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The family of Marie Cummins Curtin, with assistance from Wolfe Associates Inc., is happy to have provided the financial support for publication of this history of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Marie’s father, John T. Cummins, was a 1912 graduate of Ohio State, earning a degree as a pharmaceutical chemist. He owned and operated the State Drug & Supply Shoppe at 1660 Neil Ave. The oldest of eleven children, Marie earned her BS in pharmacy from Ohio State in 1943. Later that year, Marie earned the highest score on the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy examination for registered pharmacists. Two of Marie’s sisters earned their pharmacy degrees from Ohio State: Margie Ann Cummins, BS, 1946, and Jackie Cummins Gueth, BS, 1949. Our family is proud to assist The Ohio State University in chronicling the rich legacy and prestige of the College of Pharmacy.

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


Acknowledgements

Author: Mark Allen Creative direction and design: Brian Deep Art & Design LLC Project direction: Laura Wise-Blau Archival photo research: Michele Drobik, Ohio State Library Services Photography: The Ohio State University Archives: pages 4, 6, 9, 14, 17, 22, 27, 29, 31–34, 36–38, 42, 47, 50, 55, 56, 59, 61 (Jack Beal), 62, 65, 66, 69, 70, 78, 81–83, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 120–127, 129–135; Colin McGuire, pages 10, 74, 78, 104, 107, 108, 144; Autumn Theodore, pages 73, 85; The Lantern archives: pages 44, 102; A.J. Zanyk, page 19; Brian Deep: pages 24, 86, 111, 136, 137; Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-123257, page 41; WW2 US Medical Research Centre, page 48; Ohio History Connection, page 100

A historian does not write history but draws on what others have recorded and then does his or her best to present something that is factual, useful and interesting. This book is a partial record of what happened since the late nineteenth century in the halls of pharmacy at The Ohio State University. There is always more to the story, and much is regretfully omitted. Published resources go beyond the overview that this book offers. Excellent archival materials in The Ohio State University collections, much of which is online, allow further exploration of primary sources. The College of Pharmacy website offers opportunities to learn more. No one has done more to capture the history of the College of Pharmacy than emeritus professor Robert Buerki. Buerki has written extensively on the college’s history and lived fifty years of it. His research, advice and encouragement form the heart of this book. The chapter on the poisonings is taken from an unpublished paper Buerki authored, and I am indebted to him for sharing this and many other articles. Emeritus professor Popat Patil has also written extensively about research in pharmaceutical science and has given freely of his writing and his time since the beginning of this project. I am greatly indebted to those who reviewed the manuscript and offered helpful notes, including Buerki and Patil, Marialice Bennett, Robert Brueggemeier, Cynthia Carnes, Thomas Dauber, Kenneth Hale, Henry Mann, Jerry Siegel and Robert Weber. This history would not exist without the guidance of Laura Wise-Blau and the quiet encouragement of Michael Curtin, former editor and associate publisher of the Columbus Dispatch and a member of the Ohio House of Representatives. —Mark Allen

© 2017 The Ohio State University History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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Contents Message from the Dean.................................................................................................................................................................. 5

VIII: A Clinical Focus......................................................................................................................................................................63

I: The Choice for Rigor........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

The Latiolais Legacy........................................................................................................................................................................63 Pressures from PharmD.............................................................................................................................................................68 Residencies in the Community....................................................................................................................................... 71 Medication Therapy Management......................................................................................................................... 75 Bring Me the Message to Garcia............................................................................................................................... 76

II: Among the Best in the Nation............................................................................................................................. 11 Health for Patients................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Exciting Future.............................................................................................................................................................................................13 Nine Degrees, Four Programs........................................................................................................................................ 15 National Leaders................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 National Academy of Medicine..................................................................................................................................... 21 Endowed Chairs and Professorships.................................................................................................................. 21

IX: Bold, Independent Advances............................................................................................................................79 A Tradition of Leading the Way.................................................................................................................................... 79 “A Torturous Forty-Year Process”............................................................................................................................ 80 Beginnings of Clinical Pharmacy...............................................................................................................................83 Changing Face of Students................................................................................................................................................ 87 Doctorates for Pharmacists................................................................................................................................................. 91

III: Beginnings................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Abstract Lines.............................................................................................................................................................................................23 George Kauffman, Part-Time Dean.......................................................................................................................25 “Three of the Best Looking Men in College”.......................................................................................28 Beginning with a Provisional Short Course..............................................................................................31 Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy............................................................................................................................ 33

X: Students and Student Organizations..................................................................................................93 Many Chapters...........................................................................................................................................................................................93 A Formal Alumni Group..............................................................................................................................................................95 A Legacy of Inclusive Education................................................................................................................................98 Students Providing Drug Education................................................................................................................. 103

IV: Many Homes.........................................................................................................................................................................................35 V: Transition and Growth.......................................................................................................................................................39

XI: Looking Ahead............................................................................................................................................................................ 105

Acting Dean.......................................................................................................... 39 Leap in Enrollment............................................................................................... 40

Awards and Recognition......................................................................................................................................................112 Alumni Society Lifetime Achievement Award................................................................................... 113 College of Pharmacy Distinguished Alumni Award................................................................ 114 Josephine Sitterle Failer Alumni Award......................................................................................................116 The Latiolais Award.......................................................................................................................................................................... 117

VI: The Poisonings................................................................................................................................................................................ 45 VII: A Research Institution................................................................................................................................................ 49 Cancer.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 Comprehensive Cancer Center.................................................................................................................................. 50 Beginnings of Graduate Research.........................................................................................................................54 Annals of Pharmacotherapy..............................................................................................................................................59 28,000 Citations.................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 Journal of Natural Products.................................................................................................................................................61

History Continuum..........................................................................................................................................................................119 Citations................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 138 Index.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 142  

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6


Message from the Dean As we publish this history celebrating the first 130 years of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, we find ourselves in an enviable position. We are ranked sixth among the 134 U.S. pharmacy schools and we are one of the most comprehensive programs in the world. We have implemented new curricula in our Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences and our professional Doctor of Pharmacy program that use the latest pedagogy to assure our graduates are as strong as possible. Our post-graduate training programs include master’s and PhD degrees, residencies and fellowships. Our continuing professional development offerings are delivering new opportunities to our alumni and friends as well as pushing the boundaries of what is possible to effectively teach online and at a distance. Our partnerships with the Wexner Medical Center, the The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, our health science colleagues, and our many practice partners have never been stronger. We have increased our faculty size so we can compete at the highest levels in research while providing more individual and small group education opportunities to our students. We have developed impactful outreach initiatives both at home and abroad. We have invested in relationships in Europe, Taiwan, China, South Africa, and Central and South America. We collaborate with the university’s College of Social Work, the Office of Student Life, the Collegiate Recovery Community, and with Cardinal Health and the Hilton Foundation in efforts to combat drug and alcohol addiction. We’ve reached out to our alumni, friends and partners to help us raise record amounts for investment in student scholarships, faculty research

programs and updated facilities. The Buckeye Nation is a generous group with high ideals and a great spirit that we have been so fortunate to rely on over the decades. This book gives a brief glimpse of the many people who have worked and studied at our College of Pharmacy. We know this is just a snapshot and that we could not include many important moments in the great history of the college. We plan to develop a link on the College of Pharmacy webpage for additional stories and will include an electronic version of this book online. We do hope you will consider sharing your pictures and stories to add to our history. I feel very fortunate to have the opportunity to serve The Ohio State University as the eighth dean of the College of Pharmacy. It is a tremendous honor to work with our outstanding faculty, students and staff on a daily basis. Many of our alumni and supporters have reached out to me and shared their stories about being a Buckeye and the sense of pride as well as gratitude and responsibility that goes with representing Ohio State. In the years ahead, I am committed that we will continue to live up to the tradition of excellence that is associated with our College of Pharmacy. Carmen Ohio says it best: Summer’s heat or winter’s cold The seasons pass the years will roll Time and change will surely show How firm thy friendship ... OHIO! Best wishes to all, Henry J. Mann, PharmD, FASHP, FCCP, FCCM Dean and Professor

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


{8}


I: The Choice for Rigor Pharmacy lab circa 1904

In the fall of 1915, thirty years after its first classes with ten young students, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy was a mature institution. Ohioans wishing to study pharmacy had several pharmacy college options in the state, but Ohio State’s program was already known as the best choice for those who sought a rigorous education. George B. Kauffman, who was the pharmacy program’s first lecturer, now held the title of dean. But he was not on campus that fall. He was 60 years old and at home ill. Kauffman had spent half of his life teaching pharmacy at Ohio State. He was a recognized leader in three communities: at the university as one of a handful of deans, in the city of Columbus as a business leader, and among pharmacists throughout the Midwest and nationally, having served as president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties in 1904–51 . He built Ohio State’s program while simultaneously building his wholesale pharmacy company. He also helped build Ohio State’s first football stadium—the 4,200-seat Ohio Field2 —as chairman of The Ohio State University Athletic Board. The fall 1915 Course Offering Bulletin of the College of Pharmacy lists Kauffman as dean, although he had already requested a leave of absence for health reasons.2 Dr. Clair A. Dye, a trained pharmacist and an Ohio State graduate, is listed as secretary. Dye soon would be named acting dean,

appointed by the university’s board in October 1915 with an extra $250 stipend for his added duties.4 Kauffman was a businessman with a science degree; Dye was a scientist who never left academia. Dye would lead the college another twenty-four years, through the college’s fiftieth anniversary and to the eve of World War II and the dawn of an age of remarkable pharmaceutical research and discovery. In 1915, pharmacy education was no longer an apprentice-based system as it had been the previous century. A prospective pharmacist could mix academic and practical experience to earn Ohio State Board of Pharmacy accreditation. The College of Pharmacy’s approach was to provide a scientific foundation and practical instruction on campus. The 1915 bulletin gives a bit of this philosophy: The College has recognized from the first the necessity of a technical training for the pharmacist and has realized at the same time the importance of developing the practical side of the subject. With this idea in mind the endeavor has been to supply both forms of training, and to this end the laboratory method of instruction has been followed whenever possible. That this method of instruction has been successful is evidenced by the various fields of employment which our graduates have entered.5

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


I: The Choice for Rigor

Chemistry classroom circa 1911

For admission to the College of Pharmacy in 1915, prospective students had to be at least 16 years old, and the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy required two years of high school education before admission to a pharmacy program (a requirement that was not yet the national standard). Women and minorities had been a part of the college since the beginning, and the 1915 bulletin points out that “the College is open on equal terms to both sexes.” The prospective students of 1915 had a choice of programs at Ohio State, the two-year short course and the four-year long course leading to a bachelor of science degree. Most students opted for the two-year course, after which they could take the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy licensing exam. First-semester students in the short course would jump into a focused pharmacy curriculum, including classes in elementary chemistry, pharmaceutical Latin, pharmacy theory and practice, and pharmacognosy. The second semester brought more chemistry, pharmacy, and Latin, along with elementary botany. The second year included classes in materia medica, physiology, toxicology, bacteriology, and pharmacy reagents.7 Graduates of the short program received the Certificate of Pharmaceutical Chemist. At 18 years of age, a student could apply for a license as an assistant pharmacist in Ohio. A student with a year of practical experience could apply for the license after one year of college education. Students who were 21, had graduated from a school of pharmacy, and had two years’ experience working in a drugstore could take the examination for certification as a pharmacist.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

A few students opted to pursue a bachelor’s degree in Pharmacy, with the additional years counting toward the state’s practical experience requirement. For the four-year students, the coursework included more general education, with first-year requirements including German, mathematics, and English. The four-year students would go on to take classes in drawing, geology, and mineralogy, along with additional requirements in pharmacy and chemistry. Despite its popularity, or perhaps because of it, the two-year course would be eliminated in the 1920s. The Ohio State College of Pharmacy became the only school in the nation to require a four-year bachelor’s degree of its pharmacy students.9 That has been the tradition with pharmacy studies at Ohio State: a willingness to lead the nation in providing more rigorous training to those who compound and dispense prescription drugs. The story of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy is one of innovation and leadership in teaching and learning while responding to the changing focus of pharmacy and pharmacists. It’s a story of an early and continuing focus on science, business and clinical care; of appreciation for diversity; of more buildings (nine) than deans (eight); and of impressive research in the development of drugs and the delivery of drugs. It’s at times a story of growth through tragedy and failure. It’s the story of the legacy left by its founders, faculty, deans, staff and students, starting with the one woman and nine men who, in 1885, made up the first class in the nondegree pharmacy program at the new The Ohio State University.

10


II: Among the Best in the Nation Researcher Annecie Benatrehina in 2015

Health for Patients pharmacist and patient. Pharmacists now provide flu shots; soon they may prescribe medications. Marialice Bennett, who started the community residency programs at The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy in 1995, sees a return to community-based healthcare. “In the old days, the clinical pharmacist was an independent shop owner, many times in areas where there weren’t physicians, so they were like the doctor of the Marialice Bennett city,” Bennett said in an interview. “Everybody went to the pharmacist first and was triaged.”11 About half the pharmacies in the United States are now part of a chain (the biggest providers being Walgreens, CVS, Walmart, Rite Aid and Kroger).12 Bennett said customers in the past were more likely to interact with the pharmacist-owner but had a less-personal relationship with chain-store pharmacists, for whom volume and “widget counting” became an emphasis. But Bennett and others have been actively working to shift the focus back to patient care. The community pharmacy, she said, sits in a rich environment to provide direct patient care beyond simply filling prescriptions and answering questions about medications.13

Robert Weber, a three-time graduate of the College of Pharmacy, is the administrator for Pharmacy Services at the Wexner Medical Center and assistant dean for Medical Center Affairs in the College of Pharmacy. He oversees a pharmacy that couldn’t have existed 130 years ago but that has roots in the classroom of George Kauffman. The focus in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was on chemistry and compounding. Substances were ground with mortar and pestle and combined into pill or some other form. As a student, Weber was enthralled with the idea of making ointments, emulsions, capsules and suppositories. But as Ohio State’s chief hospital pharmacist, his focus today is on an individual patient’s response to pharmaceutical treatment. “The college started off training graduates to be compounding pharmacists, to understand the basics of chemistry and the sciences, to be able to compound and create medications for patients,” Weber said in an interview. “That training has transformed itself from compounds and creating medications for patients to technology and creating health for our patients.”10 For the community pharmacist, the profession is in many ways returning to its roots, not with compounding necessarily, but with increased consultation between Robert Weber 13

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


II: Among the Best in the Nation

Robert Brueggemeier

Weber credits two College of Pharmacy deans—Robert Brueggemeier and Henry Mann—with helping to usher in these new roles for pharmacists. Brueggemeier (2003—13) continued the shift in emphasis from compounding to the current state of pharmacy research and practice: more to patient-based care and “more to the genetics and genomics than medicinal chemistry,” Weber said. “We are promoting and growing the health of our patients through the pharmacist role,” Weber said. “I see that transformation happening every year I’m here; I see us getting closer and closer to becoming the providers that we need to be for patients, from compounding all the way to health, helping patients to make the best use of their medicines and live the best lives they can live.”14 Mann took over as dean of the College of Pharmacy in 2013. He is a graduate of the University of Kentucky and served in Minnesota and Toronto before arriving at Ohio State. His research focus has been on the treatment of critically ill patients.15 “Dean Mann is focusing on the pharmacist as the provider,” Weber said, describing Mann as “the quintessential clinical pharmacist” who is “helping students become providers and take an active role in patients’ care.” Weber said: “Each dean supports and embodies the profession in a way that’s very palpable and real. That’s why the dean is so important, because the dean has to represent where the profession’s going.”16

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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II: Among the Best in the Nation

Henry Mann

Exciting Future Brueggemeier, dean from 2003 to 2013, has seen a shift in the focus of pharmacy research over the three decades he has been at Ohio State, and he sees an exciting future. “Most of the training of our graduate students in medicinal chemistry was very much sort of an organic chemistry kind of focus, with a little bit of biochemistry,” he said of the 1970s. “When I came, I brought more of a biochemistry emphasis into our graduate program.” Brueggemeier, in an interview, said pharmacy graduate education has evolved from understanding biochemistry and molecular biology to understanding the biology that leads to identifying targets and then using chemistry to develop molecules to hit those targets.18 In cancer, he said, “we went from almost a black box to understanding what goes on inside that cancer cell, and how to now begin to target it. In the last decade, we see that targeted therapy has really come to fruition. New drugs are coming out in the market that are targeting particular proteins and oncogenes in the development of cancer. And a lot of those exciting theories are now in clinical trials or have come on the market.” “I think we’ll see more of that in the future as we unravel more and more of the genetics and epigenetics and targets in cancer,” Brueggemeier said. “Despite the successes of targeted drugs in oncology, significant challenges remain due to these agents’ susceptibility to de novo or acquired resistance, difficulties in target validation, and a poorly understood contribution of intra- and interindividual pharmacokinetic variability to

15

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


II: Among the Best in the Nation

Arthur E. Schwarting

treatment outcome. It is anticipated that incorporation of contemporary pharmaceutic and pharmacologic concepts in the pediatric and adult use of targeted drugs will ultimately result in the discovery of new, cutting edge treatment modalities for multiple malignant diseases,” said Sharyn D. Baker, Gertrude Parker Heer Chair of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Cynthia Carnes, senior associate dean for research and graduate education, said much work needs to be Cynthia Carnes done in cancer research. “I look at cancer as a large number of different diseases. The future will be in precision therapies, finding the right drug for the right patient. I think part of that is a better understanding of the biology and then developing new drugs to target the specific biology as we start to understand them. We have people who do everything from computational modeling to computer aided drug design to develop new therapies, making new drugs, and testing them. We have people working with samples derived from human patients. It allows us to test new therapies in new ways. Precision medicine is where we are headed.”19 Emeritus Professor Popat Patil pointed out a downside to the national research emphasis on cancer and increasing specialization among research labs. Patil said other lines of inquiry for students suffer. And so does creativity. Specialization means work areas are very defined for graduate students, “but then their peripheral vision is gone,” Patil said.20

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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II: Among the Best in the Nation

Carnes said increasing collaboration and communication skills among graduate students is a focus. “You don’t want to be so specialized that you cannot converse and communicate effectively with your colleagues,” she said. “Science is becoming increasingly team-based. It’s a team sport and you’ve got to be able to communicate with your team.” Tighter funding has a positive effect on collaboration, Carnes said. “It’s really important to be able to converse with a community of scientists working on whatever your scientific interest is or problem you’re trying to address. I think being able to talk to people in all these different disciplines is a root cause to be successful. You must be able to communicate,” she said. “One thing that makes Ohio State well-positioned for future success is the collaborative nature of the campus,” Carnes said. But cancer research is not the entire focus for graduate students, with active research projects in cardiovascular diseases, neurosciences and infectious disease. “Our research programs are supported by national funding agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health, and we have faculty funded from several of the NIH Institutes—not just the National Cancer Institute,” Brueggemeier said.21 Carnes agrees, pointing to research at the college in treating infectious disease and heart and lung maladies. Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy researchers are among

the eighty faculty members in the Center for Microbial Interface Biology studying bacterial infections, anti-HIV therapies, tropical diseases and parasitic diseases— all the ways microbes interface with their biological hosts. Another area of strength, she said, is in the Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute—another campuswide institute that includes faculty from the College of Pharmacy. Natural products is a historical area of strength for Douglas Kinghorn the College of Pharmacy. The first PhD at Ohio State was awarded to Arthur E. Schwarting in pharmacognosy—the study of medicine from plants and other natural sources—in 1943. Today, Douglas Kinghorn oversees a ten-year project that seeks and evaluates naturally occurring antitumor agents. The project has received $14 million from the National Cancer Institute, making it one of the biggest federal grant projects in College of Pharmacy history.22 “The interaction of science, practice and education at Ohio State is among the best in the world,” Dean Mann said. “It’s just a great place for interacting. I think what makes us great is that in all of our mission areas—research, teaching, practice, and outreach and engagement—we take each area seriously, and we devote resources to each mission. We also care about the outcomes achieved from those resources. We like to be good stewards of the resources that we have and be sure that we’re getting a return on the investment that we make into these areas, and not every school thinks that way.”23

Popat Patil 17

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


II: Among the Best in the Nation

Students being instructed about plants as a tool of pharmacy circa 1949

Nine Degrees, Four Programs

new drug targets. Focus areas include cardiovascular, cancer, neural and pulmonary pharmacology. The division of Pharmacy Practice and Science, the largest of the four divisions by number of faculty, deals with patient care—a practice-based approach to prevention and treatment of illness, including in some cases selecting and delivering treatments in hospitals, ambulatory care clinics, medical homes and community pharmacies. It is concerned with dosage regimens, medication management and safety, and health outcomes. That division includes the residency programs—PGY1, PGY2 and the MS in Health-System Pharmacy Administration. PGY1, for Post Graduate Year 1, has pharmacists working at the Wexner Medical Center, in various health clinics, or at one of three community pharmacies. The PGY2 program builds on the first year with focused training in a specific practice area and many options for residency placement. One option includes a PGY1 in practice and a PGY2 in administration while earning a master of science degree in HealthSystem Pharmacy Administration focused on either a hospital or community pharmacy setting. Students in Pharmacy Care and Practice can apply for a fellowship program, including one in pediatric pharmacotherapy developed by Milap Nahata in 1983. This was the first such program in the country focused on improving the outcomes of drug therapies in the vulnerable population of infants and children suffering from acute and chronic conditions.25 College-wide, more than three dozen staff members support more than seventy faculty members—half of them tenure-track, the rest clinical- or research-track or lecturers and instructors. That number is increasing to meet demand. Mann hopes to hire eight faculty members in conjunction with the OSUCCC – James, five more in data analytics, and three in infectious disease.26

In 2015–2016, the College of Pharmacy offered a bachelor of science in Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), three master’s degree programs and four PhD options. The combined student enrollment was about 1,000, and the faculty numbered about seventy. The College of Pharmacy faculty is organized in four academic divisions: Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacy Practice and Science.24 Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy deals with the design and discovery of drugs, both synthetic and natural products, and their uses in treatments. This includes molecular biology and computer-aided molecular design. Many faculty members participate in The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James), including the operation of the Radiochemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory of the OSUCCC – James. The division offers four tracks to graduate students: synthetic medicinal chemistry, natural product chemistry and pharmacognosy, computational medicinal chemistry, and biochemical. The division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry is concerned with drug delivery and targeting and drug action once it is delivered, including over time and among different patients. Recent graduates of the division populate the pharmaceutical industry, and a sizable number work for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or elsewhere in government. The Pharmacology division also deals with the interaction of chemistry and biology, studying diseases and treatments, including discovering

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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II: Among the Best in the Nation

PharmD graduates processional

When Mann came on board, he made a pitch for what the College of Pharmacy needed to look like to be among the top pharmacy schools in the nation in both research and patient care. That pitch coincided with The Ohio State University Discovery Themes Initiative, which used funding from the sale of parking facilities and other money to attract faculty in particular areas to spur “the transformational breakthroughs needed to solve today’s and tomorrow’s grand challenges.”27 Faculty hiring for the $400 million plan, launched in 2012, is focused on health and wellness, energy and environment, and food and food security.28 “We want to be able to engage with other groups on campus where we can add benefit to the research programs as well as have strong graduate programs and research programs of our own,” Mann said. “Also, when I came I did an analysis of the numbers of faculty we had compared to other top schools, and we were not competitive in terms of numbers, so the ability to compete at a high level is often dependent upon not just having a great person, but having several great people who make a cluster around a research area, and we did not have enough of those people.”29 The faculty expansion adds some stress in terms of space, Mann said. In 2016, the College of Pharmacy occupies two buildings: Parks Hall and the attached Riffe Building off Canon Drive near the Olentangy River. The buildings are on the northwest corner of the academic medical center, one of biggest comprehensive medical campuses in the world. “Ohio State has always been a leader in pharmacy,” Mann said. “We were slow in picking up the clinical positions, but we’ve now accelerated. We’ve always been strong in the pharmaceutical sciences. We will now be stronger than we’ve ever been. If you think about who is in the top ten schools of pharmacy out of 134 in the nation, we’re always there. I believe that we’re in the top five schools, and I would like to leave us in a position of

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

people arguing as to whether we’re the first in the nation.” The size and quality of the faculty help determine how people perceive The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Mann said. Perception of Ohio State’s strength also comes from “how productive those faculty are, the kinds of publications that you do and the quality of those publications, the amount of research grants that you bring in, the initiative of programs in pharmacy practice that make a difference in people’s lives,” he said. Also important is the quality of graduates, an area where Mann says Ohio State has excelled at every level of education. “The quality of our bachelor of science and pharmaceutical sciences students has been extraordinary, and now that we’ve put renewed emphasis on that area, I expect it will become even greater.” “The professional program is very strong. We are intent on being able to answer the question for Ohio State: Why is it you want to come here and get your degree from us? What is it that makes us best for you? And also why does an employer want to hire our graduates over others? We think that many of those aspects relate to the robustness of our program and the wide variety of activities and specializations you can have at Ohio State that you wouldn’t get somewhere else.” Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy is ranked among the best in the world based on the strength of its research, education and practice programs. Since its inception, it has lead and produced leaders for industry, academe and practice. Mann said the College of Pharmacy ends its 130th anniversary year in a state of renewal and growth, with new curricula at all levels and as strong a faculty, staff and student group as it has ever enjoyed. The mission of the college and the aspirations of its people are clearly articulated in a strategic plan that requires excellence in performance to be achieved, Mann said.

20


National Leaders The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy has played a part on the national stage nearly since its inception, with many of its deans, faculty members and graduates helping to shape pharmacy-related policy and practice. Below is a partial list of national leaders affiliated with the College of Pharmacy. Roger W. Anderson president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 1987–88 John A. Armitstead president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 2015–16 Marialice Bennett president of the American Pharmacists Association (formerly American Pharmaceutical Association), 2011–12 Jack Beal president of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, 1962–63 Robert Buerki president of Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society, 1976–78; president of the American Association of the History of Pharmacy, 1983–85 John M. Cassady president of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, 1993–94

Bernard V. Christensen president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1949–50 Claire A. Dye president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1921–22; president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1941-42 Fred Eckel president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 1975–76 Harold Godwin president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists; president of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education; president of the American Pharmacists Association Mick L. Hunt Jr. president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 2000–01 George B. Kauffman president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties (American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy), 1904–5 A. Douglas Kinghorn president of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, 1990–91 Clifton Latiolais president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 1960–61; president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1972–73;

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

22

president of the American Managed Care Pharmacy Association, 1989–90 and 1992–93 Chauncey Leake president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1960 Ramona McCarthy Hawkins president of the National Pharmaceutical Association Jay M. Mirtallo president of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2011–12 Milap Nahata president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 2001–02 Lloyd Parks president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1961–62; president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1971–72 Philip Schneider president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 1988–89 Arthur E. Schwarting president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1971–72 Sara White president of the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, 1996–97 Harold H. Wolf president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1977–78


National Academy of Medicine Milap Nahata was named in 2008 to the Institute of Medicine, chartered by Congress in 1970 as one of the National Academies, independent honorary research and policy advisory organizations. The Institute of Medicine was reorganized in 2015 as the National Academy of Medicine. It has seven other members at Ohio State. Nahata was one of a dozen pharmacists elected to the organization since 1970. He described the National Academy of Medicine as a group of experts who advise the nation and international community on health and health policy. Nahata, emeritus professor of pharmacy, pediatrics and internal medicine, has participated in committees on emergency care in the United States and the drug approval process for children. “This has been tremendous,” Nahata said. “We could contribute as clinical pharmacists to help form the best ways to manage our health—to improve health.” Nahata, director of the Institute of Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes, is the lead author of Pediatric Drug Formulations, a reference for dosage information of many drugs that might not be adequately described for use in children. He served as president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy in 2001 and 2002, and he is editor of the monthly journal Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Endowed Chairs and Professorships

a distinguished professor of pharmacognosy and natural products chemistry. The Beal Chair is held by Professor A. Douglas Kinghorn.

The College of Pharmacy has two endowed professorships and two endowed chairs along with two other endowed chairs on loan from other parts of Ohio State’s medical campus. Two of these honor past faculty members and another honors one of the College of Pharmacy’s earliest graduates.

The Sylvan G. Frank Chair Fund in Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems Virginia and Chih-Ming Chen established this chair to honor the role Dr. Sylvan Frank and the College of Pharmacy played in Chen’s career and life. Chen earned his PhD in Pharmacy in 1981 and created the $2.5 million fund in 2013. The first person to hold the position is Peixuan Guo, a nanobiotechnology expert recruited to the college in 2016 in collaboration with the College of Medicine.

Charles H. Kimberly Professorship in Pharmacy Charles H. Kimberly was the first bachelor’s degree recipient in the College of Pharmacy. He graduated in 1900 and donated money to the university in 1948 to fund professorships in chemistry and pharmacy. The chairs were established in 1974, once the gift could fund each at $100,000 a year. Merrell Dow Professorship in Pharmaceutical Administration Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Dow Chemical Co., established this professorship in 1983. It supports a faculty member in pharmaceutical administration for research and development programs addressing major economic issues of pharmaceutical delivery. The Jack L. Beal Chair in Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Friends and students raised $1.5 million to honor Jack Beal, a 1952 graduate and a longtime faculty member. It was established in 2001 and supports

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Lucius A. Wing Chair of Cancer Research and Therapy (College of Medicine) The Wing Chair was established in 1971 with a bequest by William H. Dickerson in honor of Dr. Lucius Wing. Cancer surgeon Arthur G. James was the first to hold it. It supports teaching and research in cancer. The Gertrude Parker Heer Chair in Cancer Research (James Cancer Hospital) Business owner Tom Parker donated millions to The Ohio State University and set up the Gertrude Parker Heer Chair in honor of his mother. The Heer Chair is held by Sharyn Baker, newly appointed as chair of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


III: Beginnings Abstract Lines Before the American Civil War, abstract lines separated those who prescribed drug treatments and those who made and dispensed them. The druggist might treat patients’ maladies, and the physician might whip up a pill, tonic or emulsion. Medical education did not specify different roles, and it wasn’t until the late nineteenth century that board examinations and state licensing requirements made pharmacy education a marketable prospect for schools. “In order to pass the board examination, you had to know something about pharmaceutical science, and this is one reason there was an explosion of schools in the 1880s,” said Robert Buerki, pharmacy historian and professor emeritus of Pharmacy Practice and Administration at Ohio State. The College of Pharmacy at The Ohio State University was created as part of this 1880s boom.30 Pharmacy education in Ohio and elsewhere certainly existed before the Civil War—the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries was founded in 1821 by local druggists (college being used in the sense of an association of professionals). The Philadelphia druggists’ impetus was fear of a plan to award pharmacy degrees put forward by the University of Pennsylvania. This early foray into university-based pharmacy education was soon forgotten once the druggists established their own college.31 The curriculum and requirements established by the renamed Philadelphia College of Pharmacy were a model for schools that would come after. But the first successful state university program did not arrive for another forty-six years, in Michigan in 1867. The University of Michigan established a two-year program, headed by a chemist, with an emphasis in basic science. Pharmacy students needed to

Chemistry classroom in 1888

know much more than simply how to compound medicine, they needed to understand the chemistry and biology behind the drugs. Significantly, Michigan’s program did not require a pharmacy apprenticeship. It would be sixteen years before another land-grant institution followed suit in offering a pharmacy program— Wisconsin in 1883. Licensing and cooperation with state boards boosted demand in many states, including Ohio. Quickly following Wisconsin were Purdue University in Robert Buerki 1884; the University of Kansas, the University of Iowa and The Ohio State University in 1885; and the University of Minnesota in 1892. 32 One nearly constant condition of the pharmacy field has been its state of flux. In 1885, pharmacists in Ohio were embarking on a radical change. The Ohio State Board of Pharmacy was established in 1884, charged with licensing all pharmacists in the state of Ohio. Three Ohio State chemistry students passed the pharmacy board’s inaugural examinations in May 1884. 33 Their success helped convince the university’s board of trustees that pharmacy study had a future at Ohio State. The focus of pharmacy training to this point had been apprenticeship. Pharmacy students may have had classroom experience, but they were expected to learn the trade in a drugstore. At Michigan, Ohio State and other schools, drugstore experience may have been considered helpful, but it was not required. Laboratory work on campus provided the practical experience.

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III: Beginnings

“They felt that what the pharmacists really needed was a good solid basis in science, the emphasis being on their ability to make drug products,” Buerki said of the approach offered by these pharmacy schools.34 This meant large tables with beakers and funnels, gas burners to heat chemicals, and mortars and pestles to grind ingredients. It also meant an Ohio State student could sit for the state pharmacy exam without ever having set foot in a drugstore. With licensing as an impetus and the universities of Michigan and Wisconsin as models, The Ohio State University Department of Pharmacy began in 1885. Its requirements and teaching methods have evolved in the past 130 years to meet practical needs. Those transitions have not always been easy. After a successful first year with ten students, the Department of Pharmacy increased its requirement from two years of study to three, leading the nation in rigor in its second year of existence. In 1896, a standard two-year short course returned with the option of continuing with a four-year bachelor’s degree program, a model pioneered by the University of Wisconsin three years earlier. In 1925, under Dean Dye, the short course was abandoned. Students had to take a four-year program. Buerki, in a brief history written for the college’s centennial, called this “a bold, independent advance that would not be required on the national level until 1932.”35 In 1948, Ohio State required a five-year program for a bachelor’s degree, a requirement that became the standard nationwide by 1960. In 2006, it became the first in the nation again, this time in requiring a bachelor’s degree for admission into the Doctor of Pharmacy program.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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III: Beginnings

George Kauffman

George Kauffman, Part-Time Dean The pharmacy department offered its first class in 1885, twelve years after the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College was founded and seven years after it changed its name to The Ohio State University. Ten pharmacy students were among 319 students at the school on the northwest corner of Columbus, Ohio. In 1887, three would graduate: Arthur Heath, George Weidner and Charles Krieger. Heath, Weidner, Krieger and their classmates had foundation classes in chemistry in a space shared by the chemistry department. As pharmacy students, they attended lectures by George Beecher Kauffman, a local wholesale druggist hired two weeks before the program opened its doors. Kauffman was 30 years old and had graduated with a bachelor of science from Ohio Wesleyan University eight years earlier. Kauffman was named the first dean of the Ohio State College of Pharmacy in 1895, when it became one of Ohio State’s original colleges. In his centennial history of the college, Buerki describes Kauffman as “a practical man of affairs, a solid and well-respected pharmacist” who “typified a generation when a capable man could be dean at the university in the mornings and president of Kauffman-Latimer Company in the afternoons.”36 Kauffman was born in 1855 in Lancaster, Ohio, where his father founded that city’s first drugstore. He was a distant cousin to the abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe through his mother, Henrietta Beecher Kauffman. Beecher Kauffman and Beecher Stowe were born six years apart in Litchfield, Connecticut, and Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published in book form two years before George Kauffman was born.37 His mother’s uncle represented

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


III: Beginnings

Chemistry Building lecture hall in 1888

Lancaster, Ohio, in the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1820s. George Kauffman was 11 when his father, also named George, died in 1866. He continued his education, graduating from Lancaster High School. He went to work as a clerk in a Zanesville, Ohio drugstore before attending Ohio Wesleyan University, a liberal arts college in Delaware, Ohio. He graduated in 1877 with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry.38 “His early experience as a pharmacist was in his father’s store and as an agent traveling through the country by horse and wagon, after the fashion of the times, for the Chappelear Drug Company of Zanesville,” reported the Lantern student newspaper in a 1915 profile of Kauffman.39 Kauffman moved to Columbus to enter into partnership with John Rarey at the City Hall Drug Store across from the Ohio Statehouse and next to Columbus City Hall at 25 State Street, now the site of the Ohio Theatre.40 Kauffman bought out Rarey and, in 1881, founded a wholesale drug company with two partners: his brother, Linus B. Kauffman, and George B. Lattimer. For forty years, George Kauffman served as president of Kauffman-Lattimer, which was incorporated in 1888.41 In 1894, the year before he was named dean, Kauffman was awarded an honorary Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Scio College in eastern Ohio.42 Scio later merged with the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. In the 1909 Centennial History of Columbus and Franklin County, journalist and historian William Alexander Taylor writes of Kauffman-Latimer:

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

The business has enjoyed a steady growth and is today one of the leading wholesale drug houses of the city. Its trade interests cover Ohio, West Virginia, western Virginia, eastern Kentucky, east Tennessee and eastern Indiana. The house is represented on the road by fourteen traveling salesmen in the sale of a complete line of drugs, druggists’ sundries and drug store supplies. The business was instituted along lines which awakened public confidence, and therefore secured a liberal patronage.43 Kauffman-Lattimer became the biggest drug distributor in Ohio, and for decades the Ohio State pharmacy program and Kauffman’s company enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship. Kauffman-Lattimer eventually became part of the predecessor to AmeriSource, which merged in 2001 with Bergen Brunswig Corporation to form AmerisourceBergen, one of the largest pharmaceutical distributors in the world.44 Robert E. Martini, a 1954 graduate of the Ohio State College of Pharmacy, became chairman of the board of the merged company. Taylor’s 1909 profile of Kauffman mentions that he was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Ohio Club, several fraternities and the Republican Party, although “he manifests only a citizen’s interest in politics.” Taylor calls Kauffman, “one of the prominent pharmacists of the state” who has been honored with the presidency of the Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association and the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. “Throughout his entire career Mr. Kauffman has been connected with the

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III: Beginnings


III: Beginnings

line of trade in which he embarked when he entered business life, and his continuance therein, without the diffusion of his energies over a broad and varied field, undoubtedly constitutes one of the strongest elements in his success,” Taylor concludes.45 The Bulletin of Pharmacy later described Kauffman as “keenly alert to the requirements of pharmacy and also the need of giving publicity to them.” It said Kauffman was instrumental in establishing The Midland Druggist, of which he became editor in 1912.46 “As a writer Mr. Kauffman was direct and forceful,” the Bulletin of Pharmacy said, with “his opinions on pharmaceutical affairs always expressing a clear conception of the needs of the hour.” The young Ohio State courses in chemistry and medicine formed an important part of the pharmacy department. The addition of Kauffman, who was paid $400 to lecture in pharmacy, was all that was necessary to launch pharmacy education for those ten original students.

Cherryholmes of Millersburg; and Henry West of Sylvania. Heath, Weidner and Krieger made up the first graduating class, in 1887: “three of the best looking men in college,” according to an unbylined article in the May 5, 1887, edition of the Lantern, then a monthly literary journal.49 Heath, who the article says was known as “Doc” and who served as president of the first class, went to work as an analytical chemist in Ashtabula, in northeast Ohio near the Pennsylvania border.50 He died young, on January 6, 1909, while on a train from Akron to Columbus for a state pharmacy meeting.51 Heath’s obituary in the Holmes County Farmer said he died of endocarditis, an inflammation of the heart probably caused by infection. The newspaper said he was treasurer of the Heath Drug Co. and “one of the best known residents of Cuyahoga Falls.” The train was near Killbuck, Ohio, when Heath died in his seat. He was 44. Weidner found a job with Kauffman-Lattimer, his pharmacy professor’s company, and worked there his entire career. Krieger went to work for Merck & Co., which was new to America. He left Merck after twenty years and purchased the Kalmus Chemical Co. of Cincinnati. The Ohio State Alumni Association listed him as a traveling salesman in 1917 and 1937.52 The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College was founded in 1870 and it had opened its doors to twenty-four students in 1873. It was rechristened The Ohio State University in 1878. The concept of pharmacy education at state-supported schools was still new, but the University of Michigan had set the standard in 1868. Albert B. Prescott, a physician and chemist, designed a school in Ann Arbor with a foundation in science and laboratory instruction. It offered a two-year course that didn’t require apprenticeship, a model that at

“Three of the Best Looking Men in College” The College of Pharmacy’s 1885 inaugural class represented about 3 percent of Ohio State’s 319 students.47 Four were from Columbus. One was a woman: Beatrice Earhart of Columbus, who also served as sergeant at arms for the pharmacy students in 1886.48 Like six of her classmates, she did not graduate in pharmacy. Her classmates that year were Herman Beck, Albert Byers and Charles Krieger of Columbus; Arthur Heath and George Weidner of Cuyahoga Falls; Edwin Bonner of London; Joseph Cadwallader of Morrow; Charles

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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III: Beginnings

Sydney Norton in 1893

first failed to gain the support of the American Pharmaceutical Association.53 Among large land-grant institutions, the University of Wisconsin followed in 1883 with a pharmacy school that emphasized practical experience along with classroom study. Purdue’s pharmacy school was established in 1884; Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy was founded the next year, as were schools at the University of Iowa and the University of Kansas. Ohio pharmacists formed a statewide association in 1879, and legislation set standards for the practice of pharmacy in Ohio. The only pharmacy legislation to that point was an 1852 act concerning the distribution of poisons and an 1873 law that required examinations for pharmacists in cities of more than 175,000 residents.54 In the 1870s, that meant Cincinnati alone. The requirement to pass an examination to practice pharmacy was extended to cities statewide in legislation that passed in 1884, months before the founding of Ohio State’s pharmacy school. The law contained no educational requirement, but it did have an effect on the demand for formal college training. Kauffman, an early advocate for state licensing of pharmacists, is remembered as the man who built the College of Pharmacy. But he had a predecessor in the college’s founding: a chemist named Sydney Norton. Ohio State was ready to meet new demands for pharmacy training because of Norton, one of the original seven members of the 1873 faculty. “As professor of general and applied chemistry,” Buerki writes, “Norton was a physician-chemist of unusually wide interests.” He had studied chemistry in Germany, and he saw a close link between chemistry and pharmacy.55 Norton told administrators that one of his chemistry students intended to be a druggist; he lamented that there were no opportunities to further

31

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III: Beginnings

that student’s research in pharmacy. In 1879, seeing increasing demand for pharmacy education, Norton requested money for additional materials. “If, in this material, a portion were of the substances used in pharmacy, our students could, with little trouble to themselves, make a fair beginning in what is called Pharmaceutical Chemistry,” Norton wrote in the university board’s 1879 report to the governor. “Several of our students have left us to obtain special instruction in pharmacy elsewhere.”56 He continued to press the point, reporting in 1882 a “steadily increasing” number of students who were preparing to become pharmacists or physicians. “It would be well to provide additional inducements for this class by a somewhat extended course in pharmacy and materia medica,” the study of substances used in medicine.57 In 1883, Norton asked his assistant, David O’Brine, to conduct “a voluntary class in materia medica.” Three of O’Brine’s students passed the first Ohio State Board of Pharmacy exam on May 12, 1884. This led Norton to report that “this experiment indicates that a field is open in this direction.” He said in his board report that “if suitable facilities were offered, it would be easy to obtain the service of a competent pharmacist at a nominal salary, who, by supplementing the work of our present force of instructors, could easily arrange a course of study which would satisfy the requirements of the State Board of Pharmacy.”58 As Buerki points out, Norton may have exaggerated when he wrote that the state law required that young men intending to be druggists should study science to that end.59 The intent of the law may have been to encourage formal education in pharmacy, but it did not explicitly require it. It wouldn’t be required until 1917.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

In 1884, Ohio State’s third president, William A. Scott, asked the university board of trustees to create several new departments, including pharmacy. Norton advocated for pharmacy personally before the university’s board on November 12, 1884. On June 24, 1885, the board instructed Ohio State’s president and its board chairman to consult with Norton on establishing a pharmacy school, for which it appropriated $200 for supplies. The board minutes record the start of the pharmacy department at The Ohio State University: June 22, 1885: Mr. Jamison moved that the matter of establishing a school of pharmacy be referred to President Scott and Chairman Booth, of the executive committee, who are directed to consult with Prof. Norton in reference thereto, and if expedient, to establish such school and expend therefor the sum of $200, which is appropriate for that purpose. Carried.60 Classes began that fall with Kauffman offering practical instruction to his ten students, and President Scott reported to the board in November that “the way seems open to offer much more than was first contemplated,” including “a full course of study to be completed with a degree.” He said, “When this decisive step has been taken, and made known to the public, a good number of men may be expected to apply for admission.”61 Norton described the offerings as “a sort of entering wedge for a full and complete course.”62 In the university’s report to the governor in 1885, President Scott said that “as yet the course is regarded as provisional only, and is to be supplanted by a full course, which will require at least three years of study.”63 In 1886, President Scott reported to the governor that “a course of three years is now offered” and “the degree of PhG (graduate in pharmacy) will be

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III: Beginnings

Chemistry Building analytical lab circa 1904

Beginning with a Provisional Short Course The Ohio State University’s 1885 report from the college president to the governor of Ohio: THE SCHOOL OF PHARMACY The sixty-sixth general assembly of Ohio passed a law March 20, 1884, establishing an Ohio board of pharmacy, and making it compulsory upon all persons desiring to engage, either as a proprietor or assistant in the retail drug business, to appear before the board for examination touching their competency in compounding and dispensing the prescriptions of physicians. Those who pass satisfactory examinations are entitled to a certificate of pharmacist or assistant pharmacists, and are to be registered as such. The violation of this law is made a misdemeanor, and is punishable by a heavy fine. Upon the passage of this law the matter was brought before the trustees of the university, and it was resolved by them to offer the privileges of the university to intending pharmacists, and to make such other provision for their instruction as seemed needful. The committee appointed to carry out the wishes of the trustees have thought it best to begin with a short course in pharmacy, which is intended to be supplemented by actual service in a retail

drug store. The studies selected are those indicated by the requirements of the state board of pharmacy, but as yet the course is regarded as provisional only, and is to be supplanted by a full course, which will require at least three years of study. The instruction of pharmacy has been placed in the hands of Mr. George B. Kauffman, well known as the senior member of the firm of Kauffman, Lattimer & Co., who brings to the work not only the knowledge and zeal required, but also the extensive facilities of his private laboratory. The other studies of the class in pharmacy will, it is hoped, find their place in connection with the regular classes at the university. At present, no degree is offered, since it is thought that sufficient inducement for hard study is presented by the certificate given by the Ohio board of pharmacy for evidence of qualification shown by a satisfactory examination. The degree of bachelor of pharmacy will probably be given upon completion of the full course.

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


III: Beginnings

Makio advertisement 1887

conferred upon those who complete and pass satisfactory examinations.”64 The first-year instruction covered “laws relating to pharmacy, the pharmacopoeias, pharmaceutical processes, simple galenical pharmacy, classification of drugs, pharmacognocy [sic], and officinal pharmacal preparations.”65 Galenical means natural rather than synthetic, and officinal is an official standard for medicines, published in the United States Pharmacopeia or, starting in 1888, the National Formulary. The next year of pharmacy study, the university reported, dealt with “officinal pharmacy, extemporaneous pharmacy, prescription practice, pharmacognocy, practical operative pharmacy, and dispensing.” In 1895, the Department of Pharmacy was elevated as one of six original colleges during a realignment of the university. The college had forty-eight students. Kauffman was named the first dean. He later wrote about the transition to college status: To meet the conditions brought about by this radical change the curriculum was materially changed and strengthened so as to keep the work abreast of the advanced chemical and pharmaceutical practice. The wisdom of this change was at once apparent in the increased number of students that applied for entrance to both the new courses.66 As an outgrowth of the chemistry department, the pharmacy department shared space with the Chemical Laboratory Building next to University Hall. In 1888, it was moved temporarily to a former seed room in Botanical Hall, where it escaped a fire that destroyed the Chemical Laboratory Building in 1889. Pharmacy moved back to the new chemistry building in 1891, which burned down in 1904. The third Chemical Laboratory Building survives as Derby Hall on The Ohio State University campus. The College of Pharmacy abandoned its three-year requirement in 1896, opting for a two-year Certificate of Pharmaceutical Chemist and a four-year Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy. In 1900, Charles H. Kimberly became the college’s first graduate with a bachelor of science degree.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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III: Beginnings

Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy Charles H. Kimberly was Ohio State University’s first bachelor of science graduate in pharmacy, in 1900. He added his MS degree the following year and earned a PhD in chemistry in 1905. Kimberly taught pharmacy at North Dakota Agricultural College from 1902 to 1906. He then taught analytical chemistry at the Medico-Chirurgical College of Pharmacy in Philadelphia, where he coauthored A Short Pharmaceutic Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic. He left academia in 1914 to work for the Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC.67 He later worked as a chemical engineer for Schutte & Koerting Co. in Philadelphia, and eventually he was owner and director of several biological laboratories.68 The Ohio State University established two professorships in Charles H. Kimberly’s name, in chemistry and in pharmacy. They were established in 1974, once a 1948 gift from the Charles H. Kimberly Trust could fund them at $100,000 each. Kimberly died in Winter Park, Florida, in 1959.

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


IV: Many Homes Chemical Laboratory Building in 1909

Chemistry buildings have a long and storied history of burning to the ground. Such was the case with Ohio State’s first Chemical Laboratory Building, located next to University Hall, in February 1889. The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy had left the shared space the year before to a former seed room in Botanical Hall, which was located on the present site of the Faculty Club building. Once the new Chemical Hall opened in 1891 on the site of the present-day Derby Hall, the Department of Pharmacy moved back in for fourteen fire-free years, occupying the basement and first floor of the building’s west wing.69 In 1904, the hall burned down again. Pharmacy sought shelter in the Veterinary Building. The third Chemical Laboratory Building opened in 1906 and was damaged in a fire six months later.70 A fireproof storage system was added in 1909. Chemistry moved out and north of Ohio State’s Oval in the early 1920s. College of Pharmacy left in 1928 when the old Chemical Laboratory Building underwent renovations. The building would be renamed Derby Hall. The College of Pharmacy moved back in with Chemistry, but by then it was anticipating a building of its own. In December of 1928, the university submitted to the state legislature an $11.5 million biennial budget request that included $250,000 for a Pharmacy and Bacteriology building.71 The College of Pharmacy had a friend at the statehouse: local druggist William C. Wendt was one of the school’s earliest graduates (in 1889) and in

1928 was the chairman of the House Finance Committee of the Ohio General Assembly. After the appropriation and once construction was underway, about 150 students showed their appreciation at their annual dinner with Wendt the guest of honor. Pharmacy students were part of the evening’s entertainment, which included a violin solo, a singer, and another singer accompanying himself on ukulele.72 Construction of the new pharmacy building began in August 1929 behind University Hall. The design followed a new university policy of building uniformity and was in “modern Renaissance style” (also called Renaissance revival).73 It had four stories and a fireproofed basement. The Lantern reported that “the Pharmacy College will be provided with four offices, a model drug store, museum, a drug and mill room, a laboratory for giving instruction in dispensing and compounding prescriptions, three research laboratories, one advanced laboratory, and four general laboratories.”74 The building, furnished with equipment supplied by the KauffmanLattimer Co., opened in 1930 and Pharmacy occupied its first two floors. The 1931 Makio yearbook reported: The College of Pharmacy finally has a home which it can call its own, the new Pharmacy and Bacteriology building. Here numerous and well-equipped laboratories have been provided as well as a model drug store. With this new “plant” at its disposal the College will progress more than ever in its aim of furnishing technical and practical training for the pharmacist.75

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


IV: Many Homes

Lloyd Parks in front of the Pharmacy and Bacteriology Building circa 1957

College pharmacy in the Pharmacy and Bacteriology Building in 1953

That model drugstore notably did not include a soda fountain or lunch counter, two staples of real-world drugstores in the 1920s and 1930s. The building was renamed Edith Cockins Hall in 1967, the year Pharmacy finally outgrew an expanded building and moved into the current five-story, 94,000-square-foot College of Pharmacy Building at 500 W. 12th Avenue that was part of the Ohio State Medical Center campus. The building cost $3.4 million and more than doubled the space of the College of Pharmacy.76 The building’s plans called for forty-one laboratories, a library, and a greenhouse, along with offices and lecture rooms. Lloyd Parks was the dean at that time, and the building was christened Lloyd M. Parks Hall in 1977. In 1994, the nine-story Vernal G. Riffe Building was added to Parks Hall. Today, the College of Pharmacy fills two attached buildings with an excellent library and is part of the medical campus at The Ohio State University. It’s also reaching beyond the physical space. The college has partnered with the colleges of Nursing, Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine for an entirely online, interdisciplinary graduate program, the Master of Applied Clinical and Preclinical Research. And tens of thousands of students worldwide have enrolled in two massive open online courses. Dr. Nicole Kwiek teaches “Generation Rx: The Science Behind Prescription Drug Abuse,” and Dr. Kenneth Hale teaches “Introduction to Pharmacy.” Hale’s course registered students in 143 countries.77

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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V: Transition and Growth Acting Dean A longtime illness left Dean Kauffman debilitated in 1915. When it was clear he could not continue his duties in the fall, he was granted a year’s leave of absence with most of his pay. In April that year, a Lantern profile, probably unrelated to his illness, said of Kauffman: “Dean Kauffman has seen many changes here, and he himself has figured in a few of them. We have much to thank him for. We can’t wish him a long life, for he has several years start of us there. So we’ll be selfish and wish ourselves that we may have as much success, as many friends, as much good to our credit.”78 Clair Albert Dye was named acting dean in October. Dye had spent all but three years of his adult life at Ohio State. Those were the three years he spent in Switzerland, 1898 to 1901, earning his doctorate at the University of Bern. The Lantern story about his appointment noted that “Professor Dye has been both student and professor at the University for 24 years, entering college in 1888.”79 Kauffman taught Dye and then hired him. They were associates at the university and friends after hours, attending social events together with their wives and taking at least one summer trip together to explore pharmacy practice in the South.80 In 1916, Kauffman stepped down, and the board kept Dye on as acting dean.81 Although it was clear the college’s founding dean would not return, the board waited until the year after Kauffman’s death in 1921 to officially appoint Dye as dean.

Dean Clair Dye at his desk in 1931

Kauffman, 66, had served thirty years at The Ohio State University. He died in April 1921 “following a stroke of paralysis.” Dye was a pallbearer, as was chemistry professor and future university president William McPherson and four other Ohio State professors. “Many of the leading pharmacists of Ohio have been his students, and the high standing of the college is due largely to his efforts,” the Lantern said in announcing Kauffman’s death. “Professor Kauffman was quiet and unassuming in his manner, but forceful in his convictions and generous in his instincts and acts.”82 Dye took over the College of Pharmacy two years before the entry of the United States into World War I. In 1919, the acting dean wrote in the Makio yearbook about the role of the College of Pharmacy in the war: As soon as war was declared, the College, in common with many others, placed its men and facilities at the service of the Government. These were utilized to a certain extent in working out various problems in the manufacture of medical compounds. However the most gratifying achievement, and one to which we may point with just pride, was the prompt and enthusiastic response of the students, ex-students and alumni to the call to service. At the time the war closed, we had a record of about 175 men who were actively engaged in some branch of military duty or training. While these men were to be found in practically every branch of service, the greatest number were in the Medical, Sanitary and Hospital service where their technical training was most needed. … All have done their duty with cheerfulness, fidelity and courage and a number have made the supreme sacrifice.83

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


V: Transition and Growth

“Some people are so foolish as to try and credit the increase of pharmacists to the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment, but any such theory is pure tommyrot.” — Dean Clair Dye, 1922

Leap in Enrollment

scientists were commonly commissioned into the military as officers working in their professions, the U.S. military didn’t recognize a pharmacy degree as being at the same level. A War Department official told pharmacy educators in 1918 that if pharmacists wanted the same consideration, pharmacy schools should follow the same entrance requirements and require four years of education.85 A handful of schools, including Ohio State, had a four-year option, but it would not be the national standard until 1932. In the face of criticism from the military and other sources, Wortley F. Rudd, president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, recommended in 1920 that short courses be phased out by 1925.86 “A vow was made that never again could this failure on our part be thrown back on us,” he said in 1942. “As early as 1920, just two years after the Armistice, we found pharmaceutical educators ready to commit themselves to the abandonment of the short course.”87 During Prohibition, druggists were licensed for a limited amount of alcohol for medicinal purposes. One could get a prescription for whiskey. Dean Dye insisted, however, that the admissions increase was not based on a desire for access to alcohol, as some had supposed. “Some people are so foolish as to try and credit the increase of pharmacists to the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment, but any such theory is pure tommyrot,” Dye told the Lantern in 1922. “I can’t imagine anyone with mentality enough to go to college and learn the drug business doing so with the single idea of bootlegging.”88

The fall of 1922 was four years after the end of the war in Europe and less than two years since the start of Prohibition. Ohio Stadium replaced Ohio Field that fall, but it would be several years yet before the College of Pharmacy had its own building. The fall of 1922 was also when Dye went from acting dean to dean, and the college took a huge leap in enrollment. Twice as many students were admitted in 1922 as in 1921. The total population in Ohio State’s two-year and four-year pharmacy programs was 260. Seventy students—10 percent of them women—were admitted that fall. The 37-yearold college had nine faculty members with the addition that year of Charles L. Williams from Purdue. Dean Dye addressed the big increase in enrollment in a December 7, 1922, interview with the Lantern, the former literary quarterly that was by then Ohio State’s student newspaper. He attributed the increase to a realization by young people of the value of education. “People are beginning to realize that an education is necessary to carry on business in this day and age,” he said. “This was especially true after the war, when many of the soldiers returning from France could not get work because they were unfitted for any special occupation.”84 World War I brought on one of many periodic self-examinations by those charged with educating pharmacists. While physicians, dentists and other

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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V: Transition and Growth

Pharmacy dispensing unit in 1949

Dye was not alone in discounting Prohibition as contributing to a growth in pharmacy studies. That fall, The Midland Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review (for which George Kauffman had served as editor) reported a boost at six big-city pharmacy schools throughout its coverage area.89 It concluded that tougher admission requirements were raising the prestige of the field. Dye himself wrote to the publication: We fail to see any indication that the increase in requirements for practicing pharmacy has had any tendency to decrease registration. Interest in and the general attitude toward the study of pharmacy has been greatly stimulated.90 He went further: We can see no reason for believing, as some would have us believe, that the increased standards will drive men away from the study of pharmacy, but rather to the contrary, that the increased requirements have revived and stimulated renewed interest in and that they are attracting many young men and women to the profession. Three years later, Dye admitted that the program had grown too quickly to be properly managed.91 This was in response to the darkest episode in the College of Pharmacy history: the poisonings of several students and the death of two—possibly through murder—in the winter of 1925. In 1925, months after the poisonings, Dye and the College of Pharmacy joined other pharmacy schools in dropping the school’s more popular, twoyear pharmacy program. A three-year program became the nationwide standard, but Ohio State’s program would be among the toughest in the nation, accepting nothing less than a four-year bachelor’s degree for its pharmacy students.

Dye wrote in the 1927 Makio yearbook: The College of Pharmacy occupies a distinctive position among schools of pharmacy in the state, in that it is the only school having a minimum fouryear requirement for graduation. At the same time it was the first pharmacy school in the country to adopt this advanced requirement. In adopting this requirement it was felt that the College of Pharmacy would be rendering not only a greater service to pharmacy in the state, but to the country at large, by placing the training of the pharmacist on the same basis as the other technical and professional schools. Many workers in the field of pharmacy and public health have long realized that the pharmacist, by his training and close contact with the public, occupies a unique position as a disseminator of authoritative information concerning public health problems. Realizing this, it has long been one of the ideals of the College to give to its graduates the best general scientific and technical training possible.92 By 1934, the Makio could report: “That the College of Pharmacy is ranked among the best in the United States is without question.”93 Eighty years later, in the fall of 2015, more than 400 students were enrolled in the College of Pharmacy’s Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences program. BSPS is a foundation program that usually leads to further study; it’s not the same bachelor’s degree that Dye presided over during the Great Depression. Dye’s program is more akin to the PharmD program, which has another 500 students. PharmD emphasizes clinical pharmacy, which in part focuses on the role of pharmacists mentioned by Dye nine decades ago: disseminators of “authoritative information concerning public health problems.”  

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VI: The Poisonings

The darkest episode of the College of Pharmacy’s history is a murder mystery that has never been solved and perhaps never can be. Several male students became ill and two died after taking strychnine pills from the college dispensary in 1925. The dispensary was less than four years old at the time. It was established in 1921 by Dr. H. Shindle Wingert, director of Student Health Service, and Clair A. Dye, the College of Pharmacy’s new dean. The idea was to provide pharmacy students with practical experience dispensing drugs, and sick students with an inexpensive means to get prescribed pills. For the common cold symptoms, Wingert turned to two pills: five grains of aspirin (equivalent to about two regular aspirin) and two grains of quinine. The aspirin was delivered in red capsules, the quinine in white. Six of each were dispensed in a container marked “R & W,” and patients were instructed to take one capsule every two hours, starting with red. Robert Buerki wrote about the poisonings for a paper, Prescription for Death: The 1925 Ohio State Poisoning Case, presented at the annual meeting of the Ohio Academy of Medical History in 2012. This summary is largely taken from Buerki’s research. Wingert wrote seventy-eight prescriptions in January 1925 to his male patients. Female patients were treated by a female doctor; they were not prescribed the red and white pills. Four students were sickened, and two more died painful deaths.

Robert Ross, a freshman from Bellevue, was initially diagnosed with food poisoning after becoming ill on January 27. George Thompson, a senior from Canton, was diagnosed with meningitis before being correctly diagnosed with strychnine poisoning. Timothy McCarthy, a sophomore from Fremont, was diagnosed was hysteria. Harold Gillig, a sophomore from Toledo, was diagnosed was hysteria or indigestion. Charles Huls, a senior from Logan, had an impacted tooth extracted on Friday, January 30, and died the next day in his fraternity room. Interviewed in 1987, Fred Huls recalled his brother’s death: He took one of the capsules at dinner that evening. He had a date that evening and told me I could have his car if I would take him down to the corner. ... As he went to get into the car, his legs collapsed and he could not walk. We carried him up to our room and called a doctor. While the doctor was working on my brother, I went into the bathroom with one of the capsules, intending to take it as I also had a slight cold. Just then a fraternity brother came in saying the doctor wanted to see me. I put the capsule on a marble windowsill and went to our room. The doctor told me my brother was dying. He was having convulsions and suffered an agonizing death.94 The cause of death was given as tetanus. But the pills, it was later determined, were pure strychnine.95 David Pusken, a junior from Canton, had a cold and asked his friend

A Lantern article from 1925 47

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VI: The Poisonings

Louis Fish, a first-year pharmacy student from Canton, to pick up his prescription. The next morning, Pusken died before a physician could arrive. An autopsy was performed, and the cause of death was given as meningitis, later amended to strychnine poisoning. University President William Oxley Thompson ordered an investigation, which was conducted by Dean Dye and James R. Withrow, a chemistry professor and industrial poisoning specialist. Their initial report found no evidence of strychnine at the dispensary and provided no answers. In the midst of the investigations, on February 9, students in the College of Pharmacy wrote a petition of confidence in their dean. It read in part: We, the students of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, wish to express our confidence in yourself and in your leadership. We know that you have not loaned but have given freely and unselfishly of your time and assistance to aid in the movement to clear up the mystery of our recent tragedy.96 A city police investigation, treating the poisoning as a criminal act, also failed to discover the source of the strychnine or the reason for what appeared to be either a terrible prank or deliberate killings. Police Prosecutor John Chester Jr. interviewed more than 100 students and arrested Fish, but he had to release him. According to a February 10 article in the Lantern, Fish admitted to

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

Chester that he had gone to the dispensary on January 30 to have Pusken’s prescription filled. Two classmates on duty at the dispensary said they refused Fish’s request for the capsules. He admitted that he took a few capsules from the stock jar himself.97 Buerki writes: A frustrated Chester still maintained his belief that the deaths were plotted. “I still believe it was a crime and not an accident,” Chester told The Ohio State Journal on February 11. “We will run down any clews [sic] which are obtained, but at the present, we have no further witnesses to call.”98 Chester told the newspaper he would encourage state Attorney General C.C. Crabbe to investigate the dispensary to determine its legality. Strictly speaking, Buerki writes, the dispensary was operating illegally: It did not have a licensed pharmacist on duty during all hours of its operation as required by Ohio law. On February 14, the Lantern reported, President Thompson appealed to more than 300 pharmacy students in an assembly. “Should the poisoning of these two students remain a mystery, I shall carry the incident to my grave as one of the biggest tragedies of my life,” President Thompson said. “If you should come to me and tell me you are guilty by a mistake, you are still innocent.” He concluded: “The story has cast a stain on the name of Ohio State

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University President William Oxley Thompson, pictured here (right) with Ohio Governor Frank B. WIllis in 1916, ordered an investigation that found no evidence of strychnine at the dispensary and provided no answers.

University, and unless the thing is cleared up in some way, that stain will remain. It will be honorable if you can tell us something of the affair that we don’t know.” Police Prosecutor Chester added that there must be an element of intent in any criminal act, noting that if any student made the mistake unknowingly or even carelessly there could be no criminal action taken.99 The Ohio governor ordered the State Board of Pharmacy to investigate, and that investigation concluded that no capsules in the dispensary were contaminated or improperly filled and that the poison capsules were not the same size or make as those in the dispensary. The chemical structure of the strychnine also did not match what was available at the dispensary. The deadly chemical had to have been brought to the campus. If Huls and Pusken were murdered, a motive eluded investigators. No one was ever charged. Buerki suggested that the poisoning victims who survived, those who received less strychnine, could have been caught up in an attempt to confuse matters and deflect attention from the true target or targets. If so, it seems to have worked. “Universities have long institutional memories,” Buerki wrote. “The dispensary had been closed permanently; nearly three-quarters of a century would elapse before the University would permit—in 1999—the establishment of the University Health Connection, an interprofessional primary care clinic located in the College of Pharmacy.”100

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VII: A Research Institution Cancer The history of pharmacology in cancer treatment can be partially traced to a substance long feared after its use in World War I: mustard gas. The chemical horror of the First World War was always on the minds of soldiers and civilians in the next war, including in 1943 as the Allied forces gained advantage in Europe. President Franklin Roosevelt pledged that the United States would respond in kind to any use of chemical weapons by the Germans. To make good on the threat, 2,000 mustard gas bombs were loaded onto the cargo ship John Harvey in Baltimore in October 1943.101 In December, the John Harvey was waiting to unload in a crowded harbor in Bari, Italy, home to the U.S. Fifteenth Air Force. On December 2, 1943, a German air raid pounded the harbor and port. The John Harvey was not hit, but burning debris set off an explosion, destroying the ship, killing the crew, and spilling mustard gas into the sea and air. Hundreds were injured and dozens died from the chemical agent, the existence of which was kept quiet long after the raid. But the tragedy had an effect on future cancer research: Doctors noticed a drop in white blood cells in the bone marrow cells of affected sailors, and the subsequent report of Lt. Col. Stewart Francis Alexander suggested that the culprit in so many deaths might have a cancer-killing quality. At Yale University, researchers were already examining mustard gas in a secret contract with the War Department. The military had been seeking an antidote on the assumption that the Germans would again turn to chemical

The John Harvey exploding in the harbor at Bari, Italy

weapons. Two Yale pharmacologists, Alfred Gilman and Louis Goodman explored the cytotoxic (cancer-killing) properties of nitrogen mustard, first in rabbits and then in the successful treatment of a mouse. In 1942, they tried their new method on a 47-year-old man with lymphoma that had ceased responding to radiation and other treatments. The treatment seriously reduced the patient’s white blood count—just as mustard gas had done with the sailors at Bari. The man died three months after the new therapy had commenced, but the first application of chemotherapy to fight cancer had the expected effect on his tumors. Gilman and Goodman published their results in 1946, launching the era of cancer chemotherapy. Military secrecy at the time and for years after makes it difficult to say what effect the Bari raid had on the research at Yale, but the incident does help illustrate the recency of drug therapy and the crudeness of its beginnings. The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy was around for more than half a century before we started using drugs to effectively battle cancer. Ohio State’s Robert Buerki suggests the first “cancer drug” may have been acetylsalicylic acid, the pain reliever and anti-inflammatory drug marketed by its German inventors as “Aspirin.” In the beginnings of pharmacy, Buerki said, drugs “were used to treat symptoms; there was never really a drug that was used to treat a disease.”102 Pharmacy may date to prehistory, but focused research into drug therapies is largely a twentieth-century invention. Morphine was chemically isolated in 1805 and aspirin was synthesized in 1887, but those were used

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VII: A Research Institution

Research being conducted in 1978

to ease discomfort, not cure disease. Salvarsan marked the first use of chemotherapy in 1910, when it was used to treat syphilis. Cancer-treating chemotherapy did not exist before the 1940s. Penicillin was not discovered until 1929, and Alexander Fleming’s extract of blue mold wasn’t developed into a useful therapy until the late 1930s by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. Insulin was used to treat diabetes starting in the 1920s. Antibacterial sulfa drugs emerged in the 1930s. Albert Soloway was 18 in 1943, the year of the Bari raid and the year he entered the U.S. Navy himself. His mother had died two years earlier of breast cancer after fighting the disease throughout Soloway’s teen years. During a 2002 interview, Soloway, dean of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy from 1977 to 1988, described his motivation to research cancer. “I think that was a seminal period for me in deciding that I wanted to do something in cancer research if I could,” he said. “But that evolved over a period of time when I felt I didn’t have the benefit of her wisdom while I was in my critical teenage years. I felt very sad for myself. And then when I had children, I hoped I could contribute in cancer research that would make it possible that my daughters and son would not have that experience while they were raising their own children.”103 Soloway was a student at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts at the time Gilman and Goodman were continuing their chemotherapy research at Yale. After earning a doctorate in 1951 from the University of Rochester, Soloway went to work on cancer research at the Sloan-Kettering Institute, which had been founded six years earlier by General

Motors executives Alfred P. Sloan and Charles Kettering, a 1904 graduate of Ohio State University in electrical engineering. After a stint at Eastman-Kodak, Soloway eventually joined the faculty at Northeastern University in Boston and researched malignant brain tumors at Massachusetts General Hospital. Malignant brain tumors tend not to spread but can be very difficult to treat. The focus of Soloway’s research was boron neutron capture theory, a technique devised at Massachusetts General Hospital in which cellular material is introduced to bind with tumor cells and targeted radiation is used to kill them. His work in Boston led to clinical research that has continued in recent years.

Comprehensive Cancer Center In 1973, a headline in the Lantern proclaimed “Research is Showing Cancer Can Be Cured.”104 It spoke of the research of Louis Malspeis, who came to Ohio State from Columbia University in 1965 and was then the only College of Pharmacy researcher focused on cancer.105 Malpeis was “one of the pillars of starting the cancer center in the ’70s,” Professor Popat Patil said.106 Soloway arrived as dean at Ohio State in 1977, a year after the National Cancer Institute awarded the Comprehensive Cancer Center designation to Ohio State. Since then, cancer has come to dominate research at the Ohio State College of Pharmacy.

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VII: A Research Institution

The James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute

One of Soloway’s early hires was Robert Brueggemeier, also a cancer researcher and a future dean of the college. Brueggemeier was not a pharmacist. He graduated from Michigan State University in chemistry and earned his PhD from the University of Michigan in medicinal chemistry. At the time of Brueggemeier’s hiring, there were fewer than two dozen cancer centers in the country, and Ohio State was attractive to a young cancer researcher. “My area of research—and I think why I was attracted to be a faculty member here—was in the area of hormones and cancer, particularly breast cancer, and I’ve been doing research in that area for over 40 years,” Brueggemeier said in an interview.107 He was recruited by both the the OSUCCC – James and the College of Pharmacy, and he describes a great deal of collaboration between the medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy departments, which later merged. “Most of our research in the area of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy has focused on small molecules as potential drugs with a lot of collaboration with people in the the OSUCCC – James,” he said. Brueggemeier remembers when pharmacy scientists started thinking about blocking cancer rather than just trying to kill it. At the time of his hiring, the focus remained on cytotoxic treatment of cancer, the same idea as the mustard gas, designed to kill cancer cells more quickly than killing normal cells. Radiation and surgery were the other tools available in the 1970s. “We’ve gone in cancer research from just kind of blasting away at the cells to more of a targeted therapy,” Brueggemeier said of the past several decades of research. His research was in blocking estrogen from feeding

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

cancer cells. “It was an exciting time, and certainly was an example of how you can do targeted therapies to lead to agents that are effective in treating patients,” he said. He was part of the building blocks for later therapies, conducting what he called “basic chemistry and biochemistry, understanding the target, the enzyme, the receptor, and then a lot of work in cell culture.” “There were sort of two thrusts,” he said. “One was to block the receptor protein that drove the cancer cell, and the other was to block the production of hormone in the body, to starve the cancer cell. My area of research was to block the production of estrogen, to develop small molecules that inhibited the enzyme, so the body stopped making estrogen; no more estrogen, and the breast cancer cells stopped growing if they were hormone-dependent.” That field of research led to the development of tamoxifen in the United Kingdom and aromatase inhibitors, which can help prevent the recurrence of breast cancer and may be an effective breast cancer treatment.108 “I was very fortunate to be involved in that early drug development,” Brueggemeier said, “from ideas through pre-clinical studies that we did, and then interactions with colleagues in the pharmaceutical industry, and then physicians leading clinical trials that led to these new therapies.”109 College of Pharmacy faculty and students remain highly involved in innovative cancer research through a strong partnership with the OSUCCC – James. That partnership includes two endowed chair positions assigned to College of Pharmacy faculty: the Gertrude Parker Heer Chair in Cancer Research through the James Cancer Hospital and the Lucius A. Wing Chair of Cancer Research and Therapy through the College of Medicine. The Heer

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VII: A Research Institution

Dean Bernard V. Christensen reviews the College’s elective courses in 1952

Beginnings of Graduate Research

Chair is held by Sharyn Baker, newly appointed as chair of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. She is the first woman to chair a division of the College of Pharmacy. “We have a number of faculty who are members of the the OSUCCC – James, some of whom design novel therapeutics or new drugs,” said Cynthia Carnes, senior associate dean for research and graduate education. “We have people doing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of new drugs. We have people Sharyn Baker involved in clinical trials of new cancer drugs. We have people in pharmacology studying new drug targets for cancers, all different facets of cancer drug discovery and drug development here within the college.”110 Dean Henry Mann calls the the OSUCCC – James “an extraordinary resource” and indicative of one of the great strengths of The Ohio State University: “the broadness and the openness of units to work with each other.”111 The program is one of forty-five comprehensive cancer programs designated by the National Cancer Institute and perhaps the only one to have received a perfect score in a five-year site review. “Working with that level of excellence, that level of caring about patient care, and research into making patient care better is an extraordinary advantage to us,” Mann said. “I see huge benefits from us being close partners.”

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

At The Ohio State University, a rigorous emphasis on science was the foundation of pharmacy training. College of Pharmacy Professor Popat N. Patil has researched the history of research at Ohio State and marvels at the idea that undergraduate students from the beginning were expected to submit a thesis report on some area of research. That, he said, likely can be traced to the background of Sydney Norton, the chemistry professor whose efforts led to the program’s creation.112 Research did not become a primary focus, though, until the arrival of Bernard Christensen, the College of Pharmacy’s third dean, in 1939. Christensen, a University of Wisconsin graduate, came to Ohio State from the University of Florida and had just been awarded the Ebert Prize, the oldest pharmacy award in the United States and the highest honor for research into medicinal pharmacy awarded by the American Pharmaceutical Association.113 Christensen’s area was medicinal plants, an interest he brought to Ohio State. He quickly hired three researchers in 1940 to handle a new Master of Science in Pharmacy, even before the faculty had voted to offer the degree and even as World War II reduced class sizes and resources.114 “Dean Christensen with limited resources during the war years established the foundations of the research,” Patil wrote in a short history of the first seventy years of drug sciences at Ohio State.115 The era brought heightened opportunities for undergraduate students, the master’s program, and, in 1942, the PhD in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical

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Instruction circa 1965

Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. An impressive output of research quickly followed. Patil points to a handful of men who earned their PhDs between 1943 and the end of Christensen’s tenure: • Arthur E. Schwarting was the first pharmacy PhD, in 1943, with a dissertation on “A Study of Domestic Ergot of Wheat and Rye,” published in 1945.116 Schwarting was hired by the University of Nebraska and later served as dean at the University of Connecticut.117 • Roy C. Darlington, the first person to earn an MS through Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy, earned his PhD in 1947. He was the first African American to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical science anywhere in the country.118 Darlington went on to head the pharmacy program at Howard University. His PhD dissertation was “An Investigation of Bentonite as a Major Component of Ointment Bases.”119 • Woodrow Robert Byrum was a faculty member at the University of Georgia when he earned a fellowship to Ohio State. His dissertation, “The Pharmacology of Some Viburnums” (a species of shrubs), was also approved in 1947. • Arthur Tye came to Ohio State in 1947 after serving as head of pharmacy at the Peiping Union Medical College hospital in China. Tye was already on faculty at Ohio State when he earned his doctorate in 1950. • Jack Beal, like Byrum, came to Ohio State on a fellowship. He submitted his dissertation in 1954, and then also joined the Ohio State faculty, where he established a national reputation in natural products, including as editor of the Journal of Natural Products. • John G. Wagner came to Ohio State from Canada. He completed his PhD in 1952 and was a member of the faculty for a year before

becoming a scientist for Upjohn and later chair of Pharmacy/ Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Michigan. He is widely recognized for his contributions to pharmacokinetics, which deal with the movement of drugs within the body. • Carl Schlagel researched the effect of Indian snakeroot on blood pressure as an Ohio State master’s student and received funding for further research from an Ohio pharmaceutical company. He and his advisor, John Nelson, reported the long-lasting hypotensive effects of Indian snakeroot in the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1954. Schlagel went to work for Upjohn. Starting with a few degrees in the 1940s and a few more in the 1950s, the College of Pharmacy has awarded more than 700 master of science and nearly 600 doctoral degrees.120 Research at the College of Pharmacy increased even more dramatically during the deanship of another graduate of the University of Wisconsin, the 44-year-old Lloyd M. Parks, who became the college’s fourth dean in 1956. “Dean Parks recruited young, dedicated, creative, energetic faculty,” wrote Patil. “Jules LaPidus, a medicinal chemist; Harold Wolf, a well-trained pharmacologist; David Guttman, Louis Malspeis in pharmaceutics; and Raymond Doskotch—an excellent biochemist.”121 A focus on research attracted graduate students to research labs in pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, natural products, pharmacognosy and pharmaceutics. At the same time, Clifton J. Latiolais, director of the hospital pharmacy, began attracting students to clinical and administrative pharmacy, where new methods of practice were being developed.

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LaPidus, who followed Parks from Wisconsin, was an important figure in considering the steric, or three-dimensional, aspect of molecular pharmacology as opposed to considering molecules as their two-dimensional representations on paper. “Our passion was to understand not only the structures, but why one drug has a better efficacy than its mirror image,” said Patil, who was a student at the time.122 Harold Wolf, who earned his PhD from the University of Utah, established a solid foundation of teaching and research in pharmacology while at Ohio State, starting in 1969. He collaborated with Donald T. Witiak on anticonvulsant drug research.123 Named the first Charles H. Kimberly Professor of Pharmacy in 1975, Wolf continued research in anticonvulsant drugs after returning to Utah as dean in 1976. Even as dean, he continued to regularly teach, thriving on contact with students.124 Witiak joined the Ohio State faculty in 1967 and served as assistant director of basic research for the OSUCCC – James. In 1993, he also returned to his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin to become dean, but left the deanship to focus on research in 1995. He died in 1998 at age 62 after a stroke.125 Chauncey Leake came to Ohio State as an assistant at the Medical Center in the mid-1950s. Leake was already well known for his research in anesthesia, amphetamines and the first narcotic antagonist. He served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1960. Patil described Leake as “a well-known medical historian who was instrumental in establishing

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

closer ties with all the pharmacology units on the campus.”126 Jack Beal, working with Raymond Doskotch at Ohio State, characterized alkaloids from Thalictrum plants, commonly known as meadow rue. The alkaloid reticuline, found in Thalictrum, is also present in poppy juice as a precursor to morphine. Teams working under Beal, Doskotch and A. Douglas Kinghorn at Ohio State have isolated more than 100 potentially useful alkaloids, Patil said in an interview. “They did more work here than anywhere else in the world on these alkaloids,” Patil said. Patil’s master’s work was in Thalictrum alkaloids, and he did his PhD on pharmacology of ephedrines at Ohio State in 1963 and subsequently joined the faculty. A. Douglas Kinghorn has done research into stevia and other sweeteners along with natural compounds with antimicrobial or cancerpreventative qualities. He has been editor-in-chief of the Journal of Natural Products since 1994 and joined the Ohio State faculty in 2004. Dean Parks earned the 1974 Joseph R. Remington Medal from the American Pharmaceutical Association, recognizing “distinguished service on behalf of American pharmacy.” He served as president of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1971 (and his replacement in that role was Clifton Latiolais, director of pharmacy at the Ohio State’s University Hospital). “By the United States Bicentennial, the academic reputation of the college was at the top,” Patil wrote. “Dean Parks happily retired in 1977; the

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Annals of Pharmacotherapy Milap Nahata has been editorin-chief of the leading journal in clinical pharmacy since 2006; it celebrates its fiftieth year in 2016. The journal was the first in the emerging field in 1967 and started under the name Drug Intelligence under the editorship of Don Francke, who had written the influential Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy with Clifton Latiolais. Francke was a pioneer in hospital and clinical pharmacy at the University of Michigan and later at the University of Cincinnati. His goals for the journal were “to make pharmacists more sophisticated in their knowledge of drugs and thus to enhance their ability to make intelligent judgments regarding their properties and characteristics—to take a place on the healthcare team as a practitioner of clinical pharmacy— to encourage development of specialization—and to stimulate teaching and research activities.” Milap Nahata circa 1995–97

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28,000 Citations The twenty-first–most cited scholarly science paper of all time describes a method for duplicating samples of genetic material and was written by a College of Pharmacy professor. Ohio State’s Thomas Schmittgen wrote the article with Kenneth Livak in 2001, and it has been cited more than 28,000 times, Thomas Schmittgen according to an analysis by the journal Nature. “What began as a simple gesture of goodwill developed into such a phenomenal success that I would have never predicted at the time,” Schmittgen said in 2014.132 He wrote the paper for the journal Methods while on faculty at Washington State University. He came to Ohio State the following year, where his research includes a focus on micro-RNAs in cancer.

college building was named after this outstanding educator.”127 Patil recalls Parks as “a straight arrow” who promoted and supported his faculty. “His research contributions are recognized and respected worldwide,” Patil said.128 In the past fifty years, Patil said, seven pharmacology students went on to develop or promote more than a dozen pharmaceutical products:129 • Richard J. Seidehamel, who earned his PhD in 1968, became medical director and head of central nervous system-related products for BristolMyers Squibb in 1990. He helped develop and supervised the promotion of buspirone, trazodone, fluphenazine and nefazodone. • Carl Buckner and Robert Krell, who earned their PhDs in the early 1970s, developed the asthma drug zafirlukast. • Louis M. DeSantis, a 1973 PhD, and his group developed two anti-glaucoma drugs at the eye-care company Alcon: betaxolol and apraclonidine. • Pat O’Neill, a 1976 PhD, developed becaplermin, which promotes wound healing and tissue growth for diabetic foot ulcers, and a coronary artery stent that releases the drug sirolimus. • Robert Ruffolo Jr. developed drugs at Eli Lilly and then SmithKline Beecham after earning his PhD in 1976: the cardiac stimulant dobutamine, the Parkinson’s disease treatment ropinirole, the hypertension drug eprosartan, and carvedilol, used to treat congestive heart failure. • Joseph Lynch earned his PhD in 1982 and worked with a team at Merck Research Lab on tirofiban, a treatment for unstable angina and heart attacks.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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Jack Beal in 1957

Journal of Natural Products Jack Beal made Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy a leader in the study of natural products and for six years served as editor of the Journal of Natural Products, the scientific journal of the American Society of Pharmacognosy. Its second editor, from 1960 to 1976, was Arthur Schwarting, who earned Ohio State’s first PhD in Pharmacy in 1943. Ohio State’s A. Douglas Kinghorn took over as the journal’s editor in 1996, while he was still at the University of Illinois. Under Schwarting and then Beal, the journal was known as Lloydia. It was established under that name in 1938 by the Lloyd Library in Cincinnati, which started as a small depository of pharmacy books in 1864 and still exists today thanks to a trust established in 1919.130 Lloydia is a genus of flowering plants and, conveniently, a Latinization of the surname belonging to the brothers who established the library. The journal became affiliated with the American Society of Pharmacognosy in 1961. The name change came under Beal in 1979. The American Chemical Society later joined in sponsoring the journal in 1996. According to its website, “the Journal of Natural Products invites and publishes papers that make substantial and scholarly contributions to the area of natural products research. Contributions may relate to the chemistry and/or biochemistry of naturally occurring compounds or the biology of living systems from which they are obtained.”131 Kinghorn came to Ohio State in 2004 as the first Jack L. Beal Chair of Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacognosy. He brought Beal’s journal with him, and he continues as editor today. A. Douglas Kinghorn

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VIII: A Clinical Focus The Latiolais Legacy Clifton J. Latiolais served as director of hospital pharmacy at The Ohio State University for twenty-five years, leaving an impressive legacy in terms of pharmacy practices and leaders in the field. After working a year in a community pharmacy in Louisiana and earning his master’s degree in Hospital Pharmacy from the University of Michigan, Latiolais was recruited as assistant chief pharmacist at the University of Chicago Hospitals. He helped establish the first nuclear pharmacy at a public hospital. He spent two years as chief pharmacist at the University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital133 before returning to Ann Arbor to work on an audit of pharmaceutical services conducted by the American Pharmacists Association. The influential final report, Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, was published in 1964. It noted that only a third of hospitals in the U.S. had a full-time pharmacist on staff. Most hospitals at the time received their drugs from distributors and had nurses select drugs from a unit’s common stockroom. Latiolais changed that. When Ohio State decided to establish a graduate program in hospital pharmacy administration, Dean Lloyd Parks (1956–77) called on Latiolais. Parks had a vision for a cooperative arrangement, a department within Ohio State University Hospitals that would affiliate with the College of Pharmacy. That vision eventually was strained by academic territoriality. Periods of cooperation mixed with periods of competition—inevitable with aspects of pharmacy education in different areas of the university. On his arrival in 1958, Latiolais began implementing procedures that

Pharmaceutical analysis laboratory in 1954

would influence hospital pharmacies nationwide. He started Ohio State’s residency program in hospital pharmacy in 1959. It was mostly uncharted territory; there were few models. According to a brief biography on the College of Pharmacy website: In a manner of speaking, Latiolais was at the pinnacle of hospital pharmacy Clifton J. Latiolais for 30 years. Back in 1958 when Latiolais first became director of pharmacy at The Ohio State University hospitals, many hospitals were using floor stock distribution models. In his time at Ohio State, Latiolais redesigned the drug distribution system by developing a patient-specific five-day supply system, which replaced the floor stock system. Another hospital pharmacy breakthrough occurred in 1965 when Latiolais developed the first IV Admixture Program in a teaching hospital. Latiolais revitalized the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee and implemented Nuclear Pharmacy and Drug Information Services, among many others.134 Sara White, a graduate of Latiolais’s program, credits Dean Parks with “getting the pharmacy moved to a regular department of the hospital and setting up an affiliation with the hospital to provide undergraduate teaching and a graduate program in hospital pharmacy—to train pharmacists to work

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Hospital pharmacy in 1968

in hospitals.”135 Latiolais wrote down his ideas in March 1959 and sent them to colleagues he respected for their feedback. A copy of his vision document is preserved under glass at the Medical Center pharmacy in Doan Hall. Latiolais “developed innovative pharmacy services that became internationally recognized,” White says in a tribute to Latiolais that is part of an American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Research and Education Foundation’s video series called “Conversations with Roger Anderson Health-System Pharmacy’s Most Influential Leaders.”136 Ohio State’s clinical residency program was among the first accredited in 1963 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Latiolais didn’t limit the program to The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, but expanded it to place pharmacy students at Grant Hospital, Riverside Hospital, and sometimes Children’s Hospital and Mount Carmel Hospital. Melvin Simon and Fred Eckel were the first two students in the residency program, starting in 1959 and 1960. Simon went into the retail side, and Eckel joined the faculty at the University of North Carolina, where he started a residency program. He spent forty-eight years at North Carolina and has spent the past seventeen years as editor-in-chief of Pharmacy Times, a monthly and online journal with practical advice for clinical pharmacists.137 He also was executive director of the North Carolina Association of Pharmacists for ten years and president of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists for 1975–76.

There is a long list of residency program graduates who went on to become leaders at hospitals, universities and professional organizations. “It’s just phenomenal the legacy of the graduates out of that program and the impact they’ve had nationally on pharmacy,” said Marialice Bennett, a College of Pharmacy alumna who recently retired as director of the Ambulatory and Community Care residency program. Among notable graduates of the program during Latiolais’s twenty-fiveyear tenure: • Roger Anderson was head of the pharmacy division at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and spent many years in the private sector.138 He also served as assistant director of pharmacy at The Ohio State University Hospitals and director of pharmacy and central supply at Grant Hospital in Columbus. He received the college’s Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013.139 • Harold Godwin replicated Ohio State’s residency program at the University of Kansas Medical Center, where he spent thirty-four years as director of pharmacy. He was chair of the Department of Pharmacy Practice at the University of Kansas for twenty years and served as president of four organizations: the Kansas Pharmacists Association, the American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, and the American Pharmacists Association. Harold Godwin

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Christopher A. Rodowskas Jr., Pharmacy Administration, provides classroom instruction circa 1960s

• Sara White spent eleven years as director of pharmacy at the Stanford Hospital and Clinics. White wrote a report in 2001 on a crisis in pharmacy leadership in health systems that led to the ASHP Foundation/ASHP Center for Health-System Pharmacy Leadership.140 She served as president of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists from 1996 to 1997.

in 1967 and hospital-wide in 1968. Latiolais wanted pharmacists involved in every aspect of drug dispensing, and by 2002, about 80 percent of IV admixtures nationwide were being prepared by hospital pharmacy departments.142 When Latiolais started, White said, “nurses were making their own IV admixtures, and in a sense dispensing from their stockpiles, and only talking to a pharmacist over the phone if one was available.”143 In a 2010 profile of Latiolais in the “Heroes of Pharmacy” series in the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, Dennis B. Worthen said Latiolais’s vision “was to make pharmacy responsible for the complete medication cycle from the initial order through to the administration and charting of the drug for the patient.” Worthen wrote that “this system incorporated a decentralized clinical pharmacist. An important component to the implementation of the vision was to train technicians.”144 In 1971, Latiolais wrote that “the time is long past for leaders in pharmacy to continue to argue that only registered pharmacists can operate a typewriter.”145 Robert Weber, the Wexner Medical Center’s administrator of pharmacy services, said the Latiolais vision is still being implemented in 2016, with technicians increasingly responsible for compounding under a pharmacist’s medical direction and supervision. Weber said his job as director of the hospital pharmacy is to keep the spirit of Latiolais alive. “He’s a huge part of this department,” Weber said. “I tell people his legacy is not going to die on my shift. My job is to uphold his legacy and his memory here at the medical center for as long as I’m here.”146

Sara White

According to the College of Pharmacy website, Latiolais mentored 129 leaders in hospital pharmacy and pharmacy education “who continue to have an enormous impact on the institutional practice of pharmacy. Many of these and subsequent graduates hold prominent positions in the profession.”141 While Latiolais’s success can be measured in his students, he is best known for his contributions to the field. He instituted a twenty-four-hour pharmacy service at Ohio State’s University Hospitals, an innovation that was slow to catch on. And he focused on specialization of care, a familiar concept to twenty-first-century pharmacists, but a relatively new idea in the 1960s. Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy said the goal of a hospital pharmacy was to provide “the most suitable and effective forms of medications necessary to meet the specialized needs of the patients.” His greatest influence may be in the area of admixture, the mixing of medicines and sterile solutions for delivery to patients through an IV drip. Latiolais pioneered the practice in a small program at University Hospitals

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VIII: A Clinical Focus Laboratory work circa 1967

logical path for clinically focused graduate students, and so Ohio State’s administrative program suffered in the 1980s. Ohio State had no clear bachelor’s degree option leading to the administrative path.149 “Getting residents to come into the MS program became increasingly difficult because the question was, were you going to get a PharmD and then an MS? The PharmD at that point was not an entry-level degree,” Siegel said. “So you’d have to get your BS, and then a post-graduate PharmD degree. It was a critical time when the MS program almost closed its doors. The number of students were dwindling from five per class to one or two per class.” The nationally lauded program Clifton Latiolais built was in trouble. Siegel recalls a critical meeting with Philip Schneider, who took the helm of the residency program at the College of Pharmacy in 1983 and served as preceptor for ninety-nine residents. The two Ohio State graduates sat down at the Josephine and Jay Failer Fountain outside Rhodes Hall. “Phil and I met there and said, should we call it quits? Or should we figure out some way to revitalize the program? If we had no interest in pursuing recruitment and generating interest in the program, the program would probably die for lack of support. It was not a financial advantage to the college to run the program.” Siegel and Schneider outlined a path to a stronger program, making sure first that other hospital pharmacy directors were willing to put in an effort for recruitment. If they couldn’t place students in hospital residencies, they placed them in a pharmacy practice program within the college. “With the two of us—he at the college and me at the medical center—we had a pretty good revitalization of the program,” Siegel said.

Weber earned his bachelor’s degree from the College of Pharmacy in 1980 and went on to earn his MS and PharmD degrees. Upon receiving the Latiolais Award in 2007, Weber said this in his acceptance speech: I started in the graduate program at OSU three years before Clif’s retirement and was fortunate to have benefited from his philosophy and experience. In the spring of 1981, Clif gave a lecture on intravenous admixture programs. In that lecture, he quoted data from a 1979 article published in a pediatric journal that studied accuracy of pharmacists, nurses and physicians in calculating intravenous medication dosages. The results presented shocked me: children in every hospital were at risk for serious dosage calculation errors. However, there was an underlying theme of hope that Clif so eloquently imparted to us during that lecture more than twenty-six years ago. We learned that pharmacists can indeed make a difference and prevent these and other errors by implementing programs that get it right for every patient every time.147 As counted in 2015, the master’s program that Latiolais built boasts eight American Society of Health-System Pharmacists presidents, three American Pharmacists Association presidents and three winners of the Harvey A.K. Whitney Award for outstanding contributions to health-system pharmacy. Dozens of directors of pharmacy are Ohio State graduates. Paraphrasing another Ohio State graduate, White said: “The Latiolais program is now a family tree with branches all over the country and in every conceivable practice area.”148

Pressures from PharmD During the Latiolais years, perhaps a quarter of those who went through the residency program went on to clinical careers rather than administrative careers. Jerry Siegel, pharmacy director at the Ohio State Medical Center from 1993 to 2009, said the advent of PharmD programs provided a

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Pharmacy students with a doctor at Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, circa 1967

A key component was taking a new approach to recruitment. “We went out on the road,” Siegel said. One of his first stops was Xavier University in Latiolais’s home state of Louisiana. Xavier was a predominantly African American college where pharmacy students were almost all bound for retail pharmacy jobs. Kenneth Hale, who was assistant dean and had a relationship with Xavier University, helped Siegel Brandon Edgerson convince Brandon Edgerson and Edward Stemley to come to Ohio State in 1996. Edgerson went on to become an executive at Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital in Memphis, and Stemley became dean of the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences at Texas Southern University. “With them leading the way, we were able to attract other minorities from other programs, such as Howard University and Florida A&M,” Siegel said. “The diversity component of the program really started to kick in, and it was apparent that we were going to be able to provide post-graduate master’s education to everyone.” The challenge was always to recruit students who had already been in school for years and convince them to add a master’s degree to their experience. Once PharmD became an entry-level program, despite requiring six years of education, it became easier to attract students, Siegel said. After earning their pharmacy degrees with at least eight years of school behind them, students today can

take the twelve-month residency called PGY1, followed by a twelve-month specialized residency, PGY2, in one of nine fields. Students who complete both residencies also may earn a master’s degree in Health-System Pharmacy Administration. They also have the option to continue, earning a master’s in Health Administration. w “It’s very intense,” Siegel said. “You’ve got two years of residency plus the course work on top of it. The good thing about Ohio State is that we understand how to fit that all together.” Siegel points to “an incredible track record of success coming through the program,” with alumni serving as pharmacy administrators, hospital administrators, deans and leaders in the private sector.

Residencies in the Community The concept of community-based residencies—in some ways the foundation of pharmacy training in the apprentice programs of the nineteenth century— didn’t come into its own until the 1990s, and the first accreditation of such programs took place in 1999. Until then, institutions had provided residency training for clinical pharmacists. In 1996, the College of Pharmacy introduced an Ambulatory and Community Care residency program with Marialice Bennett as its first director. The program was the third in the country to receive accreditation.150 The “pharmaceutical care” movement began in the 1970s. The idea was a shift in thinking about caring for patients not just in a hospital setting and not just by filling prescriptions. Pharmacists saw their role as ensuring that patients are on the right medications and helping patients manage those medications.

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Maralice Bennett circa 1992–93

“It seems very logical, but it was not an easy shift,” Bennett said. The residency program website gives the history: The College of Pharmacy’s division of Pharmacy Practice and Administration established a national foothold on residency training in ambulatory care through the leadership of Professor Marialice Bennett. Established in 1995, the ambulatory care residency program has produced leaders who have been instrumental in elevating the role of community and ambulatory care pharmacists. Graduates of these programs have won multiple awards and led the nation in developing innovative practice sites.151 Bennett said Latiolais was an early proponent of this shift. “When I came back after having my first child, I was working part time in an ambulatory care environment, and I had the taste that I liked that relationship with patients—being in that long-term relationship with them, being able to help make it work in their everyday lives. Clif would be constantly saying we need to get clinical services in the outpatient world, we need to get community pharmacy into more of the clinical world. Clif was one of those people when he told you something and he saw you six months later, he’d ask you how you were doing on that.”152 Bennett said she also could see how a pharmacist could make a difference in a patient’s total health through a job at a private psychiatric hospital in the 1980s. “During that era, the discovery of kinder medicines than the older ones that we used allowed people to get de-institutionalized and be able to live relatively normal lives. The impact that medicines had and the impact of someone being able to care for those patients, that they could go out and get a job and have a family, I think that really

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PharmD residents consulting at the new James Hospital Pharmacy located in The James Cancer Hospital. The pharmacy provides medication, health screenings, consultation, health and wellness education and medication counseling to cancer patients.

pushed me more into that longitudinal care experience as well.” But there were few models, especially in community or outpatient care. Ohio State had a pharmacy, the Pharmaceutical Care Clinic, with a clinical arm called Clinical Partners, which accepted the first community resident. “We had what we called a lipid clinic,” Bennett said, “and we also did anticoagulation management out of that pharmacy. We started the concept of doing immunizations—that centered out of that pharmacy.” The pharmacy was sold to Walgreens, but Clinical Partners was run by faculty and remained a standalone clinical operation. Clinical Partners closed recently, but it had been a national model for new thinking in ambulatory and community clinical care. “We learned a lot from those experiences, and so we grew a partnership with Kroger, and we had a faculty member at some of the Kroger stores for a while.” Kroger pharmacies took on residents, and three former residents are with Kroger, driving the future of clinical services in Ohio. “Kroger has been a real leader in creating patient care services in the community world,” Bennett said, with some nurse practitioners working in partnership with pharmacists. “They have a dietician with Kroger that they’re working with as well, and they conduct grocery store tours for patients who have diabetes.” The College of Pharmacy also has a partnership with Uptown Pharmacy, an independent pharmacy in Westerville, Ohio, and Charitable Pharmacy, which operates out of a downtown Columbus church.

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Inside the Charitable Pharmacy of Central Ohio

Charitable Pharmacy, Bennett said, serves those who have gaps in insurance coverage or don’t have insurance but don’t qualify for other programs. “They in many ways serve as those patients’ healthcare provider. They’ll spend thirty to forty-five minutes with each patient, making sure they get their medications, making sure they understand it; they’ll check their blood sugar, blood pressure, and get them connected with resources,” she said.

information system, and contracts with insurance providers, health plans or pharmacy benefit managers to examine the pharmaceutical needs of individual Medicare patients. The program employs about ninety students, who gain practical experience by calling elderly patients to review their prescriptions and talk about what else they might be taking, including vitamins and supplements, that could interact with prescriptions. “It’s a tremendous education model,” Nahata said. “We’re not just talking about it in the classroom; we’re showing students how to treat diabetes, what are the national guidelines for treating asthma. They are aware of all the latest knowledge.” Nahata said the Medication Management Program reaches about 1,100 patients a week. “The institute really is providing service to patients; it’s teaching our students, and it’s doing research,” Nahata said. “And it’s externally funded completely—there’s no funding required from the college.” Ashley Coleman, a graduate of the community residency program, is director of the Medication Management Program. The Medication Management Program has grown from one pharmacist, one pharmacy technician and one student to eleven full- or part-time pharmacists, six pharmacy technicians and ninety students. The program grew out of a small space in Parks Hall to a 5,000-square-foot facility off campus. The need is growing, but capacity may be limited by the number of pharmacists and students the program can employ, Nahata said.

Medication Therapy Management The College of Pharmacy has recently established itself as a leader in medication management with the formation of the Institute for Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes, what director Milap Nahata described as a “think tank” for faculty members to collaborate on ideas for improving medication use and conducting clinical research in patients. The institute worked with OSU Health Plan to help develop a formulary, determining which drugs should be the preferred drug for common diseases, such as asthma, hypertension and diabetes.153 The institute is involved in the growing field of medication therapy management, which provides personal services to patients to make sure they are getting the best medications and are not at risk of suffering negative side effects or drug interactions. The Ohio State University Medication Management Program works with SinfoníaRx, a medication management

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Cover of The Philistine, left, and a page from the publication featuring “A Message to Garcia”

Bring Me the Message to Garcia Clifton Latiolais told his first-year master’s students to find and bring to him the message to Garcia. That was the request, and that was the extent of the instructions. The “Message to Garcia” is an essay that appeared in the magazine The Philistine and was written by the magazine’s publisher and editor, Elbert Hubbard. Latiolais’s unadorned instructions to find the “Message to Garcia” were a sideways reference to the essay itself: Don’t ask how, just make it happen. Calixto Garcia was a revolutionary leader in the Cuban uprising against Spanish rule near the end of the nineteenth century. On the brink of the Spanish-American War, President William McKinley prepared a message to General Garcia, whose precise whereabouts were unknown. Captain Andrew Rowan was given the task, which he completed, apparently without question or hesitation. Rowan was a hero to Hubbard, who wrote of the unquestioning way in which Rowan completed his mission. He contrasted that with the typical clerk of the day, who, he said, would ask a number of questions, seek the help of other clerks, and finally return to say there is no such man as Garcia. Students in the clinical pharmacy program may have attempted to ask questions about Latiolais’s “Message to Garcia” assignment, but they got no answers. Jerry Siegel said of Hubbard, the essayist: “He was writing about the state of the world and the economy, especially the Industrial Revolution in the United States, about how the workers were going on strike and forming unions, and the relationship between management and labor was so out of whack that

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

he said virtually every time someone was given a task, they would say ‘why?’ ‘what for?’ and ‘how much?’”154 The essay was reprinted millions of times in many languages throughout the world. Military leaders gave it to their soldiers. Written by an avowed socialist, it was nevertheless championed by leaders of industry. “Somebody would find it eventually, and then Clif would explain to them why this is an important message, that all the things that you can learn will never prepare you for the unknown,” Siegel said. “And at some point in time you’re going to be asked to do something where there is no previous answer. Yet you’re expected to come up with a solution. And you can run around like a chicken with your head cut off and say ‘how do you do this,’ but ultimately the responsibility is yours, you know what the outcome must be.” Siegel said he continued sharing the “Message to Garcia” when he became director of the program in 1993. “I had ‘The Message to Garcia’ bound in a hardbound notebook and given to them at graduation. And as their graduation present, it says ‘entrusted to carry the message.’ So every Ohio State alumnus from the master’s program has a copy of this book, and many of them have it on their back shelf of their office. And every now and then when somebody calls me and they have that unresolvable problem, I say ‘have you read the message lately?’” While Siegel still teaches the message of the essay, he finally had to abandon the Latiolais tradition of instructing the class to bring him the message. “One of my residents Googled it while I was talking to her and she told me what it was,” he said. “I went ‘well, that game’s over.’” The “Message to Garcia,” Siegel said, remains the tie that binds for the Ohio State pharmacy master’s and residency programs.

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IX: Bold, Independent Advances A Tradition of Leading the Way The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy has taken pride through the years at being first in academic rigor: first to have a three-year requirement in Ohio, first to require four years, and first to expand to five years for a bachelor’s degree. Ohio State often set the bar, and others followed. In the late eighteenth century, the new state standards for Ohio pharmacist licensing lacked an education requirement. Prospective druggists simply had to pass a test. But The Ohio State University’s pharmacy department moved quickly beyond minimum standards, establishing a science-based curriculum that expanded from two years to three years in only its second year of existence. It was the first school in the nation to require three years of classroom study for the Graduate in Pharmacy degree. Bob Buerki points out in his centennial history of the college that tough standards brought a high dropout rate: during the lifespan of the three-year degree, sixty-eight students completed the program out of 165 who enrolled. Some, he wrote, were “unable to withstand its rigor, most unwilling to endure a program far in excess of the standards of contemporary practice and the minimal requirements of the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy for licensure.”155 There were six other pharmacy schools in the state, most with healthy enrollments. According to Buerki, in 1896 “Ohio State yielded its lonely leadership position, substituting a standard two-year ‘short course’ leading to a four-year ‘long course’ leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy.” That combination was implemented by the University of Wisconsin

Pharmacy Practice and Science associate professor Carolyn Brackett in 2015

under Edward Kremers four years earlier.156 About one in six students completed the four-year program, with 110 students graduating in the first twenty-eight years that it was offered. The two-year certification program was discontinued for new students in 1925 in favor of a four-year bachelor’s degree program, and Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy again took the lead in rigorous requirements. Just three universities followed Ohio State’s lead, and a four-year bachelor of science program wouldn’t become the national standard until 1932.157 Buerki called the move by Dean Clair A. Dye “a bold, independent advance.”158 Graduate education came in the 1940s, even as enrollment was weakened by World War II. Ohio State first offered a PhD specialization in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology in 1942. The first graduate was Arthur Schwarting, whose dissertation was “A Study of Domestic Ergot of Wheat and Rye,” published in 1945. The first master’s degree was earned two years earlier by Roy Darlington, who earned his PhD in 1947. The PhD programs and the Master of Science degree in Pharmacy were created by Dean Bernard Christensen. He arrived at Ohio State in 1939 and set about hiring PhDs to the faculty to create a graduate program. His first hires were Ole Gisvold (who would win the Ebert Prize twice and go on to head the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Minnesota), L. David Hiner (who would go on to be founding dean of the University of Utah College of Pharmacy) and Earl P. Guth (a longtime Ohio State

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Dean Lloyd Parks and a grad student circa 1962

“A Torturous Forty-Year Process”

faculty member). Jack Orr followed in 1943 (he was dean of the University of Washington School of Pharmacy starting in 1956). The war years had depleted students and resources, but Christensen and his faculty oversaw a slow and steady start to graduate studies. The debate over a six-year PharmD, dormant since the 1930s, was renewed after World War II. While some schools pressed for a doctorate degree for pharmacists, Ohio State struck another bold compromise: a fiveyear requirement for the bachelor’s program, adding to the rigor but not providing the title doctor. Predictably, many students looked elsewhere. “Once again, enrollment plummeted and criticism mounted,” Buerki wrote, “but Dean Christensen and his faculty remained convinced of the soundness of their educational requirement for modern pharmacy practice.”159 Eventually, the rest of the schools followed Ohio State’s lead. All pharmacy students would be entering five-year programs by 1960. By that time, professors John Nelson, Anthony Ridolfo and Arthur Tye were guiding young pharmaceutical science students. The graduate program in Pharmaceutical Administration had been established, and Christensen stepped down as dean in 1956. The new dean, Lloyd Parks, would serve twenty years and increase the faculty from ten to thirty-five. Parks’ tenure saw the growth in scientific research and hospital pharmacy practice, but few debates over program length or rigor. The long debate over the PharmD degree would be left mostly to his successor. For decades, Ohio State had been a national leader in degree requirements, but for the PharmD degree, the College of Pharmacy found itself dragged forward into a program many here did not want.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

Professor Buerki, who spent fifty years as a pharmacy professor and wrote a history of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, describes the national push to implement the PharmD as “a torturous forty-year process to get everyone on board.”160 Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy was one of the holdouts against the efforts of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. “The places you think would be behind it, like Wisconsin or Ohio State, were really resisting the change,” Buerki said.161 Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy had a five-year program in pharmacy that awarded a bachelor’s degree, but programs elsewhere were moving to a six-year program that awarded the title doctor of pharmacy. The PharmD degree, which took hold in California in the 1950s, envisioned an expanded role for pharmacists as consultants and clinicians, but the patient-care system didn’t yet recognize this role. Albert Soloway was the fifth dean of the College of Pharmacy during the PharmD debate in the 1980s. Soloway, in a 2012 interview, recalled that in his view, the change was driven by a desire to increase the stature of pharmacy graduates rather than by practical needs. “The only reason for that change was that the pharmacist would be called doctor,” he said. “I saw no clear advantage … for pharmacists to have their academic program increase in duration.”162 Training for pharmacists had increased from three years to four and later to five, but “the functions of the pharmacist in society had not medically changed,” he said.

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Robert Notari, Pharmaceutics and Pharmeutical Chemistry circa 1968

Albert Soloway in 1978

One goal, Soloway said, was for pharmacists to have a greater role in consultation. But that greater role wouldn’t mean greater compensation. “When people go into see the pharmacist, they don’t pay him or her for the time spent counseling them; they pay the pharmacist for the drug—period,” Soloway said. “I felt we were deluding pharmacy students to think they were going to be the drug advisor when there was no charge for their advice.” That struggle continues. Pharmacists have long sought a greater consultative role, and there is a national push to have pharmacists provide some basic health services and be compensated for doing so. It remains to be seen whether Soloway’s reasons for resistance will be proven valid.

Beginnings of Clinical Pharmacy Soloway took over as dean in 1977, arriving at the same time as four clinical pharmacists hired by his predecessor. Clinical pharmacy would establish itself and, starting in 1980, the College of Pharmacy offered a PharmD as a program of study that followed the five-year bachelor’s degree. Milap Nahata was one of the four clinical faculty members hired in 1977. He had become aware of the concept of clinical pharmacy just a few years earlier, making a last-minute switch when he arrived in Pittsburgh from Mumbai, India, to pursue a master’s degree.

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Students analyzing experiment results

Ohio State’s first step into PharmD was a two-year post-baccalaureate program. Four students were admitted to that program annually during the early years. By the time PharmD was implemented as an entry-level program in place of the five-year bachelor’s degree program in 1998, Ohio State had seventeen years of curriculum development, clinical partners and research opportunities in place. Resistance to the entry-level PharmD came, Buerki said, partly because pharmaceutical science faculty didn’t want to cede status to the new clinical pharmacy concept. PharmD, he said, “would mean that pharmaceutical science was no longer at the forefront of the curriculum. It would have to be clinical stuff. And so, when we were maybe leading the pack for the professional program up through the five-year program, we were one of the last to get a six-year PharmD program.”164 In the end, there was little choice. Soloway and others found themselves in an untenable position: if they continued to ignore the national movement to a six-year program conferring a doctorate, they would be leaving Ohio State pharmacy students less marketable upon graduation. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy appointed a commission, of which Nahata was a member, to settle the debate about what should be the entry-level pharmacy degree. The commission worked from

“I immediately fell in love with the idea that you could work with patients and help them use the medications better,” he said in an interview. But clinical pharmacy was a fairly new concept, and many schools wondered if maybe it was just a fad, Nahata said.163 Early proponents saw a gap between patient and physician when it came to use of medication. The pharmacist, it was felt, was in a strong position to monitor and advise patients on the use of their prescriptions and to advise doctors on medication-related issues. Milap Nahata Nahata earned his PharmD and completed a residency in Buffalo. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education was encouraging schools to offer clinical pharmacy education, and Dean Parks recognized clinical pharmacy as more than a fad. Nahata and his colleagues set about building a program. “There were very limited courses in clinical pharmacy, so we had to develop them—strengthen the courses that existed before and develop new courses,” Nahata said. “And then we had to develop practice sites in the hospitals and other places so that our students can see the varying roles of pharmacists in patient care. The third goal was to develop a clinical research program.”

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IX: Bold, Independent Advances

Robert W. Curley Jr. conducts research in fat soluble vitamins and their potential for cancer prevention

Changing Face of Students

1989 to 1992 and concluded with PharmD as the only entry-level degree in pharmacy. The recommendations were adopted by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Patil credits Richard Reuning, chair at the time of the Division of Pharmacy Practice, with facilitating the inevitable transition. Ultimately, implementing the PharmD program fell to the sixth dean of the College of Pharmacy, John Cassady, who followed Soloway in 1988. According to Brueggemeier, Cassady created a program committee in the College of Pharmacy and worked with the three other pharmacy schools in Ohio—at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio Northern University and the University of Toledo—to present the new degree to the Ohio Board of Regents. “Dean Cassady was able to convince the university that this degree should be a graduate professional degree, similar to the graduate professional degrees in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and optometry,” Brueggemeier said. “The degree transition from the BS Pharmacy degree to the PharmD degree is a major legacy of Dean Cassady’s tenure.”165

With the phasing out of the five-year BS program, the undergraduate student population took a hit, and the face of Ohio State pharmacy students changed. “We went from basically having in the BS Pharmacy 18-, 19-year-olds in class, to the PharmD having 23-, 24-year-olds in class,” said Brueggemeier. “So we transitioned from an undergraduate population which was undergraduate at a big university kind of nature and culture, to a graduate professional student, many of them in their mid-20s … focusing on becoming professional pharmacists.”166 Students were now more likely to be married and more likely to have been in the workforce for a few years before making a career change. “We saw that shift in kind of the student population, the demographics of the students, the kind of cultural nature of the students, from a typical undergraduate to now a much more mature graduate student,” Brueggemeier said.

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Dean John Cassady conferring graduation honors circa 1995

The adoption of a four-year bachelor’s degree (BSPS) leading to entry into a PharmD program came in 1998; again, Ohio State found itself leading the way. Buerki called Ohio State’s BSPS program “one of the most successful in the United States as far as the number of students.” It allows students an option to enter the PharmD program or pursue other aspects of pharmaceutical research. After a six-year PharmD program, many students are tired of school and too burdened with debt to continue in post-graduate research.167 But the PharmD program remains the main draw for BSPS students. “It was developed specifically to groom students to go into graduate programs in pharmaceutical sciences, but I think the word out on the street was that if you went into this program you had a better chance of getting into the professional program,” Buerki said. The BSPS program now provides for a pre-clinical track—the Healthcare Professions Pathway—for students going into the PharmD or similar programs and a pharmaceutical science track—the Drug Development and Discovery Pathway—for students going into a graduate program or research. The twotrack approach launched for the 2015–16 school year.168

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

The next curriculum change will come in the fall of 2016 with the introduction of a more integrated approach to teaching pharmacy around major areas of therapy. Dean Mann explained that students will “understand the products, the pharmaceutical and pharmaceutics kinds of decisions that are being made that make one product better than another, the options in terms of the products, the medicinal chemistry aspects of the different products as well as the general pharmacology and applied therapeutics—that each individual product has to make a difference in your particular life as an individualized therapy versus group treatments.” Mann said there will be streams through that curriculum that involve management skills, leadership skills, drug-information skills and teaching skills. “All pharmacists teach,” he said. “They teach individuals about the drug that they’re going to take; they teach their staffs about what they’re trying to accomplish as a group; they teach management about the things that they would be able to do better; and some of them teach within our college, which we greatly appreciate.”

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PharmD students celebrate graduation

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IX: Bold, Independent Advances

Doctorates for Pharmacists While the modern movement toward the PharmD degree took place over several decades in the latter half of the twentieth century, the debate over the title doctor can trace its roots to the previous century. Colleges in the District of Columbia and Tennessee offered doctorates in pharmacy based on coursework in the early 1870s. In 1873, the Conference of Schools of Pharmacy rejected the conferring of a doctor of pharmacy degree except when it was honorary—the only motion that was approved by the troubled conference that year. That left intact the Maryland College of Pharmacy’s doctorate for graduates who had been practicing for ten years and who had demonstrated a high level of scientific attainment and service to the profession. But the Conference of Schools of Pharmacy would only last another ten years, and doctor of pharmacy degrees existed at seven or more schools by 1897. George B. Kauffman, the first dean of Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy, earned an honorary PharmD from Scio College in 1894.169 Years later, the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) attempted to impose standards on the degree, but in 1932, APhA President Townes R. Leigh complained that “the title, Doctor of Pharmacy, has suffered greatly by free and easy use.” His recommendation, which was adopted, was a requirement of three years of graduate study after a four-year bachelor’s degree. The following year, the committee tightened those requirements and also established

an end to the degree. “After July 1, 1938, the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy shall not be given for work in course,” the APhA decreed.170 The PharmD was ended for a time but returned with renewed vigor, with blessings from the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education in 1948. It would only be after great debate that it became the standard for practical pharmacy education, with all schools required to offer the PharmD by 2000.  

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X: Students and Student Organizations

Many Chapters The meetings are held every Monday evening at seven o’clock in the Pharmacy lecture room, Chemical Hall. Papers on pharmaceutical subjects are read and discussed and quizzes on pharmacy, chemistry and allied subjects are conducted. About once a month a special meeting is held, at which time the Association is addressed by some prominent pharmacist of the city or State. The members of the Association wear a very neat pin made in the form of the emblem in the above cut. The president of the society has the honor of wearing a beautiful jeweled pin which was presented to the Association by Professor Kauffman. The Association is young in years, or, rather, months, but it has already done very good work. In 1908, students formed a chapter of Phi Delta Chi, a pharmacy and chemistry society that had started in Ann Arbor in 1883. Rho Pi Phi, a pharmacy fraternity for Jewish students, followed fourteen years later.

The first three graduates in the original two-year pharmacy program at The Ohio State University received no degrees and therefore were not part of the regular graduation ceremony in 1887. To compensate, the pharmacy students ordered their own plug hats (probably top hats but possibly bowlers), canes and boutonnieres to match the celebratory attire of the graduating seniors. The Lantern observed that the “plugs” for pharmacy were of a more modern style than those of their graduating counterparts.171 The first pharmacy-related student association, beyond class officers, came in 1893, when students in chemistry and pharmacy created the Ohio State Chemical Association, which sponsored biweekly lectures and reports on student research. In 1900, the Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association organized with about thirty students, including one woman. The Makio yearbook of 1901 described the new organization’s purpose as to “further the educational and social interests of the students in the Department of Pharmacy.”172

Chemistry class 1907

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Richard Solove with members of the Junior American Pharmaceutical Association in the 1948 Makio

In May 1925, a chapter of Kappa Psi joined the student organizations. The Xi chapter survives, although it was mostly dormant for much of the 1930s and ’40s and for several years in the 1990s. The fraternity welcomed women for the first time in 1977. Phi Rho Alpha, a pharmacy recognition society, was formed in 1927, and Rho Chi, another academic honorary society, followed in 1934. Rho Chi’s Upsilon chapter remains active, open to PharmD students in the top 20 percent of their class. The chapter offers mentorship, including class-specific “survival guides” to help incoming students.173 In 1931, the faculty and student senate created a student council, which still exists. A women’s pharmacy fraternity, Kappa Epsilon, was formed at Ohio State in 1926 and reconstituted in 1939. The national professional fraternity survives, but Ohio State’s Epsilon chapter is not active. In 1941, the Junior American Pharmaceutical Association formed at Ohio State and soon became the largest such organization in the country. Five years later, when Richard Solove was the association’s president, The Spur was launched as its official journal.

Solove graduated in 1948 and practiced pharmacy until 1963, when he sold his three drugstores to build the first shopping malls in Columbus. The fortune he made in real estate resulted in $27 million in gifts for cancer research at Ohio State University, including a $20 million gift to the James Cancer Hospital in 1998.174 The cancer center now bears his name: The Arthur D. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. The Junior American Pharmaceutical Association is now known as the American Pharmacists Association–Academy of Student Pharmacists (APhA-ASP). Other student organizations in the College of Pharmacy include the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Student Chapter, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists Student Chapter, the Christian Pharmacy Fellowship International Student Chapter, the National Community Pharmacists Association, the Pharmacy Club, the Student National Pharmaceutical Association, and the Student Society of Health-System Pharmacists. The Generation Rx Collaborative is a student organization that provides training on prescription drug misuse. Other student groups have formed to organize an annual talent show and an annual chili cook-off.175

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Josephine Sitterle Failer circa 1984

A Formal Alumni Group The college also has an active alumni society, which was formed in 1981, nearly a century after the first students graduated. Josephine Sitterle Failer, from the class of 1939, served as the first president. Bill Ague, a 1950 graduate who served as president of the College of Pharmacy Alumni Society in the 1990s, was one of its charter members. He said pharmacy professor Jack Beal had always taken it upon himself to keep in contact with alumni, and that effort directly led to the formation of the association. Ague said Dr. Beal—himself a 1952 graduate—was not interested in fundraising and didn’t think a state school needed to worry about fundraising, so much of the early emphasis was more about networking.176 Ague said Dean Soloway saw the need for a more robust organization, and Beal and Josephine Sitterle Failer, were instrumental in organizing the group into a formal society. Failer had long been active with the alumni association at the university level. She had received the university’s Distinguished Service Award in 1964 and would earn an honorary Doctorate of the Humanities award in 1987, a week before her death at 77. The College of Pharmacy Alumni Society’s emphasis shifted to include fundraising along with professional development in the 1990s, Ague said, with

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Dean Cassady recognizing the need for alumni support with scholarships and fellowships. “Our goal was to help students,” Ague said. Support by the alumni society for the college remains strong. In 2015, the society endowed an additional $150,000 for student scholarships as part of the Ohio Scholarship Challenge initiative that was led by the university. The generosity of the group has led to them being one of the top fifteen donors to the College of Pharmacy and one of the most philanthropic alumni societies at the university. Like many of the societies at the university, the Alumni Society saw a decline in membership from its height in the 1990s. Despite this decline, the society offers a wide variety of programming from tailgates and networking events to book discussions and mentoring opportunities with students. They remain dedicated to providing scholarship funds for the college, and the alumni society scholarship provides two students with scholarship money each year. In 2015 they were once again awarded the Outstanding Society Award by the university Alumni Association. At the end of 2015, the Alumni Society had about 600 members continuing its fundraising, giving and networking traditions. The society also honors its own at an annual banquet. Ague and his daughter, Barbara Ague, a 1977 College of Pharmacy graduate, are the only father and daughter to have

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won the College of Pharmacy Distinguished Alumni Award—the father in 1996 and the daughter in 2012. They also are the only father and daughter to lead the alumni society, with Barbara Ague finishing a two-year term in 2014. The College of Pharmacy Alumni Society has awarded six people its Lifetime Achievement Award—those who have made “stellar contributions.” It has also given the Josephine Sitterle Failer Award to thirty-eight recent graduates who have made “outstanding contributions to community or professional service.” And 131 have earned the Distinguished Alumni Award. The Jack L. Beal Postbaccalaureate Alumni Award honors those with advanced degrees who have contributed to research, scholarship or service. The alumni society also provides an occasional Friend of the College Award to individuals who are not alumni but have contributed to the college. Five people have been so honored: two in 2011, one in 2013 and two in 2015. In 2016, the alumni society moved away from a dues-based membership system to a more inclusive model. All alumni of the college are now members, with additional benefits being given to those who give a donation to the college. With a strong base of support from alumni following in the footsteps of Josephine Failer, the society continues to provide excellent programming and support for the college, its students and its alumni.

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Ramona McCarthy Hawkins at her induction into the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame in 2008

A Legacy of Inclusive Education Women have always been among those pursuing careers in pharmacy at Ohio State University, starting with the first class in 1885. According to a report in the Lantern, by 1976 a College of Pharmacy assistant dean was speculating that parity might be coming soon: The minority status of women in the Ohio State College of Pharmacy is coming to an end, as undergraduate enrollment rapidly approaches a 50-50 male to female ratio, said Frank W. Bope, assistant dean and secretary of the college.177 The speculation was a bit premature. At the time, there were still three men for every two women in the undergraduate program. But in 1966, the ratio had been 3:1. In the graduate program, the ratio in 1976 was 3:1, but it had been 13:1 in 1966. Today, women outnumber men in the College of Pharmacy—the ratio at the start of 2015 was three women for every two men. For minority students, the story was much the same. On one hand, the College of Pharmacy always welcomed African American students—one of its early graduates, in the 1890s, was the son of an escaped slave. But it also has struggled at times to attract minorities in significant numbers. Although there were women in pharmacy and black pharmacists in Ohio from the beginning of the twentieth century and earlier, someone like Ramona McCarthy Hawkins, who was both, was still somewhat rare. For McCarthy Hawkins, pharmacy was the family business. Her grandfather and three uncles were pharmacists and her elder brother went into pharmacy. That a black woman could aspire to a career in pharmacy in the 1940s was exceptional in itself. McCarthy Hawkins went on to become a leader in her field and an advocate for minority recruitment at her alma mater.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

McCarthy Hawkins graduated in 1950 with her bachelor’s degree and then won a two-year research fellowship. She then married and followed her husband to Baltimore, where Dean Bernard Christensen recommended her to Johns Hopkins University Hospitals. Upon arriving at Johns Hopkins, she was told she couldn’t be hired: They hadn’t realized she was black.178 She instead went to work for the National Heart and Lung Institute, part of the National Institutes for Health, as a research chemist. In the 1960s, she moved to the Food and Drug Administration, where she worked for forty-four years. For a scientist who was neither male nor white, talent alone wasn’t enough for McCarthy Hawkins to succeed. She became a member of FEW (Federally Employed Women) and BIG (Blacks in Government), organizations that provided support and advocacy. In 1977 and 1978, she served as president of BIG. She also served two years as president of the National Pharmaceutical Association, which was founded in 1947 as a professional organization and advocacy group focused on the minority community.179 After retirement in 1996, McCarthy Hawkins was appointed to the Maryland State Board of Pharmacy and then won election to the board twice, serving until 2006. She also turned to philanthropy, funding a $15,000 scholarship endowment with the National Pharmaceutical Association Foundation. At Ohio State, the Ramona McCarthy Hawkins Scholarship Fund in Pharmacy grants $750 a year to a worthy member of the Student National Pharmaceutical Association. She also endowed scholarships at the University of Toledo, Xavier University, Howard University, Florida A&M University, Texas Southern University and the University of Maryland. For her advocacy of women and minorities in pharmacy and for her contributions to the field, McCarthy Hawkins was named to the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame in 2008.

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Arthur Kelton Lawrence during the Spanish-American War

Arthur Kelton Lawrence, the son of an escaped slave, was the first African American to earn a pharmacy degree at Ohio State. That was in 1897. Lawrence’s middle name is from an important place for the family, Kelton House on Town Street in Columbus. Kelton House was a shelter for slaves escaping through the Underground Railroad. His mother, Martha, and her sister, Pearl, were found in the bushes outside the Kelton House in 1864, fleeing the Civil War South. Martha was too sick to continue their journey, and the Keltons took her in.190 Ten years later, she married the Kelton’s cabinetmaker, Thomas Lawrence, a black man who had been born free. Their son, Arthur Lawrence, was among the earliest students at the College of Pharmacy. After graduation, he served as a hospital steward in the SpanishAmerican War and then returned to Columbus and earned a medical degree from Starling-Ohio Medical College, the country’s first teaching hospital. The college and affiliated St. Francis Hospital were in downtown Columbus on the site of what is now Grant Medical Center. Starling-Ohio eventually became part of Ohio State University, making it the predecessor to the Wexner Medical Center. Dr. Lawrence became a private practice physician in Kansas, first in Kansas City and then in Wichita, reportedly making house calls on a motorcycle. He married in Kansas and returned to Columbus in 1921 when his mother became ill. He set up practice on East Long Street, according to a history written by Columbus physician William Kenneth Allen.191 Lawrence served as senior choir director at the Second Baptist Church and was a member of the Masonic Lodge and the NAACP.

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A half century after Arthur Lawrence graduated from Ohio State University, Roy C. Darlington of Massillon, Ohio, became the first black man to earn a master’s degree and a PhD in pharmacy studies. He did both at The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy and went on to be dean of the Howard University College of Pharmacy. Darlington graduated with his bachelor’s degree in 1941 and earned the College of Pharmacy’s first fellowship from the American Pharmaceutical Association.192 In 1942, he was mentioned in a Lantern article about a mysterious “wonder drug” that proved worthless. The article was written by the Lantern science editor, Glenn Sonnedecker, also a pharmacy student, who started off by mentioning the “piquant smell of cinnamon” in Darlington’s lab. Darlington’s Roy C. Darlington research focus at the time was cinnamon, but on this day he was working to identify a supposed “wonder drug” that someone sent to the college. That the drug was medically worthless seemed certain. But Darlington decided to continue attempts at the drug’s identification. Such work depends largely on microscope examinations of cell structures. This is no mean job, for there are thousands of possibilities in the plant kingdom. Various types of cells which are present indicate that the whole plant is probably used—stem, leaves, flowers, root and all. The Wonder Drug does not conform to the description of the official drugs which consists of the entire plant or the part used. “It’s the Wonder Drug all right,” says Darlington, “—I’m still wondering what it is.” The article writer, Sonnedecker, would become an eminent pharmacy historian, revising Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy and writing many other works of pharmacy history. Darlington earned his master’s degree and published with Dean Christensen an article in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: “Oils of Cinnamon—Properties and Assays.” He then earned another fellowship in 1946 to continue his studies. He earned his PhD in 1947 and went to Howard University to teach pharmacy. Darlington became chair of the department in 1955 and then dean after Pharmacy was made a college of the university in 1972.193

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Lantern archival image

Students Providing Drug Education The story may be apocryphal or exaggerated, but a photo in the May 26, 1971, Lantern caused a stir. Under the heading, “Greenhouse Gone to Pot,” the photo, captured by photographer Jim Strock, shows marijuana growing in the pharmacy greenhouse “for research and teaching aid purposes,” according to the caption. A student is said to have tried scaling the building to reach the prized plant. The attempt was unsuccessful, and the plants were given added security. Drugs, the illegal kind, go hand-in-hand with pharmacy education, and the College of Pharmacy has a long history of sharing the dangers of abuse and misuse of the products it researches and compounds. In recent years, the focus has moved to the problem of misuse of prescription medications. The Generation Rx Initiative began in The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy in 2007 and has since grown to national influence. Through a partnership with the Cardinal Health Foundation that started in 2009, Generation Rx produces teaching toolkits to provide education on drug safety. In 2014, Cardinal and Generation Rx introduced the Medication Safety Patrol toolkit for use in elementary schools.180 Generation Rx also puts on an annual conference to spread the word about drug misuse at colleges and universities. The College of Pharmacy also runs the Generation Rx Laboratory at COSI, the Center of Science and Industry, in downtown Columbus. The teaching laboratory has attracted nearly 10,000 visitors since opening in 2012. And it’s not just for show: pharmacy students use the space for independent study projects. Generation Rx was cofounded by Kenneth Hale, clinical professor in

Pharmacy Practice and Administration, and Nicole Kwiek, clinical assistant professor and director of undergraduate studies. Hale remembers the drug outreach efforts in his days as a College of Pharmacy student at Ohio State. It wasn’t something he was involved in then, but he remembers the demonstrations offered at area high schools. Students would inject rabbits and rats with amphetamines—“stuff that you couldn’t do now,” he said.181 That program started in the early 1970s and ran into the 1980s. In 1981, Pharmacy students did 121 demonstrations at schools through the Drug Abuse Education Committee.182 The focus then was street drugs, but today’s Generation Rx Initiative focuses on legally available drugs. “The interesting thing about this is we’re talking about prescription medications. We’re not talking about cocaine and heroin,” Hale said. “These (prescription) drugs can really help you, but if they’re not used properly, they can really hurt you—and people die. That’s a new iteration of drug education in this century.”183 Hale, former assistant dean for professional and external affairs, is also associate director of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Drug Misuse Prevention and Recovery. HECAOD opened in the fall of 2014 and is a cooperative of Ohio State’s College of Pharmacy, College of Social Work, Office of Student Life, Generation Rx Initiative and Collegiate Recovery Community (an on-campus community for students dealing with addiction). The center started as a federal program, but funding was cut in 2012. The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation helped keep things going with a $2 million gift, and the former head of the program for the U.S. Department of Education now serves as its director at Ohio State. The center has a national focus on helping college and community leaders with programs and policies that reduce problems associated with the misuse of alcohol and other drugs.

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Awards and Recognition


XI: Looking Ahead Assistant Professor Yizhou Dong in 2015

In January 1907, three pharmacists attempted to look ahead fifty years to the future of pharmacy. If they looked back fifty years, they would have seen huge changes to their profession and the education of its practitioners. J.W.T. Knox of the University of Michigan, Harry B. Mason of ParkeDavis, and Fred D. Nelligar, a pharmacy owner in Norfolk, Virginia, took turns envisioning the state of pharmacy in 1957 for the 1907 new year’s edition of the The Druggists Circular.195 Mason had succeeded Knox in 1903 as chair of the Section on Education and Legislation of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Nelligar described himself in the article as “a contented drug clerk.” “If signs mean anything at all, pharmacy will occupy a comparatively unimportant place fifty or seventy-five years hence,” Knox said to begin. He reasoned that better hygiene, not drugs, would make people healthier and a better understanding of drugs would eliminate overprescribing. “The self-drugging of the public, never so great as at present, indicates a state of popular credulity and lack of knowledge so lamentably stupendous that may well amaze the future student of our history.” A move toward socialism, he predicted, would lead to nationalized healthcare without the need for local druggists. (Presumably, one would get prescriptions through the mail, although Knox doesn’t explain how druggists would be replaced.)

Mason took a more conservative approach, basing his prediction for the future on contemporary conditions. That meant laws restricting narcotic drugs and a crackdown on misrepresentation of patent medicines. He was overly conservative in predicting that by 1957, every state would require pharmacists to have two to four years of high school before beginning their studies. He was more accurate in envisioning bigger and bigger drugstores, many owned by chains. Nelligar took the chain concept to the extreme, imagining Amalgamated Drug Stores Ltd. owning 25,000 stores, or 95 percent of the total U.S. drugstores. The predictions were for 1957. After another half century, we can see that predictions of consolidation have proven somewhat accurate. There are 67,000 drugstores nationwide, including those in hospitals and other institutions, and two companies own about 10,000 each.196 There is no pharmacy monopoly, but big chains have considerable influence on the state of the industry. Looking ahead fifty years is a risky enterprise. Roles and processes change in unpredictable ways. At The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, technicians create admixtures under the supervision of pharmacists,

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XI: Looking Ahead

Professor Lane Wallace offers instruction to undergraduate students in 2015

a process that includes video monitoring of every step. Nationally, billions of prescriptions are delivered through the mail, although not as many as some predicted a few years ago.197 One private pharmaceutical company has earned FDA approval for a machine that creates tablets through 3-D printing.198 Could the future pharmacy look like an ATM? Or a home printer? Will pharmacists be largely supplanted by automated processes? Will pharmacists play a more significant role as advisors to patients and physicians? Will whatever lines delineate areas of medical research continue to blur as scientists gain greater understanding of the cause of disease? The College of Pharmacy’s five-year strategic plan, adopted in 2015, points to a changing, uncertain future for pharmacy. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will change the marketplace, but the specific impact is unknown. Federal policies will continue to have significant ramifications for delivery of healthcare. Federal investment in research is declining. Competition among schools has increased, and jobs in pharmacy are getting harder to find.199 Dean Henry Mann said Ohio State College of Pharmacy graduates are being prepared for whatever role the future brings.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

“We prepare students with an eye to thirty to forty years of practice,” he said. “They have to be able to function in today’s healthcare environment immediately—practice-ready when they graduate. And they have to be having an eye toward what’s developing in the future. The future is rapidly evolving.”200 The five-year strategic plan foresees a future for the pharmacist as provider. For more than a century, pharmacists have seen themselves as potential providers of patient care. There has been significant movement toward this goal, partly because pharmacy chains are eager to provide more direct health-related services to customers. “Pharmacy practitioners are increasingly engaged in community outreach, are at the frontline of healthcare teams, and have an important voice in issues involving human health,” wrote Dean Henry Mann in the introduction to the strategic plan. The strategic plan says Ohio State will “advocate for the provision of pharmacist-led care across Ohio and globally” and “actively contribute to the national movement to obtain provider status for pharmacists.” Advocacy takes place at all levels at the College of Pharmacy, Mann said, including among students. Student groups contact members of

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XI: Looking Ahead

Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy senior researcher Yulin Ren in 2015

Congress to explain the cost and care benefits of provider status. The college is less concerned with the details of reimbursement model proposals and “more interested in the larger issue of the pharmacists’ role in the healthcare system,” Mann said. “I believe that is a fair target for advocacy for a college of pharmacy because that’s what we do—we are preparing the people for that future.” Mann is a graduate of the University of Kentucky, which he called a pioneer school in moving the pharmacy field from product-oriented to clinical. “That was in the ’70s and early ’80s. In the ’80s, schools of pharmacy started to pick up more focus on making their graduates leaders in drug information dissemination and teamwork. In the ’90s and the early 2000s, we moved that to actually having practices where you took on responsibility, and we called that pharmaceutical care.” Healthcare in the future could be even more centralized, either through government-managed reimbursement or market-driven health insurance programs. Any model should have a role for pharmaceutical care, Mann said. “In each of those models, the pharmacists can do really well,” he said. “But how rapidly it all changes can be very much determined by the political will of the country.” Looking ahead fifty years, Mann said he expects pharmacists will

continue to control the quality of pharmaceutical products and the distribution of drug therapies. But he said that won’t be the primary role because the mechanisms for drug delivery and the nature of drugs are likely to change. Pharmacists will have to be ready to deal with changing biologics and therapy management, especially as more complicated, specialized treatments become greatly more expensive. “I believe that our interface with the healthcare system will change, so it’s not so much outside of the healthcare system as a working part of the healthcare system,” Mann said. “Whoever that healthcare system provider is fifty years from now, whether it’s five large insurance groups across the country, whether it’s individual state-based insurance groups, or whether it’s one large pharmacy provider, they will all have a role for pharmacists. There still has to be a distribution system; it may still be very much communitybased as pharmacies are today. But I would also see those pharmacies that are community-based would be more of a healthcare center for that neighborhood as opposed to a product-oriented pharmacy. There’d be a nurse clinician in there, maybe optometry, much more like small clinics, as opposed to distribution of sundries, hair products, those kinds of things.” But fifty years is a long time, and “we’re not the only people trying to affect that fifty-year outcome,” Mann said.

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XI: Looking Ahead

“Let’s say the reimbursement mechanisms emphasize primary care. Then, the pharmacist’s role could be very different than if the mechanisms stay much like they are, where the higher incentives are in specialty care,” Mann said. “That leaves a lot of room for the pharmacists to be that primary care provider at a minor ailment area, chronic management area and the complex care area.” Whatever the outcome, this is an interesting time to go into pharmacy. “I think this is the golden age for pharmacists in the healthcare system,” Mann said. “The reimbursement models for all of healthcare are under tremendous pressure, and it’s much more likely that ten years from now, those who are paying for healthcare are going to demand that a pharmacist is providing medication management for chronic care and that the pharmacist at the front line is able to do early self-care and minor ailment care for the individual and be paid for those efforts. So it won’t be you sold an OTC [over-the-counter] product, but that you actually dealt with the problem and you took responsibility for its resolution or sending the person further up the chain to get a different level of care.”

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

The provider model isn’t only important at the corner drugstore. Mann’s focus has been in critical care, such as with transplant cases or advanced cancer—cases that are very expensive to treat. The pharmacist can play an important role in critical care cases not only for the quality of life of the patient, but in reducing costs considerably, including helping the patient avoid future medical expenses. “It’s not the resolution to everything, but medication management is one of the most key elements to successful care of those patients with complex diseases,” Mann said. Whatever changes we do see, Mann said Ohio State graduates will be ready. “We have prepared our last decade of graduates, and our next decade of graduates will be even better prepared to be that personal care deliverer for medication management. And we have all kinds of advanced models that we’re working through and developing now and have in place for complex care. “I’m optimistic about pharmacy as a profession; I always have been. I’ve got more data today to say that my optimism has reason behind it,” he said.

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Awards and Recognition

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Awards and Recognition

Alumni Society Lifetime Achievement Award

SmithKline Beecham. He retired in 2008 after serving as president of research and development for Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a job that had him overseeing 900 scientists and a $3 billion budget.188 He also was founding editor of three pharmacology journals.

The College of Pharmacy Alumni Society has chosen a small number of its own for its Lifetime Achievement Award, a designation reserved for “stellar contributions” to pharmacy—professional, scientific or academic. Only six individuals have been awarded this designation since its inception in 2001.184

Richard J. Solove, 2011 Solove is known as a real-estate developer who gave $27 million to Ohio State to support cancer research. The Richard J. Solove Research Institute is part of the James Cancer Hospital. Solove, a 1948 bachelor’s degree graduate, was a pharmacist who owned three drugstores but sold them to focus on developing shopping centers near the Columbus I-270 beltway. According to a Columbus Dispatch obituary, Solove told the Columbus Foundation in 2007: “I have built many, many shopping centers, thousands of apartments. It doesn’t mean anything. But it’s a wonderful feeling to know you’ve helped extend a life.”189

Glenn A. Sonnedecker, 2001 Sonndecker was a leader in pharmacy history as editor of an important revision of Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy, considered the classic text of pharmacy history.185 As a student at Ohio State and in his first job after graduation in 1942, Sonnedecker was a science journalist, writing for the Lantern and then the Science Service, a Washington, DC, nonprofit now known as Society for Science and the Public.186 He became editor of the American Pharmaceutical Associations journal at 25 and l ater went to the University of Wisconsin, where he served the American Institute for the History of Pharmacy for twenty-five years,187 as secretary and then director. Robert E. Martini, 2003 Emil Martini Sr. started the Bergen Drug Company in New Jersey while Robert Martini was a teenager. Robert Martini and his brother, Emil Martini Jr., ran the company through its merger with the Brunswig Corporation and, when Bergen Brunswig merged with AmeriSource, Robert Martini, who graduated from Ohio State in 1954, was chairman of one of the top three drug wholesale companies in the world.

Roger W. Anderson, 2013 Anderson served twenty-six years as vice president and head of pharmacy at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Before that, he was assistant director of pharmacy at The Ohio State University Hospitals. Anderson did his bachelor’s work in pharmacy at Ferris State University in Michigan and, later in his career, earned his PhD in public health from the University of Texas. He earned his master of science in Health-System Pharmacy Administration from Ohio State. When he retired, he was chief pharmacy officer for U.S. Oncology. Marialice Bennett, 2015 Bennett, who earned her bachelor of science in 1969, retired from the College of Pharmacy in 2015, the year she received the Lifetime Achievement Award. She served as residency director for the Ambulatory and Community Care residency programs at the College of Pharmacy. She served as president of the American Pharmacists Association from 2011–12.

Robert R. Ruffolo Jr., 2009 Ruffolo participated in the development of four drugs for heart disease, hypertension and Parkinson’s disease. He graduated from the College of Pharmacy in 1973 with a bachelor of science degree and in 1976 with a PhD. He went to the National Institutes of Health and then worked for Eli Lilly and

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Awards and Recognition

College of Pharmacy Distinguished Alumni Award Four alumni earned the first Distinguished Alumni Awards in 1970, but the award was shelved until 1989. Since then and until 2015, 131 College of Pharmacy graduates have been honored. The award honors those graduates who “have made distinguished contributions in the fields of public health and public service, have performed outstanding activities in the interest of the college and its students, and have an outstanding record in the profession of pharmacy.” 2015 Jaime Capestany, BS 1998 Brian Lehman, BS 1997 John A. “Jack” Lince, BS 1964 Kathleen Nameth, BS 1980

2010 Jeffrey A. Bourret, MS 1982 Cynthia Carnes, PharmD 1988, PhD 1996 Diane R. Mould, PhD 1990 Robert J. Weber, MS 1982, PharmD 2010

2014 Joseph Borowitz, BS 1955 Carol Braun, BS 1984 James Coyle, BS 1979, PharmD 1983

2009 Patrick M. Garman, PharmD 2000 Janet Robertson, RPh 1984 Dennis Thompson, BS 1979 Lauri E. Wolf, RPh 1983

2013 Lonnie “Joe” Craft, BS 1995 Robin Timmons Craft, BS 1999 Anthony Gerlach, BS 1996, PharmD 1998 Sean Jeffery, PharmD 1997 Howard Staker, BS 1956 2012 Barbara Ague, BS 1977 Stephen Burson, BS 1994 Thomas Comstock, BS 1977 Jennifer Seifert, MS 1999 Allan Zaenger, MS 1984 2011 Kathryn A. Crea, BS 1984 William C. Kelley III, BS 1984 Marcia Nusgart, BS 1976 Larry C. Schieber, BS 1981

2008 Louis Marcy, BS 1965 Laura A. Shaw, BS 1987 Jerry Siegel, BS 1976 2007 Karen Naquin Hale, BS 1978 Kenneth M. Hale, BS 1976 William Owen Hays, BS 1937 Marilyn E. Wollett, BS 1965 2006 Ashok K. Chawla, BS 1981, MS 1983 Lemont B. Kier, BS 1954 Frank J. Krivanek, BS 1983, MS 1985 Karl Pappa, BS 1979, PharmD 1983

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116

2005 Debra K. Gardner, PharmD 1987 Mark A. Gerhardt, BS 1986 Julie A. Johnson, BS 1985 2004 Donald L. Bennett, BS 1970 Pam Bernadella, BS 1988 Anne Burns, BS 1980 Kathleen D. Donley, BS 1977 Sara St. Angelo, BS 1976 2003 Phyllis A. Grauer, BS 1977 Betty Jane Nichol, BS 1948 Douglas J. Scheckelhoff, BS 1983, MS 1985 Kevin A. Scheckelhoff, BS 1978, MBA 1986 2002 Shirlyn Chaffin, BS 1959 Ralph V. Foster, BS 1956 Jack E. Fruth, BS 1951 Mick Hunt, BS 1969, MS 1971 David Purdy, BS 1966 R. Timothy Webster, BS 1969 2001 Nancy Bartlett Anderies, BS 1949 Amy S. Bennett, BS 1970 Pauline M. Boyer, BS 1943


Awards and Recognition Robert J. Kuhn, BS 1980 Donald O. Lamport, BS 1954 Howard E. Whiston, BS 1955 2000 L. Charles Nicklaus, BS 1935 Ramona Rausch-Moenter, BS 1976 Richard J. Solove, BS 1948 Arthur Tye, PhD 1950 1999 A. Joel Arnold, BS 1958 Jack L. Beal, PhD 1952 Marialice S. Bennett, BS 1969 Frank W. Bope, BS 1941 Rinaldo A. Brusadin, BS 1955, MS 1975 Robert E. Hall, BS 1964 C. Richard Hutchinson, BS 1966 Robert W. Jones, BS 1948 Larry Moore, BS 1965 Robert E. Martini, BS 1954 William M. Nuzum III, BS 1975 Thomas O. Oesterling, BS 1962, MS 1964, PhD 1966 Robert P. Reid, BS 1958 William F. Sheridan II, BS 1977 Cynthia Sheppard Solomon, BS 1978 James W. Staker, BS 1956 William T. Winsley, BS 1974, MS 1978 Joseph A. Zapotocky, BS 1940, PhD 1948 1998 Jerome M. Cohen, BS 1952 James P. DiCello, BS 1978

Robert J. Dupont Sr., BS 1962 Wayne W. Hilty, BS 1936 Maryann Z. Kennedy, BS 1978 William J. Marks, BS 1936 James W. Munson, BS 1967 J. Frank Nash, BS 1948, PhD 1952 Philip J. Rogers, BS 1961 Raymond E. Walter, BS 1949 1997 Roberta M. Armstrong, BS 1963 James R. Dorsey, BS 1954 Robert M. James, BS 1955 Norwood H. Meyer, BS 1925 John J. Piecoro Jr., BS 1961, MS 1966 Allan K. Vrable, BS 1976 1996 Charles W. “Bill” Ague, BS 1950 Albert S. Bauman, BS 1956, MS 1957 Dale T. Cochran, BS 1951 Charles A. Hoffman, BS 1925 Douglas A. Miller, BS 1972 Victor K. Oesterling, BS 1950, MS 1971 Joseph R. Sabino Jr., BS 1968, MS 1984 Paul E. Watkins Jr., BS 1958 1995 Rosemary R. Berardi, BS 1963 William D. Cairns, BS 1948 John J. Coughlin, BS 1956 Donald J. Lamb, BS 1954, MS 1955, PhD 1960 Rosalie Sagraves, BS 1969 Carl F. Thornton Jr., BS 1944

117

Daniel B. Waitzman, BS 1943 Marilena R. Walters, BS 1978 Charles L. Williams, BS 1929 Phyllis K. Wilson, BS 1964 1994 David J. George, BS 1963, MS 1966 Edwin F. Hoffman, BS 1930 Norman D. Leibow, BS 1954 Alice Jean Matuszak, BS 1958, MS 1959 George M. McCann, BS 1947 George D. Richards, BS 1943 Ralph A. Sears, BS 1926 Jeannette T. Thouvenin, BS 1947 1993 Rocco L. Fumi, BS 1955 Charles “Lou” Ream, BS 1955 Richard I. Wells, BS 1956 1991 Ramona McCarthy Hawkins, BS 1950 1989 Robert Ruffolo Jr., BS 1973, PhD 1976 1970 Roger W. Cain, BS 1957 Roy C. Darlington, BS 1941, MS 1943, PhD 1947 Josephine Sitterle Failer, BS 1939 James D. Hawkins, BS 1962

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


Awards and Recognition

Josephine Sitterle Failer Alumni Award The Josephine Sitterle Failer Alumni Award honors alumni of the previous ten years who made outstanding contributions to community or professional service. The Ohio State University Alumni Association also presents the Josephine Sitterle Failer Alumni Award for volunteer services to students. The woman the two awards honor contributed to the College of Pharmacy and the university as a whole for five decades. Failer graduated with her bachelor’s degree in pharmacy in 1939. The honorees of the College of Pharmacy award are: 2015 Bridget McCrate Protus, PharmD 2005 2014 Thad Franz, BSPS 2003, PharmD 2005 2013 Colleen Dula, PharmD 2005 Joseph Dula, PharmD 2005 2012 Tiffany Kaiser, BS 1994, PharmD 2003 2010 Brice E. Love, BS 2000 2011 Yolanda Hardy, PharmD, 2001 Margueritte S. Hevezi, BS 1995, PharmD 2001 2009 Edward M. Plut, PharmD 2002.

2008 Michael B. Doherty, PharmD 1998

2001 Karen T. Houser, BS 1988 Matthew W. Houser, BS 1989

1994 Lauri G. Epitropoulos, BS 1983 Joseph A. Talarico, BS 1981

2000 Kristen Lamberjack, BS 1994 David Lamberjack, BS 1993

1993 Debra Gardner, BS 1976, PharmD 1987

1999 Eric M. Hals, BS 1989

1992 Kimberly Like McDevitt, BS 1982

2005 Susan Crist Downard, BS 1996

1998 Christine L. Ritzman, BS 1988 Mary Bawn Kelly, BS 1986

1991 Thomas E. Whiston, BS 1981

2004 Marc A. Sweeney, PhD 1997

1997 Robert J. DuPont Jr., BS 1987

2003 Joan Robinson James, BS 1992, PharmD 1995

1996 Lori Daiello, BS 1986, PharmD 1993 Jocelyn Hunter, BS 1990, PharmD 1992

2007 Bella H. Mehta, BS 1995, PharmD 1997 Sheila Thomas-Jackson, BS 1992, PharmD 2000 2006 Scott M. Mark, MS 1997

2002 Suzanne Amato Nesbit, BS 1991 Todd W. Nesbit, PhD 1992

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

1995 Barry E. Klein, BS 1988, MS 1989 Deanna L. Kroetz, BS 1985

118

1990 Kim M. Laughlin, BS 1980 1989 Anne L. Burns, BS 1980 1988 Suzanne R. Eastman, MS 1976


Awards and Recognition

The Latiolais Award An award honoring Clifton J. Latiolais was established in 1985, with Latiolais as the first recipient. Each year since, except 2009, it has honored a person affiliated with the Residency in Hospital Pharmacy/Master of Science program at The Ohio State University who has “made significant contributions to institutional pharmacy practice.”

1985 — Clifton J. Latiolais

1996 — Jeffrey A. Bourret

2007 — Robert J. Weber

1986 — Harold N. Godwin

1997 — David P. Vogel

2008 — David A. Kvancz

1987 — Fred M. Eckel

1998 — Susan Teil Boyer

2009 — Special Tribute to Clifton J. Latiolais, ScD Program

1988 — Roger W. Anderson

1999 — William H. Puckett

2010 — Jay M. Mirtallo

1989 — William A. Miller

2000 — Michael L. Kleinberg

2011 — Richard F. Demers

1990 — Philip J. Schneider

2001 — James R. Knight

2012 — Kenneth J. Jozefczyk

1991 — Robert B. Williams

2002 — Larry K. Shoup

2013 — Karl H. Kappeler

1992 — Sara J. White

2003 — Jerry Siegel

2014 — Marva M. Tschampel

1993 — Max L. Hunt Jr.

2004 — James A. Visconti

2015 — Bonnie E. Kirschenbaum

1994 — Thomas P. Sherrin

2005 — John A. Armitstead

1995 — E. Clyde Buchanan

2006 — Douglas J. Scheckelhoff

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Awards and Recognition

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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History Continuum

121


History Continuum

1885

2015

1870

1870

Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College is established. It is renamed The Ohio State University in 1895.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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1885

2015

1884–1885

1884

1885

The Ohio State Board of Pharmacy is established to license pharmacists in the state. Three Ohio State chemistry students are among those passing the inaugural exams.

The Ohio State Department of Pharmacy is created with a two-year nondegree program. Drug wholesaler George Beecher Kauffman is hired as a pharmacy lecturer. The program enrolls ten students, including its first woman, Beatrice Earhart.

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History Continuum

1885

2015

1886–1891

1886

The Department of Pharmacy establishes a pioneering threeyear program leading to a Graduate in Pharmacy degree.

1887

1888

1891

Arthur Heath, George Weidner and Charles Krieger are Ohio State’s first pharmacy program graduates.

Pharmacy is moved to Botanical Hall and future dean Clair Dye enrolls as a student.

Pharmacy moves from Botanical Hall to the second Chemical Hall.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

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1885

2015

1895–1896

1895

As part of a university reorganization, the department becomes the College of Pharmacy, one of the original six colleges at Ohio State. Department head George Kauffman is named dean. Forty-eight students are enrolled.

1896

The College of Pharmacy phases out the three-year course, opting instead for a two-year course leading to a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Chemist degree or a four-year course leading to a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy.

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History Continuum

1885

2015 1897–1904

1897

1900

1904

Arthur Kelton Lawrence, son of an escaped slave, becomes the first African American graduate of the College of Pharmacy.

The College of Pharmacy awards its first bachelor of science to Charles H. Kimberly. The Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association begins as the first student group in the College of Pharmacy.

On February 19, the Chemical Hall burns down. Pharmacy moves to the Veterinary Laboratory.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

126


1885

2015 1906–1915

1906

1915

Pharmacy moves to its first permanent home in the third Chemical Hall, today called Derby Hall.

Claire A. Dye is appointed interim dean of the college when George B. Kauffman is taken ill. Dye would serve in that capacity for seven years before being named permanent dean after the death of George Kauffman.

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History Continuum

1885

2015 1925–1928

1925

Two students are killed and dozens are sickened when strychnine is added to pills from the college’s dispensary. The poisoning case is never solved.

1928

Months later, the college ceases to offer the optional two-year degree, requiring all students to complete a four-year program. This would not be the national standard until 1932.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

128

The Kappa Psi professional fraternity establishes the Xi chapter at Ohio State.

While the old Chemical Laboratory Building undergoes renovations, the College of Pharmacy moves to the Chemistry Building, now called McPherson Chemical Laboratories.


1885

2015 1930–1934

1930

1934

The College of Pharmacy is moved into the new Pharmacy and Bacteriology Building located at 1958 Neil Avenue, built specifically for Pharmacy after Dean Clair Dye successfully initiates a $250,000 legislative appropriation.

The Rho Chi academic honorary society forms the Upsilon chapter at Ohio State.

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History Continuum

John Walter Brungart dots the i during the first Script Ohio in 1936

Dotting the i In 1936, The Ohio State University Marching Band performed its signature formation, Script Ohio, for the first time. In broadly curved continuous lines, never stopping, but sometimes crossing through each other, band members spelled out the word Ohio in a modified script (inspired by the sign over the Ohio Theatre in downtown Columbus). At the end, a trumpet player marched from the end of the formation to form the dot over the i in Ohio. The first man to dot the i was a College of Pharmacy student. “When we did it, everybody went nuts,” said John Walter Brungart in a 2003 interview. “We thought it was just another formation. It really became a tradition.”194 Before owning Brungart’s Drug Store in Coshocton for thirty-five years, John Walter Brungart was a student, athlete and trumpet player at The Ohio State University.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

“We worked on that thing for weeks and weeks. We didn’t let anyone know about the formation,” he told the Coshocton Tribune. He was married at the time, in a marriage that lasted sixty-seven years until his death in 2008. He told his wife, Doris, only that they were “working on something that’s going to be a surprise.” Brungart capped Script Ohio four more times before the band director decided a sousaphone would be more visible to the crowd. He graduated from the College of Pharmacy in 1938. He worked for pharmaceutical companies and served in the U.S. Army in World War II before opening his Coshocton drugstore in 1949. Many celebrities and hundreds of sousaphones have dotted the i over the years, each to wild applause from the fans in Ohio Stadium. In 1986, the retired Brungart performed Script Ohio again for the formation’s 50th anniversary.

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131

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


History Continuum

1885

2015 1939–1946

1939

1941

1943

1946

Bernard V. Christensen is appointed dean. In the same year, the first regular graduate programs at the master’s and PhD levels are established.

The Junior Pharmaceutical Association forms at Ohio State. It is now known as the American Pharmacists Association-Academy of Student Pharmacists.

Arthur E. Schwarting becomes the first PhD graduate of the College of Pharmacy under the direction of his major professor, L. David Hiner.

The Junior Pharmaceutical Association at Ohio State launches The Spur.

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1885

2015 1947–1955

1947

1948

1955

Roy C. Darlington becomes the first African American in the nation to graduate with a PhD in pharmaceutical science.

Ohio State becomes the first program in the nation to require a five-year program for a pharmacy degree. This would not be a requirement for all colleges of pharmacy until 1960.

Loyd E. Harris is appointed interim dean.

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History Continuum

1885

2015 1956–1967

1956

1959

1965

1967

Lloyd M. Parks is appointed dean of the college.

Clifton Latiolais implements Ohio State’s residency program in hospital pharmacy.

Louis Malpeis arrives at Ohio State as the first College of Pharmacy researcher to study cancer.

On August 15, 1967, Pharmacy moves to 500 W. 12th Ave. There are twenty-four full-time faculty and eleven part-time.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

134


1885

2015 1972–1978

1972

1977

The first computer is installed in the college.

1978

The building at 500 W. 12th Ave. is dedicated as the Lloyd M. Parks Hall in honor of the college’s fourth dean. Albert H. Soloway is appointed dean.

The College’s Professional Experience Program is initiated with required externship rotations and institutional practice.

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History Continuum

1885

2015 1981–1998

1981

1988

1994

1998

The College of Pharmacy Alumni Society is chartered. Josephine Sitterle Failer, a 1939 graduate, is named the first president.

John M. Cassady is appointed dean.

The Vernal G. Riffe Building is dedicated and contains a new biological sciences and pharmacy library and research facilities.

Ohio State becomes the first in the nation to implement a true graduate-professional configuration for the entrylevel PharmD.

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

136


1885

2015 1999–2013

1999

2001

2003

2006

2013

A collaborative practice clinic (University Health Connection) is added on the southwest side of Parks Hall.

College implements the Nontraditional PharmD as the first distance-learning, web-based degree program at Ohio State.

Robert W. Brueggemeier is appointed dean.

The College of Pharmacy becomes among the first in the nation to require a bachelor’s degree before matriculation into the Doctor of Pharmacy program.

Henry J. Mann is appointed dean.

Jessie Lai-Sim Au, PharmD, PhD, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry

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History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

138


139

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


Citations 1.

“Prof. Geo. B. Kauffman dies,” The Western Druggist (Chicago), June 1921, 70.

2. “Splendid New Athletic Field,” The Lantern, The Ohio State University (Columbus), Sept. 22, 1908, 1.

18. The Ohio State University Foundation, “But for Ohio State, Pharmacy College Case Statement,” accessed January 4, 2015, https://www.osu.edu/giving/assets/ downloads/units/Pharmacy_Case_Statement.pdf.

32. Robert Buerki, “In Search of Excellence: The First Century of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Fall Supplement, 1999, v. 63.

3. “1915-1916 Course Offering Bulletin,” The Ohio State University (Columbus), http://hdl.handle. net/1811/61976.

19. Cynthia Carnes, discussion with the author, November 2015.

33. Buerki, “Centennial Calendar.”

20. Popat Patil, discussion with the author, August 2015.

4. Record of Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University, July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, http://hdl.handle.net/1811/61195.

21. Robert Brueggemier, email, September 2015.

35. Buerki, “Centennial Calendar.”

5. “1915-1916 Course Offering Bulletin,” The Ohio State University (Columbus), http://hdl.handle. net/1811/61976.. 6. Ibid. 7.

Ibid.

8. Ibid. 9. Robert Buerki, “Centennial Calendar, 1985-86,” The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. 10. Robert Weber, discussion with the author, May 2015.

22. “Pharmacy Professor Kinghorn Receives $7.1 Million Continuation of Program Project Grant Funding from the National Cancer Institute,” College of Pharmacy: News, July 23, 2014, accessed Jan. 21, 2016, http:// www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/news/pharmacyprofessor-kinghorn-receives-71-million-continuationprogram-project-grant-funding. 23. Henry Mann, discussion with the author, Dec. 21, 2015. 24. “Academic Divisions,” College of Pharmacy: About, accessed Jan. 21, 2016, http://www.pharmacy.ohiostate.edu/about/academic-divisions.

11. Marialice Bennett, discussion with the author, December 2015.

25. Milap Nahata, email to the author, January 2016.

12. “National Pharmacy Market Summary,” SK&A, July 2015, accessed December 2015, http://www.skainfo. com/health_care_market_reports/pharmacy_list_ national_summary.pdf (registration required).

27. The Ohio State University, Discovery Themes FAQ, accessed Jan. 21, 2016, https://discovery.osu.edu/ about/faq.html.

13. Bennett, discussion. 14. Weber, discussion. 15. Daniel Helfand, “The College of Pharmacy Welcomes Our New Dean, Dr. Henry J. Mann,” College of Pharmacy: News, Aug. 15, 2013, accessed Jan. 4, 2016, http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/ news/college-pharmacy-welcomes-our-new-deandr-henry-j-mann. 16. Weber, discussion. 17. Robert Brueggemier, discussion with the author, April 2015.

26. Mann, discussion.

34. Buerki, discussion. 36. Ibid. 37. William Alexander Taylor, “Centennial History of Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio,” Clarke Publishing Co. (Chicago), 1909. 38. William Richard Cutter, “American Biography, A New Cyclopedia,” 1922, 21. 39. “Our Friends the Deans: Facts and Features About Ohio State’s College Heads, Written in a Friendly Way.” The Lantern, April 27, 1915, 2. 40. Obituary, The Practical Druggist (New York), June 1921, 63. 41. “The New President of the NWDA.” The Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 3, 1, January 1914, 138. 42. Recent Deaths, The Bulletin of Pharmacy (Detroit), June 1921, 223. 43. Taylor, 1909.

28. Hannah Chenetski, “State funding proposal includes $52.8M to benefit Ohio State Discovery Themes initiative,” The Lantern, The Ohio State University (Columbus), Jan. 23, 2014, accessed Jan. 21, 2016, http://thelantern.com.

44. Reference for Business: AmeriSource Health Corporation, accessed Jan. 30, 2016, http://www. referenceforbusiness.com/history2/45/AmeriSourceHealth-Corporation.html.

29. Mann, discussion.

46. Recent deaths, The Bulletin of Pharmacy.

30. Robert Buerki, discussion with the author, December, 2014.

47. Buerki, “Centennial Calendar.”

31. Bernard V. Christensen, “The Teaching of Pharmacy in Ohio,” The Ohio History Journal (Columbus), October 1952, 352-364 (Read before the Committee on Medical History and Archives of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society at its annual meeting, held at the Ohio State Museum, Columbus, April 5, 1952).

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

140

45. Taylor, 1909.

48. Pharmacy Department, Makio, 1886, 54-55. 49. “Debut of our Pharmacists,” The Lantern, May 5, 1887. 50. “1907-1908 Course Offering Bulletin,” The Ohio State University (Columbus), 42.


51. “Sudden Death of Cuyahoga Falls Man,” Holmes County Farmer, Jan. 14, 1909, 1. 52. “The Ohio State University Bulletin, Register of Alumni,” The Ohio State University Association, July 1917. 53. Buerki, “In Search of Excellence,” 48. 54. Robert Buerki, “Pharmaceutical Education in Nineteenth-Century Ohio,” The Ohio History Journal, 104, Summer-Autumn 1995, 225-239. 55. Ibid. 56. Sydney Norton, Department Reports: Chemistry, in “Ninth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1979,” 25-27. 57. Sydney Norton, Department Reports: Chemistry, in “Twelfth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1882,” 31-32. 58. Sydney Norton, Department Reports: Chemistry, in “Fourteenth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1884,” 31-32. 59. Buerki, “Centennial Calendar.” 60. Minutes, Office of the Board of Trustees, The Ohio State University, Columbus, June 22, 1885, 303. The archaic “therefor” means “for that purpose”; it is not the same as the modern “therefore.” 61. William A. Scott, Annual Report of the President, 1884–85, in “Fifteenth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1885,” 19-20. 62. Sydney Norton, Department Reports: Chemistry, in “Fifteenth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1885,” 31.

65. Ibid. The spelling pharmacognocy was unusual. The word originated in German and has always had the Greek suffix –gnosy. But early Ohio State University documents used the c spelling.

82. “Geo. B. Kauffman Dies of Paralysis; Funeral Sunday,” The Lantern, April 29, 1921, 1.

66. Kauffman, The Colleges: College of Pharmacy, Makio, 1915, 46.

84. “Realization of Value of Education Increases Pharmacy Enrollment,” The Lantern, Dec. 7, 1922, 1.

67. Whitaker, M.C., ed., “Personal Notes,” Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry (Easton, PA) 1914), p. 607. 68. Neighboring Deaths and Funerals, The Sandusky Register, Saturday, August 29, 1959, 13.

83. Clair A. Dye, The College of Pharmacy, Makio, 1919, 56.

85. Robert G. Mrtek, “Pharmaceutical Education in These United States—An Interpretive Historical Essay of the Twentieth Century,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 1976, 339-364. 86. Buerki, “In Search of Excellence.”

69. Brueggemeier history. 70. The Ohio State University Archives, Buckeye Stroll: Derby Hall, http://library.osu.edu/buckeye-stroll/ locations/derby-hall 71. “Ohio State Asks $11,513,195 Budget,” The Lantern, Dec. 10, 1928, 1. 72. “Pharmacy College to Hold Banquet Honoring Wendt,” The Lantern, March 5, 1930, 1. 73. “Pharmacy Building Construction Begun,” The Lantern, Aug. 23, 1929, 1.

87. Mrtek, “Pharmaceutical Education in These United States.” 88. “Realization of Value of Education Increases Pharmacy Enrollment,” The Lantern, Dec. 7, 1922, 1. 89. “Growth in Pharmacy Attendance a Result of Higher Educational Requirements,” Midland Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review (Columbus), December, 1921, 475. 90. Ibid.

74. Ibid. 75. College of Pharmacy, Makio, 1931, 81. 76. Susan Brendel, “Five Buildings to Cost $10.5 Million,” The Lantern, July 15, 1965, 3.

91. Buerki, “Prescription for Death: the 1925 Ohio State Poisoning Case,” presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Medical History, Youngstown State University, March 31, 2012 (unpublished). 92. Clair A. Dye, Pharmacy, Makio, 1927, 29.

77. 2014 Annual Report: Outreach & Engagement, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, accessed Feb. 13. 2016, https://pharmacy.osu.edu/ sites/default/files/forms/outreach/2014-09-24_ annualreport_final.pdf.

93. Colleges of Pharmacy and Veterinary Medicine, Makio, 1934, 41.

78. “Our Friends the Deans: Facts and Features About Ohio State’s College Heads, Written in a Friendly Way.” The Lantern, April 27, 1915, 2.

96. “Pharmacy Students Vote Confidence in Dean Dye,” The Lantern, Feb. 9, 1925.

79. “Trustees Select Prof. Dye to Serve as Pharmacy Dean,” The Lantern, Oct. 7, 1915, 1.

63. Scott, “Fifteenth-Annual Report.”

80. Locals and Personals, The Lantern, Dec. 11, 1895, 3.

64. William A. Scott, Annual Report of the President, 1885–86, in “Sixteenth-Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Year 1886,” 19-20.

81. “Two Deanships Still Vacant,” The Lantern, Sept. 20, 1916, 1.

141

94. Benjamin Balshone, interview with Fred Huls, 1987. Benjamin Balshone Papers, Columbus. 95. Buerki, “Prescription for Death.”

97. “Student Held at Prison in Poison Investigation,” The Lantern, February 10, 1925, 1. 98. Buerki, “Prescription for Death.” 99. “Poison Mystery Investigation Still Continues,” The Lantern, February 16, 1925, 1. 100. Buerki, “Prescription for Death.”

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


101. Ananya Madal, “History of Chemotherapy,” NewsMedical.net, http://www.news-medical.net/ health/History-of-Chemotherapy.aspx

119. Patil, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists.” Bentonite is an absorbent clay.

102. Beurki, discussion.

121. Patil, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists.”

103. Virginia B. Hall, Interview of Albert H. Soloway, June, 2002, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, https://kb.osu.edu/ dspace/handle/1811/574. 104. The Lantern, Tuesday, May 1, 1973, 1. 105. Report to the Campus, The Lantern, June 21, 1965, 9. 106. Patil, discussion. 107. Brueggemeier, discussion. 108. Breastcancer.org: Aromatase Inhibitors. November 5, 2015, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www. breastcancer.org/treatment/hormonal/aromatase_ inhibitors

120. “Graduate School 75th Anniversary” Research Day.

122. Patil, discussion. 123. Patil, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists.” 124. The University of Utah Office of Development, Donor Stories, “The Drs. Wolf: Learners, Teachers and Givers,” accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http:// uofuplannedgiving.org/?pageID=3&storyNum=8.

109. Brueggemeier, discussion.

125. University of Wisconsin, Madison: News, “Former UW Pharmacy School Dean Donald T. Witiak Dies,” May 22, 1998, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://news. wisc.edu/former-uw-pharmacy-school-deandonaldt-witiak-dies/.

110. Carnes, discussion.

126. Patil, discussion.

111. Mann, discussion.

127. Patil, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists.”

112. Patil, discussion. 113. College of Pharmacy: Dean Christensen, Makio, 1944, 186.

128. Patil, discussion.

114. “Graduate School 75th Anniversary,” Research Day, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, April 7, 2015, 4, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, https://www. pharmacy.osu.edu/sites/default/files/forms/research/ rd2015/PharmResDayProgram.pdf.

130. Lloyd Library and Museum: History, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www.lloydlibrary.org/history.html.

115. Popat Patil, poster presentation, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists in The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy: First Seventy Years,” College of Pharmacy Research Day, April 2, 2014. 116. A. E. Schwarting and L. D, Hiner, “A study of domestic ergot of wheat and rye,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 34, 11. doi: 10.1002/jps.3030340104. 117. Patil, “Development of Drug Sciences and Scientists.” 118. “Graduate School 75th Anniversary” Research Day.

129. Popat Patil, email to the author, Sept. 9, 2015.

131. Journal of Natural Products: About the Journal, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://pubs.acs.org/page/ jnprdf/about.html. 132. “Paper Co-Authored by Pharmacy Professor Schmittgen is Among the Most Cited of All Time,” College of Pharmacy: News, Nov. 5, 2014, http:// www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/news/paper-coauthored-pharmacy-professor-schmittgen-amongmost-cited-all-time. 133. Dennis B. Worthen, “Heroes of Pharmacy: Clifton Joseph Latiolais (1926-1995): Enthusiasm for Excellence,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, Sept.-Oct. 2010, 650.

134. “Clifton J. Latiolais Legacy,” Ohio State University College of Pharmacy: Latiolais Leadership Program, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www.pharmacy.ohiostate.edu/outreach/clifton-j-latiolais-legacy. 135. Sara White, moderator, “Health-System Pharmacy’s Most Influential Leaders: A Tribute to Clifton J. Latiolais, M.S. DSc.” (video discussion), ASHP (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists) Foundation, 2009, accessed Nov. 1, 2015, www. youtube.com/watch?v=cSlWaMK81NU. 136. Ibid. 137. “Eckel Receives Alumni Award,” Pharmacy Times, July 1, 2005, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/ issue/2005/2005-07/2005-07-9739. 138. MD Anderson Cancer Center, “Making Cancer History Voices: Roger Anderson,” May 18, 2014, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www3.mdanderson. org/library/hrc/interviews/andersonr1/description. html. 139. Daniel Helfand, “Anderson to Receive Ohio State College of Pharmacy Lifetime Achievement Award,” College of Pharmacy: News, Sept. 24, 2013, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www.pharmacy. ohio-state.edu/news/anderson-receive-ohio-statecollege-pharmacy-lifetime-achievement-award. 140. ASHP Foundation, Sara J. White, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http://www. ashpfoundation.org/MainMenuCategories/ CenterforPharmacyLeadership/ PharmacyLeadershipAcademy/SaraWhite.aspx. 141. “Clifton J. Latiolais Legacy,” Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. 142. C. A. Pedersen, P. J. Schneider, D. J. Scheckelhoff, “ASHP National Survey of Pharmacy Practice in Hospital Settings: Dispensing and Administration—2002,” American Journal of HealthSystem Pharmacy, 2003, 60, 52. 143. White, “Health-System Pharmacy’s Most Influential Leaders.” 144. Worthen, “Heroes of Pharmacy.”

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

142


145. Ibid. 146. Weber, discussion. 147. Robert Weber, “Keep Moving Forward,” 2007 Latiolais Award Acceptance Remarks, Dec. 5, 2007, 42nd Midyear Clinical Meeting, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Las Vegas, Nevada. 148. White, “Health-System Pharmacy’s Most Influential Leaders.” 149. Jerry Siegel, discussion with the author, April 2015. 150. Bennett, discussion. 151. The Ohio State University Pharmacy Residency Programs: About, accessed Jan. 10, 2016, page since updated. 152. Bennett, discussion. 153. Nahata, discussion with the author, December 2015. 154. Siegel, discussion. 155. Buerki, “Centennial Calendar.” 156. Glenn Sonnedecker, Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1976), 240. 157. Ibid. 158. Buerki, “In Search of Excellence.” 159. Ibid. 160. Ibid. 161. Buerki, discussion. 162. Hall, interview of Albert H. Soloway. 163. Nahata, discussion. 164. Buerki, discussion. 165. Brueggemier, email. 166. Brueggemier, discussion. 167. Buerki, discussion. 168. BSPS Curricular Changes, College of Pharmacy, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, http://www.pharmacy.ohiostate.edu/current-students/bsps-curricular-changes.

171. “Debut of our Pharmacists,” The Lantern, May 5, 1887.

185. Sonnedecker, Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy, (American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, reprint paperback edition, 1986), back cover.

172. Technical Societies: Ohio State University Pharmaceutical Association, Makio, 1901, 180. 173. Ohio State Rho Chi Upsilon Chapter, Survival Guides, accessed Feb. 17, 2016, https://sites.google.com/site/ rhochiosu/p1-survival-guide.

186. Lloyd M. Parks, “A salute to Glenn Sonnedecker: Glenn Sonnedecker as a Professional Leader,” Pharmacy in History, 15, 4 (1973), 140-142.

174. Suzanne Hoholik, “Richard J. Solove, 1925-2011: His Generosity to Ohio State cancer research saved thousands of lives,” The Columbus Dispatch, Jan. 29, 2011, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, http://www.dispatch. com

187. David L. Cowen, “A salute to Glenn Sonnedecker: Glenn Sonnedecker as a Historian,” Pharmacy in History, 15, 4, (1973), 152-154. 188. “Lifetime Achievement Award,” Script News, College of Pharmacy, Fall 2009, 14.

175. Student Organizations, College of Pharmacy, accessed Feb. 19, 2016, http://www.pharmacy.ohiostate.edu/current-students/student-organizations

189. Hoholik, “Richard J. Solove.”

176. Bill Ague, telephone discussion with the author, December 2015. 177. Tom Petruno, “Minority enrollment of women ending in College of Pharmacy,” The Lantern, Oct. 21, 1976, 5. 178. Kenneth Hale, discussion with the author, June 2015. 179. National Pharmaceutical Association: About, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, https:// nationalpharmaceuticalassociation.org/about/ 180. 2014 Annual Report: Outreach & Engagement, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, https://pharmacy.osu.edu/sites/default/ files/forms/outreach/2014-09-24_annualreport_final. pdf. 181. Hale, discussion. 182. Michael Garner, “Mice demonstrate drug effects,” The Lantern, March 9, 1982, 6.

190. Ken Gordon, “Encounter revealed connection,” The Columbus Dispatch, Feb. 23, 2012, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, http://www.dispatch.com. 191. Doreen Uhas Sauer, “Dr. Arthur Kelton Lawrence: African American Pioneer Physician,” Black History Month Columbus, TeachingColumbus.org Public History Initiative, accessed Feb. 13, 2016, http:// teachingcolumbus.tumblr.com. 192. “Roy Darlington Wins Ohio State Fellowship,” The Afro-American, (Baltimore), Nov. 8, 1941, 8. 193. “Dr. Darlington is HU head of Pharmacy,” Baltimore Afro-American, Sept. 30, 1972, 32. 194. Matthew Marx, “John W. Brungart: First band member to dot ‘i’ dies at 89,” The Columbus Dispatch, April 26, 2005, B6. 195. J. W. T. Knox, Harry B. Mason, and Fred D. Nelligar, “Pharmacy in 1957,” The Druggists Circular, January 1907, 95. 196. “National Pharmacy Market Summary,” SK&A.

183. Hale, discussion.

197. Ibid.

184. The Lifetime Achievement Award, Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Alumni & Friends, http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/alumni-friends/ lifetime-achievement-award.

198. Robinson Meyer, “3-D Printed Drugs Are Here,” The Atlantic, Aug. 19, 2015.

169. College of Pharmacy, Makio, 1906, 37.

199. The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Strategic Plan, Sept. 10, 2015. 200. Mann, discussion.

170. Buerki, “In Search of Excellence.”

143

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years


Index Page numbers in italics indicate photographs. A academic leadership, 79–80 academic programs, 16, 18, 31–32, 57, 68, 72–73 Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Student Chapter, 95 accreditation, 7, 71 admixture programs, 68 admixtures, 67, 105 African Americans in pharmaceutical studies, 57, 71, 98, 100, 124, 131 Ague, Barbara, 97 Ague, Bill, 96 alumni awards, 113–116 alumni society, 96-97, 113, 134 ambulatory care residency program, 72 American Pharmacists AssociationAcademy of Student Pharmacists (APhAASP), 95, 130 American Society of Consultant Pharmacists Student Chapter, 95 Anderson, Roger W., 20, 64, 64, 113 Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 59 Armitstead, John A., 20 B Bachelor of Science, 15, 32, 33, 43, 88 Baker, Sharyn, 14, 21, 54, 54 Beal, Jack, 20, 21, 57, 58, 58, 61, 96 Bennett, Marialice, 11, 11, 20, 64, 71–73, 72, 113 Bope, Frank W., 98 Brackett, Carolyn, 78 Brueggemeier, Robert, 12, 12, 13, 50–51 Brungart, John Walter, 128, 129 Buckner, Carl, 60 Buerki, Robert, 20, 23, 23, 45, 46, 80 buildings, campus, 35–36 Byrum, Woodrow Robert, 57

C campus, pharmacy buildings, 35–36 cancer research, 14, 49, 51–54, 60 cancer-fighting drugs, 13 Carnes, Cynthia, 14–15, 14, 54 Cassady, John M., 20, 87, 89, 97, 134 Center for Microbial Interface, 15 certification and licensing, 8, 31 Charles H. Kimberly Professorship in Pharmacy, 21 Chemical Association, The Ohio State University, 93 chemistry and compounding, 11 Chen, Chih-Ming, 21 Chen, Virginia, 21 Christensen, Bernard V., 20, 54, 55, 57, 79, 80, 98, 130 Christian Pharmacy Fellowship International Student Chapter, 95 Clinical Partners, 73 clinical pharmacy, beginnings of, 83–87 Coleman, Ashley, 75 College of Pharmacy, history of, 123 community residency programs, 16, 63–64, 68, 71–73 community-based healthcare, 11, 106 Comprehensive Cancer Center, 16, 51–54 Cummins, John T., 1 Curley Jr., Robert W., 86 Curtin, Marie Cummins, 1 D Darlington, Roy C., 57, 79, 101, 101, 131 data analytics, 16 Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 15 degree requirements, 8, 23–24, 30, 43, 79 degrees and certificates, 79, 83–88, 93, 121, 122, 123, 131 demographics, student, 87–88 Derby Hall, 32, 35, 125 DeSantis, Louis M., 60 Dickerson, William H., 21 distance-learning, 5, 36, 135

History of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy • The First 130 Years

diversity, 8, 57, 71, 93, 98–101, 100, 124, 131 doctorate degree, PharmD, 43, 68–71, 80, 83–84, 87–88, 134 Dong, Yizhou, 105 Doskotch, Raymond, 57, 58 drug abuse, education for, 36, 94, 103 Drug Development and Discovery Pathway, 88 drug education, 36, 95, 103 drugstore, model, 35, 36 Dye, Clair A., 7, 20, 38, 39, 40, 43, 45–46, 125 E Earhart, Beatrice, 28, 121 Eckel, Fred, 20, 64 endowed chairs and professorships, 21 enrollment, 15, 39–40, 87–88, 98 F faculty numbers, 15, 16, 18, 80, 132 Failer, Josephine Sitterle, 96, 96 females in pharmaceutical studies, 8, 40, 43, 93 fire, chemistry buildings and, 35, 124 Francke, Don, 59 Frank, Sylvan, 21 fraternities and sororities, 93, 95 G galenical pharmacy, 32 Generation Rx Collaborative, 95 Generation Rx Initiative, 103 Generation Rx Laboratory, 103 genetics, 12, 13 genomics, 12 Gertrude Parker Heer Chair in Cancer Research, 21, 52, 54 Gisvold, Ole, 79 Godwin, Harold, 20, 64, 64 graduate education, beginnings of, 79 graduate education, growth of, 80 graduate research, beginnings of, 54–61

144

growth of pharmaceutical schools, 23, 28–29 Gueth, Jackie Cummins, 1 Guo, Peixuan, 21 Guth, Earl P., 79–80 Guttman, David, 57 H Hale, Kenneth, 36, 103 Harris, Lloyd E., 131 Health-System Pharmacy Administration, 16 Healthcare Professions Pathway, 88 healthcare, future of, 109 Heath, Arthur, 25, 122 Heer, Gertrude Parker, 21 Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Drug Misuse Prevention and Recovery (HECAOD), 103 Hiner, David L., 79, 130 Huls, Charles, 45 Huls, Fred, 45 Hunt, Mick L. Jr., 20 I infectious disease, 16 innovation, 8, 75, 83–84 Institute for Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes, 75 IV Admixture Program, 63 J Jack L. Beal Chair in Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, 21 James, Arthur G., 21 Josephine Sitterle Failer Alumni Award, 116 Journal of Natural Products, 57, 58, 61 Junior American Pharmaceutical Association, 95, 130 K Kappa Epsilon, 95 Kappa Psi, 95, 126 Kauffman, George B., 7, 20, 25, 25–28, 29, 31, 39, 91


Kimberly, Charles H., 21, 33, 33, 124 Kinghorn, A. Douglas, 15, 15, 20, 58, 61 Krell, Robert, 60 Kremers, Edward, 79 Krieger, Charles, 25, 122 Kwiek, Nicole, 36, 103 L laboratory method of instruction, 7, 23 LaPidus, Jules, 57, 58 Latiolais Award, 117 Latiolais, Clifton J., 20, 57, 59, 63, 63–68, 76–77, 132 Lawrence, Arthur Kelton, 100, 100, 124 leadership, academic, 79–80 Leake, Chauncey, 20, 58 licensing and certification, 8, 31, 121 Livak, Kenneth, 60 long course, 8, 79 Lucius A. Wing Chair of Cancer Research and Therapy (College of Medicine), 21, 52 Lynch, Joseph, 60 M Malspeis, Louis, 51, 57, 132 Mann, Henry, 12, 13, 13, 16, 18, 54, 88, 106–110 Martini, Robert E., 26, 113 Master of Applied Clinical Research, 36 McCarthy-Hawkins, Ramona, 20, 98, 99 McPherson, William, 39 Medication Management Program, The Ohio State University, 75 medication therapy management, 75 Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, 15–16 Merrell Dow Professorship in Pharmaceutical Administration, 21 Message to Garcia, 76–77 micro-RNAs, 60 minorities, 8, 57, 71, 93, 98–101, 100, 124, 131 Mirtallo, Jay M., 20 mission areas, 15 model drugstore, 35, 36

molecular pharmacology, 58 murder, 44–47, 126 N Nahata, Milap, 16, 59, 59, 75, 83–84, 84 National Academy of Medicine, 20 National Cancer Institute, 15, 51, 54 National Community Pharmacists Association, 95 Nelson, John, 80 Norton, Sidney, 29, 29–30, 54 Notari, Robert, 82 O The Ohio State University Chemical Association, 93 O’Brine, David, 30 O’Neill, Pat, 60 officinal pharmacy, 32 Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, founding of, 28, 120 Ohio State Board of Pharmacy, 23, 121 Ohio State University Department of Pharmacy, 24, 32, 35, 93, 121, 122 Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association, 93 Ohio State University Medication Management Program, 75 online programs, 5, 36, 135 Orr, Jack, 80 outpatient care, 10, 72–73 P Parker, Tom, 21 Parks, Lloyd M., 20, 36, 36, 57, 58, 60, 80, 81, 132 patient health, 11–12, 16, 67, 72–73, 75, 80 Patil, Popat N., 14, 15, 54, 57–58, 60 pediatric pharmacology, 16 Pharmaceutical Care Clinic, 72–73 Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 30 pharmaceutical products, 60 Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 15–16 pharmacies, national, 72–75 pharmacists, role of, 12, 83, 106, 109

pharmacology programs, 15–16 pharmacology, molecular, 58 Pharmacy Club, 95 Pharmacy Practice and Science, 15–16 pharmacy-related policy, 20 PharmD program, 43, 68–71, 80, 83–84, 87–88, 134 Phi Delta Chi, 93 Phi Rho Alpha, 95 poisonings, 44–47, 126 Post Graduate Year 1 (PGY1), 16 Post Graduate Year 2 (PGY2), 16 precision medicine, 14 prescription drug misuse, education for, 36, 94, 103 prohibition, 40 Pusken, David, 45–46

Simon, Melvin, 64 Solove, Richard J., 94, 95, 113 Soloway, Albert H., 51-52, 80, 83, 83, 95, 133 Sonnedecker, Glenn A., 101, 113 State Board of Pharmacy, 30 strychnine, 44–47, 126 Student National Pharmaceutical Association, 95 Student Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 95 students, alumni associations, 96–97 students, associations for, 93, 95 students, demographics of, 87–88 students, diversity, 98–101 Sylvan G. Frank Chair Fund in Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems, 21

R Rodowskas Jr., Christopher A., 66 Ren, Yulin, 108 research, clinical, 83–84 research, graduate, beginnings of, 54–61 residency programs, 16, 63–64, 68, 71–73 Reuning, Richard, 87 Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society, 93, 127 Rho Chi Upsilon, 95 Rho Pi Phi, 93 Ridolfo, Anthony, 80 role of pharmacists, 12, 83, 106, 109 Rudd, Wortley, F., 40 Ruffolo, Robert R. Jr., 60, 113

T Thompson, William Oxley, 46, 47 Tye, Arthur, 57, 80

S Schlagel, Carl, 57 Schmittgen, Thomas, 60, 60 Schneider, Philip, 20, 68–71, 68 Schwarting, Arthur E., 14, 15, 20, 57, 61, 79, 130 Scott, William A., 30 Script Ohio, 128, 129 Seidehamel, Richard J., 60 short course, 8, 24, 31, 32, 40, 79 Siegel, Jerry, 68–71, 68 145

U University Health Connection, 47, 135 W Wagner, John G., 57 war, role of the College of Pharmacy in, 39 war, roles of on pharmacology, 54, 57 Weber, Robert, 11, 11, 67–68 Weidner, George, 25, 122 Wendt, William C., 35 Wexner Medical Center, 5, 11, 16, 67, 100, 105 White, Sara, 20, 63–64, 67, 67 Williams, Charles L., 40 Wing, Lucius, 21 Wingert, H. Shindle, 45 Withrow, James R., 46 Witiak, Donald T., 58 Wolf, Harold H., 20, 57, 58 women in pharmaceutical studies, 8, 40, 43, 93, 121 Worthen, Dennis B., 67

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