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ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti ekonomikisa da biznesis fakulteti

globalizacia da ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi IV saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi 23-24 marti, 2012 weli

mxardamWeri

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2012


globalizacia da ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. IV saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Tb., 2012

krebulSi warmodgenilia 2012 wlis 23-24 marts iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi Catarebuli IV saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi. naSromebSi asaxulia qarTveli da ucxoeli mecnierebisa da doqtorantebis samecniero kvlevis Sedegebi. globalizaciis sxvadasxva aspeqtis kvlevis fonze aqcentirebulia ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis problemebi. M

Š ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis ekonomikisa da biznesis fakulteti, 2012 gamomcemloba `universali~, 2012 Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 222 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-17-599-2

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Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Economics and Business

Globalization and Sustainable Economic Development Prospects Proceedings of the IV International Conference March 23-24, 2012

The Conference is supported by

Publishing House “UNIVERSAL� Tbilisi 2012

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Globalization and Sustainable Economic Development Prospects Proceedings of the IV International Conference, March 23-24, 2012

The proceedings contain papers presented at the IV international scientific conference held on March 23-24, 2012 at Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Conference papers reflect the research contributions made by Georgian and foreign scientists and PhD students on theoretical and methodological aspects of globalization. Based on the research of various aspects of globalization the issues of sustainable economic development are highlighted.

© Faculty of Economics and Business of Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 2012 Publishing House “UNIVERSAL” 19, I. Chavchavadze Ave., 0179, Tbilisi,Georgia : 222 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-17-599-2

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konferenciis saorganizacio komiteti akaki miqaberiZe _ Tsu

ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis dekanis moadgile

nino papaCaSvili – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikisa da

biznesis

fakultetis

xarisxis

uzrunvelyofis

samsaxuris

ufrosi

specialisti, konferenciis saorganizacio komitetis xelmZRvaneli ineza

gagniZe

ekonomikis

doqtori,

Tsu

asocirebuli

profesori,

Tsu

warmomadgenlobiTi sabWos wevri nodar xaduri _ ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu sruli profesori, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis ekonomikis programis koordinatori eka lekaSvili – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis samsaxuris ufrosi irina gogoriSvili _ ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori eka sefaSvili – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori, konferenciis sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis xelmZRvaneli eka Coxeli _ ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori SoTaA

SaburiSvili

ekonomikis

doqtori,

Tsu

asocirebuli

profesori,

konferenciis koordinatori daviT sixaruliZe – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori ramaz futkaraZe – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asocirebuli profesori lela jamagiZe – ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asistent-profesori, konferenciis saorganizacio komitetis xelmZRvaneli babulia mRebriSvili _ ekonomikis doqtori, Tsu asistent-profesori, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saswavlo procesis marTvis samsaxuris ufrosi nana maisuraZe _ Tsu doqtoranti, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis xarisxis samsaxuris ufrosi specialisti, saredaqcio samuSaoebis koordinatori sofio siWinava _ Tsu doqtoranti levan fangani _ a/o

,,oikos Tbilisi~-is prezidenti

nino lobJaniZe _ a/o ,,oikos Tbilisi~-is sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis komitetis Tavmjdomare nino buliskeria _ a/o ,,oikos Tbilisi~-is wevri

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Conference Organizing Committee Akaki Mikaberidze –Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business, TSU Nino Papachashvili – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, senior specialist of Quality Assurance Services of the Faculty of Economics and Business, Head of conference organizing committee, TSU Lela Jamagidze – Doctor of Economics, Assistant professor, Deputy Head of conference organizing committee, TSU Eka Lekashvili – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, Head of Quality Assurance Services of the Faculty of Economics and Business, TSU Eka Sepashvili – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU, conference PR manager Eka Chokheli – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU Shota Shaburishvili – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU, conference coordinator Ineza Gagnidze – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, member of Representative Council, TSU Nodar Khaduri – Doctor of Economics, Full professor, Economics Program Coordinator, TSU Irina Gogorishvili – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU David Sikharulidze – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU Ramaz Putkaradze – Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, TSU Babulia Mgebrishvili – Doctor of Economics, Assistant professor, Head of the Learning Process Management Services of the Faculty of Economics and Business, TSU Nana Maisuradze – Post-graduate student, senior specialist of Quality Assurance Services of the Faculty of Economics and Business, TSU Sophio Sichinava – Post-graduate student, TSU Levan Fangani – The president of ,,oikos Tbilisi~ Nino Lobzhanidze – Chair of the PR Committee of ,,oikos Tbilisi~ Nino Buliskeria – Member of ,,oikos Tbilisi~

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giorgi abuseliZe ekonomikis doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori saqarTvelo, baTumi finansuri bazrebisa da ekonomikuri suverenitetis Tavsebadobis zogierTi sakiTxi globalizaciis pirobebSi globalizaciasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxTa Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia erovnul saxelmwifoTa suverenitetisadmi gamoZaxili. globalizaciis process radikaluri cvlilebebi Seaqvs erovnul saxelmwifoTa struqturaSi. igi veRar akontrolebs verc savaluto kursebs, verc fulis, informaciisa da saqonlis nakadebs. amis miuxedavad, swored mas ekisreba pasuxismgebloba moqalaqeTa ganaTlebasa da Sida sazogadoebriv wesrigis dacvaze, anu im 2 funqciaze, romlebic ekonomikis saerTo ganviTarebazea damokidebuli, rac kanonzomierad badebs kiTxvas XXI saukuneSi saxelmwifos momavali bedis Sesaxeb. globalizaciis epoqaSi saxelmwifo aRaraa totalitaruli, maSin, rodesac ekonomika sul ufro metad iZens am Tvisebas. isini eyrdnobian globalizaciis `erTiani~ azris dogmebs da gasaqans ar aZlevs sxva romelime politikas, xelyofs moqalaqis socialur uflebebs konkurentunarianobis mosazrebaTa saxeliT da finansuri bazrebis xelSi tovebs sazogadoebis yovelgvari saqmianobis xelmZRvanelobas. totalitarizmis aRniSnulma formam XX saukunis bolos `globalitaruli reJimebis~ saxe miiRo. globalizaciam erovnuli bazris gauqmebiT saxe Seucvala erovnul kapitalizms da daaqveiTa saxelmwifo Zalauflebis roli. saxelmwifoebs ukve aRar aqvT imis saxsrebi, rom win aRudgnen finansur bazrebs. raki finansuri bazrebi damoukideblebi gaxdnen, amitom saxelmwifoebs mxolod TavianTi savaluto maragebi SerCaT imisaTvis, rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SeaCeron wamgebiani savaluto tendenciebi, magram am maragebis moculoba Seudareblad mcirea finansuri bazrebis winaSe.Asaxelmwifoebi moklebuli arian imis SesaZleblobas, rom SeaCeron kapitalebis kolosaluri nakadebi an win aRudgnen qveynis interesebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli finansuri bazrebis moqmedebas. xSirad mTavrobebi Tanxmobas gamoTqvamen saerTaSoriso organizaciebis (ssf, msoflio banki, vmo) mier dadgenili ekonomikuri politikis zogadi direqtivebis gatarebaze. amiT aSkaravdeba finansuri bazris uzenaesoba da saxelmwifos umweoba. aseTia globalitaruli reJimebis logika. amitomac mizanSewonilia gamokvleva imisa, Tu ramdenad Tavsebadia globalizaciis procesis gaRrmaveba suverenuli da, gansakuTrebiT, mcire saxelmwifoebis ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis dacva-ganmtkicebasTan. Tavidanve SevniSnoT, rom globalizacia da saxelmwifoTa ekonomikuri suvereniteti Tavisi SinaarsiT ar SeiZleba, iyos Tavsebadi, radgan isini erTmaneTis mimarT metwilad winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTs atareben. am SemTxvevaSi saubaria ekonomikur suverenitetze, rogorc qveynis ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis dacvis instrumentze. jer kidev ramdenime wlis win saSinao da sagareo politika ganixileboda, rogorc saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli erovnuli funqcia. gaeros wesdebis me-2 da me-7 muxlebis mixedviT, mas (gaeros) ara aqvs ufleba, Caerios saqmeebSi, romlebic ganekuTvnebian saxelmwifos Sinagan kompetencias. TiToeuli saxelmwifo (imis miuxedavad, moqmedebda damoukideblad Tu sxva qveynebTan koaliciaSi) sakuTari Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebs damoukideblad wyvetda. globalizaciis piro-

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bebSi saxelmwifo moklebulia sazogadoebis winaSe wamoWril bevr problemaze swrafad reagirebisa da maTi damoukideblad gadawyvetis SesaZleblobas. misi prerogativebisa da uflebebis realizaciis SesaZleblobebze Zlier gavlenas axdens regionuli da saxelmwifoTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da institutebis saqmianoba. XXI saukune gaxdeba ori mZlavri Zalis: erovnuli biurokratiis da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri garemos orTabrZolis saukune, vinaidan erovnuli ekonomikisadmi kontrolis mniSvnelovani nawilis gadasvla transerovnul korporaciebze da saerTaSoriso organizaciebze, romelTac araiSviaTad suverenuli saxelmwifoebis miznebis sapirispiro interesebi gaaCniaT, mtkivneul problemad iqca. xelfasis ekonomiis mcdelobiT transerovnuli korporaciebi samrewvelo warmoebas gadaadgileben ganviTarebad qveynebSi, riTac arTuleben dasaqmebis problemas mrewvelurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi da konfliqtebs iwveven samuSo adgilebis dakargvasTan dakavSirebiT. amdenad, transnacionalur korporaciebs sustad ganviTarebul qveynebSi, warmoebis gadatanasTan erTad, gadaaqvT marTvis stili, tnk-ebSi arsebuli korporatiuli kultura da menejmenti, rac SeiZleba, araadeqvaturi da Seusabamo aRmoCndes mimRebi qveynis tradiciebsa da faseulobebTan mimarTebaSi. amas Tan erTvis is garemoebac, rom kontroli da marTvis sadaveebi maT xelTaa, rac asustebs calkeuli qveynis ekonomikur usafrTxoebas. saubaria ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis sagareo muqaraTa kompleqsis negatiur gavlenaze qveynis ekonomikuri (agreTve, politikuri) suverenitetis (damoukideblobis) SenarCuneba-ganmtkicebis saqmeSi. am aspeqtiT erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani problema aris Tu vin darCeba sabolood mogebuli globalizaciis Sedegad. pasuxi calsaxaa, radgan, faqtobrivad, upirates mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndebian mdidari qveynebi da Zlieri transnacionaluri kompaniebi. globalizaciis gamo materialur faseulobaTa araTanabari ganawileba warmoSobs konfliqtebis safrTxes regionul, erovnul da internacionalur doneze. amave dros, gavrcelebulia mosazreba Semosavlebis SesaZlo globaluri daaxloebis Sesaxeb, rasac xsnian Rarib qveynebSi ekonomikis maRali tempebiT ganviTarebiT mdidar qveynebTan SedarebiT, magram swrafi zrda damaxasiaTebelia mxolod qveyanaTa mcire jgufisaTvis (“aziuri vefxvebi”), xolo sxva Rarib qveynebSi globalizaciidan miRebuli efeqti minimaluria. saboloo angariSiT, globalizaciis Sedegad, Semosavlebis gaTanabrebas ki ara, ufro polarizacias aqvs adgili. sakmarisia, aRiniSnos, rom XXI saukuneSi mosaxleobis mdidar nawilSi mTliani Sida produqtis moculoba mosaxleobis 1 sulze gaizarda 6-jer, xolo Raribi nawilis – mxolod 2.5-jer. sadiskusio ar unda iyos is garemoeba, rom globalizacia asustebs calkeuli qveynis ekonomikur suverenitets da gansakuTrebiT im patara qveynebisas, romelTa fuladi sistema mTlianad damokidebulia msxvili qveynebis valutaze da gansakuTrebiT aSS dolarze. ekonomikuri suvereniteti, upirveles yovlisa, niSnavs qveynis saSinao ekonomikur saqmeebSi saxelmwifos uzenaesobas da, agreTve, saxelmwifoTa ekonomikur Tanasworobas saerTaSoriso doneze (Блищенко И. П. Дория Ж. экономический суверенитет государства, М. Изд-во РУДН; 2001, с. 22 ). didi da ganviTarebuli qveynebis fuladi kapitalis, saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da investiciebis Semodineba patara da sustad ganviTarebul qveynebSi iwvevs am ukanasknelTa ekonomikuri suverenitetis TandaTanobiT moSlas da, Sesabamisad, maTi ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis Sesustebas.

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msoflioSi dRes liderobs ZiriTadad 3 valuta – aSS dolari, evro da iaponuri ieni. maT Soris wamyvani adgili ukavia amerikul dolars da igi gansazRvravs ekonomikuri globalizaciis masStabebsa da mimarTulebebs.Ddolarma SeiZina msoflio savaluto rezervis funqcia da Sedegad amisa, aSS-s gauCnda uzarmazari upiratesoba – igi Tavis imports Tavisive dolariT faravs. dedamiwaze dReisaTvis brunvaSia daaxloebiT 468 mlrd aSS dolari, maSin, rodesac TviT aSS-Si mimoiqceva mxolod 150 mlrd dolari. Aamerikuli dolaris SeWras msoflios bevr qveyanaSi aRiqvemen, rogorc am qveynis Carevas sxva qveynis saSinao saqmeebSi. TviT amerikelebi ki Tvlian piriqiT, maTi qmedeba mimarTulia yvela qveynis sakeTildReod da Riad uzarmazar saxsrebs abandeben saerTaSoriso politikis dasafinanseblad. amrigad, SeiZleba, iTqvas, rom dolarma `daipyro~ msoflio ekonomikis udidesi nawili (aSS dolaris 60 % arasodes ar brundeba mis mSobliur qveyanaSi) da aman aSS-s misca saSualeba, wamyvani qveynis roli Seasrulos msoflio ekonomikuri “wesrigis” damyarebaSi. yovelive zemoT aRniSnuls davumatoT isic, rom msxvili kapitali ise mieZala patara suverenul saxelmwifoebs, rom TandaTanobiT sustdeba msoflio politikur gaerTianebaTa mier (gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia) maTi damoukideblobis SenarCunebis mimarTulebiT ganxorcielebuli Zalisxmevis Sedegebi. swored ekonomika, fuli da kapitali aRmoCndnen is `sabrZolo~ berketebi, romlebic globalizaciis lozungiT TandaTanobiT asusteben patara saxelmwifoTa suverenul uflebebs. Aam saqmeSi did rols TamaSoben msoflio saerTaSoriso finansuri institutebi – ssf, msoflio banki, vmo da a. S. maT mier SemuSavebuli da gatarebuli ekonomikuri politika TiTqmis erTgvarovania yvela qveynis mimarT da gulisxmobs ekonomikuri sazRvrebis gaxsnilobas, vaWrobis maqsimalur liberalizacias, mkacri fulad-sakredito politikis gatarebas da a.S. ufro metic, saerTaSoriso safinanso-ekonomikuri institutebi, maT mier kreditebis gacema-argacemis sababiT, arc Tu iSviaTad cdiloben, garkveuli koreqtivebi Seitanon suverenul saxelmwifoTa saSinao da sagareo ekonomikur politikaSi. am mizniT Seqmnilia mravalricxovani saxelmwifoTaSoriso arasamTavrobo oragnizacia, romlebic calkeuli saxelmwifoebis mTavrobaTa sapirispiro ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebs iReben iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa fasebis regulireba strategiul produqtebze (navTobi, gazi, eleqtroenergia), riTac ilaxeba maTi ekonomikuri suvereniteti. globalizaciis ideologiis Tanaxmad, ekonomikis marTvasa da regulirebaSi saxelmwifo ar unda Caerios an minimumamde unda iqnes dayvanili misi roli am saqmeSi. ukanasknel periodSi imdenad SeizRuda suverenul saxelmwifoTa mier maT teritoriaze ekonomikur gadawyvetilebaTa damoukideblad miRebis SesaZlebloba sxva da sxva saerTaSoriso gaerTianebis zewolis gamo, rom isini TandaTanobiT kargaven ekonomikur sazRvrebs da ver ewinaaRmdegebian iseT saerTaSoriso ekonomikur gadawyvetilebasac ki, romelic ekonomikurad wamgebiania suverenuli saxelmwifosaTvis. globaluri gadatrialebis ZiriTad msxverpls ufro metad patara da susti suverenuli saxelmwifoebi warmoadgenen. globalizaciis procesis gaRrmavebis Sedegad suverenul saxelmwifoTa ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis (gadawyvetilebis damoukideblad miRebis) SezRudva erTerTi Zlieri muqaraa ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis SenarCuneba-ganmtkicebis saqmeSi. saxelmwifos mTavari politikuri funqciaa qveynis suverenitetis dacva misi farTo gagebiT anu misi politikuri da ekonomikuri damoukideblobis uzrunvelyofa. am SemTxvevaSi ekonomikuri damoukidebloba ar niSnavs sagareo-ekonomikur kavSirebze uaris Tqmas. avtarqiul reJimSi arc erT qveyanas arseboba ar SeuZlia. sa-

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ubaria ekonomikur gadawyvetilebaTa damoukideblad miRebaze anu ekonomikur Tavisuflebaze da saxelmwifoTa saSinao interesebis dacvaze. amrigad, Tanamedrove etapze dRis wesrigSi dgeba globalizaciis procesebTan saxelmwifoTa ekonomikuri suverenitetis Tavsebadobis problema, romelic, Tavis mxriv, organuladaa dakavSirebuli damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa ekonomikur usafrTxoebasTan. es ukanaskeneli ki qveynis erovnuli uSiSroebis erT-erTi sakvanZo Semadgeneli nawilia. erTi ram faqtia, globalizaciis gaRrmavebis procesebis SeCereba SeuZlebelia. globalizaciis aqtiuri kritikosebic xvdebian, rom ukan avtarqiisken gza aris. meore mxriv, Tu ar iqna saerTaSoriso doneze globalizaciis formebsa da meTodebSi koreqtivebi Setanili, ekonomikuri dapirispireba calekul saxelmwifoebsa da maT jgufebs Soris kvlavac gagrZeldeba da araa gamoricxuli, rom igi gadaizardos Zalismier konfliqtebSi da kacobriobas seriozuli safrTxe Seeqmnas. yovelive aqedan gamomdinare, dRis wesrigSi dgeba msoflio ekonomikuri politikis transformaciis problema, romelic unda warimarTos ori urTierTSemxvedri mimarTulebiT, raTa dabalansdes globlizaciis meTauri qveynebisa da sxva danarCeni suverenuli qveynebis ekonomikuri interesebi. amitomac globalizaciis pirobebSi saxelmwifoebi mzard urTierTdamokidebulebasa da erovnul interesebs Soris eZeben dasaSveb balanss. magram es amocana sul ufro rTuldeba. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom Tu ar iqna keTili neba orive mxridan da dedamiwaze ar Cacxra momravlebuli konfliqtebi, globalizacia negatiur Sedegebs gamoiwvevs. msoflios yvela qveynis swrafva TanamSromlobisken aris globalizaciisgan dadebiTi Sedegis miRebis mTavari garanti. globalizaciis pozitiuri da negatiuri Sedegebis dabalansebis mizniT, mizanSewonilia saerTaSoriso safinanso-ekonomikuri institutebisa da msxvili transnacionaluri kompaniebis saqmianobis imgvari transformacia, rom maTi ekonomikuri interesebi SeeTanawyos suverenul saxelmwifoTa saSinao ekonomikur politikas. meore mxriv, suverenulma saxelmwifoebma, romlebsac globalizaciis Sedegad emuqrebaT ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis Sesusteba, unda gaataron Semdegi ekonomikuri RonisZiebebi: mkacri sabaJo politika, importis Semcvleli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis zrda, ucxouri investiciebis gamoyeneba erovnuli interesebidan gamomdinare, ucxouri kreditebis mimarTva erovnuli realuri seqtoris ganviTarebisTvis, mecnierebatevadi warmoebis zrda, saeqsporto produqciis warmoebis stimulireba, ekonomikis gaxsnilobis regulireba, im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis moculobis zrda, romlebic konkurencias gauwevs globalizaciis meTauri qveynebidan maT importirebas.

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George Abuselidze Doctor of Economics, Shota Rustaveli State University Professor Georgia, Batumi Financial Market and Economic Sovereignty Compatibility Issues under Globalization Summary One of the most important issues related to globalization is the sovereignty of national states. Globalization of financial markets and economic sovereignty is intrinsically linked to the economic security, which is one of the key components of countries’ national security. In order to balance the positive and negative consequences of globalization, international financial and economic institutions recommend that the activities of large transnational companies be transformed is such a manner that they correspond with the domestic economic policies of sovereign states. On the other hand sovereign states exposed to the threat of weakening economic security as a result of globalization, should take the following actions: implement strict customs policy, support import substitution industries, use foreign investments to the best of national interests, use foreign credits for the development of real sector, stimulate the production of export products, regulate openness of the economy, etc. Keywords: financial markets, economics, globalization

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evgeni baraTaSvili ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori revaz gvelesiani ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori SoTa veSapiZe ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi saqarTvelos ekonomikis usafrTxo da mdgradi ganviTarebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi `tye Seunaxe Svilebsa...~ Cveni statiisTvis epigrafad wamZRvarebuli, simRerad qceuli leqsis sityvebi imas migvaniSnebs, rom adamiani sam droSi unda cxovrobdes. TvalisCiniviT unda vufrTxildebodeT da vicavdeT wina Taobebis monapovars. mis safuZvelze Cveni saqmianoba ise unda wavmarToT, rom momavali Taobebis usafrTxo, mdgradi ganviTarebac uzrunvelvyoT. `usafrTxoeba~ da `mdgradoba~ mWidrod aris urTierdakavSirebuli. msoflio usafrTxoebis garantirebuli sistemis Seqmna mis iseT nawilebs moicavs, rogoricaa: 1 1. samxedro usafrTxoeba; 2.usafrTxoeba terorizmis winaaRmdeg; 3. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba; 4.finansuri nakadebis usafrTxoeba da gamWvrivaloba; 5. informaciuli sivrcis usafrTxoeba; 6.piradi usafrTxoeba. mdgradi ganviTarebis ganmartebis mravali versia arsebobs, Tumca am terminis yvelaze gavrcelebuli ganmarteba brundtlandis angariSidan1 modis, romelSic naTqvamia, rom „mdgradi ganviTareba aris iseTi ganviTareba, romelic akmayofilebs Tanamedrove Taobis saWiroebebs momavali Taobebis saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebiT“.2 XXI saukunis ekonomikuri modeli sruliad gansxvavebulia ara marto wina saukunis, aramed sulac 20-30 wlis winandeli modelisa da midgomebisagan. dRevandel modelSi centralur adgils ikavebs mdgardi ganviTareba. XXI saukunem axali problemebisa da amocanebis winaSe daayena kacobrioba. dRis wesrigSi dadga: axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebis aucilebloba, romelic iTvaliswinebs resursebis dazogvas, maT ganaxlebasa da unarCeno gamoyenebas; riskis faqtorebis upirobo gaTvaliswineba; mdgradi ganviTareba; ekologiuri wonasworobis dacva; adamianuri, inteleqtualuri resursebis gamoyenebis gafarToeba; moxmarebis raci-

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TvalWreliZe a., silagaZe a., qeSelaSvili g., gegia d., saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis programa. mdgradi ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso fondi – saqarTvelo. gamomcemloba `nekeri~, Tb., 2011, gv. 284. 2 angariSi, romelic SemuSavebuli iqna brundtaldis komisiis mier, romelsac oficialurad garemosa da ganviTarebis msoflio komisia ewoda.

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onalizacia; warmoebis optimizacia da regulireba; programirebuli warmoeba; integrirebis gafarToeba; siRaribis daZleva; demografiuli regulireba. meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi bunebaze sameurneo zemoqmedebam iseT dones miaRwia, rom TandaTan daikarga misi TviTganaxlebis unari. ekologiisa da mdgradi gaviTarebis problema _ es aris adamianis bunebriv garemoze saziano zemoqmedebis Semcirebis problema. 1990 wlebidan ekologiuri problema gavida globalur doneze, rac gamoixateba SemdegSi: resursebi, romelic ganaxlebadad iTvleba (tropikuli tyeebi, Tevzis resursebi da sxva) ubralod veRar aswreben TviTganaxlebas; mimdinareobs msoflio ekosistemis ngreva, qreba florisa da faunis sul ufro didi warmomadgenlebi; planetis sul ufro didi teritoriebi gadiqca ekologiurad mwir zonebad; yvelaze rTul potenciurad saSiS problemad iTvleba klimatis SesaZlo cvlileba. yovelive aman saWiro gaxada SemuSavebuliyo mdgradi ganviTarebis msoflio koncefcia, romelic moiwona gaerTianebuli erebis konferenciam rio-de-JaneiroSi 1992 wels da romelic mieZRvna bunebriv garemosa da ganviTarebis problemebs. igi iTvaliswinebda mdgradi globaluri ekonomikis agebas, romelic SeZlebda planetis dabinZurebis problemis gadawyvetas, resursebis gamoyenebis Semcirebas (dazogvas), momavali TaobebisaTvis planetis ekologiuri potencialis aRdgenas. swored am problemebma daayena dRis wesrigSi mdgradi ganviTarebis aucilebloba. mdgradi ganviTarebisaTvis pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba aqvs iseTi teqnologiebis (sufTa, unarCeno) SemuSavebas, romelic mimarTuli iqneba planetis ekologiuri resursebis SenarCunebisken. mdgradi ganviTareba warmoadgens nebismieri qveynis stabiluri ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan winapirobas da gamonaklisi arc saqarTveloa. globaluri garemos dacviTi problemebis fonze qveyanaSi garemos degradacia da bunebrivi resursebis araracionaluri moxmareba mniSvnelovan risks Seuqmnis qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebasa da saqarTvelos mosaxleobis keTildReobas. miwis erozia, wylisa da haeris dabinZureba, ukanono Wrebi da tyis degradacia im garemos dacviTi problemebis mxolod ramdenime magaliTs warmoadgens, romelic aqtualuria dRes saqarTveloSi. garemos mdgradobis gauareseba da bunebrivi resursebis Semcireba zRudavs mosaxleobis xelmisawvdomobas elementaruli saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad iseT saWiro resursebze, rogoricaa sasmeli wyali, sufTa haeri, sakvebi, xis masala mSeneblobisa da gaTbobisaTvis da sxva. aucilebelia Seiqmnas myari safuZveli imisaTvis, rom qveyanaSi iyos janmrTelobisaTvis uvnebeli garemo, gaumjobesdes mosaxleobis keTildReoba, Seiqmnas ukeTesi pirobebi qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis amocanebis gadawyvetis fuZemdebluri meTodologiuri principia ekonomikuri sinamdvilis ganpirobebuloba, romelic moicavs: obieqturi da sasicocxlod aucilebeli moTxovnilebebisa da ZiriTadi ekonomikuri interesebis formulireba sivrcobriv droiT ganzomilebaSi; saerTo socialuri keTildReobis optimaluri Serwyma meurne subieqtebis ekonomikur interesebTan.

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efeqtur–mdgradi ganviTarebis poziciidan nebismieri organizaciuli struqtura SeiZleba warmodgenili iqnas sistemis saxiT, romelic moicavs elementebis simravles an qvesistemebs (qveyana, regioni, dargebi, firmebi, bunebrivi resursebi da a.S.) romlebic erTmaneTs Soris urTierTqmedebis procesSi warmoqmnian erTian socialur–ekologiur ekonomikursistemas. konkretuli qveyana warmoadgens Ria socialur–ekologiur–ekonomikur sistemas sazRvrebiT, romlis farglebSi urTierTqmedeben gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebisa da sistemuri principebis mqone misi qvesistemebi. socialur–ekologiur–ekonomikuri sistemis mniSvnelovani elementebis ricxvs miekuTvneba sameurneo subieqtebi – firmebi, korporaciebi, bankebi, sawarmoo kooperativebi, safermo meurneobebi da sxva. isini SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas, rogorc socialur–ekologiur–ekonomikuri sistemis Semcirebuli modelebi, ramdenadac maTSi vlindeba niSnebi da kanonzomierebani. isini intensiurad urTierTqmedeben erTmaneTs Soris da qmnian materialur garemos, an ekonomikis struqturas. mdgradi socialur-ekologiur-ekonomikuri sistemis erT-erT pirobas warmoadgens mosaxleobas, garemosa da saxelmwifos, anu bunebasa da sazogadoebas Soris kompromisis SenarCuneba. misi darRveva socialur-ekologiur-ekonomikuri sistemis aramdgradobas iwvevs. aRniSnul sistemaSi mimdinare procesebi sazogadoebis moRvaweobis, warmoebis faqtorebis oTxi kriteriumis saSualebiT ganisazRvreba. esenia: samuSao Zala (mosaxleoba – socialuri faqtorebi); adamianis SromiT Seqmnili ZiriTadi kapitali (ekologia – buneba); bunebiT Seqmnili ZiriTadi kapitali (ekologia – buneba); normatiul-sakanonmdeblo da sakredito-safinanso konponentebi (infrastruqtura). qveynis myari ekonomikuri ganviTareba miwodebis, moTxovnisa da ganawilebis faqtorebiT ganisazRvreba. miwodebis faqtorebia: Sromis raodenoba da xarisxi; ZiriTadi kapitalis moculoba da xarisxi; teqnologiis done. warmoebis problema arsebiTad damokidebulia resursebis iSviaTobasa da SezRudulobasTan, magram aranakleb mniSvnelovania warmoebul produqciaze moTxovnis arsebobis sakiTxic. ekonomikuri simyare, rogorc ekonomikuri urTierTobebis Sedegi, damokidebulia adamianiseul faqtorze, pasuxismgeblobasa da profesionalizmze. pasuxismgebloba did mniSvnelobas iZens ganviTarebis procesis regulirebaSi. ekonomikur simyares sameurneo sistemis integraluri TvisebiT, aseve calkeuli niSnebiTa da kriteriumebiT, kerZod, saeqsporto Sefasebebisa da upiratesobis formulebiT gansazRvraven. ekonomikuri simyaris ganmazogadebeli maxasiaTeblebia: warmoebis moqniloba, rogorc modernizaciisa da diversifikaciis unari; konkurentunarianoba, siaxleebisa da novaciebisadmi orientacia; efeqtianoba, komerciuli saqmianobis Semosavlianobisa da finansuri stabilurobis efeqtianoba qonebis saerTo RirebulebiT, aqtivebis sididiT, likvidobis koeficientiT, mogebis moculobisa da misi ganawilebis struqturiT da sxva maxasiaTeblebiT ganisazRvreba. myariekonomikuriganviTarebisaTvismniSvnelovania, rom ekonomikis sferoSi saxelmwifos funqciebis realizaciis meqanizmi qveynis ekonomikur potencials, survili ki SesaZleblobebs Seesabamebodes. myari ganviTareba aris ara marto ekonomikuri maCveneblebis garkveuli donis SenarCuneba, aramed moTxovnilebebsa da SesaZleblobas Soris balansis damyareba.

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amasTan, myari ganviTareba ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis pozitiur cvlilebebsac gulisxmobs. kerZod, biujetis Semosavlebisa da gasavlebis maxasiaTeblebis urTierTkavSiri da urTierTdamokidebuleba ganviTarebis erT–erTi indikatoria. sameurneo cxovrebaSi indikatorebad socialur–ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri maxasiaTeblebi gamoiyeneba. ase, rom mSp–s moculoba ekonomikis yvela sferoSi saqmianobis SedegebiT ganpirobebulia amitom, igi ekonomikuri aqtivobis maCveneblebicaa. amgvarad, ekonomikis yvela sferoSi indikatorebis amorCeva regulirebis praqtikul amocanebze damokidebulia. Tumca, maTi simravlec metad arTulebs saboloo SedegebisaTvis rekomendaciebis SemuSavebas. msoflio meurneobis farglebSi erovnuli interesebis dacva sakuTari sameurneo saqmianobis ganviTarebisa da qveynis mosaxleobis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis sasurveli pirobebis Seqmnas gulisxmobs. am procesSi saxelmwifoTa Sorisi institutebis maregulirebeli roli arsebiTad izrdeba. msoflio ekonomikur sivrceSi sameurneo sistemis rgolebi, interesebis obieqturi erTianobis gamo, SeTanxmebulad moqmedeben da organizaciul struqturebsa da komunikaciebs ayalibeben. amiT msoflio sameurneo ganviTarebis saerTo pirobebi da parametrebi yalibdeba. erovnuli ekonomika bunebrivia saerTaSoriso gacvlidan maqsimaluri Sedegebis miRebas cdilobs. garda amisa, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis interesebi grZelvadiani gadawyvetilebebis miRebisadmi praqtikul midgomebs saWirobs. msoflio integraciis pirobebSi ekonomikuri simyaris uzrunvelyofa saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis gareSe faqtobrivad SeuZlebelia. ekonomikuri simyare gansazRvruli produqciis msoflio bazarze stabiluri miwodebiT fasdeba. mag. nedleulis miwodebiT an konkretuli saxis momsaxurebis gaweviT. qveynis ekonomikis myari ganviTareba im axali winadadebebis perspeqtiulobiT fasdeba, romlebic civilizaciis progress uwyoben xels da mecnierebis uaxles miRwevebs eyrdnoba. dRes mTavari orientiri mecnierebatevadi produqciis bazaria. mecnierebatevadi warmoebis produqcia gansakuTrebiT swrafad reagirebs bazris mdgomareobaze. es ki ganaxlebis SesaZleblobebis gamovlenis interesze arsebiT gavlenas axdens. sameurneo saqmianobaSi Sesabamisi pirobebi ganviTarebis ekonomikuri simyaris inovaciur–investiciuri faqtorebiT ganisazRvreba. saxelmwifoebis gansxvavebuli ekonomikuri politika da Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebis istoriuli gamocdileba msoflio da erovnul bazrebze saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da kapitalis gacvlis Taviseburebebs ganapirobebs. Tumca, Tavisufali vaWrobis principis aRiareba da mxardaWera Zlieri konkurentebisagan saSinaobazris, ekonomikuri agentebisa da mewarmeebis dacvis RonisZiebebsac ar gamoricxavs. aseT pirobebSi erovnul interesebs civilizebulad, molaparakebis, procesebis warmoebiTa da ekonomikuri urTierTobebis mTavrobaTaSorisi regulirebiT icaven. saerTaSoriso vaWrobis sferoSi metad praqtikuli gamodga vaWrobisa da tarifebis Sesaxeb generaluri SeTanxmebis CarCoebSi miRebuli dokumentebi, gansakuTrebiT sxvadasxva „wonis“ mqone qveynebs Soris problemebis gadaWraSi. misi memkvidris vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis kompetenciebis sfero gafarTovda uwina-

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res yovlisa, momsaxurebiT. (gansakuTrebiT finansuri produqtebiT) vaWrobis sferoSi vmo-is mizania msoflio meurneobis masStabiT konkurenciis pirobebis gaTanabreba. saxelmwifos sagareo ekonomikuri politikis erT–erTi aspeqti vaWrobis msoflio organizaciaSi gawevrianebaa, rac Ria sagadamxdeblo da savaWro sistemaSi sruluflebian monawileobas ganapirobebs. Tumca, organizaciaSi gawevrianeba gansazRvruli pirobebiT xdeba da amis gamo, maTi erovnul ekonomikur interesebTan Sesatyvisoba metad aucilebelia. organizaciis pirobebis miReba mTavrobis mier satarifo da arasatarifo regulirebis meTodebis gamoyenebaze arsebiT gavlenas axdens. savaluto-safinanso urTierTobebis sferoSi TanamSromlobis mizani Seqmnilia saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi (ssf). igi mudmivmoqmedi organoa da saerTaSoriso savaluto problemebis gadasawyvetad konsultaciebisa da urTierTqmedebis meqanizms qmnis, dainteresebul mxareebs droebiT aZlevs saerTo resursebs. ssf saerTaSoriso kreditebisa da monawile qveynebis gadaxdiunarianobis garantia. msoflio savaluto sistemas safuZvelia „mcuravi“ kursebi da mravalvaluturi standartebi. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, savaluto–safinanso krizisis daZlevisaTvi ssf axdens savaluto bazarze intervencias, srulyofs savaluto– sakredito statistikas da SeimuSavebs standartebs, rac calkeuli qveynebis Sedarebis saSualebas iZleva. ssf–is wevroba aucilebeli pirobaa msoflio bankis jgufSi gaerTianebisaTvis. aq Sedis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso banki, ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso asociacia, saerTaSoriso safinanso korporacia, garantiebisa da investiciebis mravalmxrivi saagento. ssf–is sakredito–sainvesticio saqmianoba saerTaSoriso vaWrobis xangZlivi zrdis stimulirebisa da dabalansebuli sagadamxdelo valdebulebebis arsebobas uwyobs xels. saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebis SesaZleblobebi udavoa da maTTan urTierTobebis daregulireba qveynis kreditunarianobas aucileblad amaRlebs. amasTan, es institutebi, saxsrebis gamoyofisas metad mkacr pirobebs ayeneben da maT dacvas intensiurad akontroleben. amgvarad, calkeuli qveynis mTavrobis winaSe msoflio safinanso organizaciebTan urTierTobisas erovnuli prioritetebis dacvisa da erovnul ekonomikaSi maTi kapitalis mozidvidan ekonomikuri sargeblobis miReba warmoadgens. msoflioSi dakreditebisa da sainvesticio saqmianobasTan dakavSirebulma sxvadasxva politikurma da sameurneo situaciam valis momsaxurebis saerTo pirobebis formireba ganapiroba. komerciulma bankebma da organizaciebma urTierTdamokidebuleba organizaciulad londonis klubis SeqmniT gaaerTianes, sesxis gamcemma saxelmwifoebma ki – parizis klubis SeqmniT. klubebTan SeTanxmeba ekonomikuri interesebis gaTvaliswinebis principiT igeba. aseTi urTierTobebis safuZvelia restruqturizaciis idea, romelic qveyanaSi faqtiuri situaciis analizis an gansazRvruli pirobebiT valis nawilis Camoweri Trealizdeba. calkeuli saxelmwifos, rogorc meurne subieqtis ganviTarebis gzebi rTuli da moulodnelobiT savsea. amis gamo, movlenebis winaswargansazRvra metad Znelia. aRiarebs ra Tavisufali vaWrobis principebs da erTiandeba saerTaSoriso ekonomikur organizaciebSi, saxelmwifo valdebulia aqtiurad daicvas erovnuli interesebi. amis gamo erovnuli ekonomikis myari ganviTarebis amocanebi xdeba ekonomikuri politikis strategiuli debulebebis SemuSaveba da qveynis mosaxleobis

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keTildReobis amaRlebis erovnuli doqtrinis realizaciisaTvis taqtikuri mimarTulebebis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba. saqarTvelos mdgradi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebs qveynis ZiriTadi sakanonmdeblo aqtebi gansazRvraven, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia: dokumenti – dRis wesrigi 21–e saukunisaTvis, romelic mouwodebs qveynebs SeimuSaon mdgradi ganviTarebis erovnuli strategia. igi dafuZnebuli da harmonizebulia sxvadasxva seqtoris ekonomikur, socialur da garemosdacviT politikasa da gegmebTan. 2002 wels Catarebulma msoflio samitma mouwoda qveynebs ara marto SeemuSavebinaT erovnuli mdgradi ganviTarebis strategia, aramed 2005 wlidan daewyo misi ganxorcieleba. ZiriTadad sakanonmdeblo aqts, romelic gansazRvravs qveynis mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSavebas, warmoadgens saqarTvelos kanoni „garemos dacvis Sesaxeb“, romelic miRebul iqna 1996 wlis 10 dekembers. mniSvnelovan datvirTvas iZens saqarTvelos garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programis SemuSaveba, rogorc dRis wesrigi 21–e saukunisaTvis ganxorcielebis nawili. igi 1996 wels msoflio bankis finansuri daxmarebiT daiwyo. programa damtkicda 2000 wels. masSi gamokveTilia garemos dacviTi marTvisa da bunebrivi resursebis mdgradi gamoyenebis saSualo da moklevadiani miznebi. mTavrobis programa „saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe“, romelic warmoadgens mTavrobis strategiul xedvas 2008–2012 wlebisaTvis, qveynis socialur-ekonomikur ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT. dokumentis miznebsa da amocanebSi Semdegi Canaweria: bunebrivi resursebis marTvas ganaxorcielebs kerZo seqtori. gaizarda bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis licenziis moqmedebis vada. es, erTis mxriv uzrunvelyofs ekonomikur efeqtianobas, xolo meores mxriv minimumamde Seamcirebs garemoze mavne zemoqmedebas. saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso konvenciebiTa da xelSekrulebebiT mdgradi ganviTarebis kuTxiT mravali valdebuleba aqvs nakisri. saqarTvelo SeuerTda gaeros klimatis cvlilebebis CarCo-konvencias, romelsac 1992 wels rio-de-JaneiroSi gamarTul konferenciaze („rios samiti“) msoflio qveynebis meTaurebma xeli moaweres. ratifikacia moaxdines 1994 wels. 1997 wels msoflio qveynebis mier miRebul iqna klimatis cvlilebebis CarCokonvenciis „kiotisoqmi“, romliTacqveynebmaaxali, ufro mkacri valdebulebebi ikisres: „kiotisoqmis“ danarTB–Si CamoTvlili ganviTarebuli qveynebis umetesobam 2008–2012 wlebis periodisaTvis saTburi gazebis emisiebi 1990 wlis donesTan SedarebiT unda Seamciron 8%–iT3. saqarTvelo kiotos oqms miuerTda 1999 wels. aRsaniSnavia, 2000 wels gaeros generaluri ansambleis mier SemuSavebul deklaraciaSi dasaxuli aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebi da principebi. aRniSnuli dokumenti gansazRvravs 2000–2015 wlebSi ganxorcielebul miznebsa da amocanebs. dokumentSi erT–erT mizans, kerZod, me–7 mizans warmoadgens ekologiuri mdgradobis uzrunvelyofa, romelic Tavis mxriv sam amocanas moicavs: mdgradi ganviTarebis principebis integrireba qveynis politikasa da programaSi da bunebrivi resursebis Semcirebis (degradirebis) tendenciebis SeCereba; 2015 wlisaTvis mosaxleobis im nawilis ganaxevreba, romelsac stabilurad ar miuwvdeba xeli janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo sasmel wyalze; sabinao seqtoris harmonizacia saerTaSoriso moTxovnebTan, maT Soris municipaluri ( socialuri) sacxovrisis komponentis ganviTareba. 3

angariSi, romelic SemuSavebuli iqna brundtaldis garemosa da ganviTarebis msoflio komisia ewoda.

komisiis

mier,

romelsac

oficialurad

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saqarTvelom, rogorc aTwleulis deklaraciis xelmomwerma qveyanam, aRebuli valdebulebebis ganxorcieleba daiwyo ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa da siRaribis daZlevis programis SemuSavebiT, romelic 2003 wels damtkicda. 2004 wlis ivnisSi momzadda aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebis ganxorcielebis erovnuli sabazro angariSi. misi SemuSavebis procesSi faqtiurad ganxorcielda msoflioSi aRiarebuli miznebisa da amocanebis nacionalizacia da saqarTvelos realobasTan misadageba. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba erovnuli usafrTxoebis, rogorc erovnuli interesebis dacvis kompleqsis Semadgeneli nawilia, aseve am interesebis realizaciis pirobacaa. erovnul interesebSi moiazreba, rogorc politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri, TavdacviTi, samarTlebrivi aseve ekologiuri aspeqtebi. ukanasknel periodSi erovnuli usafrTxoebis sistemaSi sul ufro izrdeba ekonomikuri aspeqtebis mniSvneloba. gamomdinare iqidan, rom ekonomika sazogadoebis arsebobis, ganviTarebis da saerTod qveynis sicocxlisunarianobis safuZvelia, erovnuli usafrTxoeba ar arsebobs ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis gareSe. es ukanaskneli organul kavSirSia ekonomikis mdgrad ganviTarebasTan. „ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba gulisxmobs erovnuli ekonomikis dacvas im Sida da gare negatiuri faqtorebisagan, romlebic arRvevs aRwarmoebiTi procesebis normalur funqcionirebas, safrTxes uqmnis qveynis resursuli da mecnierul–teqnologiur ipotencialis SenarCunebas, ekonomikis mdgrad ganviTarebasa da socialur orientirebulobas, aferxebs ekonomikur zrdasa da xels uSlis saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkicebas“.4 ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis problemebis gadaWra saxelmwifos umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa. igi gansazRvravs qveynis ekonomikuri prioritetebis sistemas erovnuli interesebis realizaciis procesSi. igi TavdacviT, ekologiur, informaciul, fsiqologiur, socialur, ideologiur, kulturul, demografiul da sxva saxis usafrTxoebasTan erTad qmnian erovnul usafrTxoebas. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba Tavis mxriv moicavs investiciur, energetikul, sanedleulo, sasursaTo, finansur, fulad–sakreditosavaluto, satransporto, kavSirgabmulobis, sagareo ekonomikur da a.S. usafrTxoebebs. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba aisaxeba im RonisZiebaTa erTobliobaSi, romelic qveyanaSi tardeba ekonomikuri interesebis realizaciis TvalsazrisiT. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba moicavs ekonomikur sistemas da ganixileba makro, mikro, mezo da mega ekonomikur doneze. misi aucilebloba faqtorTa iseTi kompleqsiTaa ganpirobebuli, rogoricaa: gansxvaveba erovnul interesebSi; resursebis SezRuduloba da am resursebiT uzrunvelyofis sxvadasxva done; konkurenciis faqtoris mniSvnelobis zrda warmoebasa da gasaRebaSi. profesori l. abalkini ekonomikur usafrTxoebas ganmartavs rogorc pirobebisa da faqtorebis erTobliobas, romelic uzrunvelyofs qveynis ekonomikur damoukideblobas, erovnuli ekonomikis stabilurobasa da mdgradobas.5 ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis strategia aris qveynis iseTi strategia, romelic sakmaod myari da mudmivad ganviTarebadi ekonomikiT xasiaTdeba. misi globaluri geopolitikuri miznebi gaTvlilia ekonomikurad da ganmtkicebulia organizaciuli RonisZiebebiT. igi iTvaliswinebs qveynis ekonomikuri mTlianobisa da ekonomikuri damoukideblobis SenarCunebas, sazogadoebis socialur–ekonomikuri stabi4 5

მაღლაკელიძე თ. „ეკონომიკური უსაფრთხოება“ 2002წ. გვ.22 Курс переходной экономики. Под .ред. Абалкина Л. Н. М. 1997 стр. 121

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lurobisa da pirovnebis harmoniuli ganviTarebisaTvis saTanado pirobebis Seqmnas. ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba mowodebulia gadawyvitos saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis amocanebi. misi erT-erTi mTavari komponenetia erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis aRiareba da garantirebuli dacva. maTgan umniSvnelovanesia: qveynis ekonomikuri damoukideblobisa da suverenuli ganviTarebis dacva; ekonomikis stabilurobisaTvis aucilebeli pirobebis Seqmna; ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofa; qveynis kulturul–istoriuliTviT myofadobis, misi tradiciebisa da wes– Cveulebebis dacva; sabazro ekonomikis moqnili meqanizmis Seqmna da bazris stiqiuri Zalebis aRkveTa; erovnuli valutis simyaris uzrunvelyofa; sakuTrebis dacva; konkurenciis dacva; sabiujeto-sagadasaxado federalizmis principebis realizacia da sabiujeto-sagadasaxado uflebamosilebis optimaluri teritoriuli ganawileba; sakmarisi sabrunavi potenciali; samamulo warmoebis produqciis gasaRebis bazrebis dacva; inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva, teqnologiuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa; sasursaTo usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa; finansuri sferos usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa; saimedo socialuri bazris Seqmna da mosaxleobis socialuri dacva; ekonomikaze Sida da transnacionaluri kriminaluri struqturebis zemoqmedebis neitralizacia da a.S. ekonomikur usafrTxoebas saSiSroebas uqmnis negatiuri destruqciuli xasiaTis procesebi, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeba ekonomikur interesebs, xolo pozitiuri, konstruqciuli procesebi xels uwyobs ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofas. faqtorebi, romlebic saSiSroebas uqmnis ekonomikur usafrTxoebas Semdegia: warmoebis dacema da saSinao bazris dakargva; sasursaTo damoukideblobis dakargva, umuSevrobis zrda da Sromis motivaciebis Sesusteba; ekonomikis kriminalizacia; mecnieruli koleqtivebis daSla; mudmivi disproporciebi finansur uzrunvelyofaSi; sagareo bazrebis dakargva da a.S. ekonomikur usafrTxoebaze gavlenas axdens Sida da gare faqtorebi. ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis Sida faqtorebs miekuTvneba: bunebrivi faqtorebi – qveynis uzrunvelyofis done sakuTari bunebrivi resursebiT; struqturuli faqtorebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen dargebis ganviTarebaze (investiciebis moculoba da struqtura, transportisa da kavSirgabmulobis mdgomareoba da a.S.); mecnierul-teqnologiuri faqtorebi (teqnologiebis ganviTarebis done, inteleqtualuri sakiTxebis uflebis dacva da a.S.); safinanso-sakredito faqtorebi; organizaciul-mmarTvelobiTi faqtorebi; SromiTi resursebis gamoyenebis faqtorebi;

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socialur-ekonomikuri faqtorebi (Sromis anazRaureba, Sromis pirobebi da a.S.) ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis gare faqtorebs miekuTvneba: sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebis optimaluri struqturebis ganviTarebis faqtorebi; ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis faqtorebi; sagareo-ekonomikuri operaciebisadmi kontrolis faqtorebi; amrigad, ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba, rogorc erovnuli usafrTxoebis mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawili did rols asrulebs erovnuli ekonomikis mTeli kompleqsis realizaciaSi. ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis gare ekonomikuri meqanizmi miekuTvneba maRal dones, vidre Sida ekonomikuri meqanizmi. igi uSualod zemoqmedebs mTel sistemaze. imisaTvis rom am meqanizmma racionalurad Seasrulos Tavisi funqciebi, aucilebelia informacia erovnuli ekonomikis arsebuli mdgomareobisa da qveyanaSi gatarebuli reformebis Sesaxeb, romlebmac igi dasaxul miznamde unda miiyvanos. ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaze gare ekonomikuri meqanizmis zemoqmedebis magaliTad SeiZleba movitanoT saqarTvelos sagareo valis problema. msoflio ekonomika xasiaTdeba erTi mxriv finansuri resursebis saerTaSoriso mobilurobis maRali doniT da meores mxriv uTanabro ekonomikuri ganviTarebiT, qveynebis umravlesobaSi saxelmwifo biujetis deficits dafarvisa da Sida investiciebis ganxorcielebisaTvis sakuTari finansuri resursebis mwvave ukmarisobiT. am garemoebam obieqturad warmoSva rogorc Sida, ise sagareo savalo valdebulebaTa zrda, maTi Seusruleblobis tendencia, romelic sul ufro kanonzomier xasiaTs iRebs. erovnul ekonomikaTa urTierTdamokidebulebis da mzardi Riadobis pirobebSi sul ufro Rrmavdeba finansuri globalizaciis procesi. kapitalis internacionalizaciam axali Tvisebrivi niSnebi SeiZina. sagareo vali gaxda Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikis funqcionirebis meqanizmis ganuyofeli elementi. igi, rogorc mocemuli qveynis mier saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebidan, ucxouri qveynebis mTavrobebisagan da komerciuli dakreditebis institutebidan miRebul ucxour valutaSi denomirebulia qtivebi, am qveyanas aZlevs investirebisa da moxmarebis imaze met SesaZleblobas, vidre misi ekonomikidan qmnis. nebismieri qveynisaTvis sagareo valis mozidva Semdegi ori faqtoriT ganisazRvreba: ra raodenobis ucxouri kapitalis aTviseba SeuZlia qveyanas; ra raodenobis valis momsaxureba SeuZlia qveyanas riskis gareSe. sesxebi iyofa saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebis, samTavrobo organizaciebis, ormxrivi, mravalmxrivi da sxva finansuri kreditebis kategoriebad. qveynis kreditunarianobis Sefasebisa da sagareo valis gansazRvrisaTvis gamoiyenebas xvadasxva maCvenebeli. oqros savaluto rezervebis garda yvelaze gavrcelebulia Semdegi maCveneblebi: sagareo valis Sefardeba mTlian Sida produqtTan; sagareo valis Sefardeba eqsportTan; sagareo valis momsaxurebisaTvis gadasaxadebis saerTo Tanxis Sefardeba eqsportTan da saxelmwifos SemosavlebTan; saprocento Tanxis Sefardeba eqsportTan; sagareo sesxebis wili buiujetis deficitis dafinansebaSi.

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praqtikulad yvela qveyanas aqvs sagareo davalianeba, maTi umravlesoba wminda mevalea, maT Soris ganviTarebuli qveynebic. sagareo valma gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa ganviTarebadi qveynebis ekonomikaSi, romlis sidide me–20 saukunis 70–ian wlebidan moyolebuli sul ufro izrdeba da mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs saerTaSoriso kreditis sistemaSi. 90–iani wlebis dasawyisSi movlenebma, romlebic ukavSirdeba socialisturi qveynebis ekonomikis konversiasa da ekonomikuri sistemis Secvlas, seriozuli finansuri problemebis winaSe daayena aRniSnuli qveynebi. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis monacemebiT sabWoTa kavSiris sagareo vali 95,3 mlrd dolari iyo, romelmac mZime mdgomareobaSi Caayena ruseTi. 1997 wlis monacemebiT gardamavali qveynebis absoluturi umravlesobis sagareo vali 282,0 mlrd. dolars Seadgenda. 6 es mwvave problema farTo msjelobis sagani gaxda da daregulirda saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis, londonisa da parizis klubebis mier garkveuli valdebulebebis sanacvlod miRebul iqna kreditebi sagangebo da grZelvadiani RonisZiebebis gansaxorcieleblad, romelTa Sesrulebaze controls ssf axorcielebs da momdevno tranSes miRebis garantiacaa. ekonomikis adaptirebisadmi da sabazro garemosadmi Seguebisaken mimarTuli es RonisZiebebi iTvaliswinebs makroekonomikuri stabilizaciis miRwevisa da struqturul cvlilebebs, ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofas, ekologiuri wonasworobis dacvas, ekonomikis globalizaciisadmi Seguebas da a.S. am periodidan moyolebuli dabali ganviTarebis donis (mosaxleobis erT sulze 765 dolaramde mSp.) da maRali davalianebis mqone qveynebis mimarT, agreTve im qveynebis mimarT, romelTa mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze 766 dolaridan 3035 dolaramdea (saSualo donis qveda zRvari) xorcieldeba sxvadasxva operaciebi valis momsaxurebisa da misi gadaxdis pirobebis gsaumjobeseblad. aRniSnuli procesebis daregulirebis mizniT funqcionireba daiwyo e.w. „hiustonis pirobebma“ 7, „lionis pirobebma ssf–isa da msoflio bankis„ iniciativebma“ da a.S. saSualoze dabali Semosavlebis mqone qveynebi moqmedeben „hiustonis pirobebis“ mixedviT. am ukanasknelma funqcionireba daiwyo 1990 wlis seqtembridan. igi ar iTvaliswinebs valise da gadasaxadebis Semcirebas, magaram gulisxmobs valis dafarvis SedarebiT SeRavaTian pirobebs, „hiustonis pirobebi“ iTvaliswinebs kreditis dafarvas 15 welSi, SeRavaTian pirobebs 8 wlis ganmavlobaSi, sabazro saprocento ganakveTs. rac Seexeba arakomerciul kreditebs, maTi dafarvis vada 20 weli aTwliani SeRavaTiani periodiT. „torontos pirobebi“, romelic funqcionirebda 1988–1991 wlebSi, axorcielebda valise da gadasaxadebis ZiriTadi nawilis Semcirebas 30–33 %–iT, xolo „londonis pirobebis“ mixedviT Semcireba 50% Seadgenda ( 1991–1994 wlebSi) „neapolis pirobebis“ mixedviT , romelic 1995 wlidan moqmedebs, Semcireba 67%–sSeadgens, xolo „ lionis pirobebis“ mixedviT 80%–s. 1996 wlis bolos ssf–m da msoflio bankma SeimuSaves „iniciativebi“, romlebic avseben zemoTCamoTvlil pirobebs. „iniciativebi“ gulisxmobs ssf–Si gadasaxadebis Semcirebas.8 1998 wlidan dabali Semosavlebis mqone qveynebisaTvis kreditebis miReba gacilebiT SeRavaTiania. „torontos pirobebiT“ valdebuleba 1/3 –iT cirdeba,

6

World Economic Outlook. October , 1997. p. 206 Debt Rescheduling Vnder the Paris Club. Svt-MfpAuqust, 1999 8 Федакина Л .Н. Мировая внимняя заложность: теория и практика урегулирования .М. ст. 8 7

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„londonis pirobebi“ valdebulebaTa naxevrad Semcirebas gulisxmobs, xolo „neapolis pirobebi“ 2/3 –iT Semcirebas. valebis momsaxureba mZime tvirTad awveba saxelmwifo biujets, rc Tavis mxriv socialuri xarjebisa da saxelmwifo finansebis Semcirebas iwvevs. sagareo valis momsaxurebaze 1999–2000 wlebSisaxelmwifo biujetis 14,5% daixarja.9 saxelmwifo valis Sesaxeb kanoni gamomdinare, saqarTvelos sagareo vali pirobiTad SeiZleba ramdenime jgufaddaiyos: davalianeba dsT–is sivrceSi (ruseTi, ukraina, TurqmeneTi, uzbekeTi, yazaxeTi, azerbaijani, somxeTi); sazRvrgareTis qveynebis mTavrobaTa mier gamoyofili kreditebi (CineTi, TurqeTi, avstria, germania, aSS, iaponia, irani); saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebidan miRebuli kreditebi. sazRvargareTis mTavrobaTa mier saqarTvelosaTvis gamoyofili kreditebi or jgufad iyofa: a. 1992–1994 wlebSi gamoyofili kreditebi (CineTi, TurqeTi, avstria, irani) dab. 1995 wlidan miRebuli kreditebi (germania, aSS, iaponia). CineTma krediti gamoyo soflis meurneobis teqnikis SesaZenad, TurqeTma sasaqonlo warmoebisaTvis, avstriam – sastumros saerTaSoriso standartebiT mSeneblobisaTvis, iranma – gazis importisaTvis. meore jgufis kreditebi iTvleba samTavrobo kreditebad da gankuTvnilia calkeuli dargebis reabilitaciisaTvis. 1994 wlidan saqarTvelom ssf–is xelSewyobiT daiwyo ekonomikuri reformebis ganxorcieleba, risTvisac am fondidan miiRo kreditebi hiperinflaciis aRkveTisa da mkacri fulad–sakredito politikis gatarebis, fasebis liberalizaciis, privatizaciis, sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmnis, erovnuli bankis sarezervo fondis gazrdisa da a.S. mizniT. msoflio bankis kreditebi gamiznuli iyo saxelmwifo seqtoris instituciuri ganviTarebisaTvis, kerZo seqtoris Camoyalibebisa da privatizebul sawarmoTa restruqturizaciisaTvis. evro gaerTianebidan miRebuli kreditebi miznad isaxavda qveynis uzrunvelyofas kvebis produqtebiTa da medikamentebiT. sazRvargareTuli gamocdilebidan cnobilia, rom sagareo saxelmwifo valis sidide normalurad CaiTvleba, Tu valze gadasaxadebis saerTo Tanxa ar aWarbebs eqsportis 20%–s, xolo valis wliuri zrdis moculoba mSp–is 15–18 % ar aRemateba. qveynis kreditunarianobis miRwevisa da SenarCunebis mizniT, aucilebelia ucxouri kreditebi moxmardes investiciuri xasiaTis miznobrivi proeqtebis dafinansebas, minimumamde iqnes dayvanili sagareo sesxebiT sagadasaxdelo balansis uaryofiTi salidosa da biujetis deficitis dafarva. sazRvargareTuli movale qveynebis gamocdilebidan Cans, rom sagareo valis restruqturizacia an sxva RonisZiebebi (Camowera, gayidva meoreul bazrebze da a.S.) mxolod amsubuqebs savalo tvirTs da dadebiT efeqts droebiT ganapirobebs, magram problemas kardinalurad ar cvlis. igi efeqtiani stabilizaciuri da struqturuli reformebis gatarebasTan erTad, vinaidan savalo krizisis mTavari gamomwvevi mizezi ara imdenad qveynis mimdinare finansuri siZneleebia, ramdenadac gaZlierebuli globalizaciis pirobebSi msoflio meurneobriv sistemaSi misi ekonomikis struqturuli Seusabamoba. 9

მაღლაკელიძე თ. „ ეკონომიკური უსაფრთხოება“ თბ. 2002 გვ. 164.

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Tanamedrove msoflioSi mosaxleobis swrafma zrdam, mecnierebisa da teqnologiebis arnaxulma ganviTarebam, samrewvelo potencialis farTod amoqmedebam, bunebrivi resursebis zRvargadasulma CarTvam sameurneo saqmianobaSi da a.S. erovnuli usafrTxoebis es metad mravalwxnagovani mxare wina planze wamoswia da zogadsakacobrio interesebis realizaciis prioritetul mimarTulebad warmoCinda. Tanamedrove pirobebSi dasavlur ekonomikur literaturaSi farTod ganviTarda ekologiuri ekonomikis koncefcia. es koncefcia mxars uWers ekolog – ekonomikuri sistemis Seqmnis ideas da gvTavazobs misi realizaciisaTvis or gzas: pirveli mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi mTel ekosistemas ekonomikuri saqmianobis Semadgenel nawilad miiCneven da moiTxoven ekonomikur saqmianobaSi bunebrivi procesebis CarTvas. meore mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi ekologiuri problemebis mogvarebas meurneobriobis tradiciuli meTodebis gamoyenebas ukavSireben. meore mimarTulebam miiRo envaironmentaluri determinizmis saxelwodeba. es aris hipoTeza, romlis mixedviT garemo warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis donis mTavar ganmsazRvrel faqtors. es gansakuTrebiT exeba sustad ganviTarebul qveynebs, sadac axali teqnologiebis uqonlobisa da mwiri samewarmeo gamocdilebis gamo adgilobriv bunebriv resursebs uaRresad didi mniSvneloba aqvs qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis. ekonomikis ganviTarebis dabali done aiZulebs am qveynebs moaxdinon moZvelebuli mowyobilobebisa da teqnologiebis importi, romelTa gamoyenebis grZelvadiani Sedegebis Sesaxeb informaciasac ki ar floben. rogorc sazRvargareTuli gamocdileba gvikarnaxebs, ekologiuri regulireba da aqedan gamomdinare ekologiuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa saqarTvelos ekonomikuri cxovrebis mniSvnelovani faqtori unda gaxdes. man zemoqmedeba unda moaxdinos aRwarmoebiT procesebze, ekonomikis struqturul gardaqmnebsa da sabazro koniuqturaze. miTumetes dRes ekologiuri wonasworoba isea darRveuli saqarTveloSi, rom Tu sameurneo ganviTarebis Tanamedrove tendenciebi ar Seicvala, man SeiZleba gamoiwvios ekologiuri katastrofebi. saqarTveloSi mavne nivTierebebis gafrqvevam stacionaluri wyaroebidan Seadgina: 2005 wels _ 24; 2006 wels _ 28; 2007 wels _ 28; 2008 wels _ 26, 2009 wels ki _ 21 aTasi tona. Sesabamisad, avtotransportis mier mavne nivTierebebis gafrqvevam 2005 wels Seadgina 246 aTasi tona, 2006 wels _ 256; 2007 wels _ 295; 2008 wels _ 311, 2009 wels lo _ 349 aTasi tona Seadgina.10 Cvens qveyanaSi garemos dabinZurebis erT-erTi mTavari mizezi resurs da energotevadi moZvelebuli manqana – mowyobilobebi da teqnologiebia, romelsac dominirebuli adgili uWiravs qveynis ekonomikaSi da gansakuTrebiT uaryofiT efeqts iZleva maTi gamoyeneba gadamamuSavebel dargSi, situacias amZimebs ekologiurad saSiSi saqonlis importi. maT Soris ekologiuri safrTxis gamovlenis erT–erT formad SeiZleba davasaxeloT janmrTelobisaTvis saSiSi kvebis produqtebi, rac sasursaTo usafrTxoebas eWvqveS ayenebs. saqarTvelos mTeli teritoriis daaxloebiT 39,9% tyiTaa dafaruli. aqedan arsebuli monacemebiT daaxloebiT 0,5 mln ha e.w. xeluxlebel tyeebs, 2,2 mln. ha saxecvlil bunebriv tyeebs, 0,06 mlnha ki xelovnurad gaSenebul tyeebs ganekuT-

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საქართველო ციფრებში 2010 წელი, საქართველოს სტატისტიკის ეროვნული სამსახური

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vneba. tyeebis (merqnis) saerTo maragi daaxloebiT 430 milion kubur metrs Seadgens, xolo merqnis maragis saSualo wliuri Semateba _ 4,0 mln. kuburi metria. 2002 wlidan, xe–tyis mopovebis moculoba TiTqmis gaormagda. ZiriTadad xdeba saSeSe merqnis mopoveba, romlis 80%-s soflad mcxovrebi mosaxleoba ZiriTadi energiis wyaros saxiT iyenebs. saqarTveloSi tyis fondi 3005 aTas heqtars Seadgens. didi yuradReba eqceva saxelmwifo nakrZalebisa da erovnuli parkebis movlas. 2005 wels saxelmwifo nakrZalebisa da erovnuli parkebis raodenoba 18 erTeuls Seadgenda; 2006 wels 21 erTeuls da 2009 wels 22 erTeuls. sainteresoa TuSeTis erovnuli parki, mtiralas erovnuli parki, vaSlovanis erovnuli parki, lagodexis nakrZali, kintriSis nakrZali, kolxeTis erovnuli parki, borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki, qobuleTis nakrZali, algeTis erovnuli parki da sxva. bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobaze da dabinZurebis stacionaluri wyaroebis kontrolis mizniT saqarTvelos mTavrobam 2005 wels Camoayaliba garemos dacvis da bunebrivi resursebis saxelmwifo-saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba _ garemos dacvis inspeqcia gamovlenilia garemos dacviTi samarTaldarRvevebis faqtebis raodenoba. garemoze miyenebuli ziani did safrTxes warmoadgens saqarTvelos erovnuli interesebisaTvis. misi mzardi dinamika zians miayenebs rogorc bunebriv garemos, aseve qveynis ekonomikis usafrTxo da mdgrad ganviTarebas. garemos dacvaze ekonomikuri berketebis zemoqmedebis sistema sagadasaxado da sakredito xasiaTis RonisZiebaTa nakrebia, romelTa gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia saqarTveloSi ekologiuri regulirebis mizniT, rac yvelaze metad aris gamarTlebuli. marTalia qveyanaSi, arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gamo, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebma jer kidev ver gamoimuSaves bunebriv garemoze zrunvisa da bunebrivi resursebis racionaluri gamoyenebis unar-Cvevebi, magram Tuki sazogadioebis farTo masebisaTvis cnobili gaxdeba garemos dacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRveviT garemoze miyenebuli zianisa da administraciuli samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sajarimo Tanxebis odenobebi, maSin aRniSnuli qmedeba iqneba erT-erTi efeqturi saSualeba garemos dacviTi samarTaldarRvevebis winaaRmdeg gatarebul RonisZiebebSi. literatura: 1. baraTaSvili e., jolia g., grZeliSvili n., mumlaZe i., sexniaSvili d., CaxvaSvili d., „ekonomikis saxelmwifo regulireba“. naw. 1 Tb. 2011. 2. Ходов Л. Г. Основи государственной экономической ролитики. Учевник М. Бек, 2007 3. Яременко Ю. В. Прогнозы развития народного хозяйства и варианты экономической политики М. Наука 2007. 4. Дворяков В. А. Экономическая безопасность теория и реалность.Угроз. М. 2000 maRlakeliZe T., „ekonomikuriusafrTxoeba“. Tb. 2002 w.

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Evgeni Baratashvili Doctor of Economic Sciences, full professor, Technical University of Georgia Georgia. Tbilisi Revaz Gvelesiani Doctor of Economic Sciences, full professor, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Georgia. Tbilisi Shota Veshapidze Doctor of Economic Sciences, associate professor, Technical University of Georgia Georgia, Tbilisi

Principal Aspects of The Secure and Sustainable Development of Georgia’s Economy Summary The authors of the present article argue that the economic model of the XXI century is completely different from the models and attitudes, which were dominant even 20-30 years ago. Nowadays the priority is given to the sustainable development. It is mentioned that in 1990s ecological problem assumed global dimension, which is manifested in following: • Natural renewable resources such as wood, fish, water cannot be renewed so quickly; • The world eco-system is ruined, most species of flora and fauna have disappeared; • More and more areas of the planet transformed into zones of ecological flashpoints; Definitely could be said, that sustainable development should become the basis for modern ecology and economic growth. Deeper analysis shows, that there are weak and strong concepts of sustainability. It is also noteworthy that the concept of sustainable development is not finally defined and the authors suggest their formulation. It is concluded, that the ecological regulation and ecological security should be the defining factors of the economic course in Georgia. It should affect the reproduction, structural transformation processes and market situation. The authors stress the necessity of changes in the economic development trends in Georgia in order to avoid ecological disasters.

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xaTuna barbaqaZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis meqanizmebi sawarmos finansuri riskebis marTvis meTodebis sistemaSi gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeba maTi neitralizaciis Sida meqanizmebs, rac warmoadgens maTi uaryofiTi Sedegebis minimizaciis meTodebis sistemas, romelTa SerCeva da ganxorcieleba xdeba TviTon sawarmos farglebSi. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis Sida meqanizmebis gamoyenebis upiratesobaa mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis alternatiulobis maRali xarisxi, romlebic, rogorc wesi, damokidebulebi ar arian meurneobis sxva subieqtebze. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis Sida meqanizmebis sistemis ZiriTadi meTodebia: riskis Tavidan acileba; riskis koncentraciis limitireba; hejireba; diversifikacia; riskis transferti; TviTdazRveva da sxva. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis Sida meqanizmebis sistemis martivi meTodia maTi Tavidan acileba, rac mdgomareobs Sida xasiaTis iseTi RonisZiebebis SemuSavebaSi, romlebic mTlianad gamoricxaven finansuri riskis konkretul saxes. aRniSnuls miekuTvneba: uaris Tqma maRalriskiani finansuri operaciebis ganxorcielebaze; sakontraqto valdebulebebis sistematurad damrRvev partniorebTan; didi moculobebiT nasesxebi kapitalis da daballikvidur formebSi sabrunavi saxsrebis Zalian didi raodenobiT gamoyenebaze; moklevadian finansur investiciebSi droebiT Tavisufali fuladi aqtivebis gamoyenebaze. CamoTvlili riskebis ugulebelyofa sawarmos arTmevs mogebis formirebis damatebiT wyaroebs da Sesabamisad, uaryofiTad moqmedebs misi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis tempebsa da sakuTari kapitalis gamoyenebis efeqturobaze. amitom riskebis neitralizaciis Sida meqanizmebis sistemaSi maTi Tavidan acileba unda ganxorcieldes Semdegi ZiriTadi pirobebis arsebobisas: • Tu erT finansur riskze uaris Tqma ar iwvevs sxva riskis – ufro maRali an imave donis riskis, warmoSobas; • Tu riskis done SeuTavsebelia finansuri operaciis Semosavlianobis donesTan „Semosavali _ riski~ skalis mixedviT; • Tu riskis mocemul saxeobaze finansuri danakargebi aRemateba maTi anazRaurebis SesaZleblobebs sawarmos sakuTari finansuri saxsrebis xarjze; • Tu Semosavlis sidides operaciidan sawarmos formirebul dadebiT fulad nakadSi ar ukavia sagrZnobi xvedriTi wili; • Tu finansuri operaciebi ar aris damaxasiaTebeli sawarmos finansuri saqmianobisaTvis, atareben inovaciur xasiaTs da maTze ar arsebobs sainformacio baza, romelic aucilebelia finansuri riskebis donis gansazRvrisa da Sesabamisi mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciiis mniSvnelovan mimarTulebas warmoadgens maTi koncentraciis limitireba, romelic gamoiyeneba dasaSvebi donis sazRvrebidan, anu finansur operaciebze, romlebic xorcieldebian kritikuli an katastrofuli riskis zonaSi. aseTi limitireba realizdeba sawarmoSi Sesabamisi Sida fi-

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nansuri normativebis dadgenis gziT, finansuri saqmianobis sxvadasxva aspeqtis ganxorcielebis politikis SemuSavebis procesSi. finansuri normativebis sistema, romelic uzrunvelyofs riskebis koncentraciis limitirebas, moicavs: • nasesxebi saxsrebis zRvruli sidides (xvedriTi wili), romelic cal-calke dgindeba sawarmos operaciuli da sainvesticio saqmianobisaTvis, xolo rig SemTxvevebSi ki – calkeuli finansuri operaciebisaTvisac (realuri sainvesticio proeqtis dafinanseba; sabrunavi aqtivebis formirebis dafinanseba da a.S.); • maRallikviduri aqtivebis minimaluri sidide (xvedriTi wili), rac uzrunvelyofs e.w. „likviduri baliSis~ formirebas, romelic axasiaTebs maRalikviduri aqtivebis rezervirebis sidides sawarmos winaSe mdgari gadaudebeli finansuri valdebulebebis dafarvis mizniT; • sasaqonlo (komerciuli) an samomxmareblo kreditis maqsimaluri sidide, romelic mimarTulia sakredito riskis koncentraciis Semcirebisaken da dgindeba produqciis myidvelebisaTvis sasaqonlo kreditis SeTavazebis politikis formirebis dros; • sadepozito anabaris maqsimaluri sidide, romelic ganTavsebulia erT bankSi. am formiT sadepozito riskis koncentraciis limitireba xorcieldeba sawarmos kapitalis investirebis mocemuli finansuri instrumentis gamoyenebis procesSi; • erTi emitentis fasian qaRaldebSi saxsrebis dabandebis maqsimaluri sidide, rac mimarTulia fasiani qaRaldebis porTfelis formirebis dros arasistematiuri (specifikuri) finansuri riskis koncentraciis Semcirebisaken. • debitorul davalianebaSi saxsrebis gadatanis maqsimaluri periodi, romlis xarjze xdeba gadaxdisuunarobis, inflaciis da sakredito riskis limitirebis uzrunvelyofa. finansuri riskebis koncentraciis limitireba warmoadgens risk-menejmentis erT-erT yvelaze metad gavrcelebul Sida meqanizms , romelic axdens sawarmos finansuri ideologiis realizacias am riskebis miRebis nawilSi da ar saWiroebs did danaxarjebs. diversifikaciis meqanizmi, romelic gamoiyeneba riskebis arasistematuri (specifikuri) saxeobebis uaryofiTi finansuri Sedegebis neitralizaciisaTvis, romlis moqmedebis principi efuZneba riskebis diversifikaciis Semdeg mimarTulebebs: finansuri saqmianobis saxeebis, sawarmos savaluto, sadepozito, sakredito porTfelis da realuri investirebis programis diversifikacias. unda aRiniSnos, rom diversifikaciis meqanizmi amorCeviT zemoqmedebs calkeuli finansuri riskebis uaryofiTi Sedegebis Semcirebaze. uzrunvelyofs ra udavo efeqts arasistematuri (specifikuri) jgufis kompleqsuri, portfeluri finansuri riskebis neitralizaciaSi, is ar iZleva efeqts sistematuri riskebis udidesi nawilis – inflaciuri, sagadasaxado da sxva – neitralizaciaSi. amitom am meqanizmis gamoyeneba sawarmoSi atarebs SezRudul xasiaTs. finansuri riskebis transfertis meqanizmi efuZneba maT xSir gadacemas partniorebisaTvis calkeul finansuri operaciebis mixedviT. amasTan, meurne partniorebs gadaecemT sawarmos finansuri riskebis is nawili, romelTa uaryofiTi Sedegebis neitralizaciis ufro meti SesaZleblobebi aqvT da gaaCniaT Sida sadazRvevo dacvis ufro efeqturi saSualebebi.

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risk-menejmentis Tanamedrove praqtikaSi farTo gavrceleba hpova riskebis ganawilebis (partniorebze maTi transfertis) Semdegma ZiriTadma mimarTulebebma, rogoricaa: • riskis ganawileba sainvesticio proeqtis monawileebs Soris; • riskis ganawileba sawarmosa da nedleulisa da masalebis momwodeblebs Soris; • riskis ganawileba salizingo operaciis monawileebs Soris; • riskis ganawileba faqtoringuli operaciis monawileebs Soris. finansuri riskebis TviTdazRvevis meqanizmi efuZneba sawarmos mier finansuri resursebis nawilis darezervebas, rac saSualebas iZleva daZleuli iqnas finansuri operaciebis uaryofiTi finansuri Sedegebi, romelic dakavSirebuli ar aris kontragentebis moqmedebebTan. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis aRniSnuli mimarTulebis ZiriTad formebia: • sawarmos sarezervo (sadazRvevo) da miznobrivi sarezervo fondebis Seqmna; • finansuri resursebis sarezervo Tanxebis Seqmna sabiujeto sistemaSi; • saangariSo periodSi miRebuli mogebis gaunawilebeli naSTi. finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis aRniSnuli meqanizmis gamoyenebis dros aucilebelia imis gaTvaliswineba, rom sadazRvevo resursebi saSualebas ki iZlevian, rom sawarmom swrafad aanazRauros miRebuli finansuri danakargebi, magram „yinaven~ finansuri resursebis gamoyenebas, ris Sedegad mcirdeba sawarmos sakuTari kapitalis gamoyenebis efeqturoba, Zlierdeba misi damokidebuleba dafinansebis gare wyaroebze, rac gansazRvravs darezervebuli finansuri resursebis Tanxebis optimizaciis aucileblobas, rom isini SemdgomSi gamoyenebuli iyos mxolod finansuri riskebis calkeuli saxeebis neitralizaciisaTvis. aseT riskebs SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes: • dauzRvevadi finansuri riskebi; • dasaSvebi da kritikuli donis finansuri riskebi, romelTa warmoSobis albaToba didi ar aris; • dasaSvebi donis finansuri riskebis umetesoba, romlebzedac maRali ar aris savaraudo zaralis saangariSsworebo Rirebuleba. finansuri riskebis Sida neitralizaciis sxva meTodebs Soris, romlebsac sawarmoebi iyeneben, SeiZleba iyos: • finansuri operaciis kontragentisagan riskisaTvis premiis damatebiTi donis moTxovnis uzrunvelyofa. Tu gansaxorcielebeli finansuri operaciis riskis done aRemateba masze Semosavlis saangariSsworebo dones (skala `Semosavlianobariski~), maSin aucilebelia masze damatebiTi Semosavlis miRebis uzrunvelyofa an mis ganxorcielebaze uaris Tqma; • garkveuli garantiebis miReba kontragentebisagan, romlebic ukavSirdebian uaryofiTi finansuri Sedegebis neitralizacias riskis movlenis dadgomis dros, SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos Tavdebis, mesame pirebis sagarantio werilebis, sadazRvevo polisebis formiT, sawarmos sasargeblod, misi kontragentebis mxridan maRalriskian finansur operaciebze; • kontragentebTan dadebul kontraqtebSi fors-maJoruli garemoebebis CamonaTvalis Semcireba, romelic xSirad dausabuTeblad izrdeba (miRebuli saerTaSoriso komerciuli da finansuri wesebis sawinaaRmdegod), rac sawarmos partniorebs saSualebas aZlevs, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi Tavidan aicilon finansuri pasuxismgebloba TavianTi sakontraqto valdebulebebis SeusruleblobisaTvis;

28


• riskebze SesaZlo finansur danakargebze kompensaciis uzrunvelyofa gaTvaliswinebuli sajarimo sanqciebis sistemis xarjze, rac gulisxmobs aucilebeli sididis jarimebis, sauravebis, pirgasamtexloebis da finansuri sanqciebis sxva formebis gaangariSebas da maT Setanas kontragentebTan dadebul kontraqtebSi. Cvens mier ganxiluli finansuri riskebis neitralizaciis ZiriTadi Sida meqanizmebi, SeiZleba arsebiTad Seivsos, Tu gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba sawarmos finansuri saqmianobis specifika da misi finansuri riskebis porTfelis konkretuli Semadgenloba.

Khatuna Barbaqadze Doctor of Economics, Iv. Javakhishvili TSU Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Mechanisms for Financial Risk Neutralization Summary Internal method of risk neutralization plays the main role in financial risk management of an enterprise. It represents the method for the minimization of the negative consequences of financial risks. The advantage of using internal mechanisms of financial risks neutralization is the high quality of managerial decision alternatives. The main methods within the system of internal financial risks neutralization are: risk avoidance, limit of risk concentration, hedging, diversification, risk transfer, self insurance, etc. The main internal mechanisms of financial risk neutralization may be substantially filled if we consider specificity of company’s financial performance and a particular composition of financial risks portfolio.

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Андрусив Роксолана Романовна Cоискатель кафедры международных экономических отношений Львовской коммерческой академии Научный руководитель: д.е.н., профессор кафедры МЭО Флейчук М. И. Украина, Львов

Внешний долг как угроза экономической безопасности стран Центральной и Восточной Европы В конце ХХ - начале ХХI вв. практически во всех странах сформировалась долговая экономическая система, а внешняя задолженность стала характерной чертой глобальной экономики и важным аспектом современной финансовой глобализации. Глобальные изменения, произошедшие в системе международных рынков капитала и обострения проблемы „долгового навеса” в системе глобальных индикаторов безопасности экономического пространства обусловливают необходимость их учета при мониторинге уровня безопасности национальной экономики. В период усиления глобализационных процессов особую актуальность приобретает финансовая безопасность государства, поскольку именно финансовая система обеспечивает всю экономику необходимыми ресурсами. Финансовая безопасность - это такое состояние финансовой, денежнокредитной, валютной, банковской, бюджетной, налоговой систем (рис. 1), который характеризуется сбалансированностью, устойчивостью к внутренним и внешним негативным воздействиям, способностью обеспечить эффективное функционирование национальной экономической системы и экономический рост. Под долговой безопасности государства следует понимать некий критический уровень государственной задолженности, который позволяет сохранить устойчивость финансовой системы страны к внутренним и внешним угрозам, обеспечить определенный уровень относительной независимости государства, сохраняя при этом экономическую возможность страны осуществлять выплаты на погашение основной суммы и процентов, поддерживая должный уровень платежеспособности и кредитного рейтинга [1]. Общеизвестно, что движущими силами привлечения заимствований выступают неуравновешенность платежного баланса, необходимости обслуживания ранее накопленных долгов, дефицит национальных сбережений для финансирования необходимых инвестиционных и инновационных проектов, покрытие дефицита бюджета, а также осуществления эффективных экономических реформ. Однако в условиях стран с посттрансформационной экономикой (именно к этой группе относят страны Центральной и Восточной Европы) интенсивное накопление внешнего долга вызвано, прежде всего, с деформациями денежно-кредитной системы, недостаточной трансформации национальных сбережений во внутренние инвестиции, необходимость привлечения средств для стабилизации экономической системы после финансового кризиса 2008-2011 гг., а также для потребительских целей экономики. С целью анализа деструктивности воздействия такого использования заимствованных средств необходимо, прежде всего, рассмотреть предпосылки формирования внешней задолженности, а также мировые тенденции посткризисного восстановления экономик и рынка кредитования. Анализируя рейтинг стран мира по объему внешней задолженности (рис. 2, 3) в 2011 г., отметим, что на первом месте находятся США (14,710 трлн. США, 100,88 % от ВВП), на втором Великобритания (9,836 трлн. долл. США, 437,93 % от ВВП), на третьем - Франция (5,633 трлн. долл. США, 220,04 % от ВВП), четвертое и пятое место соответственно занимают Германия (5,624 трлн. долл. США, 169,96 % от ВВП) и Япония (2,719 трлн. долл. США, 49,46 %).

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ФИНАНСОВАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ

Бюджетная безопасность

Валютная безопасность

состояние обеспечения платежеспособности государства с учетом баланса доходов и расходов государственного и местных бюджетов и эффективности использования бюджетных средств

Денежно-кредитная безопасность состояние денежно-кредитной системы, который характеризуется стабильностью денежной единицы, доступностью кредитных ресурсов и таким уровнем инфляции, что обеспечивает экономический рост и повыше-

состояние курсообразования, которое создает оптимальные условия для поступательного развития отечественного экспорта, беспрепятственного притока в страну инвестиций, интеграции в мировой экономической системы и максимально защищает от

Долговая безопасность

Безопасность страхового рынка

уровень внутренней и внешней задолженности с учетом стоимости его обслуживания и эффективности использования внутренних и внешних заимствований и оптимального соотношения между ними, достаточный для решения неотложных социальноэкономических потребностей, не грозит потерей суверенитета и

Безопасность фондового рынка

уровень обеспеченности страховых компаний финансовыми ресурсами, который дал бы им возможность в случае необходимости возместить оговоренные в договорах страхования убытки их клиентов и обеспечить эффективное функционирование

оптимальный объем капитализации, способный обеспечить устойчивое финансовое институтов совместного инвестирования, посредников, консультантов, регистраторов, депозитариев, хранителей и государства

4000,00

Отношение внеш. долга к ВВП (%)

16000

Внешний долг (млрд долл. США)

14000 12000

3000,00

98 36

10000

2500,00

8000 56 24

2000,00

56 33

6000

54 8,3

58 3 ,3

62 6 ,9

64 4 ,5

88 3,5

90 3,2

10 16

11 81

13 02

13 46

2000

Португалия

Греция

Дания

Норвегия

Австрия

Гонг-Конг

Швеция

Канада

Австралия

Швейцария

Бельгия

Люксембург

Ирландия

Испания

Италия

Япония

Германия

0 Франция

США

0,00

Великобритания

500,00

4000 13 39

21 46

23 57

25 70

1000,00

26 84

1500,00 27 19

млрд долл. США

3500,00

%

4500,00

14 71 0

Рис. 1. Составляющие финансовой безопасности государства

Страны

Рис. 2. Рейтинг стран мира по показателю внешней задолженности в 2011 г., 1-20 место За: [7; 8]

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Отношение внеш. долга к ВВП (%)

51 8

52 9, 2

600

Внешний долг (млрд долл. США)

300 200 10 5, 8

10 9, 4

12 4, 5 12 3, 4 11 2, 4 11 1, 9

400,00

13 2, 5

15 1, 8 14 3, 5

22 3

23 2, 5

600,00

400 30 9, 6 27 9, 8

31 6, 9

800,00

36 5, 4

39 6, 2

500 39 8

млрд долл. США

1000,00

%

1200,00

53 8, 6

В первую двадцатку также вошли такие страны как Ирландия (2,357 трлн. долл. США, 1156 % от ВВП), Италия (2,684 трлн. долл. США. 130,86 % от ВВП), Испания (2,570 трлн. США, 182,66 % от ВВП), Люксембург (2,146 трлн. долл. США, 3895,09 % от ВВП), Норвегия (644,5 млрд. дол. США, 155,5% от ВВП) и Греция (583,3 млрд. дол. США, 191,33 % ВВП). Как видим, долговая нагрузка данных стран является чрезмерным, а в случае Ирландии, Люксембурга и Норвегии - угрожающим. Напомним, что Ирландия в 2009-2010 гг. пережила дефолт, основой которого стали чрезмерные внешние заимствования, в частности корпоративного сектора экономики [6]. Важным фактором стабилизации экономики Ирландии стали кредиты МВФ и внутренняя политика, однако проблема обслуживания чрезмерных внешних долгов до сих пор остается актуальной и не только для Ирландии, но и для ряда других европейских стран, таких как Испания, Греция и Великобритания.

100

Чехия

Тайланд

Израиль

Украина

0 Юж. Африка

Страны

Исландия

Румынией

ОАЭ

Индонезия

Венгрия

Мексика

Турция

Индия

Польша

Бразилия

Юж. Корея

Финляндия

Китай

Россия

0,00

Казахстан

200,00

Рис. 3. Рейтинг стран мира по показателю внешней задолженности в 2011 г., 21-40 место Начало 2011 г. ознаменовался появлением в средствах массовой информации сообщений ученых и ведущих экономистов мира о дефолте США, а также вторую волну кризисных явлений, которые произведут гораздо более отрицательное влияние на мировую экономику, чем финансовый кризис 2007-2010 гг. [5]. Причиной угрожающей ситуации есть рекордные объемы внешних заимствований США, которые могут вызвать стремительную девальвацию национальной денежной единицы (доллара) и банкротства США как мирового должника. Западные ученые предупреждают, что вторая волна кризиса в отличие от первой, не обойдет азиатские страны, в частности Китай и Индию, которые демонстрировали стабильный уровень роста ВВП даже во время финансового кризиса [2]. Во вторую двадцатку крупнейших должников мира (рис. 2.2) входят такие страны как Россия (538,6 млрд. долл. США, 36,42 % ВВП), Китай (529,2 млрд. долл. США, 9 % от ВВП), Финляндия (518 млрд. долл. США, 216,92 % от ВВП), Пн. Корея (398 млрд. долл. США, 39,25 % ВВП), Бразилия (396,2 млрд. долл. США, 18,98 % от ВВП), Турция (309,6 млрд. долл. США, 42,11 % от ВВП ), Индия (316,9 млрд. долл. США, 18,33 % от ВВП), Исландия (132,5 млрд. долл. США, 1052,17 % от ВВП), Венгрия (232,5 млрд. долл. США, 178, 27 % от ВВП) и Румыния (143,5 млрд. долл. США, 88,79 % от ВВП). Анализируя абсолютные и относительные показатели данных стран отметим, что наибольшей долговой устойчивости характеризуются азиатские страны, долговая нагрузка которых находится в безопасных пределах и соответствует Маастрихтским критериям. На современном этапе многие развитые экономики обременены очень большими уровнями внешнего долга (достигающие 200 % от ВВП). Это касается и стран с посттрансформационной экономикой, для которых показатель отношения внешнего долга к ВВП превышает безопасный уровень в 50% (рис. 4).

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Относительно исследуемых стран, то в мировом рейтинге крупнейших должников Украина занимает 36 место (123,4 млрд. долл. США, 89,47 % ВВП), Россия находится на 21 месте (538,6 млрд. долл. США, 36,42 % от ВВП), Польша - 26 место (365,4 млрд. долл. США, 77,98 % от ВВП). Только Чехия (40 место) имеет сравнительно низкий уровень задолженности, равный 105,8 млрд. долл. США в июле 2011 г. (55,06 % от ВВП).

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Рынки развивающихся стран развитые экономики Латинская Америка Азия (кроме Гонг-Конга) Африка Япония посттрансформационной страны Азиатские развивающиеся страны Австралия и Канада США Европейские страны, которые развиваются

190 30 30 35 45 68 70 75 89 90 210

Развитые страны Европы

0 50 100 Отношение внешнего долга к ВВП (%)

150

200

250

Рис. 4. Отношение внешнего долга к ВВП: средние значения для 59 стран. За: [4] Долговую безопасность принято рассчитывать в пределах конкретного государства, однако целесообразно, на наш взгляд, при мониторинге состояния финансового безопасности рассматривать показатель глобальной долговой безопасности, который можно определить как отношение мировой задолженности к мировому ВВП:

Iwd =

∑ Di ∑ Yi

(1)

где, Di- внешний долг страны, Yi - ВВП страны, Idw - показатель глобальной долговой безопасности При условии, что мировое ВВП на конец первого полугодия 2011 г. составляло 74,54 трлн. долл. США, а мировой долг = 60,47 трлн. долл. США, то показатель глобальной долговой безопасности = 81,12 %. Итак, если рассматривать внешнюю задолженность в глобальном измерении, то можно сделать вывод, что мировая экономика обременена чрезмерными долгами, что в свою очередь дестабилизирует финансовую систему и вызывает нестабильность на финансовых рынках. Так, для повышения уровня эффективности долговой политики посттрансформационных экономик, в разрезе стратегического управления внешним долгом необходимо: - стратегию управления государственным долгом необходимо сориентировать на структурное реформирование экономики исходя из национальных интересов государства и его финансовой безопасности, управление должно быть долгосрочным, стратегическим, направляться на увеличение срока погашения задолженности и сокращения расходов на обслуживание долга; - необходимо разнообразить источники привлечения средств в экономику Украины с последующим перемещением акцента в сторону привлечения инвестиционных ресурсов, усилить внимание к управлению кредитным рейтингом, активнее использовать возможности внутреннего рынка;

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- средства, привлеченные из внешних финансовых источников, следует вкладывать в наиболее эффективные программы и рассматривать их использования с точки зрения экономической целесообразности; - законодательно запретить предоставление государственных гарантий по иностранным кредитам, поскольку, как правило, такого рода кредиты не возвращаются, а платежи, по их обслуживанию, ложатся дополнительным бременем на государственный бюджет; - реформировать институты, ответственные за управление внешним долгом в направлении концентрации контролирующих функций, ввести функциональную структуру по управлению внешним долгом; - в практическом плане, необходимо ввести эффективный менеджмент долгового процесса, разработать и реализовать на практике научно обоснованную долговую стратегию, которая отвечала бы стратегическим национальным интересам; - в краткосрочном периоде - не допустить финансовой дестабилизации путем уменьшения пиковых выплат и смягчения долгового бремени на бюджет и золотовалютные резервы и создание оптимальной схемы обслуживания внешнего долга на определенном временном интервале; - в долгосрочном периоде - на избежание финансовой зависимости от отдельных кредиторов и обеспечения устойчивого экономического роста через минимизацию существующей государственной задолженности, активизацию и оптимизацию валютно-финансовых потоков недолгового характера. - для урегулирования проблемы внешней задолженности важно воспользоваться рыночными методами и задействовать механизмы активного управления внешним долгом, создать организационно-правовые предпосылки применения инструментов активного управления; начать обмен (своп) долговых обязательств государства на акции предприятий, находящихся в государственной собственности, инициировать погашения долгов товарными поставками. привлечение в страну иностранного частного капитала, что позволит оптимизировать структуру внешней задолженности; активизировать инвестиционные процессы; сократить бюджетные расходы на финансирование капиталовложений; расширить базу для производства товаров и услуг, увеличить поступления в бюджет; улучшить состояние платежного баланса; - создать необходимые экономические и законодательные условия приостановления „бегства” капитала посттрансформационных экономик. Это обеспечит, с одной стороны, реализацию прямой корреляционной зависимости между объемом внутренних и иностранных инвестиций, а именно: приостановится бегство капитала - увеличатся внутренние сбережения - восстановится доверие кредиторов - активизируется иностранное инвестирование; - повысить кредитный рейтинг, что будет способствовать: минимизации рискованности долговых обязательств, а следовательно удешевлению их стоимости инвестиционной привлекательности, а значит и активизации валютно-финансовых и кредитных потоков. Так, привлечены внешние финансовые источники также следует рассматривать с двух сторон: с точки зрения их объема и с позиций эффективного использования. Привлеченные внешние займы должны увеличивать производственные мощности, главным образом тех предприятий, продукция которых идет на экспорт. Увеличение экспорта продукции приведет к увеличению валютных поступлений в государства, которые необходимы для обслуживания и погашения внешнего долга. Весомым методом нейтрализации негативных последствий чрезмерного внешнего долга в условиях финансовой глобализации является формирование эффективной системы управления задолженностью, которая должна быть частью стратегии обеспечения не только финансовой, но и экономической безопасности в целом.

34


Литература: 1. Методика розрахунку рівня економічної безпеки України : [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://me.kmu.gov.ua. 2. Brazil, India & China fared well during the financial crisis: [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://business.rediff.com/report/2010. 3. Francis T. Debt Ceiling Debate: A Threat to Corporate America? // The fiscal times. – 2011. – May 21: [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.thefiscaltimes.com. 4. Reinhart C., Rogoff K. Growth in time of debt. − January 2010: [Электронный ресурс]. − Режим доступа: www.nber.org. 5. To default, or not to default?. Sovereign defaults and GDP / The economist, June, 2011 : [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: www.economist.com. 6. What kind of debt counts as debt? / The economist, January, 2011 : [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: www.economist.com. 7. http://imf.org – официальный сайт Международного валютного фонда. 8. http://worldbank – официальный сайт Всемирного банка.

Andrusiv Roksolana Romanova Degree Seeker, Department of International Economic Relations, Commercial Academy of Lvov Ukraine, Lviv Foreign Debt as the Threat for the Economic Security of Central and Eastern European Countries Summary The article deals with the concept of financial and debt security. The author focuses on the problem of external debt growth in the world and especially in Central and Eastern Europe. The author analyzes the performance of debt security of the world and proposes the actions for improving the debt security. Keywords: financial security, debt security, external debt, financial crisis, debt management

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kaxaber gabelaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, quTaisis universitetis ekonomikisa da biznesis marTvis fakultetis dekani, asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, quTaisi globaluri ekonomikuri krizisebis eklesiuri Sefasebebi dReisaTvis msoflio ekonomika turbulentur mdgomareobaSia, yoveldRiurad icvleba krizisis gavlenis xarisxi sxvadasxva qveynebis socialur-ekonomikur ganviTarebaze, arsebiTad Semcirda maTi ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi, seriozuli safrTxe Seeqmna sabanko seqtors, safondo birJebs, gaizarda umuSevrobis done, mosaxleobis didi nawili siRaribis zRvars miRma aRmoCnda, Semcirda moxmarebis done da, rac mTavaria, msoflio sazogadoebaSi daisadgura gaurkvevlobam da SiSma momavlis, xvalindeli dRis mimarT. amJamad krizisis gamomwvevi mizezebidan gamokveTilia ramdenime versia, romelTa Soris unda aRiniSnos Semdegi: finansuri afiora da maqinaciebi, romelsac adgili hqonda aSS-is da evropis zogierTi qveynis safinanso-sabanko seqtorSi; keTildReobis araTanabari ganawileba msoflios qveynebs da regionebs Soris; surogatuli fulis SeWra safinanso sistemaSi; aSS-is dolaris Warbwarmoeba; religiuri da moraluri faseulobebisagan sazogadoebrivi gulgrilobis zrda da a.S.11 miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis dawyebidan cota droa gasuli, msoflios religiur mimarTulebaTa umravlesobam mkafiod da calsaxad daafiqsira TavianTi Sexedulebebi am umniSvnelovanes negatiur movlenaze. marTalia, Teologebs jerjerobiT ar hqondaT saSualeba siRrmiseulad gamoekvliaT Tanamedrove globaluri krizisi gamomwvevi mravalwaxnagovani faqtorebi da pirobebi, magram winaswari Teoriuli debulebebi da koncefciebi, agreTve adrindeli gamokvlevebi, mainc iZlevian Sedarebis, ganzogadebisa da garkveuli daskvnebis gakeTebis saSualebas. upirveles yovlisa, sayuradReboa romis kaTolikuri eklesiis religiur-administraciuli centris – vatikanis Sexedulebebi Tanamedrove msoflio safinasoekonomikur krizisze. vatikanis administracia da piradad romis papi benediqte XVI did yuradRebas aqcevs msoflio globaluri krizisis Sedegad gamowveul socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis Sefasebas. vatikani Riad akritikebs dasavluri Tavisufali bazris models, imisaTvis, rom man ver uzrunvelyo krizisebis Tavidan acileba. sainteresoa imis aRniSvna, rom romis amJamindelma papma, romelic adre aT welze met xans iyo papi ioane pavle II-is mrCeveli, dawera naSromi `sabazro ekonomika da eTika~, sadac mwvaved gaakritika globaluri ekonomikuri Teoriis mimdevrebi, maT Soris am ideologiis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli adam smiti, imisaTvis, rom maTi azriT bazris bunebrivi kanonebi efeqtiania da sazogadoebisaTvis sargeblis momtania. am naSromSi gatarebulia azri, rom bazris moTamaSeTa dabali moraluri Tvisebebis gamo miyenebuli zarali SeiZleba damRupveli aRmoCndes sazogadoebisaTvis. man iwinaswarmtyvela, rom biznesSi monawileTa moraluri disciplinis uqonlobam SeiZleba gamoiwvios sabazro ekonomikis kraxi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom misi 20 wlis winaT gakeTebuli prognozi gamarTlda. 11

mesxia i. ekonomikuri da religiuri usafrTxoeba Tanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi, J., `logosi~, t. IV, Tb., 2007.

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sul axlaxan romis papma benediqte XVI gamosca wigni `ieso nazareTidan~, sadac is mwvaved akritikebs kapitalizmis `borotebas~ RaribTa eqspluataciaSi, magram gmobs imasac, rom marqsistulma moZRvrebam ar datova adgili RmerTisaTvis. papis rolSi yofnis am mokle periodSi igi mivida im daskvnamde, rom Tanamedrove etapze sazogadoebrivi cxovreba sulierad gaRaribebulia da adamianebis didi nawili fiqrobs, rom maT SeuZliaT icxovron RmerTis gareSe. romis papi gmobs im mdidrebs, romlebmac kolonializmis daxmarebiT `daayaCaRes~ afrika da mesame samyaro, rogorc materialurad, aseve zneobrivad. mdidrebis cxovrebis wesma warmoSva narkotikebis, adamianTa vaWrobis, seqsualuri turizmis da sxva uzneobebis mravalricxovani msxverpli. mdidrebi Sinaganad, socialurad carieli arian miuxedavad maT xelT arsebuli materialuri keTildReobis siuxvisa. mdidari qveynebi dResac agrZeleben mesame samyarois qveynebisadmi zianis miyenebas, maTTvis teqnikuri da teqnologiuri daxmarebis aRmoCenis gziT. aseTi daxmarebebi ar iTvaliswineben am qveynebSi arsebul tradiciebs, religiur, moralur da socialur Taviseburebebs, ris gamoc irRveva saukuneebis manZilze Camoyalibebuli moraluri balansi.12 msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis gamomwvev mizezebze Tavisi mkafio damokidebuleba gamoxata agreTve kardinalma tarCizio bertonim. misi azriT, Tanamedrove globaluri krizisi aris Sedegi imisa, rom saerTaSoriso biznesSi TviTmiznad iqca maRali mogebis swrafad da mokle droSi. 13 msoflio ekonomikur krizisze TavianT Sexedulebebs afiqsireben sxvadasxva qveynis marTlmadidebeli eklesiebi. sruliad ruseTis da moskovis patriarqi mitropolit kirilis azriT ekonomikuri krizisis gaRrmavebis kvaldakval sul ufro cxadi xdeba, rom Tanamedrove etapze sazogadoebis siduxWiris fesvebi dgas ara imdenad ekonomikaSi, ramdenadac zneobriv sferoSi, adamianis sulierebis transformaciaSi. patriarqis azriT, saWiroa sazogadoebam uari Tqvas simdidrisa da fufunebis kultze, uzomo moxmarebaze, nebismier fasad gamdidrebaze, sakuTrebis egoistur miTvisebaze, RaribTa saWiroebebis ugulebelyofaze. saubaria uzomod gamdidrebaze da moxmarebis im zomaze, romelic aucilebelia adamianis fizikuri da sulieri ganviTarebisa da funqcionirebisaTvis. cnobilia, rom Zveli romis TeatrebSi, sadac mimdinareobda gladiatorTa brZolebi, mayureblebs purs urigebdnen, raTa dabalansebuliyo maTi sulieri da materialuri moTxovnileba. rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis azriT saWiroa SemuSavdes socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis qristianuli modeli, romelic dafuZnebuli iqneba adamianebis sulier saganZurSi fesvgadgmul zneobriv sawyisebze. ekonomika unda iyos pasuxismgebluri, perspeqtiuli da samarTliani da Tu es balansi iqneba daculi, maSin ekonomikuri ganviTareba dazRveuli iqneba im krizisebisagan, romelsac arc Tu iSviaTad adgili aqvs msoflioSi. marTlmadidebluri religiis warmomadgenlebs msoflio safinanso-ekonomikuri krizisis gamomwvev erT-erT mizezad miaCniaT is, rom fuli, romelic aris simbolo adamianis Sromis da materialuri dovlaTisa, dRevandel etapze sul ufro Sordeba Sromas da mis Sedegad Seqmnil materialur faseulobebs. mokled rom vTqvaT, realuri (mwarmoebluri) ekonomika sul ufro Sordeba finansur ekonomikas da amas mivyavarT iqiTken, rom fuli iwyebs realuri cxovrebisagan damoukideblad arsebobas. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu msoflio ekonomika am mimarTulebiT gaag12 13

Папа Римский назвал капитализм злом, www.religio.ru Ватикан объяснил причину мирового кризиса, www.VIGnews.ru

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rZelebs ganviTarebas, maSin igi raRac garkveul momentSi kvlavac gardaiqmneba uzarmazar piramidad, romelic adre Tu gvian daingreva, anu axal msoflio kriziss gamoiwvevs. gamomdinare zemoaRniSnuli safrTxidan, dRes mravali saxelmwifos lideri da mecnier-ekonomisti Tvlis, rom saWiroa finansuri ekonomikis daaxloeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazarTan. imis gamo, rom am orive seqtorSi TandaTanobiT matulobs TaRliToba, saWiroa maTze saxelmwifoebrivi, sazogadoebrivi da saerTaSoriso kontrolis gaZliereba. sazogadoebas unda hqondes saSualeba saTanado zegavlena moaxdinos im procesebze, romelic mimdinareobs safinanso-ekonomikur seqtorSi. kaTolikuri eklesiis msaxurebs miaCniaT, rom Tanamedrove ekonomikuri krizisis gamomwvevi mizezia sazogadoebis nawilis upasuxismgeblo damokidebuleba materialur faseulobasTan, maT Soris, gansakuTrebiT fulTan. Tavis mxriv, maTi azriT, amis ganmpirobebelia moralsa da eTikaSi mimdinare negatiuri cvlilebebi. TiToeuli adamiani mowodebulia maRali pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT gamoiyenos misi kuTvnili materialuri dovlaTi, magram misi cxovrebis mTavar mizans ar unda warmoadgendes gamdidreba.14 evangelistur qristianul-babtisturi mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebis azriT, Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis mizezi aris sazogadoebis transformacia, maTi gadarTva sulierebidan materialurisaken. dReisaTvis sazogadoebis didi nawilis mTavari faseuloba xdeba Tayvaniscema mamonisadmi (simdidrisadmi, fulisadmi). amasTan cnobilia, rom ieso qriste dauSveblad miiCnevda erTdroulad RmerTisadmi da mamonisadmi Tayvaniscemas. RmerTis msaxurebisagan Tavis aridebas mivyevarT simdidresadmi Tayvaniscemisaken da es ukanaskneli xdeba RmerTi. swrafvam simdidrisaken, fulisaken, romelic dRevandel etapze iTvleba ZiriTad Rirsebad, daaqveiTa adamianis zneobrivi Rirsebebi da saboloo jamSi migviyvana iqamde, rom mdidar qveynebSi izrdeba mdidrebis raodenoba, xolo Rarib qveynebSi mosaxleobas ar gaaCnia pirveladi moTxovnilebis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenis finansuri saSualeba.15 sayuradReboa islamuri religiis Sexedulebebi msoflio ekonomikur krizisze. am kuTxiT qristianuli da islamuri Sexedulebebi ZiriTadad emTxveva erTmaneTs, Tumca garkveuli gansxvavebebi mainc SeiniSneba. es logikuria, radgan islamuri ekonomika, islamuri ekonomikuri modeli Zireulad gansxvavdeba dasavluri, zogadad SeiZleba iTqvas qristianuli, ekonomikuri wesrigisagan. cnobilia, rom islamuri ekonomikuri modelis formireba xdeboda etapobrivad, mas safuZveli Caeyara XI-XIV saukuneebSi, rodesac daiwyo islamuri politikuri ekonomiis formireba. am periodSi musulmani mkvlevarebis mier gakeTebul iqna daskvna, rom morwmuneTa mier TavianTi religiuri valdebulebebis Sesruleba warmoadgens maTi ekonomikuri aqtivobis organul Semadgenel nawils. Semdgom etapze (XX saukunis dasawyisi) daiwyo pirveli islamuri ekonomikuri institutebis Camoyalibeba: egvipteSi Seiqmna pirveli islamuri banki (uprocento banki); malaiziaSi Camoyalibda `Semnaxveli korporacia~ da a.S. gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi arabTa gaerTianebul emiratebSi Seiqmna ganviTarebis islamuri banki (saerTaSorisi safinanso organizacia), romlis mizania musulmanuri qveynebis ekonomikuri da socialuri 14 15

Религия и общество, http://newsru.com/religy CixlaZe n., ekonomika da marTlmadidebluri swavleba. Tb., „inovacia”, 2009. gv. 99.

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ganviTarebis koordinacia, xolo sudanSi - pirveli islamuri sadazRvevo kompania. am droidan iwyeba islamuri ekonomikuri modelis ganviTareba, romelic mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba dasavluri modelebisagan. kerZod, islamis Tanaxmad adamiani, romelic iRebs sabanko procents, aranair Sromas ar eweva, rom gamoimuSavos fuli da es procesi araa materialurad gamyarebuli. amitomac sabanko sistema, romelic dafuZnebulia mevaxSeobaze, islamuri moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, akrZalulia. islamuri finansuri sistema dauSveblad miiCnevs finansuri meqanizmis gamoyenebas mxolod axal fulad brunvaSi dasabandeblad. Tu dasavlur finansur modelSi batonobs lozungi `fulma fuli unda akeTos~, islamuri principebiT ki finansuri resursebi ZiriTadad mimarTulia vaWrobisa da realuri warmoebis ganviTarebisaTvis. SariaTis kanonebis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom fuli unda daibandos saqonelSi da saqonlis warmoebaSi. am principebma ganapirobes is, rom globaluri krizisi gansxvavebiT dasavluri bankebisagan, ar Seexo islamur bankebs.16 qristianuli da islamuri Sexedulebebisagan mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba budizmis Sefasebebi Tanamedrove globalur krizisze. budizmi Tvlis, rom yvelaferi cvalebadia, ayvavebis epoqas cvlis dacemis epoqa da es normaluri istoriis erTi periodi gardauvlad Seicvleba meoreTi, magram es ar niSnavs samyaros dasasruls, es mxolod aris zrdis safexurebi dablidan maRlisaken. amasTan, zrda xdeba spilariseburad, istoriis ganviTareba araa sworxazovani, rogorc amas dasavleTSi amtkiceben. budistebi Tvlian, rom dRevandeli krizisis lokalizeba SesaZlebelia, mis dasaZlevad gamoyofili uzarmazari saxsrebi uaxloes periodSi pozitiur Sedegs gamoiRebs, Tumca es ar niSnavs, rom amiT kacobriobas ar daemuqreba axali globaluri kataklizmebi. induizmis Sexedulebebi globalur ekonomikur krizisze axlosaa qristianul SefasebebTan. induizmi Tvlis, rom Tanamedrove krizisis siRrmiseuli mizezia adamianebis sixarbe, romelic gamosulia kontrolidan da rogorc jaWvuri reaqcia swrafad vrceldeba. adamianebi cdiloben gaTavisufldnen daukmayofileblobisa da sicarielisagan, Seavson igi, romelic maT gulebSi warmoiqmneba umaRlesi faseulobis - RmerTisadmi siyvarulisa da Tayvaniscemis ararsebobis gamo, materialuri tkbobiT. magram sixarbes, anu swrafvas materialuri siamovnebisaken ara aqvs sazRvari da igi arasodes ar iqneba dakmayofilebuli. xarbi adamianebis moTxovnileba gamudmebiT izrdeba, magram maTi dakmayofileba ar xdeba, piriqiT, sul ufro izrdeba maTSi sicarielis SegrZneba. Sedegad amisa, warmoiSoba materialur faseulobaze dafuZnebuli ekonomika, romelic sicarielis Sesavsebad awarmoebs arasaWiro nivTebs da aiZulebs adamianebs iSromon ara TavisTvis, ris gamoc kidev ufro izrdeba daukmayofileblobis grZnoba. induizmis warmomadgenelTa azriT, jerjerobiT sazogadoebaSi adgili aqvs zedapirul krizisul procesebs, magram ramdenadac civilizaciis safuZveli dampalia, momavalSi unda velodoT ufro Zlier globalur kriziss. induizmis warmomadgenelTa azriT Tanamedrove globaluri krizisis mizezi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom msxvili qalaqebis, megapolisebisa da transnacionaluri korporaciebis Seqmnam, romlebic akontroleben msoflio ekonomikas, daarRvia cxovrebis normaluri riTmi, moSala misi harmoniuloba da balansi. krizisis dros umeteswilad irjebian megapolisebSi mcxovrebi adamianebi da igi SedarebiT naklebad exeba soflad mcxovreb glexobas, romelsac urTierToba aqvT miwasTan, 16

Ибрагимов Р., Исламский взгляд на финансовый кризис, http://S1.islamhouse.com/data/ru

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ewevian naturalur meurneobas. ebrauli religia Tvlis, rom krizisis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa bunebasTan siaxlovisa da ufro martivi, Tavmdabali cxovrebisaken swrafva. adamianebma unda ilocon, Seecadon iyvnen samarTlianebi, gamoiCinon gulisxmiereba sxva adamianebisa da bunebis mimarT.17 saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri eklesia miukerZoeblad da obieqturad afasebs Tanamedrove etapze qveyanaSi Seqmnil socialur-ekonomikur krizisul mdgomareobas. uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia II aRniSnavs, rom axla Cvens xalxs mouwia postsabWoTa gardamavali periodis simZimis gadatana, cxovrebis erTi wesidan meoreSi gadasvla, umuSevroba, SimSili, omi, moraluri kriteriumebis Secvla Zaladobisa da sicruis morevSi moxvedra... jerjerobiT arc xvalindeli dRe iZleva ukeTesi momavlis imeds, radgan mTeli msoflio globalur ekonomikur krizisSi Sedis, romelic SeiZleba sistemur krizisad iqces... krizisis Tavidan acilebis mizniT dasavleTma kursi ekonomikis seqtorSi saxelmwifo seqtoris SedarebiT gaZlierebaze aiRo. uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia II emxroba ra ekonomistebis da dargis specialistebis mosazrebebs, rom aucilebelia saSualo da mcire sawarmoebis doneze, marTvis swor sistemaze dayrdnobiT, mrewvelobis, soflis meurneobisa da gadamamuSavebeli dargis swrafi ganviTareba. sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos patriarqi ilia meore qveynis ekonomikuri krizisis daZlevaSi gansakuTrebul rols aniWebs soflis meurneobas. `saqarTvelo yovelTvis iyo da kvlavac unda gaxdes vazisa da xorblis qveyana. is mdgomareoba, rac am kulturebis mimarT dRes aris, damRupvelia, rogorc sulieri, ise materialuri TvalsazRisiT. Cveni winaprebisaTvis Rvino da puri, garda Tavisi Cveulebrivi mniSvnelobisa, macxovris xorcsa da sisxlis simbolos ukavSirdeboda, amitomac qarTvel glexs maTdami yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba hqonda da gansakuTrebulad uvlida; da es unda aRdges~.18 saqarTveloSi, soflis meurneoba, rogorc qveynis mniSvnelovani da strategiuli dargi, xelisuflebis mxardaWerisa da mzrunvelobis miRma darCa, ramac kidev ufro gazarda umuSevrobis done, gaaRariba mosaxleoba da gazarda maTi socialuri daZabulobis done. ukanasknel wlebSi oficialuri statistikis Tanaxmad mosaxleobis erT sulze ZiriTadi sasoflo-sameurneo warmoeba klebis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba. magaliTad, xorblis warmoeba mosaxleobis erT sulze 2007 wels 1999 welTan SedarebiT 51 kg-dan 17 kg-mde Semcirda, simindis Sesabamisad – 110-dan 68 kg-mde, yurZnis – 50-dan 42 kg-mde, xorcis 23-dan 16 kg-mde da a.S. yovelive es mZime tvirTad awveba mosaxleobas. erTis mxriv, sursaTze fasebi ufro winmswrebi tempebiT izrdeba arasasursaTo saqonlis fasebTan SedarebiT, anu adgili aqvs agflacias. ukanaskneli 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi xorblis fasi gaizarda 2,5jer, qaTmis xorci – 2-jer, Tevzis 2,5-jer, yvelis 2-jer, kvercxis 3-jer, puris 2jer, kartoflis, xaxvis 2-jer da a.S. saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis tempebis dacema ZiriTadad ganpirobebulia imiTac, rom araswori saxelmwifo politikis gamo mniSvnelovnad Semcirda glexebis (fermerebis) daintereseba awarmoon ekologiurad sufTa produqcia, radgan igi ufro Zviri jdeba, importul, genuri inJineriis, Sxamqimikatebis da sxva janmrTelobisaTvis saSiSi mcenaris zrdis stimulatorebis gamoyenebiT warmoebul da importirebul produqciasTan SedarebiT. saqarTvelos integraciam msoflio globalur ekonomikur procesebSi, qveynis gawevrianebam msoflio 17 18

Религия и общество, http://newsru.com/religy ilia II, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi, saSobao epistole, 2008/2009

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savaWro organizaciaSi, xelsayreli pirobebi Seuqmna msxvil transnacionalur kompaniebs gaafarTovon uxarisxo sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis importi saqarTveloSi da amiT Seaferxon adgilobrivi bunebrivi produqciis warmoeba. aseT viTarebaSi saxelmwifo politikasTan erTad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba fermerebis Zalisxmevas sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis warmoebis aRorZineba-ganviTarebaSi. sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi ilia II aRniSnavs, rom TviT mosaxleobam uari unda Tqvas janmrTelobisaTvis mavne produqciaze, maT TviTon unda daiwyon miwis damuSaveba da Seqmnan mcire sawarmoebi (saSobao epistole 2008/2009). saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi Tavis epistoleebSi did yuradRebas aqcevs saqarTvelos bunebrivi simdidreebis erovnuli interesebisaTvis efeqtianad gamoyenebas. erT-erTi aseTi bunebriv strategiul resurss warmoadgens mtknari sasmeli wyali, romlis privatizacia-gayidva dRis wesrigSi daayena xelisuflebam. `... sayovelTaoi privatizaciis procesSi, es bunebrivi resursi da misi eqsploatacia saxelmwifos xelSi aucileblad unda darCes... saqarTvelos momavali ekonomikuri ganviTareba, albaT dakavSirebuli unda iyos wyalTan...~, wers saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi. rogorc cnobilia, msoflio bazarze sasmeli wylis fasi ukve gautolda benzinis fass da prognoziT uaxloes momavalSi igi 30-40 %-iT gadaaWarbebs mas. saqarTvelo mdidaria am ganaxlebadi resursiT (27 aTasi mdinare), romelic Tavisi unikaluri xarisxobrivi TvisebebiT sayovelTaod aRiarebulia. swori da gonivruli saxelmwifo menejmentis SemTxvevaSi wylis resursebis Camosxma-realizaciiT SesaZlebelia qveynis sabiujeto Semosavlebis gaormageba da am sferoSi Sromisunariani mosaxleobis dasaqmeba. qarTuli eklesia xelisuflebis winaSe xSirad ayenebs konkretul, gaazrebul winadadebebs da rekomendaciebs qveynis ekonomikis aRorZineba-ganviTarebis aqtualur sakiTxebze. amis erT-erTi TvalsaCino magaliTia saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis saaRdgomo (2009 w.) epistoleSi dayenebuli winadadebebi `...ekologiurad sufTa soflis meurneobis nawarmi Tu maTi gadamuSavebiT miRebuli kvebis produqtebi seriozul Semosavals moutans qveyanas, oRond aucilebelia saxelmwifos mxridan daxmareba subsidiebis da grZelvadiani kreditebis saxiT~. uwmindesi da unetaresi, ilia II miiCnevs, rom `...Sedegiani iqneba sagadasaxado amnistiis gamocxadeba, romelic saqarTveloSi moqmed yvela iuridiul da fizikur pirs gaaTavisuflebs sanqcia-sauravebisagan~.19 qarTul marTlmadideblur eklesias miaCnia, rom ekonomikuri krizisis daZlevas, ekonomikis aRorZineba-ganviTarebas unda mivudgeT sistemurad da masStaburad. amisaTvis, upirveles yovlisa, saWiroa sulieri da erovnuli Rirebulebebis dacva da ganviTareba, xalxis materialur keTildReobaze zrunva, mezobel saxelmwifoebTan kavSiris gaRrmaveba da kulturaTa Soris dialogi, qarTuli biznesseqtoris gafarToeba da SeZlebuli saSualo fenis Seqmna, ganaTlebis, mecnierebis, janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri infrastruquris ganviTareba. Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis religiur SexedulebaTa sistemuri analizi gviCvenebs, rom misi gamomwvevi mizezebi da faqtorebi, romlebic calkeuli religiebis mier msgavsi an gansxvavebuli koncefciebiTaa warmodgenili, mTlianobaSi erTiandeba Tanamedroveobis iseT movlenasTan rogoricaa msoflio globalizacia, romelic zogadad niSnavs samyaros gamTlianebas. ufalma er19

ilia II, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi, saaRdgomo epistole, 2009.

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Tiani qveyana, erTiani samyaro Seqmna, es iyo globaluri samyaro, magram globalizacia da erTianoba iyo uflis garSemo. Tumca SemdgomSi globalizacia ori mimarTulebiT warimarTa: erTi iyo ufalTan erTad gaerTianeba, RvTisadmi Tayvaniscema da erTguleba; meore ki - globalizacia an samyaros gaerTianebis mcdeloba – uflis gareSe. samyaros uflis gareSe Zalismieri meTodebiT gaerTianebis mravali magaliTi arsebobs kacobriobis istoriaSi. aleqsandre makedoneli, romelic Sepyrobili iyo ZvelberZnuli filosofiis universalizmis ideologiiT, omebiT cdilobda samyaros gaerTianebas. romis imperiam aseve omebiT SeZlo britaneTis kunZulebidan axlo aRmosavleTamde da centraluri germaniidan afrikamde uzarmazri teritoriebis Tavis gamgeblobaSi moqceva. civilizaciis gariJraJze samyaros globalizebas cdilobda sparseTis samefo, cnobilia agreTve islamuri xalifatis eqspansia, romelmac moicva teritoriebi atlantis okeanidan CineTamde, monRoleTi da osmaleTis imperia. me-XX saukuneSi daZalebiTi globalizaciis magaliTia komunisturi reJimi (ssrk) da germaniis nacizmis ideologiiT samyaros unificirebis mcdeloba. Tanamedrove etapze uflis gareSe samyaros globalizaciis axali formebi da meTodebi gamoiyeneba. esaa liberaluri kapitalizmis ekonomikuri indikatori msoflio fulis saxiT, romlis eqspansia sxvadasxva qveynebSi maTi globalizaciis mizniT, sworad warmoSobs integrirebul msoflio ekonomikur sistemas da swored esaaglobaluri krizisebis yvelaze mTavari mizezi. is, risi gakeTeba mimarTulia uflis nebis winaaRmdeg, yovelTvis krizisebiT damTavrdeba. Kakha Gabelashvili Doctor of Economics, Kutaisi University Associate Professor Georgia, Kutaisi Ecclesiastical Evaluations of Global Economic Crises Summary The degree of crisis impact on social and economic development in different countries, changes daily. Economic growth in these countries slowed considerably, the banking sector and stock exchanges are seriously threatened, the unemployment rate has been increased, many people have been marginalized and impoverished, consumption level went down and, the most important, it gave the world public something to feel uncertainty and fear for tomorrow. Despite the fact that since the beginning of the crisis little time had passed, the majority of world religions expressed clearly and definitely their views on such a serious negative phenomenon. The theologians, for the present, had no case for in-depth study of multifaceted factors and conditions caused the contemporary global crisis, but all the same, the preliminary theorizing and concepts as well as earlier studies give us an opportunity for comparison, generalization and making certain conclusions. Systems analysis of religious views on the contemporary global economic crisis reveals that it’s causing factors and conditions, which are represented in different religions by similar or divergent concepts, generally link to such contemporary phenomenon as globalization, which generally means a consolidation of universe. God created the world as an integrated universe. It was the global universe, but it was globalization and unity with God. However, later on, the globalization was developed in two ways: one way was a unity with God, faithfulness and obedience to him; another way was the globalization, i.e. an attempt to unify the universe, but without God.

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ineza gagniZe ekonomikis doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi

msoflio, globaluri da mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsebis Sesaxeb msoflioSi qveynebis (nacionalur) konkurentunarianobas yvelaze didi masStabiT ori skola ikvlevs: msoflio ekonomikuri forumis globaluri konkurentunarianobis da miRwevebis centri (Centre for Global Competitiveness and Performance) da msoflio konkurentunarianobis kvlevis centri (The World Competitiveness Centre) (lozana, Sveicaria). aRniSnuli centrebis mier qveynebis konkurentunarianobis gamosaTvlelad SemuSavebuli indeqsebi da maCveneblebi yovelwliurad ixveweba. aseve izrdeba gamokvleuli qveynebis raodenoba, xolo kvlevis gamocdileba da samecniero paeqroba aisaxeba centrebis mier momzadebul angariSebsa Tu weliwdeulebSi. naSromSi ganvixilavT konkurentunarianobis indeqsebis gamoTvlis meTodikas da mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsis koncefcias. Tavidanve gvsurs aRvniSnoT, rom indeqsebis gamoTvlis meTodikis srulyofili daxasiaTeba, statiis formatis simciris gamo, SeuZlebelia. aRniSnulis miuxedavad, vfiqrobT, mkiTxvels mainc Seeqmneba naTeli warmodgena im kolosalur Sromaze, rasac yovelwliurad eweva es ori centri. msoflio konkurentunarianobis weliwdeuli (IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook) aris erT-erTi yvelaze safuZvliani da dawvrilebiTi yovelwliuri angariSi qveynebis konkurentunarianobis Sesaxeb, romelic lozanaSi kvleviTi centris mier Seuwyvetliv gamoicema 1989 wlidan. 2011 wlis angariSi moicavs 59 qveynis ekonomikis amsaxvel maCveneblebs. qveynebi SerCeulia msoflio ekonomikaze maTi gavlenisa da maTze arsebuli informaciis saerTaSoriso statistikasTan Tavsebadobis gaTvaliswinebiT. calkeuli qveynis konkurentunarianobis maCveneblis gansazRvris zogadi struqtura mocemulia sqemaze 1. kvlevaSi gamoyenebuli 300-ze meti kriteriumi SerCeulia ekonomikuri literaturis, saerTaSoriso, erovnuli da regionuli resursebisa da biznesis warmomdgenelTa gamokiTxvis Sedegad. sqemidan 1 Cans, rom kriteriumebs Soris 132 ZiriTadi statistikuri monacemebia, 116 - gamokiTxvis Sedegebi (2011 wels TiToeul qveyanaSi gamoikiTxa saSualod 84 respondenti), xolo 83 maCvenebeli e.w. `ukana fonis~ maCvenebelia. isini ar Cans kriteriumebis CamonaTvalSi, magram gamoTvlebi mimdinareobs maTze dayrdnobiT. msoflio konkurentunarianobis weliwdeuli nacionalur garemos afasebs konkurentunarianobis oTxi ZiriTadi faqtoris mixedviT, kerZod: ekonomikis miRwevebi, samTavrobo gadawyvetilebaTa efeqtianoba, biznesis efeqtianoba da infrastruqtura. TiToeuli maTgani iyofa 5-5 qvefaqtorad, romlebic Tavis mxriv mravali maCveneblisgan Sedgeba. Sefasebis aRniSnuli kriteriumebis umetesoba gamoiTvleba sxvadasxvagvarad, Sesadarisi standartuli skalireba gamoiyeneba faqtorebis, qve-faqtorebisa da saerTo Sedegebis gamosaTvlelad. standartuli gadaxris meTodi - sgm (Standard Deviation Method - SDM) afasebs calkeuli qveynis ekonomikis maCveneblebs Soris SefardebiT gansxvavebas, Sedegad, TiToeuli qveynis saboloo qula meti sizustiTaa gamoTvlili.

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ZiriTadi monacemebi

gamokiTxvis Sedegebi

statistikuri masalebi erovnuli da regionuli wyaroebidan

saerTaSoriso eqspertebisa da aRmasrulebelTa Sefasebebi

STD mniSvnelobis gamoTvla (individualurad, skalirebaSi gamoyenebuli yvela kriteriumisTvis)

klasifikacia kriteriumebis mixedviT

zogadi klasifikacia klasifikacia faqtorebis

331 kriteriumi gamoiTvleba yvela Sesaswavli qveynisTvis

mixedviT

standart. gadaxris mniSvnelobis agregireba yvela kriteriumisTvis

faqtorebi: ekonomikis miRwevebi; samTavrobo gadawyvetilebaTa efeqtianoba; biznesis efeqtianoba; infrastruqtura sqema 1. qveynebis konkurentunarianobis reitingebis gamoTvlis sqema msoflio konkurentunarianobis centrSi

dasawyisSi yoveli kriteriumisTvis gaiangariSeba Sesabamisi qveynebis mosaxleobis saSualo ricxovnoba, xolo standartuli gadaxra gamoiTvleba formuliT (1). bolo etapze yoveli ekonomikisTvis skalirebaSi gamoyenebuli yvela Sesafasebeli kriteriumis mixedviT gamoiTvleba standartuli gadaxris mniSvneloba. igi gaiangariSeba Sesaswavli qveynis ekonomikis sawyisi saSualo mniSvnelobidan, saboloo Sedegi ki, miiReba standartuli gadaxris gamoyenebiT. ekonomikisTvis standartuli gadaxris mniSvneloba gamoiTvleba formuliT (2). (1) da (2) formulebi ase gamoisaxeba:

(1)

da

(2)

sadac, orive formulisTvis: aris standartuli gadaxra; _ qveynis ekonomikis raime maCveneblis sawyisi mniSvneloba; – qveynis ekonomikis raime maCveneblis saSualo mniSvneloba; – Seswavlili qveynebis raodenoba (2011 wlisTvis es ricxvi iyo 59).

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TiToeuli kriteriumisTvis cal-calke gamoiTvleba standartizebuli mniSvnelobebi. ZiriTadi monacemebis indikatorebi mowmdeba ganawilebis formis gansasazRvrad. arastandartuli monacemebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba logariTmi, romlebsac SemdgomSi standartuli gadaxris gamosaTvlelad iyeneben. TiToeuli qve-faqtoris reitingi ganisazRvreba im kriteriumis saSualo gadaxris mniSvnelobiT, risganac Sedgeba aRniSnuli qve-faqtori (ukana fonis arsebuli kriteriumebis CaTvliT). yvela maCveneblis wona 1-is tolia. gamokvlevis masalebis xvedriTi wili mTliani qulis 1/3-s Seadgens. 20 qve-faqtoridan TiToeulis wonaa 5%, vinaidan miRebulia, rom TiToeuli qve-faqtoris zemoqmedeba ekonomikis funqcionirebaze Tanabaria. am saxiT standartizebuli monacemebi sabolood agregirdeba20 qveynis saboloo sareitingo qulaSi. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom konkurentunarianobis zemoCamoTvlili oTxi faqtoridan TiToeulis mniSvneloba mxolod erTi maTganisTvisaa 100-is toli da mxolod erTi maTganisTvisaa 0-is toli. danarCeni gamokvleuli qveynebis maCveneblebi gaiangariSeba maTTan Sedarebis safuZvelze. respondentTa gamokiTxvis dros TiToeul kiTxvaze pasuxebi varirebs 1-dan 6-mde, sadac 1 yvelaze cudi maCvenebelia, xolo 6 – saukeTeso. miRebuli Sedegebi pirvel etapze gadaiyvaneba 1-10 qulian skalaSi da Semdeg gamoiTvleba standartuli gadaxra. msoflio konkurentunarianobis lozanis centri sxva maCveneblebsac aqveynebs, rogoricaa zrdis realuri tendenciebi, saSualowliuri zrdis procenti da sxva. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis globaluri konkurentunarianobisa da miRwevebis centri didi xania warmatebiT axorcielebs gaZlierebuli integraciuli procesebisa da msoflio ekonomikis sxvadasxva sirTuleebis kvlevas. 2011-2012 wlis globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi (The Global Competitiveness Report) mocemulia 142 qveynis ekonomikis analizi. globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsis gamoTvla efuZneba SefasebaTa Tanmimdevrul Sejamebas, Zalze detalizebulidan, mTlianad globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsamde. calkeuli cvladebis erTobliobis erT kategoriaSi dajgufebis mizniT gamoiyeneba Semdegi saxis gamoTvlebi, kerZod, Tvis, romelic Sedgeba

kategoriis-

raodenobis indikatorebisgan, gveqneba:

(3) cnobilia, rom globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsi efuZneba 12 kompleqsur maCvenebels (mdgenels), romlebic Sedgeba calkeuli maCveneblebisgan. gamoTvlebis sawyis etapze qveynebis Sefaseba xdeba mdgenelTa didi jgufebis – qveindeqsebis mixedviT. cxrilSi 1 mocemuli 12 mdgenelidan # 1-4 Seadgens ZiriTadi moTxovnebis qve-indeqss; #5-dan 10-mde – efeqtianobis amamaRlebel faqtorTa qveindeqss; #11-12 ki, mkvlevarebi inovaciurobisa da ganviTarebis xarisxis faqtorTa qve-indeqsSi aerTianeben. TiToeuli mdgenelis wili qveynis ekonomikis saboloo SesafebaSi da maCvenebelTa didi jgufis wili, aRniSnuli mdgenelis SigniT, mocemulia cxrilSi 1.

20

agregireba (Aggregation) - gamsxvileba, gaerTianeba, erT mTelSi moqceva.

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cxrili 1. mdgenelTa procentuli wili globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsSi 20112012 wlis angariSis mixedviT # mdgeneli da masSi mdgenelis mdgenelSi Semaval maCvenebelTa didi jgufebi Semaval maCvenewili saerda maTi procentuli wili imave mdgenelis sabobelTa saerTo ra- To Sefaseloo SedegSi odenoba baSi 1 saxelmwifo ininstitutebi – 21 25 % kerZo institutebi – 25% stitutebi – 75% 2 satransporto energetikuli da satelefono infrastruqtura– 9 25% infrastruqtura infrastruqtura – 50% – 50% 3 makroekonomikuri 25% garemo - 6 4 jandacva da dawye25% jandacva - 50% dawyebiTi ganaTleba – 50% biTi ganaTleba-10 5 ganaTlebis sisumaRlesi ganaTletemaSi CarTulganaTlebis xa- treningebi – 17% ba da treningebi - 8 Ta raodenoba – risxi – 33% 33% 33% 6 sasaqonlo bazrebis konkurencia – 17% moTxovnis xarisxi – 33% efeqtianoba - 16 67% 7 Sromis bazris unarebisa da niWis gamoyene17% moqniloba – 50% efeqtianoba - 9 bis efeqtianoba – 50% 8 safinanso bazrebis efeqtianoba – kreditunarianoba da konfiganviTarebis xaris17% 50% dencialuroba – 50% xi - 8 gamoyenebaSi arsebuli sainf9 teqnologiuri teqnologiuri mza17% sakomunikacio teqnologiebi adaptacia – 50% oba - 6 – 50% 10 Sida bazris sibazris sidide - 2 17% gare bazris sidide – 25% dide – 75% 11 biznesis ganviTare50% bis xarisxi - 9 12 inovaciebi - 7 50% -

agregirebis ufro maRali donis misaRwevad gamoiyeneba TiToeuli kategoriis procentuli Tanafardoba. kategoriis mniSvneloba mrgvaldeba uaxloes mTel ricxvad, magram gki-s gamosaTvlelad gamoiyeneba sawyisi wiladi ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi. magaliTad, qveynis ganviTarebis donis miuxedavad cxrilSi 1 mocemuli satransporto infrastruqturis maCvenebeli 50%-iT iqneba warmodgenili meore mdgenelis `infrastruqtura~ saboloo SedegSi, maSin roca Tavad `infrastruqturis~ xvedriTi wili qveynis saboloo maCvenebelSi 25%-ia. Tu ar moiTxoveba maCvenebelTa gamsxvileba, gaangariSebis simZime gadadis qve-indeqsebze (sabazo moTxovnebi, efeqtianobis amamaRlebeli faqtorebi da inovaciurobisa da ganviTarebis xarisxis faqtorebi), romelTa xvedriwona araa fiqsirebuli sidide, maTi mniSvneloba varirebs qveynebis ganviTarebis safexurebis mixedviT da damokidebulia qveyanaSi kapitalis erTeulze mSp-s raodenobaze. globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi qveynebi ganviTarebis mixedviT nawildeba 3 ZiriTad da 2 gardamaval safexurze: faqtorebze orientirebuli (I safexuri); I-dan II safexurze gardamavali; efeqtianobaze orientirebuli (II safexuri); II-dan III safexurze gardamavali da inovaciebze orientirebuli (III safexu-

46


ri). aRniSnuli safexurebisa da qveindeqsebis maCvenebelTa damokidebuleba mocemulia cxrilSi 2. cxrili 2. qveynebis ganviTarebis safexurebi da maTi damokidebuleba qveindeqsebTan maCveneblebi faqtorebze I-dan II safe- efeqtianobaze II-dan III sainovaciebze da qveindeqse- orientireb. xurze garorientireb. fexurze orientireb. bi (Isafexuri) damavali (IIsafexuri); gardamavali (III safexuri) mSp kapitalis 2000-2999 9000-17000 < 2000 aSS$ 3000-8999 aSS$ >17000 aSS$ erTeulze aSS$ aSS$ ZiriTadi moT60% 40-60% 40% 20-40% 20% xovnebis qveindeqsis wona efeqtianobis 35% 35-50% 50% 50% 50% amamaRlebeli qveindeqsi inovaciurobis 5% 5-10% 10% 10-30% 30% da ganviT. xarisxis faqtorTa qve-indeqsis wona

saqarTvelo 2011-2012 wlis angariSis mixedviT imyofeba I-dan II safexurze gardamaval poziciaSi, sadac ZiriTadi moTxovnebis qveindeqsis wona saboloo SesfasebaSi aris 40-60%, efeqtianobis amamaRlebeli faqtorebis qveindeqsis wona Seadgens â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 35-50% da a.S. gamokvlevebis Sedegad miRebuli cvladebis mniSvnelobis gamoTvlisas, Sedegebs ajameben ise, rom maTi mniSvnelobebi meryeobdes 1-dan 7-mde da gamoiTvleba Semdegi saxiT:

sadac, minimaluri da maqsimaluri qulebi, aris Seswavlili qveynebis maqsimaluri da minimaluri qulebi. aratipiuri eqstremumebis miRebis dros xdeba maCvenebelTa koreqtireba. iseTi maCveneblebisTvis, romelTaTvisac umjobesia iyos dabali qula, vidre maRali (magaliTad saxelmwifo vali, avadmyofobis SemTxvevebi da sxva), transformirebuli formula iRebs iseT saxes, rom maRali qula Seesabameba karg mdgomareobas. globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi gamoTvlilia aseve inflaciisa da deflaciis, Sida da gare konkurenciis Sewonili saSualo, aseve, Sida da gare bazrebis sididis maCveneblebi da sxva, romelTa dawvrilebiTi aRwera naSromis mcire formatis gamo SeuZlebelia. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis globaluri konkurentunarianobis mkvlevarebma 2011-2012 wlebis angariSSi didi mniSvneloba mianiWes ekonomikis konkurentunarianobas grZelvadian periodSi, ris gamoc SeimuSaves mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsi (ekonomikuri, socialuri da ekologiuri konteqstebiT). mgradi konkurentunarianoba (Sustainable Competitiveness) ganisazRvreba rogorc, institutebis, politikisa da faqtorebis erToblioba, romlebic gansazRvraven qveynis mwar-

47


moeblurobas im pirobiT, rom momavalma Taobam agreTve SeZlos Tavisi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba. sxva sityvebiT rom aRvweroT, axali indeqsi moicavs iseT elementebs, romlebic ufro myar konkurentunarianobas uzrunvelyofen grZelvadian periodSi ekonomikuri, socialuri da garemosdacvis mimarTulebiT. axali indeqsi moicavs yvela im elements, romlebic mocemulia globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsSi da mniSvnelovania, rogorc moklevadian, ise grZelvadian periodebSi (mag: marTveloba, ganaTleba da jandacva, infrastruqtura, bazari, invaciebi), aseve damatebiT moicavs im aspeqtebs, romlebic mniSvnelovania grZelvadian periodSi (demografia, socialuri erToba da garemos strategiuli marTva). amgvari SefasebiT globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsi mokle da saSualovadian perspeqtivas aRwers, xolo mdgradi konkuretnunarianobis indeqsi ki - grZelvadians. mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsis CarCo mocemulia cxrilSi 3. evropeli mkvlevarebi ganmartaven grZelvadian konkurentunarianobas, romelic, maTi azriT, miznad isaxavs ekonomikur zrdaze mets, rac gamoixateba warmatebaSi (keTildReobaSi, ayvavebaSi). araspecialistis gagebiT es SeiZleba iyos: ekonomikur zrdas damatebuli `kidev raime~. da es `raime~ SesaZlebelia iyos cxovrebis xarisxi, garemos dacva, daculi sazogadoeba, samarTlis gavrcobadoba, ganaTlebis xarisxi da a. S~.21 cxrili 3. mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsis maCveneblebi politikuri gaAadamianuri ka- sabazro pirobe- teqnologia da garemo remo da pirobepitali bi inovaciebi pirobebi bi • jandacva da dawyebiTi ganaTleba • umaRlesi ganaTleba da treningebi • socialuri erToba

• Sromis bazris efeqtianoba • safinanso bazris ganviTarebis xarisxi • bazris sidide • sasqonlo bazrebis efeqtianoba

• teqnologiuri mzaoba • Bbiznesis GganviTarebis done • inovaciebi

• institutebi • infrastruqtura • makroekonomikuri garemo • garemosdacvis politika

• resursebis efeqtianoba • Gganaxlebadi resursebis marTva • Ggaremos degradaciis done

2011-2012 wlebis globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi Seswavlil 142 qveyanas Soris saqarTvelos 88-e adgili ukavia (rac 5 punqtiT maRalia, vidre gasuli wlis 93-e adgili), Tumca es winsvla ar asaxula konkurentunarianobis amsaxvel maCvenebelTa saerTo raodenobaSi, maTi ricxvi, rogorc gasul wels isev 114-dan 23 iyo. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia is rom konkurentunarianobaze mdgradobis gavlenis mixedviT saqarTvelo 70-e adgilzea, rac niSnavs, imas rom gavlenis efeqti dadebiTia. es ki ar SeiniSneba azerbaijanisa da somxeTis maCveneblebSi. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, rom saqarTvelosTvis aucilebelia ekonomikuri politikis ageba rogorc globaluri, ise mdgradi konkurentunarianobis maCveneblebis maRali donis misaRwevad, vinaidan, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT globaluri konkurentunarianobis maCveneblebis gaumjobeseba mokle da saSualovadian warmatebas ganapirobebs, xolo, mdgradi konkurentunarianobis indeqsSi Semavali maCveneblebi ki, grZelvadian Sedegebze akeTeben aqcents. nebismieri ekono21

http://www.imd.ch/research/publications/wcy/upload/20years.pdf.pp.4.

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mikuri politika ki mxolod maSinaa efeqtiani, Tu is grZelvadian dadebiT Sedegebze iqneba orientirebuli, rasac adasturebs msoflio mniSvnelobis centrebis mier organizebuli gamokvlevebi. literatura: 1. www.imd.ch (WCY 2011; 2010; 2009); 2. www.weforum. org (GCR 2011-2012; 2010-2011; 2009-2010).

Ineza Gagnidze Doctor of Economics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi World, Global and Sustainable Competitiveness Indexes Summary The World Economic Forum has based its competitivenss analysis on the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), which captures this open-ended dimension by providing a weighted average of many different components. They group all these component into 12 pillars of competitiveness. The WCY analyzes and ranks how nations and enterprises manage the totality of their competencies to achieve increased prosperity. There are 331 criteria in the World Competitiveness Yearbook, of which 248 are used to calculate the Overall Competitiveness rankings. The remaining 83 criteria are presented as background information only. Sustainable Competitiveness Index maintains almost all of the elements already captured by the GCI, which are important over both the shorter as well as the longer term (e.g., governance, education and health,infrastructure, the functioning of markets, innovation), but it also integrates a number of additional concepts that are particularly important over the longer term (e.g., demographics, social cohesion, and environmental stewardship).

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irina gogoriSvili ekonomikis doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi konkurenciisa da praqtikuli saqmianobis saerTaSoriso regulireba nacionaluri praqtikuli saqmianobis SezRudvis saeTaSoriso regulireba SedarebiT axali movlenaa. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi saxelmwifo nacionalur doneze Tavisufali konkurenciis dacvis ukve sakmarisi gamocdileba arsebobs. Tavisufali konkurencia sabazro urTierTobebaTa qvakuTxedia. jer-jerobiT adamianTa cnobierebaSi konkurenciisgan Tavisufali sazogadoeba ganwirulia, rom moixmaros dabali xarisxisa da maRali fasis mqone saqoneli. aseT sazogadoebaSi mwarmoeblebi ar ibrZvian momxmarebelTaTvis radgan amis motivacia maT ar gaaCniaT. aseTi mdgomareoba mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi arsebobda ssrk-Si da dResac ar aris aRmofxvrili gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebSi. amave dros aucilebelia vaRiaroT, rom relevanturi da idealuri bazari mxolod Teoriuli modelia da abstraqcia. dRes SedarebiT Tavisufali konkurenciis mdgomareoba SeiniSneba mxolod or SemTxvevaSi: calkeul masobrivi moTxovnis saqonlis warmoebis sawyis etapze da ganviTarebuli warmoebis etapze, rodesac erT an ufro xSirad ramdenime monopoliasTan erTad bazarze wvril da saSualo mewarmeTa didi jgufi funqcionirebs. msoflioSi sasaqonlo bazrebis umetesoba arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazrebad xasiaTdeba. ,,arasrulyofilebisâ&#x20AC;? donis mixedviT isini Semdegnairad klasificirdeba: monopolisturi, duopolsturi, oligopolsturi da monopolisturi konkurenciis konkurenciis bazriT saqonlis diferenciacirebuli produqtiT. unda davsZinoT, rom sufTa monopolia _ anu dargi, romelic Sedgeba erTi firmisgan, warmoadgens iseT abstraqcias, rogoric aris misi sawinaaRmdego movlena _ absoluturad sruli konkurenciis bazari. monopoliebi dRevandel dRes, rogorc wesi axali prduqtis warmoebis sawyis etapze arsebobs, maTTan aseve axlos dgas saerTo moxmarebis sagnebis warmoeba da saxelmwifo korporaciebi, ZiriTadad samxedro da komunalur sferoebSi, romlebic egreT wodebul bunebriv monopoliebs warmoadgens. sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi da Sesabamisad bevr sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi, monopoliur bazrebad moixsenieba iseTebi, romlebic ekonomikuri Teoriis mixedviT oligopoliur bazrebs ekuTvnis- anu, romlebic warmodgeba ramdenime SedarebiT msxvil movaWre monawilisgan. bazris aseTi mdgomareoba ekonomikur mecnierebaSi `samewarmeo monopolia~ _ saxeldeba. aseTi bazris tipuri magaliTia: aSS-is avtomobilebis bazari, sadac warmoebis didi nawili sam firmaze modis _ `fordi~, `kraisleri~ da `jeneral motorsi~. oligopolistur bazarze iqmneba kargi pirobebi saidumlo molaparakebebisTvis safaso politikis, gasaRebisa da Sesyidvebis bazris dayofis da sxva. am sferoSi yvelaze cnobil aqts amerikuli, Sermanis antitrestuli kanoni warmoadgens, romelic 1890 welsaa miRebuli da aregulirebs trestis formis yvela sakontraqto gaerTianebas an sxva gaerTianebis formebs da Statebs an saxelmwifoebs Soris komerciul garigebebs, romlebic Tavisufali vaWrobis SezRudvisTvis ideba, kanonsawinaaRmdegod Tvlis. aseve kanondamrRvevad CaiTvleba ekonomikuri subieqti, romelic Seecdeba Statebs Soris, an ucxour qveynebTan ra-

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ime meTodebiT gaerTianebas romelime dargSi da am mizniT vaWrobis monopo22 lizacias moaxdens . aRsaniSnavia, rom monopolizaciis regulirebis cdebi kacobriobis istoriis dasawyisSive Cndeba. jer kidev romis imperiaSi, monopoliuri manipulaciebisgan Tavis dasacavad imperatorma dioklianem mTel rig produqtebze myari fasebi SemoiRo. 483 wels imperatori zenonis mier, amis Taobaze gamoica ,,fasebis konstitucia~ sadac naTqvami iyo: ,,Cven vbrZanebT, rom arc erTma pirma ar gabedos monopolizaciis moxdena raime tansacmelze, Tevzze an rame nivTze, romelic gamoiyeneba sakvebad, vaWrobisTvis an sxva saqmianobisTvis”23. Sua saukuneebis evropaSi, qalaqis mTavrebis mier gacemuli reglamentis meSveobiT monopoliis uflebiT aRiWurvnen xelosnebisa da vaWrebis (gildiebi, savaWro kompaniebi) garkveuli jgufi, xolo mogvianebiT absolutizmis epoqaSi- igive procesebi samefo aqtebiT mimdinareobda. feodaluri monopolisturi institutebis winaaRmdeg brZola da maTi isev Camoyalibeba erTdroulad mimdinareobda. rogorc Sida , nacionalur bazarze warmoqmnili monpoliebi da oligopoliebi karnaxoben TavianT pirobebs (fasebs, gasaRebis moculobas, partniorebs, kartelur SeTanxmebebsa da sxv.) konkurentebis SezRudvis mizniT, aseve SesaZlebelia da ukve daiwyo saerTasoriso bazrebzec tnk-s Soris karteluri SeTanxmebebis Camoyalibebis praqtika. es praqtika dRes imdenad gafarTovda, rom aSkarad xels uSlis msoflio ekonomikis globaluri krizisidan gamosvlas (giganturi navTobkompaniebis moqmedeba faswarmoqmnis saqmeSi, navTobis, oqros, vercxlis da sxva produqtebis e.w. ,,buStebis” Seqmna). 1. arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis regulirebis pirveli cdebi samrewvelo sakuTrebis dacvis parizis konvenciiT 1883wels ganxorcielda. am konvencias mefis ruseTmac moawera xeli1883 wlis parizis konvencia warmoadgenda saereTaSoriso SeTanxmebas, romelic gamogonebebsa da savaWro niSnebze sakuTrebis uflebebs aregulirebda. am konvenciis muxlebiT arakeTilsindisieri konkurencia mkacrad izRudeboda, Tumca konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa keTildReobis dacvisTvis araviTar saerTaSoriso normebsa da wesebs ar iTvaliswinebda (magaliTad, patentebis gadacemis safuZvelze bazris segmentirebis winaaRmdeg). 2. saerTaSoriso vaWrobis sferoSi vmo-s miRwevebi saxelmwifoTa proteqcionistuli politikis SezRudvasTan dakavSirebiT eWvs ar iwvevs, magram rac Seexeba monopolistur da oligopolistur sawarmoTa mier saqmiani praqtikis SemzRudvel qmedebas igi jer kidev ver eqceva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis regulirebis qveS (Tu ar CavTvliT antidempinguri regulirebis instrumentebs). pirvelad konkurenciis kanonmdeblobis sakiTxebma vmo-s havanas wesdebaSi hpoves asaxva, magram miuxedavad amisa maTi amoqmedeba ar ganxorcielda. aRsaniSnavia, rom bolo periodSi konkurenciis saerTaSoriso regulirebis sakiTxebi (tnk-s mxridan msoflio bazris monopolizaciisa da karteluri araoficialuri SeTanxmebebis arsebobis varaudebis gamo) kvlav seriozuli dakvirvebis qveS moeqca. TandaTanobiT izrdeba im qveynebis ricxvi, romlebic daJinebiT moiTxoven vmo-s sazRvrebSi konkurenciis regulirebis wesebisa da normebis Seqmnis sakiTxebi molaparakebaTa Semdegi raundi dRis wesrigSi Caisvas. 3. jer-jerobiT ki konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg moqmedebis ekonomikuri berketebi mTlianad nacionaluri kanonmdeblobis saz22 23

O.A. Жидков, США: антитрестовское законодательтво на службе монополий. М., 1976, с. 47. С. Нефедов, История средних веков. М., Владос. 1996, стр. 4.

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RvrebSia moqceuli. amave dros globalizaciis procesebis gafarTovebam Seqmna saerTaSoriso antimonopolisturi da konkurenciis winaaRmdeg moqmedebis SezRudvis aucilebloba. globaluri ekonomikuri krizisis dawyebamde moxda nacionaluri konkurenciuli kanonmdeblobis gafarToeba da igi eqsteritoriuli xasiaTis gaxda. am TvalsazrisiT ufro srulyofilad damuSavebuli da farTod gamosayenebeli konkurenciuli politika evrokavSirs gaaCnia. evropuli saerTo bazris sakiTxebi konkurenciis samarTlis sferos ganekuTvneba. konkurenciis samarTlis ZiriTadi debulebebi konstituciuri xasiaTis matarebelia. isini 1957 wlis romis SeTanxmebaSia mocemuli. arsebobs agreTve mravali wesi, ganmarteba, damateba, Sesworeba da gamoricxva. 4. saqmiani operaciebis sferoSi evrokavSiri konkurenciis politikis unifikacias warmatebiT axorcielebs. konkurenciis politikis debulebaTa mzardi roli Cans Sesabamisi Sinaarsis mqone gadawyvetilebaTa ricxvis zrdaSi (2010 wlamde 400-ze meti gadawyvetilebaa miRebuli). 5. mniSvnelovnad nakleb warmatebas konkurenciis kanonmdeblobis daaxloebisa da harmonizaciis sferoSi Tavisufali vaWrobis Crdili-amerikulma SeTanxmebam (NAFTA) miaRwia. am SeTanxmebis mixedviT sammxriv savaWro komisias unda Seeqmna samuSao jgufi vaWrobisa da konkurenciis sakiTxebze rekomendaciebis SemuSavebis mizniT ,,savaWro zonaSi konkurenciis kanonmdeblobebisa da savaWro politikis daaxlovebisTvis”Tumca dResac am gadawyvetilebis Sedegebi Tavisi mniSvnelobiT minimaluria. 6. NAFTA-sTan SedarebiT kidev ufro nakleb warmatebas СНГ-m da sxva itegraciulma gaerTianebebma miaRwia. am organizaciebSi araTu cdiloben konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg brZolis dawyebas, aramed piriqiT zogierTi qveyana TiTon cdilobs bazris monopolizacias sxva partniori qveynebis sazianod ise, rom mesame qveynebis interesebi prioritetuli gaxdes. aseTi praqtikis mravali magaliTi arsebobs da amis mizezia integraciul gaerTianebaSi ekonomikuri mizanSewonilobaze sxvadasxva erTmaneTTan konfrontaciaSi myofi jgufuri ekonomikuri interesebis gabatoneba. aseTi mdgomareoba saboloo jamSi da grZelvadiani periodiT integraciis yvela monawile subieqts azaralebs da am regionSi mcxovrebi mosaxleobis cxovrebis dones xelovnurad dabla swevs. Cvens gansakuTrebul sinanuls iwvevs 1990 ww. Camoyalibebuli ekonomikuri Tanamegobrobis BISEC-is SesaZleblobaTa gamouyeneblobis faqti. am mxriv cxadia, rom mecnier-ekonomistebmac daaSaves, radgan Teoriulad ver moxda didi perspeqtivebis mqone itegraciis Sesaxeb siRrmiseuli kvlevebis warmoeba da Semdgom maTi pipularizacia da reklama saerTaSoriso asparezze. dRes politikosebisTvis sruliad naTeli unda iyos, rom nebismieri ekonomikurad sargeblis momtani mravalmxrivi urTierTobebi mxolod mcirericxovan mecnierTa wreSi sakamaTo (samwuxarod zogjer asec ar xdeba) problema ar aris. am urTierTobaTa Camoyalibebas mecnierTa da politikosTa mWidro TanamSromloba da Semdeg maTi gadawyvetilebebs masStaburi propaganda sWirdeba. 7. SevTanxmdeT, rom globaluri bazris umniSvnelovanes maxasiaTebel CarCo pirobas konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis sawinaaRmdeg saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobis Seqmna warmoadgens. amave dros Riad rCeba sakiTxi Tu romeli organizacia iqneba am kanonmdeblobis gamtarebeli da mis moqmedebaze zedamxedvelis funqciiT aRWurvili. rogorc vxedavT am mimarTulebiT muSaobis gaaqtiureba exla iwyeba.

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8. konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg kanonmdeblobis (iqneba is erovnul Tu saerTaSoriso doneze) Seqmnis ZiriTad problemas samarTlianobis sakiTxi warmoadgens. konkurenciis rogorc SezRudvis aseve arSezRudvis done damokidebulia: qveynebis ekonomikaze, ganviTarebis periodebze, mosaxleobis kulturaze, klimatur pirobebze da sxv. sabolood yovelive Tavs iyris samarTlianobis, rogorc kacobriobis umniSvnelovanesi Rirebulebis miRwevasTan (realizaciasTan). 9. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT pirvelad konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg kanonmdebloba romis imperiaSi Seiqmna sruliad naTelia, rom amis winapirobas bazris monopolizacia warmoadgenda. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis tempebis zrda erTi mxriv konkurenciis gamwvavebasa da meore mxriv bazris dapyrobis did survils warmoSobs. dRes ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad saxelmwifoTa umravlesobas gaaCnia konkurenciisa da saqmiani praqtikis SezRudvis winaaRmdeg kanonmdebloba, magram igi kargad mxolod Sida bazarze moqmedi rezidentebisTvis muSaobs. ganviTarebuli qveynebis tnk ganviTarebad qveynebSi xSirad sxvadasxva meqanizmebis gamoyenebiT nacionaluri kanonmdeblobis gverdis avliT moqmedeben. gansakuTrebiT es xdeba gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi rogoricaa: saqarTvelo, ruseTi, azerbaijani. aseT qveynebSi antimonopolisturi kanonmdebloba an damuSavebis procesSia an ki Zalze arasrulyofilia. swored amitom ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikebis didi umravlesoba negatiuradaa ganwyobili konkurenciis saerTaSoriso regulirebis koncefciisadmi. pirvel rigSi aq samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebi igulisxmeba. maTi varaudiT aseTi kanonmdebloba momgebiania mxolod ganviTarebuli qveynebis msxvili firmebisTvis, radgan gaerTianebaTa Seqmnis gareSe maTTvis SeuZlebeli iqneba msxvil firmebTan da kompaniebTan konkurireba. amave dros aRsaniSnavia, rom ganviTarebadi qveynebis erTi nawili Tvlis, rom konkurenciis saerTaSoriso regulirebis standartebi xels Seuwyobs maTi interesebis dacvas saerTaSoriso bazarze (ZiriTadad igulisxmeba antidempinguri kanonmdeblibisa da sxva istrumentebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobaTa gamoyenebis gamartivebiT).mas Semdeg rac vmo-s kanonmdeblobaSi konkurenciis regulirebis politikis sakiTxebi Seva am organizaciis uflebamosilebaTa sfero mniSvnelovnad unda gafarTovdes. igi valdebuli iqneba Caerios kerZo da saxelmwifo firmebis garigebebSi, romlebic xorcieldeba kompaniebis Sesyidvis, Serwymis an koncentraciis safuZvelze manamde sanam garigeba Sesruldeba. es rTuli procesebia moiTxovs sruliad axali proceduruli sakiTxebis damuSavebas da maT danergvas xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi.

literatura: 1. XXII Report on Competition Policy, 1992. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 1993. 2. EU/US: Top US trust-buster against WTO delving in competition. Europian Report, Europe Information Service, Brussels, 2.12.1998. 3. The marriage of trade and trustbusting: Commerce and contestability., Vol.349, The Economist, 03.10.1998 4. O.A. Жидков. США: антитрестовское законодательcтво на службе монополий. М., 1976, с. 47. 5. С. Нефедов. История средних веков. М., Владос. 1996, стр. 4.

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Irina Gogorishvili Doctor of Economics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi

International Regulation of Competition and Practical Activity Summary How local firms under increasing pressure from foreign competitors can influence the competitive environment in the global market is a widely discussed question now. Global internationalization through international mergers and acquisitions can lead to the creation of oligopolies in the global market. However, local laws governing competition may not apply to monopolies that sell most of their products in foreign markets and thus to maintain a monopoly prices adversely affect the welfare of domestic consumers. In the present paper a special attention is paid to the measures to be applied against the restriction of competition and consumer rights. However, the arguments are also given for the need of introducing the rules for the regulation of international competition.

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TinaTin gugeSaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, quTaisi evropis finansuri krizisis ramdenime aspeqtis Sesaxeb geoekonomikur da geopolitikur evolucias gaaCnia ganviTarebis ara sworxazovani, aramed talRiseburi, cikluri xasiaTi. politikur da ekonomikur Zlierebas yovelTvis axasiaTebda aRmavali, daRmavali, stagnaciis da mere isev aRorZinebis periodebi. miuxedavad amisa 1989-1991 wlebi unikaluria. am dros damTavrda xangrZlivi cikli kacobriobis istoriaSi, romelic moicavda ramdenime aseul weliwads. 1991 wlis 25 dekembers damTavrda epoqa. am dRes diSala sabWoTa kavSiri da pirvelad TiTqmis 500 wlis manZilze ukve arc erTi evropuli saxelmwifo ar warmoadgenda globalur Zalas. arc erT evropul qveyanaSi aRar iyo integrirebuli ekonomikuri, samxedro da politikuri Zala globaluri masStabiT. 1492 wlidan moyolebuli, esa Tu is evropuli saxelmwifo dominirebda msoflioSi. iqneboda es portugalia, espaneTi, safrngeTi, inglisi Tu sabWoTa kavSiri. 1991 wels msoflioSi arsebobda mxolod erTi globaluri Zalis mqone saxelmwifo _ amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi. igi awarmoebda msoflio mTliani Sida produqtis 25 %-s weliwadSi. meore msoflio omamde aSS-is ekonomika Zlierdeboda saerTaSoriso sistemis periferiaze. omis Semdgom periodSi igi aRmoCnda orpolusian msoflioSi sabWoTa kavSiris pirispir. aSS wrmoadgenda globalur Zalas TiTqmis 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca droTa ganmavlobaSi Tavi iCines rigma problemebma. amerika moumzadebeli aRmoCnda instituciurad da fsiqologiurad am poziciisaTvis. pirveli ryevis niSnebi gamoCnda 11 seqtembris Semdeg militaristul islamur saxelmwifoebTan omis Sedegad. rodesac erTaderTi globaluri Zala koncentrirebuli aRmoCnda mxolod erT regionze, danarCeni msoflios politikurma da ekonomikurma balansma mkveTri ryeva ganicada. swored es daubalansebloba gvevlineba dResac globaluri sistemis mTavar maxasiaTebel Tvisebad. amrigad, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam daasrula evropuli epoqa. amavdroulad dasrulda is erac, romelic arsebobda 1945 wlidan moyolebuli da dakavSirebuli iyo ZalTa axal gadanawilebasTan. paralelurad, 19891991 wlebi aRiniSneba rogorc iaponuri ekonomikuri saswaulis dasasruli. pirvelad kacobriobis istoriaSi msoflio gaocebuli adevnebda Tvals aziuri saxelmwifoebis stabilur ekonomikur aRzevebas da Semdeg dacemas. 1991 wels maaxstrixtis xelSekrulebiT Caeyara safuZveli evropis ekonomikuri da politikuri integraciis process. am dokumentiT ganisazRvreboda civi omis Semdgomi periodis evropis samoqmedo miznebi da amocanebi. amavdroulad CineTmac dasaxa Tavisi ganviTarebis axali 20-wliani kursi, riTac upasuxa sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas. miuxedavad imisa, rom mmarTvel Zalad am qveyanaSi komunisturi partia rCeboda, am kursma ganapiroba ekonomikis seriozuli ganviTareba CineTSi. mesame sakvanZo momenti aRniSnuli movlenebis paralelurad, es iyo sadam huseinis SeWra sparseTis yureSi eray-iranis omis Semdeg, ramac gamocdis winaSe daayena amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi - daiwyebda Tu ara oms civi omis damTavrebisTanave. 1989-1991 wlebSi msoflioSi Seicvala is gzebi da meTodebi, rac gamoiyeneboda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. es iyo zedmiwevniT gansakuTrebuli periodi, romlis

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realuri mniSvnelobac TandaTan ikveTeba. Crdilo amerika Caenacvala evropas, rogorc saerTaSoriso sistemis centri. Taobebi midian da modian da axla Cven mowmeni varT im cvlilebebis, romelic moyva evropuli saxelmwifoebis kriziss 2008 wels. is rac moxda 2008 wels, iyo erTerTi im finansur panikaTagani, rasac periodulad aqvs adgili globalur kapitalistur sistemaSi. rogorc es xSirad xdeba aseTi panika jer qmnis daZabulobas erebs Soris, rasac SemdgomSi moyveba cvlilebebi urTierTobebSi. aqac saqme gvaqvs sami gamnsakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqone cvlilebasTan. esenia: 1. evropis finansuri krizisi da misi transformacia politikur krizisad; 2.CineTis eqsportis krizisi da misi Sedegebi; 3. arapirdapir dakavSirebuli 2008 welTan _ ZalTa gadanawileba axlo aRmosavleTSi, iranis sasargeblod. evropis krizisi warmoadgens yvelaze mniSvnelovan movlenas 2008 wlis finansuri krizisis Semdgom periodSi. evrokaSiri dauSveblad miiCnevda iseTi tipis poltikuri institutebis Seqmnas, romelic SesaZlebels gaxdida safrangeTis da germaniis alianss, rogoric maT qondT 1871 wlidan moyolebuli. meores mxriv evrokavSiris xedviT safrangeTis da germaniis ekonomikuri integracia warmatebuli gaerTianebuli evropis sawindari unda gamxdariyo. maaxstritis xelSekrulebis konteqstidan gamomdinare evrokavSirs unda moexdina agreTve aRmosavleT evropis yofili komunisturi qveynebis demokratizacia da integrireba erTian struqturaSi. evrokavSiris ganviTarebis perspeqtivaSi Cadebuli iyo idea, rom dadgeboda dro, rodesac evropuli saxelmwifoebi SeZlebdnen gadaelaxaT nacionalizmi da evropa gardaiqmneboda evropis SeerTebul Statebad, anu erTian politikur federaciad Tavisi konstituciiT da erTiani sagareo da saSinao politikiT; Tavisufali savaWro zonidan gadavidoda erTi valutis mqone ekonomikur sistemaze da sabolood moaxdenda politikur integracias evroparlamentis irgvliv. yovelive amis Sedegad evropa aRmocendeboda erT did saxelmwifod. mixedavad zomieri oficialuri gancxadebebisa saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba ukve saubrobda erTian evropul politikaze. aSkara iyo gaerTianebuli evropis ekonomikuri da socialuri upiratesobebi da meores mxriv es erTaderTi gza iyo, raTa evropas egrZno Tavisi gavlena saerTaSoriso sistemaze. calcalke aRebuli evropuli saxelmwifoebi ar warmoadgendnen globalur moTamaSeebs, magram erToblivad isini SeZlebdnen aseTebi yofiliyvnen. civi omis Semdgom periodSi, rodesac amerika warmoadgenda erTaderT globalur Zalas - gaerTianebuli evropis idea mimzidveli perspeqtiva iyo. evropis gaerTianebis idea daimsxvra 2008 wlis Semdeg, rodesac Tavi iCina evropuli eqsperimentis arastabilurma Tvisebebma. evropuli xedva agebuli iyo germaniis garSemo, romelic warmoadgenda msoflios meore eqsportior qveyanas. evropis periferia rCeboda Zalian susti da ver uZlebda kriziss. es ase iqneboda nebismieri finansuri krizisis dros. adre Tu gvian gaerTianebul evropaSi Zalian daiZabeboda viTareba imis gamo, rom TToeuli eri imoqmedebda sakuTari da erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli ekonomikuri da socialuri realiebidan gamomdinare da ara gaerTianebuli evropis interesebis Sesabamisad. ukve eWvgareSea, rom 2012 wlis evropa sruliad ganxvavebulad moqmedebs 2007 wlis evropasTan SedarebiT. jer kidev arsebobs imis molodini, rom evropa droTa ganmavlobaSi SeZlebs daubrundes civi omis Semdgomi periodis mdgomareobas.

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evropuli ekonomikis winaaRmdegobani ukve TvalsaCinoa. SesaZlebelia gaerTianebuli evropa raRac saxiT gadarCes, magram albaT es ar iqneba is, razec maaxstritSi fiqrobdnen. 2011 wlis noemberSi germaniis kanclerma angela merkerma ganacxada: â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Tu 17 wevriani evrozona saberZneTis, italiis an romelime wevri qveynis finansuri problemebis gamo daiSleba, gaeTianebuli evropis ideis ganxorcieleba SeiZleba warumateblad dasruldes~. evro pirvelad 1999 wels SemoiRes da is Zalian male msoflios erT-erTi wamyvani valuta gaxda. sul raRac 10 weliwadSi mzardi davalianebis gamo evrozonis 17 wevrani gaerTianeba finansuri krizisis winaSe aRmoCnda. analitikosebis azriT dResdReisobiT evros arsebobas seriozuli safrTxe emuqreba. evrokavSiri evros gadarCenis uaxloes gegmas ganixilavs. SeSfoTebis mTavar sagnad saberZneTi rCeba. specialistebi imaze fiqroben, Tu rogor gadaarCinon evrozonis qveynebi, Tuki saberZneTi arsebul mdgomareobas ver moeria. evropis qveynebisTvis dvalianebis saprocento ganakveTi dramatulad izrdeba. italiam aqamde arnaxuli 7 procentiani krediti aiRo, rac specialistebis azriT aramdgradia. realuri mTliani Sida produqtis zrdis tempebi evropaSi 2011 wels wina welTan Sedare-

biT: ilustraciisTvis mogvyavs realuri mTliani Sida produqtis zrdis tempebi evrokavSiris qveynebisTvis, sadac minimaluri zrda Seesabameba _ 6,8-dan 0,7-s, is gamosaxulia Ria yviTeli feriT da moicavs espaneTs, portugalias, italias da saberZneTs. maqsimaluri zrdis tempis intervali moicavs 3,3-dan 7,5 procents (mu-

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qi feri). sqemidan naTlad Cans evrokavSirSi Semavali da kandidati qveynebis ganviTarebis uTanabroba Tundac am erTi makroekonomikuri maCveneblis mixedviT. analogiuri suraTi gvaqvs sxva maCveneblebis ganxilvis SemTxvevaSic. safrangeTi gamovida evro-bondebis gayidvis iniciativiT, rasac germania ar eTanxmeba da Tvlis, rom gasaWirSi Cavardnili qveynebisTvis damatebiTi sesxis gacema gaumarTlebeli nabiji iqneba. msgavsi bondebi saberZneTis, italiis, portugaliis da espaneTis ekonomikas saSualebas miscems Zalian swrafad kidev ufro meti vali aiRos Tanac dabali saprocento ganakveTiT. varaudoben, rom Seqmnili viTareba gavlenas axdens aramarto kavSiris wevr saxelmwifoebze. saqarTvelos savaWro partniorebs Soris evrokavSirs lideri pozicia ukavia. aseve mniSvnelovania investiciebi, romlebic saqarTveloSi evropis qveynebidan xorcieldeba. gasuli wlis manZilze evropis qveynebSi mimdinare procesebs mniSvnelovani gavlena ar mouxdeniaT saqarTvelos ekonomikaze. rac Seexeba evrokavSirs, man SeiZleba saqarTveloSi yvelaze metad safinanso seqtorze imoqmedos, radgan Semcirdeba fuladi gzavnilebis moculoba, gaZvirdeba evropuli sabanko resursebi da moiklebs sainvesticio aqtiuroba. literatura http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/05/europes_economies Europe's deepening crisis George Friedman „The State of the World: A Framework „ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-16104089 Gavin Hewitt: „Euro crisis: Eurozone deal reached without UK“ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/01/03/the_myth_of_europe GARETH HARDING; „The Myth of Europe“ FINANCIAL TIMES WORLD ECONOMY SPECIAL REPORT | Friday September 23 2011 Page 2 „Eurozone“

Tinatin gugeshashvili Doctor of Economics, Kutaisi ATSU Associate Professor Georgia, Kutaisi Several Aspects of Financial Crisis in Europe Summary The European crisis represents the single most significant event that followed the financial collapse of 2008. The vision also assumed that economic integration would both join France and Germany together and create the foundations of a prosperous Europe. Within the context of Maastricht as it evolved, the European vision assumed that the European Union would become a way to democratize and integrate the former Communist countries of Eastern Europe into a single framework. However, embedded in the idea of the European Union was the idea that Europe could at some point transcend nationalism and emerge as a United States of Europe, a single political federation with a constitution and a unified foreign and domestic policy. It would move from a free trade zone to a unified economic system to a single currency and then to further political integration built around the European Parliament, allowing Europe to emerge as a single country. Long before this happened, of course, people began to speak of Europe as if it were a single entity. Regardless of the modesty of formal proposals, there was a powerful vision of an integrated European polity. There were two foundations for it. One was the apparent economic and social benefits of a united Europe. The other was that this was the only way that Europe could make its influence felt in the international system.

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Данильченко Алексей Васильевич Белорусский государственный университет, доктор экономических наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой международных экономических отношений Данильченко Татьяна Васильевна Белорусская государственная академия искусств, преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных дисциплин Белоруссия, Минск Транснационализация как закономерная стадия развития интернационализации деловой активности белорусских промышленных предприятий на современном этапе Экономика Республики Беларусь по своей структуре является экспорто-ориентированной, в которой доминируют крупные промышленные предприятия с государственным участием и высокой экспортной квотой на уровне 60% ВВП. Устойчивое экономическое развитие страны сдерживается относительной узостью внутреннего рынка. Без экспортной инновационной активности на внешних рынках невозможно обеспечить приемлемые темпы экономического роста. Наращивать дальнейшие объемы экспорта возможно, лишь вкладывая средства в заграничную товаропроводящую сеть, сферу послепродажного обслуживания и создавая зарубежные производства. Традиционно данное явление связывается с деятельностью транснациональных корпораций (ТНК) и обозначается как транснационализация производства, под которой понимается более зрелая стадия процесса интернационализации капитала, которая характеризуется возросшими масштабами международного инвестирования и выноса ряда производственных функций за рубеж [1, с.3]. Истоки транснационализации как формы проявления интернационализации капитала можно обнаружить в советской политической экономии. Она связывала интернационализацию с экспортом капитала, как взаимное переплетение капитала частных собственников ряда государств с целью извлечения прибыли и ее перераспределения в пользу более сильного партнера. При этом подразумевалась эксплуатация трудящихся принимающий иностранный капитал страны со всеми вытекающими из этого негативными социально-экономическими последствиями. В свою очередь экспорт капитала для вывозящей страны означает, что в ней имеется относительное перенакопление капитала, и он уже не может эффективно, с точки зрения приносимого дохода, работать на нужды данного государства. Интернационализация производства - это технологический способ применения капитала посредством установления устойчивых производственных связей между предприятиями различных государств, вследствие чего отдельные стадии производственного процесса в одной стране становится органичной частью воспроизводственного процесса, протекающего в мировом масштабе. Здесь частично снимаются социально-экономические антагонистические противоречия, ибо упор делается на технико-технологические аспекты перелива капитала. Тем не менее, негативный оттенок данного явления сохраняется, ибо происходит усиление эксплуатации трудящихся и других ресурсов страны, в которой концентрируется вывезенный капитал, и извлекаются дополнительные монопольные прибыли за счет реализации прибавочной стоимости в мировом масштабе. При этом за аксиому принимается положение, что интернационализируют производство крупные монополистические объединения из развитых индустриальных стран, которые обладают кроме собственно капитала еще и необходимой политической поддержкой государства во внешнеэкономической сфере. Взаимосвязанный процесс интернационализации и капитала и производства, обусловленный переливом капитала и переносом отдельных стадий производственного процесса из одной страны в другие, приводит к образованию ТНК (в марксистско-ленинской терминологии – монополий). Отметим, что не все международные компании являются по статусу транснациональными корпорациями, а тем более монополиями. Это достаточно длительный эволюционный процесс, который начинается с простейших форм экспорта товаров и завершается вывозом капитала за

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границу. Поэтому более приемлемым для обозначения постепенного процесса вовлечения предприятий (и особенно белорусских) в международное разделение труда и международный обмен является понятие интернационализации деловой активности фирмы. Оно представляется относительно нейтральным по сравнению с ранее принятыми в экономической науке такими социально-экономическими категориями, как интернационализации капитала и интернационализация производства. Под интернационализацией понимается динамичный процесс переноса деловой активности фирмы за рубеж и увеличения ее вовлеченности в международные операции в форме экспорта товаров, услуг и капитала. При этом каждая из форм может иметь несколько разновидностей. Так, экспорт товаров может осуществляться в прямой и косвенной форме, а при создании совместных предприятий за рубеж переносится не только капитал, но и нематериальные активы в виде знаний, управленческих ноу-хау, товарных знаков. Исследование транснационализации как более зрелой фазы процесса интернационализации требует рассмотрения технических, стоимостных, предпринимательских аспектов. Так, технический аспект транснационализации состоит в переносе за рубеж отдельных стадий технологического цикла или всего производственного процесса. Речь идет о сборочном производстве или собственно заграничном производстве. Стоимостной аспект транснационализации заключается в оптимальном распределении цепочек создания стоимости между материнской компанией в стране базирования и между ее зарубежными подразделениями. Предпринимательский аспект транснационализации рассматривается как портфельная стратегия развития и расширения деятельности фирмы на заграничном рынке, а, соответственно, ее хозяйственный рост и совершенствование организационного строения фирмы. Этот аспект удачно характеризуется индексом транснациональности в процентах, учитывающий зарубежные активы, продажи и персонал в консолидированном балансе компании. Так, индекс транснациональности швейцарского пищевого гиганта «Нестле» составляет 95%, тем самым только 5% деловой активности протекает в стране базирования головной компании. Очевидно, что все данные аспекты касаются одного явления – транснационализации производственного процесса на основе зарубежных капиталовложений в зависимости от глубины интеграции в экономику принимающей страны. Так, при сборочном заграничном производстве осуществляется последняя стадия многоступенчатого производственного процесса, а именно: монтаж и сборка конечного продукта из компонентов и полуфабрикатов материнской компании, а также его упаковка и рыночное оформление. В этом случае речь идет о переплетении производственнохозяйственных связей двух стран, об интеграции операций материнской компании в стране базирования и ее дочернего филиала за рубежом. При собственно заграничном производстве дочерняя фирма осуществляет самостоятельно за рубежом все фазы и стадии технологического процесса: производство (добыча и обработка) исходного сырья, изготовление упаковочных материалов, полуфабрикатов и комплектующих, их сборка или монтаж, упаковка и рыночное оформление товаров, а также реализацию через систему оптовой и розничной торговли. При этом дочерняя фирма в гостевой стране ориентируется, как правило, на местный рынок факторов производства, в меньшей степени зависит от поставок материнской компании, а тем самым достигается высокая автономия в области производственного процесса. Организация за рубежом сборочного и собственно заграничного производства часто диктуется техническими и технологическими соображениями (например, перевозка корпуса автомобиля нецелесообразна), что зависит от отраслевой специфики производства и прочих параметров: размера предприятия, масштабов производства и емкости рынка в гостевой стране. Однако, превалируют политические и экономические причины, а также социокультурные мотивы. Так, размещение сборочного производства или производственного предприятия за границей может быть ответом иностранной фирмы на рестрикции целевой страны в отношении импорта ее продукции (высокие импортные налоги, таможенные пошлины, ограничительные импортные квоты), а иногда, наоборот, может яв��яться следствием стимулирующих мероприятий принимающей страны, например в форме

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создания свободных экономических зон. Перевод в другие страны вредных производств может быть результатом давления, с одной стороны, экологических движений внутри страны, а с другой – менее жесткими требованиями к стандартам безопасности и охране окружающей среды в странахреципиентах. Кроме этого, отдельные фирмы таким образом стремятся уменьшить свою зависимость от общеэкономической обстановки внутри собственной страны, включая и возрастающую конкуренцию, или от колебаний валютных курсов. В качестве основных экономических причин выступают преимущества в издержках на основные факторы производства, коммуникацию, сервисные услуги, транспорт, а также система преференций и налогообложения гостевой страны. Посредством создания за рубежом сборочных производств и производственных предприятий и, соответственно, дополнительных рабочих мест иностранная компания формирует благоприятный имидж у правительства и населения гостевой страны, что в свою очередь для фирмы означает улучшение взаимоотношений с местными органами власти и партнерами по бизнесу. Инвестиционная стратегия при переносе отдельных стадий производственного цикла за рубеж с позиций самого промышленного предприятия может рассматриваться как взаимодополняющая для которые вместе образуют стратегию развития первичной экспортной стратегии, интернационализации деловой активности. (В некоторых случаях инвестиционная стратегия может полностью заместить простой экспорт товаров в конкретно взятой стране). Условно можно выделить простую и сложную экспортные стратегии, а по аналогии, простую и сложную стратегии транснационализации. Простая экспортная стратегия предполагает насыщение зарубежного рынка из страны базирования промышленного предприятия путем экспортных поставок через отечественных и иностранных посредников. Сложная экспортная стратегия предполагает создание за рубежом собственной товаропроводящей сети и сети сервисных центров, через которые будет реализовываться на целевом рынке готовая продукция из страны базирования предприятия. В данном случае чисто экспортная стратегия дополняется инвестиционной стратегией развития предприятия по обустройству сбыта в целевой стране, но это не требует капиталоемких инвестиций. Простая стратегия транснационализации будет означать помимо обычных экспортных поставок по насыщению целевого рынка перенос за рубеж стадий производственного цикла сборочного характера, создания готовой продукции, ее реализации и послепродажного обслуживания. В этом случае требуются более капиталоемкие прямые производственные инвестиции за рубежом. А вот сложная стратегия транснационализации предполагает создание производственных предпринимательских мест за границей на основе прямых иностранных инвестиций с полным производственным циклом, порой полностью независимым в технологическом плане от материнской компании в стране базирования. Это будет своего рода автономная транснациональная стратегия, при которой экспортные поставки готовой продукции из страны базирования замещаются производимой в целевой стране продукцией, чтобы не создавать внутрифирменную ценовую конкуренцию. Транснационализация может рассматриваться углубленным вариантом экспортной стратегии предприятия, об этом говорят следующие аргументы. Во-первых, капиталовложения в зарубежное производство ведут к росту физических объемов экспорта как из страны базирования материнской компании, так и за счет производственной деятельности заграничных филиалов, что будет находить адекватное отражение в системе национальных счетов. По некоторым данным заграничные филиалы американских ТНК обеспечивают свыше 30% физического объема экспорта США. Во-вторых, если экспортные поставки будут реализовываться через собственные каналы сбыта при организации необходимого сервисного обслуживания на зарубежных рынках, то это будет означать инвестиционную стратегию и соответственно транснационализацию обмена (сбыта за рубежом) как необходимой стадии воспроизводственного процесса. В-третьих, возможен и параллельный вариант, когда основная часть готовой продукции реализуется посредством экспорта из страны базирования материнской компании через дилерскую и/или собственную сбытовую сеть, а частично за счет заграничного сборочного производства. Таким

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образом в действительности и происходит, если рассматривать экономические взаимоотношения не в контексте страна А и только одна страна В, а страна А и несколько зарубежных стран и регионов. В-четвертых, со временем данное соотношение может изменяться в пользу заграничного производства. Это будет свидетельствовать о том, что экспорт готовой продукции из страны базирования материнской компании постепенно будет замещаться продукцией, созданной за рубежом в результате глубокой транснационализации производства. В этом случае инвестиционная стратегия как взаимодополняющая экспортную стратегию на конкретном зарубежном рынке трансформируется в вариант замещающей стратегии. Однако, это характерно для самых зрелых фаз транснационализации производства, которые могут позволить лишь ограниченное число ТНК. В-пятых, может наступить и такая стадия транснационализации производства при завершающей фазе жизненного цикла технологии/продукта в стране базирования предприятия (фаза зрелости переходящая в фазу упадка), когда начинается реэкспорт готовой продукции из зарубежных стран в страну базирования материнской компании в силу потребительских предпочтений. Примером может служить реэкспорт из Мексики в Германию модифицированных моделей автомобиля «Фольксваген - жук», а также чистый экспорт в другие страны. Особо следует сказать о макроэкономических эффектах транснационализации в контексте взаимодействия не только между головной компанией ее зарубежными предпринимательскими структурами, но и между двумя странами. Итак, в-шестых, в ходе транснационализации развивается сопутствующий экспорт из страны базирования материнской компании промежуточных продуктов: оборудования, компонентов, сырья, полуфабрикатов по внутрифирменным ценам от материнской компании либо по рыночным ценам от независимых поставщиков. В-седьмых, для развитых индустриальных стран характерна еще более зрелая стадия транснационализации, когда за ведущими товаропроизводителями в зарубежные страны следуют отечественные фирмы поставщики и банки со своими промежуточными продуктами и услугами путем осуществления прямых зарубежных инвестиций. Транснационализация по нашему мнению может рассматриваться как углубленный вариант экспортной стратегии, ибо происходит комплексное насыщение рынка готовой продукцией при одновременном оказании сервисных и технических услуг и послепродажного обслуживания, а также промежуточной продукцией для нужд сборочного и производственного предприятия за рубежом. В лучшем случае белорусские предприятия реализуют на внешних рынках сложную экспортную стратегию и лишь единицы простую стратегию транснационализации. Следовательно, они находятся на первоначальных стадиях превращения в классические транснациональные корпорации. Выделяются разные критерии отнесения предприятий к ТНК: число стран, в которых действует компания; определенное минимальное число стран, в которых размещены производственные мощности компании; определенный размер, которого достигла компания; минимум доли иностранных операций в доходах или продажах фирмы (как правило, 25%); владение не менее 25% «голосующих» акций в 3 или более странах – тот минимум долевого участия в зарубежном акционерном капитале, который обеспечил бы фирме контроль над деятельностью зарубежной фирмы; многонациональный состав персонала компании, состав ее высшего руководства [2]. В исследованиях Гарвардского университета к ТНК относятся компании, имеющие более 6 зарубежных дочерних фирм, при этом головная компания имеет право решающего голоса в силу владения более 50% акций. Этот подход не вводит ограничений на количество зарубежных странреципиентов и требований по идентичности сфер деятельности зарубежных дочерних фирм и головной компании. В первоначальном подходе ООН к ТНК относили компании, имеющие годовой оборот свыше 100 млн. долл. США и филиалы не менее чем в 6 странах. В последующем был сделан ряд уточнений: ТНК – это компания: а) включающая структурные единицы в двух или более странах, независимо от юридической формы и поля деятельности; б) оперирующая в рамках системы

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принятия решений, которая позволяет проводить согласованную политику и осуществлять общую стратегию через один или более руководящий центр; в) связывающая структурные единицы посредством собственности или каким-либо другим образом так, что одна или более из них могут иметь значительное влияние на деятельность других и, в частности, делить знания, ресурсы и ответственность с другими. ЮНКТАД к ТНК относит компании, если головное предприятие к��нтролирует активы других экономических единиц в государствах за пределами страны базирования материнской компании путем участия в капитале. Нормативной нижней границы для осуществления контроля над активами считается доля капитала не менее 10% обыкновенных акций. Впервые Калинин Д.С. осуществил проверку соответствия белорусских предприятий «Минский тракторный завод» (МТЗ) и ПО «Гомсельмаш» критериям Гарвардского университета и уточненного подхода ООН к ТНК. Так, согласно гарвардскому подходу единственным критерием отнесения компании в разряд ТНК является наличие у нее более 6 зарубежных дочерних фирм. МТЗ имел 6 торговых домов в России, по одному в Казахстане и Молдове, а также 5 сбытовых предприятий в странах дальнего зарубежья, доля собственности в каждом из которых превышала 50% [3]. Несмотря на непроизводственный профиль зарубежных дочерних фирм в отличие от головной компании, МТЗ по праву может считаться транснациональной компанией. По уточненному подходу ООН МТЗ владеет более чем 10% акций в экономических единицах, расположенных в более чем двух зарубежных странах (фактически в 10). А если следовать логике уточняющего подхода, то формально к зарубежным фирмам, контролируемым МТЗ, можно отнести еще 8 организованных на лицензионной основе сборочных предприятий, в производственной деятельности которых МТЗ принимает участие, а, следовательно, является белорусской транснациональной компанией. В рамках ооновского подхода «Гомсельмаш» имеет за рубежом дочерние единицы: предприятие промышленной сборки СП «ЗАО Брянсксельмаш» (Россия) с долей акций в 51%; почти полностью принадлежащее ему сбытовое предприятие СП «Торговый Дом Сибирь» с долей собственности в 95%; представительство в Китае и филиал в Аргентине со 100% собственностью [3]. «Гомсельмаш» контролирует активы экономических единиц в 3 странах путем участия в их капитале, что позволяет объединению проводить согласованную с ними политику и осуществлять общую стратегию развития. Следовательно, ПО «Гомсельмаш» соответствует критериям ООН, предъявляемым к ТНК, и может считаться транснациональной компанией. По критериям Гарвардского университета ПО «Гомсельмаш» с его 4 зарубежными дочерними фирмами не могло быть отнесено к разряду ТНК. В последние годы «Гомсельмаш» реализовал свои инвестиционные планы по организации двух сборочных и двух сбытовых дочерних предприятий в странах СНГ, став по классификации гарвардского подхода транснациональной корпорацией. Таким образом, белорусские предприятия перерастают статус международных компаний (впервые в белорусской экономической науке вопрос о статусе предприятий автором был поставлен в 1996 г. и сделан вывод о белорусских предприятиях как международно ориентированных компаниях [4; 5]) и приобретают характерные черты классических ТНК. Ведь ведущие белорусские предприятия придерживаются не только экспортных стратегий на внешнем рынке, но и осуществляют реальные стратегии транснационализации, хотя и в простейшей форме. В связи с такими качественными изменениями вытекает необходимость проведения на зарубежных рынках более агрессивной предпринимательской политики. С другой стороны, внешнеэкономическим ведомствам страны следует проводить реальную дипломатическую работу с международными организациями о включении ведущих белорусских промышленных предприятий в рейтинги крупнейших нефинансовых корпораций мира, невзирая на трудности в связи с нерыночным статусом белорусской экономики. Поэтапное решение данных задач будет означать ее международное признание. Помимо чисто стратегических выгод на микроэкономическом уровне наличие в стране признанных способствовать формированию благоприятного транснациональных корпораций будет международного имиджа Беларуси и повышения уровня ее конкурентоспособности.

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Литература: 1. Данильченко, А.В. Транснационализация промышленного и банковского капитала / А.В.Данильченко, Д.С. Калинин, О.Г. Ковшевич. – Минск : БГУ, 2007. – 183 с. 2. Владимирова, И.Г. Исследование уровня транснационализации компаний / И.Г. Владимирова // Менеджмент в России и за рубежом. – 2001. - № 6. – С. 99-114. 3. Калинин, Д.С. Интернационализация производственной деятельности белорусских предприятий сельхозмашиностроения // Научно-инновационная деятельность и предпринимательство в АПК: проблемы эффективности и управления: сборник научных статей 2-й Междунар. нау.-практич. конф., Минск, 17-18 мая 2007 г. В 2 ч. Ч. 2. / редкол. Г.И. Гануш [и др.]. – Минск, 2007. - С. 184-187. 4. Данильченко, А.В. К вопросу об национальных и международных предприятиях в национальной экономике / А.В.Данильченко // Методология и методика преподавания современной экономической науки: Тез. докл. междунар. науч. – практич. конф. – Мн., БГЭУ, 1996. С.25-28. 5. Данильченко, А.В. Теории интернационализация предпринимательства: становление и развитие / А.В.Данильченко. – Мн.: НИО, 1997. – 135 с.

Aleksei Danilchenko Doctor of Economic Sciences, professor Head of the Department of International Economic Relations, State University of Belarus Tatiana Danilchenko Lecturer, Department of Humanities, State Academy of Arts of Belarus Belarus, Minsk Transnationalization as the Mature Stage of Internationalization of the Business Activities of Modern Belarusian Enterprises Summary Transnationalization is considered as a more mature stage of the process of internationalization of business enterprises, given the characteristics of its basic forms. In connection with the export strategy of the company revealed transnationalization strategies and their economic effects. In accordance with the known approaches to the definition of transnational corporations is proved that a number of Belarusian enterprises have the status of classical transnational corporations.

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Олеся Дацко КЭН, ст.преподаватель кафедры менеджмента искусства Львовской национальной академии искусств, Украина, Львов РОЛЬ КУЛЬТУРЫ В ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИИ УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ Сегодня, в условиях обострения глобального кризиса, многие страны начинают пересматривать основные факторы, обеспечивающие развитие, как для целого государства, так и отдельных его регионов. В частности все больше исследователей, представителей власти акцентируют на необходимости обеспечения устойчивого развития. В 1992 году на Конференции в Рио-де-Жанейро термин «устойчивое развитие» в рамках принятия «Повестки дня на XXI век» детерминирован как «развитие, удовлетворяющее потребности настоящего времени, но в то же время не ставящее под угрозу способность будущих поколений удовлетворять свои собственные потребности» [1]. Большинство последующих определений этого термина стали модификацией первично задекларированного. Большинство ученых конца ХХ века, среди которых Г.Дейли, Л.Хенс, Л.Мельник и другие, связывали устойчивое развитие с тремя обязательными составляющими, без взаимосогласованного и взаимоориентированного прогресса которых обеспечить устойчивое развитие невозможно: экономика, экология и социальная сфера [2; 3]. В начале ХХІ века многие ученые стали акцентировать на дополнении этой триады и четвертой обязательной составляющей – культурой. На постсоветском пространстве при разработке ключевых нормативных документов для обеспечения развития в основном учитывают только три «основы». Но как свидетельствует опыт развитых стран, учитывание культуры является необходимым при разработке стратегических планов устойчивого развития. Поэтому целью статьи является охарактеризовать важную роль культуры как одной из «основ» устойчивого развития. Задачами статьи определены: – анализ существующих научных и практических подходов при планировании устойчивого развития с учитыванием культурной составляющей; – показать важность культуры в формировании институциального базиса устойчивого развития; – предложить механизмы учитывания потенциала и влияния культуры на возможность сбалансированного развития. Значительное количество исследователей во всем мире отмечают, что экономический, социальный, политический, образовательный и общественный прогресс в целом невозможны без надлежащей культурной основы. Все чаще ведущие ученые в разных сферах исследований (политика, образование, экономика, экология и др.) утверждают: «Культура имеет значение!", "Культура решает все!". Подтверждение тому исследования Л. Харрисона и проект, которым он руководил «Культурные ценности и человеческий прогресс »[4], С. Липсета [5], М. Кастельса [6], С. Ганингтона [7] и др., определяют важную роль культурных факторов, которые обязательно должны учитываться при разработке модели социально-экономического развития государства и отдельных территорий. С. Линдси и М. Фербенкс отмечают, что изучение влияния культуры на формирование ментальных моделей, которые катализируют или ингибируют процесс создания богатства является чрезвычайно важным для обеспечения человеческого прогресса. Ведь культурный капитал − это не только очевидные проявления культуры, такие как музыка, язык и ритуальные традиции, но и установки и ценности, связанные с инновациями и развитием [8, с. 126]. Украинские исследователи также отмечают значение культуры для общественного развития. Важность культурной компоненты как одного из существенных источников формирования национального богатства указывают А. Гриценко, В. Солодовник и другие [9]. Впервые системно

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важность культурного компонента для обеспечения эффективного социально-экономического развития Украины отметил це��ый ряд украинских ученых в национальном докладе "Социальноэкономическое состояние Украины: последствия для народа и государства» в 2009 году [10]. Р. Инглхарт указывает, что «синдром ценностей доверия, толерантности, благосостояния и участия в принятии решений, определяется параметром выживания/самовыражения и является особенно важным. Демократия не решается простым введением институциональных изменений или через маневрирования элиты, а зависит от ценностей и верований обычных граждан »[11, с.343], которые формируются под влиянием общественной культуры как одного из основных факторов, влияющих на возможность развития. В 1997 г. Р. Инглехарта и К. Вельцель составили глобальную культурную карту, которой определена четкая зависимость между рядом культурных факторов и уровнем благосостояния, а также показано тесная взаимосвязь межличностного доверия в культурной традицией, уровнем экономического развития и доверия по религиозной традиции [12]. Ю. Латов, О.Семухина и другие подтвердили тесную зависимость между культурными детерминантами и уровнем теневой экономики и коррупции, что существенно сказывается на социально-экономических показателях развития [13, с.54; 14, с.143]. Исследования Д. Трайзмана, Р.Мертона, подтвердили взаимосвязь между коррупцией и социальным разнообразием, этнолингвистическим распределением и различными религиозными традициями населения страны [15; 16]. В начале XXI многие исследователи, в частности Дж.Гокс, в числе обязательных составляющтх устойчивого развитися выделили , кроме экономики, эколгии, социальной сферы, также и культуру (рис.1): культура социальный сектор

экология

экономика Лисабоннськая программа: «треугольник опор» устойчивого развития

социальный сектор

экология економика

«кватрат опор» устойчивого развития

Рис.1. Основные «опоры» устойчивого развития. Составлено за: [17]. Такой поход сегодня принимают как основу для формирования политики устойчивого развития во всех развитых станах, ведь культура не только имеет собственный социально-экономический потенциал (за счет потенциала развития творческий индустрий, капитализации культурных ресурсов), но и значительной мерой определяет возможность формирования институциальной базы развития, определяет ценностные ориентиры населения, которые являются решающими при имплементации реформ, сохранении и рациональным использовании ресурсов. Большинство ведущих стран мира на протяжении последних лет декларируют свою позицию о необходимости и целесообразности использования потенциала культуры для стимулирования развития. Для этого принято большое количество программных документов, стратегических планов, культурная политика формируется в комплексе общегосударственной, экономической, социальной политики на разных уровнях. В мае 2011 Министерствами культуры стран Европейского Союза была принята Резолюция Совета Европы, которая обуславливает важную роль культуры для реализации Стратегии развития ЕС до 2020 года. В частности, этим документом предусмотрено важную роль культуры в обеспечении [19]: − устойчивого развития (путем формирования основы институциональных изменений, использования информационных технологий, ростом экологической мобильности и позитивного влияния художников и деятелей культуры на изменение отношения людей к окружающей среде);

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− интеллектуального развития (в т.ч. развития интеллектуальных ресурсов экономики, стимулировании развития творческого потенциала, образования и инноваций, творческих индустрий как перспективного сегмента создания рабочих мест и трудоустройство населения); − инклюзивного развития (способствуя межкультурному диалогу при уважении культурного разнообразия, усиливая социальную сплоченность и развитие общин, привлекая отдельных лиц и целые общественные группы в социальной, культурной и экономической активности). Определяя влияние на прогресс общества и возможность обеспечения устойчивого развития на современном этапе, отметим, что сегодня культура: − является одним из главных фактором развития институтов разного уровня; − формирует среду развития личности; − содействие созданию национального богатства; − определяет потенциальную возможность инновационной деятельности; − обеспечивает развитие рынка культурного продукта и его потребления; − способствует идентификации как отдельных личностей, так и территории, государств и межгосударственных объединений; − формирует систему ценностей, определяющую отношения населения к использованию ресурсов в экономической, экологической и социальной сферах. В целом влияние культуры на формирование институционального базиса и развития социальноэкономической системы можно представить как (рис. 1):

КУЛЬТУРА

Формирование ценностей

Производственные факторы: культурные ресурсы

ОБЩЕСТВО

ИНСТИТУТЫ

Продуктивные факторы: творческий потенциал

Рис. 1. Роль культуры в формировании институционального базиса общества и развития социально-экономической системы. Составлено автором. В конце ХХ - начале XXI века большинство ученых постсоветского пространства одной из основных причин недостаточно эффективного развития государства считают затяжной институциональный кризис. Отсутствие сформированной институциональной основы для стимулирования развития (нормативно-правовой базы, системы институтов, инфраструктуры, информационных, коммуникационных, логистических и других систем и т.п.), формирования и функционирования значительного количества неформальных институтов, которые тормозят общественное развитие во всех сферах (коррупция, развитие теневой экономики, рэкет и др.). не позволяют должным образом задействовать ресурсный потенциал, наладить систему эффективного функционирования территориальных общин, районов, областей и государства в целом. Как свидетельствуют тенденции последних лет, именно в сфере культуры формируется институциональный базис, что подтверждается рядом исследований. Так, одним из направлений развития неоинституциональной теории является новая парадигма, которая позиционирует общество как триаду культуры, общественных институтов и экономики [11]. Ключевой идеей этой теории является гипотеза, что экономическая система формируется общественными институтами, которые непосредственно порождаются культурной средой общества, а не наоборот (рис. 2).

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Исторические предпосылки, политические факторы, организационная структура, внешние воздействия, органы управления

Формирование институтов

Имплементация и эффективность функционирования институтов

Государственного уровня

Зависит от организационной структуры государства, системы внутреннего взаимодействия, механизмов внедрения институтов, готовности регионов адаптировать общегосударственные учреждения с учетом существующего регионального институционального базиса)

Исторические предпосылки, органы Восприятие и развитие институтов Региональн управления, осуществляется через призму культуры ого уровня культурная населения компонента Рис. 2. Механизм стимулирования экономического развития. Дополнено автором на основе: [19].

Устойчивое развитие

Основные факторы формирования институтов

Г. Табелини, Р. Инглехард, К. Велцель и др. показали, что изменения общественных институтов и экономической системы сначала должны ассимилироваться через призму культуры. Согласно разработанной концепции экономическая система характеризуется тремя компонентами: собственность, процедуры (формальные и неформальные отношения между субъектами экономики) и управления. Наиболее обще взаимодействие общественных институтов с экономической системой происходит через: − человеческий капитал (совокупность знаний, умений, таланта людей, образовательная сфера и взаимодействие работников и работодателей и т.д.); − капитал (совокупность составляющих, которые определяют уровень доступности капитала субъектам экономики, например, природный, общественный капитал и т.п.); − социальный капитал. Взаимосвязь между культурой, общественными институтами и экономикой не является односторонней. Каждая компонента этой системы развивается независимо, но имеет существенный взаимовлияние друг на друга. На эффективность взаимодействия этих составляющих влияют и другие факторы, в частности: − внешние факторы (государство, является объединяющей компонентой культуры и общественных институтов, но в отдельных случаях может выступать инициатором институциональных изменений вопреки культурным традициям); − внешние воздействия (материальные − например, влияние глобализированного рынка, унифицирует принципы конкуренции и стимулирует развитие и подражания технологий; нематериальные - внешние стереотипы, нормы, системы ценностей, влияющих на локальную культуру). Вследствие такого воздействия происходит трансформация соответствующих институтов, что отражается на деятельности социально-экономической системы. То есть именно культурные параметры являются тем «основанием», на которое имплементируются правовые, экономические, социальные, политические и другие проекты, и именно от состояния развития культуры населения определенной территории и ментальных моделей поведения, определяются стереотипы относительно понимания и восприятия трансформаций в социально-экономической сфере, а также формируются большинство институтов регионального уровня. Игнорирование роли культурного фактора в формировании институционального базиса при разработке программ социально-экономического

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развития часто приводит к фиаско успешные проекты. Учитывание влияния сферы культуры на общественные процессы, а также ее развитие является обязательным компонентом для обеспечения прогресса на разных уровнях. Поэтому актуализация культурного потенциала государства является одним из приоритетов современного развития, а повышение уровня культуры рядовых граждан, создание единых ценностных ориентиров является задачей не только гуманитарной сферы - это основа формирования общественного благосостояния в контексте обеспечения устойчивогоразвития. Кроме того, средствами культуры необходимо формировать и развивать качественно новые институты, важной предпосылкой успешных реформ в государстве единого институционального базиса, для чего нужно обеспечить совместную культурную основу развития населения государства. Это не только позволит решить ряд политических проблем, но и будет способствовать ускорению и повышению качества социально-экономических процессов в целом. В Украине и многих постсоветских странах сегодня можно констатировать отсутствие единой государственной стратегии развития культуры, поддержки программ формирования единой системы ценностей граждан. В частности, отсутствие государственных инициатив по активизации и формирования культурной среды для создания качественно новых институтов устойчивого развития предопределяет ряд проблем как на уровне межличностного общения, региональном, так и на уровне государства (коррупция, бандитизм, безразличие к окружающим и окружающей среде, неэффективное использование ресурсов, общественным процессам, склонность молодежи к суициду, межэтнические конфликты и т.д.). Попытка многих транзитивных экономик внедрять готовые форматы институтов «сверху» уже на протяжении 20 лет существования, в часности и независимой Украины, является безуспешными. Для формирования еффекстивной институциональной основы необходимо сформировать единую систему ценностей и ментальные модели поведения населения, которые в значительной мере формируются именно культурной средой. Поэтому развитие личности и общественных групп средствами культуры на уровне государства − одна из важнейших задач. В Украине и многих постсоветских станах пока нет системных исследований взаимовлияния культурных факторов и социально-экономической системы. Поэтому практически все программные документы не учитывают роль культуры в тех или иных экономических, социальных, экологических процессах, а также не определяют стратегического видения взаиморазвития культуры и экономики, экологии, социального сектора, человеческого потенциала и институционального прогресса. Для того, чтобы государство могло использовать потенциал культурной среды для формирования качественно новых институтов и обеспечить эффективное устойчивое развитие, необходимо: − постоянно проводить комплексные исследования взаимовлияния культурных детерминант и общественных процессов; − активно использовать потенциал сферы культуры для формирования качественно новой, единой институциональной основы развития государства; − формировать культурную политику в комплексе с социально-экономической, образовательной, стимулируя создание системы ценностей, что соответствует приоритетам развития страны; − определить сферу государственных приоритетов в системе культуры и их защищать; − развивать рынок и потребления культурного продукта как фактора, стимулирует творческие инициативы; − обеспечить создание системы культурологического и художественного образования, которая отвечала бы и удовлетворяла стратегические цели государства. Используя такой подход, который предусматривает анализ и оценку перспектив развития экономики, экологии, социальной сферы и культуры в комплексных планах устойчивого развития можно обеспечить эффективное планирование и реализацию поставленных заданий.

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Литература: 1. Програма дій «Порядок денний на ХХІ століття»: Ухвалена конференцією ООН з на-вколишнього середовища і розвитку в Ріо-де-Жанейро (Саміт «Планета Земля», 1992 р.): Пер. з англ. — 2-ге вид. — К.: Інтелсфера, 2000. — 360 с. 2. Дейлі Г. Поза зростанням. Економічна теорія сталого розвитку: [пер. з англ.] / Г.Дейлі. – К.: Інтелсфера, 2002. – 312 с. 3. Социально-экономический потенциал устойчивого развития [Текст] : учебн./ под. ред. Л.Г. Мельника и Л.Хенса. – Сумы: ИДТ «Университетская книга», 2007. – 1120 с. 4. Harrison L. Culture Matters : How Values Shape Human Progress (Paperback)/ Lawrence E. Harrison, Samuel P. Huntington . Publisher: Basic Books, 2001. 384 p. 5. Lipset S. Culture and social character / ed. by S. Lipset, L. Lowenthal. – Illinois: Freepress, 1961. – 318 p. 6. Кастельс М. Информационная эпоха: экономика, общество и культура / Мануэль Кастельс. – М.: Издательство: ГУ ВШЭ, 2001. – 608 с. – ISBN5-7598-0069-8 7. Гантінґтон С. П. Культуру слід враховувати/ Семюел П. Гантінґтон // Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї». – 2008. – № 53. – С.8-13.4 8. Fairbanks M. Plowing the Sea - Nurturing the Hidden Sources of Advantage in Developing Nations / Michael Fairbanks, Stace Lindsay; Foreword by Michael E. Porter. – Harvard : Harvard Business School Press, 1997 – 289 p. 9. Особливості соціокультурного розвитку сучасного суспільства й оновлення ролі культури в ньому / О.А. Гриценко (редактор-упорядник), В.В.Солодовник, М. Рябчук, І.С. Булкіна, Н.К. Гончаренко, О.В. Ірванець, І.А. Кулінкович [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.culturalstudies.in.ua/zv_2009-10-1.php 10. Соціально-економічний стан України: наслідки для народу та держави: національна доповідь / за заг.ред. В.М.Геєця, А.І. Даниленка, М.Г.Жулинського, Е.М.Лібанової, О.С.Онищенка / авт.кол.О.І.Амоша, Є.І.Андрос, Ю.М. Бажал та ін. – К.: НВЦ НБУВ,2009. – 687 с. 11. Inglehart R. Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: the human development sequence / Ronald Inglehart,Christian Welzel. – New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. – 453 стор.– ISBN 0-521609712. 12. Inglehart-Welzel Cultural Map of the World [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/. 13. Латов Ю.В. Повседневная теневая экономика и национальная экономическая ментальность в современной России. Взаимосвязь индексов Г. Хофстеда и индикаторов теневой экономической деятельности / Ю. Латов, Н.Латова, С. Николаева. – Директмедиа Паблишинг, 2005. – 140с. – ISBN 5-94865-067-7 14. Semukhina. O. Russian cultural factors related to perceived criminal procedure fairness: the juxtaposition of policy and practice/ O.B. Semukhina. – Orlando, Florida: Fall Term, 2007. – 273 р. 15. Merton R. Social Theory and Social Structure / Robert K. Merton. –New York: Free Press, 1968. –248 p. 16. Treisman D. The causes of corruption: a cross-national study / Daniel Treisman // Journal of Public Economics. – 2000. – № 76. – Р. 399-457. 17. Hawkes J. the fourth pillar of sustainability. Culture’s and Local development / John Hawkes. – Melbourn: Cultural development Network, 2001. – 183 p. 18. Council conclusions on the contribution of culture to the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy (2011/C 175/01) [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/news/councilconclusions-on-the-contribution-of-culture-to-eu-2020-and-on-mobility-information-services_en.htm. 19. Tabellini G. Culture and institutions: economic development in the regions of Europe / Guido Tabellini (IGIER, Bocconi University) [Электронный ресурс].– Режим доступа: http://www.econ.ubc.ca/fpatrick/lecturecultabellini.pdf.

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Olessya Datsko Candidate of Economic Sciences, senior lecturer, Department of Arts Management Lvov National Academy of Arts Ukrain, Lviv

The Role of Culture in the Sustainable Development Summary In the present article the role of culture as a necessary component of sustainable development is discussed. Existing approaches to taking into account the culture potential and its impact on social development are analyzed. Mechanisms of culture potential activation for ensuring sustainable development are proposed. Keywords: sustainable development, culture, economy, ecology, social, approach, progress.

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Оксана Василица Ассистент кафедры международных экономических отношений Львовская коммерческая академия Украина, Львов ПОСЛЕДСТВИЕ ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИОННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ ДЛЯ УКРАИНЫ В КОНТЕКСТЕ УСИЛЕНИЯ ФИНАНСОВОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ Глобализация мирохозяйственных процессов стимулирует активное участие всех субъектов мировой экономической системы в обмене товарами, услугами, ресурсами и финансовыми потоками. Темпы развития финансовой сферы значительно превышают соответствующие показатели развития торговли и реального сектора. Если в ХХ ст. последний обуславливал осуществления процессов в финансовом секторе, то в XXI ст. направления влияния сменились на противоположные. На сегодня финансовые рынки в основном обслуживают не процессы в реальной экономике, а осуществляют акцент на спекулятивных операциях, которые позволяют быстрее получать сверхприбыли. Именно поэтому формируется угроза как экономической, так и финансовой безопасности стран-акцепторов иностранного капитала. Такая ситуация приводит к кризисным явлениям в международной экономической среде. Примером может служить очередной мировой финансово-экономического кризис 2008-2011гг., который был обусловлен резким разрастанием спекулятивных финансовых потоков. Украина является активным игроком на мировой арене, поэтому, глобализационные процессы затрагивают ее интересы в полной мере. Через значительную открытость национальной экономики и зависимость от внешних товарных рынков, что является одними из признаков глобализации, украинская экономика понесла значительные потери от мирового финансово-экономического кризиса. Поскольку глобализация фи��ансовых потоков является неотъемлемой частью современного этапа развития мирового хозяйства, то целесообразно рассмотреть ее влияние на финансовую безопасность страны, привлекающие иностранный капитал. Активизация инвестиционной деятельности является важным условием экономического роста. В современных условиях инвестиции играют важную роль как средство выхода из экономического кризиса. Они способствуют структурным сдвигам в экономике, обеспечению технического и технологического прогресса, повышению качественных показателей хозяйственной деятельности. Однако, если рассматривать качественную составляющую привлеченного капитала, а именно в какую сферу народного хозяйства Украины он направлен, то можно сделать вывод о неэффективности и даже вредности его привлечения. На рис.1 представлена отраслевая структура привлечения прямых иностранных инвестиций в Украину. 35

2009

32,5

2011

30 25

22,4

20 15 10 5

4,6 4,3

12,8

10,2 10,9

10,6 10,5 5,5 6,3

3,5

0 В-во прод.

харчув Изгот.

пищ. прод.

Будівництво

Строительство

Торгівля

Торговля

Ф ін. діяльн.

Фин.деят.

Операц з нерухом.

В-во мет.

виробів Операц. Изгот.мет с недвиж. изделий

Рис. 4. Отраслевая структура прямых иностранных инвестиций в экономику Украины, в % к общему объемуюю Составлено по: [1]

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Финансовая сфера для иностранного инвестора была достаточно привлекательным объектом, поскольку ставки по кредитам были высокими, то наблюдался бум потребительского кредитования. Увеличение доходов населения обусловило интенсификацию депозитных вложений. Преимущественно иностранное инвестирование происходило путем покупки украинских банков. Иностранные инвесторы имели доступ к дешевым кредитным ресурсам, как в материнском банке, так и на международном рынке, поэтому высокие отечественные кредитные ставки позволяли обеспечивать высокую рентабельность финансовой активности. То есть были созданы все условия для получения банками сверхприбыли. Подобная ситуация сложилась в Латинской Америке в конце ХХ века. Происходили переключения финансовых потоков от кредитования промышленности и базисной инфраструктуры (не говоря уже о высокотехнологичном и наукоемком производстве, требующим больших инвестиционных вложений) в более доходные, хотя рискованные фондовые и биржевые спекулятивные операции. Это обусловило финансово-кредитные потрясения, охватившие Аргентину, Уругвай, Бразилию, Парагвай. Финансовые проблемы были ощутимы даже в такой относительно устойчивой стране как Чили [2]. Итак, нельзя категорически утверждать, что иностранные инвесторы сыграли главную роль в создании кризисных явлений в банковской системе Украины, однако они усилили негативные последствия в этой сфере. Относительно розничной торговли, то емкий внутренний рынок и тенденция к росту объемов потребления в супермаркетах и крупных специализированных магазинах привела к активной деятельности иностранных инвесторов в этой сфере. Даже в кризисный 2009 г. польским инвестфондом Abris Capital была осуществлена покупка сети магазинов "Барвинок"; владельцем сети бытовой техники "Эльдорадо" стала чешская компания PPF Group. Кроме того, на рынке действуют такие сети как "Фуршет", 20% акций которых принадлежат французскому розничному гиганту Auchan; МЕТРО Кеш энд Керри Украина – с немецким капиталом. В связи с тем, что в последние несколько лет формировался "пузырь" на рынке недвижимости, то это привело к стремительному развитию строительной отрасли. Кроме того, в благоприятные предкризисные годы происходило стремительное развитие промышленности и бизнеса, которые требовали расширения офисных и коммерческих площадей. Отсутствие значительных препятствий в получении ипотечного кредита и увеличения доходов населения способствовали усилению структурных диспропорций и деформаций на рынке жилой недвижимости. Такие условия привлекали как иностранных, так и внутренних инвесторов. Активное инвестирование отраслей, работающих только на внутренний рынок, приводит к "перегреву" экономики, ухудшению торгового баланса, отсутствию стимулов к развитию экспортоориентированных отраслей, ослаблению конкурентных позиций на международных товарных рынках. Таким образом, усиление финансовой глобализации негативно влияет на странуакцептора ПИИ. Как один из выходов из ситуации, сложившейся с ПИИ можем рекомендовать активизацию внутренних инвестиционных процессов. Именно благодаря внутренней инвестиционной активности стал возможен экономический подъем "новых индустриальных стран" Азии: Тайваня, Сингапура, Гонконга, Южной Кореи. В этих странах были созданы за короткий период устойчивые экономические структуры, способные адаптироваться к конъюнктуре мирового рынка. Для Украины, к сожалению, несмотря на ускоренные темпы роста инвестиций в основной капитал, их объем не является значительным. По данным Государственного комитета статистики Украины по состоянию на 2010 г. было освоено 150,7 млрд грн. инвестиций в основной капитал (13,8%), что составляет лишь 70,1% по сравнению с 1990 г. Мировой финансово-экономический кризис затормозил инвестиционные процессы, вызвав уменьшение объемов инвестирования в основной капитал. Также можно увидеть уменьшение доли инвестиций в основном капитале в ВВП в два раза при сравнении 2007 и 2010 годов.

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131,3

140 120

114,4

120,8

129,8

128 119

108,9

108,44

101,9

99,4

100 97,4

80

87,7

60

0

70,1

67,5

40 20

70,6

58,5

55,7

56,8

21,09

23,02

2005

2006

43,5 30,4

33,1 16,46

19,08

21,94

13,89

15,95

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

25,2

у % до попереднього рокугоду в % к предыдущему

26,15

2007

24,59 2008

16,62

13,76

2009

2010

у % до 1990 інвестиції/ВВП у% В % к 1990 г.співвідношення соотношение инвестиции/ВВП,%

Рис. 2. Индексы инвестиций в основной капитал в Украине и их доля в ВВП, 2000-2010 гг Составлено по: [1]

Для Украины в условиях современного экономического развития необходимо, чтобы показатель валового накопления инвестиций достигал 28-30%. Такой уровень был одним из важных предпосылок экономического роста в Чехии и Словакии (27-28% в 2000-2002гг.). По мнению С. Глазьева [3], в РФ долю накопления инвестиций в ВВП необходимо увеличивать до 25-30% ВВП. Уровень инвестирования в Украину в 2010 г. не может считаться достаточным (17% ВВП) (рис.2), хотя в годы, предшествовавшие кризису, он был на уровне 25% ВВП, поскольку такие показатели не дают возможностей для создания позитивной экономической динамики. Контраргументом может служить уровень накопления инвестиций в промышленно развитых странах. Так, для США этот показатель находится на уровне 19-20%, а в 2010 г. он достиг 14%, в Германии 18%, в Японии - 23,5%, в Великобритании - 17-18%. Однако в развивающихся странах доля инвестиций в ВВП существенно отличается. В Китае в 2010 г. она составляла 48% ВВП. В Корее этот показатель снизился после Азиатского финансового кризиса почти на 10 п.п. (по сравнению с максимальным значением 40% ВВП в 1991г.). В целом можно констатировать, что внутренние инвестиции уменьшились по сравнению с концом 1990-х гг. Это утверждение относится скорее к промышленно развитым странам. В странах с возникающими финансовыми рынками сбережения продолжают расти, однако уровень инвестиций не повышается после кризиса в Азии. Однако в посттрансформационных экономиках наблюдалась тенденция к росту валового накопления инвестиций, которая продолжалась до мирового финансовоэкономического кризиса, что может свидетельствовать об экономическом росте этих стран. Ни одно государство не может удержаться от использования выгод от интеграции своей экономики в мировое хозяйство, поскольку альтернативой этому может быть экономическое падение и стагнация. Однако использование выгод глобализации предполагает активный вклад каждой страны в минимизации связанных с этим процессом рисков. Речь идет о дисциплине макроэкономической политики для поддержания привлекательного инвестиционного климата, как для иностранных, так и для внутренних инвесторов. Хотя иностранный капитал имеет жизненно важное значение для экономики отдельных государств, превращение его в основной источник финансирования может привести к серьезным деструктивным последствиям. Основным финансовым источником для экономического развития государства должны быть внутренние накопления. Поэтому стабильная финансовая система государства продолжает оставаться основным средством

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для предотвращения рыночных потрясений национального и международного характера. Это в полной мере касается не только развивающихся стран и стран с переходной экономикой, которые устранили валютные ограничения и берут уже непосредственное участие в процессе глобализации, но и развитых государств. Ослабление внутренней финансовой дисциплины, возникновение проблем макроэкономического характера в этих странах осуществляют деструктивное влияние на стабильность финансовой системы. Примером может быть современная ситуация в ЕС. Литература: 1. Державний комітет статистики України : [Eлектронний ресурс] – Режим доступу // http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/ 2. Романова З. Иностранные инвестиции: Латиноамериканские уроки // Экономист. – 2004. – №8. – с.14-23. 3. Глазьев С.Ю. Основа обеспечения экономической безопасности страны – альтернативный реформационный курс / С.Ю. Глазьев// Российский Эконо��ический журнал. – 1997. – №1. – с.3-17.

Oksana Vasilitza Assistant, Department of International Economic Relations Commercial Academy of Lvov Ukrain, Lvov Consequences of Globalization in the Context of Financial Security Enhancement in the Ukraine Summary The article analyzes the impact of globalization on the financial sector. The topic is very timely as the global economic crisis 2008-2011 occurred because of the excessive growth of capital flows, and a considerable gap between the real and financial sectors. Ukraine is one of the most affected economies, due to destructive industrial structure of FDI. As a result, we recommend focusing on domestic investments, which will reduce the negative trends of globalization. Keywords: globalization, financial security, capital flows, global crisis, the structure of capital inflows.

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nugzar Todua ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi saqarTvelos agrosasursaTo bazris mdgradi ganviTarebis tendenciebi agrosasursaTo warmoeba nebismieri qveynis erovnuli ekonomikis organuli nawilia [1]. ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebulma ekonomikurma reformebma, samarTlebrivi bazis TandaTanobiT srulyofam, sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebis mxardaWeram mTlianad Secvales agrosasursaTo warmoebis menejmentis arsi [2]. miuxedavad amisa, samamulo bazari gajerebulia sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi agrosasursaTo produqtebiT. es gamowveulia imiT, rom ar xorcieldeba mwarmoeblebis monitoringi, rac dabalxarisxiani, falsificirebuli produqtebis warmoebisa da realizaciis masStabebis zrdas uwyobs xels. marTalia, sursaTis uvneblobis da xarisxis Sesaxeb kanoni vaWrobis msoflio organizaciasa da evrokavSiris yvela kriteriumsa da standarts akmayofilebs, magram is umoqmedo aRmoCnda. uxarisxo sasursaTi produqtebis gayidviT uxeSad irRveva momxmarebelTa uflebebi, rac, aseve, saqarTvelos agrosasursaTo bazris mdgrad ganviTarebis aferxebs. uvnebloba sasursaTo produqtebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi samomxmareblo Tvisebaa. igi gulisxmobs imas, rom produqtma moxmarebisas ar unda miayenos ziani adamianis janmrTelobas [3]. amitom sasursaTo produqtebis uvnebloba, gaerosTan arsebuli sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis organizaciis SefasebiT, Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi problemaa [4]. amasTan, agrosasursaTo biznesis mTavari mizani kargad gansazRvruli miznobrivi bazris moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba da myidvelebTan faseulobaze dafuZnebuli myari urTierTobis Camoyalibebaa. swored, amas emyareba Tanamedrove marketingi, romelic yuradRebas amaxvilebs sazogadoebaSi mimdinare socialur procesebze [5]. socialuri marketingi xels uwyobs iseTi mniSvnelovani socialuri amocanebis gadasaWras, rogoricaa bunebis dacva, usafrTxo cxovreba, janmrTelobis usafrTxoeba da sxva [6]. saqarTvelos umTavresi erovnuli interesia TiToeuli moqalaqisaTvis socialuri usafrTxoeba. igi axasiaTebs socialuri sferos mdgradobas, mosaxleobis cxovrebis donesa da xarisxs, pirovnebis moTxovnilebaTa optimaluri dakmayofilebisa da misi ganviTarebis SesaZleblobis pirobebs. momxmarebelTa interesebis dacva uSualo kavSirSia qveyanaSi ekonomikuri wesrigis politikasTan. ekonomikisa da vaWrobis liberalizacia ar gulisxmobs imas, rom adamiani Tavs safrTxeSi igdebdes mavne produqciis moxmarebiT. uxarisxo, janmrTelobisaTvis da xSirad sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi produqciisgan momxmarebelTa dacva Tanamedrove msoflios erT-erTi mniSvnelovani amocanaa. igi aqtualuria rogorc ganviTarebul, ise ganviTarebad qveynebSi, Tumca, gansxvavebulia problemis sirTule da misi gadawyvetis gzebi. saqarTveloSi is jer kidev meorexarisxovan problemad miiCneva. amas emateba isic, rom qveynis bazari daucvelia arasaimedo produqciisgan, xolo mosaxleobas sakuTari uflebebis Sesaxeb minimaluri codnac ki ar gaaCnia. momxmarebelTa ufleba erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi socialuri uflebaa, romelTa ugulvebelyofac garkveul safrTxeebs uqmnis saxelmwifos, rogorc mmarTveli meqanizmis funqcionirebas. miznobrivi momxmrebelTa jgufis interesebis damcvelad gamodis socialuri marketingi, romelic iTvaliswinebs miznesSi yvela

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subieqtis interesebs. amitom saqarTvelos agrisasursaTo biznesSi socialuri marketingis danergva warmoadgens aqtualur Temas. socialuri marketingis sakiTxebis kvleva axalia saqarTveloSi, Tumca, nel-nela is Tavis adgils imkvidrebs sazogadoebis sxvadasxva seqtoris cnobierebasa da biznes praqtikaSi [7]. saqarTvelos agrosasursaTo bazris mdgradi ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiebis gansazRvris mizniT 2011 wlis gazafxulze CavatareT sursaTis uvneblobisadmi momxmarebelTa damokidebulebis kvleva. kvlevis areali, ZiriTadad, moicavda Tbiliss, xolo regionebidan upiratesoba mivaniWeT imereTs, kerZod, quTaiss, zestafons da xaragauls. kvlevaSi monawileobda 45-dan 60 wlamde asakis 520 respondenti. kvlevaSi gamoviyeneT gamokiTxvis meTodi, kerZod, anketuri gamokiTxva. miRebuli Sedegebi davamuSaveT statistikuri meTodebiT, romelTa safuZvelzec gavakeTeT Sesabamisi daskvnebi [8]. saqarTveloSi sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi, dabinZurebuli sasursaTo produqtebis gamovlenis faqtebi, satelevizio sivrceSi am problemis xSirad gaSuqeba ganapirobebs imas, rom momxmarebelTa udides nawils (87%-s) smenia kanoni sursaTis uvneblobis da xarisxis Sesaxeb. Tumca, realurad, problemis arsSi gamokiTxulTa mxolod 9% erkveva. respondentTa 61% nawilobriv, zogadadaa gacnobierebuli kanonis im punqtebSi, romlebic mavne produqtebis savaWro qselidan amoRebas exeba. xolo kanonis punqtebi, romlebSic wayenebulia moTxovnebi produqtis Senaxvisa da distribuciis pirobebze, agreTve etiketze sursaTis maxasiaTeblebis arsebobis aucileblobaze, gamokiTxulTa 30%-Tvis saerTod ucnobia. sakmaod sainteresoa imis garkveva, Tu ras Tvlis qarTveli momxmarebeli sursaTis uvneblobis da xarisxis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi kanonis miRebis safuZvlad. rogorc kvlevam aCvena, respondentebis umetesoba (63%) am kanonis miRebas saqarTveloSi dabinZurebuli sasursaTo produqtebis simravles ukavSirebs. maT savsebiT samarTlianad miaCniaT, rom Cvens qveyanaSi arsebuli mZime ekonomikuri mdgomareoba ganapirobebs mavne produqtebis warmoebis masStabebis gafarToebas. amitom Seumowmebeli, dabalxarisxiani nedleuli mogebis miRebis saSualebas iZleva. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos samomxmareblo bazarze es procesi kontrols ar eqvemdebareba. momxmarebelTa 26%-is azriT, kanonis amoqmedeba savaldebulo gaxada kvebis produqtebis miRebis Sedegad dazaralebuli mosaxleobis raodenobis zrdam. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom dReisaTvis saqarTvelos umTavresi prioritetia evropasTan integracia, rac SeuZlebelia evrokavSiris mier dadgenili moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. evrokavSiris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani moTxovnaa sursaTis uvneblobis sferoSi TanamSromloba. miuxedavad amisa, momxmarebelTa mxolod 11% Tvlis, rom kanonis ZalaSi Sesvla swored evrokavSiris moTxovnis Sedegad moxda. kvlevidan gamomdinare, qarTveli momxmareblebis Sexeduleba kanonis amoqmedebiT gamowveul mosalodnel cvlilebebze naklebad saimedoa. gamokiTxulTa mxolod 15% fiqrobs, rom 2010 wels amoqmedebuli sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb kanoni radikalurad Secvlis qarTul bazarze arsebul mdgomareobas sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebiT. respondentTa umetesobas (59%-s) miaCnia, rom kanoni Seitans cvlilebebs sasursaTo bazarze, magram amisaTvis saWiroa dro. 12%-is azriT, kanonis amoqmedeba verafers Secvlis, radgan qveyanaSi jer kidev aris korufcia, rac ekonomikis winsvlas xels uSlis. sakmaod pesimisturia gamokiTxulTa 14%, romelic Tvlis, rom qveyanaSi arsebuli mZime mdgomareoba

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sursaTTan dakavSirebiT ar Seicvleba, radgan amisaTvis saWiro materialuri da adamianuri resursebi ar mogvepoveba. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos sasursaTo bazari gajerebulia sazRvargareTidan Semotanili produqciiT, qarTveli momxmareblebis ndobis xarisxi aseTi produqciisadmi sakmaod dabalia. kerZod, respondentTa mxolod 16% endoba importuli produqciis xarisxs. gamokiTxulTa umetesoba (72%) keTilganwyobilia adgilobrivi warmoebis produqciisadmi. isini ufro metad endobian samamulo produqciis xarisxs, rac maT mier yidvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebazec aisaxeba. sakmaod mcirea respondentTa raodenoba (12%), romelic produqciis warmomavlobas saerTod yuradRebas ar aqcevs. saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze agrosasursaTo biznesis sferoSi arsebobs uamravi laboratoria, Tumca, maTi funqcionireba mxolod formaluri xasiaTisaa, vinaidan produqti marto siaxleze mowmdeba. es ki zRvaSi wveTia. laboratoriuli Semowmeba gulisxmobs mTeli rigi procedurebis Catarebas, rac dRevandel pirobebSi, realurad, SeuZlebelia. metad sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT qarTveli momxmareblebis cnobiereba sakmaod maRali aRmoCnda. rogorc kvlevam gviCvena, respodentebis mxolod 3% Tvlis, rom nayid produqts gavlili aqvs laboratoriuli Semowmeba, 73%-is azriT, sasursaTo produqtebi ar mowmdeba, xolo gamokiTxulTa 24%-ma ki amis Sesaxeb saerTod araferi icis. uvnebeli produqtis SeZenis adgilisadmi momxmarebelTa damokidebuleba araerTgvarovania. kerZod, gamokiTxulTa 5% upiratesobas aniWebs supermarkets, 49%-s miaCnia, rom uvnebeli produqti iyideba bazarze. 44%-Tvis specializebuli maRaziaa swored is adgili, sadac SesaZlebelia iseTi produqtis yidva, romelic janmrTelobisaTvis ar iqneba saziano. respodentTa 2% - is azriT ki, saqarTveloSi uvnebeli produqti ar iyideba. saqarTvelos agrosasursaTo bazarze myidvelebi nakleb yuradRebas aqceven produqciaze arsebul informacias, rac xels uwyobs dabalxarisxiani produqciis gasaRebas. rogorc Catarebuli kvlevidan Cans, gamokiTxulTa mxolod 18% akvirdeba produqtis yidvis dros mis yvela maxasiaTebels (markas, Strix-kods, Semadgenlobas, vadas da a.S.). momxmarebelTa 57% ki marto vadas aqcevs yuradRebas, 9%s mxolod damzadebis adgili ainteresebs, xolo 16% saerTod ar aqcevs yuradRebas produqtis maxasiaTeblebs. amasTan, ikveTeba sakmaod saintereso faqti. gamomdinare iqidan, rom sazogadoeba naklebad informirebulia sasursaTo produqtebis warmoebis procesebis warmarTvasa Tu darRvevebze, gamokiTxulTa 89%-s miaCnia, rom kvebis produqts aucileblad unda hqondes raime niSani, romelic mis uvneblobas daadasturebs. arian iseTi respondentebic (7%), romlebic gamyidvelis sityvas endobian. gamokiTxulTa Soris mcirea (4%) iseTebi, romlebisTvisac uvneblobis damadasturebeli niSani saWiro araa. sakmaod mkacria Seumowmebeli produqtisadmi qarTveli momxmarebelebis damokidebuleba. kerZod, respondentTa 70% fiqrobs, rom laboratoriulad Seumowmebeli produqti saSiSia maTi janmrTelobisTvis, 27% Tvlis, rom is iwvevs mowamvlas. mxolod 3% ver acnobierebs, Tu ra safrTxis winaSe dgeba Seumowmebeli produqtis yidvisas. amasTan, yvela gamokiTxuli miiCnevs, rom saWiroa qveyanaSi sanitarul-higienuri samsaxuris funqcionireba, romelic bazarze warmodgenili sasursaTo produqtebis mwarmoebeli kompaniebis saqmianobas gaakontrolebs.

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samwuxarod, saqarTvelos sasursaTo bazari gajerebulia mavne produqtebiT. Sesabamisad, aseTi produqtis SeZenisagan Tavis daRweva rTulia. rogorc kvlevam gviCvena, Seumowmebeli produqtis yidvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebas momxmareblebi sxvadasxvanairad axdenen. kerZod, momxmarebelTa 56% lamobs, SeZlebisdagvarad, Caanacvlos igi soflis naturaluri produqtiT, 18% - yidvisgan Tavis aridebas SeuZleblad miiCnevs, xolo 26% safrTxis acilebis mizniT, yidvisgan Tavis Sekavebas maqsimalurad cdilobs. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu produqtma ziani miayena maT janmrTelobas, gamokiTxulTa 7% saCivriT mimarTavs mwarmoebels. maTi azriT, warmoebis proceszea damokidebuli sursaTis uvnebloba. momxmarebelTa 15% Tvlis, rom gamyidvelia pasuxismgebeli da saCivriT mas mimarTaven. 78% aRniSnuli produqtis SeZenas ar apirebs. isini fiqroben, rom saqarTveloSi dReisaTvis ar arsebobs specialuri samsaxuri, romelsac msgavsi SemTxvevebis dafiqsirebis Semdeg SeiZleba mimarTon, raTa gatardes Sesabamisi RonisZiebebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso kvlevebi adastureben mavne sursaTis moxmarebiT paTologiuri daavadebebis zrdas, gamokiTxulTa mxolod 12% -is azriT, Seumowmebeli produqtis gamoyenebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios aseTi daavadeba. momxmarebelTa 19% Tvlis, rom aseTi produqti ganukurnebel daavadebas iwvevs, xolo 69%_saTvis mavne produqtis moxmarebis Sedegi aris sikvdili. sainteresod gaiyo sazogadoebis azri imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin unda moaxdinos momxmareblis cnobierebis zrda sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebiT. gamokiTxulTa 47% miiCnevs, rom am sakiTxSi aqtiurad unda CaerTos produqtis mwarmoebeli kompania da reklamebisa Tu sainformacio saSualebebis meSveobiT saWiro informacia momxmareblebamde daiyvanos. respondentTa 53% ki fiqrobs, rom momxmareblis cnobierebis amaRlebaze instituciurma samsaxurebma unda izrunon. dReisaTvis momxmareblis informirebulobis saqmeSi uzarmazar rols TamaSoben sakomunikacio saSualebebi. amitomac, kvlevidan gamomdinare, momxmarebelTa 73% Tvlis, rom saWiroa satelevizio sivrceSi gavides iseTi reklamebi an gadacemebi, romlebic maT miawvdis informacias saqarTvelos teritoriaze warmoebuli da importirebuli produqtis xarisxis Sesaxeb. Tumca, aqve unda SevniSnoT is faqtic, rom sazogadoebis garkveul nawils imdenjer gaucrua imedebi msgavsma reklamebma Tu gadacemebma, rom maT mimarT ndoba TiTqmis daikarga. amitomaa, rom qarTveli momxmareblebis 21%-is azriT, maT isev cru informacia miewodeba. gamokiTxulTa mxolod 6%-saTvis ar aris saWiro media sivrceSi aqtiurad gadacemebis gaSveba, radgan, maTi SexedulebiT, yvela informacia uSualod produqtzea miTiTebuli. saqarTveloSi Seqmnili mZime ekonomikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, momxmarebelTa uflebebi mudmivad irRveva. Catarebuli kvlevac amas adasturebs. kerZod, momxmarebelTa 67% fiqrobs, rom maTi uflebebi araa daculi. 30% miiCnevs, rom nawilobriv xerxdeba momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacva. mxolod 3% -is azriT, momxmarebelTa uflebebi daculia. amitom sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo aqtiurad unda CaerTos. TiToeuli moqalaqis sicocxle Zalian Zvirfasia da mas gafrTxileba sWirdeba. es gansakuTrebiT exeba Cvens qveyanas, romelic qarTuli genofondis ganadgurebis zRvarzea. rogorc kvleva cxadyofs, sursaTTan dakavSirebuli darRvevebis dafiqsirebis SemTxvevaSi, momxmareblebis umetesoba mkacri RonisZiebebis gatarebis momxrea. kerZod, 54% miiCnevs, rom aseT situaciaSi saxelmwifom licenzia unda CamoarTvas adgilobriv mewarmeebs, agreTve Sewyvitos sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi importuli produqtis Semotana. respondentTa 42% Tvlis, rom msgavsi faqtebis aRmosafxvrelad saxel-

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mwifom fuladi jarimebi unda daawesos. momxmarebelTa mxolod 4% fiqrobs, rom regulirebisaTvis martooden gafrTxilebac sakmarisia. amrigad, Catarebulma marketingulma kvlevam naTlad dagvanaxa, rom qarTveli momxmareblis cnobiereba sursaTis uvneblobis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT Zalze dabalia. aseve, kvlevis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom momxmarebelTa uflebebi saqarTveloSi SezRudulia da yuradRebis gareSea darCenili. respondentebis SexedulebiT, saWiroa saxelmwifos mxridan aqtiuri RonisZiebebis gatareba, rogorc mwarmoebeli kompaniebze kontrolis dawesebis, ise importuli produqtebis Semowmebis TvalsazrisiT. aseve aucilebelia informaciis miwodeba momxmarebelTa farTo fenebisaTvis, raTa isini gaecnon am sakiTxebs. literatura: 1. koRuaSvili p., zizibaZe d. soflis meurneobis ekonomika. Tbilisi. 2006 2. www.geplac.org.ge 3. laferaSvili q. sursaTis uvnebloba: mecnieruli safuZvlebi, Tanamedrove principebi da samarTlebrivi regulirebis zogadi debulebebi. saqarTvelos ganviTarebisa da kvlevis centri, biuleteni # 110, Tbilisi 2008 4. www.fao.com 5. http://socialmarketing.wetpaint.com/page/Definitions+of+Social+Marketing 6. jaSi C., socialuri marketingis Teoriuli da praqtikuli aspeqtebi. Tbilisi 2009 . 7. wulaia d., sarjvelaZe e. sursaTis falsifikacia saqarTveloSi, saqarTvelos strategiuli ganviTarebisa da kvlevis centri, biuleteni # 110, Tbilisi 2008 8. Аакер Д., Кумар В., Дой Дж. Маркетинговые исследования. Учебник. Пер. с англ. _ СПб.: Издательство ″Питер″, 2004 Nugzar Todua Doctor of Economic Sciences, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Full Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Tendencies of Sustainable Development of Georgia’s Agricultural Market Key words: agricultural market, food safety, marketing research, sustainable development. The paper shows that despite the measures taken in agricultural production sector, the situation in this area is still quite difficult. The local market is full of low quality agricultural products of unknown origin which hinders sustainable development of the country. Carrying out definite social marketing activities is regarded to be a precondition for agribusiness development. Special attention is paid to the attitude of Georgian consumer towards the safety of agricultural products. In order to study the issue, a marketing research was conducted and significant conclusions are made based on the research. In particular, consumer attitude towards the legislation, consumer opinion on the causes of law enforcement and possible changes, the level of consumer confidence in products, consumers' views on tested products, customer attitude towards the place to buy safe products, the factors taken into account by the customers while purchasing products, customer attitude towards the marks proving the product safety, attitude towards untested products, making decision of buying untested product by the customer, behavior of disappointed consumer, perception of expected outcomes caused by consuming untested products, consumer attitude to the sources of information, consumers’ opinion regarding the quality of protection of their rights, consumers' views on the activities that governments have to carry out, dependence of consumers on media.

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Yelena Istileulova PhD student of Economics Faculty, University of Ljubljana Kazakhstan Dr. Darja Peljhan Assistant Professor, University of Ljubljana Slovenia INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION OF B-SCHOOLS: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES INTRODUCTION The world is becoming smaller not only by each year, but each month and even each day. Globalisation processes transforms the whole world – from changing international market to accelerating economic, cultural, social, political and educational change across the globe. Diverse and complex forces that drive this transformation are economic competition, advances in technology, English as the global language, mobility, commerce, workforce, multiculturalism, emerging markets and global migration (Olcott, 2009, Gidley et al, 2010). The higher education sector in the 21st century is faced with new challenges across the globe, and the issue of global competitiveness has become central to the functioning of economic markets, where the tensions between global, national and regional/local interests are spilling over into the higher education literature (Gidley et al, 2010). The main goal of a higher education institution in a globalized economy should be that of delivering excellence in teaching and learning as well as of combining the values of a liberal education with the professional qualifications required (Cornuel, 2007). Let’s first look at the current trends in cross-border higher education institutions (HEIs) focusing more on business education: (1) Transnational markets in higher education are structured in three aspects: between “developed” and “developing nations, English and non-English language universities, where top three English-speaking destinations (U.S., U.K., Australia) account for over 40% of total international enrollments (OECD, 2006); and between “the hegemonic power of the United States in higher education and in the rest of the world (Marginson, 2004, 218: Gidley et al, 2010, 127). (2) Higher education as a whole has become increasingly internationalized over the past 30 years: in 1975, about 600,000 students studied outside home countries, a number that increased to 2.5 million by 2006 (Institute of International Education, 2007: Zammuto, 2008). Competition for internationally mobile students is growing more intense each year (Verbik and Lasanowski 2007). The increasing demand for tertiary education and the changing role of governments have given rise to commercial activity driven by the business sector (Butchey, 2005): in 2009, when the American economy was beset by recession, interest in MBA programmes hit a record high (Economist, Oct., 2011). Cross-border research exchange is also a rapidly growing priority among nations (McBernie and Ziguras, 2007, Thomas 2007). (3) Quality assurance agencies, internal and external, are paying increasing attention to universities operating abroad, and the establishment an accreditation mechanism may be interpreted as a shift towards international competition. Quality will become an ever-growing concern for business schools (Bschools), with regard to measures for determining and improving the quality of programmes and business schools. (Helms 2008, Stella 2006, UNESCO/OECD 2005, Woodhouse 2006, Huisman & Van der Wende, 2004, 354, Gidley et al, 2010, 126, Cornuel, 2007). (4) New models of public-private partnership are emerging among business, higher education, government, and community organizations (McBernie & Ziguras, 2007), and the new critical success factors in 21st century B-school education are capacity, convenience, geographic reach, and brand (Friga et al, 2003). (5) A new workplace – is a big change, since business landscapes have resulted in a major shift in job type – from manufacturing to service; and changes in technologies (Friga et al, 2003). The relevance to

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education and business in the 21st century era of globalization is highlighted by challenges: the successful B-schools will need to ensure an adequate resources to concretize their missions and afford qualified faculty, adequately funded doctoral research programmes in management, to globalize faculty, student body (to train them to be responsible leaders) and their curricula (in multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary areas) (Cornuel, 2007). (6) The multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary nature in global business knowledge needs is explained by Lehmann (2008): (1) Twenty-first century global business is no longer a Western-dominated playing field - and will become less and less so - the growing business ties that bind them in what is referred to as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;New Silk Roadâ&#x20AC;?; (2) until recently, European and U.S. business executives needed basic business skills (such as marketing, finance), but now they must be well equipped with broad four attributes: business acumen (to cover business activities in non-Western markets: China, India and the Arab world), global knowledge, an ethical compass and committed citizenship. Regional projects in higher education are becoming much more politically influential than their global counterparts because the major strategic purchase occurs at the levels of regions, but still educational regionalism cannot be disentangled from the phenomenon of globalization. The EU is a pioneering regional integration process and currently one of the most advanced, where the Bologna Process is associated with the EU (but it goes beyond the EUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s geographical scope). Higher education regionalisation processes are clearly affected by the regions themselves in their efforts to enhance their global competitiveness (Vergera & Hermo, 2010). While these challenges are common to B-schools worldwide, great concerns exist in Europe for the declining level of its higher education offerings. The great discrepancy in resources available to European universities, when compared to those of its competitors may offer some insight into this decline: European B-schools are finding themselves unable to recruit the same quality of researchers and faculty as those of the USA, spend less in research programmes, and are smaller in size, often struggling to provide good offerings in the competitive market of higher education. Those taught at business schools are notoriously Americacentred, and only around a third of those published deal with an issue outside of America. (Economist, Sep., 2011). European B-schools have realized that the business education market will become increasingly competitive. More providers, new methods, creative strategies, global opportunities will provide a varied choice to students across the world (Cornuel, 2007). That is why the most competitive B-schools are looking for benchmarking opportunities, quality improvement programmes that gain a thorough understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, to develop better programmes, and to prove the level of their offerings through accreditations. When the European Council met in Lisbon in March 2000, it identified as one of the central targets of turning the European Union into the most competitive knowledge-based economy in the world by the year 2010 with an emphasis on the construction of a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), which constitutes a decisive step in the commercialization of higher education, and quality assurance has a central role to play (Perellon, 2005). According to Serrano-Velarder & Stensaker (2010), a) quality assurance became a key policy issue with the Bologna process; b) a national systems of external quality assurance of higher education have been established in the European countries since 1999 (in the form of audits, accreditations or assessments); and c) institutional autonomy have been strengthened to enhance the entrepreneurial and innovative dimensions of universities. Apart from the fact that the Bologna Process is implemented quite differently across countries, weakening its harmonising or convergence effects, parallel to it, divergent trends can be observed (Marginson & van der Wende, 2006), especially in the case within countries. Examples are Germany and France; where there is an increased diversity occur due to the parallel existence of different degree structures in the transition phase, and the increased curricular autonomy of HEIs (Witte, 2006). This paper focuses on the international accreditation of B-schools, one of the key trends on global and regional markets. The main question of this paper is why and how this process progresses globally as well as

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at the level of regions. This study consists of three parts. First, it shows the global and regional trends in the field of higher education. Second, it reviews the global trends in international accreditations processes in business education. Third, it explains how and why these processes are progressing for both actors – Bschools and international accreditation organisations. The summary table of the most-recognised accreditation bodies’ standards and their area of assessment is prepared for B-schools based on existing literature, various sources and international accreditations’ web-sites. The paper has both theoretical and practical implications for B-schools, their stakeholders, Deans, academics, practitioners and researchers working in the field of business education and management. THE RISE OF ACCREDITATION IN B-SCHOOLS: GLOBAL TREND The first B-schools were established by wealthy philanthropists in the USA over 100 ago (Khurana, 2007), and their intention was to give business credibility as a profession equal to medicine, law and engineering (Parker & Guthrie, 2010). It has been already described more than 20 years ago that schools of business and management are better able than other parts of a university to provide successful models of academic organisation due to two reasons: first, because their subjects of study are closest to practice in the external corporate world, second, many have already demonstrated an ability to generate significant funding from these external sources (Gray, 1989: Bolton, 1996). Thus, business schools as the leaders in the higher education are the first on global market who implement all changes, including accreditation schemes. The recently published report of the Globalization of Management Education Task Force, 2011 (Ref.1) highlighted the importance of globalization and its impact on business practice for all B-schools in their accreditation process. The report, however, did not specify specific strategies or expectations with respect to how globalization would become a part of a school's mission, vision, pedagogy, and intellectual contributions, and left the construct of globalization is mainly unspecified. Accreditation process serves many purposes for business schools, including quality assurance for themselves and their stakeholders, marketing advantages, and the ability to benchmark and network with their peers (Nelson, 2011). The Research Department (at AACSB) has been taking snapshots for the last years of the lists of accredited schools of international organizations that offer accreditation for business schools, shown below, on Figure 1: Figure 1. Global growth of accreditation specific to B-schools

Source : http://aacsbblogs.typepad.com/dataandresearch/2011/08/the-global-spread-of-business-schoolaccreditation.html

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Out of all accreditation organisations, shown in Figure 1, there are three internationally-recognised accreditation bodies in business education: the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools in Business (AACSB, an American-based body, now accredits schools outside North America), the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD, an international organisation, based in Brussels); and the third one is Association of MBAs (AMBA, a London-based organization). The Figure 2 below shows the growth of international accreditation worldwide with the grown number of accredited B-schools for the last 5 years (from 2006 up to 2011) which is self-explanatory one: Figure 2. Number of B-schools, accredited by AACSB, EQUIS, EPAS, AMBA.

Sources: Data constructed based on Zammuto (2008:262), and www.aacsbblogs.typepad.com Here we define Business school accreditation as a quality assurance scheme that certifies that accredited schools have the structures and processes in place necessary to meet their stated objectives and continually improve performance (Zammuto, 2008). WHY B-SCHOOLS SEEK ACCREDITATION There are many cases of institutions seeking accreditation outside their national context (Altbach, 2003, OECD, 2004b), for number of reasons: “an absolute lack of accreditation opportunities at home; using international accreditation to enhance relative national position; using international accreditation to evade the requirements or prohibitions of national accreditation; enhancing global recognition via accreditation by a reputable foreign accreditation body”(Marginson & van der Wende, 2006; p.23). Guler, Guillen and MacPherson’s (2002) study provides some insight into why business school accreditation has spread so rapidly based on institutional and social network theories bringing two reasons why quality standards diffuse across countries.“First, firms in country B may learn from firms in country A how to make their products more attractive to their own customers” – applies that becoming accredited, business schools distance themselves in terms of reputation and provide a short-term competitive advantage until others achieve accreditation. (Zammuto, 2008: 262). Second, “firms seek certification when they see a potential for increasing competitive advantage domestically or when they believe that lack of certification would curtail their ability to sell into the global market when competitors from other nations were certified” (Zammuto, 2008: 263), which implies that accreditation of B-schools in countries is likely to increase the value of accreditation in attracting international students to schools in destination countries making unaccredited schools less competitive, it also makes students going abroad to seek out accredited B- schools. Nelson C. (2012) also noted that besides growing number of B-schools that gain accreditation, there appears to be a growing number of schools gaining multiple accreditations from two or more accreditors, and this trend also continues its growth. According to the accreditors’ lists, there are a total of 173 b-schools accredited by January, 2012 worldwide with multiple accreditations, up from 129 in 2009. Of these, 57 are

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now holders of the so-called “Triple Crown,” having attained accreditation from AACSB, EQUIS, and AMBA.[ii] (see Figure 3). It is quite amazing, that there are four “Triple Crown” B-schools that hold yet another accreditor’s seal of approval. These quadruple-accredited schools: Reims Management School (France), Erasmus University’s Rotterdam School of Management (Netherlands), both of whom also have FIBAA-accredited programs; CENTRUM Católica (Peru), which also has IACBE accreditation; and Kozminski University (Poland), (with IQA accreditation from CEEMAN). These B-schools gained the “Triple Crown” only after having acquired their “4th” accreditation. Figure 3. Number of Schools with Multiple Accreditations

Source: Note: The above chart includes all combinations from tracked accreditors.[i] http://www.aacsbblogs.typepad.com/dataandresearch/ What should be mentioned, that these accreditors are definitely not equivalent, otherwise, multiple accreditations would not be necessary. Because each accreditor has a very different mission, area of focus, their own standards, it may be “that some of the schools with multiple accreditations feel that the different emphases of their accreditation processes are complementary (e.g., EQUIS’ emphasis on internationalization strategy versus AACSB’s assurance of learning processes), and thus worth the price of having some or even all of them” (Nelson, 2012). In this paper, the practical Summary table for AACSB, EFMD, AMBA is compiled out of different sources to compare the different standards and assessment of accreditors to make an easy comparison for Bschools in their choice: Table 1. Summary Table of AACSB, EFMD, AMBA membership, assessment, standards Year of foundatio n

Members hip

Accredita tion What each body assesses

AACSB International Was set up in 1916 as the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business, began to expand internationally in 1995

EFMD The EFMD standard, EQUIS, the European Quality Improvement System, was created in 1997, launched in 1999

Made up of academic Bschools; Beg. of 2012: 1,200 educational institutions, other organizations, and businesses in 78 countries Institutional

Members came from corporations as well as from academic B-schools (Bocconi, HEC Paris, IESE, IMD, INSEAD, London Business School, etc.). Beg. of 2012: Over 750 members from public service, business, academia, consultancy in 81 countries. Institutional Programme

AACSB assesses the “accreditation unit” which is the institution, which may be defined as a subunit within the institution

EQUIS assesses institutions as a whole; not just degree programmes, from the first degree up to Ph.D,

The EFMD standard, EPAS was launched in 2005

EPAS evaluates the quality of any business and/or management programme that has an international

AMBA AMBA founded in 1967 (Zammuto:262), launched accreditation in 1997 for MBA Beg. of 2012: 189 programmes in Bschools in over 70 countries

Programme for all MBA, DBA, MBM programmes: full, part-time, executive, distance. Focus on program

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Standard s

Key areas of standards :

Emphasis

as a whole, for example a B-school or department of B-studies. It assesses its programmes. AACSB has many quantitative standards – has a more prescriptive approach

Strategic management – mission statement should be appropriate to higher education and take account of stakeholders; a clearly defined student population, financial strategies, concern with intellectual contributions Programmes & student learning: management of curricula – welldocumented, systematic, with input from all constituencies. Each type of programme (master, etc.) has its own standard Business schools participants (faculty, staff, students). Faculty: sufficiency, qualifications, teaching responsibilities Assurance of learning In the areas of mission, programmes/assurance of learning, faculty and students

perspective and of high quality – from the Bachelor to the Doctorate level. EPAS standards are narrower in focus: to reinforce contribution to enhance of Beducation to its stated mission

mission, strategy, curriculum, faculty & students’ qualifications AMBA accreditation represents the highest standard of achievement in postgraduate Beducation

Standards in 5 areas: (1) Institutional context: national/international, the Bologna reforms; resourced, financiallyviable, managed well; a commitment to activities: international & corporate (2)Programme design, (3) Programme delivery (4) Programme outcomes (5)Quality assurance process

Programme Mission and Strategy. Purpose and outcomes (what MBA is about). Views of alumni, employers, sponsors

Faculty: should be sufficient to cover core disciplines

(1)Faculty (no insistence on permanent faculty): research active, with pedagogical innovation

Focus on programmes, students; degree of internationalization

in the academic rigour, internationalization, quality assurance systems

Faculty Qualification (75% PhD), Students’ Qualification: work experience, good English Curriculum (nature, design), knowledge, delivery, mode, duration

but all the activities: research, e-learning, executive education, community outreach EQUIS has more qualitative standards: it expects schools to justify an excellence on their own way. It has “floating” standards for quality criteria Strategic management – should have a clear mission, effective governance and coherent strategy

Programme &student learning: balanced b/n knowledge& skills, rigorous assessment, diversity in teaching methods, evaluation, adequate staff

Curriculum content

Sources: Adolphus (2010); Trapnell (2007); Zammuto (2008), Urgel (2007); Greensted (2009); www.aacsb.edu/members; www.efmd.org/html/schools/; www.mbaworld.com Accreditation in the UK and Europe is a rather new phenomenon on the political agenda of European higher education institutions and has been fuelled primarily by concerns to protect the MBA brand, compared to North America’s business school accreditation which has been long established. (Lock, 1999, Lindstrom, 2005: Helmig et al, 2009). To be exact, discussion about accrediting schools outside North America had taken place within AACSB already in the 1960s, and by the late 1980s the increasing number of international schools joining AACSB as non-accredited members made it clear that there was global interest in accreditation. (Zammuto, 2008). In the other regions, like Central and East Europe and the former USSR, according to Tomusk (1998), downsizing the state has shifted many of its previous functions to random, often external agents in the higher education reforms in these regions. As a result of break-up, this created a metalevel market - the market of market reforms in higher education. Through this quasi market, formerly unified higher education systems

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and even institutions were broken into segments, and market pressure on higher education took extremely aggressive forms, limiting access to quality higher education while system-wide enrollment was rapidly growing through the activities of new low-caliber universities. Сentral and Eastern European schools are focused on accreditation, but according to Abel (2006), accreditation which is used in the Western Europe is not exactly applicable to the Eastern Europe. In many CIS countries, accreditation body is a subject to political influence and lacks the institutional autonomy (Racine, 2011), and over the past seven years, four CIS countries – Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Ukraine disposed the old structures and created new, accreditation bodies, but external accreditation processes of Business-schools are not analysed so far. In Russia, despite the world practice and reality of the global educational services, there is no attention paid towards globalization, and the attention is growing only towards competitive education (Рубин, 2011), despite there are a lot of b-schools that already gained the international accreditation, mainly from EFMD and AMBA. CONCLUSION Quality will become an ever-growing concern for B-schools on a global level, and more schools will be applying for different international accreditation schemes in order to prove their offerings through accreditations. Because each accreditor has a very different mission, area of focus, their own standards, the number of multiple accreditations in B-schools will be growing as well. Accreditation in European market is a rather new phenomenon on the political agenda of higher education institutions compared to North America’s business school accreditation which has been long established, but due to the Bologna process it is a growing phenomenon in the countries of EU. Due to the policy on quality, these processes will stimulate B-schools to apply for international accreditation to seek a quality seal. There is a need in a future research on the international accreditation process in two different regions such as Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and which impact it has on B-schools of these regions. REFERENCES: 1. AACSB Research Report. Globalization of Management Education: Changing International Structures, Adaptive Strategies, and the Impact on Institutions (2011). Report of the AACSB International Globalization of Management Education Task Force. http://www.aacsb.edu/resources/globalization/ 2. Adolphus (2010). Article sections. International Accreditation. American Journal of Business. Meet the Editors. www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/interviews/ajb.htm 3. Bolton A. (1996) The Leadership Challenge in Universities: The Case of Business Schools. Higher Education, 31 (4), 491-506 4. Business Education. Trouble in the Middle (2011), October, 15th http://www.economist.com/node/21532269 5. Business schools and Globalization. Promising the world (2011), September, 29th http://www.economist.com/blogs/whichmba%3F/2011/09/pankaj-ghemawat 6. Butchey D. (2005). The Globalization of Tertiary Business Education www.abe.sju.edu/proc2005/butchey.pdf 7. Cornuel E. (2007). "Challenges facing business schools in the future", Journal of Management Development, 26 (1), 87 – 92 8. Friga P., Bettis R., Sullivan R. (2003). Changes in graduate management education and new business school strategies for the 21st century. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2(3), 233-249 9. Gidley J., Hampson G., Wheeler L., Bereded-Samuel E. (2010). From Access to Success: An Integrated Approach to Quality Higher Education Informed by Social Inclusion Theory and Practice, Higher Education Policy, 23; 123-147

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10. Greensted (2009). On EPAS learning points and rising EPAS standards. Global Focus: EFMD Programme Accreditation, 3(1), 5-6. 11. Helmig B., Bürgisser S., Lichtsteiner H., Spraul K. On the relevance of accreditations of executive MBA programs—the perception of the customers. Int. Rev. Public Nonprofit Mark; 7, 37-55 12. Hawawini G., (2005). The future of business schools, Journal of Management Development, 24 (9), 770 – 782 Kwok C., Arpan J. & Folks W. (1994) A Global Survey of International Business Education in the 1990s. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(3), 605-623 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/155361 13. Lehmann J-P. (2008). Business Education in the Era of Globalization, Thursday, January 17 : http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=6715 14. Lock A., (1999). Accreditation in business education. Quality Assurance in Education, 7 (2), 68-76 15. Marginson S., van der Wende M. (2006). Report: Globalisation and Higher Education. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/20/4/37552729.pdf 16. Nelson C. (2012) How Much is Enough? 25 January 2012; http://www.aacsbblogs.typepad.com/dataandresearch/ 17. Olcott D. (2009). Back to the UK future. Trends in internationalism and cross-border higher education. Perspectives. 13(4) 18. Parker L. & Guthrie J., (2010). "Business schools in an age of globalization", Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 23 (1), 5 – 13 19. Perellon J (2005) Revista de sociologia, (76), 47-65 20. Racine J-L (2011), editor. Harnessing Quality for Global Competitiveness in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. World Bank , 2011: Washington, DC 21. Scherer R., Javalgi R., Bryant M., Tukel O. (2005). Challenges of AACSB international accreditation for business schools in the United States and Europe. Thunderbird International Business Review, 47(6), 651669 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tie.20074/citedby 22. Serrano-Velarde K. & Stensaker B. (2010). Bologna – Realising Old or New Ideals of Quality? Higher Education Policy, 23; 213-226 23. Tomusk V. (1998) Market as Metaphor in Central and East European Higher Education, International Studies in Sociology and Education 8 (2): 223-239 24. Vergera A. & Hermo J.P. (2010) The governance of higher education regionalization: comparative analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo. Globalisation, Societies and Education. 8 (1), 105–120 25. Trapnell (2007). AACSB International accreditation: The value proposition and a look to the future. Journal of Management Development, 26(1), 67 – 72 26. Urgel (2007). EQUIS accreditation: value and benefits for international business schools, Journal of Management Development, 26 (1), 73 – 83 27. Zammuto R. (2008). Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7 (2), 256–268. 28. Рубин Ю.Б. (2011). Высшее образование в России: качество и конкурентоспособность, Академическая серия, М.: Московская финансово-промышленная академия, 448.

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Yelena Istileulova (Kazakhstan) PhD student, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana Dr. Darja Peljhan (Slovenia) Assistant Professor, University of Ljubljana

International Accreditation of B-Schools: Global and Regional Perspectives Summary Globalisation processes in cross-border higher education institutions reflect different trends, where quality is an ever-growing concern. This paper focuses on the international accreditation of business-schools (B-schools). The main question of this paper is why and how the process of international accreditation progresses globally and regionally. This study consists of three parts. First, it shows the global and regional trends in the field of higher education. Second, it reviews the global trends in international accreditations processes in business education. Third, it explains how and why these processes are progressing for both actors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; B-schools and international accreditation organisations. The summary table of the most-recognised accreditation bodies in the area of business education, their standards, and an area of assessment is prepared for the attention of B-schools. Keywords: Higher education, Business schools (B-schools), Globalisation, Regionalisation, International Accreditation, AACSB, AMBA, EQUIS, EPAS

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nato kakaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi sicocxlis dazRvevis Taviseburebani sicocxlis dazRveva, rogorc ekonomikisa da sazogadoebis cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawili didi geografiuli aRmoCenebis periodSi Camoyalibda. 1765 wels did britaneTSi warmoiSva sadazRvevo organizacia, romelic sicocxles azRvevda (The Equitable Society for the Assurance of Life and Survivorships). dazRveva did britaneTSi tradiciulad iwodeboda „assurance“, sxva bazrebze ZiriTadad dazRveva moixsenieboda terminiT „insurance“ Tumca ar arsebobs praqtikuli gansxvaveba am terminebSi. sicocxlis vadiani dazRveva sicocxlis dazRvevis erT-erTi saxeobaa da iTvaliswinebs sadazRvevo anazRaurebis gacemas sadazRvevo periodis ganmavlobaSi dazRveulis bunebrivi mizeziT an ubeduri SemTxveviT gamowveuli gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi. sicocxlis dazRvevis adreuli ganviTareba dakavSirebulia sazRvao dazRvevasTan da pirveli sicocxlis damzRvevebi iyvnen sazRvao dazRvevis anderraiterebi. polisebi ZiriTadad gaicemoda movaWreebze, romelTac gemiT gadahqondaT saqoneli. XVI-XVII ss–Si ZiriTadad arsebobda sicocxlis dazRvevis Semdegi formebi: Short-term moklevadiani dazRveva, polisebi gaicemoda SezRuduli periodiT, gardacvalebis mosalodneli riskis Sesamcireblad. aRniSnuli formis polisebi praqtikulad gaicemoda vaWrebze da sxva mogzaurebze mogzaurobis dros. Self-Insurance clubs _ misi wevrebi awarmoebdnen saerTo fonds, romelic nawildeboda klubis wevrebze wlis ganmavlobaSi maTi gardacvalebis sixSiris mixedviT. TiToeul wevrze gadasaxdeli Tanxa icvleboda da damokidebuli iyo wevrebis raodenobaze da wlis ganmavlobaSi momxdar gardacvalebis faqtebze. Annuities - anuiteti aris pensiis forma, romelic eZleva fiqsirebul Semosavals fiqsirebuli periodis an sicocxlis bolomde. sicocxlis dazRvevaSi gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa statistikam, rac aSkara gaxda sikvdilianobis cxrilebis Sedgenis Semdeg, romelic pirvelad gamoqveynda 1693 wels. xolo erTerTi yvelaze srulyofili sikvdilianobis tabula Sedgenil iqna 1755 wls dodsonis mier, romelmac daamtkica rom SesaZlebeli iyo Secvliliyo sadazRvevo premis odenoba wlidan wlamde, sxvadasxva faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sicocxlis dazRvevis samSoblod miiCneven ingliss, sadac 1699 wels Seiqmna profesiuli organizacia, romelic qvrivebisa da oblebis dazRvevas axorcielebda. mogvianebiT, 1762 wels inglisSi dafuZvnda sicocxlis dazRvevis sadazRvevo kompania `Equitable Society~. aRniSnuli kompaniis daarsebis Semdeg sicocxlis dazRvevis kompaniebis ricxvi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. 1830 wlisaTvis ingliSi ukve 35 msxvili sadazRvevo organizacia funqcionirebda24. sicocxlis dazRvevis adreuli ganviTarebis formebia: • amxanaguri sazogadoeba • miukerZoebeli sicocxlis dazRvevis sazogadoeba • vestminsteris sazogadoeba

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www.heconomic.wordpress.com

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amxanaguri sazogadoeba Camoyalibda 1705 wels, samefo qartiisgan mciredi privilegiebiT. udavoa, rom amxanaguri sazogadoeba iyo yvelaze warmatebuli saerTo sazogado dazRvevis asociacia, rac sakmaod anazRaurebad dargs warmoadgenda im droisTvis. miukerZoebeli sazogadoeba Camoyalibda 1762 wels specialurad im daniSnulebiT, rom ewarmoebina sicocxlis dazRveva aqtuaruli kuTxiT Dodson– is rekomendaciebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tavisi arsebobis manZilze am sazogadoebam daamtkica, rom is namdvilad warmoadgenda sicocxlis dazRvevis istoriis ganviTarebis karg magaliTs, radgan maT mier iqna praqtikaSi gamoyenebuli iseTi meTodebi, romelic dRes Tanamedrove sadazRvevo biznesis safuZvels warmoadgens. vestminsteri Camoyalibdan 1792 wels. is iyo pirveli saaqcio sazogadoeba sadazRvevo biznesSi. sicocxlis dazRvevaSi SemoTavazebuli kontraqtebi, SeiZleba gavaerTianoT Semdeg jgufebSi: • vadiani dazRveva • dazRveva sicocxlis bolomde • niWis(unaris) dazRveva • anuiteti vadiani dazRveva warmoadgens dazRvevis uZveles formas. am SemTxvevaSi anazRaureba xdeba Tu gardacvaleba moxdeba drois gansazRvrul periodSi. dazRveva sicocxlis bolomde, rogorc dasaxelebidan Cans am tipis dazRveva grZeldeba dazRveulis sicocxlis bolomde, da anazRaureba gadaixdeba mxolod gardacvalebis Semdeg. SesaZleblobis dazRveva, rodesac dazRveuli ver iRebs sargebels polisis gagrZelebisgan. am tipis polisis mixedviT anazRaureba xdeba gardacvalebisas an fiqsirebuli periodis Semdeg romelic pirveli dadgeba. (wlebis raodenoba SeirCeva damzRvevis mier polisis Sedgenisas).es aris sakmaod mosaxerxebeli dazRvevis forma ojaxisTvis. naadrevi gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi dazRveulis axloblebi iReben fulad kompensacias, xolo Tu dadgenili periodis Semdeg ar dadgeba gardacvalebis faqti, maSin sadazRvevo unazRaurebs Tanxas uSualod dazRveuls. anuiteti ar warmoadgens sicocxlis dazRvevis kontraqts, mas ufro metad sapensio Semosavlis forma aqvs. ganasxvaveben anuitetis Semdeg saxeobebs: Annuity for life – pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT warmoadgens pensias, romelic gadaixdeba dazRveulis sicocxlis bolomde. Annuity certain – niSnavs, rom anuiteti gadaixdeba fiqsirebuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi damoukideblad imisa gardaicvleba Tu ara dazRveuli am periodis ganmavlobaSi. Guaranteed annuity – garantirebuli anuiteti, gadaixdeba fiqsirebuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi an anuitantis gardacvalebisas, imis mixedviT Tu romeli iqneba ufro gvian. Reversionary annuity – gansakuTrebuli tipis anuitetia, vinaidan anazRaurebis gadaxda grZeldeba manam sanam kontraqtSi gaTvaliswinebuli pirovneba ar gardaicvleba

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Joint and survivor – erTiani dazRveva. ZirTadad ori pirovneba (col–qmari) miiCnevian anuitantebad da erT-erTis gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi meore iRebs periodul anazRaurebas25. TiToeuli saxis dazRveva saboloo jamSi emsaxureba dazRveulTa finansuri zaralisgan dacvas arasasurveli, moulodneli SemTxvevis dadgomisas. Sesabamisad, sicocxlis dazRvevis dros da miT umetes vadiani dazRvevis SemTxvevaSi, sadazRvevo movlenis dadgoma gardauvalia (dazRveulis gardacvaleba an kontraqtis vadis amowurva). im dros, roca sadazRvevo kompaniebi iqmneba ZiriTadad imisTvis rom polisis mflobelebis finansuri danakargebis kompensacia moaxdinon, istoriuli, tradiciuli roli sicocxlis damzRvevTaTvis iyo – daecvaT is adamianebi, romelnic damokidebulni iyvnen polisis mflobelis sicocxleze. sicocxlis dazRvevis TiTqmis yvela polisi grZeldeba dazRveulis gardacvalebamde an garkveuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi. sxva tipis sadazRvevo polisi SeiZleba ganaxldes ramdenjerme magram rogorc wesi, warmoadgenen 12–Tvian kontraqts, romelsac SeiZleba dasrulebuli ewodos an ganaxldes misi vadebi weliwadis gasvlis Semdeg. saqarTveloSi sicocxlis dazRvevis ganxorcielebis formebia: sicocxlis vadian dazRveva fiqsirebuli TanxiT da sicocxlis sakredito dazRveva. sadazRvevo riskebs warmoadgens dazRveulis gardacvaleba rogorc ubeduri SemTxvevis, aseve bunebrivi mizezebis Sedegad. sicocxlis vadian dazRvevaSi sadazRvevo Tanxas warmoadgens winawar daTqmuli fiqsirebuli Tanxa, romlis gansazRvra xdeba standartuli parametrebis (asaki, sqesi, wliuri Semosavali) mixedviT. sadazRvevo Tanxa ucvlelia sadazRvevo periodis ganmavlobaSi. sakredito institutebis umravlesobisaTvis sesxis gacemis pirobas warmoadgens msesxeblis sicocxlis dazRveva sesxis Tanxis odenobiT. saqarTvelos sadazRvevo bazarze 2008 wlis monacemebiT sicocxlis dazRvevas sadazRvevo bazris struqturis 4.63% ekava _ moziduli premiebi iyo 12.601.399 lari; 2009 wels _ 2.65% ekava, anu moziduli premiebi 9.550.199 lari, xolo 2010 wlis monacemebiT 2.77% ekava da moziduli premiebi Seadgenda 10.008.394 lars. sadazRvevo kompaniebis Semosavlis ZiriTadi wyaro janmrTelobis dazRvevaa. sadazRvevo bazarze dazRvevis 18 saxeobas Soris, 2010 wels saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis monacemebiT, samedicino dazRveva mTliani sadazRvevio sistemis 68%-s Seadgens. aRniSnul seqtorSi mozidulma jamurma premiam 2009 wels 247,255,530 lari Seadgina, xolo 2010 wels 245,796,219 lari. meore adgilze 9,72%-iT qonebis dazRvevaa. am sferoSi sadazRvevo kompaniebma 2010 wels 35,148,135 lari miizides, xolo 2009 wels-29,618,711 lari. 2010 wlis monacemebiT mesame adgilze 7,51%-iT saxmeleTo satransporto saSualebaTa dazRvevaa, sadac mizidulma premiam 27,130,499 lari Seadgina, 2009 wels ki _ 27,536,402 lari26. msoflio praqtikidan gamomdinare, aucilebelia saqarTveloSi sicocxlis dazRvevis ganviTarebis koncefciis SemuSaveba, romelSic monawileoba unda miiRon, rogorc sadazRvevo kompaniebma, aseve mTavrobam da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebam.

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Insurance: Principles and Practice. David Bland. Patron Her Majesty the Queen The Chartered Insurance Institute http://nbg.ge/index.php?m=489 ; www.nbg.gov.ge

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Nato Kakashvili Doctor of Economics, Assistant Professor Iv. Javakhishvili TSU Georgia, Tbilisi The Peculiarities of Life Insurance Summary The term â&#x20AC;&#x153;life insuranceâ&#x20AC;? indicates a type of insurance, which provides compensation in case of death due to natural causes or accident. Insurance is inevitable emergence of an event (death of the insured person or the expiration of the contract). At a time when insurance companies are set up primarily to policy-holders to compensate for financial losses, historically the traditional role for life insurer was to protect the people who were dependent on the life insurance policy holder. Considering the world experience, it is necessaru to elaborate the concept of life insurance in Georgia with the participation insurance companies, as well as government and regulatory authorities.

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nazira kakulia ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

globaluri finansuri krizisi, rogorc Tanamedrove ekonomikuri sistemebis mdgradobis kriteriumi msoflio finansur bazrebze zewolis gaZliereba, saqonlis bazarze fasebis mniSvnelovani Semcireba im procesebis Seswavlas moiTxovs, romlebic gansazRvraven msoflio ekonomikur dinamikas, warmoebis procesSi msoflio finansuri sistemis adgils, aseve saxelmwifo Carevis SesaZleblobasa da aucileblobas. finansur sferoSi warmoqmnili SokebisTvis, romlebic ukve realur seqtorze da Sromis bazarzec vrceldeba, ZiriTadi Tandayolili maxasiaTebelia fulis Tanamedrove erovnuli da msoflio Tvisebebi. maszea damokidebuli sabanko-safinanso sistemis arseboba da kompaniebsa da kerZo pirebisTvis gare dafinansebaze wvdomis SesaZlebloba. am SesaZleblobis realizaciam warmoSva samrewvelo, agraruli, xolo Semdeg samecniero-teqnologiuri revoluciebi, migviyvana mwarmoeblurobis gigantur zrdamde. Tanamedrove etapze, mecnierul-teqnologiuri inovaciebis dafinansebis ganviTarebaSi, istoriaSi pirvelad, kerZo seqtors ufro meti wili uWiravs, vidre saxelmwifos. dafinansebis zrdis potenciali pirdapir aris damokidebuli finansuri teqnologiebisa da institutebis ganviTarebaze. yvelaze mniSvnelovan finansur teqnologiebad gvevlineba sabanko fulebis emisia, sabanko kreditebi arafinansur seqtorze, bankTaSorisi kreditebi, depozitebis multiplikacia, finansuri leveriji, svopebi, repo, ofcionebi, fiuCersebi, forvardebi, iseTi finansuri produqtebis struqturizeba, rogoricaa CDO, CMO, CBO, defolturi svopebi. Tanamedrove finansuri teqnologiebi iZlevian SesaZleblobas mTliani sainvesticio riski ganawildes sakredito, saprocento, savaluto, sabazro obieqtebze da gadaeces sxva finansur Suamavlebs. im institutebis formireba, romlebic saSualebas iZleva gamoyenebul iqnes finansuri teqnologiebi arafinansuri seqtoris funqcionirebaSi, globaluri da erovnuli socialur-ekonomikuri sistemis ganuyofel nawilad gvevlineboda. finansuri institutebis ganviTareba ganxorcielda, rogorc axali finansuri institutebis CamoyalibebiT, ise arsebuli institutebis Zireuli transformaciis Sedegad. magaliTad, bolo aTwleulebis manZilze aRmocendnen da farTo gavrceleba hpoves, iseTma mniSvnelovanma institutebma, rogoricaa, foreqsi, ZiriTad saqonelze (navTobi, liToni, oqro da sxva) fiuCersuli kontraqtebis birJebi da safondo indeqsebi, sapensio fondebi, ormxrivi fondebi, fuladi bazrebis fondebi, hej-fondebi, mmarTveli kompaniebi, sareitingo saagentoebi, mniSvnelovnad Seicvala bankebis, sadazRvevo kompaniebis, safondo da sasaqonlo birJebis funqciebic. bankebi, gansakuTrebiT bolo periodebSi, sakredito institutebidan, msesxebelsa da finansur bazrebs Soris Suamavlebad iqcnen. saboloo jamSi, finansuri sistemebi realur seqtorsa da saojaxo meurneobebs materialuri resursebis marTvisa da gazrdis saSualebas aZlevda. rogorc viciT, finansuri sistemis potenciuri Zalis zogad maxasiaTebels warmoadgens multiplikatori, romelic gviCvenebs fuladi bazis Teoriulad SesaZlebel

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zrdas. praqtikaSi es zrda bankebis sakredito eqspansiis saSualebiT realizdeba, romelic naklebad aris damokidebuli rezervebis normebsa da centraluri bankebis ganakveTebze, da metobiT arsebul kreditebze. kerZod, maT efeqtian da Warb moTxovnaze. efeqtian moTxovnad ganixileba iseTi moTxovna, romelsac Seesabameba adekvaturi SeTavazeba, xolo bankebi da misi kreditorebi inaxaven da amravleben TavianT fulad kapitals. Warbi moTxovna ar warmoSobs Sesabamis SemoTavazebas, xolo bankebi da TavianTi kreditorebi kargaven fuls. socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTareba maSin aris Sedegiani, rodesac efeqtiani kreditebiT miRebuli mogeba aRemateba Warbi (cudi) kreditebis danakargebs. multiplikatoris mniSvneloba, garda zemoT aRniSnulisa, damokidebulia finansuri teqnologiebis gavrcelebasa da finansuri sistemis mimarT ndobaze. finansuri teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT likvidobis SenarCuneba mxolod bazris profesional moTamaSeebs SeuZliaT, romlis gareSec krizisis daZleva, rom araferi vTqvaT dinamiuri zrdis miRwevaze, SeuZlebelia. imedebi imis Sesaxeb, rom monetaruli politikis mier saprocento ganakveTebis Semcireba da subordinirebuli kreditebis SemoReba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dafinansebis SesaZleblobas aRadgens, realurad usafuZvloa. kreditebis gacema, Tavis mxriv, warmoadgens rogorc ganviTarebis udides SesaZleblobas, ise social-ekonomikuri stabilurobis udides safrTxesac. finansuri sistemis uunarobas, moaxdinos valebis refinansireba da Seqmnas efeqtiani damatebiTi moTxovna, mivyavarT sxvadasxva masStabis krizisebamde. adgilobrivi maxasiaTeblebis mqonde krizisebi dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom gacemuli kreditebis mosalodneli moculoba ex ante gansxvavdeba imisgan, rac aris ex post. lokaluri krizisebis msoflio ekonomikaze gavlena ganprirobebulia erovnuli ekonomikis masStabebiT, warmoSobili krizisiT da am qveynis finansur sistemaSi ucxoli investorebis CarTulobis xarisxiT. Tuki gadavavlebT Tvals msoflio krizisebi istorias, davinaxavT, rom globaluri xasiaTis krizisebi warmoiqmneba imis gamo, rom ganviTarebul ekonomikaSi ar aris an efeqtiani moTxovnis saWiro done (amis mizezi, saboloo jamSi – inovaciebis gavlenis amowurvaa, rogorc teqnologiuri, ise organizaciuli xasiaTis, romelic zemoqmedebs Sromis mwarmoeblurobis zrdaze, aseve kapitalSeiaraRebisa da energo da resursotevadobis Semcireba), an ekonomikur sistemas misi dafinanseba ar SeuZlia. yvelaze Rrma krizisebi warmoiqmnebian iq, sadac arsebobs investirebis obieqtebi, romlebic ayalibeben efeqtian moTxovnas, da ekonomikuri sistema kargavs saSualebas Sedegobrivad gadaanawilos arsebuli finansuri resursebi. Tanamedrove krizisi xasiaTdeba rogorc adgilobrivi, ise globaluri maxasiaTeblebiT. pirvel rigSi, dakavSirebulia msoflios yvelaze did ekonomikasTan – aSS-s ekonomikasTan – da ipoTekuri dakreditebis problemebTan, romlebmac aSSs mTliani finansuri sistema moSala. mere, ganpirobebuli iyo imiT, rom bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi msoflio reproduqciis procesi ganpirobebuli iyo amerikelebi momxmareblebis moTxovniT (daaxloebiT 30% - pirdapiri danaxarji da 50% - eqsportiori qveynis Sida moxmareba, damatebiTi saeqsporto Semosavali savaWro da sagadasaxdelo balansis deficitis zrdis xarjze). sagadasaxdelo balansis deficitma, romlemac maqsimums miaRwia (753,3 mlrd dolari) 2006 wels, erTi mxriv ganpirobebuli iyo amerikeli momxmareblebis mier finansuri seqtorisadmi maTi valdebulebebis zrdiT. xolo es valdebuleba Tavis mxriv, ucxoeli investorebis mier iyo dafinansebuli, romlebic gansxvavebul amerikul finansur aqtivebs yidulobdnen.

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2001 wlis zafxulis Sua periodidan 2008 wlis agvistomde msoflio sarezervo valutis intensiuri Sesusteba xdeboda - aSS dolari sxva ZiriTad valutebTan mimarTebaSi: rublis mimarT 25%-iT, evros mimarT 88%-iT, funt sterlingis mimarT 42%-iT, ienis mimarT 16%-iT. dolaris msgavsi Sesusteba iyo, rogorc ormagi deficitis Sedegi (sagadasaxdelo balansisa da aSS federaluri biujetis deficiti), ise saprocento ganakveTebis diferencialis zrdis Sedegi. dolaris Semcirebis Sedegi iyo sxvadasxva finansuri fondebis moTxovnis swrafi zrda ZiriTad samomxmareblo aqtivebze, romelmac Tavis mxriv daaCqara navTobze, liTonze da sxva produqtebze fasebis zrdis tendencia. Sedegad, gacvliTi kursis danawevrebam msyidvelobiTi unaris paritetis mixedviT evrosa da aSS-is dolars Soris Tanafardobam, uprecendento niSnuls miaRwia. msoflio savaluto bazarze tendenciebis Secvlam aSS dolaris sasargeblod da msoflios wamyvani centraluri bankebis politikam, romelic mimarTulia saprocento ganakveTebis Semcirebisken, da aseve msoflio sasaqonlo bazrebze fasebis Semcirebisken, ramdenamde SeZlo gacvliTi kursebis normalizeba (msyidvelobiTi unaris pariteti, saprocento ganakveTis diferenciali, sagadasaxdelo balansi, inflacia da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi). Tumca, msgavsi normalizeba moxda upercendentod swrafad, ramac gamoiwvia damatebiTi problemebi. krizisis pirobebSi, rodesac ZiriTad saeqsporto saqonelze Zalian dabali fasebis done narCundeba saSualovadian perspeqtivaSi, aucilebeli xdeba ganxorcieldes importis Canacvlebisa da eqsportis alternatiuli mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis zomebi, rac ekonomikuri zrdis problemis gadaWrisa da sagareo vaWrobis dabalansebis saSualebas iZleva. krizisi 2007 wels warmoiSva, xolo globalur konteqstSi aqtiurad 2007 wlis zafxulidan gamoCnda. am moqmedebebma msoflio bazrebze Semdegi saxelwodeba miiRo „ndobis krizisi“ bankebs Soris: bankebi, romlebic garkveuli saxis likvidobas flobdnen, uars ambobdnen sxvebis dakreditebaze. krizisis mizezebis gansamartad, aucilebelia ganvixiloT gacilebiT adre momxdari movlenebi. msoflio finansuri sistemis, pirvel rigSi amerikuli sistemis, winaSe warmoiSva Semdegi problema: banksa da klients Soris urTierTqmedebis klasikuri sqema gulisxmobda imas, rom banki klientze gascemda kredits, xolo klienti am kredits TandaTanobiT ubrunebda banks. Tanamedrove samyaroSi, 1930-iani wlebidan dawyebuli msgavs kreditebs gacilebiT farTo gavrceleba hqondaT. Tumca 1960-iani wlebis Sua xanebidan 1980-ian wlebamde msgavsma dakreditebam Tavis sazRvars miaRwia. axali etapi daiwyo maSin, rodesac kreditebis dasafinanseblad, bankebsa da sxva finansur institutebs mouwiaT sasexso valdebulebebis egreT wodebuli sekiuritizacia. magaliTisTvis SegviZlia ganvixiloT ipoTekuri krediti: bankebi gamoscemdnen fasian qaRaldebs, romelsac erTis mxriv, uzrunvelyofdnen msesxeblis saSemosavlo nakadebiT, xolo meores mxriv – qonebiT. SemdgomSi, derivativebis ganviTarebam migviyvana sxvadasxva masStabur gamoSvebamde: fasiani qaRaldebi ukve ipoTekuri fasiani qaRaldebiT (MBS - mortgage-backed security), avtokreditebiT (ABS - auto-backed security), sakredito baraTebiT da a.S. gamoicemodnen, romelTa gayidvac axali kreditebis dafinansebis saSualebas iZleoda. am fasiani qaRaldebis fonze axali fasiani qaRaldebis gamoSveba daiwyes da a.S. rogorc wesi, rac ufro grZelvadiani iyo krediti, miT ufro maRali iyo saprocento ganakveTic. amdenad, amerikaSi 25 wlian kreditze ganakveTi Seadgenda daaxloebiT 9%-s. am kreditis farglebSi gamoscemdnen 10 wlian fasian qaRaldebs. sapro-

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cento ganakveTi msgavs fasian qaRaldebze Seadgenda daaxloebiT 7%-s. erTis mxriv, emitenti banki abrunebda fuls. xolo meores mxriv – gaaCnda Sesabamisi Semosavali, am fasian qaRaldebs gascemda 7%-ad, xolo 2% masTan rCeboda. normalur garemoebebSi cvlilebebi nelnela xdeba, xolo daubalansebel situaciebSi warmoiSveba deficiti. mocemul situaciaSi, likvidurobaze fasi (naRdi fuli) Zlierad da mkveTrad izrdeboda, xolo momavali Semosavlebis Rirebuleba, piriqiT, Semcirda. krizisis dawyebasTan erTad fasebma nelnela, xolo Semdgom intensiurad daiwyo vardna. fasian qaRaldebze fasebis Semcireba finansuri struqturisTvis niSnavs Tavisi aqtivebis Rirebulebis Semcirebas. Tu maT es fasiani qaRaldi 100 erTeulad SeiZines, xolo misi Rirebuleba orjer mcirdeba, maSin banki, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu is ar yidis am fasian qaRals, valdebulia (imave periodSi, an drois gasvlis Semdeg) Tavis balansze aasaxos 50 erTeulis dakargi. zaralis SemTxvevaSi bankma unda Seavsos Tavisi resursebi da Tavisi kapitali, radganac moqmedeben kanonebi, romelic gulisxmobs bankis kapitalsa da mis operaciebs Soris gansazRvruli proporciis gansazRvras. fasiani qaRaldebis gayidva formaluri-buRaltruli danakargebi faqtiur danakargebad aqcevs, anu iseT danakargebad, romlebic ar aRdgeba sabazro fasebis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi. bankebi cdilobdnen gamoeSvaT sakuTari obligaciebi sakuTari resursebis Sesavsebad, xolo Semdeg, rodesac msgavsi qmedeba dauSvebeli iyo, daiwyes ucxouri kapitalis mozidva. raca Seexeba amerikul bankebs, adgili hqonda aziur da arabul kapitals, romlebic yvelaze msxvil bankebSi Sedioda. krizisis mwvave stadiaze bankebis resursebis bazis SevsebaSi CaerTo saxelmwifo. aseT situaciaSi mTlianad qveynis masStabiT warmoiqmneba sagadasaxdelo balansisa da federaluri biujetis deficitis dafinansebis aucilebloba. normalur pirobebSi, sruliad Cveulebrivia situacia, rodesac msoflio bazarze SeuZlia aiRos SedarebiT dabali Rirebulebis dafinanseba im pirobiT, rom importi, romelic msgavsi formiT finansdeba, ar iqneba mimarTuli moxmarebisa da warmoebis ganviTarebis sferoze. rac Seexeba valebs, aucilebelia gavixsenoT, rom umeteswilad, grZelvadian fuls, mxolod saxelmwifo flobs. uaxloes warsulSi ideolog-liberalebi verc ki warmoidgendnen, rom nacionalizacia SesaZloa kapitalizmis SuagulSi – aSS-Si momxdariyo, sadac saxelmwifo bankebis kapitalSi Sedis. ratom xdeba ase: imitom, rom msoflio finansur sistemaSi, maT Soris amerikulSic, da nebismier erovnul finansur sistemaSi – SeuZlebelia 25 weli elodo, sanam fuls ar dagibruneben. fasiani qaRaldi aralikviduria, ara imitom, rom maTi gayidva SeuZlebelia, aramed imitom, rom bankebi ver SeZleben (ar arian mzad) gayidon im fasad, ra fasadac myidvelebi SeiZendnen. Sedegad, bankebis balansebi „ar dgeba“, finansuri sistema wyvets muSaobas, swrafad mcirdeba moTxovna, Semdeg warmoebac da iwyeba umuSevrobis zrda. mTlianobaSi msoflioSi situacia daZabulia. arsebobs gansxvavebuli xedva imis Sesaxeb Tu rogor ganviTardeba is. Cveni azriT, moxdeba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dafinansebis meqanizmis krizisi globalur doneze. es meqanizmi bolo 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi muSaobda, magram mis safuZvelze msoflio ekonomika bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi yvelaze maRali zrdis tempebiT izrdeboda. aq SesaZloa gavixsenoT didi depresia 1929-1933 wlebi. faqtiurad, 1929 wlis donemde ekonomikis ganviTareba samxedro warmoebis ganviTarebis Sedegi iyo meore msoflio omis periodSi. dou-jonsis indeqsma maqsimalur niSnuls 1929 wels mxo-

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lod 1953-Si miaRwia. krizisis gadalaxvis procedura Zalian mtkivneuli aRmoCnda. amgvarad, aSS iZulebuli gaxda gaeufasurebina dolari oqrosTan mimarTebaSi 20.67-dan 35.8 dolaramde, gadasuliyo biujetis xarjebis dafinansebaze, SemoRebul iqna sagangebo kanonebi, erovnuli warmoebis aRdgenisa da soflis meurneobis regulirebis Sesaxeb, es moiTxovda sxvadasxva iracionalur qmedebebs, rogoricaa sasoflo kulturebis 25%-is ganadgureba, imisTvis, rom SeemcirebinaT fasebis krizisuli vardna. msgavsi zomebi garkveulwilad axdenda situaciis stabilizacias, magram ar ganapirobebda ganviTarebas. krizisTan dakavSirebiT farTod aris gavrcelebuli kritikuli mosazrebebi globaluri finansuri sistemis Sesaxeb, kerZod ki, am sistemaSi aSS-s rolis Sesaxeb. amerikas akritikeben imitom, rom is iyenebs dolars msoflio ekonomikaSi dominirebisaTvis da Sesabamisi dividendebisa da sxva sargeblis misaRebad. magram msoflio ekonomikaSi yovelTvis unda arsebobdes iseTi fenomeni, rogoricaa msloflio fuli, am periodSi aseT rols amerikuli dolari TamaSobs. rac Seexeba sargebels, sinamdvileSi, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, maT yvela iRebs. arsebobs ra Tqma unda sawinaaRmdego mosazrebac, radgan dolari gamodis, ara mxolod msoflio fulis saxiT, aramed, rogorc erovnuli valuta. zogierTi analitikosi im daskvnamde midis, rom unda Seicvalos msoflio finansuri sistema, da is unda gaxdes mravalpolusiani. magram msoflio politikis TvalsazrisiT, msoflio fuli, iseve, rogorc erovnuli, unda iyos erTi. imisTvis, rom ekonomika ganviTardes, saWiroa, rogorc xelmisawvdomi kapitali, ise msyidvelobiTunariani moTxovna, periodulad xdeba Cavardna, rogorc kapitalis TvalsazrisiT, ise gadaxdisunariani moTxovnis kuTxiT. rodesac es xdeba krizisi, rogorc vnaxeT, gardauvalia. Nazira Kakulia Doctor of Economics, Iv. Javakhishvili TSU Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Global Financial Crisis as the Stability Criterion of the Modern Economic System Summary The Article discusses issues of increasing pressure on the world financial market, as well as significant aspects of reduction of prices on goods market. It analyses inevitability of studying the processes, that determine the dynamics of the world economy, place of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s financial system in manufacturing process, also opportunity and inevitability of the state intervention. In the Article considerable attention is paid to the origins of the crisis. It discusses crisis depth and its duration. Research process gives a thoughtful analysis of the world socio-economic system functioning basis and its dynamic peculiarities.

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Калинин Дмитрий Станиславович Белорусский государственный университет, кандидат экономических наук, старший научный сотрудник Белоруссия, Минск Особенности и перспективы экономической интернационализации Республики Беларусь (на примере компаний машиностроительной отрасли) Нарастающие процессы глобализации мировой хозяйственной системы, сопровождающееся негативными последствиями мирового экономического кризиса, в еще более значительной степени обострили и без того «накаленную» конкурентную борьбу между различными странами. С одной стороны, продолжается активное освоение мирового экономического пространства со стороны наиболее развитых государств (США, Япония, Германия, Франция, Италия и др.), нацеленных на реализацию своих финансовых и технологических преимуществ для обеспечения контроля над основными рынками сбыта, запасами природно-сырьевых, трудовых и интеллектуальных ресурсов. С другой, – все больше возрастает роль и влияние на мировые экономические процессы целого ряда развивающихся стран (Китай, Индия, Бразилия, ряд Ближневосточных государств и др.). Наблюдается активная интернационализация их экономической и политической деятельности. Одним из основных инструментов ведения международной конкурентной борьбы, достижения стратегических задач, стоящих перед этими наиболее активными на современной мировой геоэкономической арене странами, является поддержка и развитие транснационализации собственных субъектов хозяйствования, становление на их основе крупных и конкурентоспособных транснациональных компаний (ТНК). Последние, развивая свою зарубежную деловую активность, формируют так называемую «вторую экономику», элементы которой «разбросаны» по всему миру, а их деятельность так или иначе нацелена на обслуживание национальных интересов стран происхождения за счет эксплуатации ресурсов зарубежных стран-реципиентов. Современная экономическая ситуация, сложившаяся в Республике Беларусь и мировой экономике в целом, вызывает необходимость разработки новой промышленной и внешнеэкономической политики страны, отвечающей современным вызовам и тенденциям мирохозяйственного развития. В качестве концептуальной основы новой промышленной и внешнеэкономической политики Республики Беларусь может выступить селективный подход, предполагающий выделение узкого сегмента целевой поддержки государством определенных предприятий, имеющих наибольший потенциал международного развития. Подобная «точечная» концентрация инвестиционных, технологических и административных ресурсов страны на ускоренное и первоочередное развитие наиболее перспективных производителей с целью создания на их основе конкурентоспособных и эффективно функционирующих ТНК в перспективе позволит Республике Беларусь рассчитывать на равноправное участие в международных экономических процессах, долгосрочную и устойчивую перспективу развития национальной экономической системы.Прежде всего это касается «флагманов» белорусского машиностроения, таких как: ПО «МТЗ», ПО «БелАЗ», РУП «МАЗ», ОАО «Амкодор» и ряда других крупных производителей. В последнее десятилетие деловая активность белорусских машиностроительных предприятий характеризовалась значительным расширением объемов производства и динамичным их вовлечением в зарубежную деятельность, чему в наибольшей степени способствовало устойчивое экономическое развитие России. Значительное повышение платежеспособного спроса на инвестиционные товары со стороны российских потребителей, который зачастую не мог быть удовлетворен за счет внутреннего производства, порождало чрезвычайно благоприятные возможности для развития экспорта белорусских машиностроительных предприятий, для которых рынок этой страны являлся главенствующим, наиболее «открытым» и психологически близким. В таких условиях целенаправленное освоение других зарубежных рынков сбыта было сравнительно менее

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эффективным и оправданным. В результате на долю России в последние годы приходилось более половины экспорта крупнейших международно-ориентированных по своей сути белорусских машиностроительных предприятий. Однако, по мере распространения глобального экономического кризиса и усиления его негативного воздействия на российскую экономику благоприятная ситуация для наращивания белорусскими производителями своей экспортной экспансии радикально изменилась. Российское правительство, выбрав путь построения исключительно прагматичных отношений с соседними странами, всячески ограничивает присутствие на своем рынке белорусских производителей, продукция которых конкурирует с российской. Поэтому, даже в контексте некоторой либерализации российской промышленной политики в рамках расширенного таможенного союза России, Беларуси и Казахстана рассчитывать на значительное облегчение доступа на российский рынок, на наш взгляд, не приходится. Особенно негативная ситуация складывается в отношении таких крупных белорусских производителей, как: ПО «Гомсельмаш» и РУП «МАЗ», имеющих достаточно мощных российских конкурентов в лице ОАО «Ростсельмаш» и ОАО «КамАЗ» соответственно. Опираясь на значительно лобби в российских государственных кругах указанные российские компании достаточно эффективно ограничивают конкурентное давление со стороны белорусских компаний не столько экономическими, сколько мерами политического и административного характера. Поэтому, одной из наиболее важных стратегических задач, стоящих сегодня перед белорусскими машиностроительными предприятиями, на наш взгляд, является налаживание действительно многовекторной внешнеэкономической деятельности при сохранении уже достигнутых рыночных позиций в традиционных для их экспортной деятельности странах и регионах. Для реализации указанных задач целый ряд наиболее конкурентоспособных белорусских машиностроительных предприятий уже приступил к освоению ранее нетрадиционных для белорусского экспорта рынков отдельных географически отдаленных государств. При этом все большую популярность у белорусских производителей приобретает такая форма выхода на зарубежные рынки, как организация на них предприятий промышленной сборки готовой продукции из экспортируемых с территории Республики Беларусь машинокомплектов. Первоначально апробации такой формы зарубежной деловой активности подвергалась Россия. На территории указанной страны функционируют сборочные предприятия таких белорусских машиностроительных компаний, как: ПО «МТЗ», ПО «Гомсельмаш», ПО «Бобруйскагромаш» РУП «МАЗ», ОАО «Амкодор» и некоторых других. Однако, в последние годы подобные действия отечественных производителей получили относительно широкое распространение и в других странах СНГ (Азербайджан, Армения, Казахстан и Украина), а также странах ЕС (Польша, Румыния, Латвия, Литва). Отдельный вектор организации зарубежной производственной активности, получивший в настоящее время импульс к развитию, представляет собой целый ряд стран так называемого дальнего зарубежья (Египет, Судан, Иран, Китай, Вьетнам, Аргентина, Венесуэла и некоторые другие) [2; 3]. Проведенное нами исследование зарубежной производственной активности белорусских машиностроительных предприятий в докризисный период показало, что наиболее эффективной для них являлась стратегия интернационализации, предполагающая формирование географически широко разветвленной сети зарубежных сборочных предприятий, организованных посредством неакционерных кооперационных соглашений [3]. Суть указанного подхода в том, что белорусские производители не участвуют в финансировании проектов, а концентрируются на технической и технологической их поддержке, обучении специалистов в области сборочных операций, контроле качества и поставке необходимого оборудования. Использование неакционерных кооперационных соглашений позволяет белорусским машиностроительным предприятиям активно развивать свою производственную деятельность за рубежом без риска инвестиционных потерь со своей стороны. Благодаря этому белорусские производители, даже не обладая значительным объемом свободных инвестиционных ресурсов, имеют возможность широкого географического распространения своей производственной деятельности в масштабах всего мира. Кроме того, такой подход позволяет

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заинтересовать правительства и деловые круги стран-реципиентов в успешном развитии совместного проекта, так как местное сборочное предприятие находится в их собственности и под их непосредственным контролем. Использование в производственной сфере неакционерных кооперационных соглашений позволяет белорусским предприятиям с одной стороны эффективно преодолевать таможенно-тарифные барьеры стран-импортеров без значительных затрат со своей стороны, а, с другой – концентрировать свои инвестиционные ресурсы на организации разветвленной сети сбытовых подразделений, обладающих сравнительно большей экономической эффективностью. В указанном подходе особое внимание уделялось организационным аспектам повышения экономической эффективности зарубежной инвестиционной деятельности белорусских машиностроительных предприятий. Предложена схема организации их зарубежной деловой активности, позволяющая оптимизировать распределение ограниченных инвестиционных ресурсов и обеспечить наибольшую капиталоотдачу от вложенных средств за счет их концентрации в наименее капиталоемких, но наиболее рентабельных звеньях производственного процесс[3, С. 113]. В современных посткризисных условиях приоритеты международного развития белорусских производителей, на наш взгляд, переходят от достижения максимального уровня экономической эффективности зарубежной деловой активности в сторону первоочередной ориентации на поддержание необходимого для расширенного воспроизводства объема продаж. Проблема освоения новых и перспективных рынков сбыта является первоочередной стратегической установкой. Кроме того, в современных условиях эффективность описанной выше стратегии интернационализации белорусских машиностроительных предприятий вызывает некоторые сомнения. Во-первых, это связано с тем, что в настоящее время проблематично подобрать зарубежных партнеров для неакционерных кооперационных соглашений, готовых инвестировать собственные средства в организацию промышленной сборки белорусской продукции. Во-вторых, правительства большинства стран-импортеров переориентировались на скрытые и нетрадиционные меры протекционистской поддержки собственных пусть и не самых конкурентоспособных производителей выражающиеся, прежде всего, в нетарифных ограничениях. Таким образом, в настоящее время для расширения экспортной деятельности белорусских производителей и обретения ими весомой роли на отраслевых рынках вовсе недостаточно эффективно организовать сборку и сбыт продукции. Указанные меры не приносят желаемого результата ни белорусскому производителю, который стремиться снизить барьеры проникновения, ни странам-реципиентам, заинтересованным в притоке в страну производств с высокой добавленной стоимостью. В законодательстве многих, прежде всего, развивающихся государств, все чаще ограничивается практика организации на их территории предприятий промышленной сборки завезенных из-за рубежа товарокомплектов. Для того, чтобы их продукция признавалась национальной и на нее не распространялись ограничительные меры при ее производстве требуется использование определенной доли (часто достигающей 50%) местных частей. Это означает, что для действительно глубоко проникновения на зарубежные рынки и эффективного закрепления на них своих рыночных позиций перед производителями встает вопрос об организации на их территории комплексных производств, выполняющих широкий спектр технологических операций. Перенесение за рубеж комплексного производства сопряжено с целым рядом трудностей. Основные из них связаны с несопоставимо более высоким по сравнению с организацией промышленной сборки уровнем технологического риска. Поэтому, белорусским компаниям, организующим за рубежом комплексное производство, нецелесообразно использовать кооперационные формы организации бизнеса. Предпочтение должно отдаваться как можно большему контролю над зарубежным производством, что, конечно же, потребует вовлечения беспрецедентных для отечественной деловой практики объемов инвестиционных ресурсов. Не смотря на высокую затратность и рискованность подобного подхода он представляется нам наиболее своевременным и перспективным с точки зрения посткризисного завоевания устойчивых конкурентных позиций. В настоящее время, на наш взгляд, именно инвестиционная составляющая

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может лечь в основу нового внешнеэкономического курса белорусской машиностроительной отрасли. Во-первых, это связано с тем, что в современных условиях глобального экономического кризиса белорусские компании имеют возможность создать и/или приобрести в свою собственность зарубежные объекты производственно-сбытового назначения с наименьшими капиталовложениями. И, во-вторых, после оживления мировой экономики, которое ожидается через несколько лет, белорусские компании в случае своевременной организации широко разветвленной зарубежной производственно-сбытовой и сервисной системы смогут использовать ее в качестве основного инструмента в борьбе со своими конкурентами, сворачивающими в настоящее время свои зарубежные подразделения. Последнее обусловлено тем, что большинство крупных зарубежных компаний представляют собой корпоративные структуры (акционерные общества) на деятельность которых значительное влияние оказывают частные акционеры, заинтересованные в достижении максимальной отдачи от вкладываемых ими средств. В отличие от своих конкурентов белорусские государственные производители могут рассчитывать на значительную помощь и понимание со стороны государства (являющегося их основным собственником), в том числе в вопросе перспективного, но временно возможно не рентабельного инвестирования. Географическое расположение зарубежных комплексных производств должно предполагать обязательную их ориентацию на крупные рынки сбыта. На наш взгляд, целесообразны�� является не столько формирование географически разветвленной производственной системы, сколько организация нескольких крупных производств, деятельность которых охватывала бы все близлежащие страны. В качестве регионов-реципиентов крупных комплексных производств могут выступать географически отдаленные регионы и интеграционные объединения. Белорусским производителям наибольшее внимание целесообразно уделять странам и регионам, находящимся на сравнительно равном или относительно низком уровне социально-экономического и технологического развития. Такие государства особенно заинтересованы в становлении и развитии собственной промышленной базы посредством зарубежных капиталовложений в крупные производственные проекты. Под их реализацию белорусские компании смогут получить различного рода льготы и преференции. По мнению ряда специалистов, особое внимание должно уделяться африканскому, азиатскому и латиноамериканскому регионам [1, С. 135-136]. Однако, дополнительно стоит выделить ближневосточный регион, обладающих определенной спецификой, некоторой целостностью и обособленностью. Таким образом, в перспективе белорусским производителям уместно ориентироваться на создание четырех крупных региональных подразделений, осуществляющих широкий спектр производственных операций и отвечающих за удовлетворение спроса всего региона-базирования[4]. Положительную роль должна сыграть широко распространенная практика функционирования интеграционных объединений в рамках каждого из названных регионов. Имея комплексное производство в одной из стран-участниц регионального интеграционного объединения белорусские предприятия смогут рассчитывать на беспрепятственный доступ к рынкам других стран-участниц. Более того, тесная интеграция белорусских производителей в экономическую систему страныреципиента позволит им рассчитывать на поддержку со стороны местных политических и деловых кругов в отношении внутренних закупок и освоения рынков соседних государств. По сравнению с традиционной централизованной деятельностью, когда производство осуществляется лишь на территории Беларуси и потом экспортируется за рубеж, предлагаемая схема организации зарубежной производственной системы имеет ряд преимуществ. Во-первых, перенесение комплексного производства непосредственно на территорию рынков сбыта позволит не только снизить таможенные расходы, но и значительно сократить издержки транспортировки и логистического ее сопровождения. Во-вторых, приближение процесса производства продукции к месту ее конечного потребления, позволит лучше учитывать особенности местных потребителей. Возможна даже разработка модификаций продукции, ориентированной исключительно на региональный рынок, что позволило бы значительно расширить объемы сбыта. В-третьих, ставка на

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крупные региональные производственные центры позволит, даже не смотря на некоторую диверсификацию производимой продукции, достигать «эффекта масштаба» ее производства. Литература: 1. Анисько, О.Г. Выбор предпринимательских мест за рубежом (на примере автомобильной отрасли стран Центральной и Восточной Европы и СНГ) :дис. … канд. экон. наук : 08.00.14 / О.Г. Анисько. – Минск, 2006. – 172 л. 2. Калинин, Д.С. Транснационализация деловой активности машиностроительных предприятий России и Беларуси : сравнительный анализ / Д.С. Калинин // Журн. междунар. права и междунар. отношений. – 2008. – № 3. – С. 94–99. 3. Калинин, Д.С. Формирование стратегии интернационализации машиностроительных предприятий Республики Беларусь :дис. … канд. экон. наук : 08.00.14 / Д.С. Калинин. – Минск, 2008. – 178 л. 4. Калинин, Д.С. Повышение международной конкурентоспособности белорусских машиностроительных предприятий в условиях посткризисного развития мировой экономики / Д.С. Калинин, Х.Ц. Жун // Журн. междунар. права и междунар. отношений. – 2010. – № 1. – С. 88–94.

Kalinin Dmitry Stanislavovich Candidate of Economic Sciences, senior researcher, State University of Belarus Belarus, Minks The Peculiarities and Prospects of Internationalization of Belarus Republic (The Case of Engineering Industry) Summary Contemporary economy, characterized by the negative effects of the global economic crisis, raises before Belarusian enterprises an ambitious and at the same time, a rather difficult task — to fight for the preservation of its export potential and subsequent expansion of the competitive position as a post-crisis recovery in the global economy. The conceptual basis for the implementation of this unique opportunity can be raising in the international competitiveness of domestic producers, primarily through the reorganization of their organizational and economic structures and development of innovative strategies for the development of overseas markets. Based on these perspectives, the purpose of this article is the development of a conceptual approach to improve the international competitiveness of Belarusian enterprises in terms of improving the strategy of their economic internationalization and their adaptation to modern conditions of the world economy post-crisis development. The article shows the essence and makes a comparative analysis of two approaches to organization of foreign business activity of Belarusian machine-building enterprises. The study found that in today's post-crisis management conditions accelerated development of multi-vector and production-oriented internationalization of their business is of increasing relevance and expedience.

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Иванова Юлия Николаевна к.э.н., доцент ГОУ ВПО РЭУ им. Г.В.Плеханова кафедра национальной и региональной экономики Россия, Москва Экономия на масштабе: от теории к практике Закон экономии на масштабе считается непререкаемым в экономической теории. Действительно, убывание предельных издержек на каждую последующую единицу продукции, связанное, в первую очередь, с уменьшение величины предельных постоянных издержек и снижением долгосрочных средних затрат при увеличении масштабов производства кажется очевидным. Однако, у этой модели есть ряд ограничений, связанных как с инертностью системы, так и повышением транзакционных издержек. В данной статье мы попробуем разобраться как в способах экономии на масштабе, так и с проблемами, возникающими у компаний, предпринимающих проекты развития и старающимся снизить свои транзакционные расходы. Существует мнение, что большие территориально распределенные структуры с большим количеством офисов и торговых точек имеют возможность предоставлять продукты и услуги дешевле, чем их менее масштабные конкуренты. В свою очередь, более мелкие локальные компании считаются более гибкими и адаптируемыми к индивидуальным потребностям клиентов. Рассмотрим основные направления, в которых сетевая компания может экономить на масштабе: 1. Централизация функций. Проекты по централизации заключаются в удалении части функций на местах и сведению их в единый центр. Примером может служить компания «Филип Моррис Интернэшнл» в России, имеющей две фабрики и около ста офисов по всей России и централизовавшей операционный и бухгалтерский учет до такой степени, что на местах принимается только первичная документация, которая сканируется и передается в единый бухгалтерский и операционный центр для дальнейшей переработки в отчеты. Как правило, крупные компании принимают решение о централизации так называемых бэкофисных функций27, таких как бухгалтерский и операционный учет, внедрение и поддержка информационных и коммуникационных технологий, а также логистики и закупок. Такие действия приводят к единообразию и синергии системы и характеризуются уменьшением закупочной цены у поставщиков ресурсов, а также снижением издержек контроля региональных подразделений. Тем не менее, на практике часто процессы централизации выливаются в долгосрочные и дорогостоящие проекты, приводящие к дублированию функций на местах и в Головном офисе, особенно в больших сетях. Это происходит по причине исторически сложившейся структуры бизнеспроцессов, в которой локальная составляющая не может быть полностью заменена (удалена), поскольку они имеют разную глубину и порой даже суть. В этом случае сводится «на нет» вся идея централизации, поскольку на местах остаются люди и поддерживающая инфраструктура, выполняющая эти бизнес-процессы. Даже если из десяти локальных процессов на месте остался один, можно сказать, что проект централизации не окупается, если принимать во внимание расходы по внедрению проекта. Вторая проблема заключается в том, что исторически сложившийся ход исполнения бизнеспроцессов является наиболее удобным и наиболее экономным для системы, поскольку локальные рынки труда позволяют платить людям, выполняющим эти функции значительно меньше, чем 27

См., в частности, Иванова Ю.Н. Cтандартизация или диверсификация деятельности региональных филиалов. Проблемы современной экономики.-2011.- №2 (38)

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специалистам, выполняющим те же функции в едином центре. Помимо этого не стоит сбрасывать со счетов расходы на построение новой инфраструктуры. На практике часто выходит, что даже ручной перенос бумажек оказывается значительно дешевле, чем централизованная ИТ система. К тому же, централизация электронного документооборота приводит к тому, что компания становится менее клиентоориентированной, поскольку исключает возможность заключения договоров с клиентами «здесь и сейчас». Третья проблема заключается в инертности персонала на местах. Персонал будет сопротивляться изменениям, поскольку централизация подразумевает увольнение лишних сотрудников. 2. Тиражирование технологий. Подобные проекты заключаются в формализации знаний и технологий компании (технологии продаж, работы с клиентами, учета, обучения, форматы офисов и т.д.) с последующей их репликацией во всех подразделениях компании. Успешность проектов по тиражированию зависит, в первую очередь от качества самих технологий. К примеру, несомненно, Сбербанк РФ добился больших успехов за последнее время в модернизации своих офисов. Тем не менее, если мы сравним каждое из отделений, например, с отделениями Райффайзенбанка, разница в качестве обслуживания будет слишком очевидной не в пользу Сбербанка. Вообще, довольно спорно, что массовое внедрение стандартных технологий сказывается на качестве в положительную сторону по сравнению с локальными, адаптированными к местным рыночным условиям. К примеру, успешный бутик-отель всегда лучше, чем сетевой. Однако, обслуживание в неуспешном маленьком отеле будет хуже, чем в сетевом, поэтому туристы, плохо знающие местные отели скорее выберут сетевой, поскольку там получат известное им, стандартное качество сервиса. Итак, можно сказать, что стандартизация операций приводит к усреднению качества, что, однозначно хорошо сказывается на развитии тех подразделений, которые до этого развивались не слишком успешно и плохо для подразделений, где качество выполнения операций было выше среднего уровня. Вообще, стандартизация технологий обслуживания (живого общения с клиентами), приводит довольно часто к ухудшению этого процесса. К примеру, перевод колл-центров на автоответчики сокращает время ожидания ответа, но не дает клиенту полного ответа на его запрос, который мог бы обеспечить живой оператор. Поэтому стандартизацию процессов клиентского обслуживания стоит делать только в случае большого количества таких операций со средними, нетребовательными клиентами, тогда она приведет к экономии. Существуют, тем не менее, компании, которые сфокусированы именно на совершенствовании своих технологий и являются поэтому эталоном качества. Как пример, можно указать Макдоналдс, который наряду со стандартами качества (гамбургер одинаковый и в Москве, и в Нью-Йорке, и в Каире), разработали уникальные вкусовые свойства своей продукции, которые сложно повторить и у которых есть свои поклонники. Российским примером может служить сеть кулинарий «У Палыча», где потребитель покупает заведомо качественную продукцию, т.е. бренд стал эталоном качества, что позволяет в настоящее время этой компании с успехом продавать франчайзинг по всей стране. Также стоит отметить компании, обладающие уникальными технологиями экономии при сохранении высокого качества своей продукции, например, ИКЕА. Особое место здесь занимают технологии обучения. Дело в том, что сами технологии дают определенные преимущества развивающим их компаниям. Тем не менее, обучение – пожалуй, самая человекозависимая область управления в компании, то есть, не смотря на хорошо развитые технологии обучения, его качество будет в основном зависеть от качества тренеров. Помимо этого, обучение следует проводить на местах, поскольку централизованное обучение является значительно более затратным за счет большого количества командировок и риска нахождения работником

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вакансий в большом городе. Как ни парадоксально, но у компаний, проводящих большое количество программ по обучению персонала, текучесть кадров значительно выше, по сравнению с остальными. 3. Преимущества работы с поставщиками ресурсов. Они выражены в объеме закупок – чем больше объем на большую сеть, тем меньше закупочная цена на единицу. Это единственное, с чем маленькие компании не могут бороться. Объемные закупки, безусловно, обходятся дешевле. Тем не менее, как только речь идет о закупках в небольших объемах у локальных производителей, сравнимых с объемами закупок «маленьких» конкурентов, это преимущество нивелируется. Еще одной проблемой являются поставщики работ и услуг. У сервисных компаний крупные контракты часто могут оборачиваться против сетевых клиентов. Это объясняется тем, что для сервисной компании такой контракт является практически гарантированным в силу его объема, что зачастую приводит к снижению качества услуг во времени, а также возможности возникновения коррупционных надстроек. Помимо вышесказанного, локальные маленькие конкуренты имеют большие преимущества с точки зрения ассортиментных отстроек. Действительно, маленький магазин свежей рыбы в приморском городе будет иметь более привлекательный для покупателя ассортимент, чем сетевой супермаркет. 4. Единый маркетинговый бюджет на всю страну. Это выражается в трех основных преимуществах. Во-первых, можно включить в состав маркетинговых мероприятий рекламу по телевидению на федеральных каналах, что является значительно более действенным по сравнению с локальными способами продвижения продукции. Во-вторых, широкая узнаваемость бренда также позволяет экономить на локальной рекламе. Например, Кока Коле не нужно объяснять потребительские свойства своей продукции. Тем не менее, усредненное качество зачастую работает против бренда в регионах с успешным продвижением. Например, известно, что мегафон – связь для молодых, дешевая и не очень качественная, но в некоторых регионах качество связи гораздо лучше, чем у остальных операторов. В-третьих, единые маркетинговые технологии позволяют экономить на их локальной разработке. Единственная, но существенная слабость сетей с точки зрения маркетинга – отсутствие локального продвижения. Также, слабость со стороны продаж – зачастую невозможно сделать конкретную скидку на конкретный продукт в конкретном регионе. Рассмотрим примеры адаптации технологий экономии на масштабе для распределенных структур разных типов. Выделим три типа таких структур: 1. Унаследованная, то есть развитая кем-то другим: купленная целиком или слитая из нескольких сетей под одним брендом. В таких сетях все зависит от их возраста и имеющихся управленческих ресурсов. Все зависит от того, насколько долго существует сеть. Как ни странно, со временем сети начинают не экономить, а плодить издержки. Появляются лишние люди, лишние информационные надстройки, коррумпированные (в худшем случае) и родственные (в лучшем) отношения с поставщикамиподрядчиками. Например, в случае старых сетей каждая бизнес-единица обходится дороже, чем подобные у более мелких конкурентов. Только в редких случаях при сильном менеджменте и ежегодных инновационных проектах удается достичь экономии на масштабе. Что касается, к примеру, проектов по централизации, то, в противовес единому быстрому и масштабному проекту для всей сети, в данном случае наиболее приемлемой представляется стратегия постепенного обновления: последовательное выделение функций (по одной) и их постепенная, безболезненная централизация. 2. Эволюционно развитая собственными силами сеть

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Что касается эволюционно развивающихся сетей, их основной проблемой является неправильный прогноз масштаба операций на этапе планирования сети, а следовательно, и заведомо неверно заложенная система бизнес-процессов. Однако, в этом случае, с проблемой справиться проще, по сравнению с унаследованной структурой, поскольку здесь менеджмент имеет дело с дружественно настроенным персоналом и досконально известной системой процессов. 3. Сеть на начальном этапе развития. В этом случае, очевидно, экономию на масштабе достичь проще, чем в предыдущих, за счет того, что сеть выстраивается заново, в соответствии с имеющейся стратегией, а следовательно, существует возможность заранее заложить в нее правильные, легко масштабируемые бизнес-процессы. Однако, и здесь существуют свои ограничения, связанные, в первую очередь, с инертностью мышления акционеров и сложностью прогнозов масштабов деятельности и успешности компании. Действительно, трудно, к примеру, убедить будущего владельца Wallmart покупать дорогие, но легко масштабируемые информационные платформы (например Oracle), стоящие в сотни раз больше обычных информационных систем, когда он открывает первые три магазина. Тем не менее, подобные просчеты в прогнозах и связанная с ними экономия может стать серьезным и дорогостоящим препятствием на пути масштабного развития. Такие проблемы решаются только путем поиска стратегического инвестора, который заранее готовит масштабную экспансию на рынок, подразумевающую больште инвестиции. Итак, подытоживая все вышесказанное, можно сказать, что экономия на масштабе, безусловно, существует, как описано во всех классических экономических работах. Тем не менее, существует ряд факторов, которые ее усложняют и могут привести к тому, что проекты по экономии на масштабе могут привести не к сокращению, а наоборот, к увеличению затрат, аллоцированных на каждое отдельно взятое подразделение и на систему в целом.

Ivanova Iulia Nikolaevna Candidate of Economic Sciences, Docent, Department of National and Regional Economy State Higher Professional Educational Institution G. V. Plekhanov Russian Economic University Russia, Moscow Economy of Scales: From Theory to Practice The present article discusses the practical aspects of one of the basic economic laws – economy of scales. The author indicates to the opportunities of achieving the scale economies in large territorially dispersed structures as well as the challenges before the companies undertaking the scale economies projects.

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eka lekaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori Tbilisi, saqarTvelo sasursaTo usafrTxoebis aqtualuri problemebi saqarTveloSi romis deklaraciis (Rome Declaration on World Food Security) Tanaxmad, msoflio sasursaTo usafrTxoeba, sazogadoebis, mosaxleobis calkeuli jgufebisa da individebis aucilebeli saarsebo pirobaa, rac uzrunvelyofs demografiuli, ekonomikuri, politikuri, kulturuli, inteleqtualuri da a.S. ganviTarebis qcevebsa da SesaZleblobebs. saqarTveloSi erovnuli ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis problemis gadwyvetis umniSvnelovanes sakiTxs sasursaTo usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa warmoadgens. am TvalsazrisiT, qveyanam agrarul seqtorSi TviTuzrunvelyofaze orientirebuli dargobrivi struqtura da produqciis warmoebis mdgradi ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebis damkvidreba unda SeZlos. aseve, agraruli seqtoris miznobrivad diferencirebuli mxardaWera qveynis mzardi savaluto Semosavlebis miRebis mniSvnelovan gzad unda iqnas ganxiluli. aRniSnuli midgomebis safuZvelze, aqtualuria sasursaTo usafrTxoebis problemebis Seswavla qveynis mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis principebze dayrdnobiT. sursaTis xarisxisa da uvneblobis problemis aqtualuroba erovnuli da saerTaSoriso interesebis da TiToeuli momxmareblis interesis doneze eWvs ar badebs. sasursaTo usafrTxoebis sakiTxi kompleqsuria da oTx ZiriTad komponents moicavs: pirveli - mosaxleobis saWiro raodenobis sursaTiT uzrunvelyofas iTvaliswinebs, meore - dabalansebul kvebas, mesame - sursaTis uvneblobas, meoTxe kriteriumi ki sakvebis materialur da geografiul xelmisawvdomobas gulisxmobs. saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis saarsebo minimumma, romelic dgindeba minimaluri sasursaTo kalaTis safuZvelze, 2011 wlis dekemberSi 165.9 lari Seadgina. suladobrivi saSualo Tviuri Semosavali saqarTveloSi 2010 wels 178.6 iyo. cifrebidan Cans, rom, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT Semosavlebis ganawilebis disproporcias, mosaxleobis suladobrivi saSualo Tviuri Semosavlis miaxlovebiT 85% minimaluri sasursaTo kalaTis SeZenas xmardeba. oficialuri statistikiT, samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebis mniSvnelovan nawils Seadgens sursaTze, sasmelze da Tambaqoze gaweuli xarjebi (41.4%)28. es tendencia SeimCneva rogorc qalaqis, aseve soflis mosaxleobaSi, Tumca qalaqâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;soflis WrilSi ganxilvisas unda aRiniSnos, rom soflis mosaxleobaSi sursaTis, sasmelis da Tambaqos xarjebis wili samomxmareblo fulad xarjebSi 7.1 procentuli punqtiT aRemateba analogiur maCvenebels qalaqis mosaxleoba.29 naTelia, rom saqarTveloSi Semosavlebis mniSvnelovan nawils mosaxleoba sursaTsa da sakveb produqtebze xarjavs. xazgasasmelia isic, rom saqarTveloSi fiqsirdeba sursaTis fasebis donis zrdis tendencia sxva samomxmareblo saqonelis fasebis donesTan SedarebiT. nawilobriv, sursaTis fasebis donis zrdiTac aixseneba samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebis zrda sursaTze, sasmelze da Tambaqoze mTlian danaxarjebSi (ix. diagrama 1 da diagrama 2). 28 29

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naTelia, rom saqarTveloSi saarsebo minimumi sasursaTo usafrTxoebis dacvis sayovelTaod aRiarebul normebs uxeSad ugulebelyofs. yoveldRiur racionSi Zalze dabalia im sursaTis energetikuli Rirebuleba, romelic Sromisunarian mamakacs dRis ganmavlobaSi daudgines, es dRiurad 2300 kkal-s ar aRemateba. am cifris TiTqmis naxevari, daaxloebiT 47% - pursa da purproduqtebze modis. organizmisTvis aucilebeli xorci da misi produqtebi racionSi mxolod 6.67%-s Seadgens, rZe da rZis produqtebi 8%-iTaa gansazRvruli. sabolood aseTi kveba adamianis organizmis dauZlurebasa da TandaTanobiT sikvdils niSnavs. amas cxadyofs mosaxleobis, maT Soris - bavSvebis maRali sikvdilianobis statistika30. diagrama 1. sursaTis da samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (1998– 2011)

analizSi gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom saqarTveloSi 2011 wlis samomxmareblo kalaTa 288 dasaxelebis saqonlisa da momsaxurebisgan Sedgeba da aqedan 89 dasaxeleba sasursaTo produqtze modis. sursaTi da ualkoholo sasmelebi samomxmareblo kalaTis 30.3 %–s Seadgens, xolo alkoholuri sasmelebi – 5.5% –s, rac mianiSnebs sasursaTo produqtis mniSvnelobis doneze qarTul samomxmareblo sivrceSi. diagrama 2. sursaTis saSualo sacalo fasebi saqarTveloSi (lari/kg)×100

saqarTveloSi, Semosavlebis simciris gamo, sursaTis SeZenisas mosaxleoba arCevans akeTebs safase faqtoris gavleniT da ara saqonlis xarisxobrivi Sefase30

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biT. am ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSic, momxmarebeli saqonlis Sefasebas axorcielebs gauTviTcnobiereblad. mas ara aqvs sakmarisi kvalifikacia da orientirebulia mxolod sakuTar cxovrebiseul gamocdilebasa da codnaze. sasursaTo usafrTxoebis problemebis ganxilvisas xazgasmas moiTxovs is faqti, rom saqarTveloSi soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebulTa raodenoba mTliani mosaxleobis TiTqmis naxevrs Seadgens (46,9%) . SeiniSneba am maCveneblis umniSvnelo Semcirebis tendencia, rac nawilobriv migraciis da urbanizaciis faqtoriT aris ganpirobebuli. soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebulTa maRali wilis miuxedavad, soflis meurneobis wili mSp–Si ar izrdeba. soflis meurneobis wili mTlian Sida produqtSi klebis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba (ix. cxrili 1). viTarebas arTulebs isic, rom 1999 welTan SedarebiT marcvleulis saSualo mosavlianoba Semcirebulia da 1,3–s Seadgens. 2006–2010 wlebSi warmoebuli xorblis raodenoba erT sul mosaxleze Semcirda da 11 kg Seadgina. Semcirda simindis (32 kg), xilis (28 kg), yurZnis(27kg) da xorcis (13 kg) warmoeba erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis raodenobis ucvlelobis pirobebSi. stabiluri maCvenebeli SenarCunda kartofilis, rZisa da kvercxis warmoebisas. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom 2010 wlisTvis naTesma farTobma Seadgina 191,4 aTasi heqtari, rac 2–jer naklebia 1999 wlis imave maCvenebelTan SedarebiT (378,8 aTasi)31. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia gamovitanoT daskvna, rom soflis meurneoba am etapze ar aris orientirebuli mdgradi da dargis intensiuri ganviTarebis strategiaze, rac miiRweva Tanamedrove inovaciuri da teqnologuri midgomebis aqtiuri danergviT. cxrili 1. soflis meurneobis, metyeveobis da TevzWeris wili mSp–Si, % (2006–2010) wlebi 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 mSp-is % 12.8 10.7 9.4 9.4 8.4

sasursaTo produqtiT TviTuzrunvelyofis problemaze metyvelebs isic, rom izrdeba sursaTis importis moculoba eqsportTan SedarebiT. 2010 wels sursaTis registrirebuli eqsporti 1574.1 mln. aSS dolaria, xolo importi 5248.5 mln. aSS dolari. 2010 wels eqsportis 2.5 % RviniT, 4% TxiliT da 3.4% spirtiani sasmelebiT aris warmodgenili. amave wels importis 1.5%–s Saqari, 1.6%–s sigaretebi da 3.4 %–s xorbali Seadgenda.32 sasursaTo usafrToebis problemebSi moiazreba instituciuri da samarTlebrivi bazis gaumarTavoba. 2005 wlis 27 dekembers miRebul iqna saqarTvelos kanoni ,,sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb“. aRniSnuli kanoni, romelic saqarTvelos parlamentis dadgenilebiT 2006 wlidanaa ZalaSi, sursaTisa da cxovelTa sakvebis xarisxisa da uvneblobis saxelmwifo kontrolis meqanizms uzrunvelyofs. amasTan, evrokavSiris moTxovniT miRebuli kanonis mTeli rigi muxlis moqmedeba SeCerebulia. aRniSnuli kanonis amoqmedebis Seferxebis mizezi da mniSvnelovani problemaa institucionaluri sisustiT aris ganpirobebuli. kanonis sruli amoqmedeba 2013 wlisTvis gadavadda. `sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb~ kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlidan moyolebuli, sarealizaciao qselSi sasursaTo produqtebis monitoringi ganxorciel31

analizi ganxorcielda monacemebze dayrdnobiT. 32 analizi ganxorcielda monacemebze dayrdnobiT.

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saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris oficialur ix. veb.: www.geostat.ge saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris oficialur ix. veb.: www.geostat.ge


deba maTi nimuSebis sakontrolo SesyidvebiT da Semdgom laboratoriuli gamokvleviT. magaliTisTvis vityviT, rom am mizniT 2009 wels biujetidan sasursaTo produqtebis uvneblobisa da xarisxis laboratoriul kvlevaze 445 500 lari iyo gamoyofili, 2010 wels â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 200 000 (faqtiurad daixarja mxolod 89 200 lari), 2011 wels â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 172 000 lari. 2012 wels gegmiT isev 200 000 lari aris gaTvaliswinebuli33. sasursaTo produqtebis monitoringze gaweuli danaxarjebi adasturebs vfiqrobT, im mizeziT, rom sursaTis bazari saqarTveloSi ar aris daculi uxarisxo da falsificirebuli produqciisgan, unda gaizardos da masze gaweuli samarTlebrivi bazis gaumarTavobas emateba isic, rom sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi ar SemuSavebula erovnuli strategia, romlis mixedviTac SesaZlebeli iqneboda aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT mizandasaxuli RonisZiebebis gatareba. amrigad, sasursaTo usafrTxoebis Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, qveyanaSi agrarul seqtorSi unda SemuSavdes TviTuzrunvelyofaze orientirebuli dargobrivi struqtura, romelic produqciis warmoebis mdgradi ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebis damkvidrebas Seuwyobs xels. sasursaTo usafrTxoebis erovnuli strategiis SemuSavebaSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos zemoTCamoTvlili problemebis daZlevis gzebi, romlis safuZvelzec moxdeba sasursaTo usafrTxoebis sistemis gajansaReba da sursaTis mwarmoebeli kompaniebis konkurentunarianobis amaRleba.

Eka Lekashvili Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Pressing Problems of Food Security in Georgia Summary The work deals with the pressing questions of food security in Georgia. It is noted that world food security is of vital importance for existence of society, certain groups of people and individuals which provides demographic, economic, political, cultural, intellectual and other development opportunities. The issue of food security has a special importance in solving the problem of Georgia's national economic security. In this regard, the country has to strive for establishing the sectoral structure oriented on selfsatisfaction in agricultural sector and sustainable development opportunities. In addition, targeted differential support of the agricultural sector should be regarded as a considerable way for the country's growing income. From the food security point of view, the sectoral structure, oriented on the country's food security should be developed in agricultural sector, which will promote sustainable development of food production. While developing national food security strategy, the ways of overcoming above mentioned problems should be taken into consideration, which will form the basis for making food security system healthier and increasing competitiveness of food manufacturing companies.

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irine mamalaZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis mowveuli profesori Tbilisi, saqarTvelo samewarmeo garemo globalizaciis pirobebSi globalizaciis Tanamedrove intensiuri procesi erT sabazro meurneobad kravs manamde gankerZoebul da gansxvavebul ekonomikebs. am procesSi yalibdeba iseTi axali ekonomikuri sistema, romelSic an mTlianad qreba, an minimumamde mcirdeba saerTaSoriso sainvesticio, sawarmoo da savaWro saqmianobis gzaze arsebuli zRudeebi. ტranserovnuli korporaciebi, romelsac globalizaciis safuZvels da mTavar mamoZravebel Zalas uwodeben, pirdapiri sazRvargareTuli investiciebis meSveobiT gamudmebiT aZliereben TavianT gavlenas saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ganviTarebisa da erovnul ekonomikaTa konkurentunarianobaze.es axali realoba ganapirobebs saerTaSoriso meurneobis ganviTarebis mravali aspeqtis xelaxal gaazrebas, iqiTken gvibiZgebs, rom axleburad SevxedoT xsenebuli korporaciebis sainvesticio saqmianobis Sedegebს da msoflio meurneobaSi Semosavlebis uTanabrod ganawilebis mizezებს. magaliTad, s. haimeris Teoriis momxreTa აზriT, pirdapiri sazRvargareTuli investiciebi firmis sabazro Zalmosilebis matebis saSualebad unda ganvixiloT. ფirmis gadaqceva transerovnul korporaciad dabla swevs konkurenciis dones da barierebs aRmarTavs im dargebSi SesaRwev gzebze, romelSic aseTi korporaciebi moRvaweoben. moWarbebuli Zala imis unars aniWebs maT , rom ganviTarebuli qveynebis mTavrobebSi miaRwion saTanado damcavi zonebis lobirebas da kidev ufro ganimtkicon batonoba adgilobriv bazarze. Amgvari politika sagrZnob zarals ayenebs investiciebis mimReb qveynebs , radgan ucxouri korporaciebis monopolia aZvirebs da auaresebs saqonlis xarisxs. (1, gv. 189) transerovnuli korporaciebis saqmianobis sxva Teoriuli koncefcia im varauds efuZneba, rom maTi sazRvargareTuli filialebis Seqmnis mTavari mizani dabegvris moculobis Semcirebaa. აm koncefciis arsi isaa, rom sakuTar qselSi eqsport-importis operaciebis ganxorcielebisas transfertuli faswarmoebis meqanizmis gamoyenebiT isini mogebis registrirebas dabegvris dabali ganakveTis mqone qveynebSi ახდენენ მაშინაც კი, თუ შემოსავლები მაღალი განაკვეთების მქონე ქვეყნებში hqondaT miRebuli. es gansakuTrebiT aSkaraa ofSorul zonebSi moqmed maT filialebSi. Transerovnuli korporaciebis pirdapiri sazRvargareTuli investiciebis wyalobiT xerxdeba maT mimReb qveynebSi arsebuli masalebis bazrebis gakontrolebac. Jer kidev Cveni saukunis dasawyisSi marto filialebis mier gayiduli saqonlis moculoba msoflio mSp—is 58%-s gautolda, ramac 2,5 –jer gauswro msoflio eqsportis moculobas ( 2, gv 275). გlobalizaciis Tanamedrove etapze TiTqmis yvela qveyanam Seqmna ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisTvis xelsayreli pirobebi. kerZod: • უcxouri investiciebi kanonmdeblobiTaa daculi eqspropriaciisgan. • transerovnuli filialebis erovnuli reJimi aqvs miniWebuli.

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ekonomikis

umravles

dargebSi


• უcxoel investorebs SeuZliaT adgilobrivebTan gaTanabrebul pirobebSi miiRon monawileoba saxelmwifo sakuTrebis privatizebaSi ( XX saukunis 90-ian wlebis Cveulebrivi praqtika laTinur amerikaSi , centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi) amave dros unda gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom erovnul ekonomikaTa mTel rig strategiul dargebSi jer kidev SezRuduli an akrZalulia ucxoel investorTa saqmianoba. Qqveynebis did nawilSi aseTebia: • ეleqtroenergiis gamomuSaveba da madneulis mopoveba • kavSirgabmuloba da telekomunikaciebi. • sazRvao, sarkinigzo da saaviacio tvirTzidva. • TevzWera. • Tavdacvis mrewveloba. • uZravi qoneba, miwis resursebi da savarguulebi. is garemo, romelSic warmoeba, sawarmo da mTlianad ekonomika viTardeba , mudmivad moZraobaSi myofi faqtorebis kombinaciad SegviZlia ganvixiloT. Ekonomikis ganviთareba, Tavis mxriv, am faqtorebis Secvlasac iwvevs. აq calke unda gamnovyoT konkurentuli garemo, romlis Teoriul modelsac ayalibebs bazarze iseTi subieqtebis zegavlena, rogoricaa: 1. saxelmwifoebi da maTi politika bazarze konkurenciis regulirebis mimarTulebiT. 2.is sawarmoebi, romlebic gamodian bazarze da amwvaveben sakonkurento brZolas. 3. momxmareblebi, romlebic ama Tu im dargis sawarmoebze axdenen gavlenas. 4.nedleulsa da masalebis mimwodeblebi. 5. Semcvleli saqonlis mwarmoeblebi. 6.produqciis is uSualo mwarmoeblebi, romlebTanac konkurenciaSia Cabmuli sawarmo. samewarmeo garemos cvalebodabam marTvis axali paradigmis damkvidreba gamoiwvia, romelic strategiuli marketingis koncefcias eyrdnoba.es gulisxmobs firmis qcevis filosofiis Camoyalibebas da moqmedebis prognozirebas arCeuli orientirebisa da bazarze dasaxuli miznebis gaTvaliswinebiT.es niSnavs ara marto bazarze mosapovebeli poziciebis gansazRvras, aramed im moqmdebaTa erTobliobis SemuSavebasac, romlebic strategiuli politikis koncefciis Seqmnas moiTxoven.swored aseT koncefcia unda gaxdes taqtikur moqmedebaTa meqanizmis awyobis mTavari sayrdeni. sawarmeobis funqcionirebis efeqturobaze mniSvnelovnad moqmedebs sainformacio sistemis da kompiuteruli teqnologiebnis farTod danergva warmoebaSi. amJamad mcire da saSualo mewarmeebs da individebsac iseTi moculobis informaciaze miuwvdebaT xeli, romelic winaT mxolod msxvili sainformacio centrebisTvis iyo xelmisawvdomi. ეs garemoeba aCqarebs warmoebaSi gaCenil decentralizaciur tendenciebs, rasac Tan sdevs mcire sawarmoo, kvleviT da eqsperimentuli sawarmoebis raodenobis mkveTrad mateba. globalizaciis pirobebSi sawarmos erTdroulad SeuZlia kidec da iZulebulicaa Tavisi samewarmeo saqmianoba SeuTanxmos mtel msoflios rogorc saqoneliTa da momsaxurebiT, erTi mxriv momaragebisa da meore mxriv gasaRebis sesaZlo sivrces (areals). amasTan, efeqturad marTvis uzrunvelyofad man diferencirebuli midgoma unda gamoiyenos gansxvavebuli socialuri – fsiqologiuri bunebis

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mqone adamianebis mimarT, romlebic sadReisod oTx mTavar jgufad SegviZlia davyoT: 1. ekonomikuri tipis adamianebi, romelTaTvisac wamyvania piradi materialuri sargebeli da swored es gansazRvravs maT qcevasa da moqmedebas warmoebis procesSi. 2. socialuri tipis adamianebi , romlebic adamianTaSoris urTierTobebze arian orientirebulni, maT qcevas, pirvel rigSi SromiTi saqmianobis socialuri normebi gansazRvravs. Aაmitom menejmentis amocana xdeba adamianebs Soris kargi urTierTobis SenarCunebaze zrunva. 3. SemoqmedebiTi tipis adamianebi, romlebic ganviTarebisken, TviTsrulyofisa da TviTrializaciisken arian midrekilni, isini naklebad emorCilebian brZanebebsa da kontrols da gamudmebul SemoqmedebiT ZiebaSi imYofebian 4. სocialurad individualizebuli tipis adamianebi, romelTaTvisac moraluri kmayofileba ufro mets niSnavs , vidre materialuri swored isini gamoirCevian moTxovnilebaTa mravalferovnebiTa da dinamizmiT. sawarmo personalis amgvarad dajgufebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs gamoyenebiT menejmentSi. Masze dayrdnobiT sawarmos marTvam unda SeZlos TiToeuli momuSavis potencialis gamoyeneba Sromis nayofierebisa da saqonlis xarisxis asamaRleblad. ეs menejerebis pirdapiri movaleoba xdeba. bolo aTwleulebSi mewarmeobis ganviTarebaze didad moqmedebs saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integraciis procesebi. swored isini ayalibebs sameurneo cxovrebis internacionalizaciis Tanamedrove etapis mimarTulebebsa da prioritetebs, ayalibebs globaluri konkurenciis garemos, gavlenas axdens yoveli qveynis strategiul interesebze da didad gansazRvravs maTi ekonomikuri zrdis dinamikas.amitom TiTqmis yvelgan xdeba mewarmeobis ganviTarebis saTanado saxelmwifo strategiis SemoSveba da ganxorcieleba, raSic iTvaliswineben ara marto ekonomikuri zrdis adgilobriv wyaroebs, aramed sagareo faqtorebsac, rogorc grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi erovnuli ekonomikis stabiluri da mdgradi konkurentunarianobis uzrunvelyofis aucilebel pirobas. ekonomikur urTierTobaTa globalizaciis pirobebSi saxelmwifos mzardi roli eTmoba samewarmeo garemos SeqmnaSi. იgi mxars udna uWerdes Tavisufal mewarmeobas, ekonomikur iniciativebs da ekonomikis demokratizacias. Samewarmeo seqtors saxelmwifo unda ganixilavdes ekonomikuri ganviTarebis katalizatorad da mis damaCqareblad (3 gv. 86) ekonomikur demokratias zogjer arasworad aigiveben konkurenciasTan, romelic marTlac warmogvidgeba Tanamedrove sameurneo cxovrebis erT-erT fuZemdeblur principad. CvenSi demokratiis swored aramarTebulad gagebam migviyvana iqamde, rom 20 wlis manZilze mimdinare ტრანსფორმაციული cvlilebebis miuxedavad ver miviReT xelSesaxebi dadebiTi Sedegebi. აbsoluturad sworad migvaCnia is mtkiceba (debuleba), rom ekonomikuri demokratia marto iuridiuli Tu fizikuri pirebis sameurneo saqmianobiT ar unda Semoifarglebodes da saxelmwifo sawarmoebs, profkavSirebs, mewarmeTa kavSirebsa da sxva organizaciebsac unda moicavdes. Aamdenad, ekonomikuri demografia globalizaciis epoqis civilizaciuri, socialuri kulturuli wris fenomenia (4, gv 11) Tumca, didad sagulisxmoa isic, rom TviTon ekonomikuri demografiis Camoyalibebisa da ganmtkicebisaTvis erT-erTi Semaferxebeli faqtori qveynis ganviTarebis dabali donea (4, gv 77).

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kacobriobis ganviTarebis dRevandel etapze mewarmeobis განხორციელების Taviseburebebs globalizaciasTan erTad msoflio krizisuli procesebic ganapirobebs. Mkvlevarebma gamoavlines, rom finansuri krizisi globalizaciis pirobebSi sxva dargebis krizissac ganapirobebs: mTlianad ekonomikuri, socialuri da sxva sferoebs. Tanac, es krizisi gacilebiT ufro rTuli fenomeni gamodga, vidre morigi ekonomikuri ciklia xolme, amitom axla TiTqmis yvelgan naklebad sjeraT imisa, rom mewarmeobis aRmavloba da mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTareba amave sameurneo-kulturuli urTierTobebis farglebSi iqneba SesaZlebeli. kerZod, eqspertTa erTi didi nawili im azrs emxroba, rom msoflio ganviTarebis gza globalizaciidan gadaxveva iqneba (5, gv 54) vfiqrobT, rom postkrizisul epoqaSi mewarmeobas mdgradi aRmavloba ukve e.w მeeqvse teqnologiuri wyobis damkvidrebis garemoSi mouwevs, romelsac bio- da nanoteqnologiebi, masalebisa da sainformacio teqnologiebi Seuqmnian safuZvels. amasTan, maT Soris arsebuli sazrvrebi sul ufro pirobiTi gaxdeba codnis gansxvavebuli dargebis urTierTSeRwevis gamo. gamokveTilad gaizrdeba nanoteqnologiebis roli, romelic, Tavis mxriv, principulad axal doneze aiyvans informatikas,molekulur biologias, genur inJineriasa da medicinas. es wyobaa im potencialis Semcvleli, romelic Zirfesvianad Secvlis ekonomikuri da socialuri cxovrebis sferoebs, Secvlis Sromis xasiaTsa da warmoebis struqturas. (5, gv70) globalizaciis pirobebSi mewarmeoba sul ufro metad orientirebulia msoflio ekonomikaSi integraciisken. xSirad es ara marto arCevani, aramed imerativicaa. aRsaniSnavia, rom ara თu integracia, aramed amis aucileblobis gaazrebac ki ukve dadebiTad moqmedebs inovaciur mewarmeobaze gadasvlis kuTxiT. Tumca, mZlavri inovaciuri strategiis amoqmedeba, Tavis mxriv, sawarmoebis mdgrad finansur mdgomareobazea pirvelrigSi damokidebuli. globalizaciis pirobebSi Tanamedrove ekonomikis ganviTareba stimuls aZlevs sawarmoebis kooperaciisa da integraciis axal-axali formebis warmoqmnas da Sesabamisad, gansxvavebuli samewarmeo garemos Camoyalibebas. წarmoebis organizaciisa da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis iseTi xerxebis Zieba, romlebic ukeT iqneba misadagebuli swrafad cvalebad garemos, miznad isaxavs biznesSi CarTuli resursebis optimalurad gamoyenebas warmoebis efeqturobis amaRlebasa da konkurentunarianobis gaZlierebis rogorc Sida, ise sagareo bazrebze. am dros globalizacia dakavSirebuli araa marto transerovnuli kompaniebis saqmianobaze, romlebisTvisac erovnuli CarCoebi metismetad viwroa – ekonomikuri organizaciisa da socialuri TanamSromlobis aqtiurad ganviTarebadi formebi xdeba კlasterebi, qselebi da a.S. კlasteri SegviZlia vuwodoT im mWidro kavSirurTierTobaTa sistemas, romelic yalibdeba firmebsa, maT momwodeblebsa da klientebs Soris. codnis (ganaTlebi) im institutebis CaTvliT, romlebsac inovaciebis unari aqvT. კlasterebis mravali Taviseburebidan sakmarisia gamovyoT ori:  ეkonomikuri agentebis simravle (firmebi, sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi, finansuri Suamavlebi, akademiebi, institutebi da a.S);  კოnkurencia da Tanac TanamSromloba (romelic Tanabrad axasiaTebs maT). klasterSi Semavali struqturebis urTierTobebis safuZvelia saerTo an urTierTSemavsebeli sawarmoo procesi, produqti, teqnologia, resursebi, masalebis arxebi. magram, amave dros, klasterebi kidev ufro meti ramaa, vidre biznes-qselebi, radgan es qselebi SedarebiT metad Caketili organizaciebia da aq klasterebi,

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pirvel rigSi, bazarze gamarTul konkurenciaSi exmarebian kompaniebs. magaliTad, evrokavSiris kompaniebis daaxloebit 2/3 adasturebs, rom klasteris wevroba gzas uxsnis mat bazrebisken aseve didad mniSvnelovania maTi roli kompaniebis didi nawilis konkurentunarianobis amarlebaSi. (6, gv 110) bolos erT garemoebasac unda gavusvaT xazi. Cvens droSi TvalSi sacemi xdeba saerTaSoriso biznesis zrda, eqspertebi ki mis kidev ufro gaaqtiurebas moelian. isini amis or mizezs asaxeleben:  kompaniebis strategiul moTxovnilebebs, romlebic globalizaciis process aZleven biZgs.  saerTaSoriso biznesis garemos Secvlas, romelic am process uwyobs xels.

literatura: 1. Л.З Зевин. Зкономигеские структуры разного уровия в глобальиых процесах. М 2003 2. Глобализация экономики и её воздействиена предпринимательскую деятельность, М. Экономика, 2006 3. Практтика глобализации игры и провила новой эпохи. м.ИНФРА_М. 2000 4. z. TeTruaSvili, m. TeTruaSvili-qardava. ekonomikuri demokratia da misi ganviTarebis sakiTxebi saqarTveloSi, Tb., 2006 5. И. Н.Семёновна. Роль кластеров в интернационализации и кооперации в сфере науки ииновации в контексте глобализации. В сб. Кластерные технологии в исследованиях. 6. www.postkrisisworld.org 7. www.glossary.ru

Irine Mamaladze Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Visiting Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Entrepreneurial Environment under Globalization Summary New stage of modern globalization has created favorable conditions for attracting foreign investments in almost all countries. At the same time we must bear in mind that activities of foreign investors are still restricted or prohibited in a number of strategic national economic sectors. The environment in which the economy is developing can be considered as a combination of constantly growing factors. In addition, economic development outcomes caused some changes in these factors. Changeability of business environment established a new paradigm of managing, which is based on the concept of Strategic Marketing. This means determination of market position by the company, as well as collaboration of the actions, which demand creation of a new concept of strategic policy. Exactly this kind of concept should become a main pillar for creating right mechanism of tactical actions. In the process of economic globalization the government plays the initial role in creating good business environment. It should support the principle of free enterprise in economics and its democratization.

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gogola margvelaSvili soflis meurneobis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevri paata koRuaSvili soflis meurneobis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevri saqarTvelo, Tbilisi soflis meurneoba mecnierebaze damyarebuli industriaa garemomcveli buneba adamianis sicocxlisa da sazogadoebrivi warmoebis upirvelesi wyaro da arsebobisTvis aucilebeli pirobaa. aqveU unda iTqvas isic, rom bunebrivi resursebis CamonaTvalidan romelime calke aRebuli ver uzrunvelyofs adamianis arsebobas planetaze, rac garemos yvela komponentis (haeri, wyali, niadagi, tye da a.S.) kompleqsuri SenarCunebis aucileblobaze metyvelebs. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas rom adamianisa da bunebis optimaluri Tanaarsebobis problema dRes im aqtualur problemaTa ricxvs ganakuTvneba, romelic progresul moazrovneTa kvlevisa da zrunvis sagania. es arc unda iyos gasakviri Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sayovelTao azriT adamianisa da bunebis urTierTobebis swor da droul daregulirebazea damokidebuli dedamiwaze adamianTa modgmis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi. Tanamedrove sazogadoebisaTvis dRis wesrigSi dgas, ara marto, bunebis dacvisa da aRwarmoebis didi socialur-ekonomikuri mniSvnelobis sakiTxi, aramed sociumis, ekologiisa da ekonomikis, faqtobrivad winaaRmdegobrivi ganviTarebis Secvlis obieqturi aucilebloba, urTierT dabalansebuli interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. anu mdgradi ganviTarebis (`mdgradi ganviTareba aris procesi, romlis CarCoebSic ganviTarebis procesi resursebis zianis miuyeneblad da maTi ganadgurebis gareSe mimdinareobs. es, rogorc wesi, miiRweva resursebis iseTi marTviT, romlis drosac SesaZlebelia maTi ganaxleba iseTive tempiT, rogoriTac isini moixmarebian an resursebis nela ganaxlebadi procesi icvleba swrafad ganaxlebadiT. aseTi midgomis dros resursebis gamoyenebas SevZlebT rogorc Cven, aseve momavali Taobebi~) im sami fundamenturi principis gaTvaliswinebiT (1. ekologiuri mdgradoba _ rac uzrunvelyofs ganviTarebis SeTavsebas sabazo ekologiuri procesebis, biologiuri mravalferovnebisa da biologiuri resursebis dacva-aRdgenis procesisadmi; 2. socialuri da kulturuli mdgradoba _ rac uzrunvelyobs iseT mdgradobas, romlis drosac ganviTareba xels uwyobs adamianebis mxridan kontrolis zrdas maTi cxovrebisadmi/sicocxlisadmi, maTive kulturasTan da RirebulebebTan erTad, romlebsac exeba es ganviTareba, da amasTan, inarCunebs da amtkicebs adgilobriv TviTmyofadobas; 3. ekonomikuri mdgradoba _ rac uzrunvelyofs ganviTarebis ekonomikur efeqturobas da iseT mdgomareobas, romlis drosac resursebis marTvis SerCeuli meTodi iZleba saSualebas, rom igi momavalma Taobebmac gamoiyenon), romelic mowonebuli iqna gaeros rio de Janeiros samitze (1992w.) da asaxuli iqna amave samitze miRebul umniSvnelovanes dokumentSi â&#x20AC;&#x153;dRis wesrigi 21-e saukunisaTvisâ&#x20AC;?. Tanamedrove msoflioSi garemosa da adamianebs Soris urTierToba axali ekologiuri azrovnebis safuZvelze ewyoba, dRis wesrigSi dgas bunebaTsargeblobisa da vargisi (usafrTxo) sakvebi produqtebis warmoebis problemis gadawyvetis amocana. es Sexeduleba evropidan modis da mimarTulia bunebrivi garemos katastrofuli anTropogenuli xasiaTis cvlilebebis SesaCereblad da soflis meurne-

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obis produqciis mdgradi warmoebis problemis gadasaWrelad. saqarTvelos ekonomika dReisaTvis Sorsaa usafrTxo da mdgradi ganviTarebis zRvruli maCveneblebisagan. igi gafarToebuli aRwarmoebisa da TviTganviTarebis unaris dakargvis winaSe dgas. Tu es mdgomareoba kvlavac gagrZelda, maSin gadaWriT unda iTqvas, rom qveynis, rogorc ekonomikur, aseve sasursaTo damoukideblobas dakargvis realuri safrTxe emuqreba. agrosasursaTo kompleqsis mdgrad da usafrTxo ganviTarebaSi unda vigulisxmoT qveynis mosaxleobis sursaTze moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba da gadammuSavebeli mrewvelobis sawarmoTa saWiro nedleuliT uzrunvelyofa (momavali TaobisaTvis zianis miuyeneblad), moTxovna-miwodebis da produqciis eqsport-importis moculobaTa racionaluri dabalansebis safuZvelze. amisaTvis saWiroa qveynis saerTo ekonomikuri potencialis, maT Soris miwis, kapitalis, Sromis, codnis, samewarmeo unaris, saxelmwifo maregulirebeli sistemis ufro aqtiuri amoqmedeba da soflis meurneobis produqciis warmoebis, gadamuSavebisa da realizaciis integrirebuli sistemis (erTiani ciklis) Seqmna. agraruli seqtoris mdgradi da usafrTxo ganviTarebis strategiis ganxorcielebisTvis saqarTvelos gaaCnia Sesabamisi potenciali. aq mxolod erT maTganze, miwis, niadagebis mdgomareobaze SevCerdebiT. rogorc cnobilia, nebismier qveyanaSi mosaxleobis cxovrebis done resursuli potencialis raodenobriv-xarisxobriv maCveneblebze da mis gonivrul gamoyenebazea damokidebuli. resursul potencialSi miwas, rogorc uvado ekonomikur aqtivs, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. misi wili qveynis mTlian nivTobriv simdidreSi damokidebulia, erTi mxriv, miwis raodenobriv-xarisxobriv maxasiaTeblebze, xolo meore mxirv am qveyanaSi arsebuli kapitalis raodenobasa da struqturaze. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mqone qveynebis nivTobrivi simdidris SemadgenlobaSi miwis wili, rogorc wesi, dabalia da piriqiT. aSS-is kapitalis da miwis Rirebuleba 1985 wels 12.5 trilion dolarad iyo Sefasebuli, romelSic miwis wili mxolod 18%-s Seadgenda, xolo saqarTveloSi gaeros specialuri meTodikiT gaangariSebuli nivTobrivi simdidre 1990 wels sul 275 mlrd. aSS-is dolaris tolfasi iyo, romelSic miwas 54.3% ekava34. udavoa isic, rom, sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, rac meti nivTobrivi simdidre gaaCnia qveyanas, miT ufro meti erToblivi Siga produqtis warmoeba SeuZlia erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT. marTalia, dRes miwa, rogorc warmoebis ZiriTadi saSualeba, aRar ganixileba erTaderT `simdidris dedad~, magram faqtia, rom is aris da didxans darCeba `arsobis puris~ mopovebis ualternativo saSualebad. saqarTvelos geografiuli garemo, mkveTrad gamoxatuli vertikaluri zonaloba, biogeoklimaturi mravalferovneba ganapirobebda mTisa da baris ekonomikuri zonebis formirebas, agromravaldargovnebas, soflis meurneobis gaZRolis specifikur Taviseburebas, agraruli warmoebis wess, romelic bunebaTsargeblobis principebs, niadagdacviT miwaTmoqmedebasa da bunebriv-kulturul mecxoveleobas efuZneboda. Cven unda aRvadginoT da ganvaviTaroT agroekologiuri warmoebis is tradiciebi da unikaluri wesebi, romlebic TanxvedraSi movlen Tanamedrove teqnologiebTan. es saSualebas mogvcems vawarmooT uxvi da ekologiurad sufTa produqcia. aseTi midgoma gamarTlebulia, miT umetes, rom unikaluri bunebrivi pirobebi da garemo, xalxis unar-Cvevebi da gamocdileba, geopolitikuri mdebareoba da 34

p. koRuaSvili, g. zibzibaZe, a. mesxiSvili, `miwa _ eris arsebobisa da Semoqmedebis aucilebeli sivrce~, Jur. `biznesi da kanonmdebloba~, #6, gv. 39-45, 2010

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sxva faqtorebis kompleqsi, _ qmnis qarTuli agraruli meurneobis SedarebiT upiratesobas. saqarTvelos ZiriTadad ekologiurad sufTa agroproduqciiT SeuZlia SeaRwios da damkvidrdes evropul bazarze. man misi mciremiwianobidan gamomdinare, aqcenti unda gaakeTos ara warmoebis masStabsa da raodenobriv maCveneblebze, aramed produqciis usafrTxoebasa da xarisxobriv maxasiaTeblebze risTvisac xeli unda Seewyos naturaluri soflis meurneobis produqciis warmoebis ganviTarebas, romlis sawarmoo baza qveynis mTeli mTianeTia. saqarTvelos upirvelesi da Seucvleli erovnuli simdidris _ niadagis dacva da misi nayofierebis SenarCuneba_amaRlebaze zrunva, miwaze sakuTrebis formis miuxedavad, saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis problemaa. sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis ganviTareba upirvelesad niadagze da mis nayofierebazea damokidebuli. Cveni qveynis geografiuli mdebareoba, klimaturi pirobebi da niadagwarmomqmneli qanebi TiTqmis yvela tipis niadagis gavrcelebas ganapirobebs, dawyebuli Savmiwebidan, damTavrebuli udabnos tipis da teniani subtropikebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niadagebiT (49 niadaguri tipi). Aamdenad, saqarTvelos ,,niadaguri muzeumicâ&#x20AC;? SeiZleba ewodos. Cvens qveyanaSi sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis farTobis gadidebis SesaZlebloba gansazRvrulia. agroproduqciis warmoebaze mudmivad mzardi moTxovna ZiriTadad farTobis erTeulze mosavlis gadidebiT unda dakmayofildes. saqarTvelo mkveTrad gamoxatuli vertikaluri zonalobis gamo (zRvis donidan 500 metramde mdebareobs qveynis teritoriis 26,7%, 500-dan 1000 m-mde 21,7%, 1000-dan 1500-mde 19,3%, 1500-dan 3000-mde 31,5%, 3000-ze zeviT 1.5%), sarisko miwaTmoqmedebis zonas ganekuTvneba. mTebs (54%) da mTiswinebs (33%) mTeli teritoriis 87% uWiravs, dablobs ki mxolod 13%. soflis meurneobaSi gamoiyeneba qveynis teritoriis 44%. saxnavs mTeli sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis 25% uWiravs, saTib-saZovrebs ki 65% meti. maRali xarisxis bunebrivad nayofieri sasoflo-sameurneo miwa 38%-s Seadgens, saSualo xarisxis 21%-s, xolo dabali xarisxis 41%-s. mosaxleobis erT sulze 0,64 ha sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli modis, aqedan ki 0,17 ha saxnav-saTesia. mniSvnelovani farTobi uWiravs dabalnayofier niadagebs, romelTa gakeTilSobileba specifikuri araordinaluri RonisZiebebis gatarebas saWiroebs da igi did finansur danaxarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli. amitomacaa, rom saqarTvelo mciremiwian qveynebs miekuTneba. 2004 wlis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi sul 3,025 milioni heqtari sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli iyo (samwuxarod dRes ufro zusti monacemebi ar gagvaCnia radgan 2004 wlis Semdeg, CvenTvis ucnobi mizezis gamo, miwis raodenobrivi aRricxva qveyanaSi aRar Catarebula). aqedan daaxloebiT 1,9 milioni heqtari bunebriv saZovrebze da saTibebze modioda, anu im savargulebze, romlebsac investiciebi ki ara, ufro marTebuli, racionaluri gamoyeneba sWirdeba. 1,1 mln. ha intensiuri savargulia, saidanac 800 aTasi heqtari saxnavia (saxnav-saTesi farTobis TiTqmis 40% 30Ometi daqanebis nakveTebzea ganlagebuli), xolo danarCeni _ 300 aTasi ha _ mravalwlovani nargavebiT dakavebuli fond-tevadi savargulia35. es aris Cveni sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis fondi, romelic imdenad mcirea mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebiT, rom TvalisCiniviT gafrTxileba esaWiroeba. Ddabalnayofieri niadagebidan gansakuTrebiT saSiS masStabebs aRwevs erozirebuli niadagebi romelsac mTeli sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis 34% uWi35

o. qeSelaSvili, `soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis strategia da prioritetebi~, gv. 29-33, Tb. 2007

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ravs. bunebaSi ar arsebobs niadagi, absoluturad mdgradi wylismieri eroziisa da deflaciisadmi. isini gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan mxolod da mxolod mdgradobis xarisxiT da gansazRvrul pirobebSi SeiZleba ganicadon qarisa da wylis damangreveli moqmedeba. erozia araracionaluri miwaTmoqmedebis Tanmdevi senia. Eerozias qveynis winaSe mdgar ekologiur problemaTa Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. igi bunebrivi faqtorebis da adamianTa sameurneo saqmianobis rTuli urTierTqmedebis Sedegia. umZimesi Sedegebi mohyva didqanobiani ferdobebis aTvisebas, tyis, buCqnarebis da qarsafari zolebis ganadgurebas, saZovrebis usistemo, gadaWarbebul moxmarebas, miwaTmoqmed fermerTa didi nawilis mxridan niadagis araswori damuSavebas, niadagdacviTi teqnologiebis ugulvebelyofas. intensiurad daiwyo eroziul-mewyruli procesebis ganviTareba saqarTvelos mTasa da mTiswineTSi, romelic mosaxleobis didi nawilis sacxovrebel da saarsebo saSualebas warmoadgens. am problemisadmi inertuli damokidebuleba saqarTvelos mTianeTis mosaxleobis isedac mZime socialur-ekonomikur pirobebs kidev ufro auaresebs da es ZirZveli mxare mTlianad carieldeba. Ddaiwyo mosaxleobis migracia eroziisgan gamofituli, unayofo teritoriebidan. ,,ekologiuri ltolvilebis” problema saxezea da gadaudebeli RonisZiebebis gatarebas saWiroebs. damafiqrebelia prof. m. kvaracxelias mier moZiebuli masala. is wers: ,,arqeologiuri gaTxrebiT da sxva gamokvlevebiT dadasturda, rom dRevandeli udabnoebi gobi da sahara odesRac dasaxlebuli iyo, maSasadame aq miwaTmoqmedebas misdevdnen. istoriuli masalebi naTelhyofs, rom rodesac am odesRac ayvavebul qveyanaSi eroziis gamo niadagi moispo, titvel borcvebze da qva-RorRian velebSi uxvi mcenareulobis adgili udabnos Raribma mcenareulobam daiWira. Aadamianebi aiyarnen, miatoves mama-papeuli miwebi da wavidnen sursaTisa da nayofieri miwebis saZebnelad.……meqsikaSi maias civilizacia moispo niadagis eroziis gamo.” saqarTveloSi eroziis zemoqmedebas ganicdis milion heqtarze meti sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli. gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis monacemebiT wylismieri eroziis saziano moqmedebas ganicdida 220,8 aTasi, xolo, qarismiers _ 109,1 aTasi ha saxnav-saTesi farTobi. rac ganapirobebda agroproduqciis mosavlis erTmesamedze metis danakargs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sarwyav zonebSi soflis meurneobas sagrZnob zians ayenebs e.w. irigaciuli erozia, rac araswori rwyviT aris gamowveuli. wylismieri eroziiT dazianebuli farTobis ori mesamedi dasavleT saqarTveloze modis. igi gansakuTrebiT saSiS masStabebs iRebs aWaris, imereTis, samegrelos, svaneTis da raWis maRalmTian raionebSi. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mSrali klimatis pirobebSi, mcenareebiT daufarav ferdobebze wylismieri eroziis procesi ufro intensiurad mimdinareobs, rasac aq gavrcelebuli niadagebis eroziisadmi susti mdgradoba ganapirobebs. Cveulebrivi intensivobis wvimebis dros 6-120 daqanebis ferdobidan yoveli ha-dan Camoirecxeba 30-40 tona niadagi, xolo Tavsxma wvimebisas - 150-200 tona. Tu buneba 100-150 wels undeba 1 sm sisqis niadagis fenis Seqmnas, erTi Tavsxma wvimis Sedegad eroziisagan mTlianad irecxeba niadagis nayofieri fena. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi _ samgorisa da alaznis velze, Siraqis, taribanas da eldaris farTobebze, qarTlSi _ xSiria wlebi, rodesac Zlieri qarebi, romelTa siCqare gvian Semodgomasa da adre gazafxulze zogjer 25-30 m/wm aRemateba, ramdenime dReSi niadags aclis 5-6 sm sisqis zeda fenas da TiTqmis mTlianad azianebs axlad aRmocenebul, jer kidev sustad ganviTarebul naTesebs.

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niadagis danakargTan erTad ikargeba sakvebi elementebis da humusis didi nawili, rac am farTobebis gaudabnoebis realur saSiSroebas qmnis mTeli Tavisi uaryofiTi socialur-ekonomikuri da ekologiuri SedegebiT. eroziis saziano moqmedeba ar ganisazRvreba mxolod soflis meurneobisadmi miyenebuli zaraliT, xSiria wlebi, roca maRali intensivobis wvimebis Sedegad ferdobebze warmoqmnili minarevi, qva-RorRiani nakadebi azianeben komunalur, sagzao, hidroteqnikur da sxva nagebobebs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom soflis meurneobaSi gamoyenebuli mineraluri sasuqebiT, pesticidebiT, herbicidebiTa da sxva qimiuri nivTierebebiT gaJRenTili niadagis nawilakebi eroziis Sedegad xvdeba tbebSi, mdinareebSi, wyalsacavebSi da abinZurebs maT. saqarTvelos samecniero kvleviT institutebis mier aTeulobiT wlebis ganmavlobaSi iswavleboda niadagis eroziis gamomwvevi mizezebi da qveynis sxvadasxva niadagur-klimatur zonaSi misi ganviTarebis Taviseburebebi. erozirebuli niadagebis agrosawarmoo maCveneblebis Seswavlis safuZvelze SemuSavebul iqna niadagis eroziisagan dacvisa da misi nayofierebis gaumjobesebis rekomendaciebi (eroziis sawinaaRmdego RonisZiebaTa generaluri sqemebi). mecnierTa mier SemuSavebuli RonisZiebebis praqtikulma ganxorcielebam uCvena, rom niadagis eroziisagan dacvis problemis gadawyvetaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba sistemur midgomas eniWeba, rac, sameurneo-organizaciuli, agroteqnikuri, martivi hidroteqnikuri da satyeo-samelioracio RonisZiebebis kompleqsurad gamoyenebas gulisxmobs. dadga dro, rom saqarTvelos yoveli bunebrivi zonisaTvis SemuSavebuli da danergili unda iqnes niadagdacviTi miwaTmoqmedebis Tanamedrove, mecnierulad maRal uzrunvelyofili sistema, romelic organulad Seerwymeba niadagis eroziisa da deflaciis SesaZlo gamovlinebis aRmkveT RonisZiebebs. eroziis garda saqarTvelosTvis did problemas warmoadgens naxevrad gaudabnoebul teritoriebze gavrcelebuli damlaSebuli da bicobi niadagebi, romelTa farTobi 205 aTas heqtarze metia. administraciulad es niadagebi ZiriTadad gavrcelebulia 9 raionSi (marneuli, gardabani, bolnisi, sagarejo, dedofliswyaro, siRnaRi, gurjaani, lagodexi, qareli). aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samiwaTmoqmedo zonaSi gavrcelebuli damlaSebuli da bicobi niadagebi xasiaTdebian agronomiulad araxelsayreli TvisebebiT. aseT pirobebSi dabalia agrokulturebis mosavlianoba (saSemodgomo TavTavianebis mosavali 0,9-1 t/ha ar aRemateba). im unikalur bunebriv-klimatur pirobebSi, sadac aRniSnuli niadagebia gavrcelebuli kompleqsuri agromelioraciuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis Semdeg marcvleulis, bostneulis da sakvebi kulturebis mosavlianoba 2,5-3,0-jer da metad izrdeba. _ saqarTveloSi 220 aTasi heqtari daWaobebuli niadagia. iseTi mciremiwiani qveynisTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa kolxeTis dablobis bunebrivi resursebis racionalurad gamoyenebas udidesi ekonomikuri mniSvneloba gaaCnia. 1990 wlisaTvis kolxeTis dablobze daSrobili iyo 140 aTasi heqtari. aqedan, aTvisebuli iyo 103,9 aTasi ha; 1992 wlidan qveyanaSi Seqmnili politikuri da ekonomikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare ZiriTadi samelioracio qseli xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi saTanado meTvalyureobis gareSe darCa. yovelive amis Sedegad rig raionebSi daiwyo meoradi daWaobebis procesi, ris gamoc dReisTvis kolxeTis zonaSi 45 aTasi ha saxnavi da mravalwliani nargavebiT dakavebuli farTobi gamoeTiSa sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebs da kvlav Waobad iqca. mdgomareobas kidev ufro arTulebs is garemoeba, rom meorad daWaobebas qvemdebare miwis kerZo sakuTreba-

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Si an ijariT aRebaze uars acxadebs adgilobrivi mosaxleoba. meoradi daWaobebis procesi, melioraciuli RonisZiebebis gautareblobis gamo, droTa ganmavlobaSi TandaTan gauaresdeba, intensiurad ganviTardeba da sul male daSrobili miwis 80-90%-ze gavrceldeba. _ sasoflo-sameurneo miwis daaxloebiT 11% (330 aTasi ha) saqarTveloSi mJave niadagebs ukaviaT. Zlier mJave niadagebis farTobma dasavleT saqarTveloSi 37 aTas ha-s miaRwia, sadac ekonomikurad Rirebuli mosavlis miReba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia.36 Tanamedrove etapze samTomompovebeli mrewvelobis intensifikacia sasargeblo wiaRiseulis Ria wesiT mopovebis sul ufro farTod danergvis xarjze warmoebs. maRali rentabelobis gamo igi yvelgan gamoiyeneba sadac ki sabados geologiuri agebuleba amis saSualebas iZleva. dReisaTvis am wesiT mopovebuli wiaRiseulis wili 75-80%-mde gaizarda. amasTanave, misi uaryofiTi gavlena didia. kerZod, wyobidan gamodis sxvadasxva savargulis mniSvnelovani nawili, xolo nayarebi, karierebi, warmoebis narCenebi da sxva saxis darRveuli miwa xSirad garemos dabinZurebis wyarosac warmoadgenen. saqarTveloSi sadac sabadoTa Ria wesiT damuSaveba metad gansxvavebul bunebriv-geologiur pirobebSi warmoebs, sxvadasxva saxis darRveuli miwis, karierebis, nayarebis, gamamdidrebeli fabrikebis narCenebis, saleqavebis da sxva farTobi 10 aTas heqtars aRemateba. Cvens mier moyvanili cifrebi niadagis farTobebis Sesaxeb gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis monacemebia. mas Semdeg qveyanaSi miwis inventarizacia ar Catarebula. dReisaTvis es cifrebi mniSvnelovnad maRali iqneba. 1990-ni wlebidan dawyebuli praqtikulad yuradRebis miRma darCa niadagi. Eerozirebuli, damlaSebuli, daWaobebuli, mwiri niadagebis yovelwliur movlaSi saxelmwifos rolis gaqrobam am sferoSi didi problemebi Seqmna. intensiurad wavida niadagebis degradaciis, zogierT raionSi gaudabnoebis dawyebis da nayofierebis dacemis Seuqcevadi procesi. migvaCnia, rom dabalnayofieri miwebis gakeTilSobilebas qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis, misi socialuri ganviTarebis da siRaribis aRmofxvris saqmeSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gvinda gavamaxviloT Semdeg problemaze: ukanasknel 20 weliwadSi saqarTveloSi Seqmnili mZime socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebis gamo niadagis dacvisa da nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebis sfero krizisul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. qveyanaSi gaCndnen iseTi moijareebi da fermerebi, romelTa umetesobas adre kavSiri ar hqonia soflis meurneobasTan. ugulvebelyofilia agronomebis, agroqimikosebis, miwaTmowyobebis, mcenareTa dacvis specialistebis, melioratorebis codna da a.S., ris gamoc, ufro gaaZlierda da daCqarda niadagebis gaRaribebisa da nayofierebis dacemis procesi. es problema saxelmwifo problemad gadaiqca. saqarTvelos mTeli sasoflo-sameurneo savargulis 80%-ze meti Raribia sakvebi elementebiT, rac sasoflo-sameurneo kulturaTa dabal da uxarisxo mosavlianobas ganapirobebs. gansakuTrebiT damafiqrebelia is faqti, rom qveynis yvela raionSi SeiniSneba niadagis nayofierebis umTavresi maCveneblis _ humusis mwvave deficiti da misi balansi uaryofiTia. Nniadagis dacvisa da nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebasTan dakavSirebulma problemebma kritikul dones miaRwia, rac saf36

erozirebuli, damlaSebuli, bicobi, daWaobebuli da mJave niadagebis Sesaxeb monacemebi aRebulia niadagmcodneobis s/k institutis fondidan.

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rTxes uqmnis saqarTveloSi soflis meurneobis Semdgom ganviTarebas. niadagis mdgomareobis aseT fonze, usaxsrobis gamo, praqtikulad Sewyvetilia niadagebis gamokvlevis samuSaoebi. praqtikulad ar xdeba niadagis nayofierebis monitoringi da Sesabamisad _ misi marTva. Nniadagis ganoyiereba ZiriTadad araefeqtianad tardeba, elementaruli wesebis daucvelad, an saerTod ugulvebelyofilia sasuqebis SesaZenad saWiro saxsrebisa da maTi gamoyenebis Sesaxeb Sesabamisi codnis arqonis gamo. niadagSi Sesatani sasuqebis optimaluri dozebis gansazRvra ar warmoebs laboratoriuli analizis safuZvelze. Aadgili aqvs agroqimikatebis ukontrolo gamoyenebas. yovelive amis gamo miwis sakmaod didi farTobis sasoflo-sameurneo brunvidan amovardnis realuri saSiSroeba saxezea, risi daSvebis uflebac Cvens qveyanas ar aqvs. miwaTmoqmedebis gardauvali Sedegia niadagidan sakvebi nivTierebebis gatana miRebuli mosavliT da organuli nivTierebebis garkveuli nawilis daSliT; amitom, mosavliT gatanili sakvebi elementebi isev Tu ar dabrundeba niadagSi, mcirdeba misi bunebrivi nayofierebis done, rasac adgili aqvs bolo ocwleulSi saqarTveloSi. mxolod racionaluri doziT sasuqebis SetaniTaa SesaZlebeli nivTierebaTa wrebrunvaSi Careva miwaTmoqmedebaSi, mosavlis gadideba da niadagis produqtiulobis amaRleba, imaze ufro metad, vidre niadagwarmoqmnis bunebrivi procesebiTaa ganpirobebuli. Tanamedrove pirobebSi nivTierebaTa wrebrunva miwaTmoqmedebaSi iRebs kompleqsur Sefasebas da maTematikur gamosaxulebas sakvebi elementebis balansSi. Bbalansur analizs did mniSvnelobas aZlevdnen agroqimiis fuZemdeblebi _ i. libixi –germaniaSi, J. busengo _ safrangeTSi, j. loozi – inglisSi, d. prianiSnikovi _ ruseTSi. i.libixi Tvlida, rom mosavlis mier moxmarebuli nacris yvela elementi, miuxedavad niadagis uzrunvelyofisa, unda dabrundes sasuqis saxiT. mas miaCnda, rom am dros SeiZleba mxolod Seneldes niadagis bunebrivi nayofierebis Semcireba. akad. k. timiriazevi aRniSnavda: ,,swavleba dabrunebis aucileblobaze, miuxedavad yovelgvari cdisa SeezRudaT misi mniSvneloba, warmoadgens mecnierebis erT-erT udides monapovars”. Cvens mier gaangariSebuli iqna mcenaris ZiriTadi sakvebi elementebis (azoti, fosfori, kaliumi) balansi saqarTvelos miwaTmoqmedebaSi bolo 15 wlis ganmavlobaSi. kerZod, 1995 wels qveyanaSi yvela kulturis mosavliT gamotanili iyo 78,1 aTasi tona azoti, fosfori da kaliumi. Setanili ki mxolod 0,69 aTasi sakvebi elementi (azoti+fosfori+kaliumi). sakvebi elementebis balansi am wels uaryofiTi iyo. niadagidan gamovida 78,1 aTasi tona da misi anazRaureba TiTqmis ar momxdara. oTxi wlis Semdeg niadagSi Setanili sasuqebis raodenobam 14,1 aTasi tona Seadgina, rasac Tan mohyva mosavlis gazrda da Sesabamisad sakvebi elementebis gazrdili raodenobiT gamotana _ 101,2 aTasi tonis odenobiT. sakvebi elementebis balansi 1999 welsac uaryofiTi iyo. 2000 da 2007 wlebSi sasuqebis gamoyenebam 17 da 20 aTasi tona Seadgina. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom am wlebSi mosavali dabali iyo da Sesabamisad sakvebi elementebis gamotanac naklebi, balansi mainc uaryofiTi darCa. mosavliT gamotanili sakvebi nivTierebebis 99% gamoiyeneba niadagis maragebis xarjze, rac niadagis gaRaribebas da gamofitvas iwvevs. swored amitom imata qveyanaSi daumuSavebelma miwis naTesma farTobebma. magaliTad, 2002 wels saxnavi farTobi 795,3 aTasi heqtari iyo. naTesma farTobi ki _ 577 aTasi ha, xolo daumuSavebeli 218,3 aTasi heqtari. Semdgom wlebSi iklo naTesma farTobma da 2007 wels mxolod 297,2 aTasi ha Seadgina, xolo, daumuSavebeli farTobi gai-

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zarda 501,5 aTas heqtramde. es sagangaSo cifrebia. usaxsrobis gamo fermerebi ver axorcieleben saWiro agroteqnikur RonisZiebebs. niadagebi Raribia, ris gamoc, saTanado RonisZiebebis gatarebis gareSe masze ekonomikurad momgebiani warmoeba SeuZlebelia.37 800 aTasi ha saxnavis damuSavebas maqsimum 640 mln lari sWirdeba. mTeli pasuxismgeblobiT vacxadebT, am Tanxis mcire nawilic (1/10) rom gaiRos saxelmwifom, saxnavis problemac gadawydeba. mravalwlovani xexilis ganaxlebisTvis yovelwliurad unda gaSendes 15-20 aTasi ha, rasac 250-300 mln lari sWirdeba. aq, savsebiT sakmarisi iqneba saxelmwifos keTili neba da sagadasaxado xelSewyobis reJimi. magaliTad, axalgazrda nargavebi srul msxmoiarobaSi Sesvlamde 4 wliT unda ganTavisufldes miwisa da wylis gadasaxadisgan da sxv. niadagi sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis mTavari saSualebaa, amasTan sxva saSualebebisagan gansxvavebiT, misi sworad sargeblobisas, igi ara Tu ar ,,cvdebaâ&#x20AC;?, ar uaresdeba, piriqiT, umjobesdeba. Aamitom warmoadgens igi xalxis kolosalur da mudmiv simdidres, nayofierebis dauSretel wyaros. am miwaze damkvidrebuli yoveli Taobis valia izrunos mis dacvaze, nayofierebis amaRlebaze da ase gadasces igi STamomavlobas. Zalze samwuxarod saqarTveloSi dRes ase ar xdeba. amJamad, agroproduqciis warmoeba, rogorc wesi, niadagis bunebrivi nayofierebis eqsploataciis xarjze xdeba, rac sul umokles droSi damRupvel Sedegebs gamoiRebs. ra unda gavakeToT? pirvel rigSi aucilebelia: _ SemuSavebul iqnes saqarTvelos niadagebis dacvisa da nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebis grZelvadiani saxelmwifo programa, romelic safuZvlad daedeba yovelwliuri miznobrivi saxelmwifo programebis SemuSavebas. _ saqarTvelos yoveli bunebrivi zonisaTvis SemuSavebuli da danergili unda iqnes niadagdacviTi miwaTmoqmedebis Tanamedrove, mecnierulad maRal uzrunvelyofili sistema, romelic organulad Seerwymeba niadagis eroziisa da deflaciis SesaZlo gamovlinebis aRmkveT RonisZiebebs. _ aRdgenil iqnes adre arsebuli ,,agroqimiuri da niadagis nayofierebis samsaxuri~ Tavisi laboratoriuli qseliT; Tanamedrove aparatura-mowyobilobiT aRWurvili ori centraluri agroqimiuri samecniero-sawarmoo laboratoria: erTi â&#x20AC;&#x201C; TbilisSi, romelic moemsaxureba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos da meore _ ozurgeTSi (anaseulSi), romelic moemsaxureba dasavleT saqarTvelos (dRemde SenarCunebulia Oorive laboratoria mwiri, moZvelebuli materialur-teqnikuri baziT, maRalkvalificiuri kadrebiT, magram, usaxsrobis gamo praqtikulad ver saqmianoben). laboratoriebi qveynis mTel teritoriaze Caatareben niadagur-agroqimiur gamokvlevebs; gansazRvraven niadagis nayofierebis dones da yoveli konkretuli savargulisTvis Seadgenen rekomendaciebs misi nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebisTvis. niadagisa da mcenaris analizis safuZvelze moxdeba Sesatani sasuqebis optimaluri dozebis gansazRvra. dadgindeba sasuqebis saWiro formebi da raodenoba, moxdeba qveyanaSi maTi Semotanis da gamoyenebis organizeba. _aucilebelia niadagebis pasportizaciis (inventarizaciis) Catareba; niadagur-agroqimiuri gamokvlevebis safuZvelze nayofierebis donis gansazRvra da mo-

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gogola margvelaSvili, nino kiknaZe, sasuqebis intensiuri miwaTmoqmedebis niadagebSi. baTumi-2009

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gamoyenebis

efeqtianoba

saqarTvelos


nitoringi unda gaxdes saqarTvelos niadagebis dacvisa da nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebis saxelmwifo programis SemuSavebis safuZveli.38 _ erT-erTi prioritetuli mniSvneloba unda mieniWos niadagis agroekologiur monitorings da biologiuri miwaTmoqmedebis ganxorcielebas saqarTveloSi, romelic uzrunvelyofs ekologiurad saimedo produqciis warmoebas da garemos dacvas. saTanado agrowesebis dacvis pirobebSi, CvenSi moyvanili produqciis xarisxi da gemuri Tvisebebi konkurencias gauwevs msoflios nebismier qveyanas. _ dabalnayofieri niadagebis gakeTilSobileba da swori gamoyeneba saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis da saerTod ekonomikis dinamikuri ganviTarebis mTavari rezervia. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, am etapze, niadagis dacvisa da nayofierebis amaRlebasTan dakavSirebuli finansuri xarjebis garkveuli nawili saxelmwifom Tavis Tavze aiRos (saxelmwifo miznobrivi programebis farglebSi). Ddarwmunebuli varT, TiToeuli daxarjuli lari umokles droSi mogebiT daubrundeba qveynis biujets. _ niadagis dacvisa da nayofierebis aRdgena-gaumjobesebis problemis gadawyveta misi mecnieruli uzrunvelyofis gareSe SeuZlebelia. ,,soflis meurneoba mecnierebaze damyarebuli industriaaâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ase miaCniaT evropaSi. _ niadagis dacva da misi nayofierebis amaRleba ar aris martivi saqme. igi maRalkvalificiur agropersonals saWiroebs. Aaucilebelia qveyanas yavdes niadagmcodneebi da agroqimikosebi, romlebic am saSviliSvilo saqmes moemsaxurebian. aucileblad migvaCnia agrarul universitetSi aw gauqmebuli niadagmcodneobisa da agroqimiis specialobis AaRdgena. _ saqarTveloSi yvela raions unda hyavdes 1-2 niadagmcodne-agroqimikosi mainc, romlebic uxelmZRvaneleben centraluri samecniero-sawarmoo laboratoriebis mier gadacemuli rekomendaciebis praqtikul ganxorcielebas yovel konkretul nakveTze. dasasrul, momwifda daskvna imis Sesaxeb, rom miwaTmoqmedebis yvela sistema saqarTveloSi niadagdacviTi unda iyos. amasTan unda gvxsovdes, rom miwis wvril-mesakuTreTa nebayoflobiTi kooperaciuli gaerTianebebis Seqmna da maTi integracia agronedleulis gadammuSavebel sawarmoebTan, aris ara marto mdgradi agrowarmobis safuZveli, aramed dargis specialistebze moTxovnis gaCenis ZiriTadi gzac.

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naum turabeliZe, saadgilmamulo urTierTobaTa safuZvlebi. Tbilisi, 2010

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Gogola Margvelashvili, Paata Koguashvili Professors, Members of the Georgian Academy of Agricultural Sciences Georgia, Tbilisi Agriculture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Science-based Industry Summary Protecting land (soil), the most important national wealth of Georgia, caring for the maintenance and increase of its productivity despite the type of ownership on land is the problem of national importance. Actually, since 1990s soil has not been paid any attention by the state. As the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in annual cultivation of erosive, swampy and poor soils has practically disappeared, it caused serious problems in this sector. The process of reduction of soil fertility and in some regions desertification of land started intensively. Consequently, the conclusion is maid that all farming systems should be based on the principles of land protection. Based on scientific studies, a special land protecting system should be developed and introduced in each agricultural zone of Georgia, which will be relevant to the nature and effectively prevent the threats of soil degradation.

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maia margvelaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Seswavlis etapebi internacionalizacia warmoadgens process, romliTac firmebi erTvebian momsaxurebis bazrebSi TavianTi qveynebis gareT. xolo globalizacia SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc internacionalizaciis ganviTarebis umaRlesi done. turistuli biznesi operirebs globalurad da bevrma kompaniam gaakeTa internacionalizaciis konkurentuli upiratesobis arCevani. isini karga xania mividnen im daskvnamde, rom maTi Sida bazari amowurulia da gadarCenis erTaderTi gza mimarTulia gayidvebis SesaZleblobebis Ziebisaken saerTaSoriso bazrebze. amgvarad, dReisaTvis turizmis seqtorSi internacionalizacia da globalizacia sulac ar warmoadgens raRas axals da misi ekonomikuri zemoqmedebebis Seswavla-Sefaseba yvelgan erTnair meTodologias moiTxovs. turizms aqvs gansxvavebuli ekonomikuri zemoqmedebebi. mas wvlili Seaqvs gayidvebSi, SemosavlebSi, dasaqmebasa da gadasaxadebSi. umetesad pirdapiri efeqti aSkaravdeba ZiriTad turistul seqtorebSi – ganTavsebaSi, restornebSi, transportSi da sacalo vaWrobaSi. meoradi efeqtiT turizmi zegavlenas axdens ekonomikis umetes seqtorebze. turistuli saqmianobis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis analizi Cveulebriv fokusirdeba regionSi turistuli saqmianobis Sedegad gamowveul cvlilebebSi gayidvebis, Semosavlebisa da dasaqmibis kuTxiT. ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis analizi afasebs turistuli saqmianobis Senatans regionis ekonomikaSi. ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Seswavla, rogorc wesi, pasuxobs Semdeg ZiriTad kiTxvebs: • ramdeni daxarjes turistebma mocemul regionSi? • adgilobrivi biznesis gayidvebis ra wili modis turizmze? • ra Semosavlebis generireba moaxdina turizmma biznesebisa da mosaxleobisaTvis mocemul regionSi? • ramden samuSao adgils qmnis igi? • ra odenobis gadasaxadebia generirebuli turizmidan? ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis analizi, aseve, avlens ekonomikur seqtorebs Soris urTierTkavSirs da iZleva ekonomikaSi rigi qmedebebiT ganpirobebuli cvlilebebis Sefasebis SesaZleblobas. turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis analizis tipiuri sakiTxebia: • rekreaciisa da turizmis miwodebaSi cvlilebebis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Sefaseba; • turizmze moTxovnaSi cvlilebis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Sefaseba; • politikisa da aqtivobebis efeqtis Sefaseba, romlebic pirdapir an arapirdapir gavlenas axdenen turistul saqmianobaze; • ekonomikis gansxvavebuli seqtorebis ekonomikuri struqturisa da urTierTdamokidebulebis gageba; • saukeTeso gamosavlis moZebna resursebis da adgilobrivi gadasaxadebis gansaTavseblad, zonirebis an sxva politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba;

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• resursebis ganTavsebis, politikis, menejmentis an ganviTarebis alternatiuli winadadebebis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Sedareba. turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis standartuli analizi Tvals adevnebs finansur nakadebs turizmis xarjebidan upirveles yovlisa, biznesebisa da samTavrobo organizaciebis mimarTulebiT, xolo Semdeg: • sxva biznesebis mimarTulebiT - romlebic awvdian turistebs saqonelsa da momsaxurebebs; • mosaxleobis mimarTulebiT - romelic iRebs Semosavlebs turizmSi, an damxmare industriebSi muSaobiT; • mTavrobis mimarTulebiT – sxvadasxva gadasaxadebis saxiT, romelsac akisreben turistebs, biznesebsa da dasaqmebul mosaxleobas. sazogadod, ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Seswavla moicavs oTx ZiriTad etaps: 1. problemis gansazRvra; 2.saboloo moTxovnaSi cvlilebis Sefaseba (turizmis xarjebi); 3. am cvlilebis regionuli ekonomikuri efeqtis Sefaseba; 4.Sedegebis interpretacia da gavrceleba. warmodgenil kvlevaSi Cveni aqcenti gakeTda ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis analizis problemis gansazRvrisaTvis gansaxilvel ZiriTad elementebze. migvaCnia, rom nebismieri Seswavlis yvelaze mniSvnelovani nawilia misi pirveli etapi – gamosakvlevi problemis bunebis garkveva da Sedegebis savaraudo gamoyenebis dadgena. ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Seswavlis dawyebamde unda davrwmundeT imaSi, rom es im saxis Seswavlaa, romelic ufra gamosadegia konkretuli amocanis Sesasruleblad. rigi mecnierebisa (Stynes და Propst, 1996) gamoyofen ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Sefasebis problemis gansazRvris nawilSi gasaTvaliswinebel Svid faqtors. esenia: 1. gansaxorcielebeli aqtivobis gansazRvra; 2.qmedebiT ganpirobebuli turistuli saqmianobis odenobisa da saxeobebis cvlilebis identificireba; 3. gasaTvaliswinebeli xarjebis saxeebis identificireba; 4.Sesaswavli regionis identificireba; 5. ZiriTadi ekonomikuri seqtorebisa da sasurveli seqtorebis detalebis identificireba; 6.ekonomikuri aqtivobis ZiriTadi maCveneblebis identificireba; 7.SedegebSi cdomilebis misaRebi donis identificireba. regionis doneze turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis gansazRvris arsebuli modelebidan dReisaTvis yvelaze zust da yovlismomcvel modelad miviჩnevT e.w. danaxarj-sargeblis models. danaxarj-sargeblis modeli (Input-Output Model) warmoadgens maTematikur models, romelic aRwers regionis ekonomikaSi seqtorebs Soris fuladi saxsrebis moZraobas. es fuladi nakadebi prognozirdeba imis codnaze dayrdnobiT, Tu risi Sesyidva sWirdeba TiToeul seqtors yvela sxva industriisagan im mizniT, rom awarmoos erTi dolaris Rirebulebis nawarmi. TiToeuli industriis mwarmoebluri funqciis gamoyenebiT es modeli, aseve, gansazRvravs Semosavlebis wils, romelic mimarTulia sargosa da xelfasebze, mesakuTreTa Semosavlebsa da gadasaxadebze. multiplikatorebi SesaZloa gamoangariSebul iqnes danaxarj-sargeblis modelidan regionSi xarjebis recirkulaciis Sefasebis safuZvelze. xolo, eq-

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sport-importis gansazRvra xdeba regionis mosaxleobisa da firmebis mier adgilobrivi wyaroebidan saqonlisa da momsaxurebebis Sesyidvisadmi midrekilebis Sefasebis safuZvelze, rasac xSirad regionuli Sesyidvis koeficients (RPC) uwodeben. cnobilia, rom ramdenadac metad aris regioni uzrunvelyofili sakuTari saqonliTa da momsaxurebebiT, imdenad maRalia misi multiplikatorebi. danaxarj-sargeblis modeli eyrdnoba rig mosazrebebs, romelTagan ZiriTadia: • mocemuli industriis yvela firma iyenebs warmoebis erTidaigive teqnologias (rogorc wesi, ganixileba industriisaTvis erovnul saSualo monacemad) da awarmoebs identur produqts. • modeli ZiriTadad xazovania – ormagdeba ra turizmis aqtivoba/warmoeba – ormagdeba yvela Senatanic, dasaqmebulTa raodenobac da a.S. • modeli Tvals ar adevnebs drois faqtors, Tumca analitikosebi zogadad amtkiceben, rom zemoqmedebas afaseben aerTi wlis ganmavlobaSi arsebuli aqtivobiT. amitom, daskvnisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom modelis parametrebi warmoadgenen Sesaswavlad aRebul weliwads. • modeli safuZvlad iyenebs angariSTa erovnul sistemas (romelic magaliTad aSS-Si 1997 wlidan eyrdnoba Crdilo amerikis industriis klasifikaciis sistemas NAICS-s da federaluri mTavrobis rig monacemebs gayidvebis, xelfasebisa da dasaqmebis Taobaze)39. • modeli warmoaCens regionis ekonomikas drois konkretuli periodisaTvis, ris gamoc turistuli xarjebis Sefasebisas saWiroa fasebis misadageba modelis Sesaswavl periodTan. am danaxarj-sargeblis modeliT gamoTvlil iqna turizmis ekonomikuri Senatanis maCveneblebi samxreT karolinis Statis ekonomikaSi 2010 wlisaTvis. kvlevis Sedegad dadginda: 2010 wels turizmis uSualo (pirdapirma) Senatanma Statis ekonomikaSi Seadgina 9,710 mlrd dolari, anu mTeli ekonomikis 3%, xolo mTlianma (pirdapirma, arapirdapirma da inducirebulma erTad) Senatanma – 17,039 mlrd dolari, anu mTeli ekonomikis 6%. amasTan, turizmis SemosavlebSi misi seqtorebi ase aisaxa: • ganTavsebidan Semosavlebma Seadgina 2,079 mlrd dolari, anu turizmidan mTeli Semosavlebis 21,4%; • kvebiT momsaxurebidan – 2,938 mlrd dolari, anu 30,3%; • avtotransportidan – 2,159 mlrd dolari, anu 22,2%; • sazogadoebrivi transportidan – 869 mln dolari, anu 9,0%; • garTobidan da rekreaciidan – 725 mln dolari, anu 7,5%; • saerTo sacalo vaWrobidan – 939 mln dolari, anu 9,7%.40 turizmis seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa raodenobam 2010 wlisaTvis samxreT karolinaSi Seadgina 107 900 adamiani, rac saerTo dasaqmebis 6%-ia, xolo arapirdapiri da inducirebuli dasaqmebis gaTvaliswinebiT igi 160 600-s aRwevs, rac saerTo dasaqmebis 9,2%-s Seadgens. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom saerTo dasaqmebaSi araa miRebuli fermeruli dasaqmebis (sasoflo- sameurneo seqtorSi TviTdasaqmeba) gaTvaliswineba. amasTan, turizmSi dasaqmebulTa udidesi wili modis sursaTiTa da sasmeliT 39 40

South Carolina Tourism Satellite Account – Approach and Methodology, U.S. Travel Association, 2010. The Economic Impact of Travel on South Carolina Counties 2010, U.S. Travel Association, 2011.

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momsaxurebis seqtorze, romelSic 54 aTasi adamiania dasaqmebuli, anu turizmSi mTliani dasaqmebis 51%. 21 aTasi adamiania dasaqmebuli ganTavsebis seqtorSi, rac saerTo dasaqmebis 19,7%-s Seadgens. 2010 wels sargosa da xelfasebis saxiT turizmSi gacemulia 2,768 mlrd dolari, xolo arapirdapiri da inducirebuli efeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT – 4,912 mlrd dolari. amasTan, igive periodSi gadasaxadebis saxiT biujetSi Sesulia 1,174 mlrd dolari. samxreT karolinis Stati teritoriiTa da mosaxleobis raodenobis mixedviT zustad saqarTvelos tolia da turizmis ganviTareba am StatSi, saqarTvelos msgavsad, prioritetul mimarTulebad iTvleba. Tumca, es samwuxarod turizmis seqtorebis Sedarebis araviTar saSualebas ar gvaZlevs, radgan saqarTvelos turizmis Sesaxeb araviTari ekonomikuri monacemebi ar arsebobs – wlidan wlamde oficialurad qveyndeba mxolod ucxoelTa mier saqarTvelos sazRvris gadakveTis monacemebi (sazRvris dacvis policiis monacemebi, rac sulac ar niSnavs qveyanaSi Semosul turistTa raodenobas) da turizmis erovnuli saagentos mier qveynis ramodenime sasazRvre-gamSveb punqtSi Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegebi41, romelTa mixedviTac warmoudgenelia qveynis ekonomikaSi turizmis Senatanis gansazRvra. turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis gansazRvra, rogorc aRvniSneT, SesaZlebelia mxolod maTematikuri modeliT da saWiroebs zust ekonomikur parametrebs da ara ucxoel moqalaqeTa gamokiTxvis Sedegebs. amgvari SefasebebiT kuriozebamde mivdivarT. magaliTad, turizmis erovnuli saagentos 2010 wlis monacemebiT: qveynis sazRvari gadmokveTa 2 milion 31 aTasma ucxoelma. igive saagento 3 440 ucxoelis (sazRvris gadamkveTTa 0,17%-is) gamokiTxviT adgens, rom TiToeuli “turistis” saSualo danaxarji qveyanaSi Seadgens 1 589 dolars, xolo saSualo dRiuri danaxarji 324 dolars. erovnuli turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis raime dasabuTebul monacems saagento saerTod ar aqveynebs. logikurad, rom vimsjeloT, am gamokiTxvis SedegebiT saagentos unda migvaniSnos, rom 2010 wels mxolod ucxoeli turistebis mier saqarTvelos turizmis seqtorSi Semosula daaxloebiT 3,2 mlrd dolari (2 031 000 × 1 589 = 3 227 259 000), anu 5,4 mlrd lari da es mxolod Semoyvanis turizmidan?! Tu, aq imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saerTaSoriso turizmi, rogorc wesi, Seadgens erovnuli turizmis daaxloebiT 10%-s42, miviRebT imas, rom saqarTvelos erovnuli turizmis Semosavlebs 2010 wlisaTvis unda Seedgina daaxloebiT 55 mlrd lari, rac warmoudgenelia. xolo, Tu saagento ar migvaniSnebs amaze, maSin absoluturad gaugebaria ra mizniT tardeba zemoxsenebuli kvlevebi da ra datvirTvas iZens gamoqveynebuli monacemebi? gamomdinare Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebidan, SegviZlia daskvnis gamotana, rom saqarTveloSi ar xdeba turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Seswavla da gansazRvra, ris gamoc erovnuli turizmis ekonomikuri parametrebi ucnobia. Sedegad, SemuSavebul iqna Semdegi rekomendaciebi: 1. dauyovnebliv mowesrigdes qveyanaSi turizmis statistika da dainergos turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis Sefasebis sistema; 2.turizmis ekonomikuri zemoqmedebis gansazRvra ganxorcieldes yovelwliurad da Sefaseba ganxorcieldes danaxarj-sargeblis, rogorc yvelaze srulyofili da yovlismomcveli, modelis meSveobiT. 41 42

veb-saiti: www.gnta.ge The Economics of Travel and Tourism, Adrian Bull, Addison Wesley Longman Australia Ltd. 1997, page 106.

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Maya Margvelashvili Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Full Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Stages of Tourism Economic Impact Study Summary Conducted research was focused on the basic elements of tourism economic impact analysis. The research gives the overview of the factors necessary to be considered in the problem identification stage of economic impact study. Input-Output model was considered as the most comprehensive model, and using this model the study of tourism contribution to the State of South Carolina economy for 2010 was conducted. Efforts to conduct the similar study in Georgia were unsuccessful, because of total absence of any economic parameters of tourism. As a result it became impossible to compare tourism economic impacts of South Carolina and Georgia. Finally, the conclusions were worked out and corresponding recommendations were offered. Keywords: Globalization, travel and tourism industry, economic impact.

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nino maziaSvili stu doqtoranti saqarTvelo, Tbilisi saerTaSoriso ekonomikur

urTierTobebSi saqarTvelos integraciis aspeqtebi

dRes saqarTveloSi ar realizdeba ucxouri investiciebis ori ZiriTadi mizani -- saeqsporto potencialis gadideba da araracionaluri importis adgilobrivi produqciiT Canacvleba. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, xelisuflebam ramdenime mniSvnelovani kanoni miiRo, romelsac xeli unda Seewyo investiciebis mozidvas. pirvel rigSi, es aris Sromis kodeqsi, romlis mixedviTac damsaqmebels bevri ufleba eZleva. meore es aris Semcirebuli da gamartivebuli gadasaxadebi. Tumca bevri eqsperti miiCnevs, rom gadasaxadebis roli investiciebis sakiTxSi gadaWarbebulia da aseve gadaWarbebulia gadasaxadebis SemcirebiT investiciebis mozidvis molodinic. Tumca, uaxloes warsulSi ori iseTi mniSvnelovani movlena moxda, ramac SesaZloa saqarTveloSi sainvesticio garemo arsebiTad Secvalos dadebiTi TvalsazrisiT _ amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan da evrokavSirTan Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb molaparakebebis dawyeba. saqarTvelosTan Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis gasaformeblad, molaparakebebis SesaZlebloba, aSS-is prezidentma 2012 wlis 30 ianvars, vaSingtonSi saqarTvelos prezidentTan Sexvedrisas daadastura. Sexvedrebze aRiniSna, rom saqarTvelosa da aSS-s Soris daiwyeba maRali donis dialogi or qveyanas, Tu rogor gaZlierdes savaWro urTierTobebi, maT Soris, SesaZlo Tavisufali savaWro SeTanxmebis kuTxiT43. sakiTxis winaistorias Tu gadavxedavT. saqarTvelosTan Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis gaformebis iniciativiT, jer kidev 2009 wlis maisSi demokrati senatori jon keri da respublikeli devid draieri gamovidnen. maTi gancxadebiT, sagareo agresiisa da Sida amboxis mcdelobis fonze, qveyanas demokratiuli institutebis gamyarebaSi daxmareba esaWiroeboda. maTi azriT, amas aSS-Tan vaWrobis ganviTareba da ekonomikuri winsvla xels Seuwyobda. dRes saqarTvelos aSS-sTan vaWrobis calmxrivad SeRavaTiani reJimi aqvs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; GSP. es reJimi 3 aTasze meti dasaxelebis qarTul saeqsporto produqciaze vrceldeba. GSP reJimi mudmivmoqmedi ar aris da periodulad gadaxedvas eqvemdebareba. masTan SedarebiT, Tavisufal vaWrobas is upiratesoba aqvs, rom TiTqmis yvela dasaxelebis saqonels Seexeba. garda amisa, es reJimi mudmivia, rasac investorebisTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs. 2011 wlis monacemebiT, saqarTvelosTvis aSS vaWrobis moculobiT meSvide savaWro partnioria. saqarTvelos eqsportma aSS-Si 143 milioni dolari Seadgina. saeqsporto saqonlis udidesi wili GSP-is SeRavaTebiT sargeblobs. ZiriTadad, es feroSenadnobebi da sasuqebia. warmodgenilia Rvinoebi, xilis wvenebi, jarTi da a.S. aSS-dan saqarTveloSi 245 milioni dolaris importi Semovida, sadac wamyvani adgili avtomanqanebs da xorcproduqtebs ukavia44. amerikuli importisTvis barierebi saqarTveloSi amJamadac umniSvneloa. Sesabamisad, aqtualuri ar aris is safrTxeebi da SeSfoTeba, rac sxva saxelmwifoebSi FTA-is gaformebas axlavs, radgan qveynis ekonomika amerikuli eqsportisTvis 43 44

www.mfa.gov.ge www.geostat.ge

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isedac Riaa. dReisTvis konkretuli dargebis gamoyofa, romlebisTvisac SeTanxmebis gaformeba yvelaze momgebiani iqneba, rTulia. amiT SeiZleba, nebismierma biznesma isargeblos. axali savaWro SeRavaTebis wyalobiT, investorebi SesaZloa iseTi produqciis keTebiT dainteresdnen, rac aqamde saqarTveloSi ar iwarmoeboda. Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebebs qveynebi aformeben mniSvnelovan partniorebTan, ara mxolod ekonomikuri, aramed, politikuri TvalsazrisiT. evropis qveynebTan da postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebTan, centraluri aziis CaTvliT, aSS-s aseTi SeTanxmeba dResdReobiT gaformebuli aravisTan aqvs. aqedan gamomdinare, am iniciativas didi mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc ekonomikisa da eqsportis zrdis, aseve qveynis sainvesticio mimzidvelobis, imijisa da stabilurobis TvalsazrisiT...saqarTvelos Sansi aqvs, Tavisufal savaWro reJims erTdroulad aSS-sTan da evrokavSirTan miaRwios. saqarTvelom Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb molaparakebebi amerikis paralelurad evrokavSirTanac unda daiwyos. „Cven ganvixileT, rogor SeiZleba, gagrZeldes ori qveynis urTierToba, maT Soris, ekonomikuri kuTxiT. saqarTvelom didi nabijebi gadadga Tavisufali bazris Sesaqmnelad. gvsurs gavzardoT savaWro urTierTobebi, maT Soris, Tavisufali vaWroba. am mimarTulebiT bevri ram unda gakeTdes da mTavaria, es momgebiani iyos orive qveynisaTvis. unda ganviTardes biznesi da bazrebze erTmaneTis saqoneli da momsaxureba gavyidoT“, -- ganacxada barak obamam saqarTvelos prezidentTan oficialur Sexvedraze. xelisuflebis ganmartebiT, perspeqtivaSi saqarTvelo SeiZleba savaWro centrad warmovidginoT, romelic aziasa da evropas, aziasa da aSS-s Soris Camoyalibdeba da, sadac bevr kompanias SeeZleba investiciebi ganaxorcielos. yvela Tanxmdeba im sakiTxze, rom aSS-isa da evrokavSiris bazarze qarTuli produqciis importi saqarTvelos ekonomikis aRmavlobisTvis mniSvnelovani mastimulirebeli iqneba, Tumca rCeba bevri detali, romlis arSesrulebis SemTxvavaSi, saqarTvelosTan aRniSnuli xelSekrulebis dadeba ar moxdeba. am niuansis miuxedavad, didia imis perspeqtiva, rom saqarTveloTi mezobeli qveynebis bizneselita dainteresdes. meqanizmi martivia: Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimi gulisxmobs SeTanxmebis monawile mxareebs Soris vaWrobis gaTavisuflebas sabaJo-saimporto gadasaxadisagan, garda urTierTSeTanxmebuli gamonaklisebisa. amitom evrokavSirTan da amerikasTan Tavisufali vaWroba saqarTvelosTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania, ara imitom, rom Cven didi eqsporti gagvaCnia, aramed, ufro imisTvisac, rom evropul kompaniebs gauCndebaT survili, saqarTveloSi gaxsnan TavianTi sawarmoebi, radgan aq aris liberaluri sakanonmdeblo baza biznesisaTvis, iafi muSaxeli da SesaZlebelia eqsporti sabaJo tarifebis gareSe, ese igi, aq Seqmnil nawarms evrokavSiris qveynebSi da amerikaSi dabegvris gareSe gaitanen. es niSnavs, rom Seiqmneba xelsayreli situacia investirebis gasafaerToeblad. 45 sagareo saqmeTa saministros ganmartebiT, 2010 wels saqarTvelom ukve daiwyo molaparakebebi evrokavSiri–saqarTvelos asocirebis SeTanxmebis Taobaze. es SeTanxmeba moicavs sakmaod farTo speqtrs, rogorc politikuri da usafrTxoebis, aseve ekonomikur da sxva seqtoralur sakiTxebs. asocirebaze SeTanxmeba Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro zonis Seqmnasac gulisxmobs evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris. saqarTvelo ori welia am mniSvnelovan sakiTxze muSaobs. 45

nana beruaSvili, evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis fasi, gaz. ,,rezonansi“, 2011

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eqspertebis ganmartebiT, evrokavSirSi ar aris molodini, rom saqarTvelo, romelic ar aris evrokavSiris wevrobis kandidati, mTlianad gadaiRebs evrokavSiris 20 000-gverdian kanonmdeblobas da, saerTod, TiToeulma qveyanam individualurad unda gansazRvros, ramdenad gaiziarebs evropul ojaxSi moqmed wesebs. Tumca arsebobs erTi aucilebeli valdebuleba: Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebis farglebSi, evrokavSirma yvela qveyanas mosTxova im standartebis sruli dakmayofileba, romlebic evropuli bazrebis xelmisawvdomobis sakiTxs ukavSirdeba. imisaTvis, rom ama Tu im produqtma evropul bazarze SeaRwios, is unda akmayofilebdes yvela teqnikur normas. am valdebulebis Sesruleba xels Seuwyobs potenciuri investorebis mozidvas ama Tu im qveyanaSi. integracia aris iseTi meqanizmi, romlis meSveobiTac erovnuli ekonomikebi `aRweven~ erTmaneTSi da romlis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Tvisebaa sxvadasxva saxelmwifoTa Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis zrda. aq sakiTxi unda davsvaT Semdegnairad: ramdenad monawileobs ekonomikuri integraciis meqanizmi simdidris marTvasa da ganawilebaSi da ramdenad efeqturia am TviTregulirebadi da TviTganviTarebadi meqanizmis gavlena zogadad ekonmomikur ganviTarebaze. Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis formati gulisxmobs ara ubralod tarifebis liberalizacias, anu ganulebas, aramed, igi iTvaliswinebs, agreTve, arasatarifo barierebis Semcirebas da Zireuli reformebis gatarebas vaWrobasTan dakavSirebul sferoebSi. igulisxmeba sanitariul da fitosanitarul regulirebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, teqnikuri regulireba, konkurenciis politika da sxva. dReisaTvis daaxloebiT 7 200 dasaxelebis produqcias aqvs SeRavaTebiT evrokavSiris bazarze sargeblobis ufleba. evrokavSiri mzadaa asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis konteqstSi Seqmnas Zalze mniSvnelovani ,,Rrma da yoflismomcveliâ&#x20AC;&#x153; vaWrobis sivrce (DCFTA) saqarTvelosTan mas Semdeg, rac amisTvis aucielebeli pirobebi iqneba dakmayofilebuli. evrokomisiam prioritetulad 4 ZiriTadi sfero gamoyo, esenia: vaWrobis teqnikuri barierebi, sursaTis uvnebloba, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis uflebis dacva da konkurencia. saqarTvelom am moTxovnebidan ase Tu ise yvela Seasrula da rac darCa, grZeldeba mis mowesrigebaze muSaoba. ramdenime wlis win, cnobili kvleviTi jgufis CASE- s kvlevam, aCvena, rom DSFTA- s mniSvnelovani pozitiuri gavlenis moxdena SeuZlia saqarTvelos ekonomikaze, gansakuTrebiT im dargebSi, sadac qveyanas ukve aqvs upiratesobebi. magaliTisTvis: xelSekrulebis dadebidan 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi SesaZlebelia safeiqro produqciis gamoSveba, daaxloebiT, 55 %iT gaizardos. DCFTA- m dadebiTad SeiZleba imoqmedos samTomopovebiTi mrewvelobisa da karierebis damuSavebis gamoSvebaze, ramac 5 wlis Semdeg SeiZleba 21 % iT moimatos. 19 % zrda SeiZleba hqondes qimiuri, rezinis da plastmasis produqciis warmoebasac. reJimis pozitiuri gavlena aisaxeba metalurgiazec, romlis warmoeba SesaZlebelia 30 %- iT gaizardos. zogadad ki aman SesaZloa, mniSvnelovnad gazardos saeqsporto produqciis moculoba. zrdis perspeqtiva aqvs aseve avejis, saiuveliro nakeTobebis, saTamaSoebis, sportuli inventaris eqsports. SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovnad moimatos liTonis nawarmis eqsportma, aseve, sakvebi produqtebisa da sasmelis eqsportma. saqarTvelos xelisuflebisTvis evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcveli savaWro urTierTobebis dawyeba prioritetuli sakiTxia, eqspertTa nawili miiCnevs, rom xelSekruleba saqarTvelos myife ekonomikas mZime tvirTad daawveba, radgan cxovrebis gaZvirebas gamoiwvevs. es bunebrivia, radgan sursaTis uvneblobisa da

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inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis sferoebis SesabamisobaSi moyvanas didi Tanxebi sWirdeba, rac Smdeg fasebze aisaxeba. sursaTis uvneblobis regulaciebis gamkacrebis moTxovna kidev ufro gazrdis isedac maRal inflacias. „axali ekonomikuri skola-saqarTvelos“ vice prezidenti gia jandieris gancxadebiT, im moTxovnebis drois mokle monakveTSi Sesruleba, romelsac evrokavSiri DCFTA-s farglebSi iTxovs, did zians moutans saqarTvelos ekonomikas. gia jandiers magaliTad mohyavs sakvebis uvneblobis Sesaxeb regulaciebis gamkacrebis sakiTxi da aRniSnavs rom: „rodesac TbilisSi iyideba, vTqvaT, mawoni an xorci, amas unda hqondes srulyofili istoria, Tu sad cxovrobda es Zroxa, sad daikla, vin Camoitana da ramdeni dRis aris; isic, Tu sad daibada, ras Wamda, sxva ZroxebTan rogori urTierTobebi hqonda… es SeiZleba erTi SexedviT sasaciloa, magram swored amaze aris saubari. amisTvis unda gakontroldes daaxloebiT 600 aTasi ojaxi, romelic soflad cxovrobs. TiTeuls hyavs xan ori Zroxa, xan xuTi Rori, sami qaTami da ase Semdeg. saubaria imaze, rom yvela es cxoveli unda gakontroldes, magram rogor, amaze warmodgena jer aravis aqvs. amgvari mkacri kontroli saqarTvelos, daaxloebiT, 700 milioni lari daujdeba. amdenive Tanxa iqneba saWiro socialurad daucveli mosaxleobis dasaxmareblad, radgan is iafi produqcia, romelic maTTvis xelmisawvdomi iyo, sursaTis uvneblobis moTxovnebTan Seusabamobis gamo aikrZaleba da daxlebidan gaqreba.“ garkveuli riskebis miuxedavad, xelisuflebisTvis evrokavSirTan Rrma ekonomikuri integraciis dawyeba mniSvnelovani prioritetia. Tavdapirveli problemebis miuxedavad, SesaZlebelia daaxloebiT xuT weliwadSi ekonomikuri efeqtis miReba.

Nino Maziashvili Post-graduate student, Technical University of Georgia Georgia, Tbilisi Aspects of Georgia’s Integration in International Economic Relations Summary The present paper discusses several aspects of Georgia’s participation in international trade and economic relations using preferential regimes. The prospects of developing trade with the European Union countries within the framework of Generalized System of Preferences are analyzed. The author also touches upon the prospects of concluding the Free Trade Agreement with the USA.

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GIORGI MACHABELI PHD, Technical University of Georgia Georgia, Tbilisi

INVESTMENTS IN K12 AS A NECESSARY PRECONDITION FOR COUNTRY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Problem statement Current concepts of post-industrial society development actively focus on the issues of formation of knowledge-based society. Information and knowledge are listed as necessary components for formation of relevant society and ensuring technological progress. In present times knowledge has become much more valuable than material resources, i.e., physical capital for sustainable economic development of the country (G. Jolia, D. Sekhniashvili, 2010). The development of modern post-industrial society is accompanied by large-scale globalization processes. Given active development of global economic processes the presence of a flexible education system acquires special importance that is necessary for meeting increased demands for growing competitiveness. In turn, the development of various systems of education is affected by global processes; this has a serious impact on the development of policy directions for educational changes and drives them towards unification of these processes. The increase of the role of education has necessitated the formation of the systems adapted to modern labor market requirements. For the development of modern education it is necessary to have in place funding systems that are flexible, efficient and adapted to needs. Appropriate allocation of funds among various levels of education system and their rational spending becomes crucially important in sustainable economic development strategies of countries. There are various systems of education funding. Based on the example of developed countries general features of funding systems are: rational allocation of funds; social equality; access and transparency. For the educational system of transitional economies the development of a rational model of funding given limited funds is twice as relevant. Several key factors are to be taken into account in this process. Firstly, it is necessary to have constructive vision with regard to the role and function of the education system at a country level. Proper understanding of its political, social and economic value is a necessary precondition for determining correct directions for ensuring the flexibility of the system (including flexibility of education funding system). It becomes absolutely necessary for education sector leaders and policy-makers to undertake accurate analysis of the trends in education funding. It is important to perceive education funding volume and sources as main tools for education reform and system improvement. Principal objective is the reform of education funding systems and for this purpose it is necessary to actively conduct policy review and analysis, intensive dialogue on alternative ways, with the groups involved in the system as well as the larger public. In this case results of international comparative studies serves as good factual resource for conducting reasoned discussions. Precise volume of adequate funding that must be allocated by a country for education has not been determined. Actual volume of resources invested by a country actually determines the quality and amount of education received by young generation. An optimal system of education funding ensures adequate level of funding, supports the introduction of efficiency and equality of rights principles within the system through optimal distribution of privileges of quality education among the members of the society. Optimal volume of education expenditures is a precondition for achieving relevant results, including balanced social objectives. There are no universal methods for addressing educational challenges. Neither are there easy recipes for making decisions. National and local specificities have relevant impact on conducted policies. Formation and implementation of education funding policy is entirely a prerogative of national and local governments.

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Stakeholders and the society in general must also be involved in this. Implemented reforms should respond to specific national and local conditions and be focused on addressing the objectives and goals set at national and local levels. It is extremely important that decisions about specific financial policy be based on representative data of analyses conducted at national and local level using relevant analytical tools. The fact how much the authorities of an individual country take into account the above-listed criteria and conditions in the process of education funding system and determining its volume to a large extent condition the prospect of economic progress of such country and sustainable development trends. In this regard compilation analysis in various directions of the performance of basic functions of current system of Georgia general education funding would be interesting. Analysis of recent studies and publications For increasing the quality of a reform process it is necessary to undertake a thorough analysis of global processes and trends, identify and generalize innovative models. In his article, “Education Reform for Raising Economic Competitiveness”, Journal of Educational Change (2006), P. Sahlberg reviews the degree of influence of globalization on the indicator of increase of economic competitiveness among states and the systemic role of education in these processes. Namely, he considers globalization as a factor determining increased competitiveness among states and regions. And educational reforms -- as a fundamental mechanism for supporting such competitiveness and a direct participant of this process. But what the schools are required for ensuring economic competitiveness, often conflicts with generally accepted idea of a global education reform. The experience of many countries demonstrates that, for example, increased standardization of learning and teaching may be counterproductive in terms of the expectation of increased economic competitiveness. The solution is that despite growing competitiveness it is necessary to have effective mechanisms of intensive cooperation, collaboration and exchange of ideas among education systems at every level. Ultimately this, in turn, will facilitate to increasing economic competitiveness of countries at global markets. As is mentioned in “Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth”, by K. Lewin, F. Caillods, 2001, published by the IIEP UNESCO, at the 1990 global conference Education for All the majority of developing countries stated their readiness for ensuring universal access to first cycle of education. As a result, globally, the number of learners in the elementary grades in developing countries has grown significantly that has been mainly supported by mobilizing significant local resources. At the mentioned conference less attention was paid to the need for increasing resources for increasing the participation of students in secondary education. Nevertheless, by that time it became absolutely clear that in the majority of developing countries the increase of the degree of participation of students in general schools would be impossible without changing the nature of funding and structure. In the publication “Funding Education in Developing Countries: Levels and Sources of Funds”, published by the World Bank in 2002 at the example of transitional economies the peculiarities of funding from various sources of education systems is discussed. Namely, peculiarities of funds allocated for education in various countries is analyzed according to public, private and international sources of funding. The author makes an observation that private funding is the main source of education funding in the majority of countries. Private funding in education is a significant contributor in education. Successful countries make effective use of public as well as private funding. Steady growth of per student funding depends on the level of mobilization of such funding. In cases of intensive use of private funds it is necessary to ensure equality and accessibility principles in education. Despite a growing trend of private funding public funding remains the main source of funding in education. The role of the state in developing equal opportunities for quality education for all remains unchanged. As a conclusion an opinion is expressed that there is no universal formula that would set an optimal volume of funding of education system of a country. For this it is necessary to undertake mixed analytical activities including the use of the comparable analysis method with the systems of countries with comparable revenues and context.

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In the book “How NGOs React” (2008) I. Silova and Gita Shteiner-khamsi discuss education reform matters at the example of the Caucasus, Central Asia and Mongolia in the context of globalization. The work analyses some nuances of education reforms of the mentioned countries, similarities and differences and the role of civil society in processes. In the book focuses on the analysis of reform processes underway in the region and the role of globalization in the aspirations towards international model of education systems. It is underlined in the work that not every education reform is conducted under the same scenario and there are differences as well. When making a comparative analysis it is necessary to differentiate between the socalled “wandering” reforms that are transferred from one country to another. In this context it is about the necessity of analysis in international, regional and local perspective. The authors review the post-Socialist educational package and derive the conclusion that this package is unique with its content for it combines several elements: 1) elements that are characteristic of any low-income developing country; 2) specific aspects of reforming education systems of former socialist block; 3) components specific to a country-region. Problem identification Education funding is made from various sources. In an individual state total level of education funding is established by total level of funds allocated from these sources. Main sources of funding are: Public funding. It accounts for the largest share of education expenditures of countries and in the majority of cases is up to 80% of total funding. Public funds are allocated and expended in education system by various levels of structures (central, regional and local) and public educational institutions. In various countries the level of participation of various levels of structures in education funding is varies. For example, in some models of European continental systems central authorities dispose 80% of total public funding, while local bodies – 20%. While in North American system the central government disposes just 7% while the state and local authorities -- about 90%. Public funding comprises direct public expenditures for education and subsidies mainly for families such as fees, scholarships, loans, etc. Private funding. The share of this funding in the national education funds is about on average 20%. But, in some countries it represents significant share of resources and is accounts for the majority of education expenditures. Private funding in general most often is made by households but there are cases when community, civil society and private sector contribute funds to education. Other than few exceptions the share of household in private funding is very high. They perform private funding through direct and indirect expenses. Direct expenses comprise school fees, transportation, uniform, education resources, etc. Indirect expenses are expenditures that are not directly related to the education process but facilitate the development of the system and process. Various studies confirm increased readiness of the society for education funding (Bray, 96). International funding. Education reforms in post-Socialist period were characterized by active expansion of global processes into transitional economies. Namely, this period was characterized by the spread and expansion of the International Model of education reforms that was mainly initiated by international donor organizations (Silova, Shteiner-khamsi, 2008). According to 1997 data funding of developing countries from international funds, including loans, was 2% of education expenditures. Based on these data USD 6-6.5 Billion was allocated for education expenditures by international organizations and the expenditures of developing countries on education totaled 290 Billion. The countries were compelled to look for other sources in order to meet educational demands. Therefore, other than few exceptions national resources are main source of educational expenditures (World Bank, 2002). In a number of countries private funding is a considerable part of total educational expenditures. In some cases private funding is almost half of total education funds. For example, in Haiti private sector accounts for 80% of funding which indicates the inability of the state to fund general education (World Bank, 2002). In the majority of states private funding of educational is 20% of total funding but, in the opinion of experts this indicator is also quite significant and without private funding in some countries quality of education would face serious problems.

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The countries that successfully manage to mobilize private resources in education are able to spend much more resources per student than those who are exclusively using public funds. Private funding in education can and should serve as a fundamental contributor to the funding of every country. The goal should be absolutely clear for decision makers: main efforts should be directed towards mobilizing private funds in order to ensure access to the most necessary funds. Further, it is necessary to ensure the principles of equality and access in education. As stipulated in the UNESCO program Education for All principles primary education, as a rule, must be free for all since one of the key challenges for the countries is ensuring access to education for poor population. Degree of impact of total expenditures on education is determined by the amount of resources that directly reach each student in a class. High amount of funding allocated per student as a rule means high salaries of teachers and more intensive in-service training and more and better learning resources and improved school facilities. All these factors are positively related to direct educational outcomes. Still, unfortunately, there is no automatic link between per student expenditures and improved educational outcomes. Interrelation between these is more complex. Improved system for quality education requires rational allocation and use of insufficient funds. For example, observations have shown that when in the United States in 1970-1990 funding per student increased about twofold student achievement indicators according to national tests remained unchanged. It is difficult to precisely determine a marginal theoretical optimal indicator for education funding of a country. Further, there is no optimal ratio that would determine the level of private and public funding in education. There are several analytical tools that can be used to approximately determine desirable amount of education funding, including the method of comparative analysis with systems of countries with comparable income and context should intensively be used as well. The purpose of the scientific paper The goal of the scientific paper is to determine on the basis of recent studies the role of various investments in funding general education system, what is the degree of its impact effect on overall development of school system and what is the interrelation of funding from various sources at the specific example of developing economy. Study results The analysis of problems reviewed in the article is based on the results of two studies conducted in Georgia: The Study of “Private Tutoring in Georgia” and “Access and equity in Education in Georgia” that were conducted in 2011 under the aegis of the Institute for Education Policy, Planning and Management (EPPM). According to the results of these studies funding of the education system remains a problem in Georgia. Although since 2004 public expenditures in general education have been increasing in absolute terms its share in GDP has not changed significantly and ranges with minor variations between 2-3%. This indicator does not compare to average European indicator (5%). Given this situation the funds spent by parents on the education of children that is not so small is a significant compensatory factor. In addition to the state funding parents account for a considerable share in general education funding. Annual expenditures of parents on education is within about GEL 300 million that is 85.5% of state funding of general schools (GEL 350 865 700). Moreover, the share of private tutoring in expenditures of parents on general education is also high -- 40%. Further, interestingly education expenditures come second after expenditures on food in the budget of the families with school age children. On average, tutoring and textbooks have equal share in education expenditures and jointly account for 80%. The brought figures confirm the opinion that parents are ready for increased investment in their children’s education. Several socio-economic factors have significant impact on the scale of private tutoring in Georgia. Most frequently they list two main factors driving demand for tutoring – poor quality of school education and mismatch between knowledge gained in school with the requirements at the exams. If in the final grade the scale of tutoring can be explained by the preparation for exams the prevalence of tutoring at basic and

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secondary level can be conditioned by the demand of parents to obtain higher quality education which school education currently does not provide. Further, it should be mentioned that since service is not available for all who are willing to take private tutoring causes the problem of social inequality in terms of access to education. Demand for private tutoring is much higher than actual indicators of use of this service – 90% of surveyed respondents say agree that private tutoring is necessary. 60% of surveyed respondents that do not take private tutoring list the lack of funds as the only reason. Scales are different in the center and the regions as well as among high and low income groups. Respectively, almost all final grade students from high income families take private tutoring. Despite intensive process of education reform in the country the scale of private tutoring remains large. Which, in part can be Explained by the increase of value of education for employment and the gap between the demand and supply of knowledge. I.e., by the fact that school education still does not fully meet the demand of society. Georgian education system fails to ensure that the majority of students gain minimum competencies relevant to their age. This was evidenced by the international assessments in which the country participated over the past 5 years. According to the results of these assessments in Georgia indicator of student achievement is considerably lower as compared to international average and is much lower than forecast level per capita according to the GDP. If relatively well-off families, as a minimum, partially make up for educational needs outside the mainstream education system, including through private tutoring services, poor, socially and economically vulnerable families either do not have any access to such resources or have limited access to these resources. Conclusions and recommendations In order for the education system of the country to keep pace with the trends and challenges of economic development directions for improvement of funding of the system should be determined. Improvement and reorganization of the education funding system becomes absolutely necessary in order to ensure as much as possible main characteristics of the system -- rational allocation of funds, social equality access and transparency. When implementing reorganization activities it is necessary to focus on key aspects of the financial system and the circumstances as to how the fulfillment of the above-mentioned four functions is supported. Key aspects of the financial system can be provisionally reviewed in two main categories: a) structural aspects of financial systems; and (b) distribution and allocation of funds and resources. Structural aspects imply the scale of public funding of education that includes private schools in addition to public schools, as well as the level of additional and private funding. It is necessary to maintain the trends of increasing system funding. The fact that education has been declared as one of the priorities creates favorable conditions for relevant funding of the system. It is necessary to gradually increase the share of education funding as part of GDP which, according to 2011 data, is just 2.7%. In this case it is important to have piecemeal and gradual trend of increasing funding in order to facilitate balanced development of the system and avoid the adverse results that are related to instantaneous increase of funding. It should be taken into account also that low share of education funding in Georgia is significantly compensated by high rate of private sector funding which is 85.5% in relation to state funding of general schools and 0.8% of GDP. For comparison, private sector share in GDP in Baltic States as of 2008 is as follows: Estonia – 0.3%; Lithuania – 0.52%; Latvia – 0.6%. Increased funding may significantly ease the burden of parents for private funding and contribute to the change of the indicator towards regular range. Increased funding alone cannot ensure increasing of the quality of teaching and learning unless the mechanisms for targeted allocation and rational spending of funds are put in place. Further, unless monitoring over spending of funds is improved. Priority for allocation of funds should be given to the segments of education quality (teacher professional development, school management quality improvement, textbook improvement, etc.). Further, it is necessary for the state not to miss the interests of risk groups (IDPs; national minorities; children from low income families; children with disabilities and special

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educational needs, etc.) and ensure the protection of their basic rights and integration into society by funding of relevant programs. It is very important to precisely identify the role and duties of various actors in terms of generating, distribution of funds and the use of funds/resources. Support function of local governments for schools should be increased considerably, while retaining the centralized funding structure. This will contribute to effective funding of schools without any intermediate points although here as well it is necessary to have in place a flexible mechanism of disposal and spending of funds that would be directed at supporting with school funds management and would be less oriented at punitive activities. Management decentralization should be stimulated and developed further at a school level. It is necessary to increase the role of parents in setting school priorities, budgeting, planning educational process, control and assessment. It is important to develop school community capacity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; knowledge and skills in financial management. As for the mechanisms of distribution and allocation of funds and resources it is important to continue refinement and improvement of per student formula funding. Currently the level of these funds is not sufficient to meet educational (including special education) needs. First of all realistic basic amount of the funding formula must be determined, including through comparative analysis with similar systems. And most importantly, in order to establish in the country optimal approaches towards system funding policy it is necessary to ensure active involvement of stakeholders from the planning stage of policy and keep active dialogue with them on problems. Concurrently with the dialogue topic-related academic and applied studies is to be supported and intensified and qualified providers should be actively involved in this process.

References: Silova I., Steiner-Khamsi G. How NGOs React: Globalization and Education reform in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Mongolia. Bloomfield, CT 06002 USA: Kumarian Press, Inc., 2008, 280 p. Sahlberg P. Education Reform for Raising Economic Competitiveness. Jornal of Educational Change, 2006, 3, 13. Growth, K. Lewin, F. Caillods. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable. IIEP UNESCO, 2001 J. Saaverda. Education Financing in Developing Countries: Level and Sources of Funds. World Bank Institute, 2002 G. Jolia, D. Sekhniashvili, Knowlage Economy and Management, 2010. G. Machabeli, T. Bregvadze, R. Aphkhazava, Examining Private Tutoring Phenomenon in Georgia, 2011. International Institute for Education Policy, Planning, and Management. http://www.eppm.org.ge/2011/05/normal-0-false-false-false-en-us-x-none.html G. Machabeli, T. Bregvadze,â&#x20AC;Ś Education Access and Equity in Georgia, 2011. International Institute for Education Policy, Planning, and Management.

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GIORGI MACHABELI PHD, Technical University of Georgia Georgia, Tbilisi

INVESTMENTS IN K12 AS A NECESSARY PRECONDITION FOR COUNTRY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Summary The increase of the role of education has necessitated the formation of the systems adapted to modern labor market requirements. For the development of modern education it is necessary to have in place funding systems that are flexible, efficient and adapted to needs. For the educational system of developing economies the development of a rational model of funding given limited funds is twice as relevant. In order for the educational system of a country to keep pace with the trends of economic growth and challenges directions of the improvement of the funding model of the system must be established. Improvement and reorganization of education funding system becomes necessary in order to maximally ensure the presence of main elements of the system â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rational allocation of funds, social equality, access and transparency. An optimal system of education funding ensures adequate level of funding, supports the introduction of the principles of efficiency and equality of rights through optimal distribution of privileges of quality education among the members of society. Optimal amount of education expenditures is a precondition for relevant educational outcomes, including for achieving balanced social objectives.

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iaSa (iakob) mesxia ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi saqarTvelos mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis orientirebi da mosalodneli safrTxeebi Tanamedrove etapze msoflioSi mimdinare globaluri finansuri krizisi, axali ekonomikuri da politikuri safrTxeebis molodini dRis wesrigSi ayenebs calkeuli qveynebis, transnacionaluri kompaniebisa da sxva biznes-struqturebis ganviTarebis strategiebisa da momavali qcevebis obieqturi analizis, Sefasebisa da Sesabamisi prevenciuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis aucileblobas. gardamaval etapze saqarTveloSi gatarebuli reformebis socialur-ekonomikuri Sedegebis SWOT-analizisa da Sefasebidan gamomdinare ikveTeba Semdegi Zlieri da susti mxareebi.  Zlieri mxareebia: ekonomikuri zrdis SedarebiT maRali tempebi; energetikuli usafrTxoebis ganmtkiceba; saxelmwifo biujetis gajansaReba; sagadasaxado sistemis srulyofa; ekonomikis liberalizaciis gaRrmaveba; antikorufciuli RonisZiebebis gatareba; sabanko seqtoris stabiluroba; Semosavlebis zrda; savaWro brunvis moculobis zrda; turizmis dargisadmi xelSewyoba da misi SedarebiT swrafi tempiT ganviTareba; infrastruqturis reabilitacia da mSenebloba; Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmna (erTi sarkmlis modeli) da sxv.  susti mxareebia: umuSevrobis maRali done da dasaqmebis programebis araefeqtianoba; soflis meurneobis CamorCeniloba da am dargisadmi saTanado samTavrobo yuradRebis miuqcevloba; sagareo valis swrafi zrda da momavalSi misgan mosalodneli safrTxis Seufasebloba; ucxouri investiciebis simcire; bazarze momopolizaciis maRali done; saxelmwifo finansebis xarjvisa da qonebis efeqtiani gamoyenebisadmi kontrolis sisuste; inflaciis maRali done; sakredito resursebis siZvire; sagadamxdelo balansis sisuste da savaWro balansis negatiuri saldo; siRaribis maRali done; mosaxleobis Semosavlebis polarizacia da saSualo fenis ararseboba; regionul ganviTarebaSi uTanabrobis gaRrmaveba; msxvili biznesis saxelmwifo struqturebTan Sezrda da a. S. saxelisuflebo menejmentis mudmivi mzrunvelobis sagania ekonomikis aRorZineba-ganviTareba, magram samwuxarod am miznis realizaciis erTiani kompleqsuri strategiisa da Sesabamisi samoqmedo programis SemuSaveba dRemde ver moxerxda. amitomac reformebis erTi nawili naucbaTev, dausabuTebel xasiaTs atarebda, da Sedegebic ar iyo maRalefeqtiani.Aam garemoebebidan gamomdinare saqarTvelos mTavrobam am bolo periodSi gaaqtiura muSaoba qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis erTiani prognozuli orientiris SemuSavebis mimarTulebiT. am kuTxiT erT_erT sapiloto dokumentad SeiZleba CaiTvalos saqarTvelos prezidentis mier inicirebuli “ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis aqti”, romlic gulixmobs iseTi RonisZiebebis gatarebas rogoricaa: referendumi sagadasaxado cvlilebebze; axali maregulirebeli organoebis Seqmnis, agreTve axali licenziebisa da nebarTvebis SemoRebis akrZalva da sxva. mogvianebiT am dokumentis safuZvelze saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo organuli kanoni “ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb”, romelic saqarTvelos konsti-

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tuciasTan erTad adgens dRevandeli da momavali Taobebis ekonomikuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis garantiebs. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis SedarebiT kompleqsuri xasiaTis programul dokuments warmoadgens “saqarTvelos mTavrobis “aTpunqtiani gegma” modernizaciisa da dasaqmebisaTvis (2011–2015)”, romlis mizania Seqmnas winapirobebi warmatebuli, mdidari da erTiani saxelmwifos mSeneblobisaTvis. dRemde SemuSavebuli yvela zemoxsenebuli dokumenti saorientacio, konceftualuri xasiaTisaa da araa gamagrebuli konkretuli samoqmedo gegmebiT da miznobrivi programebiT, aseve isini ar pasuxoben “gegmis”, “koncefciis”, “strategiis Sinaarsobriv da formalur moTxovnebs, amitomac mizanSewonilia maT vuwodoT “konceftualuri orientirebi”(SemdgomSi “orientirebi”). aseTi formulireba gamarTlebulia imiTac, rom am dokumentebSi ZiriTadi aqcenti gakeTebulia saboloo miznebis formulirebisaken, ise, rom araa gaxsnili maTi miRwevis konkretuli resursebi da gzebi. “orientirebSi” SeiZleba gamoiyos Semdegi ZiriTadi nawilebi: makroekonomikuri stabilurobis miRweva da SenarCuneba; mimdinare angariSis balansis gaumjobeseba; saukeTeso sainvesticio da biznes garemos Seqmna da SenarCuneba; regionis savaWro da logistikur centrad Camoyalibeba; infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba; soflis meurneobis ganviTareba; ganaTlebis sistemis gaumjobeseba; socialuri politikis daxvewa; xelmisawvdomi, maRalxarisxiani jandacvis sistemis Camoyalibeba; urbanuli da regionuli ganviTareba.  makroekonomikuri stabiluroba. makroekonomikuri stabilurobis miRwevis mizniT “orientirebSi” gaTvaliswinebulia ekonomikis swrafi zrda, fiskaluri mdgradobis uzrunvelyofa, qveynis mTliani valis moculobisa da sabiujeto deficitis moculobis Semcireba, dabali inflacia, mTavrobis mcirericxovnoba, finansuri sistemis mdgradoba, jansaRi sabanko seqtoris formireba da maTi mdgradobis amaRleba saSinao da sagareo Sokebis mimarT. ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisa da axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis mizniT uaxloes wlebSi navaraudevia mSp-is ufro maRali tempebiT zrda msoflio ekonomikis saSualo zrdasTan SedarebiT, xolo optimisturi scenariT 4-wlian periodSi misi orniSna ricxvamde gadideba, rac uzruvelyofs 2011 welTan SedarebiT 2015 wlisaTvis mSp erT sulze 60-90%-iT (5,000-6,000 aSS dolaramde) gazrdas. amave periodSi gaTvaliswinebulia mSp erT sul mosaxleze TiTqmis gaormageba. ”orientirebis” Tanaxmad gaTvaliswinebulia sagareo saxelmwifo valis portfelSi xelsayreli finansuri parametrebis SeinarCuneba, romlebic uzrunvelyofen mis mdgradobas rogorc moklevadian, aseve saSualo- da grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. navaraudevia, rom misi done ar unda aRematebodes mSp-is 60%-s, xolo ufro Soreul perspeqtivaSi unda Semcirdes mSp-is 25%-mde. dagegmilia agreTve biujetis deficitis Semcireba, kerZod, 2014 wlidan biujetis deficiti unda Seadgendes ara umetes mSp-is 3%-s, xolo biujetis xarjebisa da arafinansuri aqtivebis zrdis mTliani moculobis wili ar unda aRematebodes mSp-is 30%-s. grZelvadian periodSi gaTvaliswinebulia inflaciis SenarCuneba erTniSna maCvenebelze da mudmivi monitoringis daweseba laris gacvliT kursze, raTa man negatiurad ar imoqmedos saqarTvelos ekonomikis konkurentunarianobaze. “orientirebi” iTvaliswinebs finansuri sistemis mdgradobis uzrunvelyofas da gare Sokebze damokidebulebis Semcirebas, fasiani qaRaldebis likviduri bazris Camoyalibebas, sabanko saprocento ganakveTebis Semcirebas, mcire da saSualo biznesis dafinansebis gazrdas, biznesis gaaqtiurebas. 2015 wels 2005 welTan SedarebiT daaxloebiT 9-jer unda gaizardos rogorc sabanko aqtivebi, aseve de-

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pozitebi da sasesxo portfelis moculoba. SesaZlo sagareo Sokebis Serbilebisa da sagareo valdebulebebis momsaxurebis mizniT gaTvaliswinebulia qveyanas hqondes sakmarisi saerTaSoriso rezervebi.  mimdinare angariSis balansis gaumjobeseba. igi gulisxmobs Ria ekonomikis ganviTarebas, eqsportis da turizmis zrdiT mimdinare angariSis balansis optimizacias. am mizniT grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi dagegmilia ekonomikis ganviTarebis iseT struqturis formireba, romlis Sedegad 2015 wlisaTvis 2011 welTan SedarebiT miRweul iqneba savaWro balansis deficitis ganaxevreba mSp-sTan mimarTebaSi. igi ZiriTadad moxdeba saqonlis eqsportis zrdiT, romelSic udides komponents daikavebs turizmis seqtori. saqonlis, momsaxurebis da turizmis eqsporti 2010 welTan mimarTebaSi 2015 wlisaTvis 2-jer unda gaizardos, saSualod 1520%-iT weliwadSi, anu turistebis raodenobam 5 milions unda gadaaWarbos. sagegmo periodSi gaTvaliswinebulia sapartnioro fondis Seqmna. misi aqtivebi gamoyenebuli iqneba msxvili kerZo da saxelmwifo sainvesticio proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad. sakredito resursi moziduli iqneba saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebidan, agreTve saxelmwifo sawarmoebis aqciebis saerTaSoriso birJebze ganTavsebis Sedegad miRebuli Tanxebidan.  sainvesticio da biznes garemos Seqmna. “orientirebis” mocemuli nawili iTvaliswinebs mewarmeobisaTvis arakorufciuli da xelsayreli investiciuri klimatis da optimaluri sagadasaxado garemos Seqmnas. gaTvaliswinebulia axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, Sromis bazarze mobilurobis uzrunvelyofa, specialuri regulaciebi SemoReba 45 dan 60 wlamde mosaxleobis dasaqmebis mizniT. dagegmilia sagadasaxado sistemis da administrirebis gamartiveba.  pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi. “orientirebis” Tanaxmad pirdapirma ucxourma investiciebma mTliani Sida produqtis minimum 6%, unda Seadginos.  regionis savaWro da logistikur centrad Camoyalibeba. gaTvaliswinebula ekonomikis Riaobis donis gazrda, gamarTuli logistikuri infrastruqturis formireba, samagaliTo administraciuli momsaxureba, Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Seqmna, sasawyobo sawarmoebis liberalur regulireba, evrokavSirTan Tavisufali vaWrobis xelSekrulebis gaformebis daCqareba. gansakuTrebuli proeqtebisTvis investorebi gamoiyeneben wamaxalisebel pirobebs. kerZod, investors sawarmos asaSeneblad miwis nakveTi sakuTrebaSi gadaecema simbolur fasad; gamoiyofa saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli saprivatizacio Senobebi, romlebic SesaZlebelia SeRavaTian fasebSi gadaeces investorebs; investori uzrunvelyofili iqneba Sesabamisi infrastruqturiT (gazi, wyali, eleqtroenergia); ucxoel investorebs gaewevaT daxmareba muSaxelis mozidvasa da treningebis dafinansebaSi. sagegmo periodSi biznesis ganviTarebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani elementi unda gaxdes regionuli mniSvnelobis sabiTumo da sacalo savaWro centrebis Seqmna.  infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba. Seiqmneba ganviTarebuli, xarisxiani da usafrTxo sagzao infrastruqtura qveynis Sida tvirTbrunvis, import-eqportisa da tranzitis ganviTarebisaTvis. am proeqtebis ganxorcielebisas Tavad mSeneblobaze pirdapir da iribad yovelwliurad dasaqmdeba 30 aTasamde kaci. saqarTvelos rkinigza SeinarCunebs momgebiani sawarmos statuss, gazrdis simZlavres, komforts da siCqares. dasruldeba Tbilisi-baTumis Cqarosnul rkinigzaze muSaoba modernizaciis proeqtis farglebSi. baTumidan Tbilisamde Tanamedrove matarebliT mgzavrobis dro 3 saaTamde Semcirdeba. aRniSnuli proeqtze daixarjeba 400 mln aSS dolarze meti. gagrZeldeba muSaoba baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis axal sarkinig-

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zo gzaze, aSendeba Tbilisis SemovliTi sarkinigzo xazi. aRniSnul proeqtebze yovelwliurad saSualod 8 aTasidan 10 aTasamde adamiani dasaqmdeba. dasruldeba quTaisisa da foTis aeroportis mSenebloba, 2015 wlisaTvis dReisaTvis mgzavrTa arsebuli raodenoba 50%-iT gaizrdeba, saaviacio industriaSi dasaqmebulTa ricxvi sul cota 1,5-jer unda gaizardos. ganviTardeba sazRvao transporti, saporto infrastruqtura, satvirTo da samgzavro gadazidvebis moculoba. saqarTvelo ufro aqtiurad CaerTveba msoflio sakruizo qselSi. “orientiris” mixedviT gaTvaliswinebulia sando, divirsificirebuli da finansurad mdgradi energosistemis formireba. eleqtroenergiaze qveynis moTxovna 100% dakmayofildeba saqarTveloSi gamomuSavebuli hidroenergiiT. qveyana gaxdeba eleqtroenergiis mniSvnelovani eqsportiori. bunebrivi airis mowodeba ganxorcieldeba diversificirebuli modeliT. 2015 wlamde saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 70% iqneba gazificirebuli. dasruldeba amJamad mimdinare 10 hesis mSenebloba, daiwyeba 15 axali hesis mSenebloba. am proeqtebze dasaqmdeba 13 aTasi kaci.  soflis meurneobis ganviTareba. igi orientirebuli iqneba mewarmeobaze, Seiqmneba modernizebuli da samewarmeo principebze dafuZnebuli pirveladi da gadamamuSavebeli warmoeba da Sesabamisi logistikuri centrebi, moxdeba sasoflosameurneo miwebis CarTva warmoebaSi, kerZod, 2015 wlisaTvis saqarTveloSi sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis mizniT damuSavebuli farTobebis raodenoba 50%-iT gaizardeba. prioriteti iqneba memarcvleoba, meRvineoba, mecxoveleoba, mexileoba. 2015 wlisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia xorblze moTxovnis 50%-is adgilobrivi warmoebiT dakmayofileba, xolo 200 aTas tonamde simindis eqsportireba. Rvinis eqsportis moculoba gaormagdeba, xolo warmoeba 50%-iT gaizrdeba. gaTvaliswinebulia mecxoveleobisadmi xelSewyoba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqceva logistikuri centrebis qselis ganviTarebas. gegmiT gaTvaliswinebulia sairigacio sistemis reabilitacia da ganviTareba.  urbanuli da regionuli ganviTareba. “orientirebi” iTvaliswinebs uTanasworobis Semcirebas urbanul da regionul ganviTarebaSi, dasaqmebis centrebis Seqmnas, soflebis infrastruqturis gaaumjobesebas. soflis sxelmwifo mxardaWeris programis farglebSi gagrZeldeba adgilobrivi da sasoflo saavtomobilo gzebis infrastruqturis reabilitacia da movla-Senaxva. napirdacvis uzrunvelyofis mizniT gagrZeldeba Sesabamisi saproeqto da samSeneblo samuSaoebi. aseve gagrZeldeba wyalmomaragebisa da wyalarinebis mSeneblobisa da reabilitaciis samuSaoebi. unda iTqvas, rom gansxvavebiT wina periodebSi miRebuli ekonomikuri xasiaTis analogiuri dokumentebisagan, mocemuli “orientirebi” aSkarad windadadgmuli nabijia, radgan igi, erTi mxriv, kompleqsurad moicavs qveynis socialurekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad miznebs, xolo, meore mxriv, iZleva srul warmodgenas im xedvebze da orientirebze, romelic gaaCnia xelisuflebas qveynis winaSe mdgari ZiriTadi gamowvevevis daZlevis mimarTulebiT. Mmocemuli “orientirebis” Zlieri da susti mxareebi konkretulad misi realizaciis procesSi gamovlindeba, Tumca dRevandeli gadasaxedidan SeiZleba misi zogadi Sefaseba da monitoringi. Cveni azriT, miuxedavad mTlianobaSi misi pozitiuri Sefasebisa, masSi SeiZleba gamoiyos zogierTi dasazustebeli da pasuxgasacemi sakiTxebi. kerZod:  igi metismetad optimisturia da ar gamomdinareobs qveynis ganviTarebis retrospeqtuli kanonzomierebebidan. Ees iqidanac Cans, rom masSi araa kritikulad Sefasebuli ukanasknel wlebSi ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi Camoyalibebuli re-

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aluri kanonzomierebebi, dReisaTvis arsebuli pozitiuri da negatiuri mxareebi da araa gaxsnili maTi ganmpirobebeli ZiriTadi faqtorebi da pirobebi;  masSi saTanadod araa gaTvaliswinebuli Tanamedrove etapze msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare krizisuli movlenebi da metwilad orientiri aRebulia avtonomiur reJimSi qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaze. Tqma imisa, rom saqarTvelom miaRwia ekonomikur warmatebebs im pirobebSi, rodesac msoflios mravali qveynis ekonomika CamoiSala, arazustia. saqarTvelos ekonomikis naklebad dazaraleba msoflio krizisis pirobebSi ZiriTadad ganpirobebulia 2008 wels saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mier 4,5 miliardiani finansuri daxmarebiT da ucxoeTis qveynebisa da saerTaSoriso institutebis mier mravali sxvadasxva saxis teqnikuri da humanitaruli proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT. amJamad globalur ekonomikaSi mimdinare krizisuli procesebidan gamomdinare, rodesac evrozonaSi (saberZneTi, espaneTi, italia, portugalia da sxva) mwvave savalo-sabiujeto krizisia, didi moculobis finansuri daxmarebis miReba momavalSi naklebad saalbaToa.  ”orientirebi” srulad ar iTvaliswinebs im riskebs da axal gamowvevebs, romelic SeiZleba dadges momavalSi, gamomdinare qveynis SigniT arsebuli socialuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobidan. saubaria imaze, rom sagegmo periods emTxveva saparlamento da saprezidento arCevnebi da, rogorc msoflio praqtikidan cnobilia, aseT viTarebaSi ekonomikui aqtiuroba neldeba, gansakuTrebiT es exeba qveyanaSi ucxouri investiciebis Semodinebas.  “orientirebSi” saTanadod araa gaTvaliswinebuli ekonomikuri ganviTarebis inerciuli buneba da naxtomisebri ganviTarebis sakmaod maRali raodenobrivi maxasiaTeblebi maTi praqtikuli realizaciis sxvadasxva saxis riskebis Semcvelia.  mkafiod ar Cans dasaxuli miznebis realizaciis egzogenuri da endogenuri finansuri wyaroebi, rac warmodgenili proeqtebis moxazul vadebSi praqtikuli realizaciis eWvis warmoSobis safuZvels iZleva. albaT amiTaa ganpirobebuli “aTpuntiani gegmis” yovel 6 TveSi ganaxlebaze miniSneba, rac akninebs mocemuli dokumentis programulobisa da saimedobis xarisxs.  sayuradReboa, rom „orientirebSi” ver moxvda Savi zRvis sanapiroze qalaq lazikas mSeneblobis sakiTxi, rac “aTpunqtiani gegmis” miRebidan sul mokle droSi iqna gacxadebuli. ra Tqma unda, aseTi msxvili da strategiuli proeqtis gauTvaliswinebloba erTgvarad asustebs momavali ekonomikuri xedvebis dasabuTebulobisa da praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis xarisxs. zemoTqmuli misazrebebis sailustraciod moviyvanoT erTi magaliTi. aviRoT saxelmwifi vali, romelic mSp-sTan mimarTebaSi “aTpunqtiani gegmis” Tanaxmad ar unda aWarbebdes 60%-s da TandaTanobiT unda Semcirdes 25%-mde. imisaTvis, rom gaverkveT imaSi Tu ramdenad SesaZlebelia gegmis am punqtis praqtikuli realizacia, saWiroa Catardes saqarTvelos mTliani sagareo valebis dinamikis da struqturis retrospeqtuli analizi. saqarTvelos mTlianma sagareo valma 2011 wlis 31 dekembris mdgomareobiT 10,7 mlrd aSS dolari (17,6 mlrd lari) Seadgina. aqedan, 3,6 mlrd aSS dolari (5,9 mlrd lari) iyo samTavrobo seqtoris vali, 0,8, mlrd aSS dolari – erovnuli bankis, 1,9 mlrd aSS dolari – komerciuli bankebis, 1,9 mlrd aSS dolari – sxva seqtorebis, 2,5 mlrd aSS dolari – kompaniaTaSorisi sesxebi. sayuradReboa, rom gasuli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi qveynis mTliani sagareo valis moculoba TiTqmis 3-jer gaizarda. igi 2006 wlis 31 dekembrisaTvis Seadgenda 3,8 mlrd aSS dolars, xolo, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, 2011 wlis bolosaTvis gaizarda 10,7 miliardamde (zrda-281,6%). dReisaTvis saqarTvelos

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mTliani sagareo valis moculoba aRemateba qveynis mSp-s moculobas Sesadar fasebSi, xolo mimdinare fasebSi igi 80 procents aRwevs. saqarTvelos sagareo valis maRali tempebiT zrda seriozuli ekonomikuri (da ara marto ekonomikuri) safrTxis Semcvelia. saerTaSoriso sagareo valis mTlian Sida produqtTan mimarTebaSi 60 procentamde saerTaSoriso praqtikiT dasaSvebia mxolod im qveynebisaTvis, sadac eqsport-importis saldo dabalansebulia an eqsporti aRemateba imports. saqarTvelos pirobebSi ki, sadac eqsporti imports 4-jer CamorCeba, saxelmwifo sagareo valis im moculobamde zrda, ramdenic importis Rirebulebaa, didi ekonomikuri safrTxis matarebelia. axali saxelmwifo sesxebis mozidva, uaxloes momavalSi saxelmwifos Seuqmnis defoltis safrTxes, rac qveynisaTvis uaRresad negatiuri movlena iqneba. amis magaliTebi ukve arsebobs saberZneTSi, espaneTSi, italiaSi, portugaliaSi da evropis sxva qveyanaSi, sadac sagareo valebisa da biujetis deficitis gaukontrolebelma zrdam es qveynebi defoltis safrTxis winaSe daayena, ufro metic, safrTxe Seuqmna mTel evrozonas da msoflio safinanso sistemas. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom ucxoeli investorebi ZiriTadad im qveynebiT interesdebian, romelTac ar gaaCniaT didi sagareo vali da savalo saerTaSoriso reitingSi stabiluri adgili ukaviaT. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom sagareo valdebulebebis maRali tempebiT zrda gaumarTlebelia gamomdinare grZelvadian periodSi qveynis ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis dacvis principebidan. upiratesad sagareo da saSinao sesxebis zrdis safuZvelze qveynis winaSe mdgari socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis daregulireba erovnuli ekonomikis sisutis maCvenebelia. gamomdinare aqedan, saWiroa maqsimalurad TavSekaveba axali sagareo sesxebis mozidvisagan da Zalisxmevis warmarTva Sida finansuri resursebis mobilizaciisaken, sabiujeto saxsrebis ekonomiurad xarjva da, Sesabamisad, valebis dagrovebasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxis Tavidan acileba. „orientirebis” Tanaxmad mTeli rigi msxvili proeqtebis dasafinanseblad gaTvaliswinebulia ucxouri kapitalis mozidva, rac erTis mxriv, Znelad gansaxorcielebelia mimdinare globaluri finansuri krizisis pirobebSi, xolo, meore mxriv, savaraudoa, rom momavalSi SeRavaTiani sagareo sesxis miReba mniSvnelovnad garTuldes amave mizezebis gamo. gamomdinare aqedan, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gegmis finansuri uzrunvelyofis sakiTxi ufro argumentirebul dasabuTebas saWiroebs. miuxedavad zemoT gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebisa da survilebisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dReisaTvis qveyanas gaaCnia mdgradi ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis saSualovadiani kompleqsuri “orientirebi”, romelic udavod pozitiur rols Seasrulebs ekonomikis mSeneblobisa da ganmtkicebis saqmeSi. literatura: 1. saqarTvelos strategiuli ganviTarebis “aTpunqtiani gegma”-modernizaciisa da dasaqmebisaTvis (2011-2015)”, oqtomberi, Tb., 2011. 2. qveynis ZiriTadi monacemebi da mimarTulebebi 2012-2015 wlebisaTvis (gadamuSavebuli varianti), saqarTvelos mTavroba, Tb., 2011. 3. saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefcia, 2011. 4. saqarTvelos organuli kanoni “ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb”. 5. http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2012/02/tbilisi%E2% 80%99s-corruption-busters

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Iasha (Jacob) Meskhia Doctor of Economic Sciences, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU full Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Guidelines for Sustainable Economic Development of Georgia and Possible Threats The work studies strengths and weaknesses of retrospective and prospective development of Georgian economy, reveals main existing and possible challenges and threats. It gives suggestions for overcoming the risks. Various kinds of program documents for economic development elaborated by the government in recent years are presented in the form of “guidelines”. It analyzes such items as: macroeconomic environment, current account balance, investment and business environment, regional economic development, infrastructure, agriculture. The presented work also gives the evaluation of positive and negative aspects of government documentation. It concludes that formation of prospective “guidelines” for social and economic development will be the substantial guarantee for strengthening the economic sustainability and financial stability of the country. Though there is a need for elaboration of work program that will be based on the aforementioned guidelines showing financial resources, responsible executives, terms and possible results necessary for the realization of the program goals.

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Sophio Moralishvili Doctor, Akaki Tsereteli StateUniversity Professor Georgia, Kutaisi Education and Human Resource Management for Sustainable Development Despite welcome progress in many respects since the end of the Cold War, the world remains cleaved by grave inequalities, deep deprivation and continuing environmental degradation. At the heart of sustainable development lies the integration and balancing of social, economic and environmental priorities. In a world where pockets of privilege exist amid vast deprivation, such a quest fundamentally requires improving the well-being of those who are poor, marginalized or excluded, and sustaining those improvements. None of this is possible unless education and human resources are placed at the centre of sustainable development.46 Thus, what is sustainable human development? We define human development as expanding the choices for all people in society. This means that men and women - particularly the poor and vulnerable - are at the centre of the development process. It also means "protection of the life opportunities of future generations...and...the natural systems on which all life depends" (UNDP, Human Development Report 1996). This makes the central purpose of development the creation of an enabling environment in which all can enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. 47 Economic growth is a means to sustainable human development - not an end in itself. Human Development Report 1996 showed that economic growth does not automatically lead to sustainable human development and the elimination of poverty. For example, countries that do well when ranked by per capita income often slip down the ladder when ranked by the human development index. There are, moreover, marked disparities within countries - rich and poor alike - and these become striking when human development among indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities is evaluated separately. There are five aspects to sustainable human development - all affecting the lives of the poor and vulnerable: • Empowerment - The expansion of men and women's capabilities and choices increases their ability to exercise those choices free of hunger, want and deprivation. It also increases their opportunity to participate in, or endorse, decision-making affecting their lives. • Co-operation - With a sense of belonging important for personal fulfilment, well-being and a sense of purpose and meaning, human development is concerned with the ways in which people work together and interact. • Equity - The expansion of capabilities and opportunities means more than income - it also means equity, such as an educational system to which everybody should have access. • Sustainability - The needs of this generation must be met without compromising the right of future generations to be free of poverty and deprivation and to exercise their basic capabilities. • Security - Particularly the security of livelihood. People need to be freed from threats, such as disease or repression and from sudden harmful disruptions in their lives. Education is a major catalyst for human development. Through an exhibition and side event at the High-level Meeting on the Millennium Development Goals (UN, September 2010) UNESCO demonstrated how rapid advances in education can help to achieve all of the MDGs. “In the year 2000, 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 nations pledged to halve extreme poverty by the year 2015. They identified the eight MDGs listed below.48 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

46

Human Resourses and Sustainabe Development - World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg 2002

47 48

http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/policy/chapter1.htm http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/

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An education opens doors to jobs and credit. One year of schooling can increase a person's earnings by 10%; each additional year of schooling can lift average annual GDP by 0.37%. Greater equity in education can help fuel a virtuous cycle of increased growth and accelerated poverty reduction, with benefits for the poor and for society as a whole. Education equips people with the knowledge and skills they need to increase income and expand employment opportunities. When education is broadly shared and reaches the poor, women and marginalized groups, it holds out the prospect that economic growth will be broadly shared. On the other hand, poverty pushes children out of school and into work because parents cannot afford to educate their children. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Universal primary education involves entering school at an appropriate age, progressing through the system and completing a full cycle. Today, there are over 30 million more children in school than in the beginning of the decade. There have been some remarkable success stories. Primary school enrolments have increased dramatically in subSaharan Africa as well as in South and West Asia. In Ethiopia there are three million more children in school than in 2000, thanks to an ambitious rural school construction programme and the abolition of primary school fees - a widespread obstacle to universal primary education. However, there are 72 million children still out of school. Nearly half of these children live in subSaharan Africa. On current trends, 56 million children could still be out of school by 2015. Of those students enrolled in school, millions drop out or leave school without having gained the most basic literacy and numeracy skills. Additionally, pupil/teacher ratios in many countries are in excess of 40:1 and a severe teacher shortage exists. Many governments are neglecting the “education poor” – those on the fringes of society, ranging from indigenous populations to street children, from the disabled to linguistic and cultural minorities. New approaches must be tailor-made for such groups – simply increasing opportunities for standard schooling is not enough. Unless we reach the children who are being left behind, the goal of education for all children will not be reached. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women No other policy intervention is likely to have a more positive multiplier effect on progress across all the MDGs than the education of women and girls. Evidence shows a strong correlation between educating women and girls and an increase in women’s earnings, improved child and family health and nutrition, an increase in school enrolment, protection against HIV infection, higher maternal and child life expectancy, reduced fertility rates and delayed marriage. Several million more girls are now in school compared with 2000 and girls’ access to education has markedly improved in some countries, such as Bangladesh, Benin and Nepal. India is approaching gender parity in terms of enrolment. Nevertheless, there are still more boys than girls attending school in many countries. Some 54 per cent of the world’s out-of-school children are girls. Twenty-eight countries have less than 90 girls in school per 100 boys. In many countries, girls are faced with barriers to education ranging from negative attitudes to the burden of household work and distance to school. Special efforts – from recruiting female teachers to supporting poor families to making schools more girl-friendly – are needed to redress the balance. Of the 759 million adults who cannot read or write, around two-thirds are women. This proportion has remained unchanged since 2000. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Educating a girl greatly reduces the chance that her child will die before the age of five. In many countries, having a mother with secondary or higher education more than halves the risk of child mortality

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compared to having a mother with no education. Having a mother with primary education reduces child death rates by almost half in the Philippines and around one third in Bolivia Evidence shows a strong correlation between educating women and girls and higher maternal and child life expectancy as well as improvements in child and family health and nutrition. Girls and women who are educated are far more likely to immunize their children. Their children are less likely to be malnourished. In Niger, the child of a woman with secondary education is over four times less likely to be malnourished than the child of a woman with no education. Having a mother who had completed primary education reduces the risk of stunting by 22 per cent in Bangladesh and 26 per cent in Indonesia. Goal 5: Improve maternal health Maternal education is one of the strongest antidotes to childbearing-related risks. Educating girls and women empowers them to make better health-related decisions. Complications in pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of death and disability among women of childbearing age, claiming over 500,000 lives a year. Girls who are educated are more likely to seek antenatal care. The world’s most dangerous place to give birth is Niger, where women face a 1 in 7 chance of fatality. The odds in rich countries average 1 in 8000. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Data: With an estimated 6,800 people newly infected with HIV every day, education must be at the forefront of any response to HIV and AIDS. Education can impart knowledge and skills and encourage positive attitudes and behaviour that will reduce a person’s chance of getting HIV. Educational institutions take a central role in HIV prevention efforts because they are the best way to reach large numbers of young people. Similarly, school health, awareness and hygiene programmes help to combat malaria and other diseases. Progress is being made, but national education sectors need to reinforce their pivotal role. One study, covering thirty-two countries, found that women with post-primary education were five times more likely than illiterate women to know about HIV/AIDS. Education has been recognised by UNAIDS to be a key element of effective HIV prevention. Even in the absence of HIV-specific interventions, education offers an important measure of protection against HIV. The Global Campaign for Education has estimated that universal primary education would prevent 700,000 new HIV infections each year. Education reduces the vulnerability of girls, and each year of schooling offers greater protective benefits. Recent survey data from 64 countries indicate that only 40% of males and 38% of females aged 15-24 have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV and how to avoid transmission. These levels are far short of the target established at the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) of 95% by 2010. School-based HIV education offers a very cost-effective approach to prevention as schools provide a practical means to reach large numbers of young people from diverse social backgrounds Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Education helps individuals to make decisions that meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) addresses key issues such as poverty reduction, sustainable livelihoods, climate change, gender equality, corporate social responsibility and protection of indigenous cultures. ESD can help us to live sustainably. It aims to change the way we think, behave, look at the world, interact with nature and address social, economic and environmental problems. Governments are realizing this: according to a recent survey, 79 countries now have a national ESD coordination body. Goal 8: Develop global partnerships for development Aid for basic education in the world’s poorest countries came to only US$2.7 billion in 2007, a far cry from the $US16 billion needed annually to reach education-related development goals.

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Developing countries can also do more – by making education a priority. If low-income countries spent 0.7% of their GDP on education, it could make about US$7 billion available per year for basic education.” Education, including formal education, public awareness and training should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential. Education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address environment and development issues. While basic education provides the underpinning for any environmental and development education, the latter needs to be incorporated as an essential part of learning. Both formal and non-formal education are indispensable to changing people's attitudes so that they have the capacity to assess and address their sustainable development concerns. It is also critical for achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behaviours consistent with sustainable development and for effective public participation in decision-making. To be effective, environment and development education should deal with the dynamics of both the physical/biological and socio-economic environment and human (which may include spiritual) development, should be integrated into all disciplines, and should employ formal and non-formal methods and effective means of communication (CMEC).49 Chapter 36 of the Agenda 21 first described education for Sustainable Development. This chapter identified four major thrusts to begin the work of Education for Sustainable Development: (1) improve basic education, (2) reorient existing education to address sustainable development, (3) develop public understanding, awareness, and (4) training. It is look at each of the four components; (McKeown, 2002).50 Over the past two decades, technological developments, globalization, and competitive demands have caused dramatic changes within and across organizations, and have transformed general conditions for human resource management (HRM) strategy and decision-making. Human resources (HR), HRM practices and strategies have been identified as essential for organizational success (e.g. Wright, Gardner, Moynihan & Allen, 2005). The rise in importance of HR and HRM has fuelled a quickly expanding stream of research (e.g. Martín-Alcázar, Romero-Fernández& Sánchez-Gardey, 2005)51. Strategy and resource orientation in HRM literature have increased (e.g. Wright, Dunford& Snell, 2001), and some human resources have been identified as ‘critical’ for organizations (Taylor, Beechler&Napier, 1996). Examples are expatriates or highly qualified global managers, as their knowledge and competencies are regarded as essential for the realization of corporate strategies (Brewster &Suutari, 2005; Lazarova&Caligiuri, 2004). In a global economy, one of the major problems for today’s HR executives is the scarcity of highly qualified and motivated HR (e.g. Thom &Zaugg, 2004). HR researchers have suggested new ways for practitioners to draw from a larger and thus more diverse HR pool (e.g. women as global managers), to extend and intensify the use of available HR (e.g. high performance work systems), and to develop new HR (e.g. new types of cross-cultural training). In their decision-making however, HR practitioners find themselves in permanent tension between short-termed profit making (e.g. retrenchment or downsizing because of labour-cost pressure) on the one hand and long-term organizational viability on the other (Wright & Snell, 2005). On the one hand, it has been proposed that i.e. HR training and development can lead to sustainable competitive advantage (e.g. Aragón-Sánchez, Barba-Aragón &Sanz-Valle, 2003), and that on the other hand, cost-cutting strategies such as downsizing or neglecting HR training can reduce an organization’s strategic ability, endanger its organizational viability, and can lead to negative effects for organizations themselves (e.g. Evans, 1999; Mariappanadar, 2003; Wright & Snell, 2005). However, many HRM practitioners find themselves in paradoxical, ambiguous situations between competing demands. In these situations, no simple ‘either/or decisions’ can be formulate.

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Council of Ministers of Education Canada (CMEC), Educating for Sustainability, The Status of Sustainable Development Education in Canada, McKeown, R. (2002), Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit, Ph.D. Thesis, Portland: Portland State University, Ministry of the Environment Bureau of Education and Public Relations, (2001). ThroughEducation to Sustainable Development, National Environmental Education Strategy, ISBN83-86564-51-2, Poland. 51 Martín Alcázar, F., Romero Fernández, P. M. and Sánchez Gardey, G. (2005). Human Resource Management as a Field of Research: An International Empirical Study, Paper presented at the 20th Workshop on Strategic Human Resource Management, EIASM, Brussels, April 28-30th. 50

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From a sustainability perspective, scholars have picked up different facets of the dilemma of shorttermed profit making and long-term organizational viability, such as the problem of scarcity of highly qualified HR, or of unintended outcomes for HR, HRM, and the society. Although sustainability is an important issue in the field of management research and in practice with this concept emerging in more and more organisations, it has received comparatively little attention from HR researchers (Boudreau & Ramstad, 2005; Thom & Zaugg, 2004). The literature linking sustainability and HRM is widely dispersed across disciplines, diverse in its interpretation of sustainability, and barely interrelated with mainstream HRM literature. The majority of the papers, however, apply sustainability relating to ‘sustainable competitive advantage’ and HRM or Corporate Social Responsibility. However, publications can be traced outside of these journals. Only very recently, papers have emerged that apply sustainability as a concept for HR issues (e.g.Boudreau & Ramstad, 2005; Mariappanadar, 2003). The different approaches to sustainability in HRM have not been analysed and compared systematically52. Scholars from the University of Bayreuth, Germany, have laid the foundation for the development of a rational understanding of sustainability of organizations (Remer, 1993; Müller-Christ & Remer, 1999; Müller-Christ, 2001). The proponent’s intention is not to remind actors of their responsibilities or moral obligations for employees or society. Instead, the central assumption is that it is economically rational to act in a sustainable way if resources are scarce and that a sustainability perspective could lead to a more realistic theory of the firm (Müller-Christ, 2001). Accordingly, the understanding of the notion Sustainable Management is different from the majority of approaches in the sustainability literature. For this literature, sustainability or ‘Corporate Sustainability’ aims at balancing economic prosperity, social equity, and environmental integrity (e.g. Bansal, 2005). While Müller- Christ’s (2001) Sustainable Management approach also pursues a balance, the reasoning for sustainability is not based on responsibility but on economic rationality. Hence, the conceptual objectives of this approach encompass exploring a causal explanation for mutual exchange relationships between organizations and their environments, and developing a general theoretical approach for treating scarce resources (Müller-Christ, 2001)53. The causal explanation and the recommendations for actions of this approach, both rely on the understanding of organizations. From Luhmann’s (1984) system’s perspective and with respect to the resource-dependence theory (Pfeffer&Salancik, 2003[1978]), organisations are defined as resourcedependent socio-economic systems, consuming and supplying resources (Müller-Christ, 2001). The Sustainable Management approach is based on three main assumptions. First, based on Luhmann’s (e.g. 1984, 1986) early works it is assumed that organizations survive because they open their boundaries and because they manage the balance of mutually ‘opening’ and ‘maintaining’ their boundaries. Based coevolution theory (e.g. Bateson, 1981) the second assumption is that organizations survive because they cooperate with each other to reproduce the HR base and because they create mutual exchange relationships. Finally, based on ‘economic ecology’ (e.g. Remer, 1993) the third main statement is that organizations survive because they manage sustaining and reproducing their resource base in their environments (MüllerChrist, 2001). Organizational environments are not regarded as constraints but as ‘sources for resources which companies need for their long-term existence. To exploit these resources on a long-term basis, the sources for resources have to be sustained. According to this understanding, a company acts in a sustainable and economically rational way if its resource reproduction divided by resource consumption equals one (Müller-Christ & Remer, 1999). The authors derive this definition of sustainability from old European forestry laws which state that wood consumption and reproduction should be balanced to sustain a forest. The idea is a general rule in accounting for balancing a company’s financial capital (Müller-Christ & Remer, 1999). In the concept, HR are treated with the same logic as any other organizational resources (e.g. natural, financial, or social resources). The only differences between resources seem to be captured in the expression ‘specific conditions of 52 Ehnert, I. (2006). ‘Sustainability Issues in Human in Human Resource Management: Linkages, theoretical approaches, and outlines for an emerging field’. Paper prepared for 21st EIASM SHRM Workshop, Aston, Birmingham, March 28th-29th, 2006. 53 Müller-Christ, G. (2001). Nachhaltiges Ressourcenmanagement: Eine wirtschaftsökologische Fundierung, Marburg: Metropolis-Verlag.

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development, reproduction, and regeneration’ derived from systems thinking (Müller-Christ, 2001). ‘Specific conditions of development, reproduction and regeneration’ of HR are defined as those requirements which have to be fulfilled to build HR (development), to ensure the functioning of the sources for HR (reproduction), and to ensure that employees maintain their capability to work over time (regeneration). For example, it takes a person a certain time to go to school, to university, or to work to build skills, knowledge, and competencies. The underlying conditions are specific conditions of development or reproduction. Another example is the explanation of the failure of schools, universities, or labour markets to provide the people with the skills or motivation needed in organizations. In HRM literature, this is usually interpreted as market failure (e.g. Linnehan & De Carolis, 2005). 54 From the system’s perspective of the Sustainable Management approach this is interpreted as a failure of the functioning of the ‘sources for HR’. The difference is that in the systems approach the failure is not perceived as ‘given’ but as effects caused among others by previous HR practices and strategies which now operate as a feedback loop on the organization. Concerning the supply with highly skilled and motivated HR, the Sustainable Management perspective explores “what companies themselves have to do in their environments to have durable access to skilled human resources (Sustainable HRM)” (Müller-Christ & Remer, 1999: 76). The suggestion is that on the one hand, organizations should reduce negative side effects of practices and strategies on the ‘sources for resources’ (e.g. on labour markets, education systems, or on families). On the other hand, organizations should ensure the survival of those sources for resources which provide human resources with the skills and motivation required (Müller-Christ, 2001). In other words, according to this approach it is economically rational for companies to invest in the survival of their sources for resources if the functioning of these is endangered. Hence, this approach also seeks to explain why companies invest in Corporate Universities or in work-to-school programmes although it is uncertain that they will profit from their investment; this is interpreted as the attempt to sustain the sources for HR (Müller-Christ, 2001). However, ‘exploiting’ and ‘reproducing’ human resources simultaneously and to find a balance between exploitation and reproduction poses a dilemma for practitioners. According to Müller-Christ (2001), two different logics stand behind this dilemma; efficiency and sustainability. The author suggests that resource exploitations follow the economic logic of efficiency and that reproduction follows the logic of sustainability. The relationship between efficiency and sustainability is conceptualised as an ambiguous and a dual one; thus, it is impossible to maximize efficiency and sustainability simultaneously (Müller-Christ, 2001). The main assumption of this view for HRM is that it is important for organizations to learn more about the ‘intrinsic values’ of HR and about the ‘specific conditions of development, reproduction, and regeneration’ of the sources for HR to ensure future supply with skilled and motivated employees. Referring to the above literature, we may conclude that Sustainable HRM is the pattern of planned or emerging human resource deployments and activities intended to enable a balance of organizational goal achievement and reproduction of the human resource base over a long-lasting calendar time and to control for negative impact on the human resource base. The main objectives of Sustainable HRM are to (1) to balance the ambiguities and the duality of efficiency and sustainability over a long-lasting calendar time, (2) to sustain, develop, and reproduce an organization’s human and social resource base e.g. with the help of mutual exchange relationships, (3) to evaluate and assess negative effects of HR activities on the HR base and on the sources for HR. That is, sustainability is perceived as a cross-functional concept and as an extending perspective for integrating both micro and macro level research.

54 Linnehan, F. and De Carolis, D. (2005). Strategic Framework for Understanding Employer Participation in School-to-Work Programs, Strategic Management Journal, 26(2005), 523-539.

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Sophio Moralishvili Doctor, Akaki Tsereteli StateUniversity Professor Georgia, Kutaisi

Education and Human Resource Management for Sustainable Development Summary Sustainability has been the subject of consideration and reflection in the field of education and management for a long time. The paper reviews five aspects to sustainable human development - all affecting the lives of the poor and vulnerable: Empowerment, Co-operation, Equity, Sustainability and Security. The first part of the article analyzes Education, which is a major catalyst for human development. The paper presents eight Millennium Development Goals to achieve rapid advances in education. Education, including formal education, public awareness and training should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential. Another goal of this paper is to highlight existing links between sustainability issues and HRM. Although sustainability is an important issue in the field of management research it has received comparatively little attention from HR researchers. Finally, implications for theoretical and empirical research and possible outlines for the field, which is regarded as emerging, are proposed. Key words: Education, Human Resource management, sustainable development, sustainable work systems.

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babulia (dodo) mrebriSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi marketingi da korporaciuli imijis formireba sawarmos imijSi igulisxmeba misi saxe sazogadoebis, pirvel rigSi, miznobrivi momxmareblebis TvalSi. maSasadame, sawarmos imiji sxva araferia Tu ara sazogadoebis mier misi individualurobis danaxva, aRqma. cxadia, yoveli sawarmo gansazRvruli TaviseburebebiT, unikaluribiT, Zlieri da susti mxareebiT xasiaTdeba. isini, Tavis mxriv, ganisazRvreba sawarmos mier warmoebuli produqciis niSan–TvisebebiT, xelmZRvanelebis profesionalizmiT, biznes–partniorebTan damyarebuli urTierTobebis xasiaTiT, socialuri pasuxismgeblobiT sakuTari TanamSromlebisa da mTeli sazogadoebis winaSe, korporaciuli klimatiT, vizualuri maxasiaTeblebiT. imijs da reputacias xSirad erTmaneTTan aigiveben, zogjer ki erTmaneTisagan ganasxvaveben. imijis arsi inglisuri enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi asea Camoyalibebuli: „imiji aris sazogadoebrivi azri Camoyalibebuli pirovnebis, organizaciis, produqtis da a.S. Sesaxeb an es aris saSualeba imis danaxvisa, Tu ras warmoadgens pirovneba, organizacia, produqti sazogadoebisTvis“. amave leqsikonSi reputaciis Sesaxeb naTqvamia: „reputacia aris azri, mosazreba, romelic adamianebs CamouyalibdaT viRacis an raRacis Sesaxeb imitom, rom raRac moxda.“ odnav gansxvavebuladaa imiji da reputacia ganmartebuli did rusul ekonomikur enciklopediaSi. masSi aRniSnulia, rom imiji „romeliRac obieqtis an movlenis specialurad Camoyalibebuli saxea, gamiznuli mTel garemocvaze an mis nawilze emociur–fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad gansazRvrul saqmeSi warmatebis miRwevis mizniT.“ aRniSnul enciklopediaSi mocemulia firmis saqmiani reputaciis arsis ganmartebac, kerZod, naTqvamia, rom firmis saqmiani reputacia aris „daxasiaTeba, romlis daxmarebiTac kontragentebi, momxmareblebi mocemul firmas afaseben.“ rogorc wesi, firmis saqmiani reputaciis Sefaseba xorcieldeba xarisxobrivi maCveneblebis daxmarebiT, magram arsebobs raodenobrivi maCveneblebic, magaliTad, gansxvaveba firmis mogebasa da mocemul dargSi firmis mogebis saSualo dones Soris. m. WabaSvilis ucxo enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi imiji saerTod ar aris ganmartebuli, reputaciis Sesaxeb ki naTqvamia, rom es aris „visime (an risime) RirsebaTa da naklovanebaTa Sesaxeb Seqmnili saerTo azri, Sexeduleba“. imiji mizandasaxulad Seqmnil gansakuTrebul saxed, warmodgenad aris, ZiriTadad, Camoyalibebuli qarTul literaturaSi. qarTveli politologebi profesori vaJa SubiTiZe da avTandil bucxikiZe imijis Sesaxeb Semdegs weren: „imiji – mizandasaxulad Seqmnili gansakuTrebuli saxe, warmodgena, (xateba, virtualuris aRqma), romelic asocirebis da pozicionirebis meSveobiT obieqts (pirovnebas, kompanias, saqonels, movlenas da a. S.) aniWebs damatebiT faseulobebs (socialurs, politikurs, esTetikurs, fsiqologiurs da a.S.), riTac xels uwyobs mis emociur aRqmas axal rakursSi“. isini aigiveben imijs da reputacias, roca aRniSnaven: „imiji – reputacia – adamianebi, romlebic pativs scemen „doiCeban-

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kis“ maRal reputacias, sulac ar eyrdnobian bankis an auditis wliur ingariSs. maT es warmodgena uyalibdebaT masmediis da sazogadoebrivi azris meSveobiT“. imiji da reputacia erT konteqstSi aris moxsenebuli profesorebis e. xaxutaSvilis da n. kapanaZis naSromSi– „sazogadoebasTan urTierToba“. imijs da reputacias – am or termins isini defisiT weren da erTdroulad da erTnairad ganmartaven. motanil mosazrebebze dayrdnobiT vTvliT, rom imiji da reputacia, garkveulwilad, erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli cnebebia. reputacia aris is saSualeba, riTac yalibdeba imiji. maSasadame, vismes an raimes Sesaxeb yalibdeba cudi an kargi Sexeduleba sazogadoebaSi, Sedegad ki dadebiTi (pozitiuri) an uaryofiTi (negatiuri) imiji. gamomdinare aRniSnulidan, vTvliT, rom „imiji aris reputaciis Sedegi da ara specialurad Camoyalibebuli saxe“, radgan uaryofiT imijs aravin ar iqmnis specialurad. uaryofiTi (negatiuri) imiji Sedegia cudi reputaciis, naklovanebebis gamo Camoyalibebuli uaryofiTi sazogadoebrivi azris. amrigad, imiji aris produqtis, sawarmos, pirovnebis da a.S. Sesaxeb Camoyalibebuli sazogadoebrivi azri. sxva sityvebiT, imiji saxea, romliTac produqti, sawarmo, pirovneba da a.S. wardgeba sazogadoebis winaSe. reputacis arsi, Cveni azriT, sworad aris Camoyalibebuli m. WabaSvilis ucxo sityvaTa ganmartebiT leqsikonSi. imijis ramdenime saxe arsebobs. imijis erT–erTi saxea korporaciuli imiji, romlis formirebaSi aqtiurad monawileobs marketingi. korporaciuli imijis Camoyalibeba mniSvnelovania rogorc saSinao, ise saerTaSoriso marketingSi. korporaciul imijSi igulisxmeba sawarmos (kompaniis) aRqma sazogadoebis mier, rac yalibdeba ramdenime elementis safuZvelze. korporaciuli imiji Cven warmogvidgenia Semdegi elementiebis erTobliobiT (ixile nax. 1): – produqciis imiji; – xelmZRvanelis imiji; – personalis imiji; – sawarmos vizualuri maxasiaTeblebis imiji; – sawarmos TviTmyofadobis amsaxveli maCveneblebis imiji; – socialuri imiji. korporaciuli imiji, pirvel rigSi, damokidebulia produqciis imijze, rac gulisxmobs produqciis samomxmareblo Tvisebebsa da maxasiaTeblebze Camoyalibebul sazogadoebriv azrs. produqtis imiji yalibdeba misi xarisxis, niSan–Tvisebebis, stilis, dizainis, konkurentunarianobis sazogadoebis mier aRqmis safuZvelze. produqtis imijis SeqmnaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs pozicionirebis strategiis sworad ganxorcieleba. saWiroa pozicionireba daemyaros produqtis realur maCveneblebs da ara „gamogonils“. cxadia, im produqtze Camoyalibdeba dadebiTi

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nax.1 კორპორაციული იმიჯის სტრუქტურა კორპორაციული იმიჯი

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

პროდუქტის იმიჯი ხარისხი ნიშან–თვისებები სტილი დიზაინი კონკურენტუნარიანობა პოზიციონირება შეფუთვა

ვიზუალური მახასიათებლების იმიჯი 1. გაფორმება 2.შენობის გარეგნული

პროდუქტის იმიჯი 1.კეთილსინდისირება 2. საიმედოობა 3. ლოიალობა 4. ინფორმაციის ხელმისაწვდომობა 5. ფასისა და ხარისხის შესაბამისობა

სახე 3. საწარმოში შექმნილი ატმოსფერო 4. გამწვანება ხელმძღვანელის იმიჯი 1. კვალიფიკაცია

1. ქველმოქმედება

2. განათლება

2. თანამშრომლების სოციალური

3. ორგანიზებულობა

დაცვა

4. ჩაცმულობა 5. კომუნიკაბელურობა 6. საქმის ბოლომდე

სოციალური იმიჯი

3. ეკოლოგიური პრობლემების

მიყვანის

უნარი

პერსონ���ლის იმიჯი 1.კვალიფიკაცია 2.პატიოსნება 3. კომუნიკაბელურობა 4. შემოქმედებითობა 5. შრომისმოყვარეობა 6.დისციპლინირებულობა 7. მოსმენის უნარი

თვითმყოფადობის ამსახველი მაჩვენებლების იმიჯი 1. სახელი 2. ლოგოტიპი

1. sazogadoebrivi azri, romlis maxasiaTeblebic Seesabameba momxmarebelTa moTxovnebs. aseTi produqtis Seqmna SesaZlebelia mxolod marketingis aqtiuri gamoyenebis gziT. ideaTa moZiebas axali prouqtis Sesaxeb, moZiebuli ideebis gaanalizebas da yvelaze optimaluri ideis SerCevas mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia

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marketinguli samsaxuris saqmianobaSi. marketingis samsaxuri qmnis marketingis strategias, romelic iTvaliswinebs saqonlis gayidvis savaraudo moculobis, bazris da mogebis mosalodneli wilis, agreTve, fasis da marketingul saqmianobaze gasawevi xarjebis dadgenas. produqtis sacdeli partiis bazarze gamocdac marketingul saqmianobaSi Sedis – amitom uwodeben mas test marketings. maSasadame, axali produqtis SeqmnaSi wamyvani roli akisria marketingis samsaxurs. is uSualod monawileobs axali produqtis Seqmnis Sesaxeb ideaTa moZiebasa da maTgan optimaluri ideis SerCevaSi. marketingis samsaxuri monawileobas produqtis Canafiqris Sesabamisad nimuSebis damzadebasa da bazrze gamocdaSic iRebs. marketingis samsaxuri aqtiurad monawileobs axali produqtis bazarze danergvisa da arsebobis dros sxvadasxva strategiebis gatarebaSic. 2.kompaniaSi dasaqmebuli adaminebis imijis Seqmna maT mier ganxorcielebul marketingul saqmianobazea damokidebuli. kompaniis personali xelmZRvanelobasTan erTad Tu ar ibrZolebs axali moTxovnenilebebis gamoZebnaze, ar miiRebs monawileobas momxmarebelTa momsaxurebis Sesabamisi produqtis SeqmnaSi, ar gaavrcelebs informacias kompaniasa da mis produqciaze momxmareblebSi, da saerTod mTel sazogadoebaSi, Camoyalibdeba negatiuri azri sawarmos Sesaxeb. maSasadame, personalis marketinguli midgomiT muSaobis gareSe, SeuZlebelia ara mxolod maT Sesaxeb, aramed sawarmos Sesaxebac dadebiTi azris Camoyalibeba. marketinguli saqmianobis erT–erTi amocanaa fasis sworad daweseba da fasisa da xarisxis SesabamisobaSi moyvana, rac, Tavis mxriv, biznes- saqmianobis imijis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels. biznes- saqmianobis efeqtianad warmarTva SesaZlebelia myidvelis kmayofilebis miRweviT da partnioruli urTierTobis CamoyalibebiT rogorc kompaniis SigniT, ise kompaniis gareT, kerZod, myidvelebTan, mimwodeblebTan, distributorebTan. sawarmos socialuri imijic marketinguli saqmianobazea damokidebuli. socialuri imiji iqmneba socialuri marketingiT, romelic yuradRebas amaxvilebs socialur movlenebze, kerZod, ganaTlebis miRebis xelis Sewyobaze, nasvami mZRolebis dasjaze, qvelmoqmedebaze, ekologiuri problemebis mogvarebaze. 3. TviTmyofadobis amsaxveli maCveneblebis imijic marketingzea damokidebuli. mxolod marketinguli saqmianobis sworad ganxorcielebis, bazarze dakvirvebis da SerCeuli saxelis Semowmebis pirobebSia SesaZlebeli bazrisTvis misaRebi produqtis Seqmna, advilad warmosaTqmeli, misi sargeblobis da xarisxis amsaxveli da sxvadasxva enaze advilad da Sinaarsis dakargvis gareSe gadasaTargmni saxelis SerCeva. saxelis sworad SerCeva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania im qarTuli kompaniebisTvis, romlebic saerTaSoriso bazarze gegmaven gasvlas. amrigad, marketingi aqtiurad monawileobs korporaciuli imijis Semadgeneli elementebis CamoyalibebaSi. es unda gaiTvaliswinon im qarTulma kompaniebma, romelTa nawilis xelmZRvaneloba dResac fiqrobs, rom „produqti iyos da is marketingis gareSec gaiyideba.“ literatura: 1. b. mRebriSvili, sazogadoebasTan urTierToba, Tb., 2001 2. vaJa SubiTiZe, avTandil bucxrikiZe, imijologia, rogor gavimarjvoT arCevnebSi, Tbilisi– quTaisi, 2009 3. n. Todua, b. mRebriSvili. marketingis safuZvlebi, Tb., 2009

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4. ucxo sityvaTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Seadgina mixeil WabaSvilma, meore Sesworebuli da Sevsebuli gamocema, Tb., 1989 5. xaxutaSvili e. , kapanaZe l. sazogadoebasTan urTierToba, Tb., 2007 4. Алёшина И. В. Корпоративный имидж стратегический аспект. Журнал Маркетинг в Росии и за рубежом , №1, 1998, http://www. cfin.ru/press/marketing/1998-1/04 5. Большая экономическая энциклопедия, М., Эксмо, 2007 6. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English Person Education Limited harlow. England, 2005

Babulia (Dodo) Mgebrishvili Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Assistant Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Marketing and Corporate Image Formation Summary Based on different opinions the author of the paper provides her own view about the essence of image and reputation. She defines the meaning and forms the structure of corporate image. From the author’s point of view, corporate image is a combination of the following elements: image of product, image of personnel, image of visual characteristics of an enterprise, the image showing the identity of a company, image of business activities and social image. The paper describes the indicators, which form the basis for creating the elements of corporate image. In the final part of the paper the author concludes that marketing is actively involved in the creation of each element of corporate image and consequently corporate image generally. This should be taken into consideration by the leaders of the Georgian companies, who do not properly understand the essence of marketing.

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iza naTelauri ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi: msoflio gamocdileba da saqarTvelos perspeqtiva M msoflio praqtikam aRiara Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi (Tez): saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri TanamSromloba gansazRvrul teritoriaze, SeRavaTian reJimSi. gasuli saukunis 40-iani wlebidan moyolebuli dRemde aprobirebulia Tezebis xuTi Taoba [1-4]: pirveli Taobis Tez-ebad miCneulia savaWro zonebi (Tavisufali portebi, tranzituli zonebi, Tavisufali sawyobebi, Tavisufali sabaJo zonebi). savaWro zonebi warmoadgenen SedarebiT martivs; teritoriulad gaadgilebuli arian satransporto kvanZebTan axlos (sazRvao da samdinaro portebSi, sarkinigzo kvanZebTan da aeroportebSi), sadac ucxoelebs SeuZliaT sabaJo gadasaxadis gadaxdis gareSe sakuTari saqonelis ganTavseba myidvelis moZiebamde; xels uwyoben sagareo vaWrobis gaaqtiurebas; uzrunvelyofen damatebiTi savaluto Semosavlebis miRebas maTi ganTavsebis qveynebSi. savaWro zonebis evoluciis Sedegad Seiqmna saeqsporto-sawarmoo zonebi â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tez-ebis meore Taoba. maTi Taviseburebaa mimReb qveynebSi saqonelTan erTad kapitalis Setana, SeRavaTian reJimSi, saeqsporto warmoebis gaaqtiurebisa da Sida bazarze orientirebuli, importCanacvlebadi warmoebis ganviTarebis mizniT. saeqsporto-sawarmoo zonebSi, savaWro zonebTan SedarebiT, farToa SeRavaTebis sistema. sabaJo SeRavaTebTan erTad, gamartivebulia sawarmoebis Seqmnis procedura, personalis ganaTlebaze mewarmeTa xarjebi kompensirebulia, Semcirebulia socialuri anaricxebi, SeRavaTiania dakrediteba, regionuli xelisufleba valdebulia zonebSi Seqmnas infrastruqtura da uzrunvelyos dacva. gansakuTrebuli SeRavaTebi wesdeba sawarmoebisTvis saSualo da mcire biznesSi. mesame Taobis Tez-ebs ganekuTvneba teqnikur-damnergavi zonebi (samecnieroteqnikuri TanamSromlobis zonebi). M isini emsaxurebian axali teqnologiebis damuSavebasa da ekonomikaSi danergvas; winapirobad saWiroeben Zlier samecniero bazebs, samecniero parkebs, kvalificiuri kadrebis koncentracias, Sromisa da dasvenebis saukeTeso pirobebs. riTac uzrunvelyofili arian mxolod didi samecniero centrebi da universitetebi. Aamis gamo, teqnikur-damnergavi zonebi iqmneba Zlieri samecniero centrebisa da didi universitetebis irgvliv. sawarmoo zonebis evoluciis Sedegad Seiqmna zonebis meoTxe Taoba-servisuli zonebi. maT ricxvSi Sedis sabanko, sadazRvevo, safinanso da ofSoruli centrebi. axali, mexuTe Taobis zonebia saerTaSoriso zonebi. erToblivi saerTaSoriso, saxelmwifoTaSoriso zonebi iqmneba sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis aqtivizaciis mizniT, qveynebis savaWro blokebad gaerTianebis gziT, monawile qveynebis gaerTianebul teritoriebze. saerTaSoriso zonebia evrokavSiri, Crdiloamerikuli SeTanxmeba Tavisufal vaWrobaze (NAFTA), Tavisufali vaWrobis evropis asociacia, Tavisufali vaWrobis centraluri evropis zona, samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebis asociacia, preferencialuri savaWro zona aRmosavleT da samxreT afrikaSi, samxreT afrikis qveynebis ganviTarebis koordinaciis konfederacia da sxv.

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Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi TeoretikosTa da praqtikosTa dainteresebiT sargeblobs rogorc ganviTarebul, ise ganviTarebad da postkomunistur qveynebSi. ganviTarebul qveynebSi iqmneba da funqcionirebs yvela saxis zona, m.S. yvelaze gavrcelebulia savaWro zonebi da samecniero-teqnikuri zonebi. aSS-Si sagareo vaWrobis zonebis ori tipia gavrcelebuli: saerTo daniSnulebis (GP) da sub (specialuri daniSnulebis ) zonebi (SP). maTi ricxvi Aam qveyanaSi 200-ze metia, zogadad zonebis ki 300-ze meti. aSS-Si saeqsporto-sawarmoo zonebic funqcionirebs (Ppirveli sawarmoo zona Seiqmna 1980 wels). isini, rogorc wesi, iqmneba ekonomikurad depresirebul raionebSi; sargebloben preferenciebiT adgilobrivi da federaluri xelisuflebis mxridan; sawarmoo zonebis Sesaqmnelad ZiriTadi kriteriumebia: erT sulze, mosaxleobis 70%-is Semosavali saSualo erovnuli donis 80%-ze naklebia da umuSevrobis donec bevrad CamorCeba saSualo erovnul maCvenebels; preferencialuri uflebebis moqmedebis vada 10-20 welia; es periodi SemdegSi SeiZleba gaizardos. saeqsporto-sawarmoo zonebi upiratesad ganviTarebad qveynebSi iqmneba. saerTod ki 300-ze meti msgavsi zona funqcionirebs Mmsoflios 122 qveyanaSi. rac Seexeba samecniero-teqnikur zonebs, maTi statistika msoflios qveynebis mixedviT Semdegia: aSS-100 zona, germania-60, CineTi-52, didi britaneTi-40, safrangeTi-30, ruseTi-27, iaponia-20, samxreT koreaSi da singapurSi-10 [7]. Tez-ebis Seqmnisadmi didi interesi arsebobs saqarTveloSic [1-3]. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis irgvliv muSioba saqarTveloSi daiwyi gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi [3]. maSin specialistebma samsjavroze gamoitanes sami tipis zona: 1) sagareo vaWrobis (Tavisufali sabaJo zonebi da portebi, saeqsporto warmoebis zonebi da tranzituli zonebi); 2) funqcionaluri anu dargobrivi (turistuli, sadazRvevo, sabanko zonebi, teqnoparkebi da teqnopolisebi); 3) kompleqsuri, upiratesad sawarmoo xasiaTis. Mmizani iyo qveynis (igulisxmeba ssrk) socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis daCqareba, dargobrivi struqturis srulyofa; samamulo da sazRvargareTis samecniero-teqnikuri miRwevebis danergvis aqtivizacia; saeqsporto bazis ganviTareba da savaluto Semosavlebis zrda; Siga bazris uzrunvelyofa saqoneliTa da momsaxurebiT. 1990 wels damuSavda da saqarTvelos ministrTa sabWos gansaxilvelad waredgina koncefcia “saqarTvelos ssr teritoriaze Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmnisa da funqcionirebis Sesaxeb” da informacia ”foTSi Tavisufali mewarmeobis zonis Seqmnis Sesaxeb”. Semdgom, 1994 wels, saqarTvelos ministrTa kabinetma miiRo dadgenileba #882 “saqarTvelos respublikis zogierT regionSi Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis Seqmnis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb”, 1995 wels Seiqmna saqarTveloSi Tez-ebis formirebis problemaTa Semswavleli komisia. komisiam 1995 wels ganixila “foTis Tavisufali vaWrobis zonis debuleba” (proeqti), Seiswavla TbilisSi, baTumSi da foTSi Tez-ebis formirebis problemebi. 1996-1997 wlebSi damuSavda kanonproeqti “Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi”. rogorc foTSi, ise baTumSi da TbilisSic Tez-ebis proeqtebi SemuSavda teritoriebisTvis, sadac gaadgilebulia portebi, satransporto kvanZebi da sabaJo punqtebi. mogvianebiT, aWaraSi daiwyo ufro farTomasStabiani proeqtebis aqtiuri SemuSaveba da ganxilva [1;2]. mimdinare periodSi, ekonomikuri realobidan gamomdinare, Cveni qveynis prioritetia saerTaSoriso konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis mxardamWeri ekonomikuri

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politikis gatareba. Kkonkurentupiratesobis amaRlebis kriteriumiT fasdeba yvela radikaluri cvlileba ekonomikaSi, m.S, sagareo ekonomikaSic. dReis mdgomareobiT, biznesis keTebis simartivis indeqsiT globalur reitingSi saqarTvelo lideria. Ggaumjobeseba gvaqvs am indeqsis umetesoba indikatorebis mixedviT. igives ver vityviT sagareo vaWrobaze (sagareo vaWroba 10 indikatoridan erT-erTia). 2012 wels wina welTan SedarebiT mdgomareobis 20 punqtiT gauaresebaa dafiqsirebuli. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom perspeqtivaSi saqarTvelos, msoflios sxva nebismieri qveynis msgavsad, globaluri konkurentunarianobis xelSemwyobi sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebi sWirdeba raodenobrivadac da struqturuladac, Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs am mxriv dadebiTi rolis Sesruleba SeuZliaT.

literatura: 1. papava v. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmna-“ukvdavi idea”.GFSIS, aprili, 2007 2. papaCaSvili n. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi, ofSorebi da saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe. Jur. Bbiznesi da kanonmdebloba, 2008w. # 9 3. wereTeli g., naTelauri i. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi da maTi Seqmnis SesaZleblobebi saqarTveloSi. Jur. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis “macne”, ekonomikis seria, 1999w., #7 4. http.//www.jourclub.ru 5. http.//www.disser.com 6. http.//russeca.kent.edu 7. http.//rudocs.exdat.com

Iza Natelauri Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Free Economic Zones: International Experience and Perspectives of Georgia Summary The paper analyzes types of free economic zones and aspects of their evolution. It evaluates the possibilities and perspectives of creating free economic zones in Georgia.

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nino popiaSvili filologiis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi kulturis identoba globaluri transformaciebis diskursSi kulturuli identoba koleqtiuri identobis mTavari markeria. kulturaSi moazrebuli tradiciebi da Rirebulebebi, warmodgenebi da survilebi, siaxleebisadmi midrekileba da orientireba ayalibebs da qmnis identobas, aniWebs mas damatebiT maxasiaTeblebs. “ukanasknel dros vipoveT sakmaod ioli gamosavali da vambobT, rom identurobas ZiriTadad kultura gansazRvravs... is sicocxle, romelic kulturas axasiaTebs, srul safuZvels iZleva, vTqvaT, rom mas, rogorc nebismier cocxal organizms, axasiaTebs zne, xasiaTi, garkveuli xarisxis mdgradoba garemo sivrcis mimarT, intencia sxva kulturaze Tu kulturebze. raRac Sinagani alRo da albaT, garkveuli imunitetic” (iakobiSvili 2007, gv. 43-44). kulturuli identoba individualuri da koleqtiuri identobebis ganmsazRvreli da mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia. “Tanamedrove msoflioSi kulturis roli ufro da ufro izrdeba. unda iTqvas, rom Tavad kulturis xasiaTi ganapirobebs sazogadoebis damokidebulebas globalizaciis mimarT... sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgeneli inteleqtualebi sxvadasxvagvar saxels arqmeven kulturis globalizaciis process: globaluri kulturis gavrceleba, makdonaldizacia, koka-kolonizacia, hamburgerizacia, fast-fudizacia, vesternizacia, amerikanizacia, kreolizacia _ yvela es aris sxvadasxvagvari axsna, gageba msoflioSi mimdinare erTi procesisa” (wereTeli, kakitelaSvili 2006, gv. 82). ukanasknel xans kulturuli identobis kvleva axali Teoriebis fonze mimdinareobs. kulturis komparativizmisa da Sefasebis sakiTxebma literaturaTmcodne da mediis kulturologi, zigfrid j. Smidtic CarTo diskusiebSi. Smidti skeptikurad uyurebs SesaZleblobas kulturebis aRweriTi Sefasebis („deskriptiven Bewertung von Kulturen“) Sesaxeb. igi cdilobs sakiTxi sami kiTxviT gaaanalizos: “ra problemebs ayenebs sazogadoeba? rogor iqneba am problemebis amocana realizebuli? rogor iqneba amocanebi warmodgenili da Sefasebuli?” (Smidti 2004, gv. 31). Smidti kulturis problemas xedavs da gamoyofs literaturaSi, iseve rogorc mediis kulturaSi da gvTavazobs literaturis konteqstualizirebas. Smidtis sapirispirod, kulturologi loTar blumi miiCnevs: “saSiSroeba, rom erT mxares sruliad ararefleqtiurad arsebuli simboluri kapitali meore mxares gadava, ar aris mcire da praqtikaSic xSirad gvxvdeba“ (blumi 2007, gv. 69). blumis azriT, evropaSi mimdinare masobrivi sanaxaobiTi aqciebi, rogorebicaa urTierTobebis industria, axali varskvlavebis Zieba Tu reformebis sacobebi (Reformstau) qmnis sxva kulturindustrias, romelic devnis azrovnebiT kulturas, im pre-kulturas, romelic evropaSi arsebobda maskulturamde. Teodor v. adorno da maqs horkhaimeri wignSi: “ganmanaTleblobis dialeqtika” masobriv kulturasTan, rogorc masobriv tyuilTan dakavSirebiT miuTiTeben: “mTeli samyaro kulturindustriis filtrSi gadis. kinomayureblis kargad cnobili SegrZneba, romelic im quCas, sadac kinoTeatri mdebareobs, aRiqvams rogorc gagrZelebas es-es aris damTavrebuli sanaxaobisa swored imitom, rom es sanaxaoba

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mudam samyaros yoveldRiuri aRqmis zust asaxvazea orientirebuli, xdeba sawarmoo procesis gzamkvlevi. rac ufro mkvrivi da erTiania empiriuli yoveldRiurobis gameoreba, romelsac misi teqnikosebi axorcieleben, miT ufro advilad mkvidrdeba dRes iluzia, rom garesamyaro mxolod da mxolod uSualo gagrZelebaa im samyarosi, romelsac kinoTeatrSi ecnobian. sinamdvilis meqanikuri gamravleba xmovani kinos swrafad damkvidrebis momentidan mTlianad iwyebs am Canafiqris momsaxurebas. am tendenciis Sesabamisad, realur cxovrebas ukve aRar eZleva ufleba, raimeTi gansxvavdebodes xmovani filmisagan” (adorno, horkhaimeri). Tanamedrove frangi mwerali frederik begbederi romanSi, “99 franki” ukvirdeba maskulturasa da Tanamedrove kulturul identobas. romanis mTavari personaJis, sareklamo menejeris monologSi vkiTxulobT: “diax, marTali xarT, me samyaros vabinZureb. me var is tipi, romelmac nagavi unda SemogasaRoT; romelmac iseT raRaceebze unda gaocneboT, rasac verasodes eRirsebiT. xom iciT, rogor keTdeba: fotoSopSi retuSirebuli mudam lurji ca, lamazi naSebi da sruli bedniereba. mere ki, roca didi vai-vaglaxiTa da Tavganwiruli ekonomiit moaxerxebT da saocnebo manqanas iyidiT, swored im manqanas, romelic bolo sareklamo kampaniis dros davatriale da ganvadide, avdgebi da kvlav Zirs davcem, metic _ ukve modidan gadasulad gamovacxadeb. winaswar samnairi saxis modas vigoneb da ise gadavdivar erTidan meoreze da Semdeg mesameze, rom Tqven yovelTvis motyuebuli da imedgacruebuli dagtovoT” (begbederi 2011, gv. 7). kulturuli identoba, rogorc maskulturis problema, dasavlur/evropul kulturaSi da ara mxolod dasavlur kulturaSi masobrivi komunikaciebis ganviTarebis kvaldakval gamoikveTa. maskulturis ganviTarebam da globalizaciam kulturuli identobis problema kidev ufro mravalwaxnagovan da rTul elementad aqcia. begbederis azriT, kulturuli identobis problema siaxleebis ZiebaSia, romeli siaxlec maskulturam sakuTar industriad, sakuTar iaraRad aqcia: “me Tqven siaxleebiT gabruebT”, _ ambobs wignis personaJi, _ “siaxlis upiratesoba ki is aris, rom mudmivad icvleba. yovelTvis gamoCndeba iseTi siaxle, romelic winamorbeds daaZvelebs. Cemi mowodeba imaSia, rom gamudmebiT gaylapoT nerwyvi. Cems profesiaSi Tqveni bedniereba aravis sWirdeba, radgan bednieri kaci momxmarebeli ver iqneba” (begbederi 2011, gv. 7). qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis kulturuli identoba, rogorc sakiTxi da rogorc problema, gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg gaxda. “kulturuli, civilizaciuri da religiuri identurobis problema gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda civi omis dasrulebis Semdgom etapze. Tumca rogorc problema, igi, sxvadasxva saxeliTa da Sinaarsobrivi datvirTviT, yovelTvis arsebobda” (Ciqovani 2006, gv. 66). unda aRiniSnos, rom identobis transformaciis krizisad SeiZleba CaiTvalos meoce saukunis bolos postsabWoTa sivrceSi warmoSobili konfliqtebi, sadac TviTidentifikaciis transformaciis, e. w. “TviTgamorkvevis” periodSi ramdenime politikuri an/da eTnikuri konfliqti warmoiSva. kulturuli identoba ar gamoricxavs globalizacias, rogorc process da globalizacias, rogorc aucileblobas. “swored msoflios mier globalizaciis aRqma da Semdgomi prezentacia, mraval sxva kompleqsur faqtorTan erTad, ayalibebs, qmnis Tu ugulebelyofs kulturul, religiur, eTnikur, saxelmwifoebriv, nacionalur da sxva identobebs, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, Sedgeba rigi markerebisgan da amavdroulad moicaven, an Tavad arian sxva identobebis nawilebi (magaliTad, xSir Sem-

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TxvevebSi kulturuli identoba gansazRvravs da ayalibebs religiur identobas da amavdroulad yalibdeba da isazRvreba religiis mier). droisa da sivrcis mocemul momentSi identobaTa ganmsazRvreli markerebi funqciasa da mniSvnelobebs icvlian, rac iwvevs mocemuli markeris dominacias an Tundac gaqrobas, rac, Tavis mxriv, am jgufis (identobis) Sesabamisi TviTrefleqciis Sedegad iwvevs am jgufis konsolidacias an destruqciasâ&#x20AC;? (kakabaZe, tradiciaTa funqcia...). mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos isic, rom kulturuli identobis warmoqmnas globalizacia ganapirobebs, aiZulebs ra sazogadoebis erT nawils, koleqtiuri identobiT SekavSirebuls, globalizaciis farTo da amouwurav speqtrSi sakuTari, individualuri, xSir SemTxvevaSi, nacionaluri kultura daicvas da Seinaxos. jon tomilson hilis azriT, globalizacia is procesia, romelic kulturuli identobis warmoSobas uwyobda xels da aseve, globalizacias kulturuli identobis mamoZraveblis funqciac aqvs. qarTuli kulturuli identoba mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli enis, istoriisa da marTlmadidebluri religiis fenomenebTan. qarTuli ena qarTuli kulturuli identobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi markeria, xolo saqarTvelos istoria, uZvelesi droidan dRemde, aris qarTuli kulturuli identobis mTavari ganmsazRvreli. marTlmadidebluri religia qarTuli identobis erT-erTi maxasiaTebelia, romelic enasTan da istoriasTan erTad ayalibebda da qmnida qarTul kulturul identobas. garda am faqtorebisa, qarTul kulturul identobaSi SeiZleba davinaxoT aRmosavluri (aziuri) kulturuli identobis nakadi, aseve, rusuli da sabWoTa identobebis arcTu mcire erToblioba. koleqtiuri identobis transformacia meoce saukunis bolos, ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisSi gansakuTrebiT xelSesaxebi gaxda yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebisaTvis. cnobilia, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi Semavali respublikebi sxva, daxurul globalur samyaros warmoadgendnen, sadac ganmsazRvreli iyo rusuli ena da kultura, aseve rusuli istoria da, Sesabamisad, es iyo sabWoTa identoba, sadac TiTqmis yvela sakuTar Tavs aigivebda sabWoTa kulturasTan. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg damoukideblobamopovebuli qveynebi axali, sruliad gansxvavebuli identobebis winaSe aRmoCndnen. erTi mxriv, es iyo erovnuli identoba, romelic nasazrdoebi iyo erovnuli istoriiT, eniT, kulturiT, xolo, meore mxriv, globalizaciis pirobebSi, es iyo is, rac aerTianebda postsabWoTa qveynebs dasavleTis, rogorc ukve maRali ganviTarebis mqone qveynebTan. identobebis amgvari transformireba dRemde mimdinareobs. es aris is identobebi, romlebic individualuria da is identobebic, romlebic saerToa, globaluria. globalizacia, rogorc termini, pirvelad ekonomikur sferos moicavda. aRniSnulia, rom esaa msoflios yvela qveynis ekonomikis urTierTdamokidebulebis zrda, romlis safuZvels warmoebis internacionalizacia warmoadgens. Tumca mogvianebiT globalizaciis, rogorc movlenis orgvari midgoma saxeldeba: ekonomikuri da politikuri. rogorc cnobilia, globalizacia, rogorc msoflio, anu globaluri movlena an/da movlenebi didi xania kacobriobas ainteresebs, Tumca globalur movlenebs globalizacia mxolod 1983 wlidan ewoda. globalizaciis Sesaxeb ori sapirispiro Sexeduleba arsebobs. erTis mixedviT, globalizacia aris pozitiuri procesi, romelic amartivebs ekonomikur ganviTarebas mTeli msoflios masStabiT. meore Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, globalizacia negatiuri procesia, romelic emuqreba calkeul erebs, maT kulturebs, gansakuTrebiT ki, mcirericxovan erebs. aseve, globalizacia, rogorc movlena, saSiSia ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiTac da iwvevs ekonomikur kriziss.

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unda iTqvas, rom globalizacia es aris urTierTobaTa sistema, romlis farglebSic msoflios wamyvan qveynebs, an qveynebis jgufs SeuZliaT iseTi procesebis gamowveva, an garkveul procesebze zegavlenis moxdena, romlebic, saboloo jamSi, ganapirobeben sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis tendenciebs mTeli msoflios masStabiT. globalizacia dRes cxovrebis yvela sferos moicavs: rogorc ekonomikurs, ise politikurs, socialurs, kulturulsa da religiurs. globalizacias “msoflios daviwroebis” processac uwodeben, radgan esaa erTiani “msoflio sazogadoeba”, sadac erTianobis gareSe arsebuli mravalferovneba igulisxmeba. u. beki ganasxvavebs globalizacias, globalizmsa da globalurs. bekis gansazRvrebiT, globalizacia aris procesi, anu is, rac globalizmiT gajerebul globalur msoflioSi xdeba da mimdinareobs, anu globalizacia aris cocxali, dinamikuri da mimdinare procesi, romelmac msoflio axal wesrigamde unda miiyvanos. globalizaciis procesi bunebrivad iwvevs globalur transformaciebs, rac mravali aspeqtiT xasiaTdeba. globaluri transformaciebi ama Tu im sazogadoebis Rirebulebebis gavlenebsa da Rirebulebebis cvlaSia asaxuli. Sesabamisad, globalizaciis procesi dakavSirebulia TviTidentobis transformaciasTan, rac warmoadgens refleqsuri modernizaciis gafarToebas "me"-s mimarTulebiT. adamianuri identobani mravalgvaria. zogjer TviToba efuZneba biologiur mocemulobas, zogjer socialur statuss, zogjer profesiul daxelovnebas da a.S. kacobriobis istoriis gaazrebisaTvis yoveli maTganis ganviTarebis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswineba mizanSewonilia, magram gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani mainc koleqtiuri kulturuli identobaa, romelic mTel sazogadoebas moicavs, rogorc Cven-jgufs. (CxartiSvili 2006). identoba mWidro kavSirSia kulturasTan, radgan kultura moicavs grZnobebs, emociur mijaWvulobebs, azrebsa da ideebs. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom globaluri transformaciebis pirobebSi garkveul transformacias vxedavT kulturaSic, rasac identobis problemebTan mivyavarT. entoni d. smiTi aRniSnavs: “postnacionaluri” wesrigisa da nacionalizmis dasustebis Tezisis meore versia eleqtronul masobriv komunikaciebze dafuZnebuli globaluri kulturis cnebiT iwyeba. amtkiceben, rom marqsisa da engelsis winaswarmetyvelebidan saukunis gasvlis Semdeg informaciulma sazogadoebam da masobrivma komunikaciebma globalur kulturas swored iseTi pirobebi Seuqmna, romlebSic erTiani, kosmopolituri da samecniero kultura mTels msoflios moicavs da auqmebs yvela adre arsebul eTnikur da nacionalur kulturas. axalma cifrulma revoluciam da kompiuterizebuli sainformacio teqnologiis farTod gavrcelebam safuZveli gamoacala adre arsebuli kulturebis mimzidvelobas da Seusabamo gaxada aramecnieruli gageba.” Sesabamisad, globaluri kultura, romelic moiazreba masobriv kulturaSi, garkveuli alternativa gaxda individualuri, eTnikuri, erovnuli an erTi sazogadoebis kulturisa. es ki identobis cvlasTan erTad moxda, radgan kultura, rogorc identobis erT-erTi dasayrdeni, identobis transformaciasTan erTad transformirdeboda globaluri, saerTo da erTiani kulturebis konteqstSi. masobrivi komunikaciebis epoqa masobrivi migraciebis epoqasac warmoadgens, sadac identobis transformacia bevrad ufro swrafad da xelSesaxebad vlindeba. entoni d. smiTis azriT, “kulturul identobaTa hibridizireba kargad Tavsdeba imis saWiroebasTan, rom Tavs yvelgan ise grZnobde, rogorc sakuTar saxlSi. amis-

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Tvis yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdom mediumSi unda SegeZlos komunikacia. anonimur, impersonalur qalaqSi nacionaluri “ena da kultura” ki aRar aduRabebs modernul, industriul sazogadoebas, aramed sainformacio teqnologia da kompiuteruli ganaTleba, romelic masobrivi komunikabeluri, hibriduli da postmodernuli globaluri sazogadoebis Sesaqmnelad yovelgvar kulturul bariers laxavs.” Sesabamisad, cxadi xdeba, rom globaluri transformaciebi identobis transformaciasac moiTxovs, xolo zogierT SemTxvevaSi amas identobis krizisTan mivyavarT.

literatura: adorno, horkhaimeri 2003 Teodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Dialektik der Aufklärung, Frankfurt am Mein 2003 begbederi 2011 Teodor begbereri, 99 franki, Tbilisi, gamomcemloba «palitra L » 2011 blumi 2007 Lothar Bluhm, Herkunft, Identität, Realität, Erinnerungsarbeit in der Yeitgenossischen deutschen Literatur, im Buch: Ulrich Breuer, Beatrice Sandberger (Herausgegeben), Grenzen der Identität und Fiktionalität, Autobiographisches Schreiben in der deutschptrachigen Gegenwartliteratur, Band 1. IUDICUM verlag Gmbh München 2007. iakobiSvili 2007 lela iakobiSvili, werilebi qarTul identobaze, Tb., 2007, kavkasiis sazogadoebriv strategiaTa instituti (GISS), merab mamardaSvilis saxelobis qarTuli klubi. kakabaZe elene tradiciaTa funqcia mexsierebis formirebaSi http://lib.ge/body_text.php?8554 Smidti 2004 Siegfried J. Schmidt, Zwiespältige Begierden. Aspekte der Medienkultur. Freiburg 2004 Ciqovani 2006 nino Ciqovani, religia da kultura samxreT kavkasiaSi, socialur mecnierebaTa centri, Tb., 2006 CxartiSvili 2006 “wminda mama giorgi mTawmindeli da qarTuli identobis samanebi XI saukuneSi”, http://institutehist.ucoz.net/_ld/0/5_chxartishvili.pdf wereTeli, kakitelaSvili 2006 wereTeli i. kakitelaSvili q. kultura da modernizacia, Tb., socialur mecnierebaTa instituti 2006.

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Nino Popiashvili Doctor of Philology, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Georgia, Tbilisi Cultural Identity in the Discourse of Global Transformations Summary The term "Globalization" has arisen several millennia ago, though in scientific sphere they began to use the term in the 90-s of the previous century. Globalization develops in three basic directions: economic, political and cultural. In literature Goethe was the first, who used the term ÂŤWorld LiteratureÂť as a designation of the general processes. Globalization in culture and in literature is expressed by interference process at the level of separate themes and ideas. Globalization process is accompanied both by positive and negative tendencies, differently influencing its definite aspects. Cultural globalization, on the one hand, unites national cultures; on the other hand, it carries certain risks for national identity. In a globalization context the delicate relation to literary process is necessary. Interference of literatures on a global scale, similar genres and themes, general processes, both typological and qualitative characters has constantly been available, though the national literature, in most cases, managed to maintain the individuality.

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eka sefaSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi globaluri ekonomikuri zrda, Sromis bazari da genderuli diskriminaciis zogierTi ekonomikuri aspeqti `daiviwyeT CineTi, indoeTi da interneti: ekonomikur zrdas qali warmarTavs!â&#x20AC;? The Economist, aprili 15, 2006 qalTa politikuri da ekonomikuri gaZliereba gasuli saukunis erT-erTi mTavari maxasiaTebelia, romelmac mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula XX saukunis 8090-ini wlebis swraf ekonomikuri zrdaSi. am ekonomikurma zrdam safuZveli daudo Tanamedrove globalur ekonomikas, romelic codnazea dafuZnebuli da sadac maRalkvalificiuri adamianiseuli resursi, sqesis ganurCevlad, yvelaze Zvirad fasobs. XXI saukunis dasawyisSi qalebi wamyvan poziciebs ikaveben rogorc politikur ise ekonomikur arenaze, magram es ufro calkeuli SemTxvevebia vidre wesi. genderi mxolod sociluri urTierTobebi ar aris. misi Rrma azri ekonomikuri SinaarSi devs, romelic erTi SexevdviT ar Cans da romlis grZelvadiani Sedegebi gacilebiT STambeWdavia. axali teqnologiebis ganviTarebam da misgan gamowveulma ekonomikurma ganviTarebam xeliT Sromis saWiroeba mniSvnelovnad Seamcira da arnaxulad gazarda moTxovna kognitur unarebze. genderuli Tanasworoba marto adamianis uflebebis dacvis kuTxiT ar aris mniSvnelovani. misi miRweva ekonomikur mwarmoeblurobasa da sxva ganviTarebis Sedegebs mniSvnelovnad zrdis. dRevandeli msoflio sul ufro met yuradRebas aqcevs samuSaos Seqmnas da ekonomikur zrdas. am viTarebaSi genderuli Tanasworoba erovnuli ekonomikebis potencialis gaxsnisa da ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebisaTvis gadamwyvetia. genderuli Tanasworoba ar niSnavs, mxolod qalTa da mamakacTa Tanabar Semosavals. nebismieri indvidisaTvis es niSnavs Tanabar SesaZleblobas icxovros sakuTari arCevanis Sesabamisad da Tavidan aicilos eqstremaluri sxvaobebi Semosavlis mixedviT. genderuli Tanasworoba, `es aris Tanasworoba uflebebis, resursebisa da xmis uflebis TvalsazrisiTâ&#x20AC;?55. progresis miuxedevad genderuli gansxvavebebi bevr sferoSi kvlav rCeba. Ees sxvaobebi gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia naklebad ganviTarebul qveynebSi. Tumca, qalTa mcire monawileoba formalur politikur da ekonomikur gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi msoflios umravlesi qveynebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. rogorc msoflio bankis mkvlevarebi aRniSnaven, genderuli sxvaobebi aferxebs msoflio ekonomikur zrdas. qalTa ganaTlebis donis zrdis miuxedevad, SromiTi bazari qalebs ar sTavazobs sakmaris SesaZleblobebs. msoflios umravles qveyanaSi ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebi qalebisaTvis kvlav naklebia vidre mamakacebisaTvis. qalebi, saSualod, mamakacTa xelfasis mxolod 70% gamoimuSaveben. es ganasxvaveba ar SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod sxvaobebiT ganaTlebisa da gamocdilebis TvalsazrisiT, rac Tavis mxriv, mniSvnelovania da sruliadac ar niSnavs imas, rom am sakiTxSi genderuli balansis miRweva proble55

Global Monitoring Report, Mayra Buvinic, Elizabeth M.King, 2008.

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mas gadaWris. struqturuli diskrimnacia gacilebiT noyier niadags qmnis genedruli diskriminaciisaTvis. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom mxolod Tanabari ganaTleba da dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis Seqmna qalebisaTvis ar niSnavs genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevas. Eekonomikuri zrdis miRweva qalTa SromiTi potencialis maqsimalurad gamoyenebis saSualebiT socialuri samarTlianobisagan Sors dgas da qalTa ormagi eqspluataciis mizezi xdeba, radgan qalebs ekonomikuri saqmianobis garda kvlav uwevT reproduqciuli funqciis Sesruleba, romelic wminda ekonomikuri pragmatulobiT rom mivudgeT, aranakleb mniSvnelovania, vidre nebismieri adamianis mier Sesrulebuli sxva, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad gamiznuli, ekonomikuri saqmianoba. qalTa reproduqciuli funqciis upirvelesi Sedegi samuSao Zalis kvlavwarmoebaa, xolo am funqciis adekvaturad Sefaseba da dafaseba am kvlavwarmoebuli samuSao Zalis xarisxs pirdapir ukavSirdeba. bavSvebis gazrda-aRzrdaSi, ra Tqma unda, orive mSobeli iRebs monawileobas, magram maTze zrunvis lomis wili mainc qalebze modis. amgvar viTarebas kvlav wminda ekonomikuri pragmatulobiT Tu mivudgebiT, naTeli xdeba, rom ekonomikurad mizanSewonilia, rom es funqcia qalebma Seasrulon, radgan nebismieri saqmianoba swored iman unda ganaxorcielos, visac es ufro ukeTesad da efeqtianad gamosdis (am SemTxvevaSi qalebma). swored qalze aris damokidebuli rogori pirovneba gaizrdeba momavalSi bavSvi, ra ganaTleba eqneba, rogor gamoiyenebs Tavis SesaZleblobebs. davas ar iwvevs is garemoeba, rom mSoblebis, pirvel rigSi, ki dedis mier yuradRebis dakleba, bevr negatiur Sedegs iZleva, kerZod, SeiZleba gaizardos danaSaulis done, (rac wvrilmani xulignobiT iwyeba da seriozul danaSaulSi gadadis), gaunaTlebloba (rac Semdeg Sesabamisi dasaqmebis SesaZleblobas amcirebs), susti janmrTeloba da a.S. yovelive es is socialuri danaxarjebia, romelic saxelmwifom anu sazogadoebam unda itvirTos momavalSi. igive SeiZleba iTqvas qalTa sxva tipis aunazRaurebeli Sromis Sesaxeb, romelic e.w. `zrunvis ekonomikis~ mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia. invalidebis, moxucebis da sxva aunazRaurebeli samuSaos udidesi nawili swored qalebis mier sruldeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom mosaxleobis daberebis problema Tanamedrove globalur pirobebSi mxolod ganviTarebuli qveynebis problema aRar aris. msoflio bankis monacemebiT56, sul ufro da ufro mcire raodenobis muSaxels mouwevs moxucebis (pensionrebis Senaxva). ase magaliTad, winaswari prognoziT, 2040 wlisaTvis evropaSi 24 milioni kaciT naklebi iqneba samuSao Zala, da es maCvenebeli 3 milionamde Semcirdeba, Tu SromiT bazarze qalebis monawielobis tempi da done gautoldeba mamakacebis mdgomareobas. gansakuTrebiT unda aRniSnos is garemoeba, rom genderuli samarTlianobis miRwevisaTvis mxolod genderuli Tanasworobisaken mimarTuli Sesabamisi kanonebis miReba da maTi srulfasovani realizaciis politikuri nebis arseboba ar kmara. erT-erTi,Yyvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani genderuli samarTlianobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis, saWiro resursebis arsebobaa. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, genderuli Tanasworoba fufunebaa da saxelmwifos unda gaaCndes Sesabamisi finansuri resursebi, rom misi miRwevisaTvis Sesabamisi qmediTi ekonomikuri stimulebi Seqmnas. Tumca am aspeqtebis gauTvaliswinebloba im mizeziT, rom saxelmwifoTa umravlesobas biujetis problemebi gaaCnia, dauSvebelia. uzarmazari da metad sapasuxismgeblo samuSaos Catarebaa saWiro, raTa qveynis momaval ganviTarebis sce56

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narSi es aspeqtebi yuradRebis miRma ar darCes, radgan momavalSi Sedegebis gamosworeba kidev ufro Zneli iqneba. Aar unda dagvaviwydes, rom Cven globaluri ekonomikis pirobebSi vcxovrobT, sadac yvela sxva danarCen resursTan SedarebiT imperativi codnas ekuTvnis. MsakiTxis seriozulobas gverdi ar auara iseTma seriozulma organizciamac, rogoricaa msoflio banki. misi erT-erTi bolo publikacia mTlianad genderul problemebs eZRvneba57. Mmsoflio bankis angariSebis analizi cxadyofs, rom qalTa sacxovrebeli pirobebi mTels msoflioSi sagrZnoblad gamosworda, rac Tundac 25 wlis winaT warmoudgeneli iyo. qalTa uflebebis gaZliereba, ganaTlebis donis amaRleba, janmrTelobis gaumjobesebisa da dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis gazrda mTels msoflioSi SeiniSneba. bevrma qveyenam uzrunvelyo kanonebis doneze sakuTrebis, dasaqmebis, gaTxovebisa da a. S. sakiTebSi qalTa Tanasworobis garantireba. dawyebiT ganaTlebaSi genderuli sxvaoba bevr qveyanaSi aRmoifxvra. ufro metic, msoflios TiTqmis 60 qveyanaSi ufro meti axalgazrda qaliSvili swavlobs umaRles saswavlebelSi, vidre axalgazrda mamakaci (rac aseve sagangaSoa). qalebi warmatebiT iyeneben TavianT ganaTlebas SromiT bazarze ufro farTo da Rirseuli monawielobisaTvis. msoflio bankis dRevandeli monacemebiT, globaluri SromiTi Zalis 40% qalia da fermerebis 43%-sac qalebi Seadgenen. Mmsoflios yvela regionSi qalebi ufro didxans cocxloben vidre kacebi58. msoflio bankis mier momzadebuli publikaciaSi xazgasmulia, rom genderuli sxvaobebis aRmofxvras gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. genderuli Tanasworoba ganviTarebis erT-erTi aucilebeli mizania. igi amave dros warmoadgens `sxart ekonomikas” – “Smart Economics”. Ees axali termini lakonurad asaxavs im garemobas, rom qalTa ekonomikuri gaZlierebiT ufro met sargebels iRebs ekonomika, vidre ubralod mamakacTa Semosavlebis gazrdiT. empiruli monacemebi am daskvnis marTebulobas damajereblad asabuTebs. Mmsoflio bankis mier sxvadasxva drosa da sxvadasxva sferoSi Catarebuli kvlevis masalebi mowmobs, rom is ojaxebi, sadac qalic muSaobs, siRaribis zRvars miRma iSviaTad arian. rogorc wesi, qalebs meti dabrkolebis gadalaxva uwevT bankidan kreditis misaRebad, magram Tu maT gankargulebaSia krediti, kreditis gamoyenebis Sedegi saSinao meurneobis keTildReobis maCveneblze gacilebiT metia. roca qali ganaTlebulia, ganaTlebidan sargebeli vrceldeba ara marto masze, aramed momaval Taobazec. roca qalebi ufro metad akontroleben ojaxis resursebs, metia imis albaToba, rom es resursebi sakvebze, bavSvTa janmrTelobasa da ganaTlebaze ixarjeba. kvlevebma cxadyo, rom qalebisaTvis ganaTlebis meti SesaZleblobebis Seqmna da bazrebze (Sroma, miwa, krediti) monawileobisa da axali teqnologiebiT sargeblobis Tanabari pirobebi da saSualebebis Seqmna maTTvis da amave dros, maTi ojaxebisa da sazogadoebisTvis keTildReobis ufro maRali donis miRwevaSi poulobs asaxvas. swored es aris `sxarti ekonomika”59. naTelia da davas ar iwvevs is garemoeba, rom Semosavali da genderuli Tanasworoba pozitiur korelaciaSia erTmaneTTan. Mmsoflio ekonomikuri forumis mier gamoangariSebuli ekonomikuri monawileobisa da SesaZleblobebis indeqsi (World Economic Forum’s Index of Economic Participation and Opportunity) dadebiT damokidebule-

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World Development Report 2010: Gender Equality and Development, the World Bank, September 2011. World Development Report 2010: Gender Equality and Development, the World Bank, September 2011. P.24 59 Buvinic M. King E. Smart Economics, Finance and Cevelopment, A quarterly magazine of the IMF, june 2007, vol 44, number 2, p. 3. 58

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baSia erT sul mosaxleze mSp-is moculobis maCveneblTan60. Tumca gaurkvevelia, es korelacia gamowveulia ekonomikuri zrdis Sedegad miRweuli genderuli Tanasworobis gazrdis gamo, Tu genderuli Tanasworoba axdens pozitiur gavlenas ekonomikur zrdaze. realurad, albaT orive mosazreba marTebulia, Tumca msoflio bankis eqspertebs uWirT amtkicon romeli qveynis SemTxvevaSi romeli urTierTdamokidebuleba aris ufro Zlieria. istoriul faqtebsa da ekonomikis istorias Tu gavixsenebT, Tavis droze industiulad ganviTarebulma qveynebma ekonomikur warmatebas genderuli Tanasworobis gareSe miaRwies. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom genderuli Tanasworobis uzrunveyofas saTanado finansuri uzrunveyofac sWirdeba. Sesabamisad, ganviTarebul qveynebSi meti albaTobiTaa mosalodneli, rom keTildReobis maRali done genderul Tanasworobas uzrunveyofs. Mmeore mxriv, es pozitiuri korelacia gvkarnaxobs, rom SezRuduli finansuri da Tu sxva resursebis pirobebSi ufro efeqtiani qalTa ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis gazrdaa, rac “sxarti ekonomikis” Tanaxmad, multiplikatoris efeqtiT iwvevs qalebis, maTi ojaxebis, sazogadoebisa da momavali Taobis keTilReobis gazrdaze ufro met dadebiT gavlenas. aRsaniSnavia, rom orive urTierTdamokidebulebis marTebulobas rigi argumentebi ufro myars xdis. amasTan, uamravi movlena iwvevs erTdroulad rogorc genderuli Tanasworobis gazrdas aseve ekonomiuri donis amaRlebas. ase magaliTad, investiciebis gazrda jandacvis seqtorSi gaumjobesebs rogorc genderul Tanasworobas, aseve, zogadad, humanuri kapitalis xarisxs. analogiurad, institutebisa da sistemebis gaumjobeseba, romelic gamWvirvalobisa da demokratiuli mowyobis pricipebs daemyareba, gazrdis rogorc genderul balanss, aseve gaaumjobesebs qveynis keTildReobis dones. mikroekonomikuri kvlevebis saSualebiT gamoikveTa is sam ZiriTadi saSualeba, romelic ekonomikur zrdaze genderuli Tanasworobis gavlenis SesaZleblobas iZleva: • qalTa unarebisa da niWierebis ufro efeqtianad gamoyenebisaTvis barierebis Semcireba mwarmoeblurobis zrdis generirebas uwyobs xels; • qalTa wvlilis, SesaZleblobebisa da gaerTianebebis gazrdas SeuZlia ufro meti pozitiuri cvlilebebis motana Semdegi TaobisaTvis; • qalTa individualur da koleqtiur saqmianobas SeuZlia Sedegebis, institutebisa da politikis daxvewa. am mizez-Sedegobrivi damokidebulebis orive mimarTuleba politikis gansazRvrisaTvis erTnairad mniSvnelovania. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom ganviTarebis Tanxvdenilad yvela genderuli sxvaoba rodi aRmoifxvreba. ase magaliTad, qalTa warmomadgenloba politikur da maRal mmrTvelobiT Tanamdebobebze biznesSi kvlav dabali rCeba msoflios umravles qveyanaSi. imis garkveva Tu romeli genderuli sxvaoba mcirdeba keTildReobis donis zrdasTan erTad da ratom da rogor xdeba es, politikisaTvis gadamwyvetia, raTa gamoikveTos is genderuli disbalansebi, romelsac gansakuTrebuli yuradReba sWirdeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom gansakuTrebuli mdgradobiT xasiaTdeba genderuli sxvaobebi iseT maCveneblebSi rogoricaa xelfasebi, sasoflo-sameurneo warmoeba, socialuri mdgomareoba, monawileoba politikur da ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebSi.

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World Development Indicators and World Economic Forum 2010

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2006 wlidan msoflio ekonomikuri forumi (World Economic Forum) awarmoebs qveynebis rangirebas genderuli indeqsis (Global Gender Gap Index) mixedviT. indeqsi zomavs erovnul qveynebSi genderul sxvaobebs ekonomikuri, politikuri, ganaTlebisa da jandacvis kriteriumebis gamoyenebiT da saSualebas iZleva SevadaroT sxvadaxva qveynebi. misi avtorebi miiCneven61, rom maTi es saqmianoba xels uwyobs globaluri auditoriis cnobierebis amaRlebas genderuli sxvaobebiT warmoSobili gamowvevebisa da im SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb, romelic am sxvaobebis Semcirebis Sedegad iqmneba. indeqsi zomavs resursebis xelmisawvdomobas orive sqesisaTvis da qveynebSi arsebul mdgomareobas SesaZleblobebis Tanasworobis mixedviT da ara am qveynebis resursebisa da SesaZleblobebis faqtobriv dones. am maCveneblis gazomva xdeba qveynis ganviTarebis donisagan damoukideblad. qveynebis reitingi Sedgenilia genderuli sxvaobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. ase magaliTad, mdidar qveynebSi ganaTlebisa da jandacvis meti SesaZleblobebia sazogadoebis yvela wevrisTvis. amrigad, ganaTlebis donis maCveneblebi asaxavs am faqts. es maCvenebeli ar ukavSirdeba TiToeuli qveynis Semosavlis dones. Tumca, rogorc zeviT aRvniSneT, korelacia SeiniSneba. maCvenebeli miuTiTebs genderuli sxvaobis zomaze da ara qveynis ganaTlebis doneze. angariSma moicva msoflios 135 qveyana da msoflios mosaxleobis 93%. igi gviCvenebs Tu rogor aris ganawilebuli qveynis resursebi da SesaZleblobebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. angariSi zomavs genderul sxvaobas oTx sferoSi: • ekonomikuri monawileoba da SesaZleblobebi (xelfasi, warmoebaSi monawileoba da maRalkvalificiuri dasaqmeba); • ganaTleba (dawyebiTi da umaRlesi ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomoba); • politikuri uflebamosileba (gadawyvetilebis mimReb struqturebSi monawileoba); • janmrTeloba da sikvdilianoba (sicocxlis xangrZlivoba da sqesTa Sefardeba). indeqsi, romelic gamosaxulia procentul maCveneblSi, gviCvenebs qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris resursebis xelmisawvdomobisa da SesaZleblobebis TvalsazrisiT, sxvaobis gaqrobis procents. angariSSi gamoyenebuli monacemebi sajaroa. maT aqveyneben iseTi saerTSoriso organizaciebi rogoricaa Sromis saerTaSoriso organizacia, gaeros ganviTarebis programa, msoflio jandacvis organizacia da a.S. 2011 wlis angariSis mixedviT, tradiciulad, lideroben CrdiloT evropis qveynebi (fineTi, islandia, norvegia da SvedeTi). am qveynebSi genderuli sxvaobebi 80%-iT gamqralia. qvemoT moyvanil cxrilSi mocemulia zogierTi qveynis reitingi am indeqsis mixedviT da is procentuli maCvenebeli, romelic genderuli sxvaobis daxurvis dones asaxavs.

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Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum The Global Gender Gap Report 2011. Geneva, Switzerland p. 6

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genderuli sxvaoba â&#x20AC;&#x201C; qveynebis reitingi 2011-2010 wlebisTvis qveyana 2011 qula 2010 cvlileba wina welTan SedarebiT islandia 1 85.3% 1 0 norvegia 2 84.0% 2 0 fineTi 3 83.8% 3 0 SvedeTi 4 80.4 4 0 aSS 17 74.1% 19 +2 kanada 18 74.1% 20 +2 latvia 19 74.0% 18 -1 moldova 39 70.83 37 +1 poloneTi 42 70.38% 41 -1 ruseTi 43 73.37% 42 +1 yirgizeTi 44 70.36% 43 -1 ukraina 64 68.61% 63 +1 somxeTi 84 66.54% 83 +1 saqarTvelo 86 66.24% 85 +1 azerbaijani 91 65.77% 90 +1 pakistani 133 55.83% 132 +1 Cadi 134 53.34% 134 0 iemeni 135 48.73% 135 0 wyaro: globaluri genderuli sxvaobis angariSi 2011. Jeneva Sveicaria, 2011w. angariSis wlevandel gamocemaSi pirvelad iqna CarTuli qalis SromiTi resursebis gamoyenebisa da CarTulobis maCvenebli. TiTqmis 60 qveynis monacemebi aCvenebs, rom qvynebis 88 procentSi SromiTi resursebis genderuli diskriminacia ikrZaleba. amave dros, am viTarebis gamosavlenad erovnuli indikatori qveynebis 45 procentze naklebs gaaCnia. gamokvleuli qveynebis 20 procents aqvs savaldebulo regulacia, romelic uzrunvelyofs qalebis warmomadgenlobas korporaciul sabWoSi da qveynebis 30 procents aqvs qalebis politikuri monawileobis uzrunvelyofisaken mimarTuli specialuri kanonmdebloba. rogorc avtorebi aRniSnaven, mcire genderuli sxvaobis qveynebi globalur bazrebze maRali konkurentunarianobiT xasiTdebian. rogorc aRvniSneT, dRevandeli msoflio sul ufro met yuradRebas aqcevs samuSaos Seqmnas da ekonomikur zrdas. am viTarebaSi genderuli Tanasworoba erovnuli ekonomikebis potencialis gaxsnisaTvis da ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebisaTvis gadamwyvetia. barierebis aRmofxvra qalebs saSualebs aZlevs, Sevidnen ekonomikis im seqtorebSi an dasaqmdnen im Tanamdebobebze, romelic maTTvis adre xelmisawvdomi ar iyo. sakvebisa da soflis meurneobis saerTaSoriso organizaciis monacemebiT, es TiToeuli muSakis Sromis nayofierebis gazrdas, saSualod, 13-25 procentiT iwvevs. am mogebebis mniSvneloba uzarmazaria 21 saukunis globalur ekonomikaSi, sadac resursebis efeqtianobis mcireoden gaumjobesebac ki SeuZlia gamoiwvios mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ekonomikur zrdaSi. liberaluri savaWro reJimebis pirobebSi genderuli sxvaoba Zalian ZviradRirebulia, radgan is amcirebs qveynis saerTaSoriso konkurentunarianobas. kerZod, Tu qveyana specializirebulia saqon-

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lisa da momsaxurebis eqsportze, romelis warmoeba qalebsa da mamakacebs Tanabrad kargad SeuZliaT, maSin orive sqesis potencialis Tanabrad gamouyenebloba resursebis uyairaTod xarjvas niSnavs qveynisTvis, romlis firmebi saerTaSoriso bazrebze poziciebis mopovebas da gamyarebas cdiloben. amrigad, genderul crurwmenebze damyarebuli sterotipebis aRmfxvra qveyanas aSkara upiratesobas aZlevs saerTaSoriso bazrebze. dRes, roca globaluri ekonomikis lomis wili momsaxurebiT vaWrobaze modis da roca maRalkvalificiuri Sromis gamoyenebiT warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mzardi eqsporti ganapirobebs, ama Tu im qveynis keTildReobis donis ganuxrelad zrdas, dauSvebelia qalebisa d mamakacebis humanuri kapitalis Tanabrad gamouyenebloba.

literartura: 1. 2011-2013 Action Plan for Implementing of Gender Equality, May, Tbilisi, 2011; 2. Actual problems of Gender” UNDP, Tbilisi 1998; 3. Berekashvili N., izharadze G., Tsihistavi N., “Gender Dimension in the Wine Sector in Georgia”, International Center of Conflict and Negotiation Tbilisi, 2008 4. Berekashvili N., izharadze G., Tsihistavi N., “Gender Dimension in the Wine Sector in Georgia”, International Center of Conflict and Negotiation Tbilisi, 2008 5. Constitution of Georgia, labor code of Georgia, law on public wok of Georgia; 6. Fagenson, E.A. personal Value Systems of Men and Women Entrepreneurs Versus Managers, Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 409-430, 1999;’ 7. Gender and Culture” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 8. Gender Assessment, USAID/Georgia”, Elisabeth Duban, DevTech Systems, 2010. 9. Hofstede, G. Culture’s Consequences II: Comparing Values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage. 2001; 10. Issues of Women Employment” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 11. Jashi Ch. “Actual Problems of Gender Economics” , funded by UNDP and SIDA, Tbilisi, 2005; 12. Kepuladze T., “Some aspects of Labor market Formation in Georgia” , magazine “Economy”. # 7, 2005; 13. Khitarishvili T. ,“Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgiathe Levy Economic Institute, bard College. September, 2009; 14. Khoreva Violetta, Gender Pay Gap: Lessons from Multinational Corporations, 18th EDAMBA Summer Academy, Soreze, France, July 2009; 15. Kuprava-Sharvashidze, Maia, “ The reality of women’s political participation in Georgia” Preparation for local self-governance elections, Conference materials, NDI; March 8, 2006, 16. Ljunggren E. and Kolvereid L., New Business Formation: Does Gender Make a Difference? Women in Management Review; 17. Millennium development Goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/gender.shtml 18. Mueller C.B., Van Deusen C.A., Gender and Age differences in Business goals across 16 Countries, Proceedings of the Second Annual International Research Seminar, co-hosted by the US and Poland, February 15, 2002, 19. National Service of Statistics of Georgia, (GEOSTAT ttp://www.geostat.ge/index.php?action=page&p_id=145&lang=geo; 20. Porter Michael, “The Competitive Advantage of Nations”, The Free Press. A division of Macmillian, Inc, N.Y, 1992: 21. Presidential Decree No 308 on adopting the National Action Plan for Protection of Women's Rights for 1998-2000;

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22. Presidential Decree No on adopting National Action Plan on Combating Violence Against Women for 2000-2002; 23. Presidential decree No511, 1999 on measures to strengthen the Protection of women’s right in Georgia; 24. Reality - Women’s Equal Rights and Opportunities in Georgia”, UNIFEM Tbilisi, 2006. 25. Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia. No 4672-I, 05.05.2011. 26. Sabedashvili, T. , “Gender and Democratization: The Case of Georgia 1991–2006”; Tbilisi: Heinrich Boll Foundation, South Caucasus Regional Office. 2007; 27. Sabedashvili, Tamar, Historic Aspects of Women’s Rights, Course, Tbilisi: The Center of Social Sciences, 2005; 28. Sepashvili E. “The Structure of Time Budget and Welfare of population in Georgia”. Tbilisi, 2008; 29. Sepashvili E. Gender Equality and Ways of Its Implementation through Budget, “Economics’, Tbilisi State University, vol. 3, Tbilisi, 2003; 30. Sepashvili E. Kotschau T. “Agriculture in Georgia – Sector or Social Net? “Georgia In Transition. Editor, King Lorenc, Giorgi Khubua, Germany. 2009; 31. Sepashvili E., “Success of Business on Global Markets and Gender Aspects of Resources Productivity”, International conference proceedings. “The socio-Cultural Environment of International Business”, Tbilisi, 2011; 32. Sexes and Civilisation UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 33. Social-Psychological Research on State of Women in Georgia” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 34. Sumbadze, N. “Gender and Society”. Institute of Policy Studies, UNDP, Project “Gender and Politics.” Tbilisi, 2008; 35. Surmanidze L., “Actual Issues of Gender”, UNDO, Tbilisi 1998; 36. Sutherlend Peter, Sewell John. “The Challenges of Globalization” , Earth Island Journal, Fall 98, vol.13 issues 4; 37. Tbilisi Kinder Garden Administration, http://kids.org.ge/Kindergarten/bagebi; 38. The Protection of Women’s Rights According to International Legal Documents and the Protection of Women’s rights in Georgia by Active Legislation” UNDP, Tbilisi 1997; 39. Woman and Man in Georgia”, statistical publication, Tbilisi, 2006. P. 26-33 40. Women in Transition” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 41. Women informational Centre, http://www.wicge.org/publications.php?lang=ge; 42. Women on Rural Area” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 43. Women, Economic Development and Conflict” UNDP, Tbilisi (1998); 44. Women’s Rights According to the International Conventions, Georgian Legislation and Mechanisms in Practice”. Tbilisi, 1997.

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Eka Sepashvili Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Global Economic Growth, the Labour Market and Some Economic Aspects of Gender Discrimination Summary “Forget China, India and the internet: economic growth is driven by women.” The Economist, April 15, 2006 Political and economic empowerment of women becomes the main feature of the last century which is playing the decisive role in economic growth of 80th -90th of the past XX century. This growth lay down the basis for the contemporary global economy – which relies on knowledge and where the human reassures despite the gender is the most expensive and valuable. Gender is not only about social roles and status. It has greater economic meaning which is realized in long-term results. The development of new technologies and resulted economic growth diminished the importance of low skilled labour and manual work and unprecedentedly increased the value of human resources able to perform cognitive tasks. Gender equality is not only about the protection of human rights, it is about economic efficiency and ways of economic development. Nowadays’ economy pays unusual attention to the resource efficiency. In this regard, gender equality represents key factor for unlocking economic potential of national states and leverages of economic growth. Despite the progress in many sectors, gender equality remains challenge in political and economic decision-making over the globe. World Development Report 2012 dedicated to the Gender Equality and Development which was conducted by the World Bank, affirmed about the positive correlation of Index of Economic Participation and Opportunity measuring female –male ratio in labour market participation, wages, and incomes with the GDP level per capita and level of welfare. Gender equality economy is a “smart Economics” which undermines to empower women economically and increase investment in women human capital causing poverty reduction and faster growth, and these effects radiate to the men, children and nation as a whole. The benefits from increased women’s economic opportunities are becoming increasingly evident in globalized economy even for national firms seeking for gaining and maintaining positions on international markets.

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Сырлыбаева Бэла старший аналитик Агентства по исследованию рентабельности инвестиций, кандидат экономических наук, Алматы, Республика Казахстан Двадцать лет Концепции устойчивого развития: анализ предварительных итогов В июне 2012 г. исполняется 20 лет с момента принятия в Рио-де-Жанейро на Конференции ООН по окружающей среде и развитию«Повестки дня на XXI век» («Agenda XXI»), в которой нашли отражение основные положения Концепции устойчивого развития. Повесткаакцентировала внимание мировой общественности и призывала к решению следующих ключевых проблем современной цивилизации: - сокращения природной базы человеческой жизни; - неравного распределения доходов и активов; - роста уровня бедности; - угрозы миру и безопасности. Предпосылками к выработке данной Концепции явились тенденцииглобального развития после II Мировой войны.С середины ХХ века на фоне демографического взрыва наблюдаются резкие контрасты в уровне жизни населения Земли. Соотношение доходов 20% самой богатой части населения планеты к 20% самой бедной составляло: в 1960 г. – 30:1, в 1980 г. – 45:1, в 1990 г. – 60:1. По состоянию на 2000 г. это соотношение достигло 140:1. На этом фоне настойчивее стали звучать голоса ученых предупреждавших, что численность населенияначинает превышать потенциальные возможности Земли. Бурная промышленная деятельность приводит к нарастающей экологической дестабилизации, ускоренному исчерпанию основных ресурсов: нефти, газа, угля, древесины, пресной воды, плодородных земель и т.д. Все большее количество людей не могут обеспечить себе минимальный уровень питания. Из складывающейся ситуации мировой элитой были сделаны разные выводы: часть истеблишмента призывала ограничить рост населения в бедных и развивающихся странах, ввести жесткие ограничения по потреблению ресурсов. Был предложен вариант так называемого «нулевого роста». В соответствии с ним человечество должно было стабилизировать свою численность, прекратить промышленный рост, инвестировать и развивать только сельское хозяйство в целях увеличения производства продовольствия, а также сферу услуг.В промышленности предлагалось возмещать только износ основных фондов. Однако данные предложения вызвали справедливый протест представителей стран Азии и Африки, так как отказывали им в праве на дальнейшее развитие и консервировали их крайне бедственное положение. Проблему ограниченности ресурсов лидеры стран «третьего мира» видели не в ограничениях роста потребления, а в справедливом распределении благ. Ведь согласно высказыванию Махатмы Ганди: «Мир достаточно велик, чтобы удовлетворить нужды каждого человека, но он слишком мал, чтобы удовлетворить жадность каждого человека». Для поиска более адекватной модели будущего глобального развития по заданию ООН была образована Международная комиссия по окружающей среде и развитиюпод председательством премьер-министра Норвегии г-жи Гру Харлем Брундтланд. Выводы данной комиссии, оформленные в докладе«Наше общее будущее» (1987 г.),в последующем легли в основу Концепции устойчивого развития, принятой ООН. Комиссия Брундтланд стремилась найти формулу, в соответствии с которой интересы индустриальных стран, стран «третьего мира» и будущих поколений были бы уравновешены. Целью доклада являлась разработка глобальной программы изменений в мировом развитии. В центр анализа была поставлена задача справедливого распределения ресурсов как внутри одного поколения, так и между различными поколениями. В работе были предложены долгосрочные стратегии в области охраны окружающей среды, которые позволили бы обеспечить устойчивое развитие мировой

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экономики на длительный период, рассмотрены способы и средства, используя которые мировое сообщество смогло бы эффективно решать проблемы природопользования. В частности, комиссия указывала на то, что устаревшие структуры производства и потребления развитых стран не могут служить образцом для подражания для менее развитых государств и предлагала индустриальным державам существенно сократить потребление естественных ресурсов посредством использования ресурсосберегающих и экологически безопасных технологий, а последующие приросты благосостояния перераспределять в пользу бедных стран и будущих поколений. Хозяйственнаядеятельность человека была представленав Концепции, с одной стороны, как основная причина большинства экологических проблем, а с другой, –какпотенциальная сила, обусловливающая изменения к лучшему. В докладе отсутствуют положения о необходимости остановить экономический рост и сократить масштабы материального производства. Напротив, устойчивое развитие трактуется именно как устойчивый экономический рост. Признается, что рост экономикиспособствуетснижению остроты бедности, приводящей к разграблению ресурсов. Генеральной мыслью является необходимость сбалансировать деятельность человека со способностью природы к самовосстановлению. На сегодняшний день в литературе имеется более 60 определений устойчивого развития. Наиболее распространенным является дефиниция, приведенная в самом докладе Г.Х. Брундтланд: «Устойчивое развитие – этотакое развитие, которое удовлетворяет потребности нас��оящего времени, но не ставит под угрозу способность будущих поколений удовлетворять свои собственные потребности». Оно включает два ключевых понятия: - понятие потребностей, в частности потребностей, необходимых для существования беднейших слоев населения, которые должны быть предметом первостепенного приоритета; - понятие ограничений, обусловленных состоянием технологий и организацией общества, накладываемых на способность окружающей среды удовлетворять нынешние и будущие потребности. Имеются и другие определения устойчивого развития, среди которых можно выделить следующие: - развитие, которое не возлагает дополнительные затраты на следующие поколения; - развитие, которое минимизирует отрицательные внешние эффекты (экстерналии) между поколениями; - развитие, которое обеспечивает постоянное простое и/или расширенное воспроизводство производственного потенциала на перспективу; - развитие, при котором человечеству необходимо жить только на проценты с природного капитала, не затрагивая его самого. Приведенные дефиниции устойчивого развития необходимо рассматривать сквозь призму экономических отношений поколений: как внутри современного поколения (в частности, социальный аспект, проблема бедности), так и между поколениями (эколого-экономический аспект). Исходя из вышеизложенного, задачи экономического и социального развития любой страны мира, независимо от типа общественного устройства, должны определяться на основе принципов устойчивости и соответствия экологическому императиву. Опираясь на основные положения доклада комиссии Брундтланди принятой Повестки можно сформулировать следующие принципы устойчивого развития: - признание человека как высшей ценности и его права на здоровую жизнь в гармонии с природой; - осуществление развития, обеспечивающего удовлетворение эколого-социальноэкономических потребностей нынешнего и будущего поколений; - охрана окружающей среды как неотъемлемый элемент развития; - уменьшение разрыва в уровнях жизни между богатыми и бедными. В то же время следует отметить, что, несмотря на практически единодушное признание

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мировым сообществом своевременности и правильности принципов устойчивого развития, а также добровольно взятые на себя обязательства по их исполнению («Повестка дня на XXI век» была одобренаправительствами 179 стран мира), сама Концепция и перспективы ее практической реализации рядом экспертов с самого начала подвергались значительной критике. Условно критиков данной теории можно разделить на две группы. К первой группе относятся те, кто в принципе считают Концепцию устойчивого развития неспособной к самореализации утопией, и даже не признают самой дефиниции «устойчивое развитие». По мнению ряда ученых, данная концепция является опасным заблуждением, иллюзией, лишь в какой-то мере успокаивающей общественное мнение, и что на самом деле потенциальные возможности современной цивилизации исчерпаны или близки к исчерпанию, поскольку при неограниченном росте численности населения и благосостояния каждого индивида сохранить окружающую среду без изменения невозможно. Это явное нарушение закона сохранения вещества и энергии. Согласно их точке зрения, данная концепция пытается примирить непримиримое: сохранить по возможности цивилизацию потребления, так как она «отвечает потребностям ныне живущих и будущих поколений людей», и решить задачу сохранения природы в рамках цивилизации, уничтожающей природу. Это невозможно. Не следует преувеличиватьи способность биосферы справляться с последствиями человеческой деятельности, а также надеяться на то, что богатые (страны, корпорации, индивиды) согласятся тратить огромные средства на природоохранные мероприятия и гуманитарную помощь, изымая их из текущего оборота и потребления.Наивна также надежда на политическую волю глав государств и правительств. Все это выглядит как пропагандистская и совершенно беспомощная попытка сделать всех здоровыми и богатыми, и обойти закон «на всех все равно не хватит». Декларативность и противоречивость принятой Концепции устойчивого развития отмечают многие эксперты, причем со многими их доводами трудно не согласиться. Действительно, реализация данной концепции чрезвычайно сложна в силу субъективных факторов политического характера, сложных международных отношений, особенностей регионального развития, национальных традиций, глубоких противоречий между текущими материальными и долгосрочными экологическими интересами, и целого ряда других причин. В этой связи, многие критики утверждают, что сами слова «устойчивое» и «развитие» противоречат одно другому, и что развитие в принципе не может быть устойчивым, «от чего-то надо отказаться: либо от развития, либо от устойчивости»62. Сам термин «устойчивое развитие» − «sustainabledevelopment»− ряд экспертов предлагает переводить на русский язык как «сбалансированное развитие», то есть равновесие. По мнению второй группы исследователей, все проблемы человечества происходят из-за того, что «общество потребления», в котором создаются все новые предметы потребления и потребности, давно уже вышло на уровень надфизиологического потребления. Расходование ресурсов для обеспечения надфизиологического потребления приводит к кратному увеличению глобального загрязнения почвы, воды и воздуха, что влечет за собой превышение предела устойчивости мировой экосистемы и катастрофические последствиям для всего населения Земли. В условиях истощающейся ресурсной базы богатеть в мировом масштабе удается только самым богатым на фоне крайне низкого потребления всех остальных. Патологические последствия надфизиологического потребления могут быть устранены благодаря идеологии нового образа жизни, при котором подобное потребление стало бы не престижным и социально не приемлемым. Сокращение потребления до естественного физиологического уровня уменьшит расход природных ресурсов, понизит зависимость развитых государств от сырьевого импорта, а значит и снизит мировую напряженность из-за борьбы за их обладание. Таким видится один из путей преодоления глобального мирового кризиса. 62

Валянский С.И., Калюжный Д.В. Третий путь цивилизации, или спасет ли Россия мир? − М.: Алгоритм, 2002. −496 с.

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По прошествии двадцати лет после Рио-92 с сожалением приходится констатировать, что критики Концепции устойчивого развития во многом оказались правы: в общемировом масштабе проблемы неравного распределения доходов, безопасности человеческой жизни и другие не только не нашли своего эффективного решения, но и напротив, даже усугубились и обострились. Ко второму десятилетию XXI века человечество не смогло справиться ни с нищетой, ни с голодом, не разработало действенных способов обеспечения глобальной безопасности, не выработало эффективных механизмов предотвращения экономических, экологических, социально-политических кризисов, не сумело определить пути выхода из них. Безусловно, показатели развития существенно отличаются по странам и регионам, тем не менее общемировая статистика достаточно пугающая. Из 7 млрд. человек на Земле, согласно данным Международной организации труда (МОТ), около 900 млн. живут за чертой бедности (на 2 доллара в день), а половина из них выживает в условиях крайней нищеты (на доход менее чем 1,25 доллара в день), хронически недоедает и хронически болеет. Также, по данным МОТ, треть работоспособного населения мира (около 1,1 млрд. человек) не имеет работы или живет в нищете, несмотря на наличие рабочего места63. Согласно докладу генсека ООН Кофи Аннана «Использование энергии в интересах устойчивого развития», представленному на 14-й сессии Комиссии ООН по устойчивому развитию в 2006 г., 2,4 млрд. человек на Земле не получают современных энергетических услуг, при этом четверть населения мира лишена возможности пользоваться даже электроэнергией, т.е. фактически не имеет доступа к самым элементарным благам и достижениям цивилизации. Жизнедеятельность 2,4 млрд. людей зависит от традиционной энергии биомассы, которую составляют дрова, навоз и сельскохозяйственные отходы64. На сегодняшний день в мире, по разным оценкам, в частности,по данным Всемирной организации здравоохранения, от 880 млн. до 1 млрд. человек и более не имеют доступа к безопасной питьевой воде, являющейся самой базовой человеческой потребностью, при этом около 40% населения планеты в той или иной мере испытывают ее недостаток. Более 2,6 млрд. людей лишены надлежащих санитарных условий. Ежегодно 1,5 млн. детей в возрасте до пяти лет умирают от болезней, связанных с употреблением грязной воды и отсутствием адекватной санитарии65. По данным Детского фонда ООН (ЮНИСЕФ) 200 млн. детей на планете хронически недоедают, а каждая третья детская смерть вызвана голодом66. Стихийные бедствия становятся непосредственной причиной гибели около 350 тыс. человек в год (в основном в развивающихся странах), ежегодно более 30 млн. человек вынуждены менять свое место жительства из-за климатических условий, т.е. становятся климатическими беженцами67. В связи с беспрецедентным антропо��енным воздействием на биосферу в течение последних 100 лет, экологические угрозы стали печальной реальностью для всех стран мира. Вызванные глобальным изменением климата природные катаклизмы одинаково активно атакуют как богатые, так и бедныестраны: Юго-Восточную Азию, США, государства Европы и др. Однако, по оценкамэкспертов, отношение экономических потерь от крупных природных катастроф к национальному ВВП составляет для отсталых стран более 20%, для развивающихся стран – около 10%, а для развитых – менее 5%68. Такая разница в первую очередь объясняется большой перенаселенностью бедных стран и неразвитостью в них служб мониторинга и спасения. Можно с уверенностью сказать, что основным источником угрозы глобальному социальноэкономическому равновесию выступает давно сформировавшийся геомасштабный пояс абсолютной 63

Треть работоспособного населения мира не имеет работы // Российская газета. 24.01.2012. http://www.rg.ru/2012/01/24/bezrabotitsa-anons.html 64 http://www.un.org/ru/ 65 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2010/water_20100315/ru/index.html 66 http://www.unicef.org/ 67 http://www.promecosever.ru/ZHurnal/Novosti/Klimaticheskie-bezhentsyi.html 68 Львов Д.С. Вернуть народу ренту. – М.: Эксмо, 2004. – 256 с.– С. 166 – 167.

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бедности, набирающий силу под влиянием проводимой индустриальными странами финансовой и промышленной политики. Речь, в первую очередь, идет о созданном мировыми институтами глобальном финансовом рынке, на котором только 10% финансовых активов тратится на нужды реального сектора, а все остальное является рынком финансовой спекуляции, на котором деньги делают деньги. В результате потеряна органическая связь между реальной экономикой и ее финансовым обеспечением, что ярко продемонстрировал мировой финансово-экономический кризис, начавшийся в 2007 г. и продолжающийся по сегодняшний день. Пережив в ХХ веке две страшные мировые войны и множество локальных конфликтов, человечество перенесло весь конфликтный потенциал и в новый век. Реальностью сегодняшнего дня является нарастающая гонка вооружений, разработка оружия все большей разрушающей мощности,повсеместно вспыхивающие социальные конфликты, практически моментально перерастающие в военные, приводящие к свержению законно избранной власти и к иностранной интервенции. Обыденностью стали теракты, захваты заложников и пиратство. Таким образом, ко второму десятилетию XXI века, человечество не смогло решить ни проблем бедности и неравенства доходов, ни вопросовобеспечения глобальной безопасности. Характерными чертами современной цивилизации являются войны, крайне высокая социальная поляризация, огромное количество беженцев, кризис глобальной финансовой системы, нарастающая экологическая дестабилизация, глобальные климатические изменения. В этой связи, наряду с уже заявленными темами предстоящего в июне 2012 г. саммита Рио+20 (среди которых: искоренение нищеты и построение «зелёной» модели экономики как механизма снижения негативного воздействия на окружающую среду, обеспечения энергетической и экологической безопасности;установление новых стандартов качества жизни;создание новых рабочих мест и технологий), особое внимание следует уделить, по нашему мнению, вопросам обеспечения глобальной безопасности, недопущению вооруженного вмешательства в дела суверенных государств. В данном контексте, с одной стороны, нельзя не отметить усилия ООН и других международных организаций, направленные на создание модели глобального развития, базирующейся на принципах социальной справедливости, экологической и социально-политической безопасности. С другой стороны, нельзя не признать достаточно низкую эффективность проводимой ООН политики – на данный момент эта организация не способна результативно решать ни вопросы войны и мира, ни задачи экономической и экологической стабилизации. Между тем очевидно, что эти направления взаимосвязаны и взаимообусловлены: неспособность национальных правительств решить проблемы бедности приводит к росту социальной напряженности, давлению на окружающую среду, усилению эксплуатации природных ресурсов, понижению качества среды обитания, ухудшению состояния всей экономики и общества в целом. Таким образом, через двадцать лет после принятия Концепции устойчивого развития, модельсовременного глобального мироустройства, по нашему мнению, достаточно мало соответствует основным принципам этого документа. Однако данная ситуация не должна лечь в основу вывода о том, что сама Концепция потерпела фиаско. Цели устойчивого развития достижимы при наличии доброй воли и совместных усилий не только мировой элиты, но и простых граждан. События начала XXI века убедительно показывают, что в мире не осталось локальных проблем. Абсолютное большинство явлений, как положительных, так и отрицательных, стали глобальными, затрагивающими все страны и регионы. В этой связи перед мировым сообществом стоит трудная задача – заложить архитектуру будущего, максимально соответствующую условиямПаретооптимальности, когда повышение благосостояния одних стран, групп населения, отдельных людей не должно и не может сопровождаться ухудшением положения других. Насколько это реально, покажет время.

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Bela Syrlybayeva Doctor of Economics, Senior Analyst, the Agency for Investments Profitability Investigations The Republic of Kazakhstan. Almaty Twenty years of the sustainable development Concept: Analysis of Preliminary Results Summary The paper discusses the basic principles of the sustainable development concept. There will be twentieth anniversary of this concept in June of 2012. The theory is being criticized and the preliminary consequences of the goal realization are analyzed. The conclusions are made about non-compliance of the modern global world order with the basic principles of this paper. Keywords: Concept of Sustainable Development, United Nations, globalization, conflicts, environment, security, hunger, poverty, poverty, inequality.

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sofio siWinava ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis doqtoranti saqarTvelo, Tbilisi mwvane ekonomika mdgradi ganviTarebis konteqstSi me-20 saukunis meore naxevarSi msoflio sazogadoeba iseTi globaluri gamowvevebis winaSe aRmoCnda, rogoricaa mSvidoba, Tavisufleba, ganviTareba da garemo69. ukompromiso politikuri interesebis arsebobam, araganaxlebadi bunebrivi resursebis `zemoxmarebam~, samecniero-teqnikurma revoluciam da masTan dakavSirebulma garemos Zlierma dabinZurebam erToblivi globaluri qmedebis aucilebloba gansazRvra. 1970-1980-ian wlebSi, msoflio sazogadoeba araerTxel Seikriba aRniSnuli problemebis Seswavlisa da maTTan gamklavebis gzebis dasaxvis mizniT. garemosa da ganviTarebis Sesaxeb kvlevebis safuZvelze dadgenil iqna, rom msoflio warmoebisa da moxmarebis tempebi grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi aramdgradia, `Tu planetis mosaxleoba moixmars igive resurss erT sul mosaxleze, rogorc dRes ganviTarebuli qveynis saSualo moqalaqe, resursebze saerTo moTxovna 4-jer gadaaWarbebs dedamiwis SesaZleblobebs~70. yoveldRiurad qveyndeba globaluri daTbobiT gamowveuli klimatis cvlilebis sagangaSo monacemebi. mdgradi ganviTarebis ideis mTavari iniciatoria gaeros garemosdacviTi programa (United Nations Environment Proggramme - UNEP). 1987 wlis gaeros garemos dacvisa da ganviTarebis msoflio komisiis moxsenebaSi `Cveni saerTo momavali~ (Our Common Future), romelic aseve cnobilia aRniSnuli komiisiis Tavmjdomaris griu harlem bruntlandis moxsenebis saxeliT, gaJRerda mdgradi ganviTarebis idea. bruntlandiseuli gansazRvrebiT, `ganviTareba mdgradia, Tu igi pasuxobs dRevandel moTxovnebs da safrTxis qveS ar ayenebs momavali Taobebis unars – daikmayofilon sakuTari moTxovnebi~71. mdgardi ganviTarebis aRniSnuli formulireba, mraval variacias Soris, miCneulia yvelaze standartulad ganmartebad. bruntlandis komisiam Seafasa im periodisTvis arsebuli problemebi da gansazRvra mdgradi ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi zomebi. 1992 wels rio de JaneiroSi Catarda gaeros konferencia garemosa da ganviTarebaze (UNCED), sadac konferenciis monawile 178 qveynis72 mier miRebul iqna `21-e saukunis globaluri mdgradi ganviTarebis programa – dRis wesrigi 21~ (Agenda 21). `dRis wesrigi 21~ iyo arasavaldebulo saxis dokumenti, igi erT sqemaSi aerTianebda garemosdacviT, ekonomikur da socialur sakiTxebs mdgradi ganviTarebis uzrunvelsayofad. `dRis wesrigi 21~-is farglebSi SemuSavda mdgradi ganviTarebis `samoqmedo gegma~ (a globl_plan_of-ations). amave wels Seiqmna mdgradi ganviTarebis komisia (Commission on Sustainable Development - CSD), romelsac daevala qveynebis mier miRebuli adgilobrivi, erovnuli, regionuli da saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebis monitoringi. rios samitidan 10 wlis Semdeg, 2002 wels, samxreT afrikaSi, iohanesburgSi, gaimarTa mdgradi ganviTarebis msoflio samiti (WSSD), misi mizani iyo `dRis wesKates R. W., Parris T. M., Leiserowitz A.A. (2005) What is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values and Practice. Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, Volume 47, Number 3, pages 8–21.. p.10 70 კირვალიძე ნ., ლომთაძე ზ., „მწვანე ბიზნესის მხარდაჭერის სტრატეგია საქართველოს კერძო ბიზნეს ორგნანიზაციებისთვის“, UBCCE-GIZ ერთობლივი პროექტის ფარგლებში, 2011, გვ. 8 71 Bruntdland Report (1987) p.54 72 Hecht A. (2009) Government Perspectives on Sustainability, U.S. environmental protection agency, p. 41 69

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rigi 21~-is gadamowmeba da mTavrobas, biznessa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebas Soris TanamSromlobis waxaliseba. iohanesburgis samitisTvis msoflios mravalma qveyanam, maT Soris saqarTvelom73, moamzada mdgradi ganviTarebis erovnuli Sefasebis moxseneba (National Assessment Report for Sustainable Development), sadac aRniSnuli iyo erovnul doneze mdgradi ganviTarebis xelisSemSleli faqtorebi da maTi aRmofxvris gzebi. ufro mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis modelze gadasvlis globaluri mcdelobis miuxedavad, ukanasknel wlebSi msofliom isev ganicada mwvave ekonomikuri krizisi, romelic xSirad `sami F-is~ saxeliT moixsenieba (the three “F” crisis Financial, Fuel, Food)74. miuxedavad imisa, rom krizisi gamoiwvia ganviTarebul qveynebSi mimdinare procesebma, misi savalalo Sedegebi ganviTarebad qveynebzec gavrcelda. Sedegad, dadga erToblivi ganaxlebuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis da Sesabamisi biznes modelebis Seqmnis aucilebloba, saerTaSoriso msjelobis sagani gaxda mwvane ekonomika, rogorc saukeTeso pasuxi arsebul gamowvevebs. zemoaRniSnuli krizisebis dasaZlevad, 2008 wlis oqtomberSi UNEP-is farglebSi Seiqmna mwvane ekonomikis iniciativa (Green Economy Initiative - GEI). termini `mwvane ekonomika~ gaCnda 1989 wels da masSi moiazreboda garemosdacviTi ekonomika, Tumca 2008 wlamde igi aqtiurad ar gamoiyeneboda. gaeros garemos dacvis programis ganmartebiT, mwvane ekonomika aris ekonomikuri sistema, romelic gulisxmobs grZelvadian periodSi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba, ganawilebiTa da moxmarebiT kacobriobis keTildReobis gaumjobesebas da romelic, amavdroulad, momaval Taobebs ar uqmnis riskebs da ekologiur deficits75. kvlevebis safuZvelze dadgenil iqna, rom e.w. `sami F–is krizisi~ gamowveuli iyo aRniSnul sam sferoSi araswori investirebiT. mwvane ekonomikis iniciativis (GEI) SemoTavazebiT, investireba unda moxdes `aqtivebis axal TaobaSi~ (New Generation of Assets), rogoricaa: • ekosistema (an ekologiuri infrastruqtura); • sufTa da efeqtiani teqnologiebi; • ganaxlebadi energia; • biomravalferovnebaze dafuZnebuli saqoneli da momsaxureba (organuli sakvebi); • qimikatebis/narCenebis marTva da gadamamuSavebeli teqnologiebi; • mwvane qalaqebi – kacobriobis xvalindeli sacxovrisi; • mSenebloba da transporti76. mwvane ekonomikis iniciativis mizania partniorTa farTo wresTan TanamSromlobiT uzrunvelyos qveynebi ultraTanamedrove politikuri analiziTa da kvlevis produqtebiT, rac gaaadvilebs maTi mxridan mwvane ekonomikaze gadasvlis process. am mizniT ganisazRvra GEI-is sami komponenti: 1. kvlevis Sedegebis momzadeba, 2. UNEP-is wevri qveynebisTvis sakonsultacio momsaxurebis gaweva da 3. TanamSromlobis xelSewyoba77. 73

CSD10. 2002. “Georgia, National Assessment Report for the Sustainable Development”, Johannesburg Summit 2002, 26 August – 4 September 2002 74 UNEP, 2008, October, Towards a Green economy, p.1 75 UNEP, Panama, 2010, 26-30 April, General Information that can be used by Ministers and Heads of delegation for the Dialogue on Green Economy, p.4 76 UNEP, 2008, October, Towards a Green economy, p.1 77 UNEP, 2009, Green economy Initiative, p.8

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UNEP-is farglebSi ganisazRvra aseve mwvane ekonomikis 15 principi78: 1. dovlaTis samarTliani ganawileba; 2. ekonomikuri samarTlianoba; 3. TaobaTaSorisi samarTlianoba; 4. gamafrTxilebeli midgoma; 5. ganviTarebis ufleba; 6. gverdiTi efeqtebis internaizacia; 7. saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba; 8. saerTaSoriso pasuxismgebloba; 9. informacia, monawileoba da pasuxismgebloba; 10. mdgradi moxmareba da warmoeba; 11. strategiuli, koordinirebuli da integrirebuli dagegmva; 12. samarTliani, swori gadasvla mwvane ekonomikaze; 13. keTildReobis axali sazomis gansazRvra; 14. genderuli Tanasworoba; 15. biomravalferovnebis dacva da garemos dabinZurebis prevencia. 2009 wels UNEP–ma moiwvia `axali globaluri mwvane SeTanxmeba~ (Global Green New Deal - GGND), romelic qveynebs sTavazobs rekomendaciebs fiskaluri stimulebis, Sida da saerTaSoriso doneze politikuri reformebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. fiskaluri stimulebis gamoyeneba unda moxdes Semdeg seqtorebSi: energoefeqturi nagebobebi, transporti, energetika, soflis meurneoba da mtknari wylebi. GGND-iT gansazRvruli mwvane fiskaluri stimulebis gamoyenebis warmatebuli magaliTia CineTi, safrangeTi, germania, meqsika, aSS79. GGND-is farglebSi, Sida politikis reforma moicavs: damaxinjebuli subsidirebis sistemis Secvlis aucileblobas, ekologiuri qcevis wasaxaliseblad gadasaxadebisa da sxva stimulebis gamoyenebas, racionalur miwis gamoyenebasa da urbanul politikas, wylis resursebis marTvis integrirebuli sistemis danergvas, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis gaZlierebas, mastimulirebeli paketebis danergvis monitoringisa da pasuxismgeblobis uzrunvelyofas80. saerTaSoriso doneze politikis reforma GGND-is mixedviT Semdeg punqtebs moicavs: ekologiuri saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis xelSewobis mizniT mravalmxrivi da calmxrivi savaWro reJimebis gamoyeneba, mwvane ekonomikaze gadasvlis procesSi qveynebisTvis saerTaSoriso daxmarebis gamoyofa, ekologiuri teqnologiebis ganviTareba da gadacema, ekologiuri qcevis wasaxaliseblad gadasaxadebisa da sxva stimulebis gamoyenebis procesis saerTaSoriso koordinacia. rios 1992 wlis samitidan 20 wlis Semdeg, isev braziliaSi, 2012 wlis 20-22 ivniss gaimarTeba gaeros konferencia mdgrad ganviTarebaze - `rio+20~. dReisaTvis miRweuli Sedegebis SefasebasTan erTad, konferenciis mizania Seiqmnas ganaxlebuli politikuri valdebulebis Semcveli dokumenti mdgradi ganviTarebisTvis. konferenciis ZiriTadi Tematika or nawilad iyofa: a) mwvane ekonomika mdgradi ganviTarebisa da siRaribis aRmofxvris konteqstSi da b) mdgradi ganviTarebis organizaciuli struqtura. mwvane ekonomikisadmi gazrdili interesi ar

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Stoddart H., Riddlestone S., Vilela M. (2012) Principles for the Green Economy, p.3

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UNEP, 2009, September, “Global Green New Deal: An Update for the G20 Pittsburgh Summit” UNEP, 2009, Green economy Initiative, p. 15

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cvlis mdgradi ganviTarebis ideas, ubralod, mdgradobis miRweva TiTqmis mTlianad damokidebulia ekonomikur samarTlianobaze (UNEP, 2011). saqarTvelo `rio+20~-is erT-erTi monawilea, danarCen 92 qveyanasTan erTad. saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba imedovnebs, rom rios samitze mdgradi ganviTarebis saukeTeso modelebisa da eqspertTa mosazrebebis gaziarebiT mniSvnelovani pozitiuri nabijebis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas miiRebs81. 2002 wlis iohanesburgis msoflio samitze saqarTvelos mier wardgenil erovnuli Sefasebis moxsenebaSi aRniSnuli iyo saqarTvelos mdgradi ganviTarebis xelisSemSleli faqtorebi, maT Soris: qveynis ganviTarebis dagegmvaSi monawile xelisufalTa mier Camoyalibebuli mouqneli organizaciuli da marTvis sistemebi, SemzRudveli samarTlebrivi sistema, araregularuli privatizebis procesi da arasakmarisi dafinanseba82. wlebis Semdeg, saqarTvelom mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga mdgradi ganviTarebis xelSewyobis kuTxiT, 2010 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministroSi ganxorcielebuli reformis Sedegad Seiqmna ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro, romlis farglebSi arsebuli mdgradi ganviTarebis departamenti aris mwvane zrdis iniciativis pirdapiri mxardamWeri saqarTveloSi. saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan partniorobiT saqarTveloSi xorcieldeba ramdenime mwvane ekonomikis proeqti, maT Sorisaa `mwvane biznesis SesaZleblobaTa identificireba (GBOA)83. aRniSnuli proeqtis farglebSi ganisazRvra saqarTvelos ekonomikis oTxi seqtori, romelTa ganviTareba SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovnad mcire drois monakveTSi, SedarebiT xelmisawvdomi teqnologiiTa da finansuri xarjebiT. es seqtorebia: 1. soflis meurneoba da kveba, 2. mwvane produqtebis warmoeba, 3. sufTa eleqtroenergia da 4. mdgradi turizmi. oTxive seqtorSi ucxoeli investorebisTvis SeTavazebulia mniSvnelovani SeRavaTiani pirobebi, sagadasaxado sistemis liberalizaciis CaTvliT. ganaxlebadi energiis wyaroebis, gansakuTrebiT wylis resursebis, siuxve saqarTvelos saSualebas aZlevs gadavides 100%-ian sufTa energiis moxmarebaze. samomavlod igegmeba sufTa energiis eqsporti mezobel qeynebSi. am etapze, saqarTveloSi mwvane zrdis ganviTarebis neli tempi ganpirobebulia mwvane biznesis komerciul sargeblianobaze informaciis naklebobiT rogorc kerZo biznesis, ise sazogadoebis mxridan. aseve mniSvnelovan xelisSemSlel faqtors warmoadgens gamocdilebisa da teqnologiis arqona, rac mZafrad iCens Tavs ganviTarebadi qveynis magaliTze. swored amitom, mdgradi ganviTarebis departementi orientirebulia Sesabamisi informaciiT miwodebiT kerZo seqtoris CarTulobis gazrdaze. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, mwvane ekonomikaze gadasvlis procesis xelSewyobisTvis araerTi rekomendacia SemuSavda saerTaSoriso da erovnul doneze. miuxedavad amisa, msoflioSi kvlav mwvaved dgas umuSevrobis, savaWro disbalansis, regionebs Soris araTanabari ganviTarebis sakiTxi. qveyanaTa da aseve sawarmoo dargebis araTanabari ganviTarebis done amZafrebs saerTaSoriso konkurencias, rac xSirad araracionaluri qmedebis mizezi xdeba. araracionaluri qmedebis Sedegebi

UNCSD, 2012, “Georgia’s Input for Rio+20 Compilation Document”, October 2011, p.1 CSD10. 2002. “Georgia, National Assessment Report for the Sustainable Development”, Johannesburg Summit 2002, 26 August – 4 September 2002, p.73 83 საქართველოს ეკონომიკისა და მდგრადი განვითარების სამინისტროს ოფიციალური ვებ-გვერდი: www.greengeorgia.ge 81 82

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(rogorc minimumi - saTburis efeqtebi) ki drois garkveul periodSi kacobriobis sazianod vlindeba. mdgradi ganviTarebis sami mTavari ganmsazRvreli: sazogadoebis ganviTareba, ekonomikuri zrda da garemos dacva endogenurad unda gaerTiandes kacobriobis cnobierebaSi da aisaxos samTavrobo, kerZo seqtoris Tu individualur gadawyvetilebebSi. mwvane ekonomikaze gadasvlis mTavari resursia ganaxlebadi energiis wyaroebis ganviTareba, rac saWiroebs ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris mWidro TanamSromlobas, ganviTarebuli qveynebis warmoebisa da moxmarebis modelebis gaziarebas finansuri daxmarebisa da teqnologiebis gadacemis formiT. saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, ganviTarebadi qveynis mTavrobam unda uzrunvelyos kerZo biznesisTvis kapitalis xelmiswvdomoba. mwvane seqtorebSi ucxoel investorTaTvis liberalizebuli sagadasaxado sistemis SeTavazebasTan erTad, unda moxdes subsidiebiTa da kreditebiT axalgazrda mrewvelobebis dacva84. mwvane ekonomikaze gadasvla grZelvadiani procesia. am procesSi mTavrobisa da kerZo seqtoris CarTuloba arasakmarisia, yuradReba gansakuTrebiT unda gamaxvildes samoqalaqo seqtorze. mdgradi ganviTarebis kuTxiT arsebul problemebze sazogadoebis cnoebierebis amaRleba SeiZleba gaxdes maTi warmatebiT mogvarebis sawindari.

Sophio Sichinava PhD Student in Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Visiting Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development Summary In spite of the common endeavor to promote global sustainable development, the world is still experiencing multiple crises – the climate, food and economic crises. Transition to a green economy is the best answer to these crises. The three pillars of sustainable development: social development, economic growth and environmental protection are endogenously combined in green economy model. To achieve Green Economy is a long-term phenomenon. Together with liberalization of the tax system to attract the foreign investors in green sectors, developing countries must protect their “infant industries” via subsidies, credits, etc. Close cooperation is necessary between developed and developing countries in exchanging their production and consumption patterns through financial assistance, technology transfer, etc. Inclusion of governmental and private sector in this process is insufficient, but the equal priority must be given to public sector, a society is a leading force amongst the three pillars of sustainable development. Rising awareness of public society about the current challenges of global sustainable development will contribute to successful changes towards the existing problems.

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UNDESA. 2011. The Transition to a Green Economy: Benefits, Challenges and Risks from a Sustainable Development Perspective, UNDESA DSD, UNEP, UNCTAD

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BORIS STRUK PhD student, Volyn Institute for Economics & Management Ukraine, Lutsk MARKETING AS THE BASIS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING Problem setting. The world experience illustrates the fact that stable economic development of European countries by far depends on the ability to produce competitive goods which can make good materials for manufacturing other products or providing services. The creation of conditions for stable economic development and the increase of competitiveness of the national economics are the determined strategic objectives of the development of Ukraine [8]. The modern stage of the development of economic relations is characterized by constant growth of competition on the domestic and foreign markets. The success of the activities of any modern enterprise is conditioned by a good choice of means of realization of its potential based on the current market opportunities, threats and future changes. Therefore in order to succeed the manufactures need to use strategic planning of their activities. Analysis of recent research and publications. Theory of Strategic Planning, worked out by Foreign Researchers, - by Akoff R., Ansoff I., Drucker P.F., Karloff B., King U., Kliland D., Strickland A.J., Thompson A.A. and others. Outlines of unresolved problems. The scientific research of strategic management of enterprise contains the issues which have not been investigated and moreover not even properly defined yet. For example, the concepts of strategic management of enterprise which are adequate for the conditions of economics under transformation cannot be found. There are no works which deal with strategic management based on the inter-conditioned influence of the enterprise and its outer environment and those which define the technique of strategic management, information is not viewed as equal resource for strategic management. Aim of the scientific report: The main objective of the research is marketing component in the sphere of development, creation and realization of competitive strategies for the subjects of economy. Research results: According to D. Campbell [3], strategy is defined as designation of long-term goals and tasks of the enterprise, approval of the action plans and placement of resources necessary for the achievement of these goals. Also G. Minzberg refers to strategy as a plan – the notion which implies preplanned actions the course of which is under control from the very beginning to the end. In accordance with this definition strategy has two major characteristics: it is created in advance before the beginning of actions, it is worked out consciously with a certain purpose. [4,5]. The question arises: “Is it possible to start planning and even goal setting without marketing information?” The “no” answer is obvious. A well-known Japanese marketer Mitsuaki Simaguti reckons that in the 21st century the task of the marketing manager does not consist only in the promotion of the product but primarily in the achievement of the company growth with the help of all company products. That is to say marketing practically enters the sphere of strategic management [6].

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According to the process of strategic planning (picture 1) the first stage is designation of the mission: To formulate the mission the company has to answer the classical questions, made up by P.Drucker: Analysis of the outer environment Mission of organization

Goal setting

Strategy forming

Program forming

Program realization

Feedback and control

Analysis of the inner environment

Pic. 1. The picture illustrates the process of strategic planning of the enterprise. â&#x20AC;&#x153;What our business consist in? Who is our customer? What do our customers appreciate? What will our business be like? What our business should be like? [1]. A.F.Cotler considers marketing to be an organizational function and a complex of the processes of creation, promotion and granting appreciation to the customers and management of the interrelations with the customers for the benefit of the organization and the people involved. [2]. Following that the issues determined by Drucker make up the basis and essence of marketing. Regarding the levels of strategy development (picture 2) [7] the next level after the designation of the corporate strategy will be designation of the functional strategies. To work out the functional strategies it is necessary to carry out the marketing research in order to define the market needs, its capacity, attitude to the product, sales forecasts and identification of the needs which are appropriate for the product as well as designation of the factors which influence all the above mentioned aspects. To develop the functional strategies it is necessary to use the collected marketing information. At first sight the manufacturing of the products is merely a production problem, however the â&#x20AC;&#x153;productâ&#x20AC;? is an element of marketing mix [2], and the volume of the production programs should be based on the data about the market capacity and its dynamics.

Corporate

Functional (production finance staff and etc )

Operational

(regions, plants, divisions in functional directions)

Pic2. Levels of the enterprise strategy development

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Let’s look into the marketing information necessary for taking decisions. Necessary information Strategy development Market capacity and its dynamics, the Production program forming product price and packaging which will appeal to the consumers The product price expected by the consumers Financial strategy and sensitivity towards it, which prompts the consumers to buy the product Place of living of the consumers, place of Distribution strategy purchasing of the product Source of information for the buyers, the Product promotion strategy “language” they speak Necessity of accompaniment and service, HR management strategy volumes of the sales Conclusions and suggestions. The table outlines only the basic issues which are essential for the development of effective strategies. In fact there are much more issues and the exhaustive list can be made only for a specific situation. Nevertheless the information available testifies to the fact that “marketing” approach to strategic planning makes up the basis of successful future. Literature: 1. Peter Druker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities and Practices (New York: Harper & Row, 1973),ch.7.]. 2. Cotler F., Keller К.L., Marketing management. Express course. Third edition. – SPB .:St. Petersburg, 2008. – 480 p. 3. Campbell D., Stonehouse D., Houston B. Strategic Management – М.: «Publisher’s Prospect», 2003. – 336 p. 4. Minzberg., Alstrand B., Lempel D. Strategy Schools.–: St. Petersburg, 2000.– 336 p. 5. Minzberg G., Quin J. B., Goshal. Strategic process. – St. Petersburg, 2001. – 688 p. 6. Ostashkov А. V. Marketing : manual. / А. V. Ostashkov –Penza, 2005. – 303 p, 7. Sladkevich V. P. Strategic management of organizations: textbook for university students.—К.: Publishing House «Personal», 2008. — 496p. 8. Law of Ukraine «About the Fundamentals of National Security of Ukraine»

Boris Struk PhD Student, Volyn Institute for Economics & Management Ukraine. Lutsk Marketing as the basis of Strategic Planning Summary The article highlights the issue of availability of the output information for strategic planning. The necessity of having marketing information for making effective strategic decisions and their further implementation are also outlined.

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marina tabataZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi finansuri stabilizaciis meqanizmebi globalur ekonomikaSi ganviTarebis process obieqturad axasiaTebs krizisebi, igi ekonomikuri sistemis bunebrivi atributia, Mmisi prognozireba, regulireba da prevencia ki -- saxelmwifos mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri funqcia. mimdinare integraciulma procesebma aqtualoba daukarga bazrebis dabalansebis aucileblobas, ramac, sabolood, msoflios ekonomikis wonasworuli ganviTareba daarRvia. urTierTobaTa liberalizaciis motiviT sagareo kavSirebis srulma gaxsnilobam, msoflio bazrebis garkveuli deformaciebi gamoiwvia, ramac mniSvnelovnad gaamwvava am procesebis racionaluri marTvis, sakanonmdeblo sistemebis harmonizaciis da koordinirebuli antikrizisuli politikis SemuSavebis sakiTxi. ekonomikuri ganviTareba obieqtur kanonebs emyareba, igi specifikur niSnebs atarebs da diferencirdeba droisa Tu uzrunvelyofis meqanizmebis mixedviT. Tanamedroveobis ZiriTadi niSani ekonomikuri procesebis prioriteti da misi ganviTarebis daCqarebaa. ramdenadac mecnieruli Teoria socialur-ekonomikuri sistemis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad ciklur ganviTarebas miiCnevs, amdenad, krizisi am sistemis arsebobis kanonzomierebaa. ganviTarebis tempebis zrda aucileblad gulisxmobs sistemis elementebis dapirispirebas da krizisebis dadgomas. Tanamedrove ekonomikuri tqndenciebi aSkarad scdeba obieqturi kanonzomierebebis farglebs, rac saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa marTvaSi daSvebul strategiul SecdomebTan erTad, politikuri gadawyvetilebebis didi gavlenis Sedegicaa.DdRes saxelmwifoebs Soris urTierTobaTa sayovelTaod aRiarebul procesebSi swored politikuri TanamSromloba dominirebs, rac asustebs ganviTarebis obieqtur safuZvlebs da ekonomikur ryevebs ganapirobebs msoflio sistemebSi. gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sasaqonlo da resursul bazrebze ryevebi, warmoebis, moxmarebis da fasebis daubalansebloba, rac prevenciul instituciur gardaqmnebs da transformaciul procesebSi saxelmwifos aqtiur monawileobas moiTxovs. Tavisi maregulirebeli funqciis Sesruleba saxelmwifos optimaluri finansuri politikis gatarebiT SeuZlia. ekonomikis dabalansebaze da sainvesticio garemos formirebaze gansakuTrebiT aqtiur gavlenas gadasaxadebi axdens, marTalia, gadasaxadebis gazrda biujetis deficitis Semcirebis yvelaze martivi gzaa, magram, meore mxriv, misi maRali done did wminda danakargebTan, umuSevrobis zrdasa da inflaciasTan asocirdeba. amitom, gadasaxadebis optimizacia mudam iTvleba fiskaluri politikis ZiriTad sakiTxad. mas gansakuTrebuli funqcia eniWeba erovnuli ekonomikis antikrizisul strategiaSi, krizisebis prevenciuli RonisZiebebis SemuSavebaSi, amave dros, gadasaxadebi SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes proteqcionistuli politikis meqanizmad globalur sistemaSi da Ria ekonomikis pirobebSi savaWro urTierTobaTa regulirebaSi. gardamavali periodis sakuTrebiT urTierTobaTa transformacias aucileblad unda axldes ganviTarebuli finansuri bazari, sxva SemTxvevaSi, ferxdeba realuri seqtoris investireba da izRudeba kvlavwarmoebis procesi, gamouyenebeli rCeba dafinansebis da fuladi resursebis akumulirebis SesaZleblobebi, am pro-

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cesSi saxelmwifos maorganizebeli da instituciuri rolis Sesusteba, faqtobrivad, arTmevs mas sabazro ekonomikis sistemSemqmnel funqcias da aferxebs ekonomikis sxvadasxva sferoSi finansebis gadanawilebas. postindustriuli sazogadoebis ekonomikis deindustrializaciis procesma struqturuli deformaciebi gamoiwvia rac momsaxurebis seqtoris wilis zrdaSi da, Sesabamisad, ekonomikuri saqmianobis efeqtianobis SenelebaSi aisaxa. Kkrizisis dros xelisufleba ver axdens ekonomikis struqturis maregulirebeli funqciis realizebas, rasac liberalur RirebulebaTa metismetad gadaWarbebuli Sefasebac iwvevs. cnobilia, rom ,,sameurneo wesrigis koncefciisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;&#x2122; mixedviT, ekonomikur sistemebs erTmaneTisagan saxelmwifos aqtiurobis xarisxi ganasxvavebs, rac upirvelesad, fulis agregatebis regulirebasa da inflaciuri procesebis marTvaSi unda gamoixatebodes. ekonomikur zrdasTan SedarebiT fulis masis mniSvnelovani winswreba, Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis ZiriTadi faqtori da arsebiTi problemaa. aseve mniSvnelovania ekonomikuri procesebis geografiuli ganvrcoba, ramdenadac didi sivrcobrivi areali gansakuTrebul moTxovnebs uyenebs teqnologiuri sistemebis marTvis optimizacias da finansuri resursebis swor menejments, am sakiTxs metad mwvaved ukavSirdeba e.w. ,,Savi fulis gaTeTrebis~ procesi, misi masStabebi dRes gansakuTrebiT didia, rac kontrolis susti meqanizmebiT da xSirad korufciuli saxelmwifoTaSorisi garigebebiT aixsneba. Tavis mxriv, aseTi SeTanxmebebi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis umarTaobas da, Sedegad, ekonomikur ryevebs ganapirobebs. misi prevencia mxolod saxelmwifo struqturebis prerogativaa, mxolod dasavlur liberalur kategoriebze orientacia ki saxelmwifo funqciebis Sesustebas iwvevs, rasac obieqturad mohyveba ekonomikuri krizisebi. saxelmwifos mier inflaciuri procesebis dasaregulireblad aucilebelia antiinflaciuri strategiis da krizisebis marTvis meqanizmebis SemuSaveba, romlis ZiriTadi elementi fulis masis limitebis dadgenaa, rac uSualod ukavSirdeba realuri warmoebis grZelvadiani tempebis da inflaciis iseTi zeda zRvaris gansazRvras, romlis koreqtirebasac saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi xelisufleba SeZlebs. msoflio gamocdilebiT dadgenilia, rom rac ufro mwvave da gaWianurebulia inflaciuri procesebi, miT ufro aucilebeli xdeba xelisuflebis mxridan arapirdapiri meTodebis gamoyeneba ( fulis masis da saprocento ganakveTis regulireba, komerciuli bankebis savaldebulo fuladi rezervebis marTva, erovnuli bankis operaciebi fasiani qaRaldebis Ria bazarze). ramdenadac finansuri bazrebis funqcionireba gardamaval periodSi sakmaod lokalizebulia, centraluri banki damatebiT inflaciis regulirebis pirdapir meqanizmebsac gamoiyenebs (kreditebis marTva, fasebisa da xelfasebis zRvruli sididis dadgena, sagareo vaWrobisa da gacvliTi kursis saxelmwifo regulireba da sxva). Tanamedrove msoflioSi monetaruli politikis reJimebs Soris sakmaod aqtiurad ganixileba inflaciuri Targetireba, rac cetraluri bankis mier mxolod mTavari miznobrivi orientiris miRwevas iTvaliswinebs, romlis safuZvladac igi mis mier dadgenil inflaciis saprognozo parametrs iRebs. inflaciuri Targetireba emyareba centraluri bankis damoukideblobis maRal xarisxs, anu imis aRiarebas, rom monetaruli politika ar unda gamomdinareobdes fiskaluri interesebidan, rac xSir SemTxvevaSi biujetis deficitis dafinansebaze, ekonomikis pirdapir dakreditebasa da finansuri stabilizaciisaTvis metad arapopularul sxva meqanizmebze uaris Tqmas niSnavs. centralur banks unda hqondes sruli Tavisuf-

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leba monetaruli politikis reJimebis da monetaruli instrumentebis arCevaSi, amasTan igi adgens erT miznobriv prioritetul maCvenebels _ samomxmareblo fasebis indeqss da uars ambobs gacvliTi kursis an fuladi masis agregatebze. ramdenadac samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsze zemoqmedebs iseTi faqtorebi, romlebzec SezRudulia centraluri bankis gavlena, prof. i. mesxia miiCnevs, rom kontrolirebad maCveneblad unda gamoiyenebodes koreqtirebuli fasebis indeqsi. aseTi indeqsidan gamoiricxeba saqonlis da momsaxurebis is jgufebi, romelTa fasebi mTavrobis mier regulirdeba, am gziT mcirdeba iribi gadasaxadebis cvlilebis, importirebuli saqonlis da sursaTis fasebis gavlena samomxmareblo kalaTze1. TargetirebaSi cdomilebis minimumamde Sesamcireblad aucilebelia qveyanaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareobis obieqturi Sefaseba da im winapirobebis zusti dadgena romlebic saWiroa inflaciis Targetirebis efeqturi reJimis SemoRebisaTvis. kerZod, g. baqraZem da a. bilmaierma am mizniT Seiswavles xuTi cvladi _ realuri mSp-is, samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsis, mimoqcevaSi naRdi fulis, saerTaSoriso rezervebis da nominaluri gacvliTi kursis sidideebi2. rogorc Cans, inflaciuri Targetis zeda zRvari dReisaTvis miRebulze gacilebiT maRali unda iyos, ramdenadac saqarTveloSi metad didia inflaciis importis albaToba, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom CvenTan strategiuli produqtis--navTobis udidesi nawili, sasoflo - sameurneo produqtis 80% importulia da, amdenad, gverds ver avuvliT msoflioSi mimdinare ekonomikur ryevebs, Sesabamisad, xelisuflebam Tavis saqmianobaSi prioritetul mimarTulebad unda ganixilos finansuri stabilizaciis optimaluri modelis SemuSaveba qveynis Sida da gare faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Targetirebis gziT inflaciis mosalodneli donis prognozireba da Sesabamisi monetaruli politikis gamoyeneba. _______________ 1.mesxia i._ monetaruli politikis axali strategia: inflaciuri Targetireba http://www.tetrebi.org/?p=3928]. 2. baqraZe g, bilmaieri a. _ inflaciis Targetireba saqarTveloSi: mzad? http://www. nbg.gov.ge/uploads/ workingpaper /synopsisnbgwp03.08.pdf ]

varT

Tu

ara

literatura: 1. baqraZe g. bilmaieri a. _ inflaciis Targetireba saqarTveloSi: varT Tu ara mzad? http://www.nbg.gov.ge/uploads/workingpaper/synopsisnbgwp03.08.pdf ] 2. likvidobis marTvis CarCo, http://www.financial.ge/Main_News/Banks/ 3.mesxia i._ monetaruli politikis axali strategia: inflaciuri Targetireba http://www.tetrebi.org/?p=3928]. 4. tabataZe m. canava n.--saxelmwifo antikrizisuli marTva. gam.,,darbegiâ&#x20AC;? Tb.2009

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Marina Tabatadze Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili TSU Assistant Professor Georgia. Tbilisi Financial Stabilisation Mechanism in Global Economics Summary The economy of a transitional country is characterized by unbalanced prices, unstable production and other instabilities in the markets for goods and resources. That is why it is necessary for governments to implement optimal financial policies and obtain active regulating functions. Generally, priority of the government is to prevent eventual crisis which is typical to cyclic development. The degree of the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic activity is primarily revealed in developing anti-inflation strategy. The main elements of this strategy are definition of money resource limits and definition of maximum bound of inflation, which should be easily controlled by the state. Apparently these bounds are considerably higher than limits in Georgia. Here we observe a significant degree of import in the strategic goods, which increases the possibility of inflation and boosts the impact of the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic crisis on domestic economy. Targeting is one of the anti-inflation strategies of Georgia today. It is defined as the only major objective of the central bank. To avoid any error in targeting it is necessary to evaluate objectively the economic situation of the country and to define exact conditions that will enable creating efficient regime for targeting. The priority for the government in its activities should be developing an optimal model for financial stabilization taking into account the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s internal and external factors, forecast the possible inflation rate via targeting and adopt corresponding monetary policy to it.

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ramaz futkaraZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi italiis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis istoriuli aspeqtebi italia saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis, evrokavSiris, didi rvianis, didi oceulis da sxva saerTaSoriso institutebis erT-erTi mowinave qveyanaa. bolo periodSi italiaSi arsebulma problemebma qveynisdami interesi mniSvnalovnad gazarda. igi miekuTvneba lideri ganviTarebuli qveynebis ricxvs da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis TaviseburebebiT sxva qveynebs mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba. italia mSp-is moculobiT evropaSi erT-erTi mowinave qveyanaa, igi me-4 adgilzea, xolo msoflioSi aTeulSia warmodgenili. misi wili msoflio mSp-Si ufro dabalia vidre evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis: germaniis, gaerTianebuli samefosa da safrangeTis. amasTanave, qveynis calkeuli regionebi da sferoebi Zalian gansxvavdebian ekonomikuri ganviTarebis doneebis mixedviT, ase magaliTad CrdiloeTSi erT sul mosaxleze maRalia mSp da dabalia umuSevrobis done. samxreT nawili sakmaod CamorCenilia, rac gamoixateba bevrad dabali Sromis mwarmoeblurobiT da maRali umuSevrobis doniT. italiis centraluri nawili ki ZiriTadi ekonomikuri maCveneblebis mixedviT mniSvnelovnadaa ganviTarebuli. cxrili #185 italiis ZiriTadi ekonomikuri maCveneblebi

2010

italiis wili msoflioSi 3.25

italiis adgili msoflioSi

mSp (mln aSS dolari) 2 051 412 8 saqonlis eqsporti 448 2.9 8 (mlrd aSS dolari) saqonlis importi 484 3.1 8 (mlrd aSS dolari) momsaxurebis eqsporti 97 2.6 12 (mlrd aSS dolari) momsaxurebis importi 108 3.1 9 (mlrd aSS dolari) turistTa raodenoba 43.6 4.6 5 (mln kaci) turizmidan miRebuli 38.8 4.2 5 Semosavali (mlrd aSS dolari) mosaxleoba (mln kaci) 60,3 0.86 23 inflacia (wliuri) 1,6 mniSvnelovani faqtori, romelmac didi gavlena moaxdia italiis ekonomikaze, warmoadgens qveynis gviani industrializacia, romelic Tavidanve ayenebda itali85

World Trade Report 2011. World trade organization, Geneva, WTO, 2011. P.22-24.

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as ufro susti partnioris rolSi sxva evropul qveyenaTa Soris. miuxedavad 1960-iani wlebis ,,ekonomikuri saocrebisa” da imisa, rom qveyena ekuTvnis did rvians, italia bevri parametriT CamorCeba germanias, safrangeTs da did britaneTs. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia saxelmwifos didi roli ekonomikur cxovrebaSi. 1930-ian wlebSi, qveyanaSi ganxorcielda ekonomikuri sistemis sruli reforma, maT Soris dargobrivi da sabanko sistemis gansaxelmwifoeba. meore msoflio omis Semdeg saxelmwifo sakmaod did kapitals abandebda ekonomikis mTavar dargebSi, ramac ganapiroba qveynis mniSvnelovani winsvla, romlic meSveobiTac italia gadaiqca ganviTarebul qveynad. dRemde italiis saxelmwifo seqtori, miuxedavad privatizaciisa, rCeba erT-erT udides saxelmwifo seqtorad evropasa da evrokavSirSi. italiuri ekonomikuri sistema gamoirCeva sakuTrebis, ufro xSirad ,,ojaxuri tipis” sakuTrebis koncentraciis maRali doniT. fasiani qaRaldebis daaxloebiT 60% aris erTpirovnuli sakuTrebis reJimSi. mcire mesakuTreebs TiTqmis ara aqvT saSualeba moaxdinon kompaniebis mmarTvelobaze raime gavlena. italiuri sawarmoebi farTod iyeneben SeTanxmebiTi urTierTobebis sxvadasxva formebs. umetesi msxvili firmebi dakavSirebulia kapitalSi erToblivi wilebiT. araformaluri SeTanxmemebis praqtika moicavs msxvili da mcire firmebis didi nawils, sadac dasaqmebulTa TanamSromelTa didi nawili. msxvili holdingebis funqcieonirebis Taviseburebebi da aseve aqcionerebis formaluri da araformaluri kavSirebi sakmaod mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs sakuTrebis uflebis ganxorcielebaSi da sawarmoTa mmarTvelobis kontrolSi. amis gamo sakuTrebisa Tu sawarmoTa Serwymis xarisxi aris gacilebiT ufro maRali, vidre sxva evropul qveynebSi. italiuri sawarmoebTa erTi nawili cdilobs SeinarCunon kompanize kontroli, Sesabamisad Tavs arideben safondo birJebze kompaniaTa aqciebis gayidvas. es faqti, xels uSlis qveynis ekonomikur zrdas, anelebs sawarmoebis adaptacias globalizaciis mzard moTxovnebTan, da Sesabamisad amcirebs italiuri socialur-ekonomikuri sistemis efeqturobas. saxelmwifo seqtoris didi moculoba, misi mniSvnelovani roli ekonomikur sistemaSi, italiis kidev erTi Taviseburebaa. 1930-ian wlebSi, gatarebuli iqna masiuri nacionalizacia, amitom ukve im dros, saxelmwifo seqtori italiaSi iyo ufro msxvili vidre sxva evropul qveynebSi. 1945 welis Semdeg saxelmwifos kontrolis qveS darCnen yvela wamyvani banki da mrewvelobis zogierTi sfero. ramac Seasrula mniSvnelovani roli mrewvelobis mTavari sferoebis modernizaciaSi, saxelmwifo 1970-1980-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi agrZelebda bevri saxelmwifo sawarmoebis finansur daxmarebas. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisisTvis es daxmareba, umTavresad sxvadasxva SeRavaTebis saxiT sawarmoebisaTvis, Seadgenda sakmaod mniSvnolavan Tanxas: misi SedarebiTi done iyo 2.4jer maRali vidre saSualod evrokavSirSi, xolo 1.8-jer maRali vidre safrangeTSi da 2.5jer – vidre germaniasa da did britaneTSi. italiaSi droTa ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifo sawarmoebis privatizaciis Semdeg 1990-ian wlebSi saxelmwifo seqtoris roli marTalia cotaTi Semcirda, magram is mainc mniSvnelovani rCeba. sakmaod mniSvnelovani adgili italiis ekonomikur struqturaSi ukavia kooperatiul seqtors, gansakuTrebiT sakredito kooperativebs, romlebic emsaxurebian mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis udides raodenobas Crdolo-aRmosavleTSi da centraluri olqebis zogierT nawilSi. swored italiis sazRvrebs gareT hpova aRiareba mcire sawarmoebis kooperirebulma formam. meurneobis am tipisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia adgilobrivi resursebis intensiuri gamoyeneba (gansakuTrebuli

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yuradReba eqceva adgilobrivi xelobis tradiciebs), rac SedarebiT aris damoukidebeli sameurneo strategiis gansazRvraSi, mmarTvelobaSi, warmoebisa da produqciis gasaRebis organizaciaSi. Tavis monawileebs is sTavazobs mravalferovan momsaxurebas finansirebis, teqnologiis da vaWrobis sferoSi. Sromis danawileba aseT struqturaSi iTvaliswinebs sawarmoebs Soris mravalferovan urTierTkavSirs – safinanso monawileobis kvotebs, kontraqtebi produqciis miwodebaze, sxva da sxva saxis moklevadiani SeTanxmebebi da ase Semdeg. aRsaniSnavia italiis kidev erTi Tavisebureba: mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis wamyvani roli qveynis ekonomikur sistemaSi. savaraudod, swored am mizeziT damoukidebeli mosaxleobis wili italiaSi aris gacilebiT didi, vidre sxva qveynebSi. mrewvelobis konkurentunariani sferoebi, romlebic orientirebulni arian eqsportze, warmodgenilni arian umetesad mcire da saSualo sawarmoebiT da organizebulni arian klesteruli niSniT. ase magaliTad, keramikuli mrewveloba Tavmoyrilia emilia-romanias olqSi aseulobiT sawarmo aTaiaTasobiT dasaqmebuliT. pratos olqSi, romelic axorcielebs italiuri teqstilis eqsportis 11%, warmodgenilia 20 aTasi sawarmo dasaqmebulebis 3-5 adamiani saSualod TiToeul sawarmoSi. mcire sawarmoebis damatebiT upiratesobas warmoadgens nacionaluri dizainis gamoyeneba fexsacmlis, tansacmlis, avejis da a.S. modelebis Seqmnisas, SesaZloa es gamomdinareobs qveynis mdidari mxatvruli memkvidreobisagan. msxvili sawarmoebi, miuxedavad imisa rom isini sakmaod Zlieri eqsportiorebi arian, umetes SemTxvevaSi ver arian moqnilni da mobilurni, nawilobriv imis gamo, rom yovelTvis eyrdnobodnen saxelmwifo mxardaWeras. italiaSi arseboben korporaciuli interesebis damcveli organizaciebi: mrewvelTa konfederacia da sxva samewarmeo kavSirebi, profkavSiruli gaerTianebebi, romlebic agebulni arian teritorialuri sferoebis principiT. am struqturebis urTierTqmedeba mTlianobaSi seriozul gavlenas axdens Sromis bazarze. miiCneva, rom Sromis bazari italiaSi zedmetad regulirebulia. SedarebiT maRali umuSevrobis donea qveynis CrdiloeTSi, samxreTTan SedarebiT. amasTanave erTad Sromisunariani mosaxleobis sakmaod didi nawili dakavebulia araformaluri SromiTi saqmianobiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom samuSao adgilebis SenarCunebis mizniT italiaSi misdami damokidebuleba aris tradiciulad momTmeni, Tu is ar atarebs kriminalur xasiaTs. es Seexeba agreTve imigrantebis dasaqmebas, da Sromis sxva formebs. amasTan, evropaSi italiaSi erT-erTi yvelaze maRalia Crdilovani ekonomikis xvedriTi wili. italiaSi socialuri mxardaWeris sistema erT-erTi gamorCeulia evropaSi. Sesabamisad saxelwifos xarjebis wili Sida produqtSi mudmivad izrdeboda. 1990iani wlebis dasawyisidan italiaSi Catarebuli uamravi ekonomikuri reformebis Semdgom, saxelmwifo xarjebi uwindeburad kvlav maRalia – 47-48%, maSin rodesac evrokavSiris qvynebisaTvis is Seadgens 41%. aseT mdgomareobas Tan erTvoda da axlac Tan erTvis gadasaxadebisagan Tavis arideba, korufcia da Crdilovani ekonomikia. Sromis bazris reformis mizniT italiaSi 1996 wels Secvlili iqna SromiTi kanonmdebloba. reformebi iTvaliswinebda RonisZiebaTa mTel kompleqss. dasaqmebis donis gasazrdelad gaTvaliswinebuli iyo zomebi dasaqmebis, droebiTi dasaqmebis, kadrebis momzadeba-gadamzadebis zogierTi formebis stimulirebisaTvis. SeTanxmeba ,,Sromis paqti”, romelis xelmowerili iqna imave wels, sTavazobda sagadasaxado sistemas, romelic mibmuli iyo adgilobrivi da regionaluri biujetis reformasTan da romlis mizani iyo sawarmoebis socialuri danaxarjebis Semcire-

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ba. 2002 wels mTavrobam wamyvan profkavSirebTan xeli moawera dokuments Sromis bazris Semdgomi reformirebis Sesaxeb. amasTan, politikis gamkacrebis mcdelobas – dasaqmebulebis samsaxuridan daTxovnis procesis gaadvileba – mohyva winaaRmdegoba profkavSirebis mxridan, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira am SeTanxmebis efeqturoba. italiaSi bolo periodSi umuSevrobis done sakmaod gaizarda da Seadgens 9,2%-s. italiaSi neoliberalurma reformebma ganxorcieleba daiwyes mxolod 1990iani wlebis dasawyisSi, gacilebiT ufro gvian, vidre umetes ganviTarebul qveynebSi. 1992 wlis finansuri kanoni mTavar rols axal ekonomikur politikaSi akisrebda privatizaciis sakiTxs. mis Sesabamisad iseTi msxvili holdingebi, rogoricaa IRI, ENI, aseve rigi sxva saxelmwifo monopoliebi, eqvemdebarebodnen privatizacias. privatizaciis Sedegad miRebuli finansebis erTi nawili gadaecemoda am holdingebs, xolo meore gansazRvruli iyo masStaburi saxelmwifo valis dasafarad. sabolood gadawyvetil iqna, rom privatizaciis forma ganisazRvreboda yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi individualurad. maRalrentabeluri sawarmoebi da bankebi, asve sadazRvevo kompaniebi eqvemdebareboda dauyonebliv gayidvas restruqturizaciis gareSe, xolo ararentabeluri sawarmoebi ki Tavidan gadioda restruqturizacias. qveynis 1994 wlis kanoniT gansazRvrul iqna is strategiuli seqtorebi, sadac saxelmwifom SeinarCuna kontroli marTvaze, esenia: TavdacviTi mrewveloba, telekomunikaciebi, transporti da energetika. saprivatizacio saxelmwifo qonebis gadasanawileblad mcire mflobelebis rac SeiZleba met raodenobaze, dadgenil iqna sawarmos kapitalSi erTpirovnuli monawileobis ,,Weri”. meore mxriv rig SemTxvevebSi upiratesoba eniWeboda mesakuTreTa ,,Zlieri birTvis” arsebobas, maT ekrZalebodaT aqciebis gadayidva da maTTvis SemoRebuli iqnen ,,specialuri” (xmis uflebiT) sakuTrebis uflebebi. korporaciebis funqcionirebis meti gamWvirvalobis uzrunvelsayofad, yvela SeTanxmeba, romelic kotirebda aqcionerebs Soris kompaniebis birJaze, eqvemdebareboda registracias. sainteresoa, rom italiaSi mxolod 1990 wels iqna miRebuli anrimonopoliuri kanonmdebloba, romelic aregulirebda normebs kartelebs Soris, akontrolebda kompaniebis urTierT Serwymisa da STanTqmis process. aseve daiwyo sabanko seqtoris Semdgomi reforma. 1936 wlis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad italiaSi grZelvadiani dakrediteba xorcieldeboda mcire raodenobis specializirebuli saxelmwifo dawesebulebis mier da gamoiyenebooda, rogorc calkeuli dargis da regionis ganviTarebis saxelmwifo programa, maSin roca moklevadiani kreditebis gacema iyo komerciuli bankebis prioriteti da is iyo investiciebSi maTi monawileobis mTavari prioriteti. komerciul bankebs ar hqondaT samrewvelo dawesebulebebis aqciebis flobis da maT administraciul sabWoebSi monawileobis ufleba. gamonaklisi iyo sami banki, romlebic mxars uWerdnen saxelmwifo seqtors, da aseve mcire da saSualo sawarmoebs. 1994 wlis axali kanonmdeblobiT specializebuli sakredito institutebi gardaiqmnen korporaciebad kapitalis 49%-is gayidviT Ria bazarze, xolo komerciuli bankebisaTvis moixsna SezRudvebi sawarmoebis aqciebis flobaze. reformis mizani – sabanko sistemis moZraoba ,,universaluri bankis” modelisken, romelic aRadgenda bankis mier mrewvelobis kontrols da maT uSualo kontrols sawarmoebis strategiasa da marTvaze. Sedegad italiis fulad-sakredito sistemam ganicada cvlilebebi. sul cota xnis win is gansxvavdeboda mcire bankebis simravliT da saxelmwifos zedmeti CareviT. Tumca 1990 – 2002 wlebSi bankebis raodenoba qveyanaSi Semcirda 1156-dan 814-

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mde, 2002 wlis bolos ki funqcionirebda 78 sabanko jgufi, maT Soris pirveli xuTi akontrolebda bazris udides wils, 55%-s. finansuri sistemis gajansaRebis gegmaSi saxelmwifom SeimuSava antiinflaciuri zomebis da saxelmwifo valiT marTvis programa, romelic Seicavda biujetis danaxarjebis Semcirebas, gadasaxadebis gadaxdidan Tavis aridebasTan brZolas da sagadasaxado Semosavlebis struqturis Secvlas iribi gadasaxadebis sasargeblod. sagadasaxado reformis Sedegad, romelic 1994 wels daiwyo, saSemosavlo da mogebis gadasaxadebis ganakveTi italiaSi cotaoden Semcirda, Tumca dRemde maTi done sakmaod maRalia evropaSi. 1992 wlidan Seamcira samxreT nawilis dafinanseba. saxelmwifo daxmareba, romelic italiis samxreT provinciebze vrceldeboda xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi unda Semcirebuliyo 5 jer. 1995 wels SemoiRes saSeRavaTo zomebi axali investiciebisTvis samxreTSi, subsidiebi da sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi ki Semcireba, romelic 18 Tvis ganmavlobaSi vrceldebida da damokidebuli iyo sawarmos zomaze. aRniSnulma reformebma mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesa biznes saqmianobis pirobebi, Tumca isini, pirvel rigSi ar iyo detalurad gaTvlili, meore rigSi, maTi realizeba yovelTvis ar Seesabameboda Canafiqrs da dasaxuli amocanis miRweva ver xorcieldeboda. amitom Tu Tavidan italiis ekonomikaSi pozitiuri da ufro dinamiuri ganviTareba aRiniSneboda, maSin male qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri situacia SesamCnevad gauaresda. ase magaliTad, Tu 1988-1997 wlebSi mSp-is saSualo wliuri zrdis tempi Seadgenda 1,8%-s, maSin 1998-2007 wlebis ganmavlobaSi is Semcirda 1,3%-mde (saSualod ganviTarebul qveynebSi es monacemi iyo 2,9% da 2,3%). 2000 wlis Semdeg, rodesac mTliani Sida produqtis zrda italiaSi Seadgenda 3%-s, misi tempebi aseve Semcirda. 2005 wels qveyana evrokavSiris qveynebs Soris yvelaze nela viTardeboda – 0,1% (evrozonaSi mSp-is saSualozrda 1,3%, xolo aSS-Si 3,5% iyo). italiaSi mSp-is wliurma zrdam 2007 wlidan aseve mniSvnelovnad Semcirda, 2008 weli - _1,2%, 2009 weli - _5,1%, 2010 weli – 1,5%, xolo 2011 weli – 0,2%, unda aRiniSnos rom es aris saSualo evrokavSiris maCvenebelze bevrad dabali. stagnacia aseve SemCneuli iyo Sromis mwarmoeblurobis sferoSic. is izrdeboda bevrad neli tempebiT, vidre evrokavSirSi mTlianobaSi – Tu 1995 wels evrokavSirSi naxevarsaaTian Sromis mwarmoeblurobas CavTvliT 100%-ad, maSin italiis done 98,3%-s Seadgenda, xolo 2005 wels kidev ufro Semcirda 90,5%-mde. mniSvnelovnad gauaresda bolo wlebSi saxelmwifo finansebi, ris Sedegadac biujetis deficiti mudmivad izrdeboda: 3,4%-2003-2004ww, 4,1%-2005w. 2007 wels– 4,3%-ia. saxelmwifo valma Zalian maRal dones miaRwia, romelmac evrokavSiris farglebSi yvela maCvenebels gadaaWarba – Sida produqtis 106,2%. italiisaTvis umniSvnelovanes problemas swored misi saxelmwifo sagareo vali warmoadgens romelmac bolo monacemebiT 2,3 trl aSS dolars gadaaWarba, rac qveynis mSp-is 120%-s Seadgens. bolo periodSi qveyanaSi mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadaidga, rac xels Seuwyobs sagareo valis Semcirebas. ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebis mizniT bolo wlebSi isev mimarTes reformebs, kerZod, ki fizikuri pirebis da sawarmoebis mogebis gadasaxadis Semcirebas, Sromis bazris reforma aseve sapensio reforma. amasTan gadasaxadebi mainc Zalian maRalia: 2005 wels yvelaze maRali saSemosavlo gadasaxadis saprocento ganakveTi 44% Semcirda 43%-mde, xolo mogebis gadasaxadi 2004 wlis 36%-dan 33%-mde. Tumca progresiuli sagadasaxado sistema ar TamaSobs mniSvnelovan rols socialuri uTanasworobis Sesamsubuqeblad. qveyana mdebareobs iseTi evropuli qveyne-

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bis rigSi, rogoricaa portugalia, espaneTi, saberZneTi da irlandia, sadac gansxvavebebi metad mdidar da Rarib fenebs Soris mkafiod aris gamokveTili. msoflios umsxviles 500 kompanias Soris wliuri brunvis mixedviT italias ekuTvnis 1086. italiis umsxvilesi kompaniebia: ENI (msoflios 23 umsxvilesi kompania), Assicurazioni Generali (33), Enel (56), EXOR Group (83), UniCredit Group (154), Intesa Sanpaolo (191), Telecom Italia (236), Poste Italiane (329), Finmeccanica (380) da Premafin Finanziaria (493). msoflios 500 kompaniis siaSi bolo wlebia ver xvdeba kompania FIAT (manqanaTmSenebloba), romelic kargadaa cnobili rogorc italiaSi, ise mis farglebs gareT. qveynis erT-erT dadebiT Taviseburebad unda CaiTvalos, rom qveyanas ar gaaCnia maRali uaryofiTi savaWro saldo. italiaze modis evrokavSiris saqonlis eqsportis 11,3% da saqonlis importis 10,6%, xolo italiaze modis evrokavSiris uaryofiTi savaWro saldos mxolod 2,8%. italiaSi sakmaod kargadaa ganviTarebuli turizmi, qveyana axerxebs 40 mln turistze metis miRebas rac italiis mosaxleobis 70%-s aRemateba. ucxoel turistebs mniSvlelovnad izidavs italiis RirsSesaniSnaobebi, ase magaliTad: romi, venecia, milani, Florencia, istoriuli cixe-simagreebi, samTo saTxilamuro Tu sazRvao kurortebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom italiaa sworeT bankTa samSoblo, da qveyanaSi sakmaodaa ganviTarebuli sabanko biznesi. amdenad italiaSia socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba erT-erTi yvelaze rTuli, vidre evropisa da evrokavSioris sxva qveynebi. bolo periodSi qveyanam mniSvnelovani reforma gaatara qveyanaSi arsebuli problemebis gadasaWrelad, am gzaze aseve didia evrokavSirisa da saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mxardaWera. unda aRiniSnos rom 2010 wels italiaze modiioda evrozonis mSp-is 16.8%87, xolo mTlianobaSi oTx qveyanaze germania, safrangeTi, gaerTianebul samefos da italiaze erTad aRebuli evrozonis mSp-is daaxloebiT 84%, amdenad am oTxi lideri qveynis warmateba Tu warumatebloba mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs evrokavSirsa da mTlianad msoflioSi ekonomikur mdgomareobas. migvaCnia, rom italiaSi arsebuli problemebi mogvardeba da qveyana kvlavac warmatebiT gaagrZelebs globalizaciis Seuqcavadi procesebis mxardaWerasa da saerTaSoriso globaluri problemebis gadaWraSi sakuTari wvlilis Setanas. literatura: 1. globalizacia da saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTareba: gamowvevebi da SesaZleblobebi. saqarTvelos globalizaciisa da regionuli integraciis kvleviTi centris Sromebis krebuli. Tbilisi, „universali“, 2008. 2. gogoxia r. Sereuli ekonomikuri sistema: arsi, modelebi, ganviTarebis tendenciebi. Tb., 2004. 3. gvelesiani r. saerTaSoriso mewarmeobis riskebi da sadazRvevo biznesis principebi. Tb., Tsu gamomcemloba, 2003. 4. msoflio ekonomika. (red. prof. g. Todua, prof. S. veSapiZe). Tbilisi, 2001. 5. meqvabiSvili e. ekonomikis globalizacia: mimarTulebebi, gamowvevebi, perspeqtivebi. Tb., 2009. 6. papaCaSvili n. glokalizacia: antiglobalisturi wiaRsvlebi. Tsu, II saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis ,,globalizacia da saqarTvelos ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis prioritetebi” Sromebi, Tb., 20009. 86 87

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Ramaz Putkaradze Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Georgia, Tbilisi Historical Aspects of the Social and Economic Development of Italy Summary The work discusses some important aspects of the economic development of Italy. Italy is one of the leading members of the international community, the EU, the Big Eight, the Big Twenty, and other international institutions. The recent developments in Italy have increased considerably the international interest to the country. By the GDP, Italy is one of the leading countries, with taking 4th position in Europe and 8th position in the world an d also takes 8th place in the world by both import and export indicators. Italy is especially strong in providing the services in the fields of international trade and international tourism. 10 of the world top 500 companies are of the Italian origin. Italy holds the important resources and is characterized by the interesting features of development. It is one of the leading members of the EU and determines its tendencies of development in line with other leading EU Member States.

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giorgi RaRaniZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis dekanis moadgile saqarTvelo, Tbilisi evrointegracia da saqarTvelos saeqsporto potencialis zrdis perspeqtivebi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri zrdisa da mwvave socialuri problemebis gadawyveta (pirvel rigSi umuSevrobis sakiTxi), yovelTvis rCeboda im umniSvnelovanes sakiTxTa wreSi, razedac arasodes Senelebula sazogadoebis interesi. xSiria, rogorc satelevizio debatebi aseve saintereso azrebis irgvliv msjeloba akademiur wreebSi. Bbolo periodSi naTlad gamoikveTa is tendencia, romelic am etapze SeiZleba CavTvaloT ZiriTadad. kerZod, mdgradi samuSao adgilebis formireba ganixileba, rogorc am problemis gadawyvetis qvakuTxedi. saxelmwifo infrastruqturuli proeqtebis ganxorcieleba, unda miviCnioT am problemis gadawyvetis sawyis pirobad. aRniSnuli proeqtebi qmnian droebiT samuSao adgilebs, magram infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba ganixileba rogorc biznes aqtivobis Semdgomi zrdis winapiroba. Bbiznes aqtivobis zrda SesaZlebelia axali biznesebis, produqtebis an momsaxureobis SeqmniT. Sesabamisad aucilebelia axali sabazro SesaZleblobebis gamonaxva. Gglobalizacia am mxriv qmnis pozitiur fons, vinaidan amartivebs axal bazrebze SeRwevis amocanas. Mmeores mxriv, globalizacia amZafrebs konkurencias, tradiciul mwarmoeblebs emateba sruliad axali konkurentebi da iqmneba globaluri konkurentuli garemo. globalur konkurenciaSi yvela yvelas konkurentia da Sesabamisad SeuZlebelia mxolod erTi garkveuli jgufis konkurentebTan SedarebiT ukeTesi produqtis an momsaxureobis Seqmna. saboloo jamSi sakiTxi dadis saqarTvelos saeqsporto potencialis zrdasa da mis ukeT gamoyenebaze. swored saeqsporto potencialis zrda ganapirobebs mdgradi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas. Aseve unda gavaanalizoT da axleburad gaviazroT saeqsporto potencialis cneba. tradiciulad saeqsporto potenciali moiazreboda, rogorc garkveuli produqtebisa da momsaxureobis konkurentebze ukeT warmoebisa da miwodebis SesaZlebloba. Saeqsporto potencialis mdgenelebs warmoadgenda: bunebrivi da SromiTi resursebis siiafe, geografiuli mdebareoba, eqsportis warmoebisaTvis xelsayreli sakanonmdeblo garemo (pirvel rigSi sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi). ukanasknel periodSi ganawilebis globaluri arxebis formirebam, komunikaciis saSualebebis arnaxulma ganviTarebam praqtikulad Seamcira geografiuli mdebareobisa da satransporto xarjebis Semcirebis mniSvneloba. Qwina planze wamoiwia sakanonmdeblo garemos da pirvel rigSi biznesis keTebis simartivis, regulaciebis sakiTxebma. swored es aspeqtebi ganapirobebdnen saqarTvelos xelisuflebis swrafvas gaaformos Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebebi evrokavSirTan da aSSsTan. ramdenad realisturia molodini da ra damatebiT nabijebi unda gadaidgas saeqsporto potencialis ufro srulad realizaciisaTvis?D upriania gavaanalizoT saqarTvelos sabaziso ekonomikuri (gansakuTrebiT eqsportTan mimarTebiT) monacemebi da gavakeToT Sedarebebi im qveynebTan, romlebmac analogiuri problemebi gadawyvites. analizs daviwyebT iseTi sabaziso maCveneblebiT, rogoricaa eqsportis moculoba mosaxleobis erT sulze da misi mimarTeba mTlian Siga produqtTan (mSp), (ix.cxrili 1). Sesabamisad Sesadarebeli saxelmwifoebis SerCeva ganapiroba orma faqtorma, konkretuli qveynis mimarTeba ev-

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rokavSirTan (wevroba an gawevrianebis procesi) da uaxloesi mezobeli qveyana, romelsac analogiuri socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis gadawyveta uwevs. cxrili 188 eqsportis moculoba mosaxleobis erT sulze da misi mimarTeba mSp-sTan saxelmwifo eqsporti erT sul- mSp erT sulze sf eqsporti erT ze aSS dolari 2010 mup sulze rogorc % mSp erT sulze 1 2 3 4 irlandia 26,146 38550 67,82 xorvatia 2370 17684 13,4 bulgareTi 2097 12851 16,31 makedonia 1311 9728 13,48 saqarTvelo 360 5114 7,04 somxeTi 210 5110 4,1 saqarTvelos saeqsporto potencialis realizaciis done TvalnaTliv mianiSnebs am mimarTulebiT arsebul urTules problemebze. aseve cxadia, Tu ra mniSvnelovani gza aqvs gasavleli saqarTvelos, Tundac imisaTvis, rom miuaxlovdes evrokavSiris analogiuri maCveneblis saSualo donis 50%-s. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom irlandiis magaliTi naTeli dasturia, Tu rogor gadawyda ekonomikuri zrdis problemebi saeqsporto potencialis ganuxreli zrdis xarjze. praqtikulad irlandiam gamoiyena pirveli da meore talRis aziuri vefxvebis mier aprobirebuli ekonomikuri zrdis modeli, sadac aqcenti gadatanili iqna eqsportis ganuxrel zrdaze. ramdenad realuria saqarTvelosaTvis es gza, ra aris aucilebeli da sakmarisi pirobebi am amocanis realizaciisaTvis? Semdgom etapze aseve unda gavaanalizoT sxva sabaziso maCveneblebic, kerZod eqsporti mosaxleobis erT sulze da saeqsporto bazrebis zrdis maCveneblebi. Tu safuZvlad aviRebT 2005-2009 wlebis monacemebs, aRmoCndeba, rom saqarTvelo ZiriTadad orientirebulia dabali zrdis tempis mqone saeqsporto bazrebze. unda aRiniSnos, rom bazris zrdis tempi ama Tu im bazris saeqsporto mimzidvelobis mniSvnelovani, magram ara erTaderTi ganmsazRvreli maCvenebelia. Semdegi mniSvnelovani maCvenebelia eqsportis zoma diversificirebis sapirispirod, anu saeqsporto produqtebis raodenoba da sami saeqsporto produqtis wili mTlian eqsportSi. Aam maCveneblis mixedviT saqarTvelos aqvs saeqsporto produqtebis mcire raodenoba (1238 produqti 2010 wels) da maRali diversificireba. Aaqve unda ganimartos, rom saeqsporto portfeli ganisazRvreba harmonizebuli sistemis orniSna doniT, xolo saeqsporto produqtebis raodenoba aRebulia eqvsniSna doneze. Aam sakiTxze ufro naTeli warmodgenisaTvis gavaanalizeT imave qveynebis jgufze aRniSnuli monacemebi dinamikaSi, sadac sami saeqsporto jgufis standartuli maCvenebeli Secvlilia xuTi saeqsportoYjgufiT. (ix. cxrili 2)

88

saerTaSoriso savaluto fondisa da saerTaSoriso vaWrobis centris monacemebi.

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cxrili 289 xuTi wamyvani saeqsporto jgufis wili mTlian eqsportSi xuTi wamyva2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 ni sasaqonlo jgufi % (2 niSna doneze) 1 2 3 4 5 6 saqarTvelo 60,85% 51,25% 50,7% 58,98% 42,92% 41.93 45.44 23.89 24.18 24.32 bulgareTi xorvatia

22.6

21.73

21.28

20.97

18.45

irlandia

72.55

70.46

70.27

69.35

70.63

makedonia

56.72

56.31

62.72

65.04

33.42

amasTan, cxrilSi motanilia mxolod is sasaqonlo jgufebi, sadac konkretul qveynebs aqvT wminda eqsportis dadebiTi saldo, amdenad gamoricxulia re-eqsporti. cxrilis analizi naTlad mianiSnebs, rom saqarTvelo praqtikulad igive gzas gadis, romelic ukve gaiares bulgareTma, xorvatiam da makedoniam. kerZod 5 wamyvani sasaqonlo jgufis wili mTlian eqsportSi mcirdeba. Uunda aRiniSnos, rom es aucilebeli momentia, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT saqarTvelos saeqsporto produqtebis simcires. amdenad, produqtebis diversificireba kvlavac gagrZeldeba, Tumca, es ZiriTadad ganxorcieldeba axali saeqsporto produqtebis SeqmniT, arsebiTad ucxouri pirdapiri investiciebis zrdis xarjze. sakiTxi, Tu ra gza avirCioT - sabazro diversifikacia Tu sasaqonlo diversifikacia, dRis wesrigSi dadgeba mxolod amis Semdeg. unda vivaraudoT, rom arsebuli tempis (saeqsporto produqtebis raodenobis zrda) SenarCunebis pirobebSi saeqsporto sasaqonlo produqtebis raodenoba miaRwevs 2000-s dasaxelebas 2015 wlisaTvis. rogori unda iyos Semdgomi arCevani - avirCioT da maqsimalurad xeli SevuwyoT irlandiur models, romelic gamoirCeva Zalze maRali sasaqonlo koncentraciiT, Tu gezi unda aviRoT sabazro diversifikaciis Semdgom gaRrmavebaze? am kiTxvaze pasuxi unda gaices saeqsporto diversifikaciis analiziT, anu saeqsporto produqtebisa da saeqsporto bazrebis diversificirebis monacemebis safuZvelze. am sakiTxis analizisaTvis gamoiyeneba sami ZiriTadi saeqsporto bazris wilisa da sami saeqsporto produqtis wilis monacemebis analizi. Aam maCveneblebiT saqarTvelo avlens sabazro da sasaqonlo diversifikaciis maRal poziciebs. sami bazris wili mTlian eqsportSi Seadgens 36,1%-s, xolo sami produqtis wili - 33,8%-s (2009 wlis monacemebi, saerTaSoriso vaWrobis centri). aRsaniSnavia rom irlandiis monacemebic igive poziciis maCvenebelia. Aaqve unda davZinoT, rom amJamad maCvenebelTa erTgvarovneba ar iZleva sarwmuno daskvnis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas, vinaidan Zalian maRalia gansxvaveba eqsportis mTlian miculobaSi da mosaxleobis erT sulze eqsportSi. 89

gaanalizebulia saerTaSoriso savaWro centris (ITC) monacemebis safuZvelze

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ras mogvitans Semdgomi nabijebi evrointegraciis gzaze? evrokavSirTan Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba ar moaxdens myisierad saqarTvelodan eqsportis swraf zrdas ori mizezis gamo; pirveli, saqarTvelos realurad Zalian mcire raodenobis saeqsporto produqtebi aqvs rom SesTavazos evrokavSiris bazars; meore qarTuli kompaniebis Siga dargobrivi kooperaciuli kavSirebi evrokavSiris qveynebis sawarmoebTan Zalian dabalia. yvelaze xelSesaxebi iqneba potenciur investorTa daintereseba, romlebic eZeben gzas evrokavSiris bazarze produqcia Seitanon Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimiT. aseTi investorebi SesaZlebelia moiZebnos mTel msoflioSi evrokavSiris CaTvliT. Tumca, aseve unda gaanalizdes saqarTveloSi garkveuli produqciis dabali danaxarjebiT warmoebis SesaZleblobebi. samwuxarod, am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos potenciali Zalze mcirea. problema exeba kvalificirebuli muSaxelis efeqtianobis sakiTxs. Tu am maCvenebels aviRebT globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSidan, saqarTvelos rogorc mimdinare pozicia, aseve cvlileba bolo periodis ganmavlobaSi, sakmaod arasaxarbieloa. kerZod, 2010-11 wlebis globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi saqarTvelos uWiravs 93 adgili msoflioSi, maCvenebliT - 3,86. (sul angariSi moicavs 139 qveyanas, romelTa Soris yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli aqvs Sveicarias - 5,63, xolo yvelaze dabali Cads 2,73). isic unda aRiniSnos, rom biznesis keTebisaTvis yvelaze problematuri faqtorebia: miwvdoma finansur resursebze- 14,4; politikuri arastabiluroba – 14,4; araadekvaturad gawvrTnili samuSao Zala – 13,3; adgilobrivi samuSao Zalis dabali samuSao eTika – 10,9. aseve mniSvnelovania gaanalizdes ramdenad SesaZlebelia Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebis safuZvelze saqarTvelom miiRos efeqti, kerZod, warmoebis gafarToebiT an ufro Rrma ekonomikuri integraciiT. pirveli sakiTxis SefasebisaTvis gamoiyeneba Ffinger-kreininis indeqsi, xolo meorisaTvis - glubel-loidis indeqsi. finger-kreininis indeqsi afasebs ori savaWro partnioris warmoebis struqturebis TanmTxvevas: indeqsi tolia 1-is (an 100-is Tu gamovxatavT procentebSi), rodesac savaWro partniorebis vaWrobis struqtura sruliad identuria, xolo tolia 0-is rodesac is mTlianad gansxvavebulia. aRniSnuli indeqsis gaangariSeba motanilia naSromSi:’’Economic Feasibility,General Economic Impact and Implications of FTA betweenthe EU and Georgia”90. Aam gaangariSebis mixedviT, finger–kreininis indeqsi evrokavSiri saqarTvelosaTvis utoldeba 16,13%-s harmonizebuli sistemis 6 niSna doneze da 23,29%-s 4 niSna doneze. aqedan SesaZlebelia martivad davaskvnaT, rom aRniSnuli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba ar gamoiwvevs warmoebis moculobis mkveTr zrdas da ar gazrdis mniSvnelovnad saqarTvelodan eqsportis moculobas evrokavSiris bazarze. meore mniSvnelovani sakiTxia Sigadargobrivi vaWrobis xasiaTi, romelic gansazRvravs ufro Rrma ekonomikuri integraciis SesaZleblobas. Siga dargobrivi vaWroba SesaZlebelia warmodgenili iqnes sami formiT: pirveli, erTi da imave xarisxisa da fasis produqtebiT vaWroba; meore, erTi da imave, magram gansxvavebuli xarisxisa da fasis produqtebiT vaWroba da mesame - produqtebiT vaWroba romlebic warmoadgenen vertikalurad integrirebuli miwodebis jaWvs, anu xdeba kooperireba saboloo mza produqtis Seqmnis mizniT. Sigadargobrivi vaWrobis done izomeba glubel-loidis indeqsiT - 0, roca or partniors Soris ar arsebobs Si-

90

Case Network Reports,N79/2008

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gadargobrivi vaWroba da - 1 (an 100-iT Tu procentiT gamovxatavT), rodesac mTlianad vaWroba Sigadargobrivi xasiaTisaa. evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelosaTvis es maCvenebeli Seadgens 8,2%-s harmonizebuli sistemis 6-niSna doneze da 9,9%-s 4-niSna doneze. Aamdenad, aseTi Zalze dabali maCvenebeli saSualebas gvaZlevs vivaraudoT, rom Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba sawyis etapze ar gamoiwvevs saqarTvelos ekonomikis ufro Rrma integrirebas evrokavSiris ekonomikasTan. Y yovelive zemoaRniSnulis safuZvelze unda velodoT saeqsporto produqtebis raodenobis zrdas, Tumca, investiciebi, rac ganxorcieldeba am produqciis Sesaqmnelad, naklebad mdgradi iqneba. Ppotenciuri investorebi aqcents gadaitanen im regionebze, sadac SesaZlebelia produqciis Zalze dabali danaxarjebiT warmoeba. garkveuli potenciali gaaCnia saqarTveloSi amwyobi sawarmoebis ganviTarebas im pirobis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom makompleqtebeli detalebis saqarTveloSi moZraoba emTxveva saboloo gasaRebis bazrisaken moZraobis mimarTulebas. (magaliTad makompleqtebeli masalebis Semotana saqarTveloSi aziidan, raTa saboloo produqti gavides evrokavSiris bazrze, anu moZraobis mimarTuleba aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken, raTa gamoiricxox Semxvedri mimarTulebiT gadazidva da Sesabamisad optimizirebul iqnes satransporto danaxarjebi). amdenad evrokavSirTan Semdgomi ekonomikuri integracia unda ganvixiloT, rogorc saqarTvelos saxelmwifosaTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani sakiTxi. evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba iqneba is mniSvnelovani stimuli, romelic gaaZlierebs potenciuri investorebis mxridan saqarTvelosadmi interess. rasakvirvelia, ar SeiZleba aRniSnuli amocana daviyvanoT, mxolod erT faqtorze. Ppotenciuri investorebisaTvis aseve Zalze mniSvnelovani signali iqneba nato-s mxridan calsaxad gamoTqmuli da konkretuli vadebiT miTiTebuli saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebis sakiTxi. es Tundac martivad SegviZlia davinaxoT, sxva saxelmwifoebis magaliTze, sadac ucxouri pirdapiri investiciebis zrda nato-Si gawevrianebis Semdeg calsaxa tendenciad Camoyalibda. George Gaganidze Doctor of Economics, Deputy Dean, Faculty of Economics and Business, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Georgia, Tbilisi European Integration and The Prospects of Growth of Georgiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Export Potential Summary In the present article the author analyzes the export statistics of Georgia and the ways to increase the export potential. Georgian export trends are compared with those of other countries. In more details is analyzes the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU and the impact of this on better utilization of the export potential of Georgia.

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guguli yuraSvili saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori Teona baqaniZe saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

Tavisufali industriuli zonis formirebis sakiTxebi saqarTveloSi 20-e saukunis meore naxevridan saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis ganuyofel nawilad iqca Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi. ukanaskneli 30 wlis ganmavlobSi Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis fenomeni moeqca ekonomistebis, finansistebisa da mewarmeTa yuradRebis centrSi. aRniSnuli Temisadmi didi interesi ganpirobebulia im garemoebebiT, rom Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi warmoadgenen ara marto ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis erT–erT mZlavr faqtors, aramed msoflio savaWro urTierTobebSi qveynis CarTvis saSualebas. meore msoflio omis Semdeg msoflio ekonomikisa da politikaSi momxdarma cvlilebebma zegavlena moaxdina Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis ganviTarebaze. erTi mxriv, dasvleTis qveynebSi mimdinareobda omisgan miyenebuli zaralis aRdgena, amasTan, maT Soris konkurencia izrdeboda da aucilebeli iyo bazrebis gafarToeba. meore mxriv, axalgazrda damoukidebeli qveynebi cdilobdnen ekonomikis ganviTarebas, Warbi samuSao Zalis, teqnikisa da saxsrebis ukmarisobis pirobebSi. amgvari urTierTgadamkveTi interesebis viTarebaSi mraval qveyanaSi da regionSi Seiqmna axali Tavisufali zonebi e.w. ,,saeqsporto saqonlis gadamamuSavebeli zonebi“. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zona msoflio praqtikaSi gamoiyeneba rogorc ganviTarebul ise ganviTarebad qveynebSi social–ekonomikuri problemebis farTo kompleqsis gadasawvetad. Tumca gamoyenebuli zonebis ti pologia, maTi Seqmnis miznebi da maTi daxmarebiT gadasawyveti amocanebi mravalferovania da damokidebulia TiToeuli konkretuli qveynis ganviTarebis doneze, am qveynebSi mimdinare politikisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetebze. 1973 wels kiotos konvenciiT, Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi ganmartebul iqna Semdegnairad: „Tavisufal ekonomikur zonad unda CaiTvalos saxelmwifos nawili, romelzedac Semosuli saqoneli ganixileba, rogorc saqoneli, romelic imyofeba sabaJo teritoriis sazRvrebs gareT importis uflebasTan da Sesabamis gadasaxadebTan mimarTebaSi da ar eqvemdebareba Cveulebriv sabaJo kontrols“. Tavisufalma ekonomikurma zonebma farTo gavrceleba hpova aSS-Si. amgvari zonebi pirvelad Seiqmna axal orleanSi, los-anjelesSi, sietlSi, san-franciskosa da san-antonioSi. dasavleTis qveynebis specialistTa SefasebiT dReisaTvis msoflio saqonelbrunvis 30% Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis saSualebiT xorcieldeba. umsxvilesi saerTaSoriso kompaniebi Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs, zemogebis miRebis xelsayrel saSualebad ganixilaven da am sivrceSi sakuTari warmoebis organizaciis TavianTi eqspansiis umTavres mimarTulebad miiCneven. rogorc wesi, Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi xelsayrel pirobebs uqmnis ucxouri kapitalis funqcionirebas. is iZleva saSualebas formirebul iqnas Ria ekonomika, mozidul iqnas uaxlesi teqnika da teqnologia, ekonomikuri marTvis Tanamedrove meTodebi. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi TavianTi gaxsnilobiT mimzidvelia transnacionaluri kompaniebisaTvis da miliardobiT investiciebi ideba masSi. saerTaSoriso korporaciebi TavianTi komerciuli saqmianobisaTvis xelsay-

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reli pirobebis ZiebaSi Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs ganixilaven, rogorc Zalian momgebian ekonomikur struqturebs, romlebTanac akavSireben TavianTi eqspansiis umTavres mimarTulebebs. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis warmoqmnas akavSireben sam ZiriTad amocanasTan: 1. eqsportis stimulireba da amis xarjze savaluto saSualebebis miReba; 2. dasaqmebis sidide; 3. zonebis gadaqceva meurneobis meTodebis aprobirebis poligonad. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmnis mizezebia : ganviTarebul qveynebSi Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs regionuli politikisTvis ayalibeben, romlebsac “depresiul” raionebSi mcire da saSualo biznesis gamosacocxleblad qmnian. ganviTarebad qveynebSi zonebis Seqmnis mTavari mizezebia uc-xouri kapitalis mozidva da am kapitalis meSveobiT regionis ekonomikuri ganviTareba. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis saqarTvelos mTavrobam gadawyvita, foTis teritoriaze Seeqmna Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis erT-erTi nairsaxeoba– Tavisufali industriuli zona. zogadad, Tavisufali industriuli zona SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc mkafiod Semofargluli teritoria, romelzec myardeba ekonomikur-finansuri saqmianobis gansakuTrebuli reJimi, mewarmeobis stimulirebis, meurneobis prioritetul sferoebSi, ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisa da axali teqnologiebis danergvis mizniT. Tavisufali industriuli zonebi ZiriTadad ganviTarebadi qveynebis naklebad ganviTarebul regionebSi iqmneba. eqsportze orientirebuli warmoebis ganviTarebisa da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis mizniT. erT qveyanaSi SeiZleba ramdenime Tavisufali industriuli zona iyos magaliTad, irani, ruseTi. Tavisufal industriul zonaSi moqmed firmebs yvela Sesabamisi qveynis kanonmdebloba avaldebulebs usafrTxoebis zomebis dacvasa da garemosadmi zianis miyinebis riskis minimumamde dayvanas. aseve yvelgan savaldebuloa muSebisaTvis saTanado samuSao pirobebis Seqmna, maT janmrTelobasa da socialur dacvaze zrunva- saerTaSoriso konvenciebis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad. Tavisufal industriul zonebSi import-eqsportze sabaJo mosakrebeli moxsnilia. amis miuxedavad mewarmeebi valdebulni arian awarmoon aRricxva da yovelwliurad waradginon deklaracia, sadac yvela produqcia da operacia unda iyos asaxuli da wardgenili. mraval qveyanaSi mewarmeebi Tavisufldebian saSemosavlo gadasaxadisganac. dRg- gan mewarmeebi gaTavisuflebulni arian ruseTis, gvatemalasa da ganas Tavisufal industrial zonebSi, aqcizis gadasaxadisaganruseTis federaciaSi, uZrav qonebaze gadasaxadisagan- gvatemalaSi. saqarTvelos mTavrobam Tavisufali industriuli zonisaTvis mSeneblobis nebarTvis gacemis gamartivebuli wesebi daamtkica. regulirebis wesebis Tanaxmad mSeneblobis nebarTvis gacemis ufleba zonis operatoris prerogativaa. pirvel etapze Tavisufali industriuli zonis operatorma mSeneblobis gegma saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan unda SeaTanxmos. Semdeg etapze ki mSeneblobis nebarTvebs Tavad gascems. eqspertTa nawili mTavrobis aRniSnul gadawyvetilebas zonis operatoris uflebasTan dakavSirebiT dadebiTad afasebs da acxadebs, rom kerZo biznesisaTvis zonis operatorTan urTierToba ufro mosaxerxebeli iqneba. saqarTvelos xelisuflebas imedi aqvs, rom foTSi Tavisufali industriuli zonis Seqmna xels Seuwyobs investiciebis mozidvas, Sedegad iq sxvadasxva, maT Soris eqsportze orientirebuli sawarmoebic Seiqmneba da dadebiTi Sedegi saqarTvelos

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mTels teritoriaze gavrceldeba. Tavisufali industriuli zonis efeqturi funqcionireba sacxovrebeli da samrewvelo infrastruqturisa da servisis ganviTarebas gamoiwvevs. gafarTovdeba foTis portis infrastruqtura da portis tvirTbrunva gaizrdeba. ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros warmomadgenlebi foTis industriul zonasTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi saxis rekomendacias waradgenen: “ es iqneba Tavisufali industriuli zona, anu Cven gvWirdeba, rom am zonaSi ar iyos marto lojistikuri centri, gvinda, rom am zonaSi Seiqmnas industria, gadamuSaveba da samuSao adgilebi. meores mxriv gvinda, rom Tavisufali industriuli zonis safuZvelze moxdes investireba foTis portis gafarToebaze. saWiroa portSi ramdenime aseuli milionis investicia ganxorcieldes, anu erTi mxriv Tiz-i Seiqmnas, romelic axal industriebs, axal samuSao adgilebs Seqmnis ara marto am konkretul zonaSi, aramed warmatebis SemTxvevaSi, 5-6 wlis ganmavlobaSi pozitiuri gavlena, mTels dasavleT saqarTveloze moxdeba.” warmatebuli Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis magaliTad saqarTvelos mTavroba jebal alis Tavisufal ekonomikur zonas asaxelebs. is dubais saemiroSi mdebareobs da msoflioSi erT-erT yvelaze warmatebul Tavisufal ekonomikur zonad iTvleba da 25 wlis win Seiqmna. aRniSnulma zonam dubais ekonomikis ganviTarebas seriozuli biZgi misca da xeli Seuwyo mis mniSvnelovan savaWro, safinanso, satransporto da turistul centrad Camoyalibebas. igi ara marto dubais, aramed sxva qveynebis analogiur, identur Tavisufal zonebsac marTavs da sxvadsxva qveynis mTavrobebs konsultaciebs uwevs. isini muSaoben CineTSi, malaiziaSi, marokoSi, indoeTSi, vietnamSi, TurqeTSi, did britaneTsa da mraval sxva qveyanaSi. ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros rekomendaciiT, dubais modelis saqarTveloSi gadmotaniT, samuSao adgilebis problema ki ar Seiqmneba, aramed, piriqiT Seiqmneba misi deficiti, rogorc es dubaiSia bolo wlebia. “- yvelaze maRali investiciebis done saqarTveloSi iqneba foTSi da erT foTelze, SesaZloa, 3-jer ufro meti investicia movides, vidre saSualod mTel saqarTveloSi.” quTaisis Tavisufali industriuli zona (Tiz) Seiqmna 2009 wels samTavrobo dadgenilebiT da mdebareobs quTaisis yofili saavtomobilo qarxnis teritoriaze. saerTo farTobia 27 heqtari. Seqmnis iniciatoria teritoriis mepatrone, Sps ”jorjian interneSnl holdingi”, romelic amavdroulad aris Tavisufali industriuli zonis administratoric. Seqmnilia 100%-iani kerZo kapitaliT da misi damfuZneblebi saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi arian. kompania-administratoris mizania Tavisufali mewarmeobis principze agebuli industriuli zonis Camoyalibeba rogorc adgilobriv, aseve ucxoel investorTa ZalebiT. quTaisis Tavisufal industriul zonaSi funqcionirebs kompania FRESH GEORGIA LTD. saqmianobis saxea sayofacxovreblo gazisa da eleqtro teqnikis gamoSveba-realizacia. ganxorcielebulma investiciam 2009 wels Seadgina 55 750 580 aSS. dolari. sruli sawarmoo ciklis Sesaqmnelad kompania apirebs damatebiT investirebas. investiciis ganxorcielebis Sedegad: - dReisaTvis funqcionirebs sayofacxovrebo gazisa da eleqtro teqnikis saamwyobo saamqro. produqciis realizacia xorcieldeba saqarTveloSi. realizebuli produqciis Rirebulebaa 107 aTasi lari. gadasatvirTad mzadaa produqcia azerbaijanisa da ukrainisTvis. investiciebis sruli moculobiT (451 977 080 aSS. dolari) ganxorcielebis Semdeg Seiqmneba warmoebis sruli cikli, romelic uzrunvelyofs makompleqtebeli detalebis adgil-

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ze damzadebas adgilobrivi da importuli nedleulis bazaze. warmoebis mosalodneli moculobaa 75-90 mln aSS. dolari wliurad. amgvarad, Tavisufali industriuli zonebi Sromis axali saerTaSoriso ganawilebis erT-erTi elementia. ekonomikis globalizaciis pirobebSi Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi efeqturi instrumentia qveynis sagareo-ekonomikuri saqmianobis gasaaqtiureblad. magram Tavisufali zonebis Seqmnisas gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnas uaryofiTi gamocdilebac kerZod: jer erTi, ucxoeli investorebi, rogorc wesi, “cariel adgilze” ar modian. isini Tavisufali zoniT interesdebian mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu iq ukve aris saTanado infrastruqtura, an misi Seqmnis xarjebi adgilobrivi biujetidan dafinansdeba. infrastruqturis Seqmnis xarjebi ki zogjer mTliani investiciis TiTqmis 80%-s Seadgens. ase, rom mosazreba yvela xarjis ucxoeli investoris mier dafarvis Taobaze yovelTvis ar marTldeba. Tumca, mTavari mainc is aris, rom sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi ucxouri kapitalis mozidvis erTaderTi mizezi ar aris. aranakleb mniSvenelovania infrastruqturis xarisxi, samuSao Zalis kvalifikacia da administraciuli procesebis simartive. msoflio gamocdileba ki cxadyofs, rom investiciis mozidvis mTavari stimuli politikuri stabiluroba da sainvesticio garantiis arsebobaa. literatura: 1.g. uflisaSvili, „Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi: msoflio gamocdileba da saqarTvelo“, 2008w. 2. z. vaSakiZe, l. silagaZe _ “Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi”, Tbilisi. 2008 w. 3. saqarTvelos kanonproeqti Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Sesaxeb~. Tbilsi 2007 w. 4. l. mamulaSvili, g. tuRuSi _ “Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi- ofSoruli centrebi”. Tbilisi 2005 w. 5. n. CikvilaZe, ”Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi saqarTveloSo” 2008 w. 6. p. lemonjava _ Jurnali ekonomisti statia “Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis formirebis sakiTxebi”. Tbilisi 1998 w. 7. http://www.parliament.gh/docs/uploads/Free%20zones%20Act%2050/pdf 8. http://www.finance.gov.mk/gb/laws/freezone.pdf 9. http://www.cindle.org/THE%20FREE%20ZONE%20REGIME%20LAW.pdf

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Guguli Kurashvili Professor, academician, Technical University of Georgia Georgia. Tbilisi Teona Bakanidze Post-graduate student, Technical University of Georgia Georgia. Tbilisi

Formation of free economic zone in Georgia Summary Free economic zone in the world practice is used in developed and developing countries to solve complex social and economic problems. The typology and goals of free economic zones are diverse. It depends on each countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specific development level and the current political and economic development priorities of the country. As a rule, free economic zones create favorable environment for foreign capital. Free economic zones are attractive for their openness for transnational companies and billions being poured is invested into it. The Government of Georgia decided to create a free economic zone in Poti for the economic development of our country. It will be the type of zones, which is called industrial zone. Free economic zone will contribute to attracting investments. As a result, there will be created exportoriented enterprises and the positive effect will be spread throughout the territory. Effective functioning of a free industrial zone will result the development of industrial infrastructure and services. This will expand infrastructure and increase turnover.

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Nataliya Cherkas PhD, Associate professor, Lviv Academy of Commerce Ukraine, Lviv EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF MANUFACTURED EXPORTS STIMULATION Steady growth of exports of high technology products [17] shows the increasing attention that the states-world leaders provide to the problems of early implementation of innovations. It is clear that today the "economic breakthrough" in the growth of developing countries can be achieved only by developing of hightech industrial production and increase in exports of their products [15]. That is the way followed by Europe (high-tech industries accounted more than 24% of manufactured exports from Switzerland, Hungary and France in 2010) [17]. The manufactured export increase is traditionally considered as an engine of sustainable economic growth [1, 2, 5, 6, 15]. Despite the long debate on means of manufactured export stimulation [6, 8, 15, 16], there were no consensus about the nature of findings and recommendations. This equally applies to international and Ukrainian experience. The purpose of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis of the tools of manufactured exports increasing in the EU and preparation of appropriate recommendations for the Ukrainian export sector. In Eastern Europe the economy was developed on the technological basis as a result of transition to a market economy and growing openness. Hungary, before integration into the EU, has made the transition from primary exports to export of technological and capital-intensive goods [14]. Similar changes in favor of goods with high added value occurred in the export structure of Czech Republic and Poland before entering into the EU. In Eastern Europe after joining the EU the inflow of foreign capital had intensified, particularly into manufactured industries. The improvement of export effectiveness of "new Europe" was one of the most important characteristics of integration in the European Union. The transition from planned to market economy has led to significant growth in international trade, particularly with the EU-15 - a powerful highly developed market, which quickly became a major trading partner. In late 1990s, most CEE countries have reached the level of openness inherent in market economies of appropriate size and degree of development. During 19702010 the export of high-tech products from the EU increased from 19.7 to 40.6% (compared to the growth of high-tech exports in the world - from 13.7 to 27.9%, respectively) [17]. The export structure of Central and Eastern Europe during the transition period has undergone significant changes as increasing the share of medium-and high-tech products while reducing the share of raw materials and products using low skilled labor. Economic development of the CEE countries is closely linked to technological export, import of capital and foreign direct investment [8]. Advanced analysis of the impact of reforms in transition (price liberalization, stabilization policy, exchange rate, trade regime, the state monopoly of foreign trade, export and import control) on the efficiency of exports showed a steady relationship between radical internal reforms and successful reorientation of foreign trade [10]. The independence and limitation of central planning in CEE had intensified the foreign trade and led to the geographical reorientation of exports and imports [7]. Geographic diversification of exports of CEE countries to the EU depends on the success of structural reforms and geographical proximity. The countries that had liberalized trade regime and abolished price setting has increased exports to the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The process of opening the markets of OECD countries in transition economies covered three stages. The first step was the abolition of discriminatory non-tariff restrictions. The second stage was to provide preferential market access within the General System of Preferences (GSP), which has put transitional economy on a par with developing countries. The third step was the signing of trade agreements between the EU-15 and CEE countries. B. Kaminsky [9] provides the following factors of export development disparity in CEE: unequal initial conditions for the transition period, the differences of access

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to western markets, the process of political reform. In bilateral trade between the CEE countries an important factor expansion of markets is the lack of language barriers, common border, common historical traditions and agreement on trade liberalization. The investigation of specialization and quality of exports in three groups in Central and Eastern Europe [3], divides three levels of quality improvement. The first level reflects the transition from low-to high-tech industries. The second dimension involves the transition to high-quality products within the same industry. The third dimension is accented on improving product quality in high-quality segment of one industry. In general, all groups of countries have shown significant improvement in export performance, however, the important differences between the five countries of Central European and other countries were found. Whereas, increase in 1-st group occurred in all three dimensions, in the second and third groups the "trap of low quality" was observed in the second dimension. Thus, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic countries showed an increasing trend of specialization in low-quality segments of the high-tech industries, which was confirmed by regression analysis. For analysis and comparison of CEE exports the index of export efficiency was calculated [10], according to which the classification of countries in terms of high, medium and poor performance was suggested. The index includes four criteria: the total value of exports in dollars, the share of CIS countries in exports, exports of manufactured products to OECD countries and the manufactured exports to these countries as a percent of GDP. Among the countries with high export efficiency were Visegrad countries and Estonia, with medium performance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Romania. The CIS countries were placed in group with low efficiency of export. The example of Eastern Europe shows that focus on demand of EU market promotes the diffusion of advanced technologies, actively promotes the production of goods with high added value, and improves the position in world markets in general. Basic mechanisms of state policy of manufactured exports development of European countries are presented in Table 1. Among the important factors of favorable structural changes research revealed the export subsidies, improving of quality, involving technological imports and investments into infrastructure. Table 1 Government measures of manufactured export development The effectiveness of industrial policy and government measures for manufactured export support remains controversial [3, 4]. The success of technological export stimulation policies was confirmed by free Policy of economic zones and temporary subsidies [6, 14]. administrative Changing international economic environment complicates the use of export promotion compensatory measures for the development of exports, so in the competition on the market higher importance is related with the increase of manufacturability and quality [6]. Objectives, The key priority is the elimination of quantitative restrictions such as export sequence and license, embargo and the restrictions on imported components for production of duration of trade technological products for export. The introduction of trade reforms should be gradual reforms [13]. For developing countries in foreign markets significant obstacles can occur for non-compliance with international norms, which requires higher quality and deeper processing products [4]. For countries with low income it is important to introduce duty-free access to External foreign markets and the elimination of quotas to increase the import of equipment and factors investment attractiveness [8] For developing countries the priority is to use revenues from exports to investment in infrastructure and training of the workforce [7].

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Experience of Ireland has shown that macroeconomic stability and low taxes in general are key instruments of industrial and business development. Restoring competitiveness of Ireland at all levels depended on the conduction of macroeconomic anti-inflation economic growth and high employment that involved the following measures [15, Ń&#x20AC;.176-177]: fiscal policy that promoted sustainable anti-inflationary growth, the distribution of wages and income allowed to save the results of competitive, competition policy, which supported strengthening competitive forces in the economy, infrastructure development, which created a multiplier effect, stimulating and investing in lifelong learning. The global recession has significantly impacted the Irish economy. Economic growth was 4.7% in 2007, but the GDP was reduced by 1% in 2010, making it the third consecutive year of negative growth [17]. Đ&#x2020;n November 2010 the Irish Government published the National Recovery plan, which aims to restore order to the public finances and to bring its deficit in line with the EU target of 3% of economic output by 2015. Nonetheless, exports play an important role in Ireland's economic growth. The country is one of the largest exporters of pharmaceuticals and software-related goods and services in the world. While the Irish economy has significant debt problems in 2011, exporting remains a success. Among the factors that determined the development of exports of Ireland were: a favorable political, economic and investment climate (the corporate tax rate was the lowest in the world - 12.5%), the presence of young and highly qualified personnel, increasing investment in education and infrastructure, focus on investment in high-tech industry, active cooperation of education, business and state, low inflation and low production costs. It should be noted that to enhance the growth of manufactured exports is not sufficient just to increase R & D funding, application of relevant legislation and instruments of implementing the law. The nature of the phenomenon of "European paradox" is that EU countries play a primary role in the progress of fundamental research, but fall short in their ability to transform scientific achievements into concrete innovative technologies [6]. This was confirmed by high-tech products export of certain countries in Europe and Asia (Fig. 1). Shares of high-tech exports from France, Germany, Austria, Greece, Italy, is much inferior to Malta, Singapore and Malaysia.

Fig. 1. High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports), 2011 [17] The Greece economy can serve as an example of this paradox. During last 20 years Greece was characterized by a combination of European integration, technological growth and macroeconomic stability. The pursuit of trade liberalization and national associations within the EU were awarded with financial assistance that has been an important for modernization of national technological capabilities [1, p.5]. Since the mid 1950's, over a long period of industrial policy, Greece has been focused on the protectionism that led to the industrialization of the economy. After the Greece accession to the EU in 1961 agreement was

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concluded about gradual elimination of customs protectionism to 1974 for goods not produced in Greece and to 1984 concerning products that were produced in the country. It was important for the technological development of Greece, because more sophisticated technological sector, which was undeveloped, finds itself under the pressure of international competition. For growth support the following instruments were used: a preliminary payment of import, quotas, indirect taxes or administrative intervention, discriminatory attitude of Greek firms to government procurement, benefits for FDI, which had defense manufacturers in Greece [1, p.8]. FDI inflows contributed to the creation of large production manufactured units (petrochemical industry, electronic materials, pharmaceuticals, etc.), which had increased the share of industrial exports. State aid and government intervention (subsidies, bank loans, nationalization, pricing policy, tax exemptions, income from interest payments, etc.) were supported by financial and banking institutions, and remained relatively large until the end of the 1980s. From the early 1990s weakening of the protectionism regime led to the deterioration of the competitiveness of Greek economy. Unification of the European market and European monetary integration emphasized the strategic role of knowledge, technological and organizational characteristics at the micro level. Basically the industrial development of Greece depended on technology transfer requiring the creation of R&D with the appropriate material and intangible infrastructures. Technology policy of Greece was dependent on European technology policy, and formed in accordance with European priorities. However, it should be noted that FDI in Greece did not result in restructuring of foreign and domestic technology. The industrial production of the country remains vulnerable to competition from other countries. The level of innovations in Greece remains the lowest among EU countries, except Portugal. The causal relationship between scientific research and technological products in Greece was not evident, indicating that the industrial system lacks the capacity to leverage its scientific potential [1, p.18]. By the end of 2009, as a result of a combination of international and local factors (respectively, the world financial crisis and uncontrolled government spending), the Greek economy faced its most-severe crisis since the restoration of democracy in 1974 as the Greek government revised its deficit from an estimated 6% to 12.7% of gross domestic product (GDP). On November 2010 the EU's statistics body Eurostat revised the public finance and debt figure for Greece following an excessive deficit procedure methodological mission in Athens, and put Greece's 2009 government deficit at 15.4% of GDP and public debt at 126.8% of GDP. Greece experience shows that in transition countries there is a need to develop actively policy that not only make imitation of a "best practices" of other countries, but also take into account their national characteristics. Analyzing the examples of manufactured exports stimulation experience in European countries, it is possible to distinguish the main factors of influence: 1) support a stable macroeconomic environment of moderate inflation, 2) encourage the development of strategic industries through government support, 3) trade reform, 4) making accessible technology import and credit for the production of manufactured products for export, 5) the activities of FEZ and implementation of innovative programs, 6) preferences for foreign investors; 7) the economy openness to technology transfer. Literature: 1. Castelli I. Technological development in the context of European integration: the case of Greece / Problems and prospects of the economies management, 2004. - № 2. - P. 5-24. 2. Cherkas N. Macroeconomic Environment of Optimization the Structure of Ukraine's Export // Common Governance Culture & Restructuring Problems in Three Seas Basin Countries. Abstract Papers of the I International Symposium (October 13-16, 2011). - Istanbul Aydin University, 2011. - Р. 195-197. 3. Dullek U., et al. Dimensions of Quality Upgrading in CEECs//WIIW Working Papers. – The Vienna Institute of International Economic Studies, 2004. – No.29 – 58 p. 4. Greenaway D., Morgan W., Wright P. Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Developing Countries//Journal of Development Economics, 2002. ― №67. ― P.229–36.

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5. Grossman, G.M., Helpman E. Trade, Innovation, and Growth in the Global Economy // MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. – 1991. 6. Hansson P., Lundin N. Exports as an Indicator or Promoter of Successful Swedish Manufacturing Firms // Review of World Economics, 2004. – No. 140. – P. 415-445. 7. Havrylyshyn O. Al-Atrash H. Opening Up and Geographic Diversification of Trade in Transition Economies // IMF Working Paper No. 98/22. – Washington: IMF, 1998. – 27 р. 8. Hoekman B., Djankov S. Determinants of the Export Structure of Countries in Central and Eastern Europe // The World Bank Economic Review. – 1999. –Vol. 11. – No. 3. – P. 471-487. 9. Kaminski B. Industrial Restructuring as Revealed in Hungary’s Pattern of Integration into European Union Markets//Europe-Asia Studies, 2000. – Vol. 52. – No. 3. – P. 457-487. 10. Kaminski B., Wang Z.K., Winters L.A. Trade performance, Export Reorientation in the Transition // Economic Policy, 1996. ― No. 10. ― P. 421-442. 11. Lynn M. Bust: Greece, the Euro and the Sovereign Debt Crisis. Hobeken, New Jersey: Bloomberg Press, 2011. 12. Shevchuk V. Modelling Trade Linkages Between the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and "Old" European Union Countries // Data Analysis Methods for Modelling and Forecasting Economic Processes / J. Pociecha (ed.). ─ Cracow: Cracow University of Economics Press, 2011. ─ P. 9─18. 13. Winters L. A. Regional Integration and Import Prices: An Empirical Investigation // Journal of International Economics, 2002 ― №51(2). ― Р. 363–77. 14. Wziątek-Kubiak A. Changes in Export Patters of the Checz Republic, Hungary and Poland // Second Lancut Economic Forum on “New Europe”. – 2006. – 22 p. 15. Геєць В.М., Семиноженко В.П. Інноваційні перспективи України – Харків: Константа, 2006. – 272 с. 16. Черкас Н.І. Структурно-секторальна модель експорту: об'єктивні чинники економічного зростання України // Актуальні проблеми економіки, 2012. – № 1. – C. 111-120. 17. www.worldbank.org.

Nataliya Cherkas PhD, Associate professor, Lviv Academy of Commerce Ukraine, Lviv European Experience of Manufactured Exports Stimulation Summary In the paper state policy of manufactured exports stimulation of European countries is analyzed. The importance of innovative technologies development is emphasized. On the example of Greece the phenomenon of "European paradox" was proved. International experience argues in favor of such economic policy priorities, as price and monetary stability, encouragement of foreign direct investments in modern branches of industry, subsidizing of imported capital goods, setting of export-oriented industrial zones, financial and tax incentives to high-tech enterprises, policies of wage differentiation based upon professional skills. The positive impact of international trade liberalization, trade reform, European integration and geographical diversification of exports was proved.

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SoTa SaburiSvili ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori daviT sixaruliZe ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori socialuri mewarmeobis fenomeni da misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi saqarTveloSi miuxedavad imisa, rom ekonomikur mecnierebaSi socialuri mewarmeoba SedarebiT axali cnebaa da jer kidev aqtiurad mimdinareobs diskusia mis zust gansazRvrebasTan dakavSirebiT, aseve, ekonomikaSi am axali seqtoris rolis Sesaxeb, dasavleTSi es termini ukve imdenad moduria, rom yvela mewarme cdilobs sakuTari biznesi socialur mewarmeobas daukavSiros. am saxelwodebis qveS moqceva maTTvis donori organizaciebidan dafinansebis miRebis Sansis gazrdasTan asocirdeba. donorebisaTvis ki socialuri mewarmeobis mxardaWera dabandebebis ekonomikuri da socialuri efeqtianobis amaRlebis saSualebad gvevlineba. saqme iqamde mivida, rom specialistebi garkveul safrTxesac ki xedaven, radgan`socialuri mewarmeobis~ popularobam da farTod gavrcelebam SeiZleba droTa ganmavlobaSi misi ara mxolod rogorc terminis, aramed rogorc movlenis devalvacia gamoiwvios. popularobis miuxedavad, socialuri mewarmoba jer kidev dakavSirebulia terminologiur gaurkvevlobasTan. am problemis gadasaWrelad mkvlevarebi ubrundebian TviT `mewarmeobis~ bunebas. Jan batist seis, jozef Sumpenteris da piter drukeris naSromebze dayrdnobiT isini askvnian, rom mewarmis qcevis Taviseburebebi rac mas Cveulebrivi menejerisagan ganasxvavebs universaluria.socialuri problemebis gadaWris sicocxlisunarian gzebs safuZvlad SeiZleba daedos iseTive elementebi, rac warmatebuls xdis biznes inovaciebs. nebismieri mewarme nacvlad imisa, rom daelodos vinmes an Seecados mTavroba daarwmunos problemis mogvarebaSi, Tavad qmnis produqts (momsaxurebas) am problemis gadasaWrelad, da es gadawyvetileba misi mxridan ganixileba rogorc samewarmeo aqtivobis gansakuTrebuli forma. amitom SemTxveviTi araa, rom bolo wlebSi termini `mewarmeoba~ sul ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba maSin, rodesac saubroben socialuri problemebis gadaWraze, xolo termini `socialuri~ sityvaTSeTanxmebaSi `socialuri mewarmeoba~ gansazRvravs am saqmianobis saxes.amgvarad, socialur mewarmeobaze saubrisas moiazreba _ socialuri misia, saqmiani disciplina, inovaciuri midgomebi da mdgradoba. socialur mewarmeobas ganakuTvneben rogorc komerciul, ise arakomerciul sferos.marTalia mas gaaCnia rogorc mogebaze orientirebuli, aseve aramomgebiani seqtorisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebi, isarsebobs da viTardebasakuTari kanonebis mixedviT.

mewarmeoba

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socialuri saqmianoba

=

socialuri mewarmeoba


Tu sqematurad warmovidgenT rom mewarmeoba aris samkuTxedi, xolo socialuri saqmianoba wre, maTi gaerTianebiT miviRebT axal samganzomilebian figuras _ konuss, romliTac SeiZleba avRniSnoT socialuri mewarmeoba.am figuras sruliad gansxvavebuli parametrebi da ganlageba gaaCnia socialur-ekonomikur sivrceSi vidre samkuTxeds (mewarmeobas) da wres (socialur saqmianobas). rodesac mewarmeobazea saubari calsaxaa, rom mTavari mizani mogebis miRebaa. swored es gansazrvravs mewarmeebis motivacias da qcevis logikas. socialuri mewarmeoba gancalkevebulia rogorc komerciuli, aseve arakomerciuli sferoebisagan. marTalia moqmedi pirebi SeiZleba igive iyos, magram maT gaaCnia gansxvavebuli miznebi, faseulobaTa sistema, qcevis logika da motivacia. urTierTkavSirebis sistema orientirebulia sazogadoebriv sargebelze da socialuri problemebis gadawyvetaze. aq mTavaria ara mxolod ekonomikuri efeqtianoba, aramed TiToeuli monawilis wvlili sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi, rac ufro meti sargebeli moaqvs fizikur an iuridiul pirs sazogadoebisaTvis, miT met resursebs, investiciebs da dakveTebs iRebs. am dros mogebuli rCeba ara mxolod sawarmo, visi Semosavlebic izrdeba, aramed mTlianad sazogadoeba. socialuri mewarmeobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi maxasiaTebelia inovaciuroba. inovaciurobaSi igulisxmeba erTi mxriv, orientacia socialur gardaqmnebze, romelic uzrunvelyofs ama Tu im socialuri problemis axlebur gadawyvetas; meore mxriv, esaa ekonomikuri gardaqmnebi, ramdenadac socialuri miznebis miRweva xdeba sameurneo siaxleebze dayrdnobiT _ ekonomikuri da socialuri resursebis gansakuTrebuli kombinaciiT, romlebic adre aseTi saxiT ar gamoiyeneboda. am SemTxvevaSi sakvanZo roli aqvs socialurmewarmes. igi aRmoaCens mniSvnelovan socialur problemas da poulobs originalurmeTods mis gadasawyvetad. Tu midgoma gaamarTlebs, iwyeba zrunva am meTodis ufrofarTod danergvaze. aseTi inovaciuri socialuri mewarmis TvalsaCino magaliTia muhamed iunusi (MuhammadYunus).igi2006 wels gaxda nobelis mSvidobis premiis laureati. es jildomas mieniWa mikrosafinanso sistemis Seqmnisa da realizaciisaTvis. es sistema pirveladgamoiyenes bangladeSSi, sadac muhamed iunusma daafuZna banki (Grameen Bank), romelicTavdebis moTxovnis gareSe gascems mcire zomis sesxebs xelmokle mosaxleobisaTvis.amis Semdeg mikro sesxebis gacemis aseTi principi sxva qveynebSic gavrcelda. aman Raribiqveynebis macxovreblebs saSualeba misca esargeblaT sabanko momsaxurebiT, raTa ewarmoebinaTsakuTari saqme da daemarcxebinaT siRatake. socialuri mewarmeobis mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebiagavrcelebis masStaburoba da sazogadoebrivi cvlilebebis tiraJirebis unari, romelmac unda migviyvanos imaze gacilebiT met progresamde, rasac sawyisi idea iTvaliswinebda.msoflioSi arsebobs milionobiT organizacia, romelTa magaliTi mibaZvas imsaxurebs. maTi nawili dakavebulia socialuri momsaxurebis gaweviT da didi sargebloba moaqvT sazogadoebisaTvis, magram yvela es organizacia rodi SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT socialur mewarmeobas. am tipis organizaciebi (magaliTad, skola, romelSic swavloben garkveuli fizikuri naklis mqone bavSvebi) arasodes ar scdebian Tavis saqmianobis sferos da SezRuduli arian masStabiT. am SemTxvevaSi sazogadoeba verasodes moeswreba sistemur cvlilebebs da problema ar gadawydeba. Tu karnegi aaSenebda mxolod erT biblioTekas da ar Seqmnida sajaro biblioTekebis qsels milionobiT amerikeli ver SesZlebda informaciis da codnis miRebas.karnegis

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idea mdgomareobda biblioTekebis saerTo erovnuli sistemis SeqmnaSi, rac mas socialur mewarmed aqcevs. igive SeiZleba iTqvas muhamed iunusis mikrosafinanso sistemaze romelic mTel msoflioSi gavrcelda. amrigad, socialuri mewarmeoba xasiaTdeba Semdegi ZiriTadi niSnebiT: _ socialuri zemoqmedeba _ gamiznulia socialuri da garemos problemebis mogvarebaze an Semsubuqebaze; _ inovaciuroba _ axali, unikaluri midgomebis gamoyeneba saSualebas iZleva miRweul iqnas socialuri progresi; _ komercializacia da finansuri mdgradoba _ socialuri problemebis mogvareba samewarmeo saqmianobis procesSi da am saqmianobiT miRebuli SemosavlebiT; _ masStaburoba da tiraJirebis unari _ socialuri sawarmos saqmianobis gafarToebis SesaZlebloba erovnul da saerTaSoriso doneze. evropuli kvleviTi qselis(European Research Network - EMES) mier SemuSavebuli kriteriumebiT socialuri sawarmo unda akmayofilebdes Semdeg ekonomikur da socialur moTxovnebs. ekonomikuri kriteriumebi: _saqonlis an momsaxurebis uwyveti warmoeba _socialur sawarmoSiaucilebelia produqciis warmoeba. tradiciuli sazogadoebriviorganizaciisgan gansxvavebiT, socialur sawarmos ar gaaCnia lobirebis funqcia. is ar aris fondi da ar afinansebs sxvadasxva iniciativebs. _ damoukideblobis xarisxi _socialuri mewarme damoukidebeli unda iyos TavisgadawyvetilebebSi. SesaZloa is damokidebuli iyos saxelmwifo subsidiebze, magram arunda iyos marTuli pirdapir an iribad saxelmwifo struqturebis an sxva organizaciebismxridan. _ekonomikuri riskis garkveuli xarisxi _socialuri sawarmos damfuZneblebi iReben garkveul risks srulad an nawilobriv. saxelmwifo struqturebisagangansxvavebiT, maTi finansuri sicocxlisunarianoba damokidebulia maTi wevrebis da sawarmoSi dasaqmebulTa Zalisxmevaze. _damokidebuleba anazRaurebadi samuSaos mimarT _rogorc sazogadoebrivi organizaciebisSemTxvevaSi, socialur sawarmoSic SesaZlebelia rogorc anazRaurebadipersonalis CarTva, aseve gamoyenebul iqnes moxaliseebis Sroma. socialuri kriteriumebi: _ naTeli mizani, romelic fokusirebulia sazogadoebis keTildReobaze _socialurisawarmos erT-erTi umTavresi mizania, emsaxuros sazogadoebas an konkretul samizne jgufs, romelTac gaaCnia saerTo sazogadoebrivi saWiroebebi da ara garkveuliindividebis pirad interesebs. _ iniciativas mxars unda uWerdes moqalaqeTa garkveuli jgufi _ socialuri sawarmoaris Temis an konkretul samizne jgufebSi Semavali adamianebiskoleqtiuri Sromis Sedegi, romlebic iziarebensawarmos miznebs. _gadawyvetilebis miRebis Zalaufleba ar unda efuZnebodes kapitalis mflobelobas _ Zalaufleba ar aris ganawilebuli kapitalis Sesabamisad. gadawyvetilebebi mmarTvelrgolSi aris gaziarebuli da dainteresebul pirTa CarTuloba maRalia. _ saerTo garemo, rac uzrunvelyofs dainteresebul mxareTa maRal CarTulobas _ gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi momxmarebelTa, beneficiarTa da dainteresebulpirTa CarTulobis done socialuri sawarmos mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia.

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_ mogebis SezRuduli ganawileba _socialur sawarmos miekuTvneba ara mxolodis organizacia, romelic srulad gamoricxavs mogebis ganawilebas, aramed is organizaciac,sadac SesaZloa arsebobdes mogebis mcire nawilis gadanawileba. socialuri sawarmos Seqmnis iniciativa, rogorc wesi, sazogadoebrivi organizaciebidanmodis. isini iwyeben saqmianobas an organizaciis SigniT an afuZneben organizaciisdamxmare sawarmos. zogierT SemTxvevaSi xdeba saxelmwifo sawarmos mier dafuZnebulifirmis gamoyofa da misi gadasvla socialuri sawarmos relsebze.evropaSi moqmedi socialuri sawarmoebis umetesoba moqmedebsmesame seqtoris tradiciul samarTlebriv garemoSi. im qveynebSi, sadac kanoni am seqtors saSualebas aZlevs garkveul doneze awarmoos komerciuli saqmianoba,isini iqmneba asociaciebis saxiT.qveynebSi, sadac kanoni ufro mkacria da zRudavsmesame seqtoris ekonomikur saqmianobas (magaliTad, CrdiloeT evropis qveynebSi)socialuri sawarmoebi iqmneba kooperativebis saxiT. garda am ori formisasxvadasxvaqveyanam Seqmna socialuri sawarmoebis axali samarTlebrivi formebi. socialuri sawarmoebis rolis da funqcionirebis meqanizmis Sesaxeb informacia saqarTveloSi uknaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi ZiriTadad ucxoeli donorebis wyalobiT gavrcelda.rogorc ekonomikis axali seqtori is saqarTveloSi Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi imyofrba. amaze miuTiTebs is faqtic, romsaqarTvelos kanonmdebloba jer-jerobiT ar icnobs cnebebs „socialuri mewarmeoba“ da „socialurisawarmo~, Sesabamisad, arc gansakuTrebuli specifikuri regulaciebi da wesebiar aris gansazRvruliaseTi organizaciuli warmonaqmnebis dafuZneba-saqmianobis Sesaxeb.miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba iZleva imis SesaZleblobas romdainteresebulma subieqtma daafuZnos iseTi warmonaqmnebi, romelic Tavisi arsiTSeiZleba ZiriTadad akmayofilebdes socialuri sawarmosaTvis damaxasiaTebel kriteriumebs. ra Tqma unda, socialuri mewarmeoba saqarTveloSi arsebobs, iseve rogorc keTili adamianebi, romlebsac surT Secvalon samyaro ukeTesobisaken. magram, imisaTvis rom socialuri mewarmeoba ganviTardes saWiroa warmatebuli nimuSebi da informaciis gacvla rogorc erovnul, ise saerTaSoriso doneze. Zalian mniSvnelovani sakiTxia swori TviTidentificireba socialuri mewarmeebis mxridan, imis gacnobiereba Tu ramdenad myaria is socialuri misia, romelic maT ikisres. Tavisi sityva socialuri mewarmeobis ganviTarebaSi unda Tqvas saxelmwifom da biznes seqtorma. ganviTarebul qveynebSi socialuri mewarmeobis aRmavloba ganpirobebulia sazogadoebis warmatebuli wevrebis socialuri aqtivobis, pasuxismgeblobis zrdiT, socialurad orientirebuli faseulobebis gavrcelebiT, samewarmeo praqtikis da socialuri misiis warmatebuli kombinaciis kritikuli masis gaCeniT. amitom saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi mimdinare dadebiTi Zvrebi TavisTavad emsaxureba socialuri mewarmeobis ganviTarebas. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT qarTuli warmatebuli sawarmoebisTvis damaxasiaTebel socialuri pasuxismgeblobis mzard tendencias, qarTvelebis miswrafebas swrafad auwyon fexi msoflioSi mimdinare pozitiur tendenciebs, aseve imas, rom socialuri mewarmeobis mxardaWera iseTive respeqtabeluria rogorc qvelmoqmedeba, amavdroulad ufro Tanamedrove da efeqtiani, socialur mewarmeobas saqarTveloSi kargi perspeqtivebigaaCnia. literatura: 1.socialuri mewarmeoba, saerTaSoriso gamocdileba aTi qveynis magaliTze, strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri, Tbilisi 2010.

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2.faniaSvili l., murRulia S., socialuri mewarmeobis regulireba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi, strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri, Tbilisi 2010. 3.Alter, S. K. Social Enterprise Typology. Virtue Ventures LLC. Nov.27, 2007 4.P.G. Klein, J.T. Mahoney, A.M. McGahan, C.N. Pitelis, Toward a Theory of Public Entrepreneurship,2009. 5.Сестренский О., Социальное предпринимательство: сила новых идей, Деньги и благотворительность. 2008. № 3(68).

Shota Shaburishvili Doctor of Economics, TSU Associate professor Georgia, Tbilisi David Sikharulidze Doctor of Economics, TSU Associate professor Georgia, Tbilisi The Phenomenon of Social Entrepreneurship and Its Development Prospects in Georgia Summary Social entrepreneurship can be structured as for-profit and non-profit. Indeed it has profit objectives but it also has elements common to non-profit organization. It exists and develops according to the own law. Information about the role and functions of social enterprise has been spread for recent years in Georgia due to foreign donors. It is an emerging field in Georgia. For developing social entrepreneurship it is necessary successful samples and sharing information on national level as well as on international level. Most important issue to self-identification from the social entrepreneurs is to realize to what extent they have stable social mission. Government and business play important role for development of social entrepreneurship.

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ilia SaraSeniZe stu doqtoranti saqarTvelo, Tbilisi sainvesticio

potencialis mobilizebis fulad-sakredito instrumentebi

sainvesticio potencialis mobilizebaSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba sabanko sistemas. qveyanaSi arsebuli civilizebuli sabanko seqtori, mosaxleobis ndoba sabanko seqtoris mimarT, arsebiT zegavlenas axdens sainvesticio potencialis efeqtian formirebasa da mobilizaciaze. saqarTvelos sabanko sistema gardamavali ekonomikis rigi qveynebis sabanko sistemasTan SedarebiT, mniSvnelovani ganviTarebiT gamoirCeva, maRalia sabanko seqtoris kapitalSi ucxouri kapitalis monawileoba, aqedan gamomdinare, saerTaSoriso sabanko sistemasTan misi integraciis done. amavdroulad, saqarTvelos ekonomikasa da finansur sistemaSi arsebuli mdgomareoba garkveulwilad auferulebs sabanko sistemis mowesrigebulobasa da efeqtianobis maCveneblebs. kerZod, laris kursis paradoqsuli gamyareba inflaciis maRali tempisa da erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTarebis dabali donis pirobebSi, erovnuli valutis arsebiTi xasiaTis damokidebuleba ucxour valutaSi arsebul rezervebze, samewarmeo seqtoris ganviTarebis dabali done, importis zrdisa da eqsportis Semcirebis, qveynis sagadasaxdelo balansis gauaresebis tendenciebi, erovnuli bankis mimarT bolo periodSi arsebuli gaurkveveli midgomebi, arsebiTad amcireben sabanko sistemis efeqtianobas sainvesticio potencialis efeqtiani mobilizaciis mimarTulebiT. saqarTvelos sabanko sistemis daxasiaTebisa da sainvesticio potencialis mobilizebaSi mniSvnelovania erovnuli bankis funqcionirebis efeqtiani pirobebis Camoyalibeba. erovnuli banki, rogorc wesi, fulad-sakredito sistemis organizaciis erT-erT yvelaze efeqtian sistemad iTvleba, amasTanave, aucilebelia erovnuli bankis damoukideblobisa da sazogadoebaSi maRali ndobis miRweva, rac aRniSnuli struqturis maRalprofesionali da cnobili kadrebiT dakompleqtebis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli. fulad-sakredito sistemis farglebSi, sainvesticio potencialis aqtivizaciis mimarTulebiT, arsebiT rols asrulebs sabanko teqnologiebis iseTi formebis Ziebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa proeqtuli dafinanseba. proeqtuli dafinanseba ekonomikis realuri seqtoris calkeuli dargebis sainvesticio proeqtebSi kapitalis mozidvis SedarebiT axali meTodia. proeqtuli dafinansebis qveS igulisxmeba sainvesticio operaciebi dakavSirebuli mwarmoeblur kapitalur dabandebebTan, romlis mizania sawarmoo simZlavreebis Seqmna an zrda, im sainvesticio garigebebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebic mimarTulia ukve arsebuli kompaniebis SeZenasTan. cxadia, rom maT Soris sazRvrebi fragmentulia da Zalze myife, radgan kompaniebis SeZena SeiZleba misi simZlavreebis zrdasTan an axlis formirebasTan iyos dakavSireubli. aRsaniSnavia, rom proeqtuli dafinanseba bankebis saqmianobis universalizacias ukavSirdeba, radganac igi sabanko operaciaa, romelSic naTlad aisaxeba finansuri da realuri seqtorebis Serwymis procesi. swored, finansuri proeqtirebis procesis Sedegad xdeba sxvadaxsva saxis safinanso-samrewvelo jgufebis formireba. dReisaTvis finansuri proeqtireba ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mqone qveynebSi aRiarebuli meTodia da igi Camoyalibda XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi, roca nav-

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Tobsa da sxva energomatarebelze, amJamad arsebuli situaciis msgavsad, fasebis mravaljerad zrdas hqonda adgili. aRniSnulis kvalobaze mniSvnelovnad gaizarda energomatareblebsa da energomomaragebis teqnologiebze ganxorcielebuli proeqtebis momgebianoba, ramac arsebiTad Secvala investorTa damokidebuleba energetikaSi sainvesticio proeqtebis SerCevisadmi. aRniSnuli periodidan wlebis ganmavlobaSi saproeqto dafinanseba upiratesad mxolod gazisa da navTobis mrewvelobaSi xorcieldeboda. ukve XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasawyisisTvis, roca gazsa da navTobze fasebma kleba daiwyo, aRniSnulma mimarTulebam aqtualoba dakarga, magram misi, rogorc investirebis meTodis Sinaarsi cvlilebis xarjze, proeqtuli dafinanseba ganviTarebis sxva simaRleze avida, rac umTavresad proeqtebis portfelTa diversifikaciis xarjze ganxorcielda. saproeqto dafinansebisTvis damatebiT impulsad iqca, agreTve, amave periodSi msoflio savalo krizisi, romelic imaSi gamoixata, rom mravalma ganviTarebadma qveyanam ver SeZlo araTu TviT valis, valis momsaxurebis Tanxebis gadaxdac ki. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ganviTarebadi qveynebis dakreditebis manamde arsebulma sistemam dakarga aqtualoba da dasavleTis bankebma TavianTi muSaoba, proeqtuli dafinansebis sqemebis gamoyenebiT, kerZo kreditorebze aqcentirebiT aages. ukve XX saukunis dasasrulisTvis mxolod erT weliwadSi (1996 w.), eqspertTa SefasebiT, proeqtuli dafinansebis saSualebiT ganxorcielebul iqna 900 garigeba saerTo TanxiT 250 mlrd dolaramde. amasTanave, aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavsi garigebebiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis regioni da CineTi, romelTa gansakuTrebuli aRmavlobac am periods ukavSirdeba. aRniSnuli regionebis ganviTarebaSi Setanili mniSvnelovani wvlilidan gamomdinare, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia ufro dawvrilebiT SevexoT proeqtuli dafinansebis umTavres Taviseburebebs, romlebic ganasxvaveben mas sxva meTodebisgan. _ proeqtuli dafinanseba investiciebis organizebis iseTi meTodia, romelic gulisxmobs sxvadasxva wyaroebidan resursebis mozidvas. am dros igulisxmeba erTdroulad finansirebis ori sxvadasxva meTodis â&#x20AC;&#x201C; savalo (debt financing) da wilobrivi (equity dinancing) gamoyeneba. aqedan pirveli dafuZnebulia iseTi instrumentebis gamoyenebaze, rogoricaa kreditebi (sabanko, firmebis, safinanso, sasaqonlo da a.S.), sesxebi, lizingi, da a.S. meore meTodi gulisxmobs safinanso resursebis mobilizebas aqciebis emisiis, wilebis da pais xarjze; _ proeqtuli dafinansebis nebismieri SeTanxmebis mTavari monawile banki, organizebas ukeTebs proeqtSi invetsiciebis mozidvis mTel process. amasTan, proeqtuli dafinansebis meTodi gulisxmobs mravali monawilis arsebobas, romelTagan nawili ZiriTad, xolo nawili araZiriTad monawileebs warmoadgens; _ proeqtuli dafinansebis mTavar saorganizacio elements saproeqto kompania warmoadgens, romelic proeqtis sponsoris mieraa dafuZnebuli da asrulebs iseT funqciebs, rogoricaa: proeqtis ganxorcielebisTvis kreditis miReba, sainvesticio proeqtis farglebSi samuSaoebis SekveTa, proeqtis operireba da Sesrulebis monitoringi; _ proeqtis dafinansebasTan dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi riski bank-kreditorze modis. rogorc wesi, msgavsi garigebebis dros riskis 50%-ze meti bankkreditorzea, romelic kompanias ukveTavs Sesasrulebel samuSaoebs, Tumca cnobilia proeqtuli dafinansebis iseTi formebic, roca risks mTlianad bankkreditori iRebs; _ banki-kreditorebi, rogorc proeqtuli dafinansebis mTavari monawilebi Semdeg ZiriTad funqciebs asruleben: _ sainvesticio proeqtebis Sefaseba da SerCeva;

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_ SeTanxmebis ZiriTadi monawileebis SerCeva da Sefaseba; _ ZiriTadi dokumentaciis SemuSaveba; _ sainvesticio proeqtis Sesrulebis monitoringi. ekonomikis realuri seqtoris dakreditebis aqtivizacia SesaZlebelia fulad-sakredito politikis Semdgomi srulyofisa da makroekonomikur doneze saxelmwifos mier sainvesticio potencialis efeqtiani gamoyenebis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis SemuSavebis safuZvelze. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos ekonomikis sabanko da realuri seqtorebis daaxloebis pirobebis formireba. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebeli xdeba dafinansebis arsebuli formebis gverdiT axali Tanamedrove formebis danergva. arsebuli mdgomareobis analizis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos fulad-sakredito seqtorSi dReisaTvis mniSvnelovania firmaTa moTxovna sainvesticio kreditebze, amasTan, xSir SemTxvevaSi es moTxovna mniSvnelovnad aWarbebs arsebul miwodebas. formaluri Tu araformaluri monopoliuri struqturebis arsebobis gamo, rigi dargebi Cayenebulia gansakuTrebul mdgomareobaSi da sxva dargebze metad mimzidvelia kapitaldabandebebisTvis, rac uaryofiT zegavlenas axdens ekonomikis struqturul ganviTarebaze, zRudavs konkurencias da auaresebs samewarmeo fons. aRniSnulis gverdiT, sainvesticio potencialis saxelmwifoebrivi marTvisa da gamoyenebis erT-erT mimarTulebad gamodian ganviTarebis bankebi. ganviTarebis banki esaa specializebuli sakredito instituti, romelic calkeuli dargebis Tu meurneobriobis sferoebis dabalprocentiani, grZelvadiani dakreditebis saSualebiT axdens saxelmwifos struqturuli politikis ganxorcielebas. saqarTveloSi uaxloes periodSi struqturuli politikis ganxorcielebis mizniT Sesrulda iafi kreditebis progarma, romlis Sedegebzec saubari jer-jerobiT naadrevia, magram Tu mas erTjeradi kompaniis saxe eqneba, miznis miRweva rTuli iqneba, magram Tu igi miiRebs sistematizebul xasiaTs, kerZod, ganviTarebis bankis, an msgavsi struqturis mier iqneba ganxorcielebuli, cxadia, rom miznis miRwevisTvis stimulebi gaizrdeba da Cveni azriT, struqturuli politikis konkretuli miznebis miRwevac ufro advili iqneba. rogorc wesi, ganviTarebis bankebis Camoyalibeba dakavSirebulia qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis konkretuli amocanebis gadawyvetasTan. maTi ZiriTadi Taviseburebebi SemdegSi mdgomareobs: • ar iReben depozitebs; • ar axorcieleben sagadasaxdelo operaciebs; • ar gascemen moklevadian kreditebs. aRniSnulis gverdiT, ganviTarebis bankebis saxsrebis formirebis ZiriTad wyaroebad gamodis: • sabiujeto saxsrebi; • centraluri (erovnuli) bankis saxsrebi; • grZelvadiani kapitalis erovnuli da transerovnuli bazrebidan mobilizebuli saxsrebi; • ganviTarebis bankis mier sakredito operaciebidan miRebuli mogeba. dReisTvis ganviTarebis bankebi aqtiurad funqcionireben ganviTarebuli ekonomikis iseT qveynebSi, rogorciaa: italia, germania, iaponia, safrangeTi, espaneTi, norvegia da a.S. italiaSi ganviTarebis banki (ganviTarebis rekonstruqciis instituti) jer

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kidev XX saukunis dasawyisSi (1930 w.) Seiqmna. dReisTvis am qveyanaSi msgavsi daniSnulebis ramdenime institutia Camoyalibebuli. iaponiaSi msgavsi banki meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi iqna Camoyalibebuli, romelsac saxelmwifo safinanso korporaciis saxe hqonda da misi mTavari daniSnuleba iyo, arsebuli sqemis Sesabamisad, prioritetuli dargebis ekonomikis rekonstruqciis mxardaWera. ufro mogvianebiT, amave mizniT Seiqmna iaponiis eqsport-importis banki. aRsaniSnavia, rom, rogorc wesi, iaponiaSi ganviTarebis bankebis mier xorcieldeba konkretuli proeqtebis danaxarjebis 30-50%-is dafarva, dabali fiqsirebuli saprocento gankveTiT 28 wlis vadiT. amasTanave, iaponiaSi aucilebelia ganviTarebis bankebisgan kreditis misaRebad garantia an girao. germaniaSi am saxis bankidan yvelaze cnobilia aRorZinebis sakredito dawesebuleba, romelic aseve meore msoflio omis Semdgom iqna daarsebuli da misi daniSnuleba iyo marSalis gegmis mxardaWera. igi Tavisi arsiT saaqcio sazogadoebaa, romelSic saaqcio kapitalis 80% federalur mTavrobas, xolo 20% adgilobriv xelisuflebas ekuTvnoda. aRniSnul banks gansakuTrebuli uflebebic aqvs. kerZod, saqmianobis konkretuli saxeebis dafinansebisas igi Tavisufldeba gadasaxadebidan da misi uflebebi utoldeba bundes bankis uflebebs. did britaneTSi ganviTarebis bankebidan erT-erT yvelaze cnobil banks warmoadgens samrewvelo da komerciuli finansirebis korporacia, romelic 1945 wels iqna dafuZnebuli inglisis bankis, Sotlandiis bankisa da londonis bankis mier da misi ZiriTadi mizani iyo mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTareba dakreditebis gziT. 1973 wels igi ukve sxva saxeliT - `finansebi industriisTvis~, xolo 1983 wlidan ki _ `industriis invetoris~ saxeliT funcqionirebs. sxva qveynebSi funqcionirebadi msgavsi bankebisgan gansxvavebiT, igi dReisTvis mosaxleobidan depozitebis miRebasac axorcielebs. amgvarad, msoflios ganviTarebuli ekonomiksis qveynebSi ganviTarebis bankebis funqcionirebis arsebuli praqtikidan gamomdinare, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia saqarTveloSi msgavsi daniSnulebis bankebis funqcionirebis stimulireba sakanonmdeblo da sabiujeto instrumentebis gamoyenebiT. maTi umTavresi miznia mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTarebisTvis sainvesticio proeqtebis ganxorcielebis gansazRvra. amavdroulad, ekonomikis calkeuli sferoebis instituciuri seqtorebisa da regionebis WrilSi prioritetebis gansazRvra, sainvesticio proeqtebis mizanze orientirebis meqanizmebis SemuSaveba. Lliteratura: 1. SaraSeniZe i. saxelmwifos roli sainvesticio potencialis formirebaSi (Teoriul-koncefciuri aspeqtebi). Jurnali `ekonomika~. 2008. 2. murRulia S., gvelesiani g., narmania d., xuciSvili g., konjaria o. saqarTvelos sagareo vali. saqarTvelos strategiuli kvlevisa da ganviTarebis centri. biuleteni #105. 2007. 3. moxeviSvili T., investiciebis organizacia da dafinanseba saqarTveloSi. Jurnali `ekonomika~. 2007, #7-9. 38-40 gv. 4. siWinava a. investicia da qveynis ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis donis maCveneblebi. Jurnali `ekonomika~, 2007, #10-12, 16-24 gv. 5. Global Competitivenss Report 2006-2007.

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Ilia Sharashenize Post graduate student, Technical University of Georgia Georgia, Tbilisi

Monetary Instruments for the Mobilization of the Investment Potential Summary Direct foreign investments play significant role in the process of transfer of industrial capacities, technologies transfer, management and innovative experience for the host country. Based on the above, the effect on socioeconomic condition of the host country from foreign investments is reflected in the following two directions: support to economic growth and improved effectiveness of use of the national resources. Within the scopes of the monetary system, with respect to activation of the investment potential such banking technology, as project funding, can play significant role. It is the method of investment organization which implies attraction of the resources from various sources. Significant direction of state management and use of the investment potential is stimulation of formation of the development banks. It is the credit institution, which is engaged in implementation of the state politics through individual industries and sectors through low interest rate, long-term credits. Work provides wide overview of the gained experience in the sphere of incorporation and operating of the development banks, conditions of their operation in Georgia. The concluding part of the present work summarizes study results and analyzes several specific issues.

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malxaz Ciqobava ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis sitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi

saxelmwifo univer-

Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri sistemis mdgradoba globaluri krizisis fonze msoflioSi mimdinare globalurma ekonomikurma krizisma iseTi supersaxelmwifo, rogoric amerikis SeerTebuli Statebia, aiZula manamde arnaxuli, eqstroordinaluri nabijebi gadaedga defoltisa da deflaciuri kolafsis Tavidan asacileblad. cxadia, amerikis finansurma da politikurma elitam am mizniT gasuli wlis agvistoSi aswia mTlian Sida produqtTan mimarTebaSi saxelmwifo valis sididis kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli Tamasa. SesaZlebelia Tu ara am politikiT krizisis daZleva, amas, cxadia, momavali gviCvenebs, magram specilistebisa da eqspertebis amocanaa, gansazRvron krizisis namdvili mizezebi, rac safuZvlad daedeba saTanado antikrizisul politikas. ekonomikis sferoSi wamyvani specialistebisa da eqpertebis azriT, Tanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi dawyebuli krizisi xasiaTdeba uprecedento masStabebiT, ramac moicva praqtikulad yvela dinamikurad ganviTarebadi regioni da qveyana. Tanac, is Zlierad aisaxa im subieqtebze, romlebic ufro warmatebuli iyvnen bolo aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi, CamorCenili qveynebi da regionebi ki misgan naklebad dazaraldnen. yvelaze seriozuli problemebi SeimCneva iq, sadac adgili hqonda ekonomikur bums, maSin, rodesac depresiuli regionebi TiTqmis ar grZnoben cvlilebebs. kacobrioba msoflio ekonomikisa da misi teqnologiuri bazis struqturis seriozuli ganaxlebis aucileblobis winaSe dgas. bolo wlebSi bevri iyo msjeloba inovaciis mniSvnelobaze, ekonomikis gadayvanaze ganviTarebis inovaciur gzaze; swored amas hqonda adgili safinanso-ekonomikur sferoSi. aq warmoiSva da swrafadve gavrcelda finansuri inovaciebi â&#x20AC;&#x201C; finansuri bazris axali instrumentebi, rasac, rogorc maSin miaCndaT, SeeZlo Seeqmna uwyveti zrdis pirobebi, magram gamoaSkaravda, rom finansuri samyaros liderebs maTze sakmaod bundovani warmodgena hqondaT. erTi mxriv, finansurma inovaciebma gamoiwvia sasaqonlo bazris umravlesobis, upirveles yovlisa, umniSvnelovanesi sanedleulo saqonlis bazris transformireba. magaliTad, navTobze fasebi yovelTvis rTulad prognozirebadi iyo, Tumca is, ase Tu ise, eqvemdebareboda moTxovna-miwodebis Tanafardobas da aqedan gamomdinare, garkveulwilad kontroldeboda navTobis mwarmoebelTa mier. dReisTvis navTobze fasebi formirdeba finansur bazrebze finansuri brokerebis mier, romlebic vaWroben navTobis mowodebasTan dakavSirebuli meoradi finansuri instrumentebiT da Tanac, am finansur instrumentebs praqtikulad araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs aRniSnuli saqonlis realur moZraobasTan. erTi sityviT, samyaro sul ufro virtualuri xdeba da umniSvnelovanesi ekonomikuri indikatorebi yalibdeba warmoebuli finansuri instrumentebis (e.w. derivativebis) bazrebze. saeWvoa, rom es situacia kidev didxans gagrZeldes, radganac materialur RirebulebaTa realuri deficiti Tu siWarbe, adre Tu gvian, mainc Segvaxsenebs Tavs. magram, amjerad unda vaRiaroT virtualuri faqtorebis rolis arsebiTi gaZlierebis faqti umniSvnelovanesi sameurneo proporciebis formirebaSi.

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meore mxriv, inovaciuri finansuri bumis pirobebSi ekonomikurma da politikurma elitam dahkarga finansuri instrumentebis moZraobaze kontroli. Tanamedrove ekonomikuri krizisis mizezTagan erTi ukavSirdeba aSS-is ekonomikis specifikur problemebs; meore - mizezia Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri ganviTarebis sistemur, fundamentur problemebs. mimdinare krizisis mizezebze msjelobisas xSirad akritikeben aSS-is yofili administraciis saqmianobas araadekvaturi fiskaluri da monetaruli politikis gamo. gulisxmoben procikluri politikis ganxorcielebas 2001 wlis recesiis Semdgom, rodesac ekonomikuri zrdis pirobebSi qveyana agrZelebda biujetis deficitis zrdas nacvlad imisa, rom miemarTa klintoniseuli proficituli sabiujeto politikisaTvis. aman asaxva hpova, kerZod, saprocento ganakveTis politikaSi, romelic xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi iyo Zalian dabali, TviT ekonomikuri aRmavlobis periodSic ki. aRniSnuli kursi iTvaliswinebda ekonomikuri zrdis xelovnurad stimulirebas, romelic gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania dasavleTis qveynebisaTvis CineTis ganviTarebis orcifra maCveneblis arsebobis gamo. Sedegad amisa, bevrma mTavrobam gadadga nabiji ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebisaken, Tanac ekonomikis `gadaxurebis~ problema ukve araaqtualuri Canda: Cven xom Zalian Sors wavediT didi depresiis droidan, maT Soris, inteleqtualuri TvalsazrisiTac ki. igive logikiT xelmZRvanelobda ruseTis mTavrobac, rodesac uaxloesi aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi miznad daisaxa qveynis mTliani Siga produqtis gaormagebis amocana, rac aqcents axdenda upiratesad raodenobrivi, moculobiTi maCveneblebis miRwevaze. magram, Tuki rusul variantSi msgavsi politika eyrdnoboda 1990-iani wlebis krizisis Semdgom darCenil Tavisufal sawarmoo simZlavreebs da navTobdolarebis uzarmazar modinebas, amerikuli ekonomika unda ganviTarebuliyo avRaneTsa da eraySi samxedro operaciebis warmoebis paralelurad, romlebic SeuZlebelia dafinansebuliyo federaluri biujetis deficitis gareSe. krizisis damoukidebel faqtorad iqca ekonomikuri zrdis uprecedento tempebi, ramac 2003-2007 wlebSi msoflio GDP-is moculoba meoTxediT gazarda. aseTi aRmavlobis periodSi gardauvalia sistemuri winaaRmdegobebis dagroveba, rac keTildReobis zrdis fonze uCinari xdeba. misi gacnobierebis drosac ki Zalian rTulia saqmeSi Careva da raimes gamosworeba: marTlac, ra saWiroa ama Tu im SemzRudveli an makoreqtirebeli RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba, rodesac yvelaferi isedac SesaniSnavadaa. arsebobs globalizaciis sxva aspeqtic, romelic agreTve (axal instrumentebTan erTad) aRiarebulia usasrulo finansuri warmatebisa da momdevno zrdis wyarod. am fenomens n. fergiusonma uwoda kimerika (Chimerica) - romelic warmoebulia CineTisa da amerikis qveynebis saxelwodebebisgan.91 msjeloba exeba globaluri disbalansis formirebas, romelic aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi ganixileboda, rogorc mdgradi msoflio ekonomikis zrdis safuZveli. Sedegad Camoyalibda reJimi, romelic XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze arsebuli globalizaciis modelis sapirispiroa: Tuki asi wlis winaT kapitali centridan (ganviTarebuli qveynebidan) periferiebisken (imdroindeli emerging markets-ken) moZraobda, amJamad ganviTarebadi bazrebi danazogebis centrebia, xolo aSS da sxva ganviTarebuli qveynebi upiratesad momxmareblebi. Tanamedrove kriziss gaaCnia kidev erTi fundamenturi winapiroba. bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi biznesis miznobrivma funqciam seriozuli transforma91

Ferguson N. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. L.: The Penguin Press, 2008.

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cia ganicada. korporaciaTa ganviTarebis sakvanZo orientirad iqca kapitalizaciis zrda. swored es maCvenebeli ainteresebT yvelaze metad aqcionerebs da swored amis mixedviT fasdeba Cvens droSi menejmentis efeqtianobac. amasTan, maqsimaluri kapitalizaciisaken swrafva winaaRmdegobaSi vardeba socialur-ekonomikuri progresis realur safuZvelTan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sromis mwarmoeblurobis amaRlebasTan. kapitalizaciis zrda, rasakvirvelia, Sromis mwarmoeblurobas ukavSirdeba, magram mxolod rogorc saboloo Sedegi. finansuri angariSi ki aqcionerebis winaSe wardgenil unda iqnes yovelwliurad, xolo sasurveli wliuri angariSgebis misaRebad, kerZod, kapitalizaciis mimdinare zrdis SesanarCuneblad saWiro xdeba ara is, rac uzrunvelyofs mwarmoeblurobis zrdas, aramed - firmebis Serwymas da erTis mier meoris STanTqmas, radganac aqtivebis moculobis zrda ganapirobebs kapitalizaciis zrdas. amave dros, ra Tqma unda, ar unda daixuros CamorCenili sawarmoebic, radganac mimdinare periodSi es gamoiwvevs kapitalizaciis Semcirebas. yovelive amis Sedegad, mravali msxvili samrewvelo korporaciis SemadgenlobaSi SenarCundeba Zveli, araefeqtiani warmoeba. krizisma msoflio ekonomikuri da politikuri elitis Soki gamoiwvia. aravin eloda mis aseT siRrmesa da gavrcelebis siswrafes92. Tavdapirveli reaqcia krizisis mimarT sakmaod qaosuri iyo; ganviTarebuli qveynebis da maT Soris, aSS-s mTavroba Seecada daemuxruWebina misi gavrceleba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoboda problemaTa or bloks: pirveli, ar daSvebuliyo sakredito sistemis kolafsi, e.i. gadarCeniliyo finansuri institutebi; meore, aRkveTiliyo an Tundac Sesustebuliyo recesia da Tavi daeRwiaT warmoebis Rrma vardnisagan. aSS-s mTavrobam, ufrTxoda ra sabanko sistemis kolafsisa da deflaciuri Sokis dadgomas, mimarTa agresiul RonisZiebebs mis SesanarCuneblad da mkveTri nabijebi gadadga sawarmoo aqtivobis stimulirebisken. umniSvnelovanes RonisZiebaTa Soris aRsaniSnavia: likvidobis SeTavazeba; fizikuri pirebis sabanko anabrebze garantiebis gafarToveba; bankebis nawilis gamosyidva saxelmwifos mier; refinansirebis ganakveTis agresiuli Semcireba; `stimulirebis gegmis~ miReba (sabiujeto ineqciebi realur seqtorSi moTxovnis SesanarCuneblad). aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom mravali qveynis mTavrobam mimarTa erovnuli valutis gacvliTi kursis Semcirebas aSS-s dolaris mimarT. am politikis Sedegi unda yofiliyo saerTaSoriso rezervebis SenarCuneba da is Siga warmoebis stimulirebis damatebiT faqtorad unda gadaqceuliyo. Tumca amgvar RonisZiebebs mxolod seriozuli makroekonomikuri disproporciebi mohyva. didi ekonomikuri ryevebisa da krizisebis buneba da meqanizmi yovelTvis gamocanad rCeba - bolomde Seucnobelia. aRniSnuli movlenebi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi mecnierTa diskusiis sagania, Tumca maTze calsaxa pasuxi jerac ar gacemula. nebismier sistemaSi krizisis arsi sxva araferia, Tu ara masSi garkveul winaaRmdegobaTa Sedegebis dagroveba im donemde, romlis iqiT sistema iwyebs rRvevas. Tanamedrove saxelmwifoebis (upirveles yovlisa, ganviTarebuli qveynebis) monetaruli sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Sinagani winaaRmdegoba, romlis mizezebi istoriis siRrmeSi imaleba. pirveli bankebis daarsebisa da mevaxSeobis dros fulis rols ZiriTadad oqro asrulebda. mevaxSeebi mas agrovebdnen da gascemdnen procentebiT. sesxebi mewarmeebs saSualebas aZlevda gamoeSvaT saqoneli da maTi meSveobiT amonagebi 92

Giles Ch. The Vision Thing//Financial Times. 2008, Nov. 26.

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fuliT anazRaurebdnen vals. ekonomikaSi fuli sakmarisi iyo rogorc sesxis ZiriTadi Tanxis, aseve procentebis dasabruneblad, radganac oqro mudmivad moipoveboda msoflioSi. misi raodenoba da Rirebuleba, rogorc fulis masisa ekonomikaSi, sul ufro izrdeboda. Tu bazarze fuli arasakmarisi iyo, maSin oqros fasi izrdeboda, rac bunebrivia, astimulirebda mis mopovebas. amgvarad, garkveulwilad wydeboda fulad-sakredito sistemaSi ZiriTadi winaaRmdegoba: kreditebis moculobasa da procentebTan erTad kreditebis dabrunebis aucileblobas Soris. es ukanaskneli moculobiT yovelTvis aRemateboda da aRemateba ekonomikaSi gacemuli kreditebis saerTo raodenobas. magram oqro kargaxania rac gavida mimoqcevis sferodan, Tumca `gardacvlil TaobaTa tradiciebi koSmariviT awveba cocxlebis gonebas~ (karl marqsi). Tanamedrove pirobebSi, axorcieleben ra sakuTari fulis ekonomikaSi gaSvebas, emisiis yvela erovnuli centri kvlavac uZvelesi sqemis mixedviT moqmedebs. maSasadame, Tu romelime centraluri saemisio banki gascems kredits, vTqvaT, 100 laris odenobiT, is Semdgom ibrunebs sesxis mimRebisgan, anu ekonomikisgan Tavis 100 lars, Tanac, procentebTan erTad! elementaruli ariTmetikidan gamomdinareobs logikuri kiTxva: saidan unda gaCndes ekonomikaSi sakmarisi Tanxa kreditebisa da procentebis dasabruneblad, Tu yvela saemisio centri ekonomikaSi axdens mxolod kreditebis toli Tanxis emisias? pasuxi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom nebismieri qveynis fulad-sakredito sistemis funqcionireba aseTi modeliT SesaZlebelia mxolod da mxolod centraluri saemisio bankebis mier sul ufro mzardi sakredito `sapnis buStebis~ winmswrebi `gaberviT~. Tu aseTi sakredito-saemisio procesis maTematikur models avagebT Excel-is cxrilis daxmarebiT, TvalnaTliv vnaxavT, rom vali dasabrunebeli kreditebis mixeviT procentebTan erTad ufro swrafad izrdeba, vidre mimoqcevaSi fuladi masis nazrdi. kreditebze valis dabruneba procentebTan erTad urTierTobaTa am sistemis dros fizikurad SeuZlebelia mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis ukmarisobis gamo rogorc calkeuli qveynis ekonomikis, ise msoflio ekonomikis masStabiT. krizisi, romelic daiwyo aSS-Si da gavrcelda msoflioSi, swored zemoTaRniSnuli bunebis matarebelia. msoflioSi dagrovebulia gonebisTvis miuwvdomeli davalianebis saerTo Tanxa, romlis sididem specialistTa SefasebiT 2009 wlis dasawyisisTvis 60 trln dolari Seadgina, romelic mTeli planetis wliuri mTliani Sida produqtis tolia. 2008 wlisaTvis aSS-Si mimoqcevaSi arsebul yovel dolarze modioda daaxloebiT ori dolaris odenobis krediti. dolarebSi gacemuli axali kreditebis emisia, maSin roca adre emitirebuli dolarebis dabruneba yovndeba, iwvevs maTi arauzrunvelyofili masis moculobis zrdas aSS-sa da msoflioSi. imisaTvis, rom planetis mosaxleoba upiratesobas aniWebdes danazogebis dolarebSi Senaxvas, Tanamedrove globaluri politika mimarTulia dolaris mimarT erovnuli valutebis devalvaciisa da inflaciisaken. aris Tu ara ekonomikaSi fulis miwodebis Semcireba gamosavali Seqmnili situaciidan? `ekonomikaSi fulis miwodebis Semcireba umravlesi ekonomikuri krizisebis mizezia (milton fridmani). ekonomikaSi fulis miwodebis Semcireba warmoSobs produqciis gasaRebis problemas, amcirebs warmoebis zrdis tempebsa da moculobas, organizaciebs ugrovdebaT debitoruli da kreditoruli davalianebebi, mkveTrad ecema sagadasaxado Semosavlebi. biujetis mimarT moTxovnilebebi, piriqiT, izrdeba mewarmeebis, mosaxleobis yvelaze SeWirvebuli fenebisa da umuSevrebisadmi daxmarebis gawevis aucileblobidan gamomdinare, rac saxelmwifos aiZulebs axali kreditebiT uz-

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runvelyos mTavrobebi, daexmaros bankebs, gaiRos subsidiebi, gasces Semweobebi. Zveli kreditebis dabrunebis Seferxebis SemTxvevaSi axali emisia aCqarebs inflacias. produqciis gamoSveba fasebis zrdis gareSe wamgebiani xdeba, xolo misi zrda - SeuZlebeli, radganac iwvevs moTxovnis Semdgom Semcirebas msyidvelobiTunarianobis Semcirebis gamo. garda zemoTqmulisa, mimdinare globaluri krizisis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezi msoflio ekonomikis disproporciaSi gamoixateba, rac gamowveulia aSS-is, iaponiisa da evropis warmoebis potenciur SesaZleblobebs, maTi Siga bazrebis gajerebasa (Warbwarmoebas) da produqciis gasaRebisaTvis adekvaturi bazrebis ararsebobas Soris udidesi garRveviT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, msoflio ganviTarebis araTanabarzomierebis Sedegia. es ki ganpirobebulia dasavleTis qveynebis istoriuli surviliT SeinarCunon TavianTi hegemonia mesame samyaros qveynebis eqsploataciiTa da CamorCenilobis konservaciiT, rac maT bumerangiviT daubrundaT. albaT, dasavlur ekonomikaSi mdgomareoba bevrad ukeTesi iqneboda, e.w. mesame samyaros qveynebs ufro ganviTarebuli ekonomika rom hqondeT. es ukanaskneli momenti ekonomikis dargSi nobelis premiis laureatis, jozef stiglicis sityvebiT `globaluri moTxovnis sisustiT~ saxeldeba. `mniSvnelovani problemebi, romlebic Cvens winaSea, SeuZlebelia daiZlios azrovnebis imave doniT, riTac isini SevqmeniT~ (albert ainStaini). sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, fulad-sakredito principebis fundamenturi cvlilebebis gareSe es krizisi saxelmwifoebis mier ara Tu daiZleva, aramed piriqiT, sul ufro gamwvavdeba. garda amisa, ekonomikis mdgrad ganviTarebas unda axasiaTebdes zrdis optimaluri tempebi, romlis zemoTac sistemas `gadaxureba~ emuqreba. zrdis optimaluri tempebi miRweul unda iqnes sabanko rezervebisa da saprocento ganakveTebis cvlilebis moqnili politikiT, agreTve moqnili anticikluri sagadasaxado da sabiujeto politikiT. unda gadaidgas recesiis sawinaaRmdego nabijebi valebis gamosyidviT, restruqturizaciiT, SesaZlo nawilobrivi CamoweriTa Tu misi gaufasurebiT, aseve likvidurobis drouli miwodebiT. Malkhaz Chikobava Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Associate Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Stability of the Modern Global Economic System against the Global Crisis Summary Causes of the modern economic crisis are discussed in the present work. Bankruptcies of financial institutions are caused by a number of reasons. Besides granting of doubtful credits, they include excessive use derivatives, inflow of cheap money from the countries with the developing market economy, inadequate measures of monetary accommodation, the inconsistent policy of the governments and improper execution of supervising functions. Financial crisis of the USA is not yet finished. On the contrary, the second strike is coming. Moreover, it will touch not only the USA, but the other countries as well. Predicting how the world financial crisis shall develop is quite difficult. Problems provoking the first crisis strike are very far from total overcoming, including serious problems in European economy. Finally, notwithstanding non-existence of unique answer about global crisis, there is always way out. To overcome crisis fundamental changes in modern monetary system are necessary.

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eka Coxeli ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi biznesis mdgradi ganviTarebis strategia kompaniebi, biznesi ganxorcielebisas, mudmivad zrunaven minimum arsebuli kapitalis SenarCunebaze, maqsimum mis zrdaze. Tumca aseT damokidebulebas isini ar gamoxataven bunebrivi da adamianuri resursebis mimarT. amitom kompaniebisTvis sul ufro aqtualuri xdeba mdgrad ganviTarebaze orientacia. kompaniebisaTvis mdgradi ganviTarebis miRweva niSnavs ekonomikuri ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas, mogebis zrdas da ekonomikur efeqtianobas, dainteresebuli mxareebis moTxovnebis dakmayofilebas, aseve bunebrivi resursebis dacvas, SenarCunebas da zrdas. Ees gansazRvreba Seesabameba garemos dacvisa da ganviTarebis msoflio komisiis mier SemuSavebul koncefcias, sadac aRiarebulia, rom kompaniebis mizania ekonomikuri zrdis miRweva, Tumca igi unda akmayofilebdes dainteresebuli pirebis (aqcionerebi, kreditis gamcemebi, momxmarebeli, TanamSromlebi, momwodeblebi da sazogadoeba) moTxovnilebebs da zrunavdes bunebrivi da adamianuri resursebze. 93 Dgavrcelebulia azri, rom garemos dacvasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi mniSvnelovania, magram kompaniebis mudmivi swrafva ekonomikuri zrdisken iwvevs maT sul ufro metad gaRrmavebas, Tavis mxriv mudmivi zrunva garemos dacvaze da mkacri regulirebis SemoReba xSirad aferxebs ekonomikur zrdas. amitom roca kompaniebis winaSe ismeba kiTxva: jansaRi garemo Tu ekonomikuri zrda? pasuxi calsaxaa, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miRweva ekologiuri da socialuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT. kompaniis mdgradi ganviTareba ukavSirdeba iseT aspeqtebs, rogoricaa: ekonomikuri ganviTareba, socialuri keTildReoba da garemos dacva erTdroulad. mdgrad ganviTarebaze orientacia aris TavisTavad kargi biznesisaTvis. igi qmnis farTo SesaZleblobebs momwodeblebisaTvis, garemos developerebisTvis, romlebic icaven resursebs, firmebisTvis, romlebic investiciebs deben ekoefeqturobis amaRlebaSi da yvelasTvis, romlebsac wvlili SeaqvT socialur keTildReobaSi. aseTi kompaniebi aRweven konkurentuli upiratesobas da adgilobrivi sazogadoebis keTilganwyobas. aRsaniSnavia, rom biznesis roli ekonomikis mdgrad ganviTarebaSi aris ganusazRvreli. Tumca misi wvlili gansaxvavebulia seqtorebisa da kompaniebis zomebis mixedviT. biznesis zogierTi lideri miiCnevs, rom biznesis principuli mizani unda iyos fulis keTeba, zogierTi ki aRiarebs farTo socialur rols. ar arsebobs konsensusi biznesis liderebs Soris, rogorc daicvan balansi sakuTar viwro interesebsa da sazogadoebis keTildReobisken mimarTul qmedebebs Soris. ekonomikuri zrdis SenarCunebisTvis kompaniebs mudmivad uxdebaT arCevani â&#x20AC;&#x153;ra surs gaakeTos" da "ra unda gaakeTosâ&#x20AC;? Soris. Tumca kompaniebis saqmianobis Sefaseba qveynebis ganviTarebis donis mixedviT, gviCvenebs, rom rom ganviTarebul qveynebSi fokusireba xdeba garemos dacvaze, ganviTarebad qveynebSi ki, swraf da mdgrad ganviTarebas eniWeba gadamwyveti mniSvneloba. 93

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Sevronis korporaciis garemos dacvis saqmeTa menejeri uiliam ulligani, gamoxatavs im saqmiani wreebis Tvalsazriss, visac sjera, rom garemo unda iyos yvelaze mniSvnelovani kompaniebisaTvis. igi ambobs: "mxolod upasuxismgeblo kompanias SeuZlia Secvalos es tendencia da ar aRiaros garemos dacviTi RonisZiebebis integrirebis saWiroeba biznesis sxva aspeqtTan. garemos dacva maRal doneze unda gaxdes strategiuli azrovnebis nawili... garemos dacvisa da ekonomikuri mosazrebebis harmonizacia da maTi TandaTanobiTi CarTva politikaSi unda gaxdes realuri perspeqtiva... bevri aRmasruleblebi adasturebs, rom mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis ganxorcieleba aRZravs karg gancdebs biznesSi.â&#x20AC;?94 mravali cnobili kompaniebis menejerebs miaCniaT, rom Tavis mxriv garemos dacvas SeuZlia raRac SesTavazos bizness. erT-erT interviuSi jon elkingtoni, garemos mdgradi ganviTarebis sakonsultacio jgufidan, ambobs: "Cven vxedavT korporatiuli garemos dacviTi mimarTulebis (environmentalism) dabadebas. mdgradi ganviTarebis mTavari biZgi momavalSi albaT biznesidan wamova.â&#x20AC;? magaliTad, cnobilia, rom mravali momxmarebeli aris mzad gadaixados meti ekologiurad sufTa produqciaSi, aseve xSirad iqmneba eTikuri sainvesticio fondebi, romlebic aqcents akeTebs korporatiuli garemos dacviTi RonisZiebebis dafinansebaze. aseTi momentebi kompaniebs saSualebas aZlevs Seicvalon Sinaganad, da ara garedan momxmareblebis an garemos damcvelebis zewolis gamo. mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefcia unda iyos biznes kompaniis politikis nawili. igi unda iyos integrirebuli biznesis dagegmvisa da menejmentis sainformacio da kontrolis sistemebTan, rac Tavis mxriv moiTxovs organizaciul kulturaSi cvlilebebs da marTvis sistemebisa da procedurebis srulyofas. mdgradi gaviTarebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli gadawyvetilebis mimRebebisa da mmarTvelebis qmedebebSi. A mdgradi ganviTarebis misaRwevad menejerebi axdenen strategiis formirebas, romelmac unda uzrunvelyos kompaniis warmatebasTan erTad dainteresebuli mxareebis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba, garemos dacva. misi SemuSaveba sakmaod specifikuria da Cveulebrivi strategiis SemuSavebisagan gansxvaveviT moicavs damatebiT aspeqtebs. kompaniisMmdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSaveba ukavSirdeba, iseTi nabijebis gadadgmas, rogoricaa:  garemosa da dainteresebuli mxareebis analizi. rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, kompaniis mdgradi ganviTareba ZiriTadad ukavSirdeba ekonomikur, socialur da garemos dacvis aspeqtebs. amitom kompaniam strategiis SemuSavebisas, upirveles yovlisa unda moaxdinos im garemo faqtorebis analizi, romlebic zemoqmedebas axdens mis warmatebaze, mogebis zrdaze Tu ekonomikur efeqtianobaze. kerZod, unda Sefasdes kompaniis gare garemo da Siga viTareba: ekonomikuri, politikuri socialur-kulturuli, mecnierul-teqnikuri da teqnologiuri mdgomareoba, samarTlebrivi regulireba; industriaSi arsebuli mdgomareoba; kadrebi, marTvis organizacia (warmoeba, organizaciuli, operaciuli da teqnikur-teqnologiuri maxasiaTeblebi; mecnieruli kvlevebi), finansebi, marketingi, organizaciuli kultura. dainteresebuli mxareebis analizi saWiroa yvela piris dasadgenad, romlebic pirdapir Tu iribad gavlenas axdens sawarmos saqmianobaze. axorcielebs ra biznes, kompaniam unda aiRos garkveuli pasuxismgebloba maT mimarT. am saukunis dasawyisSi, kompaniis strategiebi ZiriTadad mimarTuli iyo maqsimaluri Semosavlebis miRebisken da maT mizans ar warmoadgenda socialuri pasuxismgebloba da 94

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garemos dacva. dRes, gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebul qveynebSi biznes kompaniebi funqcionireben ufro rTul da regulirebad garemoSi. mravali kanoni, maT Soris saerTaSoriso konvenciebi, memorandumebi, deklaraciebi, rogoricaa: socialuri pasuxismgeblobis maregulirebeli zogadi standartebi, saerTaSoriso standartebi garemos, adamianis uflebebis, SromiTi uflebebis, momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvisa da produqciaze pasuxismgeblobis sferoSi, aiZulebs maT pasuxismgebeli iyvnen dainteresebuli mxareebis ufro farTo speqtris mimarTac da izrunon garemos dacvaze. amitom, dainteresebuli mxareebis identificireba aris mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefciis centraluri komponenti. maTi analizi iwyeba sxvadasxva jgufebis gamovleniT, romlebzec gavlenas axdens biznesis aqtivobebi. igi moicavs aqcionerebs, kreditorebs, TanamSromlebs, momxmareblebs, momwodeblebs da sazogadoebas, romelSic sawarmo funqcionirebs, aseve pirebs, romlebic dazaralebulebi arian, an romlebic Tvlian Tavs dazaralebulad im movlenebiT, romelic gamowveulia kompaniis saqmianobis zegavleniT biosferoze da socialur kapitalze. dainteresebuli mxareebis jgufebis identificirebis Semdeg, menejmenti ayalibebs maT moTxovnebsa da molodinebs. aq unda gadmoices, rogorc mimdinare aseve momavali moTxovnebi da unda gakeTdes daskvna rogor gavlenas - pozitiurs Tu negatiurs, axdens organizaciis saqmianoba TiToeul dainteresebul mxareze. imis gamo, rom dainteresebuli jgufebis moTxovnebi mudmivad viTardeba, monitoringi unda iyos uwyveti procesi. rac damatebiT saSualebas iZleva dasawyisSive gamovlindes da aRmoifxvras SesaZlo mosalodneli konfliqtebi dainteresebul mxareebs Soris. magaliTad, momxmarebels SeuZlia moiTxovos axali, ekologiurad sufTa produqcia, xolo aseTma politikam SeiZleba safrTxe Seuqmnas momuSaveebs samuSao adgilebis Semcirebis saxiT, aqcionerebs investiciebidan ukugebis miRebis saxiT.  mdgradi ganviTarebis politikisa da miznebis gansazRvra. organizaciis mdgradi ganviTarebis politikisa da konkretuli miznebis formirebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ekuTvnis menejerebs. marTalia mdgradi ganviTareba niSnavs mets, vidre mxolod â&#x20AC;&#x17E;garemos dacvaaâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, garemos dacvaze orientirebuli politika aris kargi pirveli nabiji. Tumca menejmentma aseve unda gaiTvaliswinos dainteresebuli mxareebis moTxovnebi da molodinebi, romelic ekonomikur da ekologiur aspeqtebTan erTad aseve unda aisaxos kompaniis misiaSi. aseTi politika unda daedos safuZvlad dagegmvis process da faseulobebs, romliskenac miiswrafis menejmenti, TanamSromlebi da sxva dainteresebuli jgufebi. Mdgradi ganviTarebis politikis SemuSavebisas aucilebelia:  garemos dacvis moTxovnebis gaTvaliswineba biznesis dagegmvisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi, romelic ukavSirdeba produqtis kvlevebsa da ganviTarebas, sawarmos axali meTodebis SemuSavebas, kompaniebis STanTqmas / divestirebas;  garemos dacvis riskebis identificireba, Sefaseba da marTva kompaniis da produqtis mTeli sasicocxlo ciklis ganmavlobaSi, raTa Semcirdes arasasurveli Sedegebis albaToba;  yvela SesaZlo iuridiuli da maregulirebeli moTxovnebis Sesruleba da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, ufro mkacri standartebis miReba TanamSromlebisa da im sazogadoebis dacvisaTvis, romelSic kompanias uwevs moqmedeba;  formaluri garemos dacvis programis SemuSaveba da konkretuli, gazomvadi miznebis gansazRvra;

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 garemos dacvis programis warmatebis Sefaseba regulirebis moTxovnebis, programis miznebsa da praqtikulobis Sesabamisobis kuTxiT;  miznebis miRwevis saxelmZRvanelo principebisa da meTodebis damuSaveba, gaanalizeba da gamoyeneba;  garemos dacvis saqmianobis Sesaxeb sajaro wliuri Semajamebeli angariSis momzadeba da miReba;  muSaoba momwodeblebTan, momxmareblebTan da biznes partniorebTan, raTa erTad miiRwes garemos dacvis rac SeiZleba maRali standartebi;  urTierTobebis damyareba sxva dainteresebul mxareebTan, rogorica mTavroba, samecniero sazogadoeba, saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi, sazogadoebrivi jgufebi da farTo sazogadoeba;  regularuli komunikaciebis uzrunvelyofa da treningebis ganxorcieleba TanamSromlebis garemos dacvis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT cnobierebis amaRlebisTvis. mniSvnelovania, rom mdgradi ganviTarebisaTvis miznebi iyos naTeli, lakonuri da, sadac SesaZlebelia, gamoxatuli gazomvadi saxiT. mas Semdeg, rac mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebi Camoyalibda, menejmentma unda Seadaros konkurentuli da finansuri strategiebi am miznebs. SeiZleba, zogierT sferoSi, biznes strategia iyos Sesabamisi mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebTan, zogierT sferoSi ki SeiZleba ewinaaRmdegebodes mas. ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSi, strategiebi SeiZleba Seicvalos, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebi. sxva sityvebiT, biznes strategiam unda uzrunvelyos mdgradi ganviTareba. efeqturi monitoringi aris is ZiriTadi instrumenti, romelic uzrunvelyofs strategiis mudmiv srulyofas, raTa ganxorcieldes mdgradi ganviTarebis politika da miznebi cvalebad garemoSi. informacia mudmivad unda iZleodes cnobebs iseT sakvanZo sakiTxebze, rogoricaa:  axali da SeTavazebuli kanonmdebloba;  industriis standartebi;  konkurentebis strategiebi;  Tanamegobrobisa da gansakuTrebuli interesebis jgufebis politika da saqmianobebi;  profkavSirebis gavlenis xarisxi;  teqnikuri movlenebi, rogoricaa axali teqnologiuri procesebi.  strategiis SemuSaveba da danergva. mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebis misaRwevad mniSvnelovania strategiis SemuSaveba. igi gulisxmobs dasaxuli miznebis miRwevisaken mimarTuli moqmedebebis SemuSavebas, romelSic gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba garemoSi mimdinare cvlilebebi da menejerebis Zalisxmeva ipovon axali SesaZleblobebi, raTa kompania gaxdes erTi mxriv, ufro Zlieri, momgebiani, meore mxriv, socialur pasuxismgeblobaze da garemo dacvaze orientirebuli. ramdenadac garemoSi mimdinare cvlilebebi uwyvetia, kompaniis strategia mudmivad moiTxovs reformirebas. strategiis Secla aucilebelia konkurentunarianobis amaRlebisa da bazarze mimdinare cvlilebebze reagirebisaTvis.Aamitom strategiis cvlileba yovelTvis aucilebelia. strategiis formireba uwyveti procesia da ara erTjeradi moqmedeba. aRsaniSnavia strategiis SemuSavebasa da realizaciaSi wamyvani roli menejerebs, xolo strategiuli roli direqtorTa sabWos ukavia. Tumca xSirad kompaniaSi mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebis misaRwevad aqtiurad xdeba komunikacia dainteresebul mxareebTan, maTi CarTva strategiis formirebaSi xels uwyobs maTi inte-

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resebis maqsimalur gaTvaliswinebas, aseve garemos dacvis kuTxiT zogierT kompaniaSi iqmneba komitetebi an departamentebi, romlebic Tavis mxriv ufro srulyofils xdis strategias. Cveulebriv menejerebi awvdian informacias direqtorTa sabWos mTavari strategiuli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb da aseve axdenen strategiuli gegmebis oficialur wardgenas am organoSi dasamtkiceblad. direqtorTa sabWos mTavari amocanaa – strategiuli gegmebis Sefaseba da damtkiceba, praqtikuli amocana ki – strategiis SemuSavebasa da realizaciaSi umaRlesi xelmZRvanelebis kompetenciebis Sefaseba da mis safuZvelze konkretuli gadawyvetilebebis miReba: xelfasis momateba, premiebis gacema da a.S; strategiis danergva aris yvelaze rTuli da xangrZlivi procesi. strategiis warmatebiT ganxorcieleba kompanias aZlevs saSualebas miaRwios Tavis dasaxul miznebs. strategiis danergva aris Teoriulad formirebuli strategiis gardaqmna konkretul RonisZiebebSi. strategiis danergva da realizacia moiTxovs dagegmili Sedegebis misaRwevad konkretuli moqmedebebis gansazRvrasa da ganxorcielebas. strategiis danergva es aris wminda administraciuli saxis saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia Semdegi amocanebis gadaWraze: biujetis gadaxedva; organizaciuli cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba efeqturi kompaniis formirebis mizniT; strategiis mxardamWeri politikisa da proceduris SemuSaveba; informaciuli, komunikaciuri, operaciuli da eleqtronuli sistemebis danergva; organizaciuli kulturis, dajildoebisa da anazRaurebis sistemis Secvla; saTanado xelmZRvaneloba; strategiis gadaxedvis Sesaxeb personalis informireba.  strategiis Sesrulebis Sedegebis Sefaseba da kontroli. Sedegebis Sefaseba da kontroli logikurad aris daskvniTi etapi. kontrolis CatarebiT menejmenti sabolood afasebs, Tu ramdenad SeZlo kompaniam SemuSavebuli strategiiT dasaxuli miznebis miRweva. kontrolis procesi ukavSirdeba Semdegi amocanebis ganxorcielebas: • standartebisa da normativebis SemuSaveba, romliTac unda Sefasdes kompaniis saqmianoba; • kompaniis mdgomareobis Sefaseba SemuSavebuli standartebiTa da normativebiT; • gadaxrebis mizezebis gamokvleva, Tu aseTi aRmoCndeba; • koreqtivebis Setana, Tu igi aucilebelia da/an SesaZlebeli.  angariSgebis momzadeba. Bbolo wlebSi sul ufro da ufro meti kompania aqveynebs mdgradi ganviTarebis angariSebs, romlebic moicavs informacias kompaniis ekonomikuri, socialuri da garemos dacvis maCveneblebis Sesaxeb. mdgradi ganviTarebis angariSgeba, ZiriTadad nebayoflobiTi valdebulebaa. igi zogadad xels uwyobs korporaciuli socialuri pasuxismgeblobis ganviTarebas, radganac angariSgeba erTi mxriv, SesaZleblobas aZlevs kompaniebs ukeT Seafason, dagegmon da marTon sakuTari garemos dacvis da socialuri zegavlenebi, gaaumjobeson sakuTari saqmianoba, xolo, meore mxriv, sazogadoebis yuradRebas amaxvilebs kompaniis socialur pasuxismgebobaze da xels uwyobs sazogadoebis mxridan kompaniaTa mimarT adekvaturi molodinebis Camoyalibebas da Sesabamisad, kompaniis pasuxismgeblobis zrdas.95

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korporaciuli socialuri pasuxismgebloba da sajaro seqtoris roli; strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri; #120; 2011 w; gv. 25

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A amrigad, kompaniisTvis mdgradi ganviTarebis miRweva uzrunvelyofs imijis amaRlebas, momxmarebelTa loialobis zrdas, profesiuli kadrebis mozidvasa da SenarCunebas, efeqtianobis amaRlebas da Sesabamisad danaxarjebis Semcirebas, kapitalis xelmisawvdomobas, saxelmwifo organoebisa da saerTod sazogadoebis keTilganwyobas, konkurentunarianobis amaRlebas da bazarze mowinave poziciebis dakavebas. literatura: 1. www.uneca.org/wssd/links.htm 2. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development 3. http://mapeer-sme.eu/en/programmes-for-smes/search-in-the-online-database/enviromentaltechnologies-and-sustanable-development-FR 4. http://lomseedsofhope.wordpress.com/tag/sustanable-development/ 5. Bussiness_strategy, pdf-foxet reader; Business strategies for sustainable development 6. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_sustanable_development 7. korporaciuli socialuri pasuxismgebloba da sajaro seqtoris roli; strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri; #120, 2011 w 8. eka Coxeli; strategiuli menejmenti; 2009 w Eka Chokheli Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Associate Professor Georgia,Tbilisi Strategy of Business for Sustainable Development Summary Companies always take care of preserving at least the existing capital, but they do not express such an attitude towards natural and human resources. Therefore, at the current stage orientation on the sustainable development become increasingly important for business. To achieve sustainable development means the improvement of economic conditions, revenue growth and improvement of economic efficiency, meeting with stakeholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; requirements together with an environmental protection. To achieve a sustainable development, managers formulate strategy, which is quite specific and related to the steps, such as: the environment and stakeholder analysis, determination of sustainable development policy and objectives, work out and implementation of strategy, monitoring and control of results, preparation of reports.

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Ulyana Shchurko Seniour lecturer, Lviv Institute of Management, Ukraine, Lviv Globalization VS Religion: Christian Principles and the Process of Globalization During the last two decades the change, which occurred in the society and world, concerned all spheres of its life. The processes of globalization and integration are deeper included into our daily life, touching also its spiritual side. And as the world community tries to proceed to the society of an open type, building the relations on the basis of democracy in social-economic life, the influence of Church is felt wider. Active role of the Christian churches in the world processes of development is connected with the distribution of their doctrine, basic concepts and „moral science”. Though in the analysis of the phenomenon of globalization not only Christian religion is engaged, at the present stage of human development it is a natural mechanism, which tries to respond on challenges of history and needs of time. As on the European continent the Christianity is a dominant confession, we will describe the characteristics of its influence on development of the countries economies. The position concerning questions of globalization, integration, international relations, dialogue of civilizations is precisely stated by Catholic and Orthodox Churches religious institutions, which influence on political and economic life of Europe is the greatest (not considering Protestantism). Besides, the positions of these Churches concerning urgent social problems are the most important for the countries of Central and East Europe. So, the analysis will concern an attitude of the Church to the processes of integration and globalization. First the statement of Catholic Church will be addressed, as its achievements and the practical work in social sphere are deeper and older. The first official social document of Vatican was developed and released in the end of XIX cent. - it was the encyclical work of the Pope Leo XIII „Rerum Novarum” (1891). It was time of distribution of industrial revolution for a plenty of countries in the world, change of the industrial relations and occurrence of the international division of labour, the time by its character of changes close to ours. Some researchers consider that the beginnings of globalization appeared already during that period. Later the Apostolic Capital gave out many other documents, which purpose was to adjust public processes and relations. The most important one directly concerning modern processes of world development, is the encyclics of the Pope John Pall II „Centesimus annus” (1991), devoted to the 100th anniversary of the RN. Our analysis will regard separate statements of the document on globalization, integration, and economic development of the countries and international communities. During the new period in the human history deep and fast changes are distributed to the whole world and have an influence on the people. It is possible to speak about the social and cultural changes, which influence religious life as well. These changes bring considerable difficulties, as it happens in the critical period of any increase. Never people used the means and economic force so largely, and nevertheless most part of the inhabitants of the world still suffers from deprivations; political, social, economic, racial and ideological misunderstanding, and a danger of war still exist. The Church recognizes all the facilities of the modern social dynamism, and first of all aspirations of unity, a process of healthy socialization of both public and economic organization. In the social documents it is said that economic development should be under the control of the man, nevertheless not of the separate person or group, which own the large economic power, political communities or some stronger nations. On the contrary, the largest amount of people took in its management active part (CA, 65). The Church encourages its believers to active participation in social-economic processes, making an accent, that the Christians, actively participating in today's economic-social development and protect justice and love, should be convinced, that they can help the mankind of the world. Concerning attitudes to economic processes, the Church considers that the modern economy has positive aspects, which roots are freedom of the person, being expressed in economic, social and many other

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areas (CA, 32). At the same time there are allocated certain risks and problems, connected with this process. Actually, today the overwhelming majority does not own means, which would permit them to enter system of manufacture, where the work will take a real central place. They have no opportunities to get knowledge, which permit to find out creative potential and develop their abilities, neither the way to enter a network of the international communications. These people appear on periphery, and the economic development is carried out without their participation. Such position is close to a position of the economists and scientists, which analyze negative aspects of globalization. Not a long time ago it’s been considered that the development depends on isolation of the poor countries from the global market to let them count on their own forces. The recent experience has shown that the countries, which isolated themselves, have tested stagnation and regress, whereas the countries having managed to enter general interrelation of economic activity at the international level have developed. So, the major problem is the identical access to the international market, access, which is based not on unilateral principle of exploitation of natural resources, but on a worthy estimation of human resources [1]. Characterizing modern processes of globalization and considering its negative aspects, the Pope John Pall II has emphasized, that in case when globalization is guided only by rules of the market in favour of the most powerful, its consequences can be only negative. For example, such as: (1) the approach to economy as to absolute value; (2) unemployment, decline of many public services; (3) threat to an environment, nature; (4) increase of differentiation between the poor and rich; (4) unfair competition, which puts poor nations in the situation of the increasing humiliation. The Concept of Christian restoration takes into account the processes of rationalization and globalization of the economic and political relations and provides influence on them through spiritual sphere - on faith and through faith. As the professor Bartnyk Cz. [2] writes, “after evangelization of human souls there will come the time for evangelization of the bodies, such as economy, state, politics, social life, culture, science, and engineering”. The democracy and freedom of the person and society were implemented as a result of revolutionary processes in the West, have sustained many serious threats from totalitarian systems, and now provide to the European culture and civilization relative stability and prospects of development. In this development the active participation is taken by all Western Churches, becoming the full partners in more fair society, which integral part they are, and which improvement are positively influenced by them [3]. In the Europe of XXI century the Church tries to find the niche, actively participate in its formation through culture: moral, economic, political - to give the interpretation of essence of integration processes and their prospects. The theological idea actively discusses concept “of the all-European house”, essence of globalization processes, economic and political liberalization, problem of “human dimension” of the allEuropean process, which remains in the centre of attention of the professors of theology and history of Christian Churches. In the speech on the Day of peace, January 1 2000, John Pall II emphasized that there was a necessity to overlook the models inspiring the choice of a way of the world’s future development. He advised to coordinate the lawful requirements of an economic efficiency with requirements of political participation and social validity, not running into ideological mistakes made in the XXI century. It is necessary to penetrate by solidarity those interlacings of economic, political and social interrelations, which get stronger under influence of globalization processes. These processes demand re-thinking of the international cooperation in terms of new culture of solidarity [4]. Nevertheless, together with the economic or political questions, the Catholic Church also actively touches the problems connected with other social spheres, in particular, in scientific. In 2003 the Roman Apostolic See turned to the world society to forbid experiences with cloning the man, as the representative of Vatican at the UNO Renato Martino has declared. He has emphasized, that a position of Vatican is based on arguments of biology, anthropology, sociology, ethics and rights of a person. These sciences show that such experiments will result in negative consequences in the field of protection the life, advantage and rights of the man. A vivid example of an active and effective position of Catholic Church and confirmation of its

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existing influence on social processes was the acceptance in March, 2003 by Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe of the law about an interdiction of experiences with cloning the people. Having considered the role and position of Catholic Church in public processes, we shall pass to illumination of sights of Orthodox Church on processes of globalization development. The basic achievement of Russian Orthodox Church, which demonstrates its position and confirms aspiration to assist the decision of the basic social problems, was the basis of the Orthodox doctrine - Basis of the social concept of Russian Orthodox Church. Separate section in this document is devoted to the question of the international relations and problems of globalization and integration. There the same problems as in the Social doctrine of Catholic Church are raised, and the ways of their solving are offered [5]. In the section devoted to the globalization problems, it is said that the peoples and states inevitable enter economic, political, social and other relations. The Christian ideal of behaviour of the people and government in the sphere of the international relations is in the "gold rule": "As you want the people to treat you, you should also treat the others" (Mt. 7:12). Applying this principle not only in personal, but also in public life, the orthodox Christians should remember, that "the God is not in force, but in the truth". Nations and the states almost always have different interests connected with the aspiration to possess political and military domination, reception of the maximal profit from manufacture and trade. The orthodox Christians and their communities, according to the social doctrine of the Church, are called to create such international relations, which would serve satisfaction of lawful interests of the people, nations and all human society (Section XVI.2). In the international economic and trade cooperation the same moral rules, as in general in enterprise activity of the man, should be applied. Interaction of the peoples in the sphere is necessary to establish frankness, validity, aspiration to achieve efficient results of common work by all its participants. Russian Orthodox Church welcomes the international cooperation in cultural, scientific, educational, information spheres, if it is based on equal and tolerant rights. The theme of integrated Europe also causes the interest of Orthodox Church - the former Patriarch Aleksey II at the Council of Russian Orthodox Church (1994) noticed that it was one of the initiators. He also emphasized that Russian Orthodox Church supports the necessity to listen to a voice of Christian churches. Through its representatives the Church certifies Christian attempts concerning the establishment the world constructed on validity, multilateral approach to the solving of various problems; violence, mutual aid, cooperation for preservation of trust [1]. In a history of the Orthodox Church there are the examples of positive influence of Church on development of regional interstate relations. The international organizations assist the decision of different disputes and the conflicts, nevertheless, cannot be underestimated dangers of divergences between the will of the peoples and decisions of the international organizations. These organizations can become the means of unfair domination of the strong countries above weak, rich above poor, technologically advanced above others, practice of the double standards in the sphere of application of international law in the interests of the most influential ones (Such position is close to the appropriate in the Catholic Church) (Section XVI.2). In cultural - information sphere globalization is caused by the development of technologies, which facilitate moving the people and subjects, distribution and reception of the information. The societies, previously divided by distances and borders, so basically homogeneous, today become multicultural easily. Nevertheless this process is accompanied by attempt of establishing domination of rich elite above other people, one culture above others, which in particular is inadmissible in religious sphere. The aspiration is observed to submit in quality of the only possible universal spiritual culture as the culture based on understanding of will of the deserted person, who does not limit himself in anything, as absolute value and truth. Such development in the Christian world is compared to the construction of the Babylon tower. The church reminds that a lot of national cultures have Christian roots and are called to assist strengthening of interrelation of the faith with the cultural inheritance of the peoples, resisting the phenomena of anti-culture and commercialization of creative informational space.

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Recognizing the inevitability of globalization processes, in many respects favorable (dialogue of the people, distribution of the information, effective manufacture-enterprise activity), the Orthodox Church at the same time pays attention to the internal discrepancy of these processes and the dangers connected with them. First, globalization, together with the change of usual ways of organization of economic processes, begins to change traditional ways of organization of a society and realization of authority. Secondly, there are a lot of positive fruits of globalization accessible only to the nations, which make a smaller part of the mankind, but have similar economic and political systems. Other peoples, to which 5/6 population of the planet belongs, appear on the edge of a global civilization. They get in debt dependence from the financiers of the advanced countries and can not create worthy conditions of existence. there grow discontent and disappointment [6]. The Church questions the activity of the transnational corporations and the processes, which occur in the financial sector of economy. Such control, which purpose is the submission of any enterprise and financial activity to the interests of the person and the people, should be carried out through the use of all mechanisms accessible to a society and the state (Section XVI.3). The challenge of globalization requires the worthy answer based on the care of preservation of peaceful life for all people in association with aspiration to their spiritual perfection. It is necessary to achieve such the world order that should be based on the basis of validity and equality of the people before the God. For this reason, invariable keeping open the opportunity of cooperation with the people of not religious belief, Russian Orthodox Church aspires the statement of the Christian values while accepting the major public decisions both at national, and at the international level. The Orthodox Church recognizes that people now face “globalization” of economy - the phenomenon, which should not be ignored, as it can create exclusive opportunities for the even greater well-being. This gradually growing internationalization of economy should be answered by effective international bodies of the control and management, which would direct the economy to the common good. For the achievement of this result, according to the Catholic and Orthodox doctrine, it is necessary, that the coordination between the richest countries would grew, in the international organizations the interests of all peoples should be equally submitted [7]. Actually interdependence of globalization and religion is not unequivocal. The newest globalization is accompanied by the significant revival of religion. All previous previsions about the “death of the God”, gradual death of religion, inevitable secularization of the world have not come true. The religion becomes the full participant in the processes of public discussions. And this phenomenon has the direct relation to globalization, as the religion, on the one hand, transfers the complex world-view systems over the national barriers, and assists formation of “all-world” identity, and on the other - locates universal religious ideas, and, as a result, the national cultures get rid of local limits. Two main roles (positive and negative), which the world religions can play: 1. Mobilize their believers for the protests, basing on interethnic rivalries and fundamentalist mood. 2. Assist the statement of validity and social harmony, influencing on individual and group consciousness and mobilizing believers for the protection of religious freedom, rights of the people, environment, and also achieving a cancellation of the debt of the poor countries. The influence of the Church on social-economic processes and the globalization depends not only on the activity of Church as public institution in general, and from the actions of its every believer in particular. The development of the modern world economy has the certain contradictions, one of which is connected with strengthening the process of regionalization of the world economic space. It is one of the reasons, why Ukraine shows the desire to enter the European Union. It is extremely important for Ukraine, which has chosen the way of free market development, to understand the phenomena, connected with globalization processes. The European integration of Ukraine is a logic consequence of the process of world globalization. Concentrating on effective economic model of socially focused economy, which is based on religious, cultural and ethical principles, on democratic bases of real protection of human rights, should stimulate the changes in the Ukrainian society and, in particular, in economy.

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Religion always played an important role in the life of Ukrainian nation. The researches emphasize on the leading role of religious parts in the national character and consciousness of the Ukrainians, and also named the religiosity to be a characteristic feature of Ukrainian people as social community. The survey concerning the questions, as: „Whether can Church affect on globalization”, „In what way the influence of Church on social-economic processes is found out?” etc was carried out in the Western region of Ukraine. Regarding the basic question of the questionnaire: „Can the Church, in your opinion, affect on globalization processes?” the results were as follows: 61,7 % of the respondents consider that such influence exists, the same positions adhere to 62,5 % of the women and 60 % of the men. 8,3 % of the interrogated have given the negative answer, 28,3 % consider that such influence is practically absent. The results are displayed on a figure 1. 70

62,5

61,7

60

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%

50 yes

40 27,5

30 20 10

30

28,3

no partly

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men

total

respondents

Fig. 1. Distribution of the respondents’ answers to the question “Does the Church influence on globalization process?” (%) According to the data of the interrogation, the men are interested in events of religious life more, than women (70 % and 35 % accordingly), which can have influence on such distribution of results. On the other hand, the religiosity of the women is much higher. Concerning the question about the form of influence of Church on social-economic life, among all priorities were held by the following grade. Among mechanisms of effective influence of Church on public processes on the first place the respondents put speeches of Church hierarchy (26, 7 %), on the second - activity of church communities (26,8 %), third - activity of religious public organizations, and on the last – publishing of the official Church documents (35 %). The important aspect of the Church’s influence is sphere of motivation of the people in the daily and public activity. The Christians should not be indifferent to the world processes and follow the stream, they have a moral duty to „cut a wave”, to be active and to work according to the belief, trying to change the world around for better. The positive influence of Church can be efficient by solving the problems of poverty, unemployment, social help to the ill and needed, in educational and scientific spheres, settlement of problems of social-economic life. The Church can strengthen moral-ethical bases of public life, at the same time helping to overcome difficulties of economic, political and cultural development of the countries and peoples.

Literature: 1. Слово Святейшего Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Алексия II. Боговоплощение и духовный смысл Христианской цивилизации / Московский Патриархат, Отдел религиозного образования и катехизации. - Москва, 2000. - 8 с. 2. Альцати Ч. Римская Церковь и православие в Восточной Европе: Проблемы и перспективы // Новая Европа. – 1997. - №10. 3. Махнач В., Владимиров Л. Параметры христианской политики. – М.: Одигитрия, 2000. - 128 с. 4. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. – Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004. – 525 p.

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5. Основы социальной концепции Русской Православной Церкви. Юбилейный Архиерейский Собор Русской Православной Церкви. Москва, (13-16 августа 2000г.) // Церковь и время. – 2000. – №4. 6. Arrunada B. (2003), Third Party Moral Enforcement: The Case of Christian Behavior / Arrunada B. – 38(1), p. 127-155. 7. Ариспе Л., Абулмагд А., Ашрави Х. Преодолевая барьеры: Диалог между цивилизациями / пер. с англ. Т.П.Вечериной. – М.: Логос, 2002. – 192 с.

Ulyana Shchurko Seniour lecturer, Lviv Institute of Management, Ukraine, Lviv Globalization VS Religion: Christian Principles and the Process of Globalization Summary Attitude of the Christian churches (Catholic and Orthodox) towards the processes of globalization is analyzed. Documents (Social doctrines) of the Churches are compared in the questions of economic, political, social and cultural development of the world. Results of the survey dedicated to Churches’ influence on globalization are offered. Key words: globalization, church, social doctrines.

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nodar xaduri ekonomikis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi qarTuli ekonomikuri modeli da globaluri ekonomika miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo ukve 20 welia damoukidebeli qveyanaa da sabazro ekonomikis principebs nergavs, dRemde gadauWrelia qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis modelis arCevis sakiTxi. bolo wlebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom saqarTvelo xSirad radikalur modelebs irCevs da maTi unikaluri receptiT Serwymis ambiciac gaaCnia. samwuxarod, xSirad ideologiurad SeuTavsebeli modelebis arsis Cauwvdomlad, maTi kopirebis da qarTul garemoSi danergvis mcdelobaa, rac miRweuli warmatebebis SenarCunebis problemas ayenebs. imisaTvis, raTa swori modeli avirCioT, mniSvnelovania Teoriul doneze mainc yvela is safrTxe da potenciuri warmateba gavaanalizoT, romelic ama Tu im modelis arCevam da misma implementaciam SeiZleba gamoiwvios. gasaTvaliswinebelia, isic, rom ekonomikuri procesebis globalizaciss fonze erovnuli ekonomikuri modelis formireba garda wminda Sida problemebisa, sagareo faqtoris gaTvaliswinebasac moiTxovs, rameTu globaluri procesebi Tavisdauneburad iwveven erovnuli mTavrobebis ekonomikuri berketebis garkveulwilad Sesustebas. amasTan mniSvnelovania, sazogadoebam miaRwios konsensuss, Tu rogor politikur filosofias unda daeyrdnos qarTuli saxelmwifos mowyoba, saxelmwifos Sesaxeb organul Teorias Tu meqanikur Teorias . pirvelis Sesabamisad saxelmwifo bunebrivi organizmia, TiToeuli individi am organizmis nawili, xolo Tavad saxelmwifo ki organizmis gulia. am ideologiis Sesabamisad individi mniSvnelovania, rogorc sazogadoebis nawili da misi keTildReoba sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis WrilSi unda ganvixiloT, xolo meqanikuri Teoriis Sesabamisad saxelmwifo ar aris sazogadoebis organuli nawili da igi adamianebma sakuTari miznebis miRwevis mizniT gamoigones. Tumca meqanikuri Teoriis Sesabamisadac ki, saxelmwifos miznebidan erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizani xalxisaTvis keTildReobis motanaa. swored „keTildReobis“ Sinaarsis gagebaa is sakiTxi, romelsac ekonomikaze msjeloba ideologiur da xSirad politikur WrilSi gadahyavs. roca ekonomikur politikaze, ekonomikur modelze vsaubrobT, pirvel rigSi swored imaze unda visaubroT, ras vigulisxmebT „keTildReobaSi“. ekonomikuri politikis mTavari arsi swored keTildReobis maqsimizaciaa, magram Tavad keTildReoba imdenad farTe cnebaa, rom konsensusis miRweva praqtikulad warmoudgenelia. is rom saxelmwifo arsebobs – mocemulobaa. isic sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom bazari resursebis ganawilebis yvelaze efeqtiani formaa. Tumca, saxelmwifos mxolod arsebobac ki, bazars nebismier SemTxvevaSi ukargavs Tavisuflebis xarisxs, anu bazari mxolod Teoriuladaa Tavisufali da saxelmwifo pirdapiri an iribi meqanizmebiT zRudavs Tavisuflebas, zogierT SemTxvevaSi cdilobs bazris Cavardnis, e.w. „bazris fiaskos“ nivelirebas, xolo zogierT SemTxvevaSi aSkarad aferxebs mis ganviTarebas. Tavisufali bazris da „uxilavi xelis“ ideologia adam smits ekuTvnis. igi darwmunebuli iyo, rom Tu arsebobs Tavisufali bazrebi da individebi sakuTari

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interesis Sesabamisad moqmedeben, mTliani ekonomika kargad muSaobs. smiti amtkicebda, rom individis mier sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi sakuTari interesebis sasargeblo qmedeba uxilavi xelis principiT sazogadoebis saerTo keTildReobis maqsimizacias iwvevs . Tumca Tavad smiti amtkicebda, rom saxelmwifom „sazogadoeba danaSaulisa da sxva damoukidebeli sazogadoebis agresiisagan“, xolo „sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevri sxvaTa Cagvrisa da usamarTlobisagan“ unda daicvas . problema zustad isaa, sazogadoebis Semosavlis ra nawili unda miimarTos saxelmwifos mier am funqciebis Sesrulebisaken da ra CaiTvleba „sxvaTa Cagvrasa da usamarTlobaSi“. da saxelmwifo intervenciis ra moculoba unda CaiTvalos am „sikeTis“ (romelic keTildReobis erTi Semadgeneli nawilia) optimalur moculobad da mis sanacvlod ra unda gaiRos sazogadoebam. is rom saxelmwifo absoluturi aucileblobaa, amas aRiareben ara mxolod e.w. saxelmwifos Sesaxeb organuli Teoriis momxreebi, aramed Tavisufali bazris iseTi ideologebi, rogoricaa Tundac ludvig fon mizesi. igi werda „saxelmwifo – absoluturi aucileblobaa, radgan man unda gadawyvitos yvelaze mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi, daicvas ara marto kerZo sakuTreba, aramed mSvidobac, rameTu mSvidobis gareSe SeuZlebelia kerZo sakuTrebis mwife nayofis Segroveba“. mizesis azriT adamiani ara mxolod Homo sapiens-i, aramed Homo agens-icaa da misi azriT adamianebs, romlebsac raime Tandayolili defeqtis gamo qmedebebi SezRuduli aqvT, rTulia adamiani uwodo (!) miuxedavad imisa, rom iuridiuli da biologiuri TvalsazrisiT isini adamianebi arian, maT ar gaaCniaT adamianis yvelaze mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebeli. am SemTxvevaSi, rogorc Cans, unda vigulisxmoT, rom mizesis azriT aseTi adamiani, aseve garkveul sikeTes unda iRebdes sazogadoebisagan, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is fizikurad daiRupeba. erTia Teoriuli modeli, romelic SesaZloa wminda meqanikur Teorias da adamianis, rogorc individis cxovrebas da moRvaweobas eyrdnoba da meorea misi praqtikaSi ganxorcieleba. me–20 saukuneSi ekonomikuri modelebis formirebis udidesi gamocdileba Camoyalibda, dawyebuli sabazro ekonomikis warmatebuli skandinaviuri modelebiT, iaponiis da germaniis meore msoflio omisSemdgom aRdgenili ekonomikebiT, romlebmac sruliad damsaxurebulad ekonomikuri saswaulis statusi daimsaxures da singapuris aranakleb warmatebuli, Tumca sruliad gansxvavebuli modeliT damTavrebuli. cxadia, TiToeuli maTganis Seswavla da ganxilva rTulia, Tumca saqarTvelosaTvis udaod mniSvnelovania im winapirobebis Seswavla, romlebmac es „ekonomikuri saswaulebi“ ganapirobes. am warmatebuli modelebidan ori gansakuTrebiT warmatebulia, erTs safuZvlad ludvig erhardis „keTildReobis saxelmwifo“, xolo meores li kuan ius „samarTliani saxelmwifo“ daedo. miuxedavad saqarTveloSi Camoyalibebuli stereotipebisa, gansakuTrebiT singapurTan mimarTebaSi, unda aRiniSnos, rom orive saxelmwifoSi didi iyo da aris saxelmwifos roli ekonomikuri procesebis regulirebaSi, waxalisebaSi da a.S. maT Soris, Sromis bazris dacvis, bazris garkveul segmentebSi proteqcionistuli normebis moqmedeba, saxelmwifo investiciebi, romlebic ara mxolod infrastruqturaSi xorcieldeboda da a.S. orive reforma warmatebuli aRmoCnda, orive qveyana dRes msoflios yvelaze mdidar qveyanaTa ricxvSi Sedis. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis monacemebiT, mSp erT sulze singapurSi 43 117 aSS dolaria, germaniaSi 40 274 dolari, xolo saqarTveloSi – 2 629 . Sesaba-

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misad, singapuri msoflios umdidres saxelmwifoTa Soris me–15, germania me–19, xolo saqarTvelo ki 120–ea. sainteresoa, rom singapurs uswreben iseTi saxelmwifoebi, rogoricaa luqsemburgi, norvegia, Sveicaria, aSS, dania, avstralia, Svecia, niderlandebi, kanada, avstria da fineTi. garda amisa, singapurze maRali Semosavali aqvT yatarsa da arabeTis gaerTianebul saemiroebsac. am CamonaTvalidan aSkarad Cans, rom saxelmwifos mier ekonomikuri procesebis xelSewyoba da swori socialuri politikis gatareba ara Tu xels ar uSlis ekonomikur zrdas, aramed piriqiT, waaxalisebs mas. amave dros Tu vnaxavT jinis indeqsis dinamikas, romelic Semosavlebis uTanabrobas asaxavs, Tu gaeros monacemebiT Semosavlebi yvelaze Tanabrad gadanawilebulia daniaSi (indeqsi Seadgens 24,7), germaniaSi 28,3, saqarTveloSi indeqsi Seadgens 40,4-s, xolo singapurSi 42,5 . Sesabamisad, singapuri am mimarTulebiT saqarTvelosac ki CamorCeba, anu sazogadoebis polarizacia Semosavlebis ganawilebis TvalsazrisiT Zalian maRalia. vfiqrob aseve evropuli, da kerZod germanuli ekonomikuri modelis upiratesobaze is faqtic metyvelebs, rom omis Semdgom ganadgurebuli germanuli ekonomika, araTu aRdga, aramed dRes evropis yvelaze ganviTarebuli ekonomikaa, da rac mniSvnelovania, swored ekonomikuri ganviTarebis wyalobiT moaxerxa germaniam 20 wlis win gaerTianeba. germaniis federaciuli respublika, romelic meore msoflio omSi damarcxebis Semdeg 4 saokupacio zonad daiyo, romelTagan samSi ekonomikuri reformebis ganxorcielebam aSkara “germanuli ekonomikuri saswauli” moaxdina. am ekonomikuri saswaulis Sedegebi saxezea: 1948 wlidan 2010 wlamde saSualo saaTobrivi xelfasi germaniaSi 65 evrocentidan 15,55 evromde gaizarda, sococxlis saSualo xangrZlivoba gaizarda 13 wliT, samuSao adgilze ubedur SemTxvevaTa raodenoba Semcirda 60%-iT, kviraSi samuSao saaTebis raodenoba Semcirda 48,2 saaTidan 38,3 saaTamde, Svebulebebis xangrZlivoba 12 dRidan 30 dRemde gaizarda, 250 grami karaqis SesaZenad saWiro iyo 73 wuTi Sroma, dRes sakmarisia 5 wuTi, 1 avtomanqanis SesaZenad ki 1472 saaTi muSaobaa sakmarisi, nacvlad 5136 saaTisa . rogorc Cans saqarTvelosTvis saintereso unda iyos germanuli gamocdilebis gaziareba. dRes Cveni mizania im Teoriuli oqros Sualedis povna, romelic saSualebas mogvcems misi implementaciis SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli ekonomikuri modeli maqsimalurad efeqtiani da samarTliani iyos. amasTan ar unda dagvaviwydes is garemo, romelSic saqarTvelos uwevs funqcionireba. droebiT dakarguli teritoriebi, ekonomikuri embargo ruseTis mxridan, mZime socialuri foni – is ganmasxvavebeli faqtoria, riTac saqarTvelo ufro metad hgavs germanias. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom singapuris teritoria saqarTvelos teritoriis 1%–ze naklebia. Sesabamisad, infrastruqturis ganviTarebas singapurSi naklebi saxsrebi sWirdeba, vidre saqarTveloSi. aseve gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom signapuri qalaqia, da soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebulTa xvedriTi wili Zalian dabalia, saqarTveloSi ki SromiTi resursebis 63% swored soflis meurneobaSia dasaqmebuli . mniSvnelovania is garemoebac, rom evrokavSiris bazrebze saqarTveloSi warmoebuli produqciis Tavisufali SeRwevadoba saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis, investiciebis mozidvis, cxovrebis donis amaRlebis erT–erTi seriozuli faqtori da winapirobaa. dReisaTvis saqarTvelo investiciur SimSils ganicdis, mosaxleobis cxovrebis done dabalia, maRalia umuSevroba da siRaribe. sakuTari SesaZleblobebiT am

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mdgomareobidan gamosvla rTulia. moxmareba imdenad dabalia qveyanaSi, rom mxolod Sida bazarze orientirebuli warmoebis mizniT investiciebi aSkarad aramomgebiania. amdenad, investiciebis mozidvis realuri faqtori qveynis saeqsporto potencialis ganviTareba da msoflio bazrebze sakuTari niSis moZebnaa. saqarTvelosaTvis tradiciuli didi bazrebidan, yvelaze didi - ruseTis bazari saqarTvelosTvis daketilia da ukve 5 welia ruseTis mxridan embargos reJimis gamo qveyana sxva alternatiuli bazrebis moZiebis procesSia. Tu msoflio ekonomikas gadavxedavT, TvalnaTelia, rom evropul bazrebs evrokavSirs alternativa ar gaaCnia. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis, msoflio bankisa da evrostatis monacemebze dayrdnobiT, aseTi suraTi ixateba: evrokavSiris mosaxleoba 2011 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT 502,5 mln. adamiania, 2010 wlis mSp 16,3 trln. dolari, rac erT sulze 32 500 dolars Seadgens. saojaxo meurneobebis moxmarebam 2008 wels 7,2 trln. evro Seadgina, danazogebi mSp–s 11,3%, xolo investiciebi ki 18,4%–ia; maSin rodesac aSS-s mSp – 14,7 trln. dolaria, CineTis mSp – 5,9 trln. dolari (erT sulze 4300 dolari), indoeTis mSp – 1,5 trln. dolari; ruseTis mSp – 1,5 trln. dolari, xolo saqarTvelos mSp - 11,3 mlrd. dolaria; mxolod am zogadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis gadaxedviTac cxadia, rom saqarTvelosaTvis ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis xelSekrulebis xelmowera, romelic saqarTvelos evrokavSiris bazrebze gasvlis satarifo da arasatarifo barierebs mouxsnis. aRniSnuli mosazreba kidev erTxel adasturebs saqarTvelos evropuli arCevanis siswores da Sesabamisad ekonomikis evropul modelTan daaxloebas. aseve mniSvnelovania, rom qarTuli ekonomikuri modelis formirebis procesSi aqtiurad gamoviyenoT is gamocdileba, romelic globalizaciis procesSi dagrovda da gaviTvaliswinoT is SezRudvebi, romelsac globaluri procesebi gviwesebs.

Nodar Khaduri Doctor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State UniversityFull Professor Georgia, Tbilisi Georgian Economic Model and the Global Economy Summary Despite the fact that Georgia has already been an independent country for 20 years and inculcates the principles of market economy, the issue of choosing the model of country’s economic development has not been resolved up to the present time. Georgia frequently chooses radical models not only at the theoretical level but also at the political level and has ambitions of merging them by unique prescription. Unfortunately, frequently there are attempts to borrow ideologically inappropriate models without comprehending their essence that causes problems for maintaining achieved successes. In order to choose a correct model it is imperative to analyze at least at the theoretical level all those threats and possible successes that can be caused by choosing this or that model and its implementation. It is important that the society achieve consensus on what political philosophy the Georgian state system should be based on, the organic or mechanical theories of state.

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According to the first one the state is a natural organism, each individual is a part of this organism, and the state itself is a heart of this organism. According to this ideology the individual is important as a part of society and his/her well-being should be considered in the context of the well-being of society. As regards the mechanical theory, it is based on the notion that the state is not an organic part of society and humans devised it to achieve their own goals. The economic essence of the noted theories is clearly reflected in Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes’s theoretical legacy. Smith was convinced that if there are free markets and individuals act by their own interests, the whole economy works well. Smith claimed that in the conditions of market economy the useful action of individuals’ own interests by the principle of “invisible hand” brings about maximization of the general well-being of society. According to Keynes, Smith’s “invisible hand” showed an utter irrelevance to the real developments that became a reason for formulating a new macroeconomic theory. Today our aim is to find that theoretical golden mean, which in case of its implementation will enable Georgian economic model to be maximally effective and fair.

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daviT narmania ekonomikis doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori saqarTvelo, Tbilisi singapurizacia Tu evrointegracia: saqarTvelos globaluri gamowveva sakiTxis arsi saqarTveloSi arsebul mraval gamowvevaTa Soris erT-erTi umTavresi bazris saxelmwifo regulirebis optimaluri modelis arCevaa. Cvens qveyanaSi bazris regulireba dRemde aqtualuria, vinaidan saqarTvelo patara bazris qveyanaa da jer kidev ara aqvs regulirebis reforma dasrulebuli. rodesac qveyanaSi 4,43 mln mosaxleobacxovrobs, sadac mosaxleobis 1/3-ze gacilebiT meti umweo mdgomareobaSi imyofeba (dabalmsyidvelunariania), bunebrivia qveyana patara qveyanaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba da Sesabamisad, patara bazarTan gvaqvs saqme. bazris moculoba miT ufro mcirdeba, rac ufro segmentirebul produqciasTan gvaqvs saqme (mag., bavSvTa kveba, parfumeria, biJuteria, saskolo nivTebi, saavtomobilo zeTebi da sxva). segmentirebuli bazrebi ufro mcire bazrebia, sadac domonanturi mdgomareobis mopoveba gacilebiT ufro advilia, vinaidan umetes SemTxvevaSi isini srulyofili konkurenciis bazrebs ar ganekuTvneba (mimwodebelTa ricxvi SedarebiT SezRudulia). erTi mxriv, evrokavSirTan saqarTvelos daaxloeba da meore mxriv, xelisuflebis maRali rangis pirebis aqtiuri singapurizaciis propaganda, optimaluri modelis arCevis sakiTxs dRis wesrigSi kvlavac ucvlels tovebs. evrokavSiris bazris regulirebis modeli sakmaod mravalricxovan procedurebs moicavs, romlisgan gansxvavebiTac singapuris modeli SedarebiT ufro liberaluri midgomebis momxrea. amasTan, evropis samezoblo politikis dokumentis (ENP) paralelurad saqarTvelo â&#x20AC;&#x153;aRmosavleTis partniorobisâ&#x20AC;? monawile qveyanaa da evrokavSirTan daaxloebis procesi sul ufro aqtiur fazaSi Sedis. evrokavSiris bazris regulirebis sakiTxebSi gasarkvevad sainteresoa estoneTis modelis ganxilva (miTumetes, postsabWoTa qveyanas ganekuTvneba), romlis singapuris modelTan Sedarebac mkafiod dagvanaxebs saqarTvelosTvis optimaluri modelis ZiriTad postulatebs da gasatarebeli reformis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs. singapuris da estoneTis bazris regulirebis modelebis analizma mkafiod unda dagvanaxos Cveni qveynis bazris regulirebis optimaluri modelis mimarTulebebi, romlebic an SedarebiT liberalur midgomebze unda iyos agebuli, an SedarebiT mkacri regulirebis evropul direqtivebs unda emyarebodes. kvlevis mignebebi96 msoflio bankis klasifikaciis Sesabamisad, estoneTi patara qveyanas ganekuTvneba. qveynis teritoria 45227 kv.m2-s Seadgens (132-e adgili msoflioSi), xolo 2011 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT mosaxleobis raodenoba - 1,34 mln adamians (151-e adgili). prognozirebuli nominaluri mSp erT sul mosaxleze 2011 wlisTvis Seadgenda 15270 aSS dolars. 2009 wlis SefasebiT, jinis indeqsma 31,4 Seadgina97. 2011

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kvleva Catarebulia avtoris mier, ekonomikis problemebis kvlevis centris proeqtis farglebSi (antimonopoliuri regulireba saqarTvelos konteqstSi), romelic mxardaWerilia fridrix ebertis fondis mier. 97 estoneTis statistikis samsaxuri,http://www.stat.ee/main-indicators

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wels gakeTebuli ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis indeqsis mixedviT, Sefasebuli 179 qveynidan estoneTs me-14 adgili eWira98. estoneTi 2004 wlidan evrokavSiris wevria, xolo 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan SeuerTda evrozonas. amdenad, qveyana erTian evropul bazars srulad aris mierTebuli, Tumca regulirebis TvalsazrisiT sakuTar politikasac atarebs.evrokavSirTan integraciis Semdegom, evrokavSirSi konkurenciis politikis da bazris regulirebis sakiTxebi gansakuTrebul mniSnelobas iZens. estoneTis konkurenciis politikis gatarebisaTvis umTavres sakanonmdeblo dokuments ganekuTvneba â&#x20AC;&#x17E;konkurenciis aqtiâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, romelic 2001 wels iqna miRebuli. aqti aregulirebs iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa:  konkurenciis SemzRudveli SeTanxmebebi da garigebebi;  ukanono SeTanxmebebisa da gadawyvetilebebis gauqmeba;  dominanturi pozicia bazarze, borotad gamoyeneba da SezRudvebi;  mniSvnelovani obieqtebis kontrolis specialuri da gansakuTrebuli uflebebi;  koncentraciis kontroli da erToblivi brunvis gaangariSeba, koncentraciis anulireba;  vertikaluri da horizontaluri Serwymis regulireba;  konkurenciis saagentos mxridan ganmartebis valdebuleba da zepiri mosmena;  saxelmwifo daxmareba da granti, angariSgeba;  arakeTilsindisieri konkurencia;  TanamSromloba evrokomisiasTan zedamxedvelobis da adgilze inspeqtirebis sakiTxebze;  konfidencialuri informaciis borotad gamoyeneba dasaqmebulis mxridan;  saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba da inspeqtireba;  konkurenciis saagentos ufleba informaciis moTxovnaze;  konkurenciis saagentos mier rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba;  qcevis normebi da jarimebis daweseba darRvevebze;  sasamarTlos uflebebi kontrolis ganxorcielebaze da sasamarTlo saqmis warmoeba;  damrRvevi piris pasuxismgebloba da zianis anazRaureba. garda zemoT aRniSnuli aqtisa, calkeuli sakiTxebis da mimarTulebebis regulirebisaTvis miRebulia da moqmedebs sxva kanonqvemdebare aqtebi99. konkurenciis principebis dacvas estoneTSi axorcielebs konkurenciis saagento (Estonian Competition Authority).2010 wels saagentos biujetma 28.6 mln estonuri kroni Seadgina (daaxloebiT 1,83 mln evro). sul saagentoSi 52 TanamSromeli muSaobs. saagentos xelmZRvanelobs generaluri direqtori, romelsac eqvemdebareba sami ZiriTadi ganyofilebis da erTi damxmare departamentis xelZRvaneli. bazris regulirebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan moments estoneTSi ganekuTvneba momxmarebelTa dacva arakeTilsindisieri mewarmeebis mxridan. dacva exeba ara mxolod Sida bazars, aramed trans-sasazRvro Sesyidvebs. umTavres maregulirebel aqts ganekuTvneba momxmarebelTa dacvis aqti, romlis paraleluradac moqmedebs sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebi. momxmarebelTa dacvis mizniT, qveyanaSi Seqmnilia momxmarebelTa dacvis sabWo. mas sami ZiriTadi funqcia gaaCnia: 98 99

Heritage Foundation, http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking.aspx estoneTis konkurenciis saagento,http://www.konkurentsiamet.ee/?id=11608

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• samomxmareblo bazris zedamxedveloba; • momxmarebelTa saCivrebis ganxilva; • momxmarebelTa informireba da rCeva. 2005 wels momxmarebelTa dacvis sabWosTan Seiqmna estoneTis evropel momxmarebelTa centri (European Consumer Centre of Estonia). es uwyeba pasuxismgebelia momxmarebelTa dacvaze trans-sasazRvro da evropul bazrebze arsebuli darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT momxmarebelTa dacva gulisxmobs imas, rom gamyidvelma saqonelze fasi srulad unda miuTiTos gadasaxadebis CaTvliT (dRg). amasTan, fasebi unda iyos werilobiTi formiT, mkafio adgilas miTiTebuli, calsaxa da advilad amocnobadi. fasebTan erTad miTiTebuli unda iyos saqonlis erTeuli (kilogrami, cali da a.S.), romlis fasic aris miTiTebuli. fasebi mocemuli unda iyos saqonlis reklamirebis drosac, raTa momxmarebelma SeZlos swori orientireba. saqonlis yidvis dros ki aucilebelia gaices yidvis dokumenti (Ceki), sadac minimum sami saxis informacia unda iyos datanili: gamyidvelis dasaxeleba; yidvis TariRi; saqonlis erTeulis fasi, Sesyiduli raodenoba da jamurad gadaxdili Tanxa. momxmarebelTa dacvis zemoaRniSnuli wesebi vrceldeba rogorc stacionarul savaWro obieqtebSi, aseve gare vaWrobisa da sakuriero servisis meSveobiT saqonlis SeZenisas100. singapuri Tavisufali ekonomikis qveyanas ganekuTvneba da honkongis Semdeg msoflioSi me-2 adgilze dgas. ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis indeqsma 2011 wels 100dan 87.2 bali Seadgina da wina welTan SedarebiT es maCvenebeli 1.1-iT gaumjobesda101. msyidvelunarianobis paritetis (PPP) mixedviT gaangariSebuli mSp-s moculoba 2010 wels 291.9 mlrd aSS dolars Seadgenda da am maCvenebliT qveyana msoflioSi 41-e adgilze iyo. amave wels, erT sul mosaxleze igive wesiT gaangariSebuli mSp-s moculoba 62,100 aSS dolars Seadgenda da msoflioSi me-5 adgilze idga. mSp-s moculobaSi udidesi wili (71.7%) momsaxurebis sferos uWiravs, xolo danarCeni (28.3%) - mrewvelobas. soflis meurneoba qveyanaSi praqtikulad ar aris warmodgenili, garda TevzWerisa. 2010 wels qveyanaSi umuSevrobis donem 2.2% Seadgina da msoflioSi me-17 adgilze idga. jinis indeqsi (saojaxo meurneobaTa Semosavlebis ganawileba) 2009 wels 47.8-s Seadgenda da am maCvenebliT qveyana msoflioSi 28-e adgilzea (rac sxva maCveneblebisagan gansxvavebiT, arc ise saxarbielo maCvenebelia). qveynis sagareo vali zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba da 2011 wlis dasawyisisaTvis Seadgenda 21.82 mlrd aSS dolars (74-e adgili msoflioSi), rac qveynis mSp-s mimarT 9.8%-s Seadgens. qveynis savaWro balansi bolo wlebSi dadebiTia102. media srulad saxelmwifos kontrols eqvemdebareba. rva adgilobriv samauwyeblo televiazias marTavs saxelmwifo sainvesticio kompaniaa MediaCorp. satelituri mauwyebloba qveyanaSi akrZalulia. 18 radiosadguri aseve zemoaRniSnuli saxelmwifo kompaniis mier imarTeba, xolo danarCeni 4 - mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli

100 101 102

estoneTis momxmarebelTa dacvis sabWo,http://www.consumer.ee

igive. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html

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mmarTvel partiasTan da imarTeba singapuris SeiaraRebuli Zalebis rezervistTa asociaciis mier103. qveyana 2010 wels gakeTebuli demokratiis indeqsis mixedviT 82-e adgilzea da e.w. „hibridul reJimad“ iwodeba, vinaidan misi maCvenebeli 4-dan 5.9-mde diapazonSia (5.89) da demokratiis Sefasebis ramodenime komponenti aris dabali (saarCevno procesebi da pluralizmi; politikuri kultura)104. singapuris konkurenciis politikis gatarebisaTvis umTavres sakanonmdeblo dokuments ganekuTvneba „konkurenciis aqti“ (singapuris kanonmdeblobis Tavi 50B), romelic 2007 wels iqna miRebuli. aqti aregulirebs SedarebiT zogad sakiTxebs da principebs. arsebobs sami ZiriTadi saqmianoba/qmdeba, romelic akrZalulia aqtiT: (1). antikonkurentuli SeTanxmebebi, gadawyvetilebebi da saqmianoba; (2). dominanturi mdgomareobis borotad gamoyeneba; (3). Serwyma da SeZena, rac mniSvnelovnad amcirebs konkurencias. konkurenciis aqtze dafuZnebulia Semdegi moqmedi regulaciebi (7 kanoni da 13 saxelmZRvanelo): kanonebi: 1. Setyobinebebis regulirebis Taobaze; 2.mosakreblebis regulirebis Taobaze; 3. gardamavali periodis regulirebis Taobaze; 4.danaSaulebaTa Semadgenlobis regulirebis Taobaze; 5. gasaCivrebebis da apelaciebis regulirebis Taobaze; 6.finansuri jarimebis regulirebis Taobaze (2010 wlamde Cadenil danaSaulze); 7.finansuri jarimebis regulirebis Taobaze(2010 wlis cvlilebebi). saxelmZRvaneloebi: 1. saxelmZRvanelo ZiriTadi debulebebis Sesaxeb; 2.saxelmZRvaneloantikonkurentuli SeTanxmebebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb; 3. saxelmZRvanelodominanturi mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb; 4.saxelmZRvaneloSerwymis arsobrivi Sefasebis Sesaxeb; 5. saxelmZRvaneloSerwymis procedurebis Sesaxeb; 6.saxelmZRvanelobazris definiciis Sesaxeb; 7.saxelmZRvanelosagamoZiebo uflebamosilebaTa Sesaxeb; 8. saxelmZRvaneloiZulebiTi RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb; 9.saxelmZRvanelokartelebis saqmianobis Sefasebis Sesaxeb; 10. saxelmZRvanelogadawyvetilebis miRebis Sesaxeb; 11. saxelmZRvanelojarimis odenobis Sesabamisobis Sesaxeb; 12. saxelmZRvanelointeleqtualuri sakuTrebis uflebsi dacvis Sesaxeb; 13. saxelmZRvanelosamTavrobo saagentosTvis konkurenciis zemoqmedebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb105. singapurSi konkurenciis politikis gatarebisaTvis umTavres saxelmwifo organos ganekuTvneba singapuris konkurenciis komisia, romelic Seqmnilia konkurenciis aqtis safuZvelze da moqmedebs 2005 wlis 1 ianvridan. komisias hyavs 10 wevri (m.S. Tavmjdomare), romlebic irCevian parlamentis mier da aparati, romelic teqnikurad uzrunvelyofs komisiis saqmianobas. komisiis yoveldRiur saqmianobas 103

Central Intelligence Agency of USA, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html#top Democracy Index 2010, Economic Intelligence Unit, The Economist, 2010. 105 singapuris konkurenciis komisia, samarTlebrivi aqtebi, http://app.ccs.gov.sg/Legislation.aspx 104

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xelmZRvanelobs generaluri direqtori, romelsac amtkicebs konkurenciis sabWo. komisia vaWrobisa da mrewvelobis saministros SemadgenlobaSia da sabWos Tavmjdomareobs 3 wliT Sesabamisi ministri. singapurSi bazris da sxvadasxva seqtorebis regulirebisaTvis, saministroebTan erTad arsebobs 65 sxvadasxva saagento da sabWo. amdenad, gavrcelebuli azri singapuris bazris sayovelTao Riaobis da regulaciebis ararsebobis Sesaxeb mxolod pirobiTia. magaliTisaTvis ramodenime saintereso saagentos dasaxelebac ki sakmarisia: kazinoebis regulirebis saagento, qonebis saagentoTa sabWo, sastumroebis licenzirebis sabWo, Sromis fondi da sxva106. singapuris konkurenciis aqtis safuZvelze, regulirebas eqvemdebareba Zalian bevri detali da niuansi. formatis simwiridan gamomdinare, qvemoT mocemulia singapurSi arsebuli mxolod zogierTi saintereso regulacia:  SeTanxmebuli tarifebis dawesebis SezRudva;  Serwyma da bazarze koncentracia;  karteluri garigebebis akrZalva;  finansuri jarimebi. yvelaze mZime gadawyvetileba, rac SeuZlia konkurenciis komisias miiRos, es aris kompaniebis mimarT iZulebis RonisZiebis gatareba an/da zogierTi saqmianobis akrZalva. maTi gamoyenebis pirobebi da wesebi dadgenilia Sesabamisi saxelmZRvaneloebiT. daskvnebi da winadadebebi rogorc vxedavT, singapuris bazari ar ganekuTvneba araregulirebad bazars da gavrcelebuli azri imis Taobaze, rom biznesi Tavisufalia saxelmwifos Carevisagan, simarTlisagan Sors dgas. bazari regulirebadia, Tumca wesrigis politika SedarebiT Serbilebulia. am qveyanaSi wina planze biznes-interesebi dgas da momxmarebeli meore planzea gadayvanili; estoneTis bazari mkacrad regulirebad bazars ganekuTvneba da maregulirebeli institutebis mSenebloba qveyanaSi xangZliv process warmoadgenda. regulirebis upirvelesi amocana am qveyanaSi (iseve rogorc mTels evrokavSirSi) momxmareblis keTildReobis uzrunvelyofa da misi uflebebis dacvaa. amdenad, bazris regulirebis instrumentebis SemuSavebisas aucilebelia sxvadasxva qveynebis gamocdilebis Seswavla, raTa maTze dayrdnobiT optimaluri modeli iqnas SemuSavebuli. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania evrokavSiris im qveynebis gamocdilebis Seswavla, romlebic postsabWoTa banakis qveynebs ganekuTvnebodnen (baltiispireTis qveynebi, CexeTi, poloneTi) da evrokavSirTan harmonizaciis gzaze warmatebiT gaarTves Tavi reformebs. gamomdinare iqidan, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mxridan gacxadebuli politikis erT-erTi mimarTulebaa demokratia da evropuli faseulobebi, bazris regulirebis politikac etapobrivad evrokavSiris politikas unda dauaxlovdes.

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singapuris mTavroba,http://app.sgdi.gov.sg/index.asp?cat=2

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Dr. Davit Narmania Doctor of Economics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State Univestity Associate Professor, Centre for Economic problems Research Georgia. Tbilisi Singapurization or EU-integration: Global Challenges of Georgia Choosing the optimal model for market regulation is one of the main challenges in Georgia. The working-paperanalyzesthe Estonianand Singaporemodels of market regulation. It’s essential to learn from other countries’ experience when developing the tools of market regulation in order to draw out the optimal model on the basis of it. Particularly it’s important to learn the experience of the EU members, which belonged to the post-Soviet countries (Baltic countries, Czech Republic, and Poland) and succeed in the reforms on the way to harmonization with the EU. Singapore market isn’t non-regulated market and the opinion about free business, without the state intervention is far from the truth. Market is regulated, but the order policy is relatively weaker. In Singapore main emphasis is on business interests, while customer needs are partially ignored. Estonian market belongs to the strict regulated markets and construction of the regulatory institutions in the country was a long-term process. The primary goal of regulation in this country (as well as throughout the European Union) is to ensure consumer welfare and protect their rights. One of the trends of the government state policy is democracy and European, hence the market regulation policy should seek closer ties with the EU policy.

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xaTuna xarxelauri stu doqtoranti saqarTvelo, Tbilisi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis determinantebi da globalizaciiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, erovnuli ekonomikebis umetesobis yvelaze TvalsaCino maxasiaTebelia, msoflioSi maTi swrafad mzardi transnacionalizaciis procesi.pirvel rigSi Cven SevecadeT erTmaneTisTvis dagvekavSirebina, bolo drois rogorc ekonomikuri, ise politikuri movlenebi da maTi samomavlo kursi-pirdapiri ucxouri investicebis geografiasTan. Cveni mizania avxsnaT, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis, rogorc globaluri ekonomikis erT-erT yvelaze dinamiuri elementis, geografiuli cvlilebebis mizezebi. Aam cvlilebebs adasturebs, UNCTAD-is msoflio investiciebis Sesaxeb yovelwliur angariSebSi gamoqveynebuli masalebi. (ix.cxrili 1-2; danarTi 1.). aseve vaCvenoT, Tu ra adgili ukavia pui-s, krizisis Semdgomi ekonomikuri zrdis procesSi. an rogor viTardeba regionaluri integraciis sqemebi. ra axal SesaZleblobebs aZlevs ucxoel investorebs ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebi, gansakuTrebiT iseTi didi qveynebi rogoricaa CineTi da indoeTi. aseve vaCvenebT mimRebi qveynis determinantebis cvlilebebs bolo aTwleulSi da amisaTvis SegiZliaT ixiloT oTxi tipis pui-sanalizi, romelic aseve danarTebSia mocemuli. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis nakadebis gadamisamarTeba1990-2010 wlebSi orjer moxda. pirvelad 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis is ganxorcielda msoflios ganviTarebul regionebisaken, kerZod dasavleT evropisaken. xolo momdevno aTwleulis bolosaTvis ki tendencia ganviTarebadi qveynebis sasargeblod Seicvala. am dargis mkvlevarebi, aRniSnuli pirvel periodis cvlilebebis gamomwvev sam ZiriTad mizezs gamoyofen. pirveli es iyo, transsasazRvro Serwymebisa da STanTqmis (M&As) bumi. am procesSi CarTuli iyo e.w â&#x20AC;&#x153;didi sameulisâ&#x20AC;? (aSS, didi britaneTi da iaponia) tnkebi, romelTa umetesoba erTi sabazo qveynidan, danarCen or qveyanaSi iZendnen firmebs. 1995-2000 wlebSi ganxorcielebuli pui-s 70%, swored aseT SeTanxmebebze modioda. meore mizezi, regionaluri saintegracio sqemebis ganviTarebaa. erTismxriv dasrulda evropis Sida bazris Camoyalibeba, meores mxriv ki SeiqmnaCrdiloatlantikuri Tavisufali savaWro zona (NAFTA). evrokavSirSi gawevrianebam (romelic Tavis mxriv uZRveboda regionaluri korporaciuli qselebis Seqmnas), CexeTis respublikis, estoneTis, ungreTis, poloneTis da slovakeTis ekonomikebi mimzidveli gaxada efeqturobaze orientirebuli pirdapiri ucxouri investicebisaTvis. yovelive aman mniSvnelovani gavlena iqonia tnk-ebis sainvesticio saqmianobaze. (ix. cxrili) Semavali pui-s nakadebis procentuli wili, romelic mimarTuli iyo aRniSnuli regionebisaken (1990-2000ww) 1989/94 1995 1998 1999 2000 evrokavSir i NAFTA

38.3 27.4

34.3 23.4

37.7 30.1

43.5 30.9

48.6 28.1

65.7

57.7

67.8

74.4

76.7

wyaro: 1989-2000wlebis UNCTAD World Investment Report

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mesame mizezs ki warmoadgenda, 1990 wlebis aRmosavleT aziis krizisi da gansakuTrebiT CineTis ekonomikis zrdis Seneleba. aman mniSvnelovnad Seamcira regionis sainvesticio mimzidveloba. am droisaTvis regionSi Semavali investiciebis xvedriTma wilma globalur nakadebSi 23.2%-idan 9.0%- mde daiwia. Tumca es ukanaskneli didxans ar gagrZelebula 2001-2010aTwleuli pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis globaluri nakadebis SemcirebiT daiwyo, romelic 2003 wlisaTvis 560 mlrd dolaramde Semcirda. am process biZgi misca ganviTarebul qveynebSi pui-s nakadebis mkveTrad Semcirebam. am qveynebis ricxvs miekuTvneba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi da gaerTianebuli samefoc, romlebzec 2002 wlis pui-s nakadebis mTliani Semcirebis TiTqmis naxevari modioda. amis gamomwvevi erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezs 2001wlis 11 seqtembris teroristuli aqti warmoadgenda. aSS-s partniorma investorebma TavianTi kapitalisa da mogebis reinvestireba moaxdines maTTvis politikurad usafrTxo regionebsa da qveynebSi. ganviTarebad regionebs Soris yvelaze metad dazaralda laTinoamerikisa da karibis auzis qveynebi, sadac dacema sami wlis manZilze grZeldeboda. aziasa da wynari okianis auzis ganviTarebad qveynebSi pui-s nakadebis Semcireba sxva regionis qveynebTan SedarebiT umniSvnelo iyo.CineTis ekonomikis gaxsnam,mis mier rekorduli, 53 mlrd aSS dolaris odenobis investiciebis mizidvas Seuwyo xeli, ramac igi msoflios umsxviles mimReb qveyanad aqcia da faqtiurad safuZveli Seuqmna pui-s nakadebis geografiis Secvlis meore tendencias. aRsaniSnavia rom afrikis qveynebma ZiriTadad bunebriv resursebze orientirebul pui miizida. rasac regionSi sainvesticio reJimis liberalizaciam (arsebuli SezRudvebis gauqmeba)107 da zogierT qveyanaSi privatizaciis programebis amoqmedebamgamoiwvia. ramodenime qveyanam xeli moawera Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas (FTA). aSS-s mxridan, afrikis zrdisa da ganviTarebis xelSewyobis SeTanxmebis vadis gagrZelebam 2015 wlamde, am regions saerTaSoriso warmoebis gafarTovebis SesaZlebloba misca. yvelaze ukeTesi mdgomareoba pui-s mozidvis TvalsazrisiT centralur da aRmosavleT evropas ekava. am regionma moaxerxa pui-s nakadebi maTTvis rekorduli maCveneblamde 29 mlrd dolaramde gaezardaT.Aam regionis qveynebisaTvis romlebic erTiandebian evrokavSirSi, erT-erT yvelaze principul sakiTxs warmoadgens, sakuTari sainvesticio reJimebis SeTanxmebaEEC-is normebTan da maTi Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa. aseve EC-is iseTi instrumentebisagan, rogoricaa regionaluri ganviTarebis da sxva fondebis, potenciuri sargeblis maqsimalurad gamoyeneba. evrokavSirs axlad mierTebul qveynebSi institucionaluri bazis ganviTarebam, xeli Seuwyo maT warmatebul adaptirebas am gaerTianebis wevrobis moTxovnebTan. droTa ganmavlobaSi, “did sameulSi” Semavali da gamavali pui-s nakadebis koncentracia sakmaod stabiluri rCeboda. am periodSi dadebuli ormagi dabegvris Tavidan acilebis xelSekrulebebis (DTTs) struqtura, ormxrivi sainvesticio xelSekrulebebisgan(BITs)gansxvavebiT umetesad Seesabameboda “didi sameulis” pui-s nakadebis struqturas. rogorc DTTs-is mixedviT, aseve BITs-mixedviT, “didi sameulis” asocirebuli (qveynebi, romlebsac “did sameulTan” dakavSirebuli 30%-ze meti sakuTari pui-ebi aqvT) partniori ganviTarebadi qveynebisaTvis, erovnulidan → regionalur donemde “ekonomikuri areali” ufro farTovdeba. 107

ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis zogierT qveynebSi moqmedebs Semdegi SezRudvebi: 1: adgilobrivad warmoebuli Semcvelebis moTxovna; 2: teqnologiis licenzirebis (dapatentebis) moTxovna; 3: erToblivi sawarmoebis Seqmnis moTxovna;

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amasTan erTad, dadebuli xelSekrulebebi ufro aZlierebs sainvesticio blokebs. urTierTmxardamWeri savaWro da sainvesticio xelSekrulebebis qselis formirebas, SemdgomSi sargebeli moaqvs im ganviTarebadi qveynebisaTvis, romlebic arian aseTi mega blokebis SigniT. (ix. danarTi 2). Tumca 2003 wels centalur da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi pui-s nakadebis Semcireba mainc dafiqsirda 31 mlrd-dan 21 mlrd aSS dolaramde. miuxedavad imisa rom am periodSi ganviTarebadi qveynebidan pui-s gamavali nakadebi gaizarda, ganviTarebuli qveynebis wili am sferos globalur moculobaSi kvlavac 90%-s aRemateboda. Semdgomi oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi globaluri pui-s moculoba zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeboda da 2007wels Tavis rekordul mavenebels 1 833 mlrd aSS dolars miaRwia, rac mniSvnelovnad aRemateboda manamde dafiqsirebul 2000 wlis sarekordo maCvenebels. miuxedavad 2007wlis meore naxevarSi dawyebuli finansuri krizisisa, qveynebis samive, ZiriTad ekonomikuri niSniT arsebul, dajgufebaSi ganviTarebul, gardamavali ekonomikis mqone da ganviTarebad qveynebSi – dafiqsirda pui-s nakadebis uwyveti zrda. igi mniSvnelovanwilad asaxavda ekonomikuri zrdis SedarebiT maRal temps da korporaciebis saqmianobis sarwmuno dinamikas msoflios sxvadasxva nawilebSi.amis Sedegad gaizarda ucxouri, gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebad qveynebSi arsebuli filialebis Semosavlebi. pui-s nakadebis jamuri maCveneblis 30%-s reinvestirebuli Semosavlebi Seadgenda. isic aRsaniSnavia rom, am rekordul maCvenebelSi, romelic aSS dolarSia mocemuli, asaxulia am valutis mniSvnelovani gaufasureba. adgilobrivi valutebSi gamosaxviTac, globaluri pui-s nakadebis saSualo wliuri zrdis tempma 2007wels 23% Seadgina. “didma sameulma” poziciebi globalur pui-s nakadebSi kvlav SeinarCuna. magram am wels dawyebulma msoflio ekonomikurma krizisma Tavisi asaxva hpova pui-s sferoSi da Semdgom wlebSi mkveTri dacema gamoiwvia, romelic 2010wlamde grZeldeboda. (ix. cxrili 3: danarT 1.) globaluri PUpui-s nakadebi 2010wlisaTvis gaizarda da 1.24 trln aSS dolars miRwia. Tumca krizisamdel saSualo maCvenebels 15%-iT, xolo 2007wlis pikur maCvenebels ki, TiTqmis 37%-iT CamorCeba. am fonze kontrastulad gamoiyureba saerTaSoriso warmoeba da vaWroba. orive am sferom SesZlo dabruneboda krizisamdel dones. gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis konferenciis msoflio investiciebis 2011wlis angariSis monacemebis Tanaxmad, Tu gamovricxavT raime tipis ekonomikur ryevebs, pui-s nakadebis moculoba ori wlis Semdeg daubrundeba krizisamdel arsebul saSualo, xolo 2013 wlisaTvis ki miaRwevs mis 2007wlis maCvenebels. qvemoT CamoTvlili movlenebi da faqtorebi qmnis axal sainvesticio SesaZleblobebs mTels msoflioSi. aseTebia: tnk-ebis dafiqsirebuli fuladi aqtivebis odenoba; korporaciuli da samrewvelo restruqturizacia, romelic kvlavac grZeldeba; safondo birJebze kvotebis zrda. amasTan erTad postkrizisuli biznes garemo gaurkvevel mdgomareobaSia. puis sferoSi zrdis temps xeli SeiZleba SeuSalos, riskis iseTma faqtorebma, rogoricaa: araprognozirebadi ekonomikis regulirebis globaluri sistema; zogierTi ganviTarebuli qveynis SesaZlo farTomasStabiani krizisi, saxelmwifo valis zrda, biujetisa da safinanso seqtorSi disbalansi, aseve inflaciis tempis zrda da sxv. 2010wlisaTvisganviTarebadma qveynebma, pirvelad mTeli istoriis manZilze, aiTvises pui-s globaluri nakadebis TiTqmis naxevari. maT aCvenes aseverekorduli maCvenebeli pui-s ucxoeTSi gatanis TvalsazrisiT. ganviTarebuli qveynebisaken

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pui-s nakadebi piriqiT, Semcirda. ramdenadac saerTaSoriso warmoebis da bolo dros saerTaSoriso moTxovnis centrmac, ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebSi gadainacvla, tnk-ebi sul ufro aqtiurad abandeben TavianT kapitals iseT proeqtebSi, romlebic mimarTulia rogorc efeqturobis amaRlebaze, aseve am qveynebis samomxmareblo bazrebis aTvisebaze. 2010wlisaTvis pui-s mimRebi 20 umsxvilesi qveynidan naxevars ganviTarebadi an gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebi warmoadgendnen. xolo 20 umxvilesi investori qveynidan eqvsi, aRniSnuli jgufidanaa. sabazro ekonomikis formirebis procesSi myofi qveynebis tnk-ebis dinamizmi kontrastulad gamoiyureba, dabali sainvesticio aqtivobis mqone ganviTarebuli qveynebis, gansakuTrebiT ki evropuli tnk-ebis fonze. maTi sagareo investiciebi krizisamdeli pikuri-2007wlis maCveneblis jerkidev mxolod naxevars Seadgens. rogorc ukve avRniSneT saerTaSoriso warmoeba farTovdeba, xolo sazRvargareT gayidvebi, dasaqmeba da tnk-ebis aqtivebis moculoba izrdeba. tnk-ebis mier Seqmnili damatebiTi Rirebulebis raodenobam, msoflio warmoebis farglebSi 16 trilioni aSS dolari Seadgina, rac globaluri mTliani Sida produqtia 1/4-s Seadgens. tnk-ebis ucxour filialebze modis, globaluri mSp-s 10%-ze meti da msoflio eqsportis TiTqmis mesamedi. tnk-ebi sul ufro aqtiurad TanamSromloben ganviTarebad da gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebTan, imisaTvis rom gamoiyenon farTo speqtri warmoebisa da investirebis modelebisa. iseTis rogoricaa: mrewvelobis, soflis meurneobis da momsaxurebis sferoebis auTsorsingiT gadacema; franCaizingi da licenzireba. yovelive es axal SesaZleblobebs iZleva ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebisaTvis, maT globalur ekonomikaSi integrirebisaTvis, samrewvelo potencialisa da konkurentunarianobis gaZlierebisaTvis. 2010iani wlebis meore naxevrisaTvis pui-s mniSvnelovan axal wyaros saxelmwifo tnk-ebi warmoadgenda. dReisaTvis sulcota 650saxelmwifo tnk arsebobs, romlebic floben 8500 ucxour filials mTels msoflioSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi raodenoba mTeli tnk-ebis mxolod 1%-ia, maT mier ganxorcielebuli pui-ze modis, globaluri mSp-s 11%. saxelmwifo tnk-ebis marTvis formam, zogierT mimReb qveyanaSi SeSfoTeba gamoiwvia. kerZod ki, araTanabar TamaSis wesebsa da aqedan gamomdinare, erovnul usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebiT am kompaniebis saerTaSoriso eqspansiis miRebuli Sedegebis mimarT. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis adgilmdebareobasTan dakavSirebuli faqtorebis empiriuli kvlevebis umetesobam gamoavlina, rom isini damokidebuli arian: 1. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis motivaciebze (bunebriv resursebze da bazarze orientireba; efeqturobisa da aqtivebis gazrdis miznebi). 2.ekonomikuri da biznes garemoze maspinZel an potenciur maspinZelqveynebSi. maTi mTavrobebis mier ganxorcielebuli pirdapir ucxour investiciebTan dakavSirebuli politikaze. 3. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis Sesvlis an gafarToebis reJimebze (saxeoba, meTodi) bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli mecnieruli kvlevebis da mravali biznes gamokiTxvis Sedegebi, romelic exeboda maspinZeli qveyanebis pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis determinantebs, Sefasebuli da dakavSirebuli iqna erTmaneTTan da Sesabamisi cvladebis mniSvnelobebis saxiT mocemulia danarT 3-Si.aq mocemuli faqtorebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovania politikuri, sagada-

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saxado da sainvesticio iniciativebi, muSaxelze gaweuli xarjebi, bazris sidide da pui-s politis CarCoebi. axali tendenciebis sruli potencialisa da aseve uaryofiTi Sedegebis gamomJRavneba damokidebulia, adgilobrivi mTavrobebisa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier gonivruli politikis gatarebasa da institucionalur mowyobaze. mewarmeebsa da firmebs, ganviTarebad d gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebSi, sWirdebaT struqturebi, imisaTvis rom miiRon sruli sargebeli, integrirebuli saerTaSoriso warmoebisa da vaWrobisagan.

literatura: 1. John H. Dunning, the present author in the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Investment Prospects , 2002, London 2002. 2. John H. Dunning, Institutional reform, FDI and European transition economies, R. Grosse (ed) International Business and Governments in the 21st Century, Cambridge University Press (2004). www.henley.reading.ac.uk 3. Nauro F. Campos and Yuko Kinoshita, Why Does FDI Go Where it Goes? New Evidence from the Transition Economies, IMFWP/03/228 November 2003 4. UNCTAD World Investment Reports 2004-2011 danarTi 1: cxrili 1:Semavalipirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis procentuli wili 1995-2010 wlebis mTlian Sida produqtSi

msoflio ganviTareb uli qveynebi ganviTareb adi qveynebi samxreT - aRmosavleT evropa

1995 11 .0

2000 22 .5

2005 25 .2