was sha m off when a recess was built into the pa rtitioning wall, to take the reredos of a n altar. Even now we cannot be certain of the reasons which led to the walling up of the a pse. An extra strengthening of the structure was necessitated by the weight of St. Anselm's Tower, whicll caused a settlement; and fo r this purpose buttresses were added, proba bly before 1140. The paintings in the apse were done shortly afterwards, for the paintings on the buttresses form part of the whole scheme of decoration in the apse. At about the same time, and for the same purpose of strengthening the structure, a wall was built across the North corner of the apse in St. Anselm's Chapel, above St. Gabriel's, incidentally Iliding another wonderful painting-of St. Paul at Melita- until the wall was taken down in 1888; S. A. Warner suggested in 1923 that the bricking up of the a rches in the lower chapel might have become necessary in order to support the weight of the additional wall above. The bricking up had certainly been completed before 1\99. In or a bout that year, who was a monk here, wrote a detailed survey of the Cathedral as it was in 11 74, before the fire (which of course did not affect the Crypt). Gervase says nothing at all about the apse ; and so strange is his silence on the subject that some a uthorities suggest the walling up had been done, not to strengthen the fabric, but to ma ke a place of concealment. There are other facts which heighten the mystery : Gostling, writillg in 1777, had noticed that the partition wall was remarka bly rough on the side facing the G er vas~,

apse, "which circumstance . .. makes it seem to have been run up in a hurry, to conceal

things of value upon some sudden emergency. On mentioning this formerl y to an old clerk of the French church, he said he had dug there and could find nothing but bones" . (Dart tells us of having read somewhere that after Cuthbert's Saxon church had been 315


'tHE CAN T UAR I AN burn t down, the bones were removed to tlus chapel, and that even in his time " large

numbers of humane Bones" had been found under Ihe floor.) Then, in 1879 was made the curious discovery that the original blocking wall had been plastered and painted, .but that another facing of stone was added later. So seilOlars have long been guessing what might have been the cause of this walling up. Canon Scott R obertson suggested in 1880 that tllC monks hurriedly partitioned olf the apse after the murder of Becket in 1170 and that they hid his body there, probably for the whole of those three months after his murder wilen the Crypt was kept bolted a nd ba rred . But this interesti ng theory cannot be right, if Professor Tristram's da ti ng ¡o f the paintings is correct. According to the professor, the pai ntings in the chapel were done at two dilferent ti mes: those in the apse were pa inted soon a fter the buttresses had been constructed, that is ro und about 1140. Those in the nave are later, and different in style, bei ng based on a decorative motif of medall ions, and Professor Tristram sugges ts that they were pro bab ly executed after the fi re in 11 74, when the ge neral rebuilding and redecorating was com pleted, round abo ut 1184. T he medall io ns on the soffits of the entrance arches into the apse were painted at the same time as the nave; but the partition wall was built on the nave side of these soffits, whic h indicates that it was built after the decorations of the nave, that is after about 1184 and long after the death of Becket.

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But Canon Robertson's other sugges tion, that the apse was walled olf to form a secret hiding place for the treasures of Christ Church, is quite possible. Whether or 110t it was so in the 12th century, it certainly fulfilled that function in the 20th, during the Second World War, when the Chapter stored the stained glass of the Cathedral in the apsefo rtunately deciding agaillst burying it ill a place in Dr. Shirley's garden Wllich was subsequClltly Ilit by a bomb. Just as there is uncertainty over the date and purpose of the walling up of the apse, so has there beell over the na me of the Chapel. Dart bel ieved that it should be called the cha pel of SI. .l ohn Bapt ist on the grounds that it stood on the site of the Saxon church ded icated to that sainl. Moreove r, the pa intings on the North side of the a pse tell the story of the nati vity of St. John Baptist, and this may have been another reason for Dart's nomenclatu re. We know fro m Gervase that there was in fact a chapel dedicated to St. John Bap tist- but it was ncar Becket's tomb, beyond the Lady Chapel of the Undercroft . T he chapel was in fact dedicated to St. Gabriel, poss ibly to S1. Gabriel and the angels. The Archa ngel Gabriel was especia ll y honoured here ; Ilis gilded image was above the vane on the Angel Steeple; and in Dart's day (1 726) one could still read this inscription on the cornice above the place where one of the two altars stood: " H ic Altare fuit ded icatum in Honorem Sanct i Gabrielis Archangeli"-an inscription mllch defaced, so Gostling tells us, by the drau ghtsmen employed by Dart to make the engravings for his book ; for they wiped the inscriptions in the hope of getting a better sight of the letters. Also still visible in Dart's days, but no longer today, were the paintings on the South side of the apse: they represented the Nativity of Our Lord, so that the two scenes on the Nortll and the South side of the apse dealt with the two annu nciations of the Archa ngel Gabriel. 3 16

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Other angels supply the motifs for the rest of the paintings. Four of them support Christ in Majesty a t the centre of the composit ion; and tile angels of the seven churches of Asia are depicted in the panels on the soffit of the central arch which spans the great recess on the East wall. Finally there are the splendid seraphim which arc pa inted on the buttresses at the entrance of the apse. As described in the Book of Revelations, each has "six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within" . Because they stand on a wheel, symbolizing perpetual motion, Dart wrongly thought that they were meant to be representations of St. Catharine who was martyred on a wheel and to whom he thought the other al tar in the apse was ded icated. Alld all this beauty was hidden from the casual visitor fo r seven hundred yea rs. T he chapel, rectangular in shape after the wa ll ing up of the apse, was used by the Huguenots as a ves try after Queen E li zabeth T gra nted them the Western Crypt. When the wall was pierced so that one co uld again visit these pai ntings is not known. Certainly access to them was very uncomfortable. Gastling crawled on hands and knees thro ugh a square hole. In 1879 this was en la rged into a small doorway. And today we merely have to ask the verger to unlock fo r us the wro ught-iron gate into the Chapel. R.K. B.

GERMAN OPERA German critics, swollen with their characteristic national pride, have always had a tendency to e1aim that the operatic Ilistory of Europe can be summed up in the five German names of Gluck, Mozart, Beethoven, Weber and Wagner. One needs only a slight knowl edge of opera to realize that this is an utterly false assumption. True, these five can be sa id to form the nucleus of German Opera. Two of them, however, are only attributed to Germany as a matter of convenience, for Gluck and Mozart, li ke Handel, were internat ional eclectics. Gluck, for example, had written 107 operas by the end of his life, of which 92 were fi rst produced in italian cities. Not a single one of these operas was written to German words or dedicated to a German patron. Yet since Bavaria was his birthplace and Bohemia that of his ancestors he is recogni zed as being German. German Opera is always in danger of beco ming a trifle monoto nous to the reader who wishes to see it "growing- up", for it developed in stages through the wo rk of these fi ve composers, who, broadly speak ing, lived one after the ot her. Onl y Weber a nd Beethove n could reall y be ca lled contemporaries. Opera bega n in 15th Century Italy as court entertainment for a small set of aristocratic illdividuals. But the idea took a long time to flouri sh and not until the beginn ing of the 17th century did it really begin to move forward in the hands of such masters as Claud io Monteverdi . As the art developed in Ita ly, so it spread to other countries and into the Courts of the smaller German Princes. Vienna saw in the opera an outstanding chance of glorifying the Hapsburg house, and for that reason alone spared no money in creating a spectacle. So the gradual spread of opera through the courts of Germany continued, but not until the advent of Gluck were the works of any but Italians prod uced there. Christoph Willi bald Gluck ( 1714-87) has gone down to posteri ty as the great refo rmer of Opera, but this is largely due to Wagner, who cla imed him as the fo rerunner of his 9wn ~ospel. Gl uck owed the great music of his later years to two foreign .i o urne~s .


THE CANTUARIAN

A visit to Italy, in his twenty-second year (until when he showed no aptitude for music) first stimulated his interest in the musical world of his day. And from his visit to London in J 745 originated his great adm iration for Handel and the "ideal grandeur" of his operas . This journey made him reali ze that the days of "opera seria", such as he had

been writing in Italy, were numbered, and although he continued to produce mediocre work for some years, he always had higher aims in mind. These aims he achieved in 1762 in an opera which is indeed a landmark in musical history- Olfeo. Tt is the one

opera by Gluck which is fairly well known to-day. To his first audience it must have been a curious experiment which defied all current traditions. Gluck was forced by circumstance to make certain concess ions to convention, but despite these occasional

lapses from the strict path of the new theory, Olieo made a large breach in conventions and created a sensation in Vienna. Its chief features were the complete elimination

of the formal aria, melodic co ntin.uity of the recitative and the full er use of the orchestra in place of the harpsichord. After the initial shock, Vienna enthusiastically approved the work . But Gluck, fond of money, had no fine feelings about Art, and so the path of reform was not consistently pursued, nor even considered again until 1767, when he produced Aleeste, and 1770 when Pm¡ide ed Elena came out. These operas carried on to their logical conclusion the work of Olfeo. The year 1770 was important in Gluck's career for two reasons. First, his collaborator in the three above works, Calzabigi, the

Italian poet, became the victim of Gluck's wrath and, a rift having opened betwee!, them they never again worked together. Secondl y, Gluck entered a new phase of Ius

caree~ when he was commissioned to write five operas for Paris, then the artistic capital

of Europe. The first of these, Jphigenie en Aulide, was an immediate success, but although he consolidated his achievement with four more outstanding operas, he became too ill to write more, and died in Italy in 1787. To us, two hundred years later, Gluck's work seems statuesque and co ld , yet to his contemporar ies it was forceful and impassioned.

Although, owing to the cost and strain involved, we are never likely to see any of his operas but Olfeo on the stage, he played a large part in revolutionising the form and presentation of the opera. The deepest of Mozart's ambitions and the surest of his gifts, was for opera. He was born at Salzburg in 1756 and, having astonishing musical facility, was quickly recognized as something of a musical phenomenon. He soon turned his talents to Opera. beginning at the age of eight, but until II Seraglio in 1782, his work has nothing more than a certain

biographical interest. To consider Mozart as a composer of Opera there is no necessity to go beyond II Seraglio , L e Nozze di Figaro, DOll Giovanni, Cosi Fan Tuite and Die Zauberrlote. In these five works there is all the range of human emotions, so that a preference expressed for anyone of them must depend entirely upon personal taste. II Seraglio had a certain influence on Weber's Oberon more than forty years later ; mdeed he was courting Constanze Weber at the time of its composition. This opera was written at the command of the Emperor Joseph IT, who had conceived the idea of establishing a national German Opera, but although Mozart's opera was at first a success, the Emperor's plan was a failure. Le Nozze di Figaro, DOll Giovanni and Cosi Fan Tuite were all Italian comic operas, the libretti for which were written by Lorenzo da Ponte. The first-named was an immediate success and in an attempt to repeat this, Mozart wrote Giovanni, a comedy. Yet to-day audiences the world over insist on taking the work as a tragedy. It is a curious problem of musical psychology. Intimacy of interpretation is the essential thing for audiences at Don Giovanni, and this has become increasingly impossible in the grandiose opera houses that have sprung up since the 18th

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Century. Cosi Fall Tuite was written at great speed, and Mozart had little or no interest in the work. It possesses no fine sentiments and its purpose is only to amuse. But the composer's nerves, almost on the point of collapse, were at such a fine degree of energy and sensitivity that the brilliance and sparkle of the music are unsurpassed. However, it is Die ZaubeJf!ote, written in the last year of his life, that is Mozart's greatest work for the stage. It started out to be a spectacular fairy play and ended as an allegory of Freemasonry, of which Mozart was a devotee. Out of this spectacular "pantomime".

as it has been called, spring the deepest mysteries of life and death, and these solemnities are its prevailing character. In Sarastro's prayer to Isis and Osiris, it can be seen how

profound the composer's thoughts were. He was, indeed, deeply affected by death and, in a way, was consoled by the Masonic doctrine. But despite these solemnities, there are the comic interludes for Papageno, which are an integral part of the Opera's scheme. Die Z aubelflote is perhaps the one work in which Mozart achieved real sublimity, and it is the foundation of all subsequent German Opera. From Mozart we move on to two composers who, between them, left us only four

major operas- Carl Maria von Weber (1786- 1826) and Beethoven (1770-1827). The former, one of the most attractive men in the history of music, was the outstanding

figure of the German romantic movement. (Opera is a very importan t department of romantic music, because it has always been the place in which the emotional language of music has first found utterance.) Weber left three important operas: Der Freischutz, Euryanthe and Oberon. The first of these works wo n enormous popularity, especially

in England, the qualities that raise it above the level of the ordinary being Weber's unfailing sense of dramatic effect and his characterization, which he expresses in terms

of beautiful melody. With this opera, first performed in Berlin, German romantic opera was inaugurated. And with Euryanlhe Weber set out to elevate romantic opera to the dignity of the old court operas. Unfortunately, though much of it is picturesque, the story is often unintelligible to the audience. Weber had little understanding for the 'denouement' of a drama, though he possessed a very quick eye for the momentary effect that provokes applause. Like all Germans, he had more feeling for the orchestra than for the human voice, a fault even more apparent with Wagner. Oberon, his last opera, contains by far the best music that Weber ever wrote and can be ascribed to genius. Like his own personality, the work is irresistible in its impulse and fascination and is intensely individual. Weber's importance in German mllsic, in fact European music, lies in the inspiration that the dashing style and fervour of his work gave, for example, to Chopin, Liszt or Mendelssohn. The reputation of Beethoven as an operatic composer rests entirely on Fidelio, which has been described as the greatest opera ever performed. If the work has a weakness it lies in the libretto, for here we see what was the mai n obstacle to German Opera in general. The librettists knew perfectly well that Beethoven's musical techniqtle insisted on perpetual repetitions of phrase, yet they never considered whether thei r words would stand repetition or not. That is why, in this opera of freedom, the music so frequently transcends the words, so that they become a mere nothing to the audience. This was particularly obvious in the brilliant performance of Fidelio that marked the opening of the new Vienna State Opera House on November 5th of this year. Fidelio is much more than the rescue of a man by his heroic wife, it is the "symbolic representation of the resclle of mankind from tyranny" . Beethoven's mind was so overwhelmed with thoughts of freedom that his very soul seems to live in the music and the word 'Freiheit' (freedom) is constantly repeated. He gives his characters no time to show themselves as anything 319


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inore than 'hero', 'hero ine' and 'viHain', but his music is so great that they seem to the

audience real a nd credible people. During this term M r. David William, in the course of a ta lk to the School, criticised the 'timeless' scenery of the Old Vic's production of King L eal', and by way of a sideline criticised also the ' timeless' scenery of the Stuttga rt State Opera's producti on of Fidelia a t the Royal Festi val Hall last September. Actuall y this scenery, a series of iron grilles, had precisely the right effect, for while, to-day, the hopes of the French Revolution ( Beethoven's inspiration for the wo rk) a re dead a nd go ne, we can, neverthe less, reli ve in Fidelio the perpetual testim ony o f a supreme crea tive artist to the und ying grandeur of ma n's struggle for freedom. And in this cynical, sceptical age we can be sustained by his unfa iling faith in mankind. If Weber was o ne o f the most attracti ve human perso nalit ies in the history of music, Richard Wag ner ( 18 13-83) was one of the most unpleasa nt. But des pite this, through his amazing tenacity he became perhaps the most str iking fi gure in the history of opera. Throughout his li fe he had a big advantage over other musicians, ror, thanks to his literary skill, Ite was able to write his own libretti, a nd dispense with the imco mpetent German li brettists of his time. Fro m about 1850 onwards Wagner's wllOle life was dedicated to the accom plishment of a n ideal- a n idea l that was even tua ll y tra nsformed into Bayreuth . The purpose of Wagner's thea tre at Bayreuth, opened in August, 1876, was to hear Wagner. Inside the building everything was as pla in and ne utra l as possible, the orchestra was in a sun ke n pit a nd there was noth ing to see but the stage. Previously, the auditorium had never been darkened, lat,e comers came in at all times, passers-by dro pped in to hear a favo urite song and applause was never reserved till the end of an act. At Bayre uth all th is was changed, and the minds o f the a udience were concentrated

on the opera. Continuit y could a t las t be acllieved ill a wo rk. All these things, which we now acce pt as a matter of course, we owe to Wagner. The spi rit o f team-wo rk and

devotion was the spi rit of Bayreuth, and to-day it has spread a ll over the wo rld . Yet these points of social observa nce are tr ivial co mpared wit h lhe fundamental principle

of Wag ner's doctrines- that a wo rk of a rt should be a spi ri tual experience, that could only be achieved properly in the theatre, where the opera is the culmination of a ll arts. It was with this ideal in milld that he wrote his own li bretti a nd set them to some of the finest music the wo rld has experienced. There is 110 doubt that at Bayreuth many people have enjoyed a spjrjlual experience such as Wagner envisaged, but it is an experience

seldom repeated, es peciall y in the modern world of practica l life. AJter the death of Wagner and Verdi many critics proclaimed tha t Opera was played o ut. Perhaps the grand manner of Wagner and his fo ll owers was ex hausted, but, as

Richa rd Stra uss has shown us, Gluck, Moza rt, Beethoven, Weber a nd Wagner have laid the dee p, fi rm founda tions of Germa n Opera upon whicll the walls are being built in this present cen tu ry. Ri cha rd Stra uss is the most conspicuous post-Wagneria n composer a nd has evolved his own style of opera. His Salollle fo unded the 'modern' style in Germa ny, a nd he followed this up with Eleklrl/, then ( 1909) considered repulsive, lo-da y genuinely beautiful. His o peras co ntinued alo ng these li nes, until, in his later years, he bega n to show a regrettable lack of art istic balance and a certain element of unpleasantness. Yet his o peras have, in recent years, taken almost undisputed possession

of the stage. He has shown German opera , securely founded on the work of his predecessors, a new path alo ng which to continue its development. As yet, however, no co mpe tent musician has arisen to take adva ntage of thi s.

D.J.M. 320


THE ENTRANCE TO TH E APSE OF ST. GA BRI EL'S CHAPEL

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(Entwlslle

"FOUR ANGELS SUPPO RT CHRIST IN MAJESTY "


CAPITAI,s OF TI·IE COLUMN AT TI·IE ENTRA NCE OF TH E APSE


THE CA NTUARIAN

TOWARDS A UNITED CHURCH The greatest impetus to the re union of the Christian Church has come from its missions and from the Churches resulting from those missions. Often Asians and Africans welcome spiritual and technical leadersllip from the West. Sometimes they adopt the Ch.ristian religion of the West. But very seldom do they have much pa tience with the divisions of the Christian religion . These divisions started in quarrels of whicll they are ignorant, and are continued by feelings which they do not share. Their distance from us gives the yo unger Ch urches a sense of perspecti ve tragically lacking in the West.

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Usually this impetus to rcunion is given by a constant pressure. The pressure from the missions and yo unger Churches challenged the imagi nati on of students in America,

Britain and Europe in the last quar ter of the nineteenth century. For the first time it was economically possible to pla n the Christian mission on a global scale: why should not a new spirit bc brought into a divided Church as it set out to preach unity to a wo rld often a t peace? This missionary urge among yo ung people gradually brought into being the World Council of Churches. In his Enthronement Sermon at Canterbury, Archbishop William Temple prophesied that the World Council, when formed, wo uld embody " the great new fact of our era"- the longi ng for unity in the Church in order to show unity to the peoples. But fo r eight yea rs now, there has been a definite reun ion in the East challenging the West. This is the CllUrch of South India, composed of Anglicans, Methodists, Presbyterians a nd Congregational ists. Tilis Church has Bishops, who ordain all new Presbyters and Deacons. It also accepts the Bible and the Creeds, as does the Church of England. When the C.S.I. was formed, however, many Anglicans were uncertain abo ut its loyalty to the Catholic heritage of the Church, since Presbyters not ordained by Bishops continued to function and Confirmation was optional before admission to Holy Communion . Also the C.S. 1. allows much more extempore or "free" prayer than is the An glican custom, and remains "in communion" (i,e., shares Ho ly Communio n)

with Nonconformist churches. So the Churcll of England postponed decision until 1955. This year, ho wever, the Anglican Convocatio ns (i.e., the Bisho ps and representatives

of the Clergy) have agreed that any Bishop of the C.S .I. , or any Presbyter of that Church ordai ned by a Bishop, may celebrate the Holy Communion in an Anglican church if the Rector or Vicar requests, if the local Bishop agrees, and if he himself agrees not to celebrate the H oly Commun ion in non-Anglica n churches. And co mmunicants of the C.S.1. visiting England may receive the H oly Communion in the C. of E. The position of Presbyters and Deacons of the C.S.! . not ordained by a Bishop-and those who were Free Church ministers before the C.S. L was formed have not been compelled to seek a new Ordination- remains ambiguous. They are not recognised by the C. of E. officially as Priests and Deacons of the Church of God. However, the C.S.I., which has recognised them, is acknowledged to be a true CllUrch in an even fu ller sense than that in which the Free Churches are acknowledged. Anyway these " non-episcopal" ministers will die out, and all new Presbyters and Deacons are being ordained by Bishops. These a re recognised as true Priests a nd Deacons, and the Bishops as true Bishops, of the Church of God. The wo rd Presbyter is simply the Greek for "Elder", and Priest is its abbreviation. I n Scotla nd the word is applied to the minister "called" by the congregation a nd united 321


TH E C ANT U ARIA N

with other ministers to form a Presbytery, which is often said to exercise as a college the functions exercised by a Bishop elsewhere. But to most of the C.S.I. , the word Presbyter evidently means Priest in the same sense as the latter word is used by most Anglicans : as one given authority to preach and to administer the Sacraments by a

Bishop acting on behalf of the whole Chu rch. The net result of these new decisions of the Convocations is that " limited intercommunion" exists between the Chu rch of England and the Church of South India. Later, "full com munio n" is, it seems, bound to come. And tlus recognitio n of the C.S.r. by the C. of E. is a very great thing, beca use it means that the C. of E. has ack nowledged that the compromises adopted in South India in the course of the search fo r Church unity do not destroy a Church's essential Catholicity. It has often been pointed out how any other decision was really impossible for the Convocations, unless they wished to deny Catholicity to the Church of England between the death of Henry VIII and the restoration of Charles II. For in that period, not a few holders of Anglican benefices had never been ordained by Bishops, and no one in the Church of England thought that the Church had thereby fo rfeited its claim to be the Catholic Chu rch in this land : most people regarded these a ppointments as necessa ry stopgaps. Richard Hooker, the great defender of the Chu rch of E ngland, received the Holy Communion on his death bed fro m his con fessor, Had rian Saravia, a Canon of Canterbury who had never been ordained by a Bishop. Similar oddi ties had been recognised by the Church in other countries and times. For example, it was fo r long the custom ill Alexandria for the new Bishop to be "consecrated" by the whole College of Presbyters or Priests. St. Athanasius himself, the great defender of orthodoxy contra mUfldum, was never consecrated by a Bishop! But still, it was not inevita ble that the Convocations would be willing to act in remembra nce of these historical facts. Since the days of Athanasius and Richard Hooker, we have grown much more accustomed to think it possible for a great organisation to be uniform, and in the Church of England since the Oxford Movement in the nineteenth century a very great deal of attentio n has been paid to the right ordering of the Church. So it is noteworthy that the leading theologians of the Church of E ngland, including some Anglo-Catholics who had previously been hostile or neutral, all declared this year that the C.S.I. had not lost Catholicity by its compromises. Their decisions swayed the Convocations far more than any considerations based on questions of tactics, finance, etc. The debates prove this. By its own free will, a nd after mature study, reflection and discussion, the Church of England has once again acted in the spirit of the Anglican Reformation. An illustration of the changed atmosphere is the Methodist Conference's glad response to the invitation of the Convocations to fresh talks. (TillS response was made before the open debates on the C.S.I.) In preliminary negotiations, it was recogillsed that Anglicans and Methodists must recognise each other as fundamentally orthodox in teaching. Many past declarations lead us to suppose that this mutual assurance will be easy. The Church of England will be asked to allow the Methodists to remain in communion with other Free Churches, whole being also in commuillon wi th Canterbury: since this liberty is given to the C.S.I. , it can hardly be denied to the Methodists. The Methodists will be asked to nominate leading ntinisters to be consecrated Bishops by Anglican Bishops, a nd to have all new ministers ordained by these Methodist Bishops. They will also be asked to make Confirmation the custom before admission to Holy Communion, and eventually the general rule. If they accepted these requests, the 322

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MetllOdist Episcopal Church of England wo uld presumably be recognised as the C.S.r. is now recognised : or perha ps the Methodists wo uld be asked to wait until all their ministers had been ordained by Bishops, as the C.S.!. has not been asked. Tn each diocese there wo uld be a n Anglican Bishop and a Methodist Bishop. Tn each parish, church and chapel might wors hip apart normally or on occasion, but they wo uld be in full communion and friendship. Either immed iately or eventually, the ideal of John Wesley, of the Method ists as a "ginger group" in his own beloved C. of E., would be achieved after two centuries. It may be added that the MetilOdist Church in the Uni ted States has Bishops, but that these Bishops were not consecrated by Anglicans. T he negotiations with other Protestant Chu rches should not mislead us into thinking that the C. of E. has fo rgotten that it is Catholic as well as Protestant. A happy consequence of recent visits of English Churchmen to Russia, and of Russian Churchmen to Britai n, has been a desire in the Russians for conversati ons with the Anglicans about the possibili ty of intercommunio n. These conversatio ns will begin next year in Moscow.

Here as in so marlYother places, the longi ng for Church unity has broken down political barriers. If the R ussian Orthodox Church is put in to uch with English theology, surely that will have conseq uences in Soviet society as a whole. Nor may it be forgotten that the C. of E. has much to learn from the Orthodox, who have never succumbed to the Reformation passion for systematised doctrine. One of the greatest figures in the endeavour to state the Christian faith in the terms of co ntemporary knowledge alld philosophy, Professor H. A. Hodges of Reading, has declared that the C. of E. should consider itself an Orthodox Church, a nd should learn from the Orthodox Churches of tIle East. Of course, one tro uble is that some of these Churches do not agree with others: tile trad itions of Moscow and of Consta ntinople have diverged. Another trouble is that Orthodox theology has never faced the challenge of science. Give-and- ta ke between Anglicanism a nd Orthodoxy is bound to be a slow process, if it is not to lead to a retreat by the C. of E. into a theology out of to uch with modern thought and life . Some priests of the Church of England have left it for the Church of Rome, because of these events. These departures must make loyal Anglicans rejoice. Naturally we are sorry that such a ble priests have not found tlleir spiritual home in communion with Canterbury, but their unhappiness in this communion was apparent lon g before they left it, and we ca n only be glad that now they have fo und their home. It seems that different Churches have different callings while the Church of Christ remains divided. The calling of the Church of Rome is to emphasise discipline. The calling of the Church of England is to put discipline (in the sense of uniformity) in the second place, after obedience to the Lord's command to preach the Gos pel to every creature. When the Church is reullited, either in this world or in eternity, we shall see what were the respecti ve merits of the separate paths taken hy the Church of Rome and by Anglicans in communion with Canterbury. O.L.E.


THE CANTUAR I A N

SAINT ANSELM Tn H oly Week of the yea r 1109, Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, died. The question of the fate of his body during the centuries which followed, a nd of the popu lar reverence attached to his memory, is an extremely interesting o ne, which can now be

illuminated by some recently discoveled a nd un published ma nuscripts, as well as by the better-known documents. First it must be decided what actually happened to his body, a point upon which nearly

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all the sources of infor mation, as will be seen, are at variance. When he died, he was

buried, in the words of his biographer Eadmer, "in navi ecclesiae in media prope Lanfrancum". Eadmer gives a very detailed account of his death and burial and of the marvels which occurred on the occasion. Tn 11 30 the new choir of Ernu lf a nd Conrad was dedicated, and it was proba bly at that date that the remains we rc transferred to the altar of SS. Peter and Paul in what was subsequentl y called St. Anselm's Chapel; this event was known as the "translatio n of St. Anselm ", So far everything appears to

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have been straightforward. In 1174, however, the great co nflagration took place which burned down the newly co mpleted choir. Gervase has left an extremely detailed account of the event and its effects, and in this acco un t we find the following passage : " Lest, therefore, they should suffer even the slightest injury fro m the rains a nd storms, the monks, weeping and lamenting with incred ible grief and anguish, opened the tombs of the saints and extricated them in their coffins from the clloir" . He fails, however to give the names of the saints who were thus re moved, a nd so we do not know wheiher Anselm was a mong them. For he was buried in a chapel Wllich survived the fire, and he was therefore not necessaril y exposed to the "rains and storms". What might have

happened is that st. Anselm's chapel was left unprotected on its inner side a nd was thus exposed to the clements, in which case Anselm's body wo uld have been removed with

that of the other saints. True, Gervase mentions tha t the tomb was behind the aitar, which means that it wo uld be furthest away from -the exposed side, but even thi s is not decisive in helping us to settle the problem. In the next few centuries we find references, as will be seen, to parts of his body being preserved at var ious places all over Europe- and this at the same tim.e as the mo nastery

at Canterbury claimed to possess the whole. Now if the body had been removed from its resting-place at the time of the conflagration, it is qui to possible that some kind of accident happened to it in the general confusion which was thell reigning, or even tha t somebody with a n eye to his own pocket abstracted some of the bones, knowing the price which such relics would command . It is far more likely that it took place then than at any other time ; for a ny later tampering with the to mb must almost certainl y have had offici al sanction which wo uld surely have been recorded, and no reference to such an event is known.

The next reference to Anselm's body is in a manuscript of 13 15, during the priorate of Eas try; this is a n inventory of the relics, jewels, and other precio us belongi ngs of the mo nastery. There is a reference to the "corpus sancti Anselmi in reretro ad altare sancti Petri", but something stra nge appears to have occurred already, for elsewhere in the same manuscript appears tllis entry : " Item de capillis (hairs) beati Anselmi Archiepiscopi" . If some hairs could have become separated from the body, it is quite reasonable to suppose that at the same time some bones were ta ken as well , those bones which we hear of in Europe at a later date. At this period such relics wo uld be h i~h l y

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prized ever.yw here. When Pope Pius 11 brought the head of the Apostle Andrew from G reece to tile Chu rch of St. Peter at Rome (/462) the event was marked with tremendous enthusias m a mong the Roman populace. Whether or not the ~bstractio n of the bones was known, Canterbury continued to claim that the body rested III the. Cathedra l. In the hbrary of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, IS a ma nuscrIpt WrItten a t the begmning of tile 16th century which states of Anselm: "I!l0do ~acet in ca pella ap~stolorum Petri et Pauli ex aust;ali parte chari",

But at the d,sso lut IO n of the monas terIes, of co urse, all trace is lost. The last we hear of a nything of the kind i s in a manuscript recently acquired by the Cathedral Library, Canterbu ry, bell1g a hst of plate, etc., sold off by Henry Vfl1 's commissioners at the D issolution, 1540, in which occurs the following entry:" Item for a litle shryne of Saint AnSelme } .... 1" " Coper a nd guylte ... ... ... IllJ I. But what is here meant by a "shrync" is, to say the least, uncerta in. It cannot have been a nything very magnificent if its value was onl y four pounds. But there is no other reference to anything to do with St. Anselm in this document so we must conclude

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that this "shry ne" was all that remained of the tom b. At a ny raie, no trace of the tomb was leftin 1753, when some interesting correspondence too k place between the Archbis h ~ p! Dr. Herring, and the D ean a nd Chapter. D r. Herring heard that the King of

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Sardinia was anxIOus to acqulfe the remalllS of Anselm in order to take them back to

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a slave to the Popedom, and an enemy to the marricd clergy, for ease and indu lgence to one living Protestant" and adds that he "wo uld make¡ no conscience of palming o n

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the simpletons a ny old bishop with the na me of Anselm". Dr. Samuel Schuckford the Vice-Dean, said in his reply that he believed the shrine was destroyed at the time of the Reforma tio n, a nd that he had examined Ihe chapel, but could find no appearance of an y tomb or monument that could be tho ught to concern Anselm. Let us now retum to the question of the bones which found their way to the Continent

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their native land (at tha t time Ihe K ingdom of Sa rdin ia incl uded Piedmont a nd Savoy on the mai nla nd. Anselm was born in Aosta-see the illustrations) . He wrote to the Chapler that he wo uld be glad to excha nge " tlte rotten remains of a rebel to his K ing,

o f Euro pe, to places as far apart as Lusitania and Praguc. The autho rity for this is

Volu me .JI of the April section of the Acta Sallclorum (Antwerp, 1675), which itself refers to earher, more or less obscure books. Firstly, we have a part of the head in a convent at Cologne : "Coloniae Agrippinae in fer quamplul'ima mOllosteria etiam sUflcl;mon;alium est aliquod Carmeliticarum Virginum. in p fatea Burgassea; apud quos colilul' hoc die S. Anselmus, eo quod pars superior capitis Wius ibidem asseruetur."

T hen there is a part of the sho ulder-blade, bro ught by the Emperor Charles IV from the Nctherlands to Prag ue, the Emperor's own birthplace, in 1372: "Pars de scapula, per Carolum IV I mperatorem allata ex inferiori Germa nia allli O MCCCLXXTI, servatul" Pragae ill M elropolitana S. Viii ecelesia, uti lestatur Diarium Reliqu;arum ab ejusdem ecclesiae Decano nupel'rime vulgatum." Vario us relics in Bologna: .. Masinus ;11 8 0tlo/1;a perfustrata tradit aliquas Reliquias S . Anselmi esse ill ecclesia

S. S tepitalli et S. Nicolai in platea S. Felicis." 325

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A part of the spine and of a rib, which appear to have had a somewhat varied history : "Pars ex spina dorsi & pars costae soneti hujus Episcopi, Rama in Lusitoniam ad sacelli Regii omolum miss(l f Uil , uti ยง.4. Gille Vitam S. Moriae Aegyptiacae dictum est die II Apri/is: quae quomodo per anllos aliquot ibi honorata fit approbato trium Leetionull1 officio a Sacellallis Regiis, ac delnde cum aliis Sane/arum Irigin/a qualuor Re/iquiis Anluerpiam de/ala ad Cisterciense S. Salva/oris mOIlOSleriul11, f use ibidem exposuim us. In so/ennissima Trans/a/iolle Gnn; MD CLXXff, sub 110110 ejusnem l pompae lahal'O, quod APOSlolicol'um vil'ol'um erat , ab ipsius abbatis a/ficion/is Assistentibus monaellis depor/alae il/oe sunt cum hoc lemma/e, annum tam fes tivi actus /lotanle, AnSeLMVs nnvs CantVarTae tVtor. Instilutum etiam est ut simile quale in Lusitania officium, de eadem quotallnis ex Communi Pontifieum ab Usdem Religiosis decantarelur; & propol1erentul' XL diel'um Indulgentiae Us, qui IlOe die aecederent saeras Re/iquias veneraluri." We now come to the respect and honours whicll were accorded to his name after his death. Mainly because of his learning, and also because of his honest and fearless attitude to life and his defence of the rights of the Church, he was revered in his own lifetime, unlike Becket, who received his glory only after death . Becket, despite some exceptions, SUcll as his triumphal ride to Canterbury after his exile, was not thus honoured. Of Anselm, however, Eadmer says : "Cum post haec prospero cursu Angliam venisset, magno sanctae ecclesiae gaudio et honore susceptus est". In Register A of the Cathedral Library, f. 146, is a reference to a charter of King Stephen, granting the manor of Berkesore to the Church of the Holy Trinity, Canterbury, and to the monks in perpetual alms, "ad inveniendum lumen ante capsam beati Anselmi archiepiscopi pro anima regis Henrici et aliorum predecessorulll meorum regum anglorum". The names of the wi tnesses (Henry of Essex, Richard de Luci, Ralph Picot, and Gervase of Cornltill at London- they can all be identified) prove that the charter was after 1135, and it must have been before 1154, the date of Stephen's death. The word "capsa" usually means a shrine, but it throws no light upon the form that Anselm's memorial took after the building of the new choir when the old was burned down in 1174-the date is too early. The most interesting reference to the honour given to Anselm's memory is in a British Museum manuscript, Cottonian Nero C.9. This is a long list of citizens of Canterbury of about 1165 who are members of what appears to be a kind of "cult" of St. Anselm. About one quarter of them can be identified ill the rentals, etc., in the Cathedral Library, but there are many whose names consist of one word only-"Robertus", "Tomas". and others-and thus could refer to any of several people. The interesting tlting is that Anselm, during his lifetime, was 011 familiar terms with the citizens of Canterbury, and here we find that trad.ition continued by the descendants and successors of those citizens. Many of the names occur in a document of 11 65, which helps to date tllis one: an example is "Sefugel" ("sea fowl" in Old English) . A transcription of the list is given at the end, but I shall here mention one or two of the more interesting people in it. John Fitzvivian was the Port Reeve of Canterbury ("Port" here meaning simply a place of trade), and as such was the successor of one William Calvellus, with whom Anselm had been on quite familiar terms. Calvellus had tried to shift the market from its original position, which had been advantageous for the monks, to another; Anselm wrote to him to request him to restore it to its original position (El'. 358), in terms Wllich, though threatening, suggest that he knew him quite well already. There is a story of John Fitzvivian which 1

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may be of some interest, related in the Mil'aeliia Salleli Thomae Cantual'iensis (auctore Benedicto, Abbate Petriburgensi ; Book 3, Chapter 29. Rolls Series, 1876); he called upon a forester leaving the city with a waggon to stop and pay the tolls which were due. The forester replied that he had paid his tolls in the form of a waggon-Ioad¡ of invalids whom he had brought in to be healed at the shrine of St. Thomas: they had all been healed, with the exception of two, "reliqui omnes vehiculo contempto procedunt. Rhedam (the waggo n) oneratam adduxi; reduco fere vacuam". John, of course, could not tell how far this was true, but he dared not risk offending the blessed martyr-a nd the fo rester passed on . The rank of the members of the cu lt varies considerably, from Walter the Alderman down to Osbert the clerk. Among them are some of the servants employed by the monastery, Reginald of the Brewhouse and Baldwin of the Bakehouse, the. two buildings which occupied most of the north side of the Green Court.

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What exactl y was this cult? Each member presumably contributed something towards the cost of maintaining the shrine in the Cathedral or other expenses, as will be seen from the addition at the bottom of the manuscript. There may have been an annual procession on April 21 st, the date of Anselm's death, or other celebrations occasionally. In any case, it is obvious that Anselm was fast rising to be one of the patron saints of the Cathedral, if not actually to the position that Becket was to hold . But in 1170, Becket was murdered, and his fame immediatel y almost eclipsed Anselm's- after that date we hear no more of the "cult", and the offerings at Ansel m's shrine were little more than those anywhere else in the Cathedral, while those at Becket's were counted in hundreds of pounds. The records of the offerings at his shrine may not have been kept at all, or they may have been kept separately from the main acco unts, and afterwards have perished; in a ny case, there are only a few isolated references which can now be discovered . There is a page in Register A in the Cathedral Library concerning them, and the amounts are pitifully small. Thus one Fulcs de Newenham transfers a rent of 4/- due to him to the altar of St. Anselm ; Paganus de Campania, 6d. and 3 ploughshares; John the son of Serlo de Newenham 6/-, 13d. and 3 hens ; Agnes the daughter of William Caudrum 2d. ; Nicholas de Ores 10/-; Joan, widow of Gilbert Talebot, 2/-. In 1425 the son of the King of Portugal gave 3/4, according to the sacrist's accounts. Woodruff and Danks (Memorials of Call1erbury Cathedral, p. 45) say that there arc other references in the sacrist's acco unts to such offerings; but I cannot find any such references, and as the entry about the son of the King of Portugal was incorrectl y transcribed, tllis statement also may be inaccurate. More homage was paid to Anselm abroad, as we see from the Acta SanelO/'um , which states that both in Lusita nja and Antwerp forty days' indu lgence was granted to those who "hoc die accederent sacras Reliquias veneraturi". And this in spite of the fact that at that date he was not even canonized. Thomas Becket demanded Ilis canonization without effect, and somebody else probably did so later, for the fina l ratificatioll was made by Alexander VI, Roderic Borgia, in a papal bull addressed to Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIT, in 1494. But though the Church took three centuries to decide that he was worthy of it, Dante had honoured him long before. In the Paradiso, c. xii, occur the following lines:"Natiln profeta e 'I metro politano Crisostomo e Anselmo e quel Donato ch' alia prim' arte degno' porre mano." 327

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A transcriplion of the Britisll Museum MS. Nero C.9:" I sH sunt rratres et sorores dionysiorurn 2 sa ncti Anselmi. Walterius filiu s si mon;

Aldermon. & Eadwordus soci us suus alter. Willelmus filius Pagani ct uxor ei us. Johannes filius Viviani . Joseph filius Gelgewini. Fredemundus. Et uxor eius. Osbert us Curteis et uxor eills. Baldewinus de bracino. et uxor eills. Jurdanus cocus . Simon de Clara . Petrus. Hordwi. Prior & uxor eius. Aldiva & filia eius. Baldewinus de Flandria. & uxor eius. Senllingus et uxor eius. Engnulfus. Salomon filius Rogerii. Coffinus. Goscelinus. Reinoldus. del bracin. uxor Walleri. Willelmus fil ius Sefuge!. Osbert us homo Gervasii . ElganlS homo Eadwordi. Edwordus Ie vaneur. Liwinus homo Eadwordi. Durandus Bataille. el uxor ei us. Rodbertus Feld. Roger us Runetir. el uxor eius. Baldcwinlls. Harpir. Purcaz. Eadwordus. Salomon pistol'. Wlviva uxo r Eadwordi. Samuhel et. uxor cills. Ade lice mater Walteri . Witclardus. Osbcrtus ciericlis. Joha nnes. Sedegos. Wlfbald us. Mat hias. Willelmus pungnant. Phylippus. Uxor elgari. Eadilda. Wlfsi. et uxor ei us. Simer. Wlu red us. Vavasur. Pico t. E ilwecer diacoIllIS. Lifwinus. R odbertus Vrser. Tomas. Buto r. Mahald . Rad ulfus. Stamburhe. et Rodbertus. Adelice. Aldib. Elwinuses de pistrino. Symon . Goldwenn.a . Wimer et uxor eills. Robertus . Ricardus et uxor eills. Wluordus de Niwintune. et uxor eius. Elmerus de Tropham. et uxor eius. Eluredus. Baldewi nus. et uxor eius. Wlviva el fi lia eius. Fulco. Hagenilda. uxor Gervasii. Elesmod. et fi lia eius. Adam filius Elfsi. Warinus. Elfsi de fonte. et uxor eius. Bricli ua. Beatrix. Elfwinus parmenler et uxor eius. Wimundus. Filia Frelemundi . Bricwen . Hugo de bracino. Irilda. Joewi. Tidberga. Eadwinus . Gosfridus. GodwinuS. Cripup. et uxor eius. Wlmerus. Coleman . et uxor eills. Wiffinus. et Elviva. Livit. Paganus. et uxor eills. Livricus. Picot Ie mulner. Wido. Crane. Semerus ianitor. Sibilia. Eadmerus. Edit. Makepad. Swar. Dorninum Othonem de Franche et Beatricem uxorem suam et liberos suos. recepimus in societatem nostram et partircipes omnium beneftciorum nostrorum cOllstituimus. et dedit quamdiu vixerit in honorem Thome annuatim carone eiusdem martiris climidiam marcam argenti. vel per se vel per fidel em nuncium." For his invaluable assistance in Ihe wriling of this article r am deeply indebled 10 Mr. William lIrry of the Calhedral Library. B.K.J. 2 Devotees?

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GIUOCO DELLE COPPIE "Who were those went by?" "Queen Hecuba and Helen." "And whither go Ihey?" AUlumn splits the poem, rapes Ihe tree. Tares from the chew of memory The cud of summer, Parodies all the former days By making dhobies of emotion. This subtle alchemist Distils from leaves gold leaf Evaporates all to a counterfeit. P ush.ing a little sleep very Softly unde r the eyelids Calls us by his own name To which we reply. A sun which once perspired To wash our love with lust Cannot ignite its usufruct. The anaesthetic clears, Each face is stripped of its other faces, We are left to gasping for breath. The scarecrow Nailed to a plinth of stone Longs for another Spring Whose lips are the lobes of a tulip The body a slender stem For these poppies hold no opium And requiems never end. He lives in the seed Wilicil breaks in the flower, Tn the seed which he shadows With carrion wounds. But what did the blindfold see When the eyes were hid? There had been music Spinning round summer Making our lovetime a masque And summer's axis was youYou to whom all was subjected Whose every gesture seemed reflected Tn the ripeness of that first encounter Which I cannot now evoke or grasp. For a grafted joy disintegrates Becomes an un born child Rubbing against Ihe appetite329


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Always there to remind The strength in the fingers Not to mould or possess But with a gesture Magnetise by intellect A response or caress. For in the imaginati on Love makes no irregular

Demands, no self deception; What is there bccomes A preconception when exploited By reality. Bctween thc grooves of a long playing record The needle passes but on ly plots The artist's mind on a graph

Which once recorded all that lay betwecn The blindfold and the eyes. The music had no destination

Only the fall of the light And our feet on the Hoor, Pale evening when the loin nervc Prayed for the heart to cease Its hackneyed beat, the caesunl Without the musical sequence. Hung in the room turned ochre by the afternoon Picasso's nude boy stood by his horse Assertive of an adolescent pride Against its poised nobility. These were the forces of sumIller Breaki ng the day into fragments of radium, Curtained when evening detected Their forms on thc wall . Or as "Les Saltimbanques" We jested with bauble and bells Made knots in the blood, Ticks on the wrist To twist the jest in the amphitheatre At which tile audience frowned And Cassandra laughed, Her forehead was wrinkled-with laughter. We danced with summer Fountains suspended in air

Infinite width of the world Spread out when drums Were snared and lips twined neck. Trees sprayed wind into heat Washing the torpid with breeze. 330


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Every curve of the cloud and all The heyday's dreams Were planned by the secret Grief of the soul in the turn of the head. We took sweet counsel togetherThe curtain descended Upon the unfinished act.

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And we scattered like Howers At spring's end, I would That you in exile envious Of all that you left Should know of another place In a moment out of time Between two countries

Memorized by salt on lips And echo of eyes Distant yet the very sea-change Purging me. He did not know my craftOr the craft of my speech But held me spellbound By a wonder of simplicity. Left me with a conventional gesture Sealing a self he could never have recognised. "Why stand you in this strange stare?"

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Here mannequin values Determine the virtue of prayer. A good impression is better religio n. And those who wear a counterfeit pose In their buttonhole powdered with dandruff (Or early snow) admire an intellectual brow ReHected in a shop window. There are some who anticipate second youth To foHow second childhood, in thei r blood The mood dilutes sour grapes. What youth denies they chasten, rape or exorcise Until the new wine bursts the bottle. But "Harper cries 'tis time, 'tis time".

The kaleidoscope is shattered . M.r.R. * Play 0/ lite Couples title of the second movement of Bartok's Concerto for Orche~tra to which the poem refers because it 'inspired its form-a set or variation~ played by couples or Instruments on a theme never explicitly stated unless it be round in the beautlrul chorale for brass.


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THE PRINCES IN THE TOWER (This is the first article received from a new boy ill Lattergate: we hope it will be the first of mOllY.) Richard TIT is one of the best known of our kings. But what did this medieval warlord, who reigned for a few years and then fell, do to distinguish himself from kings like Henry Tl whose reforms still affect our lives to-day? "He murdered the Princes in the Tower." This is the one fact that the ordinary person can recall from his schooldays . It has been described many times: painters have depicted the event: Shakespeare has written a great scene about the murder. I n the Tower the bed in which they were murdered is still shown to the public. The princes in question were the sons of Edward TV and Eliza beth Woodville, and on their fa ther's death in 1483, a struggle broke out between the Woodvilles and Richard of Gloucester, Edward's brother. Richard impriso ned Rive rs and Grey, the two chief Woodvilles, and placed the yo ung Edward V in the Tower, after seizi ng him fro m the Woodvilles. He then persuaded the Queen Mother, who had taken sanct uary at Westminster, to surrender her younger son Richard, Duke of York, who immediately joined his brother in the Tower. Richard's plot against the boys now became clear. He attempted to persuade the citizens of London that they were illegiti mate, and that he was the rightful heir. A "packed" Parliament then declared Edward lV's marriage illegal, and from that moment the princes disappeared . A few months later a plan was set on foot to rescue them: but it was forestalled by the announcement that they were dead. No-one knew at the time what had happened to them and it is possible that no-one will ever know. Floods of scholastic ink have been spilt over the question; every authority has been checked; but historians are no nearer to a certain answer than they were four centuries ago.

The case against Richard III is briefly this . Richard wished to marry Elizabeth, the sister of the princes, to re-unite the two branches of the family. But he could not do this unless he made her legitimate, and this would then involve legitimiZing the two brothers, who wou ld then have a better claim to the throne than Richard . To rid himself of this dilemma, Richard resolved to murder the boys. He ordered the Governor of the Tower to give up the keys to Sir James Tyrrel, one of his personal guard. Tyrrel with two ru ffia ns killed the boys a nd Ilid their bodies under a staircase. The supposed bones were discovered in the seventeenth century and were buried in Westminster Abbey. This view was held by most Elizabethan chron iclers, but lately a school of thought has sprung up which maintains that the boys were murdered by Henry VIT, who cast the blame on Richard. Their reasons are that the main account of the murder was written by Sir Thomas More, who was only eight at the time of the murder, and would therefore have taken his information from Cardinal Morton, one of Richard's greatest enemies, whose secretar> More was. The murder would moreover be completely contrary to what is known of Richard's character; Henry VI IT, who was only remotely connected with the Plantagenets, had much more reason than Richard for murdering the boys; and finally the bones have been proved to be those of a wild animal. But this theory has several flaws . More would have had other sources of information than Morton. Richard's character may have appeared excellent, but motive was¡ not lac~ing and as Shakespeare says : "A:good and virtuous nature may reco il From an imperious charge." 332

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The arguments for both theories therefore cancel one another out and we are no nearer a solution. But I have a theory which, although it has not been put forward by any historian, and there is no positive evidence for it, seems to me to be the only one that fits the facts. I believe that the responsibility for the death of the princes lies at the door of Sir James Tyrrel, a trusted follower of Richard who rose to become Constable of England. Despite the fact that he was a strong Yorkist, he was taken into favour by Henry VIJ, and made Constable of Guisnes in 1486. He was disloyal to Henry, who lured him out of Guisnes by a trick, brought ltim to England, and executed him in 1501. Before the execution he is alleged to have made the confession whicll formed the basis of More's account. According to my theory, Tyrrel persuaded Richard to order him to murder the princes, hoping thus to gain a hold over the king. After Richard's death, he blackmailed his new master, Henry VII, probably threatening to disclose the "murder" of the princes by Henry Ilimself. He even made Henry give him the governorship of Guisnes, a n important post. But Tyrrel over-reached himself, Henry seized his chance of revenge, and the blackmailer who was too clever died by the axe. This is, however, only a personal theory, and it is probable that the fate of the two princes will remain unsolved-as of so many forgotten others who went into the Tower and never came out.

F.J.D.L.

MISS MARY MILLS By the passing, at her home in the Precincts on October 29th, of Miss Mary Mills, the School has

lost a most valued friend who, for nearly forty years, took the keenest interest in the King's School, whether as private secretary to Mrs. Dav idson during her husband's Archbishopric, or as her friend and

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panion at Starr's House after the Archbishop's death or, in later years, in the home she shared with her sister, Miss Mills was known to a long succession of boys and it was, as her s ister wrote just after her death, "a real distress to her that owing to her failing strength we could not have boys to tea on Sundays for some time, for it was her-a nd indeed our-delight to welcome them ". It is to her that we owe the Lady Davidso n PI'ize, awarded annually to the Captain of Schoolestabl ished by her during her lifewtime and endowed by her in her Wil l. D.L.E. writes: "Those who surv ive will , [ am sure, not take it amiss if 1 write that Ma ry Mills always seemed to me to personify the Prec incts. To past generations she was a fami liar figure, particu larly when, from 1930-36, she lived at Starr's House with Lady Davidson, whose memory she perpetuated in the School by the establishment of an annual prize. In later years to be interested in the cathedral or to be a senior or to be lonely- all these, and o ther excuses too, were passports to tea in the house she shared with her sister by the Christ Church Gateway; and before her last long illness, scarcely a week passed without hospitable proof o f her affection for Cathedral and School and all their members. She was keen to maintain her contacts with O.K.S. , invi ting them to call and listening to all their problems and enthusiasms. " It was as an O.K.S. that one realised that her dcvotion to the Cathedral was not merely the devotion or a skilled antiquarian. Canterbury she valued as the centre of the Anglican Communion: she had been Private Secretary to Archbishop Lord Davidson, and her knowledge of Church life was immense and fresh. Nothing in her life pleased her more than the present Archbishop'S invitation to her to visit the restored chapel at Lambeth in his own car when her illness had abated for a time. And the Anglican Communion seemed to Mary Mills a lovely thing not only because of its own tradition, but supremely because of its witness to loveliness moral and religious. She read very widely. and was artistic: more important, she had in her a peace which C<1n have come only from a deep faith and a daily selfwdiscipline. It is no su rprise to learn that she showed no anxiety as she approached death: the country beyond death she would regard as the real thing, the real Precincts of lhe real Altar of Man . Of the many thousa nds who have gone from the Canterbury Preci ncts to eM/as Dei, very few can have journeyed so well." 333


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THE AUBERT FAMILY Some recent correspondence has brought to li ght an interest ing piece of fam ily hi story, Two brot hers named Aubert were at the School in the ea rlier pa rt of the 19th cent llrY and there was a fam ily tradition that the younger was killed, while at schoo l, by a cricket ball. T he Register shows the following ent ries: 13 Oct. 1817. Matthew, son of Petcr and Anne Allbert . born at Stap legate, Canterbury o n 28t h July. 1807. Admitted King's Scholar Xmas 1818. Vacated Schola rship and left School Lady Day 1819-Died. I Feb. 1820. Nicholas Jo hn, son of Peter and Anne Aube rt, born at St. Peter's, Ca nterbury, 16 February 1809, adm itted King's Scholar Chr istmas 1"820. It would seem, therefore, that the accident, whatever it was, happened to the elder brother, although it is unlikely that he was hit by a cricket ball in March and it may not have happened at Schoo l. From the lady who initiated the enquiry we lea rn that the Auberts were of Huguenot descent origi nally, coming from Montpellier, the ea rl iest record being of o ne Pierre Aubert, born 1584, whose direct descendant, Nico las Aubert , came to London in 1755, took out natura lisation papers in 1758 and married in 1762. A wr itten record made by this N icholas is still in the fam ily, and these two you ng King's Scholars, Matthew and Nicholas Jo hn, must have been his grand-chi ldren, and their fathe r, Peter, his son, alt hollgh the connection was missing until supplied by the School Register. Peter is noted in the Register as being in the Serv ice of the East India Company. We are told that his fami ly included twin daughters, younger than their brothers. All th at was known of the father, Peter, was tha t he went ou t to buy somet hing for the twins when they were born and from that time forth was neve r seen or heard of aga in. rt was known that the Press Gang passed through Canterbury on that day and it was presumed latcr that they must have taken this unfortu nate man. One of the ,tw ins married a Professor Mottley, who was responsible for the popularity of Margate. It was sa id to be an "unhealthy place" o n accou nt of a high deat h-rate, but the Professor had a great battle with the Registrar-General and disproved all the theories' about unhealth iness. In appreciat io n of his efforts the townspeople had his portrait hun g in the Town Hall.

FROM THE HEADMASTER'S MAILBAG HONG KONG The life on this tiny island a nd its piece of mainland clipped ofT the great Chinese continent beyond is teeming, lively, and various. I find great difl1culty in describing the colony because of its complexity, in spite of its sma ll size. The city itself has many faces. From the harbour, it seems a modern, American type of city; by day a lot of tall white bu il dings, by night a galaxy of coloured lights. For "Society" it is something like a parad ise of air-cond itioned flats (with no servant problem), dance halls, cinemas, restaurants and night-clubs, of golf a nd bathing clubs, bathing beaches, a nd whisky and soda. The main streets are crowded with business, lined wit h prosperous, industrious middle-class shop-keepers. The back-streets are teeming with bodies scarcely covered with rags, a terrible picture of over~c rowd in g: the air is fu ll of the clip-clop of wooden shoes and the acrid smell of poverty and bad sa nitat ion, sometimes relieved, curio usly, by the most delicious smell of good-looking food. Even the city is not the whole story. Outside it, there are some quite lonely spots on the steep barren hills. Large white European houses command impress ive views. 1n the valleys and creeks there are many villages, living from fishing o r paddy, where life rolls o n as timelessly as [ imagine it does in the greater part of China beyond. I recently led a patrol up near the border (we were meant to be look ing for Communist infiltrat io n, but also check ing on the state of the crops and health in the villages), and was most impressed wit h the peacefulness and contentment of these almost entirely self-sufficient little communities. They smile tolerantly at both Chinese pol icemen and British soldiers, for they need neit her to keep thei r peace for them, and neither can threaten their independence. They work in the fields all day and they know no luxuries, yet they radiate a simple contentment- a nd hospitality. J ER.EMY RowF.

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THE SCHOOL CHOIR The ma in funct io n of a choir is to lead the praises of ot hers, and the School C hoir tries hard to bear this constantly in mind. When, for exa mple, some verses of a psalm arc all otted to it, the cho ir endeavours to sing them in a manner which might help the gencral style of the School's psalm-singing. At the sa me time, no choir ca n flourish, or fee l any pride in itself, unless it has opportunities to perform in its own right. D uring the last year, under Mr. Edred Wright's guidance, the School Choir has made great progress, but few people realise the difficulties facing anyone try ing to train a choir in a Public School such as ours. Undoubted ly o ne of the greatest problems is the question of " Trebles". The few boys that come from Choi r Schools do not leave until their voices are "o n the break" and they are often unable to assist the trebles at all. Fortunately there are some notable exceptions, and their hel p is invaluable. Trebles become sca rcer as the schoo l year contin ues, and so the problem of what to sing becomes more difficult , as so many anthems a re impossible to perform because the ra nge is too extensive for adolescent vo ices. The choice of music mu st also take into accOlmt " fitn ess". An anthem is no t "A tting" if it is beyond the powers of the singers, or beyond the comprehension of the hea rers- who a re not an audience, but worshippers who must be able to " take pa rt" by listening. In addit ion to th is, we try to make ou r an thems co rrespond to the seaso n of the C h\lrch's year. At the beginning of 1955, the repertoire of mus ic was rather meagre, but by the end of the Summer Term severa l new ant hems had been su ng. In this Ch ristmas Term an attempt has been made to include two a nthems each Su nday. With only about an hour o r so rehearsal a week, this is a considerable undertak ing, but the beg inn ing of a school year, with the maximum number of trebles, is the obvious time to learn as much new music as possible. Although we try to sing our anthems both expressively as well as accurately, believ ing that in worthy renderi ngs lies true worship, we are conscious that there is some way to go before we achieve the standard we should li ke. When a repertoire is establ ished and there a re not so many notes to learn, we hope to devote more time to perfecting o ur singi ng. Choir Practice has to take place during prep. time on Saturday evenings, and since many of the singers also take part in ot her musica l activities operat ing over the week-end, thi s pl aces quite a strain on their loyalty when they find themselves overrun with work. Nevertheless, attendance at rehearsals has been remarkably high, which speaks well for the adm irable keenness. This, and the fact that we are able to perform so many anthems. is in large measure due to the expert train ing given to us by Mr. Edred Wright , our choirmaster, to whom we are ever grateful, and to Mr. David Lawrence. our orga nist.

ANTHEMS PER FORM ED IN C HRISTMAS TERM,

1955

o Come ye Servants (Tye ) o for the Wings of a Dove (Mendelssohn)

o ThOll the Cent ral Orb (Wood)

Te Lucis (Baljollr Gardiller) Lead me Lord ( Wesley) Expectans Expectavi (Wood) Holy, Holy, Holy (Gretchallillojf) How beautiful upon the mountains (Sta iner) Thou wilt keep him (Wesley) o lovely Peace (Hallde/) I will lift up mine eyes ( Walker)

Blessed are they that mourn (Brahms) Pra ise to God (Campbell) o Jesu most kind (Bach) Yea, though I walk (Sullivan) o thou that tellest (Hande/) Hosa nna h ( Weelkes) Break forth (Bach) Sing lull aby (Basque Carol)

The Heavens arc telling (Haydn)


THE CANTUARIAN

CAMBRIDGE LEITER Dear School, Cambridge once more salutes you. In the hope that would-be undergraduates may find something to look forward to, and in the certainty that your older readers will be but confirmed in their despair of all things juvenile, we offer you an anthology of our doings this term. There are now 31 of liS in residence. 01'. Budd is the local Secretary, and for the rest, we have a Head of House, Dr. Telfer, at Selwyn, a Professor. Pror. Maule of Trinity, two dons, Dr. West of Clare and 01'. Burgess of Downing, a handful of M .A.s ill the persons of Oscar Watson at the Press and Martin Carnes at King's Choir School and a number of us in statu pupil/ari. We feel our first duty is to redeem a reputation- that of the madly successful Veep of the Footlights, Bill Eustace, who actually got a Second to the consternation, we know, of all the discredited Cassandrae of Canterbury, licking their lips over a potential rustication. Bill really does apologise! Not everyone can get up so late and be quite such a man-about-town and get a Second. Pembroke are not interested in Seconds, and so Tony Briggs and Brian Phillips obliged by taking Firsts, and so little are they seen out, that they must be well on the way to further Firsts. A man who exceeded his expectations academically is John Cassidy, who rather to his surprise is still here and rowing in Trial VIlis. Richard Roberts is Secretary of Boats at Jesus this year and so he is organising the Fairbairn Ball with two bands and a cabaret- all he wants now is some tickets sold. Martin Chawner is Vice-President of his boats at Sidney, while David Griffith, Brian McCleery and Peter Moss, from Jesus, Catll.'s and Clare, have also been seen paddling up and down. Nigel Brown could not stand the rowing pressure at Jesus and so he has a bandoned the river and become engaged. So indeed has Fred Norton. Fred is also President of Corpus Combination Room and plays a bit of College rugger. Jo Frampton is also at Corpus doing Russian, and so he has supervisions with D r. Burgess; as we all know, Dr. Burgess has always got plenty to say. Downi ng's Bursal' had plenty to say too when the bill for the May Ball (decor Burgess) came in: item, the odd Greek temple ; item, a few thousand very special Chinese lanterns, and so all, not to mention a Regency marquee with a sprung floor. Tony Halsey is now Choir Leader at King's-a poor year, he says-Barry Salmon is music librarian at St. John's for ÂŁ 1 13s. 4d. a term, Bernard Cassidy is in something at St. Catherine's called the Midnight Howlers, and Roger Smith's name has been seen advertised for a concert at King's. So much for music. Down Jesus Laue, George Hamber is always dissecting, and Kenneth Agnew has embarked on the intricacies of the Law, while overlooking Market Square Michael Holderness holds court for the medics of Caius. At St. John's Ronnie Hoare entertains a great deal and John Sales finds medicine deadly; Roger Milne at Trinity has been seen, but Selwyn's Bindon has not (is he even up here?). Richard Holford at Magdalene chats to Mrs. Will ink through his window, and Nelson Graburn has been throwing bad eggs for Clare at King's in aid of Poppy Day. ~~(,

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No-one has been intentionally omitted from tllis interminable catalogue, Wllich is completed by Nick Raffle. When he heard his results, he had two surprises-Emmanuel asked him to remain in residence and he received a paternal cheque. He is playing for the University XV, of course, but intends to reti ..e to the Engineering La bs. next term . If you slill have any interest left in us after all this, please have your match results printed in the paper, however shock ing. Some of us are interested to know before the next Can!uarial1. O.K.S. CANTAB.

THE LIBRARY We acknowledge with gratitude girts from the following: W. Somerset' Maugham Mrs. E. Cape

the American Library. the Headmaster, A. S. Mackintosh, P. C. V. Lawless, K. B. Austin.

dun and T.

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THE GREEN PASTURES SUI/day. October 231'(/

It is ;.1 curiUliS reneeti on on H ouse Plays that the first rea lly moving production seen in tht: C hapter I-louse for severa l yea rs should fall to the lot of the New Boys. The School looks forward to this annual event with apprehension mingled with a certai n cynicism, and so lInu slial a playas The Greell Pastures was therefo re a brave choice. A s its producer, Mr, Blumcnau. explai ned before the curta in went up .

the play is demonstrative of the America n Negro's deep and litera l faith in the Bible, and though intended to amuse us should also by its evidem sincerity command our respect. To interpret this douhle purpose wou ld have becn impossible with a cast of boys, who had been at the School barely a month, without the help of our American visitor W. L. Camp, who not only played the long and exact ing part of God with such dignity and insight , but also by his forceful intonation and bearing cast an aura of confidence over the whole production. With a cast of seventy in a chronicle play it is difficult to single Oul individual performance, but few in the audience will forget the wrathfu l indignat ion of Noah (F. J. D. Lambert) <It the co rru pti on of mankind and his abject humility in the Presence of God; or Moses (J. n. Batchelor), who played the scene at the walls of Jericho when death is at hand wit h a faltering pathos that held the audience throughout the scene. M. A. Sharwood-Smith, A. R. Maybury, N. T. Edwards, J. G. P. Rivett. e. J. Yates, D. W. Horton, D. J. T. Webster, e. J. Tavener, G. N. Salmon and R. A. P. Carden played with particu lar conviction. but it was Ii revealing fault in the Second Act that in the one scene at Pharaoh's court where American accents failed, and effect depended mainly on costume and tension, the play ceased to be a simple Negro re-enactment of their faith and took on the appeara nce of an innocuous charade. Elsewhere the costumes and scenery were kept suitably simple, and the interpretat ion was thereby strengthened. The singing was confident and pleasing, though the aud ience found considerable amusement in the Negro sp iri tua l rendered in the unmistakable voice of the producer, who with Mr. Ball . Miss Gibbs. Mr. Wright and hordes or helpers, achieved sllch II nolublc success. O.R.F.D. .1 .17


t H E CANTUARIAN

RHYTHM IN POETRY Poetry is the rh ythmical expression of profound ideas . A poem is a poem beca lls~ of its rhythm, which gives it motion, and so life. Rhythm is a measure of durations in time; it makes us pass over unimporta nt words quickl y, significant ones more slowly, and sometimes at a climax stops a line in the middle. It makes language fl ow easily and beautifully, an inca ntation that helps us to achieve the trance-like state of mind we must have to enter full y into the atmosphere of a poem. Shakcspeare's mas tery of the rhythmic interplay of similar wo rds is remarka ble. In the following quotation, the stresses never come in the same places in each line :"Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is 110t love Which alters where it alteration finds, AmI bends with the remover to remove." The stress seems to hover over tile first five words, nor certain where to fa ll. If we slightly alter the position of a few wo rds, wllile still retaining the correct number of sylla bles in each line, we can ruin the whole poem :" Let me not to the joy of fa ithful minds i'mpediments admit. Never can love Alter wllere it doth alteration fi nd With the destroyer bending to remove." BOlh this version and Shakespea re's disto rt the iambic stress of the melre, Shakespeare's version enriching it with natural word-rhythms, and the other not. Such distortion of the metre in favour of word-rhythms must occur to a certain extent, to avoid monotony. Swinburne sometimes did not realize this, using metres that were too firm and inflexible :" They gave him light in his ways And love, and a space for delight And beauty and length of days And night, and sleep in the night" Poe at times was equally meehanical:"The skies they were ashen and sober The leaves they were crisped and sere . The leaves they were withering and sere It was night in the lonesome October Of my most immemorial year; It was hard by the dim lake of Aubel' In the misty mid-region of WeirIt was down by the dank tam of Auber In the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir" The skilful use and interplay of the natural rhythms of language distinguishes metreless poetry from prose, as in Stephen Spender's " I think continually of those who were truly great. Who, from the womb, remembered the so ul's history Through corridors of light where the hours are suns Endless and singing. Whose lovely ambition 338

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TH E CANT UARfAN Was that their lips, still touched with fire, Should tell of the Spirit clothed from head to foot in song. And who hoarded from the Spring bra nclles The desires falling across their bodies like blossoms." In the last few lines of Keats' Sonnet 011 First Looking into Chapman's Homer, the rhythm of the words leads us up to a tremendous climax of tense excitement in complete silence, fo llowing the word "Pacific". whose last syllable U_i c" is metricall y superfluous, and adds to the effect :"Then felt I like some watcher of the skies When a new pl anet swims into his ken;

Or like stout Cortez, when with eagle .eyes He star'd at the Pacific- and all his men Loo k'd at each other in a wild surmise Silent, lIpon a peak in Darien. " The reputation of the earl y 16th centu ry poet Stephen Hawes rests almost entirely on one stanza of his long poem, The Historie of Graunde Amoure and La Belle Puce/. This stanza gains its effect by its rhythm, which ca rries it vigorously from begilliling to end, so that tile first wo rds are still in our mind when we are reading the last. J . Churton Collins describes it as " a weirdly beautifu l rh ythm, 'which falls on the ear like the echo of a va nished world', a nd seems to tra nsport us back to the dim cloister of some old mediaeval abbey". T he epigrammatic clarity of the last couplet is particularly remarka ble :" 0 mortall folke you may beholde and see Howe I lye here, sometime a mighty knight, The end of joye and all prosperite Is death at last, thorough Ilis course and might, After the daye there co meth the darke nighte, For though the daye be IleVer so long, A! last the belle ringeth to evensong." S.T .J.M.

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LECTURE BY SIR FRED PRITCHARD Sunday. October 29th In works of fiction, lawyers are invariably described as "dry" and "precise": this lectu rer, ~h oU 8 h his words never Jacked precision, was very far from bei ng dry. T here are lawyers as eminent as SIC Fred

Pri tchard : but there must be few who ca n lecture to il school as well as he- neither talking down to us no r above o ur heads-, and none who can make the procedu re of a Cou rt of Law so clear and vivid to the layman. What had always seemed to most of us to be mere archaic deta il or traditional formality was explained and illuminated. Nor were we merely shown the po int and im portance of lega l procedure; for the lecture r, out of a great wealth of experience bot h as a judge and as prosecuting o r defending counsel, affo rded liS many welcome glimpses of that friend liness and good sense which adds to the sterner valucs o f Brit ish justicc its mercy and humanity. The School can rarely have heard a lecture at once so informati ve and so entertaining.

J.B,W.

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MR . HERVEY ALAN O n Su nday, November 6th, the School was once more enthralled by the power and range of Mr. H ervey Alan's voice. We have of course heard Mr. Alan before on his vis it last year with other s ingers frol11

Sadlers Wells, but o n this occasion he very sensibly tempered his recital with some rudimentary advice on si nging and appreciation. Mr. Alan demonstrated to us the different approach that the si nger practised towards Handel's "0 ruddier than the cherry" from Ads all(/ Galalea and Dr. Bartolo's famous song of indignatio n in The Marriage 0/ Figaro. He emphasized how important the interpretation of character was in Mozart a nd the later composers, and how fully the orchestra l accompaniment can indicate the mood of a piece. He illust rated this by a well·ch osen selection of arias from Lully, Mozart, Rossini , Verdi, a nd Wagner, and ended with Mephistopheles' Serenade from Gounod's Faust. We are particularly grateful to Mr. Hervey Alan for presenting so interest ing 11 recita l, because lecturi ng in this manner might eas ily have taken toll of the singing voice o f a less accomplished artist. As it was, Mr. A lan, admi rably accompanied by Mr. Ma lcol m Ty ler, interpreted the different moods of Rossini and Wagner with great cla rity and understanding. H..J,S,

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SHAKESPEARE AND THE CONTEMPORARY THEATRE (Regent 's Pa rk TheH tre) Sunday, November 13th We were assured from the begin ning of a n extremely enjoyable cve nin g, for here was a man with an easy a nd engagi ng cha rm of persona lity, who managed to combine an earnest devotion to h is profess ion with a ready sense of humour in his anecdotes, He spoke no t in the technica l ,argon o f a prod ucer, but as a lo\'er o f the theatre frank ly discussing the use and abuse o f ou r grea test playright. He freely crit icized those modern producers who believe that Shakespea re lacks sufficient pace for 20th century aUdiences, his most striking example of which W,IS the recent fil m of Joe Macbeth, set in Chicago's underworld, the world of Joe, Lily, Banky and Duffy: but audience and producer a like fail to re.1lize that pace, character and atmosphere lie essentially in the poetry, not in sumptuous sets or irrelevant and disttlrbing stage direction . He then gave a brief survey of the use ofShakesr>eare through the ages, mentioning in particular Tate's version of Lear, the era of Henry I rving, and finally Granville Barke r, who more than anyone else was responsible for our modern texts, He particularly stressed that the fault of Shakespeare today lies not so much in the hands of the producer, but in that there were insufficiently critical audiences. He concluded wi th the rich and moving speech on the ' fall of Kings' frolll Richard II. and our only regret in a de lightful evening wns that we wer~ no t treated to more of his versati lit y. J. P,R, By

D AV II) WILLI AM, ESQ.

WESTERN EUROPE By S. C. H, WOOLRYCH, ESQ. On Novembe r 15th the Six.th Form was pr ivi leged to hea r Mr, S. C. H. Woolryeh, fo rmerly British Consul in Strasb urg, speak ing o n the subject o f " Western Europe", It is sca rcely necessary to emphasise the a ppro pri ateness o f this topic; no t o nly has Western unity been the ce ntral aspiratio n of European statesmen s ince Mr, Ch urch ill (as 11e then was) lirst conceived o f a " united stfl tes o f Europe"; but the recent establishment of Western Eu ropea n Union, being the first positive achievement towa rds this objective, has provided the essential starting·point from which all subsequent progress ca n emanate. If it was surpris ing that Mr, Woolrych chose to speak o n the Cou ncil of Eu rope rather than o n the wider implications of the rejection of the European Defence Com munit y a nd the subsequent establ ishment of W.E. U,. we were not unduly dismayed, for, in our preoccupation wi th the latter, the genera l tendency has been to overlook the proceedings of the COllncil of Europe, which st ill claims to be the embodiment of closer European union. Those among us who entertained the idea that it is a mere talking·shol> were soon undecei\!ed on learning that much of the valuable wo rk done in connection with refugees, unemployment, etc., finds its origin in the St rasburg Assembly. Mr. Woolrych rounded off his illuminating talk by expressing and expla ini ng his confidence in the future of European integration, and even intimat ing that a reviva l of the " European idea" was well within the bounds of fea sibility, provided the spi rit of Franco-German reconciliation overcomes the obstacles a t present in its path, Although Mr. Woolrych succeeded in giving a first·hand impression of the Counci l of Europe, it is a pity that he did not enlarge o n his statements concerning the future of Western unity, however tentative a ny suggestio ns in this line a re bound to be. The future of European integration, the form it is li kely to assume, the fU:iction o f the Counci l of E uro pe in a closer integrated Europe, the rOle to be played by Britai n : all these questions went unanswered , This was the so le ca use fo r regret in an o therwise revealing f\nd st imulati ng lecture, W.A.N,P ,

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"LOVERS VOWS" SCHOOL HOUSE. THE G RANG E, AND GALPINS

Sunday. November 271h Long before anyone thought of laughing at the Engl ish melodrama, the se nsat iona l and romantic drallla of the Germany of 1800 was supplying perfect burlesqueable material fo r English translators. When we consider that even Schiller's The Robbers was burlesqued in London in the au thor's lifetime, it is hardly surprising that Kotzebue, with his plays of unreasonable relationships, should have been a constant sou rce of a musement to the English. The reason why burlesque has now fallen from favour is that whereas the ninetccnth century included it as merely an item in a programme of operetta and farce, the modern theatre normally presents one piece lasti ng two to three hours, a system unsuitable for burlesque, an essent ially short and rapid play-form. Mr. Stewart effected a compromise between Kotzebue ,Ind his English translators and, though this was the sa fest plan, it detracted from the essentia l pungency of burlesque. The admirable scenery, costumes, a nd staging gave the product ion a firm basis, and it was a pity that audibility was so bad, not basically beca use the actors would not speak up but because they spoke too q uickly Hnd slurred their consonants. From the moment the peasa nts tumbled drunkenly on to the stage the audience were assu red of a pace. a vitality, and a sense of comedy that could not fail to delight. The role of hero, upright if illegit ima te, fo llowed natu rally enough from the part of Romeo, and A. J, K. Austin 's bearing and sympathetic interpretation held the play together, though A . J, D. Smith as the conscience¡stricken father and A. W . Bud gen as the wronged mother alone in the cast achieved the necessa ry degree of tragic burlesq ue. Bayston as the tutor, torn between duty and love for his pupil Amelia, was the most entertaining actor on the stage, though his supreme chances for bu rlesque were often lost to the audience by his evident sincerity. One could not help feeling that his pupil P. J. T ull would have been happier as a society dragon, but he had talent enough for the simplicity a nd earnestness of his part. R, J , Snell as the ponderously rhyming butler was pure joy. combining a del ightful sense of the r idiculous with faultless elocution: it is a pity the same cannot be said o f D. C. Halton, whose foppish cou nt might have been good if audibility had matched costume and gesture. The two peasa nts, R. D. J . Lysaght and W. A. T. T. G arel¡ Jones, in their rusticity were effect ive foils to the burlesque of their social superiors, not least of whom was T, M . E. Dunn, the most melodramatic o f all wicked land lords. The experiment was very worth while, and though it real1y demanded the appreciation of a more soph isticated audience we learnt a great dea l from it. Mr. Stewart is to be congratulated on an original and spirited production. O .R .P.D.

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THE SOCIETIES THE SoMNER SOCIETY. - Winter and archaeological interest reached the School simulta neously in mid¡ November, whe n the Sornner Society was roused from its undisturbed six months slumber. Almost immed iately twelve members went to Minster-in-Thanet to visit its beautiful church and historic abbey. which both date from Saxon times. At our second meeting, Mr. D1umenau gave a lecture o n "The History of Hislory"-a talk which was both inst ructive and interesting. Mr. Frank Jenkins, an a rchaeolog ist noted for his great knowledge of figurines and for his discoveries of Roman Canterbury. gave the Society a n ent hralling and welldocumented lecture on Durovcmum before and aft er the Roman invasion. Mr. Jenki ns pointed o ut the value of a rchaeology as an unveiler of history, for although no writ ings conta inin g mo re than the name and situation of Durovernum exist, much is known of Ca nterbury in Roman times. The Society wi ll probably hold another meeting t his term, poss ibly in the fo rm o f a debate on Ihe modern buildings of Ca nterbury. Meanwhi le, with attendances except io nally high. tile Society ho pes that next term the weather wi ll be sufficiently clement to allow more expedit io ns and perh aps some excavati ng. TH E P ATER SOCIR'I'Y. -T his term the Pater Society hf\S managed to fU llcti on fair ly actively in spite of the many other Schoo l activ ities. O n October 16t h, S. T . J . Mazzarella read a paper o n "Cluudius", which shou ld have been of advantage for those taking Roman O utlines this year ; ctnd o n October 30t h 1. A. Campbell gave us an informative lecture on Zeus, under the impOS ing title of ' OAV,u11'"tOS" (i rru(I'17T11T?I" , with referencc to his worship. Later o n in the term, two morning periods were taken off for a tiring, yet inva luable, "pi lgrimage" rou nd Roman Canterbury. via the Beaney Institute, Ihe Roman Pavement in Butchery Lane, a hazardous cell ar in St. Margaret's Street (which, alas! revealed very litt le) and a muddy ditch off Watling Street where we identified with d ifficu lty various strata o f roads. from R oman to Mediaeval. On December 1st, the Society had the good fortune to attend a Somnl.!r Society meeting, where Mr. Fra nk Jenkins, the City Archaeologist, hclped to fill in the backgrou nd of Ollr tour. A projected showing by Mr. Kent of some slide!; o r Greece und Rome will take place next tcrlll . We also intend to see a perrormance of Euripides' Bacchae at Cambridge in February. Our thanks arc dlll.: to Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, and to Mr. Robertson, for their kind hospitality. T HE WALPOLE Socurry.- We were delighted this term tu welcumc the Hun . S. W. E. Sflwrl as o ur new President. The Society, now that the membership has risen from three to th ~ a ll ~tim e record of twentyfive, has had a prosperous term and meetings have been held o n every free Sunday evening. The greatest success of the term was n mock trial in which N. Devoil and T. N. E. Dunn showed their capabi lity as cou nsels for the defence and prosecution respectively. We are ho ping to co nclude the tern1's activities with a visit to the Tannery and our Annua l Dinner. THR CAXTON SOCII:TY. -T hi s term , Mr. l. N. Wilkinson agreed to become a Vice-President of the Society, a nd we look fo rwa rd to enjoying the benefit of his several years' experience with hi s ow n machine. Nine new members were elected, making a total of th irty. This limitation of members being essenti al fo r lack of space in the present print room. Although this term many of the senior mcmbers of the Society are taking examinat ions, we have managed to print six large jobs, as well as many small jobs for the School, the Cathedral and for private members. We would also li ke to express our thanks to Mr. Peett , without whose help we could no t have completed nea rly so much work . We are hoping to arrange a lecture, and an outing to the offices of the Radio Tim es next term. We now have three formcr members at the London Schoo l of Printing. THE HARVEY SocIETY.- This term the Society, with a membership or over seventy. had a very interesting programme. Owing to the lack of Sunday evenings free from school runctions, this programme was somewhat limited. Early on in the term, a bus-load of the Society went to the Isle of Grain, near Rochester. to visit the Oil Refinery there. All came away having tho roughly enjoyed themselves and knowing a lot mo re about oil refining. There were only three lect ures given to the Society this term. The first was by R. R . Burk on the methods o f estimat ing the insect population of certain a reas. This lecture included a n account of his own experiments in this field. For this lecture we took the opportunity of combining wit h the Natural History Society. The next lecture was by T. Jardine Brown on Anaesthetics. which was very interesting and well presented, so that even the junior Arts side boys who attended understood the principles of this importa nt branch of Surgery. The third and fin al lecture was given by Mr. r. N . Wilkinson, H Vice-Presi dent, on Illugnetic recording. Mr. W il ki nsoJl very kindly brought his own .142

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machine into this lecture ror the aud ience to exami ne, a nd some people were allowed by him to record their voices o n it. The Society gave its annua l chemistry display this term, al which the record attend ance was over 100. II was given this year by T. Jardine Brown and R . V. Edwards. We are very grateful to Mr. K. H. Yates. without whose help the display could never have been the success it was. At the end of the term the Society held a small film show, which was well received by all. This show included n very interesting film which showed the different aspects o r li fe in Brazil. For next term, a nother film show is being arranged, this time for the whole School. There arc two more items of interest on the programme for next term, the first being a series of lecture films. and Ihe seco nd. a vis it by an autho rised lecturer from British Oxygen Co. THE MADRIGAL SOCIETY.- The Society has had barely any time to meet Ihis term as IllOSt of it s member!> have been busy rehea rsing for N. M.S. Pilla/ore. However, next term we hope to have regu la r meeting!> Orll.!C mo rc, and we are goi ng 10 give a recit al o f Sacred Music in the Ca thed ral. T he rec ital will be prim,lri ly an o rga n o ne give n by Mr. David Lilwrcncc, but it wi ll be interspersed with si ngi ng. Fo ll ow ing uur successful "Se renade ill Ihe Clo i!>tc rs" cO llcert last tcrm, we hope 10 repeat the eve nt again ncx t !>llmmCI', with o f course an entirely new programille of madriga ls and chCllnber musk. TH E PHOTOG RAPWC SOCIETY.- We completed last term's activit ies with a triumphant exhibitio n celebrating the forti et h a nnive rsa ry of Ihe Society. A most interesti ng ta lk has bcen given by M r. Entwi stle a nd it is hoped time wi ll be foun d later to show Kodak 's films on photography. Those finns to who m we wrote enquiring abollt olltings this term have been unable to entertain us; but pla ns are on foot for an excu rs io n next term. There was a committee change during the term owing to the res ignat io n of M. J . Gregory from his pOSt as Hon. Secretary: the whole Society exte nds its thanks to him fo r the greal work he has done ror the Society. His position hfls been taken over by I. S. Macdonald. Perhaps the 1110St fitting testimony to the value and popularity o f the Socicty has been the constant use made of the darkroom by all members. THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY.- Early in the term a meeti ng was held to elect a President to fill the . place o f Mr. Ward, who left last term , and other oHicials for the schoo l year. Mr. I. V. Wilkinson has very kindly accepted the Presidency, and we have found ourselves, during the course of the term, extremely fortunate in having such an enthusiastic a nd helpful President. D. G. Barber was re-elected Honorary Secretary, P. J. Furneaux, R . R. Burk. M. J. Hudson, J. B. C. Ba lkwi ll and I. A. Ca mpbell being elected to the Committee. At our next meeting, Fu rnea ll x talked abo ut the Scilly Isles, the lire of thei r inhabitant s and the wi ld life found there. His talk was made more vivid by his having been there with Mr. Ward. T he Annual General Meeting and Ex hi bition o f Schoo l Natural History Societ ies was held on October 18th in the Natural History Musc um ; King's was represented by nine of o ur members, five o r whom I.!xhib ited. Bu rk and Furnea ux wcre outsta nding, exhibiting insects and bota nica l photographs respectively. They are a ll to be congratulated 011 the sta nd ard of their ex hibits. The following week, fo r our annual o uti ng we went to Sheerness, the eastern point of the Isle of Sheppey. The party d ivided into two groups, the leaders being Mr. Wilkinso n and Mr. Stainer. The o rnithologists of the party were great ly pleased by the sigh I or an Avocet flying towards the Seasaltcr marshes. There was much to be found among the typical sa lt marsh plants. for the botanists: but the cntymologists were not so lucky, see ing on ly two insects o n the wing.

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We have heard three lectures s ince then; we combined wilh the Harvey Society to hear Burk ta lk o n "Counting Insects"; he described the methods of counti ng insects to estimate the size of their POpulcllions. The President then lectu red on "Plagues and Decimations" ; he told how animal populalions ra nge in size. and ca n be totally wiped out. I. A. Campbell later gave a talk on Geology ; a School expert on the subject , he had exhibited his geo logic eollcct io n at the Exhibit ion.

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The moth trap has been a great success this year; we have caught 3,32 1 between May 14th and November 19t h. We hope, next hmn, to give a film !> how OpC Il to the School. .mel are looking forward 1(1 :l rclurn visit of A. Darlington, Esq.

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C.C.F. NOTES The increase of training periods in the afternoon from two periods to three, has enabled us to include some more practical tmin ing, such as platoon exercises for the junior platoons, in addition to the normal syllabus, and some .303 shooling on the 30 ya rds range fo r the seniors. It will be possible to do more of this next term, so that by preliminary training we can make better lise of each term's field day. whether it is field training as in this and the Summer Terms, or open range shooting, as next term. R.S. M. Herbert has al ready made his mark on the administrat ive side, in the issue and upkeep of uniforms and so on, a nd is beginn ing to do so in the appearance and turn-out of Cadets on parade. His influence, with that of R.S.M. While, who has been taking the senior platoons in Mutual Drill at The Buffs Depot, will , Tam confident, soon result in an improvement in that nebulou s Quality, "steadiness o n parade", and in the general bearing of individ uals when in uniform. His highly Qualified instruct ion, together with the fitting of Parker-Hale sight s, has already resulted in :l marked improvement in the Shooting VIII scores. The Certificate " A" results were creditable. In Part IT, which is sti ll lllllch Ill ore difficult than it was a year or so ago, 19 passed out of 26, and the large major ity pa ssed in Part L In a further revision of the examination which will t1\ke effect nex t term, the scope of qucstions has been broadened, but the principle remains thc sa me. For the Field Day on November 8th , Captain Cooper of the Depot, Roya l Marines, at Deal, and a team of Officers and Warrant Officers of their Weapo n Training Wing, ran an instruct iona l day on the Old Park. The morning was taken lip with Section exercises for hal f the time, a nd a highly informative display of new weapons, includ ing the new F.N. Rifle, fo r the othe r half. In the afternoon, each platoon put in a platoon 1\uack, under their direction. The day was thoroughly well spent, and our sincere thanks are due to the Officers and W.O:s concerned. Certificate uA"._ ln Part 11 on November 29th, C. M. J. Whittington passed with Credit (over 85%), and the following passed:- G. I. Allen, J. D. Allen, J. W. Salchin, M. H. Cartwright, C. W. Cook, M. D . Deller, T. M. E. Dunn, P. J. Ford, F. J. Giles, R. M. Goodsall , R. O. C. Houry, M. O. Hudson, T. Jardine-Brown, M. J. Minns, C. H. N. Moy, M. O. Paramor, J. A. O. Stewart, R. O . Whitelegg. Promot ions.- In Part I on the same day, 27 passed out of 36. The following promotions were made on 20th September, 1955 to the ranks stated :- C.S.M.s: R. M. Sutton, P. F. Valpy, J. C. Trice, A/C. Q.M.S. P. J . S. Furneaux. Sgts.: R. Collingwood, M. J. Gregory, E. J. Smalman-Smith, R. J . W. Sainsbury, P. C. Ament, G. M. A. Mullins. L/Sgts.: R. O. Paterson, N. H . Cooper, R. A. Lane, J. K. Morriss, O. A. Mickleburgh, C. S. Stevens, A. R. A. Veitch, D. P. Buchan , J. S. McDonald , N. H. Nicholl s. Bdrs.: A. P. Ma son, P. W. Niblock. A. G. Woolcolt. Cpl s. O. C. Fletcher, R . r. Baker, R. A. Brewester, F. D . Pilcher, A. J. B. Walker, C. R. Alabaster, C. T. Davies, S. J. Laine, R. O. Unfo rth. L/Bdr. O. S. Smith. L/Cpls.: B. K. Jeffery, F. D. A. Maplethorp, O. D. Peskett , H. G. Williams. And on 1st Novem~ bel', 1955, Sgt. A. R. A. Veitch. K.A.C.O . Royal Naval Scction.- During the summer holidays 12 cadet~ and the C.O. had a most enjoyable time in a " Daring", H.M.S. Decoy, which subseque ntly visited Russ ia on a goodwill visit. She was a most efficient and happy ship, and th is was our best "Camp" ever. Plymou th made a pleasant change from Chatham and Portsmouth , we had some good sailing, and we went by sea to SaJcombe and to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth, where we were met by Mr. H. G. Meadows. We also Hcw with the Fleet Air Arm and learnt about many aspects of the Navy and it s futu re in atomic warfare. We ended our day by defeating in best Henley style the other schoo ls in the port in a Whaler pUlling-race. Other cadets went to sea with the R.N.V.R. and on courses in Portsmouth, Scotland and elsewhere, and there is a healthy keenness within the Section which was reHccted in our best Proficiency Exami nation results ever this term-5 out of 6 passes in Part II and 13 out of 16 in Part I. These exams. are not ensy. and we welcome recruits who will add to the present sp irit. Our thanks are due to the Royal Navy for their interest and co ~ope ra ti o n . to the Petty Officcr [nst ructor who has becn a regular visitor from Chat ham each Tuesday. and to Mr. R. K. Blumenau for his valuable help with the signalling. D .W.B,


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RUGBY FOOTBALL RETROSPECT It was not until the middle of November that this season's XV lived up to the promise which, on paper. it appeared to have. Committed to a match agai ns t Sf. Paul's within eight days of the beginning of term there was little time for training, and none at all for the settling down processes.

Losing this game-against the run of the play- was an unfortunate start to the season, but from this game the fact emerged that we had a fine pack of forwards, and throughout the rest of the term, and in spite of many changes forced upon them by injuries, they have done nothing to dispel this high opinion. They have consistently outplayed their opponent s, and never more so than at Felsted where they won 27 of the 35 set scrums. This season has had two very distinct phases. In view of the forward strength it was resolved at the beginning to lay all emphasis on attacking open football, and with the material available outside the scrum in the early part of the season this could not be achieved without some sacrifice in defence. Some of those who had the necessary pace or apparent ability were found to be inadequate in defence and al1~ i rnportant tries were given away. With no obviollsly clever or bri ll ian t individual players to call llpon severa l different combinat ions of players were tried, but in all instances they found themselves up against larger and faster opponents. However, some of these younger players have had experience which must benefit their own play and encourage them for next season. Only Kearin was up to sta ndard in all~round ability, and he justifia bly retai ned a rcgular place in the s ide. Perhaps the first major advantageous change made in the XV was the interchange in I)osition o f '-Iutton ,Ind Sainsbury from wing-forward to scrum~half Clnd vice versa. This was an unqualified success which made. for a quicker service of lhe ball from the serum , and allowed for the full est use to be made of Sainsbury's fine tackling. Both players arc to he complimented on the way in which they took to and performed their new duties. About this time Vincent was brought in ill s l a nd~orr half and this not only helped to straighten the line but his fine handling afforded the three-quarters a fuller service of the ball. A now fit Agnew joined Kearin in the centre ; Turner, at last fully recovered from an early injury to his <t nkle, regained his speed o n the left wing, and Bl ake, who had recently found some real dash and determination, completed the three-quarter line. With Snell as an enterprising attacking full~back this combination of outs ides played togethe r for the first time at Oxford against the Greyhounds Freshmen's XV. From that day on the XV came into its own. They held this powerful University side, which had won all of its matches a~ainsl schools by a total of 97 points to 9, to a score of S~12 and gave a sp lendid exhibition of hard tackling as well as glimpses of good attacking back play. This performance brought the XV mueh needed confidencc which helped them to score successive victories over Eastbourne College, a Rosslyn Park XV and I.l Harlequins XV- all fine accomplishments. Further praise is dt.!e to the forwards for their good term's work. As booker Moore has yet to meet his master, I.lnd with Murch and Campbell as props, made up I.l good solid front row. Jcvons had either Robinson or Balfour as his part ner in the second row and d id much good work in the li ne-outs. Injuries caused many and frequc nt changes to the back row, and before the end even substitutes had to be found for subst itutes . Here again the opportunity was taken to give experience to players who will be with us for another season, and it speaks well for the 2nd XV that these su bstitutes usualty measured up to the high sta ndard of the 1st XV's forward play. The paek was reasonably mobile, extremely fit and hardworking, and had the satisfaction of seeing their good work producing tries from the backs in the second half of the season. F ive matches won, five lost, one drawn , with 69 points against 70, is what the records will show, but there would havc been II fairl y generous credit balance of points if the placc~kicking had been better.

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1ST XV MATCHES TH E KI NO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V ST. PAUL' S SCHOOL

Played at St. Stephen's on the 28th September King's, 3; St. Paul's. 5 This game was the uld stury of the side which took its chances, and the side which did lIut , anti it was for this reason that S1. Paul 's deserved to win by a goal to a try.

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Following last season's tradition, the School pack proved itself a good one, heeling lhe ball from nearly every serum, and dutifully passin!:! i~ back to their, outsi~es. So, for St. Paul's th.e whole of the first half was a story of bitter defence, and It IS much to their credit that they held o~t ,!-galflst the repeated School attacks. Much of the play was in their "25", but the School lacked the finlshmg power to score. Within limits the centres did their work well enough, particularly Kearin who made one or two brilliant mid-fiel'd runs. But for no obvious reason, except that it was a tactical mistake, the game always gravitated to the right wing where Paterson was never quite fast enough to go the final ten yards. The second half seemed to be going the same way as the first had done, though the St. Paul's forward s were now more lively and taking the ball up the field with them. A line-out on the School line, gave St. Paul's their chance and their serum-half nipped round the front of the line to score by the corner nag. This was converted'into a goal by a magnificent kick. So, all against the run of the game, St. Paul's took advantage of the one chance which they had, and got the lead. The Schoo l still had more of the attack but still there was the same fault of bei ng unable to dr ive home their advantage. But, with five minutes to go, Burnham for~ed hi.s way through a .bu nch of 51. Paul 's forward s to touch down for a try near the corner flag. T he kick fail cd, and a few Ilunutes later the final whistle came with King's st ruggling desperately fo r the necessary points. This was a very hcartening performance by the School, whcn o ne considers thm th~ X,v h"d to be trained and picked all within the space of the first week of tenn. But the lack of co-ord tnatlon was on ly too obvious during the game, especially in the backs.

SCHOOL, CANTERBURY" CAN'I'ERIJURY R.F.C. Played at St. Stephen's on Lhe 8th October King's, 6; Canterbury . 8 The School kicked 011' in perfect conditions, andJor much of the fi~l half lhey diclated lhe plar ~Il.d Canterbury were very rarely in the School half. The School forwards did well to get more tha n thelT till r share of the baH against a heavier pack, and they easily OUlfi.lced the Cll!b forwards in the loose . .BUI our backs were again unable to break throug~l the defe'.lcc 0 the Club which was very sound, especmlly with Geoff. Smith at full back kicking long distances with deadly uccuracy. The School however, opened the scoring when Snell kicked u good penalty goal awarded Oil the Club "25", an'd they held this lead until ha.lf-time. But in the second half, Canterbu ry completely reversed the lrend or the play. They gained a higher percentage of the ball from the scru.ms, and the Scho~1 was hard-pressed on sever~1 occasions. They took the lead when, from a well-placed kick ahead by ~ol1ms (O.K.~ .). Parker, who untt! then had been 1ll.1.lrked very closely, gathered Ihe ball on the bounce to dlve .o~er the line near the posts for a good try. T hl.~ W?S converted. The School fought back, and from a qUick heel from a scru m o n the Canterbury 25, Will iams on the len wing dived over near the cornel' nag. Ullt a few minutes later Geoff. Sm ith kicked <l good penalty goa l for Canterbury to put them in the lead again, which they held to the final whistle. The game was played at a very fast pace in the first half, and this was to the Schoo l's advantage. But in the second half there were several long bouts of scrummaging in mid-field, which took a lot out of the School fo rwards, with the result that Canterbury ga i~ e~ the b~1I from the serum, and could dictate t.he play during Lhe last part of the game when they were tmng. ThiS very even score was an accurate verdict for a very open game. THE KING'S

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THE KING'S SCHOOL. CANTERBURY" BLACK HEATH "A" XV

Played at St. Stephen's on the 15th October King's, 3; Blackheath, 3 It was only too obvious from this game .that neither side had ha~ much ex.perience al handli~g a wei ball Both sets of backs mishandled the slippery ball, and the service from the scrum on both Sides was far from good. It was only a matter of course that the game developed into a forwards' struggle. The School forwards were superior in the line-out and in the loose, but gave away much weight to a heavy club pack, and it was only through Moore's brilJjant hooking that we got possession of the ball at all. Mid-way through the first hal f, Thorburn put the School in Lhe lead by landing a very. difficult penait,Y goal. But Blackheath equalised soon after when, from a loose scl'Un~ nea~ the School hn.e, one of th~lr forwards dribbled the ball over to score ncar the corner Oag:. The kIck faIled, and half~tlme came With

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The sec~nd half witnessed.a considerable deterioration in the standard of play, with some loose play Sides. The.~a.me swnched,.rrom.one end of the fi~ld to the other, with both sides coming ncar 10 SCOring through klck-and-rush tactlc.e;. The final whistle came to end some very scrappy forward play. The rt:-organiscd School back ~ine was inadequately t.csted, as consistent infringements by the Blackheath .WI!1~ forwards and the shppery ball prevented It from really getting going nod displaying its potentialities.

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K.C.S. , WIMUI.FnON Played at St. Stephen's on the 2211<1 October

TH F K INO'S SCHOOL, CANTP.RBURY "

King's, 3; K.C.S., II K.C.S. dc~c!,vecl 10 wi.n Ihis gl~IllC in th.Ht they adnptcd ,themselves 10 the co ndit ions better than the SchOOl. !n SPIi(: of Ihc lac.l lh ,~ 1 II hac! nu ned fo r the prevIOus three clays bcfo re lhl! I1lfltch and also o n lhe rnonll ng of the game It scH, the grou nd was qui te 1'11'111, tl.le ball , flll' frC?11l slippery, and thc ga me proved to be a fast and o~e n ~me. The. Schoo ~ forwurds domlnatcd 111 the tight and loose scrummages a nd showed greater cOm~ lIl a tl o n than III prevIous matches, gaining more than their fair share of the ball . .Rut the backs, lackmg the power of penet ration failed to take advantage of this . On nearly eve ry ~~ts l ~n .that the ball went. out to the. Sch~o l backs, the wet day tactics or long diagonal punts and . gru.b klc~s were used, w.hlch played fight mto the hands of a first-class K.C.S. full-back. This kicking contlllued fight to the closmg stages of the game when the only hope of scoring was to open the game up. The 8<?hool started off with gre<1t fire a~d energy, keeping K.C.S. pinned down in their own "25". Several ~lmC?S the School came near to scom~g and ~hey nearly took !h~ lead with a pushover try-only to.lmve It disallowed. Then suddenly, followmg a kick ahead from wlthm his own "25", a K.C.S. centre dr!b~ l ed the whole length of the fiel~ , to score a good try by the corner nag. A very fine kick converted Ihls IOtO a goal. The score at half-time wa s 5- 0. K.C.S. did not get the bal.1 very often but when they did their backs always looked more dangerous lhan our own. Only a few mmutes after the start of the second half, the K.C.S. right wing touched down 10 score by the corner nag aftcr a good three-quarter movement. The kick failed . The School fought hack desperately but cOlild not break through a very sound K.C.S. defence. But when the School were <lwa rded a penalty goa l in front of the post, Thorburn duly converted it. K.C.S. fought 10 preserve their lead and shortly before the final whistle one or their centres- Kelly, who hHd played a very good game Ihroughotlt- droppcd a goal to make sure of the resu lt.

SCHOOl., CANTERBURY )1 DOVER COLl. EGI: Played at St. Stephen's on the 29th October

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King's, 15i Dover, 0 This game was far more one:sided than the score suggests. From the kick -off to the final whistle the School pack were on top both III the set scrums and lineouls, as well as in the loose. Dover hardlv had the ball a dozen times during the whole game. and it was only due to some plucky defcnce on their pan that lhe score was kept so low. The School backs, ~Y ith the chances they got , shotJld have had a far larger score. Both centres tried 10 go through 0": their o~n far too much and starved their wings although the wings had shown they could outru n their oppoSIte number:s . Indeed one of the wings actually got cramp on the field I As it w.as the School had to be content with four tri~, by Trice, Kearin (2) and Williams, and a penalty goal kicked by Snell. These all came from orthodox. three-quarter movements, when it was hoped that with the amount of the ball the backs got, a little variety could have been introduced into their play But chances were missed both by the forwards and the backs. . The game was of g~a t u~e to Hutton, who had just become serum half, after playing the first part of the season us open Side wmg forward, as he had plenty of the ball to practice with. The hack~ nls() profitlcd from Ihe gallle:is it gave lhem some Illuch needed confidence.

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THF K INO'S SCHOOL. CANTERBURY I' ST. LAWRENCE, RAMS<1ATP

Played at Ramsgate on the 1st November King's,8; St. Lawrence, 5 This game fell clearly into two phases: the first half when the School was o n toP. and the second half when St. Lawrence had the better of the play. Tn the first half the School played as a team, gaining a good deal ,of the ball and doing sof!lc sensible things with it. The backs performed several good movements and It was only a matter of HOle before the tries came. Campbell opened the scoring when from a forward rl1sh, h~ picked up the baH a nd dived,over for a go~.d

try. The kick failed. T hen Vincent, at Oy-half. aftcr a qUick heel ,?Il the Ramsgatc Itne, weaved hi S way between severa l players to score by the posts. Snell con\'er~ed th is. It was o nly some sOl!nd defence by Ramsgate and some first class "corner-flaggi ng" hy one of the ir fo rwa rds that prevented a higher score. Half-time score: 8-0. rn the second half howevel' the standard of the Schoo l play deteriorated sha rply. The pack, re-shufned owing to injuries, which had combined together adeq ~ a t e ly th roughout t.he first half, simply fell to pi.cces. It no longer wo rked as a team, and the scrummagmg was poor. This. became even more prominent. when Morgan, playing his second ga me at wing forward, had to go off With a torn ear. The SI Lawrence scrum obtained most of the ball, and it was only due to bad passing on their part and som~ sound defence by Snell at fUll back that they on ly scored one try, which was converted, about ten minutes before the final wh istle. This jolted the School pack into action and they safe ly held off all further attacks, a nd indeed almost scored when Turner did a fine run almost the length of the field. If the School suffered from over-co nfide nce in tlie second half, they certainly had no right to, for the Ramsgate forwards li'ore than held the ir own in a ll departments of the game, and their backs. who possessed potentialities never rea lly displayed dur ing the game, were always a consta nt threat.

THE KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V FELSTED SCHOOL

Played at Felsted on the 5th November King's, 3; Felsted, 14 In spite of what the score suggests this was in fact a very close game, with both sides play ing fast open rugby. Felsted unbeaten up to this match sta rted off at a vigorous pace and soon had the School flustered. Eleven of their fourteen points came in as many minutes, at the beginn ing of the game.

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The school forwards soon settled down and gained a large percentage of the ball from the set and loose scrums. But the backs never seemed to settle down. o r work like a team . Passes were dropped far too often, and stupid mistakes made. Felsted gained their first two tries thr~ u gh faulty tackling by the School backs, both of wh ich were unconverted, and but for some sound tack lmg by Snell they would have scored several times more. Their third try was rather a lucky one. Snell under pressure on his goal line kicked for touch by the posts, but the ball went low and bounced off a School player, back over the line, where a Felsted forward quickly to~ched it down. T his was converted. The School after this initial shock fought back strongly but at half-time the score was 11 -0.

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Played at Oxford on the 15th November King's. 5; O.U. Greyho unds, 12 Cont rnry to ,,11 expectations, this was a very evenly matched game, with both sides scoring only from breakaway tries. The Greyhounds opened the scoring right from the kick-off, when both their wings touched down ror two good tries by the corner flag. Both attempts at conversion failed. Undeterred Ihe School fo ught back, and soon afterwa rds, Blake after a clever I un down the right wing, touched down between the posts to sco re a bri lliant try. Snell converted this to make the score 6-5. The Greyhounds came storming back to avenge this insu lt! Twice more they crossed the Schoo l line owing to the superi or tactics of thei r backs in getti ng the man over, to score by the corner flag. Both the movements which resulted in these tries, started from inside the Greyhounds' half-o ne of them from on the Greyhound line. At half-time the score was 12- 5. Tn the second half the School sett led down to play some first class nigger. Severa l times they narrowly missed scoring, and the co-ordi nation a mo ng the G reyhounds broke down. This became even more emphasized when their fly-ha lf went on, accompanied by Morga n, who had to have fourteen stitches in his head as a result of the encounter. The game was a fast and open one played in the best traditions of rugby footbal l. The School forwards more than held their own in the set and loose scrums, but were olltjumped in the line-outs. The backs did well to hold a bigger and faster Greyhound back division , and after some initia l weak tackling, marked their men very well. The score was a very fair ind ication of the game, for the Greyhounds always had that little bit extra in weight and speed. TH~ K INU's SCH OOL, CANTERBURY

v EASTIJOURNE COLU:.GI¡ Played a t EaSlbourllc on Ihe 19th November King's, 8; eastbourne, 3 In a game in which there was hardJy any difference between the two sides, it was not surpris ing that the unly tries scored were opportunist efforts. Twice in the first half the School charged down two clearing kicks o n the Eastbou rne line for tries by Hutton and Niblock. Snell converted one, but fai led with the other. Eastboll rne soon replied, for with Snell up in the line to make the man over, the School dropped a pass, and one of the Eastbollrne centres dribbled the ball fifty yards to score near the posts. The kick fail ed, and at half-time the score was the same as at the final whistle, 8- 3. Wh ile King's had the better run of the play in the first half, in the second half Eastbourne were definitely on top. Much of the play was inside the King's half, and during the last ten minutes the ball very rarely left the Schoo l "25". But in a desperate forward struggle, the School just managed to hold Eastbollrne off. As usual the School pack got more tha n their fair share of the ball from the line-outs and set scrums, though in the loose the honours were evenly shared. The tackling by both sets of backs was cxceptionaUy good, a nd wit h monotonous regularity attacking movements just fizzled o ut, except for tHe occasional break by Blake on the right wing. THE KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V R OSSLYN PARK "AU XV

Played at St. Stephen'S on the 26th November King's, 3; Rosslyn Park, 0 As the score suggests, this was an extremely close and ha rd fought game. Although the School sta rted off well and kept Rosslyn Park penned up in their own "25" for the opening ten minutes of the game, a nd a lmost scored twice from well-placed kicks ahead by Vincent, the Park dictated much of the play in the first half. With a heavy pack they gained a good percentage of the ball from the set scrums, and it was only due 10 some good tackling by the School, and some bad handling by the,i r backs, that a really dangerous movement never evolved. The School three-q uarters had to be content with the small amount of ball which the ha rd-pressed scrum obta ined frolll the line-outs and the loose. 349


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Shortly after half-time the School lost Sainsbury at open-side win~ forward, and this ~ave the Park an even biggcr weight advantage. But the School forwards rose magmfic~ntly to the occaSion, and more than held their own in the set serums with only seven men. Indeed, dunng the last quarter of an hou r, when the Park forwards noticeably tired, they obtained most of the ball, and kept the Park in their own "25", Several times the School backs came near to scoring, on ly to be brought down inches from the line. Eventually Turner on the left wing scored a copy-book try by the corner nag, from a quick heel on the Park line. Snell failed to convert, but this proved to be the only score of the game. The School grimly held on to their slender lead, until the final whist le went to end a bitter forward struggle in mid~fie l d

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V HARLEQUINS' "A" XV Played at St. Stephen's on the 3rd D ecember King's, 12; Harlequins, 9 T he Harlequins <IS usua l brought down a strong side, and the very fact that they took the field with only thirteen men, and yet never allowed this loss to put them at a disadvantage, proves their worth. With a side of this quality, and idea l conditions, an exciting game was inevitable-<lnd so it was, with the lead changing four times. The 'Quins opened the scoring when their fty~half snaked his way over for a good try. The kick failed. But only a few minutes later, from a scrum on the 'Quins' line, Hutton "went blind" to touch down by the corner flag. This try was also not converted. The 'Qu ins again took the lead when Brian Linton (O.K.S.) scored after a good passing movement. The School at once replied, when Turner ran the whole length of the field to score between the posts. The kick was charged down, to make the score 6-6 at half~ time.

Early in the second half the 'Quins again took. the lead, when their plaee~kicker who had n<lrrowly missed with some fantastic kicks from on the half~way line, easily kicked a penalty goal awarded just outside the School "25". But soon after, Snell gathering the ball at the full back's position stormed over for a good try, to level the scores. The School took the lead which was to win them the game, when after some good interpassing initiated by Hutton, Niblock was sent ovel by the corner flag. The final whistle came soon after, to end an exciting game, with the School pressing hard . Despite the fact the 'Quins only had a serum of 7, they more than held their own in the set, and easily outclassed the School in the line~outs. The School's backs generally marked t heir men well, and severa l good movements were seen in the second half. Altogether the game was a very fine end to the season, and the XV maintaincd thi s standard by drawing with a particu larly strong O.K.S. side 0-0 on December 10th.

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THE 2ND XV The 2nd XV has had rather a patchy season, winning 6 matches and losi ng 3. Calls made upon it by the 1st XV, together with a large crop of injuries to its own members have been the calise of this. These circumstances prohibited any real settling down, and the only players who have been regularly available to provide some sort of cohesion have been Tomkins at sta nd~off half and Isbill as hooker. So many changes make it difficu lt for a proper spirit to be built up and it is to their credit that there was quite an abundance of this evident in the practice games against the 15t XV. Generally there were the same weaknesses in this side as in the earlier games of the 1st XV. Weak defence outside the scrum caused their downfall in the matches against Eastbourne and RM.S., Dover, and these games were lost in spite of the forwards getting more than their share of the ball. However, they had their good days as well, and one cannot be harsh in criticising a team which has scored 176 points against its opponents' 52. Thorburn needs only to quicken up to become a really good fuH~back, and his place路kicking is more than useful. Trice and Stewart showed pace on the wings, and Williams, D. J., and Burnham should develop into good footb allers. Last se.1son's all路conquering Colts' XV were seldom called upon to defend and, like some others, they must tighten up this part of their play. Lamb and Boeckmann were always able to fill up the three~quarter line without it losing any efficiency. Tomkins, who must be above average for a 2nd XV fly~half, had Sutton 01' ParamoI' to share the partnership with him and both of these played their parts well. Sutton had the resource to drop 2 goals in the game against the Canterbury Club. 350

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No fewer than 15 forwards have played for the 2nd XV this season which gives some indication of the spate of injuries suffered during the term. In spite of all the switChing of positions which became necessary to keep the scrum reasonably balanced they were always able to gain mastery over their opponents. Like all those others who participated in the 1st Game's training and practice sessions they have put their best into it and, we ho(>C, have got the fullest enjoyment out of the season. The forwards who played were: Sargent, Foord, Morgan, G. P., Niblock, P. W., Gingell, Jenner, Barwell , Isbill, Dawkins, Brown. H. A. , Plutte, M. P., Boeckmann, Sale, Bodger and Whittington. C.F. R esULTS

Canterbury R.F.C. Won 17- 10 R.M.S., Dover. lost 0-3 v K.C.S. , Wimbledon. Won 16- 0 L' Dovel' College. Won 53- 0 L' St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. Won 27 L' Sutton Valence. Won 38--0 \. Bastbourne. Lost 11- 16 \I Ca nterbu ry R.F. C. Won 14- J I' R.M.S., Dover. Lost 0- 17 II I'

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It musl be rare for a school to have a 3rd XV as st rong as the one we have fielded this term. It reta ined an unbeaten rccord, scoring 129 points against our opponents' 9 point~. An indication of its strength is that the original captain, Morgan, was promoted to the 1st XV and Plutte, another forwa rd, to the Seconds. The scrum, ably and vociferously led by Valpy, was notable for the good hooking of Turner, the excellent line~ollt play of Gunner, Kane and Cullen and the energetic marking of the wing~forward James. 'Behind the scrum, the irresistible and tireless Huxley gave long accurate passes to Roche, whose handling was excellent. In the three-qu<lrter line, the thrust and tackling in defence of the cent res, Loveridge and Frew were well backed up by the fast wings. At full back, Yates was a model of safe handling and of long accurate touch finding. Loveridge and Va\py are to be congratulated on the very fine spirit that existed throughout the term. The final team consisted of: C. W. Yates; A. 1. Redpath, J . R. Frew; D. J. Loveridge (Captain), P. B. Nicholson; J. P. Roche, D. M. Huxley; J. A. Kane, J. B. Turner, M. B. Cullen, C. Q. 1ame5, P. F. Valpy. R. Collingwood, r. C. Potter, 1. C. Gunner. Also played: T. G. Hind. R. B. Horton, A. P. G. Stanley~Smith, M. R. B. Read. RF.sULTS

R.M.S., Dover (Home). Won 11 - 3 v Kent College (Away). Won 14-0 v St. Lawrence (Away). Won 25-3 II St. Lawrence (Home). Won 30-0 , R.M.S., Dover (Away). Won 33- 3 v Kent College (Homc). Won 16-0 Played 6: Won 6: Drawn 0; Lost 0; Points Por 129 ; Points Against 9 II

P.G.W.

THE COLTS' XV Played 9; Won 5; Lost 4; Points for 76; Points against 31 The team has been consistently sou nd, and although not very prolific in scoring points, has always looked capable of greater scores. That it has no t achieved these scores has been mainly due to mis~ handling or careless passing. The forwards have been the mainstay of the side. Niblock, Chaffin and Garrard formed a solid front row, wilh Griffith and Harke providing plenty of weight and push behind them . Wood and Barren were lively wing forwards, and Smith an intelligent lock . AIJ played well , and were exceptionally fa'\! in the loose.


THE CANTUAR I AN Rotlason and Templeton were a safe pair of halves. If Rallaso n was sometimes slow in getting his passes away, he was always accurate. His kicking, both to touch and in converting, was always nn asset to the side. Templeton was somet imes inclined to hold the ball too long, but did get the thrcequartcr line moving well. Campbell and Camp ran hard a nd well on the wings. I n the centre, Jones and Beaugie (movi ng here from wing forward) defended sa fely. and tried to give their wings every chance, but somet imes threw away chances by fau lty handling. Dunning was always a sound full back, Bcaugic is to be congratulated on his captaincy of a side which always played with zest and enjoyment. The following were awarded Colts' Colours :- Beaugi6, Niblock, M. J., Harke, Dunning, Camp, A. G. H., Campbell, P. A .. Jones, D. G., Garrard, Chaffin, Griffith, Wood, Smith. J. C. G., Barren, Templeton, Rollason. Al so played: Bowen, Headley, Marchmont, Minns, W. E. J. RESULTS K.S.C.O v Sutton Va lence 11 (Away). Lost K.S.C.6 I' R.M.S. , Dover 0 ( Home). Won K.S.C. 25 I' Dove r 0 (Home). Won K.S.C. 24 I' St. Lawrence 0 (Home). Won K.S .C. 3 v Felsted 9 (Away). Lost K.S.C. 9 v SL Lawrence 3 (Away). Won . K.S.C. 0 v Eastbourne 3 (Home). Lost K.S C. 0 v R.M.S., Dover 5 (Away). Lost K.S.C. 9 I' Kent College 0 (Home). Won

.I .H.E.

THE JUNIOR COLTS More talent has been available, particularly among the backs, this term and it was fairly easy to field, even in September, an adequate team . As usual, the forwards have developed the more quickly; their speed in spoiling and in foot rushes has gradua lly increased but an unavoidable lack of weight has prevented quick heeling in the loose. This, the on ly notable deficiency, has been particularly regrettable in that the back line has at a ll times worked smoothly, unselfishly, and quickly in feeding the wings. Particularly not icea ble this term have been Rudgard, who has hooked well a nd wo rked untiringly in the loose, toget her with his strong second row, Rowe and Cockersell; at number eight, Stanway has found greatcr opportunities for his speed and height and, alongside him, Wortley has, at open side, a lways been dangerous to the oppos ing fl y-ha lf. Ashenden and Minns have worked vcry well together at half-back and both have been as su re in defence as they are penetrating in attack; Min ns's kicking and his open ings have been part icularly skilful. Of the backs, O'Clee and Broadley have shown themselves to possess determination and speed in attack and O'Clee. at centre, has at all times covered intelligent ly. At full-back, Hussey's well-n igh faultless handling and kicking have enabled him to fi ll this-for him- new posit io n most adequately. Two matches have had to be cancelled; of those played, three have been won by a greater margin than the scores would seem to indicate; all but four of the point's have come from unco nverted tries. Our thanks are due to Mr. Lindesay, who has refereed many times, and to those members of the game who have played so hard without being selected. The team has been: J. F. E. D. Hussey, 1. N. Broadley. D. G. O'Clee, R. E. B. Mitton, A. C. Russell, R. E. F. Minns. D. S. C. Ashenden, H. J. Rawlinson, C. O. Rudgard , M. R. Kent, S. E. Cockcrsell, R. Rowe, C. M. O. Wortley, R. C. Stanway, J. B. S. Field ing. Minns capta ined the side th roughout the season. H. L. Foster and W. A. T. T. Gacel-Jones have a lso played.

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Oct. 22. R.M.S. Dover. Lost 5-6 Nov. I. St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. Won 11 - 3 5. Sutton Valence. Won 9- 0 J9. Eastbourne. Won 9-8

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3. Kent College. Lost 12-0 8. R.M .S. Dover. Won 6-3 35~

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UNDER 14 XV The Under 14's had a good side, which promises well for the future. Their strength lay in the forwards, who obtained most of tht: ball in,the s.et serums and, under the leadership of Kemp, Elliott, Maybury and Walford, were exceptionally Itvely In the loose. Tuohy was an excellent hooker. Behind the scrum . they were less certain. Mulfo rd was a very good scru m-halr, though he did no t open up the ga me as o rten as he should have done. Radcliffe was a penetrating and highly promising centre, Pritchard on the wing nnd Barber at full-back were fo rces to be reckoned with and both very fine kicks, but the rest o f the back division lacked drive. They fuil ed to run stm ight; their tackling was feeble; they would not fall on the ball; their kicks in defence went straight up the field. They were, in fact, the weak links in an otherwise very good side. Despite this, however, they dereated Sutton Valence 9- 6, Kent College 8- 3, drew with St. Lawrence, Ramsga te 6-6, losing only to R.M.S., Dover 6-0. Finally, tribute must be paid to Kemp, who led the side well and played a large part in its success. It is seldom that a boy of his age gains a place in o ne of the st rongest House rugger sides . The team was: C . R. Barber; I. B. R. Fowler, J . L. D. Radcliffe, J. P. D. Pattrick, O. C. Pritchard; T. J. Stringer, A. R. Mulford; D. W. Horton, M. R. Tuohy. M. J. Stevenson, C. N. Kemp (Capta in), M. Elliott, J. L. Walford, A. R. Maybury, K. R. Wilkins. M. R. Ayling, J. O. P. R ivett and R. E. Iggu lden nlso played.

D.W.B.

CROSS-COUNTRY I'raining has commenced this term for the Cross-Country season and twice a week a good cross section of the School has been turning out for practice rllns. We arc arranging the Inter-House Run before the slart of the Cross-Country season this year in o rder to see any promiSing lalent. Also the Senior and Junior House Races will take place on different days. F ixtures next term have been arranged against: Harrow <lnd Highgate; Tonbridge; Lancing and Bradfleld; Dover College; South London Harriers.

M.C.C.

FENCING CLUB The I~c ncing Club has greatly increased in size this term, a nd considerable keenness and enthusiasm has been shown. With new equipment, three classes are now receiving instruction, Junior, Senior and Advanced . The Advanced class have been introduced to the Epee in addition to Foil and Sabre, and it is hoped to be able to include this weapon in school matches next term against Tonbridge, Eastbourne and Harrow. M.E .M.

BOXING CLUB The .Boxing Club has met regularly every Thursday afternoon this ter m and a core has been formed round which will be moulded next term's School Team, Fixtures have been arranged for next term against Tonbridge, E.1stbourne and S1. Lawrence. Ramsga te. M.C.C.

SQUASH RACKETS The standard of play throughout the School is stead ily improving as more and more boys learn the art of correct positioning and hitting to a length. We arc unfortunate in losing our Captain, A. N. Harvey. this term, as he is the best player we have produced in the last few years, but now that there are several good O.K.S. squash players about, we hope we s hall soon see them entering a team in the Londonderry

Cup. This term we defeated Westminster 4-1 on our own courts and narrowly lost to a slrong Felsted side 2-3 at Felsted. Harvey won both his matches. Merchant Taylors, the O.K.S. and the Masters have still to be played. The team was : A. N. Harvey (Captain), R. Collingwood, D. J. Walter, A. T . Webb, C. O. Barber,

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THB C AN TUA RI AN

SHOOTING In spit? of losin~ five membe:s of the Vilt last tcnn, this term's record has been most encouraging. credit for our Improvement IS d~e vcry largely to R.S.M. Herbert, who has just taken over the Corps. Himself an excellent shot, he has given us a great dea l of attention and expert coaching.

Tl~e

Nor has he only brought about changes in the standard of shooling. He has also introduced us to the N.S.R.A. five-ball Tin Hat targets, and these have afforded us considerable ple.15ufe a nd excellent practice.

Holt has already scored two "possiblcs" on them- no mean achievement. Next term we hope to shoot matches o n these targets as well as under Coulltry Life conditions.

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The increased numbers of the c.c.P. Contingent have ent itled us to fou r more .22 rifles thus enabling us to set aside four ~f the o ri$inal six for competition usc only. On to these have rece~ t1y been fitted Parker-Hale match sIgh ts, which have the advantage over the no rmal Service Issue of a select ion of apertures. lateral adjust ment, a nd much finer vertica l adjustment. We have only just got used to these, and havc unfortunately a lready shot the last Sc ho~ 1 fv1"at~h of t~e term ; however. they have vastly improved ollr standard. and we have every hope of Jllstlfymg their expense by a really succcssful Spring Term. Our lhan~s <l lso go to Mr. Gross, who has kind ly taken ~11l o ur m~tches, thus enabling us to kcep our two days wIt h the Scrgea nt-M aJo l' each week for much needed practice. We shot against sevcn schools losi ng to King's, Taunton, by 543 to 646; St. Edmu nd's by 535 .to 622; Oakham by 527 to 634; Bedford by 577 to 611 ; Radley b~ 610 to 668; and we scored 617 aga mst Kelly College and Sherborne, whose scores have not yet come In. The/ollowing have shot for the School this term:-E. J. Smalman-Smith (Captain), R. K. Holt (Vice-

Capt~m), C. P. McCur~y. R. A. Apcar, R. H. C. Croxford. H . G. Williams, R. Wigg, R. I. Goate, J . K.

Mornss, A. D. Lee-Elliott.

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(Tile Honorary Secretary 0/ the Association, M. J. H. Girlinc, 41 COl/l/aught Way, TUI/bridge Wells, would like ill/ormatioll for illclusioll itl the O.K.S. News. CHANGES OF .ADDRESS AND AtL ENQUIRIES REGARDING THE SUPPLY OF "THE CANTUARIAN" TO O.K.S. SHOULD 8E NOTIFIED TO HIM AND NOT TO THE EDITOR .) Annual Dinner The Annual Dinner of the Association will be held at the Connaught Rooms, W.C.2, on 13th January, 1956. It is hoped that members will make a real effort to be present as numbers have been going down in the last few years, though all who attend thoroughly enjoy the evening.

O.K.S. S uppers These are held at the Garrick Hotel, Charing Cross Road, on the first Wednesday of each month at 7 p.m. for 7.30 p.m. All O.K.S. are very welcome. Details can be obtained from the London Secreta ry, W. C. Young, Fa ir Acres, Tydcombe Road, Warlingham, Surrey (Tel.: U pper Warlingham 212 or Waterloo 5441). A. G. EYRE (1935-40) is transferring from the Administ rative Service to the Education Serv ice in Nort hern N igeria and is enjoying a year's leave to take a Diploma in Education at Oxford. G. E. JANSON-SMITH (1920-24) has now retired from the post of Assistan t Director of Education in the Sudan and has been appointed Secretary of St. Bened ict's School, Ealing. He is also working with I.T.A. in their World Affairs programme. He has been suffering from a slipped disc and we wish him a full and speedy recovery. K. G. BOND (1948-50), whose marriage is announced elsewhere, is now working as a Technical Representative with the British Tabulating Machine Co. Ltd. in London. He says he has seen R. Greenhow who is a Flying Officer in the R.A .F. in Singapore. DONALD D . KELLIT? (1909-11) was awarded the M.B.E. in the New Year's Honours last January. R. G. SEYMOUR (1945-52) is serving an apprenticeship wit h M.C.C. Ltd., Birm ingham, and finds the work very interesting. He has st ill two more years to ~erve and has passed the C ity and Guilds Tnter. mediate Examination. P. J . SNOW (1946-55) is at present at the London Schoo l of Printing a nd Graphic Arts doing a three. yea r Diploma Course. A. D. JONES is in the sa me group. Snow writes thClt he ha s seen MI('HAF.L PATERSON, T. AUCOIT and D. F . M. SCOTI'. LIEUT.-CoLONEL W. R. MONRO HIGGS (1 920-24) is now farmin g in Herefordshire and says he is worki ng harder than he ever did in his life before. His younger son RICHARD is at the Shropsh ire Farm Inst itute for a year's course. D. D. CLEGG (1943--46) turned up recently, on leavc from S. India. He met NEIL VP.RNEDE and J. C. GOULDSDURY (1934-39) at a Rugger match in June. The form er is <llso home on leave and we look forwa rd to seeing him . A. J. B. MOLONY (1936--40) has gone to live in Rhodes ia with his Mother, whom many O.K.S. will remember at the Sanatorium when we first went to Cornwal l. His parting present to the School was a Malaya n knife brought to England by his uncle, A. D. MOLONY (1890-93). We hope to be able to display this when we have room for a proper Museum again . J. A. B. D ENTON (1946-50) a nd DR. RICHARD WEST (1940-44) are both on the expedition to N.E. Land. The former wrote from Spitzbergen in July . H. ST. J. GRANT (1946-50) is a District Officer in Tanganyika and has R. H. GOWER (1930-36) as his Commissioner. Grant's District adjoined that of C. 1. MEEK (1934-39) last year, and JOHN DAVIS (1932- 36) is with a mining firm in the same neighbourhood; he is a Churchwarden while Grant is Secretary of the Church Council. P. D . GRANT (1938-42) is medical officer of a pleasa nt well-watered mountainous district adjoining the north end of Lake Nyasa, with a Quarter of a million people. He has an overnowing hospital a nd is hard-worked, but he managc) to get around on foot, reviving the old tradit ion of doctors touring the more remote village centres- a practice that has lapsed in reccnt year~ with motor roads more plentiful.

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B, H. McCLEERY ( 1949-54) enjoyed the Orchestra broadcast. His vacation jobs varied from putting up marquees for shows to teaching in a Secondary School. THE RBv. L. E . C. EVANS £1904---07) has been obliged to give up his curacy at Cobham for reasons of health and has been advised to live in a milder climate. The Rev. Evans had thirty years in the Colonial Service, and was imprisoned by the Japanese during the war. LESLIE MITCHELL {I 914--20), the first man ever to appear on B.B.C. T .V., is now working for com· mercial T.V. His duties include finding and training M.C.'s, interviewers and panel members, acting as advisor when called upon and supervising talks production. We learn from a newspaper cutting Ihal PADDY ROBERTS, O.K.S., who wrote the words of Softly, So/tly, is regarded as one or the foremost lyric writers in the country. We think this must be J. G. O. ROBERTS (192 1- 27). Perhaps he will write a Schoo l Song for us o ne clay! D. PESCHEK ( 1946-5 1) is on a two-year Music Teacher's Course at Trent Pa rk Training Co llege. S. A. R. CAWSTON wrote from Nicosia in August, where he wns in Hosp it al with a duodenal ulcer. He was Ihen hoping 10 tra nsfer to the Fo reign Office. P. KNOLLllR (1944-53) is now working in the United States. K. V. JONES (1938-4 1) has had his second wi nd quintet accepted by the B.B.C., had an excellent criticism in The Times last wi nter for fOlll' songs ror high vo ice, oboe and piano, and is conducting a Chamber Choir. 1. E. C. HI NCHLIFFE is giving up his career in industry to become a schoolmaster, and when he last wrote was hop ing to get a tempora ry post at Uppi ngham . J. C. HARDING (1949- 53) spent his time of National Service as a mental nurse, R.A.M.C., at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley, and has now started his medical training at Guy's, where W. T. LAMB (1949-55) and M. B. GARDENER (1948- 51) are doing their dental training and A. J. TAYLOR (1947-52) has como down from Cambridge to start his clinica l work. BILL HACKETT (1947- 51) is a prominent member of the Hospital XV. I-Ie tells us that K. BINGHAM (1950-54) is serving with a Field Ambulance unit in the R.A.M.C., and that M. GARDNER ( 1945- 53) has gone to America for three months' holiday. G. M. LYNCH (1949- 55) is at the Royal Agricultura l College, C irencester, where he is keeping up his rowing. M. HERDERT (1947- 53) is Secretary of the O.U. Greyhou nds R.F.C. a nd has been elected to Vincents. J. B. PH ILUPS (1947- 52) has been elected to the AUlhenlic."I c.c. and is Secretary of St. Edmund's Hall R.F.C. l. L. R. BURT ( 1943-48) is with the li rm of Si r Willia m Ga rlhwCli te ( Lnsllra nce) Ltd . R. D. M. DA RLING (1946- 50) is a tra inee sa les correspondent with the Minnesota Min ing and Manufac tm ing Co. Ltd. J. M. SKINNER ( 195 1- 55) has pl ayed hockey twice ror Ox rord a ncl regularly fo r t he Occ<lsionals. M. E. C. BROWN ( 1950- 55) has ga ined a direct' entry into the Roya l Navy. J. A. G. STONEHOUSE has passed the Bar Finals. Since last July the rollowing O. K.S. have put their sons' names down ro r the School :- W. G. TILTON fo r 1964; J. CANTOR for 1967; 1. F. GLENNII! ror 1962 and 1967; C. J. B. MURRAY fo r 1960 a nd 1963; W. H. HANNAH for 1964 : R. H. KNI(; HT for 1960; .T. C. WRIGHT for 1968: P. D. FINN for 1959: A. A. OF. C. CUSSANS for 196ft

:~11t;.;.J:",

IN TH E SERVICES P. H. LEE (1943-46) is now a Captain in R.E.M.E. and is stationed in Hong Ko ng with the 7th (Q.O.) Hussars, as O.C. of the Detachment of R.E. M.E. which services and repairs thei r tanh. D. C. W. TOWNSflEND ( 1950- 54) is in the R.A. at Oswc."Itry. D. J. GUNl·ER (1949- 53) is serving in the B.A.O.R . R. H . C. SYMON (1948- 54) is in Malaya. MICHAEL WILLIAMS (1949- 55) is doing his Nationa l Service Upper Yardsman t raining in the Aircraft Carrier H .M.S. Tlte.fells and hopes to pass o ut as a Midsh ipma n in December. W. N. WEN8AN-SMITH (1950- 55) is also in the same ship.

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T H E CANT U A RI AN 0. S. J ENKJNS is an A/ Writer, R. N., a nd writes that he met CAWTIlORNE, R. S. BAlRD and E. R. G . JOB (1951-55) there. . C. JARMAN (1947- 51) conti nues to write interesting letters from the R.A.N.A.S. at Nowra, N.S.W. He has been serving in I-I .M.A.S. SJ!dlley on a goodwill tour of New Zealand, visiting Auckland, the Bay of Islands, Wellington and Christchurch. He was appointed as the helicopter observer, entailing many interesting jobs. The helicopter took a Petty Officer 180 miles to hospital at Kawakawa for an emergency operation, landing in the hospitul car park. On the return night to the ship they had to make a forced landing in a small village through lack of fuel. Th is flight was headline news, as the helicopter was almost the first to be displayed in New Zealand. Jarma n visitecl Christ's CoUege, Christchurch, and a lso the Cathedral, where he saw, in a glass case, a portion of a pinnacle from the Bell Harry tower, broken off through bomb damage, a nd fe ll qll ite homesick for a few minutes. He says that [AN CLARK (1946-52) is st<ltioned at Lossicmouth and sti ll is nyingjets fo r the Navy. B. M. M. SIMI'SON ( 1944-51) li nd W. J. BACON (1949- 53) passed out of Sand hurst on July 28th and D. R. NEVILE (1950- 53) entered o n Septembc r 6th. S. P. JONES ( 1950- 55), East Surrey Regiment, is o n a Potentia l Leaders' Co mse at the Old Ba rracks, Can terbm y. A number of pc.uplc. have. just bec ll or a re j ust going up to W. O.S. B. They include: D. R . BAnDER (195 1- 55), in the RAC., J . S. NYE (194 1- 55), C. B. S·rROUTS (1941-55), D . A. R. POOLE (1949- 55), M. D. H. PnACOCK (1949- 55) nnd C. N. LAlN(' (1950-55), nil in the Royal Artillery; J . P. Moss (195055) and D. E. MBLLlSH (l949-55), both of whom have been at Catterick ; and J. R . PECK ~( 1 950-53), who is with the Royal Horse Guards and stationed at Windsor. JOHN HEMIJRY ( 1949- 54) is stationed at Troon with the Gunners, and T. IRLAM (1947-49) is an officer there. A. F. BARTON ( 1945- 51), also a Gu nner, is now in Hong Kong and seems to be enjoyi ng it very much . M. R. CoZENS (1948- 54), now cummissioned in lhe H..A., enjoyed hearmg tht: Orchestra broadcas t last July and comments on the number of O.K.S. whom he has come across recently. P. R. GOURMAND (1951-55) is with the R. A.F. at Hednesford in Staffordshire and finding it very cold there. R. L. FlSHJ..OCK (1950-55) and A. BARING (1950-55) are in the same camp but in different Squadrons. The latter, while waiting to go on a course; is working in the Education section-we gather as a lecturer. W. E. S. THOMAS (1950- 54) has been commissioned in the Green Howards a nd is now in German y but hopes to be nearer Canterbury after Christmas. He writes that the windows in Minden Cathedral are being restored and the damaged interior repaired with the ind ustry and speed wh ich seem to characterize the German workman since the wa r and that the new houses t here put our own Council estates in the shade, both a rtistically and economically. His ,brother, D . E . THOMAS, is now o n a Baltic and Me di ter~ ra nean cru ise in H .M.S. Albiol1. J . MONRO HIGGS ( 1948-53), having added va rious subjects to his G .C.E. a nd passed a course in electrical engineeri ng in the R. A.F., is about to complete his Nat ional Service and hopes to take up an engineering career. He has spent his time in the R.A.F. servicing planes as an E lectrica l Mecha n ~c.

ENGAGEMENTS LBWIS--JoLLv.-Eric Keith Lewis (1946-49) to Barbara D oreen Jolly. STONEHOUSB-McGUIRE.- John Alexander George Stonehouse ( 1944-50) to Janet Margaret Singleton McGuire. . NORTON-INSl·ANcE.-Frederick George James Norton (1946-50 to Anne Edwina Instance. LEACH-RANNER.-F. C. J~ Leach (1944-47) to Kathleen P3tricia Ranner, FERRIS-AsLrN.-Richard eubitt Ferris (1940-44) to Mary Patricia Aslin. ROUTH-BuLKELEv. -R ichard Routh (1943-47) to Mary Bulkeley. ARNOLD-MARR TOTI.- Philip Arnold (1942-5 1) to Mary Marriott. OENNIoN-McGARRITY.-WitJiam Warren Benn ion (1947-5 1) to Margarette Ann McGarrity. BURT-WATSON.-Ivor Leonard Rees Burt to Jan Barabel Angus Watson.

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MARRIAGES BoND-PAUL.-On 19th March, 1955, Kenneth O. Bond (1948-50) to Audrey Barbara P'aul. GooLo-M1LLAR.- On 18th June, 1955, A. G. Goold (1925- 28) to Jean Clark Millar. TOWF.Llr-HoNNOR.-On 30th July, 1955, Licut. Antony P. Towell, M.e. ( 1945--48), 1st Battali on, Royal Norrolk Regiment, to Jacqueline Lesley Hannor. PATERSON-BROOKs.-On 27th August, 1955. Colin G . S. Paterson ( 1936--49) to Ann Brook s. CHAMB£RS- DowNE.<;;,-On 3rd September, Michael L. F. Chambers 0938-39) to Anne Jacqueline Downes. JACKSON- NfCHOLLS,- On 10th September, 1955, John B. H . Jackson (1943-48) to Anne J. Nicholls. MANNING-PRESS- ToVEy,- On 29t h Octo ber, 1955, Christopher Manning-Press (1944-1-9), Roya l Artillery. to Janette Tovey.

BIRTHS WRIGHT.- On 18th January, 1955, in Mauritius, to Rosemary Ann, wife of J. C. Wright (194 1- 45), a son (Anthony Charles). D UMAs.-On 23rd October, 1955 , to Ann, wife of Timothy Dumas, a son. LUCAs.- On 1st November, 1955, to Fionnghula, wife of Dr. Peter Lucas (1929-39), a son. JOHNsoN.-On 13th November, 1955, to Rosamund, wife of Derek Kirby Johnson (1940--45), a daugnLer (Deborah Cla re).

O .K.S. Golfing Society The Autumn Meeting was held at Canterbury on Satu rday, October 8th, a nd the results were as follows: CAPTAlN 'S PRI ZE P. H. Arnold 77 less 8 ~ 69 N. V. Bacon 74.. 5 ~ 69 J. Bennett 82.. 8 = 74 S. D. Reeve 82.. 8 - 74 D. I. B. Jerv is 81 " 5 = 76 R. B. Ryeland 94 .. 17 = 77

P. H. Arnold won the Captain's Prize, and N. V. Bacon the Scratch Pri7.e. FOURSOMES F. R. Hamp and J. P. Hare J. Brett and D. Sugden J. Bennett a nd Burbridge N . V. and D. E. Bacon

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On Sunday, 9th October, a match was played with the Old Sutton Valence Golfing Society, which resulted in a win for the O.K.S. by 5 matches to 4.

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OBITUARIES WILLIAM HAROLD LOVATT (1901 - 04) Bill Lovatt came to King's in the summer of 1901. He had lived in China, where his father was in business, and was 15! when he came, so that to other new boys of that term he seemed very sophisticated and grown up. He soon achieved the right sort of popularity in the School with masters and boys through his charm and kindl iness and generosity- - and his sense of humour of which Dr. Galpin was slightly suspicious. In 1904 he was Captain of Rugger and Captain of Boats, and in December of that yea r he left a nd returned to Ch ina to enter busincs"i there. In 1914, hejoined the Royal Field Artillery and served in Fra nce, where he was wounded, till 1916, and from 1917 to 1920 in Mesopotamia. After the wa r, he married the sister of his closest friend at school, C. H. Budd, and to them and the two surviving sons of the three who were at King's we offer our sympathy. He resumed his business life in Hangkow as a broker, but in 1927 he lost everything in the revohu ion ; he sta rted again in Shanghai and once mo re, on the outbreak o f wa r in 1939, he had to abandon every thing. He rejoined the R.A.- at the age of 54a nd took a Light A.A. Battery to Malta and co mmanded it during the siege for which the island was awarded the George Cross. In 1944 he was inva lided o ut of the army and Hlltil his death o n August 30th, 1955, he suffered from permanent ill -health . He endured this as he had fa ced his other disasters withollt co mp la int and with courage and patience. It was a matter of regret to him that in his la st years he cou ld not attend t he O.K.S. Dinners to sec those of hi s friends who were st ill about, and to talk of the School which he always loved so well. I. N. A. JON ES (1946-51) We were much grieved to learn of the death o n 30t h September of Iorwerth Jones in a road accident, al the age of2 1. His father was in the Colonia l Service and of the many strange birthplaces which appear in the Register Iorwerlh's must be one of the most unusua l, for he was born in South Georgia. After a year at M ilner Court, lorwerth went into School House, and his Housemasler describes him as "solid and dependable, one of those who form the backbone of any House". He was a powerful member of lhe 2nd XV serum and had he stayed on for another term might well have got his 1st XV Colours. He spent most of his National Service in Korea , although he managed to fit in severa l visits to the School during the earlier part of his training. At the time of his death he was with Imperial ChemiclII Industries Ltd. and. apparently. at the start of a promising career. Our sympathy goes out to his father. mother and sister.

COLONE L H. E. GOGARTY (1879- 84) We regret to announce the sudden death of Colo nel Henry Edward Gogarty, C.M.G •• D.S.O., on 13th October, at Mawnam ; he was 87. Bo rn in 1868, he jo ined the King's Schoo l in 1879; he played in the Rusger XV in his last year, a nd o n leav ing. in 1884, he went to Sa ndhurst. Four years later he was gazetted to the Roya l Scots Fusiliers, and in 1890 went with the regiment on the Zhob Vall ey Expedition; later, in the South Africa n War, he was Mentioned in Dispatches, and wa s awa rded the Queen's Medal with six clasps and the King's Medal with two clasps. He transferred to the Wo rcester Regiment in 19 10, and in 1912 became Brevet Lieutenant·Colonel. Mentioned in Dispatches three times in the 191 4-18 War, he was wounded, a nd shortly after joined the General Staff': He was awarded the C.M .G. a nd D.S.O., and, in 1923. was made Officer of the Order of Crown of Ita ly. He ret ired in 1920. REAR-ADMIRAL E. G. H. BELLA RS (1903-07) A fine and distinguished O.K .S., Rear-Admiral E. G. H. Bellars died on October 5th at Roehampton. after a brilliant Naval career. Edward Gerald Hyslop Bellars was born in 1894, and was at the King's School from 1903 to 1907. He then joined the Royal Naval College, where he became cadet Captain and passed out first of his year, and winning the Meyrick Hicks Exhibition, went on to Dartmollth. Here again he passed out first, winning the Grand Aggregate Prize. During the Great War he served on the battleships Britannia, Albemarle a nd Barham, becoming Lieutenant in 1916. After the end of the War he specialised in gu nnery, and was from 1922-23 gu nnery officer o n the Repulse, a nd the followi ng three years at Whale Island. He qualified at the Staff College in 1929 and spent three yea rs at the Directorate of Naval Operations at the Admira lty; during th is time he received an award for his improvements to the depression cont rol gear of 16 in. gun mountings. He was made Commander in 1928.

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THE CANTUAR IA N For eighteen months he was ex.ecutive officer of the Cormvafl in Chinese w.lters. and subsequently joined the Tactical Division of the Naval Staff. In 1935 he was made C,ptai n and given the command of the Galatea, the flagsh ip of the Mediterranean destroyer flotilla, and in 1940 was rec.,lled to Admiralty. He was given the command of the Norfolk, a nd fro m 1944--45 was C hief o f St.llf at Ports¡ mouth; in these two years he played a great persona l part in the magnificent and immense operations which led to the invasion of Normandy; he never tired in his wo rk, a lthough at times a sick man; and he brought to his responsible positi on a high abi lity and the valuable fruit s of his considerable experience of naval administration . He was appointed in 1945 Assistant-Chief of the Naval Staff, Foreign, a nd the following year was invalided from the Service.

THE REV. R. G. COOPER (1 887- 92)

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Many Kentish people as well as O.K.S. will feel a great loss at the dcn th o f the Reverend Robcrt Granville Cooper, who died suddenly at Canterbury on July 16th, aged 82. He entered the School in 1887, and in his last year played in the Rugger XV. On leaving Schoo l, he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, from where he grad uated with a B.A. in 1896. He was ordained in 1903, and held the livings of Hastingleigh, Brenzett, Snargate and Snave, and Benenden, before he finally cmne to Sl. G~orge' s , Ca nterbury. in 1928. He WIIS <1150 C haplain at the Kent a nd Ca nterbury H ospita l. He retired from St. George's in 1932, and from then until hi s death was actively engaged in mally part s of the diocese, taking temporary duty and assisting in a variety of parochia l works. Bot h in the parishes where he ha s served and at Bilsingto n, near Ashford, Kent, the village where he lived, he will be remembered by his many followers fo r his practical appreciation of the C hristian way of li fe, and for his sa intly character.

THE REV. J. M. ALCOC;:K (1878-81) We annou nce with regret the death of the Reverend John Mark Alcock , who died in hospital on 6th September. Born in 1866, the son ofa King's School master under Dr. Mitch inson, he entered the School in 1878, and from here passed o n to Oriel College, Oxford. He took a thi rd chlss in theology in 1888 and was ordained the follo wing year. His first curacy was at West Wick ham, .md after occupying the curacies of Evershol and To1pudd lo, he was in 1900 inducted Vic.1r of Godney ; he was there for eight years, at the end of which he was appointed Chaplain and Secretary to the Bisho p of Bat h and Wells, serving successive bishops o f that diocese until 1942. Mea nwhile he was Ru ral Dean of Glastonbury 1912- 15, and from 1913 Prebenda ry of Warminster in Wells Cathedral, from which he reti red a sho rt time ago.

DEATHS LAYLAND.- Dr. Michael Layland (1935-40) died in July, 1955. SLADEN.-On March 20th, 1955, Mr. Francis Danvers Siaden (188 1--84) died at his home at Reigate.

THE SCHOOL ROLL 1603-1604 [The names of scholars are taken in this instance from the quarterly list o f payments made to them (at 20s. per quarter) in tho rough version o f the Chapter Accounts (Chapter Archives, Misc. AC'cts. , 41 , IT. 199-203). The fair version docs not seem to have survived. Payments arc made at Christmas (1603) and at Ladyday, SI. John Baptist (I.e. Midsummer) and Michaelmas {I 604). There is considerable variety in the spelling of names between the versio n given by the Chapter Clerk and the boys themselves. The spelling in the boys' signatures has usually been adopted below, though such spellings arc by no means consistent. Thomas Llishiogton (the divine). who was later to earn a reputation as a Socinian, has no fixed ideas o n the spelling of his name, and (Sir) Edward Deri ng, the Ci ... il War politicia n, is uncertain in his boyhood whether to lise a terminal "e" or not.] f.adyday Midsummer Michac/mas Chris/mas Ye!; Yes Yes George Mayo Yes William Nevill Yes Joho Carpenter Ja. Volmare Yes Simon Raylton John Lukine

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THE C ANTUARIAN Isaac co lre: Henry Levi t John Spense r John Baker John Thwaytes John Webbe Paul Micklethwayte Cundall Wood Roger Cocks Baptist Pigott Wi ll iam Fu lke George Youngc Edward Dering(c) John Pa yne Thomas Hauk s Da niell Dec Wi lliam Moore Samuel Sympson William Harrison Thomas Gibbes Baza liel Carter T homas Lightfoot Henry Heymon William Carr Isaac Co lfe Charles Grove Nathaniel Wilson John Den Nathaniel Hi lton Jo hn Allen Edward Meetkerke Samuel Raven Richard Boys Thomas Lushington (Lussington) Henry Maye William Johnson Thomas Bredham Christopher Br idge Henry Hull Warham Jemmett Jo hn Waad (Wade) Christopher Colerd Dan iell Gibbons Peter Master William Harrison William Beane Thomas Carter Jacob Colfe John Cadell Jo nas Denne John lurden William Jenkins Thomas Kingsmill Jeremy de la Pyen (appears as Germane de la Pyne, a nd variants. in later account s) ,1o hn Ho llet!

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COR RESPONDENCE "Tweekoppies", Otjiwarongo, S. W. Africa .

Sir. (n71ut Call1ll~'';{1II of March, 1955 there appclus a lClIer fro m Reg inald G. W. Shaw (O.K S. 1901 - 03) -.!llIitled "Fift y Years Back ", He refers in such kindly terms to my stepfather, Percy Godfrey. who mmried my molhe r in 1907,1Il<1t 1 am pcrswldcd!O give him and others who may be interested rurther inform;tti()n about one who for 33 years ,was Music Master at the School. My stepfather I()vl!d to l eillhe following story of his in trocluction to K.S. St riding across the Grecn Court. he was see n by one Joseph I>I;IIH, alto in the cathedral choir. Th e l'llter looking aska nce at this la rge, uprigh t. bronzed man, wearing in an environment of cccles iHSlical dignity 111051 secular gaiters and Knicke rboc kers, re ma rked: " This wi ll neve r clo". Neverthcless P.O. did do for a grea t many years. In fnct he " did" to such efTecL that his schoo l conce rt s w~ re renowned for their unri v<lllcci-standa rd . For yeurs he conducted the East Kent Orchest ral Society, in regnrd to whose ta lent the chief credit was paid in the press to both the excellence of the programmes und to the m<lnner in which the mu!>ical ability of the performers was guided. The Royal Marine Orehestr;1 <l1 Dcal was another famou s bund. a t which he was frequentl y invited to conduct his compositions. He never won the finan cial rewards due to him ..IS composer. But he took hi s di sa ppointments as they came, and continued to the last, at the age· of 82, to score his MSS. with his always illegible orchestral signs. He was ';orchestra " thro ugh a nd through, and I can remember the sta rtled expression on the face of a friend of my mother, din ing with them sho rtly aftcr their marriage, who, upon aski ng him what was his favourite instrument (" the organ, I suppose?") received the crushing retort, " No, not the organ. which is a mechanical contrivance designed to give fOrlh abdom inal rumblings: the French horn" . I have beside 'me some press cll ttings, collected by hini a nd pithily annol<lted , many of them dealing with his cricketing prowess, (rom which I extract certain ' details. Playing for Sl. lawrence c.c. against Thanet Wande rers on Saturday, June 26th , 1897, he hit up 11 7 in 37 minutes, of which 101 were made in 32 minutes, including 22 fOllrs. Playing for Hertford Co umy, he took nine wickets~ including the hat trick, and made 33, later in the season making 101, while his partner made 12. In this year. he had a batting average for He rtford County of 74. and a bowling average of 12. Befo re hc and my mother len Ca nterbury to re ti re 10 Folkestone, he W,IS in the habi t o f contributing sho rt a rticles .Ind poems to the Kell/ish Ciazeue, a nd he was al so a constant contributor of Musical Opillioll. W hile li ving in Folk cslOne, his mus ic was frequellll y played (It the Leas CliO' Ha ll , a nd I think bot h he lind my mot he r fell some apprecia ti on of the ullvaried tributes paid to him in the press. At one period o f hi s musica l career, he was invited to direct the orchestra during Si r Henry Irving's thea tricu l lotlr of So uth Africa, but he refused the oITer. He was, of course, the winner of the Coronmion Prize MlIrch (Edward VII ). He would wit hout bitterness remark that this honour was wort h exactly £50 to him. But I fel t that at the time he bel ieved he was on the road to real success, o nly to be consigned to the obscurity of genius unrewarded. Bombs forced him to movc to Su nbury in 194 1, and he died in J<llluary, 1945. at the age of 82. Up to the very last, his letters to us in S.W. Africa were typical of his remarkable characteristics. He illustrated his pithy comments on life in general with. little drawings of topical interest, which invariably included himself on a ll fours in a garden. examining a nower, a small bird I>crched on his head .

He was the kindest of men, in no way embittered, save superficia lly, by the lack of material success in his musical career. He concealed ineffectively his heart of gold . He was <I chai.\cter and a personality and I once told him that in spite of certain poses. there was no o ne who fa iled to penetrate tbem . Among his minor qualilications, was his ability to swea r in seven languages. Possibly he was showering blessings on our heads, but if so they appeMed to be SC<lttered with sllch rich vehemence that we ca n lx' forgiven for misinterpreting them. I am lold that there WitS lillie o r no reference in 71tt! Cmt/tUlrioll to his death. I ca n therefore on ly hope tha t tbis inadequate tribute to his memory may recall to my predecessors, contemporaries and '<i\ lccesso rs at K.S. my S rC I)father' ~ association with the School. For who (:'1Il forget his somewhat sec ul ar

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attacks on the chapel harmoni um, (with the penny he would slip across to the assisting boy in the choir), his one raised eyebrow during the delivery o f the sermon, his nonchalant stroll to his scat in the school dining hall with trailing gown , his co ntribution, so i\1·cloaked under veneer of indiITerence, to all matters connected with the musical, historical and intellectual aspects of school life? With him, though nothing mattered, everything counted. Yours, etc. , ERIC HOWE1.L R oyal Victoria Hospital, Bournemouth.

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To lite Edi/ors a/THE CANTUARIAN. Dear Sirs, It is a grea t source of pleasure to have one's achicvements, however small , recorded in o ne's ol d school magazi ne. But it is a pity when the appreciatio n co ntai ns inaccuracies a nd stateme nts, whct her true or not , which have not been co nfirmed by the person concerned. Suc h e rroneous co mments serve only to lower the tone of what is everywhere looked upo n as amongst the best publications of its kind. Yours, etc., P. F. LUCAS. (We sincerely apologise for aliI' mistake: Dr. Lucas is ;11 jac/ all M.R.C.P., IIot, as stated ill Ollr last isslle, all F. R,C.P.- Edi/ors,l

Linacre House.

NOI'embe,. 20th, 1955 . To lite Editors o/THF. CANTUARIAN. Sirs, In a school where, both corporately and individually, we take so lively an interest in music, it is a pity that the library should be So lacking in books upon thcsubjcct. The mere fifty or s ixty books that comprise the Music Sect ion arc, wit h a vcry few exceptions, complete ly outdated. We appreciate criticism of a composer's work by his contemporaries, but surely a few modern works would a lso be apprec iated? Up· to-date musica l scores are non·existent, books on Opera practica lly so, and the numbe r o f biographies is woefully inadequate. Such im porta nt figures as, for example, Wagner, Tschaikovsky a nd Rrahms nre not prov ided for. It is sma ll wonder that lilli e use is made of the Mus ic Section since it i!> so sad ly lack ing in nea rly every respect. COlJi d th i!; no t be rectified? YOllrS, e tc., D. J. M ORTIMER P. W. NmLOCK Canterbury. December, 1955. To lite Editors O/ THE CANTUARIAN. Dear Si rs, May I divest myself of the traditional a nonymity of inscription writers to defend to Mr. R. T . Gladstone, and to "members of the Classical Vlth", the Lminity of the date on the foundation stone of the Assemblv Hall? Mr. Gladstone rightly says that jn " A.D. V IDUS MARTIN;;" (the classical Latin for "on the eleventh o f March") " Martius" is an adjective: as early as the 9th Century A.D., however, we find the !lames of months in Latin treated as no uns. On lyconsiderntions ofapocarance, euphony and intelligibility mduced me to reject the classica l usage in favour of "die Martii undccimo", which con form s to the exist ing practice of the R oma n Catholic Church, as may be observed on the flyleaf of any wo rk bearing its "imprimatu r" . Yours s incerely, A. S. M ACK INTOSH. 363


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Linacre House, 17 The Precincts, Canterbury. To Ihe Editors of TH E C."NTUARIAN. Sirs, We should like to draw attent ion once agai n to a point which has been raised several t imes before in The CaTIIllar;all. The practice of te rminati ng lectu res, especially Sixth Form lectures. wi th three cheers, is not o nly long outworn but highly emba rrassing both to visi ting speakers, invariably most distinguished gentlemen, and to the School. The sole pllrposc of cheering is to express apprecia tion, but surely dignified, yet si ncere, applause, is quite suffic ient. Yours, etc., R. R. HORTON, A . N. A . BROWNER, I. A. CAMPIJELL

N.S.U.Y. Di vis io n. '-I. M.S. Th eseus,

clo F.M.O., Portland.

To lite Editors 0/ TH E CANTUARIAN. Dear Sirs, I fee l tha t it is my duty, as Hon. Secretary of the Caxton Society at the time , to answer the letter fr om Mr. Holderness, which was published in the July number of The Cal/fllarial/. Mr. Holderness complained of the existence of the name of the person concerned in the printing of the programme in the imprint. Bllt such cri tic ism shows that the author is not in full possession of the facts. Only about half the programmes had names in the imprint, and th ¡ sc were printed solo by the person co nccrned. All these named members were printing their programmes for full mcmbership, this being the test, and they were not seeki ng publicity but taking responsibility for thcir own work. The influx of members during the previolls two terms had been so great that, whi le ot her members we re fu ll y engaged o n other jobs, the many applicants for membership tests we re allowed to print their own programmes. All this surely indicates that, with so much work to do, the Society is in a nou rishing state. I hope Mr. Holderness will therefo re recognize that none o f thesc three "a trocio us states of affairs" do in fact e'(ist. YOllrs si ncerely, MA LCOLM W ILLI AMS ( 1949- 55)

OU R CONTEMPO RARI ES The Editors ac kn owledge with tha nks the receipt of th e fo llowing mag.azines, and apologise for any inadvertent omissions:-

The Ample/orlh JOIi/'llal. The Barro"ian, The Bradjield College Chronicle, The Campbellian, The CllOlmelian, The Chronicle, The Cil), 0/ London School Magazine , The College Times, The Decallial1, The DensfOniall, The Elizabethan, Tile Epsomian, The Felstediall, The Glenalmond Chronicle, The Gresham, The Naile),burian alld I.S.C. Chronicle, The Noll Magazine, The liursl-Johnian, The King's School Magazine, Lancing College Magazine, The Lalymerian, The Lmrren/ian , The Lore//onian, The Malburinn , The ManlVoodian, The Meleor, Mill I-lill Magazine, Milner COUl'l Chronicle, The Novaporlan, The Ollsel, The Radleian, The Replonion , The 1I0//ensian, The SI. ÂŁ(hl'O/'d's School Chronicle, The School, The Slonyhurs/ Magazine, The S lott/orC/ian , The SUflonian , The Tot/bridgial/ , The JtJlindmill, The H1ish Stream, Th e '4!orksopian, The Easlbournian. 364

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FROM THE JUNIOR SCHOOL One SU~P?ses lh a~, by all thc ordin.ary rules, it was folly to produce Hamiel with boys of prep. Sl.:hool age. But It IS somet imes good to ny' 111 the face of commo.n-sense, and in the evont our performances al half-Icrm prov~d to b~ a f!ot wholly Inadequate representat io n .of that great play; by Friday it had indeed become the thnller which It ought to be (and, of course, somet hmg more than a thriller too). Tom Bewlcy's performances, as Hamlet, would have been notew0.rthy, even as (\ mere feat of memory. But they were more than that. He understood allihat he WClS saY ing, and was able to make the audience do the sa me ' their attention was held the whole time. King Claud ius (~artin Partington) is also a long, if rathe; Ihank less, pa rt . It was acted as well as spoken, <lnt! won, I thmk, the sympat hies ofthc aud ience. Smaller parts were well taken as a who le. Of co.ursc there were weak points-onc could expect nOlhing else in so large a cast of sma ll boys- but pervadmg the whole was .the realisa tio n, that if yOll take a ll the troub le yO Li ca n to do your sma ll part ofa large whole, the whole will be good. As o ur plays are always produced even mo re for the benefit of the aClors Ihan fo r the benefit of the audience it would seem as if the main objective had been achieved. To end this paragraph o n an ea rt hier and mor~ practical nOle Ollr audiences ctl me, in fact , in larger I1 Ull1ber;i than ever before, wit h fOll r fu ll perfor mances and II d ress rehea rsa l ; and they res ponded to ou r appeal for the Barn and Ilavili o ll Fund to the extent of£ 11 5: Ih is, 100, is a record sum. The olher a ri S (since we have bcen mcntioni ng Ihe a n s) ha ve pursued II more ordinary course. The SIring players .were Illost s~rry to .Iearn that ~ i ss Bert.!,.1 Neilve had to reti re at hal f- term to hosp ital for an ~peratlon; from Ih ls she IS n~w. I~ app ll y ll1a~lng an excellent recovery. Mrs. Partington has stepped Into Ihe br~ach 10 teach the vlo llmsts, <lOd .Mlss Nancy Wh ite, the 'cellists. The strings of Ihe orchestra have continued to meet weekly, tho ugh with no concert in immediate view, and have learned that it is one thing to play in an o rchestra , a nd another thing to pract ise o n one's own' ou r colleagues ' on the wind instruments have also practised weekly, to equally good purpose. r ai nting, too, has continued Illueh as usual. One of the HamIel dresses, that of the Ghost was in fact designed by. Mark Cha rig, tI~ough he did not attempt 10 take the job of making it away from n~ore capa ble hands. A Simple but effect ive programme cover also came from Patrick Hinchy. . We live a healthy life at Sturry. (The local village legend says that if an inhabitant of Brondsta irs goes Sick, he comes to Sturry to conva lesce; I suppose there are more convalescent homes and preparatory schools in Broadsta irs tha n there are in any place of equal size in England .) So the term, from the health po int of view, has pursued its usua l uneventful cou rse. A few colds went round at the usual time a fo rt ¡ nig~1 o r so !lfter tl~e beginning of te~m , caught ~y those who had lost, during the long summer holidays, Ihel: usua ll mmlln lty to ea.ch others bllg~ and vU'uscs- you do not lose this immunity during the shorter ChrIStmas and Easter holidays. [t was Just as well that we suffered from nothing during the HamIel perfo rmances. There were then no understud ies. T raining the principals had been labour enough fo r the producer. We had had a better and a more experienced Soccer team than fo r some years . T he season opened bad ly, for the 1st x r, with a match lost to Tormore, o n their grou nd, by the unnecessa rily large total of 1- 7. Since then we have been undefeated, with three wins and a draw. We have beaten Westbrook Ho use 3-1, Friar's Schoo l 1- 0, and SL Edmund's 6- 1; we drew with Betteshanger, after a very exciting, close a nd level game, with no score. At the time o f writing, we still have to pJay a return match with Betteshanger, and o ne with Cl iftonvi lle Schoo l. Our "A" X[, which has generally been the 1st Xl minus its "colours", has drawn with Eddington House 1st XI I- I, and lost to Canterbury House 1st Xl 1-2. The 2nd Xl is undefeated, having beaten S1. Edmund's 6-2, drawn with Westbrook House 1- 1, and with Cliftonville. no scor~. . From all these ma~ches it has become clear, as we look ahead to next term, that there are some pronusmg Rugger players 10 Ihe School : we very much hope for fine weather Ihen. to enable us to have H good 5eason. W.H.O.


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EDITOR IAL THE SCHOOL SALVETE .. . VALETE THIS AND THAT DR. R. H. LUCAS "H.M.S. PINAFORE" THE DECEMBER CONCERT ... NOCTURNAL UPON ST. VALENTINE'S DAY THE PENNY READING A R ECITAL IN THE CHOIR OF THE CAT HEDRAL ... THE MARCH CONCERT ROMAN CANTERBURY SNOW WALTER PATER .. AFfER RONSARD A COUNTRY FAIR FORM ROOM VARIETY 50 YEARS AGO MOZART NIGEL WIREKER CAN THESE BON ES LIVE? A LETTER AND LlNACRE ... LORD ACTON: A STUDY IN POLITI CAL INSIGH T BIG BUTTER AND EGG MAN THE COLOUR BAR DELIVER THE GOODS BOOK REVlEWS ... VERMEER .. . EURIPIDES BACCHAE MR. T. L. ZINN ... MR. JOHN HILLS HOUSE PLAYS THE LfBRARY THE MUSIC CIRCLE CONCERT THE SCHOOL CHOI R THE SOCIETlES ... C.C.F. NOTES HOCKEY ... THE BOAT CLUB ATHLETICS THE SERPENTlNE, 1955 THE CROSS-COUNTRY CLUB SQUASH RACKETS BOXING THE FENCING CLUB ... SHOOTING OKS. NEWS OBITUARI ES CORR ESPONDENCE OUR CONTEMPORARIES FROM THE JUNIOR SCHOOL

369 371 372 372 372 375 376 377 378 379 380 38 1 382 386 387 39 1 392 394

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THE CANTUARIAN VOL. XXVI.

No.5

APRIL,

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1956

EDITORIAL

Each day an appeal for more students of Science is made by schools and universities in all parts of the country. The study of Science, they claim, is the only thing that can prepare a man to take his place in the modern world; Arts courses of study are regarded as obsolete. The Arts, we are told, were important in an age when Science played a minor part in our lives, but to pay attention to them now is to indulge in escapism and wishful thinking, Such a view cannot be lightly dismissed, and the importance of Science at the present time should not be under-estimated. There are not many among us who do not owe a great deal to Science for such inventions as the motor-car, the telephone, the wireless and electric lighting, or for the great progress that has been made in medicine since the time of the Crimean War. Science, too, has great potentialities, both for good and for evil; if at the one extreme it can alleviate pain through medicine, at the other it can inflict it with weapons of war, and by altering circumstances and environments can improve or damage a mind. Such a powerful force cannot be reckoned of little account, and those who are prepared to spend their time learning to extract from it the greatest good they can must not be criticized.


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But a great potentiality for evil is not the only danger inherent in Science. Too intensive speciaLization distorts objective judgment; those who most concern themselves with the details of scientific method are seldom best able to view the effects of Science as a whole, but tend to exaggerate the importance of that part of it which is theil" particular province. They should not be allowed to forget that Science has its limitations; apart from its potentiality for evil, it restricts itself to the material universe, and so cannot be of the deepest sign ificance to those whose beliefs extend beyo nd what can be seen and heard. Its power, when mi sused, to create misery as easily as pleasure, makes it a danger even to the material ist whose ultimate aim is to ach ieve the greatest happiness possible on earth. It is the duty of the man who has studied Arts to view Science as a

whole as objectively as he can, and to decide where its effects are harmful and where beneficial. He and the scientist should work together as a team; the latter possess the power and the former should guide it. The Arts student is better fitted to act as such a guide, because the courses of stud ies open to him are more completely equipped to develop the perceptive and analytical powers of the mind. Prose composition in the classical languages teaches how to look for meaning amid verb iage, philosophy, precise definition and constructive argument, hi sto ry to understand so methin g of the eternal conflict between political theory and human nature, literature to learn the natu re of the feelin gs, needs and pleasures of other people. T he artist must take his place beside the scienti st, the one to analyse and the other to discover. But a good school does not only provide courses of study that will serve as technical bases for future professions, whether in Arts or Science, but tries to teach its members how to live well. Those who hope to become leaders of men need tact, strength of character, and such a finn sense of values and pbilosophy of life as can only be based on religion. Courses of study are important; the scientist must learn his trade and the artist must develop his mind, but there is a more subtle lesson for each to learn- only in the service of God and of others can true self-rea li zat ion be found. 370

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THE SCHOOL Captain of the School: R. J. SNELL, K.S. J . C. TRICE Head of The School House J. S. P. SALE Head of The Grange E. J. SMALMAN,SMITH, K.S. Head of Walpole House .. . Head of Meister Orners .. . G. P. MORGA N R. G. PATERSON, K.S. Head of Luxmoore House R. J. SNELL, K.S. Head of Galpin's House .. . Head of Linacre House .. . D. D. JEVONS Head of Marlowe House .. . C. M. J. WHrrn NGTON, K.S. MONITORS R. J . SNELL, K.S., D. D. JEVONS,.I. S. P. SALE, E. 1. SMALMAN-SM ITH , K.S. , G. P. MORGA N, J. C. TRICE, R . G. PATERSON, C. M. J. WHITTINGTON, K.S., D. E. BALFOUR, F. D. WOODROW, K.S., P. F . VALPY, M. A. MURCH, R. COLLINGWOOD, K.S. , R. M. SU·nON. M. E. W. VINCENT Tile School House:

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The Grange:

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Walpole House: Meister Omers: Luxmoore House:

Linacre House:

Marlowe House :

HOUSE MONITORS R. P. BARWBLL, H. A. BROWN, J. H. COOPER-POOLE, S. J . LAIN B, K.S., J. K. MORRISS, A. J. D. SMITH A. J. AGNEW, D. P. BUCliAN, N. H. COOPER, K.S., T. M. E. DU NN, B. D. FOORD, 1. S. McDONALD, K.S., S. T. J. MAZZARELLA, K.S. J. B. C. BALKWILL, J. M. G. HUTTON, 1. C. POTTER. P. K. W. CASHELL, P. F. LAMB, R. O. LI NFORTH, K.S., C. P. McCURDY, K.S., D. F. RICEMAN C. R. ALABASTER, K.S., R. H. T. DAWKINS, J. A. G. STEWART R. G. D. M. BURR, T. C. J. C~mNBVlx-TRENCH , K.S., R. A. LANE, J. P. D. MOORB R. R. BURK, K.S., O. R. F. DAVIES, K.S., S. C. HARDISTY, K.S., D. J. LOVBRIDGE, N. H. NICHOLLS, K.S., R. C. TOMKINS D. G. BARBER, G. A. MICKLEBURGH , M. G. PARAMOR. F. D. PILCHER, J. B. TURNER

Captain of Rugby Football Captain of Hockey Captain of Athletics Captain of Cross-Country Running Captain of Squash Rackets Captain of Boxing Captain of Shooting

D. R. D. D.

D. JEVONS M. SUTTON E. BALFOUR E. BALFOUR

R.

COLLINGWOOD, K.S.

R. G . PATERSON, K.S. E. J. SMALMAN-SMITH, K.S.

Tlte Call1llllr;an : Editors: THB CAPTAIN OF SCHOOL, O. R. F. DAVIES, K.S., S. T. J. MAZZARELLA, K.S.

Sports Editor: D. D. JEVONS Secretary: T. C. J. CHENBVIX-TRBNCH, K.S. 371


THE CANTUARIAN

SALVETE P. L. Adams, C. A. Anderson, P. J. Baxter, R. Beaugi", R. M. Bennett, T. J. B. Boulton, H. R. Carter, R. P. Cawthorne, J. D. E. Dalton, M . J. Dick, A. D. Double, A. V. Hardiman, B. E. Haywo rth, C. E. S. Trwin, P. J. King-Turner, H. Langridge, J. P. Leach, C. G. Lewis, A. J . Moon, J. W. R. Mowll, G. C. Musso n, J . A. NIcholls, M. O' Dowd, R. M. Osborn , P. J. Seymour, P. Y. Sherwell, M. R. Stockell, R. F. Thomas, P. D. Webb, J. R. Webster.

VALETE R. L. Bates, J. G. Bla ke, R. O. Brewester, A. G. H. Camp, R. M. S. Goodsall, P. H. C. Hamlin, A. N. Harvey, J. O. H. Marriott, G. D. Peskett, K. S. Robinson, P. K. R . Ross, R. J. W. Sainsbury, A. Seal, J. R. Tatchell, C. E . Vavaso ur, A. J. B. Walker, C. W. Watkins, A. G. Woolcott.

THIS AND THAT I t has been decided that, through the overtime ban in the printing The Cantuarian industry and in order that the wilDie term's activities may be covered in one issue, The Canlual'ian will go to press at the end of term and be published during the holidays. Dr. Lucas

On February 10th, 64 Scholars attended the Commemoration Service to Dr. Lucas in the Quire of the Cathedral. We express our smcere sympathIes to the relations of one so devoted to the School.

We congratulate the following on their awards at Oxford and Cambridge:Open Exhibition in Mathematics to Christ Church, Oxford. S. J . Laine Open Scholarship in Natural Sciences to Lincoln College, G. D . Peskctt Oxford. P. J. Freeman Open Exhibition in History to University College, Oxford. Open Exhibition in Natural Sciences to Corpus Christi College, F . D . Woodrow Cambridge. Open Exhibition ill Mathematics to King's College, Cambridge. A. J. B. Walker Open Major Scholarship in History to Trinity College, CamA. Seal bridge. Open Minor Scholarship in Natural Sciences to Sidney Sussex R. R. Burk College, Cambridge. R. G . Paterson Open Exllibition in Mathematics to Queen's College, Cambridge. Ford Studentship in Classics to Trinity College, Oxford. E. J. Smalman-Smith Open Exhibition in History to Magdalen College, Oxford. C. C. Farmer Open Exhibition in Classics to St. John's College, Oxford. N . H. Nicholls Open Scholarship in History to Christ Church, Oxford . J. A. Kane O. R. F. Davies Open Postmasters hip in History to Merton College, Oxford. M. D eller Open Choral Studentship to St. John's College, Cambridge. 372

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TH E CANTUA RIAN

Miss Mary Mills

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[n our last issue, we recorded our deep sense of loss at the death of Miss Mary Mills. To everything we owe to her is now added the gift of ÂŁ 100 in her will, to endow the Lady Davidson Prize.

I nspired by Father Bald win, of Buxto n, who was reported recently to have bought an acre of land 0 11 the Moon from the "rnterplanetary Development Corporation", certain of our leading classicists wrote to discover the price a nd mortgage value. Their letter to New York was returned, "Address Unknown", and an enquiry to the British Interplanetary Society was answered by a picture postcard or an experimental missi le and a contemptuous denial of any slich organization. Perhaps the Corporation is already bound lunar-ward s, and is lost in space without trace?

A New Sister School?

The Walpole Collection has acquired some very fin e items this term. Mr. H. E. Bates has kindly presented the manuscript of his book The Face oj England. Mr. Bruce E. Money, O.K.S., has presented, through the Friends of Canterbury Cathedral, the magnificent Skira volume of Gotllic Pa inting, in memory of Messrs. Woodruff and Cape. We have also acquired ma nuscript letters of Joseph Conrad, Warwick Dee ping, and Hugh Walpole..

The Walpole Collection

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In August, 1928 the then Librarian began a n Accessions Register. No. I was a gift from Lady Milner: Sir Francis Younghusband's South Africa Today . Since then, over 10,000 books have been added to the Library . The 10,OOOth was presented in Ma rch by the Headmaster: John Gunther's fnside Africa. The Library

Adrian Woodhouse (J 954-55) writes from Princeton University that he finds life there strenuous enough. Six hours' sleep is a luxury if he is to get in his 33 hours of classes and all the out-ofclass assignments, which are the "real ki llers". His lecturers in Chemistry and Physics are some of the "high-up researchers" in the Hydrogen Bomb field , and his Literature course consists of the translations of selections of Sartre, G ide, Pirandello, Dosto ievsky, Kafka , Malraux , and other such. He find s recreation in what seems equally strenuous, playing in tile Princeton Marching Band which accompanies the football team-"At Cornell we played and did formati ons for 26 million people over black and white and color television". He is in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and has been issued- he would like the C.C.F. to kno w- with an overcoat which is as "warm as toast and soft as anything". After a year away in England, "home sure looked good", but he scans The Times in the Library regularl y for any news of King's. Adrian Woodhouse

On 27th February, Mr. Stanger, accompanied by the Captain of School and R. G. Paterson, were entertained by Silell Tankers Limited at Newcastle, where they attended the launching of the 31,000-ton tanker, S.T.S. Volvula. They were in a party of over 100 masters and boys from the Southern Public Schools. The ex pedition was very efficiently organised from the time of departure from Kin g's Cross to their return to the same place. The School's party are fairly certain that they were not res ponsible for the Volvula' s breaking loose from her moorings on the following morning!

A Tanker is Launched

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Stagr and Screen

James Raglan, a.K ,S. , has appeared as General Lawrence in A Girl called Jo at the Piccad illy Theatre, a nd Douglas Wilmer played the part of Dorset in Sir Laurence Olivier's Richard lJJ.

Alan W. Watts (1928-33) has directed the establishment of an American Academy of Asian Stud ies in San Francisco. Mr. Wa tts is A Farsighted said to have steeped himself in East Asian, Indic, and Arabic Enterprise philoso phies since tile age of 15, and wrote his first book on Buddhism when 20. He has since written ten books on philoso pllical a nd religious studies. We

wish him every success in so fars ighted an enterprise.

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Lord Justice Luxmoore and his grandson, T. M. E. Dunn, now at the T"ongevity

School, ca n tracc their ancestry bac k directl y to a famil y which enjoyed a lmost Old Testamentary longev ity. The pace was set by Thomas P arr ("Old To m Pa rr"), who was born in 1483 a nd died at the age of 152 in 1635, having li ved in tile reigns of ten sovereigns. His son reached the age oC 113, his grandson died aged 119, and his great-grandson lived to be 114. When Old Tom P arr died in 1635, the autopsy was performed by William Harvey, O.K.S., the pllysician of Charles I. We congratulate N. Pa ine, who rowed No. 3 in the Oxford boa t. J. W. Norton, now at B.N.C., who was in ti,e Oxford University Boxing team Wllich met Cambridge on February 24th. A. H. M. Hoare and J. B. Pilillips, who have been playing freq uently for the Oxford University Rugby team . Michael Moore, WllO passed third out of Sand hurst, winning the Language Prize and the Brian Philpotts Memorial Prize for Military History. Stephen Young, WllO was elected to a Liddon Scholarship at St. Edm und Hall, Oxford. A New Vixt ure

On J7th March, an "A" XV captained by R. J. Snell visited Eton College for a Rugge r match against their 2nd XV. The School side played good, open football a nd won the match by 30-0. Many

"scissor" movements were successfully achieved, which was as well, for the handling and pass ing amongst the backs len sometlling to be desired. The team was: Thorburn ; Snell, Agnew, Kearin, Loveridge; Tomkins, Hutto n ; Isbill, M oore, Beaugie, J.; N iblock, P. W., Dawkins; N iblock, M. J., R oche, Wood . 1st and 2nd XV matches have been arra nged for next March. After last term's issue, the Editors have beell snowed under by amusing Wit? rem arks heard about the School, varying from questions upon the authorship of " Handel's Messiah" to the unprintable. We acknowledge them a ll with stolid resignation.

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THE CANTUARTAN

DR .

R. H. LUCAS,

C. B.E., M. C., F.R.C.S.

By U,e death of Dr. Lucas on February 5th tile SCllOol lost a devoted friend and Old Boys a nd parents alike will feel that a strong, significant and lovable persOl;ality has

passed from them. For twenty years "Reggie" Lucas-as he was known to us all-was the Medical Officer of tile School, and of his work and service it is impossible to speak too highly. I-! e was 110t only a sk illed and devoted doctor, but he was also so very human, so very kmd; wlt.hal he was a .great man. ~t is only a man of large and generous heart wit? can--:-~s he did- take to h~mse lf the pam and sorrows and griefs of his patients and thz" famIlies: they drew, as It were, from Ilis strength, and they knew that in their afflIctIOns he was a fflIcted. It IS not easy to define greatness, but beyond all question Dr. Lucas was a great man- great as an expert in his profession, great in drawing to him~e l f ~he . trust and l ov~ of. cou ntless numbers, great in ad ministrative abil ity and Il11agll1atlOn, and great 111 hiS remarkable perso nali ty. There is no part of the life of Canterbury >:nd East Kent that he tOllched which is IlOt now the poorer ; the whole 01" thiS countrysIde was aware of hll11 , as he bro ught to everyone his strength his sympathy his courage, and not least his humour. " Dr. Lucas was born in New Zealand in 1888, a nd came from that co untry to stud y at Guy's. In tile First World War for Ilis distinguislled service in the R .A. M.C. Dr. Lucas was twice Mentioned in Despatches, and awarded the M.C. and tile O.B.E. and was made Cavalier of the Order of the Crown ofItaly. In 1930 he took over the practice of Dr. Whitehead R eId, Ius brotiler-IIl-law, 111 Canterbury, which included the care of the School. When the Second World War broke out, our doctor was at once recallei! to the R.A.M .C., and served in France and the Middle East; whence he went with the rallk of

Brigadier to India and Malaya to organize the medical services needed for the invasion of Malaya; a task of such magnitude that he was created C.B.E. and again Mentioned III Des patches. He returned to the School III 1945-and to tile Kent and Canterbury HospItal , wllere from 1930 he had given his services as IlOno rary Surgeon-a nd o nl y relinqUIshed these offices through ill-health in 1951. Even in retirement however Dr.

Lucas was still activ~; he remained as consultant at th.e Hospital, was' zea lous ~n its Management Comnuttee; he helped to launcll ti,e League of Friends of the Hos pita l and personally issued an appeal for a Nurses' Recreation Hall. ' All his life Dr. Lucas had been a great sportsman, achieving considerab le distincti o n and so it was natural that he took the most live interest in the School's teams and matches~ It had to be sometlting of the utmost urgency that kept him from the touch-line of a 1st XV match, and almost down to the last he would come and watch-and that crit ically and knowledgeably-the play of our XV. So we have lost a great friend and a loyal fellow-servant, and the ,,:,llOle School, past and present, joins in proffering its sympathy to Mrs. Lucas, and to Ius sons, Sam and Peter, who by their own distinctions brought such glad ness to their father and his home. F.J.S.

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H.M.S. PINAFORE It is probable that there were many searchings of heart among us: "Could schoolboys with immature voices do it? Was this not a seriolls innovation; could it be sustained, assuming the prod uction was successful? And- hum- well, you know, is it music? After all . yo u know- Sullivan: could he compose music? In fact, can English wo rks later than the 16th centu ry be described as music: contrast the austerity, the restrained purity, the di vine counterpoint .... with all this tum-tum-tum stuff: isn' t it, I say, ra ther letting the place down-not quite what Canterbury stallds for?" . Yes, many searehillgs of lleart, and some felt they could not endanger their musical souls by participation or even by countenance. But the curious feature is that crowded audiences gave it countenance, and local experts declared that it wo uld have flill for two and even three weeks- even in Canterbury, where it is notoriously difficult to stir folk from their firesides. It was, in short, a riotous success : an incredibly splendid achievement. The principals were all competent and more, while some excelled. The cast was fortunate to be able to include C. B. Seaman, who sang superbly and acted Josephine in a taking and at times- if the word were not now unfashionable- uarch" manner. Mrs.

Anne Wilson portrayed tile part of Buttercup witll just the right tOUCll of mystery and spirit. Roger Snell was wllat this writer always had imagined Captain Corcoran would have been : and Peter Nicholson sang the tenor role of Rackstraw with a capacity surely unusual for a boy of 17. But tilose of us WllO arc old enough to have seen Henry Lytton took delightful tlnill in J. I. R. Tilompson's "Sir Joseph Porter, K.c.n.": almost we expected the great Sir Henry to arise from the grave and acclaim this lineal descendant. Yet, while the pri ncipals surpassed expectations, the chorus work was wonderfully done, and their obvious glad lless in it became our gladness. The sailors were first-rate : but what tllis writer has never before seen was a female chorus of boys, who looked like girls, moved like girls, acted and flirted with tile graceful deportment of properly-broughtup girls. If anyone feature had to be picked out as remarkable beyond all, it certainly wo uld be- save for tile First Lord himself-the chorus of the F irst Lord's Sisters, Co usins and Aunts. Most generous praise is due to the whole cast, and to the skill and patience of Producer and Chorus-master. But a notice like this would be incomplete if it fa iled to include our appreciation of the understudies : those who study and labour as some principal character, who may never

be called upon to perform, yet modestly take an obscurer place in the Chorus. Thus NicilOlas Attwater was ready to sing the tenor Ralph Rackstraw, and R. E. T. Clark could have stepped out from the Sisters, Cousins and Aunts- wllichever he was-and been an effecti ve Joseplline. The contributions of two other groups of people were essential to tile Play's success. Faithfully rehearsed over a long period of time-during which they must also produce the big Annual Concert and the Carol Service-the orchestra under Colonel Meredith Roberts was ill all respects just right; it was fun to them as it was to the players, and together they gave us a week of fun . Then there were the people who designed the set, WllO made the scenery and who painted it ; something like twenty of them, and the result of their efforts was altogether in keeping with the total excellence of the production. Only all one point wo uld this writer make a mild criticism- perhaps one and a half criticisms. The spoken dialogue was not always audible : to speak audibly in the Chapter House is at no time easy; on its stage, with the quick "give and take" of dialogue, it is 376

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difficult indeed. Yet the dialogue is necessary, and nothing but excessive care and rigorous demand that words are shaped by the li ps, consonants exaggeratedly sounded, and the actor's eyes are the vehicle of llis emotions to the audience, will ass ure that the audience can hear what they have been invited-and have paid 5/-to hear. Perhaps also- and this is the half-criticism- the articulation of some of the singers was less than perfect. But it is ungenerous to mention any fa ults in what was a most excellent production. And now we wait for The Mikado . H.M .

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THE DECEMBER CONCERT After the resounding success of the ambitio lls summer concert, the programme fo r

the orchestral part of the Annual School Concert seemed ratiler unenterprising. However, tile orchestra's rendering of the two movements from I-l ayd n's SympllOny No. 104 in D Major (the London) sllowed that tllis choice was justified. The playing by the strings of the majestic theme in the Adagio in the fi rst movement was excellent ; however, their warm tone was rather spoilt by the woodwind entry. The contrapuntal melodies in the Allegro spiruoso were played with fire by strings and woodwind alike and gave tile whole a spirit of finesse . In the Andante Cantabile from Quartet Opus 11 by Tchaichowsky, the strings came into their own and their ensemble playing was all the more remarkable for a beautiful

'cello solo by R. F. Lunn. The orchestra closed with the Vorspiel and the rousing "Huldigungsmarsch" from Grieg's Incidental Music to Bjornson's Sigurd Jorsa/far. The brass section really made tile Chapter House resound, and one felt that this would have been a fitting conclusion to the evening's entertainment.

In tile second part of the concert the CllOral Society with Philip Todd as soloist gave what was, perhaps, the most polished performance of the evening in Coleridge-Taylor's Hiawatha's Wedding Feast. This was a colossal undertaking and was made all the more difficult by having a piano accompalliment, doing without the tone-colouring of a full orcllestra. Considering the relative inexperience of many of the singers, the clarity of diction and dramatic vitality were quite outstanding, and the whole work moved with an impressive ease and pace.

Witb tile band again the choice was unexciting; they played a selection from White Horse bill and a selection from Cavalcade by Noel Coward. These were played in tune and with vigour by the band , but one feels that they might have played a march in true military style to end the concert o n a more rousing note. S.C.H. 377


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NOCTU RNALL UPON ST. VALENTIN E'S DAY "EI Ie prinlemps m'. apporte I'afl'reux rire de I'idiot"-A . Rimbaud Tea ripens lemon. Spring ripens snow. Gossip, love or Mass produced intentions Of intensity commemorate Tlus manufactured sainI. The pass port of My peopled personality Obeys a shoddy Tonus Pcregrinus, Unlocks the sluice Of summer grief. Myths distur b the ail', Disasters written on their Faces att ract red lights rn blood- beware Of Fauns and Fictions. The audience at windows T urns away to drape a duffle coa l And pack their wi nter fetishes In air-tight cartons labelledT o Cytltera. Courtly lovers slobber Over summer's Testament, Chew their masoclustic cud Preserved jn treacle. Mada me breeds poodles To match her clothes. Nightly television Throws a thousand cosy images Prurient and wriggling Cast by dawn to pillars of salt . Liban us a nd Sirion Swart with flanks as thick as horses', Succulent, when double-bellied Pandarus old as the disillusion rn his face ordered them To gallop slowly. Dawn invades His fescennine deception With a deathly kiss, Lays a wreath of dafl'odils Upon the compere's grave. 376


TH E CANTUARIAN

X imported from a paltry state Eats his plover raw and putrid, Delicately lets Itis nose inhale The finger nails. G reyly falls the snow Across the window. Where is tlte boat, Where are the children And the sea nymphs piping, The nustral da ncing? H ere, where knitted lusts Perspire and jaundice, Those resisting will become The mould of their destroyers. Cash on delivery of a child Is all the money we possess. Our flight must be in winter And 'I will not let thee go, Except thou bless me, Bishop Valentine.' M.J.R.

THE PENNY READING Tltere was in tlte School, a little time ago, a custom that once a yea r the School Motutors should organize an evening's entertainment for the School. This custom had for some lime fallen into abeyance, a nd it was witlt very mi xed feelings that the SCl1001 can~e to this Penny Reading, entirely ignora nt of what form it was to take. In fact, tl!e MOl1lt(:>rS managed to satisfy almost all of the many. tas tes of the SCl1001 wltlt.!'n evelUpg s entertalllment that seldom became tedIOUS, and whtch was of a surpnsmgly luglt quahty all tltrough. Tile Madrigal Society sta rted witlt three choruses from Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a mong them the "M adrigal" from the Mikado- "Brightly dawns our wedding day"a nd "Strange Adventure" from the Yeomen. of the Guard. Conducted by Edred Wright, a nd sung witlt great vitality, they set a go~d pace to the ev~nmg. Then D. E. Balfour read Miss Thompson Goes Shopping, a dehghtful paC!:' whIch gave great a museme'?-t, and Short Stay fo r Scientists, about Margaret a nd Juhan, wllDse romance came to Its peak in scielltific bliss and hot sulphuric acid . R. F . Lunn, R. A. Lane and J. Polglas" played next an Allegro fo r 'Cello Trio by Ma rcello, and a Minuet by Stradella. They were ";el! together, and the 'cellos sounded beautiful!} reso nant in the Chapter House. The Captain of School then read a passage from the turbulent History of Mr. Polly, by H. G. Wells-the story of how Mr. Polly first came against the grim U ncle Jim, a nd of their feud until, after much timid strategy on the one side, and much broken-beer-bottle violence ~n the other, guile won, a nd Mr. Polly found himself sitting in a punt a nd pushing Uncle Jim through the wa ter with his punt-pole. Very well read, this gave great amusement. 379


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G. I. Allen (violi n), J . Polglase (piano) and R. F. Lunn ('cello) played a piece rrom Ihe Three Graces by Ar mstrong G ibbs, and a M intlel rro m Boccherini. Tilis trio was perhaps sl ighlly better than the fi r t, having excellent tone and being well together. N ever, in the memory of anyone here at School, has a School swing band ever per-

ro nned on Ihe Chapter House platro nn . The reception Ihat t.his ba nd received was tremendo us, but it was the novelty tha t really carried it off. Much or its success was due 10 R. I. Ba ker, who livened up the pieces tremendo usly with his Ruent playing on the piano, and to Snell, who handled the drums wit h superb nonchalance. rt was perhaps a rerreshing sight, ir a little hard on the car by the last encore. The Madrigal Society fi nished witll some Yugoslav rolk songs beautirully a rranged and expressively sung, changing frequentl y and sensiti ve ly in mood ; and las tly came a

negro spiritual- All God's Chillul1. It was certa inly stra nge to hear the old negro strains emerging rrom Ihis Madrigal Society; but they brought 10 its cl ose a deliglltrul evening of vari ed entertainment:.

C.T.

A RECITAL I N THE CHOIR OF THE CATHEDRAL This reci tal, given by the Madrigal Society with Edred Wright, was intended as a survey or sacred music in England rro m Tudor times to tile present day. It was to have been combined with organ solos, but unfortunately the organ was o ut of acti o n.

The chier joy or tile recital was the resonallce or the bui lding, a nd this made the 'cello solos by R. F. 'Lull.n, which took the place of Mr. Lawrence's o rga n so los, a very pleasing cho ice. H is first piece, a Sonata in F by Po rpora , in which he was acco mpa nied by Mr. Lawrence, was mostly in the love li est reg ister of the instrument.

T he Madriga l Society sa ng rrom bellind the High Alta r, a nd thou.gll the singers could not be seen, the music carried clearl y and beautlrull y down the ChOI r. T hey began their gro up or a nthems by 16th century composers with R~ioice in Ihe Lord alway by John Redrord ( 1485- 1545). The words were clear, a nd the quiet singing at the end was especially beautirul. In the next a nthem, When rising from Ihe bed of dealh by Thomas Tallis ( 1515- 85), the melody cha nged rro m the trebles to tile tenors In the different verses, while the other voices acco mpanied. T his helped to obtain the Eliza bethan charactcristic or im passioned ea rnestness. T he last two a nthems or the group, When 10 Ihe Temple Mary we'" by Johann Eccard (1 553- 1611 ) aJld 0 clap your hallds logelher by Orlando Gi bbons ( 1583-1625) were, however, less effectively sung. The extra voices tended to ma kc the harmony thick, a nd Ille clarity was also affected by sharp singing, which caused anxie ty and strain, es peciall y in the second anthem.

R. F. Lunn was joined by J. Polglase in a Sonata ror Two 'Cell os by Wi llem De Fesch.

This was no t rea ll y a duet, as the second part was always an ~c~o mpa nimentJ but t ~e interest was di vided. It was fo ll owed by a So nata by SH l11martl11l . Bo th sonatas agam revea led the sono rity o f t'he instr ument. 380

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The last gro up of a nthems opelled with Heal' Illy prayer, 0 Lord by Henry Purcell (1659-85). It seemed uncertain a t first, but it developed well. T he nex t anthem, 0 Lord, look dOll'n /1'01II Heaven by Jonatha n Ballishill ( 1738-1801 ) buil t up to a very effecti ve climax, and the qu iet end ing was lovely. 0 Saviour of the world by Frederick Ouseley (1 825-89) was also quiet, though the urgency or the plea was well brought out by 1I1e climax in the middle. Arter these three ra ther quiet an thems, the triu mp ha nt to nes or Hail, Gladdening Lighl by Charles Wood ( 1866-1926) were a pleasa nt cha nge, giving the impress ion of power ill reserve.

The recital ended witil Valianl-jor-Irulh by Va ughan Williams. The alto na rralive was sung by M. Deller, whose pa rt was well matched by the accompa nying voices, a nd Ihc tenors a nd basses sang the part or Mr. Valiant-ror-truth. A reeling or mys teriousness was sustai ned thro ugho ut, a nd the end reall y sounded li ke tru mpets ill the distance. This was undoubted ly the most effective work in the recital, thOllgh the anthems by Tall is and Wood came near to equall ing it. R.A.L.

THE MARCH CONCERT

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The School Orchestra, Chora l Society a nd Military Band gave a most enjoyable concert in the Cha pter House 011 Sunday evening, 25th March. Works or considerable technical difficulty were included, in pa rticular Mozart's G M inor SymphOllY. The orchestra played with the Ilecessary restless vitality while losing rema rka bly li ttle in accuracy of detail, a tribu te to the hard work or individual members. This can also be said o f the Overture Jdomeneo, which raised the curta in for a spirHed perfo rmance of the Finale of Mendelssoltn's First P iano Concerto. I n tilis, described by the composer as u a tiling rapidly t1uown off", B. M . Morrison aclueved the brilliance a nd rapidity of execution with which Mendelssohn is said to have played this work . Tha t there should be two boys in the School ca pable of playing concertos witll tile orchestra m ust be unusual. The first movement or Haydn's Violin Concerto in G whicll is followed restrained yet gracefu l in style, and G. I. Allen brought the same qualities to his playing. Both these works were enthusiastically a pplauded, as were the remailung parts or the programme. A group of dertly sung part-songs, including The Turtle Dove by Va ughan Willia ms, to Wllich in Ille solo R . J. Snell brought a plea ing tone quality, showed us that the Choral Society has great potentialities, and we ho pe that it is only their summer commitments

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that prevented tlleir selectioll or songs rrom being more enterprisillg. The Military Band, tho ugll their numbers seemed to have decreased, played wilh tremendous vigour and unison. Ir the repeated selection of popular songs have begun to wear a litt le on the ir aud ience, the Berceuse and the march fndependenfia were grea tl y

elljoyed. 381

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ROMAN CANTERBURY As Romans fo ught against Romans by the Colline Gate in 82 B. C., Britons fought against Britons by their hill-top strongholds in Kent. At such a time there existed, near the site of Canterbury, at a place now known as Bigberry Camp, a small Iron Age community who rarely penetrated the marshy and thickly-wooded valleys. A few years later Britain experienced her first invasio n when most of So uthern England was overrun

by the Belgae. Some of the victors set up their homes at Bigberry, where the stronghold increased in size and flourished. It can almost certainly be identified with the oppidum which Julius Caesar stormed in 54 B.C. and captured after a struggle. Although the site of Canterbury is of no great military strength, it is important as the junction of the five main roads of East Kent. Settlement on such a site was scarcely possible until conditions were sufficiently peaceful to allow commercial prosperity, and such conditions probably did not appear until the unification of Belgic power at Colchester under Cunobelin, who has been immortalized by Shakespeare as Cymbeline. Archaeological evidence shows us that Canterbury was inhabited before the Claud ian invasion of 43 A. D. , but it co uld sca rcely have been larger than a small village. Dio Cassius alleges that Claudius' army sailed in three divisions and landed at Richborough, which became the main base, Dover and Lympne. There is little archaeological evidence to support this, since few first century objects have been fo und at Dover and Lympne, and one wo uld have expected at Canterbury, where the three roads converge and change direction to the west, that some kind of central military depot and supply base wo uld have existed. No suggestion of this has been found, and it is probable that Canterbury, like Silchester and Caerwent, was a garden city. During Claud ian and FIavian times the city, which was about one hundred and thirty acres in extent, consisted mainly of timber buildings, of which sleeper beams and post holes have been found. At about the beginning of the F irst Century masonry gradually replaced timber, with the res ult that the more ordinary houses were built of flint and mortar with corners turned in tile, while the more substantial structures were built of Kentish Rag. There are only two contemporary records of Roman Canterbury and these give no more than its name and situation: Claudius Ptolemaus mentions it as a town of the Cantii and the Antonine Itinerary, the official road-book of the Third Century, places it at correct distances from Richborough, Dover and Lympne. As the site of Roman Canterbury has been almost entirely occupied since Medieval times, there have been few opportunities for excavation. William Somner, however, records some of the finds of the seventeeth century cellar-diggers, and James Pillbrow, who was the City Surveyor in 1868, when every street of Canterbury was excavated to lay a new drainage system, has left a record of the Roman remains which he found. The first maj or opportunity for further investigation came during the last war when much of the centre of the city was bombed, and it is from post-war excavations that we have gained the greater part of our knowledge about the Roman city. The only geographical change which the city has experienced since the Roman occupation is that the branch of the Sto ur which fl ows past The Weavers did not then exist. It is probably a canal cut for the benefit of the mills inside the city in later times.

In the provincial towns Rome developed a new and successful system of self-government, by which the local notables were organized in a senate or town council called the ordo. The members of the ordo were known as decuriones and they had the right to 382


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eject annually fo ur magistrates, two of whom acted as justices and two of who m carried o ut public works programmes. Membership of the arda was unpaid ; in fac t its members were ex pected to give generously to local and provincial causes and to exercise a c ul tura l

as well as a political leadershi p. Tn the fulfilment of such a policy the government encouraged them to undertake impressive building progra mmes, with the result that most towns were furnjshed wit h substantial city walls and gates in addit io n to monumenta l

bath buildings, temples. public halls, amusement places and, most important of all, a forum . By about 300 A.D, Canterbury was surrounded by a clay bank, a ditch and a wall and these to a great extent were later replaced by the Medieval city walls on the same site. Tn 1952 in the Westgate Gardens the base of the Roman wa ll was found, which was seven feet thick and made of large fli nts. Contemporary drawings of Worthgate and Riding Gate show traces of gateways which were almost certainly Roman, and today the remain s of Ro man Queningate can still be seen in t.he wall no rth of the present gate. Part of the system of Ro man roads, which ran at right angles to each other, has been

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brought to light by actual excavation. The road to Rec ulver left Canterbury from North Gate, to Richborough from Queningate, to Dover from Ridi ng Gate, to Lympne from Worth Gate and to London from West Gate. In the city the roads, no ne of which lie beneath the modern streets, formed rectangular blocks between them, and these were known as insulae. Many of these insulae on the outskirts of the city show no sign of Roman occupation, and it seems probable that some of the undeveloped outski rts were included in the area enclosed by the wall . A road which was excavated in Canterbury Lane was found to be in use after the Fourth Century, and it had been frequently repaired until it reached its present thickness of five feet. Part of Roman Watling Street may still be seen in a pit opposite the new Congregational Church. Watling Street ran out of Riding Gate and on the site of the Roman gateway the south jamb of the two arches has been found. Near the gateway the foundations of a guard house have been excavated. Tn 1945--46 a Roman house in Can terbury was found in Butchery Lane, where the well-preserved mosaic panels may still be seen. The earliest part of the building can be dated to the First Century, but only the corner of this protrudes from under Butchery Lane. A wing was added to the east side of the building in the Second Century, but the tesselated floor containing the three mosaic panels which the wing encloses are a Third Century reconstruction. The building has been traced along Butchery Lane to the south. Its main wing lies beneath the street and is flankcd by a corridor, from whiclt a hypoca ust system was built into the courtyard between the wings. Running round the edge of the courtyard, along the walls of the bathroom, corridor and north wing, a tile gutter has been traced. At right angles to the corridor another range of buildings has been found further south in basements facing the Parade. Just as in Butcltery Lane, a gutter was found on the courtyard side and the building extended beneath tlte modern street, as was indicated by the edge of a tesselated fl oor. A1t1lOUgh the temporary existence of Burton's has prevented the linking of these two ranges of buildings, it is fai rly certain that they both belong to the same house, which wo uld cover at least three sides of a rectangle, with a courtyard in the middle. There is evidence that the south wing had been altered, probably at the end of the Third Century, and that by the middle of the Fourth Century at least the north wing was in ruins. In January, 1947, another Roman ho use was discovered when a trench was dug in the

yard of the Rose Hotel. The north wall of the house and a nortlt-east corner were 383


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exposed, and Ihe Irench cut across four rOOI11S, separated by timber walls, and part of a fifth whicll ex tends under the Car park. Three of these rooms had concrete floors, and one a tesselated flo or with a damaged mosaic panel. T lte house had probably been erected in the middle of the Second Century, and existed for a long time, since the floors were extensively patched. Outside the house there was a gravelled area which may have been the yard. On other sites in Canterbury some mosaics were found in the Eighteenth Century, but few records or remains of them survive. Roman bath buildings have been found in both St. Margaret's Street and St. George's Street. The building in St. George's Street was the more important, and it existed half-way betwee n Iron Bar a nd Canterbury La nes. The building, whiclt was erected in the late SecoltCl Century and altered in tlte middle of the Fourth Century, originally contained a room with painted walls and quarter-round moulding, a cold bath and seven heated rooms, lhe hypocaust or two being connected by an arched flue and o ne having box ti les in the wall. The external west wall of the building, whiclt was of und ressed stone and roofing tiles and is still in use as a cellar wall , had a well built tile drain below it to take water from the baths. Every Roman city of importance had a forum whiclt usually consisted of an open space hordered by colonnaded buildings on tltree sides and a basilica on the fourth. The nearest modem equ ivalent to the basilica is the town hall, and the forum was the place where bankers and merchants carried out their business and where most of the important public buildings were to be found . Archaeologists are quite satisfied that the forum of Canterbury lies under the County Hotel and adjoining streets and buildings. The cast side of the site has been excavated and traces of buildings which seem to have been decorated with foreign marble have been found . The most important discovery of Roman Canterbury was made at the south end of

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St. Margaret's Street in 1950, when the ruined but massive remains of a theatre were

found. The outher semi-circular wall is twelve feet tltick, wit hin which there is an eight foot co rridor bounded by a seven foot wall, which, in turn, was buttressed by a flat apse connecting it to a rad ial wall five feet thick. All these walls arc of one construction and are ca rried on foo tings w hich penetrate for

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six or sevcn feet into the natural gravel

and were therefore designed to carry a stone structure of great weight. Pill brow records Ihat his laboure rs worked day and night for a fortnight to penetrate the walls. Taking the modcrn discoveries witlt those of Pill brow, since most of the theatre is covered by the modern streets or buildings, it is possible to reconstruct part of the plan of which the a pprox imate d iameter is two Itundred and fifty feet. The stage must lie under Beer Cart Lane, west of St. Margaret's Street, in which di rection the ground slopes towards tlte river. The plan of the theatre is the largest which is known in Northern Europe and the building would have been so vast that almost the whole Roman population of Kent wo uld have been nceded to fill it. It is probable that the theatre was never completed, since it was started at a time when Roma n prosperity had passed its zenith and such a massive structure would have been a drain on the Roman treas ury. If it was completed it wo uld have served as a large quarry for later inha bitants, but there is little evidence of such Roman masonry in later buildings. The only reason one can give for the erection of such a vas t edifice is that of a sudden fit of mid-Second Century megalomania. It almost certainl y replaced a smaJler F irst Century theatre on the same site, but it remains un-

known why Rome should wish to place such a vast building in Canterbury, when the expenses for its erection would have to be paid by the imperial treasury. 384

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Outside the city walls there wo uld have bcen an ampltitheatre. The site of this is unknown, but Brent, a nineteenth century archaeologist, claims: "We think it lay beyond

the walls or the boundaries, in the pit in the Martyrs' Field, now lately filled in, and planted over with hops . Here we have often detected, as we thought, the remains of the raised seats for the spectators and compared their resemblance with those at Caerleon in Monmoutltsltire, which they strikingly resembled". No traces of religious buildi ngs have yet been fo und in Canterbury. PiLI brow discovered two substan tial walls in Guildhall Street and Sun Street whiclt may have been the precinct wall of a triangular temple. He also fo und in Mercery Lane an altar of Folkesto ne ston e

in two halves but he makes no record of what happened to it, and thus its usc or pu rpose is unknown. In vario us placcs in the city small clay figuri nes have been found wltich sigllify that Romano-Gau lish religion was practised in Roman Canterbury. T he site of the Christian church is unknown but it seems likely that it existed on the site of tlte present cathedral, since many of the great E uropean cathedrals have been proved to be on the site of a Roman church. A Roman road runs under Bell Ha rry and it wo uld seem that tile churclt would have existed to tlte west or east of this road. Since the earl y Roman churches faced west and therefore were entered from the east end, it seems likely that if a Roman chu rch existed on this site it lies beneath tlte nave of the cathedral. It is now almost certain that neither St. Pa ncras' Chapel nor St. Mar ti n's Church, which are to a great extent built of Roman material, are of Roman foundation. In the excavations in Burgate in 1946-48, a Roman weLl was discovered. It was circular in shape with an internal diameter of two and a half feet and was co nstructed of large blocks of chalk. Jt was excavated to a depth of fifteen feet, where there was a lining of planks arranged in the form of a square with thirty-inch sides. Just above tllis there were small holes, evidentl y the inlets for water. The well went muclldeeper but the presence of water prevented further excavation. From the evidence of pottery fou nd in the well , it seems probable tltat it was closed ilt the late Fourth or early Fiftlt Century. Little is known of the tradcs of Roman Canterbury, but in a garden city they cannot have been very numerous. Traces of an iron foundry have been discovered in Burgate and four pottery kilns have been found . A pottery and a tile kiln, for instance, served from the same fue lli ng pit, which were in use in tlte Second Century, were found in making the road to the new cattle market at St. Stephen's. The tiles it produced were of all ki nds, since ridge, box and wall tiles were found on the site. Fordwich was the Roman port of Canterbury. A jetty built in Roman times has been fo und there and a ford a little further upstream wo uld have prevented a ny ships fro m going beyond Fordwich. Trade in the Roma n Empire was very extensive since pottery from Southem Gaul, amphorae fro m Spain and porphyry from the Red Sea qua rries are amo ng the objects of foreign origin which have been fou nd in Canterbury. Outside tile city walls tlte Romans buried their dead a nd few exceptions to tltis rule have been fo und in Canterbury. T lte main roads outside the city were lined witlt tombs; those belonging to the poorer citizens being at a greater distance from the city. Roman cemeteries have been found on all sides of Canterbury, notably at Oaten Hill, near the Castle, at St. Dunstan's, near the .Barracks on the Sturry road and at St. Mart in's. It is probable that Dane John altd the three other mounds which formerly existed to the south of it, were of Roman origin. It is claimed that in the late Eighteenth Century a lead coffin was found in the side of Dane John. The mounds resembled a type constructed in Ga ul and So uthern Britain in the First and Second Century and frolll the sides of sonte of these lead coffins have been excavated. It is noteworthy that two of these mounds 385


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existed within the city walls. Until the mid-Third Century, cremation was the rule for budai, after which inhumati o n became the fas hio n : a large inhumation cemetery has

been fo und on the site of the East Station. The fu ll Latin name which the Romans gave to Canterbury was Durovernul11 Cantiacorum, wh ich probably meant "the fo rt of the Cantii by the swamp". Durovernum was o ne of the twelve major Roman cit.ies in Britain , and was thus the administrati ve centre of Kent. It continued as such, as St. Augustine found Oil his arrival in 597. It is the onl y city in Britai n in continuo us occupati on since Ro man times, w hich has lost its original

Roman name, but in Europe, Paris and Rheims have changed their name too. By the Fourth Century the Roman towns of Britain had lost their prosperity and were

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constan tly under the threat of ra ids and invas ion. Canterbury was not so much affected

as the towns of the North, since Richborough, Reculver, Dover and Lympne must I\ave offered her considerable security, and after 296 the forts of the Saxon shore defended the coast against the Saxon sea raiders. The Romans left Britain certainly no later than 4 17 a nd for the ensui ng fifty yea rs British towns maintai ned their freedom and the R oman way of li fe with varying success. A small quantity of early Saxon pottery has been found in Canterbury and it seems likely that the sub-Roman population co ntinued to inhabit the ruins, while the Saxons settled on tlw 1110re open ground outside the city, as at Sturry and Westbere. Archaeological evidence has shown that some of the Saxons came as foederati in the Fourth Century and Jived and intermarried with the Ro man

popUlation. The Roman buildings of Canterbury, Iwwever, quickly fell into decay and their ruins covered the roads until all entirely new level existed. On this new level the later inhabitants built their homes and the Medieval inhabitan ts gave Canterbury the road system and many of the buildings which still exist today. lAC.

SNOW White carpets of natu re woven at length on the crusted decaying mass of construction reiterating The Lord's cause:

"Thou shalt love thy neighbour". Ripple of delicate thought Swell of purification. The o nce scabrous land sleeps with monastic satisfaction.

Diabolical irascibility of summer's polymorphous powers is quiet. A stillness fill s the air. Yet snow's ethereal composition is tortured by insidious glaciatio n.

For most it was a dream; yet

for few, Deity evoked man's other personali ty, Widening his radius of humanity. A. S. PITCH 386

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WALTER PATER

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In May last year, Lord David Cecil delivered a lecture in Cambridge on Walter Pater, one of the most interesting and-as 1 hope to show-influential of O.K.S.; Lord Cecil's study, now published in pamphlet form, is too interesting and perceptive to pass unnoticed at Pater's old school. I am not going to attempt a general appreciation of Pater here and those who want it could scarcely do better than to read Lord Ceci l's lecture. r am going to concentrate on just two aspects of Pater- the nature and extent of his Christianity, and his influence on the poetic revo lu tion of the nineteen tens and twenties.

Of the first, I wish to correct the emphasis which J tl\ink has been partially misjudged by Lord Cecil along with most of Pater's critics. Lord Cecil says: The nearest he got 10 C hristian ity was a beljef that it migltt be true. [t would be very agreeable if it was, and no one could prove it was not. Fo r the rest, he regu larly attended church , toyed with the idea of becoming a R oman Ca tholic, and wistfull y wished that, li ke Sir Thol11<ls Brow ne or C h<l rles Lamb, he had been born in some ea rlier age, when men accepted the fait h of their fathers and rorefathers without worrying.

This, as a statemel\t of Pater's intellectual belief, is no doubt just ; but the satirical tone is scarcely justified in view of certain of Pater's impulses whether he called them Christian or not; it is easy to put too much emphasis on what people think they thinkconscious belief- and too little on less conscious manifestations of the spirit. Lord Cecil find s Pater's partial conversion to be a result of his growing awareness that aes thetic experience is necessarily to some extent transcendental. This is an advance o n the

majority of his critics who limit his tendency towards Christiani ty to the aesthetic appeal of ritual. Richard Aldington claims that "this disposition to look on religion as an aesthetic spectacle in which one may take part without yielding the ceremony any real belief certainly dated back to Pater's days in Canterbury" so that wl\iJe his reading fed his scepticism and nco-Hellenism he soaked himself in "tl\e ritual and the music, the jewelled windows and the great memories of the past, tl\e sculptu red stones and the eloquence of Arthur Stal\ley"-again satirical in tone, and catering for the epithets " decadent" and "diletta nte". C. M. Bowra explicitly denies the attraction to Pater of Charity and asserts that of ritual , while T. S. Eliot endorses the following as " sound criticism" : instead of emphasising the power of sympathy. the C hristian conception of Love . .. M ari lls (identified with Pater himself) is after all converted, or bro ught near to the threshold of faith , more by the senSllOU!; appea l, its liturgical solemnities.

It is of course true that the appeal of ritual to one of Pater's disposition is certain to have been strong, but seen in the cOl\text of High Church, Oxford, with its emphasis on the Incarnation and the visible manifestations of the Faith, such an appeal is not to be despised ; the whole religious climate of Oxford encouraged the worship of beauty and Pater was its leading exponent. But my contention is that this alone does not do justice to Pater's Christianity and I wish to indicate that Pater was deeply aware of "the power of sympatl\y, the Christian conception of Love" and that this awareness is finally a result of his study of Hellenism and the Rel\aissance . Enough has been said about "decadence" connected with Pater's "art for art's sake",

and indeed such a sentence as "not the fruit of experiel\ce, but experience itself is the end" lends itself to sucl\ observations; but the "hard gemlike flame" suggests a discipline and economy not readily identifiable wi th some latcr manifestations in the Paterians of the nineties. If the doctrine is decadent, or a symbol of decadence, then it lies in its very


THE

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mediocrity compared with its German equiva lent in Nietzsche. In constructing something more to believe in than tile nihilism of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche find s an aesthetic justification of the ulliverse. Pater's message has neither the energy nor the all-embracing tragic insight of Nietszche's, but his position is not entirely different. [n a society where Christian belief was seriously challenged, where the onslaught of the industrial revolution threatened all distinction of thought and grace of living, Pater at least insisted on values Wllich give a genuine and intense significance to human life. It is in this that he was so fortunately a follower of Arnold. Arnold defined culture roughly as "a stream of fresh and free thought upon our stock notions and habits" and Ileightened this definition by juxtaposing it to a series of brilliantly exposed fal se va lues, "the worship of Machinery", secondary values treated as primary, means treated as ends, whether ill the Dissent of Dissenters, fundamentalism, quietism, free trade or doing as one likes . Patel' accepts his teaching and develops it. But Arnold was a school inspcctor struggling ceaselessly for a more humane state education, and Pater a shy and very retiring Oxford don ; he flinched from the intracta ble world about Ilim and wc do not hear of it in hi s writing; as Lord Cecil says, his "is a mood of reverie ... . only attainable . ... where the spirit feels itself cloistered and sealed off from tile din and flux and pressure of ti,e acti ve world"-a sluinking which he sees reflected in Pater's sentences, "a tOllch langu id and spiritless". Yet because of tlus retirement he is able to develop tile positive thought of Arnold along his own unique lines; and the uniqueness is a result of his feeling for the visual arts. It is true that Pater sees the contribution of the Renaissance in terms of a revolt against a religious system-"the care of pllysical beauty, the worship of the body, the breaking down of those limits which the religious system of the middle ages imposed upon the heart and the imaginat ion" . For this reason his Renaissance starts earl y; to him, Gotllic art at its best stands for the same humanistic values as the Renaissance proper, and the whole of tile courtly tradition is soon in this light. In an article on Notre-Dame d'Amiens, published two decades later than The Renaissance, it is not the upward striving asceticism that is stressed but the striving for space and light. "The walls have disappeared", he announces melodramatically; "the entire building is composed of its windows. Those who bui lt it might havc had for their one alld only purpose to enclose as large a space as possible with the given material". The characteristic sculptor "is no longer a Byzantine but a Greek-an unconscious Greek". The famous Beau-Dieu of the west portal is a "benign, almost classically proportioned figure". It is a pity that Pater has not compared the stylized figures on the west facade of Chartres with the wonderfully individualised patriarchs of the north transept- the warm humanity of Abraham, whose graceful fingers tenderly encircle the unfledged chin of his manacled Cllild. In Patcr's eyes the best of ecclesiastical architecture and sculpture is a protest against the system it is ostensibly glorifying. And so with the Italian painters; their religious subjects are no more than an excuse for glorifying the human body, for expressing the painter's own vision of life. His rhapsody on the Mona Lisa has been enough quoted; here is his acco unt of Michelangelo'S Adam on the ceiling of the Pope's private chapel: Fair as the young men of tile Elgi n marbles, the Adam or the Sistine C hapel is unlike them in a lotal absence or that balance and completeness which express so well the sentiment of a self-contained, independent life. I n that languid figure, there is something rude and sa tyr-like, something akin to the rugged hillsi de on which it lies. H is whole form is ga the red into ,In expression or mere expectancy and reception; he has hardl y strengt h enough to lirt his fingers to touch the finger or the creator ; yet a touch of the finger-tips wi ll suffice .

388

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I

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Pagan enougl, ; and not without its ililluence on Yeats: Michael Angelo left a proof On the Sistine Chapel roof Where but half-awakened Adam Can disturb globe-trotting Madam Till her bowels are in heat, Proof that there's a purpose set Before the secret working mind: Profane perfection of mankind . Yet for all the Pagan emphasis, the "languid figure-rude and satyr-like" despite the "pl'Ofane perfection of mankind", thcre is sometlung in the very energy, tile very perception of life whicll cannot ultimately be dissociated, though Pater may have done it, from Christianity. "He (Michelangelo) penetrates us witll a feeling of that power which we associate with all the warmth and fu lncss of the world .... ; the brooding spirit of life itself is there." It is not for nothing that tile pluase " the brooding spirit of li fe" is reminiscent of the Holy Ghost. No doubt I have said no more than C. M. Bowra: "he saw that great art passes beyond mere morality because it contributes to goodness, to that greater fullness of life which depends not on rigid rules but on a real insight into the unchanging values of things" ; but this "greater fullness of things" and particularly the "real insight" must be related explicitly to religion. Pater was a bad Shakespearian critic, yet if ti,e following quotation has but a limited relevance to Measure for Measure, it has a profound relevance to life in general. The action or the play, li ke the action or life itselr for the keen observer, develops in us the conception of this poetical justice, and the yearning to realise it, the true j ustice or which A ngelo knows nothing, because it lies for the most part beyond the limits of uny acknowledged law. The idea of justice involves the idea of rights. But at bottom, rights are equivalent to what rc.'llly is, to fact s; and the recognition or his rights thercrore, the justice he requires of ollr hands, 01' our thoughts, is the recognition of that which the perSOll, in his inmost nature, really iSj and as sympathy alone call discover that which rcn lly is in matters of feeling and thought, true justice is in its essence a finer knowledge through love.

Without in any way committing myself to the Christian interpretations of Measllre for Measure- in fact I reject them-this quotation suggests a profound realisation of the workings of Christian Charity and the Divine Mercy. It expands tile implications of "judge not that ye be not judged" (sympathy is identified with insight), while thc final sentence suggests an acceptance of the Cluistian uluverse. Whether it is Benson's judgement quoted above ("instead of emphasising the power of sympathy, the Christian conception of Love .... "), Bowra's "it is not the Charity or the mystery of ti,e Christian religion which attracts him but its ritual", or Eliot's "religion was a matter of feeling, .,ld metaphysics not much more", there seems to be a tacit ignoring of the chapter in Marius USunt Lacrimae Rerum"-the passage from Marius' diary; here is a sample ; it loses a lot through lack of continuity: ... the actual conditions of our lire being as they are, and the c<lpaci ty lor sufferi ng so large a principle in things- since the only principle, perhaps, to which we Ill<ly always safely trust is a rcady sy mpathy with the pain one actua lly sees- it follows that the practica l and effective difference between men will lie in their power of insight into those conditions, their power or sympathy . ... Something in that pitirul eontnct, something new and true, fact or apprehension of fact, is educed, which, on a review of all the perplex ities of life, satisfie.(j our moral sense, :lnd removes th"t appearance 01" unkindness in the soul of things themsel ves, <lnd assures LI S Ihut not everyt hing iw s lx.'C n in VOlin,

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It is in this battling with the "Iacrimae rerum", the greatest obstacle of all to Christian belief, that the essential quality of Pater's Christianity is manifested. It is a profound awareness of the redemption of suffering in the whole of creation tluough Love. Whether it is the Troubadours or thirteenth century sculptors protesting against a narrow aescetic dogmatism, Michelangelo painting "gardens where the soul's at ease" as backgrounds for a God or saint" or " true justice of which Angelo knows nothing" transcending "the limits of acknowledged law" each paradox is ultimately resolved in the profounder truth of an all-embracing Cllristian Charity. ) have already noticed Pater's sllrinking from harsh realities, the "strange disease of modern life", Wllich Arnold fought so boldly, and its effect on his style-"a touch languid and spiritless"; and nowhere is this more evident tI,an in Emerald UI/llvarl- the story in wllich he describes the School. At its best, the story acllieves a sllimmering impressionism where description of the Precincts blends with meditati o ns on a classical education,

the effect on boys of long, Anglican services, and cricket on the Green Court. "All tllis poetry, yes ! poetry surely of their alte rnate work and play; light and shade call it! "! I leave it to an American scholar to co unt the number of times " light and shade" appears in Pater's pages- or the word "c\liarosc uro". The story describes an ideal relationship in an ideal setting, remote from anytlung a ny school could ever provide. And certainly utterly remote from what Pater's life was here. He was unpopular, and doubtless here, as at Oxford, attracted persecution . With a name like that of Ius hero he would scarcely have escaped so light a persecution as having it reduced to "Aldy". As it was, he was ragged somewhere around Memorial Court and got kicked so hard that Ile walked oddly for the rest of Ilis life and, thougll it is not certainly due to this incident, he never looked anyone in the face. It was doubtless due to Ilis unhappiness here that he not only shrank from harsh realities but found it necessary to create figures like Emerald onto whom he projected everything which he was not and which he could not become; yet for all this the idealisation is frank, and if the story is read as a kind of fairy tale without witches, it becomes quite moving. It wo uld be surprising, 11Owever, if tllis acco unt was generally representative of Pater's style and subject matter. There are times when his long, lang uid sentences become ta utened as with the wire of passionate thought and mirror a gen uine intricacy of feeling. At least one major twentieth century poet llas considered Pater a poet himself of no mean stature and of great influence. In compiling the Oxford Book of Model'll Verse, W. B. Yeats cut up the famo us passage on the Mona Lisa into vel'S Iibre and prefaced the anthology with it ; this passage, be considered, "dominated a generation, a domination so great that all over Europe, from that day to tllis (1936) men shrink from Leonardo's masterpiece as from an over-flattered woman". In printing it as vers Iibre he intended to demonstrate its "revolutionary importance" in influencing the great poets of the nineteen

tens and twenties; he sees Pater's prose as arising "out of its own rhythm as do (the poems of) Turner and Pound at their best". And no doubt he was justified. In his essay on Wordsworth, Pater speaks of rhytllln in the same terms as the critics who have do ne most to reorientate modern literary taste. He says: The music of mere metre performs but a limited, yet a very pecul iar and subtly ascertained funct ion, in W ordsworth's poetry. With him metre is but an additional grace, accessory to that deeper music of words ,H1d sou nds, that moving power, wh ich they exercise in Ihe nobler prose no less than in formal poetry. It is a sedat ive to that excitemen t, an excitement sometimes almost pa inful, under which the language, alike of poetry and prose, attains a rhythmical power, independent of metric..11 combination, and dependent rathe r on some subtle adjustment of the elcmentary sou nds of words themselves to the image or fccli ng they convcy.

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Doubtless., when he. incl.udesu" the nobler prose" as well as "formal poetry" he has

Wordsworth s.preface

III

mllld ( the language of a large portion of every good poem ....

must necessanly, except WIth reference to the metre, in no respect differ from that of good

prose':); but it becomes obviou~ Ihat he is also thinking of himself; though Ile is

f

I

ostenSIbl y dtscuss1l1g metrc, h iS dlScllsslon of rhythm and "that deeper music of words and so un~ s" takes over mi d~w~y and all but obliterates the lesser concern; rhythm, ~s he sees J~: ce.as~s to be s~met hll~g bo und do\~n (~nd disciplined by metre which bccomes accessory ; It IS sometlung whIch operates In Its own right. If the function of metre is ."sll.btly ascertained", Patel: does not bot'l~er ~o as~er ta in it; and his own prose dispenses WIth It. The ~bove passag~ IS not only a Justification of wltat Yeats does ill the O>.ford Book, but IS Itself an adnllfable example of the power of rhyt hm he is descri bing--a

~etter

a ile,. perhaps, than tltat purplest of all purple passages which Yeats chooses. A rhythmIcal power .... dependent .... on ~ome subtle adjustment of the elementary

so unds ofwor~ s themselves to the Image o r feelll1g they convey"- this is a perfect accoun t

of the rhythmIcal power of the whole passage. Notice how the calm of " it is a sedative

t~ that.excitement" is ill1l~l ed i ately tautened by the repetition of "an excitement" as the dISC~SSlO!~ of rh~th""!, beglJ~~ to tak,~ .ov.er. . Tn m~st .c<;lntexts the typical Paterian qllali~ fications somehmes and al '!l0st Ifntatl~gly dlmllllsh the fo rce of what tlley qualify ;

tlley are a symptom of his shnnkmg from the flux and pressure of the active world"; but here, through tile rhythm of tile pluase, they actually emphasise "paillful" and help

to eo.act the sensati on It descnbes. Th.ere IS no. ne~d to pllr~u~ this analysis; the passage. as WIth many more, has a deep poe~c orgalUsaholl and It IS easy to believe, as Yeats

reports, that each sentence has been gIven a separate page of manuscript for the purpose of testlUg and analysll1g the rhythm. Such passages truly "arise out of their own rhythm" a nd thereby point the way to Personae and Hugh SellVyn Mauberley.

AFTER RONSARD "Comme

0 11

void sur Itl brallche au mois de May la rose"

Just as we see the opening rose ill May When first begins her lovely youth to glow, Touched by the cooling dews of dawn, display A glory not the purest sky can show ' When in her petals grace and love re~line Alld wi th her scent she mightiest trees enthralls Till tired by rain and sun, with swift decline ' She fades away and leaf from dead leaf falls: So lately while your happy life was young And by the admiring world your praise was sung Death turned your joy to dust without a sound . Take for your obsequies myallguished tears T lus nlilk, this bunch of flowers, that future 'years May find you ever the rose my passion found. ORLANDO ~9 1


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A COUNTRY FAIR Tn a small village where very few functions took place, the annual church fete, or "fair" as they ca lled it, was an occasio n of the utmost impo rtance, and "things" (ranging from

bottle stalls to babies' bootees) were prepared for it months before. On this occasion, Mrs. Pecksniff, the vicar's mouse-l ike wife, had said tha t Ihe sideshows " were to be more refined this yea r : no more of Mr. Ba rton's a nkle shows, fo r insta nce ; did yo u see what hap pened las t yea r? Highl y impro per !" "What happened last yea r" was indeed improper, but, as the field on which the fete was being held belonged to Mr. Barton, who was a dairy farmer, Mrs. Pecksniff could do very little more than suggest that the ankle sl10W might be "toned down" . On the morn ing of the fete the Reverend Cla ude Pecksniff a nd Farmer Ba rton were to be seen fra nticall y putting up Ihe tea-tent which had collapsed during the night ; apparentl y "something was wrong" wi th one of the two l11ai n poles, wit h the resul t that the tent was liable to enshroud a mass of chatting tea¡im bibers without a moment's notice. At about one o'clock the stall-holders began to arrive to ar range their stalls. Beatrice Carr, whose severe form usually haunted the va ult-like school, arrived first, armed with an a ntiq uated shopping-bas ket-on-wheels whicll contained a heap of what looked like brightly-coloured rags, but which turned out to be exquisitely made puppets, together with curtains and scenery. They must have taken her a long time to ma ke, and j udging by the expert precision with which she handled them, she was a very good manipulator. It was a strange sight to see; tllis harsh-faced, angula r old lady hanging bright curtains round a gaily-painted puppet theatre. Soon after Miss Carr came Mr. Grunt, who delivered the milk (he was never referred to as "milkma n"), his wife, and what seemed li ke dozens of children, who all had Mr. Grunt's broad country face and big feet. Mr. G runt and family were all loaded with books; very poor quality perhaps, but they made up for tilis in qua ntity ; indeed, the Grunt bookstall positively sagged under the weight. The fa mily from the Mill had a hoopla stall, and the younger generation of the Mill had erected a boxing ring in Olle corner of the field (unknown to Mrs. Pecksniff). The Three Cottagers had aj umble sale, a rifle raIlge (o n condition that they only used air- rifles), a nd a cake stall respectively. "M iss Ma nsion" (a yo ung lady of twelve from a palatial residence at the end of the village wl10se real name was Williams) was 0 11 the verge of tears when she heard that slle couldn't have a plaster model stall because "only ten models wasn't really enough, dear"; and P.c. Lale was offended when Mrs. Pecksniff said that " Surely it was cheating to have no numbers in the drum at all !". By two o'clock all the stalls were ready, the crowd was arriving, and battle commenced . The first cas ualty was Edwa rd Williams, who sustained a nose-bleed in the Mill famil y's unauthorised boxing ring; Mrs. Williams descended wrathfully upon the Mill's yo ungest, who had committed this outrage, without reckoning on Mrs. Mill, who came rushing to the defence of her yo ungest, followed by Mrs. Grunt (her excuse for interfering being that she was a witness) and Mrs. Lale (also a witness). Tile two witnesses disagreed ; a nd a fu rio us argument ensued, with all fo ur wo men shriek ing at the tops of their voices. Mrs. Lale had some adva ntage as she represented the Law by marriage, a nd the Law was, in fact, wandering across to see what was tro ubling his beloved, when Mrs. Pecksniff,

an ex perienced peacema ker, intervened. She mopped up the Willia ms child, soothed Ihe four agitated fema les, and removed the boxing ring. 392


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The afternoon wore. P.C. Lale sat and solemnly swindled Ilis customers at the bottle stall, Miss Carr gave two brillia nt puppet performa nces to a ppreciative a ud iences, " Miss Ma nsion" sold her models a nd tilen wen t to help her mother, a nd scandalised giggles were heard mingli ng with M r. Ba rton's raucous la ugh. The An kle Show was doing well. It became rather cold, a nd a stiff breeze sprang up. Miss Carr looked at the sky and hurried up the show. The Grunts looked proud ly a t their nearly empty book-stall, a nd doubtfull y at the sky. Everyone crowded into the lea-tent. P.C. Lale took a sip fro m o ne o f his bo tt les, savo ured, made sure his wife had gone, and took quite a long

drink. The wind rose, a nd the Three Cottagers left their stalls and made for the tea-ten I. Miss Carr a bandoned her puppet show and shepherded her juvenile audience after the cottagers . Inside the tea-tent, Mrs. Pecksniff and the Reverend we re doing a roaring trade ; the Reverend sell ing tea (\1Ot water) and Mrs. Pecksniff selling everythi ng. Mr. Pecksniff looked sadly at Ilis money-minded wife, a nd continued to sell hot wa ter. Mr. Barton was standing by the tottery tent-pole with a very worried expression on his face. He looked a t the pole. Would it hold, or wo uldn't it? He looked at it aga in . No, it wo uldn't! He was right ! With a ludeous noise of cracki ng wood and ripping canvas, the lent collapsed . Screams of terror arose from those underneath it, a nd a t the same time the heavens split with a deafening roar. Panic ensued ! On the whole, Mr. Barton mallaged the crisis very well. He first ordered everyone to be quiet, and nomi nated a few people to help him undo the pegs at tile side, so that those inextricably entangled could have the tent dragged off them. Soa king wet folds of clinging canvas are not easy to move around, especially in a cloudburst, but Mr. Barton got everybody out a nd led them to his kitchen to dry themselves out. It was a sad ending to a happy day, but the fete was nevertheless very successful ; besides, country folk take catastrophe in their stride. J.B.B.

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FORM-ROOM VARfETY 50 YEARS AGO A former colleague of mine, in a paper delivered to the Classical Association on the teaching of two great classical headmasters, Butler and Kennedy, has written a delightfu l note on the impermanency of the daily performances of masters in their form-rooms : "Notlling, as schoolmasters well know, passes so easily into oblivion as the teaching of the form-room; nothing is so difficult to describe; so ready to elude recovery. The preacher, the political orator, the actor deliver their words to an audience ephemeral indeed, but adult, voluntary, capable of criticism and comparison. He who teaches in school has an aud ience immature and in-

experienced, and, altllOugll ltigllly critical, yet under conscription. He confronts them for months at a streich and his appearance can have no glamour, no ai r of 'occasion', for those who hear him."

He might have added tlUlt the schoolmaster's performances are not merely twice nightly, like that of otiler variety artists, but four or five times daily; and that many of the interludes arc occupied with even more varied performances in spheres other than the form-room.

Very Old Boys have many of the characteristics of Very Ancient Mariners, but they seldom have either the eloquence or the glittering eye that can stay the passing reader with pictures of the academic life of a school of their day; but it may be of some interest to try to recall some of the actors in the form-rooms of King's at the beginning of the century. . Owing to the fact that I deserted the Classics for two years for tile adventures of Science my experiences in school with the Headmaster- tIlen Mr. Galpin- were limited to his lessons in Greek Syntax with the F ifth Forms. These were taken in the Parry Library, and cacll week we had to be word-perfect in some three or four pages of Thompson's text-book. Galpin would come in on the stroke of the clock with a dignified but brisk purposefulness and glance rapidly round the silent and apprehensive form with what had every appearance of an excess of benevolence, as if he were welcoming us all to a party. This deceptive appearance was reinforced by his habit of rubbing his hands together with what we knew in fact to be a malicious glee. There was no introd uctory nonsense; a few questions to be written, and then the real business of the day. He began his questioning in much the same way as that in which Trollope's Mr. Chaffanbrass might begin his cross-exaolination of a trembling witness, with a sort of oleaginous helpfulness wltich was designed to destroy tile morale of his victims and lead them to total confusion. "Now, Strahan, 1 am sure that you can tell us about the construction of a

rrpt'v

clause when the sentence is positive? Not quite the same, you will remember, as in a negative sentence. Shall we have the negative construction first? Yes, I tltink that would be the better course." "Ah, Budd , if I remember rightly yo u were not very strong on your examples last week. Perhaps you can give us an example which might clarify Strahan's rather confused version of Mr. Thompson's rule. Would it help perhaps if I gave you the English of a most admirable example first?" After the complete defeat of the entire form in a few minutes, Galpin wo uld suggest that we might feel more comfortable about our knowledge of the foundations of the Greek language if we were to learn those three pages again for next week as wcl1 as the 394


T H E CA NTUARIAN

next three pages. He would be delighted to go through these and give us any help he possibly could. His help consisted in altering the wording of nearly every Olle of Mr. Thompson's rules and adding more suitable examples- HBul T think you wil1 be better equipped if you learn Mr. Thompson's examples as weI!." Mr. Galpin and Mr. Thompson had , we were freq uently told, been col1eagues at Marlborough. Mr. Thompson, we were as frequently assured, was an excel1ent scholar; his text-book was the best yet written; but the impression we gained was that , like Wordsworth's "Excursion", it would never do. HAh"-and Galpin rubbed Ilis hands together with more than his usual malicious heartiness-Hthe next time I see myoid friend, Mr. Thompson, T must tel1 him that he might have made that rule just a shade clearer", or, HHe ought to have given us a slightly more memorable example, don't you think so, Sopwith?" Tt seemed unfair that I should be as ked to arbitrate between these two old friends in their own field of classical scholarship; but it wo uld obviously make things more comfortable all round if I gave an affirmative answer, and it was possible that an enthusiast ic affirmation of my belief in his superior erudi tion might even dispel the glint of malice from the solile with which he was awaiting my answer. HYes, Sir, J am quite certain that it would be better." Galpin was above al1 things efficient. Whatever he set out to do he did. H set out to teach us Greek Syntax, and somehow in these paralysing periods he came as near to achieving his object as is humanly possible. Galpin used to give to al1 Confirmation cand idates a li ttle book, Helps to Worship. I have mine still, and on the flyleaf, below Ilis presentation inscription in his firm and serviceable handwriting, is also inscribed : I Timothy vi, 12. And whenever 1 sec it I can still i,!,agine Galpin rubbing his hands together-whol1y benevolently now, I hope -and saymg : "All, Sopwitll, what a neat and easy example of the Cognate Accusative! I think even you could remember that one. Perhaps St. Paul had yo u in mind." My first form was, I think, cal1ed Upper IVA, but form nomenclature differs so widely in different schools and changes so rapidly at King's that I real1y do n't remember and it certai nly does not matter. Its headquarters were on tile gro und floor of the Parry building at the School House end; and it was presided, rather than ruled, over by a yo ung claSSIcal master, J. M. Edmonds, who was an easy-going form-master with an impish sellse of humour. Our main bill of fare consisted of Virgil and Horace, chiefly memorable because we had to learn by heart some twenty lines of the first and rather more of Horace each week. One of the very occasional higlllights in this form was the singing of Horace's Odes to tunes wlticll fitted al1 the intricacies of Horatian prosody. Sometimes this performance took place in Edmonds' own room in the School House, where he was Tutor, and on rare occasions in the form-room, where there happened to be a piano. Although this musical interlude seemed to give every opportunity for tltis easy-going for m to stage a riot, it never did so. Above us in the Library, Jerry Guest would probably be in the middle of a complicated matilematical problem with the Army Class and therefore we sang the more vigorously and at tremendous speed so that we might' have as much of the fun as possible before an emissary might ar rive from the Army Class with a mild and courteous translation of Jerry's unutterable protest. Tn fact T believe that this was the primary object of the operation. 395


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Another curious fealure of this form was the system of marking by places. Edmonds could not be bothered with written tests, and all learning work was tested by oral questioning. If, say, No.5 was asked a question and failed to answer it and it was finally answered by No. 10, then No. 10 took tile place of No.5 and all who had failed to answer the question moved down one. This made such lessons extremely exciting, and by the end of my first year J had acquired a useful technique for the game. I learnt the latter part of tile lesson very thoroughly and thought out all the possible supplementary and unexpected questions-for Edmonds was an unexpected sort of man-rather as the cross-word expert studies the modes of thought in those who set such things. 1 would slIde gently down the form to somewhere near the bottom and then wait anxiously for one of my "specials". With the best luck one of those would start with No. I, and there would then be the chance of the question arriving untouched, after the most excruciating suspense, at my lowly position. r could then take my place as No. I, and again with more luck that would be the end of the period and I would get top marks. How Edmonds correlated these haphazard and unfair estimates with the marks for the written exercises is not known, but the resu.lt was that large slabs of the form were always bracketed equal in the weekly orders; and We were always waiting for the final assembly of the term-when the Headmaster read out the end-of-term orders and promotions-and hoping to see Galpin rub his hands and hear him gleefully announce: "Upper IVA. The whole form bracketed equal, 1st". Edmonds also helped G. E. V. Austen, another young classical scholar, with the Classical VI. Together they produced one ' of the best editions of the "Characters" of Theophrastus. The theory was that Edmonds collected the illustrations while Austen did the work; but this is unlikely as Edmonds later, as Classical Lecturer at Jesus College, Cambridge, was responsible for some of the volumes of the Loeb Library. [n the early days of the First World War there occasionally appeared in The Times what may be called national poems, such as Laurence Binyon's For the Fallell, Housman's Epitaph all all Army oj Mercenaries and H ardy's Only a man harrowing clods. Among the less noted of these were two epigrams which could have been written only by a scholar steeped in the Greek Anthology : These in the glorious morning of their days For England's sake lost all but England's praise, and Oil Some who died early in the Day oj Battle: Went the day well? We died and never knew: But well or ill, England, we died for you. These were written' over the initials I .M.E. But I remember Edmonds as my first formmaster who infected his form with something of his easy-going courtesy a nd something, too, of hIS ImpISh humour, who taught us to work hard, but how not to take it all too seriously. If variety be the spice of life then the move from Edmonds' form to that of the Reverend L. G. H. Maso n, commonly known as Tar, was a great deal too spicy for me. Tar was an O.K.S: wh? had returned to tile SCl1001 as a master exactly thirty years before, and was now dIStinguIShed by a large paunch, heavy-bearded jowls, raul-drill eyes, and a gown that was green WIth age and wear. There were a few who could "take" him and may even have regarded his form-room appearances with some kind of dismal amUSeme!l!.. The ,,!ldest inha bitant of the form in my time could cat-sleep through the most t~rnfYlllg penods and wake up at the appropnate moments to supply one of Tar's favounte phrases from COlllngton's Virgil, or to laugll at one of his biting witticisms

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directed at the trembling translator of the moment or at the notes and comments of the scholarly and majestic editor of Horace, T. E. Page, whom for some reason he held in special contempt and wllOm, for some still odder reason, he called the Gadfly. Some, no doubt, revered Tar for his scholarship and may have learnt much from him; but for most of us the year in his form was a year ofterrol'. I tried to reduce this time by working at all my written work for him as I have never worked before or since, but as everyone did the same my efforts were unsuccessful. A description of these performances would require a style compounded of D ante and PeteT Cheyney; and I prefer to pass to one whose memory sho uld really be embalmed in the leisurely calm of the prose of Walter Pater. When I was in Tar's form I escaped his Latin and Greek Verse work by nibbling at Science, and at the end of the year I went over to the Science Side altogether. But I was officially in tllC Reverend L. H. Evans' form and worked with it for some periods, and of these r remember best those afternoon periods in the winter when he used to read to us some of llis favourite passages from English poetry. Evans always looked and spoke as if he were just falling asleep, and for that reason, I suppose, lle was universally known as Winks; in fact he also looked and spoke as if he were about to dissolve in tears. It â&#x20AC;˘ seems strange now that his drowsy and lachrymose renderi ng of poetry shou ld give us so much pleasure. His taste was Victorian, not unnaturally, since Queen Victoria had been dead less than two years; and I remember his reading tile most Victorian of Tennyson's poems, as Aylmer's Field and The Holy Grail, thougll the poem that has always stayed with me was by Tennyson in anotiler mood, Lucretius. Winks used to help me, too, in my struggles Witil Browning. He may have read to us in the summer too, but if he did, we must have falien victims to his drowsy voice and the poems must have fallen into oblivion as he read them. There was no official teaching of Englisll at King's then. It was in our written versions from Latin and Greek that we learnt to write English, a nd 1 suppose we lea rnt how to read it through the minutely careful study of classical texts. 1 read one play of Shakespeare at school, Hamlet. We prepared long passages from it and were asked to parse words, analyse sentences, paraphrase passages, give parallel quotations and so forth. We used Aldis Wright's edition, and the typical note which we had to learn was one on the line, [f thou canst mutine in a matron's bones: mutine, mutiny. See Ben Jonson's Sejanus, iii, i: 'Had but tilY legions there rebelled or mutined'. The verb 'mutine' does not occur elsewhere in Silakespeare. We have, however, 'mutine' as a substantive, Hamlet, v. ii. 6. Cotgrave gives 'Mutiner, to mutine; MutinateuT, a mutiner', i.e. mutineer. Tlus form 'mutiner' occurs in Coriolanus, i. i. 254, but in Tempest, iii. ii. 41, the Folio has 'mutineere'. We mayor may not have learnt a good deal about the English language, but if we learnt to love Shakespeare or English poetry 1 tilink tile fault must be laid to those winter afternoon readings. I call hear his voice as in some superlatively tranquil dream: The Gods, who haunt The lucid interspace of world and world, Where never creeps a cloud, or moves a wind, Nor ever falls tilC least white star of snow, Nor ever lowest roll of thunder moans, Nor sound of human sorrow mounts to mar Their sacred everlasting calm. And th"t is just where Winks o ught to be. S.S.S. 397


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MOZART 'rhe bicentenary this year of Mozart's birth affords an excellent opportultity for Ius revaluation, a task that has been long overd ue. Mozart is 110t an easy musician to understand, but the present generatioll seems more able and wilUng to appreciate than any era since his own day, wh.ere even his contemporaries were baffled by h.is genius. For better or fo r worse we are now reacting from the prevailing pattern of tltought inherited from the latcr stages of 19th century romanticism, and it was the romantic movement wluch on the wilole did not appreciate Mozart and where it did recognise his greatness, did not understand it. The attitude of this romantic revolt iltitiated by Beethoven has not as yet been replaced, but it has succeeded in destroying itself. With the slowly evolving traditions of the ages that preceded it so cursorily laid aside, we are beginning to realise the appalling vaclIlIl1lleft to us, and a revaluation of Mozart's g r eat~ ness is hereby necessitated. It is freq uent to hear Mozart spoken of as essentially a "product of the 18t1t century", wlto, in spite of Ius undoubted genius, created no style but remained the priso ner of his cultured context. This is plainly a very jaundiced viewpoint based on the ass umption. that "romanticism" in music is the ideal form of expression, and moreover plainly indicates an inadequate knowledge of Mozart's work. The 19t1t century could not deny Mozart's geni us but as positive recognition of his worth and relevance as a composer would have forced them drasticaJJy to revise their own mode of music, they tended to dismiss lum as a gilded cherub who used his¡ music to express a cltild-like naivete and sweetness, which, even if "divine", was very remote froll1 the emotions and troubles of human life. Tlus view, superficial and ntisguided as it is, stili finds many adherents. Exanunation of Ius greatest wo rks indicates the real tr uth, and proves that his divine "limpidity" of expression, in its limited sense, though an extremely important aspect of his genius, is nO more than a part of it. His greatest works are never confined within restrictions of any form. Mozart was born into a courtly and refined, one Jnight call it a rococo, style of music, and Ius early work reflects its aristocratic grace and ornamented delicacy perfectly. He never had any difficulty in expressing lumself in galallt language. But true greatness will always find its own level, and when he did want to express deep moods and emotions, he never actually overthrew or broke with Ius earlier style, but heightened and transformed it out of all recognition. What is often lightly described as "Mozartian" is in fact typical of aU the lesser composers of the period whose style before creating a distinctive idiom of Itis own, he absorbed, and in later li fe, returned to for such unpretentious incidental music as Ius Eine kleine Nachtmusik . In Mozart, altho ugh ltis later work cannot be explained in tenns of anyone style, there is no sense of break with tlte past. The rococo style of music was an extremely linUted medium, but the greatness of Mozart could express itself over and above it, without alty need for its destruction. If we must fit Mozart into the intellectual context of Ius age-and it is worth remembering that had he lived a fulilife, 11e wo uld lUlve been olily 71 at Beetltoven's death in 1827 and might well have o utlived Schubert-we will get nowhere by trying to reconcile him Witll the rather hysterical isolatio nalism of contemporary German lhougltt, for even Goethe was born seven years before him. Mozart's Austria was far mo re under the sway of French and Italian influences, and the society he moved in was not remote and provincial, but one of thc centres or a universal European society. If we must sec Mozart 398

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in relation to the cultural and social background (intellectual or cultural "movements" are essentially no more than a convenient historical generalization- in fact nothing greater than each individual artist is adequate for stud y) we shall see him best aga inst the trends of the all-pervasive Frellch thought of the period- the revolutionary and prerevolutionary era-and from a social standpoint, the expression of the middle-class ideals of classical severity and order rather than their irrational "sensibility" or arisocratic decorative luxuriance . Mozart is very much the child of his age. He belongs to the era of the greatest outb urst of Europealt culture since the Renaissance. He is not a produce of the age of Voltaire and the philosophers, but of the generatiolt which succeeded them-of Rousseau, Goethe and Burke. Thus Beaumarchais' Mariage de Figaro when it appeared, as a biting satire on a decadent and parasitic aristocracy, but transformed by Mozart two years later in 1786, it becomes a gentle comedy (and indeed the classic model for all comic grand operas since), painting the charm and grace or a nevertheless decaying society, with a tenderness and sympatlty in the portrayal of some of the characters that is largely unknown to the middle epoch of the century. It is inadequate to say that he was adopting the standpoint of a nobility in whose circles he moved , as it was that same aristocracy which had laughed so much at Bea umarchais' play, little realising what it portended for them. The age of Voltaire was not an age of great music any more than it was an age of poetry-G luck was his musical counterpart, not Mozart. At Voltai re's death in 1778, Mozart wrote to his father of that "godless arch-rasca l, Voltaire, who has died like a dog, like a beast; that is his reward". Music-least of all Mozart's-is not the instrument of a cynical rationalism, but a play on emotion. "Mozart was always a religiolls man, besides holding high moral views about women: "J cannot live like most of the young men of to-day. Tn the first place, .I have too much respect for my religion, and in the second I love my neighbour and honest ideals too much to be able to seduce an innocent girl .... " And it was typical of the age that his religious impulses should not be satisfi ed by the orthodox Catholic Church of the period, but that in common with Goethe and Haydn and very many intellectuals of the time he became a Freemason-a movement with many revol utionary connections. The first act of The Magic Flute ends with a tremendous passionate chorus in praise of Truth,Wisdom, Nature and Reason, and the theme of the whole opera stresses the need for humility and reliance on the powers above, and that ultimate joys are to be found by the divine guidance through the passions and sorrows-symbolized by fire and water-of life. Noel Goodwin, in February's number of History Today, regards Mozart as essentially a product of the artistocratic society and ideals which died at the onset of the Revolution, and produces as evidence his transformation of The Marriage of Figaro-already alluded to. The point is, that Mozart belonged to a generatiolt which, like Burke, felt the need to protest against the destructive tendencies of tlte epoch before them. In any case The Magic Flute was designed specifically for a new middle-class type of audience. The very poise and unveiled passion of Mozart's greatest wo rks is sufficient parallel to the reaction against mere rationalism and the assertion of emotional values of the time . Yet Mozart was too much of an artist to discard or decrease the importance of the techluque of composition which he had so painstakingly learned from childhoodit becomes on the contrary, more miraculously perfect in his later works. The key to Itis greatness is the fact that wlule expressing deep emotions new to the music of the day, he maintained complete control of his mode of expression, which increases in technical mastery in proportion to the more profound emotions co ntained within it. Mozart, then, ~99


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belongs to that great cultural outburst of the end of the 18t11 century and the beginning of the 19th century, a movement on its own, separate from the mere immature seeds of later romanticism. Mozart expresses the attempt to achieve new heights of grandeur in a rejuvenated austere classical form-a trend we can see clearly in the French Revolution, with its use of titles slich as "consul", Napoleon's resurrection of classical Rome and the paintings of David. It is interesting to note that Mozart's operas and las t sympllOnies were performed with great success and appreciation in France during the Empire. This form is as different from courtly rococo decoration as from romantic exuberance. Moza rt expresses emotions as overwhelmingly powerful as anything conjured up by the romantics, but they are never allowed to impede his classical perfection and balance of form and constructio n, for he had the technical mastery to be able to mould Ilis fo rm to ti,e dictates of the emotional content of the work witho ut lessening its immed iate urgency. Beethoven did not express his titanic passions within a form whose overall bala nced structure a nd logic is a delight in itself, and he misses the subtle balance of the emotional and the fo rmal that is the basis of the greatest art. The two factors which make any assessment of Mozart as an artist so difficult, arc, firstly his prematurely early death in 1791 at the age of only 35, and secondly the fact that the greater part of the three years from 1788 to 1790 was spent in a fru itless search for employment and a soul-destroying life of poverty, malnutrition and ill-health, a period in which he produced little work. A fri end calling on him one winter evening, records that he found him and his wife dancing round the room togetller to try and keep warm, as they could not afford to buy fuel. . His condition is confessed in his letters-for example this one of 12th-14th July, 1788 written toa friend: "Good God! [would not wish my worst enemy to be in my present position. And if you .... forsake me, we are altogether lost, both my unfortunate and blameless self and my poor sick wife and cnild", and that of the 14th August, 1790 : " Whereas I felt tolerably well yesterday, I am absolutely wretched today. I could not sleep all night for pain ....... What indeed is remarkable is now for the most part Mozart managed to maintain an attitude of calm and cheerfu lness, during which he produced a vast of amount of music, if measured by sheer bulk, so much of which, however, even though written in the years of his Viennese maturity, is of very little importance to any appreciation of his artistic development, but was hur riedly composed in order to earn a little money by the fulfilment of some trivial comm ission. Thus after his profo undly tragic Piano Concerto in C minor, he dasllCd off the trifl ing, if charming, horn concerto (K . 495). Like many of the greatest artists, Mozart acllieved maturity no tably late ra ther than early in life (although he had long had mastery of the science of composition). As also he took more trouble over his greatest works-which in any case can practically be counted on one's fingers-that, with his early death, causes the great majority of his music to be of lesser interest and importance, so, unless we are very careful, pulls our whole picture of him out of its true proportion. And it is true that his music does lack the richness and breadth that is the product of middle age, in comparison with Bach or Beethoven . His work expresses the emotional development of a young man. It is not any weakness of his music as SUCll that he died so young. If we are to judge Mozart, therefore, it must be by his greatest work. The full realization of Mozart's maturity and the final discarding of conventions that would impede his complele self-expression does not occur until around his twenty-ninth birthday, and can be split into two stages- the first the transition from yo uth into a profound ma nhood and the second, the deepen ing and widening of his mature 400

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expression and technique .. The first we can see in its fullness in the great piano concerti. the Praglle ~ymphony, Flg,!ro and DOli Giovalllli. The second is something only to be guess~d at-It IS lunted at m the last three symphonies, whicll arc essentially works of experllnent-and. IS ~ nly really expressed (but far from fully) in the compositions of the last year of hfe, III The MagiC Filile and the final piano concerto where the overwhelming impression is of a tragic incompletion. It was in the great 'piano concerti of 1785. a nd 1786 that Mozart reached tile summit of Ilis achievement in this earl ier period of Ius matunty,. a nd they are pro,bably IllS .greatest works, for it is in them that we get the clearest IIlslght mto Mozart sown mmd . The mood varies fundamenta ll y from concerto to concerto- they each have a quite distinctive character of their own but expressed directly. in some, and in a mOl:e veiled form in others they have a backgr~und of deep a nd passIonate sorrow. When III No. 25 the last of the series tile sad mino r episodes of the first m~vement are finally modu lat~d into the magnificent' heroic crashing chords. and fal:farcs wl ~h wluch the movement opens and closes, we experience an overM whelmlllg feeli ng of triu mp h, not onl y because of ti,e Illusic itself but beca use of the unresolved sufferi ng that has go ne before in the otl,ers. The firs; the D min or is a q uite 110rrifying revelation of stark, raving despair. The first move;nent of K.407' in C has. a martial splendour that is marred by mistful little minor melodies and suddell Jarnng changes of key; the second movement expresses a resigned , soft ly sobbing sorrow. which the fina le, WIth Its atmosphere of opera bouffe, does not resolve, but ignores. That III E. Hat (K.482) I ~ centred round the sombre pathos of Ihe long slow movement in C mll1Or. The exquIsIte beauty of the long lyrical melodies of K.488 does not conceallhe cantabile ~o~row that is, the mood of the whole adagio. The C minor (K.491) No. 24 is III .my OplnlOll Moza rt s greatest work, and probably the finest piano concerto ever wntten--:-before the tenden.cy of exuberant virtuosity suggested by Beethoven had resulted. III the debasmg of thIs medIum t<;> a mere vehicle for virtuoso display. Beethoven's concert. never had the Importance m hIS output that Mozart's did as compared to his own sonatas and sympho.nie.s. Mozart's big concerti are essentially symphonic i., thought ~nd str.uctur:e, and are, IIlcldentall ~, on an a~erage longer than his symphonies. This III C mlllor IS a profoundly dramahc and trag.c work. The first movement is a masterpiec~ of Hawless and detailed cO!lStruction ha rnessed to the expression of deep and trag.c pass,lOlls, III co ntrast to wludl t he second displays a movingly gentie simplicity. The fi nale IS a senes of dyna miCvan atlons 0 11 a SInister march-li ke theme ending after a brief cadenza, wi til. a passage qui te hor rifyin" in the intensity of its u'H~solved passion. One cannot deternune the mood Mozart was III when he wrote it, but it is frighteni ng to t1unk. There IS absolut~l y no compromise wi th contemporary convention-it migllt Just as well have been written m 1886. The first movement is built up on the contrast of terse, ~harp, trag.c phrases fro~ the full orchestra balanced by the most lovely flowing melodies o~ the WO<;>dWlOd, wIll ie the plano, as well as expressing a mood of its own, acts as an mtermedtary between these contrasting forces and welds Ihe whole into a balanced and inter-related unity. The spacious and majestic rhythm (in contrast to the fevertsh speed of the first movement of the D minor) provides a framework of broad grandeur for the heroic dimensions contained within it. Tn 1787 when he heard of his father's serious illness, he wrote : "As death, striclly speakmg, .s th~ true end and aIm of our lives, I have, for the last two years made myself so well acquamted WIth tlus true, best frtend of mankind, that his image no longer ternfies,. but calms and consoles me. And I thank God for giving me the opportunity of learmng to look upon deatll as the key which unlocks the ga tc of truc bl iss .. .. 40 1

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For this blessing I thank my Creator every day, and wislt from my heart that 1 could share it with my fellow men" . It is significant that it was "two years" before that he had become a Freemaso n and that from tlte same period dates tite sudden change of mood and character that bursts out in the D minor co ncerto and other works of the period. Mozart was born in 1756 at the height of the age of the galant, and before the clouds of political and cultural revolution had begun to gat her. His seventieth birtitday wo uld have fa llen in 1826, eleven years after the final defeat of Napoleon, when ro manticism was so established as to have al most lost its original revolutionary character. There is every reason for supposing th.a t ha d he lived a full life, Mozart's music would itave continued the logica l artistic development that we can sec in progress in his later life right up to Ilis death. On the otiter hand, there is no reaSOlt whatever for supposing that his music would have undergo ne any radical change in character. The age he lived in was itself a period of politica l and cultural revolution. There is not the slightest hint of tlus itt Mozart's music. He can only be a ttached to the period Ite lived in by the fact that it was an age of great cultural activity. Comparison with Beethoven obvio usly springs to mind, not only beca use they are so different, but because lhey are also so neal' in time. Mozart is essentiall y passive artisticall y, reflecting his experiences and ideal s in terms of music. Beethoven is active, striving to overcome and create and COllstruct his ideal of heroic greatness. Where Mozart does express a philosophy, ilt The Magic Flule, it is stated as something not only obvious but eternally true and unshakeable, and moreover with no social or political implications. Compa rq this with Fidelio and the "deliverance of mankind from tyranny" , 1n MOL'ut's music there is no attempt to solve the intense suffering titat is so often reflected in it, a nd neither is there any psychological process from movement to movement- there is something of the sort in the G minor and the final piano concerto in B flat- but r think it is unconscious. A fact Wllich is not often sufficiently realized is that Moza rt's music is a colossal task of synthesis. The styles of fund amentally differing schools and composers are welded into One unity by Itim. H e was always ready to leam and itis humility is one of Ius most impressive and endearing features. He has, in fact, extremely few personal idiosyncracies of style-what is original is the nund and spiri t wlticlt transformed that whlch he inherited. .If he is not iltdividualistic, he is universal. The unique quality of Moza rt is Itis fund amental intensely delicate sensibility to form, melody and harmony. Combined with this are the profound emotions and feelings whiclt are necessary to give it meaning, and the penetratingly powerful intellect witich both need to be translated into art. But everythi ng Mozart wrote is diffused with that " di vine" purity and nobility, of which no-one can fail to be aware, but which few can understand . He can be appreciated on several levels simulta neo usly-or to the uninitiated on one alone. The peculia r greatltess of hls music is its blending of tite tecitlucal intricacy and perfection we associate with Bach wi tit the direct emotional appeal of Beethoven. 11 sta nds co mparison with either on tileir own gro und . H e is probably the most gifted musician in the wo rld since Bach, but he was not adapted by temperament or physique to surmount its problems, a nd his full capabilities were never realised. His contemporaries were quite nonplussed by itim, and tile 18th century, judging hlm by preconceived standards, could not appreciate hlm fully- but then, there was nothing " of an age" about Mozart. He, too, is "for all time" , A.N. A.B. 402

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NIGEL WIREKER At tite monas tery of Christ Church, Canterbury. there were in the twelfth century two of the ~rea test na mes III the Iiterat~~e of the period : John of Salisbury. whose Pohcral,eus IS one of the best-known politi ~a l wo rks of the Middle Ages, and Nigellus, whose Speculum Slul/orum IS an,excelle!lt .satlre on the social, and especially ecclesiastical, world of the day. John of Sali sbur~ IS Justl y fa~ous, but the wo rks of Nigellus seem to I~ave lapsed , more than most mediaeva l T....atl1l Itterature, mto considerable obscurity; r thmk they are worthy of more attention. Nigellus came of a Canterbury fami ly ; his father was Gi lbert de Sarneir, who ap pea rs to have come from the Channel Islands (Sarnelr is the Latin name for Guernsey) a nd to have settled 111 Canterbury a sllOrt time before 1152 the date when his name first occurs in any of the city's documents (the na me Wireker.' by whicll Ite is known today, is not fo und until the 16th century). He entered the monastery soon before 1170; 11e claims to have known Becket, who was murdered in that year, and in a treatise Call Ira Curiales et Officiales Cleri~o.s, he speaks of the Archbisitop as ...... beatum .. .. martyrem Thomam, quem v,IdllTIUS.o,cuh ~ nostrrs . , , , cum quo manducavimus et bibimus", He reached no very itlglt posll1o.n m the monastery, and in 1193, twenty-four yea rs after his en.tr~nce, he could, stilI deSCribe illmself as a presbyter, and "Cantuariae ecclesiae fratrum ITIJIllffiUS frater Nigellus, vestr~ monachus, vita peccator, gradu presbyter". But nevertheless, he seems to have obtamed some literary and diplomatic reputation, for he took part III the famou s dispute between the monastery and Arcitbishop Baldwin, described in Professor Stubb's preface to Epislo/re Cantuarienses; and if we can assume certain letters to itaye been written by him, which from internal evidence is quite proba ble, ite was pron:lI~ent ~n the settlement of certam a nnoymg problems connected wi th the internal adml1l1stratlOn of the monastery. He claims, moreover, to have been in Coventry, Normandy, and other distant places, a nd we must ass ume that he was sent titere on mis~jons of s.ome kind . Evidently, th~ refore, he was a prominent figure in the administratIOn, and It was probably due to tillS that his friend ship with William of Longchamp Bishop of Ely and Chancell or of Engla nd , ca me about. . He was a great ma n to be so great a fnend of Olle such as Wu¡eker, wlto dedICated to tite Bishop COlllra Curailes el Officiales Clencos, a ~ well as the Speculum Slullol'wn , and often refers to him in the treatise, in letters and III poetry. His minor works include a collectiolt of sitort poems dedicated to Honorius, Prior at Canterbury from 11 86 to 11 88; these a re in the Vespasian MS. D. XIX in the British Museum, a nd are. at present unpublished. This poetry is typical of tha t of a mediaeval monk , perlla ps slightly !,lOre clever and at times more lovely tha n usua l. He uses his verse very c1e~erly, and .IS obVIOusly a poet, for he handles the Latin metres with perfect ease and claSSIcal preCISIOn, These works begin:

quascunque manus pervenerit iste Iibellus Dicat, in eterna requiescat pace Nigellus. Si quid in hoc modico quod te iuvet esse Iibello Contigerit dicas : sit lux eterna Nigello. Huius quisquis eris conspector forte libelti Die ita: Christe lhesu, nUseri miserere Nigelli. FactoTis memor esto tui: sic parve Iibelle Sepius et dicas: vivas sine fine Nigelle."

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He plays cleverly with the words "libellus" and "Nigellus", but sllch devices were typical of much mediaeval poetry and shew the entertainment that its composition must have given. In Gottschalk's intensely moving" 0 quid iubes, pusiole", there are, for no apparent reason, sixty lines all ending in the letter "e"; and Anghilbert's harrowing description of the Battle of Fontenoy (in 84 1, when the Frallks were defeated by the Normans-"Noxque ilia, nox amara, noxque dura nimium") has fifteen verses, each beginning if a different letter of the alphabet, in order. A far more refined and clever and effective form of rhyme is to be found in the verse introduction to the COlltra Curiales. A couplet in which he uses this rhyme is this: "Si metu credideris nulla ratione morel'is, Perricies leviler hoc brevitatis iter." Most of this work is in prose-excellent prose, too ; but the introduction is in elegiac couplets which a re in many places very good ve rse. The last of the poems in this collection is worthy of mention, for it is in the same spirit as the Speculum Swltol'w1'1 , both critica l and perfectionist. Quae 1I10nachis deceant detai ls. many ways by which the true monk may be recogn.ised; the climax is reaclled when he says: "contemptus hororum, Proprietati s arnOT Ilullus, pia cura SliorUtn.

Ista decent monachum, sunt haec pronostica certa. Ergo sit a monacho procul aes et bursa referta ." Other minor works of various kinds are detailed by Leland, Dart and others, but they are either untracea ble or unpublished. Wright, in Anglo-Latill Satirical Poets of the 12th Century, Vol. r, in the Rolls series, publishes a poem called Nigelli versus, ad Dominum Gulielmum EliellsulII; it is a very good poem, but happens to be the work, not of Nigellus, but of John of Salisbury, and had been published seventeen years before, without, apparently, Wright's noticing it. In the same book is published the Contra Curiales and the Speculum Stultorum. The Speculum was Nigellus' best known work, and was very popular, even in the Middle Ages, to judge from the number of manuscripts found in all parts of Europe. T ile Britisll Museum possesses a copy of it printed in Cologne in 1499, as well as several undated copies which are probably of an earlier date. Chaucer refers to it in ti,e N un's Priest's Tale, II 450 2-6 : "I have wei red , in "Daun Burnel the Asse", Among his vers, how that ther was a cok, For that preestes sone yaf hYIll a knok Upon Ilis leg, whit he was yong alld nyce, He made hym for to lese his benefi ce." The date of the Speculum is uncertain ; in the text (Op. cit. p. 17) there is a rcference to Louis ti,e Seventh of France, who died in 1180; the date of the work must therefore be put as late as possible before then, so as to be in accordance with Nigellus' reference to himself as old (p. 11). The story tells 110W the dOllkey Burnellus, or Brunellus (Daun Burnel the Asse), dissatisfied with his short but perfectly adequate tail, goes to great length to obtain a longer one. On this story is built the fascinating poem, whicll is really a satire in the sense of the Roman satires, a "farrago" or mixture, something loosely connected and bound to no strict form, containing really any elements that the author might care to introduce, so long as the subject is not lost sight of. Thus the Speculum contains not only the story 404

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of Burnellus' adventures, but several fables (there was a precedent even for this ill the satires of Ennius), passages, complete in themselves, against partidular religious 'orders, and a story at the end about Burnellus' master, which appears totally irrelevant. Discontented with his tail, then, Burnellus goes to the physician Galienus who he thinks, will be able to help him to obtain a longer one. Galienus advises him t~ be c~ntent with the perfectly good tail that he already possesses, and illustrates Ilis point With a fable about two cows, Bicorllls and Brunetta ("Brunetta" like "Burnellus" is a dintinutive of ubrunus", just as "donkey" is of "dun" and "Nig;lIus" of "niger"). ' One winter they doze so long that their tails are frozen into the ice ; Brunetta is wise and waits till the ice melts, but Bicornis is hasty, cuts her tai l off and goes off, mocking at Brunetta who IS left there. When summer comes, however, and with it the gad-flies she bitterly regrets her loss. I n the winter she had said : ' "Non honor est, sed on us, haec mea cauda mihi." But in the summer : "Cur mihi cum cauda Ilon est mea vita rccisa?" BUr!lell us, ~owe~er, cannot ~ce. the moral of the story, and persists in his intention. So Gahenu.s gIves lum a prescnptroll for a longer tail, the ingred ients for which can on ly be obtallled m Salernum, and a mock blessing beginning "Omnipotens odia tibi mi lle det .. . . " to which the ass says Amen: "Ingeminantis Amen vox est audita per urbem, murmuriique sonum percipit omne forum." So Burnellus ~ets out O~l his j?urney, arrives .at Salernum, obtains his ingredients and starts home agam; But hlS precIous burden IS m glass botties, symbolising the fragility of hum~n en.terprlse, so that when he is set upon near Lyons by a pack of dogs owned by. a CISterCIan monk named Fromundus, who claims that he is trespassing on the private land of the monastery, t11ey are all shattered, he loses everything,-and, worst of all, half of IllS tali, whIch IS already short enough, is bitten off. The portrait of Fromundus, a member of an order whicll Nigcllus hated, is bitter: "Non tamen accelerans, ni cum pulsatur ad allam, Ut so let ad mensam ventre docente viam; Sed pede spondaico gressu gradiens asi nino, Ut solet ad la udes noctc venire venit; Extendensque manu m, dicto benedicite, hal ha l Dixit, amovit corripuitque canes." Brunellus, to g.et some kind of reven&e, pretends to be a n envoy of the Pope, alld threatens Fromundus WIth all kinds of penailles ; Fromundus is very concerned and decides that it would be best to murder the supposed envoy : Accipiam stultum, socium simulabo fidelem, Committet sese credulus ille mihi." But it is the ass who triumphs; as they are passi ng over the Rhone: "Impulso subito summa de rupe reiectum Fromundum Rodani fecit ad ima vehi. l nterceptus aquis mortem gustavit in undis; lusus et est propriis artibus ipse prior." And he sings a song of triumph: "Cantemus, socii! festum celebremus, aselli I vocibus et votis organa nostra sonent." 405


T HE CANTU A Ri A N 'U po n reflecti on, however, he remembers the loss of his tail , and considers what course

of action he should now take. He cannot return to England, for: "Ri sus ero populis, risus to tiu s et urbis, Ris us eri t magna cauda recisa foro."

He must have sometlling to compensate for the loss of his ta il, so he decides to go to Paris to obtain (he title of "Magister". On the way there he fa lls in with a Cicilian called Arnold, who (ells him the story referred (0 in Cha ucer. I n Paris he jo ins (he English

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students there, of who m we are given tltis description :

"Fercula multiplicant, et sine lege bi bunt. W essa il ct drin khayl, nee non perso na secunda,

Haec tria sunt vitia quae comitantuf cos. His tribus exceptis, nihil est quod in his reprchendas" And he spends seven yea rs in Paris, after which he has learned nothin g: "Semper ya re petit , nihil es t quod dicere poss it , Affcctu s qllovis verbere, praeter ya"

He rea lises this a nd regrets it deeply: "N o n sum Burnellus sapiens, sed iners, et asellus Semper, et in primis stultus, he besque nimis. Stu ltu s ego llatu s sum, stultus et ante creatlls, Quamqlle diu fuero, n Oll nisi stultus era."

So he gives up his high ambitions and decides that it would perhaps be best to become a simple monk . Here N igell us has an opportunity to review the va rio us monastic orders,

through the mo utll of Burnellus; the result is that no order satisfies the ass and he decides to fo und o ne of his own, incorporati ng the eas iest fea tures of each : "Ca rthusiae fratres in eo discern o sequendos, Missa quod in mense sufficit una satis." At this poi nt the physician Ga lienus appears, and -Burnellus is forced to confess his fa ilu re. And then Itis old master Bernardlls appears 0 11 the scene, cla ims hi m as his property, loads him up and rides otT.

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The SpecululII is written in elegiac co uplets, which lelld themselves to Nigellus' purpose, for he has sufficient craftsmanship to manipulate them as he wishes. The narrati ve is clear eno ugh, the onl y o bscurity bein g where he is express ing his opini o ns 0 11 matters in general. His co mmand over words is Itighly develo ped, all owin g ex tremely effective

passages such as this description of the attacks of a gad fly on a cow : "H aec abit, ilia volit, fugit haec, comi ta ntur et ill i, hi stimulant, mordent, urget et illa pedes."

or this description of the comillg of summer: "Certat odor florum cantus superare vo lucru m; Orga na vox superat, balsama vi ncit odor. D ulce so nan t silvae, redolent thymiama ta, ca mpi . .. " He uses alli te ration very frequent ly, as here: "Spes fui t in fiore, sed fl os defloruit, a spe

Spes cecid i(, fr ucta deficiente bono." The whole story is obvio usly a sati re on va rious tllings which have attracted tile wr iter's attention: as he himself poin ts o ut at the begin ning, the ass represen ts a mo nk "aut vir quili bet re li giosus in c laustra positu s" who is not satisfied with his positi o n but wishes to attain some higher position such as that of an abbot o r pr io r; and 406

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From undus represents anyo ne who tries to deceive so me apparently simple person

but is likely in doing so to fall into Ilis own traps. Acco rding to certai n authorities, the character of the ass is in itself a parody on the a bstract phi loso phy of the day, fo r he represents "the ass-in- particular, as opposed to the abstract idea of tha t animal". But it is no use simply writing a satire upon an essentially tem porary state of atTai rs (though the very fact that sati re is written UpOll it suggests that it is well established a nd to a certain extent accepted), nor wri ting direct attacks such as those against the religious orders of the day. N igellus has qualities over and above tllat, q ualities sufficie nt to make him figu re in some a nthologies: the a bili ty to present his subject wittily a nd interes tingly, a nd a command over versification sufficient to produce passages bea utiful in themselves a nd to ma ke the actual subject-matter more etTecti ve. These two clements are there onl y to give his didactic purpose some cha nce of getting across to a wide circle of readers, but they are the only ones in which we are interested to-day, a nd they are good enough to justify the reading of his wo rks by others than simply students of mediaeva l literature.

B.K.J.

CAN THESE BONES LIVE ? 1t was evening a nd the sun's rays were just visible as a dim glow below the horizon in the West. Soon it became almost dark; that another day was gone for ever was mani fest by the complete a bsence of sound. It was exactly at that hour between night and day when the creatures of daylight are sleeping in the dust after a long day in the heat of the sun ; and when the nocturnal beings are not yet awake after a day of silent slumber. The hush that had fallen was undisturbed. No wind rustled the thin dry grass or stirred the drooping palm leaves, a nd the lapping of the wavelets on the shore was too far off to be audible. Then without wa rning the peace was shattered: ill the none too dista nt cluster of palm-thatched Atap houses, which constituted the only na tive habitation for ma ny miles, an ancient gramophone struck up a da nce melody tha t had long been forgotten in the hurrying world. The cooling night wind got up otT the sea a nd bent the already curving palms; with it the native boy tho ught he co uld smell the decaying bones that lay at the bottom of the clitT. He shivered. "1 have yet a long time to wa it, fo r the moon is not yet risen", tho ught the boy, so

whell he w~s sure he was safe, he curled himself up a nd returned to his troubled dreams, pressing into the wa rm earth like a child pressing fo r refuge into his mother's breasts. Hours slipped by over the head of the unconscious little Malay boy. Bare feet ceased to pad in the dry dust of the village street ; the gramophone at last stopped; but for the eternal screaming of the crickets a nd the sounds in the jungle all was once more silent. A quietly gliding moon rose slowly over the head of the twitching palms and shed a dim glow over the seasca pe, and it was not un til it was lugh in the sky that its peaceful light at last penetrated into the heap of breathing grass and the boy opened his eyes and looked carefully ro und the shadowy a rea abo ut his hide-out . Finding all was quiet he slowly got up and ti p-toed to the nea rby clitT edge. T ilere he stood for some time between two tall palms, whose long leaves met in an arch high above his head. He rested a ha nd on each tree, lookin g dow n to the very botto m pas t the grey clitT face. 407


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'rhere he could see white bones gleaming dully in the moonlight. Ariff, for so he was called, knew the story of those bones, for it was his own brothers that lay there. Nearly fifty Malays had been dragged to ti,e top of the cliff, and facing out to sea they had been machine-gunned in the back ; it was all over in a few minutes, but half the male population of the village became mea ningless heaps, washed by the tide. Ariff turned away in disgust and trod quietly back past his late hide-out to the edge of the clearing wllerein stood his old home. This was the spot wllere he had been born ; he could just see the roof of palm thatch under which it had all happened. He cast his mind back almost as far as it cou ld go, to the long, happy days that had passed by in one long unending stream, either playing by himself in the dirt at the side of the road, digging his little black toes into the soft dry dust, or good-naturedly teasing his sisters. A tear came in his eye as he remembered how, soon after the spiteful little Japanese had arrived, they had committed the crime at the cliff edge which had ended the life of his brothers, and from which his father had been lucky to escape. That very night his parents left llim to the care of an old and well-loved friend , and departed down the cliff face into a little junk which took them to safety. They had not taken Ariff because he had not been old eno ugh to climb down the bare rock by himself, and no-one would have dared to carry Ilim lest the precious burden fall and dash itself against tlle weather-worn bones. Earlier that evening his family had kissed him an unusually tender good-night: in the morning- Oh, he could not think of that again. By tllis time, big silver tears were rolling down his cheeks-but suddenly he had to stop for a shadow had flitted across the dim street, slipping towards him. Hastily, with 110 more lime to cry, he glided back into the thick jungle, back towards the cliff edge, casting many backward glances in case the Jap was following ; he saw no-one. Nevertheless, the drumming in his ears prevented him from hearing an occasional snap of a twig or the grass rustling almost as an echo some distance behind him. When at last I,e reached Ilis two trees again, he saw to his deligllt a tiny gleam a little way from the shore. Tlunking the boat was almost close enough, he went to a clump of bamboos in Wllich he had carefully hiddell a long length of rope for many months. I t did not take lum long to secure one end of the rope to the firmer of the two trees and to hurl the other end over the cliff. Althougll the rope hung to only half tile height, it was possible to edge down the rest of the way without help. Seeing that he still had to wait for the boat he sat down with his feet over the edge of the cliff with a hand on each tree, stretched between them. It was thus that he was first seen by the Jap, his lips twisted into a thin, cruel smile. There the victim sat, unknowing, silhouetted in the moonlit sky. So they waited, the one for the little boat which carried his worried mother towards lum, to draw closer ill; the other for his prey to begin his perilous downward journey. At last Ariff thought he could wait no longer, so he looked once at the knot at the base of the tree a nd down the length of the rope to the strip of beach so far below, that remained at lugh tide. Still he delayed, fearful ; he whispered something to the moon, then gently knelt down on the bare rock and kissed his mother soil farewell. Was it for ever? Perhaps the hidden soldier was moved by this pitiful exhibition, or it may have been just a cruel urge to cause anguish that prevented him from murdering the boy then. 408

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. Suddcnly resolution returned and Ariff. caught hold -of the rope alld swung lumself mto mid-air willie IllS toes were braced aga mst the cliff face. As the dark head descended from view the soldier got ,Quietl y up and walked briskly to the rope end . Holding himself as the boy had done earher he peered carefull y over the chff and saw the minute figure dangling on the end of tile rope. The boy, for his part, could clearly sec the end swinging violently in mad circles some way below him and he soon nearly reached it. Tilen suddenly ... did the ro pe jerk? It was impossible-but lIe was sure. The shock paralysed him as he hung, his ~enses numbed with terror. Th~ sea lapped hungrily beneath. He looked up. As he did so, he caugllt the ghnt of steel III the moonlight away above his head. At this ~nd at the sin;ultaneous jerk he felt in Ilis tightly gripping hands, he opened hlS eyes and IllS dry mouth III a mute cry of sheer terror as he realised what was to happen to him. The sea lapped hungrily. Suddenl~ realising. what was Ilis .only hope, h~ left the hemp teal' through his hands, and as It dId so, It ripped and cut Into the bUl'lllllg skin, Into the fleshy palm, and into the bony fingers. Blood spattered his face.

. The mO~lent. before the rope finally p!,rted, Ariff swung at the ledge of safety ' and npped It Wi th IllS almost useless hands whIle the rope quickly folded lip, and then slipped past him, the thread that was to have meant not an enemy's scorn- li fe not death and " now it all fell into a motionless heap on the beach. The lad meanwlule was once more hanging by a thin thread, this time by his own feeble strength which was ebbing tluougll the faintness of pain and danger. He knew that he must fall for certain, very soon, because wi th the grip that he had on thIS penlous ledge he could not draw himself up to safety. The blood from his hand s was making the rock slippery, and stretched at arm's length he felt his fingers sliding off the edge. The sand was a dim yellow. He wo ndered in the flash that danger brings what death would be like. He knew he felt no fear. Tilen with true oriental fatalism; hc let go. The night ail' caressed his temples with a mother's fondness in a last farewell. He made no sound. No far over the water a mother waited; the moonlight glistened on the white of the merry, tumbling waves. She could not Ilear the dull sound at the bottom of the cliff. He " lay motionless in a heap on the beach beside the bones .. . ... " A small boat grounded into the beach. Someone Wllistled. They walked to the cliff face and looked up; they saw nothing. Then one tripped; Ile looked down and saw the body- the body of his son, with the head at a ridiculous angle. T_hat lught a Malaya n mother bereft of all her sons did not sleep as the Chinese j unk glided gently towards the South . The bones lay whitening in the moon beside their br,others'. R.P.B. 409 -


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A LETTER AND LINACRE N. B.- The left hand edge of tllis letter, comprising the beginning of each li ne, i$ missing. " . .. [faldyr and lorde aftyr dew recommendaunce Iykythe 30wr lordshypp to vndyrstonde · .. 3e wolde that we sholde purvey mony for to sende to M. Lynacr yt ys so that 3yt ne caune

· .. mony for bokys altd that ys the best that we halle to make mOllY of. And also the · .. rentwarden ys very importune ouer vs for IlYs reparacyounys wherfor we byseche · .. [s]hypp to wryte to M. Gylford to be goode Maystyr yn the mater and to avyse the vicar · .. [accorldyng to cOllcyence for by hys maystyrshypp the vicar wyll mocll be relevyde l and yf · .. yn that mater be ollercllargyde yt shall not be yn OWl' poweres to perfoorme · .. allnys wyll forthermo r wher 30 uer sayde lordshypp wrytythe Vll to us that 3e wyll · .. wtowte mon y 3e wyll for vs alld yn ouer Ilame sende to the sayde M. Lynakyr' · .. we wyll pay agayn to 30wr sayde lordshypp at a reasonabull day yf yt wyll · .. sende vn to hym vi Ii of lawfull mOlly. At Estyr next comyng · .. content 30wr lordshypp with grace of gode that ever preserve 30W Amen. fro asshford · . . of decem ber" This is a transcription of a letter written to the prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, probably by the vicar of Mersham, near Ashford. Thomas Linacre, the distinguished physician and humanist, obtained in the course of his career several ecclesiastical benefices-there is no evidellce that he ever resided at any of them-of which the first was Mersham, ill 1509, fully six years before he was admitted even to deacon's orders. It appears from the content of the letter that Linacre had bought some books, and had apparently sent the bill of £6 to the unfortunate vicar (i.e., the curate who was paid to look after tile parish). He, however, did not have enough money to pay, and the "rentwarden" was "very importune for hys reparacyounys", so the vicar is here writing to

the prior of Christ Church to ask him to pay the money now, on promise of repayment "at a reasonabull day".

Tile letter was fo und recently among a large collection of fragments of MSS. in the Chapter Archives (ill the Cathedral Library). Many years ago, Dr. Brigstock Sheppard, custodian of the Archives, took to pieces the covers of 16th century registers of proceedings in the local ecclesiastical courts, and extracted therefrom numbers of documents, leaves of liturgical books, Wllich the clerks of the courts had used to manufacture these covers in the years following the Reformation. This letter, judging from its appearance, had been stuck together with many more sheets of paper to make up pasteboard for use as covers. It has proved difficu lt to decipher the letter owing to its damaged condition and the bad handwriting. Some of the readings are dubious . It will be noted that the archaic "3" is used by the writer for "yn.

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LORD ACTON: A STUDY IN POLITICAL INSIGHT Foresight is not a gift accorded to every man; it is, in essence, a quality reserved for

the select few. In tltis respect Lord Acton (1834--1902) occupies a unique position, for, of all nineteenth century tltinkers and historians, he alone penetrated to the core of the new problems tllat were to baffie even tile best minds of the present century. Because Ile never drew the various strallds of his thought together, it has not received the respect due to it. Only recently have the Acton manuscripts at Cambridge been studied in detail, but the full import of his t1lOught still remains difficult to discern, because Ile never said in one place all tltat he tltougllt 011 anyone topic, and many of his axiomatic judgments would require a lire-time of research to examine. As a result, Acton's max ims, his advice, and, in particular, his warnings, were neglected in his own

day because they were not fu lly comprehended. G. M. Trevelyan, in Itis autobiography, has said "l remember his saying to me that states based on the unity of a single race,

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(his reading has been computed as 22,000 volumes), and his consummate realisation of the forces at work in the world in wlticll he lived, enabled Ilim to grasp the essence of tlte dilemmas wltich confront our generation, so that from trends a~'eady evident in Itis own time, he deduced the conflict of ideas to which they must lead. A great deal of his tltougllt can, therefore, be represented as admonitory; it epitomises tlte answer of the free world to tlte totalitarian forces wlliclt threaten it, botlt from the right and from tlte left. Acton's political pltilosophy has been called the philosoplty of freedom, in the Lockeall ratlter than the Rousseauist sense. He went furtlter than Locke in assigning to the state the duty of guaranteeing freedom from fear, want, disease, ignorance, etc.; and,

unlike the latter, his conception of freedom was intimately connected Witll ltis religious beliefs; he remained true to the Catholic faitll allitis life, but tlte influence exerted on Itim by Dr. Dollinger from an early age drew him into that great European stream of Liberal CatllOlicism. Freedom in the Actonian sense is, therefore, freedom of conscience, freedom to avoid sin, for "liberty is not the power of doing what we like, but the rigllt of being able to do what we ought." And again, "liberty and morality: 110W tltey try to separate titem-to found liberty on rights, on enjoyments, not on duties. Insist on their identity. Liberty is that condition wlticll makes it easy for conscience to govern. Liberty is government of conscience--Reign of conscience." Succinctly, freedom means obeying God. Tilis definition of liberty is palpably directed against authoritarianism, and, more especially, against the power of the state. To Acton absolute power was tile very negation of liberty: "the true theory of freedom excludes all absolute power." Tile almost proverbial "power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely" is the fundamental premise from wlticlt ltis entire philosophy emanates; for his knowledge of tlte great men of ltistoJ'Y convinced him that "the possession of unlimited power corrodes tile conscience, hardens the Iteart, and confounds tlte understanding." Principally tlnougll ltis deep-sea ted distrust of power, Acton viewed tne new age of democracy with suspicion. Pure democracy is unattainable, for 110 people llas ever been known to govel'll itself; all government necessarily implies the domination of the mallY by the few. But to prevent tlte emergence of a popular dictator (Acton'S ideas on 411


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democracy were severely influenced by the plebiscitary dictatorsllip of Napoleon III) the adoption of a constitution modelled on that of the United States would be the best safeguard. The Britisll constitution might be an efficient bulwa rk against the power of the crowll, but it is singularly deficient in providing guarantees against the people. It was this gra ve defect which persuaded Acton that "the true natural check absolute democracy is tIle federal system, which limits the central government by tile powers reserved, and the state governments by the powers they have ceded." Liberty is dependent on the di vision of power, hence "a restricted federali sm is the one possible check upon concentration and centralism. " Accordingly, Acton's deepest conviction was that "by the development of the principle of federalism, the federal constitution has produced a community morc powerful, more intelligent, and morc free than any other which the world has seen." Macarthyist tendencies apart, few could, in the light of present-day America, refute thi s. If Acton diagnosed the problem of democracy whell the age of Demos was still in its infancy, he no less grasped, during the twilight of liberalism, the dangers inherent in socialism. " This century has seen the growth of the wo rst enemy freedom has ever had to encounter- socialism." To us, living in an age which has come to accept socialism as a reformist rather than a revolutionary doctrine, tltis might appear an extremely hasty judgment. However, what Acton regarded as injurious to li bert)' was socialism of the left, totalitarian socialism ; ill short, Russian CommUilism. "The Incas had an exact Census, a thing unknown to the Spaniards. rt was a system of communistic distribution of land, and the most terrible despotism on earth." Equality and liberty were, in Acton's opinion, irreconcilables, the former necessarily destroying the latter. Hence " the deepest cause which made the Frencll Revoluti on so disastrous to liberty was the theory of equali ty." No doubt ifhe had lived to witness 1917 and its consequences, his verd ict would have been the same ; it would simply have confirmed Ilis belief that "socialism can onl y be realised by a tremendous despotism". The problem of nationality is by no means a twentieth century phenomenon; Professor Barraclough' has sought to show that it was not, as is generally supposed, alien to the Middle Ages. In its modern form, however, it find s its origill in the forces released by the partition of Poland. Since that event not only Europe, but Africa and Asia as well, have undergone a complete transformation in the direction of nationality, which has even been recognised as an indefeasible right. Acton was almost alone in refusing to recognise the nation-state as the culmination of the progress of centuries; he alone penetrated to the heart of the problem in foreseeing that "the greatest adversary of the rights of nationality is the modern theory of nationality. " By making the state and the nation commensurate with each other in tlleory, all other nationalities within the frontiers are reduced practically to a subject condition. Although later modifying tile stern stand he assumed, his basic views rema ined unaltered: "if we take the establ ishment of liberty for the realisation of moral duties to be the end of civil society, we must conclude that those states are substantially the most perfect which . . . include various distinct national ities without oppressing them . TIle theory of nationality is a retrograde step in history. First, it is a chimera. The settlement at which it aims is impossible. Secondly, tIle national theory marks the end of the revolutionary doctrine and its logical exhaustion. In proclaiming the supremacy of the rights of nationality, the system of democratic equality goes beyond its own extreme bounda ry, and fa lls into contradiction with itself by setting up a principle above democracy itself. Its course will be marked by material as well as moral ruin ." The experience of Europe since 1862, when these 412

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words were written. only serves to underline the significance and the accuracy of Acton's predict ions. H is ideal was a Europe of federa l democracies, which alone could prevent internecine national ri valry a nd engender a spirit of friend ly co-operation. The Council of Europe, the Orga nisa tion for Economic Co-operation, and the Euratom proposal. a ll of which constitute the foundation of the " new Europe", represCilt this spirit of co-operation which Acton so ardently believed in. Consequently, the movement for closer European unity, for supra-nationa lity, temporarily checked by the failure of the Europea n Defence Community, but wllich is still capable of coming to fruition, wo uld be the concrete embodiment of the ideas of Lord Acton. To justify the paucity of his writings, as distinct from his manuscript notes, it is now a commonplace to assert that Acton knew so much that he could not commit it all to paper. To that extent is the world poorer. For he had reached in thought the problems with which we are no w confronted, the dilemmas wit h which we have to grapple, and the dangers which now beset our civi lisation. l f he has helped to shake us out of our naIve complacency, he has also given us the classic statement on the true meaning of a free society. Its outward appearances are representative government, the extinct ion of slavery, and the reign of opinion; but the most certain test is the amount of security enjoyed by minorities. Toleration is, indeed , the crux of his philoso phy, for, as he repeatedly emphasised, "the liberty of conscience, effectuall y secured, secures the rest." " The feeling of duty and responsibility to God is the onl y arbiter of a Cluistian's actions. With this no human authority can be ex pected to interfere." The end of government is, therefore, "not happiness or prosperity, or power, or the preservation of an historic inheritance . . . or the progress of enlightenment and the promotion of virtue ;" governments are ca lled into being for the sole purpose of promoting liberty. This brings us to what could be interpreted as the beginning and the end of his thought: "if any single definite object, other than liberty, is made the supreme object. the state beco mes inevitably, for the time being, absolute." A conscientious examination of Acton's political philoso phy, a detailed analysis of his profound judgments; finally, a real understanding of the meaning he imported to that sadly misconstrued word "freedom", gives the clearest exposition of those ideals which the free world is determined to preserve. And it was Lord Acton, more than any other person, who recognized the magnitUde of the very real dangers threatening the free world, both from within and from without. W.A .N .P.

* His/ory in a Changing World

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BTG BUTTER AND EGG MAN Time was when the jazz enthusiast had to roam fa r in search of Ilis food. A journey to some of the lesser known parts of Cilaring Cross Road sometimes proved fruitful and the fanati c returned home elated with an old, grey, scratched disc of some ancient band of the ea rly 1920's putting all it had into an acoustic horn. Today exactly the reverse problem exists; each month tile record companies pour onto the market a bout 120 new long-playing records. Even for the experienced collector this presents a complicated issue, but it is enough to stifle the intercst of the beginner. rt is, however, fo rtunately possible to secure th~ "mus t~" of a co llection and at the sa me time build up in records the story of the true giant of Jazz. The foundati on of any collection is to be found in the eigllt numbers on London AL3504 recorded by King Olive r alld Ilis band in 1923, the first recorded performances of tile most influential balld ill thc history of jazz. Tile cornets of Joe Oliver and Lou is Armstrong arc supported by first-class musicians; Oli~~r's ,~2 bar mutc.d solo in Dippe,?,!outh B!ues is considered by many to be the greatest hot solo and It recalls the ongms of Jazz with its high, tightly-muted, calling tone. Chimes Blues .contams the first recorded solo of thousands by Louis Armstrong; rough, young, but msptred ; a fitttng prelude to a fantastic career. A stage further on is Columbia 33SX1029, a record of numbers by the now worldfamous Hot 5. Armstrong's development call .be traced by comparing his masterpiece of improvisation Cornel Chop Suey with Ius previous Chimes Bil/es. Every one of the musicians on these numbers was an acknowledged master of his I11strument; the fick le clarinet of Johnn y Dodds; the exuberant trombone of Kid Ory, now still leading Ilis own band at 70 ¡ Lil Ha rdin's classical-style piano ; J. St Cyr's impulsive banjo. Immediately after'this came the Hot 7, the augmented Hot 5, the best selection of which is found on Columbia 33S1041 . As the "da ncing twen ties" went out jazz was affected by a s lump pa~tly due to the clealung up of Cilicago and partly to the new commercial muSIc of the big bands. Jazz musicians were faced Witll tllree aitefllatlves; to stop plaYl11g, to wor k III the commercial orchestras or to die from unemployment like Oliver and Dodds. Armstrong has been acclised of betraying the cause of jazz by turning to conuncrcial music, but can he be blamed for eanung his living? All his records during the eady thirti~s we!¡e I~adc wit h large orchestras Wllich served as a mere background to Armstrong ~ Ith hIS lugh notes, crashing glissandi , and gravel and Iloney vocals. Let us make no mIStake; Armstrong played jazz during these yea rs but not as an i~tegral member ofa Jazz ba l~d. But, whether backed by a giant reed section or a Hawallan gUitar, he IS Illdestructtble. TYPical of this period is H .M.V. DLP1036, an entertaining record with all Armstrong's vitality and verve and at the sa me time substantiating Jelly Roll Morton's statement that : " Jazz is a style that call be a pplied to any kind of compositions providing one has the knowledge to transform correctly" . With the jazz revival of the 1940's, Armstrong went b ack to the style he had been brought up in. At the 1948 Internattonal Jazz Festtval 111 Nice he proved to the world he could still lead a genuine jazz band ; Humpluey Lyttleton said : "I will be content to say that Ius performa nce left no doubt in my mind that he is s till the greatest figure in jazz with a grandeur and majesty of style which no other mUSICian, except Sidney Bechet, can 'approach .... there was left a music which, with its purity and serenity, brougllt us 414

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perhaps nearer to the fo untain-head of his genius than we have ever been before" .

Before the 1955 Euro pean Tour there were rumours that Satchmo (Ilis nickname, short ro r "satche l mo uth") was resting on his laurels; all such id eas have been utterl y con-

ro unded by the impact of his concerts (in mallY tow ns fire hoses Ilave had to be used to clea r theatres afterwa rds). Again in Humphrey Lyttieton's wo rds: " his tOile seems even morc vo lumino us and sizzling than ever",

How has Armstrong ma naged to live such a full li fe, often giving two concerts a day? " I believe in relaxing. I never get no morc than 4 hours sleep a night. " His lips have the

appearance of chewed crepe ru bber after 40 years' tru mpet playing; 110W does he still manage to get those top F's?-U My chops?" he says, producing a tin o f lip salve, "I' ve been lIsing it fo r 30 years now" , Trumpcts?-"I got six Selmcrs; each year I send o ne to the reform school where I learned to play and have a new o ne presented to me," Specjal mo utll piece?- "Haven't go t o ne", Religio n- "l'm a. Baptist and a good friend

of the Pope's". What do you play?-" I just play music" . Why?- "Tlle pleasure and the people, it's happiness to me to see people happy", Is jazz internatio nal, no Tron Curtain?

" That's right. fll Rome I just happened to li ft up my Ilead and trumpet at the ceiling and there was all the wonderful painti ngs yo u could thi nk of-Mark Anto ny and Cleopatra and all them cats was up there. Gec, they was looki n' right down at me. 1 dOll't know whetller they was glad or sad but, man, we sure played. In the Hot Club in Berlin these Russians were there and one of them said: "We sli pped over the fra n Curtain to hea l' Louis, we don't know how we're gonna get back" , Could jazz end

the cold wa r?- " If it was left to people that's peaceful with music there would n't be no wa rs". Wi ves?- " My fi rst wife was Daisy. We stepped off into that deep water in New Orlea ns, way back there in 191 8. Lil, my second, and Alpha, my tll ird, we did the tiling (married) in Chicago. My fourth madam, Lucille a nd I were married in St. Louis. Loo ks like this is it. She's still on the mound and holding things down." Perhaps the reader is shocked by this " live and let live" attitude. This is understandable in view of the history of the American Negro; for 300 years he was a slave under a code working o n the principle that a slave is no better than an animal ; this principle can be

more fully realised by a quotation from a speecll made in the House of Delegates, Virginia, 1832: " if we could extinguish the capacity to see light, O Uf work would bc completed; they would tilen be level with the beast of the fi eld, and we should be safe!" But without this code there would have been no jazz, fo r it caused the environment Wllich produced it. Now we look forwa rd with great expectation to Armstrong's visit tlus spring ; he in tends first to go to Monte Carlo in April, where he will play at the wedding of Prince Ranier and Grace Kelly, and then to to ur Britain . We may expect to hear him at hitherto unreaclled heights in view of the success of his recent European tour. His sidemen have been well chosen a nd seem to have the effect of re-inspiring " Satcluno"; though not as impressive o n paper as some of his previo us bands they have brought in a younger and

I"resher tone which, coupled witll that of the old master, has been received Witll the wildest acclamation in fi ve E uropean coulltries . F inally, the reader may ask why I have called tilis brief sur veyor Louis Armstrong " Big Butter and Egg Man" ; let Muggsy Spanier, .the Cilicago cornettist, tell yo u: "Well, just no-one ill the world can play it like Louis, and no-one in the world can improve on the way he plays it" . H.A.S.B. 4t5


THE CANTUA R1A N

THE COLOUR BAR (To all good chaps, Good mates, etceterar) "Out of the car

On to the pitch Limbar Up to avoid stitch Legs stretch Knees bend Quick and smart Trogly ascend. Now let's start Healthy Tackling Elegant falling (Mind your shorts, There are people watching)"

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There's a deathless hush in the close tonight For yonder the ball's being set on its site: Bow to it, scrape to it, genuflect all, For without that ball there'{j be no game at all This ball must surely have some valueSnob value, or criterion of a well-cut shoe? But tell me, men-can this ball think? And will historians record Your rise to power,

That try you scored (You know you haven't funked, for they applaud) You chase House Spirit Round the ground And kick it hard. Quelle paradoxe! That there should meet Such orthodox Conceptions in the street. And can't we lind example in this ball That being kicked will not react at all? What could be more honoraball Vestal or noble. But yet we can prick this immaculate bubble When the lace on its bladder is causing it trouble Or when in the dark they forget its white shirt, The dubbin perspires and it's mott led with dirt. 416

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The moral of tIus epic talc Is plain for all to see, A public school without a ball No public school could be; For in it is high principal Enshrined immortally. Yet though ball drives itself to death, No traffic lights tilere'll be: For balls must drive ill Rail Way cabs Throughout eternity. And this old invitation card 's our epitaph to U Who knows no expiralion : A Phoenix is half blue. NOMDBPLUM

DELIVER THE GOODS A thundering blast shattered the grave silence of the day alld tile ground sllUddered as the freighter slowly settIed, majestically supported by its landing jets. The human skeletons, all victims of Atomic War I, were shaken a few inches along the dusty ground of the lifeless planet Earth. The blazing tubes moaned into silence, as the craft landed softly and the reek of burned vegetation and bones drifted away through the ruined metropolis .... Alone, the robot stood some di stance from the hulk of its slup, studying impassively his former masters. So that was what the humans had been doing while he and his companions had been building the advance base for them on the planet of Agrad TV . Small wo nder that no shipload of colonists had arrived to inhabit the pressurised domes, Wllich the worker-robots had set up, under Ilis directions. " Why didn't yo u send anyone to populate the domes?" The robot grated the words precisely. Silence returned. "Why don't you answer me?" The questions had been quite logical to a robot brain, but only a human mind would have understood the bitter significance of the silence on the planet Earth. The robot stood rigidly to attention, letting these impressions slip through its brain. [t was puzzled by the si lence of its originators, but his orders were clear. Two hours later the freighter took off again, on ly this ti me with the expected passenger complement. Agrad IV would get her colonists. S ILONICUS

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BOOK REVIEWS / Burtled My Fingers. By William Simpson (O.K.S.). (Putnam, 18/-.) On the tenth of May, 1940, William Simpson was shot down in flames over Belgi um , a nd was terribly burnt. He lost bot h his hands and his face was unrecognizable. POI' several mo nths he lay between life and deat h in Vichy, France. Then he was repatriated, and at Queen Victoria Hospita l in East Grinstead he underwent the long and pa inful processes of plastic surgery. This book is the story of his experiences. It is of course not the fi rst book on th is subject. No-one who has read Richard Hill<u y's The Last Enemy' is ever likely to fo rget it. Yet Simpson's book is entirely different. Hillary was intensely int rospective, concerned more with the state of his mind than with the state of his body; and his book is a finely wrought work of urt in which there is not a phrase or a wo rd that is superfl uoLis. Simpson, too, is concerned to tell us what he felt like; but he never remains for long in the centre of the pict ure. He ta lks about himself o nly beca use that is the best way or making his readers uLlderstand what ot hers in a similar condition must have suffered and what ca n be done to help them. Hi s purpose is not primarily autobiographical or soul-searching, bu t descriptive, extrovert. As soon as he had recovered slltllcientl y to know he would live, he began to take in aga in the world around him. When he was still a comp lete physical wreck he yet fell keenly for the spiritual suffering of the people of Vichy, France, he savoured the beauty of the Rhone Valley. Later, at East G rinstead, he continued to take a warm and human interest in everything and everybody aroun d him . So we get a complete history of the science of plastic surgery from its beginn ings in 19 16. He describes in full detai l how the vari ous opcratio ns arc ca rried out. The style is matter-of-fact and in no way sensat ional; but I had to steel myself to go on reading, and then was ashamed that I felt sq ueamish about merely reading what he and others wenl through many times. When Simpson comes to describe peop le, he is aga in not sa ti s~ed wit h simply describing them as he saw them: he also gives us their earlier history to round out the picture. :rhus he .tells us about ~he four preceding generations of Mclndoes before he rea lly settles down to describe Archie Mcindoe, 1m work, and his personality- a wonderful portrait of a wonderful man, a surgeon who worked to create rather than to excise, who was indefatiga ble in his efforts to ease the spiritual as well. as the physical s uffe~ing of his patients, and who, together with the nurses (del iberately chosen for thei r good looks and gaiety as well as for their competence and humanity) was responsible for the chee rfu lness in the hospital. There is a wealth of detail, but for the IllOSt part the book needs its length, not only to give a picture in depth, but also to convey the lengt h of the treatment which burns require. On leaving East Grinstead, Si mpson was taken on by Lord Beaverbrook as air correspondent for the SlInday Express, and later he becmne Press Relations Officer for British Europea n Airways. Onl y now, when he tells us all about B. E.A. wi th the same characteristic thoroughness with which he earlier told us all about East Grinstead , one is conscious of the occasio nallonglleur. And yet these very IOl/gueul's show that he participated as intensely in normal life around him as he participated in the abnormal conditions at East G rinstead. True, he did not emerge from his ordeal spiritually entirely unscathed. His firs t marriage broke down, ancl onl y when he describes what happened can one believe the descripti on he gives of himself on another page as moody and complex- a description which the rest of the book seems so com pletely to belie. His second wife was a nurse at East Grinstead when he met her. For her, too, it was fo r a time very difficult to live wit h him . They have now reached calmer waters together, and, as its dedication implies, the book is a tribu te to her. It is ulso a tribute to Archie McIndoe and his team, to the many fine people who appear in its pages, a nd (though he would be the last person to have written it wi th that intenti on) to the author himself, who emerges from it as a man who, am idst the temptations of egocentricity, despair, and sel f-pity, kept al ive his cou rage, his fait h, a warm sympathy for his fellow human beings, and a vigorous and healthy interest in the world a round him . R.K .B.

Theatrical Companion to MaliC/10m. By Raymond Mander and Joe Mitchenson. (Rocklilf,42/-.) T his pictorial record of the first performances and revivals of the plays of W. Somerset Ma ugha m is compiled by two of our leading you ng theatrica l "antiqua rians", and is a sequel to a similar volume on Shaw. Maugham's plays arc often dismissed to¡day as dated , mere records of a past age to be forgotten in company with Ga lsworthy's attacks o n society and Cowa rd's musica l revues. Yet a nyone who was fortunate enough to see G ielgud's IllOSt successful revival of The Circle at the Haymarket in 1943 OlUSt have felt that here was a comedy only eq ualled by The Way of the World for brilliancc of situation anq .;iialogue, and with the initial advantage o r an economica lly constructcd plot. 418

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The value therefore of such a companion must lie not only in its statistical information but in the degree to which it recreates the m~gic of Maugham's thealrecrafl. The bulk of the book, th;ee hundred l a~¡1;e.pagcs and 196.p!lOt ograp!ls, IS solely devoted 10 synopses of the thirty-seven plays, their first night

c nll cl~ms (many

brilliant ly written by, the latc . JaI!l ~ Agate), notes on subsequent revivals, film s. and

cast lisls. The authors have accomplished theil' hmlted task well- as Maugham himself wrote "yo ur industry is as,staggeri,og ~s your accuracy is impressivc"- but perhaps it is the rault of the very erudition and systematic

co mp~l a tl o n ~hat

renders the tone of the book so strangely cold and impersonal. The

p~ o lograph s

are an Imp~ess l ve record of decor, costume, and acting talent- Godfrey Tearle, Ralph Richardson, Ernest Theslger, Fay Compton, Gladys Coope r, Flora Robson, Athene Seyler all owe a great deal to Maugham- but they can help us little in our app reciat io n of the playwright. J. C. .Trewin's excel.lent intr~d~ction breath~s a little wa rmth into the succeeding material: his observau ons .are revea l m~ and hiS Jud g~ ll1ents fa ir and to the pO.int. He admits that those plays whose themes are vi rtually cast III the conventions of contempo rary society, stich as Mrs . Dol and Jack Straw may well die ou t, btu the plays whose themes have the same universa lity as Maugham's novels TIl; Circle! Fol' Sel'v~ces Rendered, Th e C;onsl,anl Wife, The Breadwillller, must survive, for they are back~d by ~\ bl'l l ilan~e dH~l og u e unequalled In th iS century and a masterful sense of situation and plot. The book IS of fascmatmg II1t e~'est to the casu~ 1 observer an~ tile knowledgea ble student al ike, but it fa ils to bring Ollt Maugham's geniUS as a dramat ist or to prov ide a proper assessment of the individual plays. O.R.F.D.

or

VERMEER On January 30th the Sixt h Forms were pri vi leged to hear an illustrated lecture by E. Prins Esq. on Vermeer. Mr. Prins told us that the outstanding fea tu re of Dutch Painting in its greatest pe;iod, f~om va n ~yc k th ro u g ~ the counter-polC?s of ~erm~er a~d Rembrandt to van Gogh! was li ght ; but Vermeer was the on ly palllt.er who c:ver p~lIlt~d light Itself . He ':Vas the first grea t artist to use a light-coloured bac.kground, and hi S obsess~o n With light was ~ uch that, III no fewer than 21 of his.42 extant paintings he Inserted pearls to reflect It. The more sa ngume Rembrandt wou ld have lIsed rubies or diamonds but V.er~leer's ~.earls ep itomize the silt?nce and calm of his pictures, a nd his figures are always composed and d ! glllfi~d: R e n~brandt was a pamter of movement and ~o ld ; Vermeer of silver and silence." In all IllS pamtlllgs of mdoor scenes but one, IllS last of all, the li ght enters by a window on the left-hand side it being eas ier fo r a right-handed painter to paint light coming in from the left. With the aid of black: and-white reproductions on lantern-slides, Mr. Prins emphasized the greatest qualities of Vermeer's work, unit y of themc and harmony. Mr. Prins' vigo ro us personali ty and deep knowledge of his subject redoubled the interest of hi s talk. S.T.J.M.

EURIPIDES BACCHAE For many of the party, which paid a visit to Ca mbridge on February 23rd for the triennial production of a .G reek ~ragedy, Alan Ker's production of Eu,ripides' Bacchae was a new and intriguing experience. It did !l?t mtend to put ~orward some subtle IIlt~ rpre.t ation , but rather ,it ~o ught to give a highly romanltclsed, yet honest picture of the savage, DlOnyslac form of worship III battle wit h the harsh rationalism of a young Greek prince. Mr. R. A. K . Baker's Dion~s u s , the god who .is seeking to establish his mystic cult among mortals, had complete command over hiS followers of Lydmn women. He possessed at the same time the charm and the ugliness essentia l to the character. Mr. J. A. Jones, as Pentheus, was too villaino~sly stereotyped to gain the sympathy of the audience: fo r as Aristotle sa id, only the fall of a hero can arouse our pity. Alt hough the .temptation scene lacked dr~matic force. when actually in the god's clutches and reduced to the babbling of a woman, Pentheus did reach a depth of pathos. Mr. J. A. Cotton used Cadmus as comic relief to relax. the tension, but it is a pathetic, not a ridiculous figure that awakens Agave to her dreadful deed. MISS Janet Roseveare as Agave gave a memorable performance and her 7i I\.fiVddw; at which we might have expected an hysteric.11 wailing, was taken in st unned horr~r which br~lIght a yery grippi~g play which relied essentially on atmosphere. The messengers' speech~ wer~ dehyered .wlth th ~ qualtt ~ and gl:ace. nce~ed for some of the loveliest ti nes in tragedy, Mr. N. O. HamelSmith bemg pa rtIcu larly IInpresSlve III IllS command of the stage, while telling of Penthells' fate .

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It would be interesting to compare this product ion with one in Greek times. They would differ quite naturally in the matt er of atmosphere and effect. The Chorus, cha rmingly led in song by Miss Margaret Orr and Miss Ann Keynes, and in speech by Miss Patricia Fairfax were unable, on the tiny Arts stage, to give them impression of being inspired, though they gave justification to Dionysus' words on his release from the palace "j3np/Japot "' VI/RiKer, oilTW~ EK7fE7f)..'I"II'-EJJtU rfJof11f 'lrpo<: 1TE8~ 1rE1rTwo\"aT ' , " The music of Peler Tramhcll provided a setting that was wcll·suited to this story of the Oriental mysticism of the cu lt of Dionysus. The reproduction was somewhat tinny, a fact which detracted somewhat from the audience's enjoyment , yet it would have been impossible to put the musicians inside the theatre itself. But with the assista nce of Dr. Malcolm Burgess' magnificent decor, which conveyed the mystic and sinistcr atmosp here of superh uman deal ings, the production moved wi th speed to the very effect ive climax, D ionysus' fi nal recognitio n in his own right. Let lIS only hope that this one oppo rtunity of appreciating acted Greek Tragedy may continue to deli gh t not only st udents of Classics, but all who have an ea r for some of the world's most beautiful poetry. J.P.R.

MR. T. L. ZlNN On March 4th the PClter Society was honoured by a visit from Mr. T. L. Zinn , of Westminster Schoo l, who gave a very sp irited ta lk o n the remark in Aristotlc's Poetics, ., Ka, ifJ,XO(fO¢WTEPOIJ lca, (T1rOVO"lOTEP OIJ 7r Of1](fU il1TOPIUS Et1TW", which may be rendered "poetry is more philosophic and more serious than history". Mr. Zinn, agreeing with Aristotle, concerned himself main ly with the word "rT7rOVORlOTEPOIJ". History, he pointed o ut, tended to exclude a lmost everything but war lind politics, while the sphere of poetry was un lim ited. History, when it described occurrences, was interesting, but when it attempted to draw patterns down the centuries based o n facts of necessity arbitra rily selected, it could not be taken se riously. Poetry, on the o ther hand, was a man's own expression of the feelings that seemed to him the most important, and as direct perso nal experience could not err. Quoting from Pla to's Phaedrus, Mr. Zinn then expressed the opinion that the '/lCII'W' of love, mysticism and poet.ry often came nearer the truth tha n the ' awf{>po17vlJ,, ' of logic and phi losophy. Plato was much nearer life when discussing love in the Phaedrus than when constructing an ideal state, impractical because it did not allow for human nature, in the Republic. Such an uncompromising view was bou nd to arouse opposition, but although he ca me under heavy fire from many sides, Mr. Zinn was not to be confounded. The hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson completed what was for its liveliness, a most enjoyable and memo rable evening. S.T.J.M.

MR . JOHN HILLS On rriday, March 23rd, Mr. John Hills, late Head ma ster o f Bradfield and it lecturer fro m The Times, talked to the Sixth Forms o n bot h the composition of the paper and its fun ction. Mr. Hills stated tha t we live in a n age of revolutio n in all wa lks of life and it is just beca use of thi s revolutio n that we need our news presented in the clearest and most accurate way. It is the boast of The Times that it presents the whole of the news in a set order; balance is preserved by a layout which gives prominence to all the most importa nt events . Even more than this The Times (which exports one· tenth of its circulation of a quarter million) is British opi nio n, and the servan ts of Th e Times have a tradition and impo rt ance as unofficial and anonymous ambassadors for this country. In the Corres· pondence of The Times views are expressed that can move even the ministers o f the Crown; in the leaders the sa nest view is often presented to those who arc to put it into operation. Mr. Hills enumerated the various functions of correspondents and how their news has o ften preceded the officia l dispatches; if he perhaps overglamourised the lot of a corresponden t his action is understandable. We would like to have heard more of the higher workings of the paper, of how leaders are composed for, besides their political outlook, they are among the few refuges in this modern world for good style and for writing for its own sake, but doubtless Mr. Hill 's 'full five hour' lecture would have included this. The Times, Mr. Hills said, does feel that the majority of people wish to li ve decent lives, and also that they want the world to carryon in the right way. It has the responsibility 0 1 helping to make world history and of presenting the truest a nd best news sooner than any paper. We are extremely grateful to Mr. Hills for lecturing to us on this vital question of free speech in an age so fuU of biase s and prejudice ; The Times is .111 island of sanity on which one can relax and bala nce one's views. 1.S.MoD.

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HOUSE PLAYS "CASTLE IN THE AIR .. By ALAN M ELVILI.E

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Marlowe's producti,on, boosted by a first class ~e t, which had no cracks, no doors which yawned open, and no flats whIch shook, thoroughly entertamed us on Sunday, 12th February. Mr. Owen with the added difficulty of having only th ree weeks to produce tb is comedy, gave us a ve ry polished production. For the most part, a ll the chara~ters were audible, if the lines were somewhat rushed by P. B. N icholson, who portrayed the part of MenZIes, a young unco nvent iona l manserva nt wi th a lackadaisica l vehemence. B. S. Gua rd. as " Bos~ Tr.ent", the efficient " c.alm and collected secreta~y of the Earl of Locharne, was ex~~ lIcnt. The co~o rdl.natlon of perfect femmme 11l0~cmcn ts and a charming voice, convinced us of his abIlit y, P. D . Elvy, hll hcrto unknown to Ihe School s stage, proved that his undiscovered talents were the foundation s and pillars of the play. As the Ea rl of Locharne, we saw a polished piece of act ing with every movement . of body and face precisely timc.d. T!le practical socia list Phillips, an industria l psychologIst of the Nallonal Coa l Board, was played With SUItable pomposi ty by R. M. Harvey . He ca rried the part well. In P. A. Campbell's portraya l of Mrs. Dunne we were reminded of his abilities as an AngloAmerican ~ood¡will bearer in the play Scenario as. Miss Winsom ~wo years ago. As in his previous success, hiS flamboyant talent was well exercised; the aud Ience was kept amused and his "America nism" in voice, in act ion, in movement, in gesture, was never faulty. Early in the play. the prompter showed too much keenness to keep the play moving, and the actors did not appear to need him . It was an enthusiastic and well balanced production.

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"TEN UTILE NlGGERS " Sill/day. February 19,11

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In pll~suance of. their policy started two years ago, Lin ~lc re trcated us to a Sunday evening's entertain. ment 01 a very different nature from that usually prOVIded by Ho use Pl ays. With Agatha Christ ie's Tell Linle Niggers they sct ou t to thri ll and intrigue, and it was only if one had read a nd cou ld remember the book that one could avoid receivi ng o ne's fu ll share of both clement s. Agatha Christie's skill as a writer. of detect ive novels can hard ly be doubted, but, to judge from this play alone, her wo rks a re not we ll suited to the stage. The conven tional initial introd uction or characters wh\ch, when treated .by a masterly hand , passes unnoti ced in print, becomes very artificia l <lnd rather tc(lI ous when dramatl7..~d, Hence thro ugh n? fau lt on the pa rt of either actors or producer, the pl ay got otf to a slow s ta rt, wluch was the morc notIceab le to an <ludiencc which had already sa t in expectation for nearly a quarter o f an hour waiting for the play to begin. We were doubtless wni tin g for those res¡ ponsible f~~ some o bvio.us ly ru ~ hed and recent pai~two rk . However, the set o r a rather sparsely decorated modern hvmg-room WIth a VIew, alt hough hastily constructed, established and maintained a filling atmosphere for the action of the play. It was obvious from last year's productions of Romeo lIlId Juliet and N .M.S. Pilla/ore that in Linacre there was exceptional acting abi lity, a nd the casting of this play made excellent use of the la lent. It was a pit.y t~al Genera l Mackenzie should have come so ea d y on the list or victims, ror the acting of O. R. p , DaVIes IS a l way~ m uch looked forward to, and he did not d isappo int us in this very exacting but rather short rOle. In hIS early speeches we were reminded somewhat o f Mercutio bUl this in no way detracted ' from a performance which was truly outstanding. Anthony Marston- the ~ashi n g young man ~ith the Railton- w<ls the first or the ten People with a I>.ast. to be despatch,ed. ThIS too was rather a pity fo r R. B. Horton WilS just beginning to become conVIllClIlg when he 1~1t us. P. J. S. Fl!rneaUX, who ably played Mrs. Rogers, the housema id, was next to go, and Roger.s hunse.lf (S. C: ~ ar(lI ~ t y) followed the Genera l. Hardisty played this part o f the ho usepa d o l1 rman WIth a sl11tably smlster cur to help the atmosphere of the who le and to att ract to himself a certui n amount or ~l1spicion righ t up t.o the time of his departure. N. H . N i~holls adequately played his part as the very prim and proper Em Ily Brent who had, and desired to have nothing in common with the rest or the "guests", execpt the black m:lrk in her past. '

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M. B. Chesler portrayed the character of the ncurotic nerve specialist Dr. Armstrong very well , if a little inaudibly at times. A finely sustained parI was that of William B1ore, ~ "pri vate eye", played by D. G . O'C lec . He had some very characteristic mannerisms, and his blurT " 'ail feller werl met" manner, especially in the opening, brought a delightful touch of humour throughout until he too fell victim to the homicidill man in of Sir Lawrence Wargrave. Sir Lawrence, a well known judge with this secret mania, was superbly played by J . I. R. Thompson , to whom no part ever sccms to present any difficulties; but the play would not have been acceptable to these modern times without a touch of romance. This was provided by the blare Philip Lombard (J. P. Roche) and the undeniably attractive Vera Clay thorne (J. G. Underwood). All three gave a most confident and convincing perrormance which ill no way detracted rrom their already high reputation . An unusual reature or tile play was tile Theme Music, s pecially composed by R. L. Bates and recorded by a select ensemble. It was certainly a novel idea, and lIsed more sparingly might have been very effective ; but the novelty, especia lly as it was somewhat inharmoniolJs, was dispelled by excessive usc- a pity, for it made a n intriguing overtme to a production which, after a s low slart, was extreme ly sat isfying to the audience, a nd, a c redit to its producer, R. K. BluJ11enau. E.J.S·S .

"QUEEN ELIZABETH SLEPT HERE " Su"day, February 26th The play was a good choice because, though it was not basically well constructed , it gave considerable scope to a number of character actors and above all to the stage management, The audibility or the actors was excellent , and although occasionally over·emphasis on this slightly stultified the acting, it is to their credit that their lines could be heard throughout the play, a reature unusual in the Chapter House. Morgan, as Mr. Kimber, domina ted the stage, and without any loss of realism, acted his amusing rustic character with superb accent. His was the most convincing character and stance, and his perrormance, with that of Vincent as Uncle Stanley, held the play together ; the old a nd gleerul Uncle Stanley, although perhaps given an overdose or St. Vitus' dance, lurched happily and confidently about the stage and portrayed admirably a character or a type seldom seen in house plays. Maloney a nd Warwick-Evans were disappointing as the women of the piece; although attractively remale in looks, their act ing was at times immature, but they spoke up well and obviously ga ined in confidence as the evening wore on. Kidd and Ford in their small parts, were excel1ent, especially the rormer, whose brier appearance sufficed to c reate a very real c haracter. Burbridge as Mrs. P.- a type that can be round in most villages, was very amusing, but being rather conscious o f his audience he appeared a little forced . Turner and D odd filled their parts efficien tly, and in looks they seemed a well matched couple. Fisher us the epitome of a Ronald Sea rle schoolboy was quite excellent; his acting was fresh and lively- in so rar as it was acting- and was a vivid cont nlst to a ny stilted perrorma nces otherwise. Riceman was disappo inting; he carried no conviction in his perrormance, and tho ugh he did not lack enthusiasm, he lacked acting vitality. A review or this play would not be complete without a mention or the sta rtling and numerous sound effects, and the well continued "d isaste rs" that occurred throughout the play. All credit must be given to James, Riceman, Cashell and Morgan ror their ingenuity. The set, dcsigned by Burbridge, was exceptionally good. Very seldom has a House Play had a roof, and the stage builders are to be congra tulated. Though the acting was of a n uneven quality. the production had an enjoyable finish to it. J.A.K.

"THE GHOST TRAlN '· SlInday. March 411t

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Luxmool'c chose as their play rhe Ghost Train by Arnold Ridley. The scene is laid in a remote station on the South Cornwa ll Joint Railway, where a married but quarrelling coup le. a p;.\ir on their honeymoon an elde rly and seemingly puritanical spinster, and an extremely facetiou s and provocative young man have been st randed for the night. In this unenv iable position thc station master proceeds to relate to ~hem the legend or the "G host Train" . Trcating it scoOingly at first, they are I ~Her forced to belicv!,': in

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it after ~xperi~ncing certain unaccountable and seeming!y s upernatural incidents. The whole legend is, howevcJ, l~teJ proved to hav.e been a hoax. constn!cted m order to conceal the transporting or machine guns by raJ! through t~e station, .a nd TeddIe Deakm (N . I-I. Freeman), who by his inluriating jokes has thoroughly unnerved hJS companions, turns out to be a detective in disguise. . The plo t t.hererore is not a strong onc ; tc nsion alone holds this play together and without it the derects m .constructJon are only ,too clearly reve.tled . UnrorlUnmely the Luxmoore production , in spite or all the eft<?rts or the actors, ~aJled to produce that essential fac~or convincingly. The arrival 01 thc "ghost" tram was not an occaslC?n c;>f a we and terror but an untJ-cilmax, partly because or the inability of certain aC.tors to remember theu' hnes and partly because or some rather wooden acting. The production con. tamed faults bu~ was. by no means without its merits. This was a difficult play to act and illness had severe repercusSions m rehear5<1!s although !no~ t of. th~ origina l actors, after spells in the sanatorium, were able to take over from theJr understudlcs Just In lime ror the perrorm.lnce. I think that it can be ~arely s~id that in no .house play has the articulation been so clear- hardly a word was missed and that JS certmnlr a rarC? achievement. Thc .stage cffects were a lso of a very high standard , especia lly the lights or the tram passmg through the sta tJon. N. H . Frc,c man , as Teddie Deakin , was the only expcrienced membe r o f the cast a nd he a l o ne~ except perhaps for J. B. W. Padley (Miss Deakin) was really convincing and natura l. f'!". W . Stevens (ElSie), A. W. P~ ngelly (Peggy) and D. J . Heat h (Julia Price) made att ract ive wOl1le J~ and WJth the other actors all con tnblJted to the success o r the production which was widely apprecmted by the School. The producer deserves grcat credit fo r the best possible lise which he made of the material offe red him under the rather difficult cond itio ns 01 a Lent Term. C.C.W.A.

"TARTUFFE " Sunday. MllI'c!' 11t" Walpole HO~lse look great risks in I?roducing. such a taxing playas Moliere's Tartuffe. Luckily they wcre blessed with a vcry good tntnslatton by Mtlcs Malleson, which, while not adhering very closely to Moliere's original provided a lively Anglicized version . l?cspit~ the .title it is Orgon and not TarlUO'e w~o is the chief character, for it is Orgon's stupidity in lettmg hunsell be the dupe or Tartu~e that provJdes the bas is of the comedy. Hutton as Ol'gon was superb a nd showcd none or the Enghshman's usual restraint when playing Moliere. Tartuffe himself does n<?t appear until the third act, and this long ~xpos i~i o n p laces a great strai n o n the acting abi lity or the maIO character. However, after a somewhat maudJb le first scene where Balfour an otherwise extremely compe tent Mmc. I>ernelle, was rather ha ndicapped by the fi,iseflo voice that' he was forced to adopt, Orgo n and C1eante (Sma lman-Smith) managed to maintain the dramatic suspensc for the first two acts. By the time of the third ac t we were expecting to see a glutlonolls hypocritica l lecher but we were to be very much di sillusioned at Tartuffe's (Ricketts) e ntry. He re was' a refined a ristocra i dressed not in puritan i~a l black. bu~ in fil~c purple, a no.vel I'cl)dering o f thi~ traditionally gross a nd J~evolting figure. T artuffe s hYPOCriSY IS not In Jtself the .mam C?J!l!~ th~me or tillS 'play, but ra ther the en'ect this hypocrisy has on Orgon. But even so the comic pOSSJbtllt JCS m the obvJOUS contrast between Tartuffe's sordid hypocrisy and Orgon'.s ideali s~i c infa tuat.ion were not rully brought out by this interpretat ion. Ricketts, however, concerned lumselr WJth portraymg the <1st ute confide nce trickster perfectly and cut out the grosser clements although he played the seduction scenes with abandon encouraged one relt a little too much by Elmire (J enner) . ' , Walpole managed to smooth over the tntgic implications and the s udden artificial denouement in whic::;h the O~g~n ~amily is rescued by the intervention of the king, was made more plausible by lla~ing LoUIS XIV slttmg m a Royal Box. , Of the ot~er characters ~roomficld made a ~rky maid , Wright <t sweet and innocent M.lriallc, SmaLman¡SmHh played the difficult and unrewardmg part of C I6ante creditably, and Coley was a good hot-headed son. We must congratu la te the producer, Mr. R. W. Harris, for i1l1 excellent production, also to the stage managers for a sumptuous set, and finally to the musicians whose playing of Lully's incidental music took one away from thc C hapter House, into the world of the "Grand Siecle".

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THE LIBRARY We acknowledge with gratitude gifts [rom the following: Sir Theodore Adams, Miss E. Cracknall, the Headmaster, Messrs. S. S. Sopwith, R. K. Blumenau, P. C. V. Lawless, and M. J. Ricketts.

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THE MUSIC CIRCLE CONCERT SIInday. Febl"llary

5,,,. (II 8p.m.

This was the first Music Circle Concert for twO terms, and it was encouraging to see so many members of the School laking part in an unofficial concert of th is type. The Second Orchestra opened wi th an arrangement of Elga r's Lalld 0/ H ope alld Glory. a Russian Trcpak. and a Mu rch based o n themes from Bizet's em"mell. T hey had improved considerably on its last appearance; the strings were confident, with espec ially good playing among the 'cellos; the wind were occasionally ou t of tunc, and cou ld not supp ress nn inclination to overblow; and the Orchestra played with enthusiasm under Mr. Sugden's direction. Members of the string sect ion o f the Fi rst Orchestra, the Cham ber G roup, nex t played two Concerti Grossi. Inn umerable sets of these works were composed in the 17th and 18th centuries, yet they are very occasio nally performed nowadays. The Long Pl aying record has admitted ly helped to bring them out of sem i-retirement, but it is encouraging to sec them perfo rmed " in the fles h" . M r. Goodes has presen ted several of them in the last few years, and the concerti played were up to the high standard expected. Francesco Gemin iani's G minor Concerto, Op. 3, No.2, received a good performa nce; the ensemble, except in a very few places, preserved its unity throughout , it difficult enough task in some of its tight contrapuntal paSs.1ges. Arc..1ngelo Corelli's Concerto Grosso in 0 , the first of his Opus 6 set, received an equally convincing performance. It was difficult to realise that the performers were only amateurs, and we hope that there will be more performa nces here of such little-known works, which so rich ly reward a hearing. Finally, the Guest Artiste, our old friend Paddy Purcell, joined Mr. Sugden, Mr. Robertson, Mr. Goodes and R, F. Lunn in a performance of Mozart 's K.581 Clarinet Qu intet. Lyricism is the hallmark of this work; the key is A major, the key of Mozart's quieter, more lyrical works (cf the K.488 Piano Concerto, and the Clarinet Concerto itself). A late work, it shows the clarinet to fu ll advantage, yet it is not a Clarinet Concerto in miniature; the clarinet is a partner, not a superio r, and in this performance the clarinet was perhaps brought far too much to the fore, The performance otherwise was commendable, except for a slight sourness in pitch at the beginning, which va nished a fter the first movement. Paddy Purcell concluded with a brief talk on Moza rt , the bi-centenary of whose birth had fallen a week before, All in all , it was 11 most enterprisi ng progra mme, We can but hope that such concert s wi ll o nce again become regular institutions, and that in future they will be more widely publicized , as the Pa rry was barely half-full. N.H .N.

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THE SCHOOL CHOIR Despite considerable illness, coughs, colds and 'flu, the Choir has maintained a very high sta nd<l rd this term, Two an thems have been sung each Sunday, and they now appcm on the Cathcdra l music list. Some of these the School has heard before, but well over half of them are new to them this lenn . The trebles have worked valiantly during the term, but the struggle with Hadvanci ng yea rs" is making itself known, though we were very glad to welcome some new boys, who have settled into the Choir very happily. We hope that next term we shall perbaps find a few new trebles, but nevertheless the su mmer term may find us wilh a very thin top line, which will naturally limit ou r choice of anthems. The number of altos is likely to increase as voices mature, which will in some ways be very useful, as the present number is extremely low in proportion to the size of the Choir. But we do not need any recruits for the tenors and basses for the time being, as the Choir StaUs can hoLd no more at present. Members of the Choir continue to Sllppo rt the Choral Society, and quite a number of them am in the Orchestra and Mi litary Bnnd, Needless to say, a good proportion wiU a lso be appearing in the Mikado during Ki ng's Week.

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T H E C ANTUAR I AN ~rhe C:hoir has I)ad three specia l services t? sing as wel.1 this IeI'm. The first was a Memo rial Service to Luc.\s (sOl1le~mle School.doctor~ at which the RUSSian Contakio n of the Dep.lrted was sung. This

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IS a wonderful plcce of musIc .\I1d It was sung most beautifully. Scveml friends and relatives of Dr Lucas wrote to S<IY how well the Choir sang it, and it was indeed one of the 1110st ~llItifui and moving anthems we have ever sung, We had illso to sing on Ash Wednesday an,d at th~ Confirmation Service on March 10th, at which we sa ng COII!e Holy ChOj'1 by. Attwood, the settmg wh ich the Archbishop of Cmterbury recalled ~IS being sung at hiS own confirmation. Tl,lcre are two or t,h ree oth.er anth.ems the q,oir has sung th is term which for o ne reason or another 1 thmk ~Ieserve specm l menUl?n . First ly, the ,m lroduction o f an anthem by Antonin Dvorak Blessed J t'.SII, which although not Engltsh Church MUSIC, proved by its emot io nal aUl'ibutes to be <I very'effective work. Sc~on(ll y" Th" LQrd is III)' ShephC'rd by Schubert which deserves a special mentio n bccnuse it is wflll~ n fOI Iwo t l e~l~ and, two alto parts .a l ol~c. The Ircb l ~s ~Illd altos gaye a !lne and ga llant performance of thiS an,them, ",;,llIch fOI a ~ch~ol ChOir \Vlt l~ few :tnd Iml ltcd trebles IS 'Illit e an achievement. Finally, I would li ke to s!nglC? Olll Fall/(/ul Cross by KlIlg Jo hn I V of l>o rtug;:lI , This most beau tiful 'lIlt hcl1l W'IS sung by the Cho ll' With all the exp ression it reQuircs. ' " Allthellls SlIlIg this tcrm: The Heave ns are Telling ( Haydll) The Lord i!> m y Shepherd (Schubcrt) Let all the World (E, T, Chapman) Yea , thOllgh J walk (SlIlIivan) o Taste and See (Vallghan Williallls) o ~av i o ur of the World (Coss) Turn th y Face (Attwood) Fait hful Cross (Jolt" I V of Por/llgal) God so loved the World (Srainer) Hosanna to the Son of David (Weelkes) Lord, for thy Tender Mercy's Sake (H iIIOIl) Greater Love hath no man than this (Ireland) Thou Knowest Lord (Purcell) o Most Mercifu l (Wood) Wash me Throughly (Wesley) Come Holy Ghost (AJlwood) Blessed Jesu (DI'orak) Russian Contakion of the Departed Jesu , Word of God (Mozart) o Come ye Servants of the Lord (Tyf')

THE SOCIETIES TilE CAXTON Soc I E~y,-We .have had an ex!remely busy term . Five House Plays, a Recita l and a Co nc~rt, not to mention scemmgly end less pnvate or~ers, have kept our few qualified printers fully occu pied. Nor has the rlls~ becn en,sed by the fact that Illness, work, and other activities have prevented many members from attending me~tlngs, and passing tests, with the result that a mere half dozen stalwarts h~ve borne the bnln~ of the term s bUSiness, However, we hope that the ea rly stages of next term will ploduce severa l qualified l!l~mbc rs ,who will be able then to do their fli ll share of the Society's work , ~y'e wel:e the gn~ t e fu l reCIpient s thiS term of a presen tation on the occasion of the Society's "coming o f age, T.h ls ca me ',rom the father of M. ,E. Dawe ( 1944-48) a nd took the forlll o f a most intrigui ng mou ld used f~1 type-cas!lIlg for a very l o n ~ IlIllC- POss!bly lip to the end o f the 19th cen tury- toget her with :1 n ~a t l~ x of a ca pl."'.1 0 for G reat Pl'llner (appr?x lmately 17-po int) O ld Antique, MI'. Dawe also sent us ,I b l ~g l a ph ~ o f WI!lmlll Ca ~ l on by Charles Kni ght , London, 1844, which co ntains some superb printing !he dl llstra~ lons bel!1g espeCially worthy of note. Mr. Dawe's kindness is a most grat ifying sign of interesi In our SocIety ou tSide the School. A large pa rty also enjoyed a day's ~lIting on Februa ry 9th to the Monotype Corporat io n Works at S~l ford~, where there WII~ l~lllCh a t, wh ich to marvel- lind to en.vy. However, in spite o f the sight of so Ill,my Illne a'.ld labou!, savmg devlCC::S, !Is true craf~ smen we stili face next term with equanimity, with hoJ?C of ~ontm.ued enJoymcnt, a nd, 1I1cldentally, With one less machine, thanks to the corrosive action of 1I1trudmg rainwater. Any offers o f a rep lacement? .TU.E NATURAl: HlsT0R:Y SocIETY.-T.here has '?Cen less act ivi.ty than usual this term, partly due to the sc.lrcHy of evenmgs available for mCClmg5, and Illness, for which the E<lster Term is noted. Mr. Darlington paid a. r~turn visit ~m January 29th and gave a talk to the Society on "Sexton beet les". He ~ep~ everY0!le s und~vlde~ attention for an hour ilnd a quarter, while he talked about the bettles' fascma.hng habits and life hIStOry, and showed il large selection of exhibits. The lecture was much appreCiated by aU present. The. annu~ 1 film was held on February 18th-:-open tl? the School. The most popular films were. /v!tlltmtl, which showed tile ",Vay a. Mos~lIl tl? c..1 ~ncs the <hsease, and passes it on to human beings, and Ol'er the Border, a fi lm shOWing bird migration III the Americas. F~r next term a n outing is planned fo r mid -Ma y. open to a few of the more keen members o f th~ Society.

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TH1:. PAnK SocIt:TY . The r uter Society has been unusually active in this Icrm. The first meeting, on January 291 h, was held in the Society's Room, where Mr. Kent showed us some superb slides he had taken of Greek ilnd Roman remains. The mccting had nn unfortu nate start owing to difficulties over the power-point, but this initial fault did not detract from our latcr enjoyment. O n February 23rd, the Society paid its triennia l visit to Cambridge, 10 see Euripides' BacclUie (reviewed elsewhere); this was a most enjoyable day. and we look forward to 1959 with eagerness. On February 25th , Mr. Mackintosh read a papcr on .. Modern clich~ about Tacitus". He began by demolishing the classical scholars of, the Victorian ~ra. ,a nd then a~tackcd the Icn'?ts ~f two aut~ors on Tacitus, Marsh and Walker. He fimshed by a faSCina ting compa n son between Tlbenus a nd Hlmmler. Finally, on March 3rd, T. L. Zinn, Esq., came down from Westminster to read us a paper "/((1/ rp,A.0 l1 0(PWTflPO " 1((1t f17rollll/flflTEpo l l 7("01"1/11'<: j(1TO~f(n il1nl1." This is also ~Iiscussed el.sewhere. Next term we intend to make an outing; whe re to IS at present doubtful, possibly to Lulhngstone. Our grateful thanks arc due to ML and Mrs. Wilson for so unrailingly pU ll ing their room at our disposal, and lor so generously providing refreshments. T UE Sm-mER SOCIETY.- The Society has met fi ve times this term and by kin d in vi tat io n o f the Ca nter bury Archaeologica l Socicly attended some of t h~i r lectures in the Slater Hell!. At the beginning of term a business meeting was held at which excursions to Kn ole a nd Rochester were. plan ned fo r next te;rm. A joint meeting with the Pater Society was held when M L Kenl showed LIS IllS excellent colour slides of Greece and Rome and gavc a talk on his recent visit to the classical lands. The Society attended a lecture by Mr. Phil ips, the Archaeology Officer. of the 9rdna nce Survey. on. the new Ordnanc~ Survey map of Roman Britain. T he lecture was most.lIlformat lve and of espcclal mterest to the Soclcty a~ter the lecture on Roman Canterbury by Mr. Jenkins last term. Mr. H,uold Gough, a local archaeologist, gave a lecture on "The Smugglers 01 Herne", ~h ich served as a very interest ing a nd . amusing div~rsi0.n from the more serious lectures to which the Society arc accustomed . Under the auspices of the Histo ne Churches Preservation Trust Mr. Lawrence E. Jones ' gave a lecture on "The Beauty of Our Ancient Churches". The lecture was illustrated by some very good coloured slides which included photographs of most of the beautiful churches in Southern England. The Society hopes that next term its acti vities will mainly take place in the open air in the form of excavation and excursions. THÂŁ MADRIGAL SOCIETY. -This term must be recorded as one of considerable activity in the Society. Meetings have been held twice a week and all members of the Society ~ave worked ~xt remely ha~d. On February 14th at the " Penny Reading" we sang two groups or songs which, alt h~lIgh It must be sa id were not in true Madrigal style were none the less successful. The first group conSisted of three songs from three different G ilbert and S ullivan Operas, and we fini shed the evening with some "Yugoslav Folk Songs" by Matyas Seiber and a negro spi ritual entitled All God's Chilluf/ , The latter part of the term, as a great con~rast , w.as given to l~arning ab?ut a dozen pieces of English Church Music which we performed .at a Recital which we gave.m the ChOlr ?~ the. Cathedral on ~ arch 15th. T he anthems we chose were III the form 01 a chro nologica l survey 01 h ngllsh Church MUSIC by composers fr om the late 15th century to contempo rary times, and each .one is a superb example of ~nglis.h Church Music in it s respective period. A detailed accoun t of the Rccltal ca n be found elsewhere III thiS magazine. However, I should .Iike to express o ur .thanks to Roger Lunn who so nobly agreed at very short notice to play the 'cell o 10 place of Mr. DaVid La,wfence, who was to have played the o rgan, but was prevented from doing so because it is badly out of order. Next term we hope once more to be able to sing some Mad rigOl.ls, which ,;"e have n.ot do~e ~or some good time. All being well , we hope to give a Serenade Concert m the ClOisters dunng Kmg s Week. TUE TÂŁNTERDEN SocIETY.- The debating society roused itself Irom its annual lethargy in mid-term and a most sllccessfu l Balloon Debate was held on March 7th with D. W. Ball, Esq., in the chair. Thc speeches were in the main lively and at times overwhelming, and the vote at the ~n~ resu lted in \Vag~er (A. N. A. Browner) being the first to be thrown out, followed by Leonardo da Vmcl .(T. C. J. ChenevlxTrench), M. Poujade (N. H . Freeman), Miss Virginia McKenna (R. J. Snell), the DeVil (T. f\~. E. Dunn),. Robin Hood (N. A. J. Swanson), and the tWO .fi nal.contestants were separated by one vote. m favour 01 that aquil ine and univers.11 woman D ame Edith Sltwell, D. LITT., D. L1TI., D. L1TT. (M. J. Ricketts), over o ur late lamented Clerk of the Works Mr. Wa lker (J. P. Roche), complete with tools, tooth brushes, and cycle clips. The large attendance and the ease wit h which questi ons flowed from the House promise 'fV~l\ for future debatcs. 4~6

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THE MAR. ~o\vE SoCIETY.- The Society has flourished this term , and four papers o f a very high quality have bc~ n g l ~en. A. N. A. Browner ta lked for an hour and a hal f on " Mozart", a new i.lPproach to his \\~orks nch lX Ill ustrated ~r gramophone ~ecords . J. P. Roche brought a wealt h of personal experience to hi S talk on The Theatre , B. K. Jerrery IIltroduced us to the fascina ting poetry of "Rni ner Maria Ri lke" and Mr. R. K. Blumenau completed the term's proceedings by a studied bu t lively enqu iry into the n atur~ of "Decadence". â&#x20AC;˘ 1'1'.1ÂŁ PHOTOGR.APHIC SocIE:Tv.- Though the darkroom has been in constant lise this term it has not been possl.ble to hold many meetlllg~ for .films a.nd lectures, ,IS Sunday evenings have been occupied by House play.s and by conce.rts. The hlgh-h~ht 01 the term was the visit to ~he Friars Cinema, where, by the COUI tesy o f the man.lgement, the Society was able t~ see how ~lOdern cmema tograph projection is carried out, how fi h!,~ ~re changed and how the safety devlccs work III an emergency. Next term it is hoped to !lOld an exhi bition and that means that all members must try to produce a great num ber o f prints ir it IS to be success ful.

C.C.F. NOTES . nOY!ll Na\'ll l Sectioll .- Last term we fought .the clemcnts and wo n, ro r the Profkicncy Tcsts resu lted III a high pe rcentage of passes and our G.P. di nghy is ready for sa iling at Wh it stable. Ou r Ficici D ~IY was spent at tl~e Roya l Navu l An ti-A ircra ft School at Sheerness and we fe lt honou red to have two ai rcraft (li ve-bombmg us and prov iding <l live tu rgct for o ur Bofo;'s and Oerlikon guns. . We welco~le an lI nprccc?~nte? ,~urllbcr Of . recruit s, bringing o ur numbers beyond fi ft y for the first tlille. There IS a healthy sp ln t wlthm the Secllon. D.W.B.

HOCKEY RETROSPECT 195 6 SEASON

Played I I, Wo n 3, Lost 6, Drawn 2, Goals for 26, Goals against 43 :he Febn.lary weath~r hi~ dered the ~ev~ l opmc nt o f \~~at has been one of the most promising sides fO I sOI~le years. BlIt, 10 splt.e of very llllll ted o ppo rtlllllties for practice, the team has acquitted itself no bly 111 the few m~Hches wh ich .could be played. Most of the schoo l matches had to be cancelled. Out th.e game at Tonbndg~ resulted 11l a good win 0 11 a fa st lind icy surface, while the S1. Edmund's match, with Sullon o ut of action for most of the game, was lost. O.K.S. were sou nd ly b<-:alen, and ~ h e c111~ games were lost though evenly contested . The Sch ool did well ~? hold a fast a,:d s ~l1ful Occa ~ l o ll a l s Side to o:ne goa l, and to lose narrowly o n the next day to an cx pellenced Cilfto nville Side. in thiS ga me the st ram o f two fast games in two days was obvio usly felt . The side has be~ n a young onc with limited previous cxperience but it has been full of enthusiasm and kc:enness. ThiS has been largely due to the inspiration of th~ captain, Su tton, whose bound less enthUSiasm , both ~ n and o rr the fie ld, has communicated itself to the whole tcam, not only in match play.. but also durmg the long r=:ebruary weeks when no play at all (except in the gym.) was possible. He IS to be congratulated on bemg asked to ca pta in the Kent Schools' side. R ~he ~as been a dependable goa~keeper with a good sense of anticipatio n. Houry and White were solid pair of backs who cleared qUickly and c1~an ly,. Houry especially always putting in a n enormous .l1llount of .good work . . Sutton at cen tre-ha lf, With hiS good eye and excellent tactica l sense, has held the whole Side together m attack and defence. The wing halves Rcad and Gordon supported the attack w~lI, ~lIt need to be much 9uicker in coveri~g in defence. Of the forwards, Potter has been ou tsta nding. HIS Slick.work and penetrat ion were o f the highest o rder. He worked in good combinatio n with Matthew a ml!ch "?provC?d centre-forward, and Yates at inside-left, who still needs to co-ord ina te the movement~ of Ius mmd, stJek and feet more closely and more quickly. Barber after start ing at centre- forwa rd pr~ved to be th.e Solu!ion for the difficult posi tion of left wing where 'h~ show~d plenty of th rust. And MI11U ~ on the nght wmg, who reached an excellent understanding with Po tter is obviollsly a player of promise. '

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The team has usua ll y been . Roche' Houry. White, J . G.; Gordon, Sutton, Read; Barber, C. 0., Yates, C. W. Matthew, M. R. A., Potter, Minns, R. E. F. Also played: Gingell , Jones. D. G., Whittington, Williams. D. J., Laine. The 2nd X I did not have much opportunity for match play, but played well in beating Tonhridge a~d drawing with St. Edmund's. Laine n~t only played extremely ~ell, but proved to ,be a most able captain. Agnew in goal, and Evans and Mulhns at back ~ere a formidable defence., while the forwards always showed liveliness in attack. The really encouragmg feature was the promise shown by many young players who should be at School for some years to come. 2nd XI : Agnew; Evans, D. J., Mullins; Holmes-Johnson , J. H. E., Lain~, Pringle, J. ,R. H.; J O I~es. D. G., Williams, D. J ., McNicholl , Wigg, Minns, W. E. J. A lso played; Masters, Cartwright, TomkinS, Burnham. 1st X I Colours were awarded to: Potter, Read, Barber, C, 0., Houry, Yates, Matthew, White, Gordon. 2nd X I Co lours were awarded to; Roche, Minns, R. E. P., Laine, EV:'lIls, Mullins, Agnew, Whitt ington. Williams, D . J ., Jones, D. G. RESULTS Ca nterbury H.C. Tonbridge Schoo l .. . O.K.S. ." .. . Oxford University Occasionals Clirtonville H .C. ... St. Edmu nd's School OXFORD FESTI VAL Worksop Fclsted Salem, Germany Leys, Cambridge ... St. Edward's, Oxford

I-lo me Away Home Home Home Home

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6- 0 0- 1 3- 5 2- 3

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1ST XI MATCHES KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY v CANTERBURY H.C, Played on Saturday, Jan uary 28th King's OJ Canterbury 7 In this the first match of the season, King's were heavily defeated by an experienced and skilful Canterbu'ry X I. Throughollt the game the King's played with determination but never really looked dangerous. For the first Quarter of an hour play was fairly even, but soon afterwards Canterbury scored and by half-time were leading by 3 goals to nil. In the second half King's were continually pressed into defence, but at times moved swiftly into attack, but were unable to press home the advantage of a few breakaways, which might easily have proved dangerous. Throughout the game the Canterbury Club played some first -class hockey on ~ rain-soak~d pit~h, which soon became cut up. The club half-backs gave the School fo~ards very little room m wh!ch to move, and Robertson al outside-left had a very good game scormg 2 goa ls and always lookmg dangerous. For King's, Roche in goa l was safe and Houry tackled extremely hard, and fed his forwards with considerable accuracy. The forwards were well supported by Sutton at ccntre-half, but they were unable to make much impression upon the solid Canterbury defence. Considering the s lrcn~ th of the opposition "nd lack of practice King's showed distinct promise_

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KING'S SCHOOL, CAN1'ER8U RY l ' TONURIDGE SCHOOL Pl,l yed on Tuesday, 21s1 February King's 4; Tonbridge 3 This game was playcd on iI frozen s urface, yet bolh sides nevertheless played somc quite good hockey. in what proved 10 be a very keen ,1Oc! hard fought game, As King's h"ld not played for two weeks, they took some time to settle down and with Tonbridgc con tinually pressing in the first 15 minutes, it was only some good saves by Roche in goa l that prevented Tonbridge I'rOIll scoring. Afler about 2q minutes Tonbridge scored through Coates, fo llowing lip a rebound from the goa lkceper's pads. King's thcn sett led down and Potter equalised bu t Tonbridge scored once again and led 2- 1 at ha lf-time. King's were the betlcr side in the second half and Ya tes soon equalised, and two qu ick goa ls by Yates again and Barber made the score 4- 2. Tonbridge fought back and scored just before the final wh istle. Roche was extremely safe in goa l, making ma ny good saves, especially in thc firs t half. The full -backs were often ca ught sq uare and at ti mes were ra ther slow in c1e<lring. The ha lves were adeqll<lte, Read bei ng much improved. Of the fo rwards Ilotter and G ingel l had the 1110St th rust but it was Yates with some clever stick-work who made many openings which were wasted th rough lack of thnlst and speed . KI NO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V O.K,S. Played on Saturday, March 3rcl King's 6; O.K.S. 0 This game was p layed throughout in a light drizzle which resulted in the ground becoming heavier as the game progressed, so that it was a tribute to both sides that the baJJ was kept moving and that play was always intcresting to watch. It was obvious from the start that the School side were combining better as a team, though individually some of the O.K.S. were superior players. From the start play went into the O.K .S. half, there to stay for most of the first half, with on ly occasional forays by the O,K.S., which were quickly broken up by Sulton ilt centre-half who did an immense amount of covering, and Houry at left-back, who had a good game. The first goal came from the left-wing with a good first-time shot by Barber from the edge of the circle, after which the re-organised forward line really got down to work. Through passes and centres from the wings soon exposed the weaknesses of the O. K.S. defence, and their goalkccper was beaten twice by Yates ..md o nce by Potter due to some quick stickwork in the circle. The fina l goa l of the first half came from a good solo ru n by Matthew, who at centre-forward provided the th rust which had been missing in previous matches. The intensive efTort of the School aner the intcrval slackened, probably because aftcr so long an enforced rest the side was not fu lly fit. As a result the O.K.S. had more opportuni ties for attacki ng but they we re o nly spasmodic, which the School defence were easily ab le to defeat. Lee (Ca mbridge University and Essex) at cen tre- half for the O. K.S. blocked Illuny through passes, whereupo n the op posing insides tended to pass, not into the centre, but out to their wi ngs who Pllt in some very good runs, Ilarber's back-stick cent ring was a delight to watch. It was after a tussle in the ci rcle that Yates, the inside-left , after some fine approach wo rk by Matthew, scored the fi nal goal. The margin of victo ry d id no t nalter the Schoo l who clevcrly adapted their technique and pos itio ning to the conditions ..lIld seized the oITered chances, while the O.K .S. forwards lacked the penetration and cohesion necessary fo r scoring . KING'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V OXFORD UN IVERSITY OCCASIONALS Played on Tuesday, March 13th King's 0 ; Oxford I The hard, dry ground on which this match was played was a pleasant con trast to its former state, and the School were not slow to take advantage of the fact that the ball was running trlle. Dribbling, pushing and flicking all achieved a much higher standard than hitherto, and the need in the team now is for greater flexibility and thrust in the forward line, with closer marking in defence. The Occasionals were a good side of individual players whose cohesion increased throughout the game; the speed of the wings and the close interpassing of the inside forwards in particular was first class. The result indicated fairly the difference between the two sides, for the School defence, if somet imes strained to its limits, did its job well, while the lack o f experience of the insides and indecisio n in tak ing shots in the circle mean t that scoring chances were few. Sutton had bad luck in going wide with a shot

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T H E C AN TUARIAN from a short corner bUI otherwise the Occ'lsion~lIs goal keeper hml vcry lillie to ~Io except when ,in the last five minu tes he 'saved brillia ntly from shots by Matthew and I)otl~r. Bo th sides WC!'C at their best i n mid~fiel d play. cross passes being fre'lllcn lir used , ,hut here Ih~ eXP,ct'lcncc of the. O~Cf~slol~a l.s to ld and

more (han once they passe(~ Ih~ School s ha ll -back III~c .~vho ),"CIC pl d~cd well up ,Ill, dU,l ck, t 1 ~ w~s (~11~ to some good thro ugh 'passmg III the centre that the ins ide-I ~ghl \V,as 'I.hle t ~ seo,l e:\ I?ood ~o,d ~h~)! II,> before hal f- lilne. Play In the second ha lf was even, and the S\;l1ool eme rged flOI11 ,\ testing IlMtch <lg,IJ llst

a better side with much credit. SCHOOL, CANTERBURY I' CUl-IONVILl.1! I-I. e. Played on Wednesday, March 14th King's 3; Cliftonville 5 Havi ng played II hard game the da~ before agai l~st the 9ccils iOI~<1ls. t he School X I thou~h obvi~lIsly ti red put up a good perfonnancc ag':ll nst an expe rlcnced Side, which meluded MontgomelY (5COII,lI1d) at cent re·forwa rd . Thro ughout the ga me Ille Schob l put everything they had into a tt.<lck,. but were 1I.lmb lc. I~ o.vcrco~ne the sound club defence. The fo rwards were well supported by the Ildlves, but the ClOSS pas\ flOI11 I~ft . half to right.inside was neglected. However, Yates at insid.c.left .d.id some good.cross.passlng, which was too slow at times, thus enabl.ing the defence to get back III pOS! llon. h w~s Clrft?nv rl le ~vho opened the scori ng through a fi ne firsHnne shot by Montgomery: KlIlg s, however, equalised thlough Yat~s after a goa lmouth scramble. Before the interval Cl iltonvlllc scored two more goals, bllt Yules aga m reduced the arrea rs for King's. In the second half the play of the School improved considera~ly,. but nevertheless Cliftonvill~ w,erc the more dangerous, and they increased thei r lead when Roche Ill lskicked. Potter sc<?red for ~ mg s soon afterwa rds from a very narrow angle after some good approach work. by Yates. With t~n mll!ules to go Whi te blocked a shot o n the goal· line ~it h his loo t, ",:,h1ch resulted m a penalty.bu l.ly II'! wh1ch he w~~ successful. Just before the end Cli fto nville scored their fina l goa l when MontgomelY with some cleve l s ti ck~work pushed the ba ll past the advanci ng goalkeeper. KI NO'S

KING'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY" ST. EDMUNO's SCl-IOOL

Played o n Tuesday, March 20th King's 2; SI. Ed mund's 3 This match was pl ayed on a very firm ground, the h~ rdest exp~l'ienced by the School X l t his year. The game prov ided a contrast in style: St. Edmund's dlrect?d ~hell' <l tta~k down the cent re o f the fie ld whereas King's used their fast wingers. SI. Ed llllllld's were IIlcllllcd to h It the b<l ll too hard , the ha lves especia ll y oft cn overhitr ing their forwa rds. From thc bu llYMofr, St. Edmund's swep t into the attack, and prov i de{~ contin u~lI 'pl'eSSlIrC for ~hc first fi ve mi nutes. D uri ng the sustained pressure ~ing's lost Sulton who rece1ved a ~allliu l blow on hIS h~~d. T his mea nt reshuffli ng the defence. Hau ry gomg to cent re· half and Sutton to lelt·ba~k. Soon !1flerw~l! ds St. Edmu nd's scored their fi rst goal from a,fi ne.shot from Taylo~-, a centre·forward of outstandrng abili ty. Ki ng's fought back hard and Potier equalised Just beforc half·tunc. Soon a ft er the resumption, Taylor scorcd agai n for SI. Edmund's, but aftel; cont!nua.1 pressure POller equali sed again fo r King's. A misunderstand ing in defence: guv,c SI. .Ed~mllld s t h~lr \~'tnnlllg goal thr~e minutes before the end. Potter and Houry were OlIl~ta nd lllg lor Km~ s. Potter s st lck·\~ork i!nd diS· tri bution of the ball \Vas excellent and I-lou ry was a p rll ar of strengt h III defence, but playmg With on ly ten fit men was II severe ha ndicap.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS HOCKEY FESTIVAL, APRTL 3RD- 6nl T he School X I again visited Oxford fo!, the. P ublic ~chools Hocke~ Fest ival. In the first two m~lches the School X I showed signs of lack of pract ice ~ut IIn~ro,:ed consIderably as the festiva l progl es~~d. We are indeed grateful to T rinity College fo r then' hospltrli lly a nd also to the orgamsers of the fest l\a l, Ou r stay W<lS most enjoyable and as always a grea l success.

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K.JNG'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY

0 WOnKSOl' COLLeGE 9

Playing on the University College grou nd, King's were heavi ly defeated by Worksop College. Un· fort unately for King's, Yates broke his ann in the fi rst five minutes, but this was no excuse for s uch;:\ heavy defeat. T he whole side moved at ha lf·s peed, the inside·forwa rds never moved into the gaps a nd their d istribution of the ba ll was lethargic. The defence was very slow in covering, especia lly Read at right· half. Sutto n at cent rcM half was completely Ollt o f touch but improved towa rds the end o f the ga me. In the fi rst half, Worksop scored five t imes. Their shoot ing d irect ly they entered the circle was an exa mple to all , givi ng Roche very lit tle chance to save. Ki ng's improved in the second ha lf, bu t Worksop cont inued their onshwght, scori ng fOllr more goals. Their inside-left scored seven goa ls. KING'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY 2 FELSTED 7

T his ga me W<lS played on the University College grou nd and was very evenly contested in midfield , bu t it was Felsted who took their chances. Di rectly they entered the circle, thei r sole aim was to shoot hard and fi rst time, whereas King's wasted their many chances by tryi ng to wa lk the ball into the goal. At half·time Felsted led by 4 goals to nil. In the seco nd half, two o f the goa ls were scored fro m short corners bri ll ian tly taken by their left·back. King's midfield play was much improved , Matthew pi<ly ing extremely well at inside·left, as he did throughout the fest iva l. He has the nall1ra l abili ty and with more confidence and experience wi ll develop into a fine player. The goa lscorers for King's were Barber and POller. K ING'S SCUOOL, CANTERBURY 4 SA LEM (GERMANY) 4

In this ga me pla yed o n the SI. Edwa rd 's Sc hool ground, the School X I played very well in hold ing the strong and fast German side to a draw. King's completely o utplayed the Germans in the fi rst half to be lead ing by 4 goals to I, the goals being scored by Matt hew (2), Ba rber and Jones. The reorga nised 1'0rw!l rd line of Minns, Potter, Barber, Matthew and Jo nes played wi th much confidence and dash, although at times Jo nes was inclined to be slow. T he defence was o nce again rather uncertai n but nevertheless it was much im proved. In the second ha lf the Germans were much im proved and cmlsed the School defence many anxious moments, and it was not long before they made the scores level. Five min utes before the end, Minns, fi nding his pat h blocked in the ci rcle, p ushed the ball to Sutton at the back of the ci rcle, whose firsH ime shot hit the post and was safely cleared. K INO'S SCHOOL, CANTE RBU RY 4 T H E LF.Ys. CA MIIIU DGE 3

1>laying on the Banbury Road sports ground, the School pu t up their best performance or the fest iva l in bea ting The Leys, Cambridge, by 4 goals to 3, a fter being 3- 0 dow n at hal f·time. T he Leys were a good side, last and all possessi ng good st iekwork. King's took time to sett le down and in the first q uarter of an hour The Leys were leading by 3 goals 10 O. In the second ha lt , K ing's took command and scored fou r times through Potter (3) and Minns. The forwa rd line combined well, especial1y Mi nns a nd Potter on the right wing. At last the School fo rwa rd line took full advantage a t their chances. KI NO'S SCI-iDOL, CANTI!RBURY I ST. EDWARD'S, OXFORD I

In the last ga me of the fes ti va l, o n the Magda len College ground, King's cont illlied their much im proved form and drew with SI. Edward's, Ox ford. King's had much mo re of the play bu t were un able to fi nish ofT many promising movement s. Roche was unable to play, because of a pu lled muscle, a nd Read because of a heavy cold. Laine deputised for Roche and distingui:;hed himself with one or two good saves and winning a penalty bu lly. Throughout the game Laine had very litt le to do, althOllgh in the second ha lf the SI. Edward's forwa rds were dangerous but they were unable to make much im pressio n on the much improved King's defence. If King's had taken full advantage of their short corners, they would have won th is game coml'ortably.

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THE BOAT CLUB Like Illost other sports, rowing this term ha s suffered seriously from Ihe wcather. The early part of the term wus used for tubbing and some preliminary experiments in eigh ts, but this was followed by nearly four weeks in which Ihe severe fros t and snow in East Kent prevented any outings at all in eights. When the weather eventually improved, it lert between two ,md three weeks 10 prepare the eights for the Schools' '-lead of the Ri ver Race at Putney on March 22nd. This presented a difficult problem; to bring a crew to racing pitch in this time was bound 10 mean sacrificing to some extent the basic work at low

ratings which is essent ial for a really good crew in thesummcr. This danger was avoided as far as possible, but cv~n so the three crews had to be driven, before their blade-work and tim ing were rea lly rcady for ii, so that they should make a reasonable showing at Putney. Various illnesses and unavoidable absences also mcant several changes in the order of rowing, but despi te a ll this the crews worked cheerfu ll y and made quite good progress in the time available. It was unfortunate that, a ft er reaso nably ca lm cond itions ilt Pluck's Gutter, the day of the race should find the Tideway in one o f its unk indcst moods. During the pract ice out ings in the Illorning a st ro ng S.E. wind aga inst the ebb tide made Fulha m Reach a n angry sea und all thrce bo,lIs were not fa r short of being comple tely waterl ogged; midstrcam conditions bet ween H a mmersmith Bridge unci the Mi le Post were impossible for all bu t the very best c rews . Conditi o ns for the race improvcd somcwhat as the tide ebbed fmt lle r, bu t the wind still made the middle of the strea m d ifficu lt to nego tiate. Co nsidering their lack o f practice a nd their inexperience of s uch condi tions, all three crews raced well ; o ut o f this yea r's en try of 64 c rews, thei r final positions, based on times, were "A" C rew 10th, " B" C rew 20 th and "C" Crew 29th. Crews:"A" Crew: J . B. C. Ba lkwill , bow; A. T . Webb, 2; T. N. Ha rke, 3 ; C. T. D avies, 4; P. F. Valpy, 5; R . H. C. Croxford, 6; T. C. J . Chenevix-Trench, 7; J. t~. Frew, stroke; N. D. Gillett, cox. " B" Crew: A. J . D. Smith, bow; T. G . Hird, 2; M . A. Murch, 3; E. A. I . Gardener, 4; J . S. P. Sale, 5; D . G. Barber, 6; H. A. Brown, 7; . R. P. Barwell, sirokej H. J . Ricketts, cox. "C" Crew: J. C. G. Smith, bow; D. F. Riceman. 2; N. Devoil, 3; 1-1 . C. WhittaU, 4; R. D. Baker, 5; T. M . E. Dunn, 6; H. G. Williams, 7 ; P. W . K. Cashell , stroke; M. J . Robinson, cox. It is too early to forecas t the prospects for the summer, as ne ither 1st nor 2nd VJII is very advanced. Timing is at prescnt rather ragged, and blades need to be much better covered in the water. But there is no lack of keenness, and with hard work and re.1 1 concent ra tion in the boat, they have every chance of reaching a good Hen ley or Marlow standa rd . One part o f th is yea r's training wh ich has a lready proved its worth, especially during the bad wC<tlher, has been some intensive P.T. sessions under the expert su perv ision o f Mr. CuswelJ, to whom we arc extremely gratefu l. These are to be continued next term. We have also IlllLch appreciated the friend ly he lp at Fordwich of Mess rs. Georga no and White a nd w ish them every success. Our congratu lati o ns to N. Paine o n bei ng awa rded his Blue in th is yeur's Ox ford boat. Pai ne, who rowed in the 1st VIII here in 1952 and 1953, is a fresh man at Trini ty and is the first post-wa r oarsman from the School to achieve this d istinctio n. D .S.G.

ATHLETICS Athletics, th is te rm, has been severely hampered by the weeks of snow a nd bad wea ther. As much work as possible was done in the gym., bu t before the Tonbridge match there was o nly about a week in which to select u team an d do some outdoor train ing. Thus a lthough we appeared to be well represented on the track, in most of the field events we were lacking the necessary training a nd technique. Th is proved to be the case at Tonbridge where both a Senior and J unior team competed. The School won most of the track events but except for the long jumps, our opponents wcre superior in the field events. The Junior match, however, was extremely close, the result depend ing o n the Relay where Tonbridgc got home in a c lose finish. In the Senior, notable performances were given by Trice who won th ree events. His time of 23.8 sees. for the 220 yards and long jump of 19 fl. 4 in. were very good efforts in the biting cold wind which prevailed . Morg~1I1 ran well to wi n the mile, .md the 440 yards relay team never looked like being beaten a fter Paterson g;, ined the lead in l.l fine run on the second leg. In the J llniors, Willimns won bot h thc 100 .md 220 yu rds, Bowcn mn iI good half-mi le and Cl.IInpbcll d id well in the lo ng jump.

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TON fi RI DGE SCHOOL, K I NG·S SCHOOL. CANTERBURY MAKCt·1 13TII . 1956 RESULTS Senior: K.S.C.39: Tonbridge 58 100 YAKDS.- I, Trice (KSC); 2, Kendall (Ton); 3, Price (Ton). Time: 11.2 sees. 880 YAKDS. - I, Gough (Ton); 2, Le May (Ton); 3, Jl.lIlles (KSC). Timc': 2 min. 13 sees. JAVELlN.- I, I-h~roys (Ton); 2, Drimmic (Ton); 3. Campbell (KSC). Distallce: 139 fl. ~ in. H IGU J ut.n'.- I, C lapp (Ton) ; 2, Stevenson (KSC), Snell ( KSC), Ox ley (Ton). I-Jcoi!!h/: 4 fl . II in . 440 YARDS.- I, Tuckcr (Ton); 2, Paterson (KSC); 3, Vincent (KSC). Time: 56. 1 sees. W I:IGIIT.- I, Hchoys (Ton); 2. Godfrey (Ton); 3, Ca mpbell (KSC). Dis/alice: 35 1'1. 8 in. LONG J UM I'.- I, Trice (KSC); 2, Shankla nd (Ton); 3, H6roys (Ton). Dis/flllce: 19 ft. 5~· in. 220 YMws.- I , Trice (KSC); 2, Kcn dall (Ton) ; 3, Paterson ( KSC). Tillie: 23'S se:s. M ILI:.- l , Morgan (KSC); 2, Wi lt sh ier (Ton) ; 3, Slitheriund (To n) . Tillie: 4 mill . 47.8 secs. Dl scus.- I, Oldcorn (Ton); 2, C la pp (Ton); 3, La ine (KSC). Dis/alice: 104 ft. 1 0~ in. RI;LAY (4 x 440 yds.).- I, K ing's Schoo l; 2, Tonbridge. Tillie: 3 min, 47.4 secs. Juniors: Tonbridge 46; King's School 33

100 YARI}s.- I, Williams (KSC); 2, Auton (Ton); 3, Conway (Ton). Time : 11.4 secs. 880 YARDs.- I, Bowen (KSC); 2, Isaacs (Ton); 3, Lebish (KSC). Time: 2 min. 18 sees. Wt:lmIT.- l , Voyantziz (Ton); 2, Je nkins (KSC); 3, Kemp ( KSC). Distance: 41 ft. 61 in. Lo G J UMP.- l, Campbell (KSC); 2, Dalzell (Ton); 3, ScOIl (KSC). Dis/(IIIct>: 16 ft. 10J in. 440 YAIWS.-I, Conway (Ton); 2, White (Ton); 3, Barnes (KSC). Till/{': 58.8 secs. Dlscus.- I, Auton (Ton); 2, Dunning (KSC); 3, Kemp (KSC). Dis/(lIIce: 120 ft. 41 in. 220 YARDS.- I, Williams (KSC): 2, Auton (Ton); 3, Stanway (KSC). Time: 25.2 sccs. IIIGIl J UM I'.- I, Falcon (Ton); 2, Bagley (Ton); 3, Turner (KSC). fleig/II: 4 fl. 8 in. RF.LAY (4 X 110 yds).- I, Tonbridge; 2, King's School. Time: 50.6 secs. -~· h.e last .fortnight 11<Is seen .the .St<u~dard T imes Compet ition going well , and a fa ir amount of hurd training belll~ done, all c.u lll1l11<1 tl!18 III the School Sports, where amid many good performances we remcmber Tnce's 20 fl. 6 Ill . long Jump and record 440 yards, Morgan 's fi.nc running in the mile, a lso II \~el l -ca rn ed reco rd, and the excellent rela y rlln by Schoo l I-louse o nce a galll bea tin g the prev ious fastest tlill e. Therc nre ma ny prom ising a thle tes ill the Sc hool and now tila t we arc able to carry 0 11 a limited amount of Ath let ics in the Sum me r Term, with special ised cO:lch ing, it sho uld be poss ib le to la y the foundat io n for an increasi ngly high standard in the future. M .E.M.

THE INTER-HOUSE COM PETIT ION The Sports were o nce more held on the last Saturday and Monday of IeI'm , March 24th and 26th, but this yea r we were blessed w ith fine weather and on ly a ligh t wind on both d<lYs. The field events did not reach the heights that they did la st year, perhaps owing to the lack of time for practice, caused by the in numerable other activities which had to be postponed to the end of lerm . Other th<ln M. E. Brown's Discus throw of 101 fl. , which earned him the junior record, there have not been many outstanding achievements. I t is ill track events that the School has shown Illost promise this year, and the outstandi ng performers have been Trice and Morgan. Not o nly did Trice appear in practica lly every other even t on the programme, but he est'lblished a very fine 440 yards record of 52.6 sees., and missed the lo ng jump record by only 3 ins. wi th a jump of 20 1'1. 6 in . Morgan's midd lc·distance running also lidded g reat excitement to the sports. On Saturday he fuiled by on ly 2 secs. to estublish a n 880 yards record with it time o f 2 min. 6.5 sec. However, 011 Monday he surpassed himself by break ing the m ile rceord by 7 secs , with a time of 4 min . 35 sees.

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100 YARDS.- I, Trice (S H); 2, I'aterson (Lux); 3, Turner (MO). Tillie: 10.6 sees. 220 YARDS.- I. Trice (S H); 2. Vincent (MO); 3, Paterson (Lux). Time: 24 sees. 440 YARDS.- I, Trice (SH); 2, Paterson (Lux); 3, Vi ncent (MO). Time : 52.6 sees. (record), 880 YAROS.- I, Morgan (MO); 2, Balfour (W); 3, J ames (MO). Time: 2 min. 6.5 sees. MII.E.- I, Morgan (MO); 2, James (MO); 3, Balfour (W). Time: 4 min. 35 sccs. (record). HURDLES.- I. Sale (Or); 2, Lamb (MO); 3, Agnew (Or). Time: 16 min. 9 sees. LONG JUMI',- I, Trice (S H); 2, Turner (MO); 3, Slanley~S mith (MO). Lel/glh: 20 ft. 6 in . HIGH JUMP.- I , Sa le (Or); 2, Snell (Gal); 3, Stewart (Lux). Height: 5 ft. I t in . Discus.- I, Jcvons (Lin) ; 2, Sale (O r) ; 3, L.:1ine (S H). Distance: 105 fl. 101 in. WmGHT.- I, Jcvons (Lin); 2, Snell (Ga l); 3, Ca mpbell (Lux). Distollce: 34 ft. l it in . J AVELl N.- I, Jevo ns (Lin) ; 2, Vincent (MO); 3, Lamb (MO). Distance: 125 ft. 3t in. RELAY (4 x 220 yards).- I , Schooll-i Ollse; 2, Luxl11oore; 3, L inacre. Time: I min , 37 secs. (reco rd), PENTATHLON,- I, Trice (S H); 2, Turner (MO); 3, Agnew (Gr) a nd Paterson (Lux). TUO-OF-WAH..- Luxmoore defeated School House in the fina ls. MIDDLE-

100 YAROS,- I, Jenkins (Lux) ; 2, Turner, M. R . (M); 3, Kemp (Gr). Time: 1I sees, 220 YARDS.- I, Jenkins ( Lux); 2, Turner, M. R . (M); Rollason (Lux). Time: 25.4 sees, 440 YARDS. -I, Turner (M); 2, Rollason (Lux); 3, .Griffith (SH). Time: 58.7 sees. 880 YARDs. -I, Bowen (Lin); 2, Norris (M) ; 3, Lebish (W). Time: 2 min. 15 sees. MlLE. -I, Bowen (Li n); 2, Lebish (W); 3, Browne (M). Time: 4 min . 59.5 sees. LONG J UMP.- I, Turner(M); 2, lbbetson (Lux); 3, Pitch (SH). Length : 17 fl. 41- in. H IGH J UMP.-I, lbbetson (Lux); 2, Turner (M); 3, Dunning (M). Height : 4 ft. lOt in . Dlscus.- I, Dunning (M); 2, Ibbetson (Lux); 3, Pitch (S H). Ois/(l11ce: 90 ft. WEIGHT. - I, Kemp (G r); 2, Jen kins (Lux); 3, D e nt ( MO). Distance: 32 ft. J AVE Ll N.- I, J enki ns (Lux); 2, De nt ( MO); 3, Mitton (Lux). Distance: 105 ft. UNDER 16 REl.AV.- I, Luxmoore; 2, School House; 3, Walpole. Time: I min. 43.8 sec,

J UN IOR100 YARI)S.- I, Stanway (S H); 2, Brown ( M) ; 3, Mulford (MO). Time: 11 .5 secs. 220 YARDS,- I , Slanway (S H); 2, Brown ( M) ; 3, Mu lford (MO), 7i'me: 26.3 sees, 440 YARI)s, - I, Stanway (S H); 2, Brown (M); 3, Mulfo rd ( MO), Time: 6 1 secs. 880 YARDS,- I, Mulford (MO); 2, Pa rry (Gr); 3, Hussey (MO). Time: 2 min. 30 sees. LONG J UMP.- I, Pritchard (Lux); 2, Brown ( M); 3, Hadfield (S I-I). LellKth : 16 ft. 9 in . HIGH J UMP.- I, Pritchard ( Lu x); 2, Fowler (MO); 3, Kent (S H). Height : 4 fl. 6t in . Dlscus.- I, Brown (M); 2, Barber (M); 3, Pritchard (Lux). Distallce: 101 ft. (record). JAVELlN.- I, Brown (M); 2, Stockell (M); 3, Pritchard (Lux), Distollce: 99 ft. Luxllloore. having gained a lead in ~he House Standards went on to win the Cup, followed by Meister Omers, second, wilh School House third . First Colours were re--awarded to G. P. Morgan, J . C. Tricc, and D. E. Balfour, a nd were awarded to C. Q. James. Second Colours went to M. E. W . Vincent, R. J, Snell , S. J . Laine, J. K. O. Campbell , R. C. Bowen, R . 0, Lebish and T . H . Trumble. 4~4

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THE SERPENTINE, 1955 At the end of the Summer Term a crew under the name of the Canterbury Pilgrims entered for Ihc Junio r eights at the Serpentine Regatta. During the last fortnight of the term N, H .S. very kindly coached us a nd on Ihe Sunday rollowing the end of terlll we moved to Twickenham. Twickenham Rowing Club kind ly lent us a boa t, and allowed us to row from their C lub. Under the coaching of C. J. Amenl and D,S.G. the crew made cred itable progress, having two olltings a day . Thc crew were rather inclined to rush, but at times, the boat was moving well. We were drawn against de 1¡loop R.C. o( Amsterdam, who having won the J unior eights at Maidcnhead had 10 withdraw. The crew rowed over the course o n the Friday night without doing l11uch solid work bUI with an exceptiona l rate of striking, going over Ihe whole course at a steady 40, On the Saturday we were due to race London R.C. and Marlow R.C. in Ihe final. The crew got off 10 a very good start a nd after Ihe first ten strokes were just in fron t, but then fa il ure to settle down hindered us, and the other crews pulled away. The crew were half a length down at the half-way mark but managed to pull up to within a ca nvas of Marlow who were themselves a ca nvas down o n London. The result was perhaps not as sllccess ful as cou ld be desircd, blltlhc who le crew cnjoyed a most pleasant week, Crew: D. G. SCOll, bow ; A, G. WOO ICOll, J. . G. Smit h, A. T. Webb, T. N. Hark, J . R. Fl'cw, J. I} , C. Balk will , P. C. Ament , stroke; G. A. G ray, cox. We a re very gratefl~ 1 to Twickenham Rowing Club for pli ll ing their boa th ouse and boal at Olll' d isposa l, und to D.S. G. for givmg up some of his holiday 10 coach liS. Finally, we much ap precia ted the hospi tality o f Mr. and Mrs. Ament. '

THE CROSS-COUNTRY CLUB This season has shown a marked improvemcnt, not o nly in the results or Ihe matches, but also in Ihe a ttitude towards the sport. The Club is now divided into a Senior and Junior section and has been tmining fairly consistcntly throughout the tenn. However, owing 10 icc and snow our firsl matches against South London Harriers, Lancing and Bradfield had 10 be cancclled. This IeI'm has also seen the introduction of a new part 10 the course, which h<ls been a great improvement, CUlli ng out the dre<lded SI. Stephen's hill . As for individual performances G. P. Morgan has been the moSI outstanding, He has run consistently well und remains unhcaten ovcr our own course, C. Q. James improved greatly li S Ihe term progressed and his running is now of a very high st<lndard, A final word of congratulation goes to R. C. Bowen and R. D. Lebish, who although still j1ll1 iors have maintained high positions in a ll the ma tches. The match ag,li nsl Harrow, Highga tc, Berkhamstead and J ohn Lyon's, was ru n 011 25 th February, at Harrow. Although ou r tra in ing had been limi ted to gym. work, owing to the ba d condilions, we dccided this wns too good a fixt ure to mi ss. OUI' hopes for a SllCccssfu l season therefore were ra ised when we were placed first, beating Harrow by 3 pI's . The indi vidua l places of the team were : I, Balfo ur ; 6, Morgan; 10, Hulton; 13, Lebish ; 14. Trumble; 33, Riceman . The teams' points were; I, K.S,C. , 44 pts.; 2, Harrow i, 47 pIS.; 3, Bcrkhamstead, 54 pI's. ; 4, Highgatc, 9 1 pts.; 5, Ha rrow ii , 96 piS.; 6, J ohn Lyon's, 170 pts. The match against Dover College was run on 7t h M.uch at Home. The School team was now running extremely well, and despite Dover's so far successful season they suffered a decisive defeat. Morgan's time established a School record. The first six places were: I, Morgan (22 min. 45 sec.); 2, Balfour; 3, Macfarhll1e (Dov); 4, James ; 5, Bowen ; 6, Galleth (Dov), Team result : K. S.C., 28 p15.; Dover College, 54 piS. The match against Tonbridge School, run on 10th March , at home. Tonbridge, used to .1 lo ngel' course, were unable to maintain the fast pace. The first s ix places were: I, Morgan (22 min. 46 sec.); 2, Ualfour; 3, Wiltshier (Ton); 4, Jamcs; 5, Sutherland (Ton); 6, Lcbish. TeaJll resu lt : K,S. C., 30 pts, ; Tonbridge S~ h oo l, 5 1 plS. 43 5


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This year the School took part in the SOllth Londo n Harriers Intcr·Schools Race, o n 17th March . We were placed 3rd out of a Ileld of 23 schools. The individua l places were : 6, Morga n ; 22, James; 23, Balfo ur ; 39, Trumble; 50, Lcbish ; 85, Cook; 104, Riceman . The Junior lour-H ouse race was run on 141h March under finc. conditions. Bowen fall a very fine race, setting up a new School record. It is interesting to note that eight out o f the first ten are members

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The first six were : I, Bowen (Lin) (18 min. 54 sec.) ; 2, Lebish (Wul); 3, Riceman (MO); 4, Dodd ( MO); 5, Ashenden (Wa l); 6, Ayling (Wal). The firs t three houses were : I, Walpole, 26 pIS.; 2, Meister Omers, 36 piS.; 3, Linacre, 47 pts. The Senior Inter-H ouse race this yea r came on 19th March, It is not often that two ho uses produce such strong teams as did Walpole and Meister Omers and there was very strong competition for the Cu p. Five members out o f the six in both these teams a re members of the Club . Morgan took advantage o f the fin e conditi ons and improved his previous record by 27 sees. Indeed all the first three were with in the record time . T he first six were: I, Morgan (MO) (22 min. 18 sec.); 2, Balfo ur (Wal) (22 mi n. 40 sec,); 3, James (MO) (22 mill . 45 scc. ) ; 4, Lebish (Wal); 5, 1'llItton (Wal) ; 6, Trllmble (MO). The firsl lhrce Houses were : 1, Walpole, 18 pts. ; 2, Meister Omers, 19 pts, ; 3, Galpins, During the scason the Schoo l has been representcd by: Morga n, Balfour, James, Bowcn, Lebish, Trumble, Hutt on and Riceman . Coo k and Rodwell have also rUIl , showi ng grea t promise. First Ath letic Colo urs fo r C ross·Counl ry were re.awarded 10 G. p, Morga n and D. E. Balfour ,lnd 2nd Colours 10 J . M. G . Hulton, C. Q . James was also awarded his 1s t Athlet ic Colours, and 2nd Colollrs were givcn to R. C. Bowen, R . D, Lebish and T . H . Trumble. So ends a very successful season, in which it may be .sa id that thc School tcam has beaten twenty·fi ve other schools and lost on ly to two, D.E.B.

SQUASH RACKETS The record number of eillries for both Open and Under 16 1ndividua l Competitions reflects the great inlerest being shown in the gamc, and thc sta ndard thro ughout the School is rapid ly improving, The final of the l'louse Matches was between Galpin's I and Galpin's II , and in the School Matches they provided thrcc members o f the Squash V. Collingwood ended the season a rea lly good player, and Turner, J . A" Webb, A . T., and Walter all showed disti nct promise, In Schoo l Matches, we lost to Tonbridge and Mercha nt Taylo rs, but defeated Westminster, Dovcr College, the Masters and d rew wi th the O,K.S. A highlig ht of the term was a visit to the Dunlop Professional Squash Tournamen t at the La nsdowne Club, where we saw a fnscinating ex hi biti on of speed and accuracy by the Khans and other lead ing players of the wo rld . The team was: R, Collingwood, J. A . Turner, A . T . Webb , D. J . Walter and R . J. Snell , A. J . D . Smith also played . D.W.B.

BOXING Although we had th ree fixtures arranged, only o ne of these took place. SI. Lawrence were unable to meet us and at the time arranged lor the match against Tonbridge only three bouts could be arranged. This was duc to illness on both sides. However, we managed to match ten boxers against Eastbourne. But in doing this we had to allow discrepancies in ",!,eight. All but o ne. of our boxers were giving weight , vary ing from a couple of pou nds to nearly a stone In the case of Keann . Thus Ollr defeat by 8 bouts to 2 was not as bad as it seems. The House Box ing Competition lOok place at the end of the term , Owing to the fact that o nly two houses, Walpole a nd Luxmoore. entered anyt hing approaching full teams there w.ere sever~ l lifeless fights between peop lc in the sa me house, There were, howeve r, some good lights which promised some talent 1'01' nex t yea r. The result was : I, Luxmoore. 36 pls .; 2, W.llpo le, 23 pts.; 3, School House, 9l pts.

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THE FENCrNG CLUB The Fencing Club has continued to make good progress Ihis term, and the lntcr路 House Compet itio n hns given us many good fights bes ides providing va luable experience fo r new members, Linacrc and Mcistcr Omers reachcd the final, wh ich the latter s ubscquently won. In the first School match against Harrow, we were well beaten by a more experienced team ; o nly Savi le, who won all his fights in the Foil competition , and Dodd, showi ng true fo rm . Aga inst E<lstbournc College a high sta ndurd of fen cing was seen from both teams and many o f the bout s were of long duration , The School, however, showing much more dete rmination and attack won both Foi l (5-4) and Sabre (6- 3) in a hard fought and most enjoyable match. Nichol son who won all hi s fight s in the Sabre, Savi le in both Foi l and Sabre, ~nd Stanley~Smith in the Foil , were o~lt standing. It is hoped to continue instruct ion and com pct itio n th ro ughout the Summcr Term, and a fter zero temperatu res in the gym., fe ncing in the s un on th e Grecn Court sounds attractivc. Two members of the Club, Savi le and Guard, will be tak ing: part in the Public Schoo ls' Fenc ing Championships during the holidays. We wish them the best o f luck.

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SHOOTING The Lent Term is a lways rather awkward for any sport, a nd picking Shooting teams has been rathcr a matter of taking who was available than of choosing the best eight. However, in spite 01 this, thc perfo rmances this term have been very cred itable. We started off on a most encouragi ng note with the result of the firs t stage of the Kent T .A. and Auxiliary Forces Competi tion, sho t under N.S, R .A. cond itio ns, in which we came eighth, out of a bou t 45 entries, with 552 ex 600. The second and final stage is abou t to be shot at the timc of writing. Our scores in matches under CO fllllry Life conditions have improved great ly too, Forgetful of thc times at the beginning of term when we were glad to top the 600 mark , we are now d isappointcd to gct anything less tha n 630, and we came with in two points of bealing SI. Edmund 's, within three o f beating Eastbou rne, and five of Bedford School. Matches versus Rad ley, Clifto n and Berkhmnsled wcrc lost by a wider mal路gin . The results of the aetua l COllI/try Life Co mpetition are no t known yet, but we feel we will no t have di sgraced o urselves. Nex t term we are continuing with Schoo l Shoot ing-contrary to the usual practice- ane! hope for b: lter cond itio ns, better attenda nce, mo re practices and better res ults. Our thanks agai n go to R.S.M. Herbert for his unfailing enthusiasm, encouragement and advice, and to Lt.路Col. Gross a nd Mr. Pollak ror so kindly taking matches for liS. The following have shot for the School th is term: E. J. Sma lman路Smith, R . K. Holt , C. P. McCurdy ' H. G Williams, R. A. Apcar, J. K . Morriss, J . P. D, Moore, R . Wigs, R. I. G oa te, D. G. Jones.

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O.K.S. NEWS (Tbl' Honorary Secretary of tlu' Associatioll, M . f . I-f. GiI'lillg, 41

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lI'ollld like ill/Ol'I/I(1lioll jt}I' iuc/usion ill Ih" O.K.S. N l' IVS. CtMNGES OF ADDRESS AND ALL ENQU I R II~ KEG ARD1NG Tll f SU P!'I Y OF "TilE CANTUAR I A " TO a . K.S. SHOULD li E 'OTI Fl EJ) TO HI M AND NOT TO T HE EDITORS.) O.K .S. Suppers T hese arc he ld at the Ga rrick HOlel, Cha fi ng Cross Road , on the first Wednesday of each mon th at 7 p.m. for 7. 30 p.m. All O. K.S. are very welcome. Details Cil n be obtained from the Londo n Secre tary. W. C. YOllng, Fa ir Acres, Tydcornbc Road, Warlingha m. Surrey (Tcl.: Uppe r Wa rl ingha m 2 12 or Wuterloo 5441). 1'. R. SNQXALL ( 1946- 50) has joi ned the Uganda Elect ricit y Board in a n admi nistra t ive capacity a nd is liv ing in Kampala. He mel C. W. WOOD last year in M baram . A . M. DAV IDSON (1949- 53) has a jo b as a Hortic ulturi st in a n Orchard in Nclson, New Zealand . He expec ts to be there fo r a bout a year and then will do a yea r in the North Isla nd , and thc n home via Australia. His cide r bro ther, A. G, P. DAV IDSON (1944-49), is work ing o n a n Asbestos mine in Ca nada . J . F. ROBI NSON ( 1928- 33) has been in Ca nada since last May. He is a Reside nl Engi neer in c ha rge of a large development whe re nea rl y 1, 100 houses a re being built. He sa ys the re are good opportunities fo r e ngineers of all types. JOli N RICHARDSON (1940- 44) is employed by Bri tish Titan Products Co ., Ltd., in York a nd has been living the re with his wi fe and two chi ldren s incc last May. He says J . A. CUS~IMAN , a contemporary, is with Coates Bros . & Co. in G lasgow, a nd ex pects to go to India. J. R. BEARN ( 1944-48) is wi th the Uni ted Africa ¡Co . and hopes to become a n accounta nt. He plays an occasional game of Rugby for Unilevcr. ANTHONY J . WYLSON ( 1945-48) after Ica ving School q ua lified as a n Archi tect then joined the Bri tish Sout h Africa Po lice and we nt to Rhodesia and at present is stat io ned a t Ha rane, ncar Salisbu ry. He fully recomme nds R hodes ia to any from King's who do not know wherc to sett le a nd there is ple nty of o pportunit y in both industry and agriculture. T he re are qu ite a few O .K.S. in Southcrn Rhodesi" a nd ~l Dinner was a rranged a t Meik lcs Hotel which was very s uccessfu l alt hough Wylson cou ld not a ttend himself. W . T. M. BURR (1936- 39) has returned fro m the Phi llippincs a rte r spend ing nearly eight yea rs (l broad in ;,10 import-export firm. In Ju ne, 1955, he spenl a week wit h Il. W. FEARON in Hong Ko ng, a nd says Fearon is now in the R.A.A.F. a nd married. MICHAE L .C. KAROl' ( 193 5- 38) is wit h the West A frica Airwa ys Corp., but is still finding things a little strangc as he has 110t been o ut very lo ng. He is in Lagos. Hi s younger brother, A. G . P. KAROP (1937- 39) is in Vancouve r. T IMOTIIY I. H URS1' ( 1950- 55) is joi ning the Orient Li ne as a Cadet Pu rser ill the neal' l"utul'e, and wil l be on the Lo nd oll- Australia run . LmuT.-COLONEL W. E. C. PETIMA N (1914- 17) is now a Sc hoolmaster taking to p matlls. a t a prc pa ra tory school, Sl. Pira n's, Ma idenhead. I-Ie has come across severa l budd ing King's Scho lars. His new teaching job reminds him vivid ly of his o ld school dHYS a t King's. A . G. PORTP.R ( 1927- 32) is now living a t CH ile No . 94-No. 107, Playa Mi ramar. La Haba ba, C uba, and would like to sec a ny O .K .S. passing th rough. P. W. WILCOX ( 1945-48) is a n Assista nt Inspector o r Pol ice in N . Rhodesia . 0 . 1-1 . FREELAND ( 1928-40) is back in the United Kingdom fo r two years and is stationed in Aberdeen. P. SEYMOU R ( 1948- 50) e njoys his work as jo urnalist. He reports ro r The Kem ish Times, and occasio nall y sub-edits. G, F. NASI'I (1948- 53) had a most active ti me as a Sa pper suba ltern in Germany, not always in co nnect ion wi th his Scrvice duties. Js now at Wad ha m College, Oxford, reading for Maths. Mods. BR IAN K. NEWTON ( 1944-50) has been doing some pre-ordina tio n wo rk in Stanwix , Carlisle. In the course o f visiting he c.1 me across a 1935 School Housc ph otogra ph, which proved a use ful conversflt ional opening. Its owner, MAJOR ROTHERY, is with Lord Strat hcona's Ho rse, nca r Calgary, O m ada. 4~ 8

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RUPERT .n. W INSER ( 1900-05) much enjoyed the account in The Cauluariall of Percy Godfrey, by his SlCPSOIl Enc J-I owell , bot h of whom he knew. He had many interesting reminiscences o f his own , which it is hoped he wi ll be pe rsuaded to let us have in the forlll of a short article 01' leiter. J. I-J. H. NICHOLLS ( 1902-05) writes from Ott awa , whcre he has been for ma ny ye.'1rs. (The increasingly la rge number or O. K .S. in Cnnada (<.Inc! incidentally, in East Africa a nd N ew Zeala nd) o ught to orga nise themselves for a n Annua l Din ner). P. C. H. I-IOLMIlR ( 1937-4 1) is now a Fi rst Secretary at the Foreign Office. 1-1 . W . RIDSDA I.E ( 19 17- 20) has ret ired from Indi a. R . G. WALTERS (1945-49) is with Jo hn La ing & Son o n a Hyd ro-electric scheme in Me rionct h. . M. REEVES ( 1943-48) is with I.e. r. in Bill ingha m, preparing work for a n electro nic brain . I-Ie is getting married a t Whitsun and wo rk ing at his D octor's thesis! P. KNOLLER ( 1944-54) writes that he is now settled down in America . He is in a very small vill age bu t the mill whe re he works is la rge a nd offers good o pportunities, altho ugh the work is ha rd a nd the hours lo ng-somet imes 16 a day! MI CHAEL PATI'EIlSON ( 1948- 53) pl ayed rece nt ly as a substitute in the Mid dlesex Hospita l 1st XV as a second row forward , neve r having pl ayed in the sc rum befo re. He recently met, on the rugger fi eld , M. E, C. HI LL (1950- 52), who was playi ng fo r his Club's 1st X V (Club not speci fied). Hc tells us thai M . A . THOMSON (1 949- 53) is a pilot in the R.A.F., at present in Canada. MILES EASTER ( 1949- 54) is the leade r of the La ndulphi C hamber E nsemble which recently played in Bach's S t. Joh" Passioll fo r the London O rpheus C ho ir at All So uls', Langha m Place, a nd hopes to take the Ensemble to America this yea r. He has been invi ted to play Brahms' Violin Concerto in Boston, Mass. ] , H. T. MORGAN ( 1946- 5 1) is, we learn from the South-Eastern Gazette, ma king a na me for himself in Toronto as it boxer. H e is reported in To ronto newspa pers as a " sta nd-up-straight-light-hea vyweight" whose stance resembles the pictures of the early English boxers. I-:I e is a d rafti ng instructor at T oronto Unive rsity. The Gazette reports that both John and his brother, Tony, now a Flying Officer in the R,A. F., boxed fo r King's, but docs nOl seem to be aware that J ohn got his Blue a t Cambridge. DR . MALCOLM BURGESS ( 1937-45) has designed the settings for the La urier Liste r rev ue, Fresh Airs, al the Comedy; a nd it is poss ible that his sett ings fo r Z uleika Dobson will be seen in London befo re lo ng. P. LAWLESS is recove ring fro l11 a n accident with his "Vespa", a nd we were glad to sec, when he visited the Sc hoo l recentl y, tha t he is now pretty fi t aga in . [AN BLACK (1 944-49) passed his Solicitor's fin a ls last June and was admitted in J a nua ry. I-Ie is now doi ng his N at io nal Service. M. HeRBERT (1947- 53) a nd J . 13. PHILLI PS (1 947- 52) co ntributed to the success of SI. Edmund Hall in C uppers a t Oxford. The lattcr converted two tries a nd kicked a penalty. Pl aying fo r the losing side, Trinity, was A. H. M . HOARE (1948- 54). N. C. G . RAFFLE ( 1947- 53) was also in the winning side in the corresponding Ca mbridge ma tc h. R. AYLOIT ( 195 1- 53) is working o n a far m a nd hopes to go to the R.A.C., Cirenceste r, in September. J . W. NORTON (1 947- 53), box ing for Oxfo rd as a Featherweight, won his fi ght o n point s afte r wha t the releree described as the finest ama teur bout he had evcr controlled . He did 14 months o f his Na tional Se rvice in Malta with the R.A.F. ALLAN RODGERS (1953- 54) writes from Princeton tha t he has taken up rowi ng, and last Spring rowed bow in the Princeton Freshmen's boa t. T his year he is being tried o ut for the University boa t, a nd the height o f their season is in the Olympic trials this Spring. J. E. C. HI NCHLI FFE ( 1940-44) has a bandoned a business career for schoolmaste ri ng. He is a t present doi ng temporary work at Repton a nd joins the staff at C lifto n in September. SIR ClJTHOERT HEAO LAM is leaving Durham, whic h has been his home for ma ny years, to se ttle in Somerset. T HE R EV. P. H. STARNES (1 935- 39), formerly C ha plain to the Forces, is to be Vica r of Westwell and Rector o f Hothfield, so we hope to sec something of him . Tile REV . P. C. HAMMOND has been licensed to a curacy a t SI. J ohn the BII I)tist, C roydon. J . M . SKINN ER (1946- 52) has pl ayed on ten occasions for Oxfo rd UniversilY, not twice as previollsly stated .

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IN THE SERV ICES

D. C. W.

TOWNSUEND

( 1950- 54) is in the Royal Artillery and has just been posted to Troon, Ayrshire.

DAVID HODGE (1950- 54) is a Radar Operator in the Royal Artillery. He has been in various parts of the country but is now at Gravesend. JEREMY ROWE ( 1950-54) is doing his National Service in Hong Kong. He hopes to be home in August. CAPTA IN C. B. MANNING-PRESS, R.A. ( 1944-49) is at present stationed at Colchester.

J . M. BODGER ( 1948- 54) has been posted to Crowborollgh from Callcrick and has a wireless troop which involves going out on II large nllmber o f exercises. T. J . OSIlORNE (1950- 54) is in the Roya l Artillery. stationed at Oswcst ry. He fi nds lirc in the Army not so bad. TIM PI1T (1949- 54), who is se rving in Cyp rus wi th the Roya l Signals, wrote on January 1st that he had only had two encounters with terrorists, He wri tes: "O n the first occasio n I was on a Ri ot Squad and we broke up a ga theri ng of boys, On the second I had a bomb thrown at mysel f and two fr iends, when we were tak ing a Sunday mo rning wa lk by the beach, There is a wonderful sto ry whi ch I must tell you about the incident- so like the tmd itio nal fishing sto ry o f the o ne that got away that I'm su re no one will believe it. The two fri ends I was with a re both Romn n Catho lics and I had been to Mass with them to see what the Catholic service was like, One of them was carryi ng a Missa l with him, and when the bomb went off a large lump of shrapnel was stopped by it. It saved him from what woul d ha ve been a very nasty wound in the stomach ." Another O.K.S, who has been servi ng in Cyprus is BRENNAN SI~1I'SON (1947- 52), who is now commissioned in the Gordons. He has recently been down at Hythe on a course, but had to return to Cyprus to give evidence in a murder trial connected with the ambush in which Major Burge was awarded the George Cross. . J , p, Moss (1950- 55) is in the Roya l Signals and stat ioned at Catterick, J , D , R, SPOONER ( 1944-55) is a Sergeant in the A,E,C., and wrote at Christmas from Nanyuki, Kenya.

W, W. SMITH ( 1950- 55) is in the Navy and isat the Serviccs Russian School at Crail, Fifcshire, together wi th Roger Adams and Roger Job.

ENGAGEMENTS WALI.EIt- C IoAItKE.- Da vid Waller ( 1944-47) to Jea n, elder daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John H. Clarke of Bebbington,

MARRIAGES FLOWEIt- LIMA .- On 28th January, 1956, Nicholas James Flower (1935-44) to Cynthia Limn . RouTlI- BuLKLEv.- On 14th January. 1956, Richard Routh ( 1943- 47) 10 Mary Bulkley.

BIRTHS DAVIOSON.- On February 16th at Asbestos, to Maureen, wife of Peter Davidson (1938-49), a daughter.

DEATHS RAMMELL.- Arthur William Rammell died on Saturday, March 10th. Mowl.L.-On March 12th, 1956, Geoffrey Martin Mowll (1913- 17).

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OBITUARIES MR. C. C. WILLIAMSON We were grieved 10 hea r of the death of Mr. C. C. Williamson, which (x:curred o n Saturday, February 4th. He was 92.

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~ harles Cowl?lI William s~ n came to King's in 1876, and on leaving in 1882, entered Ihe Barton Flour M Ills. He acqUired the busmcss at the end of the last century, and when in 1947 the firm became a limited company, he was the first chairman. A miller a ll his life, he was a director until the time of his death and had a great interest in and care for the company, in spite of his great age. '

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His ch ief interest otherwise lay in roses, and he was one of the foremost amateur rose growers in the cou nt ry. He was president of the National Rose Society in 1925¡6, and in his year of office received Her Majesty Queen Mary when sho visited the National Rose Show. He was also, for 2 1 years, the Hon. Secretary of the Ca nterbu ry and East Kent Rose Society. An enthusiastic sportsnultl he W<lS fOI' 25 years a member 01" the East . K~nt HU llt, .he!ped to founclthe C<l nterbury Go lf Clu b. was '1'0 1' 35 years HOIl . Secretll ry of the StOll I' Fishing AssocJa tlo n, <lnd was o ne of the oldest members o f the K.C. C.C.

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But he W,IS not on ly a sportsman and rose grower ; his kind and generous persona lity won him great respect around Ca nterbury. Always forthright , lind benevolent- not least to King's, for he has been a most generous benefnctor to the Sc~oo l , as well as to t!le Kent and Canterbury Hospita l, to the Friends of Canterbury Cathedral, and to vanous others- he will long be remembered by both the School and many o thers.

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(Mr. Williamson's brother is now the Senior O. K.S., and we cxtcnd to him Olll" sympa thies.)

MR . ELLl On¡ ALLARD It was with great regret that we heard of the death of Mr. Elliott Allard , which occulTcd after a lo ng ' illness, on Saturday, February 4th.

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He was at King's from 192 1 until 1927 ; and soon after leaving, he qUHl ified as a sol icitor and s ubseq uen tly entered int o partnership with Mr. C. A. Gardner; and since the dissolut io n of this pa rtnership in 1952, he practised on his own nccount. Posscssed o r a brilli ant lega l brain, he was fo r u time Deputy Co ronel' for East Kent, nnd for Ca nterbury. Mr. AII;Il"(\ always loved the sea, and during the wa r vo lunteered for service as a mercha nt-ship gll nncr. He was awarded a B.E. M . for the remarkable achievement of shooti ng down two enemy planes with one shell. Soon after this, he received a commission in the R.N.V.R. , and went as Licut.-Commander as a Stan' Officer, Intelligence, at Leith. ' After the war, he returned to Whitstable, his home town ; when the harbour rcached such a sta te of disrepair that the livelihood of many fishermen was endangered, he led the campa ign to save the harbour and himself formed a Harbour Preservation Committee, of which he was Chairman, to safeguard th~ interests of the town . He was an ardent Conservative, being for many years president of the Whitstable Conservative Association , and, until 1953, Vice-Chairman of the Canterbury Divisiona l Conservative Association . As a boy, he helped to form the Young Conservatives Club in Whitstable. Elliott Allard was ..1 person remarkable in various ways; his brillia nt legal brain, his personal kiJldness ..lnd gener~sity- he helped,. ~rsonally, ma~y seeking.lega l a.d.v ice, at his own expense or time-his courage whcn req Uired to uphold hiS Ideals and behefs, and hiS quallt lcs as a true gent leman, will be great ly missed by many people. We would like to extend ollr sym pathies to his famil y.

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CORRES PONDENCE

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Ca nterbury. Ma,.ch, 1956.

To the Editors O/THE C... NTUARJAN . Dear Sirs . .. d d f It has ~ften in the past been pointed out to the School tha~ th~ Grace sal~ at the begmmng an en ~ f 01· tllanksgiving prayer and the recent InstitutiOIlWhlCh was long ovcrdue--of <I · a mea I IS a orm.. after each Grace . <. • d t Til'·' ,vas d "A serves as a permanent rennn er 0 f th O IS f ae. • also •a move ~onlrt~ h d i~c~ion by virtue of the lact that it does provide the School ~~ith at ,1.ea~t <?nc word of, each Gr~~ ~I~att thc~C~1n understand (i n this context. a ~ague k nowledge that Amen slgmfies assent IS the ualification for being cred ited with understandmg It). . q I~ I h )copJe would welcome a further move in the ncar future-t hat of telhn~ the members f lec st ,at lan~at it is to which they so un interested ly give their assent; and perhaps If a~ 1 who are w t le c lood eceed,·ng new boys as they arri ve were made to read, mark and lea rn the Glaces, both 'ere now, an su < >" I d' . ' in the o rigina l and in translation, it might help their l ~lWar( Igcst l ~ n , . J append the two O races With. Ii ~Llgges~c~ tra~slat~on for each , 111 case anyone has had the patience to read this far, and has the CliflOSl ly to le,\d fLllthe l. . . b· 0 . t D IS May A lm ighty God bless us Bened l.ca t no IS l~lIl1PO. e}ls el and the gi fts which out of His generosity, we are et doms quae, d,? eLlLS hugltate about to receive' ' sumus perceplLln. < I J Ch'· t .L d A Dominum nostrum. Amen. th rollg 1 csus n s ,Olll or. men . hristum per I esum C • Pour we beseech thee lnfunde, quacsumu~ 0 Lord God Thy grace p omine Deus, graham lLIam into our hea;ts, that, II'! ment~ nos!ras, ut, using these Thy gifts, hl~ tUlS don!s, given by King I-Ienry (V IU) datJs ab Hennco rege h f be f be factoribus nostris and t e rest 0 our ne actors, · t rightly and to Thy glory, ce ensq~e n e . , together with the faithfu l departed recte et m tua.m glonam u.tentes, una cum fidehbus defunchs . . I ·~· H n' .' I tern resurgamus' we may nse to he In eave, In vitam cae e s . . through Jesus Christ, per lesum Chnstum, a r Lord Amen D ominum nostrum. Amen. u . . Yours, etc" "Locus C LASSICUS,"

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The King's School, Canterbury. 20th December, 1955. Dear Si rs . bl b · I· I atutate you o n the December N umber of Tht: Call1ua/:ulII,. one of the a est num t?1s w ltc.l, M' J ' .ay congf,. . I . resent in as it does, the WIdely va n ed mterests of the School }n. poetl Y, 1 thmk, ~lash~vel appeda'dCr(d~:~ One a~icle however should not pass without comment, as It mc1udes art mUSIC, Istory an ,. , I' t h d 0 r notice ' 0 of fact and interpretation which seems, gent emen, 0 ave escape y u '. an err r . interestin article on Leonardo da Vi nci, says that "hc a lmost. ceas~d .to p~m~, afte!· the C-T ., 1!1 a~ This is ~ot so. At the age of thirty he was deeply engrosscd m pamt.m.g h!s Vlrgm of a~e ~f t~u:~~ his portrait of Cecilia Gallerani followed in the next year, that of a MuslcH~n In. 1485; the !. e oc s 'r" was ainted when he was 45, the "Virgin and Child" in 149~, the" Mona Lisa': ill 1503 ... a~~h~~tfr~othcrs: Indeed he painted a good deal more after the age of thirty than h~had painted ~~ore. C-T' leads him to suppose that in some way he passed beyond .art to. sclt?nce.. But thIS IS to . . s error d Th re was no real conflict between art and SCience III hiS mmd ; they werc mlsuldeJ~~and tLeO~~~:od; of I~king at the problems of the universe, as his ""frattato della. Pittura" mere y I eren ~ a far reater artist than a scientist is, ] supp~~e, beyond dispute, al'!d thl~ sh~u l~! j~OtS, Th~t h!it:~rave su~picion C-T. 's claim that Leonardo "anhcl~ated the I.ncthods of mvest lgah?n ea .. us to vle'N wton Bacon and Watt even Goethc", Why Goethe IS found III such strange company Ifd H a \v~ e but i'f C T is referring'to the empirical methods of later scicnce, I sho~ld say that that is j~sr~hal E~~nardo did I;O( anticipate, and that therein lies the reason for the comparat ive worthlessness Yours fait hfully, of his "scientific" ideas. R. W. H AJ{R IS.

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OUR CONTEM PORARIES The Edi to rs ,lCknowledge with tlmllks the receipt of Ihe following magazines and apologize for any inadvertent om issions:The Ample/or,II JOl/mal, The 8ar/"ov;(III. The 8rofijic4d College Chronicle', 711(' ClIIllplu4Iial/,"/'l1e Cho/II/elial/, The Chronicle, The City 0/ Loudoll School MagflZiue, The Col/l'ge Timt's, The Dah¡ College Magazine, The Decallit"" The Dellstolljall, The Eastbolimitlll, Tltl' Elizabethall, The i:.iJSOllliall, Tlte Ft'/sfediall, HI{' GIt'IIalmolld Chronicle. rite Gresham, Th e Hai/eybllriall and 1.s.C. Chrollic/l', nit! Hall Magazine, TIll' Hurs/Jolllliall, The Kenl College Magazine, The KiIlK',\' School Magazine, Tltc' Lallf.:illg Col/ege Magazilll!, The L{/(ymeriall. The Lawrellfioll, rhe Loreflol/ian, TIl(> MalbuI";tll/, The Mlil/woodiall, rhe Meleor, Thl' Mill ,./ill Magazille, Milller Cour, Chronicle, The NOI"O{Jo,.(all, The Ollsel, Th e Rad/eiall, The Rl'ptOfliou, 71u' Ro.ffellSi(lII, The SI. Edward's School Ch,.ollicle, Hie Schoof Tie, The StonY/lllrsl Magazille, The Storl fordiflll, The Sullolliall, Th" TOl/brit/gil/II, The Wil/dmill, Tht, Wish SI/WIIII, n,l' Worhopia ll, TIl(' Yorkisi.

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FROM THE JUNIOR SCHOOL Our congratu lations to l<tn Stanw<ty, who goes on from I'angbollrne. with a bursary.

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next term to the ROY:lI

au ticill Co llege,

The term has passed much after tile m<tnner of other spring terms. We have had some influenza, but mercifully not on the scale of the spring of 1955, nor were the victims out o f act ion very long. Du ring Kent's long snowy spcll (evidently much lo nger than that of most otiler pa rts of England) we snw no bludc of grass for some fOllr weeks. The Rugger seaso n therefore o nly began in the middle o f March , with a victory ovcr Can terbury House 38- 0, and a defeat of Betlesha nger 9- 0; Ihe latter match was 11 much more leve l afrair than thc score might sLlggest. As I write this, we have o ne more match to play, aga inst Tonnorc. Latcr: wc dcfeatcd Torrnorc 17- 0. Like so 11l,\ ny schoo ls whic h were hit by the 'Au, we played no Ruggel" at all last spring IeI'm, so were not in a posit io n to k now what the form was. II is good 10 be reassured that we can st ill play the game. It has a lso been interesting to sce thalthc second game, tholl gh nOt providi ng mcmbers o f the team, has shown much keenness and some efficiency . Form Via reckon that they have donc a lot of wo rk this term, have covered much ground in ..all subjects, and are looking forward to the scholarship exams next term. We have a record number of c'lIldidales for sc holarships, but that is not the same thing as having a record number of winners. Thc band and the orchestra have continued Iheir regular weekly practises. The wind players have undertaken the usual hymn-playing for the parish on Rogation Sunday; it is liable to be very cold o n a Sunday evening in May, and this year it is the first Sunday in May; we hope for a change in the weather by then. We are providing some players for a Canterbury Schools Orchestra concert in our own Barn on May 26th, and we are having a combined concert with the orchestra of Dulwich College Preparatory School, a lso in the Barn, on July 14th. Scouts and Cubs have been as busy as ever ; in the former, I am pleased to see that we now have four 2nd Class Scouts in the troop, after a lo ng gap with nonc. About a dozen more are very nea r Iha t sta tus. We hope that the G roup will be represented by some day boys, and nca r residen ts, al Ihe SI. George's Day serv ice in the Ca thedral o n April 2211(1. We remind both Scou ts and Cubs of Bob-a-jo b Week , which IllOSt of thcm have undertaken to help, from April 2nd to 7th. W.H.O,

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ED ITOR IA L THE SC HOOL VIRTUTE FUNCTI MORE PATRUM DUCES VALETE SA LV ETE ... ACADEMI CAL AND OTHER DISTINCT IONS GA INED 1955- 1956 PRESENT HOLDERS OF EX HIBITIONS ... SCHOLARSHIPS AND EX H IBITIONS TO OXFORD AND CAM BRIDGE, 1956 SCHOLARS SCHOOL PRI ZES SPEECHES IN THE CHAPTER I·IOUSE THE JUN IOR SCHOOL.. . TH IS AND THAT KING'S WEEK ... .1. BRAHMS' "REQUIEM" THE "MIKADO" SERENADE IN THE CLOISTERS NAVE CONCERT THE MADRIGAL SOCIETY BROADCAST MlNDSZENTY AND RAJK THE ERETR IAN D EAD A STUDY OF THE MASONS' MARKS IN PARTS OF THE T IUFORIUM OF CANTE RBURY CATHEDRAL ... THE LUXMOORE TROPHY DOUBTLESS "CRICKET MY LIFE" ... "RIGHT DOWN THERE, BOY, THAT'S WH ERE THE BLU ES WERE BORN IN NEW ORLEANS" "OLDCASTLE DIED A MARTYR" ... A GERMAN GYMNASIUM ... WANDERINGS IN REG ENCY CANTE RBURY CO RINTHIAN ENTHUSIASM THE LIFE OF FRAN<;O IS VILLON... THE MONITORS' DANCE CARDINAL POLE AND THE ALMONRY OXFORD LETTER CAMBRIDG E LETTER... TWO FISHY POEMS BOOK REVIEWS ... THE LfBRARY .. . THE SCHOOL CHOIR THE SCHOOL ROLL DR. J. C. TREVOR

Comilll/ell overleaf

447 449 450 450 450 450 45.1 454 455 456 459 450 46 1 466 467 468 472 474 475 476 480 481 485 486 487 489

492 496 498 502 504 509 5 11 5 13 5 15 5 17 518 519 520 520

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PLAUTUS MILES GLORIOSUS THE PATER SOCIETY'S VISIT TO LULLINGSTONE ... THE SOC IETIES ... C.C.F. NOTES CRI C KET ... THE BOAT CLUB TENN IS SW IMMING S HOOT ING O.K.S. NEWS

OBITUAR IES CORRES PONDEN E OUR CONTEM PORAR IES T HE J UN IOR SC I·IOO I.....

523 524 525 527 529 540 543 543 544 545 548 550 550 55 1

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ILLUSTRAT IONS;THE DARK EN TRY " AS TOUGH AS A BON E WITH A WILL OF HER OWN" " O H MY PROTOPLASMAL ANCESTOR .... " "rILLED TO T HE BRIM WITH GIRLISH GLEE" "NOT HI NG COULD POSS IB LY BE MORE SAT ISFACfORY ..... "A D IGNIF IED AND POTENT OFFICER" ... T HE C HAPLA IN "THE RAZE D RAW ING OF 185 1" "GOTHI CK VILLA" " T I·IE VIGORO US ANT HEMION MODE LLI NG. CANTERBURY WEST STAT ION ST. DUNSTAN'S TERRA CE "A CAST URN ... ." " A SUNDIAL SURROUNDED BY GREEK FIGURES" TH E PHILOSOPH ICAL AND LITERARY INSTITUTE THE ANC IENT EG YPT IAN TEMPL E ... " CE RTAIN ALTERATIONS .... " " A TOUCH OF GOTH IC ........ . " A MASS IVE AND ILL-AT·EASE BOER WAR MEMOR IAL" ... C R ICKET 1ST XI 1l0AT CLU B 1ST VIII

frontispiece

468 468 469 469 469 492 500 500 500 500 500 50 1 501 501 50 1

501 501 501 526 527

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I I

THE CANTUARIAN VOL. XXVI.

No. 6

AUGUST,

1956

EDITORIAL

The English verb is not well adapted for disc ussing the future completion of large buildings under construction. As anyone knows who has with alternating pessimism and optimism watched the progress of such work, to assert confidently that the building "will be finished " by a particular date means little more than that it is still not fini shed. Future positive tends to be the equivalent of present negative. Nevertheless, such is the progress already made with the new Hall, that it is already reasonable to speculate, if not actually to assert, that this is the last year (of how many hundreds!) that Speeches will have been held in the Chapter House. Now, while the memory of this year's Speeches is still fresh , is surely the time to note the decisive close of an epoch. Nellt year, or whenever it is that Speeches will first be held in the HaJJ, all the emphasis will rightly be on the new Hall and the new epoch. Thanks, formal and sincere, are regularly expressed by the School to the Chapter, and no doubt have been since the reign of Henry VIn when this regular use of the Chapter House by the School started.


tHE

CANTUARJAN

The School has indeed much for which to thank an unfailingly patient Chapter. Here we ex tend the School's grateful thanks to the Chapter House itself. There is perhaps no better way of thanking a building than to recall those things which have given it life. If so, surely the Chapter House will feel the richness of our gratit ude. For there is much to remember. Its cool ca lm on hot summer days; the daily procession of the Upper Sixth and Monitors in and out of Prayers: of the masters who take their sea ts on the stage on either side of t.he old Prior's seat; serried ranks of parents Listening respectfully to the polyglot gentlemen of th e sixth form s, or feeling for tbeir cheq ue books in response to the wholly in telligible persuasion of th e Headmaster ; those occasio nal glances upwa rd s to remind oneself of the remote, splendid roof; the gat heri ng of audiences ou tside in the cloisters, between acts, while richly robed st rangers from other ages and races- Elizabethans, Orientals- pop surprisingly in and out through the little stage door. And how many modern pilgrims to Canterbury have peered, puzzled, through the doors a t the astonishing sight of a stage set under constr uction. Ca n this really be fo r a Chapter meeting? There will be other memories too- so much of wit, splendid music, drama, wisdom , humour and erudition, has been relished by so many tho usa nd s of King's boys in the Chapter Ho use. So many end of term Assemblies have been held there, with "as much noise, consistent with dignity", as has seemed desirable. Of course the new Hall will be immeasurably superior for its purpose and very soo n we shall be wondering how we ever did without it. There must be many, however, who will be glad to remember the days when we used the Chapter House for Speeches and other great occasions, for school assem blies, daily prayers ; when indeed it was only in the Cathedral itself or its Chapter House that the whole School was ever gathered together. Perhaps we may spare a little sympathy, also, for those ranks of sovereigns and prelates in the great Window. Surely they are in for a rather dull time? 448


T H E!

THE SCHOOL

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CANTU ARJAN

Head Head Head Head Head Head Head Head

Captain or School: R . J. SNELL, K.S. or The School HOllse J. C. TRICE or The Grange J. S. P. SALE or Walpole House ... E. J. SMALMAN-SMITII, K.5. or Meister Omers ... G. P. MORGAN or Luxmoore HOllse R. G. PATERSON, K.S. or Galpin's House ... R. J. SNEI.L, K.S. or Linac re HOllse ., . D. D. J EVONS or Marl owe House... C. M. J. WHlTn NGTON, K.S.

MONITORS R . J , SNELL, K.S .. D. D. JEVONS, J. S. P. SALE, E, J. SMALMAN-SMITH, K.S., G, p , MORGAN, J. C. TR ICE, R. G. PATERSON, K.S., C. M. J. WH ITTINGTON , K.S. , D . E. BA LFOUR, F. D. WOODROW, K.S. , P. F. VALI'Y, M. A. M URCH, R. COLLI NGWOOD, K.S. , R. M. SUTTON, M. E. W. VI NCENT, O. R. F. D AVIES, K.S. HOUSE MON ITORS The School House : H. A. BROWN, J. H. CooPER-POOLE, S. J. LAI NE, K.S. , J . K. MORRISS, A. J. D. SMITH A. J. AGNEW, D. P. BUCHAN, T. M . E. DUNN, B. D. FOORD, The Grange : I. S. Mc DONALD, K.S. , S. T. J. MAZZARELLA, K.S. J. B. C. BALKWILL, J. M. G . HUTTON, I. C. POTTER Walpole House: P. K. W. CASHELL, C. Q. JAM ES, P. F. LAMB, R. O. LI NFORnt, K.S., Meister Omers : C. P. MCCURDY, K.S. , D . F. RI CEMA N, A. R. A. VEITCH Luxmoore H Ollse: C. R . ALABASTER, K.S., R. H. T. DAWKINS, J. C. L. FOOT, K.S., N. H. FREEMAN, J. A. G. STEWART R. G. D. M. BURR, T. C. J . Ct-IENEVIX-TRENCH, K.S., R. A. LA NE, Galpin's House: R. G. WI-IITELEGG R. R. BURK, K.S., O. R. F. DAVIES, K.S., S: c. HARDISTY, K.S., Linacrc House : N. H. NICHOLLS, K.S., J . P. ROCHE, K.S. , R, C. TOMKINS D. G. BARBER, G . A. MICKLEOURGH, M. G. PARAMOR, F. D. Marlowe House: PILCHER, J. B. TURNER M. E. W. Vincent P. F. Valpy J. A . Turner, K.S. R. G. Paterson, K.S. E. J. Smalman-Smith, K.S.

Captain or Cricket Captain or Boats Captain or Tennis ... Captai n or Swimming Captain or Shooting The Call 1uarian:

Editors: THE CAPTAIN OF SCHOOL, O. R. F. DAVIES, K.S., S. T. J. MAZZARELLA, K.S., T. C. J. CHENEVIX-TRENCH, K.S. Sports Editor : D. D. JEVONS Secretary: M. J. RICKETTS 449


THE

C ANTUARtAN

VIRTUTE FUNCTI MORE PATRUM DUCES N . H . CooPER.- Entercd J.K.S., Sept. , '47; K .S., Scpt., '50; left March, '56. Music Scholar; H on. King's Scholar; Grange Ho use Monitor ; Upper VI ; LanceSergeant, C.C.F.; H on. Sec., Somner Society; State Scholarsllip, 1955. C. C. FARMER.- E,lIered Sept., '5 1; left March, '56. King' s Scholar; Upper VI; Domus Exhibition in History to Balliol Co llegc, Oxford. J . P . D. MooRE.- Entered Sept. , '52; left March, '56. Ga lpin's House M onito r; 2nd XV, '54; 1st XV, '55 ; A.B. , Nava l Section, C.C.F.; Royal Naval Cadetship,

January, '56.

VALETE

c. O. Barber, R. P. Barwell, M. B. Cull en, J . M. B. Gingell, D . J. Loveridge, A. E. Mitchell , W. A. N. Pitch, P. J. Sargent, P. J. Tull. SALVETE P. R. Atkinso n, R. W. D. Brockm a n, J. J. Brodie, R . T. Cla rk, D. J. Mills, J. R. Sharp, A. C. Simpson, I. F. R. Stewart, A: D. Stewart, D . O . Tayler.

ACADEMICAL AND OTHER DISTINCTIONS GAINED 1955-1956 R. G. ADAMS B. K. JEFFERY R. G. PATERSON A. SEAL A. J. B. WA LKER N . H. COOPER C . C . FARMER S. T . J . MAZZARELLA W. A. N. PITCI·I S. YOUNG S. J. LAINE P. J. FREEMAN G . D . PESKBTT

...

State Scholarsh ip. State Scholarship. State Scholars hip. State Scholarshi p. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Scholarship. State Schola rship. State Schola rship. Liddon Scholarship, St. Edmund Hall, Oxfo rd . Open Ex hibition in Mathematics to Christ Church, Oxford. Open Exhibition in History to University College, Oxford. Open Scholarship in Natural Sciences to Lincolrl College, Oxford,

450


t HE

j

ANTUAR IA N

A. 1. B. WALKER

Open Exhibition in Mathematics and Physics to King's College, Cambridge.

F. D . WOODROW

Open Exhibitio n and Parker Exhibition in Natural Sciences to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

A. SEAL

Open Scholarship in History to Trinity College, Cambridge.

R . R. BURK ...

Open Scholars hip in Natu ral Sciences to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.

R . G. PATERSON

Open Exll ibition in Mathcmatics and Physics to Ch rist's College, Cambridge.

C. C. FARMER

Domus Ex hibition in Histo ry to Balliol College, Oxford .

N . H . N ICHOLLS

Open Exhibition in Class ics to St. John's College, Oxford .

E. J. SMALMAN-SMITH

Ford Studentship in Classics to Trinity College, Oxford.

J. A. KANE

...

Open Scholarship in History to Christ Church, Oxford .

O . R. F. DAVIES

Open Scholarship in History to Merton Coliege, Oxford .

M. D . D ELLER

Choral Studentship to St. John's College, Cambridge.

W. A. H. BODGER

Shute Scholarship in History Catherine's Society, Oxford.

R. A. LANE ...

Holroyd Music SCholarship College, Oxford.

D . H. ELLIOTT

M.B., B.S., St. Bartholo mew's H ospital, Londo n; 1st Placc, Meda l fo r Surgery and Brackenbury Scholarship.

R. D. H . ROBERTS

College Scholarship, Jesus College, Cambridge.

B. L. LEARY ...

Wad ham College, Oxford, H annswo rth Law Scholars hip, Middle Templc.

G. L. TAYLOR

Trinity College, Studentship.

D. J. C. SNOXALL

Scholar of Merton College, Oxford , 2nd Class Hono urs in Modern History.

C. C. P . WILLIAMS

Christ Church , Oxford , 2nd Class Honours

Oxfo rd,

in Literae Humaniorcs. 451

to

Dc

to

St.

Keble

Osma n


'TH E C A NTU ARIA N

Ex hibitio ner of St. John's College, Cambridge, 2nd Class H ono urs, Mathe-

H . R . J . H OARE

r.

mathieal Tripos, Part L. I I0 lrORD

Exhibitio ner o f Magd alene College, Ca mbridge, 2nd Class Hono urs, Mathematical Tripos, Part r.

R . G. M ILNE ...

T rinity College, Cambri dge, 2nd Class

R.

Honours, D. H. R OBE RTS

R.

Div.

1,

Natural Sciences

Tripos, Part II. Schola r o f Jes us College, Ca mbrid ge, 1st Class Hono urs, Modern and Mediaeval

...

Languages Tripos, Part F. G .

]1.

Scho lar a nd Parker Exhibitioner of Corpus Christi College, Cambrid ge, 2nd Class

J. NO RTON

Honours, Division I, Theological Tripos. Co rpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2nd Class Ho no urs, Divisio n I, Medi aeval a nd Modern La nguages Tripos, Part I . St. Cath arine's College, Cambridge, 2nd Class H onours, Division 2, Mediaeval a nd M odern La nguages T ripos, Part I

H. 1. F RAMPTON

B.

H . M CCI.EERY

Scholar of T rinity College, Cambridge, Ist Place, Civil Service Examination. Scholar of Pembro ke College, Cambridge, Fellowship to Pri nceto n University, U.S.A. Forml erl y Fellow a nd Treas urer, Oriel College, Oxford ; Emeritus Fellowship. Cadetship, Roya l Military Academy, Sandhurst.

H . I. DUCK .. . P. R . PlII LLlPS

C . S. EMDEN ... P. K. R. Ross

E. C . B ROWN J . P. D. MOORE M . J. M OORE

R oyal Na va l Cadetship.

G. G . J ONES

Under O mcer, R oyal Air Force College, Cranwell.

M.

Royal Naval Cadctship. 3rd Place, Royal M ilitary Academy, Sand hurst Pass ing O ut List ; Languages Prize and Bria n Philpo tts Memorial Prize for Military History.

. ..

T. V. S CRIVENOR

Men tioned fo r Distin guished Services in Kenya . Crea ted C.M .G .

AIR COM MODORE A . FOORD · KELCEY, A. F.C.

Created C.B.E.

MAJOR-GEN . G . D . G . H EYM AN, C.B., C.B.E.

452

1


1

TH E C ANT U ARIAN

P. F . P AGE

Menti o ned for Distinguished Services in Malaya. Created C. B., and a ppointed Chief of Staff, Forces in Malaya. Queen's Pol ice Medal for Disti nguished Service in Malaya. Colo nial Police Medal for Meril o rio us

G . I. AL I.EN

Distinclio n, Grade YII! (Yiolin), Associ-

N . C . G. RAFFLE

ated Board's Examinations. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, awarded

LI EUT.-COL. A. E . D . B REDl N, D.S .O., M.C. B RIGADIER

A . E. BROCKLEHURST, D.S.O.

L. G . Y AlPY ...

Service in Nigeria.

J.

Rugby Blue. Brasenose College, Oxfo rd, award ed Boxing Blue. Trinity College, Oxford, awarded Rowing Blue. Music Industries' Co uncil C up fo r best individual performance, Kent Co m ~ petiti ve Music Festiva l.

W. NORTON

N. PAI NE

C. B . S EA MAN

PRESENT HOLDERS OF EXHIBITIONS C. H. McCleery, St. Thomas's H os pital. D. H. W. Kelly, St. Thomas's Hos pital. A. P. M ark s, St. Bartholomew's Hos pita l. K. D. Agnew, Jesus College, Cambrid ge . M . C. Patterson, Midd lesex H os pital. J . A. R owe to Christ Church, O xfo rd . A. J . Briggs to Pembroke College, Cambridge.

CRAWFORD EXHlDlTlONS LEATHERSELLERS' EXHIDITION B UNCE EXHIDITION

...

EDM UND DAVIS EXHIDITION STA N HOPE EXHIB ITION

B UNCE EXHIBITION

...

ELECTED J UNE,

1956

D. D. Jevo ns to St. Edmund Ha ll, Oxfo rd. R. J . Snell to St. John's College, Cambridge. J. E. P . Sale to Christ C hurch, Oxfo rd . E. J. Smalman-Smith, Fo rd Student o f Trinity College, Oxfo rd . J . P . D . Moo re, Cadet, Royal Navy. M . E. C. Brown, Cadet, Royal Navy.

B UNCE EX mBITION

O . K.S. GI FT ... GI LBERT GIFT SH EPH ERD GIFT A NDERSON WAR M EMORIAL GIFTS ...

45~


TI-l E

C ANTUARIAN

SCHOLARSHIPS AND EXHIBITIONS TO OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE, 1956 The following lable of Schools with fi ve and mo re awards, is taken fro m The Tillles Educatiollal S'/f)l'lelllelll of M ay 18th with the a mendment published in the Oxford Magazine of May 24 1h. Oxford Cambridge Sehols. Exhibs. Sc/IOI.I'. Exhibs. Tolal 16 5 41 12 8 Ma nchester G .S. 7 4 28 15 2 St. Paul's '" 4 12 19 3 0 Dulwieh ;>. 4 19 10 3 Winchester 7 2 2 6 17 Bristol O .S. I 2 16 5 8 Bradfo ro G .S. 7 2 4 3 16 Eto n 5 4 16 2 5 Canterbury, King's School 2 4 2 7 15 Ru gby ... 2 I 15 7 5 Shemeld, Kin g Edwa rd VII 4 0 3 7 14 Clifton 4 5 2 3 14 Christ's Hospita l .. . 3 2 6 3 14 City of Lo ndo n .. . 6 2 3 3 14 M erchant Taylors' 4 2 3 3 12 Birmingham, King Edward's 3 2 I 6 12 D ownside ... I I 4 6 12 Marlborough I 3' 5 2 II Harrow 4 4 I 2 II Westminster 2 2 2 4 10 Sedbergh ... 4 I 2 2 9 Ound le 4 2 7 I 9 Sherborne . . . I 3 2 2 Blundell's .. . 8 3 2 2 I 8 K .C.S., Wimbledo n 4 3 o I 8 Stonyhurst I 2 I 4 8 To n bridge ... 2 I 2 2 7 Charterho use 3 0 2 2 7 Haberdasher's Aske's 2 0 2 3 7 H uddersfield College 2 I 2 2 7 Li verpool Institute H igh School ... I 2 2 2 7 Kingswood o 3 4 o 7 Latymer Upper 2 3 o 2 7 Malvern I I 7 2 3 Mill Hill I 2 3 I 7. Hampstead U.C.S. o St , Edward's, O xford 2 I 4 7

4)4


I I

I ! j ,I

I

i HE

Bolton School Berkhamstead Colchester, R.G .S. Emmanuel ... Highga te School ... Newcas tle, R.G .S. N orthampton G .S. N ottingham H.S .... Whitgift Wolverhampton G.S . Birmingham, HandSWOrlh a.s . ... Chislehurst and Sidcup ... Haileybury Rossa ll 81. John's, Lcathcrhcad So uthport, Kin g George Vt h Stowe

ANT U ARIA N

Oxford Schols . Exhibs. I 0 2 I I 2 o 3 3 I

2

0

4 I I

I 0 2

o I o

Cambridge ScllOls. Exltibs. 2 3 I 2

2 I

6 6

2

I

6

026 2

2

6

0

1

6

I

4

6

I

I

3 3 2

(, 6 5

0

4 3

I I 2 I 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 5

3

o o

I

0

2 2

I 2

o o

I I

2

I

o

Total. 6

I

SCHOLARS ELECTED J UNE,

1956

S EN IOR KI NO'S S CHOLARS

A . G . Robiette

G . S. Brock

A. J. Addis J . A. Colligan R. C. Brown C. A. M. Parrish

N. H. Livings ton M. W. Lee R. J. A. C. Lauric C. J. Tavcner C. G. Lewis H. A. Rud ga rd G . N . Salmon

W. A. Hodges

K INO'S S CII OLARS

(Christilla Masoll Scholar)

R. K . B. Halsey T. G. Bewley CHARLES CRAWFORD S CHOLARS

M. J. G. Year wood J. E. Seoll R. A. Ne il D . R. L. Evans P. M . B. Hinchy P. E. J. Soar A. Simmonds L ORI) MI LNER M EMORIA L S CI IOLAR

W. J. Chesshyre P. Stockdale

R. M. Stowell M US IC S CHOLARS

F. R . Hammersley T. C. Good

D . L. M. Tho mas J. R. Bennett

GR EAYES S CHOLAR

E XHIDITIONERS

I j

G . D. M. Pa rry R. J . Dibley

D. Cooke M. H. King

M. R. Hoile 455


tkE

CANTUAR IA N

SCHOOL PRIZES taptain's Prize (Mitchinson)

R. J. Snell

Lad y Davidso n Prize

R. J . Snell

Headmaster's Prizes

J. A. Kane M. D. Deller M. J. Gregory R. F. Lunn

Classical (Broughton)

N. H . Nicholls

Greek Prose (Dean Farrar)

Upper School: C. M. J. Whittington Middle School : A. G. Douglas

Lalin Prose (Horsley)

Upper School :

T. C. ChenevixTrench Middle School: J. A. Colligan

Malhemalics (Mitchillson)

G. C. Fletcher

Nalural Scllience ( Mitchinson)

K. M. S. Johns

Modern La nguages (Mitchillsoll) (Semltoll) ...

F. D. A. Mapleth orp P. W. F. Browne Senior:

Reading and Elocution ( Har vey Boys) ...

Junior:

Latin Verse (Bla re)

:','.

C. M. J. Wllillington M. J. Price

Greek Verse Senior: Juni or:

Music (Ryley) (Courtlley) .. .

N. H. Nicholls C. B. Seaman R. F. Lunn C. S. Stevens

Nat ural Histo ry .. .

Upper School: N. H. Nicholls Middle School: J. R. C. Wright

The King's School, Parra malla, Prizes

O. R. F. Davies D. C. Halton J . R. H . Pringle

Histo ry (Stallley) (Everitt) English (Evalls)

E. J. Smalman-Smith D. J. Mort imer

H. J. Rickells

.... Open:

Gough Prizes for Photography ...

Junior:

Open: Lower School:

Drawing Prizes 456

A. P. Mason M. N. J. Broomfield

J. P. Green M. J. A. Simpson


TH E CANTUAR I AN

Divinity Prizes: Upp~r School (Brollgh toll) Middle School (Marshall Wild) Lower School ( Lady fl erlslet)

M. J. Ricketts J. R. C. Wright H. J . Ri cketts

Blore Prize for the Harvey Society

T. G . Hi rd

Streatfeild Prize fo r the Marl owe Society

J. A. Kan e

Merton College Prizes: History

I,.

O. R. F. Davies R . R . Biirk

Science

r. Allen

A lan Baker Pri ze for Musica l Appreciation

G.

Oli ver Joh nson Gift (Physics alld Chemistry )

A. B. A. Stears

H . V. Crawford Essay Prizes: Upper School Middle School Lower School

M. J . Ricketts T. J . Stevens H . J. Ricketts

J. Crawford Essay Prizes: Upper School Middle School Lower School

M. B. Chester T. J . Stevens H. J. Ri cketts

Geoffrey Wells Archaeology Prize

W. J. R. Blakeney

Latin Prizes: Upper School Middle School Lower School

M . G. Sayer P. H. Gordon

C. B. Seaman

G reek Prizes : Upper School Midd le School Lower School

A. A. Dunning P. R. S. Mansergh C. G. Lewis

Mathematics Prizes (Harrisoll) Upper School Middle School Lower School

R. G . Paterson D. S. Bree A. R. Mulford

Modern Languages Prizes (Greaves) : Upper School Middle School Lower School: Frellch

B. K . Jeffery R. J. B. Clark O. J. C. Wethered A. W. J. Caron

German 457


r

!â&#x20AC;¢

THE CANTUAR I AN

Science Prizes : Upper School

R. R. BUrk A. B. A. Stears D. S. Bree C. M. G . Wortley M. R. Ayling

Middle School Lowcr School

1

)

English Prizes: Upper School Middlc School (Ga/pin) Lower School

O. R. F. Davies R. L. Pengelly M. R. Ayling

History Prizes: Upper School Midd le School (Gordon) Lower School

O. R. F. Davies R. L. Pengell y C. D. P owell

Geography Prize: Lower School

G . C. Pritchard

Form Prizes (Middle and Lower School): . Arts VA Arts Vo Arts Vc Science VA Science Vo Science Vc Remove Science Remove A rts Shell A ... Science Shell A Arts Shell H ... Science Shell B Arts Shell C New Shell IV

J. A. Colligan J. R. C. Wright J. A . C. McElwee H. L. Foster J. K . McDonald R. F. L. Wood W. A. H. Wright N. W. Stevens C . D . P owell M. R. Ayling A . R. H. Mileson M. R . Turner M. R. Allen A. D. Stewart J. P. D. Pattrick

I

I

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458

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'tHE

CANTUARIAN

SPEECHES IN THE CHAPTER HOUSE GREEK SPEECH Aristophanes appears to have established permanent residence in the Greek Speech, mainly because his dominance of action over dialogue is more suited to the. notorious acoustics of the Chapter H ouse. This year proved no exception, the choice falling on the a musing scene from his PhilliS in which the honest man (N. H. Nicholls), justly rewarded once more with wealt h, rebuffs with the help of Carion (R. M. Harvey) the final advances of the Info rmer (E. J. Smalman-Smith) to restore his fortunes. All three gave a confident performance, speaking clearly and with understanding and main~

taining the high trad ition that has been established thro ugho ut o ur years in the Chapter House. Dare we hope, however, for some variety of choice in Oll r new home?

FRENCH SPEECH An extract from Pagnol's Topaze was chosen for this year's French Speech . The ingenuous scllOolmaster, Topaze (J. A. Turner) had to face an irate parent, La Baronnc (N. H. Nicholls), protesting about her son's report. Both played their parts excellently. O. R. F. Davies as the headmaster was mediator between the two, and the verve of his acting, and clear ennunciation quite overcame the effect produced by his accent which savoured of "Les Hailes". This was a performance which even those with very little F rench could enjoy.

ENGLISH SPEECH Bo th Greek a nd F rench speeches had been of a higher standard than usual, and few knew what to expect from this passage fro m Jonson's Vo/pone. It proved, however, an excellent choice, both because it gave full scope to the actors avai lable, and because it was a return towards the more trad itional "Speech", and its original intention. The passage chosen was from the first act of Vo/polle, and was a real pleas ure to listen to and watch. Mosca, the smooth and crafty parasite of Vol pone, was delightfully po rtrayed by O. R . F. Davies who did full justice to the poetry, and, in Ilis bearing, gloating laugh and facial expression, to Mosca's character. M . J. Ricketts revelled in the part of Volpone. If he was not always an old man, he was a pleasantly eccentric and undesirable magnifico. His speech was clear, if a little precise, and his assumed infirmity and its effects were delightful. Of the sycophants in whose fleecing he took such pleasure, Voltorc (A. N . A. Browner) was petulant and greedy; D . E. Balfour, as Corbaccio, put on a delightful old age and hobbled about avariciously with a croaking, high-pitched voice; and Corvino (J. M. G. Hutton) gave much amusement by expressing his real views 011 Vol pone, to the latter's supposedly deaf ears . "Mosca," exclaims Volpo ne as they embrace in triumph, at the end of a most entertaini ng speech, "Mosca , tholl hast today o utdone thyself." 459


T HE CANTUARIAN

THE J UNIOR SCHOOL Many past members of tI,e School wi ll be intcrested to know that the Chaplain goes to Milner Court next term as its Headmaster. He has been here for ninc years and, in that time, has endeared himself to great numbers Hncl, apart from the zea l and devotion

wit h which he has fulfilled Ius function as Chaplain, he has given unstinting service to all the major Games in which he himself is so eminenl and able an exponent. On all gro unds we deeply regret his departure but congrat ulate thc Junior School on having such a fine man, and it is quite certain that he with Mrs. Ed:no nds will conti nue the sO llnd and worthy traditions which have characteri zed the J un ior School tl u'o ughout its long llistory. We wish him every success ill his new appointment, but arc glad that he is not, of course, rca ll y leaving LI S. He will be living only two 111il es away and the Junior School is an integral part of the Senior School. We understa nd tha t Mr. Edmonds will still give us so me help in Games and wm, each week, appear among us in Chapel. In congratulat ing the Chaplain and Milner Court both on this appoint ment, we take this opportun ity of saying farewc U to the Rev. and Mrs. W. H. Oldaker. They took over the School at a difficult momcnt in 1945 when it was returning from Cornwall. The difficulties which they had to face were tremendous, but they did so with courage and confidence and cheerfu lness. Mr. Oldaker has done a great deal to improve the buildings and the amenities generall y in the Junior School, and he has raised the standard of work very co nsiderably and, indeed. to a very great extent Milner Court boys have been very prominent in our own Entrance Scholarship Exa minations. Both Mr. and Mrs. Oldaker have given themselves without reservc to the wclfare and the development of the School and, in short, have made it an attractive sphere for any successor with most of the problems solved and the diffic ult ies erased . Wc wish them every good fo rt une in the dcligh tful village of C ulmstock in Devonshire, to which M r. Oldaker is goi ng as Rector, and we are sure that the parishioners there will have as wa rm regard for them as the people belonging to the School here have, for we know what very fine wo rk they have achieved among us. On Saturday, Jul y 28th, the Annual Prize-Giving Ceremony was held at tile Junior School when at the invitation of Mr. Oldaker the incoming Headmaster gave the prizes, and the Headmaster of the Senior School made presenta tions to Mr. and Mrs. Oldaker, one from the parents and staff and boys, and a second from the Governors of the King's School.

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TH E CANTUARIA N

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Recently we came across an account of the O. K.S. Dinner of October, 1882 (the year that The Canlllarian first appeared), at which Elements of School l'rosperity Bishop Mitchinson, an ex-H eadmaster, and Dr. Blare, the then current Headmaster, discusscd the state of the School at that ti me, and innovations within it which seem a quaint pre-echo of more recent reform. "Bishop Mitchinson, having proposed tile ma in toast of the evening, "Prosperity to the King's School", went on to say that there were three main elements of prosperity: 1st, Bricks and mortar ; 2nd, Boys; 3rd, Mas ters. As to the first, the School was well-equipped now. Many present wo uld remember the di lapida ted seedy build ings of thirt y yea rs ago, which, ra mshack le as they were, had produced man y fo r the School to be proud of. Out bricks and mortar were more necessary now that pa rents had become more exacting. All schools, too, were rehabil itating themselves, and Canterbury must keep its place in the race with the others. Seco ndly Boys. They were the necessa ry grist 10 the mil l. Tn this respect there was reason for sa tisfaction. The numbers had reached his drea m of 150, and he must say he wished Dr. Blore would say "no 1110re". The number 150 seemed to him the ideal one, "teres atque rotundus" . However, every man should be allowed to have llis own hobby. . . . .. Dr. Blore, rising in reply to the toast, said that when he had spoken at the last O. K.S. Dinner the numbers had been 152. He fea red he should make his predecessor's heart sad whe n he said that the numbers now were 165. TIle day boys generaUy kept to about sixty, but he had room in his house for about two more, and Mr. H odgson for a bout five, so that the numbers might be 170, as he hoped, instead of 150. Our mention in the April issue of the ancestry of T . M. E. Dunn aroused a number of interested enqu iries and comments. It has been suggested that W. 1-1. G. Dunbar, O.B.E., T.D. (1903- 09) lIas possibly the longest anccstry of any O. K.S. now living. It is full y record ed in Her Majesty's Register Office, Edinburgh, from Crinan the Thane a bout the yea r A.D. 1000. The principa l Coat of Arms of this fami ly is known to be the second oldest, if not the oldest coat, in Scali ish Hera ldry, being reco rded in the Armorial de Gelre Brussels A.D. 1369.

Longevity

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We were delighted to sec tha t Mr. J . H . Comer, who took over the R.A.F. Benevo lent SellOol at Va nbru gh Castle, has decided to form a band and that Mr. P. Purcell has agreed to become bandmaster. It is pleas ing to think that Canterbury was instrumenta l in bringing these two friends of the School together again . We wish them both every success.

A New n and

The occasional fumes of the Canterbury tannery have become a fa miliar feature of tile Precincts. At least they provide anot her con nect ion with Marl owe, for Christopher, descended fro m a long li ne of tanners and shoemakers, would have felt very much at home in such an environment. Cold Comfort

The remai ns of a 13th century building have been fo und in the orchard of the Archdeacon of Ca nterbury, from where Cali ban and, more recently, the apothecary made thei r entrances in former School productions. It seems probable that the bui lding was the founda tion of the monastery crypt. A pillared fireplace da ted a bout two centuries later indicates the possibility of a kitchen.

A Kitchen in the Wings

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A few members of the School attended the live broadcas t of "Twent y Questions" from the Marlowe The. lre on Jul y 12th . The performance was enlivened by a reference to Canon Shirley and an enq uiry as to what connection Marlowe had with Canterbury!

T he Twenty-first Q uestion

The railway line fro m Canterbury West to Marga te, which only springs to life between 11 .30 â&#x20AC;˘. m. and 6.30 p.m. o n Saturdays, has become a distinctive feature of School cricket, and the appearance of slow goods has saved many a side in distress while it passes behind the bowler's arm. One such sidc, K .C.S ., Wimbledo n, reprieved las t yea r, are sa id to have applied durin g the win ter fo r a li ne to be insta lled a long the side of their gro und. What is L ife. . ..

When Mr. W . N. Goss, a forme r second mas ter, retired, the Old Boys' Associati on presented him wi th two oak chairs, copies of the School chairs. His brother and sister have now presented these to the School with Mr. Goss' name inscribed upon them. We are most grateful to both of them.

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The School had its full share of mishaps in the gales on the Sunday before Speech Day. Pieces of the ruins by Brick Walk were blown off, and people wa lked warily beneath the trees; but the major attraction was Marl ow~ House, of which tlte top fl oor-the M asters' Common Room- fell in after one of the Deanery chimneys had been blown on to its roof. Nobody was in the Common R oom ; but the boys in the sellior study below fled when they Iteard the noise and saw their roof bulgi ng in over their heads . Par t of the roof of the SoatllOuse at Pluck's Gutter was also blown off; but a quickly gathered party soon recovered it from the neighbo uring field and secured it in positio n again. Gales

We were much concerned to read in the Sco ts Independent a notice of the apparent death of a member of the School a nd a regular contributor to these pages . " It is with great regret that I write to inform yo u of the death of my dear fr iend , Jai n Campbell. A lead ing Scottish Nationalist in K ent, he died as a res ult of injuries received in an unfortuna te road accident while travelling from Oxford to Canterbury. "Through his persuasive manner and faithfulness to the Party's cause he won many supporters among Scots now resident in K ent, and through Itis letters to you r publicati on maintained a strong link between the Scots of Kent and their mother country. His death, at the early age of 34, will be mourned by ma ny, but the memory of his courageous efforts will undoubtedly inspire adherents to the cause of the Party in England to greater exerti o ns in the fight for independence." He must have been a sterling example to us a ll.

A S terling Example

T he Luxmoorc Trophy

The Luxmoore Tro phy was once more competed for this year. Walpole wo n it, with Ga lpin's and Linacre close behind. Thanks a re due to Mr. Polla k, who put a great deal of hard work into the calculations. 46~

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For the pri vate use of masters and VISitors a ga teway which was once part of Godmersham Manor has been made in the Latterga te wall. Godmersh.m was once the property of tlte Prior of Ca llterbury and as its sto ne would have been hewn in the mason's yard, wltich was just by the Kent War Memorial ga rdens, the gateway has in a sense come back to its original home.

Gateway to the Assembly Hall

"Horrendi facinoris detcstanda praesumptio vehementer animum nostru m pro sui a troc ita te commovit." With these words did Pope Clemen t II r ex press his approval of the break ing of the boundary wall of the i'reei llcts in 11 88. This was at the time of the controversy between Arcltbishop .Bald win and the mOllks of Canterbury over the esta blishment of a secular college at Hackingtoll: Will iam FitzNeal, the steward who deserted Becket in his hour of peril , had come to Ca nterbury on the behalf of the Archbishop, and had smashed his way thro ugh the wa ll. His followers occupied the Prechtcts, confining the mo nks to the Cloisters a nd the Ca thedra l, a nd thereby beginning a siege which was to last for 84 wee ks. The break was in the wa ll of the "curia", which was the area ro ughl y

A Twelfth Century Precedent

corresponding to the Green Court, I and so was quite near the gap now being made in the wall between Latterga te and the Pentise. We hope that the present destruction will not call for any such condemnation! 1. Epistulae Camuariellses, p. 133.

Congratulations

We congratulate Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Mack intosh on the birth of a daughter, Fiona, on June 21st.

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On Sunday, July 22nd, the School's H oly Commun ion was held in the newly reco nsecrated Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene. It was an impressive service; the headmaster celebrated, the Chapel, unused since 1539, was fresh and pleasingly furni shed, and some 200 peo ple we re so mehow fitted in witho ut awkwardness. It was also pleasant as a change from normal chapel, and was a service that many will long remember. Chapel of S t. Mary Magdalene

We have noticed the res urgence to the notice boards of Chess Club notices, Chess and a chess ladder posted by the sports boards. Tho ugh not yet a millo r sport, interest in it has been revived, and the o rder of the names on the ladder occasionally seems to change. We offer o ur congratulations to Brigadier Brocklehurst on his C.B. and his appointment as Chief of Staff, Forces in Malaya; to C. S. Emden, formerly Fellow and Treasurer of Oriel, on election to a n Emeritus Fellowship ; to R. O. A. Norris on being capped for H ockey for England v Wales; to Lieut.-Col. A. E . C. Bredin, D.S.O., M.G., mentioned for distinguished services in Malaya; a nd to D. H. Elliott of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, who recently qualified M .B., .B.S. , wit h HOllo",¡s in Obstetrics, o n taking first place, the medal for surgery, and being awarded a Brackenb ury Scholarsltip. Congratulations

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T H E CANTUAR I A N

The Monitors this year attempted to revive an old custom by Wllich they set the School a Gene ral Knowledge Test at the end of term. The Test was duly drawn lip with grcHt care, and prizes promised; it was therefore disappointing when lhe printers cou ld not have it ready in time for tile last Saturday of term. We hope it will bc able to take place next year.

Ceneral Knowledge

On Monday morning ane r the Commemoration Service, the cast of H .M.S. Pillafore gat hered in thc Parry for a las t sing-through of the opera. Dr. Dodd played the piano; the words came Oll t so mehow, and it provided a stra nge change of atmosphere from ti,e Mikado-which somehow fo und its way several times into the words of Pinafore ! G. & S.

At interva ls durin g the past few yea rs the stonework on the North side of the Cloisters has been restored at the expense of the F riends of the Cathedral. Until last April a maso n from Su ssex has been ca rrying out this work intermittently, but now one of the local masons has taken over and graduall y the whole of the Cloisters wi ll be res tored. The new Bat h stone which is being used tends to clas h witll the grey and ancient beauty of the old stonework, but it is hoped that within fifty years it will be as difficul t to distinguish between the old and new masom y of ti,e Cloisters as it is to distin guish between the Nortll-West Tower and the rest of the Cathedral to-day. A mason recently began to reface the School Library, some of the stones of which have been crumbling thro ugh cold and damp, Wllich unfortu nately tends to spread quickly througllOut the whole stonework . The old Caen stone is being replaced by Bath stone and the work should soon be completed. In the holidays the same mason hopes to begin the tas k of refacing the Norman Sta ircase, wh ich has a lso suffered from the attacks of damp and time. Altho ugh this work is so vital, anyone who knows the Precincts intimately must feel a sense of sorrow as what was considered rightfull y old and crumbling gives place to masonry of a shiny and ill-at-ease "newness".

Necessary Refacings

The Pilgrims

The "Canterbury Pilgrims' B.C." once mo re entered an eight for the Serpentine Regatta; we wis h them ti,e best of luck.

T he Captain of School, hitherto a staunch supporter of the Cricket Club, threw over his loya lty, and arter an energetic outing in a fo ul', with three members of the 1st VlIf, at Fordwich, was nearl y cOllverted to the sport of sports!

A Convert

We admire his courage, for we gather that he also ventured out in a rum-tum sculler ea rlier ill the term. We wondered if such acti vities were to be connected with the cancellation of the Boat Club v T ile Haymakers' C.C. cricket match this term? On 18t1l June, the Headmaster, Captain of School a nd Senior King's Gardell Party Scholar attended a garden party, given by Lord and Lady H arris at Belmont Park, Faversham. Typically, it rained, but not sufficiently to hide fash.ionable clothes and hats. Tea was held in a large marquee, and the house was tllrown open for inspection, where the writer was delighted with the large collection of clocks, which abo ullded in every room. 464

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Heard in the Precincts '-'Can you direct me to the Norman Escalator?" "And my last text is taken from, of all places, a little book by Lord Beaverbrook." Seen in the Precincts "As from Monday, July 9th, 300 boys a re taking exams, therefore less bread, etc., will be needed ."

From Common Entrance Papers "Samuel's parents decided to send him to a priest for his education so that he might grow up an intellige nt boy. When he was old enough he went to a priest called El iza." Having "picked up Eisac bod il y and placed him on the a ltar" Ab raham drew his kni fe and was about to strike "when a loud voice sa id 'Stop! you have passed yo ur test' It , Asked how the Apostles were able to convert peo ple of all nationalities to Christianity after the Ascension, one candidate said "They were given a passport which enabled them to go to any country". There has recentl y taken place a reception at Lambeth Palace to mark the 70t h birthday of the famou s theologian K arl Barth, and one of Ilis few English translators, Dr. Kn ight, was present as a guest. Perhaps it is not too much to say that Karl Barth occupies in this age much the sa me position which St. Thomas Aquinas occupied in the Middle Ages, and different as they are in spirit, Ilis nlassive Kirch liche Dogmalik in ten vol umes reminds us irresistibly of the Summa Theolog;ca. Barth has something of the fire and revolutionary ardour of a n Old Testament prophet and in an age wlueh has witnessed the collapse of ratio nalistic huma nism he has led us back to the fundamentals of revealed religion. Karl Barth

Next term the Rev. A. B. C urry, Scholar of SI. Edmund Hall, Oxford, comes to be our Chaplain in place of the Rev. J. H. Ed monds, Headmas ter-elect of Milner CO llrt, and Mr. R. D. H. R oberts of Jesus College, Cambridge, joi ns the Modern Language staff. We look forward very much to welcoming these two O.K.S. amo ng us once more. A. B. C urry was H ead of the School in 1949 and Richard Roberts in 1950, and as they were among the ablest in the last quartercentury, they will easil y settle into their new sphere. Mr. A. C. Berridge rejoins the History staff after a n interval at Bristol Grammar School, and we extend a welcome to Mr. J. S. H all of Epsom and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and Mr. J. A. Sadd ler of Cranieigll and Wadham College, Oxford, who also join the staff; we are sure that all these maste rs will be happy in their work among us . New Masters

• It is hoped to increase tile Assembly H all fund by up to £3,000 by an ingenious Bricks system borrowed from L,nci ng College. Over five hundred booklets ha ve been printed, each contain.ing 160 bricks, sold at one slulling per brick. Most boys received one of these booklets, and should return next term with empty books and £8! 465


THE CANTUARIAN

A small sum was raised for the Assembly Hall fund at a fete The Lattergate Fete organized by Mr. Ball and the boys of Lattergate on an afternoon towards the end of term, and was attended by Mrs. Shirley and a number of masters and senior boys. The afternoon was enjoyed by all concerned whether hurling tennis-balls at a moving boater or trying to pierce a potato with thirty pins in thirty seconds, a feat eventually accomplished without penalization by one of the housemasters . It is to be hoped that a fete on a larger scale may be organized next year. The possibilities are infinite. We apologize to Mr. W. L. Entwhistle for our omission of acknowledgements in our last issue for his photographs of H.M.S. Pinafore, the 1st Hockey XT, and of the manuscript from the Cathedral Library; also to P. F. Houston, for his photograph.

Apologies

KING'S WEEK, 1956 How often were we told last summer that that was to have been the last real King's Week, because of the later "A" and "S" level exams.! However many may have doubted the truth of such a statement, none could have anticipated the full and brilliantly successful King's Week that we have seen this year. Exams? They were done, we hope well; but so was the Mikado and three concerts. The relentless maChinery of King's Week began as surely as ever. The booth was erected by the Christ Church Gate, singers, painters, musicians, scenery builders rushed hither and thither; never a moment when Colonel Roberts, Edred Wright or Mr. Sugden were not rehearsing, patiently explaining, organizing, or transcribing. Normal school continued for most ; but for all engaged in the hundred and one activi ties, the classroom gave way to the Chapter House, tile Cloisters, the Music School or the Marlowe Theatre's scenery room. Everyone hummed G. and S., and while each had his own job, not a few were to be seen going from one group to another, from Mikado rehearsals to the Madrigal Society, or from the Choral Society to one of the tl,ree orchestras.

Visitors stared aghast at the apparent chaos caused everywhere by the boys in shirtsleeves and wing collars .... Worry? There was certainly no lack of apprehension as the Week drew neal' and last minute rehearsals were crammed in. The Dress Rehearsals came, a11d then, as each of the great days approached, one could breallie another sigh of relief. Two thousand people enjoyed the Requiem and Rhapsody; all six performances of the Mikado , for which every seat was sold, delighted their packed audiences; the Serenade thrilled many with an evening's excellent music heard in surely perfect surroundings; and the great orchestral concert was heard by 2,500 in the Nave. No King's Week? We look forward to the next !

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BRAHMS' "REQUIEM" Brahms ca lled the work A Germall Requiem IVith Scriptural Text. A Requiem is usually a setting of liturgical material-Requiem Aeternam, Kyrie Eleison, Dies Irae, Sanctus, !lenedictus.' Agnus Dei, and so on. Brah'."~' composition therefore is not a Requiem m the ordmary sense. It IS however a stnking summary of most of the factors of his highly complex art. He grounded himself solidly in Renaissance polyphony in the intellectual and pictorial methods of the High Baroque and in the architect~ral innovations of Beethoven. His romantic soul shines through a technique which combined many of these elements, and it is only occasionally that the art fails to exceed the device. The listener is not conscious that the opening vocal line of "How lovely" is an inversion of the orchestra's opening phrase. On the other hand, the striding augmentation in "Ye now have sorrow" can be a little tedious to one who knows it is there. The performance given on 21stJuly was part only of a week of widely ranging activities which called for the highest skill in vocal, instrumental and dramatic technique. It would scarcely be extravagant to employ the wildest superlatives iIl commending not onl y the results but the hours of labour which the preparation demanded. It is a long way from Sullivan to Brahms and still further to Geminiani and Orlando di Lasso. It may well be that in some ways the extremities of the pilgrimage achieved the greater distinction in performance. Brahms required large forces and these had to be disposed over a large area. It is always difficult to sing upon a beat the movement of which appears to defy the evidence of one's ears-as is usually the case when a time lag is present. The result is often an occasional lapse of unanimity, the performers further down the tunnel (usually a chorus) apparently fa iling to secure the same precision as those in the foreground. To the listener at the extreme West End, the vitality and ensemble were best in such forte passages as "behold, all flesh is as the grass". Possibly the two elements, vocal and orchestral, could have been more perfectly co-ordinated in the quieter and more florid passages. One was bound to notice the occasional out-of-tune high wood-wind note or the more unfortunate scoopings of expensive soloists (the singer of the Alto Rhapsody must be absolved from these lapses). Flaws, however, occupied but a fraction of the total playing time and they were more than offset by the skill with which the rest of the work was performed . . Undoubtedly the King's School stand";rds rank very high ~mong public school muSIc III thIs country; IIldeed one cannot think of many schools III which they are equalled, let alone surpassed. The School, however, is so rich in music staff and musical boys who have already had wide experience that the possibilities of development are practically e!,dless, particularly if more rehearsal time can be fo und. It is perhaps unkmd to say tlllS when one remembers that the present results were obtained by singers and players many of whom were takiI,g Brahms' Requiem in their stride as merely one item in a complex programme of intense activity. The best compliment one can pay is to say that upon leaving the cathedral the mind was not upon the King's School, its choir and orchestra, but of Brahms and his music which had been vividly brought to life. It was a feast of beauty and it remained only to spend the rest of the evening in co ntemplating it. 467


TilE CANTUARtAN

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The Mikado of Japan ... Nanki-Poo, his

SOll,

disguised as a Wandering Minstrel,

P. 13. NICHOLSON J. I. R. THOMPSON

in love with Yum-Yum Ko-Ko, Lord High Executioner of Titipu

(Tuesday. Thursday MaL, Sat. Night)

C. 1-1. 13A YSTON (Wed., Fri., Sat. Mat.)

... R. J. SNELL

Pooh-Bah, Lord High Everything Else

(Tuesday., Thurs. Mut., Sat. Night)

H. A . BROWN (Wed., Pr., Sat. Mat.)

1-1 , K. BRAY

Pish-Tush )

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Noble Lords Go-To Yum-Yum} Pitti-Sing Three Sisters-Wards of Ko-Ko Peep-Bo Katisha, an elderly lady in love with Nanki-Poo

G. W. LANE

E. J. SMALMAN-SMITH f J. R. SHARP ~ C. B. SEAMA N R. E. T. CLARK N. H. NICHOLLS

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M. DELLER (Wed., Fri., Sat. Night)

Chorus of Nobles, Guards and Coolies: A. J. Agnew, R. J. B. Aske, J. B. BatchelOf, J. Beaugi':, J. Brodie, A. W. Budgen, P. K. W. Cashell, T. C. Cilenevix-Trench, R. Collingwood, J, M. Draper, B, S. Guard, D . G. Hazelton, B, K. Jeffery, J. A. Kane, P. G. Kemp, P. R. Leggatt, R. P. Lunn, C. C. F. Matthew, M. R. McArdle, A. Pililpott, J. Polglase, A. J . Redpath, J. S. P. Sale, J. G . Underwood , A. R. A. Veitch, D. S. J. Wallis, H. C. Whittall, A. A. J. Williams. Chorus of Schoolgirls: M. R. Allen, P. Arnold, D. J. Bevan, D. H. B. Chesshyre, A. Cook, J. C. Cook, A. D. Double, R. J . Martin, F. T. A. Mazzarella, J. A. McLean, J. W. R. Mowll, A. T. Selman, C. J . Tavener, D. O. Tayler, W. J. D. Taylor, K. G. Trickett, J. P. Varcoe, O. J. C. Wethered, R. J. Woodman, C. J. Yates. Chorus Master: EORED WRIGHT Orchestra lInder the direction of: LT.-COL. MEREDlTH RODERTS, M.V.O., M.B.E. Producer : JOH N SUGOEN Stage Manage" DAVID LAWRENCE Rehearsal Pianist: ROBERT SCOTT Settings desigued by T. C. C1'IENEVIX-TRENCH 468

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(Ph%s by EII/wb;t/e

"NOTHING COULD POSSIBLY BE MORE SAT ISFACl'ORY"


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Scenery built and painted by : T. C. CHENEVIX-TRENCH, N. G. BURBRIDGE, O . R . F. DAVIES, G. P. MORGAN, J. A. KANE, R. O. LINFORTH, H . J . RAWLI NSON, J . G. C. SMITH, C. Q. JAMES, R. R . BURK, A. R . D . STEBDING, D . G . BARIlER, A. A. J. WILLIAMS. M em bers of the Orchestra: G. P. ROBERTSON (Leader), G. 1. ALLEN, D. E. BALFOUR, W. A. H. BODGER, P . J . FORD, D . S. GOODES, R. A. LANE, A. R. H. MIL ESON, A. D. W. O'SULLIVAN, MRS. T . P. PARTINGTON, S. P. S. PRICE, H. J. RI CKETrs, S. REID, G . N. SALMON, R. P. SCOTT, T. STEN NING, R. M. SUTroN, M ISS N. WJ-IJTE. Lighti ng by MESSRS. S. W. BLlGl-I, LTD . Costu mes and W igs by MESSRS. B. & H. DRURY, LTD., Bri ghton, under the supervision M ISS G UlJls. Fans kindly provided by MRS. J. G . R. AUSTIN. Make-up by MRS. A . P. C. GODDEN, assisted by MR . L. MARTIN, MR. and MRS. M. MILNER and MRS. J. WILSON. THE "MIKADO" I confess that I usually regard invitations to watch amateur productions of Gilbert and Sullivan opera with what Gilbert called "modified rapture" . Tcame away from The M ikado at King's School sharing with a packed audience the joyous spirit that your production had generated, and with the thought in my mind that it would have delighted Sir Art hur Sullivan and Sir William Gilbert, could they have scen it. T iley, of course, were schoolboys once-about a century ago. They wo uld have appreciated the Ilighspiri ted attack you made upon their com ic opera, yo ur alertness to tile subtelty and satire of Gilbert'S j okes; G il bert wo uld have been es peciall y pleased tllat yo u d id not over-play these jokes a nd tum the co medy into what he loathed, mere buffoone ry. Sulli va n wou ld have admired tile fasti d ious care with Wllich soloists, chorus, and orchestra approached his music. Stupid people think that because Sulli vall's music is tuneful and has become universally popular it is easy to perform (I mean to perform well). Snobbish people think it is unwortilY because it is po pular. There is more in a Sullivan score than meets the casual ear; it is not music that people carl get away with in a slipshod manner, though people often try to. Properly performed, it reveals Sullivan as Master in his own sphere just as truly as Beethoven or Bach are Masters in their department of the catholic art of Music. There are some things in The Mikado, especially in the female parts, that are a little outside the reach of any schoolboy ever born (if it were not so, Sullivan would have not known his business in writing for female voices), and there were some roles in the K ing's School presentation that were played better than others, but what distinguished the entire production, 1 thought, was that everyone approached it with just as much respect as the orchestra put into the Beethoven Concerto in the Cathedral on the following evening. This is what would have delighted Messrs. G ibert and Sull ivan themselves most of all . 469


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Sullivan was a chorister at the Chapel Royal. One of his earliest manuscripts is a four-part madrigal written when he was about 13; scribbled on it is "Written on my bed at night in deadly fear lest Hehnore (the Head) should come in and catch me". Obviously a boy destined to go far. He had a thorough academic musical education, and that, plus his genius for a good tune, is why the music of these Victorian operas survives and delights successive generations while more recent and more slapdash popular music fa lls into oblivion. This music is (bar one or two human lapses) good music. Gilbert had a public school and university education but he wasn't one of those literary men who live in ivory towers. Having to earn Ilis living, Ile knew the hard side of life and understood the interests of tI,e general public. In two years at tIle bar he earned ÂŁ25 and had a boot thrown at his head by one of I, is clients in court : "The boot missed me but hit a reporter on the head, and to this fact I a nl disposed to attribute the uluavo urable light in which my speech for the defence was placed in two or three of the leading papel's next mornjng", Such a young man was bound to go far, and, luckily for us all , Gilbert met Sullivan. In both cases their work is gro unded on thoroughly academic lines; even when the clown is going most crazily througll the hoops the whole movement has been worked out by a calculated dramatic and literary method. And G ilbert took the most particular pains. He re-wrote the plot of The Mikado a dozen times before he was satisfied . Nothing slapdash about this. It is good English, good satire, and good theatre. All these things add up to WIlY it is a good thing for SUCll a school as King's, which has an abundance of talent and vitality, to try its mettle with Gilbert and Sullivan as well as with Shakespeare or Beethoven. All come within the range of a true education and a real enjoyment of life. I am not going to particularise ill criticism of the performance: it would be quite wrong for an outsider, unaware of tile capabilities of each boy, to do that. Mucll better for it to come from your producer, conductor, and chorus master, who are men of ability, discernment, and enthusiasm . Tltis was obvious from the results they obtai ned from the School cast; there was nothing ragged, undisciplined, or shoddy about the performance yet it was full of high spirits. I was glad to note that the scenery was designed and built in the School, and did not slavishly follow the Savoy Theatre tradition. The touches of originali ty in the settings and in the stage-movements sllOwed how amateurs of imagination call rescue these operas from the rut into wllich amateurs of lesser quality (and may I venture to say, sometimes professionals) have been too apt to drag them. This raises the question of "modefltising" these old operas. So long as Gilbert's words are st ill in copyright (until 1961) they may not be altered, and they have weathered the years so well that there is not much need to alter them apart from a few archaic allusions which I for one should be happy to see removed (what possible sense, for example, can a modern audience make of the Mikado's reference to "Parliamentary trains"-it was a reference understood 70 years ago, to the Railway Regulation Act of 1844 in which Parliament laid down traffic cond.itions for the railways); but there is no reason, legal, etltical, or artistic, why the staging of these operas should not be as flexible to the imagination of producer and designer as is a Shakespeare play. There is no reason why every stage movement sllOuld be exactly as Gilbert laid it down 75 years ago. The professional Gilbert and Sullivan company has already moved some way from the original stylisation and settings, realising that wltile Gilbert's words mld Sullivan's

470

I


I

THE CANTUAR IA N musIc arc built to an enduring classica l sbape. (these o~eras are in that sense classics), the standards and techniques of stage-presentatIOn and decor have changed and adv~nccd immeasurably since The Mikado and its lively chain of sister operas first saw the footl ights. Of course, taking full liberty with the stagillg of G . & S. could be di~astr~lU s ~n the wrong hands, but so it can with Shakespeare, and on the wl~olc freedom o~ lInagm3tl,vC ?pproach to Shakespeare has dOlle the Bard no harm . I thmk I saw belund the KlIlg s School production of The Mikado a discipline and discernment which would prevent liberty drifting into licence. Anyhow, I thank you for giving your audience some unmodified rapture, and good luck to yo ur next. L ESLI E BAILY

(Author of The Gilbert alld SlIlIivan Boold.

TH E "MIKADO"

However jncongruous the Japanese characters for ~'Kil~g'S School" nu~y have scc,mcd beneath the cast window of the Chapter House,. the IllUSion of a fancy-ndden medieval Japan was very quickly created when U,e curtam rose, and ably sustamed throughout two acts full of melody and excellent acting in two beautiful sets. All productions of Gilbert and Sullivan ope~'as must stand or fall by their music, and this production was far better than any tiling one can reasonably expect f~om a school ; the musical training that some of the boys had earher received made the smgmg much stronger, particularly in the unbroken voices, than a ~ompa.rable producllon whi?h the writer saw lately at a somewhat larger school. Despite their many other conlmltments, the orchestra played superbly under O)lonel Roberts, while the chor~s, which Mr. Edred Wright had so excellently and pat.lently tramed, sang sensilively and With evident verve and enjoyment. T he entry of the girls' chorus_______ "Comes a train of little ladies, From scholastic trammels free," was deservedl y greeted witll delight by tile a udience, some of who m hardly r~cogni sed in these lightl y tripping lovelies thelf own rather heavy-footed sons. The men s cholu s produced a richness of tone which on occasIOns really filled the Chapter House With melody. It is no doubt true that the hour will produce the man, but the Scl1001 is very lucky to have at the moment an artist capable of creating two such debghtful backcloths as those we saw in these two sets. The sets themselves were ingeniously planned UI~der Mr. David Lawrence, and T . C. Chenevix-Trench's Japanese landscapes belllnd, with their skilful usc of the middle distance, produced a chanrung picture, almost nostalgically renliniscent of that beautiful country. The idea of having a cast which was largely doubled among tile principal parts, enabled one to grasp more fully the possibilities of several characters by ~o mpaflng the two interpretations . N . H. Nicholls, f~r instance, brought a tragic dlglllly and patho,s to the part of the slightly unhlllged Kallsha, though he could not match M. D. Dellel s 471


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really superb singi ng. As Pooh-Bah, Roger Snell gave a so norous pomposity to the part, and a ll excellence of timing, which was ably supported o n the alternate Ilights by H. A. Brown. J. 1. R. Thompsoll is well established as a ll excellent actor, and, as Ko-Ko, the Lord High Executioner, he was very fUlmy, and sang with excellent enunciation. C. H. Baystoll was slightly mo re spo nta neo us ill Ilis fooling, and has on the whole a mellower voice. H. K. Bray alld G. W. Lane and E. J. Smalman-Smitll gave good perfo rmances as Noble Lords. The soprallo a nd tenor parts were ullchanged throughout the week, alld P. B. NicilOlso n's Nanki-Poo was well matched in purity of tOile by J. R. Sharp's soprano as Yum-Yum . Both acted well alld in their love-scene together, the delighted illllOcence of YUIl1-Yum 's ogling eyes cau sed the remark to be overheard, uWherever did he learn to do that?" C. B. Seaman, as Pitti-Sing, gave a very accomplished perrormance; as

well as singing delightfully, he has a sure touch ill humo ur, and his add ition of two bass notes to an a lto so ng produced olle of the bes t la ughs of a very lively performance. The Mikado himself was played by D. F . Riceman who sang excellently, and who gave a

humour to the party whIch was most effective. The Mikado's make-up, in particular, was extraordinarily good, and all the cast had

SlIllster

a handso me Oriental look which does much credit to Mrs. G oddell's work in th.e make-up room.

Thc o utstandi ng quality of tllis productioll was the fac t that every word could bc hea rd, wit h hardly an except io n ; the principal so ngs, the patter so ngs, a lld the ch.oruses could all be hea rd ill every syllable, alld for that most unusual achievement Mr. Jolm Sugden is to be heartil y congratulated. A production Wllich made such excellent use of quite a sma ll stage without over-crowding, and gave us so me superb c1owlling- Ko-Ko's 'dead man's dro p' was a high-light-as well as such a beautifully controlled quartet as "Brightly dawns o ur weddillg-day", is the result of a great deal of inspired effort, and Mr. Sugden may wcll feel that it would take a professional cast to do better. K.A.C.G.

SERENADE IN THE CLOISTERS "I sha ll go now, that stuff is 'ail the same." Overheard in the Library Passage during the interval, such a remark is too often made by members of an older generation whose ea rl y musical idea ls were too deeply illfiuenced by the grandiose or the saccharine of a more stable and self-salisfied age. It is frequently the hasty judgement of the listener

rather than thc performcr-of the art critic "who knows what he likes", and in music can only comprehend "somethink tUlley, somethink you can 'urn", The music of the Elizabethans and their great successors needs a measure of intellectual und erstanding, a nd therefore of study and participation, as well as of emotional reaction by the spirit of the age in which the composers lived. The appreciation and enjoyment by tile listener is determined by the amo unt of effort he has made to comprehend, and the acuteness and understanding with which he is prepa red to listen to the performance. Bca uty is to that extent in the ear of the listener, as it is in the eye of the beholder. When the Madrigals were written, the English nation was young and rumbustious. The Englisll Madrigal was first sung by young gentlemen of a lusty courage, equally capable of sword play in a duel, a poem to their mistress or singeing the beard of the Spanish King. 472


THE CANTUARIAN

Nearly a century later Henry Purcell built upon th e foundation s l aid by his p.redecessors in tile gaiety of a reaction from the mUSical desert of the puntall revolution. These considerations are the background of both the enjoy men t and the cntlclsm of the Serenade in the Cloisters. The surroundings were very beauliful , a nd it was a perfect Summer's evelung; did they affect the rumbustrious elemen t in the madrigals and a sense of ga iety in the music of Purcell? The Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Colonel Roberts, played two suites by Purcell and a Concerto Grosso by G eminiani. The orchestra played clearly and precisely, but few of those who were present would have felt an itch to get up and dance durin g the suites ' nor did the deli ghtful cross-rhythms o f the music always tell sufficiently. Admi;ably as the individllalmemb~rs of the gro,up played, one n~issed the ess~.nt i HI and

expressive interweaving of parts whIch so orten gIve chamber musIc so much of Its charm and mean.ing. The madri gal should be the idea l medium of ar ti stic self-expression fo r a musicaBy intelligent Public Schoolboy. As. we hav:, s u~ge~ted, these ':nadl'lgals embody the Spll'lt of a youthful , emotional and .exclted, natl~n findmg ~ts feet 10 an expand~n,g wo!'ld , and the Madrigal Society sa ng With an ",fectrve enthUSiasm, and clear muslclanslup .. Mr. Edred Wright avoided with considerable success, the two pitfalls of the preCIOUS, scholarly precision so fr~quent in recent years amon~ madrigal gr~)Ups, an~ the "anthem" style to which the Society, consisting mostly ofex-chorr school cho n sters, mi ght be so I?ro.ne. The works chosen for the Serenade were well contrasted, but tI,ere was so me vanatlOn in the standard of performance. Often the singers were too much occupied with their copies to spare an eye fo r the conductor; but there was a vital and expressive enthUSiasm III a ll the pa riS, which occasionally led to the anticipation of leads, especially amo ng the trebles, who, however, managed breaking voices with consummate skin. The altos v.:ere clea r III tone but so metimes too incisive. The quality of tile teno r IlI1e was exceptronally good for boys, . If a

thought too reticent at times; and the basses, ~ ltIlOUg!l usually very clear, sometlmes mudd ied this clarity in the search for the more d ifficult II1tervals.

The part singing was perhaps at its. best in Weelke.s' As Vesta ",as descelldillg. The basses' augmentation in tlte acdall1atrol~ of the Vu¡,,"'. Queen was deCidedly ~ffecll~e and had much of that rumbustious quahty charactel'lstrc of the earher age. Fire, Fire was full of controlled energy. The management of the "Fa-Ia-Ia-" and "Derry-down" passages, so often tedious through unimaginative treatment, was consistently mUSical and delightful.

Rest, slVeet Nymphs, perhaps a trifle too slow for so me of the ex-t:ebles and immature tenors and basses to sustain convincingly, was none the less a movmg performance for the listener, because the singers themselves seemed deeply moved. The enthusiasm of the members of the Society has, by Edred Wright's own cnthusiasm for giving form and meaning to every musical phrase, and by his exceptional ability to impart his knowledge of technique, becn welded mto a musicallll~trument of wluch the School may be justly proud . Judged by. any standard the M.adn gal Soc le!y acqUitted itself well, and for a large audience prOVided one of the lughhghts of KlIlg s Week.

473


THE CANTUAR IAN

NAVE CONCERT As ca n be seen from the other reviews of K ing's Week, Summer Term found the School more musically active than ever, and at the close of a strenuous week it was natural to

expect musicians who had somehow combined their norma l work and play with full participation in all these special ven tures to show signs of fatigue. The Orchestral Concert given in the Nave at 8.1 5 p.m. on Sunday,. 29th Jul y, suffered less than the Oratorio or the Serenade from lack of rehearsa l tllne, but the progra mme was an ambitious one for amateurs to attempt, and lighting arrangements in the Nave did not make for easy reading.

Moza rt's Idomelleo Overture was played , however, with an aplomb which asserted the claim of Iltese amateurs to be judged by professional standards-a claim which Arca llgclo Ca relli 's Co ncerto Grosso in D Major, which fo ll owed it, ca me dangero usly ncar to rebutt ing. Some violin entries were fluffed, and alternation s in tempo were too jerkil y

reali zed to be altoget her convincing. Yct much of the cOllcertillo playing was of fine quality, and in the slower passages there were moments of melting lovel iness. Mozart's great G Minor Symphony, the fortieth, received a performance in which vigour predominated over delicacy. The outer movements were correspondingly selfassured-justice was done even to the intricately contrapuntal development of the Finale- and the strings rose nobly to the challenge of the sustamed Alldante. The least attractive sounds came in the third movement, in the second section of tI,e G Major Trio, where 'cellos and basses, apt a t times to overl ook composers' directions to play softl y, for once appeared too shy and ~cratchy, and the horns produced some notes tha t we re blatantly wro ng. Here calamIty was staved off only by the firmness of the conducting a nd the steadiness of the woodwind. There must be ma ny who remember Miles Baster's rendering of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in the Nave two years ago, his last performance as a member of the School. We were therefore very glad to welcome him back as the soloist in Beethoven's Violin Concerto, or wh ich he gave a brilliant and movill.g interpretation . Strong contrasts of light and shade in the first mo vement were as fa Ithfull y caught and refl ected by the Orchestra as was the coruscating brilliance of the Kreisler cadenza, which Baster played with tile mastery of assu rance of the true virtuoso. "In the vastness or the Nave one wa s conscious of the intense silence in the aud ience during his pianissimo restatement of that exqu isitely simple theme of the secolld movement. More taxing for the supporting instruments was what Tovey ca lls the "sublime inaction" of tile Larghello, in Wllich the underl ying rhythm was once or twice entirely submerged. Particularly effective here was the limpid call1abile of the solo's main theme exquisitely hovering above a dreamy pizzicato accompaniment. Complete self-possession returned with the a brupt modulation back into the dominant key of D . The transitiona l cadeltza and the bold plunge into the rondo were superbl y managed, a nd the Allegro romped briglltly along to its spirited close. The years between 178 1, when !domeneo was composed, and 1810, when Beetho~en wrote his incidental music for Goethe's Egmol/t, a play wlllch appealed to the Flenllsh clements in his character and to his lifelong pass ion for freedom, had brought ' rapid changes in musica l styles and tastes. 1nto the Egmonl Overture are compressed the mooos or the drama: an ominous beginning, martial sternness relieved by amorous

474


h i E. C ANTUARiAN tenderness, and, after the softly held chords that suggest the hero's dcath, the last eight bars evokin g the uprising of a whole natIOn. Those moods of broodll1$ traged y. '~nd ultimate victory were apt ly rendered 111 the performance whIch brought tIllS enterpnsll1g concert to a triumphal conclusion. Once again, tile School is greatl y indebted to its Orchestra, and it seems filling that the players who have served in it wit h devotion and ent~us i asn:' .throughout th.1S ardu<?us but musica ll y rewa rdin g year should emerge from theIr trad,t,onal anonymIty to hnd honourable mention in the pages of The Call1uariall. They are: Conductor, LIeut.-Col. Mereditll Roberts, M. V.O., M.B.E. First Violins , Mr. J. G . Sugdcn (Lcader), Mr. G . P. Robertson, G. I. Allen, D. E. Balfour, D. J. East, W. A . Hodgcs, H. J . Ricketts, G. N. Sa lmon, A. P. G. Stanley-Smith . Second Violins, Mr. S. J, Reid, Mr. P. G. Reynolds, Mrs. T. P. Partington, N. D. Gillett, C. B. Seaman , K. G. Trickett, A. TurtleI', J. P. Varcoe. Violas, M r. D. S. Goodes, G. W. Lane, S. P. S. Price. Violoncellos, Miss Nancy White, R. F. Lunn , R. A. Lane, J. Polglase, M. ], Ri cketts, J. r. R . T hompson , D. 1. Walter. Double Basses, Mr. R. p, Sco lt, Dr, H. R. Dodd . Flutes, P. J. FOld. Oboes, S. Creswell , S. T. J. Mazzarella. Clarinets, Mr. T. Stenning, B. S. Guard, p, J. S. Furneaux. Bassoons, N. H. Nicholl s, M. D. Deller. Horns, W. A. H. Bodge r, R. C. Stanway. TrUlIIlIets, R. H. T. Dawkins, M. A. Sharwood-Smith., Tr?lIIboncs, .-:-. P. Mason, A. T. Selman. Percussion , E. J. Smalmall-Smlth, A. D. W. 0 Sulliva n. Contmllo, C. H . Bayston. Apologies are tendered for any errors or omissions. Thanks arc due especially to o ur indefati ga ble Director of Music, Colonel Roberts, and to Mr. Sugden, whose Gilbertian avocations as conductor and producer respectIvely of The Mikado have not prevented their insistence on a level of orchestral competence to which only the most exacting criteria arc appropriate; to G. 1. Allen, to whose enthusiasm and musicianship the orchestra owes so much, and to R. F. Lunn, by whose unobtrusivc but omnipresent help so many difficulties have been smoothed away.

THE MADRIGAL SOCIETY BROADCAST On Friday, 22nd June, the Madriga l Society made a trip to the Maida Vale Broadcasting Studio, ill lieu of Field Day. Earl ier in tile term the S?ciety had been gIven a test by a B.B.C. critic, which proved so su.ccessful that the SocIety was asked to gIve a twenty-minute broadcast on the H~me ServIce: The p~rformance was of a lugh stan~ard; the diction and phraseology-so Important III the s mgmg of madng~l s-were hl~llly creditable; the clarity of tone and finncss of ex pressIon were sustamed III each madngal and the quality of intelligent interpretation was maintained to a remarkable degrce throughout. The Society owe a great deal to the hard work and enthusiasm of their conductor, Mr. Edred Wright, who by Ilis great ex perience and ability to give ~ h~pe to a choir's singing-so rare thesc days-c nabled them to d<? full Ju~tlce to the dtstlllctlve ,d,om of Elizabethan music, in the wide selection of madrIgals which ranged from John Farmer's Fair Phyllis to John Bennett's All Crealllres 1/0lV are merry millded.

RJ.S. 475


THE CANTUARIAN

MINDSZENTY AND RAJK In recent months we have heard of the rehabilitation of Laszlo Rajk, Hungarian Foreign Minister who, nearly seven years ago, was tried and executed on charges including sedition, plotting aga inst the state, and the perpetration of war crimes and "crimes against the people". A few months before that occasion the Western nations had been watching, with equal pessimism if infinitel~ more concern, the trial on similar charges of another leading figure of Hungary, Cardlllal MlIldszenty of Esztergom, the Prince Primate. It wo uld be presumptuous here to compare the cases of these two men, and perhaps superfluous to discuss the truth of the charges, about which better qualified pens have written so much. But it will be of interest to examine the court-room story of the two trials: that is, the behaviour of the Cardillal on tile one hand, and on the other of the Communist leader who is now admitted to have been wronged; the tactics of the prosecution- in fact, of the Presidents of the Co urt ; and finall y all the psychological pressures bro ught to bear, both with.in the court¡room and beyond, during these two historic trials. For these purposes let us at first ass ume that the Prosecu tion's fact s were adequately supported by the evidence they cited and amounted to prove crimes within the meaning of the law ; let us say, too, that the Court was so constituted as to provide. cond itions for fair verdicts when the hearings were complete. I do not beheve this, and mdeed most of it is palpably untrue and can be disprove.d by material evidence available in the Free world' but we are not here concerned with these things and it is possible to expose the trials for what they are worth independently of them. Further, I will make only the minimum of reference to the co-defendants on bOtil occasions, since their cases and characters are less widely known, so that they do not serve as such good illustrations of my point. Finally, let me add that where I quote the trials verbatim I use, for the sake of argument, the Hungarian government official versions, altho ugh I am aware that tbey are not always accurate. Tile /irst outstanding feature common to both trials is the extent to which the conduct of the acc used conflicted with all that is known of their characters and all that was expected of them, at any rate by those unaccustomed t o trials before the People's Court. Proof of Mindszenty's fierce and resolute frame of mmd III the days ImmedIately before his arrest can be seell in his last Pastoral Letter. "or all my predecessors", he wrote, not one stood so bare of all means as I do now. Such a systematic and purposeful propaganda of lies, time and again disproved but time and again repeated, has never been organized against any of the seventy-eight predecessors in my office. I stand for God, for the Church, alld for Hungary. This duty was imposed upon me by the fate of my nation, which stands alone, an orphan in the whole world. As compared with the sufferings of my people my own fate is of no importance. I do not accuse my accusers. If I am compelled to speak out from time to time and to state the facts as they are, it is only the misery of my people which forces me to do so and the urlle for truth. I am praying for a world of truth and love. I am praymg for those who, m the words of my Master, 'know not what they do' ." Aga.in, in the note which he wrote on an old envelope during the last hours before the police came: "(I) J have not partaken in any conspiracy. (2) I shall never resign. (3) I refuse to give evidence. (4) Should anyone hear or read that I have made a confession or resigned, even if there were evidence proved by my own signature, this must be regarded as a sign of human frailty and weakness and I declare 476


THE C ANT U ARIAN

it herewith null and void." It is evident from these statements, among other tllings, that the Cardinal submitted to his ar rest with a defiant determination to fight for his opinions and defend his actions with all the eloquence and moral zeal for Wllich he was renowned . The part he played in the court-room a month and a few days later was to disappoint any such expectations. I cannot give many details here. Suffice it to say that he had, in an admitted ly dubious confession, already agreed that he was involved in a conspiracy; he offered to retire temporaril y from his function; he retracted the note disavowing any

confession tilat he might make; and he apologized fo r writing it and for many other actions, limiting his self-defence almost entirely to an occasional qualification of one of the President's more outrageous deduct ions. The Pope's verdict on th is trial contrasts ironically with the Card inal's own statemen t ill. his last Pastoral Letter: "..... a man", he sa id, "endowed with the full vigo ur of a forceful nature suddenly appears so weak and mentally unbalanced that he conducts himself in such a manner as to accuse not himself but those who were acclising and co ndemning him". The ca reer of Rajk, more easil y than those of his colleagues who have survived him, adm its of interpretation as the li fe ora man who was a genuine believer in the infa llibility of Marx as formu lated by Lenin and Stalin, and 110t without a certain distorted concern for his country's interests. Far be it from me to represent him as a martyr to the ca use which he had after all served unfailingly for so long with such disastrous consequences. But he was what historians might have been able to call , before the recent spate of fashions , a "nationalist communist" (to be distinguished from Titoist no less than from Trotskyite), and at any rate he was tenacious of llis beliefs and not easily persuaded, as others were, to retreat to Moscow when in trouble with the pre-1945 regimes-he was one of those who fought in Spain. The picture we have of him is of a ferocious fig hter and an obdurate believer, and Count M. Karolyi, his ad mirer, has stated that "he could be hard and uncompromising". His att itude before his arrest is difficult to determine because he was under a cloud for many months and imprisoned for at least two. Before the People's judges, however, his conduct was even more abject than that of Mindszenty. J n effect, he recited his confession instead of merely acq uiescing in quotati ons from it, and his last plea was a pitiful performance-even as co mpared to the effort of his defence counsel- whereas the Cardinal's showed unmistakable traces of a return to hi s former self-respect. Indeed, there is general agreement among those who hea rd recordings of the two trials that both the accused spoke in the same expressionless, dull, unnatural vo ice ; but however that may be, such signs, and the ci rcumstances which might have brought about these changes of character, need not detain me here. The impression is outstanding that two strong-willed men, not without confidence in- and the capacity to a rgue fortheir own beliefs, were presented in lIle court-room as indeterminate, entirely lacking in principles and constructive ideals and unenthusiastic in their own defence. I now propose to turn more briefly still to the other aspects of the trials. 11 is always difficult to discuss another country's judicial system ; the llistorian must see each trial against a background of previous trials ill the same land ; the lawyer can only with difficulty dissociate his mind from the subtleties of his own nation's legal system and regard in an objective light the new scale of va lues and code of cond uct. Out there is without doubt some sort of universa l standard, partly codified in various agreements and conventions, which no country can ignore without incurring the charge of perverting justice, if not in its own time, at the hands of historians. And by such a standard it is no exaggeration to say that the conduct, durin g these two trials, of the prosecution, the 477


THE C ANTUARIAN

government, the press and the radio was quite inexcusable. [ will give only one example, with reference to the leading questions, insinuations and outrageous deductions of the Presidents or Court, rrom each trial. First, the rollowing exchange during Mindszenty's fria l: PRF.5IDF.NT OF THE COURT: The Prosecutor charges you wi th having proposed at a meeti ng of the

Borough Council on November 18th, 1938. that Im rCdy- llcla Im recty who has since been executedbe elected Freeman of Zalacgc rszcg. MINDSZENTV; This is correct. But, if yOli please, that docs no t mean that I agreed wit h Tmredy's policics. I did not.

PRESIDENT: If you please, if a person formally proposes somebody as a Freeman, one cannot log ically conclude from th is that he disagrees with the policics of Ihe man concerned . ...

(Tlte examination

SWilchl!S

to another topic.)

The extract rrom the Rajk trial requires a little explanation. It might at first sight seem reasonable ror the Judge or Prosecution to establish publicly whether the accused had changed Ilis name, even in tile Rajk trial where five out or the eight derendants were born with German or at least non-Magyar names. But against the background or a public opinion highly inflamed against the Germans and everything connected with them, it seems prejudicial- to say the least-to make the disclosure about Rajk's origin right at the end or his examination (whereas all the others had been rormally established when the trial opened) in the rollowing exchange : I have one final quest ion to ask you. What was the name of your father? RAJK: J6zsef. but he is dead. PRESIDENT: What was his surname? RAJK: J6zsef Rajk . PRESIDENT: That is, J6zsef Rajk, ns YOll say. What wns yOllr grandfather's name? RAJK (i,.ritated): My grnndfather being of Saxon descent , wrote hi s nnme Reich. PRESIDENT: So YOll say yOlll' grn ndfather was called Reich. How did it become Rajk. Legally? RAJK: Legally. PRESIDENT: How? RA1K: TCa llie! not give the exact date when it was legalised. Tn my certilicate of baptism it is st ill spelt with an n, that is, Reich became Rajk; anyhow, my university papers were made out in the present spelling. President: YOli si mply used an a, dropping the accent. And you call this legal? PRESIDENT:

Rajk remains silellt. PRESIDENT : So you know that Rajk came from Reich. RA1K: ]n this respect I wish to add that I am of Aryan descent, and genu inely too, because on one side I am Saxon. The Hungarian Aryan Law . .. . PRESIDENT: The question is not whether you are of Arya n or Saxon descent. But look here, this is your birt h certificate (showing the accused): born on March 8, 1909, your fat her was Jozsef Rajk, his son was Laszl6, that is you. Ir the Minister of Home Affairs had not app roved it you were using this name illegally.

(Rajk goes up microphone.) PRESIDENT:

10

platform to look at lire paper, hands il back to tire Preside"t and returns

10

tire

That will be all .

(II/ order to see this incidenl ill its proper cOlltext, il should be remembered that it was IIot normally

considered a crime after 1945

10

hm'e acted illegally before thai year: also that by 1946 Rajk was him-

self Minister of Ihe IlIIeriO/¡.) 476


THE C ANTUARIAN

I have chosen at random these two examples-perhaps not the most flagrant-of' the brow-beating and tendentious methods or the Court Presidents. It may seem strange at first that in these two trials, both presumably calculated to prove to the Western nations that the accused were given justice (since a restricted number or Western observers were admitted, contrary to normal practice; and within a few hours of the verdict govern-

ment versions or the trial were on sale in English translations), the Presidents should so far exceed their rights only to establish such irrelevant points. And I emphasize that time and time again, not only du ring the cross-examination but in the broadcasts, in the press and in the overtly official publications, berore, during, and arter the trial, this sort or indirect accusation or innuendo was introduced-orten so patently fabricated as to make the whole contention or conression spurious-which co uld not possibly serve to show that Mindszenty was plotting a Habsburg restoration or Rajk the installation or some sort of Tito regime. The solution of this paradox is to be found deep in Marxist ideology. I rerer my readers to the strict aesthetic code, which has driven so many artists of all branches to fl ee rrom Comm unist dominated countries, known as Social Realism. A rundamental tenet or this code is that artists should portray their subjects, not as individuals, but as expressions of a class. Thus the villain must always conrorm to the pre-conceived, semipolitical pattern; he must be culpable or all the classic "crimes against the people"; his ingredients may be found in long lists in almost any Soviet publication-a rascist past, connections with the imperialist sabotage movement, nationalist deviation, and the

like-with the generous incompatibility range allowed to all these terms by modern usage; and it is interesting to note that recently foreign, not seldom German or lewish extraction has by implication come to be included in the black-list. And as in art, so in lire. By the same psychological quirk in the Russian-Communist mentality a parellel retish has arisen about trials: the accused must make a confession; he must admit to having committed as many of these black-list crimes as is compatible with his career, and often more; and in general he must conduct himself in the prescribed way. Herein, I think, lies the answer to the question of Siavomir Rawicz, author of The Long Walk, and doubtless many others. When the Russians devoted much time and trouble to persuading him to sign a confession and to organizing his trial, though the verdict was a foregone conclusion and there was not the slightest propaganda interest since he was tried in camera and the Western press cou ld hardly have even known of his case, he could only ask himself why they did not send him di rect to Siberia and save themselves the trouble. I have no doubt that a thorough examination of all the major trials that have taken place in the history or tile Soviet justice wo uld reveal the gradual growth of a complex system calculated to convert all sorts and cond itions of men to the identical, shallow symbol of criminality. The story would include setbacks, brave men who denied or rejected their confessions and who fought ror their reputations at the end; it would also show crimes appearing on the black-list later to be struck off it, such as Titoism (still distinguished rrom nationalism and Trotskyism); but by and large it would show the development alo ng ,ocial-realist lilles or the grim art of levelling down to the same degraded condition any given mind, any given character. But we cannot leave the story there. It will be remembered that in recent months, just as one crime has been added to the black-list with the title of Personality-cult, so a number or names have been taken off the lists of the damned and reinstated among the ranks of the heroes by a process known as Rehabilitation. In the course of this particular 479


THE CANTUARtAN

rcvision or history, to rcvert to my ori ginal theme, Uiszl6 Rajk has been rehabilitated and (lis whole trial briefly reported to have been "based on provocation", Even if this were the only slich example it wo uld be a serio liS indictment of the entire social-realist trial concept; but new cracks appear in the fal(ade daily. 1 stress that the cracks Hrc in the fa<;ade and not in the fundamental structure of Russ ian Co mmun ism: nobody has yet

been released who might not be considered safe frol11 the regime's point of view o r at any rate wo rtlt the risk ror the sakc or political exped iency. Bu t the prison-gatcs arc open : the latest news at the time or writing is or Archbisho p C rosz or Kalocsa, sentenced for crimes almost ident ica l with those alleged against Millc!SZCllty, who has now been released fo r the paradox ica l reason that he is to resume leadership of the Hungar ian

Bench of Bishops ; and some pressure in the right quartcrs might be sufficient to secure the release of so me other victims of a justice which has been finally discred ited. We have yet no right to ex pect thnt the whole auth oritarian systelll will not recovcr from this volfe/ace; but it will be something if its material consequcnces co rrespond to its ideological signifi ca ncc.

¡THE ERETRIAN DEAD (after Plalo) I

Loudly rolled Acgea n waves on towards thc shore As we left our mother country to return no more. Now tlte plains or Ecbatana in their very centre hold Men whose courage turned to rashness and were overbold. Farewell Eretria, splendid ci ty, since we cannot now be free; Farcwell dea r Athens, bravest neighbour; ra rewell beloved sea .

II Why near unrriend ly Susa's ito me D o we enslaved Eretrians lie? Why so rar did we have to roam To lie beneath this a lien sky?

lAC.

480


THE CANTUA RIAN

A STUDY OF THE MASONS' MARKS IN PARTS OF THE TRIFORIUM OF CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL Masons' marks are symbols of varyi ng sizes carved into stones, probably to associate particular masons wi th their work. Perhaps their nearest modern equ ivalents are trade marks. The marks were made when the mason had filli shed carvi'ng a piece of stone, and the pieces of masonry were then assembled ror building. Masons' marks are not rreq uen tl y round on the outside surrace or a stone, but usually, and invariably ilt the case or modem ones, they are hidden on tite inside surraces or the stone. On the ins ide of one arch in the Triforium , for insta nce, we found no trace whatever of a mason's mark. Some masons' marks are of universa l occurrence: the symbol of the fyfl ot is round in l ndia and at Alnwick Castle; the symbols on the stones or the house or th' Archdeacon of Maidstone are simil ar to those found in 8t. Peter's, Rome, according to Mr. Hoare who accompanied the late Charles Elam, while he was collecti ng masons' marks both in the Precincts and abroad. We can find very little evidence or study 0 11 the subject or masons' marks except in articles published by the N orwich Archaeological Society, the Oxro rdsltire Archaeologica l Society a nd Westminster Abbey. George Godwin appears to have first brought masons' marks to public notice in an article published by tlte Archaeological Association in 184 1. There are two unpublished records or masons' marks found in the Cathedral: these were collected rrom most parts or the Cathed ra l but rarely, as it seems, rrom above eye level, by Morton P ierce and Charles E lam. We have listed in a carerully chosen order all the masons' marks which we found and have appended in Arabic numera ls the number or times they occurred. We have a lso added the number or times these symbols ap pear in Ela m's and Pierce's collection, it being thus possible to ascertain wlticlt are the more and which the less common or the marks. We have tried to collect all tite masons' marks which occur in the easily accessible parts or the Trirorium on the North side of the Choir rrom the West end to the beginning or the Nortlt-East Transept. We chose litis part or the Cathedral beca use we reel certa in that neither Elam nor Pierce looked ror marks in this pa rt or the Triro rium. The Trirorium was bu ilt by Wi lliam or Sens in 1175-8, aItd man y of the marks we round there arc similar to those rou nd in other older and Ilewer parts or the Cathedral. In England, as in France and Germany, there were professional bodies of representati ve maso ns, and it would seem rrom the records or the Brechin Lodge of Masolts that each mason was assigned his own particula r sym bol; such symbols passing rrom father to son or rrom craftsman to apprentice. It is titU S interesting to ascertain which symbols survive throughout the three main building periods or tite Cathedral , which are approx imately c. 1100, c. 11 80 a nd 1377- 1450. Taking our symbols and compar ing their length or survival in Elam's a nd Pierce's collections we find that only Nos. xlix and xlv a ppear rrequently in all parts or the Cathedral and in every period, and onl y Nos. xi, xxi, xxxi, lv, xv a nd Ix xiv appea r intermittently. Ma ny of our symbols have not yet been discovered elsewhere, especiall y some or the more complicated figures. This seems pa rtly due to the failure of Pierce and Elam to discriminate between certain symbols which are almost simila r. This railure to discriminate is well illustrated in No. I which they have recorded in comparison with xlix. On certain or the stones we round two marks, one or which was usually scratched on the surrace more lightly than the other. It seems improbable that two different masons would mark the same stone before it was used, and it seems likely that a fter the fire or 481


THE CANTUARIAN

1174, when William of Sens pulled dowlt the ruins of Conrad's Choir, much of the masonry was re-used after the charred surface had been removed; the mason then adding his own mark to the mark of his predecessor, wltich was now more faintly discernible. Some of the marks vary only ill that they are reversed. For instance we found the axe (No. cv) four times as shown and twice reversed. Elam records No. cii reversed and otherwise there is no record of it in the Cathedral. We thought it best to discriminate betweell these, because slight but more clearly intentional differences are found as in the varied Ms (Nos. iii-vii) and arrows (Nos. Iv-Ixvi) certain of the marks are found frequently near each other : we found six of No. Ivi on one arch, and this wo uld perhaps help to disprove the theory that masons' marks were carved on the stones before they were tra nsported to Eltgla nd. On some stones it appears that the apprentice made attem pts to carve tlte mark but fai led and had to be shown by the maso n afterwa rds. T his is the only reason we can give for Nos . Ixxxiii-I xxxvi appearing on the same stone, although tlte attempts va ry considerably. It was noticeable also that some of the marks are scratched rather tentatively on the stone, whereas others are boldly and well portrayed, this agailt showing the difference between the work of an apprentice and an experienced

mason. We have recorded a considerable number of letters, but No. vii is the sole alphabetical symbol recorded by Blam and Pierce. It seems, therefore, that both Pierce and Elam were hampered by initials which appear frequently on the walls of the Cathedral, and almost automatically distrusted any alphabetical symbol they saw. The wealth of signs and initials carved on the lower parts of the Cathedral walls may also be one of the causes for the failure of Pierce and Elam to record more of the seventy-five per cent. of the symbols which we alone have discovered. The symbols vary in size and we have found it impossible and impract icable to reproduce their scale, since even similar symbols va ry in size; but it is noteworthy that certain symbols, as No. Ixxxviii and at times No . lvi, occupy the whole stone. l AC.

B. K .I. NOTES ON T HE SUR VIVAL O F CE RTAI N SYMBO LS FOUND IN TH E TRI FORIUM BAS ED ON T HEIR APP EARANCE IN T HE COLLECTIONS OF PI ERCE AND ELAM

No. lxxvii docs not appear otherwise aner 1096. No. cv docs not appea r otherwise after 1098.

Nos. vi i, cii i, lxi , liv and lxxii do not appear otherwise after J100, No. xcix docs not appear otherwise after 1175 No. c does not appear otherwise after 1184. No. I does not appear otherwise before 1405. No. Ivi does not appear otherwise before 1175. No. xci appears only in the Choir Aisle 1096 and Triforium 1175. No. xxxii appears only in the Choir Aisle 1096. No. xix appears only in the Triforium 1175 . No. xliv appears only in the North¡East Transept 1100. No. Ixxiii appears only in the Infirmary 1100. No. Ixi appears only in the Corona 1184 and Trinity Chapel 1184. No. xxi appears once in the Choir Aisle 1096 and then not until 1403. No. lxxxi i appears very frequently until after the Trinity Chapel 11 84.


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THE LUX MOORE TROPHY

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It is now some years since the Luxmoore Trophy was awarded. This year it has bee n reintroduced on a revised basis, alld has already proved immellsely popular. By th e time this article appears, we shall know which house has won it. The various act ivities and achievements for which points counting for the Trophy a re awarded are numerous; but they are not so many, nor so difficult to assess, as to make the system unworkable. They range from Open Scholarships to "0" Level, from th e A. R .C. M . exam. to the Certificate "A" exam., and from winning the Senior HOllse Ruggcr Cup to being a semi-finali st in a minor sport. Nothing is unverifiable or suspect; a nd th ere is more than sufficient va ri ety to a llow everyone to amass at least a poin t or lwo for his H ouse.

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The general, a lmost universal opinion, is that the assess ment of points is ve ry fair. T his does not, however, prevent ex treme elation about one's strength or depression abo ut o ne's weaknesses. A healthy bias sho ws itself in remarks collected from members of a ll the Houses : "Sir, dOIl't you t11ink th ere ought to be more points for cricket/ rowing/ fencing/ water polo/ being the oldest House/ being the newest House/ being the best.dressed House/ being the Ho use with the highest LQ.? etc. On the whole, however, the old business maxim of "cut yo ur losses and never run a profit" applies very well. " We may be in the finals of both cricket cups and have nille first colours". One says: "This is all very well: but what abo ut 'A' Level and ' 0' Level , eh? What about litem? How much do you think first colours will count for compared with all the points Mr. So.a nd-so's H ouse has for Open Scholarships, 11m? Not-all- that- much", one says, shaking one's head dourly. Sometimes the etTect of this is striking. "Sir, is it really true that Mr. So·and-so's House has a thousand points for Open Schols, Sir?" "Si r, can I take five 'A' Level subjects next term?" "Sir, surely if you put the wltole HOllse in for '0' Level again in December, Sir, then . . . . .. " On these occasions a sense of proportion is of the essence. Adding up the points acquired is moderately complicated; and though it wou ld be no thing but pure games manship to buy a n add ing mach ine, we may be thankful that an ex pert mathematician is to act as awa rd er and arb itrato r between the vario lls H Ollses . M ore exciting is tile discovery of recherche fields of activ ity from which po in ts may be harvested: obsc ure prizes and half·colo urs, playing the triangle/euphonium/glockenspiel , arriving at the semi-final of the Tennis Tournament on a se ries of walk-overs and spun coins, '0' Level needlework/ pllilosophy/cooking, and so on. But the most admirable feature of the Trophy competition lies precisely in this so rt of thing. For of those abilities and achievements that lie wit11in our power to measure, none can be neglected. People with a single ta lent, which before mi ght have lain useless in the ground for the bad reason that it was not in line with the general talents of a House, now feel that by putting it to use they can add so mething to the communal achievement. They receive encouragement to develop it, and praise when they succeed . Of course we mllst beware of saying that the Trophy is for " the best" HOllse; we can oilly meas ure physical achievements. and to a lesser ex tent mental ones : and there are criteri a of what is good, which are infillitely more important than either of th ese. But the Trophy does pro vide a goa l, not wholly unworthy, towards which all H ouses can travel hopefully; and T feel sure that in the future it wi ll nOl o nly be those who arri ve who will profit from it. 485


THE

CANTUAR I AN

DOUBTLESS Posterity will doubIless wish to prove that John Betjeman wrote Dylan Thomas, and they will altack their subject with that Quixotic sillgle-mindcdness which alo ne obscures a paucity of basic evidence. They wi ll have one advantage over MI'. Calvin Hoffman in that Mr. Thomas died, as far as irrefutable evidence can be accepted as a workable hypothesis, before Mr. Betjeman. But we, bred on the Gilberti", subterfuge that when a man is told off to be killed, he is as good as dead-practica lly is dead-and if he is dead , why not say so, might be prepared to accept tbe assertion that Ma rlowe was onl y metaphorically killed in that D eptford tavern , were there not a natural relucta nce to add yet another to the battery of rival clai mants. Christopher does, however, add colour to an already distinguished band- inter alios the Earls of Oxfo rd , Rutland, and Derby, the Lords Paget, Buckhurst, alld Verulam (belter known as Francis Baco n and stil l the best bet for a place in the first half-dozen), and two knights, Sir Wa lt¡er Raleigh a nd Sir Edward Dye r. This molley of Elizabethall talent has already writtell all the plays of Shakespeare twice over in parallel references. Invariably at this point someone asks-" D oes it matter who wrote the plays?" . As the Rev. Leonard Bacon so wittily wrote, "the great world does not care sixpence who wrote Hamlet" , and tllOUgh this is doubtless true, 110 one fa intly in teres ted in English literature could deny that trying to find out is great fUll scholastically. Battle really commenced when Sir Sidney Lee wrote his fal)lOUS life-to-end-all-lives of Sha kespeare, the importance of which was rather clouded since the anti-St ratrordians never cease to claim it as Ihe greatest asset their cause has ever had. But let Ilobody ever make the mistake of thinkillg tllal these writers descend to pettiness . The argumellts run along familiar scholastic lines. The orthodox will write: "Young William Shakespeare, the dreaming but ambitious son of a Stratford gentleman-butcher, imbibed at the feet of great schola rs at the Stratford Free School where by the age of fo urteell (whell traditioll says he was taken away to join the fa mily business) he gained association wi th Ovid , Cicero, Horace, Lucretius, Plautlls, Virgil , Seneca, luvenal, and many others, devouring them all with the excitement or embryonic genius. Thus equipped, his learnin g offset by his rresh country approach to Nature, he left his wife and cllildren (with oh! many a sigh we may be sure) and made his way to London, to storm that city by his brilliance of ex press ion. Doubtless .... " The anti-Stratfordian will counter: "William Shagsper, tile son of a butcher in a petty country town, left home quickly after a marriage or necessity which produced three clli ldren he was unable to support. Boorish, gauche, ill-educated (we have no record when or where he we nt to school, but he was withdrawn at the early age of 12 to enter a slaughterhouse) he made for London (or so the tradition ru ns) a nd earned a few pence at theatre doors . Can we associate this bumpkin, this third-rate acto r with the courtly polish of the writer "Shakespeare"? Has Shagspur in fact, of whose handwriti ng we llave notlling but crudely formed signatures and wlto died without a book in his library, any possible connection with the "Shakespeare" who kllew his Greek Tragedies and the topography of Venice? The more imaginative "collectivist" has a different approach: "William Shakespere was doubtless the press agent to the secret committee who published under the code name 'Shakespeare'. Such collaboration finds literary parallel

486

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THE

ANTUAR I AN

in the collection. of w~iters who doubtless combined to write Homer. It has even been most .lOgcnlOlIs.ly tl~at the n~me 'Shagspure' can be interpreted as meaning a secrct collect Ion of knights [shag : a rough growth' 0 .0 ., c.f. H ellry V 'Shall we shag'; spure: of spurs, ' the symbolistic syn thesis of English chivalry' (Pf"tz 'Shagsfl",.e 1859)]. We can ha rdl y accept this as defi niti ve, but more of this on p. 657, ;lOte 4." ' The unitarian descends to the less obvious : "Aldred Stansgate, ninth Earl of Inge, reveals his peculiar identity primarily in the play Klllg Le?,.. The hero, Edgar, a nud his mad ravings declares, 'Peace Smulkin, peace thou F lend x ( III : !V). ThIS d o~ btless. refers to H enry Smulkin, a Joyal fri end and retalllel of Stansga te s, who left hIS servIce a year bcfore this play appea rs. Similarly the Seco nd quarto readlllg of 'foule Flibbert igibbet': is "fo ule Sirberdegibi t', and John S,be, d had h,s tongue cut out Ill. 1602 for slanders aga lllst the ninth Earl. D oubtless ... " All these gentlemen have their pOInt of view, do ubtless. O.R.F.D. ~ uggcs ted

"CRICKET MY LIFE" At abo ut the same time as Cyril Washbrook was making his triumphant return to Test ~n~ke t Leeds, on~ lately of our number, now on the staff of a preparatory school, was ~c\Jvel~ engag~d III crIcket of a very different kind. In a recent letter to us he descnbed h,s expenences. ' "I take the b~ttom cricket game, most of whom have never set eyes on a cricket bat unhl the begmmng of term . At twenty to five one arrives on the pitch. Half the game has been there for the las t ten mlllutes-the other half wo n't arrive for al~other ten. One drags the smallest from the SCI um that has lIlevlta bly formed on top of lum, a nd if he is still capable of movement one sends lum 111 to lhe matrons. ' "May I carry him in, please Sir?" come a dozen voices in harmony. . "Yes':, say Ito .the stron gest ~hree, "b.ut be careful of him. " Immediately the entire SIde valllshes, leavlllg me to aWai t the arrival of the other hall" 01" the ga me. But not for long. Folly! [ should have forseen the consequences. '~Pl ease, Sir", t.hey say as they return, bearing a grisly relic "Please Sir we were all tryIng to ca.rry hllll and couldn't decide whether tltis was a iarynx an 'oesophagy." . By that tllne the other ha lf of the game has condescended to arrive. When j have dlS~rmed the youngest boy III the school (who has grabbed a peg from the cricket nets whIch fall, bralllmg the head boy, and is brandishi ng it I,erilously close to my head)' and when I have sent the would-be homicide running ro und the field ror insubordinatiol;

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Well , as 1 say, having been through this inevitable banter and repartee, and then having awaited their dawdling return, we are actually vouchsafed to begin the game. The pattern of play is always the sa me. Like Gaul, it is divid ed into three parts, except that I have more trouble pacifying my barbarians than Caesar ever did. (a) Arranging the batting order. " Please, Sir, may I field until it's my turn?" "Please, Sir, why does lllis thing have a Dennis the Menace photograph o n it?" "Please sir can we play fair can we all be in twelrth?" Like their literary style, their speech observes no punctuation, Arranging the fielding side. "Please Sir may 1 bowl?" uPlease Sir may I go extra cover?"

(b)

"Please Sir may 1 go extra batsman?" "Please Sir" (invariably before the game begins), "which side's won?" The act ual peri od of play. Most of the game is a monotonous monologue : "Play wide Jones run round the field for inattention. Play wide Smithers run round the field for ina ttention play wide Wimpole run ro und tile field for inattention play wide Jeffreys run round the field for inattention play wide Pole run round the field ... ... " But occasionally there is a slight variation. "Please, Sir, look at that Victor, Sir." lilt isn't a Victor, Pole, it's a Chipmunk." (c)

"Please, Sir" (the knowledgeable are the real curse), "is it a Chipmunk B.2, Sir?" "No . There aren't any ChipJuunk bombers." "Please, Sir, wou ldn't it be a good idea to be a Chipmunk bomber, Sir?" But I 'm sometimes caught off my guard. "Please, Sir, may we go and look for caterpillars in the trees?" "What side arc you on? Fielding? Yes, all right then-NO! I mea n- HELP! Come back! You-go and fetch them back", I scream dementedl y, beckoning wildly to a gro up of fielders dissecting a dead worm. " Certainly, Sir, we'd love to"-and a horde of caterpillar-boxes emerges mysteriously from each pocket as the fielding side zooms off to the shrubbery. Superso nic, by all appearances, for they certainly heed not my voice. And so ends another pleasant afternoon's cricket. Perhaps I deal rather too harshly in judgment upon the players. All I can say is, that I'd mucll soo ner 1101 enter into the Kingdom of H eaven, if to do so I must become like one of these. "

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"RIGHT DOWN THERE, BOY, THAT'S WERE THE BLUES WERE BORN IN NEW ORLEANS" Music being the product of environment, it is essential for the understandin g of jazz to tr~cc the environment from which it sprang; the town N ew Orlea ns is synon ymo us

with Ja zz. Jazz was born there and was nourished there until it spread north and became open to o ther influences . I am .going to try a nd draw a picture of N ew Orlea ns; it is not a pretty place by Western mIddle class moral stand ards, ye t th e town lived in co ntact with G od in all its form s of life. Perhaps the main characteristi c of N ew Orlea ns is that everyone really li ved their life and it was a ll a 24 hour shift with nothing eve r shutting-"the saloons in th ose day~ never had the doors closed, and the hinges were all rusty and dusty". Prostitutio n,

ga m~J lI1g and mu sIC I.HlVC never been co mbined and conducted in such a grandiose and

so rdId way. The o ld Jazz men look back on the peri od 1890- 1917 as th e good o ld days ; hear what Alphonse PICOU, the clarinettist who wrote HiglJ Society, has to say abo ut it: "Those were happy days, man, happy days. Buy a keg of beer for one dollar a nd a bag full of food fo r another and have a cow in . These boys don't have fun nowadays". And Johnny St. Cyr, the banjoist witll th e H o t 5, says abo ut today's musicians : "These guys haven't got the force. They do n't like to play a ll ni ght; they don't think they can play unless they' re loaded (drunk)" . But even if it can b e said that today's jazz musicians have not got a ny stami na (and with the advent of cool Jazz It wou ld seem as though a trend towa rds this is in progress), the sa me cannot be said about the old musicians . The first "king" of N ew Orleans was Buddy Bolden. It was said that Bolden'S cornet could be heard ten miles away o n a still Ilight; not an impossibility when one considers the geographical situation of New Orleans, wluch had water all the way rOUlld it a nd und erneatll if one dug to any depth. " Buddy was the greatest ragt ime cornet player, with a rolllld keen tone. He could execute like hell and play in any key. He had a head, Buddy d id." But what kind of a head Buddy had is a subject for surmise. He went mad in a sensationa l way at the Mardi Gras festival, and Fredd ie Keppard succeeded to his throne; Keppard played every thing"when he hit a note yo u knew it was hit. He could play sweet and he could play hot. He'd play sweet sometimes and thell turn ro und and kllock yo ur socks off with something hot". Although none of these musicians recorded seriously, one can estimate their talellt from the accounts of the cutting contests and the beatings which they gave to musicians who are still al ive. Let Winny Manone describe these contests : "Down tile street, in an old sideboard wagon, would come the jazz band from one ballroom. And up the street would come the band from another ballroom, which had announced a dance for the same night at the same price. And those musicians played for a ll their wo rth, because the band that pleased the crowd more would be the one the who le crowd would go to hea r, and dance to, at its ballroom later that night. At the back of the wago n were tile trombone players, because the o nly way they could handle their slides was over the cnd of tile wagon. And that's how they got tIle name 'tailgate' trombonists." The greatest of the tailgate trombonists was Kid Ory, whose career right up to the present day IS synonymous with the developme nt of traditi onal jazz. For a 10llg time Ile had the best band in New Orleans, and small wonder, when one considers that at various times Oliver, Carey, D odds, Noone, Bechet, Lewis and Armstrong were among the personnel. It wa s Ory who "d iscovered" Louis Armstro ng and who put him on the

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road to fame . In 1917 came the death of the old New Orleans when the Navy D epartment prohibited prostitution. "The scene was pitiful . . . . With all they had in the world rcposing on two-wheel carts or in wh~elbarrows, pushed by Negr.o boys o r old . men, the o nce Red Light Queens were making theIr wa":! out of Sto ryv Ille to th~ strains of Nearer, my God, 10 Th ee, played by a massed comblllallon of all the Negro lazz men '.'f tIle Red Light dance halls." Most m usiciar:s moved to ChIcago, but Ory went VIa California, where he made jazz history by maklllg the first records and the first broadcast of a genuine coloured New Orleans band . Chicago was run by the white ga ngsters like AI Capo lle. In common with New Orleans life in Chicago was run at to p speed, but it did not occuPY all 24 hours of the day. It was more highly organjsed and musicians had to wear ~hnner Ja~kets and life was r:tOlC secure from the point of view of employment. The pImps carned guns and not klllVes. Tn short, life in Chicago was "slick" . would see those ~'od s come up-and d~ck . At the Triangle Cl ub the boss was shot III the stomach o ne I1Ight, but we kept worklllg. After tha t he walked' sort of bent over." This life had its effect on jazz; arra ngement became more "legitimate" blues numbers were speeded up and lost the old ca lli ng, wailing tone of Keppard and the grea t blues 'players. For the first tim~, a sigllificant numbcr of white men began to take an interest In Jazz; these were men like SpanIer, WettlIng and McPartland, who listened breathlessly to the "greats". Muggsy Spanier tells us: " r would go down to the SOUtll side and listcn hour after ho ur to thosc two great trumpeters Joc King Oliver and Louis. That's when they wcre at the old Lincoln Gardens. got so that J knew every phra~e and into nati? n they played, just f~om listening, so that, in spite of myself, J was dOlllg the sa me things-as nearl y as. possIble, of course". Yet the music of the white musicians was no t the same as that of tIle" models. ft was less deep and had not got the long far-away backgro,und of Africa ~nd slave~y ; but it had unparallelled drive and beat. C;ompare OlIver s and S~alller s rendenng of the solo ill the Dippermollth Billes; OlIver s has the Ne". OrleaI!s lightly muted tone and is almost African; Spanier's is plunger muted and has lIttle feelIng ":tet the attack a nd execution must remain unbeaten by any recorded trumpeter. Genuine New Orleans jazz developed in Chicago under the auspices of OLiver, Morton, Arn~s trong,. Ory and a host of others. Again, Ory's career may serve as the norm. of tradlllonal lazz dun.ng this period; he played with Olivcr's Dixie and Savanah Syn.copators and record ed WIth the now famous H ot 5 H ot 7 and Red H ot Peppers. WIth thc last gro up he made Dr. Jaz z SIamI' and Til; Chanl, which are rega rded by most pe~ pl c as wcll-nigh perfect examples of pure N ew Orlea ns style; If anyone wants to hear lazz hc must Ilcar these records.

"yve

r

Also in Chicago grew up the legend of Bix Beiderbecke; he was also o ne of those who listened to the masters and tried to copy them, but the dIfference between BIX and the rest was that he was a genius. He had a curious style; his cornet had a unique belllike tone and the sleekness of his arrangements comes fro m his kn owledge of classical music. "His folks wanted him to be a concert pianist. And has that kid got an ear. H e can tell you the pitch of a belch'" Bix ~,"de money and .spent it o n two things, other peo ple an d drink ; McPartland tells of the tIme Blxbought hIm a cornet WItho ut knowlIlg him for ten minutes' H oagy Carmichael was studYll1g law but when he heard B,X he gave it up and turned to \nusic, being started off by Bix. Drink and his friend s finally killed Bix' he never lived in this world- "I remember one time three of us went out to play golf early in the morning and we came across Bix asleep under a tree. The night before 490

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he had decided to play some twilight golf and ha~ lost all his golf balls. So he just laid down and went to sleep. We woke 11I~ up and he ~llIshed the course with us". Bix so ught peacc to be by hImself WIth IllS mUSIC, but Ius fflends co uld not give him peace a nd he too k to dflnk. He co uld nevcr rcad mUSIC, a n incredible thing in the light of Ilis records"we always gave BI X a newspaper to ~ead for his part. He couldn't read music anyway, and he would go off and smoke dUfln g rehearsal. Then he would return to his chair. after wc had played off the score, doodle a lillie, and then fill out his part with some of the most beautlful notes yo u ever heard. I can't ever recall ever hearing any clinkers of bad notes" . About 1930 what might be termed a "dissocia tion of sensisibility" crept into jazz.

Jazzmen eIther gave up, lIke Ory, who owned a chicken ranch and sorted mail or died of trying to keep,o.o, like Oliver. ~ with Eliot's dissociation, it was aggravated two most powelful mU~lc,"ns, Fletcher Hender~? n a~lCl Duke Ell ingto n. "Ellington plays the piano, but Ius rea l IIlst~' lIn~ent IS the band . BIlly St.rayhorn's comment may be used as an accurate generalIsatlOn abo ut tile leaders of this type of band. As with Milto n and Dryden, "the language beca me more refined, the feeling became more crude" so with Hender~o:n, and Ellington came rigidly scored compositions with a correspondin'g decline of senSIbIlIty and lack of freedom for even soloists. It is true that so me of the most ramous musicia ns like EII.ington , Basi7 and Goodman were able, like Milton, to gain such a command over their style that It became sometimes almost attractive. This was the to ugh, brash swing of Harlem, it cannot be ca lled jazz; for the first time musicians started on the narcOllcs and everyone regretted it and at tile same time endorsed what Johnny st. Cyr said a bout them.

by

. About 1940 came a.revival of traditional jazz; because it occurred in so many places It wo uld perhaps be ~Ise to trace the career of Ory agai n, he being a more than adequate represen tatlve of tradlllonal jazz. In 194 1 he attended the funera l of Jelly Roll M orton III Los Angeles; there he found other musicians including Carey, Washington and Garland. These four were to be the pall-bearers a nd it was Ory's sugges tion that they sho uld "take old hell o ut of Jelly's tunes"; Morton himself had wished to be buried in the traditio nal New Orleans manner, but the R Omall Catholic cemetery wo uld not allow it. From then on Ory played with small groups, but in 1944 Orson Welles asked him to form a band which was an illstanteo us success. The band was full of the old traditio nal players and in 1945 made what is perhaps the finest traditional jazz on record . One is struck by its military precision coupled with its retention of fluency and hotness of real Jazz. ln 1947, Ory achIeved the Jinal recognition of greatness for any traditional band, that of plaYlIlg at the Carnegle Hall 1Il New York. In 1953 he took up residence at the Ha ngo.ver Chlb III San FranCISco, where he lS still playing. He made a nother set of recordlllgs WIth Teddy Buckner replacmg Carey; he brings the moderner high-pitch trumpet approach to tradItional Jazz and this set of recordings prove that traditional jazz is not a blind alley with no room for development. . Ory's greatness may be put down to his steadiness ; he ranks with the old "greats" I!ke Bolden, Perez and Keppard, yet the difference between them and him is that Ory bved on. All these other characters were "at fast and loose" yet one never hears of "Kid Ory~s moll" I!or of anysordid escapades in the Red Light District. He is not an extrovert lIke many Jazz mUSICIans such as Jell y Roll M orton wIlD used to wear diamo nds pinned on his underwear, and Beiderbeckc, who refused to iake his socks off for months at a time. I-Ic lives quietly with his (only) wife, Cecile, and acts as host to any well-known 491


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jazz musicians who visit San Francisco. His playing is like his life-well ordered. He does not play to the crowd-the failure of many musicians nowadays-but gains their applause by his musical skill. His trombone playing is highly versatile; he is not tied to band playing, although this is his "forte" . Hc can take all moods; he can become harsh without coarseness and sweet without mushiness. While Armstrong dazzles one with his breaUl-Iaking flights, Ory evokes a deeper respect and admiration by his "knowhow" and swinging precision. He will be well received on his forthcoming visit to Britain since he has a more level approach than Armstrong and an orthodoxy which Armstrong does not attempt to have. At the age of 70 he still plays as if he were a young man; the exuberance and power of his trombone, far from diminishing, grows. He

always has been and will be the "greatest slide man ever born" and is the personification of trad itiona l jazz at its bes t.

H.A.S.B.

"OLDCASTLE DIED A MARTYR" The beginnings of the English Reformation are not only to be found in the Sixteenth Century, for many of the fundamenta l ~auses of the discontent which resulted in the break WiU, Rome were present much earlier. In the reigns of Henry IV and V there were factors indicating the existence not only of a desire to lessen the dictatorial powers of the Pope, but also of differences in doctrina l belief. The Lollard movement had grown up as a sect embracing the ideas of Wycliffe, this sect was increasing rapid ly in numbers, and presented a growing danger to orthodoxy. This article tells of the failure of the first wave of the Lollard movement and of the trial of its leader Sir John Oldcastle. Since there had been a decade of rebellion it was natural that the executi ve, in the person of Henry V, and the Church, shou ld all y against the forces which threatened them. T ile case of Sir John Oldcaslle provides us with an interesting example of Religious discontent prior to the Reformatio n, and shows how Crown and Church wo rked together to destroy this danger. The Church is represen ted by Arundel, the Archbishop of Canterbury, a nd the State by Sir Robert Morley, Keeper of the Tower of London. T his trial was the last official duty performed by Sir Robert Morley, for the impression that Henry V did not change his administrato rs, which Sha kespeare gives at the end of Henry I V, Part II , is quite false. This alliance between Church and State was able temporarily to stem the tide of reform, yet after the Lollard movement had suggested a break witll Ule Pope, there were many Englishmen, including the lower clergy who were paying a heavy tax to Rome, who nursed the idea, realising that the time would come when a split would prove an unavoidable blessing. Sir John OldcasUe was a fascinating character who reached the peak of his varied career as a soldier at the end of Henry lV's reign. He had a great reputation, and had served the cause of Bolingbroke since the end of Richard H's reign. Oldcastle served in the army campaigning under the fut ure Ifemy V on the Welsh borders. He had previously served in Flanders, and we may conclude that the youthful Prince Henry was greatly influenced by the rough manners and character of this professional man of 492

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the world . This influence is the ca use of Oldcastle's subsequent immortal isation as Falstaff by Shakespeare. Oldcastle was a man of boundless energy and enthusiasm, and believed in doing everything as well as he co uld . His great obst inacy can be regarded either as a great virtue or as the fata l fl aw in his character. He was a man of COilsidera ble wealth (which again does not coincide with Shakespeare's view), especiall y after his marriage to Lady Cobham, the widow of Lord Cobham, of Cobham in Kent. His association with this family accounts for his sometimes being known as "Lord Cobham". Oldcastle was an ardent Christian, and had taken a great interest in Wycliffe, as many of the noblemen a t that time had done, and through this influence had become an early convert to the ideas of the Lollard movement. He had used his own personal fortune to pay for the " learned clerks" who preached, and fo r an armed bodyg uard for these men . His influence was felt most in the Dioceses of London, Rochester and Hereford, where the Cobham estates were situated. Arundel, the Archbishop of Ca nterbury at the time, was Primate from 1397 until 1414, and 'had been a good servant to H enry IV, but had never been an a ll y of Henry V's. Tllis enmity resulted in his dismissal at the begilllling of the reign. Arundel was extremely anxious to put an end to all thoughts of reform, which had increased considerabl y in the influence of the powerful rebel faction under Richard n, a nd through the growth of the Lollard movement under Henry IV. Arundel was a member of the present Fitzala n family, and shared that name with the Dukes of Norfolk, who through the earldom of Arundel are Earls Marshal of England. Arundel made a great effort to crush the Lollard movement just as Henry IV was dyi ng. He directed his main attack against Oldcastle, for he realised that there was no point in attacking the uneducated peasa nts if educa ted and a ristocratic men such as Old .."tle were still a llowed to live unchallenged. Oldcastle was interned in the Tower of London, and was tried before an ecclesiast ical court presided over by Arundel. The declaration which he made, and the a nSwers which he gave to the questions put to him by this court, whicll represented the Roman Catholic Church, must be of great importance to us. They are the basis on which the Church of England is formed. Since this statement may not go unchallenged it is as well to keep in mind tile fact that Christian beliefs have become far more elastic in the illtervening five hundred years, and that they ha ve evolved very considerably in that period. Oldcastle made a declaratioll of Ilis faitll before the court, and it is in this declaration that lie the main points over which the Lollard and reforming movements disagreed Witll the esta blished Church of Rome. The first POillt whicll Oldcastle made is wo rthy of far more attention than will be given to it here, but it is, however, well wortll quoting verbatim: "I byleve that the moost worshipful sacrament of the Auter in Chrystis body in fourme of bred; the same body thai was borne of the blessed Virgyne ou re Lady Seynt Mary, doon on the crosse, deed, and buried, the thrydde day fro deth to Iyve, the which body is now glorified in Hevene."¡ The ecclesiastical inquisitors at once seized on this point, and a ttempted to make Oldcastle more explicit; they ask : "Wether you byleve, hold, or affirm, that in the sacrament of the Auter after consecration rightly done there remains material bred or 110t?"* Oldcastle had also made an allusion to penance in his declaration; he I,ad said boldly: 493

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" As for the sacrament of Penance, y byleve that it is nedefu l for everyman that shall be saved to forsayke synne, and to do du he pena unce fo r synne to be foredon, wi th true confession, veray contrition, and duhe satisfaction, as Godd ys law Iymyteth and techeth, and ellis he may no t be saved. Whyc he penaunce y desyre all men to do."¡ Again this statement did not satisfy the court, and Oldcaslle was as ked ; "Whether yo u hold, byleve or affirm that in the sacrament of Pena nce, it is necessary that anyo ne hav ing access to the priest, he sho uld confess his sins to a pries t o rdained

by the Church?"¡ Oldcaslle refused to make any comment at all other than tell ing the court tha t he would not swerve in a ny way fro m his original sta tement. T he Official acco unt of the trial then justifies the action ta ken by the Archbishop by including the fo llowing ca ution, which seems to be an insult to an y man o f such o bvio us intelligence as Oldcastl e, and wh ich

plays no rea l part in the proceedings ; "Have a care Sir John ! Fo r if you do not make answer plainl y to these things here

objected against yo u a t the command of the j udge, we may pronounce and daclare yo u an heretic."t

To this caution Oldcastle remained firm. He replied that he desired to believe everything which the Church wo uld have him believe, but that he wo uld not agree that the Pope or an y other Prelate had power to determine what he slto uld believe, for this power was clearly in the hands of God alone. From 1I1is account of the trial we can see that Oldcaslle sa id litlle that we should not find lawfu l and admirable to-day. He had, however, said much that offended the striclly a uthorita rian atti tude of the Roman Catholic Church a t that date. Nevertheless, it is hard to deny that Oldcastle died a martyr. The original declaration which Oldcaslle had made .at the trial contained two other poi nts, no less con trove rsial. He had co ndemned the practice of revering relics, and

had shown the wa y for a religion free fro m this fo rm of idolatry. Religion was relicbOUIld at this period, a nd the monasteries reckoned their wealth more by the number of holy relics they possessed than by the monetary wea lth with whieh they were so richly endowed. Qu ite apart from this, many of the relics were fakes, as Chaucer o bvio usly

knew when he wrote the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Oldcaslle also denounced the prevalent idea that in order to be saved one must undertake a pilgrimage. He put forwa rd the alternati ve that life as a whole was notlling more 1I1a n a pilgrimage, and that to live a virtuous and yet natural life was all that was needed in order to gain salvation. Oldcaslle had therefore indicated four of the points whicll sliglllly more than a hundred yea rs later were all to play an important part in the doctrinal qua rrel between the Churches of Engla nd and Rome which were part of the English Reformation. H e and a tailor called Badby had challenged the doctrine of tra nssubstantiation, a nd had shown the way fo r the less lite ral and the more spiritual significance of the Eucharist adopted by Cranmer. Oldcaslle had condemned the extremely iconoclas tic oullook of the medieval Church ; this condemna ti o n can be taken as one of the forerunners of the Puritan movement in

England. He exploded the idea tha t the Pope and his bishops were infallible over spiritual questions, Wllich still stands as a principle difference between the Churches of E ngland ~nd Rome. He had finally condemned the idea of' pilgrimages; while it is impossible

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to make.a clear-cut decision here, it is certai ll that the medieval Churcll was using the Idea of pilgrimage to IIltuUldate Its members, Wllich must be taken as a n evil. Oldcaslle's attac~ on the churcll consisted of four points, eacll of which was to play a n importa nt part III 1I1e reformatIO n; III every case Oldcaslle's view was adopted by the Church of England. He had wa rned the whole court-room that"These men who judge a nd wish to condemn me will seduce yo u all, and will lead you and themselves to Hell- Therefore beware of them! " t

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It is impossible not to admire and pity this lone a nd courageo us man.

Oldcaslle was impriso ned in the Tower after he had been declared a heretic and conde!,lIled by tillS court. Notllinll.more was hea rd of him until his earl y escape in 14 14. He relomed the leaders of the reilglOus reformers and was the author of a plot to seize th? hlg .. ThiS pl? t :vas. betrayed, aJld Oldcastle and his supporters were routed in a skmlllsh m St. Giles FIelds (North of Charlllg Cross III London). Oldcaslle himself escaped, but there were forty executions following this plot, of which mal'Y were in different countries ; thiS clearly SllOWS the growth of the Lolla rd movement, which was fa r from bemg crushed. Oldcaslle fled from London a nd raised his sta nda rd ill Worcester here Ile continued to spread the beliefs of the Lollards ; he was eventually captured m 1417 after he had been severely wo unded in a raid on the Welsh border. He was taken to London a nd burnt for heresy in St. Giles' Fields. Oldcaslle had not been popular in I:-ondon, and a contemporary chrolllcler states that he "made a n end of his accursed hfe" .t

:v

The ~o untry wa~ still fa r fro m being free from Lollards, however, in spite of an Act passed III 1417 which allowed Justices of the Peace to take proceedings aga hlst heretics. Open air ser,?ons contlllued, a nd although the cO lllltry was tempora rily preoccupied and contented With her vIctory over France, the rea l reasons for the unpopula rity of the ClllIrch were n ot removed. In 143 1 there was a nother LoJiard revolt, but this was soon forgotten dUring the chaos of the Wa rs of the Roses. It is therefore clear that the religious discontent which emerged fully during the reigns of Henry VII a nd Henry VII I was nothlllg. more than the contlllua nce of the religious discontent which Arundel and Henry V both fai led to crush. This. a rticle has not yet dealt sufficiently witll the relationship between Oldcaslle a nd the Prince of Wales. That there did exist a friendship between them is obvious, but it was not nearly as mvolved as Sha kespeare wo uld have us believe; the king a nd Oldcaslle seem to have had very httle In com":,on. apart from military a bi lity. Henry V was an ext~emely devout Ro ma ~ Cathohc, mclmed to be an extremist against the LoJiards, which can be seen from Ius employment of extremely violent anti-Lollards as confessors. OldcasUe was, as we have seen, exa.ctl y the reverse, a nd was as obstinate in his preference fo r the less dogmahc views as the kmg was fo r orthodox Catholicism. He was a n admirer of Huss, the leader of the Protestant revolt in Bohemia. The king was not entirely Without mercy for hiS old comrade-in-arms, and sent him a personal entreaty to repe nt and to ren~lUnce the yiews. wltich he had declared. Oldcastle refused, and we hear n o more of thiS oldrelahonshlp between Henry V a nd Oldcastle which Shakespeare would have us beheve !n the History plays. It is argua ble that the influence which OldcasUe exerted on the klllg was a far better one than the narrow-minded orthodoxy of t.he king wo uld have exerted on Oldcaslle. 495

:


THE CANTUARIAN We must not exaggerate the importance of Sir John Oldcaslle in the story of England. His place is as the propagator of the views which in fact belonlled to Wycliftc. Vet he stood up alone against the Catholic Church, and we must credIt hlln wIth courage and firmness of purpose. Luther said at Worms: "Here J stand 1 can none other." Oldcaslle seems to have approached this famous position. T.M .E .D . REFERENCES *j

ii iii and iv are direct quotations from the official record of the trial drawn up by Arundel. This

rcco~d

'is headed "Processus Magnus Domini Thomae CanlUaricnsis contra Johancm Oldcastle militem, Dominum de Cobham, in quo patel cjus cxaminatio, incarccralio, cl excommunicatio", .. 1:'- print~d

version is included in Hook's LiI'es of the Archbishops of Canterbury. Vol. I V, Chap. XVIII; and In B1ackbornc's appendix to his edition of Bale's Chron icle, en titled Balc's bra/e Crollycle COllcemYIIC the

Exulllillacyoll and Dealh of the blessed Martyr of Christ, Syr JoII II OMecaslell, Ihe Lorde Cobham. t From th ree fifteent h cent ury Chronicles pu blished by the Camden Society.

A GERMAN GYMNASIUM After the monastic way of life we lead at this school, it was interesting for me to note the contrast in my day or two at a German Gymnasium or High School. The first difference came as a shock and quite early on : T was hauled out of bed at what seemed to me to be an unearthly hour with barely enough time for a. wash, shave and a bite of Continental breakfast. I was on tile road for school rubbmg the sleep from my eyes, before the sun had even risen. On arrival at the school, which stood on the banks of the artificial-looking but none the less beautiful River Neckar, [ was guided up what seemed to be count less staircases into a corridor on to which numerous classrooms opened. J had traversed the whole length of the corridor before I fi nally entered the classroom. It was here that the second big difference from my school struck me: a large percentage or the class were girls, a nd very attractive ones too . I was introduced to members of the class and was in vited to sit next to a boy named Ado lf at the back or the class. It was only quarter to eight when a bell rang, th~ mas ter entered and th~ first lesson of the mo rn ing began . I was later even more surpnsed and .glad of my n~t lO na llty when J was info rmed that the fi rst lesson of the sum mer term begms at seven 0 clock- befo re I even th ink of ris ing from my slum ber. As my knowledge of the German language is far from adequate, J found it difficult to follow much of the lessons, so I devoted most of the time while written work was being done by the rest of the class, in studying a simplified <rerman Grammar. The attitude of the masters to my presence ranged from mterest to mdlfference and m one case to obvious distaste. This last was shown by a former Nazi who had strong feelings that England was mainly responsible for the plight of Germany and the success of Russian arms. At a quarter past ten the bell rang for morning break, .when we all donned suitable protective clothing against the cold weather and went outsIde lilt? a square III the centre of which stood a statue of Ludwig Uiliand wIth hIS eyes regardll1g the seat of learnlllg we had j ust left. Classes were res umed after a twenty minute break unt il ha lf-past twelve whe n all t he pupils wended their way homewa rds to lu nch.

a

496


THE CA NtU AR IAN was able to follow very clearly the first lesson of the afternoon as it consisted oC instruc ti on in my own nat ive tongue. Lessons in English and French must be conducted in those languages, as it is forbidden for the master to speak in German except for the purposes of explanation. Jt was during this lesson that one of the boys produced a bottle of wine and proceeded to imbibe the liquor, having first descended from his seat to the floor from which the eye of authority was obscured. Having quenched his tilirst he passed the bottle to another pupil, who gave a similar performance, while the mdster unconcernedly talked about the boastfulness of the Americans: if you shewed an Amencan the upper va lley of the Neckar Ile wou ld reply,"Well, the Mississippi is much bigger". As a large part of the master's attention was directed to me I fo und it almost an impossibi li ty to prevent myse lf from lauglli ng, especia lly when my next-door neighbo ur, Adolf, descend ed from vIew fo r at least two mlllutes to d rink his fi ll. T his does not l~lean that the EI~ g l is h master, ,who limped owi n ~ to a wa r wou nd , was incapa ble of keeplllg o rder ; du rmg o ne E nglish lesso n a pupil who did not lea rn E nglish was "~ork i n g" a t t he back of the class a l~d somehow t his. work enta iled his ta lking to his neIghbo ur. T ile mas ter noticed and WI t h a sweep or IllS hand d irected him to leave the room and rema rked to the rest of the class in English, " [ do not like the way in wllich you are talking to your neighbour; 'in which' relative prono un, antecedent 'way''' . As the boy lert the class, the master said a polite "Guten Abend" and continued with the lesson. The next morning the class had an ~nusual addi~ion-a black spaniel owned by a member of the class: The master, a JOVial double-chill ned man, who wore a ring in the shape of a shIeld WIth the German Federal Republic's colours of red, black and gold on It, entered to take a hIstory lesson. He Just laughed at the dog's presence and carried on norm~lly while Fido slept curled ~p at tile back ~f the room. He slept on throughout the Illorrung WIth only a few breaks III IllS sleep dunng which he promenaded round the room quietl y, enticed by members of the class. Although the school was primarily classical, the standard of science and mathematics atta ined was extrem~ly high. Physics a nd mathematics were taught by a tall old man With a very deep VO ice, who wore a long coat of unusual continental cut and jangled la bo ra tory doo r keys in front of him wherever he went. ' In Eng!and , pupils show their appreciati on of puns and "howlers" wi th lo ng draw n o ut groa ns : m Germany, however, the whole class ra p lo udl y o n their des ks. This sudden chor us of ra pping rrom ti me to ti me at fi rst surprised me until J was told the reaso n for it. It i.s m~t with either amusement or annoyance from the masters, or else they j ust fail to notice It and carryon as though there had been no interruption. These are a few hurried impressions of a very short visit which serve to show that some of the very real earnestness of a German school is varied with quite a lo t of fun. T.J-B.

497

,

I


THE CANTUARtAN

~U??n

~~ ~n4~~. All those interested in the history of Canterbury have been able to acquire large libraries of works dealing with the early history of the city, the ancient beginnings of the Cathedral, the styles of Norman, Early Englisll Perpendicular, Tudor and Early Georgian architecture, but how many have ever wondered abo ut that "!leeting phase of English art of which ti,e country is almost bereft, but which can claim to be one of the most delicate achievements of its chequered course"?' This phase was the elegant style of the Regency, all architectural mode evolved during the first quarter of the nineteentll century which has been neglected by Ilistorians of Canterbury. It is a strange lack of perception, for the period represents a definite movement in the development of English Art ; and Canterbury possesses several effective and graceful examples which provide a model of discretion, sensitivity alld practicality worthy of respect by present designers and arbiters of taste. The keynote of the Regency Style was restraint and was partly due to the economic causes of a time closely resembling our present day a usterities. Many buildings were devised during the Napoleonic War and the ensuing fina ncial stringency. Thus it has au unusual interest for the present generation which exists under the same restrictions. We may, indeed, admire the methods of those who solved their problems with so pleasing a "mixture of the monumental and the unpretentious" . As with the grea t country houses, the work of this period is only just coming into its own whell it is fast vanishing, for the trim villas, the graceful terraces and the curious little lodges, witll their green gardens, are being demolished wholesale every year to be replaced by ungainly blocks of shops, offices and fiats. A few hours spent during a summer afternoon walldering amidst the "picturesque" panorama of Regency Canterbury can give pleasure and a surprising sense of no velty. 498


THE CANTUA RIAN

Behind the Cathedral in a secluded area of overgrown back gardells, ancient brown tiled roofs and sheltering !lint walls, the perspicacious tourist may descry a neat white stuccoed house with Gothic windows, a successful essay in the romantic "Regency GothiC." appropriately. bearing the name of "Gothick Villa". It is a charming example. There IS good proportIOn In the arra ngement of windows and the building is a nota ble achievement of its time. The "Gothick" has of late been despised by the ignorant, but It should be remembered that the "Gothiek" symbolised the romantic idea l of that era and the sincere desire to emulate the past with all ~ts attendant chivalry, lofty aspirations and d,glllty. Similarly the longlllg for the claSSical Ideal inspired a return to Greek ornament and proportion. In Union Street, no t far away from "Gothick Villa", an

unusual but sedate terrace, which provides a contrast with the forlorn modern cOllncil terraces in the adjacent Military Road and elsewhere in the city, may strike the eye: the vigo rous "anthem ion" or Greek 110neys uckie modell ing in the arched recess of the doorways adds a vivacious touch to a seemly Hnd sens ible design. Continuing in the Greek vein, if the inquir;'lg traveller passes througll Guildhall Street towards the High Street he will observe three Grecian canted windows 0 11 the left now incorporated into the expanding maw of a well known store, a firm adept at swallowing up churches, theatres and other public institutions by means of certain "alterations", These windows once b elonged to tile Philosophical a nd Literary Institution, erected in 1825, the front of which was ornamented by four columns "similar to those of the Ionic temple on the Ri ver I1issus (sic) at Athens".' It posse~sed a fl attened dome and was an en~i able example of good quality NeoClaSSIC deSign and must have considerably embellished a street which looks, alas, merely dull to-day.

Many fine Regency buildings were demolished in the German attack on the city; a fin e r,ow o~ houses stood In St. Geo rge's Terrace and st. George's Place, including a manSIO n With a shapely front porch at the end of the Bus Station, and "The New Corn and Hop Exchange" was also a war casualty. The front was a good specimen oC the richest Ionic ordcr: the capitals were from the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli and the portico to the entrance, and also that to the cOrl'csponding wi ng, were of Portland Stone of the Grecian Doric order. 3 The remains of the elegant Classic Fisll-Market (1822) may still be seen in St. Margaret's Street, converted into both a fish-shop and a pedicure centre. The rusticated prison gate, however, built in 1808 and the court house of tile same date, survive in Longport. Perhaps one of the earliest Railway Stations in England exists, still very little changed as the West Sta tion. The Canterbury-Whitstable Iron railway was commenced ill 1825 and the station exhibits a Grecian facade with two Doric columns flanking the entrance. The delight in faithfully copying models of the antique during the Regency occasionally provided some quaint eccentricities, Canterbury is fortunate in preserving such an one In the shape of a temple erected in "The Ancient Egyptian style".- Very few edifices in 499

,-


THE CANTUARIAN

this style are now to be found in the country, but furniture in England and France was often decorated with applied ormolu after ant ique models representing Sphinx.s, Horns, Osiris, Papyrus motives and other symbols of the Egyptian civilization. It should be remarked that it was the aim of the designer to link up interior decoration with th~ external form of the building. Neo-Grecian and Roman facades dema nded GraecoRoman furnishings, curule chairs, bronze lamps, and marble topped tables all exquisitely made of the choicest woods- often mahogany or rose wood- and overlaid with gilt, bronze and ormolu. But Canterbury's Egyptian temple has exchanged the bright banks of the Nile and tall palms for a tangle of dank weeds and laurel. This ingenious sanctuary is now a warehouse belonging to an antique dealer who bought it for a trifling sum. To experience the atmosphere of the early nineteenth century in its most complete and unspoilt form in Canterbury, the traveller can do no better than end his tour in the Dane John Gardens and stroll amongst the trees, lawns and vi llas which make such a stately setting. It was Alderman Simmons at the very end of the eighteenth century who "improved" the great Mound by making a lacing of encircling paths whereby sightseers could ascend to enjoy the prospect of the city from the summit. A slender monument dominated the top after the manner of the Regency landscape designers. Earth was banked up on the inner side of the ramparts to make smooth grass slopes and an aven ue of limes was planted which is now an impressive feature of the gardens. On the townward side is a stuccoed terrace dating from 1822. Each house has a classical pilaster order and shallow arches framing the first and second floor windows, while a sudden individuality is introduced by one house llaving pilasters converted into turrets and the cornice into castellations whicll adds a touch of the "Gothic" to the formal serenity of the row. The windows have balconies with delicate cast-iron railings of a most pleasing pattern . Another such row from where the residents could enjoy a rustic view is at St. Dunstan's Terrace, one of the prettiest in Canterbury, whose villas with iron balconies and hooded bow wi ndows, irregularly grouped, combine in a harmonious display of good proportion and comely detail.

The Dane John Gardens preserve several picturesque conceits; a cast urn on a tall pedestal with Anthemion motif- the sole survivor of a pair whic h formed either end of a set of railings and a sundial set on a marble drum surrounded by Greek figures which formerly stood on the spot now occupied by a massive and ill-at-ease Boer War Memorial. There is also the sad remains ofa dolphin fountain, wrecked alld pushed into the shrubbery to become a pathetic ornament amongst the rhododendrons . Christopher Marlowe has his memorial upon the lawn : a good piece of Victorian work containing four bronze characters from his plays upon the sides of an elegant square pedestal. The top supports a charming Muse. This, too, has been displaced from the Butter Market by the present War Memorial. In spite of vulgar tastes, however, the gardens have scarcely altered since they were first laid out. The Raze drawing of 1851 shows the gardens in much the same shape as they now appear except that the band is playing while groups of well dressed gentlefolk interrupt their promenade to listen.


"GOT HICK VLLLA"

" TH E VIGO ROUS ANH IEM ION MO[))l LLl NG ......


CANTEllII URY WEST STATION

S'I:. DUNSTAN'S T ERR ACE


"A CAST URN ..... . "

,

.i,-

~:

~

UA SUNDIAL SURROUNDED BY CREEK FICURES"

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4--;,


------ --- ------ -----

---

THE ANCIENT EGYPTlAl', TEMPLE

LEFEVRE'S


â&#x20AC;¢

iI

"A TOUnl OF GOTHI C .... "

" A MASS IVE AN D IL L-AT-EASE BOER WAR MEMOIUAL"


T HE C A NTUA R i A N

It would be a pity if tllis heritage should ever be ignored. Until a hundred years ago architeclure was for the most part seemly and in good tas te. Nothing discordant had been evolved, even Ihe eccentricities occupied tlleir pro per place. Since Ihe end of the Regency, architecture has become eclectic, uncompromising and often harsh.

M.B. I.

Stratto n--S tyles of EJ/glish Architecture. Batsford, Vol. 2, p. 39

2.

Gostling- A Walk ill and abollf the City 0/ Canterbury. 1825 , pp . 65¡66

3.

Ibidem

â&#x20AC;˘ At the corner of King Street and Knott's Lane

(The pho tographs o f Regency Canterbu ry were taken specia lly for this article by P. F. Housto n.)

By COllrtesy of O. T. Batsford, Lid.

501


THE CANTUARtAN

CORINTHIAN ENTHUSIASM "The wisdom of this wo rld is foolishness with God." Tluough nineteen hundred years of Cluistian controversy the early days of Christianity have been regarded as tile Golden Age, an age when, in answer to the Lord's command: "Go ye into all the world",

the disciples had propagated the new gospel of the immanent kingdom of Christ. Lollard , Janserust and Barthian protestant have all seen in the apostolic world the paragon of Cluistian perfection. All Enthusiastic movements Imve claimed to be restoring the discipline of apostolic times. Enthusiasm is a cant term, but the best explanation of it as a European phenomenon is given by Knox. He states that it is a tendency to expect more evident results of the grace of God than others do. The future world is the real one; the result is an anthropomorphic bias in which personal salvation preoccupies the

mind. The c1ect belong to a state different from that of those who are not chosen-a theocracy. The early Christians coupled all these ideas with a belief ill a secolld coming; and some of them felt that only the then living would sha re in tlus coming. Vico has warned lustorians agains t the danger of overglamourising the past. This warning must be borne in mind when dealing with the epistles of St. Paul. That there were moments of great difficulty is shown by the First Epistle to the Corillthians . In Corinth a form of ultra-supernaturalism developed akin to what would later be givell the name of EntilUsiasm . Here the evidence ill Corinthians revealillg this will be dealt with. Pa ul himself was partly to blame for Ilis difficu lties. In his anxiety to prove that the Gentile was not bound by Jewis law Ca mall is not justified by the works of the Law, but by the faith in Jesus Christ"), he insisted on freedom from any sort of legal observance for those who had become "justified by faith". III Romans iii, 31, Paul said, "Do we then make void the law through faitll? God forbid: yea, we establish tiu; law." In fact he added a whole new morality to the Jewisll law. Corinth was more developed intellectually and commerciaLly tllan the other centres Paul had affected; Ilis trials there were in many ways a preparation for the last great voyage to Rome. The Corintluans were conditioned mentally to seek a kingdom of the soul: the Jews so ught, under guidance, a kingdom of God accordi ng to the direct traditions of the prophets. Society at Corintll had been sunk ill debilitating vice; their sudden cOllversion gave rise to a kind of entilUsiasm that would need careful regulation. Ma ny of Paul's supporters had been refugees from Rome and had returned there ; the moderate influence was thus weakened. To the new converts the gospel of Paul wo uld appear a gospel of revolt: revolt against all accepted morality. There was in Corinth, cOlltrasting with Jewish Christian hunlility, a spirit of aggressive self-assertion. III Corilltll the supernatural seed Paul had planted was in danger of running wild and of turning to ultra-supernaturalism. "Some fell upon stollY places, where they had Ilot much earth : a nd forthwith they sprang up because they had no deepness of earth: And when tbe sun was up, they were scorched; and bec.1use they had no deepness of root they withered away." (Matthew xiii, 5, 6.) These early enthusiasts felt that whatever belonged to nature was irrelevant ; bodily a nd sexual impurity were imperfections among the elect but no more. Some may have held the doctrine of Molinos tlmt bodily sill does not harm those who live ill the spirit. In a way fitting to their intellectual approach to religion, the Corinthians were cndowed with the gift of producing spiritual ecstasy. For this community, ill addi tion to being "beh ind in 110 gift" (even St. Paul confessed that in face of their capabi lities he was 502


THE CANTUAR TAN

filled with weakness and fear), also had the gift of "speaking with ton~ues" . The Corinthians abused what was. to Paul, a normal privilege granted t? the faIthful: they turned it into a histrionic performance sufficient to dcter any unbeliever. TillS e~pl~ ms their abuse of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper and their departure fro~n pnnclple on the subject of the. behaviour of women in church. The entilUSlast has httle respect for established institution; St. Paul had to try to redress the balance, and he constantly states that love is more important than ecstasy. All through the epIStle we find Paul answering and trying to point the right course : they had gone to law WIth the gentIles, so he states that "The Saints shall judge the world ." On moral matters-"Your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you." And aga in-"Ye are bought with a price, therefore glorify God in your body and in you r spirit which arc God's."

.

.

Some of the troubles on marriage were due to St. Paul, who lumself saId"He that is unmarried careth for the things Wllich belongeth to tile Lord, But he that is married careth for the tilings whicll are of the world." T his led to the idea that marriage itself was a carnal institution wo;thy of condemnation. Doubts grew up on the interpretation of such passag~s. The Idea grew u~ that marriage Witll a widowed stepmotller was a splendId assert IOn of go~pelhberty, thus in their last letter to St. Paul the Corinthia ns were not ashamed of tlletr vIces but, rather, were "puffed up". Paul had to find out the ~vil s from anotller source-probably that of Chloe. Jewish Cilristians who went to Connth were shocked at what they ~aw, but tile enthusiast is so sure of being in the right that he would refuse to take the vIews of another into account. Any criticism of such a person, especiall y of . on~, who w~,s obviously acting under tile inspiration of the Holy Ghost and endowed ,;"Ith tongues , was akin to blasphemy. Til his epistle to the Romans Paul h~d SaId, WIth the mmd I myself serve the law of God: but with my nesh the law of SIn : he now had to correct false impressions given by remarks such as these by appea hng to what SopllOcles called Uthe immutable unwritten laws of Heaven."

"We have no such custom, neither the Churches of God" and "What? Came the word of God out from yo u or came it into yo u only."

"The tradition I received from the Lord and handed on to yo u." It was evident that what was needed in Corinth was the curb and not t,he S ~~Ir. St. Paul had to lay tile emphasis on the corporate nature of the body of Chnst: For as t/;e body is o:,e and hath many members ... so als.o is Christ. " He tried to cileck thIS over-enthusiastic idea of complete freedom of action, of one's own per~onal InterpretatIOn

of Christianity, held by those who advocated freedom from all restramt. The great fear was that- "If it goes hard with the tree that IS stIli green, what WIll become of the tree that is already dried up?" Throughout history the Church has constantly, as ~ corporate body in civili s~tion, been revitalised and given new impetus by en~l\uslastic. mov.ements. CatholiCism, although outward ly condemning Enthusiasm, has In fact gal\1ed IInmeasurably through the antithesis. The Corillthialls, although they earned these tendenCies to excess, showed characteristics wllich we sorely need to-day if the Church IS to s ~r vlve. WIthout a measure of Enthusiasm, Christianity will become a dead creed; that IS the great contemporary danger.

"ENTHEUS." 503


TH E C A N T U ARIAN

THE LIFE OF FRANCOIS VILLON , "This murderer, this debauchee, this robber, was a very great poet. It may hurt OUf pride as upright people to give such a good name to one who all but ended hi s li fe on the gallows, but what else ca n we do? Genius is a capricious plant, that sometimes flowers in mire. We must be indulgent, or at least not too harsh towards him ;- although guilty, altilO ugh a criminal, he preserved a trace of integrity to the end ; although a n evil-li ver, he was never pro ud of his vices, but often ashamed of them. He was corrupt, but never corrupted others, more weak than wicked. He believed in virtue, if he was not himself virtuous; good was good with him, and bad was bad . Besides, there is more danger in those who have no t had such a cl ose view of the ga llows as he did than in this scamp. "* Franyois Vill on is onc orthe most intriguing characters in a turbulent and eventful period of history, the mid-fifteent h century, when the Middle Ages were dying. Some of his poetry ranks with the best F rance has produced, but it is too la rge a subject to be satisfactoril y dealt with here. I will concern myself mainly wi th tile facts of his life, so far as we know them, and the light his own poems throw upo n them, in order to try and reconstruct a picture of this extraordi nary man. Villon was born at Paris in 143 1, a nd little is known of his earliest years . His father was poor, a nd died during his c11ildhood, but his mother was still al ive in 146 1. Paris in the 1430's and 1440's was no place for a yo ung child. The occupation of the English, who left in 1436, and the q uarrels between thi: Bu rgundians and Armagnaes led to widespread fa mine and plague. Wolves prowled the streets in the winter and in 1438 in one district killed fo urteen grow n people. In the same year 45,000 died of the plague. In addition to tilis, bands of des peradoes toured the town, ready to kill for the price of a day's food. But Fra nl!(ois survived all this and, at an ea rly age, was admitted to the house of Maitre G uilla ume de Villon, a relative of his mo ther's (Fra n,ois, born Frans:ois de Montcorbier, subseq uently took the name of his benefactor) who was a canon of St. Benoit-Ie-Bientourne, near the Sorbo nne, in the cloisters of which church he lived. Maitre Guillaume, as was co mmon for priests in those days, finding Fram;ois a bright boy, undertoo k to educate him, and boa rded him in his house. When F rans:ois reached the age of twelve, he became eligible fo r the U nive rsity of Pa ris, and was duly admitted to the Faculty of Arts to continue his education (1443). He still lived with Maitre Guillaume, the benevolent middle-aged priest, and indeed had no other permanent home fo r the rest of his life. As soon as he became a member of the U niversity he received Minor Orders as a matter of course, as the University as a whole was answerable to the ecclesiastical a uthorities fo r disci plina ry purposes rather tha n to the secular aut h.orities. Minor Orders gave Villon the r ight always to appeal to the ecclesiastical power if he was p rosecuted by the city a uthorities, but otherwise they did not count, in his case, fo r very much. As a member of the Faculty of Arts, he now studied the Seven Li beral Arts-Grammar, Rhetoric (which included poetry a nd elementary law), and Dialectic, which were called the trivium, and Arithmetic, M usic, Geometry and Astronomy, known as the quadrivium. He progressed well, and was ad mitted Bachelor in 1449 and Master of Arts in 1452. It is probable that Villon's first brushes with the law occurred in 1453-54, when he had just finished his ed ucation, a nd when it was difficult fo r an educated mall to make a living, as he normall y wo uld, by lecturing and private tui tion, since the ecclesiastical authori ties (under whose jurisdicti on the University ca me) â&#x20AC;˘ Translated from His/oire de /a Lallgue el L it /era /lire jrallf,aise.

504


tH E C ANTUAR t AN

had stopped all sermo ns a nd lectures temporaril y throughout the city of Paris.' there were many easier ways of livelihood than honest toil. A contemporary poet and associate of Villon's describes an amusing way of obta ini ng fis h, which he attributes to Villon hi mself. In the poem Villon a nd his compani ons fi nd themselves in need of fish for a meal, so ViII on, telling the others to wait fo r him, goes off to the fish-market at the Petit-Pont alone. He chooses a basketful of the best fish and info rms the vendor that the fisll-porter who is to carry his fish home for Ilim will be paid on delivery. He then takes the fish-porter to Notre-Dame where Ile finds, as expected, a priest in the cloister hearing confessions . Leaving the porte r outside fo r a moment, he goes respectfully up to the confesso r telling Ilim that he has brought him Ilis nephew who is sulky, irreverent and "speaks about nothing but money", and as king him to confess and absolve him, to which the confessor replies that he wo uld be only too pleased. Villon then goes out to the porter again and, taking the fish from him, tell s ltim that there is someone inside who will pay him, playing on the words despeche,. (to payoff) a nd depesche,. (to absolve). The porter goes in, and Villoll makes oft¡ with the fi sh. The poem ends with the porter violently objecting to the priest's insistence on hea ring his confession, and demanding his pay, while the priest, more co nvi nced than ever by all this demand for money that the porter needs con fessing, admonis hes him severely. By the time the priest and the porter have fini shed arguing, Villon and the fish are far away. The next importa nt da te in Villon's life was June 5th, 1455, the feas t of Corpus Christi. He was seated on a bench under the clock of St. Benott in the cool of the evening after the day's festi vities, casuall y talking to two friends, when a priest named Plulippe Chermoye and another man suddenly appeared. Chermoye, on seeing ViIlon, cried, " By God, J have fo und yo u !" and sta rted qua rrell ing with him. A fi ght ensued, daggers were draw n a nd Chermoye struck Villon across tile upper lip. Villon, blood streaming from Ilis face, struck Chermoye in tile groin a nd fled. Chennoye staggered after lum, and Villon, turning, threw a large stone full in his face which felled him to the gro und. Villon made fo r a nea rby barber-surgeo n's to have his wo unds dressed, a nd was there compelled to give an acco unt, to be relayed to the authorities, of how he received them. Chermoye lay for some time where he had fa llen, and was later ta ken to the H otel-Dieu, one of Paris's hospitals, where.lle died after a few days. Vill on fted from Paris to escape the clutches of justice, and spent eight months wandering about the countryside, during which time he may well have begun Ilis co nnection with the extensive underworld bandit organization that terrorized France at this period, the " Coquille". Meanwhile his friends in Paris were at work on his behalf, and in January, 1456, he was granted two separate Letters of Remission by the Kin g in connection with Chermoye's death. The mitigating circumstances given in these Letters were that Villoll had been acting in self-defence after bei ng assaulted a nd, more importa nt but onl y fo und in the second letter, that Chermoye, as he lay dying at the H otel-Dieu, expressly stated tha t he wanted no action to be taken against Villon. Chennoye's forgivelless probably saved Villon fro m execution fo r ma nslaughter, which wo uld Ilave meant that he would never have lived to write any of the poetry that has come down to us. 011 returning to Paris early in 1456, Villon may have tried for a time to ma ke an honest living as a tutor or clerk but by the end of the yea r, broken by lack of money and disappointment in love, Ile determined to leave Paris for Angers, where a prosperous relative of his mother's lived. Villon's one major love affair was a sad thing. The woman â&#x20AC;˘ The stopping of sermo ns and lectures by thc Uni vcrs ity was the convenlional and legal method or retaliat ion against bull ying by the civil authorities.

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who caused his unhappiness seems to have been Katherine de Vausselles (possibly related to a canon of St. Benoit, one of the colleagues of Guillaume de Villou), whom Fran~ois Villon describes, in his poems, as "ma damoyselle au nex tortu" (my lady of the twisted nose). Villon's two main works, the Petit Testamellf and Gralll Tes/ament, are filled wi th painful references to her cruelty towards him. She made him lay bare his heart before her for her own amusement until she tired of Itim and went off with a new lover, whom she even persuaded to thrasll Villon in her presence. But Villon could not forget her ; his Grallt Testamellt, written five years later in 1461, is ample testimony of that. H was while he was in Paris in 1456 that he wrote his first known major poem, the Petit Testament, a burlesque Will on the occasion of his impending departure from Paris. The Petit Testament is not one of his greatest works. Villon had planned to leave Paris fo r Angers in the last dllYs of 1456, but when on the point of departure he changed Ilis plans and pre pared to underta ke the most daring enterprise of his career. On the night of Christmas Eve he set out, with four accomplices, for the University college of Nava rre. T he jllll ior member of the gang, one G uy Ta barie, havi ng been left in an adjacent uninhabited hO Lise with their cloaks, the other fo ur climbed over a high wall into the courtyard of the collegc. It seems tha t the geography of ti,e building was well known to them for, having forced an entry into it, they made straight for the treas ury where the coffer of the Facu lty of T ileology was kept, and after picking its locks and wrenching apart any other fastenings, they made off with between 400 and 500 gold crowns. When they reached the place where Tabarie stood watch over their cloaks, they told him they had found 100 crowns, and offered him ten to keep his mouth shut abo ut the whole affair, and a furt~er two, "duo scuta bona que essent pro prandendo in crastinum", to provide dinner for the company on the morrow. A few days after this, his pockets pleasantly heavy witll gold, Villon left Paris on his projected journey to Angers. The Faculty of Theology was not quick to react. The burglary was not discovered until tltree months after it was committed, and the enquiry subsequently set up made little headway until, by a stroke of luck, it was given the names of the thieves. In 1457 a certain Pierre Marchant, a Prior from Paray-leMoniau, who had heard of the burglary, happened, on a visit to Paris, to have a meal in the same public house as Tabarie, who, garrulo us in his drunkenness, boasted of his exploits. The interest a nd suspicions of the Prior were aroused. Pretending he wa nted to become a member of Tabarie's ga ng, he contrived to meet him several times more, each time treating him handsomely to wi ne. Evelltually Tabarie began boasting a bout the Nava rre burgla ry and told tile Prior the names of his accomplices, even showing hi m some of them who, lately brokell out of the prison of the Bishop of Paris, were lounging in the sanct uary of the precinct of Notre-Dame, where they were immune from re-arrest and whence they might escape as soon as the going was good . ViIlon, he told the Prior, had gone to Angers, where he had an uncle ill an abbey, and where he hoped to rob an aged monk who was reputed to possess 500 or 600 crowns. The Prior reported his findings to the enquiry of the Faculty of Theology, but before action could be taken Tabarie had disappeared, having no doubt remembered in his sobriety some of the indiscretions of his drunkenness, and with him those of his friends who were understood to be implicated. It was not until 1458 that the Faculty of Theology caught Tabarie, and not until 1459, upwards of two-and-a-half years after the burglary, that they bro ught themselves to collaborate with the Royal Procurator in their enquiry. For the nex t I'o ur years, till 1460, Villon wandercd a bout France, and it is not always clear what he did 01' where he wenl. We know somethi ng from what he says in his 506


T H E CANTUA RI A N

oems. He tramped as a pedlar, partly perhaps to avoid suspicion, and ,Partly to save

~lOney (it is unlikely that the hundred 01' so crowns he.recelved as Ius share III the Navarre burglary lasted him very long). We do not know If he ever reached Angers, but he travelled so ulh~wes t from Paris in that direction, ~ nd spent some tim~ at St. Genero ~x , near Parthcnay, where he made frie~ds, With two girls, who am,used hun and taught hlln something of the Poitevin dialect. HIS time at St. Generoux, whIch may have been several months, was one of the happier. periods of his life. We next hear of hun at the end of 1457 in the Loire country at BlOIS, where Duke Charles of Orlea ns, the Frel~cll nobleman and poet who was captured at Agincourt and spent twenty¡five years as a p!"lsoner.of.war in England, was now passing his old age surrounded by mell of letters. Vlllon ma l~aged to get himself accepted as a member of the household, but no doubt hIS. unpoltshed manners and uncouth appearance (hiS upper il p was deeply scarred after Ill S fight With Chennoye, he was haggard, wizened, prematurely ?ald, "':'Ith a long nose, IIsharp as a razor", loose mo uth, and his clothes in ~'ags) conhned hll11 to tl~e sCl:va nt~' qlll:lIt~rs , But he took part in one at least of the poetic tourneys C h~rles orgal11 zed, 111 \~ll1~l,l Ch ~ l l es set the first li ne of the poem, in this case " Je meu rs de sOlf aupres de la fontame .([ dIe of th irst by ti,e fOlmtain), and the competing poets each wrote a pIece based on thIS IlIIe. But Villon's poem shows evidence of a quarrel between hun and Ius patron WhlCll, together with the ted iousness of aristocratic etiquette to one unused to courtly hfe,. lIIay have been the cause of his departure fr01l1 Blois in early 1458. His pay had obVIOusly b~en stopped, because he says in his poem that he can want nothing more tha~ to recel ~e Ius wage again. After this he moved south-west to Bourges wllere he was IIlvolved m some unknowll trouble-it seems he may have been betrayed by a supposed fnend m an hour of need. Next he appears further south stIli at Moulms, where he bo~rowed money from Duke Jehan of Bourbon, a friend of Charles of Orleans, and a poet lumself. He first borrowed six crowns, and then asked for more, perllaps by I~leans of ~ subtly flattering poem. After a short stay at Moulins, he disappears from Illstory agam for a considerable t ime (altltOugh it isjust possible that Ile went even further.south to Rousslllon, a town on the Rilane below Vienne). When we next hear of hun, III the early summer ~f 1460, he is under sentence of death ilt Orleans prison. Not hing is known of the reasons for this sente nce, but Villon's luck was in. .Tn J~l y, 1460, Marie, the two-a nd-a-half yea r old da ughter of Charles of Orlealls w~s maklllg her first visit with her father, to Orleans and, as was the custo m III the mIddle ages when the me~'ber of a royal or duca l famil y ceremo nially passed through a tow n, all the prisoners were released in a general amnes~y . Villon was released With the res~, and his sentence quashed. For the next year he dId not stray far fr.om Orleans, and III the early summer of 1461 found himself once more I ~ the cl u~ches? f JustIce .. He was arrested by the Bishop of Orleans, the harsh but Just Tlubault d Ausslgny, possIbly for the theft of a votive lamp from a church, and was thrown mto one of the. deepest, dankest dungeons of the ecclesiastical prison at Meung-sur-Lotre, where he hved underground in the company of toads and rats. This rou~h treat1l1~nt may have been partly due to d'Aussigny knowing that Villoll was a notono~s cnmlllal, who had felt the shado~ of the gallows once already. Vilion sat in . hIS dIm hole. broodmg m bItter medltatton, perhaps writing the Ballades wluch descnbe hIS. condltlOll there, hauled ~ut ever~ now and then to have information extracted from hl1n by means of the Queslton Ordma.ry, a species of torture to which he makes numerous painful references. (A man 1lI1dergomg the Question was bound down ill a stretched o.ut pOSItIOn, WIth a trestle supp~r tmg hIS midd le, while one man held hIS nose to force hIm to swallow and another poul ed water 507


THE CANTUARIAN

throu~h a funnel into Ilis mouth by degrees, until he had absorbed up to nine litres . If tlus dId not makelum speak, the process was repe~ ted arter he had had time to reCoveL)

VI,"on Ic!nalllcd I.n ius ~lIngeo n all summer, until the ceremon ial passage of the new Fr ench klllg, LOllis xr, 111 October, ca used an amnesty and releasing of prisoners and thus se~ ured Villon hi s freedom by a stroke of luck once more, confirmed by a Letter of RemIssIon sIgned by LoUIs X I at Meung on October 20th. Ar~er his re!e~se from Meung, Vill ~ n avoided Paris for some time, partly because ~ertalll formaliti es necessary to fully IJlv~lidate his Letter of Remission were as yet II1 Co l~lpl ete, and partly because Ite was afraId that the authorities would arrest him for his part III the burglary ofthc coll~ge of Navarrc. He now wrote most of his Gralll Teslalllelll anoth~r burlesque Will, and IllS greatest wo rk, in which he achieved a very high stand a rd of sen o us poetry. P erhaps his Letter of Remissio n received its final confirmation early in 1462 fo ':'Ill on now J'~tllrne d to St. Benoit once !l10,re tO ,li ve with Maitre GlI illa llm~. For s~m: !lIne h~ re~n all!~d peacefu ll y at .home, filUslung hiS Grallt Testament and wri ting Ballades 111 the Jalgon ,a n ?,bstrus,e n~,lxture ?flanguages and dialects understood and used only ~y members of the Coquille ; but III November, 1462, he was o nce more impriso ned III Pan s for petty theft, a nd was on th e point of being released whe n Jehan Collet Pr?curator of the Faculty of Theology, became aware of his presence in the Chiitelei pT:lson and, remembering that his name was one of those connected by Tabarie's evidence WIth the burglary of the college of Navarre~ had him forcibly examined by mea ns of the Qu~s1IOn, and .extracted a confeSSIOn from lum. He was released on condition that Maitre Gtll ila ume. pa.d the Faculty of Theology 120 crowns at the rate of for ty per year in compel.'satJol~ for the burglary, and on the und erstanding that he wou ld retul'll to prison ,mmed ,ately If tI~e mstalments were not paid. He signed the bond and returned once more to St. BenOIt. L~ter in November, 1462, Villon was once mo re ill trouble, tllis time tlHough no fa ult of hiS own., a~d was ?l1Ce more flunÂĽ into prison under a sentence of death which was, at least thiS ti!ne, lI l~lI S t. One e~enlllg he an~ two co mpanions Illet for supper at the ho use of Robm D~gl s, a n acq ~ a lllta nce of Vllio n's of wllO m nothing is k,lown. The o thel two wele Hutlll du M ousller, a Sergeant go ne to the bad and Roger Pichart who caused all tile troubl e later on that evenin g, alld is known to h~ve been ha nged in '1465. After supper the foul' men d eCIded to go d?,:"n the road together to Master Guillaume's ho~ se, and o n. the way they passed the wntlllg-s ho p of Fra nl'ois Ferrebourg, a notable cltl ze!1 of Par~s! wher~ they saw, throllg,h the open window, a number of clerks industn ously wntmg. P,chart started ta un tmg them through the window and finally spat a t them, wh~reupon the~ rushed o ut and a brawl began in the street. Soon the clerks got hold of Hutm du M oustler and dr~~ged hIm mto the shop, despite his cries of " Murder ! They are kllhng me! I am dead! At tlus pomt Ferrebourg himself came out of the shop and pushed D ogis with such force that he fell to the ground . Piehart fled and Dogis, scra ~nbiln!l to h~s feet, and slashmg Ferrebourg with his dagger, followed him, and after repnma ndlllg hIm went home to bed, only to be roused aga in by the police shortly afte rwards and to be taken to prison, where. he spent the next year. Picha rt claimed the. sa n~tuary of a CllUrch, but was arrested Just the same and also served a long term of IInpmonment. Vlllon, who had had no part in the brawl, had fled as SOon as he sens~d da ngel', but unfortunately Ferrebourg, who knew his bad record, caught a glimpse of hlln dlsappearm g, a nd sent the poilce round to cut his night's sleep short too The Law had ils ha nds on Villo ll once again, and had by now seen enough of him. .

'Q8


tHE CANTUA RIAN

The Criminal Lieutenant at thc Chatelet applied tile usual Questi on to makc Itim talk, but presum a bly go t li ttle o ut of him, as there was little for him to say. But the Pr?~ost

of Paris, Villicrs de l'Isle-Adam, saw no reason why he sho uld not sentence an Incornglble rogue to death, and did so. Once more Villon lay in a cell meditating under the shadow of the gallows. The Ballade o/Ihe Hanged, in which I,e describes the horrible sight of disintegrating bodies on a gibbet, seeing himself as one of them, seems to have been written at this time. Soon he was moved to the condemned cell of the Conciergerie in the Palais and, awakened from Itis meditatio ns, he appealed to Parliame nt against the il\iustice of his sentence. On~e more he was lucky, and on Ja nuary 3rd, 1463, the death sentence was annulled but, III vIew of Ius bad character, he was balllshed from Pa n s for ten years. The prospect of ten years' exile was no thing now that his life was spared , and his shouts of joy have been preserved in a Ballade. H e made one more appea lto have tluee days' grace before his se ntence took effect, and tltis also was granled. Villon then duly departed from Pa ris and from Itistory in the early days of 1463. He was by now only thirty-one, but it is unlikely he lived much longer- there is evidence in his poems that he was prematurely aged a nd may well have suffered from cons umption and other diseases. His traditional date of deatll is 1484, but there is no evidence to suggest that he lived so long. Besides, if he had, we wo uld probably have found some traces of his actions and whereabo uts similar to those that enable us to draw the picture of his life up to the beginning of 1463, a life that inspired some of the very greatest of French poetry. INTBRIM .

THE MONITOR'S DANCE Tuesday, June 12th, was a day marked o ut for enjoyment by those who were privileged to attend this dance, and our great expectations were amply fulfilled. Our guests for the evening were forty of the senior girls from Benenden School, and 1 think I speak for all if 1 say that seldom have we met so many charming girls in such a short space of time. Short it indeed was-for we had to end at I I p.m. after a 7.30 p.m. start- in fact the preparations took nea rly as long as the act ual da nce. During the afternoo n the Dining Hall was completely transformed. The tables were dismantled and, with the benches, were moved into the adjacent classrooms, one or two to ps and benches being used to for m a platform for the Band half-way down the H all between the two entra nces. Then a carpet was laid below the Gallery, a nd armchairs and sofas from a ll over the School were arranged on it, with card-tables and chairs down each side of the Hall. The coloured lights were brought out, and Mrs. Shirley produced some bea utiful floral decorations on the dais, on which was spread a sumptuo us buffet supper. Our thanks are due to M r. C urtis, without whose help all this would have been a much longer task. The H a ll ready, there was just time to prepare ourselves before our guests arrived in two coaches, Wllich brought a host of faces to the windows of the Mint Ya rd. Not the usual homeconting cricket team this I Having given them the o pportunity to make minor repairs aftcr their journey, we went o n to thc H all, where the M.C., Eddie Newport, a nd his n and soon got us onto the fioo r, and kept us busy with a fine selection of dances

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excellently played throughout the evening. The ollly time the floor was at all deserted was when they struck up a Samba, and then we had a first class piece of demonstration dancing, extempore of course, by the two Captains of School! ( t was by no means a cool evening, .50 everyo ne was glad of this o pportunity of a rest, althougll tile numbers were so well Judged that thc Hall never became oppressive or crowded. It would not have been the "real thing" of course without the photographers to take shots of gro ups or couples "enjoying a joke", and so every now and then one was startled by a vivid flash and a triumphant "thank you" as the photographer moved On to his next victim. A few of the yo unger masters and their wives had been invited to help to entertain the few mistresses from Benenden, but as it turned out in several cases this was not necessary. In fact some were so yo ung ill appearance, if not in years that many embarrassing questio ns were put to them, such as "Have you take '0' Levei

yet?" or "When arc yo u leaving?" !! However, we hope that they considered themselves flattered rather than insul ted . The supper interval was taken at 9 p.m., and I,ere we must congratulate Miss Spiess and her kitchen staff for the superb buffet that was provided, and for taking the risk of putting the Dining Hall at o ur disposal for the occasion. It really was magnificently done and the couples certainly seemed to be moving more slowly afterwards. Some wh~ considered the interval to be for the taking of air rather than food were observcd to be acting on this impulse in several of the least airy corners of ti,e Precincts, but the Hall gradually filled again once the dancing was heard to have begun. So we continued, as the darkness fell outside, making the most of what by any standards was a wonderful evening. As the time crept on to eleven o'clock, the Last Waltz was announced and the National Anthem sung, and the couples slowly drifted in most cases towards the coaches. The leave-taking took some time, for they were apparently as loath to leave as we were to let them go. Once more the faces appea red at the Mint Yard windows, and one was only prevented from feeling sorry for those who had not been there by the thought that they would after all be here next year, and that, as everything had been such a success, there could hardly fail to be a return fixture for them then and, we hope, a regular arrangement for successive generations.

When they had left, we had to clear the Dining Hall once more, and replace the tables, etc., which was rather like doing one of tllOse infuriating jig-saw puzzles in which none of the pieces seem to be quite the right shape or size. However, we got it right in the end, and laid up breakfast for the School, by which time there was not much left of the night. But, in the words that Homer puts into the moutl1 of the Greeks before Troy when Helen appears on the walls, "By Jove, it was worth it!". This would hardly be complete, though, without a reminder to those who may enjoy just such another evening in years to come, that it will be to this Dance-the first of the line-that they will owe their pleasure, and therefore in great measure to Janice Davison and Roger Snell, the Captains of the two Schools, by virtue of whose initiative and industry our evening was so enjoyable-as much to our guests, we trust, as to us. It is not only a precedent that has been set, but also a standard which must be maintained and surpassed, if possible, in future. And so we say "thank you" to the girls of Benenden for being such ideal guests, and to their Headmistress and our Headmaster for allowing this to take place. Long may it continue ! 510


T H E CANTUAR IAN

CARDINAL POLE AND THE ALMONRY Tn the last issue of The Con/uarian a transcript of a letter concerni ng Thomas Lil~acre was published. By mistake, however, a photograpll of another document was prlnied with it, and a transcript of this latter document now follows. At tile Dissolution of the monastery, Henry VIII kept the almonry and the adjoining buildings for himself and established a mi~t there, separating them from the pr?p~rty of the newl y establislled Dean and Chapter III recoglllholl of the fact that thes~ bUlldlllgs had been in the later Middle Ages almost a separate monastIc house from Christ Church. It was this mint which gave the name to the present Mint Yard . In June, 1557, the buddings were granted by Philip and Mary to Cardinal Pol... Pole's will (in Somerset House, Reg. Welles f. 14) is not d~talled , bl!t SImply ap~OIn ts ~ne AIOISIllS Prluh to be h,s executor. Presumably Prluh had receIved pflvate IIlstructlOns. But he apparently dId not fu lly carry out Ilis commission, for in the margin of Pole's will it is stated that Katherine, Countess of Huntingdon, Pole's nea rest relation, had carned th<:? wli l out fol' him in Priuli's default. One of the few exceptions to this 1 appears to be WIth regard to these buildings, which he conveyed to th~ Dean and Cllapter "fOl: the sole purpose and intention that they should find and mallltalll therem a SCllOOI, m whIch .boys s ho~ld receive instruction in good learning (ill bOllis litteris inslituendis)". Th,s quotahon comes from Gostling's Walk' via Woodruff a~d Cape's ':'istory of the School'. Presumably Gostling had seen the relevant entry III the RegIsters of the Chapter. But the Registers for the date concerned are fragmentary, and a search among them, though not conclusive, has not yielded the relevant entry. The transcr ipt here printed is ti,e grant of the almonry by Philip and Mary to Card i n~1 Pole in 1557, MS.C.190 in the Cathedral Library. As before stated, a photograph of.'t was published in our last issue, and it will be seen from tillS that there IS a clfcular hole III the manuscript, here represented by sq uare brackets. B.K ..T. 1.

Allen in his edit io n of Erasmus' letters (Oxford, 1947), App. XXVIU, ment io ns another ~xccPti<?n. a collection of 18 books which Priuli bestowed on New C;ollege, O~rord, where they s~1 11 rem~:Ut!, This collect ion had belonged to Christopher de L onguell (Longolllls) and had come mto Pole s ha nds from him ,

2. 3.

i 825 ed., p. i82 n. 2. p.67.

PHILIPPUS ET MARIA DEl gracia rex et regina Anglie Hispaniarum Francie vtriusque Sicilie Jerusalem' et Hiberni~ fid ei defensores archiduces Austne duces Burgundie Mediolani et Brabancie comItes Has purgl Flandne et Tlfohs OMNlBUS ad quos presentes littere peruenerint salutem. SCIATIS ql!od '!OS ad pehcl~nc m et requisicionem reuercndissimi in Christo patr~s ac prec.hansslml consangu ll~e1 nost!' Reginaldi miseracione diuina ti,tul~ Sal1?te Manc ~os.l11cdllll ~at~ct~ Rom.al:cllsIS e,ccleslc presbiteri cardinalis Poli archlcplSCOPI Cantuane!'sls sa nctl~s lml domlll} nostr~ pa l~e et sedis apostolice ad nos prefatum rcgcm ct rcgln a n~ ct vJ11u?rsa Anghe et. H,lbcfllIC regna nostra et partes i1las ad i ac~ntes ?e latere legall de grac," nostra spec," h ac c.x certa sciencia ct mero motu nostns dedimus ct COl1cesSlmus ac per presentes pro nobiS hcredibus et successoribus nostrum prefate regine damus e~ conc~dimus pre~a to reuerendissimo patri et cOllsanguineo nostr? totam. illam dom,um SlUe caplt~le mesuaglUJ~l cum pertinenciis sciluatum iacens et eXlstens mfra procmctum ecclesle cathedrahs


THE CANTUARIAN

Cantuariensis in ciuitate nastra Cantuariensi officio clemozinaric ej usdem ecclesie quon~ dam spectans et pertinens. Tn qua quidem domo qued3tl1 minta regia pro clInagio vsitata fuit. Ac eciam omnia domos cdificia structuras camera s cella ria solaria coquina [Sic] gard ina fontes introitus exitus vacua runda lez courtes ae terras et solum ae easiamenta commodita tes ct hereditamcnta nastra qucclImquc infra SCilulll circui tu rn et procinctum

diete domus siuc capitalis mesliagii cxistencia ae dicto nupcl' officio elemozinarie ecclesie predicte dudum spectancia et pertinencia. QUE QUiDEM domus et capitale mesuagiurn ae omn ia prcdicta domus cdificia strllctura gardina He cetera omnia premissa Cum pertincnciis vnacum vac uis terris circ uitn et quanti tate carundem continent in toto per

estimacionem circiter vnam acram terre. HABENDUM TENENDUM ET GAUDENDUM predictam domlllll siue capita lc mes llagillm ac predicta domos cdificia strllcturas gal'dina ac cetera omnia et singula premissa cum corUIll pel't incnci is vniuersis prefato reuerendissim o patri Rcginald o cardinali Polo hcredibu s et ass ignatis suis imperpetuum , TENENDUM de nobis ac de heredibus et successoribus nostrum prerate regine vt de manerio 110stl'0 de Est Grenewiche in comitatu nostro Kanc' per fid elitatem tantum in libero socagio et non in capite pro omn ibus redditibus seruiciis et demand is quibuscumque proinde nobis heredibus vel S(lccessoribus nostrum dicte regine quoquo modo reddendis soluendis vel raciendis. ET VLTER I US de am pliori gracia nostra dedimus et concessi[mus pJer presentes pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nostrum prerate regine damus et conccdimus prerato rcuerend issimo patri Reginaldo cardinali Polo predictam d[omum siue] capitale mesuagiul11 ac cetera omn ia et singula premissa cum pertinenciis adeo plene libere et integre ac in tam amplis modo et forma prout vltimus elemozinarius dic[te ecele]sie cathed ralis Cantuariensis aut aliquis vel aliqui predecessorum suorum predictam domum et capitate mesuagium ac cetera omnia et singula premissa antehac habens seu occupans habentes seu occupantes eadem aut aliquam inde parcellam vnquam habuerunt tenuerunt vel ga uisi ruerunt habuit tenuit vel ga uisus ruit seu habere tenere vel ga udere debuerunt aut debuit et adeo plene Iibere et integre ae in tam amplis modo et forma prout ea omnia et singula premissa cum pertineneiis ad manus nostras seu ad manus preeharissimi patris nostri prefate regine Henrici oetaui nuper regis Anglie seu ad manus precharissimi fratis nostrum prefate regine Edwardi sexti Huper regis Anglie deuenerunt sell deuenire debuerunt ac in manjbus nostds iam existunt sell existere de bent vel cleberent qlloeumque lega li modo iure sell titulo. EO QUOD EXPRESSA mencio de vero valore ann llO a ut de certitudine premissorulll ,siue eorum alicuius aut cle ali is donis siue concessionibus per nos vel per aliquem progenitorull1 nostrorum cliete regine prefato reuerenclissimo patri Reginaldo card inali Polo ante hec tempora facta ill presentibus minime facta existit. Aut a/iquo statuto aetu ordinacione prouisione seu restriccione inde incontrarium facto edito ordinato siue proviso aut aliqua alia re c..'1usa vel materia qU3cumque in aliquo non obstante, IN CU I US R EI testimonium has litteras noslras fieri fecimus patentes TESTIBUS nobis ipsis apud Westmonasterium quartodecimo die Jun ii annis regnorum nostrorum tercio et quarto. per breue de priuato sigillo et de data predicta auctoritate parliamenti. MARTEN. Et per W, Wassheborne dcputalllll1 I-Iumfridi Hawfelde,

512

7


7

tHE C AN TUA RiAN

OXFORD LETTER Oxrord.

June 19111, 1956. Dear School, The Summer Term has just ended, disappoin ti ngly.. in a Hurry o!' ra,in. A numbe... of cople, subdued and conscious tilat now the term I~ over there IS tllne to do thmgs ~I'operly, have, as always, stayed uP, to row or to wntc exams, Most have ~one dowl~ ~ontent. There can, indeed, be few thmgs more pleasa nt than the slimmer,term elt Oxfor~ , ror eight rull wee ks, when lectures seem to now at." low ebb (on~ doesn treally know Ir they do 0 1' not) and, th~ average tutor seel~1 s less. m~e llse, t her~ IS a mul~l~ude ~f be~t~ 1 thi ngs to do- standlllg III the stln a l~d talkmg, dnnklllg coffee 111 the n~ollll l~~ or b,ecl 111 the evening, playing tennis or wastlllg ho urs .oil the Cherwell, watchlllg cllcket In the Parks or eating tea on ti,e College law ns, gO Il~g to the numer~ us College plays, lnosl under the open sky, and after the end of term, If one 1S nch! gOlllg to Comm,emol at~on Ball s. For those in their last yea r and taking Schools tI~ese tllIngs, much to tllelC s urp ns~, take on a new a pparent superficial ity, but the temptatIOn to be Idle IS still stron~ . TillS is U,e Oxford one reads about; leisurely, lazy, and very bea ull rul. The lazmess !S ,:,ften exaggerated, but not tile beauty. There is 1~le.nty or this apart rrom the bUlldm~s : cherry blossom in the rront quadrangle at Tnmty, wIld flowers and deer park fl ank mg Addison's Walk at Magdalen, the sheet of buttercups and the cows that make the Me'tdows look almost like a piece out or a Constable, the lawns and the hlacs 111 St. Joh'n's or the copper beech at Wadham. Thinking back on the term that pas~es so quickly, one retains a ju mble or memories or events grave and gay, but all mextncably conrused with memories of the bustle and beauty of the pla~e. Events and s urroundl~gs are combined, and that, no doubt, is one thing that Oxrord gIves to everybod~, and w~lCh will come to mean rar more than the B.A. hood and gow n to whIch one offiCIally aspIres. It is not always very easy to see how exactl y O. K.S. fit into the pattern of Oxford life. When asked to spea k ab?ut themselves s~ th~,t thc~'~ may be an 5>xfof.d lettel to wnte, they mutter a bout "coxmg the sec~ nd eIght . or hockey to.ur , which o.nly helps a little. One cannot tell, ror instance, Just how rar tl,elr occupatIOns are unprmtable. On the whole, people agree that we are very nic~ people, very fnendly, some of us a bIt mad, and altllough not many of us ~re over-sen ous, we all work harder than w~ pretend. Flippancy, insincerity, aesthetICIsm, fortunately, ~~em foreIgn to us; ObVlOUS IS , ~ deteImination lIot to be the sort or people who ro nn Jolly Old School get-to~ether - most us, in ract, of are rather proud of coming half-way between hard-workmg bores and useless poseurs. After this complacent selr-estimation, you no doubt want some informati,?n, Malcolm Lambert was very unhappy at being trapped at last b~ "the p~ess". After t~!dng a H IStory First, he went down ror a year and then came up agal~ to wnte a theSIS on . The Development or the Doctrine or the Abolute Poverty of Chnst and the Apostles III the 13th and 14th Centuries", on which he has now done two years. At pr~~ent he IS working atSt. Deiniol's Library at H awarden, "at the reet of Mr. G ladstonc. (literally, ror there I~ a big sta tue or the G.O.M . there). H e makes bncf appearances m TnlUt~, and IS w?rned by the ind ustry of all the other people dOlllg theses (1I1d apparently WOI klllg much 1""dOl , "po unding in Bodley", SJ3


â&#x20AC;˘ T HE CANTtJARiAN

Others have now been overtaken by Schools. In Teddy H all , D erek Tymms John Foster, Hans Smith, Ian Fowler a nd Mike H er bert a like suffered this fa te. Mike h;s been playing a lillie cricket and has been clected to Vincen t's. Jeremy Davies now lives in Nor th instead of So uth Oxford and a pparentl y looks dazed whenever he comes into college. John Plu ll ips, of co urse, has been bowling fo r thc U ni versity (a t cricket not bowls) and is a Vi ncent ; T revor N icolson a nd John D avies have Prelims. Stephen Yo ung says that he has punted once and played cricket once, a nd is "gently running to keep fit", John Porter sits o n the committee o f "Cri me-a Challenge" and has been " propelling Ca mbridge punts fro m the Oxford end " . T ile mealu ng of thls pllrase is not quite clear. Camb rid ge punt fro m tile wrong end of thc boat (they stand on the Iligh bIt- presuma bly It looks more dashlllg), so perhaps It means he has been on the Backs recentl y. All these, and probably more, arc in St. Edm und Hall. T rinity is a nother O .K.S. hostel. We see quite a lot of Derek K irsch, who is really in LlIlcoln but who comes III to play DaVId Moor's records or drm k Tony Jenkins' coffee ' sometimes, in fact, it all rather reminds one of M.O. in break time. Derek and J~ Capurro successfull y led a combined L incoln-Magda len hockey team on tour last vacation. Jo has taken Schools; Derek was ex pelled from Ius digs for putting Bob Richardson up for the night; is Captain of Lincoln H ockey ; took a punt out on May morning which rammed another punt which was full of abusive Frenchmen, and which apparen tly, sank witil a ll ha nds. Trinity O.K .S. display energy : David Moor ha; 1}layed several games of cricket for the U ,liversity, Tony Jenkins is H ockey Sec. fo r next year. Jack H oare (also Vincent's) has a challce of a Rugger Blue next term Nick Payne (with his laurels fres h abo ut lu m), Jack ~awsey and B~b Thomas all ro':' very hard . Bob shU leads a fl ounslu ng Latm-Amen can band . Richard Dewhurst denies what was said of Ilim in the last letter; he has never fallen off a punt, although he was once left hanging on a branch, "backside in wa ter", screaming. John Macmillan and Dav~d Cliftare also in the college. John is tryin/? to decide between tobacco and running, li nd IS at thIS moment renewll1g acquamtance wIth subfuse and exanuners to pick up the pieces of Prelims he left behind las t term. Bob Wayte, after a long course here has fin ished, and his eheerfu lness will be greatly nUssed ; we a ll wish him every su~eess. T he rest of the O.K.S. are more thinly scattered . John Gi mblett represents Jesus, has coxed on Isis a nd rowed on Thames, has aeted in the college play and is r unning an O. U. Celtic Society, wluch held a dinner a t D orchester recently, complete with Druid. I n thc H ouse, Julia n Bell strokes the 1st Vlll , Simon Freebairn-Smith keeps the Boat Clu b money, Stephen Burbridge wo n the Bullock C up fo r golf (inter-college fo ursomes). l ohn Ingleton in Hertfo rd works, walks, theatre goes and is secretary of the college Musical Society, which charms punters with madrigals. He hopes to live in the Cathedral Library fo r a few days this vaca tion. Memo Spathis of Exeter is taking his M.D. and when asked for news mu ttered something incomprehensible a bout Argentina and BelgIan Countesses. Peter Dawson is at Corpus, delving delightedly into the Middle Ages and holdi ng suppers on the river. Tony H oare (Merton) fla unts a n enormous beard ; otherwise his silence and unobtrusiveness indicates proba ble academic toil. Don Taylor rows at Queen's. In Magdalen, Jim Allen has been pursuing (as a mere sideline) 1-1 ungarian studies. He once tried takin g Ius tuba with Ilim on a punt, but in going to the aid of certain maidens in distress, lost the mOllth-piece in the water and was surprised that nobody was sym pathetic. He was hoping to attend the Magda len Com mem. clad as "A. J. P. Taylor 514


â&#x20AC;˘ THE C ANTUARIAN

in peasant costume". Bruce H~att , who has just fi nis hed History at St. J ohn:s, is probably goi ng to teach for a willie. He has ex l.u blted sOl.ne mo~e pmn tll1gs 111 Oxford . Recentl y one of Ilis best canvasses was blown II1tO the TIber will ie he was tryll1g to fish out h.is hat, which had blown in just previo usly. Dav id Edwa rds has been in and out of Oxford. M r. Walker, well-known to K.S. as Clerk of the Works now li ves at Merton and appears at St. Mary's at the week-ends. Mr. A . B. Emden '(Govern or of the School and ex- Prillci pa l of St. Ed mu nd Hall) occasionall y entertains O.K.S. to tea in his delightful cottage in Old Headington. Before we wish the School the best of luck for the rest of term a nd the co ming yea r, and depart to cricket tours, work, "vacation employment", co nt i n~nta l ho!idays, Army or the wide world there is one story to tell. Ba rry Lock has clunbed IIlto college. He came back late ~ it h a fri end from a legal dinner in London, complete with pin-stripes, bowler watc h-ehaill and pearl tie-pin, and was faced by Longwall with its bes pi kcd lamp-l;ostS. The friend went over first and got something ,to s t~nd Oil, and with much

pushing and panting, Barry surm ounted and descended

111

safety. It took an h Ollr. Yours sincerely, O.K.S. OXON .

CAMBRIDGE LETTER Dear School, The O.K.S. as such arc not very gregario us ill Cambridge, and so what yo ur correspondent has to say must not, be rea? a~ ~e p rese nta ti vc but merely as what has come to his ears by hearsay, observatIon or IIltulhon. However hard many people attempt to disclaim it, the term has been one of work, crowning or catching up with the year's labours, leading ~o.r one and all to the exa m i ,~­ ations and triposes. Tile resul ts cover two enormous editIOns of Tile Reporfer, and It has proved imposs ible to discover everyone's names, but onc hopes that does not mean they are not there, for the completely unsuccessfu l a rc not listed . Richard Roberts is alone in the glory of a F lfst; for tlle rest, we a re evenly dlstnbuted througll the classes. We remember our contempt a t SCllOOI for the scarcity of Firsts among the O .K.S. ; but we are reassured by seeing the massed names of the Seconds and Thirds below the very Ulin line of the F irsts. Statistically, it is almost easier for a scholarship candidate to get a Major that it is to get a First; no doubt the Major Scholars with Thi rds wo uld support this thesis. Away from the desk, the O.K .S. row a great deal. Richard Roberts and John Ca~s idy were in the bows of the Jesus May Boat whIch rema llled Head, and D aV Id Gnmth (w ho got a Second in Es tate Manage ment) w~s in their Fourtll Boat. Martin Chaw~ler helped Sidney Sussex in a ve ry successful sen es of races : Bnan McCleery was rowlllg for St. Catharine'S, TOllY Halsey for King's, and Fred No~to!, (who got a Two-One III Theology after changing from Maths.) s ~roked Corpus Chnsll Ru gger E,ght. At Cla re, Peter Moss rowed bow in the Second EIght and made one blimp, a nd later subslltuted ilt very short noticed in a coxless four wlu ch he steered into a big post at Marl ow the night


THE CANTUARJAN

before the Regatta: the post suffered most and burst into flames. To complete the picture, Dr. West was to be seen at the Bump Supper of Clarc B.C. (of wh ich he is Senior Treasurer), an oasis of civilisation discliss ing '!flailing/or Godol and Christopher Fry in the midst of the barbarian throng. Tn the more artistic spheres, a choirboy in the Ely hotel was heard discussing the beauties of Bernard Cass idy's voice- Ile sings in the Cathedra l choir thcre. (He was overheard by Pctcr Moss, resting wea ril y after wa lking from Ca mbridgc alo ng the towpath; he thought it was going to be abo ut 9 miles ; it was 18. It was Sunday and he was wea ring his best suit and must have been quite a comic sight.) Bill Eustace, Malcolm Bu rgess and N ick Ra me have a ll had a fin ger in the Footlights pic, not ror the first time 11 0 1', we hope, the last. Malcolm's scenery still graces a London stage in Fresh Airs. N ick is now engaged and we offer him our congratu lations. Ronnie H oare has been at the tai lor's; his appearance is so cha nged that we no longer

recognize his well-k nown feat ures in the street. Perhaps it was all in prepa ration fo r the party he and Barry Sa lmon gave at the Union Cellars, n place by no means as sord id as it sounds . But all these matters are very ephemeral compa red with the departure from Cambridge of Dr. Telfer, the undisputed doyen or the O. K.S. here, and onc of the most loved a nd respected of all Cambridge dons. At different times Dean of Clare and Ely Professor and latterly Mastcr of Selwyn, Dr. Telfer has now retired from academic life, and will leave us vcry much the poorcr for his going. There are no other changes that we know of among the other senior resident O.K .S. Dr. Budd still presides as ever at Scroope TerracC'. To hiln we owe belated thanks for his most genero us hospitality to us last October. We have mentioned but half o ur numbcr, and not necessarily the best half. We do not all row, act in the Footlights, walk to Ely or gel Firsts; but we arc all too busy to see much of one another, and that- apart from the la ziness of the scribe-accounts for the paucity of information. Your older but not so very much wiser friends, T Hr. O.K.S. CANTAB.


THE CANTtJAR1AN

TWO FISHY POEMS SOCIAL CONSCIENCE For whom scolla ps and cockle shells? She who buys them here, Where Conway's castle chimes her bells, Will fear The ithbeat vibrating from the fells Where thc worm, coi ling her spells, Spells doom to supper-Iordlings floating Down the weir. Hi-ho tllem ! Let tl,em pass With clamour or fl uting Shall and silent grey; amass Carp-hallow StOIlCS; fisllmen looting The strong shore for Cromer bass And eels, sold to the lorry's tooting Transport, a nd the hells, alas, Where cocklcs cat 110 grass.

FOR SALE! FislllTIOilger's harvest from beyond the seas ; Fish from the painted poop plop on the slab; Sculed fish, patient wi th protected fleas, Shi mmer and gleam and shine; and awkward Crab sprawls all the mar ble, fea sting the curious eye. Splints of blood ooze rrom tile eyes ; Wings of the rarest, gold-dust water-fly ; Flesh of the rarest, clean-cut, flesh-thIck; Scale-slide phosphorescence; trick Of fabulou s god's eye. Prize Open a shell; crab-ftesh, crab-wise; H esperides death-knell Where fins pushed water; fell Wall of water betraying to air- hell . CAVIAR

517


4

BOOK REVIEWS Tlte English Sense of HIIIIIOlir lIlId Olher Essays. By Harold Nicholson. (Constable. 1956, 15/-) At a lime when b<lld and iII-wriuen analysis increasingly comes 10 take the place of belles Icures there is greal relief in finding yet further elegance and ~i.sc llrsi ven css .from this urbane pen. The measure of the relief is indicative of how the craft of ess<1y-wntmg has declmed over the past two decades, from the leisured l>CilCC of the Lollcioll Mercury through the complex hysteria o f Horizol/ until we now watch in

unbelief as loa many Titans struggle in the last ditch of the reviews to resist the fumbling advances of the yOllng. It is good that some ha ve kept clear of bedlam ~md, endowed with all the virtucs of the k alo!ikagtllhol', have been able not on ly to read carefu lly but to think orderly thoughts. In the richncss of the offerings it is the title-essay which demonstrates the great strength of the old method. Quotut ion , criticism and suggest ion arc mingled with that humility and a loofn ess which makes a ll wri ting good; conclusions are approached so qu ietly !hut the reader ca nnot but agree with and, at the samc ti me, wonder at thelll . But there arc also, fortullutel y almost insignifica nt . weak nesses. Sir Harold takes as his main ass umpt ion that sense of humour is not essen tia lly d isparate from cxpression o f humour nnd this. however useflli .md necessary as an idc<l for the j udging o f ea rlier periods, might seem not a lways to fit. Jt can be argued tlmt the Illesh of mean ing cven in wit bccomes more lax when lhe words are deprived o f the context which the persona lity of the hum orist provides. If th is is so, communicat ion in humour is as much susceptiblc to commonsense analysis as arc more sober utterances, perhaps even morc so in that the clement of leisure a nd of fantasy wou ld appear to be conditions more necessary for the creation and significance of a joke than for workaday spcech. Fortunately for us. Sir Harold loses little in the absence of such admittedly bloodless analysis except, possibly, an appreciation of the totally cerebm l and nonsensical humou r of such as Ronald Firbank and even of such li ving writers as Saliger de Vries, Sulliva n .md other transatlantic wits with an authentic Englishness in their madness. For i~ the quiet exnmination of a demented social order only .1 minute scrutiny of completely imagined personalities allows us to find the meaning of ca lculated inanity. But 10 wish that Sir Harold had gone further is on ly to indicate a gratitude for what we have. Writing of Alexander the Great, Sir Harold comes ncarer to the present-day style. Taken out of literature and laid on the cOllch, the hero reveals that much of his grcatness sIems from superst ition and from the spasmodic dri ve of a Jocilsta complex; if so much else has been said il may be that this alone now remains to be told. Of the ot her essays it is enough 10 say that Hesiod wins his due, th.ll the appetitive instincts o f the hypochondriac Romant ics arc relegated to their proper obscurity and that in biography, whether in the round or in abstract, Sir Harold's clarity and unfaltering louch find thei r most rewarding field. Ca n we, when faced with s uch wealth as this. be anything o ther than gruteful that the essayist himself has the gi ft he 1110st pl'izcs in ot hers, that sense of values withou t which all is bound to be unconvincing? J .G.O.

Sill'er. Dy Gerald Taylor (O.K.S.). (Pelica n Dooks. lllustrated 5/-) Mr. Taylor, who is Assistant Keeper at the Ashmolean, has attempted to cover a vast su bject â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘mel he has carried out his task admirably apart from an insufficient study of Victorian and later plate. The book, after a slightly laboured introduction, commences wit h some excellent chapters on early plate, and his treatment of Elizabethan silver onJy makes me wish that we had access to Elizabeth's gifts to the CZ.1rs which are now in the Kremlin, or at least that these might be loaned 10 England for a period. The idea of dividing a chapter up into sect io ns is most appealing, particularly where a separate section is devoted to style and ornament, for this will great ly help the beginner to date the piece approximately if there is no hallmark, though the Victorian habit of producing domestic silver in earlier styles can be most deceptive. Mr. Taylor also gives a most scholarly .account o f almost all the various pieces made in each epoch. There is an excellent glossary to explain the technical terms used, and straightforward drawings which expl.t in the decorative motifs far more satisfactori ly than wordy descriptions Can. The plates arc carefull y armnged, with the o rigina l idea of grouping all the cups together instead of urranging the pieces chrono logiC<lll y. This meth od shows the evolution of each from early times to the present day. The plates undoubted ly show some of the finesl examples in existence, but 1 would have liked a few pieces by the Nelme or B;:tlem;Hl families of silver smiths and 11 plate at least o n thc chinoisery style so popu lm' in the 1820's.

518


4 T H E CANTUAR IA N Mr. Taylo r has left the beginner to form his own tt!st~ an~ has been ear~flll not to dictate ~vhat he should like or dislike, and has a~hieved tl~e remarkable dl~tlllCtlOn among writers of collectors books of not . concentrati ng on any particular penod to the exclUSion of others. My two main criticisms of the book arc the lack of hints to beginners and the rather superficml study of Victorian silver. V'ctorian silver was not in ract as bad in taste as it was considered to ~ fifteen yea:s ago: indeed, sOI!,e 'ec~s arc extremely elegantly and originally designed. Although, as 111 every period, a largc quantity 'nfe;ior quality plate was produced I think it a mistake to leave this period so undiscllssed, be~ause the fi~t pieces thee average collector wi ll 'buy are Victoria n since they arc the cheapest (althou~,:h It has, as Mr. Taylor points out, risen to ÂŁ1 an ounce at Sotheby's) and the most com m~ nlY found 111 the hOl~e. Thcrc is a complete lack of hints for beginn~r~. The l~a.ll marks a.re so badl~ pnnted ~hat. ~ would advl~e all beginners to acqui re Gflide 10 Marks of Onglll 011 BnllSh alld Irish Plale It 0111 Iltt; I1Ild-s~xteelllh C~I/I/(? 10 1954, pllbl ished at 7/-, where there .ca n ?e no d?ubts as to the .shape o f t h~ shle~d fO I an~ .y.ea.1. . MI: Ta lor agai n does not men tion the VIct Orian fashio n fo r emb?sslllg <l nd addln~ ~Iests to e,u hel 'plcces wh1ch subt racts ,rgreat deal from their va lue: nor docs he mention the vast quant Ities ,?f ea rly .cotl tlllcntal )Iate, which generall y has Victoria n hallmarks and an " F" in a n ova l, pOSSIbly denotmg a pIece of 18th ~en tll ry Dutch sil ver. 1l would have been better perhaps to have left.ollt the ha lll~larks and to have devoted a chapter to trinkets and snuff boxes of the 18t h century, whIch are rathel neglected. . . This book, however, achieves its obj~ct of. forming an . introduc~ion to larger aryd more sP~cJailzed works. It is good, concise and to the pomt , Without excessive ramblllllf, so C?rylillon 11.1 collectors books. The author has set his own parti~lIlar perso!"al stamp. of clear concise wfltm g o n It .and shows great understanding of the pieces, espeCIally those III p~ssesslon o f the colleges. The resu lt IS a .b,ook worthy o f being added to the notable histories already written and sho uld be added to all collectol s bookcases. T.J.S.

Pr

Rommel's Birthday Parly. By Anthony Richardson. (Max Parrish. 8/6) Colonel Geoffrey Keyes' Commando Raid on Genera l Rommel's desert headquarters on Novem~r 14th, 194 1, is one of the best-known reats of dnring or ~he Second ,:\,orld War. ~oryll1lel was not al Ius headquarters at the time. 1n onc of thosc gestures whIch earned !1I1ll respect fO I Ius human as well t!s for his military qualities among foes as well as friend s, he placed hiS own Iron C ross on the br~ast o:f IllS dead oppon~nt in'tribute to the courage of this ent erprise. Keyes' own country honoured 111m with a posthulllous V.C. Less well-known is the story of the prepara tions fo r this raid. T hese w<?rc mac!e by Joh n H aselclory , O.K.S. He had spent man y weeks living alllong.the Senussi Arabs, lea rmng theIr language .a nd thel.r custOIllS an d their ways of th in king. They called him Has el qen, the .Crownlcss Onc of the Gebel Ak hbal, (l nci loo kcd up to h im wit h awe and. re~pect: NOlle w~rsl\lpped hIl1l.1ll0r~ deyollt.ly than Aluned: the 14- ca r-old son of a d isplaced Senuss l chiefta lll . Ahmed s homo:on , which Ilc\d hlt!lello been bou nded by qll~TelS between the local Arab clan s, was suddenly enlargcd by his encOt.lIlter Wit h I-I ~seldon. T~le ~~y acted ns a gu ide ror the Comma ndos over the tracks that led across the h tll s overlookmg Bcda LlltOII~, ~vhere'R~mlllel had his headquarters. An thony Richardson tells Haseldon's story .Iar~elr from Ahmed s angle. Perhaps this accounts f~r the .ill1lll<llUrity of the literary style o f a book which IS III o ther respects a good account of a stirring epIsode III the desert war. R.K.B.

THE LTBRARY Thc Libra ry has acquired by gift o r purchase nearly 200 books thi~ tcrn~, and we acknowledge with ratilude gi'ns rrom the following:-S ir T heodorc Adams. Vice~Adnllral S1I' Fm nk Mason, the l-I ead~,asters' Conference, the Shell Com pany, Messrs. Anthony RichHrdso ll , John SCOll, G erald T~ylo r. Mrs. Oliver North , the Headmaster, (lnd Messrs. R. K. Diumcnau and D . R. Law lcncc. P . C â&#x20AC;˘ V , LnW less ,


THE CANTUARIAN

THE SCHOOL CHOIR Once more we reach the end of another school year, and it is now the appropriate time to applaud the good work done by the Choir during the past year. It must undoubtedly be agreed that the Choir has worked extremely hard, and their results have shown that their efforts have not been in vain. Attend. ance at rehearsals has been very good throughout the year, especially during this past very difficult Summer Term. We arc now greater in number than 1 can ever remember in the past, which speaks for the admirable keenness shown by everyone. A very high standard of performance has been maintained throughout the year, and we have su ng two an thems a lmost every Sunday without exception. Many of those anthems have been very difficult too, but J think all have been rehearsed to a finish wh ich no choir would be ashamed of and muny wou ld have been pleased at. The accomplishment of the School Choir over this year is, of course, grea tly due to the expert guidance of Ollr choirmaster, Mr. Edred Wright , without whom litt le wou ld have been possible. To him we owe our si ncere thanks for enabling us to give wort hier renderings of praise and thanksgiving to God through OUI' anthems in a li I' services. This last Sum mel' Term. the Choir has learnt several new anthems. There are a few which I think deserve a special mention in th is brief article. Fi rstly the introducti on of God is gOlle liP. by Gerald Finzi a fin e rOllsing modern anthem first performed at the St. Ceci lia's Festiva l in 195 1. Secondly. probably o ne o f the most beauti ful anthems of the term was Ye IIOW are sorrow/III, from Brahms' R equiem. The solo part was sung most beautifully by J. Sharp. What a joy it was to hear the pure so und of a boy's voice sllstaining this solo part. I believe 0 Worship the Lord. by John Travers, another anthem new to the School this term, which starts with a lovely passage for the treblcs alone and continucs with a robust duet between the tenors and basses, finishing with full cho rus, was much enjoyed. Finally, two pieces from Elijah, by Mendelssohn, 0 come, ellery olle tha//hirs/elh and H e lIIa /chillg over Israel, made two very beautiful anthems and were sung by the Choir with the sereneness each demands, and with the wonderful flowing movement Mendelssohn obviously intended \Yhen writing them. Wc look forward to another very successful year starting next term.

M.D. ANTHEMS SUNG BY THE SCHOOL CHOIR DURING THE PAST TERM God is gone up (Finz;) Lift lip your heads (Bach) H oly, Holy. Holy (Grelcha"ino/f) Holy, Ho ly, H oly (Tschaikowsky) Praise to God (Campbell) Yo now are sorrowfu l (Brallllls) Lead mc, Lord (We.\'1ey) o worship the Lord (Travers) o taste and see (Vaughan Williams) Give us the wings of faith (Bullock)

Lord, for Thy Tender Mercie's Sake (Hilton) Let all the world (Chapman) Jesll, Word of God (Mozan) o come. ye Servants of the Lord (1)Ie) o come, everyone that thirsteth (Mel/delssohn) o for a cl oser walk with God (Swn/ord) Blessed Jesu ( Dvorak) G lo riolls is T hy Name (Mozart) He watching over Israel (Mendelssohn)

THE SCHOOL ROLL Corrigendum School Roll, 1602-03 (Cal1/uarial1, December, 1954). Amend to show that I. Colre and C. Grove were at School at Michaelmas.

1604¡1605 These namcs of scholars are taken from the fair cop~ of the Chapter Accounts (Misc., Post-Reformation, Treasurer, No. 13). The H eadmaster and Usher arc given as Roger Raven a nd Rufus Rogers respectively.

B.l.K. ~20


'tHE CANtUARIAN Ladyday Midsummer Chris/mas Ves Ves Ves William Fu lke Samuel Raven German de la Pyne George Maye Joh n Thwaitcs Ves Yes John Webbe Paul Micklthwaitc Ves Yes Roger Cockes Baptiste Pigott Peter Master Yes Edward Dceringe John Payne T homas H awkes (Halke) Daniel Dee William Moore Samuel Sympson William Harrison Ves Thomas Gybbes Beza liel Carter Thomas Lygtfoote Henry Heyman (Hayma n) William Carre Charles Grove Nathaniel Wilson John Denn(e) Nathaniel Hilton John Allen Richard Boys Ves Thomas Lussington Henry Maye Richard Boys Thomas Brcdham Henry Hull Warham Jemett John Waade Christo pher Collard Daniel Gybbon T homas Carter John Carlill (Carlyl) Jonas Denn William Jenk yn William Beane Thomas Kingsmill John Hallett (Hawlett) Stedrast Bell Yes John Seller(s) Ambrose Richman Richard Yate Richard Hills John Jurdan (Jordans) John Bradford Abraham¡ Bromydge John Master John G rove John Scrymshe George Dorrell Richard Norwood William Baldwin Bartholomew Amys John Chapman +At Ladyday th is name appea rs as Anthony.

..

Ves

.

. .

..

Michaelmas

..

Yes Yes Yes

Ves

Yes

.

.. ....

..

.. ..

.. ..

.

..

.. Yes

Yes

.. ..


THE

C ANTUARiAN

Scholars as at 27th June, 1589 The names given below arc taken from a transcript in the Cathedra l Library of part o f Archbisno Whitgi ft'.s Rc~i5ter (fo. 255) ,at Lambe,th Palace Li brary. This transcript j,s ,a '!st of the members of th~ FOllndatlon cited to appear In the chOir of Ca nterbury Cathedral al the VIsitation of the Archbishop on June 27th, 1589. The Headmaster and Usher arc given as Anthony Shorte and Thomas Consent respectively. Francis Stransham John Turner Thomas Horsmandenn William Welby Peregrin Stroud William Evcringe Edwa rd Haccompiainte George Hudson John Sp ise Daniel Pickerd Bois Ower Thomas French Thomas Denn John Foord R obert Cornwell John Smyth William Hudson Solomon Elmeston William Twyne Michael Barkett Nicholas Rose James Penn Francis Page James Nicholls Habakkuk Ashbee John Evans Thomas Dire Rufus Rogers Francis Withers John Phineux Richard Turnor Gervase Roose Christopher Denn William Wilson Henry Cooke William Wickham Barnabas Knell Richard Beere John Levitte Willia m Laurence Thomas Brome Josophat Webb George Warson Robert Clerke John Askewe Thomas Gaunt George Covert Gervase Partridge John Melwarde

DR. J. C. TREVOR, Director of Studies in Anthropology, Cambridge WEDN ESDAY, J UNE 20TH AT 8 P.M. Dr. Trevor prepared the Upper School for an erudite, but not too serious, lecture, when he began by mentioning that Anthropology had onCe been defined as "the study of Man embraci ng Woman" . He said his subject was the Anthropology of the Dritish Isles, which was especia lly interest ing as it de"llt with a popu lation which had been isolated since the glaciers of the last Jce Age melted, about 8,000 yea rs ago, to form the North Sea. Since then our shores have been subject to successive waves of invaders who have been absorbed with corresponding gene-inflow. Anthropology, he said, was the major source of informat ion concerning the successive types and races of men who had inhabited this country. History, philology, archaeology, blood grouping, all furnished valuable evidence; but this evidence was da ngerous unless bu ilt onto the framework of anthropologica l evidence. Dr. Trevor bases his theories on four main points, which, he hastened to add, were regarded as heretical by many other workers ; 1. Contrary to conventional ideas, he believes that the New Stone Age pop ulat ion of Britain was Nordic as opposed to Meditermnean . 2. H e does not believe that the Saxons drove the h o n Age population into the remoter pari S of Wales and Cornwall. 3. In his view the Urban communities in the four centuries after 1066 were of Alpine and not Nordic type. 4. He bel ieves the Tudor popu lation was Romuno-British and not AnglO-Saxon, i.e., we are as Caesa r found us unless descended from Germanic tribes.

522


THE CANTUARIAN Most a nthropological ev idence, we were told, was derived from the remains of skulls, although Dr. Trevor's co-lecturer, Dr. Genovcs. had just completed a brilliant survey of the evidence afforded by thigh boncs. In dea ling with the skull , the chief measuremcnt is the cepha lic index; this is the breadt h of the sku ll x 100, divided by it s length. We were shown excellent slides ill ustrati ng narrow-headed Mediterranean type skulls, na rrow-headed, tall Nordic rema ins, and the typically broad-headed true Neolith ic sk ulls of Alpine type with a cephalic ind~x o f over 80. We were told to our surprise that the English race was remarkably homogeneous; and that the sku ll of a nyone of us of over fo ur generations English bred wou ld reveal a characteri stic sloping fo rehead an d rounded craniulll of cepha lic index about 78. Dr. Trevor's parting advice was to exhort us to inspect the fi ne collection of Mediaeva l sku lls in Hythe Church ; and, in the event of any of us discovering a barrow, we were to remember that as a general rille : " long barrow, long sk ulls' round barrow, round sk ulls". Altogether a very enlighteni ng evening. ' N.A.l.S.

PLAUTUS MILES GLORIOSUS AT WESTM INSTER SCHOOL, THURSDAY, JULY 19TH A thunderous downpour gave rise to certai n apprehensions among the audience o n their arriva l at lillie Dean's Yard for the open ai r product ion of Miles ClorioslIs; and though we we re nobly but inadequately covered, it wa s fortunate that the m in ceased as the performance began, a llowing the undaunted compa ny to treat liS to a memorable eveni ng's entertainment. The background provided an ideal setting for the houses o f the Miles and his neighbo ur Periplcctomenus, so that no additional scenery was necessa ry. The plot, as far as it concerns us, traceS the various plans of a certain Palaestrio to wear down the pomposit y o f hi s master, a vai n yet decayed Don Juan ("Nimiast Illiseria nimi pulchrum esse nomi nem" and "Ven us me amat") by means of his mistresses Philocomasium and Acroteleutium , played very am usin gly though with certa in masculinity by N. J . Mi lner-Gu Jland and D. A. Hogarth. The most impressive and sensitive female performance came from W . J. P. Jenner as Milphid ippa, Acroteleutium's com panion . J. H. Simpson made the soldier the farcial ga lant he undoubted ly could be, whatever Pl autus may have intended, and D. V. Klein's Pcri plecto ll1enus was a superb character st udy of the well-meaning bore. The performa nce of the eveni ng belonged, however, to C. W. Redgrave as Palaest rio who, in a long and litt le reward ing part , provides the perfect fo il, in addition to bringing out the best in the rema inder of the company. He delighted all with his clear diction, maintenance of the pace, and sense o f light comedy. As darkness fell, the stage was very effectively lighted by spots from windows behind the aud ience. Modern dress helped immeasurably towards the understanding of the play, the highlight bei ng a telegram boy arriving by bicycle, and a magnificent parody of the modern army in the shape of a platoon of scruffy recruits. But the production succeeded bccause o f the en thusiasm and sense of enjoyment which shone through the whole cast and infected the audience. This is a great cred it to the producer, Mr. T. L. Zinn, who in turn must fee l fo rtunate to have at his d isposal so Illany classicists with abnormal acting ability. The Pater Society offer their sincere thanks for his kind invitation to a thoroughly enjoyable evening. J .P.R.


T H E CA N TUA R I AN

THE PATER SOCIETY'S VISIT TO LULLINGSTONE The Pater Soc iety visited the Lullingstonc Roman vi lla in May, where Lieut.-Col. M eates, the director

of the excavations, told the Society as much of the history of the site as is known. In the middle of the eighteenth century, whi le workmen were erecting a deer fence in Lullingslonc Park, they found one of the mosaic noars and destroyed part of it while pu tt ing a post into the ground. T his fact was recorded

and subsequently appea red on Ordnance Survey maps. In 1939, part of a Roman wa ll was discovered under the roots of a fallen tree and after a field survey of Romano- British sites in the D arcnth Valley in 1947-8 the excavation of this site was begun. The occupation and bui lding o f the villa may be divided into three periods: that of the F irst Cent ury A.D ., when the bui ld ing on this site co uld scarcely be termed more than a d wel ling: that of the F l avia n ~ Antonine period , which was followed by a n aba ndonment o f the site un til it was rc-- bui lt a nd extended in the latter part of the T hird Cent ury and the Fo urth Century A.D . The house was dcstroyed by fi rc c. 367 A.D., but a few rooms were undamaged and continued to be used . T he most impressive pa rt of the villa is the two mosaic noo rs, probably constructed c. 300 A. D., which rank among the best fo un~ in this c~lI ntry . The panel in the .upper roolya, .the trichiniu m, dep!ets Europa seated on the back of Jup iter, who III the form of a very spll'lted bull IS III the act of plungmg into the sea . On either side stands a winged Cupid , the one probably symbolizing restraint a nd the other a bandonment. Above the scene is the inscription " lnvida si ta uri vidisset Juno natatus lustius Aeolias isset ad usque domos." The lower mosaic floor depicts Betlerophon, mounted on Pegasus, slaying the Chimaera, and a series of forty~eight varyi.ng designs in the .fo rm o f a rectangle w hic~ , since a dice was found nearby, Colonel Meales vcry tentatIVely suggested might be a form o f a ft er~dmnc r snakes and ladders. T he picture of Betlerophon is surrounded by four medallio ns conta ining the four seasons, of whom Summer was destroyed by the deer fence alrcady referred to. Perha ps the most impo rtant discovery made at Lullingstone was the piecing together o f the painted wall plaster, which during the fire had fallen frornlhe room above i nto the Basement room. T he design on the West wall shows five or six human fi gures in Fourth Century Dress, ra nged in a row in a portico some in the atti tude o f the " Orantc" , and from adjo in ing wall s two large sca le representations o f the 'Chi~ Rho monogra m, within a ga rland o f fruit and fl owers and leaves, and a bird benea th make quite defin ite the C hristia n cha racter of these paintings. 1n the Ba sement room two ma rble busts were found: one of a distingui shed Roman in semi-military dress, carved probably c. 125- 135 A.D., and the second , perha ps a rela tion, in civilian dress, ca rved c. 155- 165. O ne o f the bllsts was bro ken d ll ring the Roman occupa tio n and bot h were undoubtedly da maged for they were placed in the room. A Th ird Centu ry cooking pot and a small Rhenish beaker with SUAVrS painted in ils six indentatio ns and dated to the first half o f the Third Century, suggesi votive offering and proba bly an attitude o f " religio" towards the busts. Among other interesting smaller find s during the excavatio ns are a deposit o f four ingots of copper and lead alloy an d a large sto rage pot. Colo nel Mcales showed to the Society the ovens which had recenliy been excavated behind the villa and the methods of dating according to layers. Remains of a barn have been excavated in front of the villa and subsequcntly filled in so as to all ow the road to be diverted over it so that the front of the villa, includ ing part of the room, decorated wit h Christian Frescoes, may be excavated . The waIls of the build ing, perha ps another house, have been recen tly found behi nd the villa . The Pater Society are greatly indebted to Li eut.~ Col. Meales for devot ing most of the aft ernoon to the deta iled explanation of the site to the Society and for provid ing an enjoya ble aft'e rnoon among the ruins of part of the legacy of Rome. l A C.

~24


THE

CA N TUA R I A N

THE SOC IETIES THE MARLOWE SOCIETY.- The Society met three times this term , on each occasion in the rooms of Mr. D. W . Ball , to whose hospita lity we arc greatly o bliged. In the first paper, O. R. F. Davies gave a lively and well-documen ted account of the Canterbury in which Marlowe spent the first seven tecn years o f his li fe. Much of his material is as yet unpub lished, and it is comforting to know that such good use is being made o f the Cathedral Library. A week la ter, J. A. Kane revealed and communicated his absorbing interest in Astronomy. T he meeting was crowded and two hours wcre sca rcely suOicient time for the paper to be fi nished , let alone for all the inqu iries and argument s to be sett led. In a pape r which ranged far beyond the normal trite recital of sta tistics, Kanc was ou tstanding in the aut ho rit ative way in which he dea lt with the 1110st sca rchi ng interrupt ions. In the last meeting of the term, D. J. Morti mcr gave a particularly wel l-ill ustra ted paper on El G rcco, though to a disappo intingly sma ll audie nce. H is in teresting treatment o f the pain ter led to a reward ing di scussion on the "Spa nishness" o f EI G reco's al'l. T HE MADRIGA L SOCII:TY.- It is rat her difficult \0 know wherc to beg in when reviewing a term , which fo r II schoo l soc iety has proved both eno rm ous ly enterpr isi ng a nd s uccessfu l. Dur ing last Easter holid ays, the Society was offered a broadcast by the B.B.C. T his we glad ly accepted of cou rse, a nd the <I ,lte was fixe d fo r Friday, June 22nd ,11 6.30 p.lll. o n the Home Serv ice. The broadcast went cxtremely well , as those who hea rd it wi ll , , am sure, agree. It ca n only be ho ped that ano ther opportuni ty wi ll arise for the Society to show its talent over the air. Broadcast ing has not been the o nly occupation of the Society this term. In King's Week we gave a Serenade Concert in the Clo isters. This enta iled the learning of abou t a dozen new mad riga ls after our broadcast on J une 22nd, and many of us were very busy rehearsing fo r The Mikado during this time. The keenness, however. throughou t the year has been oUl'Slanding and we can o nly hope for the continll ~ anee of such loya lty to the Society during the coming YC<lr. Finall y, we give all thanks possible to Mr. Edred W righ t, our conductor. Not only is he responsible for the extremely high sta ndard of si nging mai nta ined throughout the year, but our keenness to sing is largely due to his imaginat io n. Without him we could nOt have covered the work we have done in the short time we have had for rehearsnl. M .D. TH E PATER SOCIETY.- The P<lter Society had two meetings in the Precincts th is term besides the ollt ings to Lull ingstone and Westmi nster, reviewcd elsewhere. On May 23 :-d , Dr. B. H. Pai ne gave us an illustrated lecture on the ex.cavations in Cretc, es pecially int eresti ng as he had taken part in thcm himself. He showed us some very fine slides, a nd if his lecture was no t toO technica l, it was certainl y en terta ining. The mcetin g was also attended by mem bcrs of the History Si xth. Ou r o ther lectu re was from Mr. Riell , the Headmaster o f Simon Langton's. T his was entit led " A Rationa le o f Etiq uelte", and Mr. Rieu showed us, by exa mples, what , and what not, the well- bred perso n should do, o r as Miss Mitford will have it, what is U, or non-U. He concluded fit ting ly with two passages from Jane Austen. We were gra teful to Mr. Rieu for com ing, and hope to see h im agai n. Mention cou ld be made o f the occasion when certa in membe rs of the Society met in Mr. Wi lson's room to hear Miss Elena Vergh is of the Athens Nat ioll<l l Theatre read passages fro m the Oresteia o f Aeschy lus. As she read them in modern Greek pronuncia tion , the result was 'Greek ' to most of us. J hasten to add that this was on the T hird Programme. TIiE SoMNER SocIETY.- The Somney Society visited Rochester Cathedra l and Castle and Knolc on Ascension Day. T he Society first reached the West fro nt of the Cathed ral and paused to admire the nmgn ificent orma n portal and the detailed carving which surrounded it. T he Norman Nave next att racted our atten tion and it was interesting to compare the grandeur of the Rochester Nave with the splendour of the G othic Nave at Canterbury. The Choir, however, is not nearly so attractive, partly because of the unusual effect of Gi lbert Scott's restora tion of the pa in ting behind the Choir stalls; and the Cho ir is peculiar in that it has no aisles. In the Westcrn part o f the Choi r there is a curious wa ll pai nting o f the Wheel o f Fortune, p icturing the changeableness or earthly things, which must rank among the fin est wa ll pa int ings in Brita in . Onc o f the vergers kind ly took the Society into the Crypt , which he rat her unjustifiably cla imed was su perior 10 tha t at Can terbu ry, but which nevert heless is o f uniq ue in teres t. The two Western bays are Gli ndu lf 's ea rly Norman work and the Ea rly English Crypt was

525


TI-IE

CANTUA RIAN

built about 1200. On some of the vau lts are the remains of frescoes, which have almost perished through time and damp. QUI' attention was drawn to the interesting graffiti cu I on the stonework of the pillars . .I n the Cathedra l Precincts we saw the ruined walls of the Chl.lplCr House and the Cloister Garth.

We next proceeded to the Castle and Kccp . The Norm:m Keep, which today forms the principal part of the ruin, is one of the finest specimens of Norman military architecture extant. The Society was fortunate in arriving at Ihe Keep at a lime when it was closed to the public, which enabled it to revive

somewhat anachro nistically the martial spirit of the building in pri vate. Of especially interest were the two Norman chape ls, the Hall and the State Apartment. The holes seen at the base of the walls protecting the main battlements attracted the attention of the more ingeniolls gentlemen of the Society, because they were provided fot' the fighting platform which is believed to be unique. In times o f siege, huge jo ists wou ld be pushed through these holes and projected outside the wa lls on all sides. These joists, covered by planks, formed a scaffolding from which missiles wou ld be dropped on the attackers of the walls below. After admiring the fine view from the top o f the Keep, we descended and exami ned the Roman foundati o ns of the Castle wa lls. We then continued our peregrination o f Rochester individua lly, before rejoining o ur coach and drivi ng for Knole, passing the Bull Hote l, which brought happy memories of Mr. J ingle to the I>ickwick ian gent leme n of the Society. Kn ole is one of the largest private houses in England a nd dates main ly from the fi ft eenth cent ury. .I t has a splendid Jacobean interior and a fine collect io n of seventeenth and eighteen th century furnilllre. Many master painters are represented at Knolc, and perhaps the two most beautifu l paintings were a portrait of the Th ird Duke of Do rset by Gainsborough , and a picture o f a stable by WOUVel1liInS. The most int rigui ng room was probably the King's Bedroom. The bed is seven teenth centu ry and its cost is said to have been ÂŁ8,000: the si lver furniture o f the room well deserves its fame. The visit to Knole was a n enjoyable experience, and although much was apprecia ted, few appreciations ca n be written in so sl11all a space. We walked away from the magnificent house past the herd of rare Japanese deer wit h a feeling of regret and infinite pleasure. Mr. Pollak gave a talk to the Society on "Oriental Carpets". He used about twenty rugs and carpets to illustrate his talk and showed on the epidiascope examples of many of the Oriental carpets in the Victoria and Albert Museum. He explained the varied techniques used in the weaving of carpets and showed the difference between the Turkish Ghiordes and the Pe rsian Senna knot. Mr. Po llak showed that not all of the carpets were used as such, but some were used as camel bags and some as prayer rugs, a nd amo ng the latter a famil y prayer ru g was of especial in terest. The Society is very gratefu l to Mr. Po llak for providing such a fa scina ting evening. The remainder of the Society's activities have been devoted to excavation. Dr. Urry recommended a site between the back of his house and the Field Classrooms, and ha s kind ly undertaken to supervise the excavat ions which are being carried out by permissio n of the Dean a nd Chapter. In the trial trench in the centre o f the grass we hope to find a wa ll o f a twelfth cent ury house on the si te, and then to excavate it systematically. In the ot he r pit we hope to find a twelft h cen tury wa ll , a mediaeva l road which went ro und the inside of this part of the Preci ncts, the foundation s o f the Ro ma n ci ty wa ll a nd its defensive clay bank. The wulls wh ich we have fou nd are probably seve nteenth to early nineteenth century in date ; we know from a nineteent h century map of the Precincts that one was a garden wa ll of of Hodgson's Hall, but the rcst are unmarked . Mr. Frank Jenkins, F.S. A. , who has kindly been inspecting our work, suggests that the steps nca r the city wa ll might have led to a cellar. Our finds have been limited to pieces of pottery of lillie interest and of varying dates ; and animals remai ns include a cow's horn, boar's tllsks and a horse's hoof. 1n the cen tre trench we have reached a thick layer of closely packed flint which may indicate the cobbled ya rd o f the stables, which used to be Nos . 2 and 3 The Forrens. So far Ollr activities have been rather restricted by exam inat io ns and the wealth o f wa lls and Ooors of a compara tively modern date which we have found , but we hope next term, now that older leve ls arc being reached, that the examinations will be of greater sllccess. lA C. THE C.foXTON SociETY h<1s, as lIsual , had a busy Summer Term, but mercifully the work has been spread fairly even ly over the thirteen weeks, and so we have not had to endure a real " King's Week rush" this year. None the less, wi th o nly two machines in act ion throughout the term, they have been in constant usc, and it is very mllch hoped that the third machine will be in working order aga in in time to cope with the H ouse Play programmes and Christmas Cards next term . A large draft of probationers was elected at the beginning of term, several of whom have shown great enthusiasm and have a lready reached the Associate Membership stage. Long Illay it last! 526


THtl CANTtJ ARiAN The Society's finances are once more showing a tendency to change from Left to Right, for the year has been qui Ie profitable, so perhaps more type will be forthcoming for those who remain next year. At least six of these arc already full members, so next yenr shou ld not find the Society understaffed. We arc 1110s1 grateful to Mr. Peen and 10 the President for their invaluable advice and assistance throughout the year, and we close this, the Society's "twenty-first", with the hope Ihat it may continue to be a useful and instructive source of amusement to o ur successors for many years to come.

E.J .S¡S. TH£ TENTER DEN SocIETy,-We have been able to hold only one meeting this term, on May 20th in the Societies Room. M. J. Ricketts proposed the motion that " This House Prefers China to Indian Tea", seco nded by D. P. Buchan. O. R, F. Davies, seconded by J. p, Roche. opposed the motion. The subject was approached from numerous angles, ranging rrom a Te<l philosophy of life to some dangerollsly persoll<ll comments. H is <l pity that the two si des did not come to grips on anyone central issue, but all the speakers wcre surprisi ngly effect ive despite the disparity of tcchniques. Speeches rrom the floor werc complex to say the least, and the issue was very much in the balance untillhe end, when the motion was rejected by some finecn votes. Mr. D. W. Ball kindly took the Chai r. O.R.F.D.

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.- At a meeting early in the term it was decided not to hold an exhibition this year. After last year's success it was relt opportune to allow people time to consolidate their work, rather than have a rull-scale exhibit ion so soon. A hope that the Public Library might allow us to have a small exhibition there did not comc to fruition ; thc library was unable to allow us to do so. Among othcr darkroom acquisitions a new and cxpensive dish-warmer has been bought which will prove very useful in the winter months: as it is the darkroom has been in constant use. Thc whole Society extends its thanks for the constant hclp of Mr. Kent throughout the year. I.S.McD.

C.C.F. NOTES The term's tra in ing has gone very well , l:lIld with the grea t majority or candidates passing their vario us tests, sllch as the two parts or Certificate "A", and the Artillery Proficiency Tcsts, and the Signals Classificat io n, to mention only the Army. it secrns to be on the right lines. We have had much valuable help rrom the Depot . Roya l Marines, at Deal. as well as our home Depot, The Buffs, in Canterbury; and the instructiol1Cll Ficld Day givcs much better result s than it large-sca le exercise where much o r each ind ividunl's time is inevit ably spent wa iting rol' something to happen. The Inspection was ca rricd out by an O,K.S., Group-Captain D. E. D. Wheeler, I),(t,e. He expressed himselr as very well satisfied with what hc saw, but the official report has not yct comc to us. An O.K.S. Inspecting Officer is a very pleasant precedent, which I hope will be orten repeated. Wc arc taking to Camp the largest contingent- 8S or so- that wc have taken since the War, and much depends on the weather. as the Cam p, ncar Thetford in Norfolk, has no amenities rol' wel weathcr, except improvised ones. Under the present Drum-Major. M. H . Cartwright. the Band has increased both in numbers and efficiency. The tuition of Mr. R. Pattcndcn, an ex-Drum-Major of The Buffs. is responsible for much. and so also is the enthusiasm or all ranks in it. There arc now many mo re would-be recruits than there are instruments ror them, and it is hoped to start a small fife section. A useful innovation has been the use of the Band occasionally at o rdinary Contingcnt parades. Field Day.- On June 22nd the middle platoons of the Contingent went in buses to Acrise training area, near Elham, where Lieut. Quested, R.M., who was in Grange shortly after the War, ran a morning's instruction by Marine N.C.O.s, followed by a company exercise in thc aftcrnoon. in two phases, so that cverybody had a part to play. The day was much enjoyed, and was of excellent training value. The two senior platoon s were given instruction in Ccrtificate " A" Part 11 subjects at the Depot, The Buffs, whi le the two junior phl toons trai ned in the School mea .

52'1


THE CANTUARIAN Certificate "A".-PART JI. In March, the following passed: M. E. W. Vincent, H . A. S. Bancrort M. G. Sayer, D . C. C. Stevenson, M. J. Price, A. J. Redpath, D. J. East, R. H. T. Dawkins, C. Q. James' C. Vernon-Smith, J. E. lloultbee. A. N. A. Browner, C. C. de Chaza!, G. A. Gray. K. M . S. Johns A~ D . Lee-EWolt, J. A. Turner and R. H. WiJliams. There were 16 failures. • On 3rd July. the following passed: J. A. Kane, H. L. Clark, C. J. B. Gallaher, S. C. Wilkinson J, Kearin, M. R. A. Matthew, D. D. Va lpy, D. R. L. Harris, B. A. Isbill , R. L. Pengelly. A. S. D: R. Chapman, P. F. King, C. W. Ya tes, R. F. Luno, N. H. Freeman, G. A. O. Kidd. T. H. Trumble, R. I. Gcate, H. Moon, J. G. E. Clegg, R. K. R. Large, C. M. Bateman, J. G. Moss, N . Dcvoil. J. G . White Six failed. . PART I. On 22nd Ma rch, 53 passed out of 64, and o n 3rd Jul y, 49 passed out of 58. Proficicncy Tcsts.- Of the II members o f the Artillery Scction, 10 have now passed Parts J a nd n. And in the Signal Platoon there are 5 Assistant lnstructors and 3 class ified Signatlers out of the 12.

K.A .C.G.

Royal Navn l Scction.- The Annual Inspection went on' very successfull y. The turn·Ollt and marching of the R .N. Section received special commendation from tile Inspect ing Officer, the Seaboat "slipped" at the appropriate word of command, and instnlct io n was carried out in morse, semaphore, bends and hitches, whipping and splicing a nd the other act ivities of the Scction, The increase in numbers in the Section from thirty-five to more than fifty meant that on Field Day we were forced to split up. The senior cadets went to sea in a M.F.V. and called on the tra ining ship Arelhusa, while the newcomers had a very good day at sea in H .M.S. SaI'age, a destroyer undergoing propellor trials. We sailed our G.P.14 at Whitstable, where they have kindly made liS honorary members of the Yacht Club, and we were honoured by a visit from the Engineer- in·Chief of the Fleet, Vice-Admiral Sir Frank Mason, K.C.D., who gave us a most interesting talk on current and future developments in the Royal Navy. Despite an unusually large number of leavers, including Cadet P.O. Snell, who has been an outstandi ng Cadet Petty Officer-in·charge, we have accepted an equal number of recruits and our numbers shew no sign of diminishing, In the holidays our Commanding Onkcr took twclve cadcts to H.M.S. Zest, a destroyer, for their annual training, while several others were on R .N.V.R. cruises, Naval Air or Quartermaster's Courses. D.W.B.

528


TH E CANTUARIAN

CRICKET BATTING AVERAGES s. J. Laine .......................... ....... . J. Kearin ..... .. ...... ...................... . R. E. F. Minns ................ .. .. ...... .

I lmillgs Not 0111

14

2 4

II II

I

M. E. W. Vincent. ............. ........ ... . 13 J. P. Roche ................................ . 4 R. M. Sutton...... .. ............. . 14 l. C. Po tter. ... . ............ . ,.,."., 10 J. C. Trice........ . ......... ..... .... . 8 C. W. yates .................... .. 9 Also balled: C. M . J. Whittington, 1,9 B. A. Isbill. 2' . 2 A. J . Redpath, 5, 0·, 2· M . T. Thorburn , 0·, 15, 10,3, 1. M. G . Hutton , 11 , 0, 0 D, G, Jones, 3 • Not Out

3 I

2 I I

0

RUlls 438 240 275 246 74 249 135 87 89

H ighest Score 93' 40' 100 126' 38

72 35 26' 46

Average 36.5 35. 1 27.5 24.6 24.6 20.7 15.0 12.4 9.8

Wickets 18 39 30 8 3 10 3

Average 10.2 11.5 16.2 16.6 19.0 30.6 44.0

BOWLING AVERAGES O\'e/'s 72.2 I. C. Potter.. .............................. 192. 1 J. C. Trice ........ .......................... 183.4 C. M. J. Whittingto n........ .. ......... 43.5 J . Kearin .......... , ........................ , 15 M. T horburn ...................... ....... ... 106 M, E. W. Vincent................ .... 43 Also bowled: J. P. Roche. 3 - I - 6 - 0 R. M . Sutt on, 2 - 0 - 8 - 0

A. J . Redpath .............................

Maidens 24 54 41 7 I 14 5

Runs 184 452 486 133 57 306 132

RET ROSPECT Matches Played 14, Won 4, Lost 3, Drawn 7 The standard of a cricket elcven shou ld ncvcr be judgcd solcly upon the numbers of matches won or lost in a season. To do this would be overlooking the spirit of cricket , which sho uld surely mean something to a boy, and perhaps be a contributio n to the formation and development of character. Those who play this game shou ld do so for the pleasures and excitements (yes, excitements) that the game brings to them, and if they do this sincerely and wholeheartedly, and above aU in what is generally understood as the right spi rit, they cannot fail to give pleasure to those who watch. That which might be classified by a bigot as an error of judgement on the part o f a captain wou ld, if more reasoned considerat ion was given to the spi rit of the game itself, be ample cause for compliment and congrat ulation. Thus it was in the cause of the spirit of the game that two of our three matches described in the records as having been lost were, in fact , lost. In both of these games the Scllool declared their innings closed, in one with the score at 170 for 2 wickets, and in both games ou r opponen lS ga ined ttwir victories in th¢ last over of the day. In both cases we could have gone on batting for another t~1l

$29


THE CANTUARIAN minutes or so before declaring and yet two more games wo uld have become dull to play in, dull to watch and have been left drawn . Until this des ire to reach a decision in matches is shared by a ll o f those wh~ have charge of teams there will be little hope of two good baiting sides fini shing a game in o ne day. On looking through the season's score sheets it is noticeable that this approach to the spirit o f the game was

not shared by all of our opponents-the more's the pity. The batting did not quite measure up to the very high standard expected o f it befo re the season started and to some extent this can be attributed to rain-affected wickets. I-I owever. several of the XI will hav~ happy memories of good innings played, and Laine in particular atta ined a very high measure of com~ pctencc and consistency. Strains and injuries to some o f the bowlers remained a handica p fo r most of the season, though if more of the catches had been taken their figures wou ld deserved ly have been very much mo re impress ive. It was unfortunate that an injury very early in the season deprived the X I of the help which Roche wou ld undoubtedly have given . C.F.

1ST XI MATCHES KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V NOR!! CoMMAND

Victory here was a pleasing start to the season. The opposition , though less competent as a batting side. nevertheless had a va ried bowling attack, and so credit must be given fo r the Xl's batting. This was Vincent's first century fo r the XI, and with able suppo rt fro m L'l.inc and Roche declaration was made in time to capture two Quick opposition wickcts before tea . Thereafter the vehcmcnce of the bowling of Potter and Trice, who took all ten wickets between them , brought a comfortable victory. NOR£ CmIM AN I) KI NG'S S C I IDOL On\. Sea. Ncwsom. b Po lter. .......... ,......... 22 M. E. W. Vinccnt , not ont .............. .. ....... 126 l eI. Wtr. Calc, b Trice............................ 0 S. J . Laine, b Angell... . ..... ... .... .......... . ..... 31 LI. Cdr. T rick, b Paller .. .. " ........ "".".". 23 R. M. Sutton, C Harri son, b Rhodcs.......... 15 1..1. Cdr. Rowcro ft, b Po tier ... "" II J. P. Roche, not out. ............................... 38 Sub. Lt. Angell, b Trice .... ,.. .. .. ,..... .. ....... 3 R. E. F . Minns Cap t. Har rison, c Minns, b Trice ........ ,," 3 J. Kearin Lt . Cd!'. Scott, b Tricc .......... " ... " .". 0 I. C. Pottcr Ord. Sea . Poode, eLaine, b Pa tte!'. .. ...... 0 did not bat C . W . •Xates Rea r Adm . Newsom, c Kearin , b POller... I J. C. 1nce Sgl. Ralph , not Olll.. ................... . ".. ... . I C. M. J. Whitlington Marine Rhodes, b Pa ller .. "" ......... "...... I B. A. Isbill Ex lras ............. .... ,........... . "., .... " .. , 6 Extras........................................... 6

1

TOlal (2 wkts. dcc.)................. Rhodes ... ......... " .. Rowcroft ....... , ..... Foode....... ... .. .... Angell ............. ... . Trick ........ ... ,....... , Newsom .. ........... Scott .. .. ... .. .. ... .... Newsom ......... ....

2 16

o.

M.

R.

w.

9 14 16 8 7 5 4 3

0 5 2 I 2 I I 0

24 33 51 28 19 24 18 16

I

o o I o o o o

' ·ot:II ...... .... .. ........ "................ Potter... ",,, .... ,, . Trice .. " ....... " .. ,

o.

M.

R.

16 15

3 2

36 34

71 w. 6 4


THE CANTUARiAN KI NO'S S CUOOL, C ANTERBURY V ST. LAWRENCB

c.c.

Pact', except for Potter's, and spin ali ke fa iled to yield dividends against a side that was very strong. 1he fie ld ing, lOa, exccpt for good calching by Isbill and Sutton, showed traccs o f relaxation . The o r posi lion sco red quick ly. utinc alone showed confidence when we b.nted, bUI Ihe newer o r hitherto untricd mcmbers of Ihe X I failed to withstand Mackenzie's leg spinners, and the game was lost four minules be fore the close o f play. ST, LA W RENCE

c.c.

KING 'S S C HOOL

J. S. Brett , b Ilotter ......... ... " .. " .. .. ,,,.,, .. ,,. G. U. Heyer, b Trice ...................... . "",, . 1\, Mac kenzie, c Isbill , b Pa ller................ J. lJaggaley, c M inns, b Potter........ .......... . (j , Smith, eLaine, b Vincent.. ... ... .. J, Edmo nds, c Sutton, b Whittingtoll ......... G. McCabe, not oul.. ... ,......................... E. n. Pellit , b Po tter ............. , .... ... , ...... , I) . !Jell, c Vincent , b Trice .. .. ... .... .. " ..... .. .. Major Th omas, not oul.. .... ... ,.. G, Willey, did not bat Extras ............. , ................... ......... ,

Total (8 wkts. dec.) ... ...

o. Po ller. ..... ....... , .. , Trice ..... ........ " . , Whillington .......... Vincent .......... ,......

14.3 II 8 8

11 15 9 19 57 16 21 21 0 3

M. E. W. Vincent , b Smith, ............. ... ," " S. J. l a ine, c Edmonds, b Baggaley.......... R . M. Sutton, b Smith........ ................. J. P. Roche, b Pett it. ............... " .... "", .. ,, R. E. F. Minns, c Tho mas, b Smith .. .. .. J, Kcarin , b Baggaley.. ... ... .. .... .. .... . " .. ... . I. C. Potter, c Edmo nds, b Mackellzie .. " .. C. W. Yates, st Edmonds, b Mackenzie ,.. J. C. Trice, c Edmonds, b Mackenzie........ C. M, J. Whitt ington, Ibw, b Mackenzie. .. D. A, Isbill, not au!. .. .. "" .. " ."." .. ".". .. Ext ras ................ " .. ... ..... . ,... ... "".".

8 180

M.

R.

w.

2 2 0 0

36 47 45 43

4 2 I I

9 32 0 2 9 12 21 I

8 I 2 5

Total .. .... ...... .. " ........ .. ......... . .. 102

o. Smith ......... ....... Peltit............ ..... M ackcnzie......... Daggaley.............

KI NO'S S C HOOL, C ANTERIJ URY V

K .C.S.,

12

8 7. 1 4

M.

R.

w.

I 2

33 14 21 29

3 I 4 2

o

o

WIMDLEDON

Victory here broke the succession of close draws in the last three seasons. Particularly commendable Ihe in valuable 46 made by Yates, the marathon spell of bowling by Trice, and Whittington's fi ve wickets which ensured a victory. Thjs was a match packed with excitement and reflected a high standard of ficlding with a superb catch by Minns. K INO'S SCI'IOOL K.C.S., WIMBLEDON M. E. W, Vincent , c Ca llow, b McLeish..... 0 K. M. Arnott, b Redpath ........ ,....... 12 J. C. Wolters, b Redpath ... ..... ....... .. .. .. ... 7 S. J . Laine, c Wo lters, b McLeish.... ........... 12 M. I. Callow, b T rice............ .. .............. 40 R. M. SUlLon, c Myers, b McLeish .. , ...... ,... 19 J , p, Roche, c Call OW, b Mc Leish. ............ 30 P. D. Kelly , Ibw, b Whittington........ .. .... 7 B. Z. Mycl's, b Tricc .. .... ... ". .... .............. R. E, F. Minns, b McLeish. ............ .......... 4 I H. J . Cork , c Rcdpath, b Whillington.... ... 2 J. K Ci.u-in , run oul.................................. 12 p, H. Elkington, c Minns. b Whittingto n 10 C. W. Ya tes, c Myers, b Kelly............ .. .. " 46 D , J . Hopkins, c Vincent , b Whittington 12 J. C. T rice, c McLeish, b Elkington............ 0 C. M, J. Whittington, b Jeremy...... ........... 9 M. J. Haincs, not out. ...... .... ................ 8 n . A. Isbill , c and b Kelly.... ,.. ... , , .. "" ... " 2 I. P. McLeish, c Isbill, b Trice ............. ".. 0 A. J . Redpath, nOI OUl. ...... .... ........... "..... 5 J. E. Jeremy, st Isbill, b Whittingto n.. .. ..... 0 W<l S

TotaL ... ........ ..... ...... ........ ...... .... 148

Mc Leish ............. Jeremy .. ,. ,. , .. , .. ,., Elkingto n....... .... .. Kelly ............ ........ Haines .......... .... ...

o.

M.

R.

w.

19 7. 2 18

7 5 8 5 2

45 8 28 27 31

5 I I 2 0

]8 II

Tota!... ... ............... ...... ............ 102

Trice .. , ...... . , .... , Redpath ............. Whittington ... ,.. ,.

53]

o.

M.

R.

23 10 12.5

10 4 I

36 26 37

w. 3 2 5


rt H E C A NTUAR I AN K I NO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V ST. L," WRENCE, RAMSGATE

We balled first 011 a damp wicket and steady bowl ing by Coombes reduced the rale of scoring. This and defensive balt ing by Ihe opposit ion in their innings, made the XI unable to win before close of play' Notable achievemcnls were a century by Minns and a 40 by Kearin. Credit must be given to the St' Lawrence defence aga inst hostile bowling. . .

KINO'S SCI'IOOL

ST. LAWRENCE, RAMSGATE

M. E. W. Vincent, st Austin-Jones, b Coombes 14 S. J . Laine, c Thomas. b Spanton.............. 0 R. M. Sutton, c MarshalJ , b Coombes...... .. 13 J. P. Roche, c Carr, b Coombes................. 4 R . E. F. Mi nns, c Armst rong, b Thomas ..... 100 J. Kcari n, not ou!............ ........................ 40 I. C. Potter, c mr, b Coombes...... .......... 6 J. C. Trice, not ou!.. ................ ...... ... 26 C. W. Yates } C. M. J. Whi tt ington did not bat B. A. Isbill

D. N. Carr, b PotteL.......... ....... ............ D. N. Minshall, b Whi ttington ............... R. L. Thomas, c Roche, b Patter. ........ ... S. N. de Sarem, c La ine, b Vincent.. ....... R. A. G. Ma rshall , b Whitt ington............. E. J. Fa rra nt, c Isbill, b Trice............... D. G. Austin-Jones, not out....... .. .......... .. F. J. Armst rong, not OUt............ E.J . Coombes } D . T . Bowcsman did not bal C. J. Spanton

To lal (6 wkts. dec .) ... ..... .â&#x20AC;˘........ . . 208

Dowesman ........... Spa nton ................ Coombes ......... ... Thomas .............. Carr .. ........ ...... ....

o. 12 17 28 10 6

M.

R.

W.

I

35 25 91 31 20

0

5 7 I

2

Tolal (6 wk ls.) .. ..................

Potter .... ...... ... .. Trice....... ... ... ... Whittington ........ Vincent ............... Roche ... ..............

I

4 I

0

KI NG'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY

I'

O. 18 15 12 4 3

M.

8 2 5 I I

R.

32 36 12 4 6

12 19 2 15 4

13 18 7

97

w. 2 I

2 I

0

HIGHGATE SCHOOl.

Followi ng heavy overnight rain, play was impossible until after a n early lunch. We batted first on an apparent ly dcad wicket but three quick wickets fe ll for 9 ru ns. Sulton a nd Kearin, however, batted with determinat ion a nd thei r contrib ution was praiseworthy on a sp inning wicket. Minns' 74 was an innings notable for excellent j udgement in hitting the right ball and by his ability to place the ball just where he wan ted. I-lighgate had two-and-a-qua rtcr hours to get 132 and they succeeded in the last over of the day. K INO'S S CHOOL

H1GHGATE

M. E. W. Vincent, c Juniper, b Dryborollgh 4 S. J. Laine, st Field, b Dryborough.. ........... I R. M. Sutt on, st F ield, b D ryborollgh.. ..... . 20 1. C. Potter, b Dryborough.......... .............. 0 R. E. F. Minns, not out ........... ....... .. ....... 74 C. W. Ya tes, st Field, b D ry borough.. .... .... 2 J. Kea rin, not out.. ..... .. .. .. .. .... ................. 28 M. T. Thorburn } J. C. Trice d 'd t bat I no C. M. J . Wh ittington B. A. Isbill

D . Dryborough, not out....... ....... .. ..... 64 A. D. Izzard , Ibw, b Pottel'............. ......... 25 D. W. Plummer, not out. ............... ........ 14 D. C. Lewis C. J. S. Garner ~.. Joii~dand did not bat N. H. Wadsworth M. A. Woodward

Tolal (5 wkts. dec.).... ...... ...... .. .. 132

Tolal (3 wkls.).......................... 134

O.

M.

R.

W.

Woodward ........... 3 Wadsworth... .... .... 20 Dryborough..... .... 29 Holland ............ ... 10 Plummer .... ....... .. 2

2 7 8

I

0 0 5 0 0

I

0

31 55 26 16

R . P. Juniper, b Thorburn...................... A. J. Camden, c Yates, b Trice.. ..... .......... C.

0

1

f:

O.

Pottel'... .. .......... 'frice.... ............ Thorburn ... ....... Whittington........ Vinccnt. .............. 532

21

15 9.1 16 6 5

M.

R.

3 2 2

44 28 28 9 15

I

0

w. I

I I

0 0


TH E C A N TUARIAN KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERUURY I' THE M.C.C. The M .C.C. batted first on a fast wicket and when Ihey had scored 137 for 8 we were in a favourable position. But an eighth wicket partnership put on 55 runs, due to our inability to keep ltp the pace. With twO hours to score 193 runs we at first balled forccfully; but after an carly collapse cauti on became nCCCSSi.lry, and with Sulton in particu lar maintaining a rock-like defence, a draw was thus made polt1:ii ble. M.C.C.

K INO 'S SCtlOOL

G . C. Downlon, b Poltcr.. ............ .. ... .. ... G. W. Moore, b Potter.............................

68 7

0. H. Lock, c Laine, b Thorburn.. ..... .. .....

5 IS 12

p, J. M. Nelson, c Min ns, b Thorburn.... .... J. I-l . Stall ibrass, b Thorburn.......... .......... S. C. Baker, lbw, b Potter.. ................. .. ... T. Q. Abell , not Ollt....... .........................

J. H. Cla rk, c and b Potier......... "... ......... R . F. Hill, c Kea rin, b Potter........... R. M. Mall inson, not Oll!'.. ........... J. A. C. Keenan, did not ba l Total (8 wkts. dec.) ....... . o. Potter..... ............ 18 Tricc .................. 14 Thorburn ........ .... 28 Whittinglon.... ...... 5 Vincen l ... .............. 3

4 49 4 7

15

192

M.

R.

W.

4 4 4 0 0

46 34 74 25 7

5 0 3 0 0

M. E. W. Vi ncent, b Nelson............. ...... S. J. L.:line, b Nelsoll........................... . R. M. Sutton, not out................. ... ........ 'f. C. Potter, lbw, b Nelson...................... R. E. F. Minns, b Nelson.......... ......... .... J. Kca rin, b Keenan................. ..... .. ....... C. W. Yates, b Keena n......................... M. T. Thorburn , not out ................... .. .. C. M . .I . Wh ittington } n. A. Isbill did not bat J. C. Trice TOlal (6 wkts.) ............ ............ .. O. Bill ...... .......... .. 17 Nelson ................ 20 Keenan.. ............. 9 Clark ................ . 2.3 Moore ... ..... .. .... I

M.

9 16 5 2 I

R. II

15 II

0 0

4 10

12 I 2 8 0

a

38 w. 0 4 2 0 0

K ING'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY l' D OVER COLLEGE

Aflel' a confident sta rt, the steady bowling of Smith reduced ou r ra te of scori ng, and the batti ng of Polter, Kea rin and Laine provided the backbone of our to tal. Dover, wi th ample time to score thc 157 which was needed, were hamperecl by the hoslile bowling of Trice and Red path, wh ich put thelll behind the clock. When spin bowlers were used, Dover refllsecl lo be lured, and rested content with a draw in a ma tch devo id of incident. KI NG'S SCHOOL

M. E. W. Vincent, c Sawyer, b Otway........ S. J. La ine, b Smith... ....... .. ..... .... .. ..... .. R. M. Sutt on, Ibw, b Smith... .. ................ I. C. POller, b Smit h.......... ................... . R. E. F. Min ns, b Ot way.............. ..........

J. Kea rin , Ibw, t> Sm it h..... ............ .. ......... C. W. Ya tes, c and b Smi th.............. ......... M. T. Thorbu rn, b Widgery.................... .. J. C. Trice, c Sawyer, b Widgery......... .. ..... J. M. G. Hutton, c Marsh, b Smith....... ..... A. G. Redpath, not out....... ....................

DOVER CoLLEGE

4

21 2 35 12 20 7 15 14 1I 0

TOlaL .............................. .... .. ... 157 O. Widgery ...... ........ 15 Otway ................. 14 Smit h, D .............. 24. 1 Winkelmann ........ . 2

M.

R.

5 2 8 0

42 44 48 7

w. 2 2 6 0

D . L. Storm, lbw, b Trice. ...................... M. J . Otway, b Redpath.... .. .. .... .... ......... J . R . R. Widgery, b Trice.............. A. J. K ilbee, c H utton, b Vincent... C. R . Winkelmann, b Kca rin .................... P. Sawyer, not oul...... .... ....... .. ....... D. Smith, not out.. ..................... .......... M. J. weston} C. J. C1~ re did not bat

7 5 44

19 7 19 0

R. P. KlOg

E. B. Marsh TOlal (5 wkts.) .................. .... .. .. 109

Polter ............... Trice .. ....... ....... Redpath ........... .. Thorburn .......... Vincent. ...... ...... .. Kea rin...... .........

w.

O.

M.

t<.

16 19 12 2

10 4 7

16 38 14

I

I

0

II

4 1

18 14

I

7

0 2 I I


THE

CANTUAR I AN

KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V QUEEN'S CoLLEGE, OXFORD

This was an exci ting beginn ing for this new fixture. We went in to bat on a fairly easy wicket, and Sutton's 72, supported by contributions from Potter and Kcarin , made a sound display of batting. The opposition in Iheir innings st ill forced the pace after losing two quick wickets, but fine bowling by Trice and Polter broke through their batting, and would have brought victo ry but for the peccadilloes of time. KI NO'S SC~IOO L

QUEEN'S COLLEGE

S. J. Laine, c Thomson, b MitchelL ...........

8

R. M. Sulton, b Dickens........................... C. W. Yates, b Mitchell.. ........................ R. E. F. Minns, c Brian, b Dickens.. ......... M. E. W. Vincent , c Methuen , b Thompson l. C. Potter, b Thompson............... .. .........

72 6 1 20

J. Kemin , not out.. .................................. M . T. ThOrbUrn } J. M. G. Hult on did not bat A. J . Redpath J. C. Trice

31 33

Total (7 wkts. dec.} .................... 183 PhiUips ... , .. . . , .. . ... Mitchell ............. , .. Dickens .............. Thompson ........ , .. Smith .. , . . , ......... ... H arrison, .. " .., .."."

o. 8 II 12 10 6.1 2

M.

R.

w.

2 3 2 2 0 0

23 17 58 34 27 12

0 2 2 2 I 0

M. I-lowe-Jones, b Potter............. ............ L. Harrison, b Polter........................... ... B. H. Thompson, b Trice..... ........... . ...... P. G. Dickens, c Sutton, b Pottcr.............. W. G. Mcthucn, c Kemin, b Potter.... .. ... A. A. Mitchell , b Trice...... .................... H . Shaw, Ibw, b Trice................... ...... .. R. E. S. Urimelow, Ibw, b Poue!'............... D. B. Bryan, not out .......... "........... .. ..... N. H. Phillips, b T rice....... .............. F. L. R. Smit h, No t out Total (8 wkts.) .... Potte!'. .. ....... , .... Trice ....... , ........ Redpath ....... , ..... Thorburn" . . , .. ,., Kcarin ...............

....... , .. .......... ,

0

55 4 56 18 I 0 0

I 0 148

o.

M.

R.

w.

15 12 7 8 2

3 I 0 I 0

47 31 18 29 II

5 4 0 0 0

KING'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V K ENT CLUO AND GROUND

Again the X I showed up well against strong opposition, Redpath distinguished himselr with some accurate bowling which broke the derence o r the Club and Grollnd, In our innings the bowling or the Club was consiste ntly steady and consequently the balting or Laine a nd Sulton especia lly val uuble, Experience was the va luable legacy or this match. KI NG 'S SCHOOL KENT CLU n AND GROUND S. J. Laine, b Spanswick..................... 59 A. F. Brazier, c Kemin, b Redpath ... .. ,...... 20 H" M. Sulton, c and b Knight...... ............ 24 M. Bristow, c Laine, b PoUe!'.... 3 D, J ones, c Spanswick, b Knighl.. ............. 3 P. I-Ie<lrn, c I-lut ton, b Kcarin ......... ,.......... 94 4 R. B. F. Minn s, C Spanswick, b Knighl ... R. Wilkinson . c Hulton, b Trice.".".......... 16 M. E. W. Vincent , Sl Call, b Luckhurst .. . 16 R. Collins, c and b Kearin....... ................ 5 I. C. Potter, not out.. ........ " .. ... ............ . 17 A. W. Catt , b Redpath..... ...... .. . .. . ........... 39 C. W, Yates, b Redpath ............ " ". ........... 29 J. Ke,uin M. T, T horburn . S. Knight, not out.. ......................... ".... 5 A. J . Redpath (lid not bat B. Luckhurst } J . M. G. HUllon ) J. Spanswick did not bat C. Lewis

1

Total (7 wklS. dcc.) .................... 2 19

o. Potter.. .... .. . ........ Trice.... .............. Redpat h ............ ". Thorburn... ......... Kearin..... .. .......... Vi ncent. ............... ,

II 19 II 5 5 5

M.

R.

2 4

28

o o o

o

66

37 27 30

22

w. I I 3

o 2

o

Tota l (5 wkts.)................ .......... 126 Spanswick.......... Brazier............. . LuckhursL .......... Knight.... ............ Collins................ Wilkinson........... Bristow...............

o.

M.

R.

t5

5

o

36 II

5 5

22 35

4 12

19 3 2 3

o o I

8 4

7

w. I

o I

3

o o o


'rHE

CANTUA RIAN

K tNO'S SCllooL, CANTERBURY V ETON RAMBLERS 'I hc School fielded 011 a wicket that gnvc lift to thc pace bowlers, who made rllll use or this. Excellent slip c,tl\:hing SOOIi routed the o ppositio n rur 54 runs, .lIlel Lninc and Sutton passed Ihis total wit h relative case. ETON RAMIJLERS KI NO'S SCliooL p. I) . II. I litis, c Hutton, b Putler............... 7 S. J. L<linc, not out.. .......................... " 39 C. lIodgloon, c Minns, b POller................... 3 R. M. Sutton, Bot ou L.... .......... .. ............ 17 C. \ V. Yates, c Minns, b Trice................... 0 J. Kearin G. Doyle , b Potter.... "................... ...... .. I R. Minns M. R. RCild, c Kearin, b Trice............ ...... 6 M, E. W. Vincent T. G. Denne, c Laine, b Potte!'.................. 0 I. C. Potter R, I cigh· Pembcrlon, c Jones, b Rcdpath.... 21 D. J ones did not bat C W. Winter, b Thorburn ....................... G M, T. Thorburn Lord " [,,i ngham , b Rcdpath.. ................ .. 2 J. C. Trice ~l. t'arks, b Rcdpath ....... .. ... ......... ".... .. . 3 J. M, G. Hutton I. rViachin, not OU!................ .... ........ 0 A. J, Redpa th

'l"ot:1I. ............. .. .... . ,

poller...... ...........

Tlicc... ............... rhorbu1"l1 ..... "..... Rcdpilth .............. ,

54

0,

M.

R.

II 8

7 3

10 12 22 5

7 4.2

J

2

T o tal (0 wkts.) .......... .. .... .•.......

w. 4 2 1 3

Machin ........... .... Doyle ............. .. .. Pa rks ................. Ld, Alvingham ...

KING'S SOIOOL, CANTER BURY

v

o. 2 4 5 I

M.

R.

0 0 0 0

12 13 24 7

57

w. 0 0 0 0

EASTnOURNE COLLEGE

plum b wicket, Laine Hnd Slitton laid a firm roundation or rUIlS, which Minns and KC:1rin continllcd CI~a in ~ t hostilc bowling. In their innings, good bowling by Rcdpath and SOI11C finc cutching brought us within sight or victory in the last ten minutes. On

it

K ING'S SCHOOL

EAsTnouRNE COLLEGE

S. .I . L.. inc, c Wa inwright , b Pau l ............... 60 R. M . Su llon, C G rccnwood, b Pau l... J . .Kcilrin, not Oll!..... ..... ........ M. E. W. Vincent, c Grcenwood, b WatL... R. E. F, Minns, c Grcenwood, b 13ailey...... J. C. Potter, b WaIL...... .... ............. C. W. Yatcs, b WatL.... ........ ............... . J. C. Trice, b Watt .................................. M. T. Thorburn , b Pau l........... . .. .. ".. ....... J. M, O. Hutton }d'd I bat A. J, Rcdpath I no

22 39

I 21 10 13

0 JO

Total (8 wkts.) .................. . .. . ...... 180

R. O. B. '-lowell ... J. D. Paul ...... ...... J. A. F. Bailey ...... J. Watt .. " .... . .. . ...

o.

M.

R.

17 21.4

I 6 I 6

80 80 47 29

10

18

G, E. W, Bowyer, b Redpat h .............. . .. . C. B. G, Mascfield, b Potter .................. . j, Watt, c Hulton, b Red pa th .. " ............ " A. K. Hutchison, b Thorburn ........ ....... .. .. D. G, Parsons, Ibw, b Redpath ............. .. '1', D, Wainwrighl , b Redpath ................. .. R, A. B. Howell, c L.1ine, b Redpath ..... . P. H. Madath, not out ................... . .. . .. . J. A . F . Bailey. b T rice................ " ....... . P. K. G reenwood, not o ut.. ..... " .......... .. . J. D. Paul, did not bat

33 21 12

Total (8 wkts.) ............... ...........

95

o.

w. 0 3 I 4

I. C. Potter ......... J. C. Trice .......... M. T. Thorburn A. J. Redpath .. .. J. Kearin ............

535

12 II 8 10 I

M. 2 3 I 6 0

R.

23 26 22 15 2

o I

4

o

10 7

o

w. I I I 5 0


THE

CANTUAR I AN

KJNo' s SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V SBVENOAKS Y INE

In braving the wcather, both sides enjoyed a polished and exciting game of cricket, which we lost ill the last over. Sutton and Laine opened confidently and the innings continued well with Kcarin and Vinccnt until a slow drizzle turned to heavy rain. We declared nl 170 and the opposition at once Went for the rUIlS. Wickets fell as runs mounted and the IOtSl ha lf-hour St1w an interesting finish. K ING'S SCHOOL

SEVENOAKS VINE

S. J . laine, not out.. .......... ,...... .............

93

R. M. Sutton, lbw, b Dival!... ....... J. Kcarin , Ibw, b Colli ns. ........ . ... M. E. W. Vincent. not OUt........... R. E. F. Minns ) I. C. Polter C. W. Yntcs M. T!lOl'burn did not bat J . C. Tnce J. M. G. I-Ili tton A. J. Redpat h

13 30 24

TOlal (2 wklS.) ............. ... .

170

A. E. Morris, c and b Pottcr. ............. , . ". N. P. Golds, b POHer. ................... ". ... .

R. E. Py le, b Redpath.... ................. ....... It... O. Russcll-Vick, c Redpath , b Thorburn J. S. S. Fife, c Redpath, b Potter............ J . B. Park in, c Yates, b Thorburn............. C. C. R usscll-Vick, b Potter........... D. J. PresIon , run OlIL .................... ..... R. B. Divll ll, not Olll.. ............................ K. J , Smart, not OUt............ ................ A. F. E. Collins, did not bat

:r.

O. K. J . SJ11<lrl.. ........ 13 R. B. Divali .......... II A. F. F. Collins ... 16.5 6.1 D. J. Preston ....... N. P. Golds .......... 3.1

M.

R.

4 0 2 I I

34 53 49 13 II

69 10

I 28

31 9 5 5 J

II

Total (8 wickets) ...................... . 174

w.

O.

M.

R.

W.

I I

I. C. J>Otlcr. ........ 23 J. C. Trice .... " .... 2 A . J. Redpath ..... 5 M. T. Thorburn 15

2 0 0 I

62 17 36 55

4 0 I 2

o o o

KINO'S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY V

S. YOUNG'S X l

Fielding firs t on a wet wicket and a greasy outfield, we soon captured three wkkets. The collapse was halted, however, and ru ns came quick ly in a fo urt h wicket pa rtnershi p. In our innings a good openi ng was no t consolidated and it was a question of seek ing possible victory- at the same ti me preventing a total collapse wh ich made the ma tch interest ing right lip to its closing slages .

S. J . YOUNG'S Xl J . C. Bagga ley, b Trice.. ............. C. Ha rt , Ibw, b Potter.............. .. ............. B. Tre nch, c 1¡lutton, b Po ue L .................

KI NO'S SCHOOL

6

_

I 15

S. J. Lai ne, b Si rkin .......... .................. .. .. 48 R . M. "lutton, run Ollt.. ..... ... .............. .. .. 20 J . Kea rin, c a nd b Jeffrey....................... 10 R. E. F. Minns, run o ut. ................... ...... 22 M. E. W. Vincent, st Isbill, b Si rkin.... ..... 1 I. C. Potter, b Richa rdson ..................... 5 J. C. Trice, c You ng, b Jeffrey........ ......... 17 C. W . Yates, b Pettit. .......................... . 13 M. T . Thorburn, not out....................... 3 J. M. O. Hutton , C Baggaley, b Petlit.... ... 0 A. J . Redpath, not out.............. .. ........... 2

TOlal... ............... . .... . . .... . .. . .. . .. ... 168

Tol.1 (9 wklS.)... .... ..... ............. . 153

Olll'. ............. ......... ........

K. C. Sirk in, run S. Young, Ibw, b Redpath....................... R. C. Richardson, Ibw, b Redpath............. D. G. J ones, c Redpath, b T hornburn........ W. E. J. M inns, b Potter....... .................... D. J. JetTrey, b Trice. .. . ..... . .. .. . .. . .. .......... D. Pettit , not au!........... ...... ...... .... ......... . B. A. Jsbill, Ibw, b Trice...........................

o. Trice.. ............... . Potter................. Redpa th............ ... T horbu rn.... ........ Vincent. ... ........ .....

9.5 8 7 13 7

M.

R.

I

39 30

o 2 3

o

22 39 23

6

I 55 26

6 10 26

I

w. 3 3 2

Pettit. .............. ... French ................ Jeffrey .......... ..... l-l art. ............ ... ... Sirkin ................. R icha rdson .........

I

o 536

O.

M.

R.

13 5 13

3 0 3 0 I 0

32 15 24 41 20 9

10 7 3

w. 2 0

2 0 2 I


TH E

C A NTU ARIA N

KINO'S SCHOOL, C."NTF.RDURY V THE O.K.S.

The O. K.S. brought down a strong side. Their dismis5<1 l, therefore, for 127 was no mean feat, and Trice must be given full credit for fast, aggressive and penetrating bowling. The O. K .S. did not yield easily and the finish, which camc three minutes from the end, when thc School won by one wicket, was indicCltivc of a game well fought by both sides. In addition to the bowling of Trice, Sulton, Minns and HUlIon (Oak spectacu lar catches, and it was Trice's hard and sllecessful hitting off the bowling of J. B. Phillips which turned the scales of the game towards victory for King's. Backed up by Laine, Min ns and Vincent, who established the backbone of the total, a fitting result concluded a scason of enjoyable cricket. O.K.S. H . Emmerson, c H utton, b T ricc............. .. A. P. Ma rks, c Redpath, b Thorburn .. R. A. Lawrence, c Keari n, b Trice.. M. Cowa n, b Redpat h............... .............. D . C. Moor, c Sutto n, b T rice........ R. C. Richardso n, Ibw, b Potter.......... C. R. La ine, c Minns, b T rice.. . -9 . B. Lee, b Pa lter..................... M . Skinner, c Hutton, b Potter. ................ I. C. Black, c Potter, b Trice.............. J. B. Phill ips, not a u!.............................. J. McLeary, b T rice.... ......... .. ..................

K INO'S SCHOOL

S. J. Laine, c Richardson, b Phillips.......... R. M. Slltton, c Richa rdson, b Black.. .... J. Kca ri n, c Skin ne r, b Black................ ... R. E. F. Minns, Ibw, b Richa rdso n.. M. E. W. Vincent, no t OUt..... I. C. Potte r, b Cowa n........ .................... D . Ki rsc h, b Cowan ............... .. . .. .. C. W. Yates, b Cowan........ .............. ... M. T. T horburn, c Skinne r, b Phill ips....... J. C. Trice, b Philli ps............... .............. J . Hutt on, c McLeary, b Cowan.... .. ........ A . J. Redpat h, not out...................... .....

0 34 12 1

35 25 9 0 2 0

1 I

O. 17 16.4 6 2 4

M. 5 3 3 0 0

R.

46 44 18 8 12

0

6 26 23 II 2

I I 22 0 0

Tolal (10 WklS., 12 balli ng) ........ 129

TOl'al ............................... ..... . .... 127

Potter.......... .. . .... Trice .... . ............. Redpath ............... Sutton .... .............. Thorburn ......... . ..

24

w. 3

o.

M.

R.

P hillips.............

16

8

lawrence........... . Cowan.. ........... ... Richa rdson......... Mc Leary....... ....

5

o o

28 25 18 29 14

2

2

Black.................

6 I 0 I

8

10.5 4

3

2

3

w. 2 2

o 4 I

o

TH E 2N D Xl A lt hough two matches were losl' , the sta nda rd of 2nd X I cricket has re mained reasona bly high . The batt ing of the side bas in gencral been .m ore tha n adequa te, though it broke ~I ow n a t .~a s tbo llrne llll dcr pressure from a keen a ttack; the bowling ha s developed through the season III versatility Clnd accuracy, a nd backed by keen fi el ding, has given little awny. We lost to both T he Beverley C.c. a nd Ea!;tbolll'ne Coliege, the former aft e r n spo rting declaration, when de~cat verr nearly becaryle victory. a n~ a p~si t i~e resu lt was obtained ml her than an easy d raw, the latter while ehasmg a substa ntIa l tota l With little tunc III hand. Dover College were soundly beaten and indeed at one stage had eight wickets down wi th only eleven runs on the board. R .M.S. Dover were also defeated with little difficulty. T he game with St. l awrence followed an uninspiring pattern, for , after a reasonable declaration by King's, SI. Lawrence made litt le attempt to get the runs and concent rated merely upon averting defeat. Read Tomkins and, unti l his talent was at last rccogn ised, Hutton, represented the 2nd XI for the third c~nsccutive season. As Captain, R. C. Tomkins undertook a lively approach to the game and inspired an attacking attitude on the field. Although his batti ng for the most part was unsuccessful, he rought most courageously to find his form, a nd had a fine innings against Dover College. M. R . B. Read must be one of the most prolific run scorers in the 2nd XI for many years, having scored over 300 runs in two seasons. As a n opening batsman he has been consistency itself, and has batted in a commanding a nd irresistiblc fashio n from the sta rt. His partner D. C. C. Stevenson shows much promise and his innings of 48 agai nst St. Lawrcnce was an invaluable effo rt of concent rat ion as fou r of the recognised ba tsmen made but six ru ns between them. W . E. J. Minns has consistently made good scores, and has illll'rC'v('c\ ou t of all recognition during the season int? a ma ture a nd domina ting ba ts m~ n ..J . O. While hl\s at all times made va luable run s a nd cOllld be relIed upon to fo rce the rate o f sconng If necessary. 537


THE CANTUAR IAN D. J: Morti!11cr must be recognised as a batsman of talent. in spite of his relatively low scores for he conveys the Impression of runs to come. After the departure ofl horbul'n to Ihe lSI XI the need for a spin bowler

became apparent, and we were fortunate cnough to have the services of C. M. J. Whitlinglon, a lefl arm spin bowler who had batsmen in difficulty on severa l occasions. D . D. Vnlpy and M. J. Niblock shared the new ball and did their job well; both put in an enormous amount of work during Ihe season and were better bowlers as a result . Their performance at Dover College was outstanding, Valpy taking four wickets for three rUIlS, including Ihe hat-trick, and Niblock four for seven. Read took eight wickets in the seasOn and was generally an economical change bowler. A high standard has been maintained in the field' Hutt on'S wicket·kceping received its duc reward and Isbill was a worthy sllccessor. We wou ld like t~

thank both Mr. Robertson and Mr. Kent for their continual help and encouragement.

COLTS XI Played 7, Won 4, Lost 0, Drawll 3 Th is has been an enco uraging season. The batti ng strcngth has been such that on ly in two matches have all been ca lled on to bat. Jones (87), Barbel' (9 1) and O'Clee ( 11 0) nil played attract ive innings. Ro ll ason, competent as wickel·keeper, only occasiona lly revea led his flill potentia l as batsman. McElwee ( 18 for 163) and Pritchard (13 for 106) bowled excellent ly and with hostility, and were ably supported by Jones' spinncrs (8 for 49) and Barren ( 13 for 122). The outstanding performances were the innings of Barber against Eastbourne, of McElwee against Tonbridge, and O'Clee against Ramsgate. There is some really promising material here for the future, inspired by a determination 10 cnjoy the game, irrespective of the result. In addition to those mentioned above, all of whom together with Bennett and Hussey were awarded Colts' Colours, the following have played regularly:- Gordon and Palmar. Also played:- Pugh Cockersell, Wilson, D. C. H. ' RESULTS King's 116; Maidstone Grammar School 53 for 8 Drawn K.C.S., Wimbledon 65; King's 66 for 7 Won S1. Lawrence, Ramsgate 75; King's 76 for 4 Won King's 147 for 6; St. Lawrence, Ramsgate 54 for 7 Drawn King's tOl ; Tonbridge 76 for 5 Drawn Eastbourne 78; KiJlg'S 80 for 1 Won Mr. Baggaley's XI 126 for 6; King's 131 for 7 Won

JUN IOR COLTS The Junior Colts are a happy and confident side and have not met another team to extend them this year. T hei r record of six comfortable victories in six matches speaks highly for their keen and nggressive spirit. At the beginning of the seaso n there were so Illany cricketers of an equa ll y high level Ihat the selection of a final cleven was by no means easy. The credit for this high standard must be given to the scheme of indoor coaching throughout the winter terms, under the kindly encouraging eye of Mr. W. Fairservice, when every new boy is given the chance to prove his abi lity or potentia lity as a cricketer. A very sound and intelligent Captain was found in Anderson, and he proved his ability by win ning the toss in five matches and sending his opponents in to bat. The fielding has been an outstanding feature as the result of much practice in this essential and often neglected part of the game, and the bowling has been accurate and somet imes devastating. The dismissal of Tonbridge for 66 and Eastbourne for 48 within a week by Mclldowie and Pattrick was a very fine achievement, and on other occasions Tuohy and Dale have bowled their spinners very well. Rarely have the batsmen been left many runs for victory and they have managed to score them without undue alarm, though the middle batsmen have not had as much match practice as they would have wished. Tuohy, Anderson and Russell have all scored quite freely and show great promise, and Jones, Wright, Veitch and Parry shou ld do well with greater experience and concentration next year. Hoile very successfull y solved the wicket·keeping problem in mid·term and Ims improved with every malch. It will be surprising if there are not several members of a future First ~I ev¢n .unon~ the present Jun ior Colts' side.

).0.0.


THE CANTUARIAN

UNDER FOURTEENS Played 6, Won 4, Lost I, Drawn 1 Though rather weaker than last year, this year's Under 14 Team has met with a considerable measure of success, and improved its sta ndards all round as the seas~>Il progressed. B,axler was a.lways a tow~r of strength at the crease and behind the stumps, and the deadliness of Swanson s fast bowhng rarely '.l1Issed fire. The team has a lways pl:'lyed as a whole very well , and benefited grea tly from the energetic aDd enthusiastic captaincy of I-Ieath. Maidstone Grammar School Won R.M.S. Dover Won Won St. Lawrence, Ramsgate S1. Lawrence. Ramsgate Lost Won Wellington House Drawn Kent College J.B.W.

THE HAYMAKERS Ten years ago the Club was refounded and sinee then has improved each year. This year has certainly been one of the best in the history of the Club, with 4 wins, S losses and I draw. The season started off at Wingham, a new fixture, and gave the Club its first win, but only just. . SneU was chiefly respon~ible for this win with a masterly 29. The next week at Sturry we took the field With one of our st rongest Sides, but we again lost to this club. In the reLUrn match we recorded our lowest score of the season, that of 29. When we went to Bourne Paddock we also scored 29, this was mainly due to their fast bowler, who looked like Tyson's twin, and who wrought havoc among the more agricuitural· minded members of the team. On June 2nd we went to Adisham, where the Club scored its highest score on record, that of 169, of which Agnew made 38, including three sixes and the breaking of his bat. Adisham made 78, Valpy taking 5 for 30. That Sunday we played an Army side, which came all the way from Guildford and was captained by Manning·Press, a previous Chief Wagg~n~r. The match was played at Luxmoore and enabled the Club to impose a fine on Thorburn for a bflUl3nt 50. The one home fixture of the year on .Birley's against Canterbury Municipal provided the closest fi nish, which we just managed to win, scoring 153 for 4 against lSI for 2 declared. Mr. Robertson was mainly to thank for this SlICCesS, scoring 44. However, the sensa tion of the match was a superb dive for a catch by Mr. Milner, who coll ided with the batsmen and the ba ll fell harmlessly on top of them. The sorriest defeat was at Barham, where the Club was 36 fo r 4 at tea and all out 37 in reply to Barham's 61. MI'. Kent bowled exceedingly well, taking 6 for 19. When the Club went to Nonington, it was beset with ill-lllck from the s!a rt. Deller, the wicket-keeper, dislocated H finger, and Snell was " run out", much 10 everyone's surprise. The Club made 59 in rep ly to Nonington's 84. This score was mainly due to Mr. Robertson, who made a good 21. On Ju ly 21st we went to Elham. The pitch was very wet and only just playable, but Read showed his superb repertoire of strokes in making 59, and so gave the Club its second fine of the season. The innings finally closed at 108 and Elham replied with 87 for 6 when Slumps were drawn. The last match took place at the ground of Gooclnestone and Chillenden. Goodnestone batted first and proceeded to show true rural elegance in smiting the bowling. Every so often play was disrupted whi le the "S heep" were removed from the boundary. The innings closed at tea with the score 103 for 7 declared. Mr. Baldock took 5 wickets for 24. The l:' aYf!1akers b~ttc:d sporti ngly and confi~ent1 y but were plagued with iJI·luck. Mr. Ball showed great style III hIS qUIck mnmgs of 10 runs. The SIde was all out for 76, but they did credit to themselves against accurate bowling. The Club owes its thanks to its Chief Waggoner, R . D. Gregory, who has maoaged the Club well during his term of office. Last but by no means least our thanks are due to Mr. BalJock, who arranged all the fixtures, a nd capta ined the side with II confident air.

R.D.G.

539

, I


THE CANTUAR IA N

THE BOAT CLUB THE FIRST Vlll Summer Term training commenced, as in recent years, at Ounbridge where Jesus College once again gave us faci lities for boating. Ollr annual visit has a lways been of grc.1l Vit luc to the Eight , but Ihis year it was doubly welcome after the restricted activity of the E.lslc .. Tenn. Durham School, who were also boat ing frolll Jesus, had outings wit h us which were enjoyable and profitable for both crews; an unofficial race up the Long Reach '1llhe end of the week prO\fcd to be an exciti ng aITair and resulted in a dcad.hcat Altogether it wus a Illost pleasanl week and we are very grateful to Jesus College Boat Club for thci~ continued help and kind ness. From an unpromising beginning the crew made good progress during the week, but back a t Pl uck's Gutter improvement wus fo r a while very slow. It took them some lime to gel on to their feet a nd to lea rn the elements o f slide·conll'ol, and they were not helped by vu rious minor a ilments which unsettled the order o f the crew. However, there was no lack of effort o r co ncentrat ion and they gmdual ly learned to apply their weight to move the boat, so that by the time of Twicken ham Regatta it was begin ning to run well .

T WICKENHAM REGATTA At Twickenham Regalia the VilL was entered fo r the Mayor of Twickenham Cu p for Jun ior·Senior Eights and registered a wcl l·dcscrved victory. I n successive races they beat crews from Lensbury R.C. Cygnet R . . and LatYlner Upper School. Their rowing improved with each race and the time in the fi nai against L:.llymer was only two seconds slower than that of the final of the Thames Cup event. The most eJlcouraging featu re of the day's win was the determination and pace shown by the crew on' the start and their abil ity to race at top pressure over the course. '

READING REGA'ITA Encouraged by their win at Twickenham, which is really a spring course, the crew continued to work hard during the next fortnight in preparation for the longer course at Reading, where it was decided to enter for Thames Cup Eights. During this fortnight the crew made considerable strides in their paddling with more solid bladework, though there was [lot, as yet, a corresponding improvement in thei r rowi ng: There was a record entry at Reading this year, necessitating racing three abreast, and in the Tha mes Cup event there were no fewer than 27 crews. In our heat we drew Poplar and Blackwall, the dockers' crew, who later achieved distinction at Henley, and Oxford Cily R.C. On the centre stat ion , the School rowed away to a good sta rt, but fa iled to set tle down after the first minute. They raced hard but the blade· work was too rushed and sho rt for them to hold Poplar, who had a good stride in their rowing; the School lost by a length but beat Oxford City by a simi la r di stance. The VlIl lea rned mueh of value from this race, especially that it is no use tryi ng to row at a high ra ting without the equivalent solid bladework. We were most fortunate to be able to stay with Dr. a nd Mrs. Cashell who were, as always, kindness itself, and in thanking them especia lly fo r this year's hospitality, we should like to express Ollr grat itude to them for the kindness and interest they have repea ted ly shown to us during the past five years.

HENLEY ROYAL REGA'ITA The pre· Henley fo rtni ght was devoted to further improvement in individual bladework and especially to acquiring an economical rhythm at top pressure, which is essential for rowing the Henley distance of I mile 550 yards. Unhampered this year by "A" Level examinations and aided by the generosity of Mr. C. J. Ament, we were able to go to Henley a day earlier than in the past. This gave the crew the added advan tage of rowing their fina l full course at Henley instead of at Pluck's Gutter, which did much for their confidence. On the Monday and Tuesday, we had useful practice outings with Jesus College, Cambridge, Merton College, Twickenham R.C. and Thames R.C.; the crew continued to improve and for the first time achieved real relaxation forward, so that the boat was running well between the st rokes. Throughout tllis period and for most of the actual regatta, there was a strong head wind on lhe course, so that conditions generally were slow. In the races for the Princess El izabeth Cup we drew Monkton Combe. W EDNESDAY; v Monkton Combe. The School made a good start a nd had a slight lead almost at once. They led by half·leng th at the Ba rrier and by three·quarters a t Fawley; Monkton raced hard all the way but the School wore not shaken from their steady rhythm and maintained this lead 10 Ihe finish. 540


THE CA NTUAR I AN T ll URSDAY: v Bryanston. Condi tions on Thursday were the worst of the regatta; thc head·wi nd at times reachcd ncar gale-force and in the exposed parts of the course, ~rews had to batt le ~lard to keep ~he boat running. In the quarlcr·fina l against Bryanstotl, the School agam started w~ lI ,. but In the head wmd. were not able to ho ld thcir opponents, who were well together and were more sohd !n the water at the fiOlsh of the strokc. ny Fawley, llryaoston led by a length; betwcen here a nd the Mde Post a tremendous ga!e hit the crews putting ao end to noy chance of nil elTcctive challenge. The School raced hard and kept their form to Ihe ~nd. but Bryanston rowed stead ily to win by Ii lengths. Brya nsto ll lost in the semi·final against Eton, who went on to win the fina l against St. Paul's. Although there were one or two weak crews, the standard of the best crews this ye.1r was probably the highest ever in the even t, lind in more favourable conditions both Eton and St. Pau l's would have recorded fast timos. Considering their inexperience and til,: fact th.lIt they had o nly one O!d. Colour ava ilable, th is yea r's VIII made ve ry credi table progress. Theil' capacity for hard wo rk and w dllll ~ ness to learn made t h~ m a rewnrdi ng crew to coach and they tra ined .and raced Im rder than any VIn smee 1953. Mu<:h crc<!lt f~)J' this is dlle to the enthusiasm of the Captalll , P. F. Va lpy. bllt the crew were also fortunate 111 havlllg III N. D. G illett a cox of considerable skill and assu rance. Th?ir m.a in fault s, due mai nly to inexperience, \\crc a tendency to tear the blac!es out of ~he wa~e r at the fillls h 01 the strok e and al.so f~r some 1ll?l1lbe,rs to I.::e rather short behind the ngger at hi gh ratmgs. But the standard o f Henley .IS nSlllg, espeemllr m the Schools' event , and it is clea r that Ollr best is .not yet good enough ; we have st illto.produfe an elgl.lI whose bladework is sufficiently solid a nd determ ined to beal a ll comers. Several of th iS year s VI II WI I! be avai lab le next yea r and, if they profit by th is season's .ex perience and strive to r~l1ledy their raults, they have ev?ry chance of bccom i!lS,: a f:~st crew,. but ollly If. they set themselves the 1~lghest standa rd all the time. It IS true that we have dlfhcultles peculiar to ou r fi ver, but at Henley there IS no allowance for this: all crews start level , and we sha ll n.ot win thc Elizabet h Cup ~y .say ing that w.c do very well , considering o ur problems, howcver true th.ls may be. ~o produce a wmn!ng .crew despite the sno~vs o f East Kent, despite our isolation and despltc the vagan~ of the Stom With ItS weeds and mud, IS the challenge open to next year's VIII and one worthy of their acceptance. D.S.G.

THE SECOND Yill Aided by the fine we~th~r ea~ly in the .term and br a kecn crew, the 2nd VIII this year developed from rather rudimentary begmnmgs mto a qUIte useful Eight. Afler initia l setbacks when some members felt that they could not cope with both work a nd rowing, the Eight used the fi rst five weeks o f term in preparation for Twicken ham Regalia . Here, neryousll?SS an.d lack of row ing experience told on o ne member of the crew and the boat hac! to easy after ;t Il1l11ute III their first race agai nst U.C.S. in the School Eights' event. ArIel' a further week's traini ng, the crew competed for the Schools Cup a~ !¥alton Regatta wit h greater Sllccess. The first heat against Kingsto n Gramma r School produced an excltlllg r~ce but ~l ot a good r~w . After being level for the maj ority o f the course, the 2n~1 VII r race.d hard to the filll ~h to Will by two-thirds of a length. In the semi ·final, the crew rowed excee~lIlgl y well III : \ fine race agalllsl M.agda len College School 1st VIIr ; they lost by o ne·third of a lengt h III the fastest time of the day fo r th iS event. The Pu blic Schools' Vase at Marlow Regatta produced some excellent racing this .yea r. .In their. heat on Friday evening against .Bedford and Be.wlllont, the 2nd VIII were unfortunate III hllvlllg a mishap at the start when one member of the crew came off hi s scat and they had to stop rowing. They rowed exceptiona lly well afterwards and passed Beaumont ha lf·way over the course, but lost to nedford by ' i lengths. It ha s been a pleasure to coach the crew this year, and once again we o.1 nnot be too gratcful to Mr. and Mrs. Whalley for their hospitality to the crew at Marlow. N.H.S.

THE THIRD AND FOURTH VlIls The 3rd VIII , li ke the 2nd, suffered considerably frolll th~ departure from eights of some IllCI:nbers for o ne reason o r the other so that the crew eventually contamed only three who rowed li t Putney III the Easter Tenn. The newcom~rs were ullused to rowi ng: in eigh ts and hence it was not to be.ex pected tbat they would achieve any grea t heights. But they worked well al\~ chcerf~llIy un~er the gUlda.nce o~ Mr. Wilkinson and latcr of A. J . D. Smith, and made good progress In the tllne available. Readmg Clinker ~4 1


THE C ANTUARIAN Regatta ca'.l1c too, ea rly tl~i s year for us to compete" but in its place a private face wa s arranged for the 3rd VlII with their OPPosite numbers at U.C.S. TillS rcsulted In a. comfo rtable wi n for U.C.S., but OUf

crew learned much of yu ille ~nd we ll1ust lhank U.e.S" for their ~lIldIlCSS in cl.1tertaining us. In the lin. fortuna te absence of Bill S,mlth, the 4th V I,II h,ad verY,lIl1le couelung <lnd rcll1a med a ra ther rucl imcmary crew, but they made suffiCient progress to Justify sendmg them to Pangbou rnc 10 gain racing experience.

. Both eights were Cnlc!'cd for t~lC 3rd ylll and Colts' Regatta at I>;'ll}cbollrnc and, although they achieved little success, the experience gamed Will be va luable fo r those staymg next year. In their first race the 3rd VIII finished second to 81. Paul's after Cli fton had been disqualified; in a losers' race again;t St Edwa rd's they raced ex tremely well and lost by 4 f1. in the closest finish of the day. The 4th VIII wer~ ~efeat~d by .Br ynn~lO n <lnd S1. Edward's in thei r first race and by Bedford Modern and Monkton Combe In th~ lr second . 1 he report on Pa ngbourne wou ld no t be complete withollt mention of Ihe wonde rfu l ho~ p l t~lit y o rTered to the crews overnight at Bra mley Po lice College. This was due to the kindness of Bngadler Dunn, 10 whom we a re ex tremely gra tefu l.

THE CREWS lSI VIII. -J. B. C. Balkwill, bOI." ; C. T. Davies, 2; T. N. 1¡larke, 3; R. H. <;:roxford, 4; P. F. Valpy, 5; J. R . Fre.w, 6 ; T . C. Chenevlx-Trench, 7 ; P. C. Ament, slroke; N. D. Ol liett, cox; J. S. P. Sa le also rowed wJlh the VI II up to Twickenham and was also awarded first rowing colours. 2nd VIII . J . C. O. Smith, bow ; T. O. H ird, 2; R. D . Baker,3 ; E. A. J. Gardener, 4 ; M. A. Murch,S; A. T. Webb, 6; J. S. P. Sale, 7 ; P. K . W. CasheU, stroke; H. J. Ricketts, cox. 3rd VllI.-:A. P. O. Stan ley-Smith, bow; J:f. C. Whittall,. 2; I. S. McDo nald, 3; R. V. Edwards, 4; D . H. KIJ?g? 5; W. R. A. Uthwatt-Bo uvene, 6; N . Devotl, 7; T. M. E. Dunn, slroke ; M. J . Robinson A. M. WllImmson, coxes. ' 41h VIII. -:-D . C. Halton, bow ; T. C. Kinross! 2; C. H. Tempest-Radford, 3; G. Garrard, 4; J. M. BeallglC~, 5; P. F. W. Venn, 6; J . R. A. BII'd, 7; J . E. Bates, stroke; D. J . Bevan, cox.

FORDwrCH Fordwich \~<lS the scene o f much act ivit y and lllore people than evcr before were boat ing there this SUllllller¡ Racmg was held reg ularly between the I-lo use Lcague FOllrs and the th ree di vis io ns were won reSPc~u vel y by Gra n ~e "A", Lllxll100re " 8" and Gru nge "C':. Raci ng this year was except ionally keen ~ll t wll!l a few ,exceJ?t l? ns! the standard of .t hc .follrs was no t high. T here were too many fours which had IIlSUfficI.ent ba ~ l c tr~lImng 111 tubs before gomg mto the fours, and Ho use Captains next year wou ld do well to conSider th iS POIl1t. The Se!lior Ho use Fours were rO"Yed after Heriley at Fordwich and , considering the short time avai lable for praCtice, the standard was creditable and hIgher than last yc.1r. School House although lack ing the power of one or two <:ther Houses, won by virtue of beil"!g t~e only four to be'really together; they were a neat , h ~rd -w<:rk lllg crew and !h ~ro ughl y deserved ~helr wm. Grange \~ere a little unlucky in having to row a subst it ute III the final, bu~ It IS proba~le that thiS affected the margm of their defeat ralher than the outcome of the race. The Semor Sculls thiS year were WO Il by A. J. D . Smith who be.11 the holder D . O . Barbel:, in a good final, whi le the Junior Sculls were won by D. M. Huxley. 'who was considerably fa ster than hiS opponents.

Wi? were a ll very glad to have Bill Sm ith back with us after his illness and wish him a full recovery. In hiS absc!1ce! the main responsibility for Fordwich was shouldered by R. G . D . M . Burr, an efficient and ent hUSiastic Secretary.. to whon~ the whole Club owes much. We should like also to thank Messrs. Ament and LYII.ch fOI: theIr gen e ro~l t y and .e ncou r~ gt?men t , ~r . Casy.rcll for giving up his spare time to us, and also MISS Spiess for her kmdness m provld lllg the eights With much-apprecia ted ex tras. D.S.O. $4,


THE CANTUARIAN

TENNIS In spite of many pre-season qualmsJ the Tennis Vl has met with considerable success; when o ne considers that not o ne member played III more than three matches last season, and that the average age o f the tcam is just scvcntccn , their efforts in winning three out of six matches arc very credi ta ble . We were heavily defeated by K.C.S., Wimbledon a nd Eas tbourne and we lost to Sutton Valence in a closely contested match. We d~feated St. Lawren~e, Ramsga te 9~ an~ D over College and Tonbri(~ge 5- 4 the latter being the best W ill of the season. 1 he O.K.S. match IS stil l to be played. We are entermg twO pairs for the Public School Youth Cup at Wimbledon. Five of the Six will be here next year, and will provide a good foundation for what should be a highly sllccessfu l season next year. Many games have bcen los t because o f excessivc do ublc-faultin g, indecisive volleying and wild relllrns o f service. However, we hope the team has rea lised the importance of these aspects of the game, and has gai ncd experiencc from thi s season's mistak es. The annual mixed do ubles fix tu re for the 1st and 2nd VI's wi th .oenenden School was unfo rtunately ca ncelled. There was a la rge entry for the Senio r and Junior Tournaments. This reflects the interest of the School in the game. However, much enjoyment was lost by t!lO inability of the contestants to play .th~i r matches o n' in the time allotted . Thus it was necessary to decide many matches by the toss of a com 111 o rder to make it possible to have the tournaments finished by the end of term. Our thanks are duo to Miss Spiess fo r her patience and kindncss in providing excellent teas and su ppers ; to Mr. Gross and Mr. Milner fo r their great help ; and especially to Mr. Gay, who through his tireless interest and excellent coaching has made the successes we have enjoyed possi ble. The team was: J . A. Turner, C. J. M . Jewison, D. J . Walter, J . A. Kane, J. A. G. Stewart, J. G. A. Head ley. Also played : R . J. Snell, H. R. Templeton, C. W. Yates.

J.A.T.

SWIMMING Despite having a team which, judged o n it.s times, was undoubtedly the best we have had since the war, we have bcen only moderately successful th iS yea r. In Ollr triangular match with City o f London and Highgate we were well beat en by both schools. Elcock swam well to come second in bot h freestyle events. His lime ill the 100 Y,mls was 1.5 seconds inside the Sc hool Record. M. R, Allen and Warwick-EvCII1S also did well in the junior match . We fa red rat hcr better agai nst S1. Lawrence, Ramsgate, winning fo ur out of six o f the seni or event s and two out of four in the Colts. We also won all the relays, except the Colts' Freestyle, which ended in a dead heat. Thc bad conditions for the match against Tonbridge probably accounted for the poor times. The Open team won the match by the same '!largin that the Colts lost. Elcock won both frees~yle events by narrow margins and Pat~rson an<.1 Lilly ~011 t~e B~eaststro.k~ and Backstroke respecltvely. The Colts did not do so well, theIr on ly willner bcmg St lven In the diVing. We were better placed in the Bath Clu b Freestyle Relay than last yem. This year's time canno t be compared with previous ones since the race was swum over a different distance. However, in the Medley Relay we came four th in our heat of seven in the best time the School has yet recorded for this event. Our fina l position was twentiet h out of thirty-five. Both the Open and the Colts' teams lost to Eastbourne. Thei r s uperiority in the freesty le events was the causc of our defeat. The Open team won the Breaststroke, Backstro ke, Diving and Medley Relay, but lost a ll the points that they had gained here on the.twC? frccstyle events and the Frccstyle Relay. T he best the Colt s could produce was an equal first by Leblsh In the Breaststroke. We made up for this defeat by beat ing J-I. M.S. Worcester in both the Open a nd the Colts malches. Elcock won the 100 Yards in a time only 0.3 seconds o uts ide the record and tied with Camp for first place in the One Length . Lilly won the Backst roke, wit h Stevens second, in a record time of 49 seconds. Paterson won the Breaststroke in 48 seconds, also brc,tking the record. H .M.S. Worcester filled first a nd

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second places in the Butterfly and fi rst in the Diving, but we won bot h relays. rn the Colts match, Wo rt ley a nd Austin won the freestyle events and Lebish t he Breaststroke. A llen won the One Lengt h Backstroke in a time of 23.6 seconds, which is a new Jun ior Record. Again they won the diving and we won both rei<l Ys. After the match we played a fr iend ly game of wa ter-polo, which we won 1- 0. The match against Westminster was postponed becausc Ihey had mumps, and unfortunately we were unable to arrange ;.molher suitable date.

The Swimming Sports were won by Luxmoore wi th Gra nge second and Wa lpole a very close third. Luxmoorc's victory was mainly due to their superiority in the sen ior events, of wh ich they won 8 out of t I . W alpole were best in the midd le events and having started the spo rts 30 po ints behi nd Gra nge, were only

3 points behind at the end . H ad Grange not been missing Camp, they would have run Luxmoore much closer than they d id. As it was, the fin al scores were: 1st, Luxmoore, 254 points; 2nd, Grange, 17 1 points' 3rd, Walpole, J 68 points. ' T he following records were broken during the sports: Junior One Length Backstroke by M. R. Allen in 23.3 sees. ; J uni or Two Lengths Freestyle by E. H ayworth in 45 sees.; a nd Senior Medley Relay by Luxmoore in 64.4 sees.

n.

The Inter-H ouse Water Polo Competit ion was won by Luxmoore an er a very exciting fina l in wh ich Grange scored the fi rst two goals but fin ally lost 4- 2 a n er two periods o f extra time. G . A. Elcock won the rnd ividual Med ley Race very easily from Wo rtley (2nd) and Green (3 rd). Finally, l would like to thank all those who have helped us by taking bat hes a nd standards, pa rticularly M r. Paynter, Dr. Dodd, M r. Pollak, and most of all Mr. Qlswell, who has not only expertly coached the tea m betler than ever before, but has also given up so much of his time to a va riety of tasks, such as teaching people to swim and instructi ng in life-s.."lV ing, that there has not been a day when the bath has not been in usc at every available time. R .O .P.

SHOOTING Victo ry hus come o ur way "t lnst, so it was not fo r nothing that the School Team was kept practising Ihis term . Usually in the past, School Shooting has given way to H o use p ract ices in the s ummer, and we now know why- beca use so few schools st ick to the mini ature range thi s tenn . However, we did manage to get o ne match, agai nst Bed ford, which we won by 63 1 to 624-a na rrow margin, but none the less gratifying to this year's temn a nd enco uraging for next year. For this result much of the credit is due to R .S. M . Herbert, who has given us so much of his ti me and invaluable advice and encouragement througho utlhe year. After this. while the School Team kept its eye in with one practice e.1ch week, the H ouse Teams practised for the MuUins Cup Competition which was won by Wa lpole Housc. The scores o ut of a possible 560 were: I, Walpole 510; 2, Meister Omers 506; 3, Galpin 's 490; 4, Marlowe 489; 5, School House 477; 6, Grange 475; 7, Luxmoore 464; 8, Unacre 460. Considering that the competition was shot in one o f the worst gales Canterbury has ever known, these scores were indicative of a very high standard ; last year nOl one H ouse rcached 500 points, and the record score is only 15 more than the winners scored this time. It was a fi tting and exciting end to the yea r's sport. E.l.S-S.

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O.K.S. NEWS (The lIonorary Secletwy of the Association, M. J. II. Girlille , 4 1 ComlQllgh, Way , Tllnbridge Wells, 1I'01lid Itke in/ormation/or me/usio" ill the O.K.S. N ews. CIIANGES or ADDRESS AND ALI. ENQUIRIES REGARDING

TIll! SUI'I'LY OF The C{lIIl11arillll TO O.K.S. SIIOULD

AI:'

NOTIFIED TO 111M AND NOT TO TilE EDITORS.)

O.K .S. SUI)perS These are held at the Ga rrick Hotel, Charing Cross Road , on the (irst Wednesday of each month at

7 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. All O.K.S. are very welcome. Details ca n be obta ined from the London Secretary. W. C. You ng, Fai r Acres, Tydcombc Road, Wa rlingham, Surrey (Tel. Upper Warli ngham 2 12 or Waterloo 544 1).

O .K.S. Da nce T he nex t annual danec o f the OX.S. Association is to be held on Friday, October 26th . D eta ils can be obta ined from the London Secretary, W. C. Yo ung, Fair Acres, Tydcolllbc Roa d, Warlingha m, Surrey (Tel. Upper Warlin gham 2 12 or Waterl oo 5441 ).

O.K.S. News JOI-IN PI:ARSON (1 946-5 1), who is at Trin ity College, Dublin, is Secretary of the Dubl in Uni vers it y Cent ral Athletics Comm ittee. He spends much time on the river an d says life in D ublin i ~ good an d the educ;:l tio n broad. P. F. PAGE (1 932-36) has been t ransferred to the Kenya Po lice. P. R. H. ELUOTT ( 1914-22) has just relinquished the management o f Westmi nster Bank Ltd., Cliftonville, to take up a similar appointment at Margate. MICHAEL C. KAROP ( 1935- 38) is in L..,gos, Nigeria. He recemly s..,w H. A. S. JOIINSON (l922-32), who is resident at Kano. TH E REV. R. F. CARTWRIGHT (I 927- 32}, Vica r of St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, had the honour o f being one of the clergy to receive the Queen when she visited Brislol in April. S. C. MAI'U:.T UORP (1940-45) is chief engineer at a large factory in British Columbi a. Cl IRISTOI'I-IER JARMAN (1947-5 1) has recen tly visited Pa rra malla a nd returns to England in September. He has signed on in the Navy, thus extending his commissio n until 1960. CA I'TAIN S. A. R. CAWSTON ( I938-43} o f Roya l Arti llery, a nd CAI'TA IN M. W. McD. CAIRNS ( 194 1-46) qualified for .the Sta ff College, Camberley. The for mer ha s been selected 10 enter the College. Til E REV. L. E. C. EVANS ( 1904-07), from 1948- 51 a J udge in Singapore, has accepted the living o f SI. Mary. Woodla nds, ncar Scvenoaks. P. DAU MANN ( 1948-53) is now li ving a t St. Leo n a rd 's~o n ~Sea , where he has got into tOllch with severa l O.K.S. TH E REV. G . V. DAV IES ( 1935- 38) has been appoi nted Viea r o f Leysdown with Harty, Isle o f Sheppey. LI:SLIE M ITCHELL (l 9 14- 19) has become Head o f the Presentat ion of Associated Red iffusio n Televisio n Service. R. J. J ACKSON (l 945-49) has been elected an Associate Member of the Institu te o f Chartered Accou nt ants. His ma in hobby is still ra il ways, model and full size. He rccently saw GEORGE HAf\-1\JER ( 1948- 52), who is enjoying his med ical studies at Jesus College. BRIGADIER J . H. WOODS, C.R.E. ( 1903- 09), afler serving 37 years in the Army, went to Leeds to learn the wool weaving craft. He has a showroom in the famous Shambles in York under the sign of "The Yo rk Wemers" and has a large disp lay of handwoven and made~lIp goods. 1. A. FLOWER (l939-45) and his father made severa l purchases there recently and can thoroughly recommend it to other O. K.S. in the a rea. RICHARD NORRIS ( 1946-5 1) ends his Nationa l Service in August and hopes to start teaching in the Michaelmas Term. J . FVFE·SMITH is joining Sydney University. R . O. MILNE ( I 948- 53} has been appoi nted D emonstrato r in Dotany at Wye College. JOHN MI LNE has recent ly taken the degree o f Master of Science.

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THE

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D. T. W EATHERILL (1942-46) has been appointed to a senior post in the Di stillers' Company. one of Britain's largest industrial organis.1Iions. G . LINDLEY (1943-47) is being sent by the Colonial Office to Fiji as a Magistrate for three years. L. S. J EFFERY (1927- 30) has been appointed Boro ugh Engineer and Surveyor for Wanstcad¡Woodford. MILES BASTER (1949- 54) in June gave a performance of the Elgar Violin Concerto in Brussels. E. llAYLlS (1947- 53) enters London University to st udy Civil Engineering. He spellt part of his National Service in Malaya attached to the Hussa rs. BRUCE HYAlT ( 1947- 53) is going to teach at a prep. school on leaving Oxford this (enn . JOt-IN PORTER ( 1947-52) has been accepted by C.A.C.T . M . for truining for the Ministry. At a Student Working P<lrty at Lee Abbey he met PETE R Moss (I 947- 53) und,last Christmas, R. J. JACKSON (1945-49) who has just sat for his fina l accountancy exa mination. ' J. D. TWI!L1.s~GROSSH ( 1936- 44) has been elected an Associa te of the Royal . Institute o f Uritish Archi tects. His wife is also in the sa me profession. Olt. L . I-I . TURNER ( 1930- 34), who is al the In stitute for Medica l Research, Kua la Lum pu r, Federation of Malaya, expects to be permanen tly stati oned there now, and wi ll be happy to meet a ny O.K.S. who find themselves in thaI neighbourhood. IN T H E SERV ICES LIEUT.-COMMANDER C. F. JAMES, R.N. (1933- 39) has been appointed from H.M.S . Porcileslcr Caslle to serve with the Royal Malayan Navy on loan fo r about two years. I-I e will be stationed at Singapore and will be training a mixed Navy of Malays, Chinese, Indians, Pakistan is and Eurasia ns. J. K. ORCHARD (1949-54) has finished his two years o n the Conway and is now ell rowe in his first ship for New Zealand. . P. R. GOURMAND (1951 - 55) is now in Germany. W. W . SMITH (1950- 55), having fini shed a Coda Specia l Course at Crail, is now stationed in Hong Kong, where the weather is deterring him from doing any work. PETER ALLEN (1949- 55) has been acting with the Eli7.abethan Players in a production of Love's Labour LoSI at the British Centre in Berlin. When we last saw J . D. B. WALKER (1950- 55) he was recoveri ng from givi ng a lecture at very short notice on atomic wa rfare, a subjcct ent irely new to him. N. WENBAN-SMITI-I ( 1950- 55), when last we heard, was at Malta with H.M.S. Jamaica. J. MORGAN ( 1949- 54) is now comm issioned in the Duke o f Cornwa ll 's Light Infantry at Bermuda. He recently cruised to New London and then s pcnt a week's leave in New York. R . M . OSBORN ( 1952- 54) a nd N. J. STEWARD ( 195 1- 54) arc doi ng their National Scrvice at Oswestl'Y. R. J . W. SAINSIlURY (195 1- 55) is in The Buffs, stationed at Cantcrbury, and is about to take his W.O.S.B. D. J. C. SNOXALL, J. H EMBRY, n. A. J. WALSIiAW, P. G. W. C. FLASI-IMAN and C. N. LAINE have passed thei r W.O.S. B. G. G. JONES (1949- 53) is an Under-Officer at the Roya l Air Force College, Cranwell , and recently passed out sixth. R . N. MURCH (1951 - 55) is at the Infantry Training School at Warminster, and among other duties is acting as a "guinea-pig" in fatigue tests, etc. He goes to the R.M.A. Sandhurst next term.

n.

O.K.S. Golfing Society The following are the results of the Spring Meeting held at Littlestonc on May 26th:THE BoVENSCHEN SALVER G. A. Young 80 less 4 = 76 1. P. Hare 93 less 14 - 79 83 Icss 4 = 79 A. C. Budd H. C . Honey 95 less 15 = 80 M. Philpott 9 1 less II = 80 J. P. H are won the second prizc o n the last nine ho les and thc scratch prize was won by A. C. Budd .

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FOUR BALL COMPETITION FOR THE BOVENSCHEN CUPS J. Bennell and J . P. Hare 2 up R. Orindal and H. C. Honey I up G . Arnold and G. A. Young All square G. Arnold and A. C. Budd I down 2 down F. R. Hamp and M. l)hilpott At the Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club on May 27th, King's School beat Sutton Valence by five matches to three . In thi s year's Halford Hewitt, the O.K.S. team had their best result so far, beating Wellingborough 41 to t and beating Ound le 3 to 2, and on ly losing 3-2 lO Repton in the third round . The results are mOSl encouraging, and it is hoped that we shall do even better next year. O.K.S. ",hose sons are in the School or have in recent years left it, and those entered to comc Adams, Theo. S. Alla rd , Elliot Allen, J. A. S. All ison , J. W. Arnold, G. Ashenden, David Bacon, N . V. Baker, J. F. Barber, C. W. Billinghurst, J. S. Blackm ore , J. W. Blunt, D. S. Booker, G . A. W. Brockman, J . D. Burnett, J. F. R. Cantor, J. Carpenter, A. E. Carter, D. G. R . Clmrnaucl, J. G. W. Chesshyre, H. L. (A t School I,ae ke) Clark , J. H . Clarke, K. H . Clcmetso n, C. A. B. Cooper Poolc, B. H . Corben , James Coul'l ney, M. M. C reed, M. B. Cronshey, J. F. H. Cussa ns, A. A . de C. Dawkins, E. S. Deighton , J. E. Do naldson, C. W. Durie, J . O. East, J. G. Edwards, S. L. Elliott, P. R. H. Elvy, W . E. Eustace, F. A. Evans, D. F. L. Evans, G. V. Evans, P. J . Fi nn , P . D.

Kent , P. D. A. Kni ght, R. H. Laine, J . N. B. Latter, C. E. Layland, R. M . Lee, P. H. Lewis, J. W. Lock, W. T. Lovelace, F. E. H. Lucas, P. F . Magnus, Peter MaUo rie, P. R. Martin, A. W. Maycock, W. D'A. Meek, C. l. Monro Higgs, W. R. Moor, D . J . Morris, R. W. Mowll , W. R. Murch, C. P. Murray, C. J . B. M urray, O . F. Neil, J . D. Nelson, A. H . Nettleton, J. D. Northover, J. A. Norton¡Tay lor, S. Oak~Rhind, H. Oat ridge, N. C. Osborne, R. H . Page, P. F. Paine, P. S. Paris, C. G. A. Payne, G. LeF. Pettifer, J. O. Porter, A. G. Pout, G. I. Price, H. R . N. Price, W. S. Quested, C. L. Reacher, J. S. Reed, G . V. Roberts, P. S. W.

Fin ni s, J . B. Fishcr, H . A. Fisher, R. S. Flower, J. A. Freeland, D . H . Fyfe Cooper, R . S. Garel-Jones, B. Gibb, J . H. P. Gibson, W. L. Girling, M. J. H . Glennie , J. F. Goodsall, R. H. Gordon-Wilson , N. F. Gostling, W. A. P. Goulder, R . V. H . Gou ldsbury, P. A. Graham, W. V. Grant, H . SI. J. Grant, P. O . Griffit hs, J . A. G. P. l'lamp, F. R. Hannah, W. H. Hayes, W. N. Heyman, L. V. Hill , P. I. Hinds, S. W. Hipwood, C. M. H olmer, P. C. H . Hopewell, A. G . Housden, G . Mel. Hussey, Dyneley Ireland, V. F . James, B. A. Jenkins, J. H. S. Johnston, 1-1 . A . S. Jones, J. R. n. Kain, H. G. Kennedy, A. P. D. Kennedy, D. C. D. Kennedy, R. H. Kent, A. R. R. Kent, B. S. Kent, J. V.

547

Robertson, A. Robinson, G . S. Runda ll , J. A. Sampson, ! . E. P. Savery, J. B. L. Saxby, L. C. Scrivenor, T. V. Seabrook, G. L. Seymour, A. Smyth, V. G. Smythe, A. G . Stainer, David Stilcs, R . F. Strouts, R. O. Sunter, Jack Tilton, W. O. Tomkins, F. B. Trevitt, J . L. Trickett, D . G. Tripp, R. T. Trousdell, M . C. Turner, L. H. Valpy, K . F. Valpy, L. G . Walter, R . Watson, C. H. Watt, J. M . Wayte, 1. W. Weekes, J. T . Wenban, H. J . Whalley, J. P. Whitt. II, D. G. Williams, J. R. Williams, R . L. Willis, A. G. R. Wiseman, G. O. E. Wright, J. C. Wylson, J. O . Yearwood, T. O. Young, G. A. Young, J. O. Young, W. C.


THE C ANTUARJAN

ENGAGEMENTS MOREAu- REES.-David Merling Moreau (1937--46) to Eliz.1bclh Mary Rccs. NevILE- LEES.-Anthony John Montagu Nevile ( 1947- 51) to Janel Leighton Lees. LESTER- CooPER.- Michael John Cooper (1941-44) to Margaret Ca therine Cooper. H UDSON-MILLER.- John Robert Miller (1945-49) to Jcnifcr Millcr. HUODARD- BARR.-Captain Keith Hubbard ( 1942--46) to Una Barr. FOSTER- PERRy,- John Frederick Foster (1947- 52) to Sarah Constance Perry. BEDINGFIELD TEWART.- Rogcr Bedingfield (1942-47) to Mary Elizabeth Stewart. ELLICO'IT- O·SULLIvAN. -Petcr Ellicott (1944-49) to Ei leen RacJmcl O'Sullivan. LEwIs-8TuART,- Patrick Lewis ( 1943-47) to Susa n St uart. LEADBEATER- COOKE,- R. Leadbeater ( 1939-43) to Frieda Cooke. CORK- BoLT. -Robin Cork (1943- 48) to Valerie Ho llo

MARRIAGES BOLT- AITCHlsoN.- Cecil Moncur Bolt (1936- 40) to Joa n Alice Ait chison on March 17th , 1956. GRIPF'lTHS-COc KRAM .- Colin G ri ffiths (1946- 47) to Valerie Cock rum. WEN OAN- CLAYI:.-Richard Wenban to June Claye. MOOR- COUNTER.-John Moor to Ruth Counter on Muy 19th.

SILVER WEDDING JOLY- ROWNTREE.- N. R . S. Joly (1920- 23) to Dorothy Rowntree.

BIRTHS WISEMAN.- On May 11th, at Nairobi, to Anne, \vife of Bill Wiseman (I927- 36), a second son. BRuNET.-On June 17th, 1956, at Oxford, to Barbara and Peler Brunet (I935- 39), a son. CARTER.- On June 3rd, to Joycc, wife of David Carter (1934-40), a son, Anlhony John . BRooKs.- On January 27th, to S. Brooks (1939-43), a daughter, Amanda. JOHNSON.-To Dorothy, wife of the Rev. C. F. Johnson (1 937-40), a daughter, Catherine.

DEATHS SPICKERNELL.- On March 3 1st, Sir Frank Spickernell (190 1- 03). WILLlAMs.- On April 9th, the Rev. P. F. S. Williams, from 1892- 99 assistant master.

OBITUARIES DOUGLAS SPENCER MONTA GUE TASS ELL ( J883-90) We learnt with regret that Douglas Spencer Montague Tassell had died o n April 27th . He came to King's in 1883. won a Junior Scholarship in 1886. and a Sen ior Scholarship in 1888. He became a Monitor in the following yea r, and was Captain of School for the year 1889- 90. I-Ie was President of the Debating Society, and before 1e.1ving was elected to the Bunce Exhibiti on. I-Ie was an excellent Captain of School, a first class brain, and popular with both masters and boys. He won an Open Scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford and took a Second Class ill his Greats Finals in 1894. After a spell of tuitio n in a preparatory school at Folkestone he went to Forest School, and thence to Malvern College in September, 1905. I-Ie remained on the staff at Malvern until his retirement in July, 1934. During his time there, he was for seven years in charge of the "overflow house". and latterly was given the job of tc.1ching Geography for the whole school. t-lis chief work, however, was with the O.T.C., prior to and during the period of the 1914- 18 War. Evidently the War Officc wished him to stay where he was in view of the work he was doillg and, to quote a contemporary of his, "He practically single· handed infused a new spirit into the whole thing". We extend our sympathies to his family. SJLAS WILLIAMSON (187J-75). The Oldest O. K.S. We were much grieved to learn of the death on May 11th, at his ho me, " Ri versleigh", in the London Road of MI'. Silas Williamson. He was the oldest O.K.S., and li ving in Canterbury a ll his life, has had long ~nd freq uent connecti ons with the School. His. death wil.1 be mll~h · regl'etted in Canterbury, where he and his family have for many yea rs been of great mtluencc III the City. 548


T H E CAN TUARJAN He was one of live brothers, all of whom were O.K .S., and thrce of whom bccame nonagenaria ns. Silas was at King's from 1871 until 1875, and on leaving School joined his father's firm, of which he was a di rector unt il his retirement in 1930. It was during his directorship, also, of the Can terbury Gas and Wilter Compa ny that the Company bcCiIIl1e such a prosperous concern, and made such great strides. But he wi ll be remembered not so much for his excellent business abili ties as for his good work in Canter¡ bury. A genial, kindly and humane person, he WilS a f<lit hfu l Churchgoer, <lnd gave no litt le help to such Ch urches in Ca nterbury as were in nccd, although SI. Dunstan's was his favouri te. The scope of his benevolence appea rs unlimited , and there must be few cha rit able institutio ns in Cunter. bury not indebted to his generosity; above all the Kent and Ca nterbu ry Hospita l, of whose Board of Management he was once a member, owes much to him. In 1905 he was appoi nted to the Bench, and was for 40 yea rs Justice of the Peace in Can terbury; he was an excellent magistrate, humane, sagacio us and understanding. At the funerul , which was held at the Ch urch of St. Michael and All Angels, the School was represented by J. B. Harris, Esq., R. J. Snell and O. D. Jevons. T HE " HERM IT OF CAT ISLAND"- JOHN HAWKES Few priests ha ve had slJch an adven turous career as Mgr. Jo hn Hawkes, " The Hermit of Ca t Island", who has died in hospital at Miami Beach, Florida, at the age of 80. Born in Richmond, Surrey, and educated at King's Schoo l, Ca nterbury , Mgr. Hawkes started his career by becom ing an architect. Among his work in England are the gatehouse of the Anglican Abbey of Alton , Hants, a church at Gunncrton, Nort humberland , and the guest house o n Ca ldey Isla nd . After studying at Lincoln Theo logica l a llege, he served as a n Anglica n cu rate at the famous Anglo¡ Ca tho lic Church of the Holy Redeemer, C1erkenwe ll, London. Then , after a yea r's probation with the Bened ictines on Ca ldey Island between 1906 and 1907, he tried to establish a community of Anglican Franciscans, but this did no t last long. In 1909 he became rector of Long Isla nd in the Bahamas. Two years later he was received into the Ro man Catholic Church at Graymoor, Garrison, New York. Here he designed a church for the Society of the Atonemenl. Next we hear of him working as a labourer on railway work in Western Ca nada. Havi ng been rejected by the Capuchins as too o ld for their novitiate, he studied ut the Beda College in Rome, and he was ordained priest Ihere in 1915. For the next 24 yea rs he engaged in stre nuo us mission wo rk in Western Australia. During thi s same period he designed several churches, convents, and two cat hedra ls. In 1938 he was appoi nted a Domestic Prelate to Pope Pius Xl. The fo llowing year Mgr. Hawkes obtai ned permissio n fr om the Bishop of Geraldton to leave Austra lia so tha t he could spend the rest of hi s life as a Francisca n tert iary hermit in the Bahamas. In 1940 he began blJilding wit h hi s own hands Mount Alvernia Hermitage on Ca t Island. Here he ho ped to find complete so litude, but his retreat was oft en disllIrbed by crowds of tourists, because it was so prominent o n its hil l-top above the sell. Besides mini stering to the native population on the island Fra Jerome- as he was known- sti ll managed to des ign churches and mo na steries, including the great abbey at Nassau, and iI cathedra l for the Ba hamas. About ten years ago his healt h began to give way. but until 1955 he persisted on leadi ng a penit ential and so litary life. Eventually he had to be moved to the ca re of the Benedictine mo nk s at Nassau. Eccentricity a nd holiness went side by side in hi s unique character. It was lypica l of him thai he asked to be buried wilho ut a coffi n in a cave beneath his herm itage, so that the land-crabs could devour his body. p. r .A. (Wi,h ackllowledgemellls 10 The Catholic flel'ald.)

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CORRESPONDEN CE 45 Ladbrokc Grove. London, W.11. Jllly 29111, 1956.

To the Edilol'S ofTt'IE CANTUA RI AN

D eal' Sir, Afler many years abroad I wished to take the opport uni ty of being i n England \ 0 show the School a nd Canterbury 10 my famil y, so sct o ut full o f hope yeste rday intendin g to wa lc h the O. K.S. Cricket Match, have lunch al the Cou nt y a nd then watch the Rowi ng. But , a lns! we got hopelessly st uck in the most incredi bl e traffic block at the a pproach to Rochester Bridge and a h e r spendi ng a lo ng time without progressing at all, eventually gave up all hope of reachi ng Ca nterbury that day. M any o thers in the queue a lso turned back. I was informed tha i this block happened every week-end in the summer, and that the Maidstone road was almost as bad. In eflect, it means that Canterbll l'y is to all in tents and purposes unapp roac!mble by road at week-e nds in the s ummer in spi te or the very good "Rochester Way" which runs to the Bridge appro.lches. Ca nnot a ll at Cant~ rb ury . and the Kent coast make a sufficient russ to have removed what I fec i sure must be the worst traffic block a nd bottleneck in the world ?

Yours tru ly, H . W . RIOSI)A LE

(1917- 20).

OUR CONTEMPORARlES The Edi tors acknow ledge wi th tha nks the receipt of the ro ll ow ing magazi nes, and apolog ize ror any omissio ns ;Bradfield College Cltronicle, Britanl/ia Maga zille, 111e Beaullloll/ Review, 'I1,e 8al'rO ll iall, Tlt e Campbelliall, Tlte Crallbrookiall, Th e Chofllu' feiall, The Decal/iall, Tlte Dells/olliall, The Easlbollrniall, SI. Edward's Scltoo/ Chronicle, Tlte Fe/sledi(lII, Glellalmolld Cltrollicle, Tlte Grammariall, Grauge News/eller, The Hurst Joltuiall , Th e 1¡lai/eyburiall and I.S.C. Chrollicle, The Killg's School Magazille, Parl'(lIIWfla, Lallcillg College Magazille, Th e Ully meriall, The LoreHoniall, The l\4all\\,ood;al/, Tlte Meleor, Th e /v/iJlIl'r Cour, Cltronicle, Th e Mill Hill Magazine, Tlt e Mar/bllriall , "{11e NO \¡apo/HIII, The Pauline, The RepfOlliall, The Radleiall, The Rojjellsitlll, S lol'l/o/'ditlll, Tlte Schoof Tie, SI0IlyI1ll/'SI Maga zil/e, Worksopian, Wellillglolliall, Tlt e Wish Stream.

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TH E CANTUAR IAN

THE JUNIOR SCHOOL Wri ting onc's lasl contri bution to these pages of Th e Call/liariall, after supplying something of the sort for cleven years, is rather like writing one's own obituary notice. It is said that the emi nent are asked to do this by certain da ily papers, to be filed aga inst the lime when such an au thoritative statement may be necessary; but no one has yet invited me to do so. In the circu mstances 1 p ropose to keep firm ly off perso nal details, except onl y to say that my address, after August 15th, will be The Vicarage, Cu lmstock, Cullompton, Devon, where M rs. Oldaker and l will a lways be delighted to sec our rriends; to thank a ll those who have helped to run the schoo l ror cleven years, and alJ those pupils and ex-pupi ls who have suffered so much at my hands; to wish my successor, the Reverend J. H. Ed mo nds, and Mrs. Edm onds, as much happiness as f have enjoyed while in cha rge here; a nd to pray that they may fi nd as ma ny loyal a nd willing helpers as we have found. Scho la rship exami nations have brought successes, and , inevitab ly, disappointments; the disappo intment is the price one may have to pay at any compet itive exa minat ion. It is often better to try and not succeed th an never to try at all. We were very pleased indeed thai the Mi lner scholarship again ca me the way o f one o f Ollr boys, Roderic Stowell , and that th ree o thers were chosen K ing's Scholars, Tom Bewley, Pat rick Hinchy and Humphrey Rudga rd. I hasten to add that we are sending up nex t Septem ber plenty or good and useful boys who are not scholars, but who have dist inguished themselves in their prepara tory school career by diversit ies o r gifts, and perhaps also by the same spirit- I slightly misquote St. Pau\. T he cricket season being now over, I report the results o r our play. We have had our ups and downs, with plen ty of good matches and exciting fini shes.

1ST Xl Tonnore, 117 for 5 (dec.); M. C.,79 M.e., 76 for 5 (dec.); Westbrook HOllsc, 11 Betteshanger,32; M.e.,44 M .C, 45; Tonnore, 113 rol' 9 Friars School, 67; M.C.,6 1 Cli ftonville, 98 fo r 8 (dcc.); M.C., 25 M.C., 83 for 4 (dec.); St. Edmund's, 61 for 6 Duke of York's, 83 rOI" 5 (dec.); M.e. , 35 Played 8, Won 2, Drawn I, Lost 5 " A" XI Canterbury H ouse 1st, 50; M.e., 48 rOI" 8 M.e., 40; Eddington r¡l ouse 1st, 57 Canterbury House 1st, 57 for 6 (dec. ); M .C., 17 Played 3, D rawn I, Lost 2 2ND Xl M.e.,67; Westbrook House, 93 M .C, 33; Betteshanger, 26 Cliftonville, 130; M.C, 108 ror 7 M.C., 129 fo r 5 (dec.); St. Edm und's, 26 Played 4, Won 2, Drawn I, Lost I

Lost Wall Won Lost Lost Lost Drawn Lost

Drawn Lost Lost

Lost Won Drawn Won

An exciting event ro r the music-lovers was the concert given wilh the o rchestra of Dulwich College Prepa ra tory School on July 14th. D.C.P.S. have long excelled in string playing, and this is the thi rd yea r in which we have put the two o rchest ras together for joint Illusic-making. In the event an o rchestra o r seventy, thei r strings being in the majority, wit h wind mostly and percussion ent irely rrom M.C., made a very brave and inspiring noise. Those in the audience who had had experience of the two previous simi lar concerts agreed that this one was the best so rar. Our choir gave d iversity to the programme, with some songs. They sang with their usual sweet tone, bllt perhaps ra ther with the atti tude that they had Sli ng ram iliar songs too many times. Their songs were mostly those wit h which they had cornpeted earl ier in the term in various classes of the Kent Festiva l a t Dover. We also sang JeslI,joy a/man's desirillg to show that we had a choi r o r rOllr pa rts; the singing was accurate, M iss Neave's violin obbligato also beautiful.


THE CANTUAR I AN At the Dover Competition Festival we did not secu re quite as Innny cups as usual. The choir WO n three second places and Daniell came first in the solo boys' class. Readers however were at the top of their form, and we must congratu late Steven McDonough on winning the CliP for Bib le rcading aga inst boys up to fifteen years old, and Robert Fra nklin (making n first appearance in such a role) on winning

the cup for twelve-year-olds and under.

For the sccond yea r we have had a swimming match, this time inviting Tormorc lojoin liS in a triangular contest with Beucshanger. This was held in ou r own bat h on June 26th, and we pu t both ollr opponents firmly in their places. The order was M.e. 51} points, Bcttcshangcr 30!. Tormore 15i. We have an Athletics match just before the end of term, agai nst Wcllesley I-Iousc and Iletteshanger, but results of this will have to be reported next tenn, Scouts and Cubs have taken advantage of the summer term to do a good dea l. The Cubs, in fine style, have won the District Cub Swimming Sports CliP; our Scout swimmers were unplaced in their CO Illpet itio n, but won severa l races. The competition included classes for older Scou ts in which we could obviously make no entry, In the relay race we ca me second, the win ners bei ng ou r own sen iors, to whom we co uld give place wi th grace and natural respect. We fini sh term wi th an eic.ht-day ca mp at Whitllcld near Dover; M,lydensole Fa rm , for the second lime-we had a fi ne ca mp there in 1953; twentY-fivc Scou ts will attend thi s. W.H.O.

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Profile for OKS Association

The Cantuarian December 1955 - August 1956  

The Cantuarian December 1955 - August 1956