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ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti ekonomikisa da biznesis fakulteti

saerTaSoriso ekonomikis programa

globalizacia da saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi

III saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi 11 noemberi, 2010 weli

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2010


Тбилисский государственный университет им. И. Джавахишвили Факультет экономики и бизнеса Программа международной экономики

ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИЯ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ ГРУЗИИ Материалы III международной научной конференции 11 Декабря 2010 года

Издательство `Универсал~ Тбилиси 2010


Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Economics and Business Department of International Economics

Globalization and Georgia’s Economic Development Prospects Proceedings of the III International Conference December 11, 2010

Publishing House “UNIVERSAL” Tbilisi 2010


globalizacia da saqarTvelos ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. III saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Tb., 2010 krebulSi warmodgenilia 2010 wlis 11 dekembers iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi Catarebuli III saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis masalebi. moxsenebebi asaxavs qarTveli da ucxoeli mecnierebisa da doqtorantebis kvlevis Sedegebs, romlebic globalizaciis konteqstSi ganixilavs erovnuli ekonomikuri aqtivobisa da ganviTarebis farTo speqtrs: ilia WavWavaZis Sexedulebebi qveyanaTaSoris intensiuri ekonomikuri kavSirebis Sesaxeb; msoflio ekonomikuri wesrigi; regionuli integracia; optimaluri sagareo savaWro politikis formireba; mosaxleobis, m. S. samuSao Zalis saerTaSoriso migracia; saerTaSoriso marketingis sakiTxebi; saqarTvelos inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi; ekonomikuri politikis mimarTulebebi; dargobrivi ekonomikis (turizmi da soflis meurneoba) ganviTarebis problemebi; mewarmeobisadmi damokidebulebis sakiTxebi, misi stimulirebisa da kreatiuli biznesis upiratesobebi; dazRvevisa da finansuri angariSgebis sakiTxebi; mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis konkurentunarianoba, masTan dakavSirebuli kadrebis momzadebis, dasaqmebis politika, universitetebis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia. konferenciaze warmodgenili moxsenebebi sxvadasxva WrilSi asaxavs Tanamedrove globaluri finansurekonomikuri krizisis problematikas.

Globalization and Georgia’s Economic Development Prospects. Proceedings of the III International Conference, December, 11 2010 The proceedings contain reports presented at the III international scientific conference held on December 11, 2010 at Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. The reports reflect the research outcomes made by Georgian and foreign scientists and doctoral students on the broad range of national economic activity and development issues in the globalization context: Ilia Chavchavadze views on intensive economic relations between countries; world economic order; regional integration; formation of optimal foreign trade policy; population, including labour force migration; problems of international marketing; prospects of Georgia’s innovative development; economic policy trends; issues of the development of seperate sectors (tourism, agriculture); entrepreneurial attitude problems, its stmulation and advantages of the creative business; insurance and financial reporting issues; competitiveness of science and education and the related personnel preperation, recruitment and university development strategies.The papers presented at the conference reflect the problematics of the current financial and economic crisis in various prisms.

ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИЯ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ ГРУЗИИ. Материалы III

международной

научной конференции 11 Декабря 2010 года В сборнике представлены материалы III международной научной конференции, которая прошла в Тбилисском государственном университете им. И. Джавахишвили 11 декабря 2010 года. В докладах обсуждаются результаты исследований грузинских и иностранных ученых и докторантов, которые рассматривают в контексте глобализации широкий спектр активности и развития национальной экономики: взгляды Ильи Чавчавадзе на интенсивные экономические связи между странами; мировой экономический порядок; региональная интеграция; формирование оптимальной внешней торговой политики; международная миграция населения, в том числе и трудовой силы; вопросы международного маркетинга; персрективы инновационного развития Грузии; направления экономической политики; проблемы развития отраслевой экономики (туризм и сельское хозяйство); вопросы отношения к предпринимательству, преимушества его стимулирования и креативности бизнеса; вопросы страхования и финансовой отчетности; конкурентоспособность науки и образования, связанная с ней политика подготовления кадров и трудоустройства; маркетинговая стратегия развития университетов. Представленные на конференции доклады в разных ракурсах отображают проблематику современного глобального финансовоэкономического кризиса.

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2010 Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-17-160-4


konferenciis saorganizacio komiteti:

elene xarabaZe – Tavmjdomare, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis dekanis m.S., sruli profesori; nino papaCaSvili _ koordinatori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikis programis asocirebuli profesori; SoTa SaburiSvili _ koordinatori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso biznesis kaTedris asocirebuli profesori; lela jamagiZe _ koordinatori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikis programis asistent-profesori; eka sefaSvili _ Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikis kaTedris asocirebuli profesori; irina gogoriSvili _ Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikis programis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori; ineza gagniZe – ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis mikroekonomikis kaTedris asocirebuli profesori, Tsu warmomadgenlobiTi sabWos wevri; eka lekaSvili _ ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso biznesis kaTedris asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis samsaxuris ufrosis m.S., babulia mRebriSvili _ ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori; Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saswavlo procesis marTvis samsaxuris ufrosi, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis marketingis kaTedris asistent-profesori; mari TavarTqilaZe _ Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikis programis doqtoranti.

saredaqcio kolegia:

T. bagrationi, ead n. papaCaSvili, ead e. sefaSvili, ead S. SaburiSvili, ead l. jamagiZe


Conference Organizing Committee:

Elene Kharabadze - Chairman, Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Nino Papachashvili – Coordinator, Associate Professor of International Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Shota Shaburishvili – Coordinator, Associate Professor of International Business Department, Lela Jamagidze – Coordinator, Associate Professor of International Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Eka Sepashvili - Associate professor of International Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Irina Gogorishvili - Associate professor of International Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Ineza Gagnidze – Associate Professor of Microeconomics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Eka Lekashvili – Associate professor of International Business Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Babulia Mgebrishvili – Associate Professor of Marketing Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University; Mari Tavartkiladze – Doctoral student, International Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Business of Tbilisi State University

Editorial board:

T. Bagrationi, PhD N. Papachashvili, PhD E. Sepashvili, PhD Sh. Shaburishvili, PhD L. Jamagidze


Нугзар Бабуадзе Грузия. Грузинский технический университет. Ассоцированный профессор, академический доктор экономики Шота Вешапидзе Грузия. Грузинский технический университет. Ассоцированный профессор, доктор экономических наук

Илья и глобализм Я проникнут мыслью о необходимости указать своим соотечественникам, что вне хороших отношений между народами нет спасения для Грузии. Из обращения Ильи Чавчавадзе к делегации украинцев 1899г.

Илья Чавчавадзе - великий сын грузинского народа. Свою деятельность он начал более 15 десятилетий назад, но он и сегодня есть и вечно будет «Нашим лидером, нашим идеологом и эталоном» (Михаил Саакашвили). Он рассматривал благополучие грузинского народа, только в глобальном контексте общечеловеческого благополучия всех кавказских народов и соседей. Он признавал, что национальное и общечеловеческое не исключают друг друга, наоборот дополняют и обогащают. Подтверждением и примером этого он считал поэму Шота Руставели «Витязь в тигровой шкуре». Его анализ приведен в статье- «Акакий Церетели и «Витязь в тигровой шкуре»». В своих литературных и публицистических записях он всегда старался провести мысль, что посадить в узконациональные рамки нацию, ее культуру и науку - равноценно ее смерти. Это руководствующее заключение проведено и проанализировано Ильей Чавчавадзе в ряде редакционных статей: «Нация и история», «Письма о грузинской литературе», «Девятнадцатый век» и т.д. Этой проблеме Илья посвятил целый цикл редакционных писем – «Политическое обозрение», которые на протяжении 10 лет он систематически публиковал в газете «Иверия». Илья обладал большим аналитическим даром и навыком политического прогнозирования. В конце Х1Х века он предсказал качественный рост и развитие таких интеграционных процессов, которые «Европу и весь мир превратят в большое содружество наций». Он предсказал и то, что в ХХ веке США станет первейшим государством в мире. Он как великий гуманист, всегда защищал малые нации от угнетения со стороны больших колониальных государств.(«восточный вопрос» и т.д.) Илья Чавчавадзе был несравненным знатоком мировой культуры и науки. Еще в студенческие годы в Петербурге он перевел произведения Шекспира, Шиллера, Гете, Пушкина, Лермонтова и др. Близкие, дружественные и деловые отношения были у него с выдающими интеллектуалами того времени. Он хорошо знал наследие великих экономистов-теоретиков Адама Смита и Давида Риккардо, в своем политическом и социально-экономическом анализе часто применял это. Илья Чавчавадзе вел активную литературную и публицистическую деятельность. Вместе с тем, надо учесть и то, что наследие Ильи основывается на наследии выдающихся грузинских просветителей первой половины Х1Х века – Соломона Додашвили, Алексадре Чавчавадзе, Георгия Эристави, Григола Орбелиани и др. В это время грузинская культура тесно и органично связалась с европейской, примером чего может послужить «Логика» Соломона Додашвили, которая была написана на уровне немецкой философии и соответственно заслужила высокую оценку в русской и европейской прессе. Поэтому Илья называл его «Основоположником Европеизма в Грузии». Народы Кавказа Илья называл «великим народом» и с почтением говорил об их единстве, без которого он не видел их будущего. Илья как деятель и мыслитель сформировался под большим воздействием идей заговора 1832 года. Этот заговор зародился в 1828 году в России в кругу 7


переселенных Багратиони, с помощью и с соучастием посольств Англии и Франции. После возвращения в Грузию Соломона Додашвили, заговор принял общекавказский характер и ставил целью изгнание России с Кавказа. В заговоре активно участвовали консул Франции в Тбилиси Летелье и переселенные из Польши в Грузию участники польского восстания 1829-1830 гг. польские патриоты. Идею заговора Илья художественно отобразил в поэме «Картлис деда». По мнению Ильи Чавчавадзе современный мир, его составляющие части настолько тесно связаны между собой, так переплетены, что истинная выгода одной страны основывается на благосостоянии других стран. Страна сама получит тем больше пользы, чем больше добра принесет она другим. Надо отметить, что «благополучие», самой развитой страны мира Англии, Илья Чавчавадзе рассматривает не как «благосостояние» отдельной независимой страны, а в глобальном, региональном контексте. Такой подход он осуществляет и в отношении Грузии. В 1879г. в январском домашнем обзоре, касаясь противоборства России и Англии за «владычество» в Азии, автор всеобщее благосостояние народа рассматривал в мировом масштабе и отмечал, что Англия «невольно постарается принести добро, проживающему в Азии народу...» - и настаивал на том, что “Азия и мы, собственно, нужны не только для самих себя, но и для других. Хотя многое изменилось в мире за 5-6 веков, но этот хребет, который называют Кавказом, в прошлом называемый воротами Азии и Европы и за завоевание которого пролилось много крови, все равно остался воротами и в будущем будет причиной раздора и вражды между народами»1. Главным ориентиром для Ильи Чавчавадзе было предусмотрение передового опыта других стран и для этого он предлагал конкретные пути. Наглядным примером этого он считал «Европейское просвещение и управление страной, европейский порядок”. Илья Чавчавадзе давал наставления - открыть двери для европейской цивилизации, потому, что Европа была самой передовой и прогрессивной, он признавал, что в общем должны предусматривать передовой опыт всех стран. Его главное заключение следующее: в общем, надо перенять от передовых государств все, что послужит благосостоянию и процветанию страны. Илья Чавчавадзе видел большие резервы в развитии торгово-экономических связей с кавказскими народами и государствами. Он с большим одобрением встретил открытие железной дороги Баку-Тбилиси-Поти, потому что признавал, что этим путем связь с Прикаспием и Средней Азией принесли бы большую пользу стране, также как и нефтепровод Баку - Тбилиси. Илья признавал, что Грузия должна быть связывающим звеном между Европой и Азией, этим она способствовала бы созданию своеобразного «Общего рынка» стран трех регионов – Кавказа, Ближнего Востока и Прикаспия. В настоящее время эта идея находит продолжение, осуществляется строительство железной дороги Баку-Тбилиси-Ахалкалаки-Карс, что еще более укрепит экономику Грузии, Турции и Азербайджана. Вместе с этим, Илья Чавчавадзе решающее значение придавал установлению тесных экономических связей с Россией и Европейскими странами, а также и интеграции с ними. Илья Чавчавадзе указывал, что для развития земледелия, усиления работы фабрик и заводов, нам необходимо накопить «необходимые знания и опыт», необходимо чтобы другие не опередили нас и чтобы мы сами заняли нашу «нишу» - «свободное и незанятое другими место». Это был и есть самый главный путь, главное требование эпохи. Именно поэтому, Отец нации не одобрил инвестиции в Грузию, которые хотел осуществить немецкий капиталист Мейснер, потому что монополизированная деятельность его сообщества (содружества) разорила бы наш народ и лишила бы средств к существованию. Автор для развития экономики страны считал целесообразным увеличение производительности труда и разумное углубление сельскохозяйственной специализации. Илья призывал к «самосуществованию» и к «саморазвитию»и указывал, что каждая хозяйственная 1

И.Чавчавадзе, соч. т.5,сахгами, 1955г, , стр.229.

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операция приносит доход, «выгоду». Поэтому, чем больше операций, как страна, выполнишь сам, все их доходы останутся тебе. Илья Чавчавадзе особо формирует свое мнение о том, что в следствии осуществления проекта Мейснера, наш народ остался бы без земли, без своего «кормильца». Он ничего не имеет против обогащения единиц, но к сожалению вместе с этим «народ недополучает средства на жизнь». В частности, он писал: «Страхи господ Элиозова и Иоселиани о том, что содружество лишит нас земли, достойно внимания. Вот, что сказал об этом в 1845 г. в парламенте нынешний первый министр Англии Гладстон, который как финансист не имеет себе равных во всем мире: «одна самая печальная история нашей страны (т.е. Англии) состоит в том, что чем больше богатства концентрируется в руках представителей высшего круга, тем более увеличивается число бедных среди рабочего народа»1. Именно исходя из таких принципов должны подходить к вопросу вложения иностранных инвестиций в Грузию и в настоящее время. Илья Чавчавадзе признавал, что страна должна так применять свои абсолютные и относительные преимущества, чтобы устойчивости его экономики ничего не угрожало и чтобы народ для своего существования легко и дешево находил необходимые средства для этого. Такие размышления со стороны правительства требуют большого внимания. В условиях глобализации, либеральной рыночной экономики, точное установление меры абсолютного и относительного преимущества для достижения развития, является самой приоритетной, каждодневной задачей общества и власти. Из экономических воззрений Ильи Чавчавадзе для нашей эпохи самым важным, является также то, что он рассматривает все и каждое явление в соотношении, т.е. релативно. Его главная характерная особенность то, что Илья рассматривал все в соответствии с зависимостью со своей страной, её местоположению, окружающим условиям и историческим обстоятельствам. Его теория представляет экономическую жизнь не только как явление, но и как понимание (объяснение) соотношения. В своих сочинениях Илья все время находиться в поисках этого соотношения: • ежедневно старается установить оптимальное, истинное соотношение форм собственности, между ее двумя формами - частной и общественной; признает, что между этими двумя формами собственности такое соотношение лучше, когда труд является свободным во времени и в пространстве; • объясняет соотношение общечеловеческих и национальных экономических идеалов (формирования «стандарта», «мерки»); • классически рассматривает соотношение общенациональных и региональных интересов; признает, что на общенациональном уровне должно рассматриваться «создание всеобщего законодательства», т.е общая законотворческая деятельность, «общий доход-расход», т.е. финансы страны и «всеобщее воинское расположение”, т.е. оборона страны, а все остальные вопросы должны решаться на месте; • для развития страны обязательным условием является внедрение истинного местного самоуправления, требуется оптимальное разграничение государственного правления и местного самоуправления с учетом «Европейского опыта»; • обосновывает соотношение фритредерной (либеральной, открытой) и протекционистской внешней экономической политики, для обеспечения «самосуществования» и «саморазвития» страны и т.д. Именно на основании такого соотношения признает Илья Чавчавадзе возможность формирования истинного, оптимального и приемлемого взаимоотношения для всего общества. Это же является универсальным методом для достижения оптимального синтеза общечеловеческих и национальных ценностей, путем сохранения нашего собственного «Я», «местных мелочей», 1

И.Чавчавадзе, соч. т.5, сахгами, 1955г, стр.230.

9


традиций, нравов и обычаев для достижения общего прогресса. Все вышеуказанное в современной эпохе глобализации для каждой страны имеют бесценное, прикладное назначение. Позитивная зависимость Ильи в отношении интеграционных процессов и тенденций глобализма тогдашней эпохи, особенно рельефно выявилась в его экономическом мировоззрении, что отобразилось не только в его письмах и статьях теоретического характера, но и в его банковскокредитной политике. Илья был приверженцем либеральной экономической политики и признавал, что свободная и либеральная экономическая политика путем создания глобальной мировой экономики способствует не только переходу интеграционных процессов на качественно новую стадию, но и решению социальных проблем капитализма. Илья считал интеграционный процесс объективным процессом и постоянно развивающимся явлением, который окончательно явится глобально качественным явлением человечеству. Мы все должны учесть это и предусмотреть в нашем будущем национальном развитии.

10


evgeni baraTaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori revaz gvelesiani saqarTvelo. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

kadrebis momzadebisa da dasaqmebis politika mcire da saSualo biznesSi civilizebuli biznesi, misi arsi, organizacia, dagegmva, marTva da sxva, Cveni qveynis mosaxleobis cnobierebaSi fexmokidebisa da damkvidrebis TvalsazrisiT, axladSemosuli saqmianobaa. Sesabamisad, biznesTan dakavSirebuli Teoriuli da praqtikuli problemebis swavlebac axla idgams fexs. qarTul ekonomikur literaturaSi, XX saukunis 90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli dRemde qarTul enaze Targmnili da gamoqveynebuli statiebi, broSurebi, monografiebi da sxva ver avseben am sferoSi arsebul xarvezs, ver akmayofileben sazogadoebis gazrdil moTxovnebs. biznesisaTvis kadrebis momzadeba, Cveni azriT, unda warimarTos Semdegi mimarTulebiT: biznesis sferosaTvis kadrebis momzadebis, gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis mizniT, unda Seiqmnas samTavrobo politika da aisaxos specialur kanonSi an sxva maregulirebel dokumentSi. igi unda moicavdes mTlianad qveynisa da misi regionebis, ekonomikis calkeuli dargebis moTxovnilebas kvalificiur kadrebze da gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos maTi momzadebis, gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis xangrZlivi da saSualovadiani perspeqtiva, Tavisi finansuri uzrunvelyofiT. am mimarTulebiT wamyvani adgili unda daeTmos biznesisaTvis: a) umaRles profesiul saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi – umaRlesi profesiuli ganaTlebis mqone specialistebis momzadebas; b) umaRles akademiur saswavleblebSi _ Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis specialistebis momzadebas bakalavriatis, magistraturis, doqturanturis xaziT. - moqalaqeebisaTvis, romelTac survili aqvT daiwyon sakuTari biznesi, unda gatardes saganmanaTleblo da organizaciul-sakonsultacio momsaxurebis RonisZiebaTa kompleqsi; - unda Seiqmnas regionebSi, firmebSi, sawarmoebSi ekonomikuri samsaxuris xelmZRvanelTa da specialistTa gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis mudmivmoqmedi skolebi; - aseve, moqmedi da damwyebi biznesmenebisaTvis unda Seiqmnas sakonsultacio centrebi sakuTari saqmis ukeT organizaciis sakiTxebze; - swavlebis organizeba unda moxdes Tanamedrove informaciuli teqnologiebis safuZvelze, maT Soris, distanciuri swavlebisa da internet teqnologiebis, saqmiani TamaSebis, swavlebis modeluri programebis gaTvaliswinebiT; - es yvelaferi unda ganxorcieldes biznesis saxelmwifo mxardaWeris saxelmwifo programis CarCoebSi. 11


profesiul ganaTlebasTan mewarmeobis integrirebisaTvis aucilebelia saswavleblebis transformacia sainovacio, sakonsultacio da saswavlo centrebad. perspeqtivaSi profesiuli saswavlebeli SeiZleba moviazroT iseT organizaciad, romelsac SeuZlia daxmarebis gaweva studentebisaTvis, regionis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebisaTvis rCevebiT, konsultaciebiT, eqsperimentebiT, proeqtebiT. aseTi amocanis Tavis garTmevis SesaZleblobas maT yvelaze ukeT miscems TanamSromlobis gaaqtiureba mewarmeobis seriozuli praqtikuli gamocdilebis mqone dawesebulebebTan, romelTa daxmarebiTac isini SeZleben TavianT saqmianobas mianiWon sainovacio xasiaTi. aseTi, siaxleTa danergvaze gamiznuli strategia, saswavleblebis yuradRebas gaamaxvilebs sabazo momzadebasa da gadamzadebas Soris mWidro kavSiris damyarebaze. samewarmeo da inovaciis centris saxiT profesiuli saswavleblebi, iqcevian Tavisebur inkubatorebad, romlebic damwyeb mewarmeebs SesTavazeben ara mxolod seminarebsa da proeqtebs, aramed – sakuTari saqmis wamowyebis sastarto etapze – Senobasa da Sromis saSualebebs aucilebel infrastruqturasTan erTad. Semdgom aseTi centris amocanad SeiZleba iqces saqmis wamowyebis stadiaSi gamocdili specialistebis SeTavazeba Suamavlebad, romelTac aseve, kontrolis funqciac daekisrebaT. centrs unda SeeZlos organizaciebisa da calkeul pirTa qselebis Camoyalibeba, romelTac biznesis sawyis etapze myofi organizaciebisaTvis daxmarebisa da mxardaWeris SesaZlebloba eqnebaT. profesiuli saswavleblebi kerZo firmebTan erTad SeiZleba vaqcioT axali produqciisa da momsaxurebis Seqmnis, ganxilvisa da Semdgomi srulyofis bazebad. amgvari midgoma SeiZleba iqces rogorc profesiuli ganaTlebis xarisxis srulyofis saSualebad, rac Sesabamisad aamaRlebs saswavlo dawesebulebis statuss, mis prestiJsa da mniSvnelobas regionis ekonomikaSi, aseve, iqceva mosaxleobis TviTdasaqmebis gadamwyvet faqtorad daqiravebuli Sromis muSakTa da axal bazrebsa da biznesis ganviTarebis axal mimarTulebebSi. axali sainovacio strategiis Semadgenelia maswavlebelTa gadamzadebac, radgan isini mudmivad saWiroeben momxmarebelTa interesebis gaTvaliswinebas. es midgoma, ra Tqma unda, sasargebloa pedagogTa momzadebaze specializebuli organizaciebisTvisac. profesiuli saswavleblebis orientaciis Secvla da ganmtkiceba kanonmdeblobiT saSualebas miscems axalgazrdas airCios ara mxolod ganaTlebis praqtikuli mimarTulebebi, aramed Seiqmnas akademiuri sakanonmdeblo kariera, romelic uzrunvelyofs piradi institucionaluri da regionuli potencialebis realizacias damoukideblobisa da pasuxismgeblobis mopovebis mizniT. mewarmeobis sakiTxebis integracia profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemaSi – ar aris moduri gamonagoni, aramed mravalTagan erT-erTi momwifebuli problemaa. arsebiTad, igi unda ganvixiloT ganaTlebis sferos orientaciis Secvlisaken mimarTuli seriozuli Ziebis konteqstSi. sainformacio teqnologiebis saukuneSi profesiul ganaTlebasa da momzadebaSi mewarmeobis sakiTxebis CarTviT SesaZlebelia mis ganviTarebaSi axali horizontebis gaxsna bazarze orientaciis problemebis efeqtianad gadawyvetis mizniT. garda amisa, profesiuli ganaTlebisa da momzadebis Secvlam SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos individualizaciis mimarTulebiT mis integracias sazogadoebis socialuri transformaciis procesTan, rasac Tan axlavs Sromis bazarze dasaqmebis axali formebis sxvadasxvaoba. profesiul ganaTlebaSi transformaciuli procesebis danergva Sromis bazrisaTvis sakmaod mimzidveli, ganaTlebis sistemisaTvis ki sasicocxlod aucilebeli amocanaa. profesiuli ganaTlebisa da swavlebis 12


tradiciuli koncefciisagan gansxvavebiT, mewarmeoba ganaTlebasa da swavlebaSi mTlianad eyrdnoba studentis, rogorc novatoris potencials, romelsac sakuTari samuSaos dagegmvis unari gaaCnia. profesiuli ganaTlebis amocanaa – am potencialis srulad gaxsna da misi iseTi transformacia, rodesac moswavle ganixileba, rogorc sakuTari ideebis ganxorcielebis unaris mqone unikaluri mTlianoba. aseTi midgoma, amave dros, safuZvelSive cvlis warmodgenas Sromis arsze. kanoni `profesiuli ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ ZalaSi 2007 wlis 28 marts Sevida. arsebuli saerTaSoriso praqtikis Tanaxmad saqarTveloSi safuZveli eyreba umaRlesi ganaTlebis or paralelur Stos – akademiursa da profesiuls. profesiuli ganaTleba Cveni qveynis saganmanaTleblo sistemis erT-erTi wamyvani komponenti xdeba. profesiuli ganaTlebis misaRebad saxelmwifo qmnis profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemas, romelic efuZneba profesiuli swavlebis centrebsa da kolejebs. profesiuli gadamzadebis programis farglebSi infrastruqturis reabilitaciaze, trenerebis momzadebaze, saswavlo masalebis Seqmnasa da saswavlo procesebis warmarTvaze 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi 12 milion laramde daixarja. `profesiuli ganaTlebis koncefcia~ saqarTvelos mTavrobam 2005 wlis 31 agvistos #150 dadgenilebiT daamtkica. am kanonma xeli unda Seuwyos profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemis misadagebas swrafad da mudmivad cvalebad Sromis bazris moTxovnebTan. profesiuli ganaTlebis miznebia: 1) mosaxleobis profesiul-saganmanaTleblo moTxovnebis dakmayofileba; 2) Sromis bazris uzrunvelyofa kvalificiuri kadrebiT; 3) dasaqmebulTa konkurentunarianobis SenarCuneba profesiuli gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis gziT; 4) profesiuli ganaTlebis sferoSi saswavlo-samewarmeo partniorobis sistemis Seqmna; 5) profesiuli ganaTlebis misadageba adgilobriv moTxovnebTan; 6) regionuli ganviTarebis mimdinare da perspeqtiuli moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT profesiul-saganmanaTleblo qselis Seqmna; 7) profesiuli ganaTlebis dafinansebaSi kerZo seqtoris monawileobis xelSewyoba. profesiuli ganaTlebis sferoSi maRali xarisxis profesiuli ganaTlebis Seqmnis mniSvnelovani berketia saswavlo-samewarmeo partnioroba, romelic uzrunvelyofs saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis kavSirs ekonomikasTan, gansazRvravs kvalifikaciaze, kompetenciasa da unar-Cvevebze Sromis bazris moTxovnisa da miwodebis balanss. saswavlo-samewarmeo partniorobis farglebSi damsaqmeblebi da maTi organizaciebi monawileoben: a) profesiuli ganaTlebis erovnuli politikis Seqmnasa da am sferoSi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi; b) samuSao adgilebze swavlebis prioritetebis CamoyalibebaSi; g) saganmanaTleblo programebis Sedgenasa da saswavleblebis marTvaSi. regionebis ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan maCvenebels zogadad dasaqmebis (rac farTo gagebiT umuSevrobasac gulisxmobs) sferoSi arsebuli mdgomareoba warmoadgens. dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis doneebi is indikatorebia, rac qveynis mTavrobas mianiSnebs, Tu ra mdgomareobaa qveyanaSi an mis romelime regionSi da ramdenad aucilebelia specialuri RonisZiebebis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba. 13


umuSevrobis problemis gadawyveta metad rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia, romelic rogorc qveynis umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli, aseve regionebis saxelisuflebo organoebis mudmiv da gaerTianebul Zalisxmevas saWiroebs. dasaqmebis politikis SemuSaveba gulisxmobs im mdgomareobis kompleqsur analizsa da Sefasebas, rac dasaqmebis (umuSevrobis) sferoSi realurad arsebobs. amisaTvis aucilebelia dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis aRricxvis mdgomareobis Seswavla, rac am sferoSi arsebuli situaciis realurad Sefasebis saSualebas mogvcems. saqarTvelos xelisuflebas araTu dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis SesaZlebloba ara aqvs, aramed dasaqmebis statistikis arasrulyofilebis, did nawilSi ki misi uzustobis gamo, damaxinjebuli saxiT aqvs warmodgenili dasaqmebis, gansakuTrebiT ki umuSevrobis sferoSi arsebuli problemebis simwvave. umuSevrobis negatiur Sedegebze msjeloba SeiZleba misi xangrZlivobis mixedviT. saqarTveloSi Sromisunarianma moqalaqem, romelsac surs muSaoba, SeiZleba wlebis ganmavlobaSi ver iSovos misi profesiis Sesabamisi samuSao. umuSevrobis xangrZlivi periodi amcirebs momuSavis profesiul-kvaliciuri codnis dones. aseT pirovnebas sakmaod didi dro sWirdeba samuSaoze xelmeored adaptaciisaTvs. ufro rTuldeba mdgomareoba, roca sawarmoSi adgili aqvs inovaciur procesebs da mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis Sedegad icvleba warmoebis teqnologia. aseT SemTxvevaSi misi kvalifikacia SeiZleba arasakmarisi an moZvelebuli aRmoCndes da umuSevars xangrZlivi gadamzadeba dasWirdes. es Tavis mxriv, did finansur danaxarjebs ukavSirdeba. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas da analizs moiTxovs umuSevrobis regionuli maCveneblebis uaRresad dabali done. igi ZiriTadad soflad miwis nakveTebis darigebisa da am safuZvelze maTi TviTdasaqmebulad CaTvlis Sedegia, rac TavisTavad arasworia. magaliTad, 2008 wlis mdgomareobiT guriaSi dafiqsirebulia 7,7%-iani umuSevrobis done, samcxe-javaxeTSi _ 9,0%, kaxeTSi – 7,0% da a.S. qveynis regionebSi dasaqmebulTa saerTo raodenobaSi daqiravebiT momuSaveTa wili mniSvnelovnad dabalia, TviTdasaqmebulTa wili ki Zalze maRalia. 2008 wlisaTvis daqiravebiT momuSaveTa maCvenebeli qveynis regionebis mixedviT aseTia: guriaSi man mxolod 13,7% Seadgina, samcxe-javaxeTSi – 18,2%, samegreloSi – 21,6%, kaxeTSi – 23,5%, Sida qarTlSi – 21,5%, qvemo qarTlSi – 30,1% da a.S. rogorc Cans, qveynis regionebSi, garda Tbilisisa (sadac daqiravebiT momuSaveTa wili 76,8%-s Seadgens), dasaqmebulTa Soris mkveTrad Warbobs TviTdasaqmebuli, rac uaryofiT movlenad unda CaiTvalos, miT umetes, roca saqme gvaqvs fiqtiur TviTdasaqmebasTan. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. tuRuSi m., faresaSvilin., saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis regulirebis meTodologiuri da organizaciuli sakiTxebi, Jur. „socialuri ekonomika“, 2007, #4; 2. JorJoliani s., daqiravebul momuSaveTa stimulirebis arsi, roli da amocanebi samewarmeo saqmianobis ganviTarebaSi, Jur. „saqarTvelos ekonomika“, 2009, #2 3. nacvliSvili i., biznes-ganaTlebis reformis prioritetebi saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri problemebis daZlevis gzaze, Jur. „saqarTvelos ekonomika“, 2008, #10; 4. RaniaSvili m., profesiuli ganaTleba _ bazris Sesabamisi kvalifikaciuri kadrebis momzadebiT umuSevrobasTan brZola, Jur. „saqarTvelos ekonomika“, 2007, #9; 5. Tolordava z., WaleliSvili b., umuSevrobis socialur-ekonomikuri Sedegebi, Jur. „ekonomika“, 2007, 10-12. 14


ineza gagniZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

ganaTleba da mecniereba saqarTveloSi msoflio da globaluri konkurentunarianobis maCveneblebis aspeqtiT Tanamedrove ekonomikur TeoriaSi nacionaluri konkurentunarianoba erT-erTi yvelaze sakamaTo da kvlevis TvalsazrisiT, sakmaod rTuli sakiTxia. or aTeul welze metia, rac nacionaluri konkurentunarianobis (Compeptitiveness of Nations) kvleva yvelaze farTo masStabebiT mimdinareobs msoflio ekonomikur forumsa (aSS) da menejmentis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso institutSi (Sveicaria). aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT saqarTvelos ekonomikis kvleva axalia da sul ramdenime wels iTvlis. Cvens mier warmodgenil moxsenebaSi gvsurs ganvixiloT saqarTveloSi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis amsaxveli maCveneblebis avkargianoba zemoaRniSnuli skolebis mier SemoTavazebuli msoflio da globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSebSi gamoyenebul maCveneblebTan Sedarebis safuZvelze. agreTve, mogvaqvs msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebsa da ek-27-is mixedviT samecniero infrastruqturis ganviTarebis mizniT gaweuli danaxarjebis amsaxveli statistikuri monacemebi. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis globaluri konkurentunarianobis 2010-2011 wlis angariSSi Sesulia informacia msoflios 139 qveynis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli skola qveynebis konkurentunarianobas 2005 wlidan afasebs globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsiT (GCR). 2010-2011 wlis globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSSi saqarTvelos 3,9 quliT (7 qulidan) 93-e adgili ukavia. es niSnavs, rom igi dRes faqtorebis gamoyenebidan, efeqtianobaze gardamaval safexurze (Transition 1-2) imyofeba.1 globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSi konkurentunarianobas afasebs 12 kompleqsuri maCvenebliT, gvsurs moviyvanoT is maCveneblebi, romlebic asaxaven ganaTlebasa da mecnierebas saqarTveloSi (ix. cxrili 1). cxrili 1

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis maCveneblebi saqarTveloSi 2010-2011 wlis msoflio ekonomikuri forumis globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSis mixedviT2 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1

m a C v e n e b e l i dawyebiTi ganaTlebis xarisxi dawyebiTi ganaTlebis sistemaSi CarTulTa xvedriTi wili saSualo ganaTlebis sistemaSi CarTulTa xvedriTi wili specialuri ganaTlebis sistemaSi CarTulTa xvedriTi wili saganmanaTleblo sistemis xarisxi maTematikuri da samecniero ganaTlebis xarisxi skolebis marTvis xarisxi internetis xelmisawvdomoba skolebSi kvlevebsa da treningebze xelmisawvdomoba adgilobriv doneze personalis gadamzadebis maStabebi

adgili 139 qveyanas Soris 105 17 59 66 119 104 116 74 125 108

1

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdf.162-163. iqve.

2

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rogorc cxrili 1-dan Cans, konkurentunarianobis amsaxveli maCvenebeli gvaqvs mxolod dawyebiTi ganaTlebis sistemaSi CarTulTa xvedriTi wilis mixedviT (17-e adgili 139 qveyanas Soris) da yvelaze cudi _ adgilobriv doneze kvlevebsa da treningebze xelmisawvdomobaSi (125). aRsaniSnavia, rom gasul wels am sferoSi konkurentunarianobis amsaxveli maCvenebeli saerTod ar gvqonda. lozanaSi msoflio konkurentunarianobis kvlevis centrSi Seiswavleba 55 mowinave qveyana, romelTa Soris saqarTvelo ar aris. Tumca, vfiqrobT, rom sainteresoa ganvixiloT is maCveneblebi, romlebsac Tavis kvlevaSi iyeneben evropeli mecnierebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom kvlevis es maCveneblebi wlidan-wlamde icvleba da ixveweba. kerZod, mimdinare wels gasul welTan SedarebiT Secvlilia 2 da damatebulia 2 maCvenebeli. saerTo jamSi maTi ricxvi dReisaTvis 23-ia,1 esenia: danaxarjebi kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze (qveyanaSi mTlianad da biznes seqtoris mier gaweuli danaxarjebi, rogorc nominaluri, ise procentuli maCveneblebiT); kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis samsaxurebSi srul saStato ganakveTebze dasaqmebulTa ricxovnoba, rogorc qveynis masStabiT, aseve biznes-seqtorSi; kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis samsaxurebSi momuSave personali kapitalis erTeulze qveyanasa da biznes-seqtorSi (promileSi), imave personalis raodenoba biznesSi kapitalis erTeulze (promileSi); fundamenturi gamokvlevebi qveyanaSi (ganixileba, rogorc ekonomikis ganviTarebis faqtori grZelvadian periodSi); samecniero xarisxebi, gansakuTrebiT sauniversiteto I xarisxis diplomebis raodenoba samecniero da teqnikur dargebSi (%-ad) mTlianad I xarisxis diplomebis raodenobasTan mimarTebiT; samecniero statiebis raodenoba; mecniereba skolaSi (Seiswavleba axalgazrdebis interesi mecnierebisadmi); nobelis premiebis laureatTa raodenoba saerTod da kapitalis erTeulze (1950 wlidan jildoebi fizikaSi, qimiaSi, fsiqologiaSi an medicinaSi, aseve ekonomikaSi); sapatento ganacxadebis raodenoba (qveynis moqalaqeebis an moqalaqeobis armqone pirTa mier Sevsebuli sapatento ganacxadebis raodenoba) qveyanaSi mudmivad mcxovrebi moqalaqeebis mier miRebuli patentebis raodenoba; ama Tu im qveynis moqalaqeebis ucxoeTSi aRiarebuli patentebis raodenoba; inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva (inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva kanoniT aRiarebulia); moqmedi patentebis raodenoba – 100000kacze; patentebis mwarmoebluroba – qveynis moqalaqeebis mier miRebuli patentebi / R&D personalis raodenoba biznesSi (promileSi, 1000 kacze); samecniero kvlevebis xelSewyoba kanonmdeblobiT; codnis gadacema (codnis gadacema-gacvlis intensiuroba maRalia kompaniebsa da universitetebs Soris); inovaciurobis SesaZlebloba (firmebis inovaciuroba, gamoxatuli maT mier axali produqtebisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis unarSi). vfiqrobT, yovelive zemoaRniSnuli kargad miuTiTebs amerikel da evropel mkvlevarTa mier samecniero saqmianobis xelSewyoba-ganviTarebis kompleqsur xedvasa da xarisxobrivi Sedegebis stimulirebaze. saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministroSi gasul wels mecnierebis statistika moicavda 20 maCvenebels2, romlebic Semdeg oTx jgufSi erTiandeba: dafinansebis (9 maCvenebeli: mecnierebaze danaxarjebis wili mSp-Si; mecnierebaze saxelmwifo danaxarjebis wili qveynis biujetSi; mecnierebaze gaweuli saxelmwifo danaxarjebis wili ganaTlebaze gaweul saxelmwifo danaxarjebSi; mecnierTa xelfasebze danaxarjebis wili mecnierebaze gaweul xarjebSi; ucxouri dafi1 2

http://www.imd.org/research/publications/wcy/upload/All_criteria_list.pdf informacia 2009 w. aRebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros veb-gverdidan.

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nansebis absoluturi da SefardebiTi raodenoba saxelmwifo biujetSi mecnierebaze gamoyofil TanxebTan mimarTebaSi; saxelmwifo seqtoris mier kvlevasa da teqnologiebis damuSavebaSi gaweuli xarjebi mTlian Sida produqtTan mimarTebaSi; biznesseqtoris mier kvlevasa da teqnologiebis damuSavebaSi gaweuli xarjebi mTlian Sida produqtTan mimarTebaSi; sawarmoTa wili, romlebic iReben saxelmwifo dafinansebas inovaciebisTvis; umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi samecniero saqmianobisTvis gansazRvrul asignebaTa wili (procentuli maCvenebeli dawesebulebis saerTo biujetTan mimarTebiT)), adamianuri resursebis (3 maCvenebeli: mecnierTa fardobiTi raodenoba (100000 kacze); mecnierTa saSualo asaki; mecnierTa saSualo xelfasi), Sedegebis (7 maCvenebeli: gamoqveynebul naSromebSi pirvel avtorTa da korespondent avtorTa absoluturi da fardobiTi raodenoba; mecnierTa mier mopovebuli grantebi; mecnierTa inteleqtualuri sakuTreba; qveyanaSi Catarebuli samecniero konferenciebi; wlis manZilze gamoqveynebuli monografiebis raodenoba; adgilobrivi da ucxouri jgufebis mier Sesrulebuli erToblivi proeqtebi, romlebic ar aris sagranto warmoSobis; mecnierebis mier gamoqveynebuli wliuri naSromebis raodenoba) da mobilobis (1 maCvenebeli, samecniero kadrebis/potencialis qveynis gareT gadineba). saqarTveloSi arsebuli da msoflioSi aRiarebuli centrebis mier SemoTavazebul saganmanaTleblo da samecniero infrastruqturis amsaxvel maCvenebelebs Soris, vfiqrobT, gansxvaveba ufro metia, vidre saerTo. amis mizezi, Cveni azriT, sakiTxis gadawyvetis gansxvavebuli xedvaa. aq vgulisxmobT imas, rom CvenTan Warbobs iseTi maCveneblebi, romlebic raodenobriv Sedegebzea orientirebuli, xolo centrebis mier Camoyalibebuli maCveneblebi xarisxobriv Sedegebze akeTeben aqcents. es albaT, ganviTarebis Cveni donis mqone qveynisTvis bunebrivia da srulyofisken svlis procesis aucilebeli etapia. Tumca, aRniSnulis miuxedavad, vfiqrobT, rom qveyanaSi statistikis uwyebis saqmianobis gaumjobeseba-ganaxlebisa da saganmanaTleblo-samecniero sferos grZelvadiani ganviTarebis erTiani sistemuri xedvis Camoyalibebis aucilebloba gadaudebeli sakiTxia. Cveni azriT, upirveles yovlisa, unda daviwyoT fiqri kvlevisa da ganviTarebis sistemis Camoyalibebaze. qveynis kvlevebisa da ganvTarebis sistema warmoadgens adamianuri, materialuri, infrastruqturuli, codnisa da sxva faqtorebis erTobliobas, romlis funqciaa axali codnisa da teqnologiebis Seqmna da/an aTviseba. es swored is sistemaa, sadac ganviTarebuli qveynebis mTavrobebi da biznesi sakmaod did Tanxebs xarjavs. monacemebs moviyvanT evrokomisiis evrostatis mier 2009 wels momzadebuli gamocemidan `mecniereba, teqnologia da inovaciebi evropaSi~.1 aRniSnul gamocemaSi miTiTebulia rom 1996-2007 wlebSi kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze saxelmwifo biujetidan gamoyofili Tanxebi (ganisazRvreba mSp-s %-uli wiliT; GBAORD2) aSS-Si 0,9%-dan gaizarda 1,02%-mde, iaponiaSi igive maCvenebeli 0,58%-dan gaizarda 0,7%-mde, xolo evropa-15-Si (da Semdgom evropa-27-Si) meryeobda 0,8%-is farglebSi. 2007 wels evrokavSiris qveynebs Soris yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli estoneTSi dafiqsirda – 1,06%; germaniasa da safrangeTSi – 0,76%; gaerTiane1

http://bookshop.europa.eu/is-bin/INTERSHOP.enfinity/WFS/EU-Bookshop-Site/en_GB/-/EUR/ViewPublicationStart?PublicationKey=KS3009148 . 2 GBAORD - Government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D - sums allocated to R&D in central government or federal budgets; this means they refer to budget provisions and not to actual expenditure.

17


bul samefoSi – 0,73%; italiaSi 0,61%; yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli saberZneTSi iyo – 0,30%. kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze gaweulma ralurma danaxarjebma, kvlevisa da ganviTarebis intensiurobam (R&D intensity - R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP) evrokavSiri-27-Si Seadgina 1,83%; aSS-Si – 2,61%; iaponiaSi – 3,32%; gaerTianebul samefoSi – 1,76%. evrokavSiris calkeul qveynebs Soris yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli dafiqsirda SvedeTsa – 3,63% da fineTSi – 3,47%; germaniaSi aRniSnulma maCvenebelma Seadgina 2,53%; safrangeTSi – 2,08%, italiaSi – 1,14%, xolo yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli dafiqsirda kviprosSi – 0,45%. kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze dasaqmebulTa ricxovnobam mTlianad dasaqmebulebs Soris evrokavSiri-27-Si Seadgina 1,44% xolo iaponiaSi – 1,71%. evrokavSiris qveynebs Soris yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli dafiqsirda fineTSi – 3,22%, mas moyveba SvedeTi – 2,71%, xolo yvelaze dabali xvedriTi wili dafiqsirda rumineTSi – 0,45%. germaniaSi aRniSnulma maCvenebelma Seadgina – 1,84%, safrangeTSi – 1,72%, xolo italiaSi 1,23%. sainteresoa biznesSi kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze dasaqmebulTa xvedriTi wilis maCvenebeli mTlianad dasaqmebulebs Soris (R&D personnel in the business enterprise sector, as a percentage of persons employed (HC), sadac uaxlesi maCvenebeli 2005 wliT ganisazRvra da lideris poziciaSi mogvevlina luqsemburgi – 2,15%, meore adgilzea fineTi – 1,70%, evrokavSiri-27-is maCvenebelia – 0,62%, xolo iaponiis – 1,04%. samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi mecnierebaze gaweuli danaxarjebis wili bolo wlebis manZilze qveynis biujetis mxolod 1%-is garSemo meryeobs. aRniSnuli mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT vfiqrobT, sasurvelia estoneTis magaliTis gamoyeneba. igi mimdinare wels globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsiT 33-e adgilzea msoflioSi, xolo msoflio konkurentunarianobis indeqsiT – 34-e. aq gatarda reforma, romlis mizanic iyo, rogorc akademiuri mecnierebis, aseve umaRlesi sauniversiteto sistemis optimizacia da reorganizacia im orientirebisaken, romelic saxelmwifom im periodisaTvis prioritetad CaTvala da moxda akademiis sistemis rogorc materialuri, aseve adamianuri resursebis Zireuli gardaqmna am prioritetebis mixedviT. kvlevisa da ganviTarebis sistemis Camoyalibebaze zemoT gamoTqmuli mosazrebis paralelurad gvsurs SemogTavazoT evropis mcire qveynebis msgavsad, or sibrtyeSi moqmedi klasterebis1 dagegmva, romelTa ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: 1. samecniero-saganmanaTleblo klasterebi (rac, rogorc msoflio ekonomikis ganviTarebis istoria adasturebs, ganviTarebul qveynebSi gvevlineba, rogorc kvlevisa da ganviTarebis sistemis Seqmna-Camoyalibebis winapiroba da inovaciebis stimulirebis saukeTeso saSualeba); 2.tradiciuli klasterebi. saqarTvelosTvis es SeiZleba iyos soflis meurneobis, satransporto, turizmis didi klasterebi Tavisi mravali ganStoebiT da sxva SedarebiT mcire klasterebi samecniero-saganmanaTleblo klasterTan mtkice kavSirSi. Tu ratom klasterebi saamosod moviyvanT stoqholmis ekonomikis skolis strategiisa da konkurentunarianobis centris (Center for Strategy and Competitiveness 1

i. gagniZe, klasterebis iniciativebi evropaSi da saqarTvelo, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saerTaSoriso referirebadi da recenzirebadi samecnieropraqtikuli Jurnali `ekonomika da biznesi~, Tb. #1 2010. gv. 88-89.

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CSC)1 xelmZRvanelis prof. o. solvelis mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom: `1. klasterebi gansakuTrebiT aZliereben garemos inovaciebisTvis; 2. klasterebi aviTareben ori saxeobis Zalas, rogorc evoluciurs, aseve konstruqciuls~2. amasTan, kidev erTxel gvsurs gavixsenoT prof. m. porteris mosazreba, rom: `klasteris koncefcia iwvevs azrovnebis gansakuTrebuli formis ganviTarebas, mas SeuZlia politika mimarTos mraval sferoSi, kerZod: mecnierebisa da teqnologiis ganviTarebisken, ganaTlebasa da profesiul momzadebaze, eqsportsa da ucxour investiciebTan TanamSromlobasTan da sxva.3~. amgvarad, klasterebis koncefcia ekonomikis ganviTarebis strategiaSi gamoiyeneba mraval qveyanaSi da vfiqrobT, saqarTveloSic sasurvelia Camoyalibdes iseTi jgufi, romelic universitetebTan erTad Seiswavlis ucxour gamocdilebas da ganaxorcielebs mis danergvas qveynis ekonomikaSi. saamisod SesaZlebelia ganoyenebuli iqnes is saukeTeso gamocdileba, rac adviladaa xelmisawvdomi klasterebis observatoriis mier gamocemul `evropuli klasterebis saorganizacio cnobarSi~4. is yovelkvartalurad mzaddeba da asaxavs informacias 1200-ze meti klasteris Sesaxeb 200-ze meti regionidan. am informaciaze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebelia saqarTvelos samecniero Tu ekonomikis prioritetuli dargebis msgavsi analogebis moZieba da maTi efeqtianobidan gamomdinare kavSirebis gamoyeneba Cveni qveynis pirobebSi misi ganviTarebis Taviseburebebis Sesabamisad. vfiqrobT, rom klasterebis CamoyalibebasTan dakavSirebuli sinergiuli efeqtebi xels Seuwyobs qveynis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis umoklesi gzis formirebas. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare ki, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos ekonomikis klasteruli ganviTarebis koncefciis SemuSaveba qveynis ekonomikuri interesebisTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovania.

1

http://www.hhs.se/csc/Pages/default.aspx. http://www.cluster-research.org/redbook.htm.; Orjan Solvell, Clusters - Balancing Evolutionary and Constructive Forces; ISBN 97891-974783-3-5. pp.7. 3 Маикл Портер – Конкуренция; Издательский дом «Вильямс»; Санкт-Петербург, Москва, Киев; 2002.c.263. 4 http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/upload/directory.pdf. 2

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irina gogoriSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

saqarTvelos ekonomikis inovaciuri ganviTarebis upiratesobaTa formireba globaluri krizisis pirobebSi inovaciuri ganviTarebis upiratesobaTa formireba, rasac iaponeli mecnieri xirooka (xirooka, 2006) inovaciur paradigmas uwodebs, Sedgeba sami logistikuri traeqtoriisagan esenia: teqnologiis, amuSavebisa da difuziis. teqnologiis traeqtoria miekuTvneba sabaziso teqnologiaTa erTobas, romelic inovacias miekuTvneba. amuSavebis traeqtoria aris axali inovaciuri produqtebis erToblioba, romlebic miiReba axali sabaziso teqnologiebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze. amuSavebis traeqtoria mTavar rols TamaSobs inovaciur paradigmaSi, radgan swored aq xorcieldeba teqnologiuri codnis gadacema akademiuri institutebidan samewarmeo seqtorSi (inovaciuri produqtis aTvisebisa da misi Semdgomi komercializaciis mizniT). sasurveli pirobebi venCuruli sawarmoebisaTvis swored amuSavebis traeqtoriis pirveli 10-15 wlis ganmavlobaSi iqmneba. amdenad gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania swored am periodSi ar davkargoT saukeTeso SesaZleblobebi inovaciaTa komercializaciisaTvis. teqnologiisa da difuziis traeqtoriebi agreTve pirvelad xirookam gamoikvlia da maTi xangrZlivoba 25-30 wliT gansazRvra. amgvarad xirookas mier gamokvleuli inovaciuri paradigma kaskaduri struqturis mqonea. igi Sedgeba sami logistikuri traeqtoriisagan, romlebic erTmaneTs CamorCebian empiriuli gziT dadgenili drois gansazRvruli fiqsirebuli SualediT. samecniero literaturaSi daxasiaTebuli kondratievis didi ciklebis Teoriis mixedviT msoflio ekonomika amJamad imyofeba mexuTe ciklis dasasrul meoTxe fazaze, romelic savaraudod 2020-22 wlisTvis dasruldeba. am ciklisTvis damaxasiaTebeli sabaziso teqnologiis traeqtoriis safuZvelze ganviTarda mikroeleqtronika, personaluri kompiuterebi, informatika da bioteqnologia. depresiis faza, romelSic axla imyofeba msoflio ekonomika mravalmxrivi da mravalgvari krizisebiT xasiaTdeba da rogori traeqtoriac ar unda hqondes axali ciklis dawyebamde periods (igulisxmeba fazis traeqtoriebis W, L, V formebi). amas araviTari mniSvneloba ara aqvs, radgan sanam ar dasruldeba mexuTe cikli, araviTari grZelvadiani zrda ar iarsebebs. migvaCnia, absoluturad zedmetad am sakiTxze yuradRebis gamaxvileba. meeqvse ciklis dasawyisi axali sabaziso teqnologiebiT xasiaTdeba. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia globaluri inteleqtualuri sainformacio qselebis, adamianuri resursis potenciur SesaZleblobaTa srulyofili realizaciis bioteqnologiebi, zegamtarebi da ekologiurad sufTa energetika. sruliad axali teqnologiebis gverdiT ganviTarebasa da srulyofas ganagrZobs kompiuteruli teqnologiebi (Zireulad gardaqmnili nanoeleqtronikisa da kvanturi kompiuterebis safuZvelze), bioteqnologiebi da genuri inJineria (RerZuli ujredebis safuZvelze kacobrioba sicocxlis xangrZlivobas fantastikurad gazrdis), multimedia dRes ukve farTod gamoiyeneba da momaval aTwleulebSi igi Cveni cxovrebis yvela sferoSi SeaRwevs. axali Taobis teqnologiebi ukve asruleben TavianTi ganviTarebis 20


traeqtoriebs da astimulireben maTi amuSavebis traeqtoriebs, xolo rac Seexeba maT safuZvelze Seqmnili inovaciuri produqtebis komerciul gamoyenebas igi ukve 2015-2020 ww. daiwyeba. yoveli axali teqnologiuri cikli sabaziso da gaumjobesebuli teqnologiebis erTobliobaa, romlebic organizaciul inovaciebTan erTad dominirebad ,,teqnikur-ekonomikuri paradigmis~ safuZvelze inergeba. kompiuteruli teqnologiebi, nanoteqnologiebi da maTi simbiozi meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis dominirebadi teqnikur-ekonomikuri paradigma iqneba. kompiuteruli teqnologiebi mTavar rols iTamaSeben nanoteqnologiebis safuZvelze Seqmnili inovaciuri produqtis damuSavebasa da aTvisebaSi. aSS-Si, evrokavSirsa da iaponiaSi meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis sabaziso teqnologiebis klasterizacia ukve mimdinareobs. magaliTad, mimdinareobs nanobioteqnologiebis mravalmxrivi gamoyenebis sferos formireba. isini dakavSirebulia nanosistemebSi TviTorganizebadi Tvisebebis mqone biologiuri komponentebis gamoyenebasTan da piruku nanosistemebis gamoyenebasTan biologiuri da bioteqnologiuri procesebis optimizaciisTvis. nanobioteqnologiebis farTo gamoyeneba (medicinasa da farmacevtikis garda) dakavSirebulia agroteqnikasa da kvebis produqtebis warmoebis kardinalur gaumjobesebasa da narCenebis gadamuSavebis usafrTxo meTodebis gamoyenebasTan. msoflio ekonomikasa da adamianTa sazogadoebaze nanobioteqnologiebis erT-erTi yvelaze revoluciuri zemoqmedeba bioCipebis warmoebasa da gamoyenebaSia mosalodneli. inovaciebi ekonomikis mniSvnelovan zrdas uzrunvelyofen mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini universaluria da mis yvela sferoSi aRweven. amasTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania aRvniSnoT, rom nanoteqnologiebis gamoyenebis sferoebs jer-jerobiT medicinis, soflis meurneobis, energetikisa da sxva tradiciuli dargebi warmoadgens. mexuTe teqnologiuri ciklidan meeqvse teqnologiur ciklze gadasvlis procesSi garkveuli inovaciebi ganapirobebs axali infrastruqturebisa da qselebis Seqmnas, romlebic ganviTarebis grZelvadiani traeqtoriis _ infratraeqtoriis formirebas (xirooka, 2006) xels uwyobs. aseT inovaciebs magistralurs (RerZuls) uwodeben. Tavdapirvelad maTi gavrceleba axal bazrebs qmnis, magram SemdgomSi maTi potenciali ekonomikaSi axali infrastruqturis warmoqmnisaTvis farTovdeba. infratraeqtoriebi agreTve kargad gansazRvrul klasters qmnis, romelsac RerZuli magistraluri inovacia aqvs. mexuTe teqnologiur ciklSi aseTi inovaciebia kompiuteruli teqnologiebi. magistraluri inovaciebi, Tavis mxriv gansxvavebul invenciebsa da instituciur cvlilebebs iwvevs, romlebic Semdgom teqnologiur ciklSi bazrebis gafarToebas ganapirobebs. amgvarad, swored kompiuterebi gaxda ZiriTadi magistraluri invencia, romelmac sicocxle STabera cifrul samyaros, programul produqts, mikroeleqtronikas, internets, multimedias da sxv. axal momaval meeqvse teqnologiur ciklSi aseT magistralur inovacias savaraudod nanobioteqnologiebi warmoadgens. socialuri da teqnologiuri inovaciebi paralelurad unda mimdinareobdes, mxolod ase SeiZleba miviRoT sinergiuli efeqti. igi mniSvnelovnad gaafarToebs bazrebs, xels Seuwyobs Semdegi Taobis inovaciebs, romlebic mTliani ekonomikis zrdas gamoiwvevs. cnobili amerikeli mkvlevari ekonomisti k. frimeni werda: ,,swori ekonomikuri da socialuri politikis mizania teqnikur inovaciebTan socialuri cvlilebebis iseTi misadageba, romelic Seamcirebs depresiis xangrZlivobas~ (frimani, 1987). am sakiTxSi SeuTanxmebloba ekonomikur interesebs Soris (xelisuflebasa da ekonomikur agentebs Soris, biznessa da Sromas Soris, ganviTarebul da ganvi21


Tarebad qveynebs Soris da sxva) ekonomikuri aRmavlobisaTvis globalur winaaRmdegobas warmoadgens. socialur faseulobebsa da miznebs, ekonomikuri politikis instrumentebsa da teqnologiur inovaciebs Soris sammxrivi kavSiri arsebobs. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sazogadoeba miaRwevs SeTanxmebas am sam kategorias Soris, mxolod maSin Seiqmneba kargi pirobebi inovaciuri ganviTarebis, ekonomikuri zrdisa da socialuri keTildReobisaTvis. nebismieri teqnologiuri ciklis depresiis fazaSi bazrebi da mTliani ekonomika saxelmwifo regulirebis gaZlierebas moiTxovs. yovelive es ganpirobebulia sainvesticio saxsrebis mwvave ukmarisobiT, ekonomikis SekumSvis mZime Sedegebis neitralizaciis moTxovniT, ekonomikur rxevebze ekonomikuri politikis zemoqmedebis meqanizmebis gaaqtiurebis SesaZleblobebiTa da saxelmwifos xelSi arsebuli sxva, ufro qmediTi, antikrizisuli RonisZiebebis gatarebiT. Zneli misaxvedri araa, rom swored teqnologiuri ciklis fazebis Sesabamisad icvleba moTxovna ekonomikuri Teoriis skolebis doqtrinebze. msoflio ekonomikis gamococxlebisa da aRmavlobis fazebSi gaaqtiurebulia liberaluri sabazro ekonomikis fuZemdebluri principebi da meTodebi, Semdgom ki (dacemisa da depresiis fazebSi) sawinaaRmdego procesebis ganviTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme. depresiis faza saukeTeso periodia Zlieri saxelmwifo regulirebis strategiis gatarebisaTvis, romelic inovaciebis danergvisaTvis aucilebel xelSemwyob pirobebs qmnis. saxelmwifo regulirebis mxardasaWerad i. Sumpeteri aRniSnavda, rom ,,dacemisa da depresiis periodSi mimdinare procesebi arastabilurobisa da mouwesrigeblobis suraTs avlens, romelsac sazogadoeba da ekonomikuri agentebi axali wonasworobisken mihyavs. swored amgvarad xorcieldeba saerTo situaciis SedarebiT swraf da fundamentur cvlilebebTan adaptacia� (Sumpeteri, 1982). depresiis fazaSi mimdinare procesebi ekonomikis axal wonasworobas uzrunvelyofs wina periodebSi (gamococxlebisa da aRmavlobis periodebi) wonasworobis darRveviT warmoqmnili Sedegebis ganeitralebis an sruli likvidaciis gziT. depresiis faza grZeldeba manamde, sanam ar warmoiSoba axali wonasworoba. am periodSi mimdinareobs: warmoebis xarjebisa Semcireba, saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze fasebis dacema, bazars toveben arakonkurentunariani, susti ekonomikuri subieqtebi. didi kompaniebi atareben ,,dekoncentraciis strategias~, romelic gulisxmobs ZiriTadi saxeobis biznesze koncentrirebas (finansurad, menejmentisa da marketingis TvalsazrisiT) misi araZiriTadi saxeobebis gayidvis safuZvelze. msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinareobs im kompaniebisa da korporaciebis zrda, romlebmac SeZles inovaciebis dasanergad sakmarisi kapitaluri resursebis mobilizacia da gamoyeneba. cxadia, es procesebi gulisxmobs ganviTarebad qveynebSi arsebuli Zlieri ekonomikuri agentebis CarTvas (specializaciis, kooperirebisa da kombinirebis procesebis gaZlierebis safuZvelze) Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebis procesebSi did transnacionalur kompaniebTan urTierTobebis damyarebisa da maTi Semdgomi gafarToebis gziT. xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis ZiriTadi ekonomikuri maxasiaTebeli _ mimdinareobs warmoebis masStabis mzardi efeqtis procesis globalizacia, romelic cxadia diferencirebulia qveynebisa da dargebis mixedviT. ganviTarebul qveynebSi globaluri procesebis safuZvelze mimdinareobs (produqtis sasicocxlo ciklis Teoriis mixedviT) im mecnierebaTtevad dargebSi specializacia, romlebSic masStabis mzardi efeqtis miReba xorcieldeba. didi kompaniebi kooperirebis procesebis safuZvelze qmnian venCurul firmebs ganviTarebad qveynebSi isev da isev im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisTvis, romleb22


Sic masStabis mzardi efeqtis miRebis SesaZlebloba arsebobs. am mxriv praqtikulad warmatebis miRebis Sansi SedarebiT mravalricxovani mosaxleobis mqone ganviTarebad qveynebs aqvT, romlebsac kvalificiuri samuSao Zalis mobilizebis TvalsazrisiTac naklebi problemebi SeiZleba hqondes. dRes aseTi qveynebis raodenoba msoflio ekonomikaSi sruliad sakmarisia. ismeba kiTxva _ ra SesaZleblobebi gaaCnia mcire Ria ganviTarebad ekonomikebs (maT Soris saqarTvelos ekonomikas) inovaciuri produqtebis (saqonlisa da momsaxurebis) warmoebaSi masStabis mzardi efeqtis miRebis safuZvelze? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema sakmaod rTulia, radgan am SemTxvevaSi msoflio ekonomikis momavali da ara mimdinare ganviTarebis Sesaxeb vmsjelobT. msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare cvlilebebis (ganviTarebuli qveynebis gansakuTrebiT ki didi ekonomikebis) araTanabari da fragmentuli zrdis fonze mimdinareobs msoflio sazogadoebis Tanmimdevruli da Seuqcevadi momzadeba axali paradigmisa da teqnikuri inovaciebisTvis, romlebic adamianebs marTalia TavianTi yofiT kidev ufro metad miajaWvebs teqnikuri progresis miRwevebTan, magram amave dros mniSvnelovnad daizogeba maTi energia da dro sulieri ganviTarebisTvis. arsebuli gamowvevebidan gamomdinare msoflio ekonomikis sazRvrebSi Sromis danawilebisa da produqtis sasicocxlo ciklis Teoriis safuZvelze aSS-is mecnier ekonomistTa didi nawili (maT Soris arian ekonomikaSi nobelis premiis laureatebi: r. lukasi, r. jonsi, xarisi, p. krugmani, m. obstfeldi da sxvebi) Tvlis, rom warmoebis masStabis mzardi efeqtis Teoriis praqtikaSi moqmedebis Sedegebi uw. y. msoflio vaWrobis ganviTarebis mimarTulebebsa da maT (savaWro nakadebis) SemadgenlobaSi vlindeba. anu, ufro rom davakonkretoT, ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris mimdinare ekonomikuri integracia daeqvemdebareba masStabis mzardi efeqtis safuZvelze organizebuli inteleqtualuri produqtis warmoebaSi kooperirebisa da specializaciis procesebs. ganviTarebuli mcire Ria ekonomikebi aRniSnuli produqtebis warmoebaSi viwro specializaciis niSebs daikaveben da am niSebis produqciiT ganviTarebul did Ria ekonomikebTan kooperaciis procesebSi miiReben monawileobas. rac Seexeba kapitaltevadi samrewvelo saqonlis (igive exeba ZiriTadi sakvebi produqtebis warmoebas) masobriv warmoebas, es procesi ganviTarebad did Ria ekonomikebSi gadainacvlebs (magaliTad: ruseTSi, indoeTSi, CineTSi, braziliaSi, argentinasa da sxva qveynebSi). maT Soris inteleqtualuri potencialisa da kvalificiuri kadrebis mqone warmatebul qveynebSi gansakuTrebuli kategoriis (naklebad kapitaltevadi naxevarfabrikati) inteleqtualuri saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba ganviTardeba. gasagebia, rom Tu movlenebisa da procesebis ganviTareba aseTi logikiT warimarTeba, maSin ganviTarebad mcire Ria ekonomikebs (maT Sorisaa saqarTvelo) sagareo vaWrobisTvis im produqtebisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba eqnebaT, romelTa warmoebaSic masStabis mzardi efeqti ar warmoiqmneba. aRsaniSnavia, rom meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis sawyisi fazisaTvis ukve unda momzaddes pirobebi calkeuli inteleqtualuri dargebis produqciis warmoebisa da momsaxurebisTvis. amasTan dakavSirebuli logistikuri procesebis diferencirebis safuZvelze viwro specializebuli safinanso da sasaqonlo nakadebis moZraobasTan gveqneba saqme, risTvisac Cveni qveyana maqsimalurad unda emzadebodes. am mxriv savaraudod pirveli nabiji sul axlaxan aSS-is mier SemoTavazebuli biologiuri kvlevebis CatarebisTvis mniSvnelovani laboratoriis Seqmna iqneba. sakmaod kargi SesaZleblobebi Cndeba umaRlesi da specialuri ganaTlebis siste23


mis reabilitaciisa da ganviTarebis mimarTulebiT (teqnikuri universitetis gafarToebis uprecendento SesaZleblobebis Seqmna kavkasiis regionisTvis). vfiqrobT, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mivaqcioT da saxelmwifo mxardaWera unda gamovucxadoT janmrTelobis dacvis Tanamedrove uaxlesi samedicino aparaturiT aRWurvili specializebuli hospitalebisa da klinikebis Seqmnas. da bolos gvinda aRvniSnoT, Cveni qveynis istoriuli misia xelovnebisa da sulier faseulobaTa Seqmnisa da gavrcelebis sferoSia. swored am mimarTulebiT gvmarTebs gavaaqtiuroT Cveni saqmianoba (gansakuTrebiT unda gaZlierdes saqarTvelos inteligenciis roli da funqciebi). rac Seexeba inteleqtualur potencials (samxatvro akademia, konservatoria, Teatraluri instituti da sxva kulturuli dawesebulebebi), am mxriv yoveli wuTis gamoyenebaa saWiro, radgan konkurencia uaRresad mZafria. sasurvelia saswavlo programebis orientireba saqarTveloSi savaraudod momavalSi (depresiis fazaze da meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis momaval stadiebze) mimdinare inovaciuri ganviTarebis procesebis momsaxurebaze. Cveni Rrma rwmeniT saqarTvelos inteligencia am rTul da sabediswero mniSvnelobis mqone amocanis gadawyvetas warmatebiT SeZlebs.

l i t e r a t u r a: 1.Freeman C. Technical Innovation, Diffusion and Long Cycles of Economic Development. The Long-Wave Debate/Ed. By T. Vasko. Berlin : Springer. 1987. P. 295-309; 2.Hirooka M. Innovation Dynamism and Economic Growth. A Nonlinear Perspective; 3. Cheltenham, UK-Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.2006; 4. Shumpeter I. Economic Development Theory. 1982; 5. OECD 2008.

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zurab vaSakiZe saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori merab miqelaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

saxelmwifos sagadasaxado politikis zogierTi Teoriuli da praqtikuli aspeqtis Sesaxeb sagadasaxado politika warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikuri politikis umniSvnelovanes Semadgenel nawils. amavdroulad, igi gvevlineba seriozul berketad, romlis saSualebiTac xelisufleba zegavlenas axdens warmoebis da ganawilebis procesze. am sferoSi arsebuli gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom sabiujeto-sagadasaxado sfero warmoadgens ekonomikaze saxelmwifos zemoqmedebis mZlavr instruments, amitom mis xarisxobriv srulyofas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs da moiTxovs mikro da makro ekonomikuri problemebis farTo wris Rrma Teoriul analizsa da kvlevas. erTi mxriv sagadasaxado politika mowodebulia uzrunvelyos (1): • xelisuflebis moRvaweobisaTvis aucilebeli resursebi (Tavdacvis, ekonomikuri da socialuri programebis xarjebi); • ekonomikuri regulireba (gadasaxadebi gamoyenebul unda iqnas sameurneo saqmianobis marTvis berketad da ekonomikuri politikis garkveuli miznebis gansaxorcieleblad); • Semosavlebis gaTanabreba (misi saSualebiT xdeba erovnuli Semosavlis gadanawileba). meore mxriv, axorcielebs ra am mTavar funqciebs, saxelmwifo amavdroulad iZulebulia izrunos imaze, rom gadasaxadebis zogadi done, maTi struqtura, progresulobis xarisxi da agreTve xarjebisa da transfertebis struqtura ar amcirebdnen samewarmeo da biznes saqmianobis Sedegad dagrovebis stimulebs. saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas aucilebeli pirobebi sabazro ekonomikis funqcionirebisaTvis da amisTvis unda iyenebdes sxvadasxva berkets. erT-erTi mTavari maT Soris swored gadasaxadebia (2). sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, maT Soris TiTqmis erTnairi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis donis qveynebSic ki, ekonomikis saxelmwifo regulirebis xarisxi gansxvavebulia. yvelaze didi gavlena ekonomikis saxelmwifo regulirebis kuTxiT aris SvedeTSi; yvelaze dabali xarisxiT saxelmwifo dakavebulia ekonomikis regulirebis marTviT germaniaSi, iaponiasa da aSS-Si. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qmnis ra qveynis sagadasaxado sistemas, saxelmwifo iswrafvis misi saSualebiT finansuri politikis Camoyalibebisken. amis gamo igi yalibdeba SedarebiT damoukidebel mimarTulebad – sagadasaxado politikad. sagadasaxado politika warmoadgens saxelmwifos ekonomikur, finansur da samarTlebrivi RonisZiebebis erTobliobas, romelic mimarTulia sagadasaxado politikis formirebisken da romlis mizania saxelmwifos finansuri moTxovnilebebis uzrunvelyofa. am saqmianobaSi saxelmwifo eyrdnoba gadasaxadebisTvis damaxasiaTebel funqciebs da iyenebs maT aqtiuri sagadasaxado politikis gatarebisaTvis. ekonomikis mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, ganviTarebis sxvadasxva etapze saxelmwifo iyenebs sagadasaxado politikis sxvadasxva meTods (3). 25


sagadasaxado politikis Seqmnis dros saxelmwifo iTvaliswinebs ekonomikur, fiskalur, socialur da saerTaSoriso miznebs. • ekonomikuri miznebi – ekonomikis ganviTarebis donis amaRleba, saqmiani aqtiurobis gamococxleba, samewarmeo saqmianobis stimulireba; • fiskaluri miznebi – saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofa finansuri resursebiT, mmarTvelobiTi funqciebis efeqturad gansaxorcieleblad; • socialuri miznebi – erovnuli Semosavlis gadanawileba socialur fenebze, samarTlianobis principis dacviT; • saerTaSoriso miznebi – saxelmwifos saerTaSoriso finansuri valdebulebebis Sesruleba, sxva saxelmwifoebTan ekonomikuri kavSirebis ganmtkiceba (4). sagadasaxado politikis erT-erT meTodad iyeneben maqsimaluri gadasaxadebis politikas. am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo awesebs sakmaod maRal sagadasaxado ganakveTebs, amcirebs sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs, awesebs didi raodenobiT gadasaxadebs, cdilobs ra moizidos biujetSi rac SeiZleba didi finansuri resursi. cxadia, aseTi politika ar utovebs Sanss gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs da mTlianad sazogadoebas ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis. amitom aseTi politika xorcieldeba saxelmwifos mier ganviTarebis eqstraordinaruli etapis dros (ekonomikuri krizisi, omi). aseTi sagadasaxado politika xorcieldeboda saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri reformebis dawyebis wlebSi (gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebi). amasTan araviTari ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri winapirobebi aseTi politikis gansaxorcieleblad ar arsebobda. aseTma politikam moitana negatiuri Sedegebi, kerZod gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs ar rCebodaT saxsrebi biznesis ganviTarebisTvis, amis konkretuli Sedegi ki iyo gadasaxadebis masobrivi argadaxdebi da amis safuZvelze mravali wlis manZilze deficituri biujetis arseboba qveyanaSi. masobrivi xasiaTi SeiZina e.w. `Crdilovanma ekonomikam~; saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemam im wlebSi ver uzrunvelyo verc erTi masze dakisrebuli funqcia, maT Soris verc biznesis stimulirebis. praqtikiT damtkicda, rom gadasaxadis gadamxdelisgan misi Semosavlis 30%-mde amoReba is sazRvaria, romlis iqiT iwyeba dagrovebis da rogorc Sedegis, warmoebaSi investiciebis Semcireba. Tu gadasaxadebis saSualebiT xdeba gadasaxadis gadamxdelebisgan 40-50% da meti wilis amoReba, es iwvevs praqtikulad stimulirebisa da samewarmeo iniciativebis likvidacias. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom rac ufro maRalia gadasaxadebis ganakveTebi, pirdapir proporciulad izrdeba gadasaxadis gadamxdelebis survili Tavi aaridon gadasaxadis gadaxdas (6). rogorc praqtika aCvenebs, arasworia gadasaxadebis mxolod fiskalur funqciaze aqcentebis gadatana, radgan gadasaxadebis mastimulirebeli funqciis gamoyeneba saboloo jamSi sakmaod karg finansur Sedegebs iZleva. am funqciis gamoyeneba ki SesaZlebelia erTi mxriv sagadasaxado wnexis SemcirebiT, romlis paralelurad aucilebelia sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis sistemis farTod gamoyeneba. ukanasknel dromde iTvleboda, rom gadasaxadebis maRali ganakveTebi da sagadasaxado Skalebis progresulobis xarisxi iwvevda ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da moqalaqeebis socialuri daculobis maRal dones, magram dRevandel etapze, dasavleTis qveynebis sagadasaxado dabegvris sferoSi arsebuli tendenciebi gviCveneben, rom gamoikveTa fizikuri pirebis Semosavlebidan da korporaciebis mogebidan biujetis kuTvnili Tanxebis sagadasaxado tvirTis Semcirebis tendencia. sagadasaxado politikis erT-erTi meTodia ekonomikuri ganviTarebis meTodi, romlis drosac saxelmwifo amsubuqebs sagadasaxado wnexs, amcirebs saxelmwifo xarjebs, pirvel rigSi socialuri programebis mimarTulebiT (7). aseTi sagadasa26


xado politikis mTavari mizania sainvesticio aqtivobis zrda. rogorc wesi, sagadasaxado politikis am formas iyeneben maSin, roca mosalodnelia ekonomikuri stagnacia, romelic SeiZleba gadaizardos ekonomikur krizisSi. arsebobs egreT wodebuli `gonivruli gadasaxadebis~ sagadasaxado politika, romelic warmoadgens `maqsimaluri gadasaxadebisa~ da `gonivruli gadasaxadebis~ sagadasaxado politikis oqros Sualeds. misi arsi mdgomareobs sakmaod maRali sagadasaxado ganakveTebis safuZvelze Seqmnili finansuri resursebis maqsimalur gamoyenebaSi saxelmwifos socialuri programebis gansaxorcieleblad. sagadasaxado politikis miznebidan gamomdinare, es politika SeiZleba atarebdes strategiul an taqtikur Sinaarss. sagadasaxado strategia mimarTulia msxvilmasStabiani amocanebis gadasawyvetad, romelic dakavSirebulia qveynis sagadasaxado sistemis ganviTarebis tendenciebisa da koncefciis SemuSavebasTan. igi mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli qveynis ekonomikur, safinanso da socialur strategiasTan da xangrZliv drozea gaTvlili. sagadasaxaxdo taqtika mimarTulia ekonomikis ganviTarebis konkretuli etapis miznebis miRwevaze da uzrunvelyofs am miznebis miRwevas sagadasaxado meqanizmebis elementebis drouli cvlilebiT. sagadasaxado politikis Sedegianoba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra principebis gaTvaliswinebiT qmnis saxelmwifo am politikis safuZvlebs. sagadasaxado politikis formirebis dros iTvaliswineben Semdeg mTavar principebs: • pirdapiri da iribi gadasaxadebis Tanafardoba; • progresuli gadasaxadebis gamoyeneba da progresiis xarisxi; • sagadasaxado dabegvris diskretuloba; • sagadasaxado bazis formirebis meTodebi; • sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis miznebi, Sinaarsi da gamoyenebis areali; • gadasaxadebis gamoTvlebisa da maTi administrirebis sistemebis miznobrivi mimarTuleba da gamoyenebis formebi da meTodebi; • sxvadasxva Semosavlis mqone gadasaxadis gadamxdelebis sagadasaxado dabegvris `erTferovnebis~ xarisxi. sagadasaxado politika unda iyos stabiluri. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mewarmisaTvis SeuZlebeli xdeba misaRebi gadawyvetilebebis prognozireba, rac Tavis mxriv xels uSlis sabazro urTierTobebis formirebas. amgvarad, dRis wesrigSi dgeba sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis komleqsuri srulyofis aucilebloba. sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba xels unda uwyobdes kapitalis dagrovebasa da investirebas. uiliam egarsi, Tavis naSromSi „dRis wesrigi aRmosavleT evropisTvis gadasaxadebis sasargeblo ganviTarebisa da keTildReobisaTvis“ aRniSnavs, rom yofili komunisturi banakis qveynebisaTvis sasicocxlod aucilebelia ekonomikis swrafi ganviTareba, raTa maT SeiZinon unar- Cvevebi dasavleTTan konkurenciisaTvis. amis misaRwevad maT Tavidan unda aicilon saSemosavlo gadasaxadis mniSvnelovani zrda da mis magivrad SemoiRon xelfasidan standartuli gadasaxadi. is gvTavazobs am gadasaxadis 15%-ian ganakveTs, romelic gamoiyeneba hong-kongSi. es qveyana inarCunebs msoflioSi yvelaze dabal sagadasaxado ganakveTebs da miuxedavad aseTi dabali sagadasaxado tvirTisa, yovelwliurad misi mTliani erovnuli produqti erT sul mosaxleze izrdeba 6,4 %-iT. igive maCvenebeli aSS-Si aris 2,4%, xolo germaniaSi 3,3% (8). saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari ekonomikuri amocanebisa da gamowvevebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qveynis sagadasaxado politikis mTavar mimarTulebebad unda iqces ekonomikuri stabilurobisa da ekonomikis prioritetuli sferoebis stimulireba. 27


es amocanebi eqvemdebareba sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis saSualebiT regulirebas, romelic zogierTi RonisZiebiT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes. kerZod: • yvela samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtis mogebis gadasaxadiT dabegvris bazidan unda iqnas amoRebuli is saxsrebi, romlebic mimarTuli iqneba investiciebSi an moxmardeba reinvesticias. • farTod unda iqnas gamoyenebuli kerZo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli materialuri aqtivebis (uZravi qoneba, satransporto saSualebebi, miwis nakveTebi) progresuli sagadasaxado dabegvris sistema, miuxedavad imisa, fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris sakuTrebaSia es qoneba. • sagadasaxado dabegvris teqnikis mudmivi srulyofa, romlis mizanic unda iyos sagadasaxado tvirTis gaTanabreba sxvadasxva Semosavlis mqone moqalaqeebisTvis da samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtebisTvis. • kargad ganviTarebuli gadasaxadebis deklarirebisa da gadaxdis avtomatizirebuli sistemis Seqmna, unaRdo angariSsworebis sistemis ganviTarebasa da srulyofasTan erTad. • sagadasaxado organoebis TanamSromlobis horizontaluri da vertikaluri meqanizmebis srulyofa. • sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis detalizacia, raTa gamoiricxos sxvadasxva sakiTxis ormagi interpretaciis saSualeba. • sagadasaxado samarTaldarRvevisTvis dawesebuli sanqciebis gonivruli diferenciacia. • sagadasaxado danaSaulis dakavSireba ukanonod mopovebuli fuladi saxsrebis legalizaciasTan. sagadasaxado samarTaldarRvevisa da danaSaulis samarTlebrivi formulireba da maTi gamijvna. • aSS-is gamocdilebis gaziareba, romelic iTvaliswinebs sagadasaxado danaSaulisaTvis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi iuridiuli piris micemas. aseTi midgoma SeiZleba sakmaod seriozul berketad iqces sagadasaxado danaSaulis prevenciisaTvis. mTlianobaSi, sagadasaxado politikis formireba nebismieri saxelmwifos umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa da sworad Camoyalibebuli da praqtikulad ganxorcielebuli, sistematizirebuli aseTi politika mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs qveynis mdgrad ekonomikur ganviTarebas. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. miqelaSvili m., gadasaxadebi, Tb., gamomcemloba `sityva~, 2009; 2. vaSakiZe z., saqarTveloSi moqmedi gadasaxadebi, Tbilisi, 2008; 3. Черник Д. А., Налоги и налогообложение-М, ИЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2008; 4. Барулин С., Финансы – М, Кнорус, 2008; 5. Пушкарева В. М, История финансовой мысли и политики налогов, М., Финансы и статистика, 2006; 6. Боди З., Мертон Р., Финансы, М., Вильямс, 2009; 7. Сломан Дж., Экономика для бизнеса, М., Эксмо, 2010; 8. Паскачев А. В., Налоги и налогообложение, М., Высшее образование, 2008.

28


daviT vekua saqarTvelo. Tbilisis ekonomikuri urTierTobaTa saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori nino faresaSvili saqarTvelo. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

samuSao Zalis aqtivobis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi da misi gaumjobesebis perspeqtivebi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri sistemis transformaciis sawyis etapzeve, dasaqmebis sferoSi, mniSvnelovani problemebi gaCnda. Mmas Semdeg, rac moiSala Zveli ekonomikuri kavSirebi, saqarTvelom iseve, rogorc yofili sabWoTa kavSiris umetesma qveynebma, Tavi ver daaRwia faruli da legaluri umuSevrobis did masStabebs. es problemebi kidev ufro gaamwvava iseTma faqtorebma, rogoricaa: geografiuli mdgomareoba, mosaxleobis demografiuli struqtura, samuSao Zalis kvlavwarmoebis done, migraciuli procesebi da sxv. saqarTveloSi umuSevroba ara marto ekonomikur, aramed mniSvnelovan socialur problemad Camoyalibda. igi bevri ojaxisTvis TiTqmis dauZlevel winaaRmdegobad iqca. rogorc mimdinare, aseve xangrZliv perspeqtivaSi umuSevrobis donis Semcireba, samuSao Zalis aqtivizacia da am gziT Sromis bazris gamococxleba saqarTvelos ekonomikuri politikis umniSvnelovanes organul nawilad Camoyalibda. samuSao Zalis aqtivobis amaRlebisaTvis ki unda Seiqmnas iseTi makroekonomikuri garemo, sadac dabali iqneba inflacia, biujetis deficiti, dasruldeba konkurentunariani garemos Seqmna, funqcionirebas daiwyebs civiluri Sromis bazari, saxelmwifo ki iqceva samuSao Zalis miwodeba-moTxovnis mTavar mediatorad. aqtivobis gaumjobesebis TvalsazrisiT aseve mniSvnelovania ganaTlebis sfero, radgan axalgazrdam unda miiRos iseTi kvalifikacia, romelic moTxovnadia ara marto dRes, aramed momavalSic. paralelur reJimSi unda moxdes gadamzadebis da kvalifikaciis kursebis Camoyalibeba, rac dRevandeli garemos mudmivad cvalebadi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebas Seuwyobs xels. saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris monacemebiT, romelic Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis meTodologiis mixedviT aris Sedgenili, sadac dasaqmebulad iTvleba ara mxolod kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorSi daqiravebulebi, aramed aseve mosaxleobis is nawilic, romelic mogebis, Semosavlis an sxva saxis mizniT eweva garkveul aqtiurobas,Uukanasknel 9 weliwadSi, anu 2009 wlis mdgomareobiT, aqtiuri moasaxleobis raodenoba Semcirebulia 122 aTasi kaciT da Seadgens 1991 aTas kacs. aRniSnul periodSi aqtiuri mosaxleobis aseTi Semcireba dakavSirebulia saqarTvelosaTvis uaRresad mwvave or problemasTan. Ees aris migracia da mosaxleobis dabereba, anu demografiuli mdgomareobis gauareseba. zemoT aRniSnuli mosazrebis marTebulobaze metyvelebs is faqti, rom amave periodSi mosaxleoba, romelic aqtiuri samuSao Zalis gareT aris dafiqsirebuli, gazrdilia 62 aTasi kaciT, xolo danarCeni 60 aTasi kacidan mosaxleobis nawili emigrirebulia, nawili gardacvlili. 29


2009 wlis monacemebiT kvlav Zalzed maRalia dasaqmebulTa Soris TviTdasaqmebulTa xvedriTi wili 63,9%. maTi umravlesoba dasaqmebulia soflad sakuTar glexur meurneobebSi da naklebad floben Tundac soflis meurneobisaTvis saWiro Tanamedrove moTxovnebis Sesabamis teqnologiebs da unar-Cvevebs. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom bolo 9 wlis statistikuri monacemebiT Semcirebulia aqtiuri mosaxleobis raodenoba, gazrdilia umuSevrobis done (procentebSi). Tu 2000 wels igi Sedagenda 10,3%, man 2009 wels Seadgina 16,9% da wlebis mixedviT xasiaTdeba zrdis tendenciiT (ix. cxrili 1). saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis donis Sefasebisas aucilebelia gaviTvaliswinoT is obieqturi siZneleebi, rac samuSao Zalis aqtivobis gaumjobesebas uSlida xels. kerZod: omebi da masTan dakavSirebuli recidivebi, msoflio ekonomikuri krizisi, samoqalaqo mRelvarebebi da sxva arasasurveli movlenebi, romlebic mniSvnelovnad amcirebs qveyanaSi ekonomikur aqtiurobas da zrdis umuSevrobas.

cxrili 1

15 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis ganawileba ekonomikuri aqtivobis mixedviT, aTasi kaci

sul aqtiuri mosaxleoba (samuSao Zala) dasaqmebuli daqiravebuli TviTdaqiravebuli gaurkveveli umuSevari mosaxleoba samuSao Zalis gareT umuSevrobis done (procentebSi) aqtiurobis done (procentebSi) dasaqmebis done (procentebSi)

2000 2049,2

2001 2113,3

2002 2104,2

2003 2050,8

2004 2041,0

2005 2023,9

2006 2021,8

2007 1965,3

2008 1917,8

2009 1991,8

1837,2 683,9 1041,2

1877,7 654,3 1135,9

1839,2 650,9 1184,9

1814,9 618,5 1195,2

1783,3 600,9 1180,8

1744,6 600,5 1143,3

1747,3 603,9 1141,6

1704,3 625,4 1078,8

1601,9 572,4 1028,5

1656,1 596,0 1059,0

112,1 212,0 1092,3

87,3 235,6 1077,7

3,4 265,0 1135,3

1,3 235,9 1048,4

1,6 257,6 1105,9

0,8 279,3 1136,1

1,8 274,5 1228,0

0,1 261,0 1138,6

1,1 315,8 1145,2

1,2 335,6 1139,3

10,3

11,1

12,6

11,5

12,6

13,8

13,6

13,3

16,5

16,9

66,2

66,2

65,0

66,2

64,9

64,0

62,2

63,3

62,6

63,6

58,5

58,8

56,8

58,6

56,7

55,2

53,8

54,9

52,3

52,9

Tu mTlianobaSi qveynis masStabiT umuSevrobis arsebuli done statistikis departamentis monacemebze dayrdnobiT arc ise sagangaSoa (Tumca, statistikis departamentis monacemebi rig SemTxvevebSi srulyofilad ver asaxavs faqtiur mdgomareobas), samwuxarod ikveTeba tendencia, romelsac sWirdeba seriozuli regulireba da es Seexeba axalgazrdebis dasaqmebas. kerZod, samuSao Zalis struqturaSi umuSevrobis done 2009 wlis monacemebiT 25-29 wlis axalgazrdebSi Seadgenda 29,9%, xolo 30-34 wlis axalgazrdebSi 24,2%, rac raRaTqmaunda dausaqmebeli da aqtiuri mosaxleobis migraciis safrTxeebs qmnis (ix. cxrili 2). 30


cxrili 2

15 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis ganawileba ekonomikuri aqtivobis mixedviT asakobriv WrilSi, 2009

sul aqtiuri mosaxleoba (samuSao Zala) dasaqmebuli daqiravebuli TviTdaqiravebuli gaurkveveli umuSevari mosaxleoba samuSao Zalis gareT umuSevrobis done (procentebSi) aqtiurobis done (procentebSi) dasaqmebis done (procentebSi)

25-29

30-34

191,8 134,5 68,3 65,9 0,3 57,3 71,5 29,9 72,8 51,1

187,8 142,4 69,1 73,3 0,0 45,4 56,3 24,2 76,9 58,3

Aamave dros dadebiT tendenciad unda CaiTvalos is faqti, rom umuSevrobis done qalebSi naklebia, vidre mamakacebSi, rac saqarTveloSi SromiT urTierTobebSi genderuli uTanasworobis ararsebobaze migvaniSnebs. 2009 wlis monacemebiT qalebis umuSevrobis donem Seadgina 15,4%, rac 2,7 procentuli punqtiT naklebia mamakacebTan SedarebiT. Tu umuSevrobis problemas Cven regionalur WrilSi ganvixilavT, davinaxavT, rom qalaqisa da soflis mosaxleobis dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT sakmaod mniSvnelovani disproporciaa. kerZod, Tu soflad umuSevrobis done Seadgens mxolod 7,8 procents, rac soflad mcxovrebTaTvis miwis farTobebis darigebam da ,,dasaqmebis Sesaxeb~ kanonSi Sesabamisi normis Setanam (romlis mixedviT, Tu ojaxis wevrs erT heqtramde sasoflo – sameurneo miwis farTobi aqvs, maSin is da misi ojaxis wevrebi TviT dasaqmebulad iTvlebian) ganapiroba. marTalia, 2006 wels saqarTveloSi Sromis kodeqsis miRebiT dasaqmebis kanoni Zaladakargulad gamocxadda, magram zemoT aRniSnuli norma isev ZalaSia. umuSevrobis donem qalaqis tipis dasaxlebaSi 28,8 procenti Seadgina. Ees ki niSnavs imas, rom qalaqad aqtiuri mosaxleobis TiTqmis yvela mesame mcxovrebi umuSevaria (ix. cxrili 3). cxrili 3

15 wlis da ufrosi asakis qalaqis da soflis mosaxleobis ganawileba ekonomikuri aqtivobis mixedviT 2009 wels

sul aqtiuri mosaxleoba (samuSao Zala) dasaqmebuli daqiravebuli TviTdaqiravebuli gaurkveveli umuSevari mosaxleoba samuSao Zalis gareT umuSevrobis done (procentebSi) Aaqtiurobis done (procentebSi) Ddasaqmebis done (procentebSi)

qalaqad 857,0 610,0 413,5 195,6 0,9 247,0 668,0 28,8 56,2 40,0

soflad 1134,8 1046,1 182,5 863,3 0,3 88,6 471,3 7,8 70,7 65,1 31


rogorc statistikuri analizi gviCvenebs, dasaqmebis sferoSi saWiroa mizanmimarTuli, kompleqsuri da efeqtiani gadawyvetilebebis miReba, romlebic gardatexas Seitans saqarTveloSi arcTu saxarbielo tendenciebis daZlevaSi da mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesebs samuSao Zalis aqtivobis stimulirebas. yvelasaTvis naTelia, rom samuSao Zalis aqtivoba pirvel rigSi dakavSirebulia Sromis bazris efeqtianobasTan da imasTan, Tu ramdenad aris uzrunvelyofili misi mobiluroba da TiToeul muSaks ramdenad swrafad da umtkivneulod SeuZlia gadaadgileba axal samuSao adgilze. es ki damokidebulia makroekonomikur garemos stabilurobaze, Sromis anazRaurebisa da fasebis liberalizaciaze, SromiT urTierTobebSi saTanado institucionalur da samarTlebrivi sivrcis Camoyalibebaze. saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis aqtivizaciis politikam unda daZlios Sromis bazris arakonkurentunarianobis problema ise, rom ar Camoyalibdes umuSevarTa xangrZlivi daxmarebis miRebis finansuri recidivebi. aseTi politika gulisxmobs umuSevarTa konsultaciebis da vakansiebis Sesaxeb informaciis Segrovebas, SromiT mowyobaSi maT daxmarebas, samuSao Zalis mobilurobis gazrdis specialuri programebis dafinansebas, migraciuli procesebis regulirebas da sxva. ekonomikis stagnaciis procesSi SesaZlebelia kvalificiuri samuSao Zalis SenarCunebis mizniT droebiTi samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, rac samuSao Zalas SeunarCunebs staJsa da kvalifikacias da ekonomikis remisiis damTavrebis Semdeg SesaZlebels gaxdis maTi efeqtianad gamoyenebas. saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis aqtivobis ganmsazRvreli problemebi SeiZleba davaxarisxoT sam jgufad, rac ganpirobebulia imiT, rom maT aqvT sxvadasxva warmoSobis wyaroebi da saWiroeben diferencirebul midgomebs. kerZod: • saqarTveloSi umuSevroba, rogorc problema mniSvnelovanwilad aris ekonomikis transformaciis Sedegi, romelic gamoiwvia makroekonomikurma Zvrebma da ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira moTxovna samuSao Zalaze; • saqarTvelos calkeul dargebsa da regionebs Soris mobilurobis wonasworobis darRveva, rac pirvel rigSi ekonomikis struqturul reorganizaciasTan aris dakavSirebuli; • institucionaluri problemebi, rac ukavSirdeba birJebis saqmianobis efeqtianobas, samuSao Zalis kvalifikaciis amaRlebas, maT organizaciul gadamzadebas da sxva. xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos Sromis bazarze Camoyalibda iseTi reJimi, sadac umuSevroba aris ekonomikuri garemos mudmivi Tanamgzavri. amitom saxelmwifo mudmivad unda iRwvodes misi SemcirebisaTvis. umuSevroba, samuSao Zalis dekvalifikacia, masze moTxovnasa da mowodebas Soris wonasworobis darRveva gardamaval periodSi saqarTvelosaTvis, rogorc Sedegi, warmoadgens im struqturuli gardaqmnebis ,,signalebs”, romelzedac droa gamovimuSavoT axali reagirebis meqanizmebi. saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis aqtivobis gaumjobesebis ZiriTadi amocanaa daCqardes misi struqturuli reorganizaciis procesi, ris Sedegadac unda Semcirdes umuSevrobis done da xangrZlivoba im masStabiT, ramdenadac es mizanSewonili da ekonomikurad efeqtiania. Tavis mxriv, Sromis bazarze samuSao Zalis aqtivizaciam unda uzrunvelyos misi nayofierebis zrda da mobilurobis amaRleba. umuSevrobis daZlevis strategia unda daefuZnos Semdeg RonisZiebebs: 32


− im mizniT, rom SemuSavdes samuSao Zalis aqtivizaciis qmediTi politika aucilebelia umuSevarTa kategoriebis monitoringi, romelic unda tardebodes, rogorc ekonomikis calkeul dargebSi, aseve regionebSi. es unda ganxorcieldes profesiul da asakobriv WrilSi. − resursuli bazis gansazRvra, ramac unda uzrunvelyos am strategiis warmateba. − Aaucilebelia Seiqmnas Sromis bazris efeqturi infrastruqtura. Ees pirvel rigSi saWiroa imisaTvis, rom ekonomikis liberalizaciisa da transformaciis paralelurad gaizrdeba kvalificiur samuSao Zalaze moTxovnileba, qveyana ki mzad unda iyos aseTi kvalifikaciis samuSao Zalis moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad. ganxorcielebulma RonisZiebebma unda Seamsubuqon saqarTvelos regionebsa da ekonomikur dargebs Soris samuSao Zalis gadanawilebasTan dakavSirebuli siZneleebi; − Zalzed mniSvnelovania dasaqmebis samsaxurebis gamarTuli struqturis Camoyalibeba, romelic efeqturad ganaxorcielebs vakansiebis moZiebasa da aRricxvianobas, samuSao Zalis gadanawilebis funqciasa da kadrebis momzadeba-gadamzadebis process. samuSao Zalis aqtiurobis zrdis politikis finansuri meqanizmebis gansazRvrisas aucilebelia gavmijnoT erTmaneTisagan umuSevrobis Semweobebis dafinanseba aqtiuri politikis dafinansebisagan. bevr qveyanaSi samuSao Zalis SenarCunebisa da socialuri stabilurobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT Zalzed aprobirebulia saxelmwifo biujetidan an specializirebuli fondebis meSveobiT umuSevrebis SemweobebiT uzrunvelyofa. vfiqrobT, rom ganviTarebis am etapze saqarTvelosTvis es araefeqtiani sabiujeto xarjebi iqneba, radgan isini verc Tavisi realuri moculobebiT da verc dafarvis masStabiT ver mogvcems saTanado pozitiur Sedegs. da Tu mainc am gzas davadeqiT, Sedegi iqneba is, rom isedac mcire sabiujeto sainvesticio resursebi gadaiqaCeba socialur xarjebSi (rac zogadad cudi ar aris), magram am etapze es Seaferxebs ekonomikis modernizacias da ganviTarebas. am RonisZiebebiT kidev ufro Soreuli momavlisaTvis gadaideba axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis perspeqtiva. siRaribesTan brZolisa da socialuri samarTlianobis mxardaWeris TvalsazrisiT, rac SeiZleba am etapze ganxorcieldes, es aris is, rac keTdeba siRaribis zRvars qvemoT myofi mosaxleobis mxardasaWerad, maT Soris maTi samedicino dazRvevis kuTxiTac. 2007 wlis agvistoSi saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministrom wamoiwyo piloturi programa mosaxleobis socialurad daucveli fenebis dazRvevisaTvis. am mizniT piloturma iniciativam Tavdapirvelad moicva 200 aTasi adamiani Tbilissa da imereTis regionSi, rasac 2008 wlidan daemata 500 000 umweo adamiani. amasTan erTad, 2008 wlidan, umweo mosaxleobis garda, janmrTelobis dazRveviT sargebloben specialuri jgufebi – pedagogebi, Zalovani struqturebi da sajaro moxeleebi. saqarTvelos janmrTelobis saxelmwifo politika, janmrTelobis kerZo dazRveva Semdgom ganviTarebisa da srulyofisaTvis samomavlodac ganixilavs rogorc jandacvis dafinansebis ZiriTad meTods. samuSao Zalis aqtivebis gaumjobesebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa am procesebSi umuSevarTa Tanamonawileoba. isini unda gavxadoT aqtiuri samuSaos 33


maZiebelni, gavamartivoT Zebnis procedurebi da samuSao Zalis gadamzadebis procesi. samuSao Zalis aqtiurobis gaumjobesebis TvalsazrisiT aseve Zalzed mniSvnelovania Sromis anazRaurebis sistemis srulyofa, Sromisadmi maTi adeqkvaturoba. Aadekvaturi Sromis anazRaureba aCens Sromis nayofierebis zrdis perspeqtivas, rac zogadad qveyanaSi ekonomikuri aqtivobis indikatoria. am procesis umniSvnelovanesi segmentia damsaqmebelTa aqtiurobis stimulireba. Ppirvel rigSi unda gamartivdes rogorc daqiravebis, ise daTxovnis procedurebi, raTa xelovnurad ar SevaferxoT samuSao Zalis mobilurobis procesi. aseT SemTxvevaSi Sromis bazris moTxovnidan gamomdinare damsaqmeblebi dainteresebuli iqnebian ganaxorcielon investiciebi uSualod SromiT resursebSi maTi Semdgomi profesionaluri donis amaRlebis mizniT. samuSao Zalis aqtivobis gaumjobesebis mimarTulebiT aseve Zalzed mniSvnelovania profesionaluri swavlebis miznobriobis uzrunvelyofa. is ar unda xorcieldebodes naCqarevad. mxolod alternativebis kargi Sefasebis Semdeg unda ganisazRvros profesiuli swavlebis mimarTulebebi. da bolos, samuSao Zalis aqtivobis gaumjobesebis mTavari perspeqtiva ekonomikuri ganviTarebaa, radgan mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi aris SesaZlebeli gaizardos samuSao Zalaze moTxovna.

l i t e r a t u r a: 1. vekua d., socialuri dazRvevis sistemis Camoyalibebis tendenciebi da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1998; 2. anTaZe c., saqarTvelos Sromis bazris damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi niSnebi, Jurn. `socialuri ekonomika~, 2006, #1; 3. anTaZe c., socialuri sferos ZiriTadi Sedegebi, Jurn. `socialuri ekonomika~, 2006, #6; 3. faresaSvili n., saqarTvelos umuSevrobis regulirebis meTodologiuri da organizaciuli sakiTxebi, Jurn. `socialuri ekonomika~, 2007, #4; 4. faresaSvili n., dasaqmebis politika, rogorc socialuri politikis komponenti, Jurn. `saqarTvelos ekonomika~, 2008, #5; 5. Мировая экономика и международнй бизнес. Учебник, под. ред. проф. Поляповка В.В. и проф. Цениа Р.К., 2005; 6. Mc Connell, Stenley L.Brue, Macroeconomics (sixteenth edition), 2006; 7. Torado M.P. , Smith S.C, Economic development (ninth edition), 2006.

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nato kakaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradoba da gadaxdisunarianoba mzRvevelis finansuri mdgradoba aris mzRvevelis unari SeinarCunos balansi sadazRvevo saqmianobisgan miRebul Semosavlebsa da damzRvevis winaSe valdebulebebis Sesrulebas Soris. mzRveveli Tavisi aqtivebis ZiriTad nawils ayalibebs moziduli saxsrebis xarjze, oRond momavali gadaxdebis vadebis da sidideebis, gaTvaliswinebiT. amasTan igi SeiZleba Sefasdes albaTobis didi xarisxiT. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradoba miiRweva garegani da Sida faqtorebis xarjze. gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens gare faqtorebi, romelTa Secvla kompanias ar SeuZlia. gare faqtorebs miekuTvneba erovnuli ekonomikis saerTo mdgomareoba, sadazRvevo saqmianobis saxelmwifo regulireba, sadazRvevo da safondo bazrebis koniunqtura, mosaxleobis gadaxdisunarianoba da samomxmareblo Tvisebebi. finansuri mdgradobis uzrunvelyofis Sida faqtorebi moicaven dazRvevis organizaciis mmarTvelobiT parametrebs, organizaciuli struqturis CaTvliT, sadazRvevo portfelis dabalansebulobas, satarifo, gadazRvevis, sainvesticio mxareebs. ekonomikuri xasiaTis sagareo faqtorebs Soris romlebic gavlenas axdens sadazRvevo kompaniebis finansur mdgradobaze, mniSvnelovania sabanko procentis dinamika, inflaciis done, fasiani qaRaldebis bazris mdgomareoba da sagadasaxado dabegvris sistema. magaliTad, warumatebelma sagadasaxado dabegvram SeiZleba gamoiwvios kapitalis gadineba sadazRvevo dargidan da finansuri resursebis Warbad amoRebis Sedegad aramdgradi xdeba aramarto calkeuli sadazRvevo kompania, aramed sadazRvevo bazari. sadazRvevo kompaniis gadaxdisunarianobis Sefasebisas da finansuri mdgomareobis Sefasebisas gamoiyeneba finansuri reitingi. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradobis Sefasebisas _ miuxedavad im qveynisa, romelSic igi muSaobs, _ Standard & Roor `s–ma gamoiyena erTi da igive kategoriebi.romelic, dajgufebulia reitinguli analizis rva mimarTulebis mixedviT, da rogorc wesi, iTvaliswinebs politikur, ekonomikur, dargobriv, samewarmeo da finansur riskebs (Insaranse Criteria: Property / Casaalty Edition Ratings Pirect, sakredito analitikur sistemaSi Standard & Poors). amis garda Standard & Poor`s aseve ixilavs, Tu ra gavlenas axdens qveynis da regionuli faqtorebi mzRvevelis saoperacio saqmianobaze. reitingulma kompania Standard & Poor`s–ma Secvala sadazRvevo kompaniebis finansuri mdgradobis reitingis gansazRvrisadmi midgoma,1 rac gulisxmobs, rom, meTodologiurad Seesabamebodes sadazRvevo kompaniebis finansuri mdgradobis da bankebis sakredito reitingebi. kompania Standard & Poor `s aanalizebs sadazRvevo dargis erTobliv riskebs, igi gaiTvaliswineba rogorc erT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori, romelic gavlenas axdens yvela reitingze. 35


Ffinansuri mdgradobis Sefasebisas xorcieldeba iseTi faqtorebis detaluri analizi, rogoricaa: dargobrivi riskebi, konkurentunarianoba, menejmenti da korporatiuli strategia, operaciuli maCveneblebi, investiciuri saqmianoba, kapitalizacia, likvidoba, finansuri moqnoloba, risk-menejmentis korporatiuli sistema. finansuri biznesis ganviTareba, qveyanaSi saerTo politikuri da ekonomikuri situaciis stabilizacia, ganapirobebs sadazRvevo momsaxurebis speqtris gafarToebis aucileblobas. mzRvevelis finansuri mdgradobis kriteriumad miRebulia sadazRvevo rezervebis sasxsrebis sakmarisoba da sakuTari Tavisufali saxsrebi. mzRvevelis finansuri mdgradobis, misi saimedobis maCvenebelia gadaxdisunarianoba sadazRvevo kompaniebis gadaxdisunarianobis problema saerTaSoriso xasiaTisaa da aqtualuria im qveynebSi, sadac axla viTardeba sadazRvevo urTierTobebi da yalibdeba sadazRvevo saqmianobis finansuri regulirebis sakanonmdeblo baza.. gadaxdisunarianobis cneba dakavSirebulia kompaniis gadaxdisunarianad aRiarebasTan. mzRveveli iTvleba gadaxdisuunarod, roca misi aqtivebi araadeqvaturi anda miuwvdomelia ganusazRvreli periodiT, raTa ganxorcieldes gadaxdebi momxdari sadazRvevo SemTxvevis mixedviT. cnobilia gadaxdisunarianobis Sefasebis Semdegi meTodebi: • kompaniis Rirebulebis iZulebiTi realizaciis Sefaseba; • dinamikuri Sefasebis meTodi. kompaniis Rirebulebis iZulebiTi realizaciis Sefasebis meTodi gulisxmobs kompaniis aqtivebis Rirebulebis Sefasebas drois romelime fiqsirebul momentSi. sadazRvevo SemTxvevebi radgan droSi araTanabradaa ganawilebuli, SesaZlebelia dafiqsirdes Seusabamoba faqtiur zaralianobasa da gaTvlis tarifebSi Cadebul zaralianobas Soris. amave dros mzRvevelis aqtivebi unda moicavdes nebismieri valdebulebebisagan Tavisufal saxsrebs, rac savsebiT sakmarisia valdebulebebis Sesasruleblad sarCelebis aRZvrisas sadazRvevo rezervebis saxsrebis ukmarisobis SemTxvevaSi. sakuTari saxsrebis es nawili cnobilia gadaxdisunarianobis marJis saxelwodebiT da ganisazRvreba rogorc mzRvevelis aqtivebis nawili, romelic ar ukavSirdeba raime mimoxilviT valdebulebebs. gadaxdisunarianobis marJa SeiZleba miekuTvnos sinTezur maCvenebels, romelic ganazogadebs mzRvevelis saqmianobis rig mxareebs (sakuTari saxsrebis sidide, sadazRvevo Senatanebisa da sadazRvevo gadaxdebis moculoba, gadamzRvevelebis monawileobis xarisxi sadazRvevo porTfelSi. rezervebis sidide sicocxlis dazRvevisa da a.S.) magram es maCvenebeli ar aris yovlismomcveli, ramdenadac ar iTvaliswinebs mzRvevelis saqmianobis mraval mxares (gadaxdebis done sadazRvevo operaciebis mixedviT mimdinare periodSi, riskis sidides dazRvevaze, sadazRvevo rezervebis sakmarisobs, aqtivobis likvidobas da a.S.) amitom mocemuli maCvenebeli gamoiyeneba sxva maCveneblebTan erTad. mzRvevelisaTvis romelsac dadgenili wesis mixedviT licenziis pirvelad miRebis momentidan (sicocxlis dazRvevis garda) saangariSo TariRamde gasulia erT welze naklebi, Sesworebis koeficientis gaTvlisas saangariSo periodi aiReba periodi licenziis aRebidan saangariSsworebo TariRamde. gadaxdisunarianobis faqtiuri marJis gamoyenebuli mniSvneloba ar aris sadazRvevo kompaniis gadaxdisunarianobis garantia, ramdenadac am maCveneblis gaT36


valiswineba xdeba mxolod damzRvevis sadazRvevo valdebulebebis, maSin roca sxva valdebulebebi calkeul mzRvevelebTan gacilebiT met sidideebs aRwevs. ganvixiloT sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradobis analizs (gpi –holdingis finansuri maCveneblebis magaliTze): sadazRvevo kompaniis organizaciis momentSi sabaziso elementia sakuTari kapitali, romelic saqmianobis procesSi sxvadasxva wyaroebiT ivseba. es wyaroebia: mogeba, sainvesticio saqmianobis Sedegebi, saemisio Semosavali. sadazRvevo operaciebis warmoeba varaudobs sadazRvevo premiis akumulirebas. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri potenciali yalibdeba ori ZiriTadi nawilisagan - sakuTari kapitalisa da moziduRi kapitalisagan. neto-premiisagan moziduRi kapitaliT iqmneba dazRvevis rezervebi, romelic gankuTvnilia sadazRvevo anazRaurebis uzrunvelsayofad. dazRvevis rezervebisagan gansxvavebiT RazRvevis fondebi yalibdeba kompaniis sakuTari saSualebebisagan. sadazRvevo kompania, rogorc nebismieri sxva sawarmo, saqmianobisagan Rebulobs Semosavals. mzRvevelis Semosavali ewodeba mis angariSze Semosul Tanxas sadazRvevo saqmianobis an sxva saqmianobis ganxorcielebis Sedegad. romelic kanoniT ar aris akrZaluli,amasTan mzRvevels saqmianobis procesSi uwevs gansazRvruli xarjebis gaweva, dakavSirebuli dazRveulebis sadazRvevo dacvasTan. gadaxdisunarianobis Sefasebis cnobili modelebis, erT-erTi Taviseburebaa is, rom isini pasuxoben sadazRvevo zedamxedvelobis organoebis miznebs da yovelTvis ar SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas sadazRvevo kompaniebis mflobelebis interesebis Sesabamisad, romelTac sadazRvevo zedamxedvelobis organoebisagan gansxvavebiT ainteresebT misi momgebianobis sakiTxebi. sadazRvevo zedamxedvelobis organoebis poziciebidan sadazRvevo kompaniis dinamiuri gadaxdisunarianobis pirobaa mxolod nakisri valdebulebebis Sesruleba sadazRvevo momsaxurebis momxmarebelTa winaSe. aucilebelia sadazRvveo kompaniis funqcionirebis modelSi Setanili iqnas ori SezRudva: momgebianoba da gadaxdis unarianoba: aseTi SezRudvebis SemoReba ganapirobebs sadazRvveo kompaniis funqcionirebis modelis gardaqmnas sadazRvevo kompaniis gadaxdisunarianobis midelad, romelSic gaTvalsiwinebuli iqneba damatebiTi moTxovnebi. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri potenciali aris finansuri resursebi, romlebic emsaxureba sameurneo brunvas sidazRvevo operaciebis da sainvesticio saqmianobis Sesasruleblad. dazRvevis rezervebi kompaniisaTvis aris moziduli saSualebebi; amitom maT mkacri miznobrioba axasiaTebs: isini gamoyenebuli unda iqnas mxolod sadazRvevo anazRaurebis uzrunvelsayofad. dazRvevis rezervebis da fondebis Seqmnis, ganTavsebis da investirebis wesi regulirdeba '`saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT. sadazRvevo kompaniis saqmianobis finansuri Sedegebi ganisazRvreba misi Semosavlebisa da gaweuRi xarjebis erTmaneTTan SedarebiT saangariSo periodSi. dazRvevaSi mogeba SeiZleba ganixilebodes or aspeqtSi: a. mogeba, rogorc finansuri Sedegi; b. normatiuli mogeba. ' normatiuli mogeba aisaxeba dazRvevis tarifSi, datvirTvis komponentSi, magram dazRvevis albaTuri xasiaTidan gamomdinare misi saboloo sidide ganisazRvreba mTliani Semosavlis SedarebiT xarjebTan. sadazdvevo kompaniis safinanso-sameurneo saqmianobis analizisaTvis mniSvne37


lovania: mogeba sainvesticio saqmianobidan. normatiul aqtebze dayrdnobiT finansuri Sedegi, rogorc dabegvris baza gamoiTvleba sadazRvevo momsaxureobidan miRebuli amonagebis da sxva saqmianobis Sesrulebidan miRebuRi BSemosavlebis jamisa da im xarjebis sxvaobiT, romelic gaweuli iqna Semosavlebis misaRebad. saqarTveRos sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT sadazRvevo kompaniis mier gadaixdeba: 1.Lmogebis gadasaxadi; 2. qonebis gadasaxadi; 3. saxelfaso fondidan saSemosavlo gadasaxadi. sadazRveveo kompaniebis mier Seqmnili dazRvevis rezervebi 'saqarTvelos kanoniT `dazRvevis~ Sesaxeb ar ibegreba. sadazRvevo organizaciis gadaxdisunarianobis Sefasebis meTodikas da models, romelic gamoiyeneba sazRvargareTis praqtikaSi, axasiaTebs sirTule, rac arTulebs modelis gamoyenebas saqarTvelos sadazRvevo kompaniebSi. pirvel rigSi, modeli unda iyos advili da unda uzrunvelyos gadaxdisunarianoba. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradobis ganmtkicebisaTvis saWiroa: satarifo ganakveTebis koreqtireba dazRvevis saxeebis mixedviT; gadazRvevis dacvis gafarToeba; damatebiTi finansuri resursebis mozidva aqciebis gamoSvebis gziT; aqtivebis struqturis gadaxedva da Tu aris saWiro cvlilebebis Setana kreditoruli da debitoruli davalianebebis Semcireba; sadazRvevo xelSekrulebis gaformebis damatebiTi SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa internetis meSveobiT da a.S. danaxarjebis Semcireba; personalis ricxvis optimizacia; daumTavrebeli Senobebis gayidva; avtomatizacia da axali programuli paketebis SeZena; Sromis organizaciis srulyofa. qonebis inventarizacia; departamentebis ufrosebis Secvla da a.S. amasTan, mniSvnelovania danaxarjebis moculobis gakontroleba.finansuri mdgradobis da gadaxdisunarianobis Semcirebis dros unda ganxorcieldes zaralianobis analizi yoveli xeSekrulebis gaformebisas. yovelive zemoaRniSnuli saSualebas gvaZlevs davaskvnaT, rom finansuri mdgradobis analizis regularuli Catareba sul ufro aqtualuri sdeba. magram gadaxdisunarianobis modelebs gaaCniaT Semdegi Tviseba, modelebi xSirad gamoiyeneba sazedamxedvelo organoebis mier, da yovelTvis ar aris gamoyenebuli sadazRvevo kompaniebis mflobelebis sasargeblod. mflobelebs ufro xSirad ainteresebT ufro meti Semosavlis miReba. modificirebuli gadaxdisunarianobis modelis (romelic daainteresebs sadazRvevo kompaniis mflobelebs) gamoyenebisaTvis sadazRvevo kompaniis gadasdisunarianobis modelis gamoyenebis Sedegebi unda akmayofilebdes ara marto kompaniis gadaxdisunarianobis albaTobas, aramed unda Seuwyos xeli sadazRvevo kompaniis momgebianobas da Semosavlianobas, romlebic moizidaven ufro met investorebis.

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Jahangir Kakharov Uzbekistan. Management Development Institute of Singapore in Tashkent REGIONAL COOPERAION IN CENTRAL ASIA: VIEWPOINT FROM UZBEKISTAN Executive Summary Central Asia is a region strategically located in a part of the world which had attracted constantly the attention of superpowers of the world as evidenced by the term the Great Game. The term usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, was used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British and Russian Empires for supremacy in Central Asia. The term was later popularized by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his work “Kim”. The Silk Road turned the region into a bridge between Europe and East Asia, and between North and South Asia for many centuries. The region also had functioned as a hub for the religious, scientific and cultural development of the Islamic world for many years in the past. As the UNDP (2005) report notes, during 70 years of Soviet rule, when the Central Asian republics were largely shut off from the rest of the world, their economies became closely linked with the rest of the union. Many analysts consider that during this period living standards improved as a result of heavy investments in physical infrastructure and human capital. However, these improvements were accompanied with some devastating impact on the environment and culture of the region. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of new countries in Central Asia— Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan—with a total population of almost 60 million. Independent states gradually began establishing real borders separating them. This process is not over yet. The borders, tensions between some of the countries, and security policies of the countries in the region disrupted trade links and weakened critical but vulnerable region-wide water and energy systems. This report analyzes two important aspects of regional cooperation - trade in the region as a whole and electricity/power as a micro case study of cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The main research question of the report is “What are the main obstacles for greater regional cooperation in these two areas and how can these obstacles be removed?” In general, there are many factors which, apparently, make regional cooperation necessary for the economic development of Uzbekistan and the whole Central Asian region in general. Factors that speak in favor of regional cooperation are the following: (a) the communication, transport and energy infrastructure created by the former Soviet Union as an integrated national system which makes necessary a single and regional approach (b) the presence of environmental issues which require a regional approach to their solution (c) the potential attractiveness of the region free of trade and transit barriers for foreign and local investors compared with the limitations of small economies (d) the utilization of the regional cooperation to overcome geographical deficiencies and to improve access to global markets, thus creating opportunities for the effective integration of the region into the world market. Nevertheless, the research of the two aspects of regional cooperation mentioned above identified the following impediments for greater regional cooperation. In the area of regional trade: - A country’s ability to cooperate with its neighbors depends on the level of development of the market economy and democratic governance mechanisms. These are not well developed in Central Asia yet, which has become a serious impediment for regional cooperation; - The Central Asian leaders adopted diverse economic strategies which led to divergence in their respective trade policies and hindered harmonization of regional cooperation; - Regional Trade Agreements involving the Central Asian republics generally have a narrow range and complex rules of origin and most of them have remained agreements on paper only. - Existence of significant trade barriers and protectionist trade policies - while formal tariffs are relatively low, there are many other policy instruments that Central Asian countries use, often in a discretionary 39


and non-transparent manner, to regulate trade. These include taxes on imports that are not levied on domestically produced goods or that have higher rates for imported than domestically produced goods, foreign currency conversion problems, export bans on some products, and crack downs on shuttle traders. - Low degree of trade complementarity between Central Asian republics; In the power sector between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan: - The governments have had self-sufficiency as a policy goal totally ignoring possibility of cooperation. Past tensions between the governments were partly to blame for this; - A distorted system of energy prices is a significant barrier for greater regional cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Primary energy sources for thermal power generation are frequently and grossly undervalued by the state policy. Also, there is no value attributed to water regulation for irrigation; - Potential nonpayment across borders. Chapter II of the report provides an overview of the benefits of regional cooperation in Central Asia. Chapter III reviews the present state of regional trade in the region as well as obstacles and barriers for greater regional trade. Chapter IV analyzes the micro case of regional cooperation in power sector between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and Chapter V draws conclusions. II Benefits of Regional Cooperation Most economists specializing in international economics agree that there are gains from trade. When countries sell goods and services to each other, this exchange is almost always to their mutual advantage. In fact, Krugman and Obstfeld (2003) notice that “the range of circumstances under which international trade is beneficial is much wider than most people imagine.� Textbooks on international economics try to prove with zeal that two countries can trade to their mutual benefit even when one of them is more efficient than the other at producing everything, and when producers in the less efficient country can compete only by paying lower wages. This economic postulate could well be applied in case of Central Asia as well. The five Central Asian landlocked countries may yield significant gains and flourish if they remove the barriers to the cross-border movement of people, goods and knowledge, among themselves as well as with their neighbors and the rest of the world. The UNDP’s report (2005) argues that increased cooperation among the Central Asian republics will produce large gains by reducing trade costs, increasing remittances from migrant workers, and improving water and energy use. The experience of other parts of the world show that regional cooperation will especially help the poor in the region. By the same token, the cost of non-cooperation will affect the poor most. As to the issue of regional trade, the UNDP report notes that opening borders or reducing trade costs is not enough. Much will also depend on the business climate and the quality of financial services in each country. International experience confirms that reforms also require measures to combat corruption, improve the civil service, and enhance the transparency and accountability of governments. Martin Spechler points out that the revival of civilian machine building would make sense in Central Asia only if its products gain access to nearby markets.1 The Asian Development Bank emphasizes that the Central Asian republics are all relatively small economies. Therefore, they need to promote trade and closely integrate into the international trading system to achieve sustainable economic development.2 The importance and benefits of regional cooperation in Central are especially high compared to other regions of the world because Central Asia is a landlocked region located far away from major seaports.3 Given these circumstances, in many cases, Central Asian countries have to pass each others territory to gain access to major seaports or trade between each other more in order to save in significant transportation expenses associated with getting their goods to affluent but remote markets. 1

Spechler, M. (1998) Regional Cooperation in Central Asia: Promises and Reality. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 2 Asian Development Bank, Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade Through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit, 2006 Asian Development Bank. 3 See for analyses of the consequences of landlockedness for Central Asian countries Raballand (2005).

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In addition to above mentioned economic factors, there are many “non economic” factors which seem to facilitate regional cooperation in Central Asia - the people of the region have very similar language and culture and majority of the indigenous ethnicities profess Islam. Before Soviet Union, territorial divisions between the “Stans” were loose, conditional, and fuzzy, which make the history of the region also common. Multilateral institutions, donor agencies, bilateral aid programs and a number of regional organizations have been undertaking tremendous efforts to promote greater regional cooperation in the region. However, as many observers agree, the progress toward regional integration after the collapse of the Soviet Union has been very modest. Along with a number of specific barriers that impede trade in general and electricity particularly, which this report will review in the following chapters, there are also obstacles of “institutional” nature that hamper regional cooperation. In connection with this, the UNDP report (2005) notes that “a country’s ability to cooperate fully with its neighbors depends on the nature of its internal institutions, regulatory system and governance culture. A nation with sophisticated market institutions is better able to engage in regional economic integration. A country with a more open, pluralistic and democratic culture can build stronger cross-border ties than one with a less open, more autocratic political culture and institutions”.1 III Regional cooperation in trade. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian republics had very high levels of trade within the union, but it was managed centrally via Moscow. Considerations (efficiency of allocation of resources, pricing, transportation costs) taken into account in trade in a regular market economy were neglected most of the time. Trade with the countries outside of the Soviet Union was conducted from Moscow. It was only after gaining independence that the Central Asian republics received an opportunity to access world markets with their own products directly. Thus, prior to gaining independence none of the Central Asian countries had exercised significant influence over their economy and foreign trade. For example, Kazakhstan’s government claims that before 1991, 90% of its industry was controlled from Moscow via all - Union Ministries. Therefore, at independence, there were no national institutions with experience of developing and managing industrial policy, supervising state owned enterprises, and conducting foreign trade.2 Before embarking on reform process and establishing their position in world trade, Uzbekistan, as well as other Central Asian countries, had to start with the formation of a sovereign state3, creating government institutions able to control fully the economy of the country. Furthermore, this process was constrained by a variety of factors, including the need to establish new transport and trade links, the limited competitiveness of Central Asian manufactured exports in international markets and the lack of hard currency. As some of these constraints were eased or removed, the share of the former Soviet countries in Central Asian countries’ trade significantly decreased (UNDP 2005). The UNDP report (2005) points out that the decline was especially swift and dramatic in Uzbekistan, reflecting the fact that it was relatively easy for Uzbekistan to reorient exports of internationally marketable commodities, such as gold and cotton, from the former Soviet countries to international markets. The reorientation of trade in Central Asia away from the former Soviet countries and towards the rest of the world was, however, partly reversed in recent years. It is believed that among the most important benefits of cooperation, ones that would touch every country, could be those that come from harmonized trade and customs regulations, open borders, and enhanced cooperation on energy production and natural resource use. During the interviews conducted by the author with a number of existing and potential foreign investors in Uzbekistan, many of the interviewed ex1

“Central Asia Human Development Report 2005” by the UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, page VI. 2 Henley, J., (1995) “Restructuring large scale state enterprises in the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan: the challenge for technical assistance” 3 B. Islamov (1998), “State-Led Transformation and Economic Growth in Central Asia: From Plan to Industrial Policy”. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; 39(2), December 1998, pp. 102.

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pressed the opinion that the attractiveness of Uzbekistan and the whole of Central Asia as a recipient of foreign investments would have been much higher had the region been a single economic area without borders, visa requirements, and customs barriers. Interviewees noted that, currently, trade within Central Asia and the trade relations of the region with the rest of the World is obstructed by serious barriers, such as, protective trade policies, difficulties in crossing the borders, visa requirements, transportation issues. Interviewed businessmen noted that 60 million consumer market size would make much more sense from the view point of economies of scales compared to individual market of each Central Asian country taken separately. The ADB report (2006) also notes that given their landlocked status, the liberalization of trade policy and regional cooperation in transport and customs transit are closely interlinked for the Central Asian republics. Progress in any of these areas will have a limited positive impact on trade if there is no progress in the others. For example, liberalization of trade policy by a CAR and its nonadjacent trading partner will not boost their bilateral trade much if movements of transport equipment and goods through connecting countries remain difficult or impossible due to deficiencies of transport infrastructure or restrictive transit systems in those countries. The table below shows that it constitutes a small percentage in the foreign trade of Central Asian republics. However, it should be noted that major part of trade in Central Asia goes unrecorded. Table below illustrates what percentage of foreign trade in each Central Asian country is intra-regional trade. Share of intraregional exports and imports of the Central Asian Republics, 1999-2004 (in per cent of total merchandise exports/imports) Country (exports/imports) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Kazakhstan (exports) 3.4 3.3 4.3 3.8 3.7 Kazakhstan (imports) 3.6 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.0 Kyrgyz Republic (exports) 22.6 26.6 20.1 16.6 16.2 Kyrgyz Republic (imports) 27.1 24.6 32.2 32.4 29.8 Tajikistan (exports) 27.5 13.6 14.2 10.9 9.5 Tajikistan (imports) 55.2 50.2 40.6 34.8 36.1 Uzbekistan (exports) 9.7 8.3 9.2 8.0 6.6 Uzbekistan (imports) 6.7 11.7 8.8 8.3 8.1 Source: Governments of Central Asian Republics and Asian Development Bank

2004 4.2 2.6 17.5 27.4 8.1 37.8 10.6 7.5

As we see from the table smaller Central Asian economies (Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan) are more dependent from regional trade than larger economies (Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan). Further the UNDP (2005) points out that today, notwithstanding the recovery compared to the first years of independence, Central Asian countries trade relatively little among themselves. There may be a statistical bias - as mentioned above in this report, since local trade is more likely to go unrecorded than long-distance trade. But even allowing for this, trade within the region is probably low. The ADB (2006) explains this with the low degree of their trade complementarity and the existence of trade barriers. Although Kazakhstan can potentially absorb a relatively large proportion of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan’s exports and supply a substantial proportion of their imports, the latter can potentially absorb small fractions of Kazakhstan’s exports and supply small fractions of its imports. Further, there is a little overlapping between the profile of the Kyrgyz Republic’s imports and the profile of Tajikistan’s exports. These countries will ultimately find greater opportunities for trade with dissimilar and hence complementary economies farther away, provided they overcome the barriers that stand in the way of access to world markets. Both trade within the region and with the rest of the world, however, will depend on regional cooperation to reduce trade IV Micro costs. case study of cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in electricity sector Currently, Uzbekistan is the largest electricity producer among the Central Asian republics and a net exporter of electricity. The country has a total installed generation capacity of 12,300 MW. Uzbekistan achieved self-sufficiency in energy after gaining independence in 1991. Today, about 50% of power generat42


ing facilities of the Central Asia Integrated Power Grid is located in Uzbekistan. This power grid also incorporates the power systems of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. However, maintenance of Uzbekistan’s power systems has deteriorated over the past years. Much of the equipment in generation, transmission and distribution systems is outdated. At present it needs serious renovation and upgrading to meet the growing demand of the economy. The Tajikistan Energy System’s installed capacity is 4,354.5 MW. The annual average power generation of the hydropower plants is 15-17,000 GWh. The Nurek hydropower plant of 3,000 MW installed 3

capacity is the biggest in Central Asia. It has the seasonal-storage reservoir of 10.5 billion m , and it regulates the Vaksh flow for the irrigation needs in the Amu Darya basin countries. The Nurek hydro structure operates in the irrigation regime at the beginning and in the middle of the growing season (June July) to meet the interests of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Therefore, Tajikistan has to buy power in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, and pay for it hard currency. The power system of Tajikistan experiences shortages in winter and surpluses in summer within the range of 1 to 1.5 kWh. The Soviet period electricity transfer system was destroyed. During the Soviet period, the republics sharing the Amu Darya were also involved in water-energy transfers directed from Moscow. Tajikistan received Turkmen and Uzbek gas in return for electricity produced to power irrigation pumps in summer. Tajikistan also received electricity from Uzbekistan during winter. After the Soviet collapse, bilateral trade replaced this arrangement. Tajikistan, for instance, unable to cover domestic energy demand through hydropower production, continues to import Uzbek electricity and gas. The latter is used in Tajikistan’s thermal power plants. The UNDP (2005) notes that given the diverse national interests, the post-independence years have seen a serious weakening of the longstanding Soviet water and energy exchange arrangement among the republics. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, the upstream countries along the two main rivers of the region—the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya—prefer to maximize the use of the water for generating electricity for export and to meet domestic energy demand, especially in the winter. The downstream countries, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, prefer to have maximum access to water for irrigation during the summer months, while also avoiding the floods caused by winter water releases. To cope with these interrelationships in regional trade, the Central Asian governments have resorted to bilateral and multilateral agreements that determine the quantities of water and energy (coal, electricity, and gas) that are exchanged between the countries and the values at which they are exchanged. The ADB report (2002) notes that pricing is the key to providing incentives for power trade. Regional approaches to the water-energy nexus in Central Asia would bring large benefits in terms of more efficient management of these scarce resources, a greater potential for exports of electricity, more reliable availability for communities and a reduction in the potential for conflict. However, such regional solutions would require compromises involving each country’s interests and principles, and a fundamental trust that agreements once entered would actually be implemented. Bilateral trade is not without its problems, though. Uzbekistan has several times cut gas supplies to Tajikistan due to the latter’s inability to pay in cash, and Uzbek gas supplies are often unreliable due to low pipeline pressure. In an attempt to reduce its energy dependence on Uzbekistan, Tajikistan is currently contemplating how it can exploit its huge hydropower potential—only 10 per cent of which has been developed. Tajikistan is actively pursuing the completion of two hydropower schemes initiated during the Soviet period. According to the former minister of energy of Tajikistan Nurmakhmatov, capital investments to the tune of $2 billion into the Rogun and Sangruda in the course of 5-7 years, the country may generate electricity for exports minimum 10 billion kWt/h a year. When these stations become operational power generation in Tajikistan will reach 31-33 billion kWt/h a year. Tajikistan’s plans for expanding upstream hydropower capacity have roused concern in Uzbekistan because this would mean possibility of decrease in irrigation water in Uzbekistan. In this light, increased intra-regional trade could provide benefits by allowing individual countries to meet future demand at a lower cost than if they were to rely solely on their domestic resources. For example, Kazakh43


stan and Uzbekistan could both benefit from importing hydroelectricity from existing hydropower stations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan during the summer, rather than generating power in their own thermal power stations. The exploitation of differences in the marginal cost of production across countries and seasons, however, requires a much greater level of transparency in the electricity sectors of the various countries. Central Asia has considerable electricity export potential. Possible markets such as Pakistan and Iran have the added attraction of experiencing their peak demand in the summer, when the largest electricity surpluses exist in Central Asia. Access to these markets will particularly benefit Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, since they could develop the capacity to export significant quantities of electricity. Uzbekistan and to some extent Kazakhstan could export thermal power in the winter, and also serve as transit countries and power traders. According to World Bank (2004a), the Central Asian Republics will need to get an intra-regional agreement on electricity transit in place for having access to export markets including Pakistan, Iran and some other countries. Major new power generation projects in Central Asia will only be feasible if there is assured access to export markets outside the region. Western investors currently view the new generation projects as high-risk ventures. Pakistan and Iran have the added attraction of experiencing their peak demand in the summer when the largest potential electricity surpluses exist in Central Asia. Once agreements are in place they will then have to be carefully managed to ensure the benefits from intra-regional trade are optimized. Access to these markets like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, China and Russia will particularly benefit the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan since they are the countries with the potential to export significant quantities of electricity. Uzbekistan (and to some extent Kazakhstan), have the potential to export thermal power in the winter and also benefit in their role as prospective transit countries and as potential power In traders. order to promote regional cooperation in the power sector the ADB allocated a loan for a Regional Power Transmission Modernization project in 2001. One of the important conditions of the loan was signing of the new type of power trade agreement between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan market players. However, this agreement was not approved and the loan was cancelled. The main reasons for not signing the power trade agreement and abandoning this loan which would definitely contribute to regional cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in power sector were the following: - The financial framework didn’t not exist that would allow an efficient settlement of transactions in those cases where they are not barter-based and are dollarized. - Potential problems of currency convertibility and absence of bank guarantees easily available, if at all, for such transactions. - Potential nonpayment across borders. - The desire to preserve energy security on both sides. V Conclusion The UNDP (2005) argues that developing a consensus and implementing follow-up action for regional cooperation and integration cannot happen overnight. In view of the many obstacles of history, current politics and institutional weaknesses, and bearing in mind the slow progress with similar efforts elsewhere in the world, one must realistically expect that serious progress with regional cooperation and integration will take years, and even decades. The efforts to improve regional cooperation in Central Asia in the area of trade should focus on improving trade regimes in the countries in coordination with the WTO entry process, developing market economy and democratic institutions, harmonization of trade and customs policies, removing significant trade barriers such as taxes on imports that are not levied on domestically produced goods or that have higher rates for imported than domestically produced goods, export bans on some products, and crack downs on shuttle traders. In the power sector between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan there is a need for strong negotiator/broker to mediate the negotiation process inductive to greater cooperation in this important sector. Russia might be suitable for this role provided they prove to be fair to both sides. Cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan could bring sizeable gains for both countries but this also means that the governments should curtail energy self-sufficiency as a policy goal, tackle a distorted system of energy prices, and deal with potential nonpayment problems across borders. 44


References: 1.Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2006. Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade Through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit, 2006, Philippines; 2. 2002 “Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors of Proposed loans to the Republic of Tajikistan and to the Republic of Uzbekistan for the Regional Power Transmission Modernization Project.” Manila. RRP: TAJ/UZB 35096; 3. Dadabaev, T., Central Asian Regional Integration: Between Reality and Myth, May 2, 2007 issue of the CACI Analyst; 4. Eurasianet. 2007. “Russia’s Central Asia Energy Strategy Experiences a Few Setbacks” Posted May 11, 2007 at http://www.eurasianet.org 5.Henley, J., 1995. “Restructuring large-scale state enterprises in the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan: the challenge for technical assistance.” Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Dept. of Business Studies; 6.Information Agency Regnum, 2007 “Узбекистан против строительства ГЭС на таджикской реке Зерафшан” June 6, 2007; 7.International Crisis Group. 2002. “Central Asia: Water and Conflict.” Asia Report 34, 30 May; 8. Islamov, B. 1998. “State-Led Transformation and Economic Growth in Central Asia: From Plan to Industrial Policy”. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; 39(2), December 1998, pp. 102; 9.Kakharov, J., “Uzbekistan’s Trade Policy and its Impact on the Poor Strata of Population.” Central Asia – Caucuses Analyst, November 19, 2003; 10.Krugman, Paul R, Maurice Obstfeld. 2003. “International Economics: Theory and Policy” 6th edition, Addisson-Wesley, 2003; 11.Pomfret, Richard. 2006a. “Coordinating Aid for Regional Cooperation Projects: The Experience of Central Asia” IIIS Discussion Paper No. 163. June, 2006; 12. 2006b. “The Central Asian economies since independence.” Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press 2006; 13. Raballand, Gael, Antoine Kunth, and Richard Auty. 2005. “Central Asia’s Transport Cost Burden and its Impact on Trade.” Economic Systems No. 29: pp. 6–31; 14.Russian Information Agency Novosty. 2006. Uzbekistan to supply 700m cubic metres of gas to Tajikistan in 2007. RIA Novosty, December 28, 2006; 15.Sadykov, Alexander. 2006 “Tajikistan’s Ambitious Energy Projects Cause Tension with Uzbekistan”. Posted on October 4, 2006 at http://www.eurasianet.org 16.Spechler, M. 2000. “Regional Cooperation in Central Asia: Promises and More Promises.” PRAXIS The Fletcher Journal of Development Studies. VOLUME XVI – 2000; 17.Tumbarello, Patrizia. 2005. “Regional Integration and WTO Accession: Which is the right sequencing? An application to the CIS.” IMF Working Paper No. WP/05/94; 18.1998 “Regional Cooperation in Central Asia: Promises and Reality.” Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis; 19.United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2005. “Central Asia Human Development Report 2005” by the UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. 2005. Bratislava, Slovak Republic; 20.Uzreport.com. Business Information Portal. 2007. “Tajikistan to import 1.4bn kWt/h of electric power from Uzbekistan in first two quarters of 2007”, www.uzreport.com, January 4, 2007; 21.Uzreport.com. Business Information Portal. 2007. “Uzbekistan electricity production up 3.5% in JanNov.” www.uzreport.com, January 5, 2007; 22.Uzreport.com. Business Information Portal. 2007. “Tajikistan, Uzbekistan agree on mutual

electricity supplies.” www.uzreport.com, January 26, 2007; 23.World Bank 2004a. “Central Asia Regional Electricity Export Potential Study.” Europe and Central Asia Region, Washington, DC. Mimeo.

nedeJda kvataSiZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori 45


sawarmoTa gaerTianeba da finansuri angariSgeba sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebas axlavs biznesis sxvadasxva tipis kombinaciebi _ sawarmoTa gaerTianebebi. sawarmoTa gaerTianebis motivaciaa gasaRebis axali bazris, axali srulyofili teqnologiebis, axali sakonkurento produqciis moZieba, danaxarjebis Semcireba da mogebis gazrda, konkurenciis Semcireba. sawarmoTa gaerTianebiT izrdeba sawarmos masStabebi da misi konkurentunarianoba, SesaZlebeli xdeba Tavisufali fuladi saxsrebis dabandeba da kapitalis marTva. sazogadod iTvleba, rom gaerTianebis ZiriTadi mizania sinergia _ erToblivi saqmianobidan upiratesobebis/sargeblianobis mopoveba. Serwyma-gaerTianeba xorcieldeba sxvadasxva statusuri formiT: • erTi sawarmos mier meore sawarmoze kontrolis uflebis mopovebiT da Sedegad SeZenili sawarmo wyvets arsebobas; • ori an meti sawarmos gaerTianebiT, romlis Sedegad warmoiqmneba axali ekonomikuri erTeuli _ gaerTianebis monawile-sawarmoebi wyveten iuridiul arsebobas da axali sawarmo iRebs yvela gaerTianebuli sawarmoebis aqtivebsa da valdebulebebze kontrolis uflebas; • erTi sawarmos mier meore sawarmoze kontrolis uflebis mopovebiT _ sawarmoebi agrZeleben damoukidebel saqmianobas da maT Soris warmoiqmneba saTavoSvilobili sawarmoTa urTierTobebi. fass 3 `sawarmoTa gaerTianebis~ (IFRS 3 - Business Combinations) Tanaxmad sameurneo operacia an sxva movlena mxolod maSin identificirdeba sawarmoTa gaerTianebad, rodesac SeZenili aqtivebi da aRebuli valdebulebebi afuZneben sawarmos. Tu SeZenili aqtivebis jgufi ar identificirdeba sawarmod, aseTi operaciebi ar miekuTvneba sawarmoTa gaerTianebebs da ar regulirdeba fass 3-iT. aseTi operaciebi aisaxeba rogorc Cveulebrivi aqtivebis SeZena. sameurneo operaciebi an movlenebi ar identificirdeba sawarmoTa gaerTianebad, rogoricaa: • erToblivi saqmianobis formireba; • aqtivis an aqtivebis jgufis SeZena, romelic ar afuZnebs sawarmos; • saerTo kontrols daqvemdebarebuli sameurneo erTeulebi an sawarmoTa gaerTianebebi. amdenad, sawarmos ganmartebis gansazRvra did mniSvnelobas iZens, vinaidan finansuri angariSgebis momzadebisa da wardgenis wesebi sawarmos SeZenis da aqtivebis SeZenis, romelic ar warmoadgens sawarmos, operaciebisaTvis gansxvavebulia. operaciebi, romelic identificirebuli iqneba `sawarmos SeZenad~ regulirdeba fass 3 `sawarmoTa gaerTianebiT~. upirvelesad, unda ganisazRvros Tu ra aris sawarmo. fass 3-is Tanaxmad sawarmo aris saqmianobebisa da aqtivebis urTierTdakavSirebuli (integrirebuli) kompleqsi/jgufi, romlis funqcionireba da marTva SesaZlebelia im mizniT, rom uSualod investorebma an sxva mesakuTreebma, wevrebma an monawileebma miiRon Semosavlebi dividendebis, danaxarjebis Semcirebis an sxva saxis ekonomikuri sargeblis saxiT. ufro martivad, sawarmo aris aqtivebis da operaciebis erToblioba, romelsac marTaven aqcionerTa interesebis dasacavad mogebisa da sxva ekonomikuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT. 46


aqtivebisa da operaciebis erToblioba aris integrirebuli jgufi (kompleqsi), romelic moicavs procesebs, samuSao Zalas da yvelafer sxvas, rac `muSaobs~ biznesis (sawarmos) sasargeblod. amdenad, fass 3-is Tasnaxmad sawarmo Sedgeba resursebisa da procesebisagan, romlebic gamoiyeneba am resursebis produqciad gardasaqmnelad. amavdroulad, imisTvis, rom integrirebuli kompleqsi ganixilebodes rogorc sawarmo, ar aris savaldebulo produqciis arseboba fass 3-is Tanaxmad. sawarmos sami elementi ganimarteba Semdegnairad: • resursebi aris nebismieri ekonomikuri resursi, romelic produqcias qmnis, an gaaCnia produqciis Seqmnis unari. magaliTad, grZelvadiani aqtivebi (maT Soris, aramaterialuri aqtivebi an grZelvadiani aqtivebis gamoyenebis uflebebi), inteleqtualuri sakuTreba, aucilebeli masalebis an uflebebisa da daqiravebul momuSaveTa mozidvis unari; • procesi aris nebismieri sistema, standarti, protokoli, konvencia an wesi, romelic resursebis gamoyenebisas, qmnis produqcias, an gaaCnia produqciis Seqmnis unari. magaliTad: strategiuli marTvis procesebi, saeqspluatacio procesebi da resursebis marTvis procesebi; • produqcia aris Sedegi, romelic miiReba resursebisa da am resursebis mimarT iseTi procesebis gamoyenebis Sedegad, romelsac moaqvs Semosavali an gaaCnia Semosavlebis Seqmnis unari uSualod investorebis an sxva mesakuTreebisaTvis, wevrebis an monawileebisaTvis, dividendebis, dabali danaxarjebis, an sxva ekonomikuri sargeblis saxiT. imis dasadgenad, warmoadgens Tu ara saqmianobebisa da aqtivebis konkretuli kompleqsi sawarmos, sawarmom unda ganixilos: SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom bazris monawilem integrirebuli kompleqsis saqmianoba marTos, rogorc sawarmo. Tu ar arsebobs sapirispiro mtkicebulebebi, aqtivebisa da saqmianobebis calkeuli kompleqsi, romelSic gudvili aris warmodgenili, unda miviCnioT sawarmod. Tumca, aucilebeli ar aris, sawarmos gudvili gaaCndes. SeiZleba iTqvas rom, aqtivebisa da saqmianobebis integrirebuli jgufi fass 3-iT miCneulia sawarmod, Tu integrirebul jgufs produqciis warmoebis unari Seswevs1. aseve, fass 3-is Tanaxmad, sawarmoTa gaerTianeba aris sameurneo operacia an sxva movlena, romlis drosac myidveli sawarmo kontrols iRebs erT an met sawarmoze. myidveli sawarmo aris sameurneo erTeuli, romelic kontrols iRebs SeZenil sawarmoze. SeZenili sawarmo aris sawarmo an sawarmoebi, romelzec myidveli sawarmo iRebs kontrols sawarmoTa gaerTianebis dros. sameurneo operaciebi, romlebsac zogjer `faqtobriv Serwymas” an `TanasworTa Serwymas” uwodeben, aseve warmoadgens sawarmoTa gaerTianebas im gagebiT, ra mniSvnelobiTac es termini mocemul standartSi gamoiyeneba. kontroli aris sawarmos finansuri da sameurneo politikis marTvis ufleba, am saqmianobidan sargeblis miRebis mizniT. SeZenili kapitalis wili gansazRvravs mopovebul kontrolis dones da erTi sawarmo aris myidveli, meore SeZenili, warmoiqmneba saTavo-Svilobili sawarmos urTierTobebi, sadac erTi sawarmo aris `saTavo~ sawarmo, meore ki SeZenili sawarmos `Svilobili~ sawarmo. saTavo sawarmo iseTi sawarmoa, romelsac gaaCnia 1

fass 3 `sawarmoTa gaerTianeba~. fass. Tb., 2009. ds 18 `g~.

47


erTi an meti Svilobili sawarmo. Svilobili sawarmo aris sawarmo, maT Soris arauiridiuli piric, magaliTad, amxanagoba, romelsac akontrolebs sxva sawarmo, cnobili saTavo sawarmos saxelwodebiT1. gaerTianebaSi, sadac aris saTavo-Svilobili urTierTobebi, SeZenili sawarmo ar kargavs Tavis iuridiul damoukideblobas, is rCeba damoukidebel iuridiul pirad aqciebis garkveuli paketiT SemZen sawarmosTan. sawarmoTa gaerTianebis operaciebi fass 3-is moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad aRricxuli unda iqnes mxolod SeZenis meTodiT (аcquisitions method), rac imas niSnavs, rom SeZenis operacia unda aisaxos myidvel sawarmosTan. SeZenis meTodis gamoyeneba saWiroebs: • myidveli sawarmos identificirebas; • SeZenis TariRis gansazRvras; • SeZenili identificirebadi aqtivebis, aRebuli valdebulebebisa da SeZenili sawarmos aramakontrolebeli wilis aRiarebasa da Sefasebas; • gaerTianebis kompensaciis Sefasebas; da • gudvilis an xelsayreli Sesyidvidan miRebuli Semosulobis aRiarebasa da Sefasebas. rodesac SeZenilia Svilobili sawarmos kapitalis 100%-ze naklebi wili, Svilobili sawarmos Rirebuleba Sedgeba ori nawilisagan: im nawilisagan, romelic ekuTvnis saTavo sawarmos; da im nawilisagan, romelic ekuTvnis Svilobil sawarmos. Svilobili sawarmos wili ar iZleva kontrolis uflebas, ris gamoc mas uwodeben aramakontrolebel wils. aramakontrolebeli wili aris wili Svilobili sawarmos sakuTar kapitalSi, romelic saTavo sawarmos ar ekuTvnis arc pirdapir da arc arapirdapir. vinaidan saTavo sawarmo akontrolebs Svilobil sawarmos, konsolidirebul balansSi aisaxeba jgufis (da ara mxolod saTavos) aqtivebi da Sesabamisad, kapitalis da rezervebis ganyofilebaSi calke muxlis saxiT aisaxeba aramakontrolebelis wili, raTa gamoCndes wminda aqtivebis is nawili, romelsac saTavo sawarmo akontrolebs, magram mas er ekuTvnis. myidvelma sawarmom, mas Semdeg, rac aRiarebs identificirebad aqtivebs, valdebulebebsa da aramakontrolebel wilebs, unda daadginos gansxvaveba: a) agregirebul gadacemul kompensacias, SeZenili sawarmos nebismier aramakontrolebel wilsa da etapobrivad ganxorcielebul sawarmoTa gaerTianebis dros _ SeZenil sawarmoSi myidveli sawarmos adre kuTvnili saaqcio wilis SeZenis TariRisTvis gansazRvrul realur Rirebulebasa; da b) SeZenil wminda identificirebad aqtivebs Soris. rogorc wesi, gansxvaveba aRiardeba rogorc gudvili. gudvili aris aqtivi, romelic warmoadgens sawarmoTa gaerTianebisas SeZenil, sxva aqtivebidan warmoqmnil momaval ekonomikur sargebels, romlis calke identificireba da aRiareba SeuZlebelia. sxvagvarad, gudvili warmoadens iseTi aqtivebis erTobliobas, romelTa individualurad identificireba da aqtivad aRiareba SeuZlebelia, magram sawarmosTvis aris momavali ekonomikuri sargebeli, romelic ver iqneba biznesisagan gancalkevebulad `gayiduli~ an `gacvlili~. gudvilis Tanxa moicavs integraciis sargebels _ biznesSi sakonkurento upiratesobebs, rasac SeuZlia damatebi1

bass 27 `konsolidirebuli da individualuri finansuri angariSgeba~. Tb., 2009. p. 4.

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Ti Semosavlebisa da fuladi nakadebis generireba. aseT aramaterialur faqtorebs miekuTvneba sawarmos safirmo saxeli, reputacia bazarze, teqnologiuri da mmarTvelobiTi kultura, kavSirebi kontragentebTan da sxva. rogoricaa xarjebis Semcireba, operaciebis masStabebis zrda, bazarze gavlenisa da wilis zrda da sxva. iSviaTad SesaZlebelia1, rom myidvelma sawarmom ganaxorcielos xelsayreli Sesyidva, romelic warmoadgens sawarmoTa iseT gaerTianebas, romelSic SeZenili identificirebadi aqtivebisa da aRebuli valdebulebebis wminda Rirebuleba SeZenis TariRisaTvis aRemateba kompensaciis Tanxas. xelsayreli SesyidviT miRebuli Semosulobis aRiarebamde, myidvelma sawarmom xelaxla unda ganixilos, sworad gansazRvra Tu ara yvela SeZenili aqtivi da yvela aRebuli valdebuleba da unda aRiaros nebismieri damatebiTi aqtivi an valdebuleba, romlebic am Semowmebisas gamovlinda. Tu es gadameteba isev SenarCunebulia, myidvelma sawarmom miRebuli Semosuloba unda aRiaros mogebaSi an zaralSi, SeZenis TariRiT. sawarmoTa gaerTianebaSi, romelic Seiqmna kompensaciis gadacemis gareSe, myidvelma sawarmom gudvilis an xelsayreli Sesyidvidan miRebuli Semosulobis Sesafaseblad unda gamoiyenos gadacemuli kompensaciis realuri Rirebuleba SeZenis TariRisaTvis da ara SeZenil sawarmoSi Tavisi wilis realuri Rirebuleba SeZenis TariRisTvis. myidvelma sawarmom SeZenil sawarmoSi Tavisi wilis realuri Rirebuleba SeZenis TariRisaTvis unda Seafasos mocemuli garemoebebis Sesaferisi Sefasebis erTi an ramdenime meTodiT, romlisTvisac sakmarisi monacemebi arsebobs. Tu Sefasebis erTze met meTods iyenebs, myidvelma sawarmom unda Seafasos am meTodebis Sedegebi, ganixilos gamoyenebuli monacemebis Sesabamisoba da saimedooba da ramdenad aris xelmisawvdomi es monacemebi. rodesac ori erToblivi sameurneo erTeuli erTiandeba, SeZenili sawarmos realuri Rirebuleba SesaZloa ufro saimedod iyos Sefasebadi, vidre myidveli sawarmos mier gadacemuli partniorTa wilis realuri Rirebuleba (aqciebis emisiis SemTxvevaSi). aseT situaciaSi fass-i moiTxovs, rom myidvelma sawarmom gudvilis Tanxa gansazRvros SeZenili sawarmos saaqcio wilis realuri RirebulebiT SeZenis TariRisTvis da ara myidveli sawarmos mier kompensaciis saxiT gadacemuli saaqcio wilis realuri RirebulebiT SeZenis TariRisTvis.

1

magaliTad, xelsayrel Sesyidvas SeiZleba adgili hqondes sawarmoTa gaerTianebaSi, romelic warmoadgens iZulebiT gayidvas, sadac gamyidveli iZulebiT moqmedebs.

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paata koRuaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebaSi SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis moqmedebisaTvis P SefardebiTi (SedarebiTi) upiratesobis principis Tanaxmad, TiToeuli saxeobis produqti unda awarmoos im qveyanam, romelsac am saqonlis warmoebaze naklebi alternatiuli danaxarji aqvs sxvasTan SedarebiT. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom es principi marTlzomieria ara marto qveynebis, aramed calkeuli individebis da saojaxo meurneobis mimarTac. SefardebiTi upiratesobis dadgena xdeba erTi da igive saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoebelTa alternatiuli danaxarjebis Sedarebis gziT. SedarebiTi upiratesoba gaaCnia mas, visac naklebi alternatiuli danaxarji aqvs identuri saqonlis wamoebaze (anu mas, romelic yvelaze naklebs Tmobs konkretuli saqonlisa Tu momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis). am konteqstSi bunebrivad ismeba kiTxva: rogor viyenebT SefardebiTi upiratesobis princips saqarTvelos agrarul warmoebaSi? pasuxi calsaxad uaryofiTia, rac Sesabamisi faqtebiTac dasturdeba. kerZod, politikuri da ekonomikuri damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdgom wlebSi Cveni qveynis soflis meurneobis fexze dayenebisaTvis ucxoeli specialistebis monawileobiT ramdenime proeqti iqna SemuSavebuli. pirveli aseTi proeqti Tacis-is programis farglebSi damuSavda 19921993 wlebSi frangi eqspertis, doqtor miSel sigos xelmZRvanelobiT. xsenebul proeqts safuZvlad daedo soflis meurneobis iseTi dargobrivi struqtura, romelic ZiriTadad agebuli iyo, qveynis sasursaTo uzrunvelyofis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, SefardebiTi upiratesobis principze. masSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo mravalwliani nargavebis, maT Soris vazis, xexilis, Cais da a.S. farTobis mkveTri Semcireba da samagierod, bostneulis, baRCeulis, kartofilis, eTerzeTebis, marcvleulis, pirutyvisTvis sakvebis da sxva sasursaTo Tu teqnikuri kulturebis farTobis gazrda. proeqti, romelic mravalwliani nargavebis farTobis saSualod 2_2,5-jer Semcirebas iTvaliswinebda, miuRebeli aRmoCnda qveynisTvis, romelic manamde swored vazis, xexilis, subtropikuli da sxva samxreTuli kulturebis warmoebaze iyo specializebuli. 2001-2004 wlebSi saqarTveloSi amoqmedda msoflio bankis proeqti (IFAD), romlis mier Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze gakeTda daskvna imis Taobaze, rom xorbali da sxva marcvleuli kulturebi Semosavlianobis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad agebs bostneulTan, baRCeulTan, TxilTan da sxva kulturebTan, radgan maT (marcvleul kulturebs) SefardebiTi upiratesoba ar gaaCniaT. dabolos, USAID-is dafinansebiT qveyanaSi 2006-2007 wlebSi damuSavda sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis erovnuli strategia 2015 wlamde periodisaTvis, romelSic vkiTxulobT Semdegs (gv. 215): `saqarTveloSi marcvlovanebs da zeTovan kulturebs ar gaaCniaT arc adgilobrivi bazris dakmayofilebis saSualeba da arc mniSvnelovani saeqsporto potenciali. samagierod, mogebiani iqneba xilis, bostneulis, rZis, Tevzisa da xorcis produqtebis warmoeba~. aqve xazgasmulia, rom saqarTveloSi arsebobs kargi SesaZleblobebi iseTi produqtebis sa50


warmoeblad, romelTa bazrebi izrdeba da mowodebac deficituria, magaliTad, kenkra, eTerzeTebi, samkurnalo mcenareebi da sunelebi, gamSrali xili da bostneuli, aseve organuli produqtebis farTo asortimenti. amasTan, maT warmoebaSi investiciebi unda ganxorcieldes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qveyanas eqneba konkurentuli (SefardebiTi) upiratesoba SedarebiT xangrZlivvadian periodSi. obieqtur kritikas da Sesabamis rCevebs arc sxva ucxoeli eqspertebi iSureben. kerZod `Tacis~-is programis proeqtis (`saqarTveloSi biznesbankis SesaZleblobaTa gaZliereba~) erT-erTi xelmZRvaneli, profesori qristofer kordonie Tavis statiaSi `saqarTvelos soflis meurneoba da soflis sazogadoebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. samoqmedo gegmis monaxazi~ (Jur. `saqarTvelos ekonomikuri tendenciebi~, 2005 w., dekemberi) aRniSnavs, rom `samwuxarod, bolodroindeli cvlilebebi saqarTvelos soflis meurneobaSi winaaRmdegobaSi modis misive saerTaSoriso komerciul strategiasTan. iseT produqtebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebis nacvlad, romlebSic saqarTvelos SefardebiTi upiratesoba gaaCnia da damatebuli Rirebuleba SeuZlia Seqmnas (xili, Rvino da a.S.), qarTveli fermerebi ZiriTadad araperspeqtiul produqcias awarmoeben, rogoric xorbali an kartofilia da romelSic qveyanas SefardebiTi upiratesoba ar gaaCnia~ (gv. 81). bunebrivad ibadeba kiTxva: ratom aRmoCnda saqarTvelosaTvis miuRebeli 2 saukunis winaT dadgenili WeSmariteba SefardebiTi upiratesobis Sesaxeb, romelic praqtikulad yvela qveyanaSi realuri ekonomikis dargebSi warmatebis miRwevis ZiriTad garants warmoadgens? iqneb, mizezi SedarebiTi upiratesobis dadgenis sirTulea. ara gvgonia, radgan dargebis Tu kulturebis ranJireba Semosavlianobis donis mixedviT ar warmoadgens raime sirTules. aq mTavaria, TiToeulma saqonelmwarmoebelma icodes, ras Tmobs kultivirebuli dargis Tu kulturis sanacvlod, anu, ramdenad pasuxobs misi meurneobrivi saqmianoba SefardebiTi upiratesobis princips. Cemi azriT, mTavari mizezi ufro mamapapuri tradiciebisadmi Cveni Seuvali erTgulebaa. sxvagvarad rogor aixsneba is faqti, rom soflis (Temis), raionis, zonis Tu mxaris masStabiT agrosawarmoSi Tu ojaxur meurneobaSi ZiriTadad erTi da igive sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebia gaadgilebuli: kerZod, kaxeTSi vazi (Tumca, bolo periodSi mas gauCnda alternativa `venaxis atmis~ da sazamTros saxiT. araa gamoricxuli mokle xanSi mas zeTisxilic Caenacvlos), xorbali, mzesumzira, baRCeuli, bostneuli da a.S. qarTlSi xili, bostneuli, kartofili, baRCeuli da sxva, dasavleT saqarTveloSi vazi, simindi, soia, subtropikuli kulturebi da a.S. faqtia, rom sakarmidamo nakveTebze ojaxuri meurneobebi awarmoeben yvela saxis kulturas, romlis movla-moyvanac ki SeiZleba mocemul zonaSi Tu mikrozonaSi. Cven kargad gvesmis, rom dReisTvis siflad TviTdasaqmebulTa ZiriTadi amocana sursaTiT (maT Soris xiliT, bostneuliT, kartofiliT, marcvleuliT, mecxoveleobis produqtebiT da a.S.) TviTuzrunvel- yofaSia, magram es amocana, Cveni azriT, ufro iolad gadawydeba sasoflo warmoebaSi SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis gamoyenebis da warmoebuli produqciis urTierTgacvlis (vaWrobis) pirobebSi. sxvagvarad saojaxo meurneobaTa saqonlianobis done mudam dabali iqneba misgan gamomdinare uaryofiTi SedegebiT. zemoT moyvanili msjeloba, marTalia, saojaxo meurneobebs Seexeboda, magram zustad igive principi moqmedebs qveynebs Soris mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom vinaidan yvela qveyanas sakuTari erovnuli valuta gaaCnia SedarebiTi upiratesobis da urTierTvaWrobis sargeblianobis donis dasadgenad, rogorc cnobilia fardobiT fasebs iyeneben (es aris fasi, roca erTi saqonlis fasi gamoxatulia meore 51


saqonlis naturalur erTeulSi da amgvarad, am saqonlis warmoebis alternatiul danaxarjebs gvixasiaTebs). ase magaliTad, Tu ruseTis federaciaSi da saqarTveloSi warmoebuli xorblisa da xilis Rirebulebas fardobiT fasebSi gamovsaxavT, aRmoCndeba, rom xilis tonebSi gamosaxuli 1 t. xorblis fasi (anu alternatiuli danaxarji) ruseTSi ramdenjerme naklebia, vidre saqarTveloSi, rac cxadyofs, rom ruseTs (saqarTvelosTan SedarebiT) aqvs naklebi SefardebiTi danaxarji xorblis warmoebaSi. rac Seexeba xils, aq piriqiT _ saqarTvelos aqvs naklebi SefardebiTi danaxarji ruseTTan SedarebiT, radgan erTi tona xilis sawarmoeblad bevrad nakleb xorbalze uwevs uaris Tqma. am principis mixedviT ruseTma xorbali unda awarmoos (radgan xorblis alternatiuli danaxarji ufro naklebia, vidre saqarTveloSi), xolo saqarTvelom ki piriqiT _ xili (radgan xilis alternatiuli danaxarji ufro naklebia, vidre ruseTSi). xilis alternatiuli danaxarji ruseTTTan SedarebiT sxva qveynebs ukeTesi aqvs. magaliTad, CineTs, indoeTs da sxv. xolo xorblis alternatiuli danaxarji saqarTvelos aSS-Tan ukeTesi aqvs. nebismier qveynasTan am principis da vaWrobis sakiTxis Seswavlisas, agraruli politikis mesveurni ufro saintereso gadawyvetilebebs miiReben, Tu gaiTvaliswineben xelfasebSi SefardebiTi (vinaidan xelfasebSi SefardebiTi upiratesobis gareSe, aranairi upiratesoba aRar arsebobs) da stiqiur sabazro procesebze dakvirvebis Sedegebs, risTvisac seriozuli kvlevaa Casatarebeli. rogorc vxedavT, SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis moqmedeba vlindeba rogorc naturalur, aseve fulad TanafardobaSi. magram imis gamo, rom mewarmis gadawyvetilebaze ganmsazRvrel gavlenas faswarmoqmniTi faqtorebi axdens (moTxovna-miwodebis Tanafardobidan gamomdinare), produqtebis gacvliTi urTierToba ganixileba ara naturalur, aramed fulad erTeulebSi. SefardebiTi upiratesobis principi warmoadgens mniSnelovan faqtors, romelic udides gavlenas axdens sxvadasxva dargis Tu agroproduqtebis potenciur Semosavlianobaze. misi gaTvaliswineba saqonelmwarmoeblisaTvis gansakuTrebiT aucilebeli xdeba maSin, roca mis winaSea mravali alternativa da man unda gadawyvitos, romeli dargi (kultura) SearCios da ra raodenobis produqti awarmoos TiToeulisgan. amrigad, soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi prioritetuli mimarTulebebis gansazRvrisas mTeli yuradReba unda mieqces iseTi kulturebis (dargebis) warmoeba-ganviTarebas, romliTac SegveZleba `saqveyno da Sinaur vaWrobaSi Tavis gamoCena da ekonomikuri sargeblis miReba~ (i. WavWavaZe). ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTvelos soflis meurneobaSi stabiluri xasiaTis ukusvla aRiniSneba. pirvel yovlisa, es aris naTes-nargavi farTobebis da Sesabamisad soflis meurneobis produqciis warmoebis permanentuli Semcireba (miuxedavad amisa, statistikis erovnuli saagentos monacemebSi soflis meurneobis mTliani produqcia asaxulia mxolod mimdinare sabazro fasebSi da zrdis tempic sakmaod `STambeWdavia~), sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis dargobrivi struqturidan iseTi dargebisa da kulturebis gaqroba, romlebic ramdenime wlis winaT eqsportis sagans warmoadgenda, da sxva. yovelive aRniSnulma, ganapiroba sursaTis eqsportisa da importis moculobaTa zrdis tempebis mkveTri Seusabamoba da ZiriTadi sasursaTo produqtebiT qveynis mosaxleobis TviTuzrunvelyofis donis minimumamde Semcireba. 52


TiTqos paradoqsia, magram faqtia, rom dRes importul sursaTze moTxovnis permanentuli zrdisa da saqarTvelos sagadasaxdelo balansis ukiduresi daZabulobis pirobebSi, saqarTveloSi ar tardeba raime iseTi RonisZieba, romelic dargis ukusvlas SeaCerebs da agrarul warmoebas qveyanaSi ganviTarebis impulss miscems. dRes bevri saubrobs ruseTis bazris dabrunebis SesaZleblobaze, magram am SemTxvevaSic ki qarTulma produqtma SesaZloa verc fasiT da verc xarisxiT saTanado konkurencia ver gauwios ucxour analogebs, radgan isini maRali doniT subsidirebulia. rac Seexeba daucvel adgilobriv bazars, aq konkurencia axlo momavalSi kidev ufro gamwvavdeba, radgan infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba (gzebi, transportis simravle da a.S.) importul produqcias iolad SeRwevads gaxdis saqarTvelos yvela raionsa da Soreul soflebSic ki, rac adgilobriv agrowarmoebas kidev ufro mZime mdgomareobaSi Caayenebs. agrosasursaTo seqtori ufro daknindeba, qalaqebsa da samrewvelo centrebSi umuSevrobis maRali donis gamo, soflad TviTdasaqmebulebis did armias mxolod erTi gamosavali darCeba _ gaagrZelos iZulebiTi Sroma miwaze, romelic imdenad dabalmwarmoebluria, rom ver uzrunvelyofs Semosavlebs saarsebo minimumis donezec ki. amdenad, SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi umuSevrobisa da siRaribis ZiriTadi mizezi agraruli warmoebisadmi xelisuflebis uyuradRebo damokidebulebaa. TiTqos daujerebelia, magram faqtia, rom msoflios yvelaze ganviTarebuli qveynis aSS-is ekonomikuri siZlieris safuZvels sasoflo-sameurneo warmoeba warmoadgens. es arc unda iyos gasakviri, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT aqsiomatur debulebas imis Taobaze, rom qveyanas, romelsac gaaCnia ganviTarebuli soflis meurneoba, e.i. aqvs saTanado moTxovna sasoflo-sameurneo teqnikaze, mineralur sasuqebze, mcenareTa qimiuri dacvis saSualebebze, kombinirebul sakvebze da warmoebis sxva saSualebebze, romelTa miwodeba mrewvelobis Sesabamisma dargebma unda uzrunvelyos, anu soflis meurneobis ganviTareba obieqturad moiTxovs sxvadasxva momsaxure dargebis ganviTarebasac. meore mxriv _ ganviTarebuli soflis meurneoba uzrunvelyofs saWiro nedleuliT kvebisa da gadammuSavebeli mrewvelobis iseT sawarmoebs, rogoricaa Rvinisa da xil-bostneulis sakonservo qarxnebi, wisqvilkombinatebi, elevatorebi, Cais fabrikebi, xorcisa da rZis kombinatebi da sxva, romelTa mier warmoebul produqcias adgilobriv bazarze aqvs Sesabamisi moTxovna. amgvarad, ikvreba wredi _ agraruli produqciisa da nedleulis warmoeba, pirveladi samrewvelo gadamuSaveba da realizacia. aqedan gamomdinare, advili dasaTvlelia, ramdenad Semcirdeboda saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis done, ramdenad gaizrdeboda TiToeuli saxis sakvebi produqtebiT TviTuzrunvelyofis done da ra TanxiT Seumcirdeboda sursaTis importi qveyanas, rom moTxovnis adekvaturi racionaluri agraruli politika da normalurad funqcionirebadi agrosasursaTo seqtori gaaCndes. faqtia, rom isedac mciremiwian saqarTveloSi damuSavebas daqvemdebarebuli miwis TiTqmis naxevari dRes ar muSavdeba (mitovebulia) da agraruli produqciis warmoebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba erTi mesamediTac araa gamoyenebuli. ris gamoc izrdeba umuSevrobis done da qveynis sagadasaxdelo balansis deficiti. A aqedan daskvna: dRes saqarTvelos ara imdenad imis codna sWirdeba, romel raionsa Tu mxareSi sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis rogori specializaciaa, aramed imisa, sad rogori unda iyos is mudmivad cvlad sabazro garemoSi. bunebaSi mudmivi araferia da erTxel dadgenili specializaci53


ac ver iqneba mudmivi, miT ufro, Tu mas qveynis masStabiT sabWoTa periodSi miwaTmoqmedebisa da mecxoveleobis dargebis saqonlianobis done udevs safuZvlad. agrarul seqtorSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad aucilebelia, damuSavdes da amoqmeddes agrosasursaTo seqtoris aRorZinebis saxelmwifo miznobrivi programa, romelSic dargebis (kulturebis) ganviTareba grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi dafuZnebuli iqneba SefardebiTi upiratesobis principze. amasTan, vidre romelime dargze Tu kulturaze SevCerdebiT, saWiro iqneba Siga Tu gare sasursaTo bazris safuZvliani marketinguli Seswavla, anu dadgena imisa, ra miewodeba mas Warbad da ra produqtebzea SedarebiT deficiti. mas Semdeg, rac sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebi SeirCeva, saWiroa davadginoT, gveqneba Tu ara konkurentuli upiratesoba gamiznuli produqtebis warmoebaSi SedarebiT grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. am kuTxiT unda Sefasdes ara marto Cveni soflis meurneobis tradiciulad maprofilebeli dargebi, aramed iseTebic, romlebic dRemde CrdilSi arian moqceulni. am mimarTulebiT arCevani sakmaod mravalferovani iqneba. maT Soris moxvdeba iseTi kulturebi, rogoricaa: tungo, eTerzeTovani kulturebi, dafna, samkurnalo mcenareebi, gamSrali xil-bostneuli da a.S. dargis aRorZinebis saxelmwifo miznobriv programaSi personaluri midgomiT unda SeirCes eqsportze da importis Canacvlebaze orientirebuli dargebi, romelTac grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi SefardebiTi upiratesoba eqnebaT. yvela SemTxvevaSi aqcenti unda gakeTdes maRalxarisxovani da unikaluri Rvinoebis warmoebaze, rac Tavis mxriv maRalxarisxovani da unikaluri vazis jiSebis gamravlebas da Sesabamis zonebSi (mikrozonebSi) gaadgilebas moiTxovs. aseTive midgomiT unda iqnes ganxiluli meCaieoba, mexileoba, mebostneoba da sxva dargebi. mimaCnia, rom mxolod maRalxarisxovani produqtebis warmoeba (m.S. ekologiurad sufTa, organuli da unikaluri qarTuli endemuri kulturebi, sadac monopoliuri renta iqmneba _ saeqsportod) da Sesabamisi marketingi SeiZleba gaxdes adgilobrivi bazris dabrunebis da msoflio bazarze kuTvnili segmentis dakavebis garanti. amasTan erTad, gasaTvaliswinebelia msoflio sasursaTo bazris koniunqtura, sakveb produqtebze fasebis permanentuli zrda da sursaTiT TviTuzrunvelyofis garantiebic. sabednierod, saqarTvelos hava, niadagi da klimati bevri agrokulturisaTvis qmnis SefardebiTi upiratesobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi komponentis _ warmoebuli produqtis xarisxobriv parametrs, romlis gamoyeneba dRemde ver xerxdeba. SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis safuZvelze sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis dargobrivi struqturis modernizacia miuRebeli SeiZleba aRmoCndes mxolod maSin, Tu gaadgilebuli kulturis (Cai, xexili, marcvleuli da sxva) Canacvleba sxva kulturiT niadagur-klimaturi pirobebis gamo praqtikulad SeuZlebelia, agreTve saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, sadac miwis savarguls garda profiluri funqciisa sxva datvirTva gaaCnia (sasazRvro, mesazRvreTa sakvebiT uzrunvelyofa, mecxoveleobis ganviTareba, romelic mTianeTis aRorZinebisa da Tavdacvis upirvelesi pirobaa da a. S.). Tumca, arsebobs daumuSavebeli (mitovebuli, araprivatizebuli) farTobis didi odenoba, romelzedac SeiZleba aratradiciuli kulturebis gaadgileba. amaze naTlad metyvelebs kaxeTSi ukanasknel wlebSi fexmokidebuli iseTi kulturebi, rogoricaa: `venaxis atami~, Txili, baRCeuli, zeTisxili da sxva, romelTac SefardebiTi upiratesoba gaaCniaT (anu, maTi mepatroneebi warmoebis tradiciuli specializaciis SecvliT sxva Tanabar pirobebSi ufro met sargebels miiReben). 54


kargad mesmis, rom dRes arsebuli soflis meurneobis dargobrivi struqturis modernizacia SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis gaTvaliswinebiT erTbaSad SeuZlebelia, magram am mimarTulebiT moZraobis dawyeba, Cveni azriT, metad saWiro da gardauvali aucileblobaa. ra unda gakeTdes am kuTxiT sawyis etapze? ramdenadac saqarTvelos agraruli warmoebis safuZvels dReisTvis saojaxo meurneobebi warmoadgens, saWiroa maTTan kvalificiuri specialistebis mier saTanado axsnaganmartebiTi konsultaciebis Catareba, Tumca, gadamwyveti roli am saqmeSi, Cveni azriT, xelisuflebam unda Seasrulos. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs soflad individualur saqonelmwamoebelTa sxvadasxva mimarTulebis sasoflo kooperativebSi nebayoflobiTi gaerTianebis stimulireba, rac advilad miiRweva yvela qveyanaSi kooperativebisaTvis sagadasaxado da sxva SeRavaTebis dawesebis saSualebiT. Sromisa da warmoebis organizaciis progresuli samarTlebrivi formebis danergva soflad da aqtiuri saxelmwifo mxardaWera (maregulirebeli roli) Seqmnis Sesabamis pirobebs saqarTvelos agrowarmoebis dargobrivi struqturis modernizaciisaTvis SefardebiTi upiratesobis principisa da marketinguli moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

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Zurab Laliashvili Czech Republic. PHD Student of University of Economics, Prague

MANAGEMENT OF QUALIFIED LABOR RESOURCES MIGRATION FROM GEORGIA 1. INTRODUCTION

Migration is currently regarded between the mainly discussed themes of the 21st century. Approximately 192 million people, about 3% of world population, live elsewhere, than at the place of birth, and this number is constantly growing. For a better imagine, it's like a fifth most populous nation in the world. That’s why it’s natural, that this trend is reflecting the economic and social spheres of each state. Well-managed migration may be the benefit of countries, individuals and entire society. Many destination countries, traditionally have adopted a restrictive approach to migration because of fears of threats to the local wages and working conditions, or security and social problems. However, experience shows that migration has only a minimal negative impact on wages and employment in target countries1. For source countries is beneficial the positive impacts of remittances on: poverty reduction, foreign reserves and balance of payments. Furthermore benefit is, when migrants, after gaining knowledge and skills, are returning home temporary or for a long-term. Migration helps reduce unemployment and sectoral unemployment, also contributes to the emergence of new opportunities for the private sector. Respectively, the negative impact may be: the dependence of source country on the emigrants’ remittances, or the socalled: "brain drain" as a reason of outflow of skilled labor. In order to avoid these negative effects, it is necessary to manage migration in cooperation with source and destination countries. 2. Georgia Intensive emigration process from Georgia, took place since Soviet Union collapse, when Georgia and other south Caucasian countries gain independence from Union. For Georgia, the post soviet period begins with deep social-economical, political and demographic problems, two ethno-conflicts and civil war encouraged Georgian citizens to become IDP’s and part of them just emigrate to find better life abroad. There is no certain numbers of emigrants in the period of crises, but regarding to some researchers, till year 1996 almost million citizens emigrate from Georgia.2Most of them immigrate to Russian federation, because of: - Historical ties; - Geographical closeness; - "Open" borders; - A common transport infrastructure; - Psychological aspects (lack of language barrier, the former common territory). A big part of Georgian population live on remittances from their relatives working in Russian federation (retail, trade).When in year 2000, Russian federation implemented visa regime for Georgian citizens, the classic target countries for labor migration from Georgia became: Greece (construction and domestic work), Turkey (unskilled labor and erotic) and other Mediterranean countries (agricultural work in Spain and domestic work in Italy). A similar impact was, when Bulgaria implemented visa regime for the citizens of Georgia, who till 2001 traveled through Bulgaria without a visa to work in Greece and other European countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Switzerland, France, Netherlands and Belgium). But, when we are going to discuss emigration of qualified labor resources from Georgia, at first we must indicate who are to be considered as “qualified labor“?! The main criterion is education; qualification of workers depends more on the educational system of the state. Next criterion is a practice, which contributes to the level of qualification. The additional criterion may be knowledge of language of the receiving country, or the communicative level one of the international languages. Talking about education in Georgia in post-Soviet period, we should remember that Georgia's educational system was part of the Soviet Union’s, this explains the massive immigration of Georgians in the Rus1 2

World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2006 Tukhashvili M. “Migration of Georgian population”. Tbilisi: Lampara, 1996. (In Georgian)

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sian Federation, since 1990 up to 2000, including the qualified workers. But, Georgians also immigrate to other countries, where they have minimal opportunity to work by their qualification. Georgian educational system got worse, than it was before independence. Growing socio-economic crises had directly and strongly affected the educational system. The state budget for the sector in 1996 was only 5% of what it was in 1989 (in the Soviet period). The share of GDP on education in 1991 amounted to 8.2% in 1992 fell to 5.0% in 1996 - 1.3% in l997 it was 1.5% in 1998 - 1.4% and remained at 1.4% in 19991. Poverty and less than minimum funding of educational system, causes corruption grow in whole system, what meant: obtaining the high education diploma after bribing professors or high school seniors. Graduates lost trust in front of national employers. System disruption changed the existing stereotypes and also produced new demands. Many educated people, despite a significant proportion of highly skilled people among them, found themselves unprepared to carry out and intervene in solving urgent and vital socio-economical and political problems. This has led to the discrediting of education in the public eye. Many prominent scientists, who had contacts with Western research centers, went abroad to work. Some others founded private organizations and tried to attract international funds, or got down to a commercial business, often in less inspiring sector, which did not require any academic qualifications. So, as the main problem remained regressive changes in the structure of national economy and big errors in the functionality of educational system, which produced an unnecessary number of professionals on the labor market, without identifying demand and supply on it. During the crises, from 1989 to 1999, in Georgia the number of students increased 1.5 times, even when the economy did not demand them2. In such a situation in educational system, Georgia lost more than a decade, before starting any effective reform of the system and more than ten generations of students, who could contribute to the socio-economic development of the country. The real problem is what to do with diplomas or degrees obtained, if a person wants to pursue a career in the chosen field. Beside carried out reforms in educational system, the important role play economic reforms and development trends of the country. High unemployment, corruption, criminal threats and political instability are the most important factors pushing Georgian graduates, qualified labor forces, to selffulfillment in more developed countries, than Georgia. The probability of this view, I tried to found by my own research, by surveying qualified Georgian citizens in the Czech Republic. In whole, by the information of Georgian embassy in Czech Republic, lives 957 Georgians, with permanent residence 553 persons and the rest with temporary residence. But part of them did not match to my survey criteria’s or just did not respond to my enquiry. Despite of all barriers I successfully interviewed 100 respondents, who emigrated from Georgia between 1989 and 2009. Among respondents were 60% men and 40% women. Only 50% of the respondents were in a marital union and the other 50% were single. According to the age difference: 36% were between 21-30 years old, 32% between 31-40 years old, 18% between 41-50 years old and 14% elder then 50 years old. High school education had 100% of respondents. Professional qualifications: Economical -48%, Technical - 24%, Humanitarian 28%. Work experience by qualification before emigration had- 36% men and women 22%, were not experienced 42%. Purpose of visa gaining: students visa - 36% and business visa - 23%, family unification 13%, better job seeking and improvement of social life conditions-28%. Work experience in Czech Republic: temporary, so called – “brigades” had 62%, by qualifications 36%. On question: if in foreseeable future (1.5 -2 years) were intending to return to homeland? Answer was: YES - 24% and NO-76%. After careful analysis of the data, I discovered a very interesting case and the trend of emigration of qualified labor resources from Georgia. As it shows, numbers of emigrants decrease by increasing the age of them, what points on the fact that people are emigrating in economical and productive age. That means “nation aging”. The situation is getting worse, because of the 50% of unmarried emigrants, who have minimal obligation to return to homeland. 1 2

Human Development Report: for Georgia. UNDP, Tbilisi. Yearbook 1995-2001 Mirian Tuxashvili „Migration“Tbilisi 2008. p. 8

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As it shows, nearly half of the emigrants have an economist qualification and only half of those qualified economists were able to employ by qualification, in Georgia; and others were employed not by qualification, or even remain unemployed. It can be assumed that in Georgia, supply of economists on the labor market is excessive and the competition is high, leading to a reduction in wages. This hypothesis, in addition to my research, is verified by the other Georgian labor market researchers. By my survey: in Georgia, by qualification, were employed 58% of the emigrants and after emigration, the work experience by qualification, in Czech republic had only 36% of emigrants. But those 62% (2% stated that they were not employed in Czech Republic, after emigration) were employed not by their qualification. In such a situation, the number of emigrants (76%), who don’t want to return to homeland , indirectly indicates that the Georgian professionals prefer to work abroad, not by qualification, but on a high wage, rather than by qualification and on a low wage in homeland (the phenomenon of poor workers). This tendency did not surprise me and I got down defining the reasons and factors causing such a decision of migrants. I think the first factor is immigrants’ arrival period in Czech Republic. After the Soviet Union collapse and economic crises, the largest stream of emigrants from Georgia took direction to Russia, some of not ethnic Georgians left for their countries of origin (Greeks, Jews, Armenians, and Russians). By my survey, in 2001-2009 inflow of Georgian immigrants in Czech Republic increases more then 40%, because of internal and external economic and political instability. The second factor is the socio-economic stability of the Czech Republic. 98% of the respondents were employed in the Czech Republic, among them only 36% worked by qualification. Over years they have been long term or permanently employed and motivated by efficient income, but in the case of returning to Georgia, their integration and job seeking process could be long and painful. As a third factor can be considered the fact, that many skilled emigrants invest so much money, time and effort in their personal human capital, that Georgia's job market does not appear advantageous for their self-fulfillment. Here, I described one of the forms of brain drain from Georgia, but legal emigration is not the only way of outflow of skilled workers from the state. For qualified workers, there are many “push-pull” factors for migration, as from abroad so in homeland. The question is, if the Georgian government, at present socioeconomic, political tenses and with high unemployment, considers emigration, and especially the emigration of qualified workers, as a problem? Actually, Georgian government is paying attention, and by support of international organizations, he tries to control, regulate and manage the migration process. But the problem is complex and need a comprehensive approach. Government consider whether: to force their emigrant citizens to return to Georgia, and thereby increase social-economic tension, or do not control emigration and continue orienting national economy on remitting investments. After long consultations with foreign and international organizations, appeared the solution. As the government is aware, that for development of national economy and social stability is important big investments and also foreign remittances from Georgian Diaspora. Therefore the government decided to create (in 2008) a position of Minister for deepening relations with Georgian Diaspora abroad and called him: “State Minister of Georgia on Diaspora Issues”. This governmental apparatus from the beginning, via the Georgian Embassy, were gathering data on the Diaspora. And today he already starts realizing, with the Ministry of Economic Development, the project named:" return to Georgia". In frame of the project, in 2010, 17-19 of May, was held a business tour for Georgian businessmen, from abroad, to present them investment environment and its prospects in Georgia. With the Project "return to Georgia" and the business tour, Georgian government effort to attract foreign investors with Georgian origin. Another project is in cooperation with Ministry of Education, by which, both government agencies are financing Georgian weekend schools abroad. The project also developed and supplied study program to weekend schools abroad, in consistent with national schooling. Also provide all schoolbooks in Georgian. Regarding to qualified workers, who are the leading factors for national economy development, government chose complex way of solving problem. First, he tries to find the necessary qualified workers abroad 58


(through the negotiation with the apparatus of the Diaspora) and give them motivation for moving to Georgia (offer them motivating working conditions). For such cases, government made a change in the constitution and allowed the dual citizenship only after the president of Georgia’s confirmation. But for growing economy, to fill a demand, it is not enough qualified labor resources, attracted by Diaspora ministry. So the revolutionary reforms in the education system could not meet the growing demand for skilled labor too. Therefore, by the initiation of President in 2005, was created, a state funding, Master studying program for Georgian citizens in foreign universities. Under this program, about 400 Georgian students have studied abroad in leading universities. If we look at the Table N1; we’ll see the increasing tendency of funding the program. It means, that in spite of deep crises in Georgia since 2008 till present, government rapidly increased budgeting program for producing high skilled professionals for national job market. But unfortunately, not all the graduates of the program were employed as it was intended by program, after they return to homeland. Researching the problem of Georgia, made me to find any developed country who had the similar past, but successful present in migration regulation, in and out of the country. By my point of view, this is Czech Republic, the country which was occupied by Soviet Union (1968-1989); borders were closed and controlled, had socialism (planned economy) and totally were depend on Moscow decisions. Czech Republic managed to get free from Russian occupation, transform his economy and became the member of powerful union, European Union. Of cause being member of EU brought a lot of wellness to Czech Republic, but by opening borders with other more developed countries of union, he faced to the problem of brain drain. Even today, Czech Republic is fighting with problem of Brain drain, but during transformation period from developing to developed country, he has used lot of strategies and programs against emigration and especially brain drain. Table N1

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Czech Republic is actively supporting Georgia in managing its borders, migration and unemployment problems. Following Czech experience, Georgia must explore its labor market, make parallels to economic development, make data base of unemployed labor resources and data base of employers on national market, and create the upgrade system of supply and demand on national labor market. The main aim of reforms is to develop national labor market in cooperation with national economy and not separately. But unfortunately Georgia is still struggling economically and there are partly external forces to be blamed. 3. Conclusion As we see, a problem of brain drain from Georgia is indicated and its solutions are under intensive consideration. But all above mentioned projects and programs will be useless, if economical and investment 59


environment won’t improve, which is the main factor for creating job places and decreasing unemployment in the country. Of course, the socio-economical and political stability depends also on external factors. Georgia, because of its strategic geopolitical placement is involved in global geopolitical war. Unfortunately the core warrior in this war is Russian federation, the Georgia’s north neighbor, who is the main energy resources supplier in to Europe. Europe, on his hand is trying to release from dependence on Russia monopoly and is diversifying ways of energy supply from central Asia to Europe. Georgia is already a transit country of such pipelines and is considered as transistor of additional pipeline named “NABUCO” (main competitor to Russian alternative “NORTH STREAM”). The next factor is Georgia’s wish to join “NATO”. Russian federation sees this against its national security, and always declares that he will never let Georgia to join NATO and he proved his declaration by occupying two rebel regions of Georgia in August 2008. But fortunately, because of his geopolitical situation Georgia have “friends” also. EU and USA are strongly supporting him to become stabile and developed country in order to fulfill their strategic plans, whose realization mostly depend on stability of Georgia. Soon after a brief war with Russia, EU and Georgia, in the frame of project "Eastern Partnership", signed an agreement on readmission and constructive cooperation in the field of migration regulation, in order to facilitate the visa regime between EU and Georgia. This fact shows that Georgia is not restricting emigration of their labor resources, even more he supports their international mobility. Government understood that the regulated legal emigration is an excellent tool for reducing socio-economic tensions by loosing unnecessary labor resources and increase inflow of foreign money in the state. But from my point of view, this strategy could make Georgia on remittance depended country. Georgia has to generate national migration concept or policy, what is not so easy. For such a national policy should be modified complex of laws and legislative norms; Even more, most important part for creating such policy is full research of national labor market and creation of professions demand and supply prognoses system, this kind of system allow Georgian education system to produce just demanded professionals on the Georgian labor market. According to my research and the experiences of developed countries, for solving the problem of brain drain from Georgia, government should begin by creation of: 1. national strategy of economy development 2. national strategy of human resources development, oriented on realization of “national strategy of economy development” 3. national migration strategy, oriented on realization of “national strategy of human resources development” and “national strategy of economy development” This is the brief conclusion of mine, which is hard to fulfill, but necessary for development of Georgia. REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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Human Development Report: for Georgia. UNDP, Tbilisi. Yearbook 1995-2001 M. Tukhashvili “Migration of Georgian population”. Tbilisi: Lampara, 1996. (In Georgian) Mirian Tuxashvili „Migration“Tbilisi 2008. World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2006.(http://go.worldbank.org/0G6XW1UPP0) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=62 http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_04_01.htm https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html www.doingbusiness.org


eka lekaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebis Tanamedrove midgomebi umaRles saganamanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi (estoneTis magaliTze) Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTareba globalizaciis tendenciis daCqarebis erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebi ara marto drosa da sivrceSi komunikaciis xelSemwyobi saSualebaa, aramed warmatebiT gamoiyeneba biznesSi, marTvaSi, arqiteqturasa da dizainSi, jandacvaSi, sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis mraval sferoSi da, maT Soris, ganaTlebis sistemaSic. ganviTarebul qveynebSi strategia orientirdeba Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis codnasa da gamoyenebaze ganaTlebis miRebis yvela safexurze. msoflio bazarze lideris poziciis SenarCuneba da mZafr konkurenciaSi warmatebis miRweva warmoudgenelia inovaciuri teqnologiebis gareSe. imisaTvis, rom wamyvani qveynebis miRwevebis aqtualoba gaviTavisoT, aucilebelia maTi gamocdilebis Seswavla da gaTvaliswineba Cvens samoqmedo gegmebsa da strategiebSi. estoneTi warmatebuli reformebisa da winsvlis sanimuSo magaliTia aRmosavleT evropis im qveynebs Soris, romlebic amJamad evrokavSiris wevr saxelmwifoebad warmogvidgebian. aRmosavleTis aRmosavleTTan partniorobis programa, romelic estoneTis Ria fondis mier xorcieldeba, warmoadgens evrokavSirTan saqarTvelos da sxva evrokavSiris arawevri yofili sabWoTa sistemis saxelmwifoTa integraciis daCqarebis xelSemwyob programas, radganac misi orientirebi mimarTulia everokavSiris wevri aRmosavleT evropuli saxelmwifoebis gamocdilebis gaziarebisa da danergvisken. aRniSnuli programis farglebSi dafinansda proeqti ,,Cooperaton and exchanging best Practices in the Fields of Innovation and E-Learning in the Higher Education of Estonia and Georgia“. Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi gamoyeneba gulisxmobs aRniSnuli inovaciebis danergvas ara marto saswavlo kursebis saxiT, aramed swavlis meTodis saxiT. Tanamedrove sainformaciosakomunikacio saSualebebi inovaciuri saganmanaTleblo meTodebis mravalferovani arCevanis saSualebas gvaZlevs. aRniSnuli meTodebis efeqtianobis gacnobas da gamocdilebis gaziarebas emsaxureba zemoTwarmodgenili proeqtis ganxorcieleba. Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebas saswavlo procesSi meTodis saxiT eleqtronul swavlebas (e-Learning) uwodeben. eleqtronuli swavlebis estoneTis gamocdilebis Seswavlis mizniT, saqarTvelos 4 universitetidan, romelTa Soris iyvnen iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis, goris saxelmwifo universitetis, Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis da baTumis SoTa rusTavelis universitetis warmomadgenlebi, proeqtis ,,Cooperaton and exchanging best Practices in the Fields of Innovation and E-Learning in the Higher Education of Estonia and Georgia“ farglebSi 2010 wlis 8-dan 15 noembramde saswavlo vizitiT vimyofebodiT estoneTSi. maspinZeli universitetebis – talinis, tartus da talinis teqnologiur universitetebTan erTad, qarTvel stumrebs eleq61


tronuli swavlebis Sesaxeb gamocdileba gauziares estoneTis sainformacio teqnologiebis fondis, haafsalus kolejis, tartus universitetis, Ria sauniversiteto centris, estoneTis umaRlesi ganaTlebis xarisxis saagentos warmomadgenlebma. proeqtis mxardaWera ganxorcielda estoneTis Ria fondis mier aRmosavleT-aRmosavleT programis finansuri mxardaWeriT. Tanamedrove pirobebSi estoneTSi eleqtronuli swavlebis aqtualizaciis Sedegad Seiqmna estoneTis sainformacio teqnologiebis fondi, romlis mTavari mizanic aris estoneTis universitetebisa da kolejebis sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis uzrunvelyofa swavlebaSi, kvlevasa da ganviTarebaSi. fondis mizania estoneTis universitetebsa da kompaniebs Soris TanamSromlobis gaZliereba; eleqtronuli swavlebis, veb-ze dafuZnebuli swavlebis iniciativebisTvis xelSewyoba. am mizniT estoneTSi 2003 wels Seiqmna eleqtronuli universiteti, romelSic 8 estonuri universiteti gaerTianda. eleqtronuli univesitetis saqmianoba mimarTulia akademiuri personalis treningisa da mxardaWerisken; eleqtronuli swavlebis Sinaarsis ganviTarebisken; eleqtronuli swavlebisTvis infrastruqturis gaumjobesebisken; universitetTaSoriso TanamSromlobis ganviTarebisken. universitetebSi akademiuri personalis treningis da mxardaWeris uzrunvelsayofad, Tavdapirvel etapze xorcieldeba personalis ranJireba sainformacio tenologiebis codnis donis mixedviT, radgan zogierT SemTxvevaSi SedegebSi vlindeba sabaziso codnis done, zogjer _ mowinave, zogjer ki eqspertuli done. TiToeuli ki individualur midgomas da programul dones moiTxovs akademiuri personalis kvalifikaciis Semdgomi srulyofisa da ganviTarebisTvis. amasTan, Camoyalibda axali interdisciplinaruli programa ,,saganmanaTleblo teqnologiebi~, romlis safuZvelzec Tavdapirvelad momzadda 53 saganmanaTleblo teqnologiis specialisti. aRniSnuli specializacia Tavis TavSi aerTianebs sainformacio tenologiebis da saganamanaTleblo-pedagogiuri codnis mimarTulebebs. saganamanaTleblo teqnologi siRrmiseulad flobs codnas Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio saSualebebis meSveobiT swavlebis da swavlis meTodebis da formebis SemuSavebisa da danergvis Sesaxeb. saganamanTleblo teqnologiis specialistebi axorcieleben pedagogiuri personalis gadamzadebas, satreningo masalebis da hendauTebis mozadebas, Tematuri kavSirebis uzrunvelyofas da a.S. amJamad estoneTSi momzadebulia 4800 saswavlo eleqtronuli kursi, romelsac 90 000 momxmarebeli hyavs. eleqtronuli swavlebis infrastruqturis uzrunvelofa emyareba IVA, WebCT VISTA, Moodle programul uzrunvelyofas da videokonferenciebis sistemas. universitetTaSorisi TanamSromloba moicavs virtualur mobilobas; Tematur kavSirebs da erovnul da saerTaSoriso eleqtronuli swavlebis programebSi erTobliv monawileobas. eleqtronuli swavlebis meTodiT sargeblobas aqvs dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi. am meTodis sasargeblod unda iTqvas, rom igi amartivebs erToblivi saswavlo programebis ganxorcielebas, gansakuTrebiT samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis SemTxvevaSi; xels uwyobs distanciur swavlebaze gadasvlas; amartivebs da aCqarebs saganmanTleblo dawesebulebebis internacionalizacias; exmareba gacvliT programebSi monawile studentebs im ZiriTadi programuli sagnebis aTvisebasa da daZlevaSi, romelsac ver sTavazoben maspinZel universitetebSi; eleqtronuli sas62


wavlo kursebis arseboba nabeWdi saswavlo masalebis da saxelmZRvaneloebis Seucvleli alternativaa, romelic nakleb danaxarjebs ukavSirdeba da yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomia. rogorc wesi, saswavlo kursebis saxelmZRvaneloebis gamocemebis ganaxleba yovelwliurad mimdinareobs. amasTan, umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebs ar gaaCniaT SesaZleblobebi sakmarisi raodenobis saxelmZRvaneloebis SesaZenad. amitomac, eleqtronuli swavleba iZleva saswavlo masalebTan wvdomis SesaZleblobas. eleqtronul saswavlo kursebSi sistematizirebulad, silabusis Seesabamisad warmodgenilia saswavlo masalebi, amocanebi, prezentaciebi, qvizebi, testebi, damatebiTi saswavlo video da audio masala. aRsaniSnavia, rom video da audio masala SesaZlebelia moicavdes ara marto leqciebis Canawerebs, aramed praqtikuli saqmianobis aRweras da Canawerebs (magaliTad, Cawerili iyos calkeuli laboratoriuli samuSao, operacia, sawarmoo teqnologia, moqmedeba da a.S). talinis teqnologiur universitetSi sadoqtoro programebis 15 % efuZneba eleqtronul swavlebas, Tumca 2015 wlisTvis yvela sadoqtoro programa unda iyos eleqtronul swavlebaze damyarebuli. amasTan, 4-jer gaizarda distanciuri swavlebis kursebis momxmarebelTa raodenoba, radgan studentebis didi nawili muSaobs da isini ver axerxeben saauditoro leqciebze daswrebas. registraciisas studenti afiqsirebs eleqtronuli swavlebis formas irCevs, Tu klasikuri tipis saauditorio swavlebas. izrdeba ucxoeli, estoneTis ararezidenti studentebis raodenoba. ra Tqma unda, eleqtronul swavlebaze gadasvla didi danaxarjebs moiTxovs. mxolod akademiuri personalis eleqtronuli swavlebis meTodebis dauflebis mizniT evropis struqturulma fondma 1 milioni evro gamoyo, romelic aTvisebul iqna 2010 wlisTvis. Camoyalibda proeqtis organizaciis klasteri; Seiqmna da moqmedebs eleqtronuli swavlebis qseli; dainerga eleqtronuli swavlebis miRwevebi savarjiSoebisa da laboratoriul samuSaoebis formiT; gaumjobesda eleqtronuli swavlebis xarisxis sistema da universitetebis swavlebis sistemis regulaciebi; Camoyalibda eleqtronuli swavlebis motivaciis sistema. estoneTSi eleqtronuli swavlebisTvis SemuSavda erovnuli standartebi, aseve, monitoringis sistema eleqtronuli swavelbis standartebisTvis; umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi dainerga eleqtronuli swavlebis mxardamWeri organizaciuli kultura. praqtikuli nabijebi gadaidga akademiuri personalis kvalifikaciis asamaRleblad eleqtronuli swavlebis kursebis SemuSavebis dawyebamde. kerZod, SemuSavda eleqtronuli swavlebis koncefcia, daiwyo eleqtronuli kursebis Camoyalibeba, ganisazRvra Seswavlis obieqtebi; SerCeul iqna specialuri programebi (Macromedia Flash; Adobe Photoshop and ect.). eleqtronuli kursebis Seswavlis obieqtebs gansazRvraven leqtorebi, xolo eleqtronuli swavlebis specialistebi maT exmarebian kursebis SemuSavebaSi. amasTan isini akademiur personals awvdian im siaxleebs, romelsac iReben estoneTis eleqtronuli swavlebis qselis meSveobiT. eleqtronuli saswavlo kursebis SemuSaveba xorcieldeba Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi dokumentebis safuZvelze. eleqtronuli swavlebis kursebi mniSvnelovania swavlebisa da swavlis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis Sefasebis mizniT: SesaZlebelia im masalis gacnoba, romelsac profesori gadascems studentebs leqciaze, ramdenad orientirebulia warmodgenili saswavlo masala Sedegis miRwevaze. eleqtronuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis safuZvelze estoneTSi Seqmnilia erTiani akademiuri qseli, romelSic yvela mecnieri or (estonur da inglisur) enaze aTavsebs Tavis samecniero kvlevebs da naSromebs. es SesaZlebels xdis, ufro metad 63


iyos daculi saavtoro uflebebi, amaRldes gamWirvalobis xarisxi, kvlevis xarisxi, mkvlevarTa internacionalizaciis done, kvleviTi naSromebis xelmisawvdomoba. eleqtronuli swavlebiT daZleulia studentebis mxridan gacdenebis Sedegebis mniSvnelovani nawili. amasTan, saauditoro swavlebisas studentebi gansxvavdebian saswavlo masalebis aTvisebis gansxvavebuli tempiT; maT aqvT codnis gansxvavebuli done da, Sesabamisad, pirdapiri (Face to Face) leqciis SemTxvevaSi, es gansxvaveba ufro izrdeba; studentebs swavlis gansxvevbuli stili gaaCniaT, Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli swavleba maT swavlebis mravalferovani meTodebis arCevis saSualebas aZlevs xangrZlivad gansazRvruli drois monakveTsa da sivrceSi. eleqtronuli swavlebis saswavlo kursebi estoneTis umaRlesi ganaTlebis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis centrSi imave reJimSi fasdeba, rogorc Cveulebrivi saswavlo kursebi, Tumca umaRlesi saswavlebelebis TviTSefasebisTvis da instituciuri akreditaciisTvis aucilebelia mieTiTos, ramdeni eleqtronuli saswavlo kursi moqmdebs umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebaSi. aRniSnuli metyvelebs umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi inovaciuri teqnologiebis meTodebisa da teqnologiebis danergvaze da zemoTCamoTvlil dadebiT efeqtebze. Tavis mxriv, eleqtronuli saswavlo kursebis SemuSavebis, organizebis da sworad marTvisTvis aucilebelia Sesabamisi infrastruqtura da internetis miwodebis maRali da uwyveti xarisxi, rac estoneTSi muSaobs. amasTan, ra Tqma unda, eleqtronuli swavlebis kursebi ver Secvlis im efeqts, romelic pirdapiri saxiT leqciis wakiTxvisas arsebobs: eleqtronuli saswavlo kurebis ganxorcieleba gamarTlebulia patara KjgufebSi. estoneTis gamocdilebam gviCvena, rom Tanamedrove konkurenciis moTxovnebis sapasuxod, saqarTvelos umaRles saganmanaTleblo sivrceSic unda daiwyos mzadeba eleqtronuli saswavlo kursebis SemuSavebasTan dakavSirebiT. codnis sazogadoebaSi, globalizaciis pirobebSi mcire qveynis integrirebis yvelaze efeqtiani gza codnasa da teqnologiebze gadis. mimdinare etapze ki, unda SevZloT Sereuli kursebis (igulisxmeba swavlebis klasikuri, saauditoro da eleqtronuli) swavlebis formis aqtualizacia. paralelurad unda Catardes umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi eleqtronuli swavlebis danergvis garemos kvleva, romlis Sedegebis mixedviTac unda SemuSavdes saqarTvelos umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi eleqtronuli swavlebis strategia da samoqmedo gegma. strategia unda daefuZnos Sesabamis sakanonmdeblo bazas, rac gamoiwvevs garkveul sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebs arsebul kanonmdeblobaSi. eleqtronul swavlebasTan dakavSirebiT saqarTveloSi umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebis koordinirebuli saqmianobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT mizanSewonilia sauniversiteto gaerTianebis Camoyalibeba, romelic gaaerTianebs instituciebs konkretuli sxvadasxvaxarisxovani amocanebis gadawyvetis gzebis ZiebaSi.

gamoyenebuli sainformacio resurebi da masalebi: http://www.e-pe.ee/en/ http://htk.ttu.ee/ http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/ http://www.intopractise.eu/eng/

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maia margvelaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

turizmis swavleba globalizebul msoflioSi globalizaciam da msoflioSi bolo aTwleulis politikurma da ekonomikurma cvlilebebma ekonomikis yvela seqtorze iqonia met-naklebi zegavlena. turizmmac ganicada Rrma struqturuli cvlilebebi. am procesebma moiTxova gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis gamaxvileba turizmis seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa da maTi Sromis nayofierebis urTierTkavSirze. dargSi dasaqmebulis unari Seesatyvisebodes axal moTxovnebs, sul ufro metad xdeba damokidebuli misi momzadebis doneze. es marTebulia yvela ekonomikuri seqtorisaTvis, magram gansakuTrebiT exeba turizms. amgvarad, saWiro gaxda turizmis sferoSi ganaTlebis rolis gadaxedva. aucilebeli gaxda turistul saqmianobaSi adamianuri resursebis udidesi mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswineba. naTeli gaxda, rom SeuZlebelia seqtoris balansirebul ganviTarebaze, an xarisxis amaRlebaze fiqri, Tu ar iqneba mimarTuli Zalisxmeva personalis momzadebaze. adamianuri resursebis momzadebis xarisxi sul ufro da ufro metad xdeba ekonomikuri Sedegebisa da saqmianobis konkurentunarianobis ganmsazRvreli1. seqtorisa Tu firmis konkurentunarianobis uzrunvelyofa damokidebulia bazris perspeqtivis xedvis SesaZleblobasa da adekvatur teqnologiur siaxleTa gamoyenebaze, rac Tavis mxriv, damokidebulia personalis momzadebaze. aman saWiro gaxada ganviTarebuli da mTliani saganmanaTleblo-mosamzadebeli sistemis Seqmna, romelic orientirebuli iqneboda turizmis seqtoris mudmiv ganviTarebaze da totaluri xarisxis miRwevaze. turizmis seqtoris xarisxi udideswilad damokidebulia adamianuri resursebis kvalifikaciasa da axali teqnologiebis aTvisebis unarze, aseve, axali organizaciuli procesebisa da formebis gamoyenebaze. ase, rom seqtorSi totaluri xarisxis problema ganuyofelia ganaTlebis xarisxisagan. arc Tu Soreul warsulSi, Tu adamiani iRebda garkveul ganaTlebas, amiT ganisazRvreboda misi profesia, karieris saSualeba da sazogadoebrivi mdgomareoba. amJamad, aseTi situacia warsuls bardeba da adgils uTmobs ufro arastabilur da gauTvaliswinebel viTarebas, rodesac Tavdapirveli momzadeba da ganaTleba ukve arasakmarisia mTeli profesiuli cxovrebis manZilze. es situacia aisaxeba adamianTa sam did jgufze: 1. asakovani adamianebi teqnikuri an umaRlesi ganaTlebiT; 2. Tanamedrove studentebi; 3. arakvalificiuri personali. yvela maTgans exeba saerTo problema – profesiuli ganviTarebis problema. saerTod, dasaqmebulTa raodenoba turizmis ekonomikaSi msoflios masStabiT 2009 wlisaTvis Seadgenda 219 mln adamiani (mTliani dasaqmebis 7,6%), anu yove1

“Human Capital in the Tourism Industry of the 21th Century” – Eduardo Fayos-Sola, WTO Tourism Education and Training Series, Madrid, Spain, 1997, p.27.

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li 13 dasaqmebulidan erTi turizmis ekonomikaSia dasaqmebuli. xolo uSualod turizmis industriaSi dasaqmebulia – 77,3 mln-s (mTliani dasaqmebis 2,7%). maT Soris: CineTSi 18,0 mln adamiani, indoeTSi – 12,8 mln, xolo aSS-Si – 5,1 mln adamiani1. viskonsinis universitetis (aSS) profesor jafar jafaris2 mier SemoTavazebuli diagramis mixedviT (diagrama 1), turizmSi dasaqmebuli personali qmnis piramidas, romelSic: menejerebis, administratorebisa da xelmZRvanelebis mcire jgufi ikavebs piramidis wvers (kenweros). ufro farToa saSualo da zedamxedveli personalis jgufi piramidis Sua nawilSi da Zalian farToa naklebad-kvalificiuri da arakvalificiuri personalis jgufi piramidis ZirSi. diagrama aCvenebs, rom piramidis wverisa da Ziris poziciebi erTmaneTis mimarT kontrastulia da amgvarad, erTi maTganis komentirebisas – meoresac eZleva daxasiaTeba. turizmis bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT, piramidis wverSi mdebare kadrebis ganaTleba warmodgenilia vertikaluri svetebis pirveli (marcxena) jgufiT, romelic Sesrulebulia kargad gamokveTili multi-disciplinuri kurikulumebiT. aseTi programebi SemuSavebulia sazogadoebrivi da kerZo struqturebis moqmed Tu momaval mmarTvelTaTvis turizmis industriis mraval seqtors Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis, maTSi cvlilebebisa da tendenciebis Sesaxeb codnis aucileblobis gaTvaliswinebiT. sapirispirod amisa, vertikaluri svetebis meore jgufi (Sua), romelic viwrovdeba wverisaken, aCvenebs imas, rom piramidis ZirSi myofi personalis amocanebi limitirebulia da Semoifargleba maTi samsaxureobrivi movaleobebiT. diagrama, aseve, gamoxatavs kategoriul gansxvavebas piramidis wversa da mis ZirSi ganlagebul jgufebs Soris. magaliTad, maRali eSelonebisaTvis Seqmnili kurikulumi unda iTvaliswinebdes `konceptualuri azrovnebis~ unaris aRzrdas Sesabamis multi-disciplinur konteqstSi. xolo, piramidis ZirSi ganTavsebuli jgufisaTvis SemuSavebuli programebi unda iTvaliswinebdes maTTvis `teqnikuri unar-Cvevebis~ gadacemas. diagramis vertikaluri svetebis mesame (marjvena) jgufis araswori forma damokidebulia imaze, rom piramidis samive nawilSi ganTavsebulia personali, romelic uSualo kontaqtSia turistebTan (e.w. `wina xazis muSakebi~). naTelia, rom `wina xazis~ funqciebis gansaxorcieleblad es kontingenti saWiroebs damatebiT codnasa da unar-Cvevebs. es svetebi ar viwrovdeba arc zeviT da arc qveviT, magram maTi sisqis cvalebadoba piramidis mTel sigrZeze – gamowveulia personalis metnaklebi kontaqtebiT turistebTan. profesor jafar jafaris am diagramis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli gaxda mTeli rigi saganmanaTleblo da profesiuli momzadebis modelebis SemuSaveba, romlebic amJamad, ama Tu im formiT moqmedebaSi arian mTeli msoflios masStabiT.

1

“Travel and Tourism Economic Impact”- Executive Summary, WTTC, 2009 – www.wttc.org Professor Jafar Jafari – Editor-in-Chief of Annals of Tourism Research; Chief Editor of Tourism Social Science Series; Chief Editor of encyclopedia of Tourism; and Co-Founding President of International Academy for the Study of Tourism – “tedQual”, WTO.Themis Publication, #5, 1/2002, p.34.

3

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diagrama 1

gamoyofen 12 ZiriTad models. marTalia, es modelebi araa yovlismomcveli, magram isini gamoiyenebian rogorc calcalke, ise erTmaneTTan kombinaciaSi.4 1. samuSao adgilze swavlebis modeli (The In-House Model), romelic bizness sTavazobs TanamSromlebis profesiul momzadebas biznesis specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT samuSaodan mouwyvetlad; 2. saSualo-saganmanaTleblo skolis modeli (The High School Model), rac bolo wlebSi ganviTarda da sTavazobs axalgazrdebs profesiul momzadebas ukve skolidan, raTa amiT gaRvivdes axalgazrdebSi interesi turizmis biznesisadmi; 3. profesiuli asociaciis modeli (The Trade Association Model). zogierTi profesiuli asociacia afarToebs Tavis funqciebs da sTavazobs profesiul momzadebaganaTlebas Tavis wevrebs, rogorc xerxs asociaciaSi gasawevrianeblad; 4. TviTmyofadi modeli (The Self-Contained Model), rac warmoadgens tradiciul saskolo an kolejis programas, romelic sTavazobs zogad an profesiul momzadeba-ganaTlebis programebs iseT sferoSi, rogoricaa sastumros an restornis programebi; 5. fakultetze darTuli modeli (The Department Add-On Model), romlis programebi, mcire specializebuli kursis formiT, iqmneba tradiciul sauniversiteto fakultetebze, romlebic sTavazoben damatebiT swavlebas turizmis menejmentSi, ekonomikaSi, anTropologiaSi da sxv.; 4

Tourism Education and Training Models – “tedQual”, WTO.Themis Publication, #5, 1/2002, p.29.

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6. farTo saswavlo bazis mqone modeli (The Campus-Wide Model). zogi universiteti acnobierebs turizmis segmentis mniSvnelobas, magram ara aqvs resursi am sferoSi saTanado donis programis gansaxorcieleblad. amitom monaTesave dargebis fakultetebidan moizideba aRniSnuli resursebi, rac mogvianebiT uzrunvelyofs axali realuri programis Seqmnas. 7. finuri modeli (The Finland Model), romelic programis erToblivad Seqmnis mizniT moicavs mTel qveyanas. Ees modeli cnobilia, rogorc turizmis swavlebis finuri sauniversiteto qseli (FUNTS); 8. sxva qveynebSi swavlebis modeli (The Overseas Model). qveynebi, romlebsac ara aqvT Seqmnili raime saxeobis programa, turizmSi xedaven TavianTi studentebis profesiuli momzadeba-ganaTlebis SesaZleblobas sxva qveynebSi, romelTac kargad momzadebuli programebi aqvT am sferoSi; 9. iranuli modeli (The Iran Model). qveynebisaTvis, romelTac gaaCniaT SezRuduli saganmanaTleblo SesaZleblobebi maRali xarisxis programis SesaTavazeblad turizmSi, kargi SesaZleblobaa romelime ucxour universitetTan SeTanxmeba am universitetis programebisa da profesuris gamosayeneblad Tavisi studentebis mosamzadeblad. Aam models ewodeba iranuli modeli, radgan am qveyanam turizmSi ganaTlebis sferoSi daamyara ormxrivi urTierToba britanul universitetTan. Aam ukanasknelma SesTavaza sakuTari bakalavriatis programiT swavlebis organizeba da Catareba TeiranSi, ris gamoc iranel studentebs aRar uxdebaT saswavleblad did britaneTSi Casvla; 10. regionuli modeli (The Regional Model), roca rigi mezobeli qveyana aerTianebs Zalebs mTels regionSi (mag: amierkavkasiis regioni an sxv.) turizmis ganaTlebaprofesiuli momzadebis programebis Sedgena-ganxorcielebisaTvis; 11. CrdiloeT-samxreTis modeli (The North-South Model) regionulis analogiuria, magram gamoiyeneba gansxvavebuli miznebiT. AaseTi TanamSromloba damyarebulia, magaliTad, fineTs, SvedeTsa da espaneTs Soris, magram msgavsi ram SesaZloa dainergos sxvaganac, analogiuri an gansxvavebuli miznebiT; 12. msoflio turizmis organizaciis (saxemwifoebis samTavrobo organizaciaTa gaerTianeba) modeli (The WTO Model) ganixilavs turizmSi warmatebul ganaTlebamomzadebas, rogorc dainteresebul mxareebs Soris partnioruli saqmianobis Sedegs: (a)dainteresebuli partniori (erovnuli-regionuli-adgilobrivi mTavroba, turistuli daniSnulebis adgilebi, kerZo sawarmoebi, an maTi kombinacia); (b) aRmasrulebeli partniori (mto-s ganaTlebis sabWoSi gaerTianebuli ganaTlebis, profesiuli momzadebis Tu kvleviTi institutebi); da (g) strategiuli partniori (mto-s adamianuri resursebis ganviTarebis departamenti, WTO.Themis – is fondi da mto-s saganmanaTleblo sabWo). es Tormeti modeli gvTavazobs programebis gansxvavebul jaWvs, rasac SeuZlia daxmareba gauwios turizmis muSakebs gadamzadebasa da swavlebaSi. isini SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnes cal-calke, an erTad. arCevani moicavs programebs: (a) geografiuli programebi (adgilobrivi, provinciis, erovnuli, regionuli da saerTaSoriso); (b) mierTebuli programebi (tradiciuli kolejis an sauniversiteto, kerZo seqtoris, an mTavrobis mxardaWeriT Seqmnili, an maTi kombinacia); (g) sxvadasxva donis programebi (tradiciuli profesiuli unar-Cvevebis, sabakalavro, samagistro, sadoqtoro). 68


turizmis Seswavlis swrafad mzardi survili ukve saxezea msoflios aTasobiT institutsa da kolejSi, romlebsac gaaCniaT Sesabamisi resursebi multi-disciplinuri bunebis mqone turizmis swavlebis uzrunvelsayofad (diagrama 2). swored turizmis multi-disciplinuri xasiaTi warmoadgens mis erT-erT ZiriTad maxasiaTebels. turizmis sferos saswavlo da kvleviT saqmianobaSi CarTulia iseTi mecnierebebi, rogoricaa: fsiqologia, anTropologia, sociologia, ekonomika, geografia, samarTalmcodneoba, statistika, ekologia da a.S. uaRresad mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli turizmTan teqnikuri progresi, rogorc transportSi, ise sainformacio saSualebebSi. diagrama 2

sazogadod, ganaTlebis xarisxis srulyofisa da misi kontrolis saSualebebis kvlevis procesSi farTod gamoiyeneba e.w. paretos analizi. igi warmoadgens diagramas, romlis meSveobiTac dgindeba is ZiriTadi mizezebi, romlebic iwveven arasrulyofil ganaTlebas, dasaxuli amocanebis Seusabamobas miRweul SedegebTan. paretos analizis mizania im problemebis gamoyofa, romlebic saWiroeben gadawyvetas upirvelesyovlisa. warmodgenil diagramaze naTlad Cans, rom A tipis mizezebi arsebuli naklovanebaTa TiTqmis 80%-s aRwevs. 69


80 60 40 20

A B C D

0 A – moumzadebeli pedagogebi. B – arasakmarisi daxmareba kerZo sawarmoebis mxridan. C – saTanado kanonmdeblobis ar arseboba. D – dainteresebis ar arseboba studentTa mxridan. rogorc World Resources Institute-isa da The Aspen Institute's Business and Society Program-is “Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2005: “Preparing MBA’s for Social and Environmental stewardship” moxsenebaSia naTqvami – “biznes skolebis profesor-maswavlebelTa pasuxismgebloba umniSvnelovanesia imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom socialuri da garemos sakiTxebi srulad iqnen integrirebuli biznes-ganaTlebasa da biznes-praqtikaSi”. bunebrivia, rom es pasuxismgebloba vrceldeba ara mxolod am sakiTxebze, aramed mTel saswavlo procesze. isic bunebrivia, rom amgvari pasuxismgebloba vrceldeba ara mxolod aSS-s, aramed nebismieri sxva qveynis umaRlesi saswavleblebis, maT Soris saqarTvelos universitetebis profesor-maswavleblebzec. marTalia saqarTvelo ukve miuerTda boloniis process, mimdinareobs mTeli ganaTlebis sistemis Rrma reforma, ukve gatarda struqturuli cvlilebebi, kadrebis optimizacia da axali saswavlo programebis danergva umaRles saswavleblebSi, maT Soris Tsu-Sic, magram am process, iseve rogorc nebismieri reformis process Tan axlavs mTeli rigi sirTuleebisa, rac upirveles yovlisa profesormaswavlebelTa pasuxismgeblobasTanaa dakavSirebuli. bolo wlebis gamocdilebam naTlad dagvanaxa, rom Tanamedrove moTxovnebis Sesabamisi akademiuri programebis SemuSaveba turizmSi ufro ioli aRmoCnda, vidre im akademiuri personalis SerCeva, romelic am programebiT SeZlebda studentTa swavlebas. Tumca, amiT sulac ar vgulisxmobT imas, rom akademiuri programebis xarisxi naklebad mniSvnelovani problemaa. saerTod, nebismieri saswavlo programa moiTxovs mudmiv ganaxlebas da srulyofas. miT umetes es Seexeba saqarTvelos universitetebis saswavlo programebs, romlebic mxolod axla iwyeben pirveli nabijebis gadadgmas srulyofisa da xarisxis gaumjobesebisaken. es ki dRevandel msoflioSi SeuZlebelia farTo sa70


erTaSoriso gamocdilebis gaziarebisa da msoflios mowinave universitetebTan mWidro TanamSromlobis gareSe. transnacionalur ganaTlebas, boloniis procesTan da mimdinare globalizaciasTan erTobliobaSi, mosalodnelia rom eqneba ufro Rrma da Sors mimavali Sedegebi saganmanaTleblo sistemaze mTeli msoflios masStabiT. saerTo jamSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ZiriTad mizezobriv faqtorebs, romlebic iwveven transnacionaluri ganaTlebis eqspansias, warmoadgenen: tradiciuli ganaTlebis araelastikuroba, transnacionaluri ganaTlebis mier SemoTavazebuli mravalferovani kurikulumebi da swavlebis inovaciuri meTodebi. dReisaTvis sainformacio teqnologiebis gamoyeneba ganixileba rogorc umniSvnelovanesi faqtori nebismieri saswavlo procesisa, imisaTvis, rom miRweul iqnes warmateba rogorc studentTaTvis, ise mTlianad ekonomikisaTvis. leqtorebs uwevT gansxvavebuli azrovnebis studentTa swavleba, romlebic floben uamrav informacias da praqtikulad anxorcieleben informaciis moZiebas, analizs, menejments da integrirebas realuri problemebis mogvarebis mizniT. glen jonsi (Glenn R. Jones) “Jones Knowledge Group and Knowledge TV”- damfuZnebeli da prezidenti Tavis wignSi `kiberskolebi: ganaTlebis renesansi~ (“Cybersckools: An Education Renaissance”), anu rogor miviRoT on-line ganaTleba, wers, rom moTxovna distanciur swavlebaze miT ufro izrdeba, ramdenadac ar umjobesdeba mosaxleobis finansuri SesaZleblobebi da swrafad viTardeba sainformacio teqnologiebi. igi aRniSnavs, rom cifruli konvergenciis axali era saWiroebs rom iqnes miaxloebuli azrovnebis SesaZleblobebTan, problemebisa da barierebis ararsebobasTan. `mTavaria rom mivitanoT ganaTleba xalxTan da ara piriqiT – xalxi ganaTlebasTan~. msoflioSi amgvari tendenciebis fonze xazi unda gavusvaT im faqts, rom turizmis distanciuri swavleba saqarTveloSi jer-jerobiT saerTod ar aris danergili. codnis gadacema warmoadgens saganmanaTleblo procesis erT-erT ZiriTad problemas. swavleba mudmivad viTardeba da ganicdis evolucias, ris gamoc SeuZlebelia efuZnebodes mxolod istoriul analizs. amave mizeziT ar SeiZleba gavmijnoT erTmaneTisagan mecniereba, kvleviTi saqmianoba da swavleba, radgan es winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda maT ganviTarebasTan. Tu sxva sferoebSi kvleviTi saqmianoba yovelTvis iyo swavlebis RerZi, turizmSi SeimCneoda misdami naklebi interesi meTodologiuri da Teoriuli safuZvlebis arasakmarisobis gamo. orma faqtorma ganapiroba msoflio doneze turizmis sferoSi kvleviTi saqmianobis ganviTareba. pirveli faqtori iyo: saerTaSoriso organizaciebis Zalisxmeva (msoflio turizmis organizacia, saerTaSoriso sastumro asociacia, turizmisa da mogzaurobis sferoSi kvlevebis asociacia, turizmis sferoSi profesiuli swavlebis msoflio asociacia da sxv.). meore faqtori ki gaxda - turizmis sferosadmi miZRvnili iseTi Jurnalebis gamocema, rogorebicaa: Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Journal of Travel Research, The tourism Review, Tourism Management, Problems in Tourism, International Journal of Hospitality Management, WTO.Themis tedQual, da sxv. mniSvnelovania turizmis seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa gadamzadebisa da aranakleb kvalifikaciis amaRlebis sakiTxi. am sakiTxs uaRresad didi yuradReba eqceva msoflios masStabiT da samecniero saqmianobis paralelurad kadrebis gadamzade-

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ba da kvalifikaciis amaRleba warmoadgens turizmis skolebisa da institutebis umTavres amocanas. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom saboloo jamSi yovelive amis ukan dgas axalgazrda Taoba – momavali specialistebi, romelTac Cveni umoqmedobisa da uunarobis gamo praqtikulad ukargavT momavals. da ase iqneba manam, sanam Tsu-Si momzadebuli turizmis specialistebi TavianTi kvalifikaciis doniT ar iqnebian aRiarebulni msoflio turizmis sivrceSi. erovnuli ganaTlebis sistemaSi dawyebuli reformebi gvaZlevs imis saSualebas, rom gaviTvaliswinoT msoflios mowinave universitetebisa da saswavlo programebis gamocdileba, davamyaroT maTTan mWidro kontaqtebi da TanamSromloba, davnergoT praqtikaSi gacvliTi programebi, sakuTari pedagogiuri kadrebis momzadebamde farTod CavrToT Cvens saswavlo programebSi ucxoeTidan mowveuli specialistebi, sistematurad vawarmooT Cveni saswavlo programebis Sedareba ucxour analogebTan da ganvamtkicoT maTi xarisxi, mivaRwioT Tsu-s saswavlo da samecniero programebis xarisxis aRiarebas saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT da sxv. mxolod am gziT iqneba SesaZlebeli Tsu-s, rogorc qveynis udidesi da mTavari saganmanaTleblo keris avtoritetis SenarCuneba, ara mxolod Cveni qveynis, aramed mTeli kavkasiis masStabiT, rac msoflio aRiarebisaken gagvikvalavs gzas. amrigad, mocemul etapze, Cveni amocanebi ase SeiZleba Camoyalibdes: • turizmis Tanamedrove akademiuri programebis Seqmna da danergva yvela doneze (bakalavriati, magistratura, doqtorantura); • turizmis specialistTa gadasamzadebeli saswavlo programebis ganxorcieleba; • turizmis inglisur-enovani saswavlo programebis danergva dasavlur universitetebTan TanamSromlobiT; • distanciuri saswavlo programebis danergva; • internaturis danergva sabazo sastumroebsa da turistul organizaciebSi; • saswavlo programebis srulyofisaTvis aqtiuri TanamSromloba ucxoeTis universitetebTan.

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iaSa mesxia saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori biznesis kreatiuloba rogorc globalizaciis Tanamedrove gamowveva Tanamedrove globalizaciis procesis gaRrmavebisa da konkurenciis gamwvavebis Sedegad meurneobriobis tradiciuli formebi TandaTanobiT kargaven mimzidvelobas da mis adgils ikavebs kreatiuli ekonomika. termini `kreatiuli~ inglisurad – creative, laTinurad – creations – niSnavs Semomqmeds, Semqmnels. dasavleTSi kreatiuloba aRniSnavs Semoqmedebis teqnologiur elements. qarTul mecnierul brunvaSi kreatiulobis kategoria TiTqmis ar gamoiyeneba, an Tu gamoiyenebaa (ZiriTadadADmasmediaSi) umravlesobisaTvis misi Sinaarsi gaugebaria. aRniSnuli termini ekonomikisa da biznesis kuTxiT axala iwyebs damkvidrebas. informaciuli epoqis dawyebamde igi ekonomikaSi faqtobrivad ar gamoiyeneboda. sazogadoebisaTvis sakmarisi iyo cneba `Semoqmedeba~, romelic cnobilia jer kidev antikuri epoqidan. Semoqmedebis kulti SenarCunda Sua saukuneebSic da Tavisi mniSvneloba ar daukargavs XX saukuneSic, Tumca Tanamedrove etapze igi farTod SemoiWra ara mxolod sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis inteleqtualur, aramed ekonomikisa da biznesis sferoebSic. marTalia, termini `kreatiuli~ sazogadoebriv praqtikaSi ixmareba rogorc `Semoqmedebis~ sinonimi, magram isini, Cveni azriT, mainc gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. saqme imaSia, rom Semoqmedeba, SemoqmedebiTi procesi efuZneba avtoris, anu Semoqmedis STagonebas, mis unars, tradiciebs, xolo kreatiuli procesis mTavari Semadgenelia pragmatuli, gamoyenebiTi elementi. kerZod, kreatiuli midgomisas Tavidanve gaiazreba ratom unda Seiqmnas esa Tu is produqti, visTvis unda Seiqmnas igi, rogor unda Seiqmnas da iqneba Tu ara masze sazogadoebrivi moTxovnileba, anu gaiyideba Tu ara igi bazarze. rogorc wesi, profesionali mxatvrebi, kompozitorebi, mwerlebi da danarCeni SemoqmedebiTi sferos adamianebi TavianT produqts qmnian sakuTari ganwyobisa da emociebis safuZvelze da winaswar aranair kiTxvebs ar svamen imazed, maTi Sromis Sedegi gaiyideba Tu ara bazarze. saubaria iseT inteleqtualur Sromaze, romelic axal, genialur, unikalur saganZurs matebs msoflio civilizacias - kulturas, xelovnebas, mwerlobas, mecnierebas da a.S. da ara imaTze, romlebic marTalia am sferoebSi warmatebiT moRvaweoben, magram maTi Sromis Sedegebi upiratesad orientirebulia mxolod sakuTari materialuri keTildReobis gaumjobesebisaken. pirvel SemTxvevaSi Semoqmedeba namdvilad araa kreatiuli, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi igi atarebs kreatiulobis niSans. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Semoqmedeba da kreatiuloba yovelTvis araa erTmaneTis tolfasi. Semoqmedeba yovelTvis pirveladia, magram kreatiul produqtSi igi daqvemdebarebulia pragmatul mizanze. magaliTad, kreatiuli produqtia ferweruli tilo, romelic Seiqmna anazRaurebis safuZvelze winaswari SekveTiT, raTa gamoifinos winaswar SerCeul adgilze. magram, iseTi legendaruli mxatvrebis qmnilebebi, rogorebic iyvnen pablo pikaso, leonardo da vinCi, rembranti da a.S., ar warmoadgenen kreatiul produqts misi Tanamedrove gagebiT. amave dros, kreatiuloba Semoqmedebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. kreatiuloba unda gavigoT rogorc SemoqmedebiTi procesis organizaciis teqnologia. msoflio 73


globalizaciis Tanamedrove etapze, rodesac Camoyalibda informaciuli sazogadoeba, SesaZlebeli gaxda Semoqmedebisa da kreatiulobis sinTezi. Tanamedrove samyaro Zalian swrafad viTardeba, icvleba sazogadoebrivi moTxovnilebis saxeebi, igi ufro dinamikuri da mravalferovani xdeba. wina saukuneebSi adamianTa cxovrebis pirvelad faseulobebs Seadgendnen fuli, miwa, oqro da sxva materialuri sagnebi. dRes mdgomareoba arsebiTad Seicvala. axla samyaros marTavs is, vinc flobs ufro met da mniSvnelovan informacias. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom samyaros erTi nawili (ganviTarebuli qveynebi) TiTqmis sruladaa gajerebuli materialuri produqtebiT, materialuri resursebiT, amitomac ekonomikuri saqmianobis ZiriTad arealad, materialurTan erTad aseve iqca inteleqtualuri produqti, inteleqtualuri sakuTreba. am SemTxvevaSi sazogadoebisa da ekonomikis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi instrumenti xdeba adamianis goneba, misi azrovnebis unari, misi pragmatulobis done da fantaziis mimarTulebebi, romlebic drois garkveul etapze SeiZleba realobad iqces. ukanaskneli ori aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi moxda sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis paradigmis radikaluri Secvla, msoflioSi Camoyalibda axali mimarTuleba – codnis ekonomika. dRevandeli swrafi globalizaciis pirobebSi maRali tempebiT viTardeba is qveyana, romelsac Seswevs unari swrafad moipovos informacia msoflioSi dagrovil codnaze da misi praqtikuli realizaciis safuZvelze uzrunvelyos konkurentunariani saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba[1]. codna cvlis ekonomikasac, teqnologiasac, adamiansac da sociumsac. codnis uSualod raodenobrivi Sefaseba SeuZlebelia, praqtikaSi amisaTvis gamoiyeneba iribi Sefaseba, romlis Tanaxmadac ganviTarebuli qveynebis mTliani Sida produqtis daaxloebiT 80% modis codnaze. es niSnavs, rom warmoebis saerTo moculobaSi maRali teqnologiebis da informaciis sferoSi Seqmnili produqciisa da momsaxurebis wili Seadgens 80%. codnis wili swrafi tempebiT izrdeba axali produqtebis RirebulebaSi. magaliTad, Tanamedrove avtomobilis RirebulebaSi 80 procentze meti modis masSi Cadebul codnaze[2]. `codnis ekonomikis~ fuZemdeblad iTvleba cnobili amerikeli ekonomisti fric maxlupi[3], Tumca Semdgom aRniSnul termins Caenacvla axali termini `codnaze dafuZnebuli ekonomikis~ saxelwodebiT, romlis aqtiuri populizatori iyo aseve cnobili amerikeli mecnieri piter drukeri[4]. amJamad es termini msoflio masStabiT gamoiyeneba da niSnavs momavlis sazogadoebas, romliskenac miiswrafvis ganviTarebuli qveynebis civilizacia. swored codnis ekonomika, anu codnaze dafuZnebuli ekonomika gamodis dRes msoflio arenaze, romelmac miiRo axali – kreatuli ekonomikis, kreatiuli biznesis saxelwodeba. dRes `ideebi~ qmnian axal ekonomikas da maTi Seqmna xdeba warmoebis ZiriTadi sagani, xolo kreatiuloba – biznesis ganuyofeli nawili. Tanamedrove etapze kategoria `kreatuloba~ farTod gamoiyeneba ekonomikis SemoqmedebiT sferoebSi – reklamaSi, brendingSi, marketingSi, turizmSi da a.S. am sferoebis CarCoSi kreatulobis termini niSnavs SemoqmedebiT, originalur ideebs, romelebic xels uwyoben biznesis ganviTarebas, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebas. magaliTad, turizmSi kreatuloba niSnavs sastumroebis interieris arastandartul gaformebas, reklamaSi – dasamaxsovrebel lozungebs da gamosaxulebebs, romlebis momxmareblebSi aRZraven interess da Sesabamisad izidaven maT. menejmentSi kreatiulobaze saubroben rogorc axali da originaluri midgomebis Seqmnaze arastandartuli SemoqmedebiTi gadawyvetilebebisa da marTvis procesSi. dRevandeli intensiuri konkurenciis pirobebSi mmarTvelobaSi, iseve rogorc yvelgan, saWiroa axali ideebis gamoyeneba. strategiuli 74


menejmenti SeuZlebelia SemoqmedebiTi azris gareSe. biznesis ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSaveba aris SemoqmedebiTi procesi, ufro metic, SeiZleba iTqvas – igi xelovnebaa. inovaciuri menejmenti ki, romelic Tanamedrove biznes-saqmianobis mTavari warmmarTveli veqtoria, warmoudgenelia kreatiuli gadawyvetilebebis gareSe, xelmZRvanelTa da SemsrulebelTa SemoqmedebiTi iniciativis gareSe. ramdenadac cnobilia, cneba `kreatiuli ekonomika~ SemoRebul iqna brunvaSi Jurnal `Buzines Week~-is mier 2000 wlis agvistoSi[5]. kreatiuli ekonomikis sakiTxebSi gaeros sakonsultacio sabWos wevrma, cnobilma amerikelma arqiteqtorma da xelovnebaTmcodnem jon hokinsma 2002 wels gamosca naSromi `kreatiuli ekonomika~, romelSic siRrmiseuladaa gaanalizebuli kreatiulobis gavlena msoflio ekonomikasa da biznesze. kreatiulobis gansazRvris mizniT man gamoyo 15 kreatiuli dargi, sadac iwarmoeba inteleqtualuri sakuTreba saavtoro uflebis, patentebis, savaWro markebis da sxvaTa saxiT. misi kvlevis Tanaxmad, praqtikulad yvela qveyanaSi ekonomikuri fokusi warmoebidan gadaadgilda momsaxurebis sferoSi. dReisaTvis dasavleT evropasa da aSS-Si mosaxleobis 60% muSaobs momsaxurebis sferoSi. am naSromSi SemoTavazebulia kreatiulobis sami principi (universaluroba, Tavisufleba, bazari da kavSirebi) da SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis oTxi principi (mravalferovneba, cvalebadoba, swavla da adaptacia). avtoris azriT, XXI saukuneSi meurneobriobis wamyvani forma iqneba kreatiuli biznesi da rac ufro Cqara gadaerTveba masze samyaro, miT Cqara aRmoifxvreba msoflioSi dReisaTvis arsebuli krizisuli situacia[8]. ukanaskneli ori saukunis gasayarze amerikelma ekonomistma, torontos universitetis profesorma riCard floridam kreatiulobis sakiTxs miuZRvna wigni, romelsac uwoda `kreatiuli klasi: adamianebi, romlebic cvlian momavals~[6]. avtoris azriT, Tanamedrove sazogadoebam SeiZina axali klasobrivi struqtura. misi safuZvelia `kreatiuli biznesi~, xolo politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri birTvi – kreatiuli klasi. auRiarebeli, magram de-faqto arsebul axal klass gaaCnia Tavisi struqtura, romlis centrSi dganan superkreatiuli moRvaweebi – mecnierebi da inJinrebi, universitetis profesorebi, poetebi da mwerlebi, mxatvrebi da msaxiobebi, dizainerebi da arqiteqtorebi, publicistebi, redaqtorebi, kulturis cnobili moRvaweebi, analitikuri centrebis eqspertebi, mimomxilvelebi da a.S. magram, r. floridis azriT, centralur kreatiul jgufSi SeRwevas axerxeben specialistebic, romlebic saqmianoben maRali teqnologiebis, finansebis, samarTlis, janmrTelobis dacvis da biznesis marTvis sferoebSi. es adamianebi monawileoben problemebis SemoqmedebiT gadawyvetaSi. maTi ganaTlebis maRali done iZleva saSualebas originaluri midgomebiT srulyon axali teqnologiebi, Seqmnan menejmentis axali strategiebi. am klasis irgvliv ganlagebulia maRalkvalificiuri teqnikuri personali, romelTac gaaCniaT konkretuli problemis SemoqmedebiTad gadawyvetis unari da gadawyvetilebaTa damoukideblad miRebis gambedaoba. dReisaTvis Tvlian, rom TiToeuli qveynis ekonomika (da sazogadoeba mTlianad) Tavis ganviTarebaSi gadis 6 stadias, romelic ganisazRvreba am qveynis ZiriTadi dargebiT, resursebiT da saqonliT. aseT stadiebs warmoadgenen: • industriamdeli stadia (mTavari roli ganekuTvneba soflis meurneobas); • industriuli stadia (mTavar rolSi gamodis mrewveloba); • informaciuli ekonomikis stadia (ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofa, upirveles yovlisa, informaciuli teqnologiebiT da sistemebiT); 75


• codnis ekonomikis stadia (ekonomikaSi wamyvani roli ganekuTvneba aramaterialur aqtivebs da inteleqtualur sakuTrebas); • kreatiuli stadia (ekonomikisa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi mTavar rols TamaSobs axali ideebi da inovaciebi). Tanamedrove etapze kreatiuloba ganviTarebul qveynebSi praqtikuli saqmianobis mudmivi Tanamgzavri xdeba. faqtobrivad warmoebis nebismier sferoSi warmatebuli xdeba mxolod is, vinc flobs SemoqmedebiT potencials. kreatiuloba vlindeba Semdegi ZiriTadi formebiT: • samecniero (aRmoCenebi); • teqnikuri (gamogonebebi); • ekonomikuri (biznes-saqmianoba); • mxatvruli (xelovneba); • socialuri (damoukidebloba adamianebTan); • politikuri (saxelmwifo mmarTveloba). kreatiulobis safuZvels Seadgens kreatiuli azrovneba, romelic aris sxvadasxvagvari elementebis sinTezis (kombinaciis) daxmarebiT axali, mniSvnelovani codnis Seqmnis unari, codnisa, romelsac gaaCnia didi socialur-ekonomikuri efeqti. kreatiuli azrovneba moiTxovs sakuTar TavSi dajerebulobas, aqtiurobas da liderobas, riskze wasvlis unars. kreatiuloba damokidebulia iseT TvisebebTan, rogoricaa: gamomgonebloba, optimaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebis codna, problemisadmi sxvadasxva da axali kuTxiT Sexedva, eqsperimentebisadmi interesi, axal-axali ideebis generirebis unari. kreatiuli adamianebi yovelTvis iswrafian gadasinjon arsebuli procedurebi da stereotipebi, adgenen momavlis scenarebs, ganixilaven sxvadasxva gamogonebebs da maT Sedegebs. isini eZeben saerTo niSnebs imaSi, rac miCneulia SeuTavseblad, qmnian moulodnel kombinaciebs, romlebSic devs mocemuli problemis gadawyvetis gasaRebi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom SemoqmedebiTi, kreatiuli saqmianoba arRvevs moZvelebul da araefeqtian stereotipebs. kreatiuloba efuZneba gamoyenebiT cnobierebas, gamomgoneblobas da TviTswavlebas. kreatiulobisaTvis ganasxvaveben sam aucilebel elements[7]: • kompetencia: codna, siaxle, gamocdileba; • SemoqmedebiTi azrovneba: moqniloba, gamomgonebloba da Seupovroba gadawyvetilebis Ziebisas; • motivacia: piradi daintereseba problemis gadawyvetaSi. Tanamedrove etapze ukiduresad rTuli gaxda warmatebuli biznes-saqmianoba. ekonomikis globalizaciam ufro mkacri gaxada konkurentuli garemo da Seqmna gajerebuli bazari. amitomac saWiroa konkurentebs Soris Tavis gamoCena, momxmareblisaTvis axali kreatiuli produqtis SeTavazeba, romelic miscems maT saSualebas icxovron ukeTesad da sainteresod. biznesi SeiZleba warimarTos sxvadasxvagvarad. SeiZleba ideis SerCeva, masze dayrdnoba da mciredi riskiT mogebis miReba. magram SeiZleba agreTve axali ideis, arastandartuli midgomis mofiqreba, Tumca zogierT ideaze dayrdnobam SeiZleba saerTod ar mogvces mogeba. saqme imaSia, rom metismetad Zlieri kreativi maRalriskiania, magram saerTod kreativze uaris Tqma zaraliania: Znelia klientis mozidva iseT saqonelze da momsaxurebaze, romelic bazarze aTasobiT konkurents aqvs gatanili.

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aseT viTarebaSi saWiro xdeba `oqros Sualedis~ moZebna. Tu moviSveliebT istorias, advilad davrwmundebiT, rom msxvili kompaniebi warmatebebamde ucbad ar misulan. maTi warmateba miRweul iqna droSi gawelili dauRalavi SromiT da kreatiuli azrovnebis mudmivi ganviTarebiT. kreativis meSveobiT biznesSi warmoiSoba sinergiuli efeqti, rodesac erTiani kreatiuli biznes-ideebis zemoqmedeba ufro metia calkeuli ideebis jamuri zemoqmedebisagan. mniSvnelovan kreatiul ideas SeuZlia radikalurad Secvalos biznesi da migviyvanos strategiul warmatebamde. dRevandel etapze mravali ganviTarebuli saxelmwifos, romlebic miiswrafvian msoflio arenaze konkurentuli upiratesobisaken, mniSvnelovan prioritetul amocanas Seadgens kreatiuli industriis ganviTareba. Ddidi britaneTi erT-erTi pirveli qveyanaa, sadac samTavrobo doneze gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva kreatiuli industriis ganviTarebas. Sedegad amisa, gasuli saukunis miwuruls gaerTianebuli samefos kulturis, mediisa da sportis saministroSi Camoyalibda kreatiuli industriis programebis ganviTarebis departamenti. aRniSnulma samsaxurma SeimuSava biznesis kreatiuli seqtoris CamonaTvali da oficialurad Camoayaliba kreatiuli industriis saqmianobis sazRvrebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom kreatiuli dargebis gansazRvraSi garkveuli gansxvaveba arsebobs amerikul da britanul midgomebSi. mag., amerikuli midgomiT kreatiul dargebs ganekuTvnebian: samecniero-kvleviTi da sakonstruqtoro-eqsperimentuli damuSavebebi; sagamomcemlo saqme; programuli uzunvelyofa; televizia da radio; dizaini; musika; kino; saTamaSoebi da TamaSebi; reklama; arqiteqtura; saSemsruleblo xelovneba; videoTamaSebi; moda da xelovneba. britanuli midgomiT ki kreatiuli biznesis ZiriTadi dargebia: reklama; arqiteqtura; xelovneba; avejis dizaini; tansacmlis modelireba (dizaini); kino da video; grafikuli dizaini; gasarTobi programuli uzrunvelyofa (kompiuteruli TamaSebi); cocxali da Cawerili musika; saSemsruleblo xelovneba; televizia; radio da interneti; vizualuri xelovneba da antikvariati; samwerlo da sagamomcemlo saqme; muzeumebi da memkvidreoba[8]. arsebobs agreTve kreatiuli saqmianobis klasifikaciis profesiuli midgoma, romelic efuZneba zemoxsenebul superkreatiul birTvs da kreatiul profesionalebs[6]. superkreatiul birTvs ganekuTvneba profesiebi Semdgom sferoebSi: • maTematika da programireba; • arqiteqtura da sainJinro saqme; • sabunebismetyvelo da socialuri mecnierebebi; • ganaTleba, aRzrda, garToba, sporti, masmedia. kreatiuli profesionalur qveklass Seadgenen: • mmarTvelobiTi profesiebi; • profesiebi biznesisa da finansebis sferoSi; • profesiebi samarTlis sferoSi; • profesiebi janmrTelobis dacvis sferoSi (eqimebi da teqnikuri specialistebi). mkvlevarTa gaangariSebiT [6] aSS kreatiuli klasi Seadgens mTeli momuSave mosaxleobis 30%, romelic aRemateba muSebisa da agrarul klass erTad aRebuls. yvelaze mravalricxovania momsaxure klasi, Tumca 1980-iani wlebidan kreatiuli klasis zrdam momsaxurebis klasis mniSvnelovani Semcireba gamoiwvia. Semosavlebis mixedviT kreatiuli klasi lideria, ramdenadac am seqtorSi ileqeba Semosavlebis udidesi nawili (2-jer meti momsaxure klasTan SedarebiT). 77


kreatiulobis Sefasebis sxva midgomebic arsebobs. magaliTad, gaeros konferencia vaWrobasa da ganviTarebaze (UNCTAD) qveynebis, jgufebisa da regionebisaTvis iyenebs kreatiuli produqtebis eqsportisa da importis moculobis maCveneblebs. kreatiuli dargebis saqmianoba, iseve rogorc momsaxurebis sferos, dakavSirebulia arameterialur sawyisebTan, magram gansxvaveba mainc arsebobs. kerZod, momsaxurebisagan gansxvavebiT kreatiulobis Sedegebi SesaZlebelia realizebul iqnas rogorc ganuyofeli nawili saboloo materialuri produqtisa. gamomdinare aqedan, formirebul iqna kreatiuli dargebis produqtebis CamonaTvali, sadac ZiriTads damatebul RirebulebaSi Seadgens SemoqmedebiTi wili. Sesabamisad, kreatiuli produqtis eqsportisa da importis monacemebis safuZvelze SeiZleba Sefasdes ama Tu im qveynis wvlili kreatiuli ekonomikis msoflio moculobaSi. saTanado analiziT dgindeba, rom am kriteriumiT liderobs aSS, romelic uzrunvelyofs kreatiuli produqciiT msoflio vaWrobis TiTqmis meoTxeds. kreatiuli produqtiT vaWrobis maRali maCvenebeli aqvs iaponias, xolo am mxriv sustad gamoiyurebian italia da kanada[9]. kreatiulma ekonomikam ukanasknel periodSi, erTi mxriv, xeli Seuwyo msoflio ekonimikuri globalizaciis gaRrmavebas, xolo meore mxriv, kidev ufro gaaRrmava globalizacis Tanmdevi winaaRmdegobrivi movlenebi. igi rogorc ekonomikuri globalizaciis stimulatori da mamoZravebeli faqtori ZiriTadad integrirebulia industriulad ganviTarebul samkuTxedSi: CrdiloeT amerika-dasavleT evropa-aRmosavleT azia. industriulad ganviTarebul qveynebSi, sadac cxovrobs msoflio mosaxleobis 19 procenti, modis saerTaSoriso vaWrobis 71 procenti, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis 58 procenti, internetis momxmarebelTa 91 procenti. Mmaterialurad uzrunvelyofiliMmsoflio mosaxleobis mexuTedi nawilis Semosavlebsa da siRaribeSi mcxovrebi amdenive nawilis mosaxleobis Semosavlebs Soris gansxvaveba dReisaTvis ganisazRvreba TanafardobiT 75:1, maSin, rodesac igi 1990 wels Seadgenda 60:1 da 1960 wels-30:1. [8]. Ggamomdinare aqedan SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kreatiuli ekonimikis ganviTareba ZiriTadad orientirebulia ganviTarebul qveyanaTa ekonomikebis globalizaciisaken, Tumca am bolo wlebSi am procesebSi aqtiurad erTvebian msxvili ganviTarebadi qveynebic. kreatiuli midgoma dRevandel etapze gansazRvravs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis konkurentunarianobis dones. warmoebuli produqtis damatebul RirebulebaSi sul ufro met porocents ikavebs kreatiuli mdgenelebi da originaluri inovaciebi. magaliTad, SemoqmedebiTma dizainerulma srulyofam iaponur kompania `toiotas~ saSualeba misca daekavebina mowinave adgili msoflio avtomrewvelobaSi. Mmravali qveynis ekonomikaSi kreatiuli midgoma dRevandel etapze saxelmwifo donezea ayvanili. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, am mxriv pirveli nabiji gadadga inglisma. Semdeg es gamocdileba gavrcelda sxva evropul qveynebSi da DdRes man moicva evropis yvela ganviTarebuli qveyana, aSS, samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebi. Aam kuTxiT mniSvnelovan warmatebebs miaRwies CineTma, baltiisa da laTinuri amerikis qveynebma. CineTma olimpiuri TamaSebis gaxsnis ceremoniaze mTels msoflios daanaxa kreatiuli ekonomikis realuri nayofi. sayuradReboa, rom kreatiulobam ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovnad Secvala msoflio ekonomikis geografiuli struqtura. magaliTad, 1950-ian wlebSi aSS mTliani Sida produqti msoflios amave maCveneblis 50 procentze mets Seadgenda, xolo, dReisaTvis is daaxloebiT 22 procentamde Semcirda. Ees dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom SemoqmedebiTma, kreatiul78


ma industriam swrafi ganviTareba hpova sxva qveynebSic da, Sesabamisad, gaizarda maTi wili msoflio ekonomikis struqturaSi. saqarTveloSi kreatiuli ekonomikis pirveli niSnebi Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSia. Mmisi swrafi ganviTarebis samecniero-kvleviTi baza da saproeqto-eqsperimentuli potenciali krizisul mdgomareobaSia. kerZo seqtoris umravlesobas jer kidev saTanado doneze ara aqvs gacnobierebuli kreatiuli midgomis mniSvneloba produqciis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebaSi. Tumca aris mcire gamonaklisebic. magaliTad, zogierTma firmebma kreatiuli midgoma gamoiyenes Rvinis mrewvelobaSi, misi taris dizainis gaformebaSi da reklamirebaSi (kompania “badagoni” da sxvebi), ramac gazarda produqtis konkurentunarianoba rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve mis gareTac. Kkreatiuli midgomis niSnebi gamoCnda tansacmlis samodelo xelovnebaSi, ramac safuZveli Cauyara samodelo industrias. Kkreatiuli midgomebis niSnebi ikveTeba erovnuli suvenirebis warmoebaSi, tele-sivrceSi reklamebiT, originaluri gasarTobi programebiT da SouebiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kerZo biznesTan SedarebiT saxelmwifo ufro met yuradRebas aqcevs kreatiuli midgomebis praqtikul realizacias. Aamis magaliTad SeiZleba dasaxeldes wertilovani, asimetriuli midgomebi regionul ganviTarebaSi: infrastruqturuli, sanaxaobiTi, arqiteqtoruli da sxva saxis SemoqmedebiTi industriis ganviTareba qalaqebSi-baTumSi, siRnaRsa da quTaisSi, aseve nawilobriv TbilisSi, rac xels uwyobs ara mxolod turistebis mozidvas, dasvenebisa da momsaxurebis garemosa da xarisxis gaumjobesebas, aramed agreTve SemoqmedebiTi, kreatiuli biznesis ganviTarebas. amrigad, Tanamedrove etapze mTels msoflioSi da gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebul qveynebSi Zalas ikrebs strategiuli azrovneba biznesSi, romelmac miiRo kreativis saxelwodeba. kreatiuli biznesis tradiciulisagan ganmasxvavebeli Tavisebureba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom masSi mTavar mamoZravebel Zalas warmoadgens codna, resurss – informacia, xolo Sedegs – kreatiuli produqti. imavdroulad, kreatiuli ekonomikis koncefcia aerTianebs dacalkavebul kategoriebs: `informaciuli ekonomika~, `codnis ekonomika~ da `inovaciuri ekonomika~. biznesi kreatiul xasiaTs atarebs im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mis mier warmoebuli produqtis RirebulebaSi umetesi nawili modis SemoqmedebiT mdgenelze. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. mesxia i. mecnierebis reformebis finansur-organizaciuli orientirebi, krebulSi: `gardamavali periodis safinanso-ekonomikuri problemebi~. t. 7., Tbilisi, fski, 2004; 2. Барышева А. В. Экономика знаний (htth://nest-exspert.ru); 3. Махлуп Ф. Производство и распространение знаний в CША, пер. с англ., М., Прогресс, 1966; 4. Питер Ф. Друкер. Эффективный управляюший, изд-во: Book chamber Internftional, 2004; 5. Исаев Д. Креативный класс и креавтивная цивилизация. Новый прорыв уммы (http://www.islam.ru/hrtssclub/analitika/creativeclass/; 6. Ричард Флорида. Креативный класс: люди которые меняют будушее, М., Издателский дом – «классика – ХХI», 2005; 7. Амайстайл Т.М. Как убить креативную инициативу. В книге: Креативное мышление в бизнесе, М., Алпина Бизнес Букс, 2006; 8. Глобализация: человеческое измерение, М.: РОССПЭН, 2003; 9. Howkins J. The Creative Economy, NY, The penguinpress, 2001; 10.UNCTAD, Clobal databank on world trade in creative products, 2010. 79


babulia mRebriSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

globaluri marketingis ganviTarebis sakanonmdeblo baza globalizacia marketingis erT-erTi strategiuli prioritetia, vinaidan is riskisa da danaxarjebis saerTaSoriso bazrebze gadanawilebis SesaZleblobas iZleva (1, gv. 227). amitom miiswrafian sawarmoTa menejerebi saerTaSoriso bazrebisken, riTac globalizaciis procesi Rrmavdeba da globaluri bazris momcvelobis areali farTovdeba. globaluri bazris Camoyalibeba mraval faqtorzea damokidebuli. am faqtorebs Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani samarTlebrivi faqtorebia, e.i. is kanonebi da kanonqvemdebare aqtebi, romlebic ayalibeben globaluri biznesis, da Sesabamisad amisa globaluri marketingis, politikur-samarTlebriv garemos. politikur-samarTlebrivi garemo nebismieri qveynis nebismieri sawarmosTvis, romelic gadis saerTaSoriso arenaze, yalibdeba saerTaSoriso kanonebiT, mSobliuri qveynis kanonebiT da im qveynis/an qveynebis kanonebiT, romelSic/an romlebSic mocemuli konkretuli sawarmo axorcielebs Tavis saqmianobas. maSasadame, globaluri marketingis politikur-samarTlebrivi garemo moicavs: Ma) mSobliuri qveynis garemos; b) im qveynis garemos, romelSic sawarmo funqcionirebs; g) saerTaSoriso garemos (2,gv. 179). saerTaSoriso politikur-samarTlebrivi garemo yalibdeba qveynebs Soris SeTanxmebebiT Seqmnili saerTaSoriso kanonebiT. rac Seexeba mSobliuri qveynis politikur-samarTlebriv garemos da im qveynis garemos, romelSic sawarmo funqcionirebs, is yalibdeba adgilobrivi sakanonmdeblo organoebis mier SemuSavebuli kanonmdeblobis bazaze. Cveni kvlevis obieqtia nawili im kanonebisa, romlebic saqarTveloSi aregulireben bizness da ayalibeben samarTlebriv garemos. globaluri marketingis ganviTarebis politikur-samarTlebrivi garemos Camoyalibeba saqarTveloSi mimdinareobs Semdegi kanonebis safuZvelze: 1. saqarTvelos kanoni sainvesticio saqmianobis xelSewyobisa da garantiebis Sesaxeb; 2. saqarTvelos kanoni Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb; 3. saqarTvelos kanoni samewarmeo saqmianobis kontrolis Sesaxeb; 4. saqarTvelos kanoni sazRvargareTis qveynebisa da kompaniebisTvis koncesiebis gacemis wesis Sesaxeb; 5. saqarTvelos kanoni investiciebis saxelmwifo mxardaWeris Sesaxeb; 6. sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba da sxv. aRniSnuli kanonebi, erTi mxriv, samarTlebriv safuZvlebs ayalibebs adgilobrivi sawarmoebis rogorc qveynis Sida bazarze samuSaod, ise saerTaSoriso arenaze gasasvlelad, meore mxriv ki ucxouri kompaniebis saqmianobas saqarTvelos bazarze adgilobriv kanonebs uqvemdebarebs da maT sakanonmdeblo pirobebSi muSaobis SesaZleblobas uqmnis. biznesis maregulirebeli kanonmdeblobis codna aucilebelia rogorc adgilobrivi, ise ucxoeli biznesmenebisTvis arakanonieri Semowmebebisa da zogierTi samTavrobo Cinovnikis TviTneburi moqmedebisgan Tavis dasacavad. 80


saqarTveloSi saerTaSoriso marketingis politikur-samarTlebrivi bazis formirebisTvis kanonebis Seqmna gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi daiwyo. aRniSnuli kanonebis srulyofa dResac grZeldeba. saqarTvelos kanoni sainvesticio saqmianobis xelSewyobisa da garantiebis Sesaxeb gansazRvravs investiciis arss, misi xelSeuxeblobis wess, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi kompensaciis odenobas da misi gacemis pirobebs, ucxoeli investoris uflebebs sakompensacio Tanxis sazRvargareT gatanisas (3, gv. 135). aRniSnuli kanonis me-10 muxlis Sesabamisad investors ufleba aqvs samsaxurSi miiRos ucxoeli, igive muxlis mixedviT `ar SeiZleba dawesdes sawarmos xelmZRvanel organoebSi savaldebulod asarCevi an dasaniSni saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aucilebeli minimaluri ricxvi~ (3, gv. 137). Cveni azriT, es muxli saWiroebs dazustebas. sasurvelia, ucxoel investors kanoniT moeTxovos adgilobrivi specialistebisa da muSebis dasaqmeba, Tu, ra Tqma unda, amis SesaZlebloba arsebobs. bunebrivia, ucxoel investorTa nawils adgilobrivi muSaxelis dacvis aseTi midgoma ar moewoneba, magram es aucilebelia qveynis ganviTarebis dRevandel etapze. kanonis dadebiT mxared unda CaiTvalos is, rom ucxoel investorebs saomari mdgomareobisa da SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros miyenebuli zarali adgilobrivi investorebis msgavsad aunazRaurdebaT. aseTi midgomiT sainvesticio klimati umjobesdeba, vinaidan kapitalis saqarTveloSi dabandebiT misi dakargvis riskis done mcirdeba. saqarTvelos kanoni Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb mowodebulia xeli Seuwyos konkurentuli garemos Seqmnas qveyanaSi, rac, erTnairad mniSvnelovania rogorc adgilobrivi, ise ucxoeli biznesmenebisTvis. aRniSnuli kanoni krZalavs iseT saxelmwifo daxmarebebs da miznobriv programebs, romlebic Seaferxeben konkurencias (3. gv.120), rac savsebiT samarTliania. kanonSi araferi ar aris naTqvmi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda iqnes Tavidan acilebuli konkurenciis SezRudva ucxouri kompaniebis mier, rac, vfiqrobT, am kanonis naklia. amoqmedebis dRidan dRemde mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada saqarTvelos kanonma samewarmeo saqmianobis kontrolis Sesaxeb. dRes am kanonis Sesabamisad makontrolebel organos sawarmoTa saqmianobis gakontrolebis ufleba aqvs im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arsebobs mosamarTlis brZaneba, romelic im dros gaicema, roca makontrolebeli organo dasabuTebul informacias warudgens mosamarTles mewarmis mier kanonmdeblobis darRvevis Sesaxeb. amasTan makontrolebeli organo uflebamosilia Seamowmos mewarme mxolod im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romlis Sesaxebac arsebobs mosamarTlis brZaneba. kanoni gansazRvravs makontrolebel organoebsac. aseT pirobebSi mewarmeebi advilad icaven sakuTar bizness, riTac misi momgebianad ganxorcielebis da globaluri bazris ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi izrdeba. kanoni sazRvargareTis qveynebis da kompaniebisaTvis koncesiebis gacemis wesis Sesaxeb aregulirebs ucxouri kapitalis investiciis mizniT saxelmwifos mier gaformebuli grZelvadiani saijaro xelSekrulebis gaformebis wess. kanoniT gansazRvrulia koncesioneris mier saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis dacvis valdebulebebi, agreTve, is pirobebi, romliTac sakoncesio sawarmoebi gadaecema saqarTvelos. am kanonis mixedviT xelSekrulebis gaformebamde eqspertiza utardeba sakoncesio obieqts (3, gv. 260). Cveni azriT, kanonSi unda iyos muxli, romelic eqspertizas savaldebulod CaTvlis sakoncesio obieqtis saqarTvelosTvis gadacemis drosac. es gazrdis koncesioneris pasuxismgeblobas saijaro xelSekrulebis SesrulebasTan mimarTebaSi. koncesioneris uflebebis gansazRvrisas kanoni ganmartavs, rom koncesioners SeuZlia `. . . sakoncesio sawarmoebis muSebad da mosamsaxureebad saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi, ucxoeli moqa81


laqeebi da moqalaqeobis armqone pirebi miiRos~ (3, gv. 261). Cveni azriT, saWiroa meti dakonkreteba da investorebis, garkveulwilad, davaldebuleba, rom man adgilobrivi muSaxeli gamoiyenos sawarmoSi. am SemTxvevaSi mxedvelobaSi ar arian kvalificiuri muSebi, Tumca maTi adgilze momzadebis wesis kanoniT dadgenac ar migvaCnia zedmetad. vfiqrobT eqvsi Tve sruliad sakmarisia imisTvis, rom koncesionerma adgilobrivi muSebi moamzados da daasaqmos sawarmoSi. globaluri marketingis ganviTarebaSi didi roli akisria samTavrobo organizaciebis mier gatarebul RonisZiebebs da eqsportis mxardamWer programebs. saeqsporto subsidiebi uzrunvelyofs calkeuli sawarmos da mTlianad dargis stimulirebas, amaRlebs maTi konkurentunarianobis dones. subsidireba xdeba sxvadasxva formiT: mcirdeba gadasaxadebi, sawarmoebs aZleven kompensaciebs, SeRavaTian kreditebs. eqsportis stimulirebas da am safuZvelze globaluri bazris ganviTarebas xels uwyobs savaWro barierebis Semcireba, zogjer ki gauqmebac. saqarTvelo, rogorc vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis wevri, sargeblobs upiratesi xelSemwyobi reJimiT (MFN) sxva wevr qveynebTan. am qveynebSi eqsportirebul saqonelze dabali tarifebi moqmedebs (amasTan saqarTvelo aSS-Tan, kanadasTan, SveicariasTan da iaponiasTan TanamSromlobs preferenciebis ganzogadebuli sistemiT (GSP +). dsT-is qveynebidan evrokavSirTan da TurqeTTan preferenciebis ganzogadebuli sistemiT mxolod moldaveTi da saqarTvelo sargeblobs. am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo msoflios 15 qveyanaSi Sedis (http://www.mfa.gov.ge/index.php?sec_id=74Slang_id=GEO). cxadia, aRniSnuli faqti eqsportis gafarToebis, msoflio bazrisa da globaluri marketingis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebs zrdis. saqarTvelos aqvs imis potenciali, rom soflis meurneobis produqtebiT aqtiurad CaerTos globalur biznesSi, magram dReisTvis ZiriTad saeqsporto poziciebad kvlav feroSenadnobebi, Savi liTonebis jarTi, oqro, azotovani sasuqebi, spilenZis madani da koncentratebi, spirtiani sasmelebi, Txili da kakali rCeba (http://finanecal.ge/index php?.option-com_content& task=view@id=66832@Itemd=58). saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis problemebis mogvareba SesaZlebelia mxolod saxelmwifos aqtiuri mxardaWeris gziT. es gulisxmobs rogorc soflis meurneobis mxardamWeri programebis amoqmedebas, ise globaluri marketingis gaaqtiurebas. Cveni azriT, soflis meurneobis aRorZineba qveynis ekonomikis gajansaRebis da globaluri bazris subieqtad saqarTvelos gadaqcevis (eqsportis TvalsazrisiT) ZiriTad gzas warmoadgens. soflis meurneobaSi Seqmnili ekologiurad sufTa produqtebi saqarTvelos bazars, rogorc saerTaSoriso bazris nawils, mkveTrad gaaqtiurebs. amrigad, saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebis sakanonmdeblo baza sul ufro srulyofili xdeba, rac xels uwyobs eqsportis stimulirebas da ainteresebs ucxoel investorebs qarTuli bazriT. srulyofili xdeba biznesis maregulirebeli saerTaSoriso normatiuli aqtebic. amiT saqarTvelos globalur bazarze gasvlis xelSemwyobi pirobebi eqmneba, Tumca qveyana am SesaZleblobebiT jerjerobiT ver sargeblobs. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. Маркетинг. Энциклопедия. Пер с англ. Питер.2002; 2. Холенсен с. Глобальный маркетинг. Пер с англ. Мн. 2005; 3. samagido wigni iuristebisTvis, ekonomistebisTvis, saqmiani adamianebisTvis. sakanonmdeblo aqtebis krebuli. Tb., 2009; 4. http://www.mfa.gov.ge/index.php?sec_id=74Slang_id=GEO 5. (http://finanecal.ge/indexphp?.option-com_content& task=view@id=66832@Itemd=58). 82


iza naTelauri saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis struqturuli da raodenobrivi optimizaciis kriteriumebis Sesaxeb: postkomunisturi periodi saqarTvelo mravalmxrivi sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobebis qveyanaa. TanamSromlobs partniorTa diversificirebul wresTan da aviTarebs saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis rogorc tradiciul (sagareo vaWroba, ucxouri turizmi da sxv.), ise axal (erToblivi sawarmoebi, Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi da sxv.) formebs [1]. Kkvlevis miznidan gamomdinare, SemovifarglebiT postkomunisturi saqarTvelos eqsport-importis raodenobrivi da struqturuli maCveneblebis, sagareo vaWrobis geografiisa da sagareo savaWro kavSirebis cvlilebis tendenciebis analiziT; gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas eqsportisa da importis optimizaciis (yvelaze xelsayreli, yvelaze ufro Sesaferisi variantis amorCevis) winapirobebze Cvens qveyanaSi; SevecdebiT CamovayaliboT saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis raodenobrivi da struqturuli optimizaciis kriteriumebi, qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri da socialur-ekonomikuri mowyobis moTxovnebisa da konkurentunarianobis msoflio reitingis CarCo moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT. saqarTveloSi eqsporti tradiciulad sanedleuloa, importi ki warmodgenilia ZiriTadad Sualeduri da erTjeradi moxmarebis saqoneliT. Eeqsportze gadis feroSenadnobebi, Savi liTonebis narCenebi da jarTi, spilenZis madnebi da koncentratebi, cementi, daumuSavebeli an naxevrad damuSavebuli oqro, mineraluri an qimiuri azotovani sasuqebi da sxv. rac Seexeba imports, saqarTveloSi importirdeba navTobi da navTobproduqtebi, msubuqi avtomobilebi, samkurnalo saSualebebi, gadamcemi aparatura radiomauwyeblobisa da televiziisaTvis, naxSirbadiani foladis wnelebi, kompiuterebi da maTi blokebi da sxv. [4,5]. eqsports raodenobrivad bevrad Warbobs importi. Ddeficiti qronikuli da wlidan wlamde mzardia. 2009 wels wminda eqsportis maCvenebelma Seadgina-1510 mln aSS dolari, 2007 wels _ 3983 mln aSS dolari, 2006 wels _ 2742 mln aSS dolari, 2005 wels _ 1624 mln aSS dolari, 2004 wels _ 1197 mln aSS dolari, 2003 wels _ 680 mln aSS dolari. gansakuTrebuli gansjis sagania Tanamedrove saqarTvelis sagareo vaWrobis geografia da partniorTa wre. 2008-2009 wlebis monacemebiT [5] saqarTvelo TanamSromlobs 150-ze met qveyanasTan, m.S. 134-Si axorcielebs eqsports, 158-dan ki imports. Cveni qveynis msxvili savaWro partniorebi arian: TurqeTi, ruseTi, germania, ukraina,Aazerbaijani, aSS, italia, safrangeTi, somxeTi da avRaneTi. saqarTvelos umsxvilesi partniori qveynebia TurqeTi da ruseTi. damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg gaaqtiurda Cveni qveynis TanamSromloba mezobel TurqeTTan, saqoneliTa da momsaxurebiT sagareo vaWrobis, erToblivi sawarmoebis Seqmnis, regionuli da strategiuli TanamSromlobis sferoebSi. sazRvrebis gaxsnisTanave (gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis meore naxevridan) saqonelgacvliTi operaciebi saqarTvelos ZiriTadad hqonda TurqeTTan. Ggahqonda: liTonebi, xe-tye, jarTi, eleqtroenergia da sxv. sanedleulo saqoneli. Semodioda: erTjeradi moxmarebis saqoneli farTo asortimentiT. Turqi partniorebis TanamonawileobiT saqar83


Tvelos teritoriaze registracia gaiara uamravma erToblivma sawarmom. saqarTvelos TurqeTTan akavSirebs baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenic. Ggardamavali ekonomikis qveynebidan, garda ruseTisa, saqarTvelos partniorebi arian Aazerbaijani, ukraina da somxeTi. saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis TanamSromloba, ori erTnair politikur, ekonomikur da socialur mdgomareobaSi myifi qveynis TanamSromlobaa. maT erTnairad exebaT kavkasiis regionuli problemebi. Oorive gardamavali ekonomikis, mcire Ria ekonomikaze orientirebuli qveyanaa. teritoriuli siaxlove am qveynebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs aqtiuri monawileoba miiRon TRASECA -s proeqtSi. Aam proeqtidan mosalodneli socialur-ekonomikuri efeqtebi orive qveynisTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovania. navTobsadeni baqo-Tbilisi-jeihani da baqo-Tbilisi-sufsa saqarTvelo-azerbaijanis warmatebuli TanamSromlobis proeqtebia. ganviTarebuli qveynebidan saqarTvelos partniorebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili ganekuTvnebaT aSS-s, did britaneTsa da germanias. Kkvlav aqtualuria TRASECA. aSS-ma am proeqtis farglebSi Tavis Tavze aiRo azia-evropis satransporto derefnis usafrTxoebis dacva. saqarTvelos mxarisTvis mniSvnelovania am qveynebis finansuri daxmareba, arsebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, sagadamxdelo balansis deficitis regulirebaSi da makroekonomikuri wonasworobis uzrunvelyofaSi. garda calke aRebuli qveynebisa, saqarTvelo aqtiurad TanamSromlobs evrokavSiris qveynebTan, Savi zRvis auzis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizaciis qveynebTan da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis qveynebTan – savaWro kavSirebis gafarToebis xaziT; dsT-s qveynebTan savaWro kavSirebis gadaxedvis kuTxiT, saqarTvelo-ruseTis gamwvavebuli urTierTobebis gamo. 2003-2009 wlebSi saqarTvelos eqsportisa da importis maCveneblebi mzardia qveynebis oTxive jgufis mixedviT. statistika metyvelebs saqarTvelos savaWro TanamSromlobis evropul orientaciaze. Tumca am SemTxvevaSic gadauWrel problemad rCeba eqsportisa da importis struqturuli optimizaciis sakiTxi. rac SeexebaT dsT-is qveynebs, maT Soris gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs qarTul-rusuli urTierTobebi, savaWro ekonomikuri kavSirebis CaTvliT [1,3]. 2004 wlamde, aTeulobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi, saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeboda ruseTTan TanamSromlobas. saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobebi – politikuri, ekonomiuri, kulturuli, religiuri _ atarebda istoriul xasiaTs. saqarTvelo da ruseTi, rogorc ori mezobeli da damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, wlebis manZilze viTardebodnen erTiani, teritoriulad didi da ekonomiurad Zlieri qveynis – ssrk-is SemadgenlobaSi. orive qveyanas miniWebuli aqvs gardamavali ekonomikis qveynis statusi da msgavsi sastarto pirobebiT orientirebuli arian Ria ekonomikuri sistemis Seqmnaze, saqarTvelo mcire Ria ekonomikuri sistemis Seqmnaze, ruseTi ki didi Ria ekonomikuri sistemis Seqmnaze. saqarTvelos ruseTze ekonomikuri damokidebulebis xarisxi maRali iyo 2004 wlamde. 1998-2004 wlebSi ruseTze modioda saqarTvelos sagareo savaWro brunvis 19,46%, eqsportis saerTo moculobis 22,89% da importis saerTo moculobis 18,08%. Eqsport-importis operaciebi xorcieldeboda 97 sasaqonlo poziciis mixedviT. eqsportSi didi xvedriTi wilis maCvenebliT warmodgenili iyo mineraluri wylebi, Rvino, spirtiani sasmelebi, kakali, madnebi da koncentratebi, feroSenadnobebi da sxv.; importSi – navTobproduqtebi, eleqtroenergia, xorblis fqvili, sakonditro nawarmi, samkurnalo saSualebebi da sxv. 2002-2004 wlebSi aRiniSneboda rogorc eqsportis, 84


ise importis zrda. eqsportis zrdis tempma 2003 wels 2002 welTan SedarebiT Seadgina 144%, 2004 wels 138,3% 2003 welTan SedarebiT da 199,2% 2002 welTan SedarebiT. importis Sesabamisi maCveneblebi toli iyo: 136%-is, 172%-is da 234%-is. wliuri zrdis tempebi metyvelebs imaze, rom ruseTidan importi saqarTveloSi izrdeboda ufro swrafad vinem saqarTvelos eqsporti ruseTSi. 2005 wlidan dawyebuli ruseTTan saqarTvelos eqsportica da importic klebadi aqvs. man, 2007 wels, saqarTvelos umsxviles savaWro partniorTa pirvel aTeulSi (TurqeTi, ukraina, ruseTi,Aazerbaijani, germania, aSS, bulgareTi, arabTa gaerTianebuli emiratebi, CineTi da TurqmeneTi) mesame adgilze gadainacvla. 2003-2009 wlebis statistikuri monacemebis misedviT [4,5] saqarTvelos produqcia eqsportirdeba evropis 41, aziis 42, afrikis 19,amerikis 29 da okeaneTis 3 qveyanaSi, sul msoflios 134 qveyanaSi. qarTuli produqciis momxmarebelTa pirvel aTeulSi Sedian: TurqeTi, aSS, avRaneTi, somxeTi, kanada, bulgareTi, germania, ruseTi, TurqmeneTi da gaerTianebuli samefo. saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad importirdeba Sualeduri saqoneli da samomxmareblo saqoneli [4] kapitalur saqonelTan erTad, Sualeduri saqonelis xvedriTi wilis maCvenebelma importis saerTo moculobaSi Seadgina 2007 wels _ 63,5%, 2006 wels _ 69,8%, 2005 wels _ 60,8%, 2004 wels _ 62,4%, 2003 wels _ 65,7%; samomxmareblo saqonelma Sesabamisad, 2007 wels _ 36,1%, 2006 wels _ 38,0%, 2005 wels _ 37,7%, 2004 wels _ 35,6% da 2003 wels _ 33,9%. sagareo vaWrobis operaciebidan saqarTveloSi umniSvnelovanesia reeqsportis operacia. Mmas gansakuTrebul aqtualobas sZens satransporto derefani. Tavisi perspeqtiviTa da mniSvnelobiT azia-evropis derefani saqarTveloSi badebs sagareo vaWrobis Tvisobrivi ganviTarebis perspeqtivas. kerZod, ganviTardeba momsaxurebiT vaWroba, rac msoflios nebismieri qveynisTvis sasurvelia. Ggaizrdeba qveynis Semosavlebi, Seiqmneba importis struqturis gaumjobesebis realuri perspeqtiva. saqonlis eqsportsa da imports Caenacvleba momsaxurebis eqsporti da importi. Tu ar Semcirdeba sagareo savaWro balansis deficiti, mas eqneba gamarTleba im mxriv, rom qveyanaSi gaumjobesdeba sainvesticio garemo amrigad, saqarTvelos sagareo savaWro balansis qronikulad mzardi deficitis pirobebSi obieqturi mizezebiT gamowveuli, eqsport-importis arasasurveli struqtura aqvs. importis moculobasa da struqturas gansazRvravs arsebuli ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri viTareba. Mmoxmarebul mSp-Si importi didi xvedriTi wilis maCvenebliT aris warmodgenili: 2007 weli _ 51,2%, 2006 weli47,3%, 2005 weli _ 38,8%, 2004 weli _ 36,0%, 2003 weli _ 29,6% [4,5] Dda struqturulad, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, erTjeradi moxmarebis saqonelisagan Sedgeba. Aarc erTi da arc meore maCvenebeli axali ar aris – ase iyo sabWoTa periodSi da asea axlac. Ggansxvaveba imaSia, rom imports sabWoTa periodSi saqarTvelosTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba ar hqinda. amJamad ki maszea damokidebuli, mniSvnelovanwilad, qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri mowyobis bedi. rac Seexeba eqsports, gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi sagareo ekonomikuri reformis dawyeisTaneve, daiwyo aqtiuri muSaoba eqsportis struqturis gaumjobesebasTan dakavSirebiT. Mmagram yvelaferi dasrulda cnobili movlenebiT. Ddamoukidebel qveynebSi daiSala ekonomikuri sistemebi. importma SeiZina sasicocxlo mniSvneloba. Aaman ki moiTxova eqsportis sanedleulo struqturis SenarCuneba. amasTan, deficiturma samomxmareblo bazarma da momxmarebelTa dabalma Semosavlebma, arsebul struqturaSi astimulira importirebuli produqciis dabali xarisxi. Kkidev ufro gauaresda importis struqtura da xarisxobrivi maCveneblebi. 85


aucilebelia iTqvas isic, rom saqarTveloSi sagareo vaWroba, rogorc raodenobrivad ise struqturulad, warmoadgens ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Sedegsac da stabilurobis damoukidebel faqtorsac. 2003 wels, xelisuflebis erTi jgufis mier minimaluri xelfasebis gazrdis iniciativas swored samomxmareblo importis gafarToveba edo safuZvlad [1]. perspeqtivaSi saqarTvelos, msoflios sxva nebismieri qveynis msgavsad, globaluri konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis xelSemwyobi sagareo savaWro kavSirebi sWirdeba, raodenobrivadac da struqturuladac. sagulisxmoa, rom sagareo (saerTaSoriso) vaWroba, msoflio bankis angariSebis mixedviT, biznesis keTebis simartivis indeqsSi erT-erTia, Tanabari wonebiT warmodgenil 10 indikators Soris [2] biznesis keTebis simartivis reitingSi saqarTvelos pirveli adgili ukavia evropisa da centraluri aziis im qveynebs Soris, romlebSic mosaxleobis simWidrove aris saSualo, Semosavlebi ki saSualoze dabali. rac Seexeba indikatorebs, pirveli indikatoria sawarmoebis registracia (am indikatoris mixedviT saqarTvelo 5-e adgilzea, axali zelandiis, kanadis, avstraliisa da singapuris Semdeg); meorea mSeneblobis nebarTvis miReba (saqarTvelo 7-e adgilzea); mesame _ samuSao Zalis daqiraveba (9-e adgilze varT); meoTxe _ qonebis registracia (2-e adgilze varT saudis arabeTis Semdeg); mexuTe _ dakrediteba (30-e adgili gvikavia); meeqvse _ investiciebis dacva (41-e adgili gvikavia); meSvide _ dabegvra (64-e adgili gvikavia); merve _ saerTaSoriso vaWroba (30-e adgili gvikavia; mecxre _ kontraqtebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa (41-e adgili gvikavia); meaTe _ warmoebis likvidacia (95-e adgili gvikavia). ocdameaTe adgili sagareo vaWrobis indikatoris mixedviT, saqarTvelos konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis realur SesaZleblobaze miuTiTebs. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is faqtic, rom sagareo vaWrobis indikatorebis (eqsportisa da importis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro dokumentebis raodenoba, dro da Rirebuleba) maCveneblebiT saqarTvelo win uswrebs evropisa da centraluri aziis regionsac da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciasac. literatura: 1. naTelauri i., sagareo ekonomikuri kompleqsis funqcionireba da ganviTareba gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi mcire Ria ekonomikiT (saqarTvelos magaliTze). Tbilisi, `mecniereba~, 2004; 2. naTelauri i., naTelauri n., saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso konkurentunarianoba. Jur. Ekonomisti, 2010w., # 4; 3. naTelauri i., TaflaZe T., saqarTvelos eqsporti postkomunistur periodSi da misi gavlena qveynis konkurentunarianobaze. Ppaata guguSvilis ekonomikis institutis samecniero Sromebis krebuli, t.2, Tbilisi, paata guguSvilis ekonomikis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009; 4. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri tendenciebi. ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTul-evropuli centri, Tbilisi, 2008; 5. saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli 2009 saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro, statistikis departamenti, Tbilisi, 2009; 6. wereTeli g., naTelauri i., bibilaSvili n., saqarTvelo ruseTis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da perspeqtivebi. Jur. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis `macne~, ekonomikis seria, Tbilisi, 2004, t. 3-4. 86


ia nacvliSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori mewarmeobisadmi damokidebuleba saqarTveloSi (empiriuli kvlevis Sedegebi Tbilisis magaliTze) samewarmeo saqmianobas udidesi roli ekisreba rogorc mikrodoneze calkeul bazrebze inovaciuri produqtebisa da momsaxurebis saxeebis SeTavazebiT, aseve makroekonomikuri masStabiT dasaqmebis donis gazrdasa da qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi. samewarmeo saqmianobis sakiTxebis Seswavlas didi yuradReba eTmoba ekonomikur literaturasa da biznesis Semswavlel mecnierebebSi. bolo sami aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi Catarebulma kvlevebma aCvena, rom mewarmeoba ekonomikuri zrdis erT-erTi mTvari mamoZravebeli Zalaa (Acs da sxv. 2004; Audretsch da Keilbach 2004; Wennekers 2006). sadReisod samecniero literaturaSi dagrovda mdidari masala sxvadasxva qveyanaSi samewarmeo saqmianobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis da mewarmeobisadmi damokidebulebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb ( Blanchflower da sxv., 2001; Wennekers, 2006). cxadi gaxda, rom samewarmeo saqmianobasa da individebis mewarmeobisadmi damokidebulebaSi arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi ara mxolod supra-nacionalur doneze qveynebs Soris, aramed nacionalur donezec qveynis SigniT regionebis mixedviT (Sternberg, 2000; Parker, 2005; Fritsch da Mueller, 2006; Tamรกsy 2006). ukanaskneli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos ekonomikasa da socialur sistemaSi mimdinare transformaciuli procesebi, cxadia, udides gavlenas axdenen mosaxleobis samewarmeo saqmianobisadmi ganwyobis formirebaze. Giwvevs Tu ara saqarTveloSi mimdinare reformebis procesSi warmoSobili siZneleebi da problemebi uaryofiTi damokidebulebis Camoyalibebas mewarmeobisadmi? iwvevs Tu ara aRniSnuli procesebi mewarmeobis survilis gaqrobas Tu piriqiT? ramdenad Rrmadaa gacnobierebuli mosaxleobis mier mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebuli riskebi da saSiSroebebi? rogoria mosaxleobis survilebi da molodini samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebisadmi, TviTdasaqmebis perspeqtivisadmi momavali uaxloesi wlebis ganmavlobaSi? am kiTxvebze amomwuravi pasuxebis misaRebad mravalwliani da farTomasStabiani gamokvlevebis Catarebaa saWiro. Mmsgavsi kvlevis erT-erT pirvel nabijad SeiZleba CavTvaloT Tbilisis masStabiT respondentTa eqspres-gamokiTxva. gamokiTxvis Sedegebi saSualebas iZleva SevafasoT rogorc maTi ganwyoba mewarmeobisadmi, aseve monacemTa analizis gziT vimsjeloT saqarTveloSi mewarmeobisadmi mosaxleobis damokidebulebis ZiriTad tendenciebze. 2010 wlis ivlis-seqtemberSi avtoris mier Catarebuli eqspres-gamokiTxvis sakvlev Temas warmoadgenda saqarTveloSi mewarmeobisadmi mosaxleobis damokidebulebis specifikuri niSnebis, mewarmeobisadmi ganwyobis sxvadasxva aspeqtis, momavalTan dakavSirebuli molodinis, aseve TviTdasaqmebisa da samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebisaTvis mimzidveli dargebis gamovlena. kvlevis obieqti iyo Tbilisis sxvadasxva ubanSi mcxovrebi individebi da ojaxebi (Sinameurneobebi). cxadia, es obieqti ar aris reprezentatuli mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT, magram unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom Tbilisi yvelaze didi qalaqia saqarTveloSi, sadac 87


qveynis mosaxleobis mesamedi cxovrobs. ASesabamisad, TbilisSi mcxovrebi respodentebis ganwyoba sakmarisi sizustiT unda asaxavdes saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis ganwyobis ZiriTad tendenciebs. gamokvlevis hipoTezaa is, rom saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis maRali donisa da mimdinare ekonomikuri gardaqmnebis fonze arsebuli siZneleebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aseve ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi met-naklebad warmatebuli reformebis fonze, mosalodneli unda yofiliyo TviTdasaqmebis didi survili da momavalSi samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebis aseve didi molodini. kvlevis meTods warmoadgenda anketuri gamokiTxva araalbaTuri SerCevis sxvadasxva saxeebis gamoyenebiT. kerZod, gamoyenebul iqna egreTwodebuli stiqiuri SerCevis da `quCis SerCevis~ tipi. stiqiuri SerCeva gamoiyeneba quCaSi adamianebis gamokiTxvisas. igi sxva meTodebTan SedarebiT ufro martivi, iafi da naklebreprezentatulia. SeuZlebelia ganzogadebis moxdena mTel populaciaze. Mmiuxedavad am xarvezisa, stiqiuri SerCeva xSirad gamoiyeneba socialur kvlevebSi, rac swored misi simartiviT da moxerxebulobiT aixsneba (wulaZe l. 2008; gv. 4344). `quCis SerCevis~ tipis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi interviuerebi gamokiTxaven respondentebs winaswar gansazRvrul adgilebze (zurabiSvili T. da sxv. 2006; gv. 105106). Ppirveladi informacia Segrovebul iqna ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis TbilisSi mcxovrebi studentebis mier sakuTari ojaxis wevrebis, mezoblad mcxovrebi Sinameurneobebis, aseve Tbilisis sxvadasxva ubanSi mcxovrebi ojaxebisa da individebis gamokiTxvis gziT (ix. danarTi 1 _ kiTxvari). aseTi gziT miRebuli SerCevis erToblioba moicavs Tbilisis masStabiT generaluri erTobliobisTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs. respondentebi iyvnen Tbilisis sxvadasxva ubanSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva asakis, ganaTlebis, sqesis, socialuri statusis, Semosavlebis mqone adamianebi (ix. danarTi 2 – respondentTa demografiuli monacemebi). sul gamoikiTxa 1116 respondenti. miRebuli monacemebi damuSavda SPSS programis saSualebiT. kvlevis Sedegebi STambeWdavia da xazsgasmiT warmoaCenen saqarTveloSi mewarmeobisadmi damokidebulebis specifikas Tbilisis magaliTze. empiriuli masalis analizi adasturebs, rom respodentTa 91,5% isurvebda yofiliyo TviTdasaqmebuli. am mxriv evropelebi bevrad ufro TavSekavebulni arian. evrokavSirSi respodentTa mxolod 45% gamoTqvams TviTdasaqmebis da mewarmeobis dawyebis survils. aSS-Si msgavs survils gamoTqvams 65%, xolo CineTSi – 71%. (Who want to be an entrepreneur?; http://www.euronews.net/2010/06/14/who-want-to-be-an-entrepreneur/ ; 14/06 20:59 CET 2010; last retrieved July 10, 2010). ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi warmatebuli reformebis fonze sustia uaryofiTi ganwyoba mewarmeobisadmi. UmaRali umuSevrobis donis fonze mniSvnelovnad didia TviTdasaqmebis survili. aseve, Zlieria momavalSi samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebis molodini. saqarTveloSi Tbilisel respodentTa pozitiuri damokidebuleba mewarmeobisadmi mianiSnebs respodentTa Tavdajerebulobaze, socialuri da politikuri stabilurobis gancdis arsebobaze, bazarze orientirebuli ekonomikuri reformebis warmatebis molodinze. gansakuTrebuli interesis sagans warmoadgens gamokiTxul adamianTa amJamindeli samewarmeo saqmianobis faqtiuri mdgomareoba. respodentTa pasuxebi kiTxvaze `eweviT Tu ara mewarmeobas (gaqvT Tu ara sakuTari biznesi)?~ cxadyofs, rom respodentTa 81,8% ar eweoda mewarmeobas. Mmxolod 10.0% iyo TviTdasaqmebuli. 88


6,1% eweoda mewarmeobas mcire an saSualo biznesSi, xolo 1.4% _ msxvil biznesSi. monacemebi ar aris respodentTa 0,6%-dan (ix. diagrama #1). aRsaniSnavia, rom evrokavSirSi respodentTa 12% aris dakavebuli samewarmeo saqmianobiT, iaponiaSi _ 15%, aSS-Si – 21%, CineTSi _ 27%. diagrama #1

respodentTa 91,5% dadebiTad pasuxobs kiTxvaze `rom SegeZloT, isurvebdiT Tu ara yofiliyaviT TviTdasaqmebuli?~. uaryofiTad pasuxobs 6,0%. monacemebi ar gvaqvs respodentTa 2,5%-dan. respodentTa didi nawili (48,4%) mewarmeobisaTvis yvelaze did saSiSroebad miiCnevs araregularul Semosavlebs. Ggakotrebis safrTxe saSiSoroebad miaCnia respodentTa 39,6%-s (ix. diagrama #2). saqarTveloSi es maCveneblebi gansxvavdeba evropisa da sxva qveynebis monacemebisagan. CinelebisaTvis mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebul saSiSroebaTa Soris pirvel adgilzea gakotrebis safrTxe _ 56%. evropelebisTvisac mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebul saSiSroebaTa Soris pirvel adgilzea gakotrebis safrTxe _ 49%. aSS-Si da da iaponiaSi, qarTvelebis msagavsad, mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebul saSiSroebaTa Soris pirvel adgilzea araregularuli, arastabiluri Semosavlebi. aSS-Si respodentTa 46% fiqrobs ase, xolo iaponiaSi 37%. (Who want to be an entrepreneur?; http://www.euronews.net/2010/06/14/who-want-to-be-anentrepreneur/; 14/06 20:59 CET 2010; last retrieved July 10, 2010). 89


diagrama #2

gamokiTxulTa naxevarze meti (51,4%) imeds gamoTqvams, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxdeba mewarmeobiT dakavebuli. PkiTxvaze _ “migaCniaT Tu ara, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxdebiT mewarmeobiT dakavebuli?� _ pasuxebi Semdegnairad gadanawilda: diax, gavxdebi TviTdasaqmebuli _ 25,6%; diax, daviwyeb mewarmeobas mcire an saSualo biznesSi _ 20,8%; diax, daviwyeb mewarmeobas msxvil biznesSi _ 5%; ara _ 46,1%; monacemebi ar aris respodentTa 2,5%-dan (ix. Ddiagrama #3). diagrama #3

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gansakuTrebiT aRniSvnis Rirsia is garemoeba, rom respodenta 82,6%-s urCevnia iyos TviTdasaqmebuli. respodentTa mxolod 13,9 %-s urCevnia iyos sxva organizaciis/piris mier daqiravebuli. monacemebi ar aris respodentTa 3,5%-dan. TviTdasaqmebis didi survilis miuxedavad, paradoqsulad Cans is faqti, rom respodentTa udides nawils (55,7%) urCevnia dasaqmeba saxelmwifo seqtorSi da ara kerZo seqtorSi. KkerZo seqtorSi dasaqmebas amjobinebs respodentTa 41,2%. monacemebi ar aris respodentTa 3,1%-dan. aseTi paradoqsuli viTareba SesaZlebelia imiT aixsnas, rom saqarTveloSi respodentebs mewarmeobasTan (da Sesabamisad kerZo biznesTan) dakavSirebuli saSiSroebebidan yvelaze did saSiSroebad miaCniaT araregularuli Semosavlebi. Aam mxriv saxelmwifo seqtorSi dasaqmeba respodentTa mier, savaraudod, stabiluri Semosavlebis miRebis garantad aRiqmeba. gansakuTrebuli interesis sagania respodentTa pasuxebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli seqtori miaCniaT yvelaze ufro sasurvelad mewarmeobis dawyebis TvalsazrisiT. raoden saocaric ar unda iyos respodentTa umravlesoba mewarmeobis dasawyebad yvelaze ufro sasurvelad miiCnevs ganaTlebis, kulturisa da dasvenebis seqtors (19,5%). sasurveli seqtoris mixedviT ranJirebisas pirvel xuTeulSia: safinanso, sabanko da sadazRevo momsaxureba (15,3%); turizmi da sakurorto meurneoba (14,7%); vaWroba/komercia (11,6%); jandacva (9,5%) (ix. diagrama #4). kiTxvaze _ `arCevanis saSualeba rom gqondeT, romel seqtorSi isurvebdiT TviTdasaqmebas/mewarmeobis dawyebas?~ _ respodentTa pasuxi Semdegia: soflis meurneoba da soflis meurneobis produqtebis gadamuSaveba _ 5,4%; mrewveloba _ 5,2%; vaWroba/komercia _ 11,6%; mSenebloba _ 3,0%; transporti _ 2,1%; kavSirgabmuloba _ 2,7%; saTbobi, energetika _ 0,7%; turizmi, sakurorto meurneoba _ 14,7%; safinanso, sabanko, sadazRevo momsaxureba _ 15,3%; operaciebi uZravi qonebiT _ 2,2%; jandacva _ 9,5%; ganaTleba, kultura, dasveneba _ 19,5%; sastumroebi da restornebi, kvebis obieqtebi _ 3,8%; sxva momsaxureba _ 3.6%; monacemebi ar aris _ 0,8%. diagrama #4

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Damgvarad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom gamokiTxvis Sedegad mopovebuli empiriuli masalis analizi adasturebs kvlevis hipoTezas. ukanaskneli wlebis reformebis fonze arc Tu ise didia uaryofiTi ganwyoba mewarmeobisadmi. UmaRali umuSevrobis donis fonze mniSvnelovnad didia TviTdasaqmebis survili. aseve, Zlieria momavalSi samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebis molodini. respodentTa umetesoba (48%) mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebul yvelaze did saSiSroebad araregularul Semosavlebs miiCnevs. gamokiTxulTa 51,4% Tvlis, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi dakavdeba mewarmeobiT. Tbilisel respodentTa pozitiuri damokidebuleba mewarmeobisadmi mianiSnebs maT TviTdajerebulobaze, socialuri da politikuri stabilurobis gancdaze, bazarze orientirebuli ekonomikuri reformebis warmatebis molodinze. danarTi 1. respodentTa demografiuli monacemebi ganaTleba 1. saSualo 23.0% 2. saSualo profesiuli/teqnikuri 17.0% 3. umaRlesi 59.0% monacemebi ar aris 0.9% samuSao adgili 1. dausaqmebeli/droebiT umuSevari 46.5% 2. daqiravebuli sxva kerZo organizaciis/piris mier 19.7% 3. daqiravebuli sabiujeto organizaciis mier 14.8% 4. TviTdasaqmebuli 11.2% 5. mewarme/biznesmeni mcire da/an saSualo biznesSi 4.1% 6. mewarme/biznesmeni msxvil biznesSi 0.6% monacemebi ar aris 3.0% saSualo Tviuri piradi Semosavali 1. 150 larze naklebi 34.8% 2. 150-550 laramde 40.1% 3. 550 laridan 2000 laramde 15.6% 4. 2000-ze meti 2.9% monacemebi ar aris 6.7% asaki 1. 15-25 weli 36.9% 2. 25-45 weli 34.9% 3. 45-65 weli 24.8% 4. 65 weli da meti 2.3% monacemebi ar aris 1.2 % sqesi 1. MmdedrobiTi 73.25 2. mamrobiTi 25.9% monacemebi ar aris 0.9%

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danarTi 2. kiTxvari gTxovT, yuradRebiT gaecnoT qvemoT dasmul SekiTxvebs da savaraudo pasuxebidan SemoxazoT TqvenTvis misaRebi mxolod erTi pasuxi. 1.

EeweviT Tu ara mewarmeobas (gaqvT Tu ara sakuTari biznesi)? 1. diax, var TviTdasaqmebuli 2.diax, vewevi mewarmeobas mcire da/an saSualo biznesSi 3.diax, vewevi mewarmeobas msxvil biznesSi 4.ara 2. rom SegeZloT isurvebdiT Tu ara yofiliyaviT TviTdasaqmebuli? 1. Ddiax 2.Aara 3. Tqveni azriT ra aris yvelaze ufro didi saSiSroeba samewarmeo saqmianobisaTvis? 1. gakotrebis safrTxe 2. araregularuli, arastabiluri Semosavlebi 3. sxva 4. migaCniaT Tu ara, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxdebiT mewarmeobiT dakavebuli? 1. diax, gavxdebi TviTdasaqmebuli 2.diax, daviwyeb mewarmeobas mcire da/an saSualo biznesSi 3.diax, daviwyeb mewarmeobas msxvil biznesSi 4.ara 5. arCevanis saSualeba rom gqondeT, TviTdasaqmebuli girCevniaT iyoT Tu sxva organizaciis/piris mier daqiravebuli? 1. TviTdasaqmebuli 2. sxva organizaciis/piris mier daqiravebuli 6. arCevanis saSualeba rom gqondeT, saxelmwifo seqtorSi (sabiujeto organizaciebSi) isurvebdiT dasaqmebas Tu kerZo seqtorSi? 1. saxelmwifo seqtorSi 2. kerZo seqtorSi 7. arCevanis saSualeba rom gqondeT, romel seqtorSi isurvebdiT TviTdasaqmebas/mewarmeobis dawyebas? 1. soflis meurneoba da sasoflo sameurneo produqtebis gadamuSaveba 2. mrewveloba 3. vaWroba/komercia 4. mSenebloba 5. transporti, 6. kavSirgabmuloba 7. saTbobi, energetika 8. turizmi, sakurorto meurneoba 9. safinanso. sabanko. sadazRevo momsaxureba 10.operaciebi uZravi qonebiT 11.jandacva 12. ganaTleba, kultura, dasveneba 13. sastumroebi da restornebi, kvebis obieqtebi 93


14.sxva momsaxureba 8. asaki: 1. 15-25 weli 2. 25-45 weli 3. 45-65 weli 4. 65 weli da meti 9. sqesi: 1. mdedrobiTi 2. mamrobiTi 10. ganaTleba 1. saSualo 2. saSualo profesiuli/teqnikuri 3. umaRlesi 11. saSualo Tviuri piradi Semosavali 1. 150 larze naklebi 2. 150-550 laramde 3. 550 laridan 2000 laramde 4. 2000-ze meti 12. samuSao adgili/dasaqmeba 1. dausaqmebeli/droebiT umuSevari 2. daqiravebuli sxva kerZo organizaciis/piris mier 3. daqiravebuli sabiujeto organizaciis mier 4. TviTdasaqmebuli 5. mewarme/biznesmeni mcire da/an saSualo biznesSi 6. mewarme/biznesmeni msxvil biznesSi

l i t e r a t u r a: 1. Tamar zurabiSvili, TinaTin zurabiSvili. sociologiuri kvlevis meTodika. raodenobrivi meTodebi. saleqcio kursi. samoqalaqo ganaTlebis proeqti. socialur mecnierebis magistrebisaTvis. socialur mecnierebaTa centri. Tbilisi 2006; 2. lia wulaZe. raodenobrivi kvlevis meTodebi socialur mecnierebebSi. socialur mecnierebaTa centri. Tbilisi 2008; 3. hasidi iosef, komselisi aleqsios-stefanos, iren fafalious da maria fsilakisis monawileobiT, ,,Sesavali mewarmeobaSi’’ nawili III, samewarmeo mcire firmebis menejmenti. pireusis universiteti – ivnisi, 2008, Tbilisis universiteti – dekemberi 2008. http://entrepreneurshipgeorgia.unipi.gr/files/intro_to_entrepreneurship_part3_geo.pdf ; 4. hasidi iosef, komselisi aleqsios-stefanos, - `mewarmeobis Sesavali”, nawili II, mewarmeoba _ ekonomikuri zrdis mamoZravebeli Zala. pireusis universiteti – 2007 wlis maisi, Tsu - 2008 wlis Tebervali. http://www.europeeac.com/tbilisi/files/intro_to_entrepreneurship_part2_geo.pdf; 5. hasidi iosef, komselisi aleqsios-stefanos- `mewarmeobis Sesavali”, nawili I, mewarmeobis Teoria, samewarmeo saqmianobis mimoxilva, leqciebis kursi. pireo94


sis universiteti – 2007 wlis maisi, Tsu - 2007 wlis noemberi, http://www.europeeac.com/tbilisi/files/INTRODUCTION%20TO%20ENTREPRENEURSHIP_ver2R_geo.pdf ; 6. Acs, Z., Audretsch, D., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. (2003). “The Missing Link: The Knowledge Filter and Endogenous Growth.” Center for Business and Policy Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; 7. Audretsch, D. B. and M. Keilbach (2004), Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Performance, Regional Studies 38(8), 949–960; 8. Bosma, N.S., A.J. Van Stel, K. Suddle (2006), The Geography of New Firm Formation: Evidence from Independent Start-ups and New Subsidiaries in the Netherlands, EIM Research Report; 9. Bosma Niels, Mapping Entrepreneurial Activity and Entrepreneurial Attitudes in European Regions. www.supdeco-montpellier.com/fileadmin/cerom/img/iecer/Bosma.pdf ; last retrieved Noveber 10, 2010 10. Blanchflower, D.G., A. Oswald and A. Stutzer (2001), Latent Entrepreneurship across Nations, European Economic Review 45, pp. 680-691; 11. Fritsch, M. & Mueller, P. (2006). The evolution of regional entrepreneurship and growth regimes. In Fritsch, M. & Schmude, J. (2006), Entrepreneurship in the region. International Studies in Entrepreneurship, 14. New York: Springer Science; 12. Mohd Noor, Mohd Shariff, Mohammad Basir Saud; An Attitude Approach to the Prediction of Entrepreneurship on Students at Institution of Higher Learning in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Management April, 2009 page 129-135; 13. Parker S. C. (2005) Explaining regional variations in entrepreneurship as multiple equilibria, Journal of Regional Science 45, pp. 829–850; 14. Tamásy, C. (2006) Determinants of Regional Entrepreneurship Dynamics in Contemporary Germany: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis, Regional Studies 40(4), p364-384; 15. Wennekers, A.R.M. (2006). Entrepreneurship at country level; Economic and non-economic determinants. ERIM Ph.D. Series Research in Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam http://www.euronews.net/2010/06/14/who-want-to-be-an16. Who want to be an entrepreneur?; entrepreneur/ 14/06 20:59 CET 2010; last retrieved July 10, 2010

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НЕСТЕРОВА АНАСТАСИЯ, Республика Беларусь Белорусский государственный университет Старший преподаватель МИГРАЦИЯ ТРУДОВЫХ РЕСУРСОВ НА ПОСТСОВЕТСКОМ ПРОСТРАНСТВЕ Заметные масштабы трудовая миграция приобрела на постсоветском пространстве. По оценкам, в ней участвуют около 4-5% занятого населения. Разрывы в уровнях экономического развития и материального благополучия в странах Содружества огромны и нарастают. Так, коэффициент вариации среднедушевого ВВП в государствах-участницах СНГ в 2007 году достигал 67%, а его максимальный показатель в России превосходил минимальный в Таджикистане почти в 9 раз. Трудовая миграция оказывает значительное воздействие на конъюнктуру рынка труда, позволяя улучшить сбалансированность между спросом на рабочую силу и ее предложением. В настоящее время Россия является основной принимающей стороной и главным миграционным партнером для государств-участников СНГ, поскольку здесь относительно более высокие оплата труда и уровень жизни, а также больше возможностей найти работу. Динамичное развитие и сравнительно высокий уровень оплаты труда делают Казахстан привлекательным для рабочих мигрантов из бывших советских республик (Киргизстан, Таджикистан и Узбекистан). Эти факторы в сочетании с географической близостью, безвизовым режимом, «прозрачностью» пересечения границ, общностью культуры и языка, наличием родственных связей и деловых отношений, конвертируемостью дипломов об образовании формируют потоки трудовых мигрантов внутри СНГ в пользу России и Казахстана. Более высокие показатели уровня жизни и зарплаты формируют достаточно большие потоки трудовых мигрантов из стран СНГ в экономически развитые страны. Таблица 1. Численность иностранных работников, занятых в экономике, из стран СНГ в 2009, чел.

Всего В том числе: прибывшие из стран СНГ Азербайджана Армении Беларуси Казахстана Кыргызстана Молдовы России Таджикистана Туркменистана Узбекистана Украины Прибывшие из других стран мира

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Принимающие страны Беларусь Казахстан 4835 30988

Молдова 590

Россия 2223596

Украина 19030

1943

2749

131

1648250

5844

77 77 56 5 118 1 104 3 163 1308 2892

426 10 55 75 87 1276 168 25 213 372 28239

8 8 5 2 1 39 1 59 459

60664 81970 11187 156110 101894 359215 2419 666286 205312 575346

705 135 586 95 141 513 2441 41 236 682 13186


В Украине и Беларуси потоки трудовых мигрантов направлены как въезд, так и на выезд. Азербайджан, Армения, Кыргызстан, Молдова и, Таджикистан и Узбекистан продолжают оставаться государствами, где преобладает выезд граждан на работу за границу. Для стран, экспортирующих рабочую силу, переводы мигрантов стали важным фактором экономического развития. В Таджикистане и Кыргызстане трансферты из России достигают 11-14 %, в Азербайджане – 8, в Молдове – 5-6. Для стран СНГ трудовая миграция имеет множество положительных моментов. Благодаря мигрантам развиваются целые сектора экономики принимающих стран: торговля, строительство, транспортные услуги, сельское хозяйство. Трудовые иммигранты заполняют ниши на рынке труда с тяжелыми условиями работы, на которые не всегда соглашаются местные жители. За счет трудовой иммиграции можно уменьшить дефицит трудовых ресурсов на региональных рынках труда. Однако страны-участницы Содружество не в полной мере используют взаимные выгоды от миграции. Так, в согласно Докладу о развитии человека-2009 «Преодоление барьеров: человеческая мобильность и развитие», странам СНГ необходимо осознать взаимную пользу от миграции и реформировать миграционную политику, позитивно реагируя на проблемы, связанные с мировой рецессией и будущим развитием. «При необходимости с помощью миграции можно заполнить многие ожидаемые вакансии на рынке трудовых ресурсов, особенно в секторе неквалифицированного труда, - отмечается в докладе. - Чтобы это стало возможно, необходимо признать права мигрантов и снять ограничения на передвижение. Барьеры для передвижения людей, принимающие различные формы, могут провоцировать нелегальную миграцию». В условиях сокращения численности населения и нарастающего дефицита трудовых ресурсов в принимающих странах становится актуальной идея создания общего рынка труда и миграционного пространства в рамках СНГ, где будут полностью устранены все препятствия для людей, осуществляющих трудовую миграцию. В ближайшей перспективе следует ожидать нарастания конкуренции за трудовых мигрантов между постсоветскими трудодефицитными странами и стареющей Европой. При этом старение европейского населения будет сопровождаться кардинальной перестройкой рынков труда. Одним из направлений этой перестройки станет увеличение спроса на труд мигрантов и обострение конкуренции за привлечение иностранной рабочей силы. Кроме того, в европейский миграционный поток все активнее будут вливаться трудовые контингенты из России и Казахстана. Таким образом, Европа будет перетягивать в свою сторону не только мигрантов из западных республик, но и возрастающее число квалифицированных рабочих из иных трудодефицитных республик постсоветского пространства. Особенно это справедливо в отношении молодых возрастных групп населения, в которых нехватка трудовых ресурсов ощущается особенно остро. Отток ресурсов на европейские рынки, вероятнее всего, приведет к повышению в Россию и Казахстане спроса на иностранную рабочую силу из Азербайджана, Кыргызстана, Таджикистана и Узбекистана. Поводя итог, можно сказать, что в обозримой перспективе интенсивность трудовой миграции на постсоветском пространстве не только не ослабеет, но, и скорее всего, даже усилится.

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nino papaCaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

globalizacia da neoproteqcionizmi globalizaciis arsebobis sakiTxi, misi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi aspeqtebi ukve ori aTeuli welia iqca samecniero wreebis aqtiuri ganxilvis sagnad. procesi Sinaarsobrivad gulisxmobs qveyanaTa urTierTdamokidebulebas da mis gansakuTrebul zrdas bolo aTwleulebSi. finansur-ekonomikurma krizisma bevri kritikuli kiTxva warmoSva; maT Soris globaluri masStabiT proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis intensiurad, farTod da TiTqmis sayovelTaod gamoyenebam. globalizaciisa da neoproteqcionizmis urTierTmimarTebis srulyofili analizisTvis saWiroa jer kidev garkveuli periodis gavla, magram sainteresoa TviT movlenis gaSuqeba sawyis etapze. qveyanaTa ekonomikuri urTierTdamokidebulebis amaRlebasTan erTad izrdeboda Tavisufali vaWrobis ideis popularoba. mtkicebebi SeuzRudavi savaWro urTierTobebis upiratesobebis Sesaxeb Teoriulad metad gonivrulad gamoiyureba, rac asaxulia saerTaSoriso vaWrobis klasikur TeoriebSi. misi momxreni saTanado politikis gatarebas gvTavazoben. igi farTod aris deklarirebuli vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis debulebasa da ganviTarebuli qveynebis sagareo savaWro politikis koncefciebSi. jer gatt-is (generaluri SeTanxmeba tarifebisa da vaWrobis Sesaxeb), xolo mogvianebiT vmo-is (vaWrobis msoflio organizacia) farglebSi warmoebuli molaparakebebis bazaze Semcirda satarifo barierebi, rogorc saerTaSoriso vaWrobis SezRudvis ZiriTadi forma. konceftualuri aRiarebis miuxedavad msoflio realoba gviCvenebs, rom absoluturad Tavisufali vaWroba dReisaTvis ufro gamonaklisia, vidre wesi. ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis didi winaaRmdegobebia gare bazrebze gasasvlelad. TviT ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris vaWrobaSi farTod gamoiyeneba `aradeklarirebuli~ SezRudvebi. faqtobrivad, msoflio masStabiT farTod gvxvdeba faruli sagareo savaWro proteqcionistuli politikis magaliTebi. praqtikulad dRemde aseve popularulia idea proteqcionizmis Sesaxeb, romlis sistematizebuli koncefcia pirvelad merkantilisturma skolam (XV-XVIII ss.) warmoadgina. proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gatareba gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda Tanamedrove finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi da bevrma farulma damcavma zomam aSkara da gardauvali forma miiRo. aseTi midgoma erovnuli ekonomikis gadarCenis saSualebad miiCnia uamravma qveyanam, rac TiTqmis dauregulirebel situacias qmnis msoflio savaWro urTierTobebSi da did aRSfoTebas iwvevs vaWrobis msoflio organizaciisa da sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mmarTvel wreebSi. faqtobrivad msoflio savaWro urTierTobebi neoproteqcionizmis konteqstSi viTardeba. bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi am movlenis daregulirebas araerTi globaluri masStabis Sexvedra mieZRvna. moxsenebis Tema swored am movlenis gaanalizebaa, romlis safuZvelze gakeTebuli daskvnebi, Cveni azriT, sasrgeblo iqneba Cveni qveynis optimaluri sagareo savaWro politikis formirebisa da gare bazrebze gasvlis efeqtianobis amaRlebisTvis. amave dros, mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia TviT faqtis aRniSvna-dafiqsireba qarTul samecniero publikaciaSi, rasac, albaT, jer kidev uaxloes warsulSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis gamo, ar daTmobia saTanado 98


yuradReba. TviT proteqcionizmis zrdasTan dakavSirebuli araerTi globaluri donis Sexvedris mizans swored informirebulobis amaRleba, procesis monitoringi da misi SeCerebis SesaZleblobebis gamovlena Seadgenda. meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi saerTaSoriso vaWrobis wliuri zrda meryeobda 0-15 %-is farglebSi, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT sam did Cavrdnas, romelTac aSkarad aRemateba mimdinare globaluri finansur-ekonomikuri krizisi. saerTaSoriso vaWrobis mkveTri vardna dafiqsirda 2008 wlis mesame-meoTxe kvartalSi. wina wlis donesTan SedarebiT 15 %-iT daeca vaWrobis moculoba. rogorc eqspertebi afaseben, es iyo meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi msoflio vaWrobis yvelaze mkveTri, moulodneli da sinqronuli kolafsi (1). globaluri vaWrobis dacema sanavTobo SokiT gamowveul recesias ukavSirdeboda 1974-75 wlebSi (dasawyisSi vaWrobis moculoba Semcirda 11 %-iT wina wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT), inflaciuri marcxis recesias _ 1982-83 wlebSi da teqnikuri marcxis recesias 2001-2002 wlebSi (rogorc erTi, ise meore SemTxvevisTvis dasawyisSi vaWrobis moculoba Semcirda 5 %-iT wina wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT). marTalia, amJamad mas ar miuRwevia iseTi siRrmisaTvis, rogorsac didi depresiis periodSi, magram aRmoCnda metad mkveTri da sinqronuli. ,,didi savaWro kolafsi~ gagrZelda 2008 wlis mesame kvartlidan 2009 wlis meore kvartlamde. Semdgomi periodis ganmavlobaSi SeiniSneba mcireodeni gamococxleba. garkveuli SefasebebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis aseTi mkveTri vardnis umTavresi mizezi moTxovnis Sokuri Semcireba iyo. krizisis fonze bevri qveyana ganicdis eqsportisa da importis moculobebis Zlier dacemas, swrafi tempebiT izrdeba umuSevroba. proteqcionistuli politikis gamoyeneba aqtiurad daiwyo vaWrobisa da investiciebis sfroSi. miuxedavad araerTi mcdelobisa, romelic dafiqsirda ,,didi oceulis~ samitebze, vmo-isa da sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis farglebSi gamarTul Sexvedrebsa da mimarTvebSi, proteqcionizmis tendencia mainc Zlierdeba. garTulda savaWro urTierTobebis daregulireba vmo-is farglebSi aRiarebuli wesrigis CarCoebSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom gadawyvetileba saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi barierebis SemoRebis uaryofis Sesaxeb miRebul iqna 2008 wlis noembris didi oceulis Sexvedraze, msoflio moicva sayovelTao proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis talRam _ rogorc reaqciam msoflio finansur-ekonomikur krizisze. dReisaTvis proteqcionizmi vlindeba sxvadasxva formiT. zogierTi gamokvleviT 600-ze meti saxelmwifo RonisZieba gatarda am TvalsazrisiT, maTgan didi oceulis qveynebze modis _ 179. yvela maTgani ar aris zianis momtani komerciuli interesebisTvis, magram pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri gziT gavlenas axdens saerTaSoriso vaWrobaze (3). 2008 wlis 1 noembridan diskriminaciuli zomebis yvelaze metad gamoyenebuli formebia: migraciasTan dakavSirebuli zomebi (2%); importis akrZalva (2%); saeqsporto gadasaxadebi da SezRudvebi (3%); sanitariuli da fitosanitariuli RonisZiebebi (4%); arasatarifo barierebi (4%); sajaro prokurmenti (4%); eqsportis subsidireba (4%); satarifo SezRudvebi (14%); vaWrobis Tavdacvis RonisZiebebi (20%); Tavdeboba an saxelmwifo daxmareba (32%); sxva (11%) (2). gansakuTrebiT farTod wamoiwyes antidempinguri kvlevebi, rasac mohyva antidempinguri baJebis SemoReba-daweseba; aseve, vaWrobis erovnuli interesebiT warmarTvis mizniT mimarTaven sakuTari valutis gaufasurebas da sxva finansur RonisZiebebs. 2009 wels londonSi ,,didi oceulis~ samitze miiRes gadawyvetileba Tavi SeekavebinaT proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gatarebisagan saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT vaWrobaSi da aseve, sainvesticio politikaSi (3). magram forumis monawileebma ganacxades im aucileblobis Sesaxeb, rom droulad ecnobebinaT vmo-sTvis SesaZlebeli antikrizisuli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb, romelsac iReben sxvadasxva 99


qveynis mTavrobebi. faqtobrivad, es SeiZleba miviCnioT garkveul (mo)Txovnad vmois mxridan daTmobebze wasasvlelad. yovelive es iZleva im varaudis safuZvels, rom globaluri krizisis Sedegad gamZafrebuli neoproteqcionizmi SeiZleba grZelvadian periodSi aisaxos postkrizisul qcevaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis winaswari monacemebiT 2010 wels saerTaSoriso vaWroba 9,5 %-iT gaizarda wina welTan SedarebiT da prognoziT mosalodnelia Semdgomi Zlieri zrda 2011 da 2012 wlebSi, SemaSfoTebelia proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis farTod gamoyenebis kampania. 2010 wlis ganmavlobaSi isve gamoiyeneboda diskriminaciuli zomebi, rogorc wina 2009 wels. yovel kvartalSi mTavrobebi axorcieleben daaxloebiT 125 axal proteqcionistul RonisZiebas da Zalian mcired amcireben ukve arsebuls. aseT viTarebaSi saeWvoa saerTaSoriso savaWro wesrigi daubrundes Zalian swrafad winakrizisul mdgomareobas. GGTA-s monacemebiT (qvemoT aRvniSnavT am organizaciis Sesaxeb) yvelaze meti diskriminaciuli zoma saSualod gamoiyena ruseTma (37), argentinam (20), germaniam (16), CineTma, idoneziam, gaerTianebulma samefom (TiToeulma 11-11), braziliam (10), italiam da espaneTma (TiToeulma 9-9). ucxoeli partniorebis mier gamoyenebuli sxvadasxva RonisZiebebiT yvelaze dazaralebuli qveynebi arian CineTi (141 zoma 58 partnioris mxridan), amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi (112 zoma 49 partnioris mxridan), germania (110 zoma 32 partnioris mxridan), safrangeTi (101 zoma 32 partnioris mxridan), belgia (96 zoma 30 partnioris mxridan), iaponia (94 zoma 47 partnioris mxridan), niderlandebi (94 zoma 31 partnioris mxridan), gaerTianebuli samefo (112 zoma 49 partnioris mxridan), italia (89 zoma 27 partnioris mxridan), SvedeTi (85 zoma 23 partnioris mxridan) (4). msoflio finansur-ekonomikuri krizisi, bunebrivia, Seexo postsocialistur qveynebs. eqsportis yvelaze didi danakargebi ganicades yazaxeTma, belorusma, tajikeTma, ruseTma da somxeTma. amJamad, finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis periodSi, im qveynebis saeqsporto problemebi, romlebic jer kidev ar mierTebian vmo-s, gansakuTrebiT mwvaved igrZnoba. isini pirvel rigSi aRmoCndnen dazaralebulni da ganicades diskriminacia da proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gavlena, sxva qveynebis, maT Soris vmo-is wevri qveynebis mxridan. (vmo-Si 2008 wlis 23 ivlisis mdgomareobiT 153 qveyanaa. aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiis da centraluri aziis qveynebidan 6 maTgani awarmoebs vmo-sTan mierTebis process _ azerbaijani, belorusi, yazaxeTi, ruseTi, tajikeTi da uzbekeTi) (7). aRsaniSnavia, rom eqsportis dacema qveynebSi, romlebic ar arian vmo-is wevrebi, aseve sxvaoba importisa da eqsportis dacemis maCveneblebs Soris am qveynebSi ufro metad arsebiTia, vidre vmo-is wevr qveynebSi (aekca-s – aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiis da centraluri aziis qveynebis farglebSi). es tendencia SeiZleba aixsnas sxvadasxva mizezebiT, romlebic ukavSirdeba am qveynebis specifikas. magaliTad, msoflio fasebis dacema navTobze, erovnuli valutebis arastabiluroba, gazis krizisi. SesaZlebelia aseve vivaraudoT, rom vmo-is wevroba aris stabilurobis Taviseburi faqtori, romelic pozitiur rols TamaSobs. gansakuTrebiT es exeba eqsportis problemebs da masTan dakavSirebiT proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gatarebas. magaliTad, msoflio krizisis aqtiuri fazis msvlelobaSi proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis raodenoba, romelic ruseTis mimarT gamoiyeneboda, gaizarda xuTjer. evrokavSirma cota xnis win SemoiRo antidempinguri baJebi SeduRebul milebsa da rkinis an aralegirebuli foladis milebze belorusidan, ruseTidan da ukrainidan. evrokavSirma aseve inicireba gaukeTa antidempingur kvlevebs SeduRebul milebTan da Rru profilebTan dakavSirebiT ukrainidan da belorusidan. 100


moldova dazaralda 2009 wlis TebervalSi evrokavSiris mier SemoRebuli droebiTi antidempinguri baJebiT liTonis naglinis garkveuli saxeobebze. proteqcionizmis politika SeiniSneba agreTve TviT aekca-is qveynebs Sorisac. magaliTad, ruseTma SemoiRo SezRudvebi belorusis saqonlis mimarT, yazaxeTma _ ruseTis mimarT. Tavis mxriv, ruseTma SemoiRo antidempinguri baJebi uJangavi foladis milebis Setanaze CineTidan da braziliidan, gazarda tarifebi foladisa da rkinis produqtebze, fexsacmelze, brinjze da naxmar avtomobilebze, akrZala Roris xorcis importi aSS-dan, meqsikidan da didi britaneTidan. ukrainam gaatara antidempinguri RonisZiebebi sayofacxovrebo macivrebsa da sayinule mowyobilobebze CineTidan da TurqeTidan; asve, gazarda 13%iT saimporto baJebi farTo asortimentis saqonelze sakuTari sagadasaxdelo balansis deficitis dasafinanseblad (rogorc RonisZieba finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis daregulirebisTvis). yazaxeTma, imis gamo rom cdilobda daecva adgilobrivi bazari ufro iafi saimporto produqciisagan, ganaxorciela erovnuli valutis gaufasureba 25 %-iT. ruseTis eqsportis moculobaze gavlena moaxdeina navTobis fasebma, gazTan dakavSirebulma skandalma ukrainasTan, aseve, saerTaSoriso bazrebze SemoRebulma savaWro barierebma ruseTis saeqsporto saqonlisaTvis. amasTan, ruseTma da ukrainam TiTqmis 50%-iT Seamcires saqonlis importi, rac aseve metyvelebs am qveynebis mier SemoRebul damcav RonisZiebebze. erTaderTi qveyana, romlis eqsportic gaizarda wina welTan SedarebiT 60%-ze meti odenobiT, aris azerbaijani. savaraudod es ukavSirdeba am qveynis eqsportis struqturas, sadac bunebrivi resursebis wili 82%-s Seadgens (5). es ar aris sruli sia proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebisa, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen saqonlis eqsportze am regionis qveynebidan. saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis moculobam 2010 wlis ianvar-oqtomberSi 5 230 mln aSS dolari Seadgina, rac wina wlis analogiur maCvenebels 18%-iT aRemateba, Tumca amave periodSi uaryofiTma sagareo savaWro balansma 7%-iT meti Seadgina _ 2 775 mln aSS dolari. mimdinare wels 2008 wlis analogiur periodTan SedarebiT savaWro brunva 22 %-iT, eqsporti 9 %-iT, xolo importi 25%-iT Semcirda. uaryofiTi savaWro balansi 31%-iT naklebi dafiqsirda, vidre 2008 wlis Sesabamis periodSi. rogorc Cans, mimdinare wels gagrZelda saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis moculobis kleba, rac daiwyo `globaluri savaWro kolafsis~ periodSi da gaamZafra saqarTvelo-ruseTis agvistos omma. 2009 wels eqsporti wina welTan SedarebiT 1 350 mln aSS dolaridan Semcirda 924 mln aSS dolaramde, importi ki 5 360 mln aSS dolaridan 3 525 mln aSS dolaramde (6). saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris monacemebiT 2010 wlis saqarTvelos umsxvilesi savaWro partniorebi arian azerbaijani _ 15,7%; TurqeTi _ 14,4%; aSS _ 11,3%; somxeTi _ 10,4%; ukraina _ 6,2%; kanada _ 5,1%; bulgareTi _ 3,9%; yazaxeTi _ 2,55; ruseTi _ 2,4%; espaneTi _ 2,3%; danarCeni qveynebi _ 25,8%. GTA-is sainformacio bazaze dayrdnobiT Catarebulma gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom umsxvilesi partniorebis mier gatarebuli sxvadasxva proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebidan saqarTveloze gavlena SeiZleba iqonios ruseTis mier SemoRebulma SezRudvebma samuSao Zalis migraciasTan da sxvadasxva saxis produqciasTan, m.S. sasoflo-sameurneo produqciasTan dakavSirebiT. TviTon saqarTvelos mxridan araviTari saSiSroeba ar aRiniSneba savaWro partniorebisaTvis am TvalsazrisiT da miekuTvneba Tavisufali savaWro reJimebis mqone qveyanaTa pirvel xuTeuls. samwuxarod GTA sainformacio portali ver CaiTvleba bolomde srulyofilad am kuTxiT Casatarebeli kvlevebisTvis, magram igi TandaTan ixveweba da albaT mcire qveynebis Sesaxebac ganTavsdeba srulyofili informacia. Tumca, igi metad sasargebloa gare bazrebze gasvlis strategebis SemuSavebisas. 101


TavisTavad is garemoeba, rom aseTi globaluri portali Seiqmna, miuTiTebs sakiTxis simwvaveze. SeiniSneba situacia, roca mTavrobebs ar surT aRiaron proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gamoyeneba. aseT viTarebaSi mniSvnelovania, rom saerTaSoriso akademiurma wreebma ikisres monitoringis funqcia. zemoaRniSnuli damoukidebeli sainformacio portali (www.globaltradealert.org) politikurad damoukidebelma struqturam _ ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis londonis centrma (CEPR) Seqmna msoflio vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis profesoris evenetis xelmZRvanelobiT. damoukidebel mecnierTa da eqspertTa jgufi awarmoebs sxvadasxva proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis monitorings _ savaWro barierebidan dawyebuli samuSao vizebis gacemis SezRudvebiT damTavrebuli, axorcieleben aseve finasuri RonisZiebebis Seswavlas, romlebic tardeba mrewvelobis gadasarCenad. Global Trade Alert avsebs monitoringis monacemebs, romelic xorcieldeba vmo-isa da msoflio bankis farglebSi. garda amisa, is avlens savaWro partniorebs, romlebzec saxelmwifos mier SemoRebulma damcavma an diskriminaciulma RonisZiebebma SeiZleba potenciurad moaxdinos negatiuri zemoqmedeba. es saiti martivia da misi daniSnulebaa saxelmwifo moxeleebis, eqsportiorebis, importiorebis, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis TanamSromelTa momsaxureba. saiti sasargeblo iqneba sxvadasxva saxis kvlevebis gansaxorcielevblad saerTaSoriso vaWrobisa da proteqcionizmis sakiTxebze. saZiebo sistema saSualebas iZleva gakeTdes moTxovnebi saqonlis kodis, saxelmwifos mixedviT, romelic atarebs RonisZiebas, aseve qveynebis mixedviT, romlebic potenciurad dazaraldnen damcavi an diskriminaciuli RonisZiebebisagan. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom mesame qveynebs SeuZliaT Seitanon ganacxadi saitze proteqcionistul RonisZiebebTan dakavSirebiT, saxelmwifos ki SeuZlia komentari gaukeTos nebismier RonisZiebas, romelic gamoqveynebulia saitze. yvela monacemi, romelic aq qveyndeba, guldasmiT mowmdeba eqspertTa jgufis mier iqamde, vidre is xelmisawvdomi iqneba sajaro ganxilvisTvis. problemis masStaburobaze miuTiTebs is, rom dReisaTvis proteqcionizmis monitoringiT dakavebulia ara marto saerTaSoriso organizaciebi (rogoricaa, magaliTad, msoflio banki da vaWrobis msoflio organizacia), aramed kerZo kompaniebic. vmo atarebs proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis yovelkvartalur monitorings vaWrobisa da investiciebis sferoSi. rigi kerZo struqturebi, rogoricaa ,,doiCe bank~, analitikur kvlevebs akeTebs am Tematikaze. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom proteqcionizmis sakiTxi aris politikurad ukiduresad mgrZnobiare problema, qveynebis mTvarobebisTvis Znelia erTian azramde misvla rogorc mocemuli monitoringis parametrebis sakiTxze, aseve imaze, ra RonisZiebebi unda CarTon masSi. proteqcionizmsa da saxelmwifo interesebis gonivrul dacvas Soris zRvari Zalian bundovania. es SeiZleba iqces did problemad msoflio ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dinamikisaTvis. zemoaRniSnuli iniciativebis msgavis iniciativebi _ akademiuri, arakomerciuli da politikurad damoukidebeli institutebis mxridan sasargeblo iqneba msoflio savaWro sistemis stabilurobis SesanarCuneblad. SesaZlebelia, maT ubiZgon saxelmwifoebs proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebi gamoiyenon rogorc ukiduresi zoma da ara rogorc pirveli RonisZieba alternatiuli variantebidan. swored amgvari qcevis Taobaze aRniSnavda vmo-is generaluri direqtori paskal lami, romelic regularul angariSebs waradgens msoflio savaWro sistemis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. misive SefasebiT, proteqcionizmis buneba Seicvala recesiis periodSi. bevri umsxvilesi movaWre qveyana axorcielebs eqsportis xelSewyobis sqemebs, ubrundeba subsidiebs, iafi kredi102


tebis sistemas, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs da eqsportiorTa gaTavisuflebas gadasaxadebisagan. proteqcionizmi dRes amiT Zalian gansxvavdeba 1930-iani wlebis proteqcionizmisagan, roca mTel rig qveynebSi tarifebis zrdam Seaferxa msoflio vaWroba. es agresiuli eqsportis xelSewyobis sqemebi, erToblivi moTxovnis aRdgenasTan erTad, rogorc Cans, metia, vidre diskriminaciuli RonisZiebebis zrdis Canacvleba (8). marTalia, SeiniSneba garkveuli `Camococeba~ proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebidan iseTi qveynebis mxridan, rogoricaa avstralia, CineTi, ekvadori, egvipte, indoeTi, indonezia, meqsika, paragvai, filipinebi, ruseTi, saudis arabeTi, ukraina da vietnami (2009 wlis ganmavlobaSi), magram problema rCeba. amJamad gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gadatanilia antidempinguri kvlevebis inicirebasa da Sesabamisi zomebis gatarebaze (9). saqarTvelom, romlis eqsporti aradiversificirebuli, sagareo vaWrobis saldo ki mudmivad (gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebidan) uaryofiTia, ganuxrelad airCia sagareo savaWro politikis fritrederuli orientacia. miviCnevT, rom umuSevrobis maRali donisa da saeqsporto prioritetebis gaurkvevlobis pirobebSi saWiroa garkveuli saxis proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gatareba. es ar gulisxmobs (tradiciuli gagebiT) importis pirdapir SezRudvas an saeqsporto dargebis aucileblad pirdapir stimulirebas. SesaZlebelia Cvens qveyanSic daiwyos antidempinguri kvlevebi da gatardes Sesabamisi RonisZiebebi, ganxorcieldes sawyisi stadiis biznesis stimulireba, Seiqmnas pirobebi iafi kreditebis sistemis Seqmnisa da ganviTarebisTvis, upiratesoba mieniWos im ucxour investiciebs, romlebic saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi produqciis warmoebis saSualebebs Semoitanen qveynisaTvis prioritetul dargebSi, gatardes RonisZiebebi informirebulobis asamaRleblad, gare bazrebze gasvlis efeqtianobis gasazrdelad. sxva maraval faqtorTan erTad umniSvnelovanesia gavecnoT Tanamedrove proteqcionistul RonisZiebebs, romlebsac mimarTaven TviT ganviTarebuli qveynebic ki sakuTari ekonomikis dasacavad. xazgasasmelia, rom Cveni mewarmeebi jer kidev mwiri informirebulobis problemis winaSe dganan. am TvalsazrisiT sasargeblo iqneba erTi mxriv, CaverToT zemoaRniSnuli sainformacio sistemis kvlevebSi (es iniciativa SeiZleba akademiurma wreebmac ikisron) da meore mxriv, gamoviyenoT ukve arsebuli saerTaSoriso sainformacio bazebi (am TvalsazrisiT mizanSewonilia saxelmwifos xelSewyoba) _ uaxlesi sainformacio sistemebi, romlebic uaxles analitikur informacias gvTavazoben ama Tu im qveynis mier gatarebuli ekonomikuri politikisa da mosalodneli efeqtis Sesaxeb. literatura da internet-resursebi: 1. R. Baldwin, The great trade collapse: What caused and what does it mean? The Great Trade Collapse: Causes, Consequences and Prospects, 2009, A VoxEU.org Publication 2. www.ictsd.org-http://trade.ecoaccord.org 3. S.J. Evenett, Crisis-era protectionism one year after the Washington G20 meeting, The Great Trade Collapse: Causes, Consequences and Prospects, 2009, A VoxEU.org Publication 4. GTA database, www.globaltradealert.org 5. Д. Герасименко, Прозрачность – ответ на глобальный протекционизм (июнь-июль 2009,выпуск 4) http://www.cisstat.com/rus/mac13_qrt.htm 6. www.geostat.ge 7. www.wto.org 8. www.ictsd.org-http://trade.ecoaccord.org (5- 2009) 9. http://www/wto/org/english/news_e/news09_e/tpr_13ju/09_e.htm 10. http://ictsd.net/downloads/2009/07/tpr-report.pdf 103


Oksana Pyatkovska Ukraine . Lviv Commerce Academy; International Institute of Education, Culture and Relations with Diaspora of National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Scientific researcher

Globalization and International Labor Migration: The Macroeconomic Impact of Migrants’ Remittances One of the main recent changes in contemporary international affairs is the increase in the scope and intensity of social relations or the development of what has commonly been termed as globalization. Globalization has increased the interconnectedness in nation states speeding up the flow of goods, services, ideas and people across national boundaries. The international migration existed long before the age of globalization, but the speed, scope, complexity and value of world migration under the era of globalization are unprecedented. Today international migration is one of the most important factors affecting economic relations between developed and developing countries. There are now about 192 million people living outside their place of birth, which is about 3 % of the world's population. This means that roughly one of every thirty-five persons in the world is a migrant. Between 1965 and 1990, the number of international migrants increased by 45 million-an annual growth rate of about 2.1 %. The current annual growth rate is about 2.9 % [1]. The international remittances sent back home by these migrant workers have a profound impact on the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. Officially recorded remittances flows to developing countries reached 336 billion in 2008 [9, 1]. After the latest revision to data for 2009, India, China, Mexico and Philippines retain their position as the top recipients of migrant remittances in US dollars terms. Other large recipients among developing countries include Bangladesh, Nigeria, Poland, Pakistan, Egypt. The top recipients in terms of the share of remittances in GNP in 2008 include many smaller economies such as Tajikistan (where remittances totaled 50% of GNP), Tonga (38% of GNP), Moldova (31% of GNP), Samoa (26% of GNP), Lesotho (27 % ), Kyrgyz Republic (28% of GNP) [9, 2]. Given the large size of aggregate remittance flows, they should be expected to have significant macroeconomic effects on the economies that receive them. Many researches suppose that remittances have both welfare and growth effects. One of the most comprehensive research of remittances’ influence on poverty was made by R. Adams and J. Page by constructing and analyzing a new data set on international migration, remittances, inequality, and poverty from 71 developing countries. The results show that both international migration and remittances significantly reduce the level, depth, and severity of poverty in the developing world. After instrumenting for the possible endogeneity of international migration, and controlling for various factors, results suggest that, on average, a 10% increase in the share of international migrants in a country’s population will lead to a 2.1% decline in the share of people living on less than $1.00 per person per day. After instrumenting for the possible endogeneity of international remittances, a similar 10% increase in per capita official international remittances will lead to a 3.5% decline in the share of people living in poverty [2]. Other researches in Sub-Saharan Africa, made by S. Gupta et al [7], in Pakistan, made by R. Siddiqui et al [11], also prove that migrants’ remittances directly alleviate poverty levels by increasing recipient family’s income and living standards. D. Ratha and S. Mohapatra state that remittances have reduced poverty and resulted in better development outcomes in many low-income countries [10, 3]. Remittances may have reduced the share of poor people in the population by 11% points in Uganda, 6% points in Bangladesh and 5% points in Ghana. Studies in El Salvador and Sri Lanka find that the children of remittance recipient households have a lower school drop-out rate and that these households spend more on private tuition for their children. In Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Sri Lanka children in remittance recipient households have higher birth weights and better health indicators than other households. Remittances are also often used for small business investments, especially in countries 104


with a good investment climate [10, 3-4]. Studies of Ch. Woodruff and R. Zenteno show that remittances provide capital to small entrepreneurs, reduce credit constraints and increase entrepreneurship. For instance, remittances from the United States accounted for about one fifth of the capital invested in microenterprises in urban Mexico [12] S. Drinkwater and P. Levine examine the relationship between remittances from international migration and imperfections in labor and capital markets. The authors use a search-matching model of the labor market to show that remittances can have two opposing effects on the labor market of the source country. First, they raise the utility of the unemployed members back home and, if a worker's bargaining power is low, this causes the unemployment rate to rise. Second, remittances available for investment will relax credit constraints encountered by firms. If the investment effect outweighs the “search income” effect, then remittances will reduce the unemployment rate. Their empirical analysis suggests that remittances have a small negative effect on unemployment, but a positive and significant effect on investment [5]. At the same time D. Ratha and S. Mohapatra state that, notwithstanding the fact that migrants’ remittances are an important, stable and countercyclical external finance in developing countries, which has many positive effects, but their effect on long-term growth is inconclusive [10, 5]. Beside that, large and sustained remittance inflows can cause an appreciation of the real exchange rate and therefore a loss in relative export competitiveness, by making the production of cost-sensitive tradables, including cash-crops and manufacturing less profitable. Although empirical evidence on the adverse effect of large inflows of foreign exchange on terms of trade and growth is limited, it is plausible that this effect exists and is significant for some small economies where remittances are very high. Several countries such as El Salvador, Kenya and Moldova are concerned about the effect of large remittance inflows on currency appreciation [10, 5]. A doubling of worker’s remittances may have resulted in real exchange rate appreciation of more than 20% in countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region [3]. The real exchange rate appreciated in parallel with an increase in remittances during 1993-2005 in 7 out of 8 countries with the highest remittances to GDP ratio in Latin America, except for Nicaragua. This may have affected export competitiveness in these countries Thus, [6]. the controversial effect of migrants’ remittances raise the main issue, or even challenge to policymakers: how to manage their macroeconomic effects in receiving country? At the same time the appropriate macroeconomic policy concerning remittances management should take into account the following important factors: • Measurement. The category workers’ remittances in the balance of payments best represents what economists have in mind when modeling remittances. The properties of this series differ significantly from those of employee compensation and migrants’ transfers, so combining these three items into a single measure of remittances, as is common practice in the literature, can lead to invalid conclusions about the properties of remittances and, in turn, suboptimal policy decisions [8, I]. • Fiscal policy. Remittances should not be taxed directly. Consumption-based taxation provides the optimal incentive structure for maximizing the benefits of remittances, whereas labor income taxation exacerbates the labor-leisure incentives of remittances and encourages the use of inflation as an indirect tax. Remittance-receiving countries should be advised to shift toward consumption-based tax systems to mitigate possible negative effects on economic growth, minimize the level of distortion generated by fiscal and monetary policy, and benefit from any tax-induced increase in investment resulting from remittances. • Debt sustainability. Remittances can lead to reduced country risk and improve the sustainability of government debt. In addition to increasing household saving, significant inflows of remittances can directly or indirectly increase the government’s revenue base, thereby reducing the marginal cost of raising revenue.

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• Fiscal discipline. Remittances may reduce the government’s incentive to maintain fiscal policy discipline. The empirical evidence suggests that governments take advantage of the fiscal space afforded by remittances by consuming and borrowing more [8, I]. • Economic growth. Remittances are usually associated with an increase in domestic investment especially in countries with a good investment climate. Remittances have both welfare and growth effects by declining the share of people living in poverty although analysis reveals that remittances do not have statistically significant effect on GDP growth. • Exchange rate. Since large and sustained remittance inflows can cause an appreciation of the real exchange rate and therefore a loss in relative export competitiveness, policymakers must find ways to mitigate this real exchange rate effect or address any loss of competitiveness arising from equilibrium real exchange rate appreciation. • Role of international financial institutions. Outside engagement may be required to prompt governments to undertake needed reforms in the presence of remittances. In particular, international institutions have an important role to play in encouraging remittance receiving countries to undertake or accelerate necessary reforms. A one-size-fits-all reform strategy is likely to be counterproductive. Instead, an approach that differentiates among countries based on their remittance-driven characteristics will be more helpful in achieving its targets. The main challenge for policymakers, stated in general terms, is to design policies that promote remittances and increase their benefits while mitigating adverse side effects. Getting these policy prescriptions correct early on is imperative. Globalization and the aging of developed economy populations will ensure that demand for migrant workers remains robust for years to come. Hence, the volume of remittances likely will continue to grow, and with it, the challenge of unlocking the maximum societal benefit from these transfers. References: 1. About Migration / IOM // http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/lang/en. 2. Adams R., Page J. Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries? / World Bank. Washington DC, 2005. 3. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina, and Susan Pozo Workers’ Remittances and the Real Exchange Rate: A Paradox of Gifts. // World Development. – 2004. – Vol. 32(8). – P. 1407-1417. 4. Bhaskara R., Gazi H. A Panel Data Analysis of the Growth Effects of Remittances / MPRA Paper. – 2009. – № 18021. 5. Drinkwater S., Levine P., Lotti E. Labor Market and Investment Effects of Remittances. 2006. // http://www.surrey.ac.uk/economics/files/apaperspdf/2006_DP19-06.pdf 6. Fajnzylber P., López J.. Close to Home: The Development Impact of Remittances in Latin America. / World Bank. Washington, DC, 2007. 7. Gupta S., Pattillo C., Wagh S. Effects of Remittances on Poverty and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. // World Development. – 2009. – Vol. 37(1). – P. 104-115. 8. Macroeconomic Consequences of Remittances/ Ed. by R. Chami, A. Barajas, Th. Cosimano, C. Fullenkamp, M. Gapen, P. Montiel. – Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2008. 9. Migration and Development Brief 12. Outlook for Remittance Flows 2010-11. / By Ratha D. , Mohapatra S., Silwal A. World Bank, 2010. – 18 p. 10. Ratha D., Mohapatra S. Increasing the Macroeconomic Impact of Remittances on Development. / The World Bank. Washington DC, 2007. 11. Siddiqui R., Kemal A. Remittances, Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Pakistan: The Role of Excluded Variables in Poverty Change Analysis // The Pakistan Development Review. – 2006. – Vol. 45(3). – P. 383-415. 12. Woodruff Ch., Zenteno R. Remittances and Microenterprises in Mexico. / UCSD, Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies Working Paper. 2001.

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Семив Галина Александровна Украина. Львовская коммерческая академия Аспирант СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКИЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ НЕФТЕПЕРЕРАБАТЫВАЮЩЕЙ ОТРАСЛИ УКРАИНЫ В УСЛОВИЯХ ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИИ

К главным структурным проблемам на рынке нефтепродуктов Украины относятся непрозрачность экономических отношений, нестабильная ценовая конъюнктура, необходимость обновления основных фондов и технологической переоснастки нефтеперерабатывающих предприятий, большое влияние иностранных компаний, на этом рынке, заострение внешних угроз стабильности развития рынка. Это требует от субъектов рынка поиска более эффективных путей и методов сбыта своей продукции, в том числе на внешнем рынке, использования комплекса международного маркетинга как действенного инструмента расширения внешних рынков при осуществлении внешнеэкономических операций. Таким образом, актуальность данной проблемы обусловливается необходимостью анализа тенденций и обоснования на этой основе путей преодоления депрессивного рынка нефтепродуктов Украины, возможностей усиления его, экспортной ориентации. Проблемы развития нефтеперерабатывающей отрасли мировой экономики в условиях глобализации рассматривались в трудах таких западных исследователей, как Д.Джонстона, Д.Ергина, А.Коршака, Я.Кумминса, А.Шаммазова и других. Отдельные аспекты развития внешнеэкономической деятельности (ВЭД) предприятий ТЭК Украины исследовались в трудах Г. Бурлаки, С. Дорогунцова, В. Зиневича, Л. Кузнецовой, Л. Назарчука, В. Омельченко, В. Саприкина, А. Сухорукова, П. Топильницкого, Г. Шерстюка, О. Шпака и других. Вместе с тем вне поля зрения исследователей остаются отдельные аспекты усиления экспортного потенциала предприятий нефтеперерабатывающей сферы, механизмы обеспечения их конкурентоспособности на внешнем рынке. Целью данной статьи является обоснование приоритетных направлений деятельности национальных предприятий нефтеперерабатывающей сферы на внешних рынках в условиях заострения конкуренции на внутреннем и зарубежном рынках. Для определения потенциала экспорта нефтепродуктов из Украины необходимо прежде всего проанализировать состояние производства в этой отрасли. Согласно данным Министерства топлива и энергетики Украины, в 2009 г. на нефтеперерабатывающие заводы (НПЗ) поступило 9 682,6 тыс. тонн нефти, в том числе: 2 500,9 тыс. тонн – собственной добычи (25,8% от общего объема поставки), 7 181,7 тыс. тонн импортировано (соответственно – 74,2%), в том числе: 6 397,8 тыс. тонн - из Российской Федерации (соответственно – 66,1%). В соответствии с показателем 2008 года объем поставки нефти увеличился на 266,6 тыс. тонн (на 2,8%). Производство горючего концентрируется в шести регионах, где функционируют такие нефтеперерабатывающие предприятия: ОАО "Лисичанскнафтооргсинтез" (г. Лисичанск, Луганская обл.), ОАО "Лукойл-Одеский НПЗ" (г. Одесса), ОАО, "Нефтеперерабатывающий комплекс “Галичина” (г. Дрогобыч, Львовская область), ОАО "Нефтехимик Прикарпатья" (г. Надворная, Ивано-Франковская область), ЗАО, "Укртатнефть" (г. Кременчуг, Полтавская область) и ОАО "Херсоннафтопереробка" (г. Херсон). Даже невзирая на рост объемов производства, общие мощности из первичной переработки нефти в 2009 г. загружены в среднем на 20,92%, что значительно ниже средних показателей в европейских странах. Таким образом, в Украине не используется имеющийся потенциал производства нефтепродуктов, прежде всего в результате обветшалой материально-технической базы и низкого технологического развития НПЗ, неритмичных поставок нефти из-за границы, отсутствия стратегических запасов нефти, низких возможностей расширения экспорта высококачественного 107


автомобильного горючего. Дестабилизацийни процессы на отечественном рынке нефтепродуктов предопределяет также практически полная зависимость от поставок из России. Обратим внимание, которое в последнее время наблюдается тенденция к активизации конкурентной борьбы между ведущими операторами розничной продажи нефтепродуктов, которая направляется на повышение качества обслуживания и удовлетворения потребностей потребителей. Примерами таких мероприятий могут быть следующие действия со стороны сетей АЗС на общегосударственном и региональном уровнях: 1) проведение акций из стимулирования сбыта и лояльности, выпуск карточек клиентов; 2) расширение ассортимента за счет горючего повышенного уровня качества; 3) инвестирование в развитие сопутствующей инфраструктуры АЗС – автомоек, магазинов и заведений быстрого питания. Рассматривая экспортную деятельность отечественных предприятий нефтеперерабатывающей сферы, необходимо отметить, что главные колебания в отечественном экспорте нефтепродуктов объясняются в первую очередь изменением конъюнктуры и значительной амплитудой колебания цен внешнего рынка в сравнении с внутренним. Поэтому одним из главных факторов развития экспорта отечественных нефтепродуктов есть ценовой фактор. Как свидетельствуют результаты наших расчетов индекса обнаруженных сравнительных преимуществ за 2009 г., наивысшие сравнительные преимущества в торговле нефтепродуктами Украина имеет в Словении (значение индекса RCA – 169,62), Греции (138,1), Латвии (132,01), Италии (124,76) и Нидерландах (121,12). Указанное объясняется настроенными поставками нефтепродуктов к этим странам в первую очередь в результате сезонного колебания ценовой конъюнктуры. Также традиционно высокие конкурентные позиции отечественные предприятия нефтеперерабатывающего комплекса имеют на рынках Германии, Мальты, Венгрии, Польши, Испании, Великобритании и Эстонии. Больше всего отрицательное значение индекса (-283,03) характерно для взаимных торговых отношений с Россией, поскольку эта страна есть нетто-експортером нефтепродуктов к Украине и имеет сильные конкурентные позиции на отечественном рынке нефтепродуктов. Такая же ситуация является характерной для рынков Литвы, Румынии, Австрии, Франции, Швеции и Дании. Как показывает мировая практика, эффективная работа НПЗ стран Запада, базируется на принципах диверсификации поставок нефти. В нашей стране это требование нажаль не придерживается и отечественные нефтеперерабатывающие предприятия по большей части ориентируются на поставки из России. Это привело к тому, что наибольшими НПК нашей страны владеют русские инвесторы и государство не может влиять на возможность диверсификации поставок нефтепродуктов. Выводы: В условиях нестабильности деятельности на внутреннем рынке, экспорт нефтепродуктов становится существенным направлением расширения хозяйственной деятельности и пополнения оборотных средств НПЗ Украины. Главными путями развития международного сотрудничества отечественной нефтеперерабатывающей отрасли является организация снабжения нефти из стран Каспийского региона, Ближнего Востока и Северной Африки; постепенное увеличение объемов добычи собственной нефти (на Азово-черноморском шельфе); внедрение современных технологий с целью повышения качества переработки нефти на НПЗ Украины.

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Eka Sepashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Assosiate Professor, Academic Doctor of Economics

Georgia’s Economic Integration into European Space: Challenges and Prospects In early 1990, after gaining an independence, the newly established state of Georgia among the numerous important goals faced the problem to deal with the country’s foreign economic relations which required a to be set up by totally different approaches than that of during the Soviet period. The main question: how does the country use the opportunities offered by the world economy for economic growth in a such way to avoid negative impacts of external development occurring outside the national economy?- was high on the agenda of Georgia. The issue was especially important as the country had to make dual transition towards market economy and democratization making the national economy vulnerable to the international changes. Despite these new challenges Georgia actively began renewing the existing political-economic relations and establishing the new ones for a very simple reason: in modern reality during the international division of labor it's impossible to live on your own, especially for such a little country as Georgia. Here in the article we will focus our attention on economic aspects as the political issues which are closely linked to the development of the democratic institutions of the country should have separate judgment. Though that doesn’t mean that political and economic factors could be easily separated, just visa-versa, they are thoroughly related to each other. However, from country’s development point of view, it is not important which factors, economic or political, first boost the advancement of the country. Nowadays, the key words are the interdependence of nations and the imperative that a globalize economy imposes on us. The current globalization has political, economic, military, social and cultural dimensions, though integration initially started with economic relations. Today integration speed rises and economic integration continues to gain greater importance. Globalization of the world economy often goes through regional integration. In modern market economy, the primary objective of regional policy is to reduce negative phenomena arising from natural conditions, geographical location, political situation or economic processes, and to create as favorable conditions as possible for closing the development gap and for encouraging innovative economic activities of developing countries. All above mention appears fair for Georgia too. Thus, there is no surprise that from the very beginning integration into European economic and political space become top priority for Georgia’s independent Foreign Policy Agenda. Nemely, Georgia’s foreign Policy goal is to ensure increased access to the EU’s internal market, deepening the political relations, enhancing the cooperation on security policy and conflict resolution, as well as further promotion of educational and scientific links. The question that one may ask hearing about European Union enlargement are: what are the consequences of this extension? While in aftermath of the Second World War was characterized by ideological and strategically bipolarity, the more recent period has been changed by the multi-polar world creation tendency. An era of competitive coexistence between capitalism and socialism as the two alternative social systems has ended with the victory of the market system that facilitates a single global system to emerge. The communication and information revolutions are turning the world into truly 'global village". The single global system has political, economic, social and cultural dimensions. As nations achieve higher economic development, societies become increasingly pluralistic and complex. Thus, the world appears to be moving towards an era of global cooperation and integration. Global system entails interdependence of those regions and nations that are not interconnected yet. The main problem is that majority of states do not regard globalization as a principle and key trend of their own political and economic policies. The attention is focused on national interests' strategies resulted by country's social-economic needs. On the other hand, ignorance of globalization and regionalization or, to say in other word the global environment of the planet, or non adequate recognition of its importance is likely to lead to missing the chance of participation in international relations and gain profits. Globalization does not 109


mean that national features are disappeared; just on the contrary, national advantages are being strengthened. The country’s place in the world market is directly connected to the ability of national firms fruitfully and efficiently uses the national advantages that are unique by their nature. The political Economy of integration in Europe Towards the end of XX century the process of globalization has gained more speed of development. Globalization of the world often goes through regional integration. One of the most vivid illustrations of regionalism is development of multilateral institutions. Development of regional institutions and degree of their activity significantly depends on relationship between region and international system. The growth of number of regional institutions and increase of regional organization levels taking place simultaneously and are linked to each other. Regional integration development includes economic, political, social and cultural aspects, and goes far beyond free trade. This has been proved by experience of European Community, the Northern American Common Market and other examples. Here we are discussing the EU is a vivid example of successful regional integration. The process of closuring of European nations begun in the beginning of 20th century went through several legislative agreements and by the beginning of 21st century turn into one of the major player of the global system, which dictates further development and trends of evolution of surrounding aria. After almost the hundred years, the primary objectives of regional policy is still the same: to create as favorable conditions as possible for development, for achieving democracy, respect for human rights, rules of law, for encouraging innovative economic activities. As a whole, the success of integrated groups in significant degree depends on elaboration such motivating forms of political and economic relations, that most of all appropriates specific features of concrete region and nation. Over the history of its existence the EU went though Deepening the integration from Free Trade up to Single Market and Common currency (EURO) and five stages of Enlargement beginning with 6 states and end with 27 states. Expansion process of EU seems to be continued. The EU actively tries to establish harmonized space on borders for long-term goal of extension. The policy tends to transform partner countries through its foreign political instrument: intergovernmental agreements, common strategies and joint actions. Theoretically, implementation of such intergovernmental agreements might enable any country to achieve such level of development that it would be enough to become the member of the EU. In early 90th number of so called European agreements were signed with central and Eastern European countries. The articles of these agreements proved the EU aspiration to prepare these countries for membership. 2004 year was marked by great enlargement when 10 CEE countries became the member of the EU, and later in the beginning of 2007 two more countries joint the big family of Europe. In the beginning of 21st century some of traditional concepts are needed to be revised due to the new solid arguments which enable the concepts to gain a new, contemporary meaning. . I'd like to draw attention to two concepts which profoundly changed their meaning and that lay down the basis for future development of Georgia and its international relations: 1. The new concept of security: 2. The new concept of economic cooperation; A new concept of security suggests us to use such a structure of economic cooperation, which is based on the balance of interests of the states, and secures the most stable political climate in the region in stand of measuring the security by the quantity of arms and ammunitions. As for new concept of economic cooperation, it is no longer treated as "hostage" of political tension. Just the vice-versa, it is through active economic cooperation that various political conflicts can be solved. Even if the solutions are not easy to reach, the proper atmosphere for it is being created, which earlier or later, would inevitably bring the expected results in this issue. These two new concepts of security and economic cooperation define the basic philosophy of the development and evolution of the new economic and political links and relations of the state. Georgia is still in period of a great political and economic transformation. The country faces numerous sources of challenges and uncertainties. 110


Thus, to rely on obove-mention new paradigm some sort of cooperation among challenging sides has become necessary to utilize the economic opportunities. In this regard Georgia’s integration into the huge region of Europe is very important. Sides should try to find common interests and thus, gain maximum profit from the cooperation. This short overview shows that Georgia has no other way but to become the part of global society, the foremost part of which is the EU itself. After the gaining independence all former societ countries began to build new political and economic relations with each other and surrounding world, becoming the members of various international or regional organizations. In this context, the moving of towards the Europe seems quite natural. EU-Georgia legal relation is based on PCA which was singed in 1996. This was the first legal document that acknowledged Georgia’s European Aspiration. In 1999 the agreement countries (The European Union has concluded nine partnership and cooperation agreements with countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia) entered into force. It represents the basis for relations with the EU and separate countries. The goal of this agreement is to move towards the closing the gap between states belonging in the past to deferent systems: socialist and capitalist. The accompanied goals of the agreement are to encourage strengthening the democracies in new independent countries and development market economy through cooperation and political dialog in wide range of fields. The PCA aims to provide a basis for cooperation in the legislative, economic, social, financial, scientific, civil, technological and cultural fields. After enlargement, in 2004 The European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) was developed, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbors and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all concerned. It was the other and more strong instrument for creation fertile environment around the EU for enlargement (though in long term future) in European space, that the EU offers its neighbor countries. ENP covers 16 countries among them Georgia. In November 2006, ENP Georgian Action Plan was adopted by the EU-Georgia Cooperation Council on 14th of November, 2006 after prolonged consultation with different line ministries of Georgia. ENP is considered as a preparatory stage for entering EU, but not immediate acceptation in EU. The fact that within the framework of the ENP the process of harmonization of legislative bases and gradual movement towards European regulations is going in neighbor countries, which creates necessary environment for common policy is very important because it guarantees the faster movement toward European integration. This policy was elaborated for states to overcome their domestic difficulties and challenges and have common strong strategy towards the similar goals. The implementation of ENP in every country entails to put into action real changes. This fact further reinforced the political and economic interdependence between the EU and Georgia and offered the opportunity for the EU and Georgia to develop an increasingly close relationship, going beyond cooperation, to involve a significant measure of economic integration and a deepening of political cooperation. Nowadays, the Georgian Government is strongly committed to fully exploit the opportunities of ENP. Extension of four freedoms is the most attractive in the ENP policy. Georgia’s economic reforms and trade liberalization is an integral part of our reform agenda. We are actively implementing ENP AP agenda significant part of which denotes economical approximation of Georgia and ensuring progress in improving business and investment climate, ensuring more transparency and eternal fight against corruption, steady economic development through prudent monetary and fiscal policies including promotion of social cohesion and poverty reduction. Last year was remarkable by launching of the Eastern Partnership at the Prague Summit on May 7 in 2009. This new partnership is intended to turn into an effective mechanism bringing Eastern European countries to functional arrangements with the EU in all directions based on tailor-made approaches and ensuring the possible highest degree of integration with the EU. The main principles and perspectives offered by the initiative for Georgia, which are reflected in the Commission Communication on Eastern Partnership (of December 3, 2008) and EaP Joint Declaration (of May 7, 2009 are mainly in line with Georgia’s priorities 111


Eastern partnership’s bilateral format divine gradual visa liberalization, creation of a free trade area, conclusion of an Association Agreement, energy security, economic and social convergence with the EU and etc. We are also developing multilateral cooperation with other partner countries in the framework of thematic platforms and different Flagship initiatives through implementing joint projects. Currently Georgia is intensively negotiates different articles of the Association Agreement, which represents a rather high form of integration with the EU. It includes wide commercial preferences in the trade of goods and services, which among other priority issues, includes the DC FTA as its integral part and serves as a general frame for deepening of EU-Georgia relations. Trade liberalization with the EU and issues related to DC FTA representing one of key priorities for Georgia are discussed within bilateral format of Eastern Partnership. Therefore, the question to start negotiations with the EU on DC FTA is actively discussed on every level. Political decision to sign the agreement is already made, therefore we are going to carry out every necessary actions in reasonable timetable. The Georgian side has undertaken concrete steps to meet the recommendations outlined in the Commission’s assessment of Georgia’s preparedness for the DC FTA. A special inter-ministerial task force was created according to the European Commission recommendation to work on DC FTA preparation process. DCFTA preparatory process focused on a set of administrative measures and legal and institutional reforms in the area of technical barriers to trade (TBT), food safety, intellectual property rights (IPR), competition policy, strengthening the administrative capacity of institutions to be involved in the eventual negotiations. Strategies in the area of food safety, competition and TBTs were already discussed with the EU and adopted. As for multilateral dimension of the Eastern Partnership, Eastern Partnership consists of 4 platforms: I platform – Democracy, Good Governance and Stability – Office of the State Minister of European and Euro Atlantic Integration II Platform – Economic Integration and Convergence with EU policies – Ministry of Economic Development of Georgia III Platform – Energy Security – Ministry of Energy of Georgia IV Platform – Contacts Between people - Ministry of Culture, Monuments Protection and Sports of Georgia Within the platforms Flagship initiatives and panels are functioning to stress the attention on particular thematic spheres. In particular, there are following Flagship initiatives: 1. Integrated Border Management Programme; 2. Prevention of, preparedness for, and response to natural and man-made disasters 3. SME Facility 4. Environmental Governance 5. Regional Electricity Markets, Improved Energy Efficiency and Increased use of Renewable Resources And Panels: 1. Integrated Border Management 2. Fight Against Corruption 3. Improved Functioning of the Judiciary 4. Public Administration Reform 5. and Trade Related Regulatory Cooperation Linked to DCFTAs 6. Environment and Climate Change Considerable progress is in place in negotiating with EU: 1. Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements, 2. the EU-Georgia bilateral agreement on Mutual Protection of Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products and Other Foodstuff (GIs); 3. Agreement between the EU and Georgia on Common Aviation Area are already initialized and will be sing in foreseen future. To summarize, there are significant achievements in place under European integration agenda, including: Strengthening of institutional Guarantees for opposition participation in the governance, together with 112


Parliamentary governance and decision-making; Drafting new constitution upon the principles of the rule of law, protection of fundamental rights and freedoms, clear separation of powers and system of checks and balances with increased role of the Parliament; Continuation of the reforms of Judiciary system aiming at strengthening its independence; Drafting of a new Election Code; Facilitating media pluralism; Establishment of National Mechanism to Prevent Torture under the Public Defender’s Office; Establishment of Education Activities in the Penitentiary and Probation System; Enhancement of Legal Aid; Adoption of a new law on the Chamber of Control by bringing it in line with the EU standards. Institutional Reforms in Border Management; Increased security of travel document and introduction of Biometric Passports; Effective fight against Trafficking, Money Laundering, Corruption and Organized Crime; Effective support to IDP’s and adoption on the Action Plan for Implementation of State IDP Strategy; Signature of the Joint Declaration of the “Mobility Partnership”. Successful Fiscal and Monetary policies minimizing the effects of the world economic crises; Increased social spending and public investments in labor-intensive construction projects; Investments and improvement of infrastructure, Introduction of the new social insurance schemes oriented on vulnerable gropes of society, Further modernization of the Custom Service; Increased diversification in Energy sector and focus on renewable sources especially utilization of country’s huge hydro potential. Overall, it can be regarded that country’s progress on the way of European Integration will be one of the most important facilitating factors for further development Georgia. Reports of different international organisations prove the advancements made by the country, for instance: Georgia advances from 15th place in 2009 to 11th place in the WB “Ease of Doing Business” report; the Heritage Foundation’s “Index of Economic Freedom 2010” notes Georgian economy as mostly free and the Transparency International improved Corruption Perception Index for Georgia in 2009. Thus, to conclude, significant efforts were done to accomplish Georgia’s European integration agenda. But this process does not end yet; The Country still much to implement and significant efforts are needed to secure our achievements and get closer to the EU. References: 1. evrokomisiis delegacia saqarTveloSi, evrokavSiris institutebis muSaobis meqanizmi, 2006; 2. evrokomisiis delegacia saqarTveloSi, angariSi evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, 2005; 3. ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTul-evropuli sakonsultacio centri (GEPLAC), saqarTvelos ekonomikuri tendenciebi, 2008; 4. fridrix ebertis fondi saqarTveloSi, `evrokavSiris samezoblo politika da saqarTvelo-damoukidebel eqspertTa analizi~, 2007; 5. ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTul-evropuli sakonsultacio centri (GEPLAC), „evrokavSir-saqarTvelos samoqmedo gegmis SemuSavebis, ganxorcielebisa da ganxorcielebis programis monitoringis saxelmZRvanelo“. 2006 wlis noemberi; 6. Joseph H.H.Weiler, Community, Member States and European Integration. Is the Law relevand?, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, vol.21, no. 1-2(September/December 1982); Marcus Höreth, Stille Revolution im Namen des Rechts?, ZEI-Discussion Paper C 78/2000 (Center for European Integration Studies), Bonn 2000; 7. Ivaniashvili, G. (2007), Analyzing EU-Georgia Neighbourhood Policy Action Plan: Modern Benchmarking Approaches to Knowledge Management and Innovations in Georgia. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs; 8. Ivaniashvili, G. (2006), Implications of Globalization on European Integration: Black Sea Region in the Context of Future Eastern Enlargement. Insight Turkey. 113


daviT sixaruliZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

universitetis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia globalizaciis pirobebSi konkurentul globalur sabazro sivrceSi warmatebis misaRwevad aucilebelia momxmarebelze orientirebuli saqmianobis ganxorcieleba. organizaciam maRali faseulobis SeTavazebiT unda SeZlos konkurentebis myidvelebis mozidva, SenarCuneba da maTi raodenobis zrda. magram momxmareblis moTxovnilebis maqsimaluri damayofilebisaTvis organizaciam unda gansazRvros ra surs da ra sWirdeba mas. es ki SesaZlebelia bazarze orientirebuli marketinguli strategiis formirebiT, romelic warmoadgens organizaciis mTliani strategiis Semadgenel nawils. universitetis strategiuli ganviTarebisa da marketingili strategiis gansazRvrisaTvis, pirvel rigSi aucilebelia ganvsazRvroT produqti (momsaxureba), riTac universiteti gadis bazarze. momsaxurebis kostomizaciis, calkeuli momxmareblis specifiuri moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis, momxmarebelTa erTdroulad momsaxurebis moculobis, samomxmareblo faseulobis formirebis procesSi front-ofisis da beq-ofisis monawilebis mixedviT momsaxurebis klsifikacia SesaZlebelia Semdegnairad: profesiuli momsaxureba (klientebi urTierTqmedeben TanamSromlebTan da ara mowyobilobebTan, es kontaqti sakmarisad xangrZlivia, SesaZlebelia momsaxurebis kostomizacia. samomxmareblo faseulobis ZiriTadi Semqmneli aris front ofisi). msgavsi momsaxurebis magaliTebia: sakonsultacio kompaniebis momsaxureba, advokatis, auditoris momsaxureba. masobrivi momsaxureba. klientebi urTierTqmedeben danadgarebTan, kontaqtis xangrZlivoba mcirea an saerTod ar arsebobs. samomxmareblo faseulobis formireba xdeba beq-ofisis mier. aseT momsaxurebas sTavazoben satransporto organizaciebi, beWvdiTi organizaciebi da a.S. momsaxurebis maRaziebi. ikavebs Sualedur mdgomareobas pirvelsa da meore kategorias Soris. am SemTxvevaSi faseulobis formirebis procesSi monawileoben rogorc TanamSromlebi, aseve danadgarebi. klientTan kontaqtis xangrZlivoba da kostomizaciis SesaZleblobebi saSualoa. rTulia, saganmanaTleblo momsaxureba mivakuTvnoT romelime kategorias. erTi mxriv, ra Tqma unda am SemTxvevaSi momxmarebeli urTierTqmoqedebs adamianebTan da ara danadgarebTan, Tumca arsebobs swavlebis distanciuri forma, rodesac studenti maswavleblebTan da universitetis TanamSromlebTan urTierTqmedebs mxolod kompiuteris saSualebiT, praqtikulad universitetSi siarulis gareSe. momxmareblis kontaqtis dro universitetis pedagogebTan ganisazRvreba saganmanaTleblo programisa da swavlebis formatiT. kostomizaciis xarsxi aseve damokidebulia saswavlo programaze. umaRlesi ganaTlebis standartuli programebi aris masobrivi, gaTvlili yvela momxmarebelze erTdroulad. Tumca, SesaZlebelia Seiqmnas profesiuli da korporaciuli programebi konkretuli organizaciebis da specialuri jgufebis individualuri moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad. standartuli programebis pirobebSic ki 114


umaRlesi saswavleblebi studentebs sTavazoben am programebis sakuTari variantis formirebis SesaZleblobas, konkretuli kursebis arCeviT mravali arsebuli disciplinebidan. dabolos, faseulobis formirebis procesSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben universitetis profesor-maswavleblebi. momxmarebelTa dakmayofilebaze aseve gvalenas axdenen biblioTekis TanamSromlebi da dacvis TanamSromlebi, mdivnebi, buRalteri, romelsac mivakuTvnebT beq-ofiss. saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis saintereso Taviseburebaa klientis aqtiuri monawileoba momsaxurebis SeTavazebis procesSi. es aixsneba ori mniSvnelovani elementis SexamebiT _ procesi da Sedegi. Sedegi aris is, risi miRwevac surs universitets SeTavazebuli momsaxurebiT, xolo procesis qveS igulisxmeba is, Tu rogor sTavazobs universiteti saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebas. saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis SemTxvevaSi Sedegi aris cvlileba saganmanaTleblo donesa da profesiul kvalifikaciaSi, romliskenac miiRvwis momxmarebeli. xolo procesi aris Tavad swavleba, romlis organizeba xdeba Sesabamisi resursebiT. Sedegi mniSvnelovania, Tumca, universitetebs Soris konkurencia mimdinareobs procesis doneze. globalizaciis pirobebSi ris safuZvelze afasebs bazari universitetis xarisxs? pirvel rigSi ra Tqma unda Sedegis safuZvelze: kursdamTvrebulis momzadeba ramdenad Seesabameba bazris moTxovnebs, ramdenad efeqtianad SeuZlia mas Seasrulos mis winaSe mdgari valdebulebebi. process aseve aqvs didi mniSvneloba da gaiTvaliswineba universitetis arCevisas. abiturientisa da mSobelisaTvis sulerTi ar aris, ramdenad saintereso iqneba swavlebis procesi, ramdenad datvirTuli iqneba studenti, ramdenad moaxdens procesi studentis motivirebas, misi SesaZleblobebisa da swavlebis gaaqtiurebiT. aq mniSvnelovania ganvsazRvroT, ra aris sakuTriv saganmanaTleblo momsaxureba. ras sTavazobs universiteti bazars momsaxurebebs Soris, romlis miReba SeuZlia students, universitetSi Caricxvisas. universitetebis mier SeTavazebul momsaxurebebs SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes:  codnis gadacema leqciis dros, Cvevebis ganmtkiceba saseminaro, praqtikuli da laboratiuli muSaobisas;  swavlebis procesis organizeba. es erTis mxriv misi struqturis organizeba (disciplinebis swavleba gansazRvruli TanmimdevrobiT, saleqcio da praqtikuli samuSaoebebis monacvleoba), meores mxriv swavlebis sxvadasxva formebis organizeba (davalebebis, gamocdebis, konsultaciebis da swavlebis sxvadasxva formebis ganrigi);  samecniero-kvleviT samuSaoebSi monawileobis SesaZlebloba sxvadasxva samecniero sazogadoebis, konferenciebis saxiT;  saerTaSoriso studentur gacvliTi programebSi, staJirebis programebSi monawileoba da a.S;  praqtikis uzrunvelyofa kompaniebsa da organizaciebSi.  ucxoeli da samamulo specialistebis da praqtikosebis mowveva master–klasebis Catarebis mizniT. es CamonaTvali SeiZleba gagrZeldes. amasTan, zogierTi universitetisaTvis is SeiZleba iyos Zalzed grZeli, xolo zogierTisaTvis SedarebiT mokle. is aseve SeiZleba moicavdes Tanmdev momsaxurebas: studentebisaTvis saerTo sacxovrebelSi cxovrebis SeTavazeba, samuSao adgiliebze mowyobis Sesaxeb konsultacia, studentebis savizo mxardaWera sazRvargareT swavlis gasagrZeleblad, kulturuli programebis 115


mowyoba studentebisa da sazRvargareTis partniori universitetebis profesor-maswavleblebisaTvis, sazafxulo sklebis da gasarTobi RonisZiebebis organizeba da a.S. zemoT CamoTvlil momsaxurebasTan erTad universiteti bazars sTvazobs materialur produqtsac:  saxelmZRvaneloebi da saleqcio kursebi;  monografiebi, samecniero naSromebis krebuli;  Jurnalebi da sxva perioduli gamocemebi. amgvarad universitets SeuZlia SesTavazos sxvadasxva saqonlis da momasaxurebis kompleqsi, romelic moicavs ramdenime elements:  saganmanaTleblo momsaxureba;  Tanmdevi momsaxureba. Tanmdevi momsaxurebis erTi nawili pirdapir dakavSirebulia saswavlo procesTan, isini uzrunvelyofen da avseben saganmanaTleblo mosaxurebas. meore nawili – iribad aris dakavSirebuli saganmanaTleblo procesTan. magaliTad, kvleviTi proeqtebi, romelic xorcieldeba mecnierebisa da studentebis mier kompaniis an organizaciis dakveTiT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs maT miiRon damatebiTi codna, gamocdileba da gamoimuSavon unar-Cvevebi maTi profesiuli zrdisaTvis. Tavad saganmanaTleblo momsaxureba aseve warmoadgens rTul kompleqsur produqts, romelic moicavs rogorc materialuri produqtis elementebs, aseve momsaxurebis elementebs. imisaTvis, raTa gavigoT da sworad ganvsazRvroT is produqti, riTac gadis universiteti bazarze, mniSvnelovania SevxedoT imas, Tu ratom modis studenti an dainteresebuli piri universitetSi. misi mizania miiRos codnisa da unar-Cvevebis gansazRvruli kompleqsi, romelic students saSualebas miscems gazardos an Secvalos misi saganmanaTleblo done an profesiuli kvalifikacia. zogierTi umaRlesi saswavlebeli produqtad miiCnevs swored codnisa da kvalifikaciis am zrdas, rasac studenti iRebs universitetis saganmanaTleblo produqtis moxmarebis Sedegad. magram faqtia, rom momsaxurebis am nakrebis moxmarebisas studentTa erT nawilSi es zrda SeimCneva, sxvebSi ki ara. codnis miReba da kvalifikaciis amaRleba damokidebulia aseve ara mxolod universitetis momsaxurebaze, aramed Tavad studentis SesaZleblobaze, mis motivaciaze, adrindel momzadebasa da a.S. amitom, ganaTlebis Sedegad miRebuli kvalifikacia ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos universitetis produqtad iseve, rogor kursdamTvrebulebic ver CaiTvlebian amgvar produqtad. universitetis produqti aris misi saganmanaTleblo programebi. saganmanaTleblo programa _ aris saganmanaTleblo da Tanmdevi produqtebisa da momsaxurebis erToblioba, romlis mizania Secvalos momxmareblis saganmanaTleblo done da profesiuli kvalifikacia uzrunvelyofili universitetis Sesabamisi resursebiT. am gansazRvris Tanaxmad Cven SegviZlia universitetis produqtis klasificireba SeTavazebuli ganaTlebis doneebis mixedviT (bakalavri, diplomirebuli specialisti, magistri, doqtoranti), profilis mixedviT (finansebi, marketingi, buRalteria da auditi da a.S.). swavlebis meTodebis gamoyenebis mixedviT (sendviC-kursebi, samuSao adglize swavleba da. a.S.) aseve damatebiTi komponentebis mixedviT, rodesac dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad ar aris sakmarisi mxolod universitetis resursebi (saerTaSoriso programebi, korporaciuli programebi). ama Tu im saswavleblis SerCeviT studenti arsebiTad irCevs mis saganmanaTleblo programas. ganaTlebisa da kvalifikaciis zrda, romlis miRebasac imedovnebs studenti misi aTvisebis Sedegad aris swored saganmanaTleblo programis xarisxis sazomi.

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saganmanaTleblo programa aris swored is produqti romliTac gadis universiteti ama Tu im bazarze. vinaidan Tavis saganmanaTleblo programas universitetebi sTvazoben, rogor uSualo momxmareblebs _ studentebsa da dainteresebul pirebs, aseve TavianTi kursdamTvrebulebis saSualebiT Sromis bazars da saxelmwifo organoebs. amgvarad, saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis momxmreblad gvevlinebian erTi mxriv, studentebi/dainteresebuli pirebi da meore mxriv, kompaniebi da organizaciebi. swored maTi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofilblad unda SemuSavdes universitetis ganviTarebis strategiuli gegma. Tumca universitetis ganviTarebis strategiuli gegmis SemuSavebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb erTmniSvnelovani mosazreba ar arsebobs. mklevarTa erTi jgufi miiCnevs, rom strategiuli dagegmva aris instrumenti romlis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia krizisul situaciebSi. am mklevarTa argumentia is, rom universitets ar gaaCnia gare garemoSi situaciis ganviTarebis kontroli da vinaidan aseTi kontroli ar arsebobs, universitets SeuZlia gamoiyenos mxolod operatiuli dagegmva, rasac akeTebs yovelwliuri biujetis SemuSavebiT da akreditaciisaTvis momzadebiT. MmkvlevarTa meore jgufi miiCnevs, rom globalur cvalebad garemoSi universiteti saWiroebs strategiul dagegmvas. mkvlevarTa es jgufi, rogoricaa g. keleri, b. duderSati, p. loranJi, TavianT naSromebSi asabuTeben ara mxolod strategiuli dagegmvis aucileblobas universitetebisaTvis, aramed gamoyofen am procesis mniSvnelovan elementebs. g. keleris azriT, strategiuli dagegmvis Sida aspeqtebs miekuTvneba: tradiciebi da faseulobebi, Zlieri da susti mxareebi, SesaZleblobebi da xelmZRvanelobis principebi. xolo gare aspeqtebs miekuTvneba: gare garemoSi arsebuli tendencia, bazris ganviTarebis mimarTuleba da konkurentuli situacia. rac Seexeba piter loranJis (Sveicariis biznesis skolis direqtori) Sexedulebas, is xazs usvams strategiuli dagegmvis Semdeg ZiriTad elementebs: samecniero kvlevebi, anu axli codnis formireba, swavleba anu codnis gavrceleba, socialurad pasuxismgebeli moqalaqis rolis Sesruleba. am mimarTuelebis realizebisas universitets SeuZlia gamoiyenos sxvadasxva strategiuli alternativebi. am mxriv, universitetebTan mimarTebiT aRsaniSnavia m. porteris klasikuri strategiebi, romelic moicavs oTx ZiriTad alternativas: U cxrili 1 universitetis strategiuli alternativebi strategiuli alternativebi momsaxurebis warmoeba dabali danaxarjebiT

momsaxurebis diferenciacia

Oorientacia farTo bazarze

orientacia sabazro niSaze

msxvili saxelmwifo universitetebi (magaliTad: Tsu, ilias universiteti, teqnikuri universiteti) mxvili kerZo universitetebi, romlebic specializdebian erT an ramodenime sferoSi (grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universiteti, Tavisufali universiteti, kavkasiis universiteti, g. TavarTqilaZis saxelobis universiteti)

mcire saxelmwifo specializirebuli universitetebi ISET

mcire kerZo specializirebuli universitetbi

miuxedavad imisa, ra models airCevs universiteti Tavisi saqmianobis strategiis SemuSavebisas, mTavaria ganisazRvros, rogor xedavs universitetis xelmZRvaneloba samomxmareblo faseulobis formirebas SeTavazebuli saganmanaTleblo 117


programis saSualebiT da am mxriv ra rols TamaSobs saerTaSoriso saqmianoba. saerTaSoriso strategiis SemuSaveba moicavs ramdenime etaps: I. situaciuri analizi; II. strategiuli miznebis gansazRvra, maT safuZvelze universitetis misiisa da xedvis gansazRvra; III. samomxmareblo faseulobis formirebis modelis arCeva; IV.organizaciuli struqturis SemuSaveba arCeuli modelis realizaciisaTvis. cxrili 2 integrirebuli marketinguli sistema

monitoringisa da informaciis ganyofileba (marketologi)

sareklamo ganyofileba listi)

(reklamis specia-

marketinguli komunikaciebis ganyofileba (sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis specilisti)

gayidvebisa da momsaxurebis ganyofileba

dasaqmebis mxardamWeri centri

118

 marketinguli kvlevebis dagegmva da organizacia;  pirveladi da meoradi marketinguli dokumentebis momzadeba  informaciis eleqtronuli fondis Seqmna da mimdinare ganaxleba  universitetis sareklamo RonisZiebebis dagegmva. Tematuri sareklamo kompaniis organizeba;  partnioruli urTierTobebis damyareba sareklamo SuamavlebTan;  sareklamo masalebis momzadeba, damuSaveba dadizaini;  sareklamo biujetis dagegmva da kontroli  PR-proeqtebis dagegmva, organizacia da resursebiT uzrunvelyofa, romelic mimarTulia umaRlesi saswavleblis imijis formirebisaken;  dagegmva da programebis organizaciuli uzrunvelyofa, romelic mimarTulia korporaciuli kulturis ganviTarebaze;  komunikaciis eleqtronuli saSualebebis dagegmva  universitetis saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis regionuli da saqalaqo sistemebis ageba;  pirveladi da meoradi marketinguli dokumentaciis momzadeba; universitetis servisuli momsaxurebis paketis momzdeba.  studentebis dasaqmebis mxardamWeri sistemis Seqmna da studentebisa da kursdamTavrebulebis Sromis bazrisadmi adaptacia;  dasaqmebis mxardamWeri sistemis ganviTarebis grZelvadiani da mimdinare programis SemuSaveba; universitetis imijis gantmkiceba rogorc universitetis, romelic iyenebs marTvisa da strategiuli ganviTarebis inovaciur meTodebs.


universitetis strategiuli miznebis gansazRvras mohyveba, samomxmareblo faseulobis formirebis mniSvnelovani etapi. p. loranJi gvTavazobs sam midgomas: • masobrivi warmoeba da masStabis ekonomiis gamoyeneba (warmoeba naklebi danaxarjebiT, orientacia farTo bazarze); • partnioruli qselebis Seqmna da gamoyeneba; • miznobrivi momxmareblebis unikaluri problemebis gadawyveta. ganaTlebaSiMmasobrivi warmoeba gulisxmobs studentebis raodenebis zrdiT danaxarjebis Semcirebas TiToeul studentze. Tumca ganviTarebis es strategia SezRudulia SromiTi resursebiT (pedagogebiT). garda amisa, dabali danaxarjebis mixedviT strategiis gamoyeneba moiTxovs universitetis mniSvnelovan resursebs, amitomac am strategiis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia msxvili universitetebisaTvis, romlebsac aqvT ganviTarebuli materilaur-teqnikuri baza, finansuri resursebi, kadrebi, inteleqtualuri sakuTreba da reputacia. partnioruli qselebis gamoyenebisas samomxmareblo faseulobis formireba xdeba qselSi CarTuli mravali monawilis mier. universiteti gamodis Suamavlis rolSi, romelic Tavisi resursebis investirebas axorcielebs, xolo Semdgom imkis mis Sedegebs. swavlebis procesis didi nawili, romelic mimarTulia unikaluri problemebis gadawyvetaze, dafuZnebulia klientis gansakuTrebuli moTxovnilebebis gagebaze. vinaidan amgvari swavlebis procesSi Seqmnili samomxmareblo faseuloba unikaluria da klienti mzad aris gadaixadios didi Tanxa. strategiis SemuSavebisas, universitetma arCevani unda SeaCeros ara romelime zemoT aRweril midgomaze, aramed maT dabalansebul gamoyenebaze. masobrivi warmoeba anu samomxmareblo faseulobis formireba auditoriaSi kidev didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iqneba universitetebis ZiriTadi saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba. Tumca globalur cvalebad garemoSi, romelSic konkurencia sul ufro mwvavdeba universitetebi iZulebulni gaxdebian gamoiyenon mxolod Tanamedrove marketinguli codna da teqnika. saWiroeba xarisxian marketingul saqmianobaze aSkaraa. amas mowmobs zrdadi moTxovna iseT sakonsultacio saqmianobaze, rogoricaa strategiis SemuSaveba, merketinguli kvlevebis ganxorcieleba, sareklamo RonisZiebebis dagegmva, PR. konkurentul brZolaSi warmatebis misaRwevad universitetma unda gansazRvros ra saxis partnioruli qselebis da individualuri programebis SeTavazebisaTvis aris mzad. magaliTad, partnioruli qselebis Seqmna da maTi efeqtiani gamoyeneba saSualebas miscems universitetebs ganamtkicon TavianTi masobrivi programebi da daakmayofilon miznobrivi momxmareblebis zrdadi moTxovna biznesis globalizaciis pirobebSi. es ki gulisxmobs umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi integrirebuli marketinguli sistemis danergvas (ix. cxrili 2), romlis saSualebiT marketingis sxvadasxva ganyofileba koordinirebuli saqmianobiT miaRwevs dasaxul mizans, konkurentebTan SedarebiT samomxmareblo faseulobis efeqtiani miwodebiT. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. Питер Лоранж. Новый взгляд на управленческое образование: задачи руководителей. ОлимпБизнес. 2005. 2. Маикл Портер. Конкурентная Стратегия. Москва. 2005. 3. Frederick E. Balderston Managing Today's University: Strategies for Viability, Change, and Excellence. 4. saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro. http://www.mes.gov.ge/content.php?id=131&lang=geo 119


larisa yorRanaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da samarTlis saswavlo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

inovaciuri saqmianobis marTvis problemebi globalur ekonomikaSi meoce saukunis 90-iani wlebidan msoflio samecniero sazogadoebaSi aqtualuri gaxda erovnuli inovaciuri sistemebis Seqmnis koncefcia da mravalma qveyanam gaaqtiura Tavisi inovaciuri politika. rogorc cnobilia, dasawyisSi erovnuli inovaciuri sistemis cneba firmis moqmedebis garemos ganmsazRvrel mecnierebasa da teqnologiebze iyo koncentrirebuli, meoce saukunis 90-iani wlebidan ki am cnebam socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis yvela elementi moicva. amJamad erovnuli inovaciuri sistemebis koncefciaSi inovaciur ganviTarebaze urTierTdakavSirebuli instituciuri struqturebis (universitetebi, samecniero-kvleviTi centrebi, mcire da saSualo firmebi, inovaciuri infrastruqturis obieqtebi da a. S.) zegavlena igulisxmeba, xolo efeqtiani erovnuli inovaciuri sistemis formirebisas orientacia msoflios inovaciuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad tendenciebzea aRebuli. amasTan, Tanamedrove sazogadoebisa da ekonomikis ganviTareba globaluri ekonomikuri da samecniero sivrcis Seqmnas ganapirobebs. codnaze dafuZnebuli ekonomikis mqone daGglobalur ekonomikaSi inovaciurad warmatebuli qveynebis gamocdilebis analiziT dadgenilia, rom yvela qveyanas aqvs inovaciuri ganviTarebis saerTo instrumentebi, magram ar arsebobs inovaciuri ganviTarebis mTlianad identuri programebi da strategiebi: yoveli qveyana individualurobiT xasiaTdeba da amitom mas inovaciuri ganviTarebis sakuTari strategia sWirdeba. inovaciuri procesebis organizacia moicavs informaciul, samecniero, saproeqto-sakonstruqtoro, sawarmoo, damxmare, ekonomikur-mmarTvelobiT da socialurkulturul saqmianobas. masSi gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs inteleqtualuri kapitali, romlis resursebia: muSakTa xelovneba, kompetencia, Sromisunarianoba, reputacia, brendebi, momxmareblebi; kvlevebi da damuSavebebi; inovaciuri unari; patentebi; informaciuli teqnologiebi, organizaciis marTvis sistema, kavSirebi da urTierTobebi. Sesabamisad, inovaciuri procesebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia adamianis faqtoris aqtivizacia, yvela saxis codnis ekonomikuri rolis amaRleba da am formebze orientirebuli marTvis srulyofa [1, gv.28]. Tanamedrove etapze inovaciuri saqmianobis gaaqtiureba nebismieri qveynisa da mTlianad msoflio meurneobis ganviTarebis mastimulirebeli faqtoria, xolo qveynis ekonomikis inovaciuri unari yvela sferoSi siaxleebis Seqmnisa da gavrcelebis SesaZleblobaSi gamoixateba. amasTan, inovaciebis, rogorc konkurentuli iaraRis gamoyeneba, inovaciuri procesis gaazrebas, efeqtiani inovaciuri strategiisa da taqtikis formireba-gamoyenebas saWiroebs. ganviTarebuli qveynebis inovaciuri sferos Seqmnisa da funqcionirebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom am sferoSi arsebuli problemebis gadaWraSi mTavaria saxlmwifos mxardaWera. inovaciebis marTvaSi saxelmwifos roli gamoixateba efeqtiani inovaciuri politikis formirebaSi, misi prioritetebis swor gansazRvraSi, realizaciis strategiebisa da meqanizmebis formirebaSi, wamoWrili prob120


lemebis gadawyvetis xelSewyobaSi. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom inovaciebis mniSvnelovani mamoZravebeli Zala konkurenciaa, amitom inovaciur sferoSi saxelmwifos Carevis nebismieri mcdeloba konkurenciis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas ar unda iwvevdes. inovaciuri saqmianobis saxelmwifo mxardaWeris msoflio gamocdilebis analizi gviCvenebs, rom inovaciebis xelSewyoba Semdegi principebis dacviT xorcieldeba: • komplementaroba, romelic `Savi laqebis~ aRmofxvraze gamiznuli samuSaoebis prioritets gulisxmobs. am SemTxvevaSi Qqveynis inovaciuri ganviTareba Sida da gare pirobebis Sesabamisi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis strategiis adekvaturi unda iyos; • qveynisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi R&D mxardaWera, romelic msoflio donis miRwevebze orientirebuli kvlevebisa da damuSavebebis mxardaWeras gulisxmobs; • sayovelTaod xelmisawvdomi samecniero-teqnikuri produqtebis miRebis mxardaWera, romelic iTvaliswinebs saxelmwifos mier am produqtebis dafinansebas iseTi saxiT, rom bazarze daculi iyos erovnuli firmebs Soris arsebuli Tanafardoba; • mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa mxardaWera, romelic mxolod garkveuli sawarmoebis (da ara yvelas) mxardaWeras gulisxmobs. inovaciuri politikis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapis erT-erTi Taviseburebaa umsxvilesi firmebis mier erTiani samecniero-teqnikuri kompleqsebis Seqmna. Aam kompleqsebSi warmoeba da kvleva erTian procesadaa warmodgenili, rac “mecniereba-warmoeba~ ciklis yvela etapis mWidro kavSirsa da mis efeqtian marTvas uzrunvelyofs. amasTan erTad izrdeba kontaqtebis mniSvneloba saxelmwifo, sauniversiteto da samrewvelo samecniero organizaciebs Soris. universitetebisa da samrewvelo-samecniero TanamSromlobis ZiriTadi formebia: samecniero-teqnikuri parkebi, inovaciuri centrebi, erToblivi sawarmoebi, sauniversiteto samecnieroteqnologiuri centrebi, SeTanxmebebi samrewvelo-sauniversiteto kvlevebis Sesaxeb, samecniero-kvleviTi konsorciumebi da sxv. XX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi msxvili firmebis inovaciur politikaSi gamoikveTa cvlilebebi samecniero-teqnikuri da sawarmoo-gasaRebiTi saqmianobis mimarTulebebSi. es, upirvelesad, gamoixata produqciis gamoSvebul asortimentSi mecnierebatevadi produqciis wilis amaRlebaSi. amJamad mecnerebatevadi produqciis msoflio bazris moculoba 2,3 trln dolaradaa Sefasebuli. aqedan aSS-is wilad modis 39%, iaponiaze _ 30%, germaniaze _ 16%, ruseTze _ 0,3%. mecnierebatevadi produqciis gasaReba, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs Tanamdevi teqnikuri momsaxurebis (inJiniringi, lizingi, konsaltingi da a. S) gafarToebas [2, gv. 46]. cvlilebebi teqnologiur politikaSi ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego tendenciis Sedegia. erTi mxriv, regionuli ekonomikuri integracia, aaxloebs ra standartebsa da momxmarebelTa arCevans, mTel rig dargebSi qmnis mravalnacionaluri korporaciebis efeqtiani strategiuli marTvis pirobebs (centralizebuli kontrolisa da sakuTari filialebis safuZvelze). meore mxriv, arsebobs mravali dargi da firma, sadac TanamSromlobis strategia ufro efeqtiania, radgan igi uazro konkurenciis Tavidan acilebis saSualebas iZleva. aRsaniSnavia, rom TanamSromlobis strategia saerTaSoriso firmebs aZlevebs diversifikaciis, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis da STanTqmis strategiebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. Tavis mxriv, am 121


strategiebis gamoyenebiT sul ufro izrdeba gansxvaveba qveyanaTa teqnologiuri ganviTarebis doneebSi. Tanamedrove etapze msoflio mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 15% teqnologiuri inovaciebiT uzrunvelyofs danarCen msoflios, planetis mosaxleobis daaxloebiT naxevars Seswevs sakuTar warmoebasa da moxmarebaSi am teqnologiebis danergvis unari, xolo danarCeni nawili (msoflios mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 1/3) arc inovaciebs awarmoebs da arc ucxour teqnologiebs nergavs [3, gv. 68]. centralizebuli ekonomikidan Ria sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlis procesSi saqarTvelos ekonomikam seriozuli transformacia ganicada, romelmac inovaciuri ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani resursis dakargva gamoiwvia: Semcirda samecnierokvleviTi institutebisa da mecnier-mkvlevarTa ricxvi, agreTve gaqra an moZvelda inovaciebis marTvis sabWoTa periodSi Camoyalibebuli modelebi, maTi Canacvleba ki axali modelebiTa da marTvis efeqtiani sistemebiT jer ver moxerxda. dRes inovaciuri potencialis zrda saxelmwifos strategiul mimarTulebas ar warmoadgens da amis gamo qveynis inovaciuri ganviTareba Seferxebulia. es, upirvelesad, SeiZleba aixsnas Semdegi mizezebiT: • ekonomikis dargebis mxridan inovaciebsa da inovaciur teqnologiebze moTxovnis ararseboba; • inovaciur-teqnologiuri sferos formirebisa da ganviTarebis saxelmwifo mxardaWeris, saxelmwifo inovaciuri politikis ararseboba; • qveynis samecniero potencialis Semcireba; • qveynis biznes-garemos arsebiTi gaumjobesebis miuxedavad, inovaciuri sferos ganviTarebisaTvis araxelsayreli sainvesticio garemo (maRali riskisa da ganusazRvrelobis gamo). adamianebis mier inovaciebis Seqnis, gamoyenebis da marTvis unari damokidebulia 3 faqtorze: 1. zogadi, saSualo da umaRlesi ganaTlebis Taviseburebebi (ganaTlebis xangrZlivoba sxvadasxva doneze, saganmanaTleblo programebi, ganaTlebis xarisxi skolasa da umaRles saswavleblebSi); 2. ganaTlebis done qveyanaSi; 3. mowafeTa raodenoba 1 maswavlebelze. 2010 wlis adamianuri ganviTarebis indeqsiT (0,698) saqarTvelos 74-e adgili ukavia msoflioSi da igi maRali ganviTarebis qveyanaTa jgufSi Sedis. misi mozrdili (15 da meti asakis) mosaxleobis ganaTlebis donis koeficientia 99,7. umaRlesi ganaTlebis mocvis done saskolo asakze ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis 34,3 %-s Seadgens. saqarTveloSi 1 maswavlebelze modis 12,5 mowafe (aSS-Si – 14,3; germaniaSi – 18,0; iaponiaSi – 18,8; safrangeTSi – 20,3; SveicariaSi – 18,0; SveciaSi – 10,7) [4, gv. 193]. 2000-2007 wlebSi saqarTveloSi ganaTlebaze saSualod ixarjeboda mSp-is 2,9%, jandacvaze – 1,5%, samecniero kvlevebsa da damuSavebebze – 0,2 % Tavdacvaze – 8,5 %. 2008 wels ZirTad kapitalSi dabandebulia mSp-is 22,5 % [4, gv. 194]. saqarTvelos ekonomikis struqturis, agreTve misi eqsportis analizi gviCvenebs, rom: • Zalian dabalia qarTuli firmebis inovaciuri aqtivoba, rac aferxebs maTi saerTaSoriso konkurentunarianobis donis amaRlebas; • saqarTvelos ar gaaCnia adgili inovaciuri produqciis msoflio bazarze; 122


• ekonomikuri ganviTarebis qarTuli modeli ar Seesabameba (ufro metic, msgavsi elementebic ki ar gaaCnia) warmatebiT ganviTarebuli qveynebis ekonomikur modelebs; saqarTvelos efeqtiani ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis sWirdeba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis inovaciuri modeli. am axal ekonomikur modelze gadasasvlelad qveyanas aqvs Semdegi Zlieri mxareebi da SesaZleblobebi: • mosaxleobis ganaTlebis maRali done; • umaRlesi ganaTlebis ganviTarebuli da reformirebuli sistema; • dagrovili inteleqtualuri kapitali, ganviTarebuli qveynebis Sesaferisi mecnieruli elita da saerTaSoriso aRiarebis mqone mecnierebis sakmao raodenoba; • iafi da kvalificiuri samuSao Zala; • Ria ekonomika da liberaluri biznes-garemo; • sakmaod demokratiuli politikuri sistema; • Tavisufali industriuli da savaWro zonebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobebi; • xelsayreli geografiuli mdebareoba; • mravali saerTaSoriso organizaciis wevroba; • saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi monawileoba. amasTan, ekonomikis ganviTarebis inovaciur modelze gadasvlas aferxebs Semdegi susti mxareebi da SesaZleblobebi: • moZvelebuli sawarmoo fondebi, teqnikisa da mowyobilobis dabali teqnologiuri done; • finansuri saxsrebis ukmarisoba arsebuli sawarmoo simZlavreebis modernizaciisaTvis da axali maRalteqnologiuri sawarmoebis Sesaqmnelad; • menejmentis dabali done; • arasrulyofili instituciuri da samarTlebrivi meqanizmebi inovaciuri saqmianobis stimulirebisaTvis; • inovaciuri infrastruqturis ganviTarebis dabali done; • mrewvelobis dargobrivi struqturis deformacia; • susti orientacia produqciis xarisxze; • politikuri arastabilurobis saSiSroeba, dakarguli teritoriebi; • ganviTarebis inovaciur gzaze gadasvlis mniSvnelobis gauTavisebloba da biznesis dabali kultura. qveynis inovaciuri ganviTarebis marTvaSi erT-erTi sakvanZo problemaa teqnologiebis komercializacia. Aamitom saqarTvelos inovaciuri seqtoris Sesaqmnelad saWiroa inovaciuri potencialis Sefaseba, arsebuli mecnieruli damuSavebebisa da gamogonebebis dayvana `sabazro kondiciaze~, aqtualuri siaxleebis Zieba da maTze moTxovnis stimulireba, venCuruli biznesis ganviTareba da a. S. [5. gv. 131]. qarTuli firmebis saqmianobis prioritetul mimarTulebad unda iqces axali mcire inovaciuri (start-up tipis) sawarmoebis Seqmna da sawyis etapze maTi saxelmwifo stimulireba, samecniero-kvleviT institutebsa da sawarmoebs Soris TanamSromlobis xelSewyoba, inovaciebisa da axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebis mastimulirebeli organizaciul-samarTleblivi pirobebis Seqmna da, saerTo jamSi, iseTi erovnuli politikis formireba, romelic xels Seuwyobs mZlavri inovaciuri seq123


toris Camoyalibebas. am politikis birTvi unda gaxdes saqarTvelos ekonomikis progresuli struqturul-teqnologiuri cvlilebebis uzrunvelmyofeli RonisZiebebis sistema, romelic Tanamedrove teqnologiuri wyobis sawarmoebSi konkurentunariani erovnuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis SesaZleblobas ganapirobebs. erovnuli inovaciuri sistemis formirebisaTvis unda gamoiZebnos saTanado saxsrebi, romlebic moxmardeba mecnierebis aRorZinebasa da ganaTlebis sistemis srulyofas. inovaciuri saqmianobis gaaqtiureba da misi efeqtiani marTva saxelmwifos sistematuri zrunvis sagnad unda iqces. Cvenma mTavrobam ar unda dauSvas `tvinebis gadineba~, axalgazrda perspeqtiuli kadrebis dakargva. amisaTvis ki saWiroa samecniero infrastruqturis ganviTareba da maRali xelfasebi, Cvens sasargeblod im Tanamedrove msoflio tendenciis gamoyeneba, romelic gamoixateba ganviTarebad qveynebSi maRalteqnologiuri warmoebebis gadatanaSi, radgan iq iafia Sroma. aRniSnulTan erTad gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom dRes teritoriis efeqtiani aTviseba misi finansuri da inteleqtualuri resursebis amoRebaa. ganviTarebuli qveynebi izidaven saukeTeso mecnierebs, specialistebs da aseTi saxiT zrdian TavianT inteleqtualur kapitals. adamianiseuli kapitalis koncentracia obieqturi procesia. ufro ganviTarebuli samyaros progresi mimdinareobs `asaTvisebeli~ qveynebis degradaciis xarjze. swored am problemis gaazrebam warmoSva e.w. ,,wyalwaRebuli~ qveynebis cneba. esaa is qveynebi, romelTac dakarges ganviTarebis resursi da maTi warmoebis unari. saqarTvelos winaSec dgas aseTi saSiSroeba da misi Tavidan acileba progresuli ekonomikuri politikiTaa SesaZlebeli, romlis mTavari Semadgeneli unda iyos axali codnis dagrovebis xelSewyoba, inteleqtualuri kapitalis xarisxis amaRleba. msoflio meurneobaSi mimdinare revoluciuri cvlilebebi naTlad metyvelebs, rom codnis gareSe `axali ekonomikis~ produqtebis moxmareba, axal inovaciur konturebSi Cawera ubralod SeuZlebelia. msoflio ekonomikis inovaciur konturebs gareT darCenili qveynebi ki ganwirulni arian. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. ინტელექტუალური

კაპიტალი

და

ტექნოლოგიების

საერთაშორისო

გაცვლა.

თბ.,

გამომცემლობა „უნივერსალი“, 2004. 2. Николаева Л.А. Региональные аспекты реализации интеллектуального потенциала в условиях инновационных преобразований. Ж. Проблемы современной экономики, N 4(32), с.45-51 3. საერთაშორისო ეკონომიკისა და ბიზნესის აქტუალური საკითხები. თბ., გამომცემლობა „უნივერსალი“, 2009. 4. Human Development Report 2010. 20th Anniversary Edition. 2010 5. Л. Корганашвили. Перспективы инновационного развития Грузии. III международная научная конференция ”Роль научной инновации в развитии экономики страны”. Материалы. Национальная академия наук Азербайджана. Баку, 2009, с. 130-132.

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SoTa SaburiSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis ucxouri gamocdileba Tanamedrove msoflioSi mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis dinamikuri ganviTareba ganpirobebulia im upiratesobebiT, romelsac biznesis organizaciis es forma flobs: meti moqniloba da mobiloba, SedarebiT mcire moculobis sastarto kapitalis da sabrunavi saSualebebis saWiroeba, inovaciuroba, gansakuTrebuli socialuri daniSnuleba. mocemuli sakiTxis Seswavlis aqtualoba gamomdinareobs msoflio warmoebis procesSi mimdinare cvlilebebidan, romelic zrdis transnacionaluri korporaciebis teqnologiur jaWvSi CarTuli mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis mniSvnelobas. statiis mizania mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis mowinave ucxouri gamocdilebis Seswavla da analizi, rac dagvexmareba qarTuli biznesis winaSe mdgari problemebis gadaWris gzebis gamovlenaSi. ganviTarebul qveynebSi mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi gansazRvraven mosaxleobis didi nawilis socialur mdgomareobas da cxovrebis dones, agreTve gvevlinebian sxvadasxva saxis produqciis mwarmoeblebad da momxmareblebad. erovnuli biznesis sistemaSi mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis seqtori warmodgenilia firmaTa farTod ganStoebuli qseliT, romlebic ZiriTadad adgilobriv bazarze saqmianoben da axlo kavSiri gaaCniaT momxmareblebTan. amasTan, aseve didi mniSvneloba eniWeba maT mier warmoebuli produqciis sazRvargareT gayidvas, rac zrdis sagareo savaWro brunvas da aRrmavebs sawarmoo kooperacias ucxoel partniorebTan (ix. cxrili1). cxrili 1 mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis saqmianobis maCveneblebi sazRvargareTis qveynebSi.1

qveyana

didi britaneTi germania italia safrangeTi evrokavSiri aSS iaponia 1

sawarmoTa raodenoba (aTasi)

dasaqmebulTa raodenoba (mln. kaci)

wili dasaqmebulTa saerTo raodenobaSi (%)

wili mSpSi (%)

2630,0

13,6

49,0

50-53

2290,0 3920,0 1980,0 15770,0 19300,0 6450,0

18,5 16,8 15,2 68,0 70,2 39,5

46,0 73,0 54,0 72,0 54,0 78,0

50-54 57-60 55-62 63-67 50-52 52-55

eqsportze orientirebuli sawarmoebis wili (%) 10

25 (saSualod)

6

wili qveynis eqsportSi (%) _ 35-40 _ _ _ 29-30 35-40

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rogorc cxrilidan Cans, calkeuli qveynis mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis maCveneblebSi didi gansxvavebaa. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis monacemebiT, ganviTarebul qveynebSi mcire sawarmoebis meoTxedi Semosavlebis 10-40%-s sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobidan iRebs. maT mier eqsportirebuli produqcia msoflio eqsportis 25-35%-s Seadgens, romelic ganuxrelad izrdeba da dinamikis tempebiT daaxloebiT 2-2,2-jer aRemateba msxvili kompaniebisas. dasavleT evropis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebisaTvis sazRvargareT realizebuli produqciis wili 20-47% Seadgens, xolo iaponiisa da aSS-is manqanaTmSeneblobis dargebSi es maCvenebeli Sesabamisad 30 da 40%-ia. ganviTarebul qveynebSi sagareo-savaWro saqmianobas 130-150 aTasi arc Tu ise msxvili kompania axorcielebs. magaliTad, Tu mxolod saqonlis eqsports aviRebT, aSS-is mcire da saSualo sawarmoebze modis qveynis eqsportis 20%, xolo iseT qveynebSi, rogoricaa holandia, belgia, germania, iaponia calkeul wlebSi es maCvenebeli 35-40%-s aRwevda. mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi eqsportis sxvadasxva formebs da meTodebs mimarTaven. sazRvargareT stabiluri momxmareblebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi es sawarmoebi TavisiT axorcieleben eqsports, aformeben kontraqtebs da qmnian mcire masStabis sagareo-savaWro ganyofilebebs. aSS-Si mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis 3/4 aqvs sakuTari gayidvebis kantorebi, magram gasaRebis zrda da axali bazrebis moZieba did danaxarjebs saWiroebs, romelTa gaReba xSir SemTxvevaSi aseT sawarmoebs ar SeuZlia. amis gamo iaponiaSi mcire sawarmoebis saeqsporto funqciebs kisruloben savaWro saxlebi. mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi aseve mimarTaven savaWro Suamavlebis momsaxurebas _ kerZo specializebuli saagentoebi da kantorebi. amiT mcirdeba sagareo-savaWro operaciebSi monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli riski, magram ikargeba mcire sawarmos sagareo bazarze saqmianobis ZiriTadi upiratesoba _ momxmareblebTan pirdapiri kavSiri. savaWro SuamavlebTan komerciul sawyisebze awyobili urTierTobebi aseve iTvaliswinebs maTTvis sakomisios gadaxdasac. sagareo vaWrobidan miRebuli Semosavlebis gasazrdelad mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi mimarTaven savaWro-samrewvelo palatebs da asociaciebs, romlebic daxmarebas SedarebiT SeRavaTian pirobebSi axorcieleben. ganviTarebul qveynebSi aseve farTodaa gavrcelebuli mcire sawarmoebis saeqsporto kavSirebi, romlebic sindikatebis an konsorciumebis formiT arian organizabuli. msgavsi gaerTianebebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli italiaSi, sadac 2005 wels arsebobda 300-mde konsorciumi, romelSic 10000-ze meti firma iyo CarTuli.1 mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi aqtiurad mimarTaven saerTaSoriso biznesis iseT formas, rogoricaa ucxoel partniorebTan erToblivi sawarmoebis formireba. am dros gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ar eniWeba partniorebis finansuri paritetis dacvas, winaswari SeTanxmebiT monawile mxareebis wilobrivi Senatani SeiZleba ganxorcieldes materialuri resursebis miwodebiT, an Senobebis, mowyobilobebis, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis, teqnikuri informaciis, perspeqtiuli samecniero gamokvlevebis saxiT. mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi aqtiurad yidian licenziebs ucxour kompaniebze, iseve rogorc amas akeTeben transnacionaluri kompaniebi. aSS-is mcire da saSualo biznesis wilad modis saeqsporto salicenzio SeTanxmebebis 50%. unda 1

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aRiniSnos, rom mcire sawarmoebis mier teqnologiuri siaxleebis realizacia xdeba maTi sasicocxlo ciklis adreul statiebze, rodesac produqtze moTxovna maRalia da bazari araa gajerebuli. amasTan, msxvili kompaniebisagan gansxvavebiT, axali teqnologiebis myidvelebs Tavs ar axveven zedmet pirobebs da valdebulebebs. licenziis gayidva sazRvergareT saerTaSoriso biznesis sxva formebTan SedarebiT naklebad sariskoa, amitom mcire da saSualo sawarmoebisaTvis sazRvargareTidan miRebuli salicenzio Semosavlebi mTlianis 25-45% Seadgens. msxvili kompaniebisaTvis es maCvenebeli 3-5% ar aRemateba. aRniSnulis garda, mcire da sSualo sawarmoebi aqtiurad erTvebian regionul integraciul procesebSi ucxouri investiciebis da subkontraqtebis safuZvelze. dasavleT evropaSi erTiani bazris formirebam ganapiroba Sida sasazRvo raionebSi dasaqmebis Semcireba. es problema mcire biznesis ganviTarebis gziT gadaiWra. am mizniT evrokavSirma mimarTa iuridiul, organizaciul da finansur zomebs, ris Sedegad sawarmoo subkontraqtebSi CarTuli aRmoCnda 203 aTasi sawarmo, sadac daaxloebiT 7,5 mln adamiani iyo dasaqmebuli, aqedan 4 mln uSualod subkontraqtuli SekveTebis SesrulebiTaa dakavebuli.1 msxvili da mcire biznesic ganicdis konkurenciis zemoqmedebas, rogorc Sida, aseve sagareo bazarze. msxvili kompaniebis produqcia bazarze Sedis Suamavlebis meSveobiT, romlebic konkurenciaSi arian erTmaneTTan da pouloben kompromisul gadawyvetilebebs. Sedegad msxvil sawarmoebs gaaCnia meti SesaZleblobebi dakavdnen warmoebiT da ganaxorcielon struqturuli cvlilebebi, raTa aamaRlon rogorc sakuTari produqciis, ise maTi Suamavlebis konkurentunarianoba. ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom konkurentul brZolaSi warmatebis misaRwevad mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi unda akmayofilebdnen Semdeg pirobebs: _ pespeqtiuli, patentiT daculi teqnologiuri siaxlis floba, romelic aprobirebulia lokalur doneze da Sesabamisad mzadaa sazRvargareT komerciuli gavrcelebisaTvis; _ maRali ekonomikuri efeqtianoba, gamoSvebul produqcias unda gaaCndes saTanado samomxmareblo Tvisebebi, xolo warmoebis xarjebi mcire unda iyos; _ praqtikulad garantirebuli gasaRebis bazari; _ kapitaldabandebebis maRali rentabeloba da saWiro investiciebis mcire moculoba; _ warmoebis procesis tiraJirebis simartive. rogorc wesi, msxvili sawarmoebi subkontraqtorebs mkacr moTxovnebs uyeneben. amasTan, TiToeuls subkontraqtoris SerCevis sakuTari kriteriumebi gaaCnia, rac saSualebas aZlevT miwodebuli produqciis maRal xarisxs miaRwion. msxvili sawarmoebi subkontraqtorebisagan xSirad iTxoven kadrebis profesionalizmis amaRlebas, mudmivad akontroleben miwodebuli produqciis da ganxorcielebuli operaciebis xarisxs. ganviTarebul qveynebSi mcire biznesis dinamikuri ganviTareba srulebiTac ar amcirebs im problemebis mniSvnelobas, romelsac lokaluri Tu saerTaSoriso specializaciis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi awydebian. amasTan, aRniSnuli ori kategoriis sawarmoebis problemebs Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli xasiTi gaaCnia. Si1

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da bazarze moRvaweobisas xSirad Tavs iCens iseTi problemebi, rogoricaa _ dabali Semosavali, biznesis maregulirebeli rTuli sakanonmdeblo da normatiuli baza, personalis dabali kvalifikacia, gamoucdeloba da a.S. did britaneTSi mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis regularuli gamokiTxvebi gviCvenebs, rom adgilobriv bazarze orientirebul mewarmeebs yvelaze metad Semosavlebis dabali done awuxebs. amis gageba martivia _ dabali Semosavali zRudavs investiciebs da biznesis zrdis SesaZleblobas.1 amasTan, es srulebiTac ar niSnavs am qveynis mcire biznesis araefeqtianobas, aramed araxelsayrel ekonomikur da samarTlebriv garemoze miuTiTebs. Tanamedrove pirobebSi iaponuri mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis mxolod 6%-ia orientirebuli mTlianad sagareo bazarze, maSin rodesac msxvili sawarmoebis naxevarze meti (54%) aqtiuradaa CarTuli saerTaSoriso biznesSi. amasTan, bevri mcire sawarmo acnobierebs sagareo bazarze gasvlis upiratesobas, Tumca sxvadasxva mizezis gamo ver axerxebs amas. wamyvani iaponuri firmebis gamokiTxvebi gviCvenebs, rom saqmianobis sazRvrebs gareT gafarToebas xels uSlis Semdegi faqtorebi: _ Sesabamisad momzadebuli mmarTvelobiTi personalis deficiti; _ sazRvargareT gasagzavni kadrebis ukmarisoba; _ ucxouri bazris aTvisebasTan dakavsirebuli problemebi; _ sazRvargareT saWiro teqnologiuri donis ar arseboba, rac iq warmoebis organizebas gaxdida SesaZlebels; _ sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis Sesaxeb informaciis deficiti; _ iaponiaSi produqciis ufro efeqtianad warmoebis SesaZleblobebi; _ sazRvargareT potenciuri partniorebis ar yola; _ sazRvargareT warmoebis procesis makompleqteblebiT da nedleuliT uzrunvelyofis sirTule. amgvarad, mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis ucxouri gamocdilebis Seswavla gviCvenebs, rom biznesis es umniSvnelovanesi forma ganicdis msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare sakvanZo procesebis _ internacionalizacia, globalizacia, regionalizacia, mudmiv zemoqmedebas. mcire biznesis mowyobisa da funqcionirebis principebi, mxardaWeris formebi da meTodebi gansxvavdeba qveynebisa da regionebis mixedviT. mowinave ucxouri gamocdilebis gaziarebiT SesaZlebelia saqarTveloSi mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis efeqtianobis amaRleba, rac uzrunvelyofs mosaxleobis damatebiT dasaqmebas, samecniero teqnikur progresis Sedegebis warmoebaSi danergvas, saeqsporto potencialis da sabiujeto Semosavlebis zrdas.

Temur Sengelia saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, 1

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ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

globalizacia da msoflios ekonomikuri wesrigi lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT termini globalizacia warmodgeba franguli sityva global-isagan, rac sayovelTaos niSnavs. is asocirdeba laTinur sityva globus-Tan [1, gv. 211]. globalizacia fragmentaciis (dayofa, danawevreba) sawinaaRmdego terminad mogvevlina XX- saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, rodesac pirvelad amerikelma mecnierma t. levitma [7, pp.92-102] igi calkeuli bazrebis Seswavlis procesis asaxsnelad gamoiyena. amrigad, Tavdapirvelad is wminda ekonomikuri Sinaarsis terminia, magram sul ramodenime weliwadSi sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sfero moicva. 1990 wels londonSi gamocemul krebulSi – `globalizacia, Semecneba da sazogadoeba~ _ es termini erT-erTma pirvelma gamoiyena m. elbroum msoflio qveynebisa da xalxebis, sxvadasxva kulturisa da civilizaciis erTianobis gamosaxatavad [2, gv. 116]. literaturaSi damkvidrda globalizaciis, rogorc terminisadmi uamravi midgoma. magaliTad, cnobili ingliseli sociologi e. giddensi miiCnevs, rom is upiratesad aris socialuri movlena `globalizacia SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc socialuri urTierTobebis iseTi intensifikacia, romelic daSorebul adgilebs iseTnairad akavSirebs, rodesac adgilobrivi yalibdeba aTasobiT milis iqiT momxdari movlenebis safuZvelze da piriqiT~ [3,gv.11] _ wers is. amerikeli ekonomisti g. bhagvati ganmartavs, rom es aris `sagareo vaWrobis, ucxouri pirdapiri investiciebis, moklevadiani kapitalis nakadebis, samuSao Zalis da saerTod mosaxleobis gadaadgilebis, aseve teqnologiebis, saerTaSoriso gacvlis safuZvelze msoflio sistemaSi erovnuli ekonomikis integraciis procesi~ [3, gv.12]. amave azrs iziarebs amerikeli ekonomisti j. stiglici, romlis mixedviTac `globalizacia aris qveynebisa da xalxis sul ufro mWidro integracia, romelic ganpirobebulia transportisa da danaxarjebis mniSvnelovani SemcirebiT, saqonlis, momsaxurebis, kapitalis, codnis, adamianebis erovnul sazRvrebs miRma gadaadgilebiT, procesi, romelic xorcieldeba xelovnuri barierebis mospobiT~ [3, gv.2]. miuxedavad mravali interpretaciisa, rogorc wesi termini globalizacia gamoiyeneba sami gansxvavebuli, magram urTierTdakavSirebuli aspeqtiT: pirveli, im ekonomikuri movlenebis gansazRvrisaTvis, romlebic iwvevs erovnuli bazrebis integraciis process; meore, im politikuri procesebis asaxbis mizniT, romlebic dakavSirebulia saqonlis momsaxurebisa da kapitalis moZraobis saerTaSoriso barierebis likvidaciasTan; mesame, im zogadi politikuri movlenis dasadgenad, romlebic asaxavs globaluri politikis gavrcelebas saSinao da saerTaSoriso bazrebis doneebze. me-20 saukunis ukanasknel aTwleulSi kacobrioba ganviTarebis axali etapi _ dakavSirebulia globalizaciasTan, ukanasknelSi igulisxmeba erTiani, globaluri ekonomikuri sistemis formireba, romelic efuZneba Ria, sabazro ekonomikisa da politikuri demokratiis principebs. amasTan, Tanamedrove globalizacias hyavs winamorbedi, romelmac daaxloebiT asi wlis win dakarga Tavisi, rogorc wamyvani Zalis roli, es aris pirveli samrewvelo revolucia. Tanamedrove mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciisagan gansxvavebiT, am pirveli globalizaciis ZiriTad mamoZravebels teqnologia warmoadgenda. am epoqaSi, teqnologia afarToebda Sromis sa129


erTaSoriso danawilebis sazRvrebs, politika ki ubiZgebda saxelmwifoebs proteqcionizmis, imperializmisa da militarizmisaken, risi tragikuli Sedegic aRmoCnda pirveli msoflio omi, romlis ekonomikuri Sedegebi: inflacia, ekonomikuri dacema, umuSevroba miuTiTebdnen antiliberaluri, totalitaruli doqtrinis aRdgenaze, xolo mogvianebiT didma depresiam kidev ufro gaaRrmava erovnuli bazrebis dacvis aucilebloba, ramac sabolood laxvari Casca liberalur ekonomikur politikas. mxolod meore msoflio omis Semdeg ganviTarebulma kapitalisturma qveynebma aSS-is xelmZRvanelobiT moaxdines liberaluri ekonomikuri wesrigis restavracia. komunisturi qveynebi ki kvlavindeburad axdendnen avtokratiisa da izoliacionizmis politikis realizacias da mxolod sabWoTa imperiis daSlis, CineTis ekonomikis gaxsnis da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis mier bazrebis liberalizaciis Semdeg, SesaZlebeli gaxda globalizaciis axleburi aRqma. amdenad, globalizacia aris ara teqnologiuri imperativi, an mxolod ekonomikuri movlena, aramed istoriuli perspeqtivis kuTxiT is ganixileba, rogorc msoflio qveynebis politikuri da ekonomikuri integraciis procesi. Uufro farTo TvalsazrisiT, globalizacia es aris centralizebuli dagegmvisagan gandgomis erTerTi Sedegi, brZolis procesi a.smitis `uxilav xelsa~ da ekonomikis centralizebuli marTvis `mkvdar xels~ Soris. globalizaciis procesebis Sedegad msoflio meurneoba sul ufro Rrmad iWreba erovnul ekonomikaSi, gansazRvravs misi ganviTarebis proporciebs, urTierTqmedebis meqanizms, funqcionirebis normebs da standartebs, magram ar cvlis saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis ZiriTadi monawilis – saxelmwifos funqcias, aramed, aZlierebs sxva monawileebis _ transerovnuli korporaciebis (tek), saerTaSoriso bankebis (teb), regionuli organizaciebis mzardi roliT. XX saukuneSi msoflioSi damkvidrebulma ekonomikurma wesrigma, meore msoflio omis omis Semdgomi periodidan 80-iani wlebis CaTvliT, is sam nawilad: kapitalistur, socialistur da e.w. ,,mesame samyaros~ qveynebad dahyo. es qveynebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebodnen ekonomikuri ganviTarebis doniT, politikuri da samarTlebrivi sistemebiT, msoflmxedvelobiT. aRniSnul periodSi msoflio wesrigis cvlilebebis dinamika warmogvidgeba Semdegi saxiT: pirveli etapi, meore msoflio omis Semdeg kapitalistur da socialistur sistemebs Soris urTierToba e.w. `civi omis~ koncefciaze iyo dafuZnebuli; meore etapis safuZvelia 90-iani wlebis dasawyisi. is ,,civi omis~ damTavrebiT, socialisturi sistemis daSliT, germaniis gaerTianebiT da Sesabamisad or antagonistur bloks Soris winaaRmdegobis mospobiT xasiaTdeba, rac biZgi gaxda globalizaciis daCqarebaSi, romelic ganviTarebuli qveynebis, gansakuTrebiT ki aSS-is sagareo-politikuri umniSvnelovanesi Semadgeneli komponentia. am periodSi erTmaneTis mimarT antagonisturad ganwyobili qveynebi, gansakuTrebiT aSS da sabWoTa kavSiri cdilobdnen TavianTi gavlenis orbitaSi moeqciaT sxva saxelmwifoebi, umTavresad ,,mesame samyaros� qveynebi. e. i. globalizaciisaken swrafva XX saukunis me-2 naxevris mTavari politikuri mimarTulebaa, romelSic, ramdenadac paradoqsulad ar unda JRerdes, Taviseburi wvlili Sehqonda sabWoTa kavSirsac. globalizaciisaken swrafvaSi maT Soris gansxvaveba iyo is, rom sabWoTa kavSiri msoflioSi gasavrceleblad iyenebda socializmis, komunizmis ideebs, rac SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc socialisturi globalizacia anu globalizacia ideologiis meSveobiT, xolo aSS gamodioda demokratiis, sityvis Tavisuflebis, kerZo sakuTrebis da sxva egidiT, rasac kapitalisturi globalizacia, anu ekonomikur-politikuri globalizacia SeiZle130


ba ewodos. amrigad, globalizaciisaken swrafva kacobriobis ganviTarebis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebaa, yoveli Zlieri saxelmwifo anxorcielebda politikas Tavisi gavlenis sferos gafarToebisaTvis. globalizaciis politikas emsaxureboda nacistur-hitleruli reJimi, romelic germaniis batonobis qveS mTeli msoflios gaerTianebas cdilobda, anu es iyo globalizaciisaken swrafva samxedro Zalis gamoyenebiT, msoflioSi ekonomikuri dominirebis mopovebis yvelaze saSiSi gza. ase magaliTad, 30-iani wlebis germaniaSi saxelmwifo socializmis politika Seicvala nacional-socializmiT, romlis ZiriTadi idea mdgomareobda ludvig fon mizesis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: `germaniisaTvis lebenstraum-is (sasicocxlo sivrcis ) mopovebaSi~ [8, Ń . 18]. es Tezisi waagavs dRevandeli ruseTis xelisuflebis mier deklarirebul `sasicocxlo interesebis~ koncefcias. aRsaniSnavia, rom faSisturi germaniis swrafva da wina saukuneebis am politikis ganxorcielebis yvela wamowyeba (Tundac napoleon bonapartes politika) warmatebiT rom dasrulebuliyo, rogorc msoflio istoria naTelyofs, didxans mainc ver gagrZeldeboda. kapitalisturma sistemam, upirveles yovlisa ki aSS-ma SearCia yvelaze optimaluri gza globalizaciisaken _ ekonomikuri globalizacia. dawyebuli ,,marSalis gegmiT~, man strategiul mokavSired aqcia dasavleT evropis qveynebi. igive politika ganxorcielda iaponiaSi (,,makarturis politika~), sadac ekonomikuri reformebi aSS-is programiT mimdinareobda. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom kapitalisturi sistemis SigniTac arsebobda winaaRmdegobebi (savaWro-ekonomikuri uTanxmoebani), magram es ufro taqtikuri sakiTxi iyo, romelic zians ar ayenebda miznis miRwevas. globalizaciis pirobebSi izrdeba qveynebs Soris urTierTdamokidebuleba, magram es procesi TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba. farTovdeba ganviTarebuli qveynebis roli globalur procesebSi, amasTan ganviTarebadi qveynebi ufro metad damokidebulni arian ganviTarebulebze, vidre piriqiT. ganviTarebuli qveynebi imdenad arian dainteresebulni ganviTarebad qveynebSi arsebuli mdgomareobiT, ramdenadac es Sedis maTi gavlenis an geopolitikur interesTa sferoebSi. globalizaciis Sedegad ganviTarebadi qveynebis avtarkia ufro sazianoa maTi ekonomikisaTvis, vidre Ria ekonomika. avtarkia globalizaciis pirobebSi uaryofiT zegavlenas axdens ara marto erovnul ekonomikaze, aramed am qveynebis demokratizaciis procesze. adaptacia xdeba aSS-is ekonomikur Tu politikur kursTan, romelic am qveynis erovnuli interesebidan Tu erovnuli uSiSroebis miznebidan gamomdinareobs da exameba udidesi tek-ebis da teb-ebis strategiuli miznebis realizacias[4, gv.158]. aSS-is mTavrobis mier 80-ian wlebSi ganxorcielebulma neokonservatiulma reformebma, romlebmac am qveynis tek-ebis msoflio masStabiT gavlenis gafarToebis SesaZleblobebi gazarda, iZulebuli gaxada sxva ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebi, rom miemarTaT igive deregulirebis meTodebisaTvis. ganviTarebul qveynebSi gatarebuli neokonservatiuli reformebi, romlebmac mniSvnelovnad Seamcires saxelmwifos roli ekonomikaSi, swrafad gavrcelda msoflios ganviTarebad qveyanaebze, rameTu es saxelmwifoebi damokidebulni arian ganviTarebuli qveynebis, aseve saerTaSoriso organizaciebis daxmarebebze, romelTa umTavresi moTxovna swored ekonomikis liberalizacia, privatizacia, sazogadoebis demokratizacia da deregulirebaa. globaluri ekonomikuri sistemis formirebis da misi Semdgomi ganviTarebis safuZveli ekonomikis liberalizacia, sabazro da Ria ekonomikis formirebaa. sa131


bazro ekonomikas ar ZaluZs socialurad orientirebuli globaluri sistemis Camoyalibeba, radganac ekonomikis ganviTarebis sabazro modeli dafuZnebulia moTxovnisa da miwodebis koncefciaze, romelic Sorsaa socialuri samarTlianobisagan. socialurobas sabazro ekonomika, rogorc Sereuli ekonomikuri sistemis birTvi iZens saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis meSveobiT. [6 gv. 491] amdenad, globaluri ekonomikuri sistemis socialuri orientaciisaTvis aucilebelia saerTaSoriso organizaciebis meSveobiT moxdes stiqiuri sabazro urTierTobebis regulireba. ekonomikuri saqmianobis internacionalizaciis, globalizaciis generatorebad tek-ebi gvevlineba, romlebic aaxloeben sxvadasxva qveynebis sawarmoebs da amiT xels uwyoben erovnuli ekonomikebis urTieTgadaWdobis process. globalizaciis procesebis gaZlierebis Sedegad msoflio politika sul ufro naklebad arsebobs erovnuli saxelmwifoebis doneze, gadainacvla ra zeerovnul doneze, erTi mxriv, kapitalis da teqnologiebis mflobeli globaluri jgufebis xelSi, xolo meore mxriv, am resursebis mflobeli saxelmwifoebis Sida ekonomikuri procesebis doneze. msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciis pirobebSi tek-ebi da teb-ebi gadadian globalur strategiaze, rac amcirebs maTTvis erovnuli ekonomikis mniSvnelobas. tek-ebi da saxelmwifoebi msoflio ekonomikaSi TiTqmis erTnairi siZlieris partniorebi gaxdnen, romlebic TanamSromloben da konkurencias uweven erTmaneTs, qmnian ra globaluri ekonomikis ori Tvisebrivad gansxvavebuli maregulirebeli qvesistemis garkveul simbiozs. aseve aRsaniSnavia, rom tek-ebis moqmedebebi, miuxedavad globalizaciis procesebis gaZlierebisa, moicavs garkveul regionebs da ara mTel msoflios. globalizaciis procesi ar cvlis geografias, aramed gadahyavs is axal Tvisebriv ganzomilebaSi, sadac geografiuli manZili mokldeba, magram ar qreba [6.gv.12]. globalizaciis procesi mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli informaciuli teqnologiebis ganviTarebasTan, romlis farglebSic formirdeba e. w. ,,neoekonomika~, rac Tavis mxriv dakavSirebulia samecniero-teqnikuri progresTan. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni. S. TezelaSvilis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 2007; 2. asaTiani r. Tanamedrove ekonomikis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni. Tbilisi, 2009; 3. globalizacia da saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTareba: gamowvevebi da SesaZleblobebi. Tbilisi 2008; 4. eTeria e. globalizacia da erovnuli ekonomika: Teoria da praqtika. Tbilisi, 2009; 5. globalizaciis Tanamedrove aspeqtebi. Bbsu, Sromebi, 2007; 6. msoflio ekonomika. g.Toduas da S.veSapiZis redaqciiT. Tb. 2001; 7. Levit T. The Globalizacion of markets, Harvard Buziness Review, May 1983; 8. Мизес Л. Всемогущее правителъствою. М. 2006. NATALIA SHCHERBINA, Republic of Belarus. National Academy of Science of The Republic of Belarus, Institute of Economics Scientific researcher 132


ELENA KOVSHAR, Republic of Belarus. Assistant Professor of Belarus State University, Department Of International Economic Relation THE POLICY OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ATTRACTION IN BELARUS Foreign direct investment attraction is perceived by many countries in transition as an important task. Such policy is based on the expectation that FDI would positively affect the economy, bring new technologies, open new markets, and improve management and administration. Since 2002 in the Republic of Belarus investment activity has been getting up. During the last years we have high rates of growth of investments in the fixed assets, the year-on-year increase of which was exceeded by the increase of GDP in 2 times. Thus the major parameter of economic security of country is the correlation of investments and GDP. On the level of his threshold values, the stake of investments in the fixed assets must make no less than 20 percents from GDP. Actually in 2000 it made 19,8 percent, in 2005 23,2 percent, in 2006 - 25,7 percent, in 2007 - 26,8 percent, in 2008 grew up to 27,9 percent, and in 2009 31,5 percent.

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Pic. 1. Foreign Investment Inflow to the real sector of economy of the Republic of Belarus (USD million)

The system of measures developed and accepted in a country in the field of investment activity provided both the growth of investments and played a positive role in a technical rearmament and the modernization of economy. Large-scale investment projects are realized in the country, such as an input of new power of “Industrial Association “Belaruskaliy”, building of a factory on the production of newsprint in Shklov, a reconstruction and technical rearmament of the Minsk tractor and motor-car factories is conducted, cement factories, modernization of power-stations and other projects. One of the measures of state administration of investments is organizing the monitoring system of investment projects realization. The data of monitoring system showed that the LED rates are carry out in realization of such projects, taken Government into the group of major, as: "Organization of production of sheet glass in "Gomel' glasses", "Building the setting of gidrocleaning of fuel-oil" in "Mozyrskiy oil-processing factory", "Reconstruction of production of starters and generators" in "Borisovskiy factory of motor-vehicle and tractor equipment", "Reconstruction of cheesemaking production with setting the automated line with 10 tons power per day" and etc. 133


In the conditions of reduction of internal sources (budget, personal funds of enterprises) for the maintenance of high rates of growth of investments the fixed assets with the purpose of realization of large-scale modernization of production potential of our country, maintenance of stable competitiveness of producible products, development of sphere of services, sharply a requirement grew in foreign investments. Therefore, in spite of the fact that foreign investments while do not play a considerable role in investment activity in a republic, most attention is spared this sector. Results testify to the rightness of the accepted measures in area of bringing in of foreign investments. During January-December, 2009 the economy of Republic of Belarus has received 9303,7 million dollars USA of foreign investments, that there is a more then in 2008 on 43%. 4821 million dollars USA of which were the direct foreign investments, and that exceeds more then 2 times the level of 2008 year. Other foreign investments (credits and loans, financial leasing) was acted in a volume 4480,8 million dollars USA. The most amount of foreign investments is attracted in the followings industries and sectors of economy: - transport is 3572,1 million dollars USA (38,4% from the general volume of the attracted foreign investments), - industry is 2816,8 million dollars USA (30,3%), - general commercial activity for providing of market functioning is 1479,3 million dollars USA (15,9%), - trade and public food consumption is 945,9 million dollars USA (10,2%), - connection is 153,8 million dollars USA (1,7%). Among the countries the leadears on the influx of foreign investments are Russia (6076,6 million dollars USA or 65,3% from the general volume of the attracted foreign investments) and Austria (931,7 million dollars USA or 10% from the general volume of the attracted foreign investments). Also among the investing countries we can see: - Cyprus is 536,5 million dollars USA (5,8%); - The United Kingdom is 467,7 million dollars (5,0%); - Netherlands are 439,3 million dollars USA (4,7%); - Switzerland is 371,2 million dollars USA (4,0%). Since 2007, the banking sector has been considered as a highly attractive sector of the Belarusian economy and many foreign investors have actively entered through the acquisition of controlling stakes in private and state-controlled Belarusian banks. Currently, 25 out of banks operating in Belarus have significant foreign ownership (20 banks with 50-100 per cent of foreign investments and 8 banks with 100 per cent foreign investments). As a result, the quota on foreign capital participation in the Belarusian banking system has been recently increased. Since 4 September 2008, the quota on foreign capital participation is equal to 50 per cent instead of the former 25 per cent. The actual share of foreign capital in the Belarusian banking sector have grown from 9.8 per cent in early 2008 to 17 per cent as of 1 January 2009. The creation of favorable investment climate and attraction of foreign direct investments are the prior areas of the new economy liberalization initiatives of the state. In general the main recommendations for creating favorable investment climate and attracting foreign direct investments are the following: - restructurization of state regulation of economy system - implementation of further economy liberalization - reforming of investment legislation for FDI protecting - development of active measures for FDI attraction - elaboration of trade policy and regional integration - development of financial sector - development of insurance service - development of infrastructure 134


- development of human capital. Improving the investment climate in such areas as taxation, competition is necessary precondition not only to FDI attraction but also to foster the development of competitive Belarusian private sector that can efficiently compete with and supply the TNCs. The key areas for improvement of invest climate are general taxation, labour, property of land, competition, licensing. Notwithstanding resent reforms in the area of general taxation, Belarus’ fiscal competitiveness is held back by multiplicity of flat taxes based on sales, introduced at the local level, by ad hoc contributions to the various innovation funds of the public administration and by the complexity that tax reporting and payment impasses on business. The main recommendation on re-orienting of the tax policy including establishing loss carry-forward for at least five years and fixing the capital depreciation rates at the highest end of the current ranges; abolishing the sales and services taxes introduced by the local authorities; replacing the “innovative funds” and other ad hoc contributions by “payments for services offered”; replacing the mostly payments of the corporate tax and most other taxes by three payment year. The current wage determination system is overly rigid and does not allow investors to attract and reward managers and employees based on the skills and productivity. It is recommended that the government revise the wage classification system such as protection of the lowest paid workers by introducing different minimum wage levels for different categories of workers, while allowing entrepreneurs the freely negotiated wage above the minimum levels. Belarus should also consider introducing the possibility for employers to term contracts upon provision of sufficient notice, in accordance with good international practice. The new Land Code entering into force in January 2009 lays the grounds for the development of a proper real estate market. Until sufficient number of titles are accessible thought this market, however, investors will continue to find it extremely difficult to obtain land title from the state. During this transition period, it is recommended that access to the land should be facilitated in a number of ways, including identifying sufficient land areas to the pre-zoned and made available for commercial and industrial use; benchmarking regions against each other with respect to the support offered to investors in facilitating land access; and streamlining both the producers for land zoning and those for land allocation by carrying out a step-by-step diagnostic of the current administrative and procedural requirements and rationalizing the coordination between the local and central authorities. A property level playing field among the different economic agents will be key to maximizing the benefits of FDI for the development of the local private sector and reducing potential crowing out effects from the entry of TNCs. In this respect, the competition policy and regime in Belarus need significant strengthening. The main recommendations in this field connected with reviewing all discriminatory practices with respect to the access to inputs with a view to removing distortions where these are not strictly justified by public interest; creating an independent, professionally staffed and adequately funded National Competition Authority; and amending the competition legislation to bring it up to international standards. The licensing regime should be further streamlined and reviewed to ensure that licenses are required only for those activities that pose potential public interest concerns with respect to health, safety or consumer protection. In the process, it is important rot the authority to ensure that repealed licenses are not replaces on a systematic basis by equally burdensome certification requirements. Moreover, the license performance requirements should be streamlined so as to protect the relevant public interest without imposing unnecessary restrictions on the licensed activity, and appropriate administrative and judiciary appeal mechanism should be introduced in case of license withdrawal. Developed financial sectors provide payment services, mobilize savings, and allocate financing to firms wishing to invest. When they work well, they give firms the ability to seize promising investment opportunities, especially small and innovative enterprises and entrepreneurs that need external funding to expand and develop their business ideas. Well-functioning financial markets also impose discipline on firms to perform, boosting efficiency, both directly and by facilitating new entry into product markets. They also enable firms and households to manage better risks. Based on experience, the key factors that support the de135


velopment of modern financial sectors include macroeconomic stability; competition in financial services, including foreign enterprises; secure rights of borrowers, creditors, and shareholders; transparency and the flow of information; and prudential oversight of risk taking in accordance with international standards. Allowing foreign investors participation in the domestic banking sector does not prejudice the nondiscriminatory application of existing policies to facilitate the financing of rural and disadvantaged areas. Host countries’ authorities should also take advantage of information sharing arrangements to facilitate adequate supervision of foreign financial institutions operating in the countries, and generally international cooperation initiatives designed to support the development of a domestic financial sector. A large, vibrant and competitive financial sector with adequate prudential safeguards minimizes risks in terms of systemic instability, with consequences for macroeconomic and investment performance.

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Ms. SITORA SHOKAMOLOVA

Tajikistan. School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore MPP Lee Kuan Yew Tajikistan. School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore Faculty Development Programme Fellow, University of Central Asia INTERTWINES OF DYNAMISMS ON THE GLOBAL AND DOMESTIC LEVEL: HOW TO SET THE DYNAMIC DEVELOPING POLICY THROUGH CULTURE AND CAPABILITIES IN TAJIKISTAN

“Dynamic governance is the key to success in a world undergoing accelerating globalization and unrelenting technological advancement.” - Neo Boon Siong Introduction Globalisation is a dynamic multifaceted concept. Practically every state of the contemporary world is being affected by globalisation mechanisms socio-economically, politically or culturally. It is unavoidable that the dynamisms of global processes affect National Governments. However, whether these effects work towards or against the Nation-States is a questionable issue. This paper will argue that unless the States set their governance practices towards dynamism1, they risk losing domestic control over the pressing global matters, and instead of the progress, the static and uncoordinated policies may lead to the countries’ stagnation. The paper will be based on the central argument provided by Professor Neo Boon Siong in his research of Dynamic Governance concept (NEO & CHEN, 2007), where the positive change in society is only possible through the duet of dynamic capabilities2 and culture1 within the state. In the realm of this argument, the paper will review two globalisation-related cases from contemporary Tajikistan. It will first provide their analysis, move into the challenges that the State has faced in resolving them, and finally, provide the results and suggestions for the state policy on facing globalisation. Selected cases provisions After the collapse of Soviet Union, many developing countries, like Tajikistan, have inherited the centralized decision-making model of governance. One could argue that such model is preferable in dealing with the pressing and dynamic global issues, since those issues often require immediate reaction from the Central Governments. However, as the evidence shows, such countries lack the dynamic capabilities of visioning and strategising, quick adaptation to the new realties, and learning from the external experiences (NEO & CHEN, 2007). Besides, they also lack the enabling cultural environment, with the important principles of transparency, meritocracy and incorruptibility required for the development. Let us try to review this through the below cases.

1

Neo Boon Siong defines dynamism by “new ideas, fresh perceptions, continual upgrading, quick actions, flexible adaptations, and creative innovations” at the government level (NEO & CHEN, 2007) 2 Dynamic capabilities include: “(1) the ability to perceive early signals of future developments that may affect the a nation in order to remain relevant to the world, (2) the ability and willingness to rethink and remake currently functioning policies so that they perform better, (3) the ability and openness to cross boundaries to learn from the experience of others so that new ideas and concepts may be introduced into an institution” (NEO & CHEN, 2007)

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a) Is Islamism a threat? The first global issue case to be explored in this paper is related to the domestic management of Political Islam (Islamism2), expansion in Tajikistan. The shift of Islamism from national to transnational (or “neofundamental”, as defined by Oliver Roy (Roy, 2004)) took a new radical trajectory particularly after the dramatic events of September 11, 1999. Tajikistan, at the time, economically impoverished country with the GDP of $178.23 (NationMaster.com), lacking a clear ideological line after the Soviet-based moral was collapsed, and having the two Tajik (Persian)-speaking and pro-Islamic countries of Iran and neighbouring Afghanistan as its counterparts, could not avoid falling into the trap of Islamism expansion in the country. Under the influence of external Islamist forces signs of increased religiosity in the country have increased – wearing Arab-style head-scarves by women and growing beard and “Islamic” outfit by men, increased number of mosques across the country and high visitorship at the mosques, increased number of students at the madrassas. The more threatening though was the expansion of the radical ideas through secretive, membership in global and regional Islamist organisations, such as Salafia, Wakhabism and others3 (Akiner, 2000).Mislead by the increased religiosity and missing the threat of radicalism expansion in the country, the State have started major campaigns supporting religion, assuming this will help to fill in the gap between the Tajik state and its society which was getting more and more obvious. The support was also within the framework of National Identity construction for a young and confused nation that went through a number of geopolitical turmoil. However, State had to draw back quickly soon after the reactionist mood in the society have started to significantly intensify the risks to the national security in the country in the late 2009 and 2010 – signing off the international contracts on grand Mosques construction, and banning wearing of the hejabs. b) Economic development through fixing traditions? The second case will demonstrate the way Tajik State is tackling poverty, as a global issue, in Tajikistan. Most of the anti-poverty measures in the country with 60% of population below the poverty line (Nazriev & Manzarshoeva, 2009), are circled around the international aid models. The list of challenges with such models may reach the infinity, but the most obvious ones include: lack of overall coordination of aid mechanism, lack of transparency as to how the aid funds are being employed, ‘templated’ approach of aid agencies that does not consider the capacity of the State in implementation of the programmes. One of the alternative measures that the Tajik government undertook in eradicating poverty in the country is ratification of the “Law on Traditions of the Republic of Tajikistan” in May 2007. The law, initiated by President Emomali Rahmon, was ratified with minimal debate in parliament and without much input from civil society groups and the general public. The law, which was originally intended to reduce the economic costs that Tajik households have to bear on extravagant traditional ceremonies, heavily regulated the nature of these ceremonies up to the point of specifying how many guests a celebrant could invite to the wedding. Critics of the law argue that the policy makers did not consider the crucial cultural component that weaves the social fabric of Tajik community where weddings, as social gatherings, have become more than just ceremonies. This has led to a number of externalities which, contrary to the economic rationale provided by the authorities, has increased the total expenses of households. To circumvent the law while still maintaining tradi1

“Culture denotes certain group beliefs and values that are shared or held in common, so it can be thought of as the accumulated shared learning of a given community, based on a history of shred experience” (NEO & CHEN, 2007) 2 Islamism in this paper is defined as a “political ideology of Islam which should be integrated into all aspects of society (politics, law, economy, social justice, foreign policy)” (Roy, 1994). Due to its holistic nature, this definition is of particular importance for this analysis. 3

Today 14 extremist Islamic organizations are banned in Tajikistan including: Al-Qaida, Islamic movement of Eastern Turkestan, Islamic Party of Turkestan, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Taliban, Muslim Brotherhood, Lashkari Toyiba, Sozmoni Tablighot, Free Tajikistan, Khizb ut Tahrir and Salafia. This ban, however did not fully eradicate their activity in Tajikistan, but has rather shiftedvto the underground level.

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tion, households have simply split the grand celebration into two, practically doubling their spending. In other cases, the law has provided a platform for unofficial payments to the authorities who were checking the standards of the events. Today, while the law is still in operation on paper, in reality its impact on poverty eradication didn’t prove to be efficient. Where do the problems in approaches reside? The above cases, while representing a minor segment of political decision-making in Tajikistan, have demonstrated a few fundamental challenges in Tajik Governance with regards to the dynamic governance framework that we utilise in this paper. These challenges become particularly important to understand when dealing with the dynamic global issues, and include the following: • Lack of the “ability to perceive early signals of future developments” (NEO & CHEN, 2007) – as it has been shown in the case of Islamism above, the State finds it difficult to forecast the potential outcomes of the policies it implements. In policy analysis it often considers the immediate needs only, without the potential longer-terms implications. Similarly, the poverty eradication case has shown that the State did not conduct a comprehensive evaluation over the extent of benefits the Law on Traditions ratification will bring. The empirical evidence was missing. As a result, the expectations of the State to significantly impact the poverty level were not met. • The insufficient “ability and willingness to rethink and remake currently functioning policies” (NEO & CHEN, 2007) – when we talk about this challenge, it is not the willingness, but the ability of Tajik State to re-think functioning policies. With the Islamism expansion the State did remake its policy and put religion in a very tight framework of State control. However, these action, again, were reactionist in nature, in response to the growing radical moods in the society. The policy didn’t fit into a longer-term strategy of the State. Talking in a Public Policy language, in the decision-making, the state jump from the “Agenda Setting” to “Policy Implementation”, while missing the important stages of formulation and analysis. • The insufficient “ability and openness to cross boundaries to learn from the experiences of others” (NEO & CHEN, 2007) – No problems of the State are 100% unique to a particular country. I have found the analysis of this challenge in Tajikistan rather paradoxical. For example, from one side, the State allows the Aid agencies to implement their programs in Tajikistan without any adaptation to the local context. From the other, with regards to religious and cultural matters, the State believes in its uniqueness and makes decisions purely based on their intuitive understanding of the situation. All in all, the major problem observed here, is the lack of analytical tools and the capacity to conduct a constant analysis at all level of what may or may not work in Tajikistan. The lack or insufficient utilisation of the above capabilities is being “complimented” by the unfavourable cultural environment of corruption and nepotism in the country. The latest corruption perception report indicates Tajikistan on the 158th (Transparency International, 2009) position. Such political culture hinders the good governance processes in the country, and as a result, the development. Ways forward The goal of this paper was to review how the contemporary Tajik government reacts to the globalisation-related issues from the perspective of domestic decision-making capacity, identify the challenges in its approaches, and propose possible solutions for improvement. Some of the ways forward to improve the current governance challenges include: - Identify a comprehensive list of all the current and potential global issues that may impact Tajikistan in one way or another; 139


- Ensure a holistic National Development Strategy is in place. It is important to ensure that the Strategy is available with all levels of government and that the officials are aware of the context. Once the urgent global problem arises the State will be able to evaluate as to what part of the strategy, solving of this problem fits. That way, the State will be able to approach the problem not just from the top-down, but get constructive and quick contributions from various levels of government; - Ensure that the number and quality of public servants meets the needs of the State. For that, and enabling uncorrupted and meritocratic environment needs to be established, where the public servants would receive adequate benefits; - Ensure that proper strategic management training mechanisms for different levels of public servants are in place. As the practice shows, it is important to not only send a public servant for a training, but create proper pre- and post-training accountability and implementation control mechanisms; These measures, while giving more leverage to different layers of government, will help to improve the dynamic capabilities and culture in Tajikistan that would enable the State to have a better-quality reaction in dealing with global issues that constantly impact the country. References: 1.Akiner, S. (2000). Religious Gap. Harvard International Review , pp. 62-65; 2.NationMaster.com. (n.d.). Economy Statistics > GDP (per capita) (1999) by country. Retrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gdp_percap-economy-gdp-percapita&date=1999; 3.Nazriev, S., & Manzarshoeva, A. (2009, August 2009). Poverty Tajikistan's only growth area. Retrieved November 19, 2010 (from Asia Times Online : http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/KH06Ag01.html); 4.NEO, B. S., & CHEN, G. (2007). Dynamic Governamce: Embedding Culture, Capabilities and Change in Singapore. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd; 5.Roy, O. (2004, November 8). Globalized Islam . Religioscope; 6.Roy, O. (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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eka Coxeli saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori globalur kompaniebSi adamianuri resursebis marTvis sakiTxebi msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciasTan erTad kompaniebi warmatebis misaRwevad da SesanarCuneblad gadian sazRvargareTis bazrebze. globaluri biznesis ganxorcieleba, Tavis mxriv mraval sirTules ukavSirdeba, romelTagan mniSvnelovania sazRvargareT Seqmnil kompaniebSi Sesabamisi adamianuri resursebis menejmentis sistemis formireba. adamianuri resursebis marTva globalur doneze dakavSirebulia seriozul problemebTan. upirveles yovlisa, igi dakavSirebulia im TaviseburebebTan, romelic damaxasiaTebelia: pirveli, calkeuli qveynebisTvis; gansxvavebebi qveynebs Soris kulturaSi, ekonomikur sistemebSi, samarTlebriv Tu politikur midgomebSi gavlenas axdens adamianuri resursebis marTvis kanonebsa Tu praqtikaze da moiTxovs TviToeuli qveynis mixedviT Sesabamisi adamianuri resursebis menejmentis formirebas. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom portugalieli muSis wliuri samuSao moicavs 1.980 sT, maSin roca germanelisa aris 1.648 sT weliwadSi; aseve sawarmoo sferoSi dasaqmebuli muSis saaTobrivi anazRaureba meqsikaSi iwyeba 2,75 dolaridan, taivanSi _ 6,43 dolaria, aSS-Si 23,82 dolari, gaerTianebul samefoSi 27,10 dolari, germaniaSi 34,21 dolari. evropis umetes qveyanaSi muSaTa daqiraveba da ganTavisufleba warmoadgens rTul proceduras. aq mniSvnelovan rols asruleben momuSaveTa sabWoebi, romlebic aris damsaqmebelis mier dasaqmebulebis warmomadgenlebidan arCeuli jgufebi. isini yovelTviurad xvdebian menejerebs da monawileoben yvela sakiTxis ganxilvaSi, dawyebuli mowevis akrZalviT da damTavrebuli momuSaveTa ganTavisuflebiT. amasTan dasaqmebuls gaaCnia xmis micemis legaluri ufleba kompaniis kanonebis miRebaSi, maSin roca aSS-Si, adamianTa resusrebis kanonebi umetes sakiTxSi (rogoricaa mogeba da xelfasi), dgindeba damsaqmeblis mier an leiboristTa kavSiris gadawyvetilebiT;Mmeore, im gaerTianebisaTvis (kavSirisTvis) romelSic mocemuli qveynebia Sesuli. magaliTad, roca kompania Sedis iseT qveyanaSi, romelic aris evrokavSiris wevri, aucilebelia gaiTvaliswinos evrokavSiris mier miRebuli direqtivebi Tu kanonebi. magaliTad, evrokavSiris direqtivebi moiTxovs damsaqmeblisagan, rom dasaqmebuli werilobiT iqnas informirebuli samuSaos vadebisa da pirobebis Sesaxeb: inglisSi detaluri werilobiTi dokumenti aucilebelia, romelic unda Seicavdes anazRaurebas, muSaobis dawyebis TariRs da samuSao saaTebis raodenobas. germania ar iTxovs werilobiT kontraqts, magram raime sabuTi unda arsebobdes samuSaos Sesaxeb; evrokavSiri awesebs samuSao kviris 48 saaTs, Tumca zogierTi evrikavSiris qveyana Semoifargleba 40 sT-iT; evropas gaaCnia dasaqmebulis samuSaoze wardgenis ramodenime safexuri, safrangeTSi, damsaqmebeli 50 an meti dasaqmebuliT unda SeuTanxmdes dasaqmebis warmomadgenlebs samuSao pirobebze, treningebze, valdebulebebis Sesrulebaze da samuSaodan ganTavisuflebis sakiTxebzec ki. italiaSi, yvela damsaqmebeli, Tu hyavs 15 an meti dasaqmebuli, unda SeuTaxnmdes sabWos muSaobis Sida wesebis Sesaxeb da a.S. mniSvnelovania globaluri kompaniebis samuSao adgilebiT dakompleqteba, romelic tradiciulad warmoadgens saerTaSoriso adamianuri resursebis marTvis safuZvels. procesi moicavs im adamianTa mozidvasa da SerCevas, romlebic daikaveben 141


firmebSi ama Tu im samuSao adgils. amisaTvis kompaniebi mimarTaven kadrebis SerCevas adgilobrivi an emigrirebuli moqalaqeebisgan. adgilobrivebi faqtobrivad warmoadgenen im qveynis moqalaqeebs, sadac kompania funqcionirebs. emigrirebulebi arian is dasaqmebulebi, romlebic ar arian im qveynis moqalaqeebi, sadac kompania awarmoebs bizness. xSirad kompaniis top-menejeri am or alternativas Soris arCevanis gakeTebisas efuZneba iseT Sexedulebebs, rogoricaa: eTnocentruli, policentruli da geocentruli. eTnocentruli Sexedulebis dros menejeri upiratesobas aniWebs mSobliuri qveynis marTvis stils, codnas, Sefasebis kriteriumebsa da dasaqmebulebs; policentrulis dros upiratesobas aniWebs maspinZeli qveynis dasaqmebulebs, radgan maTi azriT mxolod maT SeuZliaT gaigon maspinZeli qveynis bazris kultura da qceva; geocentruli Sexedulebis dros, menjerisTvis mTavaria saukeTeso kadrebis SerCeva romelime qveynis moqalaqeobis miuxedavad. roca kompaniis menejmenti aqcents akeTebs emigrirebul adamianebze, am dros aseTi kadrebis SerCeva da marTva dakavSirebulia mTel rig materialur Tu moralur moTxovnebTan. kerZod: 1. dasaqmebulebis adaptaciis skriningis Catareba. igi gulisxmobs: pirveli, emigrantis individualuri maxasiaTeblebis gansazRvras. magaliTad, 143 emigranti dasaqmebulis Seswavlisas, aRmoCnda, rom damyolni da emociurad stabilurebi naklebad tovebdnen samuSao adgils; meore, ojaxuri zewolis donis Sefaseba. erT-erTma kvlevam aCvena, rom ojaxs, ucxo garemosTan adaptirebaSi exmareba: enis srulyofilad codna, skolamdeli bavSvebis yola, mWidro kavSiri axloblebTan; 2. SerCeuli kandidatebis treningi da orientireba. Aam dros gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba iseTi sakiTxebis ganxilvas, rogoricaa: kulturul gansxvavebebis Seswavla; monawileTa qcevisa da damokidebulebis gavlenis Sefaseba; faqtiuri codnis miReba ucxo qveynis Sesaxeb; enis codna da ucxo garemosTan Seguebis gamocdilebis gaziareba; 3. dasaqmebulebis samSobloSi dabrunebis programebis SemuSaveba. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani problema dasaqmebulis sazRvargareT gagzavnisa aris is, rom samSobloSi dabrunebisas maTma 40-60% SeiZleba sam weliwadSi datovos kompania. Ees ricxvi gacilebiT mcirdeba, Tu kompanias gaaCnia dabrunebis formaluri programa, romelic moicavs Semdeg RonisZiebebs: - kompania Tavis dasaqmebulsa da mis ojaxs utarebs trenings fsiqologTan. fsiqologi esaubreba dasaqmebulsa da mis ojaxs, uxsnis im sirTuleebs, rac SeiZleba SexvdeT sazRvargareT, aZlevs rekomendaciebs, rogor Seeguos TviToeuli ojaxis wevri axal kulturas da rCeba maTTan kontaqtze; - kompania arwmunebs TanamSromlebs, rom isini mudmivad arian saqmis kursSi da maT yovelTvis ician ra xdeba mTavar ofisSi. kompania periodulad abrunebs sazRvargareT dasaqmebulebs mTavar ofisSi, raTa isini Sexvdnen da gaesaubron kolegebs; - roca dgeba TanamSromlis da misi ojaxis ukan dabrunebis dro, kompania uzrunvelyofs dabrunebis formalur momsaxureobebs. dabrunebidan 6 TviT adre, fsiqologi da adamianuri resursebis warmomadgeneli xvdeba sazRvargareT wasul dasaqmebulsa da mis ojaxs, raTa moamzadon isini dasabruneblad. magaliTad, isini exmarebian dasaqmebuls dagegmos Tavisi momavali karieris winslva. Semdeg, daaxloebiT dabrundebidan erTi Tve, dasaqmebuli da misi ojaxi eswreba seminars `keTili iyos Tqveni dabruneba saxlSi~, sadac isini Tavisufldebian im stressisgan, romelic dabrunebis Sedegad miiRes. 142


dRes sazRvargareT adamianuri resursebis marTvis praqtika metad prioritetulia anu sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ufro meti mniSvneloba eniWeba adgilobrivi dasaqmebulebis marTvas sazRvargareT. roca menejmenti aqcents akeTebs adgilobrivi samuSao Zalis gamoyenebiT biznesis ganxorcielebaze, niSnavs gyavdes adgilobrivi dasaqmebulebi sazRvargareT, romlebic asruleben samuSaoebs ise, rogorc firmis personali akeTebda Tavis qveyanaSi. Tumca am SemTxvevaSi top menejeris problemebi dakavSirebulia maRali xarisxis, dabali anazRaurebis, organizaciuli kulturis mimdevari samuSao Zalis moZiebaze da im qveyanaSi arsebuli ganaTlebis, xelfasis donis da samuSao pirobebisadmi moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebaze. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom adamianuri resursebis marTvis praqtikaSi, qveynebs Soris gansxvavebebis gaTvaliswineba xSirad ar aris aucilebeli, an Tundac sasurveli, mTavaria kompaniebis mier adamianuri resursebis marTvis standartuli sistemis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba. amisaTvis msoflio praqtikaSi gamoikveTa sami mimarTuleba: 1. adamianuri resursebis efeqtiani sistemis ganviTareba. risTvisac aucilebelia: pirveli, globaluri adamianuri resursebis qselis formireba, sadac adamianuri resusrebis msoflio menejerebma unda gaiTavison, rom isini arian erTi mTlianiadamianuri globaluri resusrebis menejmentis qselis nawili da aucilebelia adgilobriv adamianuri resusrebis menejerebs moeqcnen rogorc partniors da ara rogorc aRmasrulebels. meore, orientacia standartebsa da kompetenciebze da ara specifikur meTodebze. 2. adamianuri resursebis globaluri sistemis ufro misaRebad gardaqmna. AamisaTvis aucilebelia: pirveli, realuri globaluri sistemis Camoyalibeba. realuri globaluri kompaniebi moiTxoven menejerebisagan imuSaon, rogorc globalurma gundma, moizidon da SearCion dasaqmebulebi globalur doneze, rac daexmareba maT ufro metad standartuli adamianuri resursebis marTvis sistemis SeqmnaSi; meore, zewolis kvleva ufro zusti sistemis gansazRvrisaTvis. xSiradAadgilobrivi menejerebi ewinaamRdegebian standartul SerCevas, treningsa da msoflioSi aRiarebul adamianTa resursebis sxva praqtikebis gamoyenebas qveynebs Soris gansxvavebis gamo. `kvleva~ saSualebas iZleva dazustebiT Sefasedes kulturuli da sxva gansxvavebi da Seiqmnas Sesabamisi sistema; mesame, korporaciuli kulturis mkacrad dacva. kompaniebs, romlebic qmnian mkacr korporaciul kulturas advilad aRweven SeTanxmebas dasaqmebulebs Soris. isini swavloben faseulobebs, tradiciebs, TviTdisciplinas da meTodur miRwevebs. korporaciul kulturaSi globaluri erTianoba aadvilebs adamianuri resursebis marTvis standartuli praqtikis ganviTarebas. 3. globaluri adamianuri resursebis sistemis danergva. amisaTvis aucilebelia mudmivi kontaqti TviToeul qveyanasTan, adamianebTan, romlebic CarTulebi arian da iyeneben arsebul sistemas da Sesabamisi resursebiT uzrunvelyofa damatebiTi qmedebebisaTvis. amrigad, adamianuri resursebis marTvis sakiTxebi globalur kompaniebSi mraval Taviseburebebs ukavSirdeba, romelic TiTqmis saerToa yvela im kompaniisTvis, romlebic gadian globalur doneze. amisaTvis aucilebelia kompaniebma SeimuSaon saerTo midgomebi da ganaviTaron sistemebi, romlebic misaRebi iqneba, rogorc dasaqmebulebisaTvis aseve damsaqmeblebisaTvis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. G l i t e r a t u r a: 1.Gary Dessler., Human Resourse Management., Pearson., 2010 2.Richard L. Daft., New Era of Management.,Vanderbilt University., 2010 143


NATALIYA CHERKAS

Ukraine. Lviv Academy of Commerce PhD, Assistant Professor MACROECONOMIC STIMULATION OF MANUFACTURED EXPORT IN UKRAINE

billion dollars

The qualitative growth is one of the main sources of economic development under the conditions of globalization of world economic processes. It should be based on the innovative activity and its efficiency is directly reflected by the commodity structure of foreign trade. The manufactured export growth is considered by many as an engine of sustainable economic growth in contrast to the mainly negative effects from primary exports. Such observations are typical equally to industrial countries [1, 3, 7] as well as certain groups of developing countries [2, 5]. For specific conditions of Ukrainian economy with prevailing primary export (Fig.1) the increase of manufactured exports is considered as an important element of improving the structure of foreign trade exchange, acceleration of the dynamics of long-term growth and implementation of investment and innovative model of economic development. It is known that higher share of manufactured export reflects the higher level of development of the economy while a significant share of raw materials and energy in export structure indicates primary orientation of country’s exports and most likely low level of economic development. The macroeconomic policy undoubtedly defines the directions of the economy’s development and may significantly influence short- and long-term quantitative and qualitative dynamics of export. However the commonly recommended macroeconomic instruments of manufactured exports stimulation differ significantly between the authors and precise mechanisms and relationships are still not clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to study the impact of macroeconomic policies for manufactured export. 22 20 18

technological export low-tech export metalurgy export export of raw materials

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

0

Fig. 1. Export structure in Ukraine, billion dollars, 1998–2010 (quarterly data)

Despite the permanent debates of politicians and economists on effective instruments of manufactured exports promotion there is no consensus on the conclusions and recommendations. Most authors emphasize the usefulness of the programs of targeted government incentives [6]; focus on innovative development [4], the policy of "strong" currency [8, 9]. Less attention is paid to the microeconomic aspects: the involvement of world's technological leader companies, cross-border regional programs of innovative development, export orientation in the special/free economic areas. Significant conflict concerns the identification of a favorable macroeconomic environment for manufactured exports. It is important to emphasize that some policy instruments can boost total exports, but predominantly by the redistribution of its export structure with the increase of primary sector. It is important to emphasize the following issues: 1) the characteristics of macroeconomic environment which supports manufactured sector development, 2) the complex of structural measures aimed to accelerate the technologically driven reformation, 3) the proper geographical orientation of the foreign trade. Specific issue is to choose correct option of two - to strengthen the currency versus maintaining an undervalued exchange rate. The implementation of structural changes could be provided with the government support or in the self-regulatory manner. The optimal geographic 144


orientation of Ukrainian export remain to be equivocal while it is not clearly understood which country could play the main role in stimulating of demand on its technological, or at least manufactured production. Figure 2 presents a generalized scheme of manufactured exports basic functional connections. The research hypothesis is that the export structure determinates the dynamics of long-term economic growth. The driving force of the manufactured exports increasing is the state macroeconomic policy, which should stimulate structural changes in the economy in favor of high-tech industries.

Macroeconomic policy: trading − price − fiscal − monetary −

Qualitative export structure Manufactured exports

Primary exports

Technological import Investment

Structural measures

Geographic orientation of foreign trade

Production structure

Sustainable economic growth

Fig 2. Functional connections of manufactured exports

The macroeconomic policy defines price and non-price stimuli for the values of export and its qualitative structure, while significant importance is concentrated on price and monetary stability, attraction of foreign investment and technology transfer. Low level of technological development in Ukraine provides the evidence of reasonability technological import involvement for the expansion of export sector based on the qualitative reforms. Geographical orientation of exports is important because it can increase or decrease the amplitude of selected macroeconomic policy and structural measures. Suggested scheme consider the methodology and results of similar studies however offers a different approach, based on the simultaneous consideration of functional correlations between the main instruments of export promotion (the structure of production, fiscal and monetary policy, geographical orientation of foreign trade). The empirical estimations of high-tech export determinants for the quarterly data of 1998-2010 reveal negative dependence on currency devaluation and positive relations with budget discipline (1). In the other words national currency stability serves as the solid base of qualitative growth and restriction of budget deficit provide controlled level of inflation. Technological industry in general is much more competitive and less dependant on price factors, while the primary exports rely predominantly on low prices which, in case of Ukraine, are supported by tax preferences and parliament and government lobby.

extecht =

1,429 (1,408) 2

adj.R = 0,79

+ 0,930extecht −1 − 0,440et −1 + 0,105bdt −1 (10,712* ) (−1,961*** ) (1,922*** )

(1)

DW = 2,026

The most important factors of macroeconomic stimulation of manufactured export are the exchange rate of national currency, the limitation of budget expenses, foreign investment in export-oriented industries, the import of raw materials and equipment for the technology sector. The currency revaluation (for the Ukrainian economy it happens in the context of increase of real exchange rate to a certain equilibrium level), which is supported by a budget surplus, can reduce inflationary expectations and thus enhance the production of technology products by 145


increasing the real money supply. The localization of capital in high-tech branches and the development of intellectual property market are the major factors of labor productivity improvement. FDI provide technology transfer for the modernization of the technological and organizational capabilities. For specific Ukrainian conditions the factor of salary is considered to be relatively insignificant (it is remarkably lower than the equilibrium value) and protectionism (openness de facto is provided by the "transparency" of borders and the spread of corruption). The analysis of manufactured exports stimulation of South-Easter Asia enables an opportunity to formulate the main priorities of government policy: maintaining price and monetary stability, providing of significant role of government in defining of structural priorities, the limitation of inflationary processes, involving FDI in technology branches and subsidizing the import of equipment, creating of preferential zones for manufactured exports, technology parks, preferential credit facilities for financing and taxation of high-tech sector, raising wages and increasing a gap between qualified and unskilled workers, including subsidies for companies providing labor training and education. In Central and Eastern Europe a positive impact on the export structure was provided by increase in funding of fundamental sciences, the promotion of innovative small and medium enterprises, accelerated amortization, improvement of tax legislation and the wide state support of regional innovative development programs. Among the mechanisms of influence on the manufactured exports, the major may be considered: The national currency revaluation supported by a budget surplus, FDI involvement in high-priorities industries, improving productivity and skilled labor demand, providing favorable conditions for import of industrial equipment, promoting availability of credit resources and revenues from primary exports in the technological sector, European integration. Favorable effects of the reorientation of the Ukrainian export to the EU markets are associated with technological diversification of exports based on modern technologies due to the intensification of cross-border cooperation and increasing quality demands. The perspective branch of Ukrainian manufacturing exports is engineering, including primarily aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding, power equipment manufacturing etc. The situation for high-tech export development in Ukraine is rather contradictory whether the realization of large scientific potential and available qualified personnel is significantly restricted by administrative constraints and insufficient government support for investment in high-tech sector. References 1. Chang H.J. Institutional Foundations for Effective Design and Implementation of Trade and Industrial Policies in Least Development Economies // World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, Washington, НР, 2005. – № 3763. – 68 p.; 2. Gallagher K.P., Shafaeddin M. Policies for industrial learning in China and Mexico // Technology in Society. – Volume: 32. – Issue: 2. – May, 2010. – P. 81-99; 3. Giles J.A., Williams C.L. Export–led Growth: A survey of the empirical literature and some non–causality results. Part 1. // Journal of International Trade and Development. – 2000. – Vol. 9, № 3. – P. 261–237; 4. Sudhir Kumar R.; Bala Subrahmanya M.H. Influence of subcontracting on innovation and economic performance of SMEs in Indian automobile industry // Technovation. –Volume: 30. – Issue: 11-12. – November – December, 2010. – P. 558-569; 5. Torres-Fuchslocher C. Understanding the development of technology-intensive suppliers in resourcebased developing economies // Research Policy. – Volume: 39. – Issue: 2. – March, 2010. – P. 268-277; 6. Давиденко С.В. Вплив розширення внутрішнього ринку на економічне зростання України // Стратегічні пріоритети. – 2006. – № 1. – С. 93–101; 7. Управління міжнародною конкурентоспроможністю в умовах глобалізації економічного розвитку: Монографія: У 2 т. – Т.І. / [Д.Г. Лук’яненко, А.М. Поручник, Л.Л. Антонюк та ін.]; за заг. ред. Д.Г. Лук’яненка, А.М. Поручника. – К.: КНЕУ, 2006. – 816 с.; 8. Черкас Н.І. Обмінний курс, сальдо бюджету та структурні зрушення в українській економіці // Економіст – 2007. – № 1. – C. 38–42; 9. Шевчук В.О. Копич Р.І. Вплив бюджету на макроекономічні показники України // Фінанси України. – 2010. – № 3. – С. 3–12. 146


manana xarxeli saqarTvelo. asistent-profesori

globalizacia da saqarTvelos inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi globalizacia is Temaa, romelzec mTeli msoflios mecnierebi da aramecnierebi bevrs kamaToben. maTi umravlesoba winaaRmdegia ekonomikis globalizaciis amJamindeli neoliberaluri modelisa, im martivi mizezis gamo, rom igi upiratesad industriulad ganviTarebuli qveynebis interesebs pasuxobs. isini weren, rom dRevandeli msoflio viTardeba wamyvan industriul qveynebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki hegemon qveynebSi SemuSavebuli ekonomikuri TeoriebiTa da doqtrinebiT, romlebic sxva qveynebis specifikasa da Taviseburebebs ar iTvaliswineben da, rom axali saerTaSoriso wesrigis formirebis procesi, romelic amJamad msoflioSi mimdinareobs, xasiaTdeba ufskrulis gaRrmavebiT da gafarToebiT ganviTrebul qveynebsa, romelTa umTavres sawarmoo resurss codna da gamocdileba warmoadgens da danarCen msoflios Soris (1, gv. 139). dRevandel globalizebul msoflio bazarze sameurneo subieqtad gamodian calkeuli pirebi (oligarqebi), romlebic mSobliuri qveynisa da transnacionaluri Zalebis yovelmxrivi mxardaWeriT msoflios sxvadasxva qveynebSi axorcieleben politikuri, ekonomikuri, samarTaldacviTi da humanitaruli proeqtebis dafinansebas. amiT isini, erTi mxriv, axorcieleben sakuTari ekonomikuri interesebis realizacias da meores mxriv, amzadeben niadags mSobliuri qveynisa da transnacionaluri Zalebis globaluri interesebis gasatareblad. amis paralelurad mecnierebi imasac aRniSnaven, rom globalizacia ,,obieqturi procesia, romelic bevr progresul cvlilebebs ganapirobebs Tanamedrove msoflioSi (2, gv. 97). magram am cvlilebebis dadebiTi Sedegebi albaT gamoCndeba (Tu saerTod gamoCndeba?!) Soreul perspeqtivaSi, dRes ki misi mxolod negatiuri Sedegebi Cans, da, es Sedegebi aris uTanasworobis gaRrmaveba industriulad ganviTarebuli qveynebis da ,,ganviTarebadi samyaros~ mosaxleobis cxovrebis doneTa Soris. msoflio bankis monacemebiT CrdiloeT amerikis (aSS, kanada), evropis da iaponiis mosaxleobis erT sulze dRiurad modis saSualod 70 aSS dolari, xolo msoflios 63 uRaribesi qveynis (m.S saqarTvelo) mosaxleobis erT sulze dRiurad saSualod 2 aSS dolarze naklebi (3, gv. 57). es gansxvaveba ukanaskneli wlebSi ki ar mcirdeba, aramed izrdeba. socialisturi sistemis daSlis Semdeg saqarTvelos mosaxleoba ukiduresad gaRaribda. maRalganviTarebuli qveynebis mosaxleobis cxovrebis saSualo donisagan misi CamorCena imdenad didia, rom poloneli mecnieris g. kolodkos gaangariSebiT, man rom erT sul mosaxleze mosuli mTliani Sida produqtis moculobiT daewios maRalganviTarebuli qveynebis Sesabamis saSualo maCvenebels, rac Seadgens 30 000 aSS dolars, optimaluri gaangariSebiT 27 weli, xolo pesimisturi gaangariSebiT 80 weli dasWirdeba (4, gv. 25). metad gaRrmavda qonebrivi uTanasworoba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis fenebs Sorisac. sazogadoebis mcire nawili arnaxulad gamdidrda, udidesi nawili ki gaRatakda. sxva tipis Raribi qveynebisgan gansxvavebiT socialisturi qvyenebis da maT Soris saqarTvelos Raribebi upiratesad maRali kvalifikaciisa da ganaTlebis mqone adamianebi arian. es aris inteligenciis fena, romelTac samecniero-kvleviT samuSaoebis saxelmwifoebrivi dafinansebis Semcirebis, da, xSir SemTxve147


vaSi, Sewyvetis gamo, dakarges samuSao. es procesi dResac grZeldeba. 2010 wlis 1-li noembridan uqmdeba molekuluri biologiis da biofizikis samecniero-kvleviTi instituti, iv. beritaSvilis saxelobis fiziologiis samecniero-kvleviTi instituti, radiobilogiisa da radiaciis ekologiuri centri da eqsperimentuli nervologiis samecniero-kvleviTi centri. maT bazaze moiazreba sicocxlis Semswavleli mecnierebebis erTiani centris Seqmna. Tu es gadawyvetileba ucxoeTis gavlenis gamoZaxilia, maSin maTi gamocdileba arasworad aris gagebuli. iq, am tipis centrebis SeqmniT ki ar uqmdeba samecniero-kvleviTi institutebi, aramed isini aseT centrebSi Sedian. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis mier momzadebul angariSSi _ ,,mecniereba, teqnologia da mrewveloba 2001 wels~ samecniero-kvleviT da sacdel-sakonstruqtoro samuSaoze (sksss) mTel msoflioSi daxarjulia 800 mlrd dolari. aqedan aSS-Si 282 mlrd dolari, iaponiaSi _ 103 mlrd dolari, germaniaSi _ 53,9 mlrd dolari, safrangeTSi _ 35,1 mlrd dolari, did britaneTSi _ 29,4 mlrd dolari, italiaSi _ 15,5 mlrd dolari, ruseTSi _ 11,6 mlrd dolari, SvedeTSi _ 9,9 mlrd dolari da a.S. mTlian Sida proeqtSi (mSp) sksss-ze gaweuli xarjebis wiliT lideria israeli. igi xarjavs Tavisi mSp_s 4,81%_s, saqarTvelo ki _ 0,3%_s, am maCvenebliT saqarTvelos msoflios qveynebs Soris mxolod 56-e adgili ukavia (5, gv. 77). metic, radikaluri gardaqmnis Semdeg mecniereba saqarTveloSi ise umniSvnelo sferod CaTvales, rom igi statistikur klasifikatorSic ar aris moxvedrili da biujetis xarjviT nawilSic sxva xarjebSia gaerTianebuli. am mizeziT mis Sesaxeb informaciis moZieba sakmaod rTulia. 2005 wels mecnierebis ganviTarebaze saqarTvelos biujetidan daxarjulia 21 mln lari (mSp _ 0,15 %), xolo 2006 wels 18, 2 mln lari (anu mSp-s 0,13%) (6, gv. 31). am cifrebidan Cans Cveni mTavrobis damokidebuleba inovaciebis mimarT d misi inovaciuri politika. gasagebia, rom Cven ver SevedrebiT iaponias, romelic am mizniT mTliani Sida produqtis 3%-s xarjavs, magram imdens mainc xom unda vxarjavdeT, ramdensac xarjavs erTi transnacionaluri kompania, romelic weliwadSi 4,5-7.0 mlrd dolars Seadgens? qarTveli mecnieri a. abralava svams aseT kiTxvas: ,,nuTu ar SeiZleba viarseboT an vicxovroT normalurad mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis miRwevebze orientaciisa da masSi Cveni erovnuli fenomenis CarTvis gareSe~? da TviTonve iZleva pasuxs: ,,diax, cxovreba SeiZleba. amas mravali qveynis magaliTi gviCvenebs, sadac ZiriTad saqmianobad iafi Sromis gayidva da komerciaa miCneuli, moixmareba msoflio mecnierul-teqnikuri miRwevaTa Sedegebi da TviT es qveynebi uSualod ar arian CarTulni SemoqmedebiTi mecnieruli Sromis procesSi... analogiuri mdgomareoba SeiZleba iyos saqarTveloSic, magram aseT midgomaze aqcentis aReba iqneba ukangadadgmuli nabiji da erovnuli ubedureba, radganac Cvens xalxSi, gamomdinare maTi bunebrivi ltolvidan ganaTlebisaken, maRalinteleqtualuri Sromisken, Camoyalibebulia prioritetuli damokidebuleba mecnierebisadmi. amis gauTvaliswinebloba gamoiwvevs arsebuli mecnieruli skolebis sabolood ganadgurebas, istoriulad Camoyalibebuli tradiciebis, kulturuli Rirebulebisa da eTnofsiqikis Secvlas, Cveni nacionaluri cnobierebisa da cxovrebis wesis gardaqmnas (7, gv. 197-198). Cven srulad veTanxmebiT pativcemuli mecnieris a. abralavas am azrs, magram 2001 wels gamoTqmuli misi es pozicia, romelsac viziarebT ara mxolod Cven, aramed qarTvel mecnierTa 95%, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier dResac ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. garda imisa, rom igi zedized xuravs samecniero-kvleviT institutebs, igi uxeSad ereva kerZo saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis saqmianobaSi da araoficialurad specializaciis Secvlis brZanebebsac ki aZlevs. 148


sabazro urTierTobebis mqone qveyanaSi saswavleblis profili bazarma unda daareguliros da ara qveynis mTavrobam. saqarTvelos patriarqi uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia meore brZanebs: ,,ganaTlebis reformirebisas daSvebulma Secdomebma, Sedegad mogvitana is, rom mozardebi codnis SeZenis survils ufro naklebad amJRavneben, samecniero moRvaweoba ki araprestiJulad miaCniaT, radgan xedaven, rom inteligencias saTanado dafaseba ara aqvs. es mdgomareoba unda gamoswordes. mecnierebis ganviTarebis gareSe qveyanas ara aqvs momavali (8, gv. 4). sayovelTod cnobilia, rom maRalteqnologiuri, maRalmecnieruli warmoebis mTavari resursi aris ganaTleba da mecniereba. ganaTlebis sakmaod maRali done iqna miRebuli sabWoTa wyobilebis pirobebSi. swored am periodSi Seiqmna saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo potenciali. Sedegad 2002 wlisTvis saqarTveloSi ganaTlebis donis indeqsi 0,89-s Seadgenda anu 13 aRemateboda msoflios saSualo indeqss (9, gv. 287288). aseve mdidari gamocdileba iyo dagrovili mecnierebis sferoSic. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis kvleviT institutebSi 1990 wlisTvis kvleviT saqmianobas eweoda 6-aTasamde mecnieri, m.S. 450-mde mecnierebis doqtori da 3 aTasamde mecnierebaTa kandidati. am dros arsebobda 131 _ samecniero dawesebuleba, maT Soris 115 samecniero-kvleviTi instituti da 4 _ saproeqto-sakonstruqtoro organizacia. 2007 wlisTvis saqarTveloSi samecniero dawesebulebaTa raodenoba 92-mde Semcirda. amis garda, Tu 2002 wels gamoSvebuli iyo 602 aspiranti, 2007 wels maTi ricxvi 101-mde davida. amaTgan yvela isini momzadda umaRles saswavleblebSi da arcerTi samecnierokvleviTi dawesebulebaSi (10, gv. 91). es ukve imas niSnavda, rom samecniero dawesebulebebSi 2007 wels amis baza ukve aRar arsebobda. gamoCenil qarTvel mecniers e. meqvabiSvils miaCnia, rom ,,mecnierebis aseTi stagnaciis da depresiis ZiriTadi mizezi iyo am sferos mimarT xelisuflebaSi Camoyalibebuli safuZvelSive mcdari mosazrebaa, rom patara, Rarib da postkomunistur transformaciis siZneleebiT datvirTul qveyanaSi qveynisTvis fundamenturi kvlevebis Catareba da masze finansebis gamoyofa zedmeti fufunebaa~ (6, gv. 31). Cven Cveni mxriT mxolod imas davamatebT, rom pativcemuli mecnieris es mixvedra sworia, im mcire SesworebiT, rom es mcdari mosazreba Cven xelisufalTa TavSi ki ar daibada, aramed garedan _ saerTaSoriso struqturebidan moexviaT maT Tavze. sxvanairad warmoudgenelia, rom qarTvel kacs saqarTveloSi TviTneburad ebadebodes imis survili, rom qarTvelebSi Caklas mecnierebisa da ganaTlebisken ltolvis bunebrivi moTxovnileba da es _ odiTganve inteleqtualuri eri aqcios sxva erebis momsaxure erad. saqarTvelos mTavrobam unda icodes, rom misTvis garedan Tavs moxveuli es politika, romelic ar aris SeTanxmebuli da mxardaWerili sakuTari mosaxleobisagan, dRes Tu ara xval, xval Tu ara zeg, azvirTdeba da metad savalalo Sedegs miscems maT. ukve ramdenime welia Tvalyurs vadevneb presaSi gamoqveynebul axal-axal cnobebs qarTveli mecnierebis mier gakeTebul msoflio mniSvnelobis aRmoCenebis Sesaxeb. bolos erT-erTi aseTi iyo Jurnal ,,biznesi da kanonmdeblobis~ 2010 wlis maisis nomerSi gamoqveynebuli cnoba konstruqtor merab qardavas Sesaxeb. merab qardava da misi jgufi hidromanqanis Seqmnaze muSaoben. man da misma jgufma aRmoaCines, rom wyalSi 10 metris siRrmeze 1 kuburi metris sxeuls 40-50 tona wylis wneva awveba. wyalqveS waroqmnili am Zalis gardaqmna ki saSualebas iZleva warmoiSvas eleqtroenergia. Cveulebriv satvirTo gemSi CamontaJebuli energobloki, Tavisuflad SeiZleba gaxdes energomwarmoebeli. merab qardavas gamoTvliT 6000 tonian gemSi Cadgmul energobloks wylis wnevis xarjze SeuZlia Seasrulos 200 megavatiani eleqtrosadguris funqcia anu ,,engurhesis~ uzarmazari kompleqsis 149


identuri eleqtroenergiis gamomuSaveba. axla davfiqrdeT da warmovidginoT ramxela mogebis motana SeuZlia am aRmoCenas saqarTvelosTvis! metic, gamomgonebeli merab qardava da misi jgufi irwmuneba, rom es gamogoneba aris seriozuli iaraRi, da, rom am wnevis gamoyenebiT SeiZleba kosmosuri raketebis gaSveba da Cvens sahaero sivrceSi SemoWrili nebismieri arasasurveli sxeulis Camogdeba. axla gavixsenoT agvistos omi samaCabloSi da ruseTis aviaciis mier Cveni jariskacebis da mSvidobiani mosaxleobis ulmobeli xocva, aviaciisa, romelsac Cven veraferi davupirispireT, garda imedisa, rom Cvens dasaxmareblad wami-wamze Semovlen amerikelebi da... amerikelebi marTlac Semovidnen, magram Semovidnen ara samaCabloSi, aramed Sav zRvaSi, Semoiyvanes sazRvao floti da gaaCeres... es iyo da es. ase gacruvda Cveni imedi da Tu ase gavagrZeleT, am imeds momavalSic bevrjer mouwevs gacrueba. amitom Cven TviTon unda vizrunoT Cven Tavze da sxvisi imedi naklebad gvqondes. vaJa-fSavelas sityvebia: ,,romeli adamianic Tavis ers emsaxureba keTilgonierad da cdilobs Tavis samSoblo aRamaRlos gonebriv, qonebriv da zneobriv, amiT is umzadebs mTel kacobriobas saukeTeso wevrebs, xels uwyobs mTel kacobriobis ganviTarebas, keTildReobas~. imis miuxedavad, rom globalizaciis Temam patriotizmi TiTqmis ,,gaauferula~, qveyanaSi mainc erovnuli faseulobebis pativiscema unda dominirebdes. es grZnoba saamayo unda iyos yoveli CvenTaganisTvis. esec ar iyos, gana SeiZleba merab qardavas dar qarTvelebs vuTxraT, rom maTi saqme ar aris mecniereba, radgan saqarTvelom mxolod momsaxurebis sfero unda ganaviTaros da qarTvelebma Tavisi goneba unda mimarTon mxolod momsaxurebis profesiuli xelobebis _ barmeni, gidi, mimtani, mebarguli, mkeravi, SemkeTebeli da a.S. dasaufleblad (!!!). istoriulad qarTveli kaci an miwaTmoqmedi iyo, an inteleqtualuri Sromis muSaki. igi arc vaWari iyo, arc xelosani da miT ufro _ arc mebarguli. es unari mas RmerTisgan qonda boZebuli. amitomac aris, rom qarTveli glexi miwis siyvaruliT, xolo inteligencia SemoqmedebiTi Sromis SedegiT mTel msoflios aocebs. saqarTvelos mTavrobam Tavis mosaxleobas swored im niWis ganviTarebas da samSoblosTvis mis moxmarebas unda Seuwyos xeli, romelic maT genetikurad gaaCniaT. aseT dros, gamomgonebelma merab qardavam, dRe ar gava, romelime instancia ar moinaxulos, mas yvelgan xvdeba mxolod aRtaceba, mowoneba, arfrTovaneba, finansuri mxardaWera ki _ ara. saqarTvelos bankebic ki Tavs ikaveben am masStaburi proeqtis xelmisawvdom procentad (13%) dafinansebaSi. es maSin, roca Cexuri mxare mzadaa mas sesxi misces 3%-ad, inglisis mxare ki _ 1%-ad. magram maSin gamogonebis Sedegs miiRebs is mxare da ara saqarTvelo. aseT SemTxvevaSi isini ukavSirdebian ucxoel investorebs da iq agrZeleben saqmes. bolos sacxovrebladac iq gadadian da samudamod iq rCebian. ase gvekargeba Cveni inteleqtualuri resursi, romelic radikaluri gardaqmnis Semdeg, ,,tvinebis gadinebad~ moinaTla. bolo 10 _ 15 wlis msoflio gamocdileba gvaCvenebs, rom Cvennairma patara qveynebma _ irlandiam, samxreT koream da sxvebma STambeWdav Sedegebs miaRwies mecnierebasa da ganaTlebaze damyarebuli inovaciuri ekonomikis ganviTarebiT. inovaciuri ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis saqarTvelos jer kidev SemorCenili aqvs inteleqtualuri potenciali _ aqvs ganviTarebuli umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema, samecniero-kvleviTi institutebi da hyavs saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli mecnierebi. amis garda, gvaqvs xelsayreli sainvesticio garemo da geografiuli mdebareoba, demokratiuli politikuri institutebi, Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Seq150


mnis perspeqtiva da sxva. Tumca, marto es pirobebi ar aris sakmarisi. yovelive amasTan saWiroa saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWera, qveyanaSi iseTi safinanso samarTlebrivi, safinanso-sabanko, sagadasaxado, saganmanaTleblo-samecniero politikis gatareba, romelic xels Seuwyobs inovaciuri seqtoris ganviTarebas. saqarTveloSi rom jer-jerobiT ase ar aris, amaSi vfiqrob eWvi aravis aRar epareba. rogorc wesi, qveynis inovaciuri ganviTareba sami strategiiT xdeba (11. gv. 32): 1. ,,gadmotanis~ strategia (roca qveyanas ucvlelad gadmoaqvs sazRvargareT arsebuli samecniero-teqnikuri siaxleebi da iyenebs maT sakuTar qveyanaSi); 2. `dasesxebis~ strategia (roca qveyana sakuTari muSa-xeliT da samecniero teqnikuri potencialiT iwyebs im mecniertevadi produqci-is gamoSvebas, romelic ukve iwarmoeba sazRvargareTis qveynebSi); 3. ,,gaZlierebis~ strategia (roca qveyana mudmivad qmnis da nergavs inovaciebs sakuTari samecniero-teqnikuri potencialis gamoyenebiT). sabazro urTierTobebze swrafad gadasvlis TvalsazrisiT da qveynis teqnika-teqnologiuri CamorCenis aseve swrafi likvidaciisaTvis, cxadia, ufro misaRebia ,,gadmotanis~ strategiis gatareba, rac amJamad tardeba kidec saqarTveloSi, magram es ver wyvets dasaqmebis problemas. Cveni azriT, ukeTesia, ,,dasesxebis~ da ,,gaZlierebis~ strategiebis kombinirebuli gamoyeneba. ,,dasesxebis~ strategiiT adgilobrivi muSa-xeli daiwyebs sazRvargareT ukve aprobirebuli mecnierebatevadi produqciis gamoSvebas, romlis aTviseba saqarTvelos 1-2 weliwadSi SeuZlia. es strategia saqarTvelos umokles vadebSi konkurentunariani produqciis warmoebis SesaZleblobas miscems. amasTan, radgan ar SeiZleba teqnika-teqnologiebis ,,dasesxebis~ procesi mudmivad gagrZeldes, saWiroa, paralelurad gaaqtiurdes adgilobrivi, prioritetul teqnologiebze momuSave samecniero-kvleviTi struqturebis da calkeuli mecnier-gamomgoneblebis finansuri mxardaWera. ucxoeTis mTavrobebi ara mxolod sakuTar inteleqtualebs afaseben, aramed sxva qveynebSic nadiroben ,,tvinebze~. Tu CvenTan imis materialuri SesaZlebloba ara gvaqvs, rom sxva qveynidan movizidoT isini, sakuTars mainc nu davkargavT! l i t e r a t u r a: 1. Мунтян М., Урсул А. Глобализация и устоичивое развитие, М., 2003, ст. 139; 2. e. meqvabiSvili, m. meqvabiSvili, ekonomikis globalizaciis modelebi, J. ,,saqarTvelos ekonomika’’, 3, 2008, gv. 97; 3. Грани глобализации, М. 2003. с.57; 4. Колодко Г. Глобализация и сближение уровней экономического развития, Ж. ,,Вопросы экономики’’; 2005, 6, с. 25; 5. S. SaburiSvili, saqarTvelos inovaciebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi, J. ,,saqarTvelos ekonomika’’, N 4, 2008, gv. 77; 6. e. meqvabiSvili, globalizaciis gamowvevebi da saqarTvelos ekonomikis perspeqtiva, J. ,,biznesi da kanonmdebloba’’ 2009, aprili, gv. 31; 7. a. abralava, gza maRalteqnologiuri ekonomikisken, Tb. Tsu, 2001, gv. 197-198; 8. afxazeTis sulierebis da kulturis centris yovelTviuri sainformacio organos biuleteni 1, ianvari, 2010, gv. 4; 9. l. Ciqava, inovaciuri ekonomika, Tb, 2006, gv. 287-288; 10. saqarTvelos statistikuriweliwdeuli, Tb. 2008, gv. 91; 11. z. RuduSauri, e. baliaSvili da sxvebi, mewarmeoba, mcire mewarmeoba: Teoria da praqtika, Tb. 2004. gv. 32. 151


merab xmalaZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis mowveuli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi migracia SromiTi migraciis moculoba da mizezebi globalizaciis pirobebSi mosaxleobis, da maT Soris samuSao Zalis, migraciam miiRo arnaxuli masStabebi. 2010 wlisTvis, gaeros monacemebiT, msoflioSi Tavisi qveynis farglebs gareT cxovrobda 214 mln adamiani, e.i dedamiwis mosaxleobis 3,1%. aRniSnul process gverdi ar auvlia saqarTvelosTvisac. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 1992-2009 wlebSi gare migraciis gaaqtiurebis da Sobadobis Semcirebis Sedegad 1992 wlis 5467,4 aTasidan (yvelaze meti ricxovnoba saqarTvelos istoriaSi) 2009 wels Semcirda 4385,4 aTasamde, e.i. 1082 aTasiT, romelic gamowveuli iyo 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli sayovelTao (ekonomikuri, politikuri, socialuri) krizisiT. Sesabamisad, 1992 wlis mimarT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis danaklisma Seadgina misi 19,8%. aseT mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda bevri yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublika. moskovSi, 2001 wels Catarebul saerTaSoriso konferenciaze _ `centraluri da aRmosavleTi evropa globaluri migraciis sistemaSi~ (romlis monawilecaa am striqonebis avtori), aRiniSna, rom somxeTidan emigrirebulia 1 mln adamiani, e.i. mosaxleobis 26,0%, azerbaijanidan mxolod ruseTis federaciaSi emigrirebuli iyo da muSaobda 2 mln adamiani. e.i azerbaijanis mosaxleobis 25,0%-mde (a. iunusovis moxsenebidan); moldaveTidan emigraciaSi wasuli iyo 500 aTasamde adamiani e.i. moldaveTis mosaxleobis 30,0%-mde. SromiTi emigracia 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg realobad iqca. aseT movlenas sabWoTa epoqa ar cnobda, ramdenadac gare migraciisaTvis sazRvrebi `saimedod~ iyo Caketili. amitom aRmoCnda, rom sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo moumzadebeli iyo misi regulirebisaTvis, xolo mecnierebs ar hqondaT misi Seswavlis gamocdileba. sirTuleebs kidev aZlierebs is garemoeba, rom qveyanaSi ar arsebobs SromiTi emigraciis statistikuri aRricxvis sistema. amitom SromiTi emigraciis Seswavlisas veyrdnobiT SerCeviT gamokvlevebs, romliTac arc Tu ise varT ganebivrebuli. SromiTi migraciis SerCeviTi gamokvlevisas arsebobs ramdenime gza. pirveli _ sazRvargareT myofi migrantebisgan informaciis miReba uSualo kontaqtiT (rac moiTxovs interviueris wasvlas sxva qveyanaSi, rac Zviri siamovnebaa) an sxva gziT, magaliTad internetiT; meore _ samSobloSi dabrunebuli SromiTi migrantebis gamokiTxva; mesame _ informaciis miReba SromiTi migrantebis saqarTveloSi darCenili ojaxis wevrebisgan (am meTods hqvia `Semcvleli respodentebis~ meTodi), meoTxe _ potenciuri migraciis Sesaxeb informacia SeiZleba miviRoT aq mcxovrebi mosaxleobisagan. zogierTi gamokvleviT, SromiT emigraciaSi saqarTvelodan wasulia 300-dan 400 aTasamde adamiani.1 Tavdapirvelad, migraciis veqtori mimarTuli iyo ruseTisa da TurqeTisaken. dReisaTvis is mimarTulia maRalanazRaurebadi dasavleT evropisa da aSS Sromis bazrebisken. ruseTis ganze `gaCoCebas~ xeli Seuwyo ruseTis mi1

naTia WeliZe, SromiTi migracia postsabWoTa saqarTvelodan. Tb., 2006, gv. 112;

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er saqarTvelosTan savizo reJimis SemoRebam da bolo 20 wlis manZilze Riad mtrulma moqmedebebma 2008 wlis agvistos omis da saqarTvelos teritoriebis samxedro okupaciis CaTvliT. SromiTi migraciis struqtura SromiTi migraciis struqtura SeiZleba ganvixiloT sxvadasxva niSniT, rogoricaa: _ ojaxuri Semadgenloba; _ migrantTa asakobrivi struqtura; _ migrantTa ganaTlebis done; _ mosaxleobis migraciuli ganwyoba (potenciuri migracia). migrantTa ojaxuri Semadgenloba. SromiTi migraciis rigi sakiTxebis Sesaswavlad saerTaSoriso grantis farglebSi Cvens mier 2000 wels Catarebul iqna SerCeviTi gamokvleva SromiTi migrantis ojaxis wevrebis gamokiTxvis saSualebiT. gamokvlevam aCvena, rom SromiTi migracia damaxasiaTebelia didi ojaxebisTvis. gamokvleuli ojaxebis 56,7% Sedgeboda 6 da meti wevrisgan. amasTan, sxvadasxva TaobaTa da naTesavTa Tanacxovrebis mixedviT SromiTi migracia ufro damaxasiTebelia didi (mravalricxovani) ojaxebisaTvis. araviTar dasabuTebas ar saWiroebs didi ojaxebis cxovrebis dabali done. sxvadasxva TaobaTa da naTesavTa Tanacxovrebis mixedviT SromiTi migrantis ojaxi sakmaod rTuli struqturisaa. kerZod, dadginda, rom SromiTi migrantis ojaxi Sedgeba sami Taobisagan: mSoblebi _ 30,5%, Svilebi _ 27,5%, SviliSvilebi _ 6,5%. maT garda ojaxSi cxovrobden: migrantis meuRle _ 17,4%, migrantis da-Zmebi an sxva naTesavebi _ 18,1% (sul 100,0%).1 n. WeliZis gamokvleviT SromiT migrantTa naxevarze mets daojaxebuli mosaxleoba Seadgens. migrantTa asakobrivi sturqtura. migraciis Teoriis da migraciis statistikis Tanaxmad istoriulad dasabuTebulia, rom migraciaSi Sedian upiratesad axalgazrdebi. XX da XXI saukunis mijnaze migrantTa asaki gaizarda. magaliTad, statistikis departamentis 2001 wlis gamokvleviT gare migraciaSi monawileTa Soris 40 wels gadacilebulni Seadgenden 20,6%, xolo Cveni gamokvleviT _ SromiT migrantebSi _ 40,0%. qalebi Seadgendnen migrantTa 40,0%-s.2 SromiTi migrantebis ganaTlebis done. statistikis departamentis erTdrouli gamokvleviT emigrantis saSualo asakma Seadgeina 36,1 weli, xolo Cveni gamokvleviT _ 38,5 weli, e.i. 2,4 wliT meti. aRniSnuli faqti gasakviri ar unda iyos, radgan SromiT migraciaSi monawileoben garkveuli ganaTlebis da kvalifikaciis mqone adamianebi, xolo ganaTlebis da kvalifikaciis SeZenas dro unda. Cveni gamokvleviT aRmoCnda, rom SromiTi migrantebidan mamakacebis 74,7% da qalebis 83,3% hqonda umaRlesi da saSualo specialuri ganaTleba. n. WeliZis gamokvleviT aRniSnulma maCvenebelma orive sqesisTvis 80,1% Seadgina. SromiTi migraciis ZiriTadi mizezia cxovrebis pirobebi. SromiT migrantTa 60,0%-mde emigraciaSi wavida im mizeziT, rom gaeumjobesebina materialuri pirobebi, xolo 50,0% iyvnen umuSevrebi.1 Cvens mier studentTa migraciuli ganwyobis Seswavlam mogvca Semdegi savalalo suraTi. sazRvargareT mudmivad an droebiT wasvlis survili gamoTqva kargi 1 2

m. xmalaZe, e. menabdiSvili. Tbilisis mosaxleobis SromiTi migracia. Jurn. demografia. 1(6) 2004, gv. 80; naTia WeliZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 78.

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materialuri da sabinao pirobebis mqone studentebis 75,1%-ma, saSualo sabinao pirobebis mqoneTa 78,2%-ma da cudi sabinao pirobebis mqoneTa 84,8%-ma.2 potenciuri migracia. imis miuxedavad, rom iseTi mcirericxovani qveynidan, rogorc saqarTveloa, milionze meti adamiania wasuli, dReisaTvis saqarTvelodan emigraciis survili (migraciuli ganwyoba), an kidev emigraciuli potenciali jer kidev maRalia, im dros, rodesac emigraciis pikma saqarTveloSi miaRwia 1991-1995 wlebSi. erovnuli katastrofis tolfasad migvaCnia is Sedegebi, romlebic Cven miviReT studentebis gamokiTxviT. kerZod, is faqti, rom studentTa 7,4%-s surs saqarTvelodan wasvla mudmivad, xolo 58,5% droebiT (sul 65,9%).3 praqtikulad analogiuri Sedegi miiRo n. WeliZem studentTa gamokiTxviT (550 studenti), romelTa 61,0%-ma gamoTqva saqarTvelodan emigraciis survili.4 es sakiTxi seriozul dafiqrebas moiTxovs. mudmivad wamsvlelTa potenciali, 7,4% utoldeba (dReisaTvis) 325 aTas mcxovrebs. es exeba ZiriTadad qarTvelebs, radgan n. WeliZis gamokvleviT, SromiT emigrantebSi 80-dan 96 procentamde qarTvelia.5 SromiTi emigraciis efeqtianoba erT-erTma ojaxma Cvens mier Catarebul gamokiTxvis anketaSi Tavisufal adgilze Cawera: imedia, rom (migranti) bedis anabara ar migvatovebso. migraciis efeqtianoba gaizomeba migrantis mier ojaxisaTvis gamogzavnili Tanxis moculobiT da am TanxiT gadaWrili problemebiT. imavdroulad qveyana iRebs sakmao raodenobiT sazRvargareTis valutas. SromiTi emigraciis efeqtianoba SeiZleba davaxasiaToT maCvenebelTa sistemiT, romelTa gaangariSeba eyrdnoba SerCeviT gamokvlevebs. aRniSnuli maCveneblebia: _ SromiTi migrantebis xvedri wili, vinc Tavis ojaxs exmareba fuladi gzavnilebiT. kvlevebiT dadgenilia, rom aseTi migrantebi Seadgenen migrantTa daaxloebiT 80,0%;6 _ migrantTa fuladi gzavnilebi saSualod TveSi da saSualod weliwadSi; qveyanaSi wlis ganmavlobaSi migrantebis mier gamogzavnili valutis moculoba. migrantis mier saSualo Tviuri gzavnili ganisazRvreba 178,5 aSS dolariT.7 Sesabamisad saSualowliuri Tanxa toli iqneba 2 142 dolaris (178,5X12). qveyanaSi wlis ganmavlobaSi migrantebis mier gamogzavnili valutis moculoba ganisazRvreba migrantebis ricxovnobis gamravlebiT erTi migrantis mier gamogzavnili saSualowliuri Tanxis moculobaze. SromiTi migrantebis ricxovnobad Tu aviRebT 400 aTass, saSualo wliur gzavnils _ 2 142 dolars, maSin qveyanaSi Semosuli valutis moculoba wlis ganmavlobaSi toli iqneba daaxloebiT 860 milioni dolaris, rac saqarTvelos mSp-is 7,4 procentia 2005 wlisaTvis, rodesac Catarda gamokvleva. gzavnilebis moculoba damokidebulia recipienti qveynis ekonomikur mdgomareobaze. yvelaze dabali saSualoTviuri gzavnilebia dsT-is qveynebidan. magaliTad, somxeTidan gzavnilma Seadgina 29,8 dolari, ukrainidan _ 115, xolo azerbai1

naTia WeliZe, SromiTi emigracia postsabWoTa saqarTveloSi. Tb., 2006, gv. 50-51. m. xmalaZe, e. menabdiSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv.80; 2 m. xmalaZe, T zubiaSvili. studenti axalgazrdobis gare saswavlo SromiTi emigracia. krebulSi: migracia 1, Tb., 2007, gv. 70; 3 m. xmalaZe, T zubiaSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 70; 4 n. WeliZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 122; 5 n. WeliZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 76-77. 6 n. WeliZe. dasax. naSromi, gv.105. 7 n. WeliZe. dasax. naSromi, gv.105.

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janidan - 0, maSin, rodesac aSS-dan is toli iyo 397,3, israelidan _ 268,5, germaniidan _ 167,3 dolaris.1 _ migraciis xangrZlivoba da efeqtianoba. udavoa, rom migraciis efeqtianoba damokidebulia mis xangrZlivobaze. Cveni gamokvleviT, migrantis saSovarze yofnis xangrZlivoba 2,7 wels Seadgenda. aseve dadginda, rom im ojaxebidan, romlis wevric saSovarze imyofeboda 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi, 63,6 procentma Tavisi ojaxebis materialuri mdgomareoba gaiumjobesa an mniSvnelovnad gaiumjobesa, xolo im ojaxebidan, romelTa wevric saSovarze imyofeboda 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi, _ 72,7%-ma.2 _ ramdeniTaa uzrunvelyofili ojaxis (Sinameurneobis) biujeti sazRvargareTidan gzavnilebiT? amisaTvis Sinameurneobis saSualo Semosavls adgilze daemateba saSualoTviuri gzavnili, da miiReba Sinameurneobis mTliani saSualoTviuri Semosavlebi. amis Semdeg ganisazRvreba gzavnilis xvedri wili Sinameurneobis mTlian SemosavlebSi. magaliTad, erTi Sinameurneobis saSualoTviurma Semosavalma saqarTveloSi 2008 wels Seadgina 537,4 lari, gzavnilma _ 178,5 dolari, rac dolaris imdroindli kursiT (aSS dolari/lari = 1,4902) tolia 266 laris (178,5X1,4902 = 266). Sesabamisad, erTi Sinameurneobis mTliani saSualoTviuri Semosavali tolia 803,4 laris, xolo gzavnilis xvedri wili Sinameurneobis SemosavlebSi tolia 33,1%-is (226:803,4=33,1%). Cvens mier 2000 wels gamoTvlili gzavnilis xvedri wili Seadgenda Sinameurneobis Semosavlis 69,4%, e.i. ojaxis biujetis 69,4% uzrunvelyofili iyo gzavnilebiT, nacvlad 33,1%-sa 2008 wels. Tumca 33,1 procentic mniSvnelovani maCvenebelia. aseTi tendencia gamoiwvia saqarTveloSi Sinameurneobebis saSualoTviuri Semosavlebis zrdam. kerZod, aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 2000-2008 wlebSi 174,8 laridan gaizarda 537,4 laramde, e.i. samjer, maSin, rodesac gzavnilebis moculoba Semcirda kidevac saSualod 200 dolaridan 178,5 dolaramde. _ SromiTi migrantis daxmarebiT ojaxis mier gadaWrili problemebi. dRevandeli saqarTvelos gaWianurebuli ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi sazRvargareTidan SromiT emigrantTa fuladi gzavnilebis mniSvneloba Seufasebelia. fuladi gzavnilebi aq darCenili ojaxebis biujets saarsebo minimumamde avsebs (saarsebo minimumi 2008 wels Seadgenda 127,9 lars), da aWarbebs kidec. amasTan ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom SromiTi emigranti TviTon ikmayofilebs adgilze misTvis aucilebel moTxovnilebebs.3 rac Seexeba migraciis efeqtianobas, Cveni gamokvleviT dadginda, rom gamokiTxulTa 31,2%-ma sazRvargareT myofi axloblebis materialuri daxmarebiT gadaWra kvebisa da Cacmis problema, 24,6%-ma _ sabinao pirobebi, 13,1%-ma janmrTelobaze zrunvis problemebi, 4,9%-ma daiwyo biznesi, 8,2%-ma SeiZina avtomobili an sxva nivTebi. araviTari problema ar gadauWria ojaxebis 18,0%-s.1 SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom mocemuli gamokvleviT migraciis efeqtianoba aRwevs 82,0%-s, araefeqtianoba _ 18,0%-s. unda aRiniSnos, rom migraciis efeqtianobis maCveneblebi SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes sxvadasxva gamokvlevebiT, ramdenadac isini rogorc wesi, tardeba sxvadasxva dros. gansxvavebis meore mizezi SeiZleba gaxdes erTdroulad an drois axlomdgom monakveTSi Catarebuli gamokvlevebis gansxvavebuli meTodologia. 1

n. WeliZe. dasax. naSromi, gv.106. m. xmalaZe, e. menabdiSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 82. 3 naTia WeliZe, dasax. mnaSromi, gv. 107. 2

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lela jamagiZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia regionuli ekonomikuri integraciuli dajgufebebis raodenoba swrafad izrdeba. 1990-ian wlebSi iTvlidnen 40 regionul dajgufebas, xolo 2007 wlisTvis, vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis monacemebis Tanaxmad, maTi raodenoba 205 iyo. ra Tqma unda, integraciis Tavdapirveli etapi savaWro reJimebis Ggamartivebas gulisxmobs, magram bolo wlebSi gamoikveTa iseTi dajgufebebi, romlebSic savaWro barierebis moxsnasTan erTad specialuri sainvesticio reJimebis amoqmedebac mimdinareobs. maT preferenciul savaWro da sainvesticio SeTanxmebebs uwodeben (PTIA)2. integraciuli dajgufebis pirdapir ucxour investiciebze (pui) gavlenis Sefasebis Sesaxeb Teoriuli Sexedulebebi Semdegnairad SeiZleba Camoyalibdes: - regionuli integraciis gavlena pirdapiri investiciebis nakadebze sxvadasxva wevri qveynis SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebulia; - gansxvaveba SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes investirebis motivebs, aseve, regionSi saerTaSoriso vaWroba da investiciebi urTierTSemcvlelia Tu urTierTSemavsebeli; - es gavlena ukavSirdeba, aseve, arsebul satarifo da arasatarifo barierebs; - mniSvnelovania qveynis geografiuli mdebareoba (anu qveyana regionisTvis centria da Tu periferia). pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi ucxouri bazrebisTvis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis miwodebis umniSvnelovanesi formaa. integrirebuli sawarmoo sistemebi ki firmebis efeqtianobis zrdis saSualebaa. pui-is gaZlierebaze integraciis gavlenis or mimarTulebas ganixilaven: 1) savaWro barierebis moxsniT yalibdeba ufro farTo bazari, sadac SesaZlebelia masStabis efeqtis miReba; 2) dajgufebis wevr qveynebSi adgilmdebareobis advilad Secvlis SesaZlebloba. es fardobiTi upiratesobis ZiebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. amdenad, regionuli integraciis upiratesobebiT firmebi ver isargebleben, Tu wevri qveynebi sainvesticio barierebs SeinarCuneben, radgan zemoT aRniSnuli ori efeqtis realizaciisTvis mxolod savaWro barierebis gauqmeba arasakmarisia. Teoriulad cnobilia ramdenime mimarTuleba, romlebic xels uwyobs regionuli integraciis farglebSi pui-is gaZlierebas. esenia: a) preferenciuli savaWro SeTanxmebebi, b) investiciebTan dakavSirebuli zomebi da g) sxva regionuli iniciativebi. 1

m. xmalaZe, T. zubiaSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 69. UNCTAD 2006. Developments in international investment agreements in 2005 IIA monitor No. 2 (2006).

2

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regionis qveynebs Soris satarifo barierebis gauqmeba gavlenas axdens rogorc regionisSida, aseve, regionisgare sainvesticio nakadebze. investiciebTan dakavSirebuli zomebi gulisxmobs pui-is dacvas, investiciebis Sedinebamde da Sedinebis Semdeg arsebul reJimebs, davebis gadawyvetis wesebs. sxva regionuli iniciativebi ki moicavs TanamSromlobis nebismier formas, maT Soris adamianTa da informaciis nakadebis moZraobas, kontraqtebis Sesrulebis pirobebs da a. S. miRebulia ekonomikuri integraciis dayofa formaluri da realuri integraciis cnebebad1. pirveli ukavSirdeba qveynebs Soris formaluri SeTanxmebis arsebobas barierebis moxsnisa da zenacionaluri institutebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb. realur integracias ki adgili aqvs aseTi formaluri SeTanxmebebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic, rodesac savaWro da sainvesticio nakadebis gazrdili moculobis gamo ekonomikebis urTierTdamokidebuleba Rrmavdeba. amdenad, realuri ekonomikuri integracia damokidebulia ekonomikuri subieqtebis qcevasa da maT strategiul gadawyvetilebebze. tnk-ebis saqmianoba dakavSirebulia maRal xarjebTan, ganusazRvrelobasa da riskTan, amitom saqmianobis warmarTva SedarebiT mcire bazrebze maTTvis komerciulad mizanSewonili ar iqneba. msoflio masStabiT Tavisufali vaWroba ver miiRweva mokle an saSualovadian periodSi, amitom ekonomikuri integraciuli dajgufebebis farglebSi savaWro da sainvesticio saqmianobis warmarTva SeiZleba meore alternativa iyos. farTo da mzardi bazrebi met ndobas iwvevs investorebis TvalSi. integraciuli dajgufebis farglebSi vrceli bazris formirebiT wevri qveynebi axerxeben warmoebis, dasaqmebisa da investiciebis gazrdas, amcireben sagareo Sokebis zemoqmedebis safrTxes da aumjobeseben sakuTar poziciebs saerTaSoriso bazrebze. erT-erTi mosazrebiT, pui bazris arasrulyofilebis Sedegia. Tavisufali vaWrobis pirobebSi resursebis ganawileba qveynebsa da dargebs Soris srulyofilia da ar arsebobs safuZveli pui-sTvis. tnk-ebi mZlavri sawarmoo qselebis formirebiT xels uwyoben regionul ekonomikur integracias. transnacionaluri sawarmoo qselebi, saqmianobis globaluri konfiguracia da koordinacia gzas uxsnis sxvadasxva regionebisa da qveynebis bazrebis integracias. integraciulma dajgufebebma (EU, NAFTA) Secvales msoflio bazrebi. regionalizaciis yovel process aqvs Tavisi logikuri ganviTareba, dominanti qveynebi, oficialuri da araoficialuri politikuri da ekonomikuri kavSirebi. integracias SeuZlia masSi Semavali qveynebis vaWrobis pirobebis gaumjobeseba danarCeni msoflios xarjze. davuSvaT, A da B qveyana qmnian integracias. Tu tnk mdebareobs B qveyanaSi, awarmoebs X saqonels integraciamde da agrZelebs iq muSaobas regionuli dajgufebis formirebis Semdegac, X saqonlis fasi SeiZleba daeces an gazrdili konkurenciis gamo, an gazrdili efeqtianobis gamo, romelic masStabis ekonomiidan gamomdinareobs. Tu A qveyana X saqonlis imports ganaxorcielebs B qveynidan misi momxmareblebis danazogi gaizrdeba. am SemTxvevaSi A qveyana ganicdis ucxouri mogebis Sekavebis efeqts. Tu A qveyanaSi meore tnk awarmo1

LindstrÜm M. Globalization and Economic Integration – What Challenges the Economies in Transition, European University in St. Petersburg, 1999, gv. 14

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ebs Ysaqonels, romlis eqsportireba xdeba B qveyanaSi integraciis Semdeg, adgili eqneba ucxouri mogebis Seqmnis efeqts. es efeqtebi mniSvnelovania integraciis sqemebSi im qveynebisTvis, romelTa ekonomikebSi tnk-ebi dominireben. tnk-ebi umTavresad dainteresebulni arian xelsayreli ucxouri mogebis Seqmnis efeqtiT. Tu ori qveyana qmnis integracias da orive qveyanaSi imyofebian tnk-ebi, romlebic erTgavrovan aradiferencirebul saqonels awarmoeben, maT Soris dapirispirebam SeiZleba xeli SeuSalos integracias. mTavrobebi, rogorc wesi, biznessazogadoebis interesebs iTvaliswineben. amdenad, tnk-ebs SeswevT Zala, rom mTavrobebi erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdegod ganawyon da resursebis ganawilebis TvalsazrisiT araefeqtiani warmoebac ganagrZon, romelic maTTvis momgebiania. integraciuli dajgufebis politika tnk-ebis mimarT am jgufis ZiriTad amocanebzea damokidebuli. Tu es am amocanaa dasaqmebis gazrda, maSin firmis mflobeli naklebad mniSvnelovania. pui, bolos da bolos, investiciaa. Tu mizania rentis gadanacvleba integrirebuli qveynebis mxares, maSin mniSvnelovania, vinaa mesakuTre. dResdReobiT regionalizaciis efeqtebis Sefaseba, tradiciulad miRebuli vaWrobis Seqmnisa da vaWrobis SeCerebis efeqtebis mixedviT, metad mwiria. amasTan, sabaJo kavSiris tradiciuli Teoria uSvebs, rom bazrebi aris srulyofili konkurenciis. magram gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri garigebebis sul ufro didi nawilis transnacionaluri korporaciebis xelSi koncentrirebis gamo, mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT arasrulyofili konkurencia. Tu integrirebuli qveynebis bazari kvlav imdenad mcirea, rom SeuZlebelia urTierTdakavSirebuli mimwodeblebis klasteris formireba, maSin mTavari mosargebleebi iqnebian TviTon tnk-ebi, romlebic awyoben saqonels an asruleben warmoebis mxolod garkveul operaciebs. potenciurma mimRebma qveynebma SeiZleba konkurencia gauwion erTmaneTs tnkebis subsidirebis TvalsazrisiT, rom moizidon maTi investiciebi. am situaciaSi mTavari mosargebleebi TviTon tnk-ebi arian, radgan maTi zemoqmedebis Zalaufleba maRalia. arsebobs gamokvlevebi, romlebic adasturebs, rom tnk-ebs aqvT midrekileba xeli Seuwyon mcire bazrebis mqone ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris integracias, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu integraciamde iq operaciebs ar axorcielebdnen. rac Seexeba did ganviTarebad qveynebs, maT Soris integracias SeiZleba xelic ki SeuSalon, radgan am SemTxevvaSi mniSvnelovania ara mxolod warmoebis efeqtianoba, aramed sxva tnk-ebis moqmedebebi da konfliqtebis acilebis survili. 1960-70-ian wlebSi evropis ekonomikuri Tanamegobrobis Seqmnam aSS-is bevr tnk-s misca stimuli, rom iq investiciebi ganexorcielebinaT. meore etapze erTiani bazris amoqmedebis Semdeg, kidev ufro gaizrada investiciebi evrokavSirSi, maT Soris iaponiidan, Tumca es nakadebi damokidebuli iyo ara mxolod satarifo, aramed arasatarifo barierebis gauqmebazec. 1999 wels ki monetaruli kavSiris Seqmnis Semdeg kidev ufro amaRlda am regionis, rogor tnk-ebis ganlagebis adgilis mimzidevloba. am etapis mTavari amocana iyo yovelgvari savaluto riskis minimizacia, romlebic xels SeuSlidnen pui-is mozidvas. aRmosavleTiT gafarToeba, meoTxe etapi, SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc EU-is sainvesticio mimzidvelobis amaRlebis kidev erTi SesaZlebloba. Tavdapirvelad iyo molodini, rom evrokavSiri Seuqmnida barierebs kavSiris arawevri qveynebidan Semosul kapitals da bevrma tnk-m saswrafod SeaRwia iq, vidre es barierebi amoqmeddeboda, Tumca, aRsaniSna158


via, rom evrokavSiri kvlav darCa warmoebis mimzidvel adgilad da ucxouri tnkebi, aseve, aqtiurad ganixilaven evropul tnk-ebTan strategiuli aliansebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobebs. aSS-sgan gansxvavebiT, evrokavSirSi ar aris erTi saerTo kanoni pui-is dasaregulireblad. romis xelSekrulebis muxlebi, romlebic exeba konkurencias, dabegvars, garemos dacvis sakiTxebs, aseve, ukavSirdeba pui-s. OECD-is SefasebiT, evrokavSiri ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris erT-erTi gamorCeulia pui-ze minimaluri SezRudvebiT. evrokavSiri erT-erTi udidesi investoria msoflioSi. amasTan, pirdapir ucxour investiciebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad saSualebad miiCnevs. evrokavSiris investiciebis maregulirebeli wesebi SesabamisobaSia WTO-is wesebTan, OECD-s mravalerovnuli korporaciebis saxelmZRvanelosTan da mas avsebs, aseve, wevri qveynebis mier ormxrivad gaformebuli xelSekrulebebi. amJamad yuradRebas aqceven investiciebis maregulirebeli wesebis Camoyalibebas mesame qveynebisaTvis miniWebuli preferenciuli savaWro SeTanxmebebis konteqstSi. evrokavSiriSi pui-is regulirebis ZiriTadi principebia: • aqcenti grZelvadian investiciebze, romlebic uzrunvelyofs stabilur dasaqmebasa da ekonomikur zrdas; • maregulirebeli wesebi unda uzrunvelyofdes gamWvirvalobas; • rogor gamcemi, ise mimRebi qveyana srulad inarCunebs regulirebis uflebas, • investiciebisaTvis bazris xelmisawvdomobis gaumjobeseba; • uzrunvelyofs erovnul reJims investiciebisTvis, romlebic mimRebi qveynis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad aris ganxorcielebuli; • uzrunvelyofs investiciebTan dakavSirebuli kapitalis nakadebis Tavisufal moZraobas, magram itovebs gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi TavdacviTi zomebis miRebis SesaZleblobas; • aadvilebs adamianebis gadaadgilebas, rac investiciebTan aris dakavSirebuli. calkeul qveynebs Soris SeiZleba konkurencia warmoiSvas erTi da imave puiis mozidvis mizniT, integraciis farglebSi ki TanamSromlobis meti SesaZleblobebi arsebobs da erToblivad investiciebis waxalisebiT miRebuli sargebeli dajgufebaze gadanawildeba. magaliTad, ASEAN-ma ministrTa doneze Camoayaliba investiciebis xelSewyobis erToblivi programa, romlis mizani iyo dadebiTi regionuli imijis formireba. am dajgufebis farglebSi gamoiyenes mravalferovani meTodebi, rogorebicaa informaciis gavrceleba portalebis, monacemTa bazebis, publikaciebisa da statistikuri krebulebis gamocemis gziT, rac gacilebiT metia, vidre savaWro da sainvesticio maregulirebeli wesebis danergva. NAFTA-s SeTanxmebis me-11 muxliT gansazRvrulia investiciebis maregulirebeli debulebebi. isini, faqtobrivad, yvela seqtors exeba, Tumca, TiToeuli qveyana gansazRvravs im seqtorebs, romlebic am debulebebiT regulirebas ar eqvemdebareba. magaliTad, meqsika maTgan gamoricxavs benzinis warmoebis dargs da saxelmwifos sakuTrebaSi myof yvela seqtors, kanada _ kulturuli, jandacvisa da socialuri momsaxurebis dargebs, aSS _ aseve, jandacvasa da socialur momsaxurebas. ganxilulis fonze sainteresoa ra rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia integracias saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi investiciebis mozidvis TvalsazrisiT. regionuli integraciuli dajgufebebi cvlian vaWrobisa da investiciebis efeqtebsa da mimarTule159


bebs. myari da ganviTarebuli integracia maRali mwarmoeblurobisTvis xelsayrel garemos qmnis. evrokavSiris magaliTi metyvelebs imas, rom wevrma qveynebma mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobeses sakuTari ekonomikis funqcionireba da dargebma ukeT SeZles konkurentuli SesaZleblobebis ganviTareba. saqarTvelo BSEC-is regionuli dajgufebis wevria. BSEC-is iniciativa warmoadgens TanamSromlobis iseT meqanizms, romelmac xeli unda Seuwyos regionis qveynebSi savaWro, sainvesticio da sxva saxis ekonomikuri saqmianobis damabrkolebeli barierebis moxsnas. BSEC qmnis uzarmazar bazars 350 mln momxmarebliT da Tavisi adgilmdebareobiT igi mimzidveli regionia investiciebisTvis. cxrilSi mocemulia BSEC wevri qveynebidan saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi Semosuli pui. rogorc Cans, investiciebis done sakmaod dabalia. cxrili 1

pui BSEC-is qveynebidan saqarTveloSi (aTasi dolari) 2005 2006 2007 449 785 1 190 375 2 014 842 pui-s mTliani nakadebi azerbaijani 66 920 77 804 41 368 bulgareTi 71 319 21 TurqeTi 21 812 129 728 93 871 rumineTi ruseTi 38 738 34 210 88 997 saberZneTi 2 217 2 507 1 350 somxeTi 396 1 034 -4 895 ukraina 1 701 1 056 24 381 wyaro: Statistical Yearbook of Georgia, State Department of Statistics of Georgia, 2009, p.288

2008 1 563 963 23 943 13 164 526 5 431 26 212 -1 850 -15 061 -6 442

adgilmdebareobis upiratesoba qveynisTvis aSkaraa pui-s mozidvis TvalsazrisiT, magram dabrkolebas qmnis arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis realur amoqmedebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. saqarTvelos aqvs preferenciuli savaWro reJimi evrokavSiris bazarze, SedarebiT dabali danaxarjebi samuSao Zalaze da maRalkvalificiuri muSaxeli. investirebis SesaZleblobebi auTvisebelia iseT dargebSi, rogorebicaa agrosamrewvelo kompleqsi, infrastruqtura da sxva seqtorebi. amdenad, TavisTavad integraciuli dajgufebis formireba da misi wevroba ar uzrunvelyofs sainvesticio aqtivobis amaRlebas. Tu gavixsenebT ekonomikuri integraciis dayofas formalur da realur integraciad, realur integracias SeiZleba adgili hqondes formaluri SeTanxmebebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic, rodesac savaWro da sainvesticio nakadebis gazrdili moculobis gamo ekonomikebis urTierTdamokidebuleba Rrmavdeba. amdenad, realuri ekonomikuri integracia damokidebulia ekonomikuri subieqtebis qcevasa da maT strategiul gadawyvetilebebze. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. Jovanovic M, The Economics of Euroepan Union, 2005 2. Statistical Yearbook of Georgia, State Department of Statistics of Georgia, 2009 3. Jamagidze L. Evaluation of Georgia’s International Competitiveness in bSEC Membership context, Donetsk National University Collection of Scientific Works, Istanbul-Donetsk, 2010 4. http://ec.europa.eu/trade/creating-opportunities/trade-topics/investment/ 160


nino abralava saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

komerciuli bankebis saqmianobis Taviseburebebi sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi istoriuli TvalsazrisiT bankebi Tavidan rogorc kerZo komerciuli formirebebi warmoSobilan, romlebic savaWro-sabazro infrastruqturis elementebs, anu bazris sagareo CarCos warmoadgenen. ueWvelia, rom pirveli bankebi TavianT saqmianobaSi xelmZRvanelobdnen ara marto Ffuladi saxsrebis sesxad gacemis meSveobiT, maTi moZraobis xelSewyobis saxiT, aramed mevaxSeebad arsebobisa da aqedan, rogorc ityvian, mniSvnelovani sargebelis miRebis mizniTac. saxelmwifo bankebi msoflioSi kerZoebze ufro gvian warmoiSvnen da maTTan Tanaarseboba iseTi saxiT daiwyes, rom ekonomikur urTierTobaSi,Yanu ekonomiur sivrceSi TiToeulma maTganma sakuTari niSa daikaves. socialisturma wyobam,Ysabanko fulad operaciebze sruli monopoliis damyarebiT kerZo-safinanso-komerciuli biznesis Crdilovan sferoSi gadaweviT da misi akrZalul saqmianobad gamocxadebiT Taviseburad gardaqmna sabanko sistema. meurneobriobis socialistur sistemaSi miRweulma saxelmwifo bankis monopolizmis umaRlesma donem gamoiwvia is, rom respublikuri da adgilobrivi bankebi faqtobrivad ssrk-is saxelmwifo bankis ganyofilebebs warmoadgenen. ufro metic, imdenad, ramdenadac ssrk-is saxelmwifo banki uSualod MmTavrobis da finansTa saministros daqvemdebarebaSi imyofeboda, ukontrolo saxelmwifo safinanso sabanko oligarqia warmoiSva, romelmac mTlianobaSi qveyanaSi arsebuli oqros margi, fulis mimoqcevaSi gamoSveba, fuladi saxsrebis ganawileba da gamoyeneba, saxelmwifo valis moculoba saidumlo gaxada1. sabanko sistemis zRvrul centralizacias calkeuli ekonomikuri subieqtebis sakuTari mimzidveli mxarec gaaCnda. fuladi sistemis regulireba erTian xelSi imyofeboda, rac inflaciis moTokvis, fuladi mimoqcevis stabilizaciis, saxelmwifo Sida da sagareo valebis Sekavebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda. aseT pirobebSi praqtikulad saxelmwifo sawarmoebis da gansakuTrebulad meurneobisa da kolmeurneobis sabanko uprocento dakrediteba gaxda SesaZlebeli, ramac rig SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo bankebisaTvis valebis ubralod daubruneblobisa da maTi dotaciebad gardaqmnis SesaZleblobebi warmoSva. Semdgom periodSi, rodesac qveyanaSi sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlis koncefcia momwifda, naTeli gaxda, rom, wina ekonomikaSi Camoyalebebuli da damkvidrebuli sabanko sistema _ sabanko saqmeze saxelmwifo monopoliis likvidaciiT, saxelmwifo bankebze sakanonmdeblo organoebis mxridan kontrolis dawesebiT, saxelmwifo bankis rigi funqciebisa da uflebamosilebis respublikur, regiunalur, adgilobriv bankebze delegirebiT, komerciuli arasaxelmwufo sabanko struqturebis aRorZinebiT kardinalurad gardaiqmna. Tumca unda aRiniSnos iseTi garemoebac, rom sabanko sistema nebismieri ekonomikisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, 1

Лучшие рефераты по банковскому делу. (Экономические основы формирования коммерческих банков.-с.120-148.)/Сост. Э. Нестерова. Серия «Банк рефератов». – Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 2002.- 320 с.

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magram igi marTvis finansuri kontrolis centraluri rgolis rols mxolod sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi iZens. sabazro tipis ekonomikaSi sasaqonlo-fuladi urTierTobis gabatonebuli roli fuladi mimoqcevis saxiT, xolo misi meSveobiT mTlianad sameurneo saqmianobis regulirebis problemebi wina frontzea wamoweuli. amitom sabazro ekonomikaSi bankebs, maTi gamovlinebis mravalferovnebebiT, rogorc safinanso sakredito procesebis marTvis centrebs metad mniSvnelovani funqciebi akisriaT. administraciul-komanduri sistemis gabatonebis periodSi qveyanaSi bankebis roli mkveTrad iyo Seviwroebuli. maTi funqciebi Semdegi saxis saqmianobis ganxorcielebamde iyo dayvanili: sawarmoebs Soris unaRdo angariSsworeba, sakaso momsaxureba, agreTve saxlmwifo biujetisa da miznobrivi fondebis kapitaluri dabandeba da dafinanseba. bankebi warmoadgenen ra saxelmwifo aparatis Semadgenel nawils, isini centraluri saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi dagegmvis pirobebSi sakredito operaciebs axorcieleben fuladi saxsrebisa da dakreditebis limitirebuli fondebis gamoyenebis mkacrad reglamentirebuadi mimarTvis CarCoebSi. aragegmiuri operaciebi mxolod partiuli da samTavrobo organoebis gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad iyo dasaSvebi. sawarmoebis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis da TviT bankis TanamSromlebisaTvis faqtobrivad sabiujeto da sakredito dafinansebas Soris arsebiTi sxvaoba ar arsebobda, dakrediteba pirobiTad procentualurad imave biujetidan xorcieldeboda. saxelmwifo (centraluri) banki kreditis meSveobiT Fkvlavwarmoebis finansuri saxiT mudmivad axorcielebda direqtiuli saxelmwifo saxalxo meurneobis gegmis, samTavrobo programebisa da dadgenilebis meSveobiT. saxelmwifo banki, im periodSi Tavisi arsiT, xSirad deficituri, gaflangviTi da xSirad ubralod araaucilebeli saWiroebis samTavrobo progremebis dafinansebisaTvis fuladi da sakredito emisiis ganxorcielebiT mTavrobis salaros warmoadgenda. saxelmwifo qselSi dargobrivi specializirebuli bankebis CarTva saqmes arsebiTad ar cvlida, radganac isini dayofil centralizirebul bankebs warmoadgendnen, romlebSic mxolod vertikaluri struqturebis ricxvi gaizarda. aseTi saxis sabanko sistema mxolod sasaqonli-fuladi urTierTobebis ganviTarebis damuxruWebas uwyobda xels. mxedvelobaSi unda viqonioT, rom bankebi TavianTi ZiriTadi arsiT ubralod fulis sacavs, maT gasacem salaros da kreditebis gamcem dawesebulebas ar warmoadgens. isini TavisTavad samewarmeo saqmianobis, sawarmoo da socialuri obieqtebis Seqmnisa da ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro finansebis, sabanko da kreditebis formiT kapitalis investiciebis gadanawilebis gziT ganxorcielebadi ekonomikis struqturuli politikisa da regulaciis mZlavr instruments warmoadgenen. bankebs SeuZliaT finansuri saxsrebi, finansuri resursebi kreditebis saxiT im dargSi, sferoSi, regionebSi mimarTon, sadac kapitali ufro efeqtianad iqneba gamoyenebuli. Ddakreditebis gauazrebel politikas, xelovnurad Semcirebul sakredito ganakveTebs upiratesad damangrevel inflaciur procesebamde, saxelmwifo biujetis deficitamde, saxsrebis ubralod gaflangvande mivyavarT. iseT pirobebSi, rodesac bankebi saxelmwifo aparatis wnexis qveS imyofebian, finansuri TviTregulacia xSirad ara realuri, aramed fiqtiuri fuladi saxsrebis iZulebiTi ganawilebis, mkvdari kapitalis moZraobis saxiT gardaiqmneba. saboloo jamSi yovelive aRniSnuls qveynis krizisisaken mivyavarT. sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlam sabanko 162


sistemis saxelmwifo zemoqmedebis wnexisgan zomierad gamoTavsufleba da misi ekonomikis marTvis finansuri konturis nawilis marTvis aqtiur instrumentad gardaqmna aucilebel pirobad gaxada. sabanko sistemis reformis Sedegad 1990-1991 wlebSi igi sabazro ekonomikisaTvis damaxasiTebel, oriarusian sabnko struqturad gardaiqmna, romlis zeda safexurze-qveynis erovnuli (centraluri) banki da meoreze ki _ aqcioneruli tipis universaluri komerciuli sakredito dawesebulebebi Camoyalibda. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba bankis cnebis avtoriseuli sakuTari interpretacia CamovayaliboT: komerciuli banki sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi _ aris aqcioneruli tipis universaluri komerciuli sakredito dawesebuleba, romelic Tavis saqmianobas axorcielebs erovnuli (centraluri) bankis mier dadgenili wesebis, limitebisa da normativebis dacviTa da mogebis miRebis mizniT. komerciuli banki aris dawesebuleba, sadac SeiZleba aiRoT krediti, Tu daarwmunebT kreditors, rom Tqven warmatebuli mewarme xarT da finansurad ar giWirT. banki aris sakredito organizacia, romelic Seqmnilia iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebidan droebiT Tavisufali fuladi saxsrebis akumulirebisa da maTi dabrunebadobis, fasianobis, vadianobisa da miznobriobis pirobebis qveS, sakuTari saxeliT ganTavsebis mizniT. bankis ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa _ fuladi saxsrebis gadaadgilebaSi Suamavloba kreditorebidan msesxeblebisken da gamsaReblebidan myidvelebisken. Bazrebze fuladi saxsrebis gadaadgilebas bankebTan erTad kidev sxva safinanso da sakredito – safinanso dawesebulebebi axorcieleben, rogoricaa: sainvesticio fondebi, sadazRvevo kompaniebi, sabrokero dileruli firmebi da a.S. magram bankebs, rogorc finansuri bazris subieqtebs, ori arsebiTad mniSvnelovani niSan-Tviseba gaaCniaT, romlebic maT sxva danarCeni subieqtebisagan ganasxvaveben, rogorebicaa: pirvel rigSi, bankebisTvis savalo valdebulebis ormagi gacvla aris damaxasiaTebeli: isini sxvadasxva subieqtebisagan droebiT Tavisufali fuladi saxsrebis akumulirebas axorcieleben. sakuTari savalo valdebulebebis (depozitebis, saSemnaxvelo serTifikatebis da sxva) saxiT, xolo aseTi saxiT mobilizebul saxsrebs ganaTavseben savalo valdebulebebSi da sxva subieqtebis mier gamoSvebul fasian qaRaldebSi.Dbankebi swored aRniSnuli faqtoriT gansxvavdebian finansuri brokerebisa da dilerebisagan, romlebic sakuTari savalo valdebulebis gamoSvebas ar axorcieleben. Mmeore mxriv, bankebi aseve iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebis winaSe valis fiqsirebuli Tanxis upirobo valdebulebis sakuTar Tavze miRebiTac gansxvavdebian. bankebi aseve sxvadasxva sainvesticio fondebisaganac sakuTari aqtivebisa da pasivebis Rirebulebis cvalobadobasTan dakavSirebul yvela riskebis sakuTar aqcionerebs Soris gadanawilebis SesaZleblobiTac gansxvavdebian. dRes saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc sabazro ekonomikis mqone damoukidebeli qveyynebis umetesobaSi, `bankebisa da sabanko saqmianobis Sesaxeb~ moqmedi kanonis Tanaxmad, qveyanaSi funqcionireben, rogorc universaluri sakredito dawesebulebebi, romlebic safinanso bazarze farTo wrisa da speqtris operaciebs axorcieleben, rogorebicaa: sxvadasxva saxis da vadianobis kreditebis miwodeba, yidva – fasiani qaRaldebis gayidva da Senaxva, ucxouri valutis da sxva saxsrebis mozidva anabrebSi, angariSsworeba, garantiebis, Tavdebebisa da sxva saxis valdebulebebis gacema, saSuamavlo da ndobiTi operaciebis ganxorcieleba da a.S. 163


komeciuli bankis saqmianobis ZiriTadi principebia: a) pirveli da fuZemdebluri principia _ komerciuli bankis realurad arsebuli resursebis farglebSi muSaoba; meore umniSvnelovanes princips warmoadgens _ Kkomerciuli bankis saqmianobis ekonomikuri damoukidebloba, romelic bankis saqmianobis Sedegze sakuTar ekonomikur pasuxismgeblobas iTvaliswinebs. uSualod ekonomikuri damoukidebloba ki iTvaliswinebs maT mier sakuTari da miziduli saxsrebis gankargvis Tavisuflebas, klientebisa da meanabreebis, bankis Semosavlebis gankargvis Tavisufal arCevans; b) mesame principi _ mdgomareobs imaSi, rom komerciuli bankis urTierToba TavianT klientebTan agebulia rogorc Cveulebrivi sabazro urTierTobebi sesxebis miwodebiT, komerciuli banki upirveles yovlisa momgebianobis, riskisa da likvidurobis sabazro kriteriumebidan gamomdinareobs. g) meoTxe principi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom komerciuli bankis saqmianobis regulireba SeiZleba mxolod iribi ekonomikuri (da ara administraciuli) meTodebiT ganxorcieldes. Ksaxelmwifo uSuald komerciuli bankebisaTvis mxolod TamaSis wesebs gansazRvravs, magram maTze brZanebis gacemis ufleba ar gaaCnia. Tanamedrove Kkomerciuli bankebis ZiriTadi funqciebia: Ka) komerciuli bankis erT-erT mniSvnelovan funqcias warmoadgens Suamavloba kreditebSi, romelsac isini sawarmos fondebisa da kerZo pirebis fuladi Semosavlebis wrebrunvis procesSi droebiT gamonTavisuflebuli fuladi saxsrebis gadanawilebis gziT anxorcieleben. Kkomerciuli bankis saSuamavlo funqciis Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom msesxeblis mier kreditis gamoyenebis momgebianoba resursebis gadanawilebis mTavar kriteriums warmoadgens. resursebis gadanawileba xorcieldeba horizontalurad sameurneo kavSiris saxiT kreditorisagan msesxeblisaken zemdgomi sabanko struqturebis uSualo SuamdgomlobiTa da fasianobisa da dabrunebadobis pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Ggacemul da miRebul sesxebze safasuris formireba nasesxebi saxsrebis moTxovnisa da miwodebis zemoqmedebis qveS xorcieldeba, ris Sedegad meurneobaSi sabazro urTierTobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli finansuri resursebis Tavisufali gadanawileba miiRweva; b) Kkomerciuli Kbankebis meore umniSvlelovanes funqcias – warmoadgens danazogebis stimulireba meurneobaSi. Kkomerciulma bankebma finansur bazarze sakredito resursebze moTxovnis ganxorcielebisas, meurneobaSi arsebuli danazogebis aramarto maqsimaluri mobilizeba unda moaxdinos, aramed saxsrebis dagrovebis mizniT sakmaod efeqturi stimulebis formirebac unda ganaxorcielos. Ffuladi saxsrebis dagrovebisaken da dazogvisaken stimulebis formireba komerciuli bankebis moqnili depozituri politikis safuZvelze unda ganxorcieldes. bankebis kreditorebs, anabrebze gadasaxdeli maRali saprocento ganakveTebis garda, aucileblad dazogili resursebis bankSi saimedod ganTavsebis maRali garantiebic Wirdeba. garantiebis Seqmnis mniSvnelovani safuZvelia sabanko dawesebulebebSi aqtivebis, depozitebisa da dazRvevis fondis formireba; Bg) bankis mesame funqcias _ warmoadgens calkeul damoukidebel subieqtebs Soris Suamavloba gadasaxdelebSi; d) unda aRiniSnos, rom safinanso bazris formirebasTan dakavSirebiT Tanamedrove pirobebSi bankis iseTi axali meoTxe funqciac _ fasian qaRaldebTan dakavSirebul operaciebSi Suamavloba viTardeba, sadac bankebi _ Suamavlis, broke164


ris, sainvesticio konsultantis, sainvesticio kompaniisa da fondis saxiT gamodian. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare mokle daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba CamovayaliboT, rom: sasaqonlo bazris ganviTarebisa da finansuri bazris Camoyalibebis pirobebSi sabanko sistemis struqtura mkveTrad icvleba da warmoiSoba klientebis momsaxurebis axali saxis finansuri dawesebulebebi, axali sakredito instrumentebi da meTodebi; mimdinareobs sakredito sistemis mowyobis optimaluri formebis, kapitalis bazarze efeqturad momuSave meqnizmebis, komerciuli struqturebis momsaxurebis axali meTodebis Zieba. xorcieldeba moqnili da efeqtiani sabanko infrastruqtuqturis Seqmna, rac saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri reformis ganxorcielebis erTerT umniSvnelovanes amocanas warmoadgens;A amocana rTuldeba imiTac, rom sufTa ekonomikur siZneleebs socialurebic emateba: mudmivad icvleba sakanonmdeblo baza, qveyanaSi damnaSaveoba matulobs; bankebis umetesobis miswrafeba matulobs myisieri mogebis miRebasTan mimarTebaSi, rasac saboloo jamSi bankebis gakotrebamde da sabanko sistemis krizisamde mivyavarT; axali sakredito institutebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb gancxadebebis gakeTeba warmatebisTvis sakmarisi ar aris, vinaidan urTierTobebis mTliani sistema Zirfesvianad unda Seicvalos. aseve saWiroa bankiris fsiqologiis Secvla, bankis axali TanamSromlebis aRzrda, romlebic Sesabamisad ganaTlebulebi, moazrovneebi, iniciativianebi da gonivrulebi iqnebian. da Sewonil riskze wasvlisaTvis iqnebian mzadyofnaSi, rasac saTanado droc esaWiroeba. amasTan mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, rom ucxouri gamocdileba gulmodgined unda iqnas Seswavlili, aRdgenili iqnas sakredito dawesebulebebis formirebis dakarguli racionaluri principebi, romlebic civilizirebul samyaroSia miRebuli da sabazro finansuri struqturebis mravalsaukunovan gamocdilebas efuZnebian. l i t e r a t u r a: 1. caava g., sabanko saqme (leqciebis kursi), Tbilisi, gamomcemloba: “afx. mecn. akademia”, 2005. gv. 66; 2. Лучшие рефераты по банковскому делу. /Сост. Э. Нестерова. Серия «Банк рефератов». – Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 2002.- 320 с.; 3. Банковское дело: учебник/Под ред. О.И. Лаврушина. Москва, «КНОРУС», 2009.- 768 с.

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reziumeebi nugzar babuaZe saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori SoTa veSapiZe saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

ilia da globalizmi ilia WavWavaZe umTavres orientirad gvisaxavda sxva qveynebis mowinave gamocdilebis gaziarebas da amisTvis konkretul gzebsac gvTavazobda. mas samagaliTod miaCnda `evropiuli ganaTleba, mmarTveloba da gamgebloba qveynisa, evropis wesi da rigi~. gvmoZRvravda, rom kari gagveRo evropuli civilizaciisaTvis, radgan is yvelaze mowinave, progresuli iyo. miiCnevda, rom mowinave gamocdilebas yvela qveynisas unda viTvaliswinebdeT, radgan `xalxebs Soris kargi urTierTobebis gareSe, saqarTvelos xsnis gza ar arsebobs~. misi mTavari daskvna aseTia: zogadad mowinave saxelmwifoebidan yvelaferi unda gadmoviRoT, rasac moiTxovs qveynis sikeTe da bedniereba. ilia WavWavaZe did rezervebs xedavda kavkasiis xalxebTan Cveni savaWro ekonomikuri kavSirebis ganviTarebaSi. igi didi mowonebiT Sexvda baqo-Tbilisi-foTis rkinigzis gaxsnas, vinaidan miaCnda, rom am gziT kaspiispireTTan da Sua aziasTan dakavSireba qveyanas did sargeblobas moutanda iseve, rogorc baqo-baTumis navTobsadeni. ilia miiCnevda, rom saqarTvelom unda Seasrulos evropasa da azias Soris damakavSirebeli qveynis funqcia, riTac igi xels Seuwyobda sami regionis – kavkasiis, axlo aRmosavleTis da kaspiispireTis Taviseburi `saerTo bazris~ Seqmnas. es idea amJamad Tavisebur gagrZelebas poulobs, xorcieldeba baqo-Tbilisi-axalqalaqi-yarsis rkinigzis mSenebloba, rac kidev ufro mtkiced SeakavSirebs saqarTvelos, TurqeTis da azerbaijanis meurneobebs. yovelive amasTan erTad ilia gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas evropis qveynebTan da ruseTTan mWidro ekonomikuri kavSiris damyarebas da maTTan integrirebas aniWebda. ineza gagniZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

ganaTleba da mecniereba saqarTveloSi msoflio da globaluri konkurentunarianobis maCveneblebis aspeqtiT Tanamedrove ekonomikur TeoriaSi nacionaluri konkurentunarianoba erT-erTi yvelaze sakamaTo da kvlevis TvalsazrisiT, sakmaod rTuli sakiTxia. or aTeul welze metia rac nacionaluri konkurentunarianobis (Compeptitiveness of Nations) 166


kvleva yvelaze farTo masStabebiT mimdinareobs msoflio ekonomikur forumsa (aSS) da menejmentis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso institutSi (Sveicaria). moxsenebaSi ganxilulia saqarTveloSi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis amsaxveli maCveneblebis avkargianoba zemoaRniSnuli skolebis mier SemoTavazebuli msoflio da globaluri konkurentunarianobis angariSebSi gamoyenebul maCveneblebTan Sedarebis safuZvelze. mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT aRvniSnavT qveyanaSi samecniero kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis sistemis Camoyalibebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. mocemulia evrostatis monacemebi, romlebic asaxaven kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze ek-27-is qveynebSi gaweuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb. rogorc xelSemwyobi saSualeba, vfiqrobT aucilebelia qveynis ekonomikaSi or sibrtyeSi moqmedi klasterebis (samecnierosaganmanaTleblo da tradiciuli) Camoyalibeba.

evgeni baraTaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori revaz gvelesiani saqarTvelo. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

kadrebis momzadebisa da dasaqmebis politika mcire da saSualo biznesSi statiaSi xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli, rom profesiuli ganaTleba Cveni qveynis saganmanaTleblo sistemis erT-erTi wamyvani komponenti xdeba. unda moxdes profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemis misadageba swrafad da mudmivad cvalebad Sromis bazris moTxovnebTan. Camoyalibebulia profesiuli ganaTlebis miznebi, romelTa Sorisac erT-erTi mniSvnelovania profesiuli ganaTlebis sferoSi saswavlo-samewarmeo partniorobis sistemis Seqmna. aRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebas araTu dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis SesaZlebloba ara aqvs, aramed dasaqmebis statistikis arasrulyofilebis, did nawilSi ki misi uzustobis gamo, damaxinjebuli saxiT aqvs warmodgenili dasaqmebis, gansakuTrebiT ki umuSevrobis sferoSi arsebuli problemebis simwvave. dasaqmebis arsebuli araefeqturi struqtura mniSvnelovnad arTulebs siRaribis daZlevis sakiTxs. mocemulia rekomendaciebi dasaqmebis sferoSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT.

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irina gogoriSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

saqarTvelos ekonomikis inovaciuri ganviTarebis upiratesobaTa formireba globaluri krizisis pirobebSi globaluri krizisis pirobebSi saqarTvelos ekonomikis inovaciuri ganviTarebis upiratesobaTa formirebis daxasiaTebisaTvis ganxilulia msoflio ekonomikis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi mexuTe teqnologiuri ciklis depresiis fazasa da meeqvse ciklis sawyis stadiebze. mexuTe teqnologiuri ciklis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia RerZuli magistraluri inovacia - kompiuteruli teqnologiebi. meeqvse teqnologiuri ciklis periodSi dominirebadi iqneba kompiuteruli da nanobioteqnologiebis mravalmxrivi gamoyenebis sferos formireba, xolo ZiriTadi ekonomikuri maxasiaTebelia warmoebis masStabis mzardi efeqtis procesis globalizacia. ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris mimdinare ekonomikuri integracia daeqvemdebareba masStabis mzardi efeqtis safuZvelze organizebuli inteleqtualuri produqtis warmoebaSi kooperirebisa da specializaciis procesebs. ganviTarebad mcire Ria ekonomikebs (maT Sorisaa saqarTvelo) sagareo vaWrobisTvis im produqtebisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba eqnebaT, sadac masStabis mzardi efeqti ar warmoiqmneba. saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi logistikuri procesebis diferencirebis safuZvelze viwro specializebuli safinanso da sasaqonlo nakadebis moZraobasTan gveqneba saqme. qveynis istoriuli misia xelovnebisa da sulier faseulobaTa Seqmnisa da gavrcelebis sferoSia. amdenad, swored am mimarTulebiT unda gaaqtiurdes saqmianoba. gansakuTrebiT unda gaZlierdes saqarTvelos inteligenciis roli da funqciebi, rac grZelvadian periodSi warmatebis garantia iqneba.

zurab vaSakiZe saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori merab miqelaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

saxelmwifos sagadasaxado politikis zogierTi praqtikuli aspeqtis Sesaxeb

Teoriuli da

sagadasaxado politika warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikuri politikis umniSvnelovanes Semadgenel nawils. igi gvevlineba seriozul berketad, romlis saSualebiTac xelisufleba zegavlenas axdens warmoebisa da ganawilebis procesze. am sferoSi arsebuli gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom sabiujeto-sagadasaxado sfero warmoadgens ekonomikaze saxelmwifos zemoqmedebis mZlavr instruments. ekonomikis efeqtiani funqcionireba, samewarmeo seqtoris aqtiuroba mniSvnelovnad aris 168


damokidebuli imaze, ramdenad sworad aris konceftualurad SerCeuli modeli, ra principebze da rogor aris agebuli dabegvris erovnuli sistema, ramdenad aris is harmonizebuli saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobasTan. sagadasaxado politikam unda uzrunvelyos saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi interesebisa da mewarmeebis komerciuli interesebis SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba.

daviT vekua saqarTvelo. Tbilisis ekonomikuri urTierTobaTa saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori nino faresaSvili saqarTvelo. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

samuSao Zalis aqtivobis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi da misi gaumjobesebis perspeqtivebi naSromSi ganxilulia saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis aqtivobis gaumjobesebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi. saqarTveloSi umuSevroba, rogorc problema, mniSvnelovanwilad aris ekonomikis transformaciis Sedegi, romelic gamoiwvia makroekonomikurma Zvrebma, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira moTxovna samuSao Zalaze. erT-erT umniSvnelovanes amocanad rCeba daCqardes misi struqturuli reorganizaciis procesi, ris Sedegadac unda Semcirdes umuSevrobis done da xangrZlivoba im masStabiT, ramdenadac es mizanSewonilia da ekonomikurad efeqtiania. Tavis mxriv Sromis bazarze samuSao Zalis aqtivizaciam unda uzrunvelyos misi nayofierebis zrda da maTi mobilurobis amaRleba. umuSevrobis daZlevis strategia unda daefuZnos Semdeg RonisZiebebs: umuSevarTa kategoriebis monitorings, profesiul da asakobriv WrilSi; resursuli bazis gansazRvras;ASromis bazris efeqtiani infrastruqturis Seqmnas; damsaqmebelTa aqtiurobis stimulirebas.

nato kakaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradoba da gadaxdisunarianoba mzRvevelis finansuri mdgradoba aris mzRvevelis unari SeinarCunos balansi sadazRvevo saqmianobisgan miRebul Semosavlebsa da damzRvevis winaSe valdebulebebis Sesrulebas Soris. mzRveveli Tavisi aqtivebis ZiriTad nawils ayalibebs moziduli saxsrebis xarjze, oRond momavali gadaxdebis vadebis da sidideebis, 169


gaTvaliswinebiT. amasTan igi SeiZleba Sefasdes albaTobis didi xarisxiT. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradoba miiRweva garegani da Sida faqtorebis xarjze. gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens gare faqtorebi, romelTa Secvla kompanias ar SeuZlia. gare faqtorebs miekuTvneba erovnuli ekonomikis saerTo mdgomareoba, sadazRvevo saqmianobis saxelmwifo regulireba, sadazRvevo da safondo bazrebis koniunqtura, mosaxleobis gadaxdisunarianoba, samomxmareblo Tvisebebi. sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradobis ganmtkicebisaTvis saWiroa: satarifo ganakveTebis koreqtireba dazRvevis saxeebis mixedviT; gadazRvevis dacvis gafarToeba; damatebiTi finansuri resursebis mozidva aqciebis gamoSvebis gziT; aqtivebis struqturis gadaxedva da Tu aris saWiro cvlilebebis Setana kreditoruli da debitoruli davalianebebis Semcireba. sadazRvevo xelSekrulebis gaformebis damatebiTi SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa internetis meSveobiT da a.S. danaxarjebis Semcireba; personalis ricxvis optimizacia; daumTavrebeli Senobebis gayidva; avtomatizacia da axali programuli paketebis SeZena; Sromis organizaciis srulyofa. qonebis inventarizacia; departamentebis ufrosebis Secvla da a.S.

jangir kaxarovi uzbekeTi. singapuris ganviTarebis instituti taSkentSi

regionuli TanamSromloba centralur aziaSi: uzbekeTis Tvalsazrisi naSromSi ganxilulia centraluri aziaSi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis perspeqtivebi. aRniSnulia, rom centraluri azia mudmivad msoflios supersaxelmwifoebis yuradRebis centrSia; istoriulad didi abreSumis gzis funqcionirebam ganapiroba regionis gadaqceva evropa-aziis SemakavSirebel rgolad. gamoTqmulia mosazrebebi centraluri aziis saxelmwifoebis savaWro reJimebis liberalizaciisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb vaWrobis msoflio organizaciaSi gasawevrianeblad; energetikul seqtorSi uzbekeTisa da tajikeTis TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb.

nedeJda kvataSiZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

sawarmoTa gaerTianeba da finansuri angariSgeba biznesis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove pirobebSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens gaerTianebul sawarmoTa finansuri angariSgeba, romelic regulirdeba finansuri angariSgebis saerTaSoriso standartiT _ fass 3-iT `sawarmoTa gaerTianeba~ (IFRS 3 - Business Combinations). standartis Tanaxmad sameurneo operacia an movlena mxolod maSin identificirdeba sawarmoTa gaerTianebad, rodesac SeZenili aqtivebi da aRebuli valdebulebebi afuZneben sawarmos da garigebaSi monawile erT-erTi mxare Rebulobs kontrolis uflebas. 170


sawarmoTa gaerTianebad identificirebuli sameurneo operaciebi an movlenebi fass 3-is Tanaxmad unda iqnes aRricxuli da asaxuli finansur angariSgebaSi e.w. `SeZenis meTodiT~ (Đ°cquisitions method), rac niSnavs: myidveli sawarmos identificirebas; SeZenis TariRis gansazRvras; SeZenili identificirebadi aqtivebis, aRebuli valdebulebebisa da SeZenili sawarmos aramakontrolebeli wilis (noncontrolling interests) aRiarebasa da Sefasebas; gaerTianebis kompensaciis Sefasebas; da gudvilis an xelsayreli Sesyidvidan (bargain purchase/negative goodwill) miRebuli Semosulobis aRiarebasa da Sefasebas.

paata koRuaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebaSi SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis moqmedebisaTvis agrarul seqtorSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad, uaxloes periodSi, unda damuSavdes da amoqmeddes saqarTvelos agrosasursaTo seqtoris aRorZinebis strategia da miznobrivi saxelmwifo programebi, romelSic dargebis (kulturebis) ganviTareba grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi dafuZnebuli iqneba SefardebiTi upiratesobis principze. amasTan, saWiro iqneba Siga Tu gare sasursaTo bazris safuZvliani marketinguli Seswavla, anu dadgena imisa, ra miewodeba mas Warbad da ra produqtebzea SedarebiT deficiti. mimaCia, rom mxolod maRalxarisxovani produqtebis warmoeba (m.S. unikaluri qarTuli endemuri kulturebi, ekologiurad sufTa, organuli produqcia _ saeqsportod, sadac monopoliuri renta iqmneba) da Sesabamisi marketingi SeiZleba gaxdes adgilobrivi bazris dabrunebis da msoflio bazarze kuTvnili segmentis dakavebis garanti. Sromisa da warmoebis organizaciis progresuli samarTlebrivi formebis danergva soflad da aqtiuri saxelmwifo mxardaWera (maregulirebeli roli), Seqmnis Sesabamis pirobebs saqarTvelos agrowarmoebis dargobrivi struqturis modernizaciisTvis, SefardebiTi upiratesobis principisa da marketinguli moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

zurab laliaSvili CexeTis respublika. praRis ekonomikuri universitetis doqtoranti

saqarTvelodan kvalificiuri SromiTi resursebis migraciis marTva naSromi eZRvneba saqarTveloSi migraciis marTvis arsebul problemebs, gansakuTrebiT ki kvalificiuri SromiTi resursebis emigracis kontrolis problemas. ganxilulia saqarTvelodan `tvinebis gadinebis~ mimarTulebebi post-sabWoTa periodidan moyolebuli dRemde. aRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelodan emigraciis an ukan dabrunebis motivaciaze specifikuri informaciis mosaZieblad avtorma Caata171


ra gamokiTxva saqarTvelos umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone moqalaqeebisa, romlebic dResdReobiT swavloben an muSaoben CexeTis respublikaSi legalurad. gamokiTxvam gamoavlina ZiriTadi problemebi da motivaciuri faqtorebi, romlebic gasaTvaliswinebelia saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier migraciuli politikis dagegmvis da `tvinebis gadinebis~ maregulirebeli proeqtebisa Tu saxelmwifo programebis Seqmnisas.

eka lekaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebis Tanamedrove midgomebi umaRles saganamanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi (estoneTis magaliTze) ganviTarebul qveynebSi strategia orientirdeba Tanamedrove sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis codnasa da gamoyenebaze ganaTlebis miRebis yvela safexurze. estoneTis gamocdilebis Seswavlam gviCvena, rom Tanamedrove konkurenciiis moTxovnebis sapasuxod, saqarTvelos umaRles saganmanaTleblo sivrceSic unda daiwyos mzadeba eleqtronuli saswavlo kursebis SemuSavebasTan dakavSirebiT. codnis sazogadoebaSi, globalizaciis pirobebSi mcire qveynis integrirebis yvelaze efeqtiani gza codnasa da teqnologiebze gadis. mimdinare etapze ki, unda SevZloT Sereuli kursebis (igulisxmeba swavlebis saauditoro da eleqtronuli) swavlebis formis aqtualizacia. paralelurad unda Catardes umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi eleqtronuli swavlebis danergvis garemos kvleva, romlis Sedegebis mixedviTac unda SemuSavdes saqarTvelos umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi eleqtronuli swavlebis strategia da samoqmedo gegma. strategia unda daefuZnos Sesabamis sakanonmdeblo bazas, rac gamoiwvevs garkveul sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebs arsebul kanonmdeblobaSi.

maia margvelaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

turizmis swavleba globalizebul msoflioSi globalizaciam da msoflioSi bolo aTwleulis politikurma da ekonomikurma cvlilebebma ekonomikis yvela seqtorze iqonia met-naklebi zegavlena. turizmmac ganicada Rrma struqturuli cvlilebebi. am procesebma moiTxova gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis gamaxvileba turizmis seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa da maTi Sromis nayofierebis urTierTkavSirze. saWiro gaxda turizmis sferoSi ganaTlebis rolis gadaxedva. aucilebeli gaxda turis172


tul saqmianobaSi adamianuri resursebis udidesi mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswineba. turizmis seqtoris xarisxi udideswilad damokidebulia adamianuri resursebis kvalifikaciasa da axali teqnologiebis aTvisebis unarze, axali organizaciuli procesebisa da formebis gamoyenebaze. seqtorSi totaluri xarisxis problema ganuyofelia ganaTlebis xarisxisagan. naSromSi detalurad ganxilulia turizmis swavlebis da profesiuli gadamzadebis modelebi; transerovnuli ganaTlebis gafarToebis mizezebi; boloniis procesTan mierTebis Sedegebi da globalizaciis gavlena ganaTlebis sistemaze. statiis daskvniT nawilSi dasaxulia turizmis erovnuli ganaTlebis sistemis amocanebi da SemoTavazebulia maTi ganxorcielebis gzebi.

iaSa mesxia saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

biznesis kreatiuloba rogorc globalizaciis Tanamedrove gamowveva moxsenebaSi gaxsnilia kreatiulobis arsi da roli Tanamedrove globaluri ekonomikisa da biznesis ganviTarebaSi. kreatiuloba rogorc SemoqmedebiTi, novatoruli saqmianoba da aratradiciuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebis wyaro, Tanamedrove mwvave konkurenciis pirobebSi, gamodis mTavar gamowvevad konkurentunariani saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi. Gglobalizaciis Tanamedrove etapze araa sakmarisi mxolod konkurentunariani produqtis warmoeba, aramed saWiroa misi SemoqmedebiTad da efeqtianad miwodeba saSinao da sagareo bazrebze. praqtika adasturebs, rom Tanamedrove ekonomikaSi prioritetuli xdeba ara mxolod warmoeba, aramed kreatiuloba da inovaciuroba, ara mxolod saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenoba, aramed agreTve maTi maRali xarisxi, Tvisobrioba da mimzidveloba. Aamitomac kreatiuli ekonomikis farglebi TandaTanobiT farTovdeba. dReisaTvis kreatiuli azrovnebis sfero gaxda ara mxolod materialuri warmoeba, aramed iseTi dargebi da mimarTulebebi, rogorebicaa kinoindustria, musika, xelovneba, moda, sagamomcemlo saqme, reklama, dizaini, arqiteqtura, kompiuteruli teqnologiebi da a.S. msoflio ekonomikis struqturaSi swrafad farTovdeba kreatiuli biznesis wili, rac mianiSnebs globalizaciis axal paradigmaze asvlas. saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi kreatiuli midgoma dReisaTvis Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSia, magram mas ganviTarebis didi perspeqtivebi gaaCnia. naSromSi gakeTebulia daskvna, rom kreatiuli ekonomikis gansxvaveba tradiciulisagan mdgomareobs imaSi, rom misi mTavari instrumentia - codna, resursi - informacia, xolo produqti - inovacia. avtoris azriT, biznesis kreatiuloba warmoadgens Tanamedrove msoflio globalizaciis mTavar gamowvevas da misi ganviTareba uzrunvelyofs momavalSi globalizaciis procesebis gaRrmavebas da, Sesabamisad, axali socialurad orientirebuli ekonomikuri wesrigis formirebas.

173


babulia mRebriSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

globaluri marketingis ganviTarebis sakanonmdeblo baza statia exeba globaluri marketingis Camoyalibebis politikur-samarTlebriv garemos, romelic moicavs: mSobliuri qveynis garemos; im qveynis garemos, romelSic sawarmo funqcionirebs; saerTaSoriso garemos. statiis avtori aanalizebs saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organoebis mier miRebuli im kanonebis nawils, romlebic globaluri marketingis samarTlebriv bazas qmnian saqarTveloSi. avtori gamoTqvams mosazrebebs kanonebis xarvezebisa da dadebiTi mxareebis Sesaxeb da ayalibebs Tavis Sexedulebebs kanonebis srulyofasTan dakavSirebiT. sabolood, gakeTebulia daskvna imis Taobaze, rom biznesis ganviTarebis sakanonmdeblo baza saqarTveloSi TandaTanobiT srulyofili xdeba, ramac, avtoris azriT, xeli unda Seuwyos eqsportis stimulirebas da ucxoeli investorebis dainteresebas qarTuli bazriT.

iza naTelauri saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis struqturuli da raodenobrivi optimizaciis kriteriumebis Sesaxeb: postkomunisturi periodi naSromSi gaanalizebulia eqsportisa da importis optimizaciis winapirobebi postkomunistur saqarTveloSi; Camoyalibebulia saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis raodenobrivi da struqturuli optimizaciis kriteriumebi, qveynis sazogadoebrivpolitikuri da socialur-ekonomikuri mowyobis moTxovnebisa da konkurentunarianobis msoflio reitingis CarCo moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

ia nacvliSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

mewarmeobisadmi damokidebuleba saqarTveloSi (empiriuli kvlevis Sedegebi Tbilisis magaliTze) naSromi warmoadgens saqarTveloSi mewarmeobisadmi mosaxleobis damokidebulebis specifikuri niSnebis Seswavlis mizniT 2010 wlis ivlis-seqtemberSi avtoris mier Catarebuli piloturi kvlevis Sedegebis aRweras da mopovebuli empiriuli masalis analizs. kvlevis Sedegebi xazgasmiT warmoaCenen saqarTveloSi 174


mewarmeobisadmi damokidebulebis specifikas Tbilisis magaliTze. respondentTa 91,5% isurvebda yofiliyo TviTdasaqmebuli. am mxriv evropelebi bevrad ufro TavSekavebulni arian da naklebad gamoTqvamen TviTdasaqmebis da mewarmeobis dawyebis survils. kvlevis Sedegebi aseve adastureben kvlevis hipoTezas: ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi met-naklebad warmatebuli reformebis fonze sustia uaryofiTi ganwyoba mewarmeobisadmi. UmaRali umuSevrobis donis fonze mniSvnelovnad didia TviTdasaqmebis survili. aseve, Zlieria momavalSi samewarmeo saqmianobis dawyebis molodini. qarTvel respondentTa umetesoba (48%) mewarmeobasTan dakavSirebul yvelaze did saSiSroebad araregularul Semosavlebs miiCnevs. gamokiTxulTa 51,4% Tvlis, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxdeba mewarmeobiT dakavebuli. saqarTveloSi Tbilisel respondentTa pozitiuri damokidebuleba mewarmeobisadmi mianiSnebs respondentTa TviTdajerebulobaze, socialuri da politikuri stabilurobis gancdaze, bazarze orientirebuli ekonomikuri reformebis warmatebis molodinze.

anastasia nesterova belorusis respublika. belorusis saxelmwifo universitetis ufrosi maswavlebeli

SromiTi resursebis migracia postsabWoTa sivrceSi naSromSi ganxilulia SromiTi resursebis migraciis sakiTxebi dsT-is farglebSi. aRniSnulia, rom am procesSi CarTulia dasaqmebuli mosaxleobis 4-5%. ganxilulia SromiTi migraciis procesis kavSiri bazris struqturastan dsT-is farglebSi.

nino papaCaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

globalizacia da neoproteqcionizmi statia eZRvneba proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gaaqtiurebis movlenas Tanamedrove finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi. aRniSnulia, rom saerTaSoriso vaWrobis klasikur TeoriebSi damtkicebulia SeuzRudavi savaWro urTierTobebis upiratesobebi da misi momxreni saTanado politikis gatarebas gvTavazoben. Tavisufali vaWrobis politika farTod aris deklarirebuli vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis debulebasa da ganviTarebuli qveynebis sagareo savaWro politikis koncefciebSi. wina periodSi jer gatt-is, xolo mogvianebiT vmo-is farglebSi warmoebuli molaparakebebis bazaze Semcirda satarifo barierebi, rogorc saerTaSoriso vaWrobis SezRudvis ZiriTadi forma. magram msoflio realoba gviCvenebs, rom absoluturad Tavisufali vaWroba dReisaTvis ufro gamonaklisia, vidre wesi. ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisTvis didi winaaRmdego175


bebia gare bazrebze gasasvlelad. TviT ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris vaWrobaSi arsebobs `aradeklarirebuli~ SezRudvebi. faqtobrivad, msoflio masStabiT farTod gvxvdeba faruli sagareo savaWro proteqcionistuli politikis magaliTebi. proteqcionistuli politika Tanamedrove finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi erovnuli ekonomikis gadarCenis saSualebad miiCnia uamravma qveyanam, rac TiTqmis dauregulirebel situacias qmnis msoflio savaWro urTierTobebSi da did aRSfoTebas iwvevs vaWrobis msoflio organizaciisa da sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mmarTvel wreebSi. faqtobrivad msoflio savaWro urTierTobebi neoproteqcionizmis konteqstSi viTardeba. bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi am movlenis daregulirebas araerTi globaluri masStabis Sexvedra mieZRvna. saqarTvelom, romlis eqsporti aradiversificirebuli, sagareo vaWrobis saldo ki mudmivad (gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebidan) uaryofiTia, ganuxrelad airCia sagareo savaWro politikis fritrederuli orientacia. avtori miiCnevs, rom saWiroa garkveuli saxis proteqcionistuli RonisZiebebis gatareba. es ar gulisxmobs (tradiciuli gagebiT) importis pirdapir SezRudvas an saeqsporto dargebis pirdapir stimulirebas. gare bazrebze gasvlis efeqtianobis asamaRleblad sxva maraval faqtorTan erTad umniSvnelovanesia gavecnoT Tanamedrove proteqcionistul RonisZiebebs, romlesac mimarTaven TviT ganviTarebuli qveynebic ki sakuTari ekonomikis dasacavad. Cveni mewarmeebi jer kidev mwiri informirebulobis problemis winaSe dganan. am TvalsazrisiT sasargeblo iqneba uaxlesi saerTaSoriso sainformacio sistemebis gamoyeneba, romlebic uaxles analitikur informacias gvTavazoben ama Tu im qveynis mier gatarebuli ekonomikuri politikisa da mosalodneli efeqtis Sesaxeb.

oqsana piatkovska ukraina. lvovis komerciuli akademiis mecnier-mkvlevari

globalizacia da saerTaSoriso SromiTi migracia: migrantTa gzavnilebis makroekonomikuri efeqti statia eZRvneba SromiTi migrantebis fuladi gzavnilebis sxvadasxva ekonomikuri efeqtebis ganxilvas ganviTarebad qveynebSi. ganxilulia is mTavari faqtorebi, romelTa gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia fuladi gzavnilebis marTvis saTanado politikis formirebisaTvis. galina semiva ukraina. lvovis komerciuli akademiis aspiranti ukrainis navTobgadammuSavebeli dargis sawarmoTa saqmianobis ganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTuleba globalizaciis pirobebSi naSromSi gaanalizebulia ukrainis navTobproduqtebis bazris Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da ganviTarebis problemebi. gansazRvrulia erovnuli kompaniebis konkurentuli upiratesobebi da maTi saqmianobis prioritetebi dsT-isa da ek-is qveynebSi. 176


eka sefaSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori saqarTvelos

ekonomikuri integracia evropul sivrceSi: gamowvevebi da perspeqtivebi

statiaSi avtori ganixilavs saqarTvelos sagareo politikis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes mimarTulebas, kerZod, evropul struqturebSi integraciasa da evropul sivrcesTan TandaTanobiT daaxloebas. sakiTxi ganxilulia mimdinare globalizaciis fonze, sadac TiToeul qveyanas uwevs gansazRvros Tavisi adgili da roli. avtori ganixilavs usafrTxoebisa da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis koncefciebs, romlebmac Zireulad Seicvales TavianTi mniSvneloba da warmoadgenen saqarTvelos momavali ganviTarebisa da misi saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis safuZvels. statiaSi ganxilulia saqarTvelos evrokavSirTan urTierToebebis ganmsazRvreli iseTi dokumentebi, rogoricaa SeTanxmeba evrokavSirTan partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, evropuli samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegma, aRmosavleT partnioroba. statiaSi gaSuqebulia am dokumentebis mier SemoTvazebuli SesaZleblobebi, miRweuli progresi, arsebuli gamowvevebi da momavlis perspeqtivebi.

daviT sixaruliZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

universitetis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia globalizaciis pirobebSi konkurentul globalur sabazro sivrceSi warmatebis misaRwevad aucilebelia momxmarebelze orientirebuli saqmianobis ganxorcieleba. organizaciam maRali faseulobis SeTavzebiT unda SeZlos konkurentebis myidvelebis mozidva, SenarCuneba da maTi raodenobis zrda. magram momxmareblis moTxovnilebis maqsimaluri damayofilebisaTvis organizaciam unda gansazRvros ra surs da ra sWirdeba mas. es ki SesaZlebelia bazarze orientirebuli marketinguli strategiis formirebiT, romelic warmoadgens organizaciis mTliani strategiis Semadgenel nawils. saganmanaTleblo programa aris swored is produqti romliTac gadis universiteti ama Tu im bazarze, vinaidan Tavis saganmanaTleblo programas universitetebi sTvazoben, rogor uSualo momxmareblebs _ studentebs da dainteresebul pirebs. aseve, TavianTi kursdamTvrebulebis saSualebiT Sromis bazars da saxelmwifo organoebs. saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis momxmreblad gvevlinebian erTi mxriv, studentebi/dainteresebuli pirebi da meore mxriv, kompaniebi da organizaciebi. swored maTi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofilblad unda SemuSavdes universitetis ganviTarebis strtegiuli gegma. Tumca universitetis ganviTarebis strategiuli gegmis SemuSavebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb erTmniSvnelovani mosazreba ar 177


arsebobs. mkvlevarTa erTi jgufi miiCnevs, rom strategiuli dagegmva aris instrumenti, romlis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia krizisul situaciebSi. am mkvlevarTa argumentia is, rom universitets ar gaaCnia gare garemoSi situaciis ganviTarebis kontroli da vindaidan aseTi kontroli ar arsebobs, universitets SeuZlia gamoiyenos mxolod operatiuli dagegmva, rasac akeTebs yovelwliuri biujetis SemuSavebiT da/an akreditaciisaTvis momzadebiT. mkvlevarTa meore jgufi, miiCnevs, rom globalur cvalebad garemoSi universiteti saWiroebs strategiul dagegmvas.

larisa yorRanaSvili saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da samarTlis saswavlo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

inovaciuri saqmianobis marTvis problemebi globalur ekonomikaSi naSromSi ganxilulia inovaciuri saqmianobis ganviTarebisa da inovaciebis efeqtiani marTvis sakiTxebi. Qqveynis inovaciuri saqmianobis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebis Sefasebis safuZvelze naCvenebia saqarTveloSi Tanamedrove inovaciuri sistemis formirebisa da ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gamaxvilebulia saxelmwifos rolze qmediTi inovaciuri politikis SemuSavebaSi, romlis realizacia xels Seuwyobs arsebuli inovaciuri potencialis efeqtian gamoyenebasa da qveynis ekonomikur zrdas.

SoTa SaburiSvili saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis ucxouri gamocdileba naSromSi ganxilulia mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis mowinave ucxouri gamocdileba. Tanamedrove msoflioSi mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis dinamikuri ganviTareba ganpirobebulia im upiratesobebiT, romelsac biznesis organizaciis es forma flobs: meti moqniloba da mobiloba; SedarebiT mcire moculobis sastarto kapitalis da sabrunavi saSualebebis saWiroeba, inovaciuroba, gansakuTrebuli socialuri daniSnuleba. mcire da saSualo biznesi ganicdis msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare sakvanZo procesebis _ internacionalizacia, globalizacia, regionalizacia, mudmiv zemoqmedebas. mcire biznesis mowyobisa da funqcionirebis principebi, mxardaWeris formebi da meTodebi gansxvavdeba qveynebisa da regionebis mixedviT. mowinave ucxouri 178


gamocdilebis gaziarebiT SesaZlebelia saqarTveloSi mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis efeqtianobis amaRleba, rac uzrunvelyofs mosaxleobis damatebiT dasaqmebas, samecniero teqnikur progresis Sedegebis warmoebaSi danergvas, saeqsporto potencialis da sabiujeto Semosavlebis zrdas.

Temur Sengelia saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori

globalizacia da msoflios ekonomikuri wesrigi naSromSi ganxilulia msoflio ekonomikuri wesrigis sakiTxebi globalizaciis pirobebSi. avtori ganixilavs globalizaciis sxvadasxva ganmartebebsa da sxvadasxva aspeqtebs da miiCnevs, rom globalizaciis arsi gamoixateba: pirveli – im ekonomikuri movlenebis gansazRvrisaTvis, romlebic iwvevs erovnuli bazrebis integraciis process; meore _ im politikuri procesebis asaxvis mizniT, romlebic dakavSirebulia saqonlis momsaxurebisa da kapitalis moZraobis saerTaSoriso barierebis likvidaciasTan; mesame _ im zogadi politikuri movlenis dasadgenad, romlebic asaxavs globaluri politikis gavrcelebas saSinao da saerTaSoriso bazrebis doneebze. amasTan, globalizacia aris ara teqnologiuri imperativi, an mxolod ekonomikuri movlena, aramed istoriuli perspeqtivis kuTxiT is ganixileba, rogorc msoflio qveynebis politikuri da ekonomikuri integraciis procesi. am WrilSi ganxilulia XX saukuneSi msoflioSi damkvidrebuli ekonomikuri wesrigis sakiTxebi _ saxelmwifoTa urTierTobis ZiriTadi koncefciuri sakiTxebi, transerovnuli korporaciebis da saerTaSoriso bankebis mzardi roli.

natalia SCerbina belorusis respublika. belorusis respublikis mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia. ekonomikis institutis mecnier-mkvlevari elene kovSari belorusis respublika. belorusis saxelmwifo universitetis saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis departamentis asistent-profesori

pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis politika belorusSi naSromSi mocemulia belorusis respublikaSi pirdapiri ucxouri sainvesticio nakadebis dinamika 2002-2009 ww. mimoxilulia msxvili sainvesticio proeqtebi. aRniSnulia, rom miuxedavad pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis zrdisa, isini ar TamaSoben mniSvnelovan rols respublikis sainvesticio aqtivobaSi. ZiriTadi saivesticio nakadebi warmarTulia transportis seqtorSi (38,4), mrewvelobaSi (30,4%), komerciul seqtorSi (15,9%), vaWrobasa da sazkvebaSi (10,2%), kavSirgabmulobaSi (1,7%). ZiriTad investor qveynebs warmoadgenen: ruseTi (65,3%), avstria (10%); aseve, 179


kviprosi, gaerTianebuli samefo, niderlandebi, SvedeTi. naSromSi Camoyalibebulia sainvesticio klimatis gaumjobesebis pirobebi, romlebic xels Seuwyobs puiis mozidvas: sagadasaxado sistemis gaumjobeseba, miwis kanoni, finansuri seqtoris ganviTareba da a.S.

sitora Sokamolova tajikeTi. singapuris nacionaluri universiteti. sajaro politikis skola li k. eu tajikeTi. singapuris nacionaluri universiteti. sajaro politikis skola centraluri aziis universiteti globaluri da saSiano dinamizmis urTierTgadaxlarTva: rogor gavataroT dinamikuri ganviTarebis politika tajikeTSi naSromSi ganxilulia sakiTxi, Tu rogor axdens globaluri procesebi gavlenas erovnuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesze. "dinamikuri mmarTvelobis" analitikuri meTodis gamoyenebiT avtori ganixilavs saxelmwifo marTvis da siRaribis aRmofxvris sakiTxebs Tanamedrove tajikeTSi. igi aanalizebs im gamowvevebs, romlebic dgas saxelmwifos winaSe da sTavazobs rekomendaciebs, rogor Seicvalos marTvis praqtika dinamikuri SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT.

eka Coxeli saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori globalur kompaniebSi adamianuri resursebis marTvis sakiTxebi globalur kompaniebSi adamianuri resursebis marTva mraval sirTules ukavSirdeba. radgan globaluri kompania mraval qveyanaSi axdens biznesis ganxorcielebas, misTvis mTavar problemas kompaniis samuSao adgilebis Sesabamisi kadrebiT dakompleqteba warmoadgens. aRniSnuli sakiTxi tradiciulad iTvleba saerTaSoriso adamianuri resursebis marTvis safuZvlad. amisaTvis kompaniebi mimarTaven kadrebis SerCevisas ori alternatiuli midgomis gamoyenebas: pirveli, kadrebis SerCeva emigrirebuli moqalaqeebisgan, romelic kompaniebs sakmaod Zviri ujdebaT moraluri Tu materialuri TvalsazrisiT, da meore, kadrebis SerCeva adgilobrivi moqalaqeebisgan, romelic UTanamedrove msoflioSi ufro prioritetulad iTvleba. marTalia qveynebs Soris arsebobs gansxvavebebi kulturaSi, ekonomikur sistemebSi, samarTlebriv Tu politikur midgomebSi, magram aucilebelia Camoyalibdes adamianuri resursebis marTvis erTiani standartuli sistema, sadac aqcentebi gakeTdeba iseT RonisZiebebze, rogoricaa: globaluri adamianuri resur180


sebis qselis formireba, qveynebs Soris gansxvavebebis kvleva, orientacia standartebsa da kompetenciebze, kompaniaSi realuri globaluri sistemis Seqmna, korporaciuli kulturis mkacrad dacva, mudmivi kontaqti TviToeuli qveynis personalTan.

natalia Cerkasi ukraina. lvovis komerciuli akademiis asistent-profesori, ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati ukrainis arasandeleulo eqsportis makroekonomikuri stimulireba naSromSi gamokvleulia ukrainis arasanedleulo eqsportis stimulirebis struqturul-funqciuri faqtorebi; kerZod, makroekonomikuri garemos gavlena. avtors ganxiluli aqvs inovaciuri ekonomikuri ganviTarebis sakiTxebi. aRniSnulia, rom ukrainis eqsporti Zalian mgrZnobiarea safaso Sokebisadmi, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios rTuli makroekonomikuri Sedegebi ekonomikisTvis ukanaskneli wlebis krizisis Sedegad. arasanedleulo eqsportis stimulirebisaTvis aucilebelia Sesabamisi makroekonomikuri garemos uzrunvelyofa dabalansebuli biujetiT (ukeTesia proficitiT), Sesabamisi monetaruli politikiTa da myari fuladi erTeuliT. es SesaZleblobas iZleva gakontroldes inflacia, xeli Seewyos investiciebs, Semcirdes saprocento ganakveTebi, aseve Semoifarglos samomxmareblo importi, rac Tavis mxriv, SezRudavs sanedleulo produqciis eqsports.

manana xarxeli saqarTvelo. asistent-profesori

globalizacia da saqarTvelos inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi statiaSi ,,globalizacia da saqarTvelos inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi~ ganxilulia msoflios sayovelTao da sruli glbalizaciis pirobebSi iseTi mcire qveynis inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtiva, rogoric aris saqarTvelo. statiaSi naTqvamia, rom marTalia, amJamad saqarTvelos ekonomika inovaciebis ,,gadmotanis~ strategiiT viTardeba, magram es ar SeiZleba didxans gagrZeldes. saqarTvelom ekonomika unda ganviTardes inovaciebis ,,dasesxebis~ da ,,gaZlierebis~ strategiebiT. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces ,,gaZlierebis~ strategias, anu adgilobrivi mecnieruli miRwevebis saxelmwifoebriv mxardaWeras da maT danergvas ekonomikaSi. statiaSi es imiTaa dasabuTebuli, rom genetikurad qarTvelebs aqvT didi swrafva ganaTlebisa da mecnierebisken, ris gamoc qveyanas maRali inteleqtualuri potenciali gaaCnia. merab xmalaZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis mowveuli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori 181


saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi migracia 1992 wlidan dRemde, migraciis da Sobadobis Semcirebis Sedegad, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba Semcirda 1082 aTasiT, romelTagan 400 aTasi aris SromiTi migranti; arsebuli gamokvlevebiT, SromiT migrantTa ojaxebis 56,7% Sedgeboda 6 da meti wevrisagan, aqedan, 40 wels gadacilebulni Seadgendnen 40% SromiTi migrantebidan 60% mamakacia, 40% qali; Cveni gamokvleviT, SromiTi migrantebidan mamakacebis 74,7% da qalebis 83,3% hqonda umaRlesi da saSualo specialuri ganaTleba; Cvens mier studentebSi Catarebuli gamokvleviT aRmoCnda, rom maT 7,4%-s surs saqarTvelodan wasvla mudmivad, 58,5%-s ki droebiT; migraciis efeqtianoba gaizomeba im ojaxebis xvedri wiliT, romlebmac SromiTi migrantebisagan gamogzavnili TanxiT gadaWres raime problema. Cveni gamokvleviT, SromiTi migraciis efeqtianoba Seadgens 82%-s, rac niSnavs, rom SromiTi migracia saqarTveloSi araefeqtiania ojaxebis 18% SemTxvevaSi.

lela jamagiZe saqarTvelo. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti asistent-profesori, ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori

pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia naSromSi warmodgenilia pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis nakadebze regionuli integraciuli dajgufebebis gavlenis aspeqtebi. aRniSnulia, rom pui-s gaZlierebaze integracia ori mimarTulebiT zemoqmedebs. esenia gazrdil bazarze masStabis efeqtis miRwevis SesaZlebloba da kompaniebis mier adgilmdebareobis iolad Secvla fardobiTi upiratesobis moZiebis mizniT. statiaSi gaanalizebulia sxvadasxva integraciuli dajgufebebis sainvesticio regulirebis principebi da ganixilulia saqarTvelosTvis regionul integraciaSi monawileobis mniSvneloba investiciebis modinebis TvalsazrisiT.

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nino abralava saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

komerciuli bankebis saqmianobis Taviseburebebi sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi naSromSi gadmocemulia komerciuli bankebis funqcionirebis ZiriTadi principebi da Taviseburebebi sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi. aRniSnulia, rom administraciul-komanduri sistemis gabatonebis periodSi bankebis roli mkveTrad iyo Seviwroebuli. bankebi warmoadgendnen ra saxelmwifo aparatis Semadgenel nawils, isini centraluri saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi dagegmvis pirobebSi sakredito operaciebs axorcieleben fuladi saxsrebisa da dakreditebis limitirebuli fondebis gamoyenebis mkacrad reglamentirebadi mimarTvis CarCoebSi. sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlam sabanko sistemis saxelmwifo zemoqmedebis wnexisgan zomierad gamoTavsufleba da misi ekonomikis marTvis finansuri konturis nawilis marTvis aqtiur instrumentad gardaqmna aucilebel pirobad gaxada. naSromSi SemoTavazebulia bankis cnebis avtoriseuli interpretacia: komerciuli banki sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi aris aqcioneruli tipis universaluri komerciuli sakredito dawesebuleba, romelic Tavis saqmianobas axorcielebs erovnuli (centraluri) bankis mier dadgenili wesebis, limitebisa da normativebis dacviTa da mogebis miRebis mizniT.

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Summaries Nugzar Babuadze Georgia. Technical University of Georgia. Associate professor, Academic doctor of economics Shota Veshapidze Georgia. Technical University of Georgia. Associate professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences

Ilia and Globalism The foresight of the best practices of other countries was the main reference point for Ilia Chavchavadze and for this purpose he offered concrete ways. A bright example of it he considered «the European education and a country government, the European order“. He allowed manuals - to open doors for a western civilisation because Europe was most advanced and progressive. He recognised, that in general should provide the best practices of all countries. Its main conclusion the following: in general, it is necessary to adopt everything from the advanced states, that will serve well-being and country prosperity. Ilia Chavchavadze saw the big reserves in the development of trade and economic relations with the Caucasian people and the states. He with the big approval has met opening of the railway of Baku-Tbilisi-Poti because recognised, that it by communication with Caspian and Central Asia would bring the big advantage to the country, also as well as an oil pipeline of Baku - Tbilisi. Ilia recognised, that Georgia should be a connecting link between Europe and Asia, to these it would promote creation original «the General market» countries of three regions – Caucasus, the Near East and Caspian region. Now this idea finds continuation, building of the railway of Baku-Tbilisi-Akhalkalaki-Karss is carried out, that even more will strengthen economy of Georgia, Turkey and Azerbaijan. Together with it, Ilia Chavchavadze crucial importance gave to an establishment of close economic relations with Russia and the European countries, together with integration with them.

Evgeni Baratashvili Georgia. Georgian Technical University, Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences Revaz Gvelesiani Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences

Personnel Preparation and Employment Policy In Small and Medium Sized Business Professional education is becoming one of the main components of Georgian educational system. The professional educational system should correspond to the requirements of the continuously changing labour market. The goals of professional education are given by the authors. One of the most important among them is the ceration od educational and entrepreneurial partnership. It is mentioned that the government in Georgia is not only unable to regulate unemployment, but also has incorrect information about the acuteness of unemployment related problems because of incomplete employment statistics. The ineffective structure of employment makes the resolution of poverty problem more difficult. The authors give recommendations for the improvement of the situation in employment field.

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Natalya Cherkas The Ukraine. PhD, Assistant Professor Macroeconomic Stimulation of Manufactured Export in Ukraine The structural and functional factors of Ukraine’s manufactured export promotionare studied in the article. The special attention is paid to the parameters of macroeconomic environment. The issues of innovation-driven economic development are analyzed. It was demonstrated that Ukraine’s exports is extremely sensitive to the terms-of-trade shocks, which in turn lead to severe adverse macroeconomic collapse, as it has happened during recent economic crisis. The development of manufactured exports first of all implies appropriate macroeconomic environment, with balanced budget (or even better, budget surplus), restrictionary monetary stance, and policy of the ‘strong’ national currency. These measures could take inflation under control as a prerequisite for investment – friendly interest rate cuts, increase in foreign direct investments, as well as for reduction in consumer imports combined with disincentives for primary exports.

Eka Chokheli Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics The Human Resources Management Issues in Global Companies Human resources management in global companies is related to many difficulties. As global company realizes its business in many countries, the main problem is recruiting the appropriate personnel. This is considered the key objective of international human resources management.For this reason the companies use two alternative ways of personnel selection: first- selection from immigrated citizens, which are much expensive for companies both morally and materially, and the second - selecting from native citizens, which is more advantageous in the modern world. There are many cultural, economic, legal or political differences among the countries, so it is necessary to make the standard system of the human resources management, where the main points will be: formation of the global human recourses webs, studying of the countries differences, orientation on standards and competences, creation of the real global system in company, strict obzervation of corporate culture, permanent contact with the personnel of each country.

Ineza Gagnidze Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Education and Science in Georgia from the Standpoint of World and Global Competitiveness Ranking Competitiveness of a nation is regarded to be one of the most debatable and difficult issue from the standpoint of research. For the last two decades a large-scale research on Competitiveness of Nations has been conducted by the World Economic Forum (USA) and International Institute for Management Development (Switzerland). In the presented work we discuss the situation in the field of education and science in Georgia on the basis of comparing figures provided by the competitiveness reports issued by these institutions. It is noted as well, that to improve situation in this field it is essential to develop a system of scientific research and development in the country. The article provides Eurostat’s information describing the activities conducted by 27 EU member states for research and development. We consider that development of two-dimensional clusters (scientific-educational and traditional) in the country’s economy, as a supportive measure, is essential.

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Irina Gogorishvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Formation of Innovation Developemnt Advantages of Georgia’s Economy Under Conditions of Global Crisis For the analysis of formation of innovation development advantages of Georgia’s economy under conditions of global crisis the main trends of development of the world economy are discussed at the fifth technological depression and the beginning of the sixth phase. The main characteristic of the fifth technological cycle is the axial magistral innovation – computer technologies. During the sisxth cycle computer and nano-biotechnologies will domionate and its major economic characteristic will be the globalization of the increasing effect of scales of production. The economic integration between the developed countries will be subject to the processes of cooperation and specialization in intellectual production based on the increasing effect of scales. The developing small open economies (including Georgia) will develop production of those products, in which the increasing effect of scales does not take place. In Georgia’s economy specialized finanacial and commodity flows will take place based on logistic process differentiation. The historical mission of the country is to createand disseminate artistic and mental values. These are the very directions that should be activated. The role and functions of Georgian intellectual circles should be enhanced, which can bring the success in the long run.

Nato Kakashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Assistant Professor, Academic doctor of economics Financial Stability and Solvency of Insurance Companies Financial sustainability of the insurer is the ability to maintain a balance between the income received from insurance business and execution of insured obligations. Insurer combines its key assets at the expense of attracted funds, but future terms of payments and values are considered. At the same time it can be estimated as a large degree of probability. Insurance company's financial stability is achieved at the expense of external and internal factors. The external factors are very important because a company is not able to make any changes. External factors include general condition of the national economy, state regulation of insurance activities, insurance and stock markets, state of the population solvency and consumer purchasing power. To strengthen company's financial stability it is necessary to correct tariff rates according to the type of insurance, expansion of reinsurance protection, attraction of additional financial resources by issuing securities, review the structure of assets, use of insurance agreement with additional opportunities, for example, web-based and etc. cost reduction, optimization of staff numbers, sell unfinished buildings, automation and purchase of software packages, improvement of the labor organization, inventory of property, change heads of departments and etc.

Jahangir Kakharov Uzbekistan. Management Development Institute of Singapore in Tashkent Regional Cooperation in Central Asia: Viewpoint from Uzbekistan Central Asia is a region strategically located in a part of the world which had attracted constantly the attention of superpowers of the world as evidenced by the term the Great Game. The term usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, was used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British and Russian Empires for the supremacy in Central Asia. The term was later popularized by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his work “Kim”. The Silk Road turned the region into a bridge between Europe and East Asia, and between North and South Asia for many centuries. The region also had functioned as a hub for the religious, scientific and cultural development of the Islamic world for many years in the past.

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Manana Kharkheli Georgia. Assistant professor Globalization and Prospects of Georgia’s Innovative Development The article explores the innovative development of such a small country as it is Georgia under conditions of globalization. It is argued that today Georgia has adopted the economy the strategy of innovation importing but this cannot continue for long, because it is disastrous for a country to be at the expense of others. Georgia should develop innovation borrowing and innovation strengthening strategies. The specific attention is to be paid to the strategy of strengthening or the support for the local scientific achievements and their implementation by the state. It is well founded in the article by the fact that genetic Georgians have a great strive to education and science and the country has high intellectual potential.

Merab Khmaladze Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences Labour Migration of Georgian Population Since 1992 due to migration and reduced birth rate the population of Georgia decreased by 1082 thousand people. 400 000 of them are labour migrants. According to the research, 56,7% of the migrant families consisted of 6 and more memebers, 40% of which were above 40 years. 60% of labour migrants are male and 40% - females. Our research showed that 74,7% of male migrants and 83,3% of female migrants have higher and secondary special education. The research conducted among the students showed that 7,4% of them are willing to emigrate from Georgia forever, and 58,5% would leave the country temporarily. The efficiency of migration can be measured by the ration of the families, which resolved some problems using the money trasnfered by the migrants. The efficiency of migration is 82% according to our evaluation. Thus, labour migration is inefficient for 18% of families.

Paata Koguashvili Georgia. Georgian Technical University, Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences On the Question of Comparative Advantage Principle in Agricultural Production The author stresses on the necessity of the implementation of the agricultural and food sector renovation strategy and purposeful governmental programs, in which the development of sectors will be based on the principle of comparative advatage. In addition the marketing research of internal and external food markets will be necessary in order to identify surplus and shortage of products. The author argues that only production and export of ecologically pure, high quality products and appropriate marketing may become the prerequizite of taking the due segment in the local and international markets.

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Larisa Korganashvili Georgia. University of Economics and Law of Georgia. Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences Innovation Activity Management Issues in the Global Economy The article explores the issues of innovation activity development and effective management. On the basis of the evaluation of the positive and negative sides of innovation activity of the country the author shows the opportunities of formation and development of the modern innovation system. A special attention is paid to the role of government for the elaboration of innovation policy, realization of which can stimulate the effective use of the innovation potential and the economic growth of the country.

Nadejda Kvatashidze Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Business Combination and Financial Reporting At the modern stage of business development a special importance is attached to the financial reporting of combined businesses, which is regulated on the basis of International Financial Reporting Standard IFRS 3. Economic operation or transaction can be idetified as business combination, when purchased assets and taken liabitiies establish the enterprise and one of the participants of the transaction takes the control. Economic operations or transactions identified as business combination should be reflected in financial reporting based on the acquisition method, which implies: identification of the buyer enterprise, setting the date of purchase, recognition and evaluation of the identified assets, liabilities and non-controling interests, evaluation of the compensation, bargain purchase/negative goodwill evaluation and recognition.

Zurab Laliashvili, Prague University of Economics (VŠE), Phd Student Management of Qualified Labor Resources Migration From Georgia The purpose of the paper was to determine present problems of migration management in Georgia and mainly, qualified labor resources emigration control problems. It discusses the trends of “brain drain” from Georgia, since post Soviet period till now. For gaining the specific information about the motivation to emigrate or to return to home land, I made the survey for high educated Georgian citizens, who work or study in Czech Republic legally. The survey discovered main problems and the factors of migration motivation, which should be taken into consideration by the Georgian government, when planning the migration policy and creating some projects or programs for managing “brain drain”.

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Eka Lekashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Modern Approaches of Using Information and Communication Technologies in High Educational Institutions (The Case of Estonia) The strategies of the developed countries are oriented on the knowledge and use of modern information and communication technologies at all education levels. Estonian experience has shown that to meet the requirements of modern competition in the higher education system, we have to start preparing e-learning courses in Georgia. The integration through the knowledge and technologies is the most effective way for small countries in the society of knowledge and under the globalization. Currently we should be able to make the teaching form of mixed courses (includes auditoria lectures and e-Learning forms) more actual. In parallel, the research of the environment for the introduction of e-learning in higher education institutions should be conducted. E-learning strategy and action plan of higher educational institutions should be developed according to the results of this research. Strategy should be based on the appropriate legislative base, which will cause the need of some legislative changes in the existing legislation.

Maya Margvelashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Full professor, Doctor of Economis Study of Tourism in the Globalized World Globalization and recent political and economic changes in the World have influenced every sector of the economy, including tourism. These processes require a special attention to the relation of tourism sector employees and their labor productivity. It became necessary to revise the role of education in the tourism sector. Quality of tourism sector highly depends on human resources qualification and possibility of assimilating new technologies, use new organizational processes and forms. Thus, problem of total quality in the sector is inseparable with quality of education. This paper describes and analyses in details tourism education and training models, reasons of transnational education expansion, Bologna process and continued globalization consequences on the education system. In conclusion, objectives for the national education system of tourism and ways for their implementation are offered.

Babulia Mgebrishvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Assistant Professor, Academic doctor of economics Legislative Basis for Global Marketing Development The article deals with the political and legal environment for the formation of the global marketing, which includes: environment in a home country; environment in the country where the enterprise operates; international environment. The author analyzes some of the regulations, approved by the legislative bodies of Georgia, which make legal basis for global marketing in Georgia. The author expresses her opinions about advantages and disadvantages of these regulations and gives her own views about making the regulations perfect. It is concluded, that in Georgia legislative basis for the development of business is being improved. The author considers that this fact will stimulate export and make foreign investors interested in the Georgian market.

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Jacob Meskia Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences Business Creativity as the Challenge of Modern Globalization The essense of creativity and its role in the development of modern global economy and business is disclosed in the report. Creativity as creative, innovative activity and the source of non-traditional decisions become the major challenge of producing competitive goods and services in the conditions of modern intense competition. Competitive product manufacturing is not enough at the current stage of globalization, it is also necessary to offer it creatively and effectively to the domestic and foreign markets.

Iza Natelauri Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics On the Quantitative and Structural Optimization Criteria of Georgia’s Foreign Trade: Post-Soviet Period The article analyzes the preconditions of export and import optimization in post Soviet Georgia. The author gives the criteria for quantitative and structural optimization, considering the requierements of social, poltica and economic l organization of the country and the world competitivenes framework.

Ia Natsvlishvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Entrepreneurial Attitudes in Georgia (Empirical Research Results, The Case of Tbilisi) The article highlights the peculiarities of entrepreneurial attitudes in Georgia. According to the empirical research results 91.5% of Georgian respondents would like to be self-employed. In contrast, Europeans remain far less keen on becoming an entrepreneurs. Several factors explain why people prefer to remain employees. Nations differ according to their concerns and fears of becoming entrepreneurs. In Georgia the greatest fear of respondents is related to the uncertain income from entrepreneurship – 48% of respondents consider uncertain income from entrepreneurship as the greatest fear of becoming an entrepreneur. 39.6% of respondents are concerned of bankruptcy. One of the specific characteristics of Georgians’ entrepreneurial attitudes is the Georgians’ expectations of becoming self-employed: about 51.4% of Georgians see the feasibility of becoming self-employed in the next five years. Georgians’ positive attitudes towards feasibility of becoming self-employed show the self-confidence and expectations of success of market oriented economic reforms and feeling of social and political stability in Georgia.

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Nino Papachashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Globalization and Neoprotectionism The article is devoted to the activization of protectionist measures under conditions of the modern finacialeconomic crisis. It is mentioned, that advantages of free trade are confirmed by the classical theories of international trade and supporters of these theories offer to carry out an appropriate policy. The free-trade policy is widely declared in the WTO regulations and the concepts of the developed countries foreign trade policies. Tariff barriers as the basic form of restriction of international trade have decreased as a result of the negotiations within the framework of GATT, and later WTO. But reality of the world economy shows that absolutely free trade is an exception, rather than a rule today. Developing countries and the countries of transitional economy face big obstacles for entry the external markets. In addition, between the developed countries there are "the nondeclared" restrictions of trade. Actually, on a global scale there are many examples of the conspired protectionist foreign trade policy. Many countries have concidered protectionist policy implementation as the mean for saving national economy. That creates almost nonregular situation in the international trade relations and causes great concern in the managements of WTO and other international organizations. Actualy world trade relations develop in the context of neoprotectionism. A number of global-scale meeting are devoted to the regulation this situation. Georgia, with its nondiversified export and the negative foreign trade balance (after 90s of the last century), consistently chose the free trade orientation. The author believes that some kind of protectionist measures need to be implemented. This does not mean (the traditional sense) the direct restriction of import or direct stimulation of export. For increasing the efficiency of entry the foreign markets it is very important to carry out modern protectionist measures, also used by developed countries to protect their own economy. Our businessmen feel information deficit up to present. In this regard using the latest international information systems, which provide the newest analitical information about countries economic policies and its effects, will be very useful.

Oksana Pyatkovska

Ukraine. Lviv Commerce Academy; International Institute of Education, Culture and Relations with Diaspora of National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Scientific researcher Globalization and International Labor Migration: The Macroeconomic Impact of Migrants’ Remittances The article outlines different economic effect of labor migrants’ remittances in developing countries and determines important factors which should be taken into account for the development of the appropriate remittance management policy.

Shota Shaburishvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Foreign Experience in International Economic Activities of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises The article discusses advanced foreign experience in international economic activities of small and mediumsized enterprises. In modern world, small and medium enterprises develop dynamically due to the advantages owned by this form of business organizations, such as more flexibility and mobility; necessity of comparably small number of start-up capital and cash flow, innovativeness, particular social importance. Small and medium-sized business is constantly influenced by the key processes going on in the world economy – internationalization, globalization and regionalization. The principles of organizing and functioning of small business and supporting forms and methods vary throughout different countries and regions. Sharing advanced foreign experi-

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ence will make it possible to enhance efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises in Georgia, which will result in the increase of employment rate, introduction of the results of scientific and technical progress in production process, increase of export potential and budget incomes.

David Sikharulidze Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Marketing Strategy of High School Development at the Condition of Globalization In modern conditions the statement that the high school can work only in the local market and consequently doesn't need the international activity, is wrong for all high schools without an exception. National borders become more and more transparent, and the market of educational services even outperforms other spheres of economy in it. All Georgian high schools to some extent work under conditions of the international competition. The educational program is that product with which high school enters the market. The high school offers the educational programs to their direct consumers - to students and listeners, and through the graduates, to the labor market and state structures. Thus, the consumers of educational services of high school on the one hand are students/listeners, and on the other _ companies and the organizations. The high school aspires to satisfy their requirements. The question on necessity of working out of strategy of development of high school is recognized by researchers unequivocally. Many researchers argue, that the idea of strategic planning for high schools, including its tools should be used only in emergency situations. Their argument is that the situation in the external environment is beyond the control of high schools and they can use only operational planning which includes making the annual budget or preparing for periodic certification. Other researchers consider that the high school needs strategic planning, through and within the limits of influence so-called "historical forces". Keller, Blau Dudershtadt, etc. in their works not only have proved the necessity of strategic planning for high schools, but also have allocated the most important components of this process. Keller has distinguished three internal aspects (traditions and values, strengths and weaknesses, possibilities and management priorities) and three external aspects (tendencies of environment, a direction of development of the market and a competitive situation).

Temur Shengelia Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Full professor, Doctor of Economic Sciences Globalization and World Economic Order The author discusses the problems of world economic order under conditions of globalization. several definitions and several aspects of globalization are given and it is argued that the essence of globalization is revealed in the identification of the processes, which cause the integration of markets; in the political processes, which remove the barriers to the flows of goods, services and capital and in the identification of the general political events, which reflect the spread of global policies in domestic and international markets. It addition to it, globalization is neither a technological imperative, nor only an economic event, but in the historical point of view, it can be discussed as a political and economic integration process. In this pryzm the author explores the issues of the economic order established in XX century – the basic conceptional issues of state relations, the increasing role of transnational corporations and transnational banks.

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Ms. SITORA SHOKAMOLOVA

Tajikistan. School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore MPP Lee Kuan Yew Tajikistan. School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore Faculty Development Programme Fellow, University of Central Asia

Intertwines of Dynamism on the Global and Domestic Level: How to Set the Dynamic Developing Policy Through Culture and Capabilities in Tajikistan This paper discusses the effects of global issues on the national decision-making process. Using the “dynamic governance” (NEO & CHEN, 2007) analytical framework, it reviews two cases on State management of Political Islam and poverty eradication in contemporary Tajikistan. It covers the challenges the State is facing and provides recommendations on changing the governance practices towards dynamism, through dynamic capabilities and culture.

Eka Sefashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Associate Professor, Academic doctor of economics Georgia’s Economic Integration into European Space: Challenges and Prospects In the article the author discusses one of the main direction of Georgia’s foreign policy, namely, integration into the European structures and gradual approximation to the European space. The question is discussed in the context of current globalization, when every country has to define its place and role. The author explores the concepts of security and economic cooperation, which profoundly changed their meanings and lay down the basis for the future development of Georgia and its international relations. Cooperation and Partnership Agreement with the EU, European Neighborhood policy Action Plan, Eastern Partnership are the main formats of current cooperation of Georgia with the EU. The perspective offered by these cooperation, achieved progress, current challenges and future prospects are broadly discussed in the article.

Galina Aleksandrovna Semiv The Ukraine. Lviv Commerce Academy; Post graduate student The Strategic Orientations of the Development of Oil Enterprises in the Ukraine under Conditions of Globalization The current situation and problems of development of foreign trade in oil products in the Ukraine are analyzed in the paper. The author argues that domestic enterprises hold comparative advantages in the markets of oil products of the European countries and the CIS.

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David Vekua Georgia. Tbilisi State University of Economic Relations Associated Professor, Academic Doctor of economics Nino Paresashvili Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Assistant Professor, Academic doctor of economics State of Activity of Labor in Georgia and Prospects of its Improvement The article considers the key directions of the improvement of labor activity in Georgia. In Georgia, unemployment, as a problem, mostly comes from economic transformation caused and macroeconomic changes, which significantly reduced demand for labor; One of the most significant objectives is acceleration of its structural reorganization, as a result of which the unemployment rate and duration should decrease to the reasonable and economically effective level. The activation of the labor in the market should ensure growth of productivity and improvement of mobility. Strategy for overcoming of the unemployment should be based on the following: monitoring of the categories of the unemployed; identification of the resource base with respect to professional skills and age; development of the effective infrastructure of the labor market; stimulation of the activities of the employers.

Zurab Vashakidze Georgia. Technical University of Georgia. Associate professor, Academic doctor of economics Merab Mikelashvili Georgia. Technical University of Georgia. Doctoral student On Some Aspects of Tax Politics Tax politics is one of the most important components of every economy. It is also a serious lever by which the government influences manufacturing and distributing processes. Depending on the existing experience in this particular sphere budgetary-tax sphere is the strong instrument of the state, so the improvement of its quality has a very important role and it demands broad and deep theoritical analysis and research of micro and macro economic problems.

Lela Jamagidze Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Assistant Professor, Academic doctor of economics Foreign Direct Investments and International Economic Integration The paper explores several aspects of international economic integration impact on foreign direct investmet flows. It is argued that the influence of integration on the intensification of foreign direct investments can be perceived in two directions: attainment of economy of scales as a result of grown markets and increasing opportunities of changing location in search for the comparative advantage. The author analyzes investment regulation principles within some of the regional integrations and emphasizes the importance of participation of Georgia in integration processes in order increase investment inflows.

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Nino Abralava Georgia. Technical University of Georgia. Doctoral student

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS DURING THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION TO MARKET ECONOMY

The work deals with the main operational principles and specifics of commercial banks during transition to market economy. It is pointed out, that during domination of command-administrative system, the role of banks was considerably restricted. Banks, being the constituent part of the state machinery, under the overall central planning conducted credit operations within the strictly regulated framework for appropriation of monetary funds and limited loan fund capital. With transition to market economy, reasonable liberation of the banking system from the state pressure and turning it into an active instrument for managing part of the economy’s financial pattern became prerequisite. In the work the author’s own interpretation of the concept of a bank is suggested, namely: a commercial bank under market economy is a joint-stock type universal commercial credit institution, conducting its activities in compliance with the rules, limits and norms established by the national (central) bank in order to make profit.

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Резюме Нугзар Бабуадзе Грузия. Грузинский технический университет. Ассоцированный профессор, академический доктор экономики Шота Вешапидзе Грузия. Грузинский технический университет. Ассоцированный профессор, доктор экономических наук Илья и глобализм Главным ориентиром для Ильи Чавчавадзе было предусмотрение передового опыта других стран и для этого он предлагал конкретные пути. Наглядным примером этого считал “Европейское просвещение и управление страной, европейский порядок”. Он давал наставления - открыть двери для европейской цивилизации, потому, что Европа была самой передовой и прогрессивной. Признавал, что в общем должны предусматривать передовой опыт всех стран. Его главное заключение следующее: В общем, надо перенять от передовых государств все, что послужит благосостоянию и процветанию страны.

Евгений Бараташвили Грузия. Грузинсий Технический университет. Полный профессор, доктор экономических наук Реваз Гвелесиани Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Полный профессор, доктор экономических наук Политика подготовки и трудоустройства кадров в малом и среднем бизнесе В статье подчеркнуто, что профессиональное образование становится одним из ведущих компонентов образовательной системы нашей страны. Должно произайти сближение системы профессионального образования с требованиями быстро и вечно изменяющимся рынком труда. Сформированы цели профессионального образования, самым значительным из которых является создание системы учебно-предпринимательского партнерства в сфере профессионального образования. Отмечено, что правительство Грузии не то что не имеет возможности государственного регулирования трудоустройства и безработицы, а из-за несовершенствования статистики трудоустройства, в большой части из-за её неточности, оно искажённо представляет остроту существующих проблем в сфере трудоустройства, особенно в сфере безработицы. Существующая неэффективная структура трудоустройства значительно затрудняет решения вопросов бедности. В статье даны рекомендации с целью улучшения созданного положения в сфере трудоустройства.

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Инеза Гагнидзе Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Образование и наука в Грузии с точки зрения Мировой и глобальной конкурентоспособности Конкурентоспособность нации считается одним из самых спорных и сложных вопросов с точки зрения научных исследований. На протяжении более двух десятилетий крупномасштабные исследования по конкурентоспособности стран были проведены Всемирным экономическим форумом (США) и Международным институтом развития менеджмента (Швейцария). В представленной работе мы обсуждаем ситуацию в сфере образования и науки в Грузии на основе сравнения данных, представленных по докладом конкурентоспособности, подготовленными этими школами. Следует отметить также, что для улучшения ситуации в этой области необходимо создать в стране систему развития и научных исследований. В статье содержится информация Евростата, которая описывает мероприятия, проведенные в ЕС. Мы считаем, что в экономике страны развитие двумерных кластеров (научно-образовательных и традиционных) имеет существенное значение.

Паата Когуашвили Грузия. Технический университет Грузии. Полный профессор, доктор экономических наук Для действия принципа относительного преимушества в сельско-хозяйственном производстве С целью улучшения положения в аграрном секторе, в ближайшем будущем нужно выработать и задействовать стратегию возрождения агропродуктового сектора Грузии и целевые государственные программы, в которых развитие отраслей (культур), в долгосрочной перспективе, будут основаны на принципе относительного преимушества. При этом, необходимо основательно изучить внутренний и внешний маркетинговый продуктовый рынок, т.е. какие продукты представлены на нем с избытком и на какие продукты имеется дефицит. Автор считает, что производство только высококачественной продукции (уникальные грузинские эндемные культуры, экологически чистая, органическая продукция – на экспорт, где создается монополистическая рента) и соответственный маркетинг могут стать гарантом возврата на местный рынок и занятия принадлежащего сегмента на мировом рынке. Внедрение прогрессивных правовых форм труда и организации производства в деревне и активная государственныя поддержка, создаст соответствующие условия для модернизации отраслевой структуры агропроизводства Грузии с учетом принципа относительного преимущества и маркетинговых требований.

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Ия Нацвлишвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук

Отношение к предпринимательству в Грузии (итоги эмпирических исследований на примере г.Тбилиси ) Статья освещает особенности отношения к предпринимательской деятельности в Грузии. В

статье описываются итоги исследований, проведенных автором в июле- сентябре 2010 году в Тбилиси с целью изучения отношения грузинского населения к предпринимательству. Проводится анализ собранных эмпирических материалов. Итоги исследований выявляют специфику отношений к предпринимательству в Грузии на примере г.Тбилиси. По эмпирическим результатом исследования 91,5% грузинских респондентов хотели бы быть самозанятыми. В отличие от Грузии европейцы более сдержаны и выявляют меньшее желание к предпринимательству чем американцы и китайцы. Результаты исследований так же подтверждают гипотезу: за последние годы на фоне успешных реформ в Грузии замечается слабое, отрицательное расположение к предприниаательству. На фоне большого уровня безработицы, у многих появилось большое желание стать самозанятым. Так же замечается сильное ожидание начать предпринимательскую деятельность в дальнейшем. Большинство грузинских респондентов (48%) считают самой большой опасностью в предпринимательской деятельности нерегулярные доходы. 51.4% опрошенных считают, что будут заняты предпринимательством в ближайшие 5 лет. В Грузии в ожидании успехов экономических реформ ориентированных на рынок, позитивное отношение Тбилисских респондентов к предпринимательству указывает на их самоуверенность, веру в социальную и политическую стабильность. Эка Лекaшвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, академический доктор экономики Современные подходы использования информационных и коммуникационных технологий в высших учебных заведениях (на примере Эстонии) Ключевые слова: Глобализация, образования, э-обучения Стратегии развитых стран ориентированы на знание и использование современных информационных и коммуникационных технологий на всех уровнях образования. Эстонский опыт показывает, что в соответствии с требованием современной конкуренции в системе высшего образования, мы должны начать подготовку электронного обучения в Грузии. Интеграция посредством знаний и технологий является наиболее эффективным способом для малых стран в условиях глобализации. В настоящее время мы должны быть в состоянии обеспечить обучение в форме смешанных курсов (включая лекции электронные формы обучения) более актуально. Паралельно должо быть проведено исследование об условиях внедрения электронного обучения в высшие учебные заведения . Стратегия и план электронного обучения высших учебных заведениях должны быть разработаны в соответствии с результатами этого исследования. Стратегия должна быть основана на соответствующей законодательной базе, что приведет к необходимости некоторых изменений в действующее законодательство. 198


Зураб Лалиашвили Mагистр. Докторант Экономического Университета в Праге (VŠE) Управление миграции квалифицированной рабочей силы из Грузии

Целью проекта было описать существующие проблемы управления миграционными процессами в Грузии, в частности проблемы управления эмиграции квалифицированных трудовых ресурсов. Обсуждается тенденции "утечки мозгов" из Грузии с постсоветского периода до настоящего времени. Для получения информации о мотивации к эмиграции или возвращению на родину в Грузию, я провел опрос граждан Грузии с высшим образованием, которые работают или учатся в Чехии, на законных основаниях. В процессе опроса выявились основные проблемы и факторы мотивации, которые должны быть приняты на рассмотрение правительством Грузии, при планировании миграционной политики и создания некоторых проектов или программ для управления " утечки мозгов ".

Эка Сепашвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Экономическая интеграция Грузии в Европейское Пространство: Проблемы и Перспективы В статье автор обсуждает один из главных направлении Грузинской внешней политики , а именно, интеграция в европейские структуры и постепенное приближение к европейскому пространству. Вопрос обсужден в условиях текущей глобализации, где каждая страна должна определить свое место и роль. Автор рассматривает концепции безопасности и экономического сотрудничества, которые совершенно изменили свое значение и которые определяют основу и фуидамент для будущего развития Грузии и ее международных отношений. Сотрудничество и Соглашение о сотрудничестве с ЕС, европейский стратегический План действий Соседства, Восточное Товарищество - главные форматы текущего сотрудничества Грузии с ЕС. В статье широко обсуждены перспектива, предлагаемая ими сотрудничество, достигнутый прогресс, текущие проблемы и будущие перспективы.

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Давид Векуа Грузия. Тбилисский государственный университет экономических отношений Ассоциированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Нино Паресашвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассистент-профессор, кандидат экономических наук

Cостояние активности рабочей силы в Грузии и перспективы его улучшения В работе «состояние активности рабочей силы в Грузии и перспективы его улучшения» рассматриваются основные направления улучшения активности рабочей силы. Принимая во внимание то обстоятельство, что в Грузии безработица, как проблема, в значительной степени является результатом трансформации экономики, обусловленный макроэкономическими сдвигами, что значительно уменьшило спрос на рабочую силу, одной из наиболее важных задач остается ускорение процесса его структурной реорганизации, вследствие чего уровень и период безработицы должны уменьшиться, в той мере, в какой это целесообразно и экономически эффективно. Со своей стороны, активизация рабочей силы на рынке труда должна обеспечить увеличение производительности и повышение мобильности. Стратегия преодоления безработицы должна основываться на следующих мероприятиях: мониторинг категорий безработных, в профессиональном и возрастном плане; определение ресурсной базы; создание эффективной инфраструктуры рынка труда; стимулирование активности нанимателей.

Майя Маргвелашвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Полный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Обучение туризма в глобализованном мире Глобализация и политические и экономические изменения последнего периода в мире так или иначе повлияли на все отрасли экономики, в том числе и на туризм. Туризм потерпел глубокие структурные изменения. Эти процессы потребовали особое внимание к взаимоотношениям работников сектора и производительности их труда. Настала необходимость пересмотра роли образования в сфере туризма. Качество туристского сектора во многом зависит от квалификации человеческих ресурсов и способности освоения новых технологии. Так-же, на использование новых организационных процессов и форм. Так, проблема тотального качества в секторе неразделима с качеством образования. В статье детально рассмотрены модели обучения и профессиональной переподготовки туризма, причины экспансии транснационального образования, результаты присоединения к Болонийскому процессу и влияние глобализации на образовательную систему. В заключительной части статьи намечены задачи национальной образовательной системы туризма и предложены пути их осуществления. 200


Бабулия Мгебришвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассистент-профессор, академический доктор экономики Законодательная база развития глобального маркетинга Статья посвящена политическо-правовой среде формирования глобального маркетинга, которая содержит: среду отечественной страны; среду той страны, где функционирует предприятие; международную среду. Автор статьи анализирует часть тех законов, принятых законодательными органами Грузии, которые создают правовую базу глобального маркетинга в Грузии. Автор выражает свое мнение насчет недостатков и положительных сторон законов и формирует свои взгляды в связи с их совершенствованием. В конце статьи сделан вывод насчет того, что законодательная база развития бизнеса в Грузии постепенно совершенствуется, что по мнению автора, должно повлиять на стимулирование экспорта и заинтересованность зарубежных инвесторов грузинским рынком.

Манана Хархели Грузия. Ассистент-профессор Глобализация и перспективы инновационного развития Грузии В статье «Глобализация и перспективы инновационного развития Грузии» рассматривается перспектива инновационного развития мелких странах, таких как Грузия, в условиях общей и полной мировой глобализации. В статье говорится, что хотя на данный момент экономика Грузии развивается по стратегии «заимствование» инноваций, это не может длиться долго, так как постоянное нахождение на чужом иждивении губительно для страны! Грузия должна развивать свою экономику по стратегии «займов» и «укрепления» инноваций. Особое внимание нужно уделять стратегии «укрепления», то есть государственной поддержке местных научных достижений и их внедрения в экономику. В статье это обосновывается и тем, что генетически у грузин большое стремление к образованию и науке, и благодаря этому у страны высокий интеллектуальный потенциал.

Яков Месхия Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Полный профессор, доктор экономичесеий наук Креативность бизнеса как вызов современной глобализации В докладе раскрыта сущность и роль креативности в развитии современной глобальной экономики и бизнеса. Креативность как творческая, новаторская деятельность и источник нетрадиционных решений, в условиях острой конкуренции выступает главным вызовом в производстве конкурентоспособного товара и услуг. На современном этапе глобализации недостаточно производить лишь конкурентоспособный продукт, но и необходимо творчески и эффективно его продвигать на внутренных и внешных рынках. 201


Практика подверждает, что в современной экономике приоритетным становится не только производство, но и креативность и инновационность, не только количество товаров и услуг, но и их качество и привлекательность. Поэтому рамки креативной экономики постепенно расширяются. В настоящее время сферой креативного мышления становится не только материальное производство, но и такие отрасли и направления, как киноиндустрия, музыка, изобразительное искусство, мода, издательское дело, реклама, дизайн, архитектура, компьютерные технологии и т.п. В структуре мировой экономики быстро расширяется доля креативного бизнеса, что является подтверждением выхода глобализации на новую парадигму развития. В настояшее время в экономике Грузии креативный подход находится в зачаточном состоянии, но он имеет большие перспективы развития. В работе сделан вывод о том, что отличительная особенность креативной экономики от традиционной состоит в том, что главный инструмент в ней - знания, ресурс - информация, а продукт - инновация. По мнению автора, креативность бизнеса является главным вызовом современной мировой глобализации , ее развитие обеспечит углубление глобализационных процессов в будущем и, следовательно, формирование нового социально-ориентированного мирового экономического порядка.

Зураб Вашакидзе Грузия. Грузинский технический университет. Ассоцированный профессор, академический доктор экономики Мераб Микелашвили Грузия. Грузинский технический университет, докторант Некоторые аспекты налоговой политики государства Важнейшим механизмом государственного воздействия на рыночную экономику является бюджетно-налоговая политика. От того, насколько концептуально правильно выбрана модель, на каких принципах, и как построена национальная система налогообложения, в какой мере она гармонизирована с международным налоговым законодательством зависит эффективное функционирование всего народного хозяйства и активность предпринимательского сектора. Налоговая политика является важнейшим экономическим методом управления экономикой и обеспечения согласования общегосударственных интересов с коммерческими интересами предпринимателей и населения.

Шота Шабуришвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Зарубежный опыт внешнеэкономической деятельности малых и средних предприятии В статье рассмотрен зарубежный опыт внешнеэкономической деятельности малых и средних предприятий. Динамичное развитие в современном мире малого и среднего бизнеса обусловлено рядом преимуществ, которыми он обладает: высокая гибкость и мобильность, относительно малое 202


количество необходимого стартового капитала и оборотных средств, склонность к инновациям, особое социальное назначение. Малый и средний бизнес находится под воздействием ключевых тенденций развития мировой экономики - интернационализация, глобализация, регионализация. Принципы организации и функционирования малого бизнеса, формы и методы поддержки различаются по странам и регионам. Разделением современного зарубежного опыта Грузия возможно повысит эффективность функционирования малых и средних предприятий, это будет способствовать росту занятости населения, инновационного потенциала местного производства, экспорта и бюджетных доходов.

Эка Чохели Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Вопросы управления человеческими ресурсами в глобальных компаниях Управление человеческими ресурсами в глобальных компаниях имеет много трудностей. Так как глобальная компания осуществляет свою деятельность во многих странах, основная проблема заключается в комплектации рабочих мест. Эти упомянутые задачи считаются базой международного управления человеческими ресурсами. Из-за этого, компании выбирают два альтернативных подхода к выбору персонала: во-первых, выбрав из имигрантов граждан, которые гораздо дороже для компаний, как морально, так существенно, и второго выбора из коренных жителей, более приоритетных в современном мире. Несмотря на то, что есть много культурных, экономических, юридических или политических различий между странами, необходимо формировать единую систему управления человеческими ресурсами, где основными вопросами будут: формирование глобальной человеческой сети ресурсов, изучение различия между странами, ориентация на стандарты и компетенции, создание реальной глобальной системы в компании, строгая защита корпоративной культуры, постоянный контакт с персоналом каждой страны.

Давид Сихарулидзе Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук

Маркентиговые аспекты развития вуза при глобализации В современных условиях утверждение, что вуз может работать только на местном рынке и поэтому не нуждается в международной деятельности, неправильна для всех без исключения вузов. Национальные границы становятся все более прозрачными, и рынок образовательных услуг в этом порой даже опережает другие сферы экономики. Все Грузинские вузы в той или иной степени работают в условиях международной конкуренции. Даже если их абитуриентам и студентам не предлагаются образовательные программы зарубежных вузов, выпускаемые вузом специалисты будут работать в условиях международной конкуренции, следовательно, вузы участвуют в международной конкуренции на рынке труда. Образовательная программа есть тот продукт, с которым вуз выходит на рынок. Ведь свои образовательные программы вуз предлагает как их непосредственным потребителям - студентам и слушателям, так и опосредованно, через своих выпускников, рынку труда и государственным 203


органам. Таким образом, к потребителям образовательных услуг вуза можно отнести с одной стороны студентов/слушателей, а с другой компании и организации. Именно их потребности стремится удовлетворить вуз. Вопрос о необходимости разработки стратегии развития вуза воспринимается исследователями совсем не так однозначно, как могло бы показаться. Целый ряд исследователей, высказывались против идеи стратегического планирования для вузов, считая его инструментом, используемым лишь в чрезвычайных ситуациях. Их аргументом было отсутствие контроля вуза за развитием внешней ситуации. А раз этого контроля нет, вуз может использовать лишь оперативное планирование, что он и делает, составляя ежегодный бюджет или готовясь к периодической аттестации. Другие исследователи считают, что вуз нуждается в стратегическом планировании, хотя и в рамках влияния так называемый "исторических сил". Келлер, Блау Дудерштадт и др. в своих работах не только обосновали необходимость стратегического планирования для вузов, но и выделили наиболее важные составляющие этого процесса. Келлер отнес к ним три внутренних аспекта (традиции и ценности, сильные и слабые стороны, возможности и приоритеты руководства) и три внешних аспекта (тенденции окружающей среды, направления развития рынка и конкурентную ситуацию). Президент известной швейцарской бизнес школы IMD Питер Лоранж выделяет несколько основных направлений создания вузом общественно значимой потребительской ценности: научные исследования, т.е. создание новых знаний; обучение, т.е. распространение знаний; и выполнение роли ответственных граждан.

Иза Нателаури Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук О критериях количественной и структурной оптимизации внешней торговли Грузии: посткоммунистический период Проанализированы предпосылки оптимизации экспорта и импорта в посткоммунистической Грузии; сформулированы критерии количественной и структурной оптимизиции внешней торговли Грузии с учетом требований общественно-политического и социально-экономического устроиства страны и требований всемирной конкурентоспособности стран мира

Лариса Корганашвили Грузия. Доктор экономических наук, профессор. ПРОБЛЕМЫ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИННОВАЦИЯМИ В ГЛОБАЛЬНОЙ ЭКОНОМИКЕ В работе рассматриваются вопросы развития инновационной деятельности и значения эффективного управления инновациями. На основе оценки сильных и слабых сторон инновационной деятельности страны, показана возможность формирования и развития современной инновационной системы в Грузии. Особое внимание уделено роли государства в разработке позволит эффективно использовать действенной инновационной политики, реализация которой имеющийся инновационный потенциал для экономического роста страны. 204


Надежда Кваташидзе Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, кандидат экономических наук Объединение бизнеса и финансовая отчетность На современном этапе развития бизнеса определенное значение приобретает представление финансовой отчетности объединенных предприятий, которая регулируется 3-им Международным стандартом финансовой отчетности Объединение бизнеса (IFRS 3 - Business Combinations). Согласно стандарту, хозяйственная операция только тогда идентифицируется объединением предприятий, когда приобретенные активы и признанные объязательства образуют предприятие, а также при котором одно предприятие получает контроль над другим. Идентифицирование хозяйственной операции как объединение бизнеса требует представление финансовой отчетности по методу приобретения (аcquisitions method), что означает: идентифицирование предприятия покупателя; определение даты приобретения; признание и оценка приобретенных идентифицированных активов, признанных обязательств и неконтролирующей (noncontrolling interest) доли меньшинств приобретенного предприятия; оценки компенсации объединения; признания и оценки гудвилла или дохода от выгодной сделки (bargain purchase /отрицательный гудвилл).

Нато Какашвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассистент-профессор, кандидат экономических наук Финансовая устойчивость страховой компании и платежеспособность Финансовая устойчивость страховщика это способность поддерживать баланс между доходом, полученным со страховой деятельности и перед обязательства застрахованного. Страховщик свои ключевые активы составляет за счет привлеченных средств, но с учетом будущих сроков оплаты и количества. В то же время это можно оценить как уровень вероятности. Финансовая устойчивость страховой компании достигается за счет внешних и внутренних факторов. Особое значение имеют внешные факторы, менять которые компания не может. Внешние факторы включают: общее состояние национальной экономики, государственного регулирования страховой деятельности, конъюнктуры фондового рынка, платежеспособность населения и потребительские свойства. Для финансовой устойчивости страховой компании необходимо: Коррекция тарифных ставок по видам страхования, расширение перестраховочной защиты, привлечения дополнительных финансовых ресурсов путем выпуска акций, обзор структуры активов,сокращение расходов,оптимизация численности персонала, продажа недостроенных здании, автоматизация и покупка новых пакетов программного обеспечения, улучшение организации труда, инвентаризация имущества, изменения главы департаментов и так далее.

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Темур Шенгелия Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Полный профессор, доктор экономичесеий наук Глобализация и мировой экономический порядок В статье затронуты вопросы мирового экономического порядка в условиях глобализации. Автор рассматривает различные толкования и аспекты глобализации и полагает, что её суть состоит: 1. для определения тех экономических явлений, которые вызывают процесс интеграции национальных рынков; 2. для описания тех экономических процессов, которые связаны с ликвидацией международных барьеров товара, услуг и движения капитала; 3. для утверждения тех общих политических явлений, которые отображают расспространение глобальной политики на уровне внутренних и международных рынков. При этом, глобализация является не технологическим императивом или не только экономическим явлением, а процессом политической и экономической интеграции стран мира, рассмотренным в разрезе исторической перспективы. В этом аспекте затронуты вопросы мирового экономического порядка установившегося в XX веке – основные концептуальные вопросы отношений государств, возрастающая роль транснациональных корпораций и международных банков.

Семив Галина Александровна, аспирант Украина. Львовская коммерческая академия Аспирант СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКИЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ НЕФТЕПЕРЕРАБАТЫВАЮЩЕЙ ОТРАСЛИ УКРАИНЫ В УСЛОВИЯХ ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИИ

Анализируется современное состояние и проблемы развития украинского рынка нефтепродуктов. Определены конкурентные преимущества национальных компаний и приоритеты их деятельности на рынках нефтепродуктов стран СНГ и ЕС.

ЧЕРКАС НАТАЛИЯ Украина. Львовская коммерческая академия к.э.н. МАКРОЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ СТИМУЛИРОВАНИЕ НЕСЫРЬЕВОГО ЭКСПОРТА УКРАИНЫ

В работе исследованы структурно-функциональные факторы стимулирования несырьевого экспорта на Украине, в частности влияние макроэкономической среды. Автором рассматриваются вопросы инновационного экономического развития. Доказано, что украинский экспорт очень чувствителен к ценовым шокам и это может привести к сложным макроэкономическим последствиям для экономики вследствие кризиса последних лет. Для стимулирования несырьевого экспорта 206


необходимо обеспечение соответствующей макроэкономической среды и сбалансированным бюджетом (лучше профицитом), рестрикционной монетарной политикой и «сильной» национальной денежной единицей. Это позволит контролировать инфляцию, будет содействовать инвестициям, снижению процентной ставки, а также ограничит потребительский импорт, что в свою очередь ограничит экспорт сырьевой продукции.

Ирина Гогоришвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, академический доктор экономики Формирование преимушеств инновационного развития экономики Грузии в условиях глобального кризиса В статье рассмотрены и охарактеризованы основные тенденции развития мировой экономики на фазе депрессии пятого технологического и на начальной стадии шестого цикла. Основным свойством пятого технологического цикла является стержневая магистральная инновация – компьютерные технологии. В период шестого технологического цикла будут доминировать сферы многостороннего пользования компьютеров и нанобиотехнологий, но а основной экономической характерной чертой явится глобализация процесса возрастающего эффекта масштаба производства. Экономическая интеграция, протекающая между развитыми странами, будет подчиняться процессам кооперации и специализации в производстве интелектуального продукта, организаванного на основе возрастающего эффекта масштаба. Развивающиеся малые открытые экономики (в том числе и экономика Грузии) для внешней торговли будут производить те продукты и услуги, где не формируется возрастающий эффект масштаба. В экономике Грузии на основе диференциации логистических процессов, мы будем иметь дело с движением узко специализованных финансовых и товарных потоков. Историческая миссия страны состоит в созданияи и распространении исскуственных и духовных ценностей. Поэтому именно в этом направлении должна активизироваться деятельность. Особенно должны усилиться роль и функции грузинской интеллигенции, что и станет гарантом успеха в долгосрочной перспективе.

Мераб Хмаладзе Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, доктор экономических наук Трудовая миграция населения Грузии С 1992 года до сегодняшнего дня, население грузии сократилось на 1082 человек в результате миграции и сокращения рождаемости. Существующие исследования показывают, что 56.7% из семей трудовых мигрантов состояла из 6 и более членов. Отсюда 40% состовляли люди за 40 лет, из трудовых мигрантов 60% мужского пола и 40% - женского. По нашим исследованиям 74.7% мужчин и 83.3% женщин из трудовых мигрантов имели высшее и среднее специальное образование. Исследования показали, что 7.4% студентов хотят уехать из страны навсегда, а 58.5% - временно. 207


Эффективность миграции измеряется по удельному весу тех семей, которые решили свои проблемы суммой присылаемой трудовыми мигрантами. По нашим исследованиям эффективность трудовой миграции состовляет 82% и это означает, что трудовая миграция в Грузии неэффективна для 18% семей.

Нино Папачашвили Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассоцированный профессор, доктор экономических наук Глобализация и неопротекционизм Статья посвящена активизации протекционистских мероприятий в условиях современного финансово-экономического кризиса. Отмечено, что в классических теориях международной торговли потверждаются преимушества неограниченных торговых отношений, а её последователи предлагают проводить соответствующую политику. Политика свободной торговли широко декларирована в постановлениях WTO и в концепциях политики внешней торговли развитых стран. В предыдущем периоде в рамках GATT, а позднее WTO, на базе переговоров сократились нетарифные барьеры, как основная форма ограничения международной торговли. Но мировая реальность показывает, что абсолютно свабодная торговля на сегодняшний день является больше исключением, чем правилом. Для стран с развивающейся и переходной экономикой существуют большие препятствия для выхода на внешние рынки. Даже в торговле между развитыми странами существует «недекларированные» ограничения. Фактически, в мировом масштабе мы часто сталкиваемся с примерами скрытой внешнеторговой протекционистской политикой. Очень многие страны протекционистскую политику считают способом спасения национальных экономик в условиях современного финансого-экономического кризиса, что создает почти нерегулируемую ситуацию в мировых торговых отношениях и вызывают большое возмущение в управленческих сферах WTO и других международных организациях. Фактически, мировые торговые отношения развиваются в контексте неопротекционизма. В последние два года урегулированию этого события была посвящена не одна встреча глобального масштаба. Грузия, чей экспорт недиверсифицирован, а сальдо внешней торговли всегда отрицательно (с 90-их годов прошлого века), выбрала фритредерскую ориентацию внешней торговли. Автор полагает, что нужно проводить определенные виды протекционистских мероприятий. Под этим не подразумевается (в традиционном понятии) прямое ограничение импорта или прямое стимулирование экспортных отраслей. Для повышения эффективности выхода на внешние рынки, вместе другими факторами, наиболее важно познакомиться с современными протекционистскими мероприятиями, которые используют даже развитые страны для защиты своих экономик. Наши предприниматели все еще стоят перед проблемой неинформированности. С этой точки зрения будет полезно использование новейших международных информационных систем, которые предлагают новейшую аналитическую информацию насчет проводимой экономической политики разных стран и ожидаемого эффекта.

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Лела Джамагидзе Грузия. Государственный университет им. Ив. Джавахишвили. Ассистент- профессор, доктор экономических наук Прямые иностранные инвестиции и международная экономическая интеграция В статье представлены аспекты влияния региональных интеграционных групп на инвестиционные потоки. Отмечено, что на прямые иностранные инвестиции интеграция воздействует по двум направлениям: возможность достижения эффекта масштаба на растущем рынке и легко заменяемое местонахождение компаний с целью поисков относительных преимушеств. В статье проанализированы принципы инвестиционного регулирования разных интеграционных групп и рассмотрена значимость участия Грузии в региональной интеграции с точки зрения притока инвестиции.

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s a r C e v i nugzar babuaZe, SoTa veSapiZe ilia da globalizmi (rusul enaze) ...........................................................................................................7 evgeni baraTaSvili, revaz gvelesiani kadrebis momzadebisa da dasaqmebis politika mcire da saSualo biznesSi.....................................................................................................................................11 ineza gagniZe ganaTleba da mecniereba saqarTveloSi msoflio da globaluri konkurentunarianobis maCveneblebis aspeqtiT ...............................................................................15 irina gogoriSvili saqarTvelos ekonomikis inovaciuri ganviTarebis upiratesobaTa formireba globaluri krizisis pirobebSi...........................................20 zurab vaSakiZe, merab miqelaSvili saxelmwifos sagadasaxado politikis zogierTi Teoriuli da praqtikuli aspeqtis Sesaxeb .................................................................................................................................25 daviT vekua, nino faresaSvili samuSao Zalis aqtivobis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi da misi gaumjobesebis perspeqtivebi............................................................................................................29 nato kakaSvili sadazRvevo kompaniis finansuri mdgradoba da gadaxdisunarianoba ................................................................................................................................................35 jangir kaxarovi regionuli TanamSromloba centralur aziaSi: uzbekeTis Tvalsazrisi (inglisur enaze)................................................................................................39 nedeJda kvataSiZe sawarmoTa gaerTianeba da finansuri angariSgeba ......................................................................47 paata koRuaSvili sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebaSi SefardebiTi upiratesobis principis moqmedebisaTvis .....................................................................................................................................50

zurab laliaSvili saqarTvelodan kvalificiuri SromiTi resursebis migraciis marTva (inglisur enaze)..................................................................................................................56 eka lekaSvili sainformacio da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebis Tanamedrove midgomebi umaRles saganamanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi (estoneTis magaliTze) .................................................................................................................................................61

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maia margvelaSvili turizmis swavleba globalizebul msoflioSi ............................................................................65 iaSa mesxia biznesis kreatiuloba rogorc globalizaciis Tanamedrove gamowveva .......................................................................................................................................................................................73 babulia mRebriSvili globaluri marketingis ganviTarebis sakanonmdeblo baza............................................80 iza naTelauri saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobis struqturuli da raodenobrivi optimizaciis kriteriumebis Sesaxeb: postkomunisturi periodi............................83 ia nacvliSvili mewarmeobisadmi damokidebuleba saqarTveloSi (empiriuli kvlevis Sedegebi Tbilisis magaliTze)............................................................................................................................87 anastasia nesterova SromiTi resursebis migracia postsabWoTa sivrceSi (rusul enaze)....................96 nino papaCaSvili globalizacia da neoproteqcionizmi.....................................................................................................98 oqsana piatkovska globalizacia da saerTaSoriso SromiTi migracia: migrantTa gzavnilebis makroekonomikuri efeqti (inglisur enaze).....................................................104 galina semiva ukrainis navTobgadammuSavebeli dargis sawarmoTa saqmianobis ganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTuleba globalizaciis pirobebSi (rusul enaze)..............................................................................................................................................107 eka sefaSvili saqarTvelos ekonomikuri integracia evropul sivrceSi: gamowvevebi da perspeqtivebi (inglisur enaze) ................................................................................109 daviT sixaruliZe universitetis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia globalizaciis pirobebSi .......................................................................................................................................114 larisa yorRanaSvili inovaciuri saqmianobis marTvis problemebi globalur ekonomikaSi................................................................................................................................................120 SoTa SaburiSvili mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis sagareo ekonomikuri saqmianobis ucxouri gamocdileba....................................................................................................................................................125

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Temur Sengelia globalizacia da msoflios ekonomikuri wesrigi...................................................................129 natalia SCerbina elene kovSari pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis politika belorusSi (inglisur enaze)......................................................................................................133 sitora Sokamolova li k. eu globaluri da saSiano dinamizmis urTierTgadaxlarTva: rogor gavataroT dinamikuri ganviTarebis politika tajikeTSi (inglisur enaze) ......................................................................................................137 eka Coxeli globalur kompaniebSi adamianuri resursebis marTvis sakiTxebi..........................141 natalia Cerkasi ukrainis arasandeleulo eqsportis makroekonomikuri stimulireba (inglisur enaze)...............................................................................................................................144 manana xarxeli globalizacia da saqarTvelos inovaciuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi......................................................................................................................................147 merab xmalaZe saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi migracia.................................................................................152 lela jamagiZe pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia .............................................................................................................................................156 nino abralava komerciuli bankebis saqmianobis Taviseburebebi sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi.................................................................................................................161 reziumeebi ..................................................................................................................................................................................166 Summaries ...............................................................................................................................................184 Резюме .....................................................................................................................................................196

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 1, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

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გლობალიზაცია და საქართველოს ეკონომიკის განვითარების პერსპექტივები  

Globalization, Conference, 2010

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